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Sample records for colubrid thamnodynastes cf

  1. Envenomation by neotropical Opisthoglyphous colubrid Thamnodynastes cf. pallidus Linné, 1758 (Serpentes:Colubridae in Venezuela Envenenamiento por la colubrida opistoglifa Thamnodynastes cf. pallidus Linné, 1758 (Serpentes:Colubridae en Venezuela

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    Fresnel Diaz

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available This is a case report of a "non-venomous" snake bite in a herpetologist observed at the Sciences Faculty of the Universidad de los Andes (Mérida, Venezuela. The patient was bitten on the middle finger of the left hand, and shows signs of pronounced local manifestations of envenomation such as bleeding from the tooth imprint, swelling and warmth. He was treated with local care, analgesics, and steroids. He was dismissed from the hospital and observed at home during five days with marked improvement of envenomation. The snake was brought to the medical consult and identified as a Thamnodynastes cf. pallidus specimen. This report represents the first T. pallidus accident described in a human.Se reporta un caso de una mordedura de serpiente "no venenosa", en un herpetólogo observado en la Facultad de Ciencias de la Universidad de los Andes (Mérida, Venezuela. El paciente fue mordido en el dedo medio de la mano izquierda, mostrando pronunciados signos locales de sangramiento por la impronta ocasionada por los dientes de la serpiente, edema y calor local. El paciente fue tratado con cuidados locales, analgésicos y esteroides. Fue dado de alta del hospital y observado en el hogar durante 5 días, con marcada mejoría del envenenamiento. La serpiente fue traída a la consulta médica e identificada como un espécimen de Thamnodynastes cf. pallidus. Este es el primer caso humano descrito, ocasionado por un T. pallidus.

  2. Reproductive biology of Thamnodynastes hypoconia (Serpentes: Dipsadidae in Brazilian subtemperate wetlands

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    MARLUCI M. REBELATO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to describe the reproductive biology of populations of Thamnodynastes hypoconia in subtemperate wetlands based on macroscopic analyses of their gonads. We analyzed 101 specimens from the southernmost regions of Brazil. The males had a greater snout-vent length, but the females reached sexual maturity with a greater body size. The reproductive cycle of the females was seasonal, with secondary vitellogenesis occurring between the winter and spring (May-October. Based on macroscopic analysis of gonads, data suggests that males have a continuous reproductive cycle. Parturition occurs between the late summer and early fall (January-April. The clutch size ranged between 4 and 16 embryos and showed no relationship with the female's body size. The recorded reproductive frequency of T. hypoconia is low (38 % compared to other phylogenetically related species. Conversely, the studied populations appear to have a high reproductive success because it is an abundant species in the study site.

  3. Descrição de uma nova espécie de Thamnodynastes Wagler, 1830 (Serpentes, Colubridae do nordeste brasileiro, com comentários sobre o gênero.

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    Francisco L. Franco

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Thamnodynastes almae sp. nov. is described based on three specimens from Rodelas municipality, state of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil. The new species can be diagnosed by its pale coloration and keeled dorsal scales arranged in 19 rows at midbody and 15 rows posteriorly. Characters for distinguishing T. almae from other brazilian species of Thamnodynastes are provided.

  4. Colubrid Venom Composition: An -Omics Perspective

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    Inácio L. M. Junqueira-de-Azevedo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Snake venoms have been subjected to increasingly sensitive analyses for well over 100 years, but most research has been restricted to front-fanged snakes, which actually represent a relatively small proportion of extant species of advanced snakes. Because rear-fanged snakes are a diverse and distinct radiation of the advanced snakes, understanding venom composition among “colubrids” is critical to understanding the evolution of venom among snakes. Here we review the state of knowledge concerning rear-fanged snake venom composition, emphasizing those toxins for which protein or transcript sequences are available. We have also added new transcriptome-based data on venoms of three species of rear-fanged snakes. Based on this compilation, it is apparent that several components, including cysteine-rich secretory proteins (CRiSPs, C-type lectins (CTLs, CTLs-like proteins and snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs, are broadly distributed among “colubrid” venoms, while others, notably three-finger toxins (3FTxs, appear nearly restricted to the Colubridae (sensu stricto. Some putative new toxins, such as snake venom matrix metalloproteinases, are in fact present in several colubrid venoms, while others are only transcribed, at lower levels. This work provides insights into the evolution of these toxin classes, but because only a small number of species have been explored, generalizations are still rather limited. It is likely that new venom protein families await discovery, particularly among those species with highly specialized diets.

  5. Colubrid Venom Composition: An -Omics Perspective

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    Junqueira-de-Azevedo, Inácio L. M.; Campos, Pollyanna F.; Ching, Ana T. C.; Mackessy, Stephen P.

    2016-01-01

    Snake venoms have been subjected to increasingly sensitive analyses for well over 100 years, but most research has been restricted to front-fanged snakes, which actually represent a relatively small proportion of extant species of advanced snakes. Because rear-fanged snakes are a diverse and distinct radiation of the advanced snakes, understanding venom composition among “colubrids” is critical to understanding the evolution of venom among snakes. Here we review the state of knowledge concerning rear-fanged snake venom composition, emphasizing those toxins for which protein or transcript sequences are available. We have also added new transcriptome-based data on venoms of three species of rear-fanged snakes. Based on this compilation, it is apparent that several components, including cysteine-rich secretory proteins (CRiSPs), C-type lectins (CTLs), CTLs-like proteins and snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs), are broadly distributed among “colubrid” venoms, while others, notably three-finger toxins (3FTxs), appear nearly restricted to the Colubridae (sensu stricto). Some putative new toxins, such as snake venom matrix metalloproteinases, are in fact present in several colubrid venoms, while others are only transcribed, at lower levels. This work provides insights into the evolution of these toxin classes, but because only a small number of species have been explored, generalizations are still rather limited. It is likely that new venom protein families await discovery, particularly among those species with highly specialized diets. PMID:27455326

  6. A review of the hispaniolan colubrid snake Genus Ialtris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwartz, Albert; Rossman, Douglas A.

    1976-01-01

    Of the four endemic Hispaniolan genera of colubrid snakes, the least known is Ialtris Cope. Two species of Ialtris are recognized, each monotypic – dorsalis Günther and parishi Cochran. Neither has been commonly collected. COCHRAN (1941 : 375) listed 12 specimens of I. dorsalis in American collectio

  7. A review of the hispaniolan colubrid snake Genus Ialtris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwartz, Albert; Rossman, Douglas A.

    1976-01-01

    Of the four endemic Hispaniolan genera of colubrid snakes, the least known is Ialtris Cope. Two species of Ialtris are recognized, each monotypic – dorsalis Günther and parishi Cochran. Neither has been commonly collected. COCHRAN (1941 : 375) listed 12 specimens of I. dorsalis in American

  8. Properties of Duvernoy's secretions from opisthoglyphous and aglyphous colubrid snakes.

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    Weinstein, S A; Kardong, K V

    1994-10-01

    Relatively little attention has been given to the biological properties of Duvernoy's secretions produced by opisthoglyphous and some aglyphous colubrid snakes. A review is presented of literature pertaining to these secretions. Most detailed analyses of Duvernoy's secretions and their biological properties have been performed since the late 1970s. The dispholidines, Dispholidus typus and Thelotornis sp., and the natricines, Rhabdophis tigrinus and R. subminiata, have received the most attention due to the high toxicity of their secretions and their medical importance. These species produce secretions with variably strong prothrombin-activating activity, defibrinating activity, and hemorrhagic potential. Boigines, and natricines other than Rhabdophis, produce secretions of low to moderate toxicity and are variably hemorrhagic and proteolytic. Xenodontines and homalopsines similarly show hemorrhagic potential with low to moderate toxicity. Neurotoxic activity has been reported only from secretions of the boigines, Boiga blandingi and B. irregularis and the xenodontine, Heterodon platyrhinos. These species produce secretions containing postsynaptically acting components. Analyses of some of these secretions have shown that enzymes common to many ophidian venoms such as phospholipases A and L-amino acid oxidase are uncommon in the colubrid secretions studied. This may be due to few studies assaying for multiple enzyme activities and/or the unavailability of many secretion samples for study. Methods of secretion extraction, storage, and assay are discussed. Projected future research and the adaptive implications of Duvernoy's secretions are considered.

  9. Testing the 'free radical theory of aging' hypothesis: physiological differences in long-lived and short-lived colubrid snakes.

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    Robert, Kylie A; Brunet-Rossinni, Anja; Bronikowski, Anne M

    2007-06-01

    We test the 'free radical theory of aging' using six species of colubrid snakes (numerous, widely distributed, non-venomous snakes of the family Colubridae) that exhibit long (> 15 years) or short (theory' predicts metabolic rates to be correlated with rates of aging and oxidative damage results from normal metabolic processes we sought to answer whether physiological parameters and locomotor performance (which is a good predictor of survival in juvenile snakes) mirrored the evolution of lifespans in these colubrid snakes. We measured whole animal metabolic rate (oxygen consumption Vo2), locomotor performance, cellular metabolic rate (mitochondrial oxygen consumption), and oxidative stress potential (hydrogen peroxide production by mitochondria). Longer-lived colubrid snakes have greater locomotor performance and reduced hydrogen peroxide production than short-lived species, while whole animal metabolic rates and mitochondrial efficiency did not differ with lifespan. We present the first measures testing the 'free radical theory of aging' using reptilian species as model organisms. Using reptiles with different lifespans as model organisms should provide greater insight into mechanisms of aging.

  10. Thermal strategies and energetics in two sympatric colubrid snakes with contrasted exposure.

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    Lelièvre, Hervé; Le Hénanff, Maxime; Blouin-Demers, Gabriel; Naulleau, Guy; Lourdais, Olivier

    2010-03-01

    The thermoregulatory strategy of reptiles should be optimal if ecological costs (predation risk and time devoted to thermoregulation) are minimized while physiological benefits (performance efficiency and energy gain) are maximized. However, depending on the exact shape of the cost and benefit curves, different thermoregulatory optima may exist, even between sympatric species. We studied thermoregulation in two coexisting colubrid snakes, the European whipsnake (Hierophis viridiflavus, Lacépède 1789) and the Aesculapian snake (Zamenis longissimus, Laurenti 1768) that diverge markedly in their exposure, but otherwise share major ecological and morphological traits. The exposed species (H. viridiflavus) selected higher body temperatures (approximately 30 degrees C) than the secretive species (Z. longissimus, approximately 25 degrees C) both in a laboratory thermal gradient and in the field. Moreover, this difference in body temperature was maintained under thermophilic physiological states such as digestion and molting. Physiological and locomotory performances were optimized at higher temperatures in H. viridiflavus compared to Z. longissimus, as predicted by the thermal coadaptation hypothesis. Metabolic and energetic measurements indicated that energy requirements are at least twice higher in H. viridiflavus than in Z. longissimus. The contrasted sets of coadapted traits between H. viridiflavus and Z. longissimus appear to be adaptive correlates of their exposure strategies.

  11. Discovery of Interstellar CF+

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    Neufeld, D A; Menten, K M; Wolfire, M G; Black, J H; Schuller, F; Müller, H; Thorwirth, S; Gusten, R; Philipp, S

    2006-01-01

    We discuss the first astronomical detection of the CF+ (fluoromethylidynium) ion, obtained by observations of the J=1-0 (102.6 GHz), J=2-1 (205.2 GHz) and J=3-2 (307.7 GHz) rotational transitions toward the Orion Bar region. Our search for CF+, carried out using the IRAM 30m and APEX 12m telescopes, was motivated by recent theoretical models that predict CF+ abundances of a few times 1.E-10 in UV-irradiated molecular regions where C+ is present. The CF+ ion is produced by exothermic reactions of C+ with HF. Because fluorine atoms can react exothermically with H2, HF is predicted to be the dominant reservoir of fluorine, not only in well-shielded regions but also in the surface layers of molecular clouds where the C+ abundance is large. The observed CF+ line intensities imply the presence of CF+ column densities of at least 1.E+12 cm-2 over a region of size at least ~ 1 arcmin, in good agreement with theoretical predictions. They provide support for our current theories of interstellar fluorine chemistry, whic...

  12. Cone-like rhodopsin expressed in the all-cone retina of the colubrid pine snake as a potential adaptation to diurnality.

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    Bhattacharyya, Nihar; Darren, Benedict; Schott, Ryan K; Tropepe, Vincent; Chang, Belinda S W

    2017-07-01

    Colubridae is the largest and most diverse family of snakes, with visual systems that reflect this diversity, encompassing a variety of retinal photoreceptor organizations. The transmutation theory proposed by Walls postulates that photoreceptors could evolutionarily transition between cell types in squamates, but few studies have tested this theory. Recently, evidence for transmutation and rod-like machinery in an all-cone retina has been identified in a diurnal garter snake (Thamnophis), and it appears that the rhodopsin gene at least may be widespread among colubrid snakes. However, functional evidence supporting transmutation beyond the existence of the rhodopsin gene remains rare. We examined the all-cone retina of another colubrid, Pituophis melanoleucus, thought to be more secretive/burrowing than Thamnophis We found that P. melanoleucus expresses two cone opsins (SWS1, LWS) and rhodopsin (RH1) within the eye. Immunohistochemistry localized rhodopsin to the outer segment of photoreceptors in the all-cone retina of the snake and all opsin genes produced functional visual pigments when expressed in vitro Consistent with other studies, we found that P. melanoleucus rhodopsin is extremely blue-shifted. Surprisingly, P. melanoleucus rhodopsin reacted with hydroxylamine, a typical cone opsin characteristic. These results support the idea that the rhodopsin-containing photoreceptors of P. melanoleucus are the products of evolutionary transmutation from rod ancestors, and suggest that this phenomenon may be widespread in colubrid snakes. We hypothesize that transmutation may be an adaptation for diurnal, brighter-light vision, which could result in increased spectral sensitivity and chromatic discrimination with the potential for colour vision. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  13. The appearance energy of CF+3 from CF4: ion/molecule reactions related to the thermochemistry of CF+3

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    Fisher, Ellen R.; Armentrout, P. B.

    1990-11-01

    Guided ion beam mass spectrometry studies designed to measure the appearance energy for CF+3 from CF4 are reported. In contrast to a previous observation, we find that there is no flouride transfer equilibrium between CF+3. Rather, the thresholds for formation of CF+3 from reaction of ground state Kr+ (2P) with CF4 and from collision-induced dissociation of CF+3 by Xe are used to establish AE(CF+3/CF4).Both results are in good agreement although the former experiment yields a more precise value, namely 14.24 ± 0.07 eV.

  14. RNA-seq and high-definition mass spectrometry reveal the complex and divergent venoms of two rear-fanged colubrid snakes.

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    McGivern, James J; Wray, Kenneth P; Margres, Mark J; Couch, Michelle E; Mackessy, Stephen P; Rokyta, Darin R

    2014-12-03

    Largely because of their direct, negative impacts on human health, the venoms of front-fanged snakes of the families Viperidae and Elapidae have been extensively characterized proteomically, transcriptomically, and pharmacologically. However, relatively little is known about the molecular complexity and evolution of the venoms of rear-fanged colubrid snakes, which are, with a few notable exceptions, regarded as harmless to humans. Many of these snakes have venoms with major effects on their preferred prey, and their venoms are probably as critical to their survival as those of front-fanged elapids and viperids. We sequenced the venom-gland transcriptomes from a specimen of Hypsiglena (Desert Night Snake; family Colubridae, subfamily Dipsadinae) and of Boiga irregularis (Brown Treesnake; family Colubridae, subfamily Colubrinae) and verified the transcriptomic results proteomically by means of high-definition mass spectrometry. We identified nearly 3,000 nontoxin genes for each species. For B. irregularis, we found 108 putative toxin transcripts in 46 clusters with definition transcriptomic and proteomic approaches. We found a high level of divergence in the venom types of two colubrids. These two venoms reflected the hemorrhagic/neurotoxic venom dichotomy that broadly characterizes the difference in venom strategies between elapids and viperids.

  15. Cystic Fibrosis (CF): Chloride Sweat Test

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    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Chloride Sweat Test KidsHealth > For Parents > Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Chloride Sweat Test Print A A A ... It Is A chloride sweat test helps diagnose cystic fibrosis (CF) , an inherited disorder that makes kids sick ...

  16. Trifluoromethylation of perfluorinated diacylfluorides: synthesis of the diketone CF3C(O)CF2C(O)CF3 and of new perfluorinated diol (CF3)2C(OH)CF2C(OH)(CF3)2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corti, Sandra; Pennington, William T; DesMarteau, Darryl D

    2013-01-01

    Perfluoromalonyl difluoride reacts with TMS-CF3 (1:1) in the presence of KF to give the new diketone CF2(C(O)CF3)2. A large excess (5:1) of TMS-CF3 results in the presumed potassium dialkoxide [(CF3)2COK]2CF2 which yields the 1,3-ditertiarydiol [(CF3)2C(OH)]2CF2 on reaction with H2SO4.

  17. Scandinavian Nurse Specialist Group/Cystic Fibrosis (SNSG/CF)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnballe, Vibeke; Erwander, Inger

    2006-01-01

    /CF comprises one CF nurse from each of the centers. The board meets twice a year to plan workshops and courses. SNSG/CF is part of the International Nurse Specialist Group/Cystic Fibrosis (INSG/CF). Results: Within the framework of SNSG/CF a 2-day workshop is held every second year for approximately 40......Aims: SNSG/CF was established to stimulate and improve cooperation between CF nurses from Scandinavian CF centers. Methods: SNSG/CF includes all the CF centers in Norway (Oslo and Bergen), Sweden (Stockholm, Gothenburg, Lund and Uppsala) and Denmark (Copenhagen and Aarhus). The board of SNSG...

  18. Atmospheric chemistry of perfluorocyclopentene (cyc-CF2CF2CF2CF=CF-): Kinetics, products and mechanism of gas-phase reactions with OH radicals, and atmospheric implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ni; Uchimaru, Tadafumi; Guo, Qin; Qing, Feiyao; Chen, Liang; Mizukado, Junji

    2017-07-01

    As a high-profile etching gas, perfluorocyclopentene (cyc-CF2CF2CF2CF=CF-) should be assessed for its atmospheric chemistry and environmental impact prior to expanding its industrial applications. However, the corresponding studies have been limited. In this study, the rate constants for the gas-phase reactions of cyc-CF2CF2CF2CF=CF- with OH radicals were determined by a relative rate method, and shown to be consistent with a theoretical computational results: k1-exp.(298 K) = (4.43 ± 0.10) × 10-14, k1-cal.(298 K) = 4.3 × 10-14, and k1-exp.(253-328 K) = (3.39 ± 0.86) × 10-13 exp(-(616 ± 78)/T) cm3 molecule-1 s-1. The atmospheric lifetime of cyc-CF2CF2CF2CF=CF- is 0.715 year, and its photochemical ozone creation potential is 0.48. Furthermore, the products and mechanism of the OH radical-initiated oxidation reactions were studied for the first time. The major products COF2, CO2, CO, and FC(O)OH are considered to have a negligible environmental effect. The radiative efficiency was determined as 0.246 W m-2 ppb-1, and the global warming potentials (GWPs) with 20-, 100-, and 500- year time horizon were estimated as 188, 51, and 15, respectively. The GWP100 value is significantly lower than those of the replacing targets (6630, 11100, 16 100, 23 500, and 9540 for CF4, C2F6, NF3, SF6, and c-C4F8, respectively).

  19. Theoretical insight into OH- and Cl-initiated oxidation of CF3OCH(CF3)2 and CF3OCF2CF2H & fate of CF3OC(X•)(CF3)2 and CF3OCF2CF2X• radicals (X=O, O2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Feng-Yang; Ma, Yuan; Lv, Shuang; Pan, Xiu-Mei; Jia, Xiu-Juan

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the mechanistic and kinetic analysis for reactions of CF3OCH(CF3)2 and CF3OCF2CF2H with OH radicals and Cl atoms have been performed at the CCSD(T)//B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level. Kinetic isotope effects for reactions CF3OCH(CF3)2/CF3OCD(CF3)2 and CF3OCF2CF2H/CF3OCF2CF2D with OH and Cl were estimated so as to provide the theoretical estimation for future laboratory investigation. All rate constants, computed by canonical variational transition state theory (CVT) with the small-curvature tunneling correction (SCT), are in reasonable agreement with the limited experimental data. Standard enthalpies of formation for the species were also calculated. Atmospheric lifetime and global warming potentials (GWPs) of the reaction species were estimated, the large lifetimes and GWPs show that the environmental impact of them cannot be ignored. The organic nitrates can be produced by the further oxidation of CF3OC(•)(CF3)2 and CF3OCF2CF2• in the presence of O2 and NO. The subsequent decomposition pathways of CF3OC(O•)(CF3)2 and CF3OCF2CF2O• radicals were studied in detail. The derived Arrhenius expressions for the rate coefficients over 230–350 K are: k T(1) = 5.00 × 10‑24T3.57 exp(‑849.73/T), k T(2) = 1.79 × 10‑24T4.84 exp(‑4262.65/T), kT(3) = 1.94 × 10‑24 T4.18 exp(‑884.26/T), and k T(4) = 9.44 × 10‑28T5.25 exp(‑913.45/T) cm3 molecule‑1 s‑1.

  20. Trends in the Evolution of Snake Toxins Underscored by an Integrative Omics Approach to Profile the Venom of the Colubrid Phalotris mertensi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Pollyanna Fernandes; Andrade-Silva, Débora; Zelanis, André; Paes Leme, Adriana Franco; Rocha, Marisa Maria Teixeira; Menezes, Milene Cristina; Serrano, Solange M.T.; Junqueira-de-Azevedo, Inácio de Loiola Meirelles

    2016-01-01

    Only few studies on snake venoms were dedicated to deeply characterize the toxin secretion of animals from the Colubridae family, despite the fact that they represent the majority of snake diversity. As a consequence, some evolutionary trends observed in venom proteins that underpinned the evolutionary histories of snake toxins were based on data from a minor parcel of the clade. Here, we investigated the proteins of the totally unknown venom from Phalotris mertensi (Dipsadinae subfamily), in order to obtain a detailed profile of its toxins and to appreciate evolutionary tendencies occurring in colubrid venoms. By means of integrated omics and functional approaches, including RNAseq, Sanger sequencing, high-resolution proteomics, recombinant protein production, and enzymatic tests, we verified an active toxic secretion containing up to 21 types of proteins. A high content of Kunitz-type proteins and C-type lectins were observed, although several enzymatic components such as metalloproteinases and an L-amino acid oxidase were also present in the venom. Interestingly, an arguable venom component of other species was demonstrated as a true venom protein and named svLIPA (snake venom acid lipase). This finding indicates the importance of checking the actual protein occurrence across species before rejecting genes suggested to code for toxins, which are relevant for the discussion about the early evolution of reptile venoms. Moreover, trends in the evolution of some toxin classes, such as simplification of metalloproteinases and rearrangements of Kunitz and Wap domains, parallel similar phenomena observed in other venomous snake families and provide a broader picture of toxin evolution. PMID:27412610

  1. Atmospheric chemistry of (CF3)2CHOCH3, (CF3)2CHOCHO, and CF3C(O)OCH3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerstrøm, Freja From; Wallington, Timothy J.; Andersen, Mads Peter Sulbæk

    2015-01-01

    Smog chambers with in situ FTIR detection were used to measure rate coefficients in 700 Torr of air and 296 ± 2 K of: k(Cl+(CF3)2CHOCH3) = (5.41 ± 1.63) × 10(-12), k(Cl+(CF3)2CHOCHO) = (9.44 ± 1.81) × 10(-15), k(Cl+CF3C(O)OCH3) = (6.28 ± 0.98) × 10(-14), k(OH+(CF3)2CHOCH3) = (1.86 ± 0.41) × 10......3C(O)OCH3 (16 ± 2)%, CF3C(O)CF3 (4 ± 1)%, and C(O)F2 (45 ± 5)%. The primary oxidation product (CF3)2CHOCHO reacts with Cl atoms to give secondary products (molar yields): CF3C(O)CF3 (67 ± 7)%, CF3C(O)OCHO (28 ± 3)%, and C(O)F2 (118 ± 12)%. CF3C(O)OCH3 reacts with Cl atoms to give: CF3C(O)OCHO (80...... ± 8)% and C(O)F2 (6 ± 1)%. Atmospheric lifetimes of (CF3)2CHOCH3, (CF3)2CHOCHO, and CF3C(O)OCH3 were estimated to be 62 days, 1.5 years, and 220 days, respectively. The 100-year global warming potentials (GWPs) for (CF3)2CHOCH3, (CF3)2CHOCHO, and CF3C(O)OCH3 are estimated to be 6, 121, and 46...

  2. Personal experiences of cystic fibrosis (CF) carrier couples prospectively identified in CF families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henneman, L; Kooij, L; Bouman, K; ten Kate, LP

    2002-01-01

    This qualitative study explores the experiences of cystic fibrosis (CF) carrier couples, prospectively identified in CF families, and the impact of the resulting genetic risk on reproductive behavior. Of the 12 couples identified until 1997, seven couples participated in semistructured interviews an

  3. The Cf-4 and Cf-9 resistance genes against Cladosporium fulvum are conserved in wild tomato species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruijt, M.; Kip, D.J.; Joosten, M.H.A.J.; Brandwagt, B.F.; Wit, de P.J.G.M.

    2005-01-01

    The Cf-4 and Cf-9 genes originate from the wild tomato species Lycopersicon hirsutum and L. pimpinellifolium and confer resistance to strains of the leaf mold fungus Cladosporium fulvum that secrete the Avr4 and Avr9 elicitor proteins, respectively. Homologs of Cf-4 and Cf-9 (Hcr9s) are located in s

  4. Atmospheric Chemistry of (CF3)2CF-C≡N

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads Peter Sulbæk; Kyte, Mildrid; Thirstrup Andersen, Simone

    2017-01-01

    is approximately 22 years. The integrated cross section (650–1500 cm–1) for (CF3)2CFCN is (2.22 ± 0.11) × 10–16 cm2 molecule–1 cm–1 which results in a radiative efficiency of 0.217 W m–2 ppb–1. The 100-year Global Warming Potential (GWP) for (CF3)2CFCN was calculated as 1490, a factor of 15 less than that of SF6.......FTIR/smog chamber experiments and ab initio quantum calculations were performed to investigate the atmospheric chemistry of (CF3)2CFCN, a proposed replacement compound for the industrially important sulfur hexafluoride, SF6. The present study determined k(Cl + (CF3)2CFCN) = (2.33 ± 0.87) × 10–17, k......(OH + (CF3)2CFCN) = (1.45 ± 0.25) × 10–15, and k(O3 + (CF3)2CFCN) ≤ 6 × 10–24 cm3 molecule–1 s–1, respectively, in 700 Torr of N2 or air diluent at 296 ± 2 K. The main atmospheric sink for (CF3)2CFCN was determined to be reaction with OH radicals. Quantum chemistry calculations, supported by experimental...

  5. Duodenal Intracellular Bicarbonate and the 'CF Paradox'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaunitz JD

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available HCO(3(- secretion, which is believed to neutralize acid within the mucus gel, is the most studied duodenal defense mechanism. In general, HCO(3(- secretion rate and mucosal injury susceptibility correlate closely. Recent studies suggest that luminal acid can lower intracellular pH (pH(i of duodenal epithelial cells and that HCO(3(- secretion is unchanged during acid stress. Furthermore, peptic ulcers are rare in cystic fibrosis (CF, although, with impaired HCO(3(- secretion, increased ulcer prevalence is predicted, giving rise to the 'CF Paradox'. We thus tested the hypothesis that duodenal epithelial cell protection occurs as the result of pH(i regulation rather than by neutralization of acid by HCO(3(- in the pre-epithelial mucus. Cellular acidification during luminal acid perfusion, and unchanged HCO(3(- secretion during acid stress are inconsistent with pre-epithelial acid neutralization by secreted HCO(3(-. Furthermore, inhibition of HCO(3(- secretion by 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino benzoic acid (NPPB despite preservation of pH(i and protection from acid-induced injury further question the pre-epithelial acid neutralization hypothesis. This decoupling of HCO(3(- secretion and injury susceptibility by NPPB (and possibly by CF further suggest that cellular buffering, rather than HCO(3(- exit into the mucus, is of primary importance for duodenal mucosal protection, and may account for the lack of peptic ulceration in CF patients.

  6. A CF4 based positron trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjanović, Srdjan; Banković, Ana; Cassidy, David; Cooper, Ben; Deller, Adam; Dujko, Saša; Petrović, Zoran Lj

    2016-11-01

    All buffer-gas positron traps in use today rely on N2 as the primary trapping gas due to its conveniently placed {{{a}}}1{{\\Pi }} electronic excitation cross-section. The energy loss per excitation in this process is 8.5 eV, which is sufficient to capture positrons from low-energy moderated beams into a Penning-trap configuration of electric and magnetic fields. However, the energy range over which this cross-section is accessible overlaps with that for positronium (Ps) formation, resulting in inevitable losses and setting an intrinsic upper limit on the overall trapping efficiency of ∼25%. In this paper we present a numerical simulation of a device that uses CF4 as the primary trapping gas, exploiting vibrational excitation as the main inelastic capture process. The threshold for such excitations is far below that for Ps formation and hence, in principle, a CF4 trap can be highly efficient; our simulations indicate that it may be possible to achieve trapping efficiencies as high as 90%. We also report the results of an attempt to re-purpose an existing two-stage N2-based buffer-gas positron trap. Operating the device using CF4 proved unsuccessful, which we attribute to back scattering and expansion of the positron beam following interactions with the CF4 gas, and an unfavourably broad longitudinal beam energy spread arising from the magnetic field differential between the source and trap regions. The observed performance was broadly consistent with subsequent simulations that included parameters specific to the test system, and we outline the modifications that would be required to realise efficient positron trapping with CF4. However, additional losses appear to be present which require further investigation through both simulation and experiment.

  7. CfRadial - CF NetCDF for Radar and Lidar Data in Polar Coordinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, M. J.; Lee, W. C.; Michelson, D.; Curtis, M.

    2016-12-01

    Since 1990, NCAR has supported over 20 different data formats for radar and lidar data in polar coordinates. Researchers, students and operational users spend unnecessary time handling a multitude of unique formats. CfRadial grew out of the need to simplify the use of these data and thereby to improve efficiency in research and operations. CfRadial adopts the well-known NetCDF framework, along with the Climate and Forecasting (CF) conventions such that data and metadata are accurately represented. Mobile platforms are also supported. The first major release, CfRadial version 1.1, occurred in February 2011, followed by minor updates. CfRadial has been adopted by NCAR as well as other agencies in the US and the UK. CfRadial development was boosted in 2015 through a two-year NSF EarthCube grant to improve CF in general. Version 1.4 was agreed upon in May 2016, adding explicit support for quality control fields and spectra. In Europe and Australia, EUMETNET OPERA's HDF5-based ODIM_H5 standard has been rapidly embraced as the modern standard for exchanging weather radar data for operations. ODIM_H5 exploits data groups, hierarchies, and built-in compression, characteristics that have been added to NetCDF4. A meeting of the WMO Task Team on Weather Radar Data Exchange (TT-WRDE) was held at NCAR in Boulder in July 2016, with a goal of identifying a single global standard for radar and lidar data in polar coordinates. CfRadial and ODIM_H5 were considered alongside the older and more rigid table-driven WMO BUFR and GRIB2 formats. TT-WRDE recommended that CfRadial 1.4 be merged with the sweep-oriented structure of ODIM_H5, making use of NetCDF groups, to produce a single format that will encompass the best ideas of both formats. That has led to the emergence of the CfRadial 2.0 standard. This format should meet the objectives of both the NSF EarthCube CF 2.0 initiative and the WMO TT-WRDE. It has the added benefit of improving data exchange between operational and research

  8. Atmospheric chemistry of 4 : 2 fluorotelomer alcohol (CF3(CF2)(3)CH2CH2OH): Products and mechanism of Cl atom initiated oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurley, MD; Ball, JC; Wallington, TJ;

    2004-01-01

    Smog chamber/FTIR techniques were used to study the products and mechanism of the Cl atom initiated oxidation of 4:2 fluorotelomer alcohol (CF3(CF2)(3)CH2CH2OH) in 700 Torr of N-2/O-2 diluent at 296 K. CF3(CF2)(3)CH2CHO is the sole primary oxidation product. CF3(CF2)(3)CHO, CF3(CF2)(3)CH2COOH, an...

  9. Graphite moderated {sup 252}Cf source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sajo B, L.; Barros, H.; Greaves, E. D. [Universidad Simon Bolivar, Nuclear Physics Laboratory, Apdo. 89000, 1080A Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Vega C, H. R., E-mail: fermineutron@yahoo.com [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2014-08-15

    The thorium molten salt reactor is an attractive and affordable nuclear power option for developing countries with insufficient infrastructure and limited technological capability. In the aim of personnel training and experience gathering at the Universidad Simon Bolivar there is in progress a project of developing a subcritical thorium liquid fuel reactor. The neutron source to run this subcritical reactor is a {sup 252}Cf source and the reactor will use high-purity graphite as moderator. Using the MCNP5 code the neutron spectra of the {sup 252}Cf in the center of the graphite moderator has been estimated along the channel where the liquid thorium salt will be inserted; also the ambient dose equivalent due to the source has been determined around the moderator. (Author)

  10. Material recognition with a 252Cf source

    CERN Document Server

    Fabris, Daniela; Lunardon, Marcello; Moretto, Sandra; Nebbia, Giancarlo; Pesente, Silvia; Stevanato , Luca; Viesti, Giuseppe; Sajo-Bohusb, Laszlo

    2010-01-01

    Material recognition is studied by measuring simultaneously the transmission of neutron and gamma rays produced by a time-tagged 252Cf source. Light elements (C,N,O) are identified by using the measured transmission versus neutron time of flight. The yield of the transmitted gamma ray as a function of energy provides high precision identification of the atomic number of the sample up to Z=83 . A tomography system, currently under construction, is described.

  11. Photoionisation study of Xe.CF4 and Kr.CF4 van-der-Waals molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseev, V A; Garcia, G A; Kevorkyants, R; Nahon, L

    2016-05-14

    We report on photoionization studies of Xe.CF4 and Kr.CF4 van-der-Waals complexes produced in a supersonic expansion and detected using synchrotron radiation and photoelectron-photoion coincidence techniques. The ionization potential of CF4 is larger than those of the Xe and Kr atoms and the ground state of the Rg.CF4 (+) ion correlates with Rg(+) ((2)P3/2) + CF4. The onset of the Rg.CF4 (+) signals was found to be only ∼0.2 eV below the Rg ionization potential. In agreement with experiment, complementary ab initio calculations show that vertical transitions originating from the potential minimum of the ground state of Rg.CF4 terminate at a part of the potential energy surfaces of Rg.CF4 (+), which are approximately 0.05 eV below the Rg(+) ((2)P3/2) + CF4 dissociation limit. In contrast to the neutral complexes, which are most stable in the face geometry, for the Rg.CF4 (+) ions, the calculations show that the minimum of the potential energy surface is in the vertex geometry. Experiments which have been performed only with Xe.CF4 revealed no Xe.CF4 (+) signal above the first ionization threshold of Xe, suggesting that the Rg.CF4 (+) ions are not stable above the first dissociation limit.

  12. Investigation of the atomic emission spectroscopy of F atoms and CF2 molecules in CF4 plasma processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Huiliang; Li, Jie; Tang, Caixue; Deng, Wenhui; Chen, Xianhua

    2016-10-01

    The surface chemistry reaction involved in the processing of Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet (APPJ) produced from CF4 precursor has been explored. The atomic emission spectroscopy of F atoms and CF2 molecules was investigated as they contribute to substrate etching and FC film formation during APPJ processing. Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) spectra were acquired for CF4 plasma, relative concentrations of excited state species of F atoms and CF2 molecules were also dependent upon plasma parameters. The densities of F atoms increased dramatically with increasing applied RF power, whereas CF2 molecules decreased monotonically over the same power range, the subsequent electron impacted decomposition of plasma species after CF4 precursor fragmentation. The spectrum of the F atoms and CF2 molecules fallowed the same tendency with the increasing concentration of gas CF4, reaching the maximum at the 20sccm and 15sccm respectively, and then the emission intensity of reactive atoms decreased with more CF4 molecules participating. Addition certain amount O2 into CF4 plasma resulted in promoting CF4 dissociation, O2 can easily react with the dissociation product of CF2 molecules, which inhibit the compound of the F atoms, so with the increasing concentration of O2, the concentration of the CF2 molecules decreased and the emission intensities of F atoms showed the maximum at the O2/CF4 ratio of 20%. These results have led to the development of a scheme that illustrates the mechanisms of surface chemistry reaction and the affection of plasma parameters in CF4 plasma systems with respect to F and CF2 gas-phase species.

  13. [New aspects of therapy of mucoviscidosis (CF)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietzsch, H J; Wunderlich, P

    1993-02-01

    The authors survey of recent advances in CF research and their therapeutic implications: 1. the possibility of successful gene therapy by transfer of the normal gene to airway epithelial cells. 2. inhalations with the potassium-sparing diuretic amiloride that diminish the viscosity of the bronchial secretions, 3. application of adenosine or uridine triphosphate (ATP or UTP) to the apical surface of the respiratory epithelial cells which intervene with the function of ion channels, 4. enzymatic cleavage and liquidification of bronchial secretions by aerosolized human recombinante DNase. In addition, the possible advantages of (heart-) lung-transplantation are also discussed.

  14. A survey on some biochemical and pharmacological activities of venom from two Colombian colubrid snakes, Erythrolamprus bizona (Double-banded coral snake mimic) and Pseudoboa neuwiedii (Neuwied's false boa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Bonilla, Kristian A; Floriano, Rafael S; Schezaro-Ramos, Raphael; Rodrigues-Simioni, Léa; da Cruz-Höfling, Maria Alice

    2017-03-09

    Colombian colubrid snake venoms have been poorly studied. They represent a great resource of biological, ecological, toxinological and pharmacological research. We assessed some enzymatic properties and neuromuscular effects of Erythrolamprus bizona and Pseudoboa neuwiedii venoms from Colombia. Proteolytic, amidolytic and phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activities were analyzed using colorimetric assays and the neuromuscular activity was analyzed in chick biventer cervicis (BC) preparations. The venom of both species showed very low PLA2 and amidolytic activities; however, both exhibited high proteolytic activity, which in E. bizona venom surpassed that of P. neuwiedii venom. E. bizona and P. neuwiedii venoms provoked partial neuromuscular blockade, which was more prominent in P. neuwiedii venom. E. bizona venom (30 μg/ml) induced a significant potentiation of the contracture response to exogenous ACh (110 μM), which was not accompanied by twitch height alteration, whereas the highest venom concentration (100 μg/ml) inhibited contracture responses to both ACh and KCl (40 mM). In contrast, P. neuwiedii venom (30 and 100 μg/ml) caused significant reduction in the contracture responses to exogenous ACh and KCl. The morphological analyses showed high myotoxic effects in the muscle fibers of BC incubated with either venoms; however, they are more prominent in the P. neuwiedii venom. Our results suggest that the myotoxicity of the venom of the two Colombian species can be ascribed to their high proteolytic activity. An interesting data was the potentiation of the ACh-induced contracture, but not the twitch height, caused by E. bizona venom, at a concentration that is harmless to muscle fibers integrity. This phenomenon remains to be further elucidated, and suggest that a possible involvement of post-synaptic receptors cannot be discarded. This work is a contribution to expand the knowledge on colubrid venoms; it allows envisaging that the two venoms offer the

  15. A new perfluorinated peroxynitrate, CF{sub 3}CF{sub 2}CF{sub 2}CF{sub 2}OONO{sub 2}. Synthesis, characterization and atmospheric implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossolasco, Adriana G.; Vila, Jesús A.; Burgos Paci, Maxi A.; Malanca, Fabio E., E-mail: fmalanca@fcq.unc.edu.ar; Argüello, Gustavo A.

    2014-09-30

    Highlights: • A new perfluoroalkyl peroxynitrate identified. • Its thermal stability and UV spectra has been studied. • First principles calculations were used to explore the ground state potential energy surface. • Comparison with shorter perfluoroalkyl peroxynitrates is presented. • Its lifetime is in agreement with the expected for similar peroxynitrates. - Abstract: CF{sub 3}CF{sub 2}CF{sub 2}CF{sub 2}OONO{sub 2} was synthesized from the photolysis of CF{sub 3}CF{sub 2}CF{sub 2}CF{sub 2}I, in presence of NO{sub 2} and O{sub 2}. Alkyl peroxynitrates (C{sub x}F{sub 2x+1}OONO{sub 2}) could be formed in the atmospheric degradation of chlorofluorocarbons, hydrofluorocarbons and hydrofluoroethers. We present here the synthesis and characterization (IR and UV absorption cross sections) of CF{sub 3}CF{sub 2}CF{sub 2}CF{sub 2}OONO{sub 2} and its comparison with those corresponding to other perfluoro alkyl peroxynitrates. The thermal stability was studied as a function of total pressure (from 9.0 to 417 mbar) and temperature (from 283 to 293 K) using infrared spectroscopy. Kinetic parameters measured for the thermal dissociation were E{sub a} = (81 ± 4) kJ/mol and A = 4.8 × 10{sup 12}. DFT calculations at the B3LYP/6-311+G{sup ∗} level were used to explore the ground state potential energy surface. Geometrical parameters, conformer populations and vibrational spectra are presented. The calculated activation energy was 81.3 kJ mol{sup −1} in excellent agreement with experimental results. Atmospheric implications are discussed.

  16. Atmospheric chemistry of (CF3)2CFOCH3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lene Løffler; Østerstrøm, Freja From; Nielsen, Ole John

    2014-01-01

    FTIR smog chamber techniques were used to measure k(Cl + (CF 3)2CFOCH3) = (1.80 ± 0.42) × 10-13, k(Cl + (CF3)2CFOCHO) = (1.47 ± 0.56) × 10-14, and k(OH + (CF3) 2CFOCH3) = (1.55 ± 0.24) × 10-14 cm3 molecule-1 s-1. The chlorine-atom initiated oxidation of (CF3)2CFOCH3 in air in the absence of NOX r...

  17. Atmospheric chemistry of CF3CH2CH2OH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurley, Michael D.; Misner, Jessica A.; Ball, James C.

    2005-01-01

    Relative rate techniques were used to study the kinetics of the reactions of Cl atoms and OH radicals with CF3CH2C(O)H and CF3CH2CH2OH in 700 Torr of N-2 or air diluent at 296 2 K. The rate constants determined were k(Cl+CF3CH2C(O)H) = (1.81 +/- 0.27) x 10(-11), k(OH+CF3CH2C(O)H) = (2.57 +/- 0.44...

  18. Upper limits for the rate constants of the reactions of CF3O2 and CF3O radicals with ozone at 295 K

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O.J.; Sehested, J.

    1993-01-01

    Using the pulse radiolysis UV absorption technique and subsequent simulations of experimental absorption transients at 254 and 276 nm, upper limits of the rate constants for the reactions of CF3O2 and CF3O radicals with ozone were determined at 295 K, CF3O2+O3-->CF3O+2O2 (4), CF3O+O3-->CF3O2+O2 (......). The upper limits were derived as k4 ozone depletion by hydrofluorocarbons.......Using the pulse radiolysis UV absorption technique and subsequent simulations of experimental absorption transients at 254 and 276 nm, upper limits of the rate constants for the reactions of CF3O2 and CF3O radicals with ozone were determined at 295 K, CF3O2+O3-->CF3O+2O2 (4), CF3O+O3-->CF3O2+O2 (5...

  19. CF3(+) and CF2H(+): new reagents for n-alkane determination in chemical ionisation reaction mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Robert S; Ouheda, Saleh A; Evans, Corey J; Monks, Paul S

    2016-11-28

    Alkanes provide a particular analytical challenge to commonly used chemical ionisation methods such as proton-transfer from water owing to their basicity. It is demonstrated that the fluorocarbon ions CF3(+) and CF2H(+), generated from CF4, as reagents provide an effective means of detecting light n-alkanes in the range C2-C6 using direct chemical ionisation mass spectrometry. The present work assesses the applicability of the reagents in Chemical Ionisation Mass Spectrometric (CI-TOF-MS) environments with factors such as high moisture content, operating pressures of 1-10 Torr, accelerating electric fields (E/N) and long-lived intermediate complex formation. Of the commonly used chemical ionisation reagents, H3O(+) and NO(+) only react with hexane and higher while O2(+) reacts with all the target samples, but creates significant fragmentation. By contrast, CF3(+) and CF2H(+) acting together were found to produce little or no fragmentation. In dry conditions with E/N = 100 Td or higher the relative intensity of CF2H(+) to CF3(+) was mostly less than 1% but always less than 3%, making CF3(+) the main reagent ion. Using O2(+) in a parallel series of experiments, a substantially greater degree of fragmentation was observed. The detection sensitivities of the alkanes with CF3(+) and CF2H(+), while relatively low, were found to be better than those observed with O2(+). Experiments using alkane mixtures in the ppm range have shown the ionisation technique based on CF3(+) and CF2H(+) to be particularly useful for measurements of alkane/air mixtures found in polluted environments. As a demonstration of the technique's effectiveness in complex mixtures, the detection of n-alkanes in a smoker's breath is demonstrated.

  20. Brief Introduction of LOW/CF-Silo Control%LOW/CF-SILO控制简介

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高永华; 王晋举

    2001-01-01

    @@埃塞俄比亚麦塞博水泥厂的生料储库采用了史密斯公司设计的CF型库,用于均化和储存生料粉,并通过库底的卸料装置向水泥窑系统实施连续喂料,与之配套的控制系统叫做LOW/CF-Silo失重连续喂料控制系统。1 系统概述LOW/CF-Silo控制系统由两部分组成,即连续流量CF-Silo(Continuous Flow)控制系统和失重喂料LOW(Loss of Weight)控制系统(图1)。1.1 LOW/CF-Silo控制系统的组成1个电动翻板阀;1套称重设备(包括3台申克称重传感器);4台恒压器;2个音叉料位计;2台气动截止阀;2台电动流量调节阀;56个电磁阀;7个接近开关;2台控制箱(箱内各装有1台LOW控制器);1台控制柜(柜内装有1台PLC5-80E控制器)。

  1. Multicenter intestinal current measurements in rectal biopsies from CF and non-CF subjects to monitor CFTR function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P Clancy

    Full Text Available Intestinal current measurements (ICM from rectal biopsies are a sensitive means to detect cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR function, but have not been optimized for multicenter use. We piloted multicenter standard operating procedures (SOPs to detect CFTR activity by ICM and examined key questions for use in clinical trials. SOPs for ICM using human rectal biopsies were developed across three centers and used to characterize ion transport from non-CF and CF subjects (two severe CFTR mutations. All data were centrally evaluated by a blinded interpreter. SOPs were then used across four centers to examine the effect of cold storage on CFTR currents and compare CFTR currents in biopsies from one subject studied simultaneously either at two sites (24 hours post-biopsy or when biopsies were obtained by either forceps or suction. Rectal biopsies from 44 non-CF and 17 CF subjects were analyzed. Mean differences (µA/cm(2; 95% confidence intervals between CF and non-CF were forskolin/IBMX=102.6(128.0 to 81.1, carbachol=96.3(118.7 to 73.9, forskolin/IBMX+carbachol=200.9(243.1 to 158.6, and bumetanide=-44.6 (-33.7 to -55.6 (P<0.005, CF vs non-CF for all parameters. Receiver Operating Characteristic curves indicated that each parameter discriminated CF from non-CF subjects (area under the curve of 0.94-0.98. CFTR dependent currents following 18-24 hours of cold storage for forskolin/IBMX, carbachol, and forskolin/IBMX+carbachol stimulation (n=17 non-CF subjects were 44%, 47.5%, and 47.3%, respectively of those in fresh biopsies. CFTR-dependent currents from biopsies studied after cold storage at two sites simultaneously demonstrated moderate correlation (n=14 non-CF subjects, Pearson correlation coefficients 0.389, 0.484, and 0.533. Similar CFTR dependent currents were detected from fresh biopsies obtained by either forceps or suction (within-subject comparisons, n=22 biopsies from three non-CF subjects. Multicenter ICM is a

  2. Experimental study on dilution effect of all halogenated hydrocarbon CF3I and CF4%全卤代烃CF3I和CF4的阻燃能力实验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙尔雁; 李振明; 公茂琼; 吴剑峰

    2011-01-01

    The flammability limits of several refrigerant mixtures containing CF3I or CF4 as the retardant in air were measured at atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature, the data curves and data tables were mapped. Compared with the literatures, the dilution effect of CF3I or CF4 is better than the hydrogen halogenated hydrocarbons (e. g. R134,R134a and R125) and the inert gases (e. g. N2 and CO2). The lower flammability limits of the flammable refrigerant mixtures increase as the molar ratio of nonflammable component (e. g. CF3I, CF4 ) to flammable component increase, while the upper flammability limits decrease. The special dilution effect of all halogenated hydrocarbon( e. g. CF3I,CF4 ) will improve the flammable refrigerants security significantly.%实验测量了多组含CF3I或CF4的制冷剂混合物的爆炸极限,绘制了爆炸极限数据曲线和数据表格,确定了不同摩尔比例制冷剂混合物的爆炸三角区和临界爆炸比.参照文献中已得出的部分实验结论,通过分析比较得出全卤代烃CF3I和CF4比N2、CO2等"惰性气体"以及含氢卤代烃R134、R134a、R125等更能有效抑制可燃制冷剂的燃爆性.此外,全卤代烃CF3I和CF4不同于惰性气体和含氢卤代烃,能够提高可燃制冷剂混合物爆炸下限,这个特点对于改善可燃制冷剂安全性有实际意义.

  3. Sources and sinks of CF and CF{sub 2} in a cc-RF CF{sub 4}-plasma under various conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fendel, Peter; Francis, Anne; Czarnetzki, Uwe [University of Essen, 45141 Essen (Germany)

    2005-02-01

    In an asymmetric capacitively coupled radio-frequency (cc-RF) CF{sub 4} plasma, the radical densities of CF and CF{sub 2} were measured using laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy. From the spatially (along the symmetry axis) and temporally (after switching off the discharge) resolved data, the source distribution and the sticking coefficients are inferred. We present results for three different electrode materials (stainless steel, aluminium and silicon). According to our data, the strength and the position of the sources depend strongly on the electrode material and the applied voltage. While the CF-sources are in the sheath in front of the powered electrode for stainless steel, they are on the surface of the powered electrode in the case of aluminium. By using a simple diffusion model for the analysis of the afterglow data, it can be shown that CF{sub 2} is destroyed exclusively at the walls and the decay time is determined by diffusion and sticking only. In contrast, for CF, surface as well as volume losses due to chemical reactions are important.

  4. Potential impacts of CF3I on ozone as a replacement for CF3Br in aircraft applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Youn

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Iodotrifluoromethane (CF3I has been considered to be a candidate replacement for bromotrifluoromethane (CF3Br, which is used in aircraft for fuel inerting and for fire fighting. In this study, the chemical effects of aircraft-released CF3I on atmospheric ozone were examined with the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign two-dimensional chemical-radiative-transport (UIUC 2-D CRT model. Using an earlier estimate of the aircraft emission profile for tank inerting in military aircraft, the resulting equivalent Ozone Depletion Potentials (ODPs for CF3I were in the range of 0.07 to 0.25. As a sensitivity study, we also analyzed CF3I emissions associated with fuel inerting if it were to occur at lower altitudes using an alternative estimate. The model calculations of resulting effects on ozone for this case gave ODPs≤0.05. Furthermore, through interactions with the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST, we analyzed the potential effects on ozone resulting from using CF3I in fire fighting connected with engine nacelle and auxiliary power unit applications. The scenarios evaluated using the NIST estimate suggested that the ODPs obtained by assuming aircraft flights occurring in several different latitude regions of the Northern Hemisphere are extremely low. According to the model calculation, the altitude where CF3I is released from aircraft is a dominant factor in its ozone depletion effects. On the assumption that the CF3I emission profile is representative of actual release characteristics, aircraft-released CF3I has much lower impacts on the ozone layer and can be a qualified substitute of CF3Br in engine nacelles.

  5. Potential impacts of CF3I on ozone as a replacement for CF3Br in aircraft applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Li

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Iodotrifluoromethane (CF3I has been considered to be a candidate replacement for bromotrifluoromethane (CF3Br, which is used in aircraft for fuel inerting and for fire fighting. In this study, the chemical effects of aircraft-released CF3I on atmospheric ozone were examined with the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign two-dimensional chemical-radiative-transport (UIUC 2-D CRT model. Using an earlier estimate of the aircraft emission profile for tank inerting in military aircraft, the resulting equivalent Ozone Depletion Potentials (ODPs for CF3I were in the range of 0.07 to 0.25. As a sensitivity study, we also analyzed CF3I emissions associated with fuel inerting if it were to occur at lower altitudes using an alternative estimate. The model calculations of resulting effects on ozone for this case gave ODPs≤0.05. Furthermore, through interactions with the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST, we analyzed the potential effects on ozone resulting from using CF3I in fire fighting connected with engine nacelle and auxiliary power unit applications. The scenarios evaluated using the NIST estimate suggested that the ODPs obtained by assuming aircraft flights occurring in several different latitude regions of the Northern Hemisphere are extremely low. According to the model calculation, the altitude where CF3I is released from aircraft is a dominant factor in its ozone depletion effects. On the assumption that the CF3I emission profile is representative of actual release characteristics, aircraft-released CF3I has much lower impacts than CF3Br.

  6. CF3CH(ONO)CF3: Synthesis, IR spectrum, and use as OH radical source for kinetic and mechanistic studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads Peter Sulbæk; Hurley, MD; Ball, JC;

    2003-01-01

    The synthesis, IR spectrum, and first-principles characterization of CF3CH(ONO)CF3 as well as its use as an OH radical source in kinetic and mechanistic studies are reported. CF3CH(ONO)CF3 exists in two conformers corresponding to rotation about the RCO-NO bond. The more prevalent trans conformer...

  7. Halogenation effects on electron collisions with CF3Cl, CF2Cl2, and CFCl3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, T. C.; Lopes, A. R.; Azeredo, A. D.; Bettega, M. H. F.

    2016-04-01

    We report differential and integral elastic cross sections for low-energy electron collisions with CF3Cl, CF2Cl2, and CFCl3 molecules for energies ranging from 0.1 eV to 30 eV. The calculations were performed using the Schwinger multichannel method with pseudopotentials in the static-exchange and static-exchange plus polarization approximations. The influence of the permanent electric dipole moment on the cross sections was included using the Born closure scheme. A very good agreement between our calculations and the experimental results of Jones [J. Chem. Phys. 84, 813 (1986)], Mann and Linder [J. Phys. B 25, 1621 (1992); 25, 1633 (1992)] and Hoshino et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 138, 214305 (2013)] was found. We also compare our results with the calculations of Beyer et al. [Chem. Phys. 255, 1 (2000)] using the R-matrix method, where we find good agreement with respect to the location of the resonances, and with the calculations of Hoshino et al. using the independent atom method with screening corrected additivity rule, where we find qualitative agreement at energies above 20 eV. Additional electronic structure calculations were carried out in order to help in the interpretation of the scattering results. The stabilization the lowest σ∗ resonance due to the exchange of fluorine by chlorine atoms (halogenation effect) follows a simple linear relation with the energy of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals and can be considered as a signature of the halogenation effect.

  8. Cross sections for elastic scattering of electrons by CF3Cl, CF2Cl2, and CFCl3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshino, M; Horie, M; Kato, H; Blanco, F; García, G; Limão-Vieira, P; Sullivan, J P; Brunger, M J; Tanaka, H

    2013-06-07

    Differential, integral, and momentum transfer cross sections have been determined for the elastic scattering of electrons from the molecules CF3Cl, CF2Cl2, and CFCl3.With the help of a crossed electron beam-molecular beam apparatus using the relative flow technique, the ratios of the elastic differential cross sections (DCSs) of CF3Cl, CF2Cl2, and CFCl3 to those of He were measured in the energy region from 1.5 to 100 eV and at scattering angles in the range 15° to 130°. From those ratios, the absolute DCSs were determined by utilizing the known DCS of He. For CF3Cl and CF2Cl2, at the common energies of measurement, we find generally good agreement with the results from the independent experiments of Mann and Linder [J. Phys. B 25, 1621 (1992); and ibid. 25, 1633 (1992)]. In addition, as a result of progressively substituting a Cl-atom, undulations in the angular distributions have been found to vary in a largely systematic manner in going from CF4 to CF3Cl to CF2Cl2 to CFCl3 and to CCl4. These observed features suggest that the elastic scattering process is, in an independently additive manner, dominated by the atomic-Cl atoms of the molecules. The present independent atom method calculation typically supports the experimental evidence, within the screened additivity rule formulation, for each species and for energies greater than about 10-20 eV. Integral elastic and momentum transfer cross sections were also derived from the measured DCSs, and are compared to the other available theoretical and experimental results. The elastic integral cross sections are also evaluated as a part of their contribution to the total cross section.

  9. The Effect of CF Herbal Acupuncture by Oswestry Disability Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cho Tae-Sung

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective The aim of this study was to assess the effect of CF Herbal Acupuncture for the low back pain by Oswestry Disability Index Method The study population consisted of 10 patients with back pain. CF Herbal Acupuncture was administered one time per 5 days after admission. The degree of improvement was evaluated by Oswestry Disability Index and visual analogue scale(VAS. Oswestry Disability Index consisted of eleven items and they were scored as 5 or 6 points per one item. Results All of the 10 patients, after CF Herbal Acupuncture, showed decreased score by Oswestry Disability Index and VAS. It means that the patient's satisfaction degree increased after treatment. Conclusion These results suggest that The CF Herbal Acupuncture was effective for low back pain

  10. Bacteriophage Lysin CF-301, a Potent Antistaphylococcal Biofilm Agent

    KAUST Repository

    Schuch, Raymond

    2017-05-02

    Biofilms pose a unique therapeutic challenge because of the antibiotic tolerance of constituent bacteria. Treatments for biofilm-based infections represent a major unmet medical need, requiring novel agents to eradicate mature biofilms. Our objective was to evaluate bacteriophage lysin CF-301 as a new agent to target Staphylococcus aureus biofilms. We used minimum biofilm-eradicating concentration (MBEC) assays on 95 S. aureus strains to obtain a 90% MBEC (MBEC90) value of <= 0.25 mu g/ml for CF-301. Mature biofilms of coagulase-negative staphylococci, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Streptococcus agalactiae were also sensitive to disruption, with MBEC90 values ranging from 0.25 to 8 mu g/ml. The potency of CF-301 was demonstrated against S. aureus biofilms formed on polystyrene, glass, surgical mesh, and catheters. In catheters, CF-301 removed all biofilm within 1 h and killed all released bacteria by 6 h. Mixed-species biofilms, formed by S. aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis on several surfaces, were removed by CF-301, as were S. aureus biofilms either enriched for small-colony variants (SCVs) or grown in human synovial fluid. The antibacterial activity of CF-301 was further demonstrated against S. aureus persister cells in exponential-phase and stationary-phase populations. Finally, the antibiofilm activity of CF-301 was greatly improved in combinations with the cell wall hydrolase lysostaphin when tested against a range of S. aureus strains. In all, the data show that CF-301 is highly effective at disrupting biofilms and killing biofilm bacteria, and, as such, it may be an efficient new agent for treating staphylococcal infections with a biofilm component.

  11. Snowmass CF1 Summary: WIMP Dark Matter Direct Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Cushman, P.; Galbiati,C; McKinsey, DN; Robertson, H; Tait, TMP; Bauer, D.; Borgland, A.; Cabrera, B; Calaprice, F.; Cooley, J.; Empl, T; Essig, R.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Gaitskell, R.; Golwala, S

    2017-01-01

    As part of the Snowmass process, the Cosmic Frontier WIMP Direct Detection subgroup (CF1) has drawn on input from the Cosmic Frontier and the broader Particle Physics community to produce this document. The charge to CF1 was (a) to summarize the current status and projected sensitivity of WIMP direct detection experiments worldwide, (b) motivate WIMP dark matter searches over a broad parameter space by examining a spectrum of WIMP models, (c) establish a community consensus on the type of exp...

  12. Atmospheric chemistry of HFE-7000 (CF(3)CF (2)CF (2)OCH (3)) and 2,2,3,3,4,4,4-heptafluoro-1-butanol (CF (3)CF (2)CF (2)CH (2)OH): kinetic rate coefficients and temperature dependence of reactions with chlorine atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-de-Mera, Yolanda; Aranda, Alfonso; Bravo, Iván; Rodríguez, Diana; Rodríguez, Ana; Moreno, Elena

    2008-10-01

    The adverse environmental impacts of chlorinated hydrocarbons on the Earth's ozone layer have focused attention on the effort to replace these compounds by nonchlorinated substitutes with environmental acceptability. Hydrofluoroethers (HFEs) and fluorinated alcohols are currently being introduced in many applications for this purpose. Nevertheless, the presence of a great number of C-F bonds drives to atmospheric long-lived compounds with infrared absorption features. Thus, it is necessary to improve our knowledge about lifetimes and global warming potentials (GWP) for these compounds in order to get a complete evaluation of their environmental impact. Tropospheric degradation is expected to be initiated mainly by OH reactions in the gas phase. Nevertheless, Cl atoms reaction may also be important since rate constants are generally larger than those of OH. In the present work, we report the results obtained in the study of the reactions of Cl radicals with HFE-7000 (CF(3)CF(2)CF(2)OCH(3)) (1) and its isomer CF(3)CF(2)CF(2)CH(2)OH (2). Kinetic rate coefficients with Cl atoms have been measured using the discharge flow tube-mass spectrometric technique at 1 Torr of total pressure. The reactions of these chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) substitutes have been studied under pseudo-first-order kinetic conditions in excess of the fluorinated compounds over Cl atoms. The temperature ranges were 266-333 and 298-353 K for reactions of HFE-7000 and CF(3)CF(2)CF(2)CH(2)OH, respectively. The measured room temperature rate constants were k(Cl+CF(3)CF(2)CF(2)OCH(3)) = (1.24 +/- 0.28) x 10(-13) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1)and k(Cl+CF(3)CF(2)CF(2)CH(2)OH) = (8.35 +/- 1.63) x 10(-13) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) (errors are 2sigma + 10% to cover systematic errors). The Arrhenius expression for reaction 1 was k (1)(266-333 K) = (6.1 +/- 3.8) x 10(-13)exp[-(445 +/- 186)/T] cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) and k (2)(298-353 K) = (1.9 +/- 0.7) x 10(-12)exp[-(244 +/- 125)/T] cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) (errors

  13. Bond Alternation in Halogen Substituted Polyacetylene ---Possibility of C-F Bond Length Alternation in (CF)x---

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelaty, S. M.; Sasai, M.; Fukutome, H.

    1985-08-01

    Using the Hückel model, we study the π electronic and lattice structures of the ground state of halogen substituted polyacetylene (CX)x where X is F, Cl, Br or I. The halogen substitution always makes the C-C bond length alternation in the main chain and the corresponding band gap smaller than those in unsubstituted polyacetylene (CH)x. (CCl)x, (CBr)x and (CI)x have only the bond alternation in the main chain. (CF)x may take one of the three lattice structures depending on the value of the C-F σ bond force constant; the structure with the bond alternation in the main chain, the one with the bond length alternation in the C-F bonds and the one with coexistence of the two kinds of bond alternation. The structure with the C-F bond length alternation is ferroelectric.

  14. Decomposition of Potent Greenhouse Gases SF6, CF4 and SF5CF3 by Dielectric Barrier Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Renxi; Wang, Jingting; Cao, Xu; Hou, Huiqi

    2016-04-01

    For their distinguished global warming potential (GWP100) and long atmosphere lifespan, CF4, SF6 and SF5CF3 were significant in the field of greenhouse gas research. The details of discharging character and the optimal parameter were discussed by using a Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) reactor to decompose these potent greenhouse gases in this work. The results showed that SF6 could be decomposed by 92% under the conditions of 5 min resident time and 3000 V applied voltage with the partial pressure of 2.0 kPa, 28.2 kPa, and 1.8 kPa for SF6, air and water vapor, respectively. 0.4 kPa CF4 could be decomposed by 98.2% for 4 min resident time with 30 kPa Ar added. The decomposition of SF5CF3 was much more effective than that of SF6 and CF4 and moreover, 1.3 kPa SF5CF3, discharged with 30 kPa O2, Ar and air, could not be detected when the resident time was 80 s, 40 s, and 120 s, respectively. All the results indicated that DBD was a feasible technique for the abatement of potent greenhouse gases. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 20507004, 21577023)

  15. A multi-scale approach to characterize pure CH4, CF4, and CH4/CF4 mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattoraj, Joyjit; Risthaus, Tobias; Rubner, Oliver; Heuer, Andreas; Grimme, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we develop three intermolecular potentials for methane (CH4), tetrafluoromethane (CF4), and CH4/CF4 dimers using a novel ab initio method. The ultimate goal is to understand microscopically the phase-separation in CH4/CF4 systems, which takes place in the liquid states near their freezing points. Monte-Carlo (MC) simulations of the pure CH4 system are performed using the ab initio energies to verify the potential. The simulations reproduce quite well the experimentally known liquid densities, the internal energies, the second virial coefficients, and the radial distribution function. The essentially six-dimensional (6D) ab initio potential is then reduced to a one-dimensional (1D) effective potential using the inverse Monte-Carlo technique. This potential, too, successfully reproduces the experimental results. Interestingly, the MC study cannot be extended to the pure CF4 system and the CH4/CF4 mixed system because the two respective ab initio potentials present very rough potential landscapes. This renders the interpolation of energies for the MC simulations and thus the multi-scale approach unreliable. It suggests, however, a possible driving force for the experimentally observed phase separation of the CH4/CF4 system at low temperatures. Furthermore, we carefully study the determination of 1D effective potentials via inverse MC techniques. We argue that to a good approximation the temperature dependence of the 1D potentials can be estimated via reweighting techniques for a fixed temperature.

  16. [Elimination of secretions in CF patients under amiloride inhalation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindemann, H; Becker, T; Bittner, P; Boldt, A; Hofmann, T; Schwandt, H J

    1990-10-01

    Inhaled amiloride reduces active absorption of sodium of respiratory epithelium in CF patients and so, transiently, diminishes loss of water. 10 CF patients, 8 to 28 years of age, were examined on two days. First day, they inhaled in a randomised order isotonic saline and a solution of amiloride hydrochloride (0.3 mg/ml) one after another, each inhalation taking twenty minutes. Second day, inhalations were performed in an inverse order. To intensify the effect of inhalation, the inhalation procedure was combined with "autogenic drainage", a special kind of physiotherapy. Main criterion for evaluation was the amount of expectorated sputum. Mean increase of sputum during amiloride inhalation in comparison to saline was +50.4%. Patients and physiotherapist observed a liquefaction of secretion and a decrease of coughing by amiloride and a support of physiotherapy. These results suggest a beneficial clinical effect of regular amiloride inhalation in CF patients.

  17. CfA3: 185 Type Ia Supernova Light Curves from the CfA

    CERN Document Server

    Hicken, Malcolm; Jha, Saurabh; Kirsher, Robert P; Matheson, Tom; Modjaz, Maryam; Rest, Armin; Wood-Vasey, W Michael

    2009-01-01

    We present multi-band photometry of 185 type-Ia supernovae (SN Ia), with over 11500 observations. These were acquired between 2001 and 2008 at the F. L. Whipple Observatory of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). This sample contains the largest number of homogeneously-observed and reduced nearby SN Ia (z < 0.08) published to date. It more than doubles the nearby sample, bringing SN Ia cosmology to the point where systematic uncertainties dominate. Our natural system photometry has a precision of 0.02 mag or better in BVRIr'i' and roughly 0.04 mag in U for points brighter than 17.5 mag. We also estimate a systematic uncertainty of 0.03 mag in our SN Ia standard system BVRIr'i' photometry and 0.07 mag for U. Comparisons of our standard system photometry with published SN Ia light curves and comparison stars, where available for the same SN, reveal agreement at the level of a few hundredths mag in most cases. We find that 1991bg-like SN Ia are sufficiently distinct from other SN Ia in their...

  18. NETs and CF Lung Disease: Current Status and Future Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D. Gray

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cystic Fibrosis (CF is the most common fatal monogenic disease among Caucasians. While CF affects multiple organ systems, the principle morbidity arises from progressive destruction of lung architecture due to chronic bacterial infection and inflammation. It is characterized by an innate immune defect that results in colonization of the airways with bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa from an early age. Within the airway microenvironment the innate immune cells including epithelial cells, neutrophils, and macrophages have all been implicated in the host defense defect. The neutrophil, however, is the principal effector cell facilitating bacterial killing, but also participates in lung damage. This is evidenced by a disproportionately elevated neutrophil burden in the airways and increased neutrophil products capable of tissue degradation, such as neutrophil elastase. The CF airways also contain an abundance of nuclear material that may be originating from neutrophils. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs are the product of a novel neutrophil death process that involves the expulsion of nuclear material embedded with histones, proteases, and antimicrobial proteins and peptides. NETs have been postulated to contribute to the bacterial killing capacity of neutrophils, however they also function as a source of proteases and other neutrophil products that may contribute to lung injury. Targeting nuclear material with inhaled DNase therapy improves lung function and reduces exacerbations in CF and some of these effects may be due to the degradation of NETs. We critically discuss the evidence for an antimicrobial function of NETs and their potential to cause lung damage and inflammation. We propose that CF animal models that recapitulate the human CF phenotype such as the CFTR−/− pig may be useful in further elucidating a role for NETs.

  19. Search for heavy-ion emission in 249Cf decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardisson, G.; Barci, V.; Le Du, J. F.; Trubert, D.; Bonetti, R.; Guglielmetti, A.; Gupta, R. K.

    1999-09-01

    Using phosphate glass detectors PKS-50, we have searched for possible emission of heavy clusters in the decay of 249Cf with the aim of confirming the result obtained from a recent γ ray spectrometry experiment. After a 20-day exposure to a 7.4 MBq activity 249Cf source of 37.5 cm2 PKS-50 glasses covered with polymide foils to stop fission fragments, no ions with 17=7.4×1021 s. According to calculations performed on the basis of the preformed cluster model there seems to be very little chance that such an exotic decay might be detected, at least in the next few years.

  20. Snowmass CF1 Summary: WIMP Dark Matter Direct Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Cushman, P; McKinsey, D N; Robertson, H; Tate, T M P; Bauer, D; Borgland, A; Cabrera, B; Calaprice, F; Cooley, J; Empl, T; Essig, R; Figueroa-Feliciano, E; Gaitskell, R; Golwala, S; Hall, J; Hill, R; Hime, A; Hoppe, E; Hsu, L; Hungerford, E; Jacobsen, R; Kelsey, M; Lang, R F; Lippincott, W H; Loer, B; Luitz, S; Mandic, V; Mardon, J; Maricic, J; Maruyama, R; Mohapatra, R; Nelson, H; Orrell, J; Palladino, K; Pantic, E; Partridge, R; Ryd, A; Saab, T; Sadoulet, B; Schnee, R; Shepherd, W; Sonnenschein, A; Sorensen, P; Szydagis, M; Volansky, T; Witherell, M; Wright, D; Zurek, K

    2013-01-01

    As part of the Snowmass process, the Cosmic Frontier WIMP Direct Detection subgroup (CF1) has drawn on input from the Cosmic Frontier and the broader Particle Physics community to produce this document. The charge to CF1 was (a) to summarize the current status and projected sensitivity of WIMP direct detection experiments worldwide, (b) motivate WIMP dark matter searches over a broad parameter space by examining a spectrum of WIMP models, (c) establish a community consensus on the type of experimental program required to explore that parameter space, and (d) identify the common infrastructure required to practically meet those goals.

  1. A sendmail. cf scheme for a large network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darmohray, T.M.

    1991-08-14

    Like most large networked sites our users depend heavily on the electronic mail system for both internal and off-site communications. Unfortunately the sendmail.cf file, which is used to control the behavior of the sendmail program, is somewhat cryptic and difficult to decipher for the neophyte. So, on one hand you have a highly visible, frequently used utility, and on the other hand a not-so-easily acquired system administration forte. Here is the sendmail topology of our site, what premises we based it on, and the parts of the sendmail.cf files which support the topology.

  2. How to pass higher physics for CfE

    CERN Document Server

    Chambers, Paul; Mitchell, John

    2014-01-01

    Get your best grade with this guide to Higher Physics for CfE. We are working with SQA to gain endorsement for this title. This book contains all the advice and support you need to revise successfully for your Higher (for CfE) exam. It combines an overview of the course syllabus with advice from a top expert on how to improve exam performance, so you have the best chance of success. - Refresh your knowledge with complete course notes. - Prepare for the exam with top tips and hints on revision techniques. - Get your best grade with advice on how to gain those vital extra marks

  3. Electron and positron scattering from $CF_{3}$ I molecules below 600 eV a comparison with $CF_{3}$ H

    CERN Document Server

    Kawada, M K; Kimura, M

    2000-01-01

    The total cross-sections (TCSs) for electron and positron scattering from CF/sub 3/I molecules have been studied experimentally. A theoretical analysis based on the continuum multiple-scattering (CMS) method has been performed to understand the origin of resonances and the elastic cross-sections. The present TCS for electron scattering is found to be larger by about 20% than that of T. Underwood-Lemons, D.C. Winkler, J.A. Tossel, J.H. Moore [J. Chem. Phys. 100 (1994) 9117] although the general shape agrees well in the entire energy studied. The difference in the cross-sections for CF/sub 3/I and CF /sub 3/H is explained by the sizes and the dipole moments of these molecules. (20 refs).

  4. CF-2光电子能谱的Franck-Condon分析%Simulation of negative ion photoelectron spectroscopy of CF2 and franck-condon analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张先燚; 孔祥蕾; 梁军; 李海洋

    2003-01-01

    在Born-Oppenheimer近似下,结合分子轨道从头算,采用谐振子模型和产生函数方法计算了CF2(X1A1)←CF-2(X2B1)跃迁的Franck-Condon因子.用迭代Franck-Condon分析(IFCA)方法对CF-2的光电子能谱进行了拟合,得到了基态CF-2的几何构型:r CF=0.142 9±0.000 1 nm,θFCF=101.10±0.01度.

  5. Structural changes of CF 1-ATPase in solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calmettes, P.; Pezennec, S.; Berger, G.; Girault, G.

    1992-06-01

    Small changes in neutron scattering spectra were observed when spinach CF 1-ATPase is activated by dithiothreitol or allowed to bind to a nucleotide. It is shown that activation induces a significant conformation change whereas substrate binding does not. In solution, MgATP or MgAMP mainly modifies the interactions between the solute molecules.

  6. A Reflection on "The Language Learning Potential" of Written CF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitchener, John

    2012-01-01

    For more than 30 years, different opinions about whether written corrective feedback (CF) is a worthwhile pedagogical practice for L2 learning and acquisition have been voiced. Despite the arguments for and against its potential to help L2 learners acquire the target language and the inconclusive findings across studies that have sought answers to…

  7. EMISSION OF PHOTONS IN SPONTANEOUS FISSION OF CF-252

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERPLOEG, H; BACELAR, JCS; BUDA, A; LAURENS, CR; VANDERWOUDE, A; GAARDHOJE, JJ; ZELAZNY, Z; VANTHOF, G; KALANTARNAYESTANAKI, N

    1995-01-01

    High energy photon emission accompanying the spontaneous fission of Cf-252 is measured for different mass splits. The photon yields up to an energy of 20 MeV are obtained at several angles relative to the fission direction. Statistical model calculations are used to interpret the data. The photon yi

  8. Problems in the treatment of malabsorption in CF

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Sinaasappel (Maarten); J. Bouquet (Jan); H.J. Neijenst (H.)

    1985-01-01

    textabstractABSTRACT. Several factors play a role in the cause of malabsorption in CF. Besides the enzyme deficiency in the secretion of the exocrine pancreas, decreased bile‐salt concentration in the gut may also be an important factor in the fat malabsorption. The contribution to the fat absorptio

  9. Investigation of the characteristics of {sup 252}Cf-detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, Erik

    2004-12-01

    In the first chapter the characteristic behaviors of two Cf detectors have been investigated by performing pilot measurements. The detector with the stronger source gives an unstable signal with a low signal/noise ratio. Therefore this detector has not been further investigated. The ionization chamber reacts on both fission products and alpha decay. An energy experiment showed that there were large difficulties to separate those decays. A plastic scintillator, which reacts on both photons and neutrons, was used for neutron detection. Energy spectrums were performed and the result showed that it is difficult to set an energy threshold to separate the neutrons and the photons. The discrimination will rather be achieved by time of flight methods which is discussed under the second chapter in this thesis; Experimental results. An other experiment was done in order to investigate whether it is possible to detect any delayed components from the spontaneous fission of Cf. The result showed that delayed components existed. Either they are delayed neutrons from exited fission products, or it is some delay related to the charge collection in the Cf detector. Correlation measurements showed that few events are coincident. Only 50% of the signals from the plastic scintillator are correlated with the Cf source.

  10. Vibrational spectrum of CF4 isotopes in an algebraic model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Joydeep Choudhury; Srinivasa Rao Karumuri; Nirmal Kumar Sarkar; Ramendu Bhattacharjee

    2009-11-01

    n this paper the stretching vibrational modes of CF4 isotopes are calculated up to first overtone using the one-dimensional vibron model for the first time. The model Hamiltonian so constructed seems to describe the C–F stretching modes accurately using a relatively small set of well-defined parameters.

  11. Vacuum ultra-violet emission of CF4 and CF3I containing plasmas and Their effect on low-k materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    el Otell, Z.; Šamara, V.; Zotovich, A.; Hansen, T.; de Marneffe, J.-F.; Baklanov, M. R.

    2015-10-01

    CF3I was suggested as a replacement of CF4 gas to decrease the plasma-induced damage (PID) on low-k dielectrics during etching. This proposal is investigated by means of plasma emission measurements and material characterisation. The experiments were conducted in a 300 mm capacitively coupled plasma source. The vacuum ultraviolet (VUV, 30≤slant λ ≤slant 220 nm) plasma emission was measured for discharges generated in a pure or a mixture of argon, CF4 and/or CF3I, since VUV plays a major role in PID. However, CF3I containing discharges were found to have a stronger emission than CF4 in the VUV range. Nevertheless, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy and κ-value measurements showed that there is almost no difference between the damage caused by CF3I or CF4 containing plasmas, while etching in a capacitively coupled plasma source. It is proposed that the damage caused by CF3I with lower F*-density but higher VUV-photon flux is similar to the damage caused by CF4, with higher F*-density but lower VUV-photon flux.

  12. Theoretical and kinetic studies of the reactions of CF2HCFHCF2H and CF3CFHCFH2 with hydroxyl radicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hong; Liu, Jing-yao; Sun, Chia-chung

    2009-06-01

    The hydrogen abstraction reactions of fluoroalkane isomers CF2HCFHCF2H and CF3CFHCFH2 with the OH radicals have been studied theoretically by a dual-level direct dynamics method. Optimized geometries and frequencies of all the stationary points and extra points along the minimum-energy path are obtained at the BB1K/6-31+G(d,p) level of theory, and then the energy profiles are refined at G3(MP2) level of theory. Using the improved canonical variational transition-state theory (ICVT) with the small-curvature tunneling correction (SCT), the rate constants for each channel are calculated over a wide temperature range of 200-1000 K. Our results show that the tunneling correction plays an important role in the rate constant calculation in the low temperature range. The calculated ICVT/SCT rate constants are consistent with available experimental data. Our calculations indicate the contribution of the abstraction from the -CFH- group of isomeric compounds CF2HCFHCF2H and CF3CFHCFH2 to the overall reactions is quite different over the whole temperature range due to the effect of different groups at both sides of -CFH- group. Furthermore, to further reveal the thermodynamic properties, the enthalpies of formation of the two reactants CF2HCFHCF2H, and CF3CFHCFH2, and the product radicals CF2HCFCF2H, CF2HCFHCF2, CF3CFCFH2, and CF3CFHCFH are obtained by using isodesmic reactions.

  13. Compound dual radiation action theory for 252Cf brachytherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C K; Zhang, X

    2004-01-01

    The existing dosimetry protocol that uses the concept of RBE for 252Cf brachytherapy contains large uncertainties. A new formula has been developed to correlate the biological effect (i.e. cell survival fraction) resulting from a mixed n + gamma radiation field with two physical quantities and two biological quantities. The formula is based on a pathway model evolved from that of the compound-dual-radiation-action (CDRA) theory, previously proposed by Rossi and Zaider. The new model employs the recently published data on radiation-induced DNA lesions. The new formula is capable of predicting quantitatively the synergistic effect caused by the interactions between neutron events and gamma ray events, and it is intended to be included into a new dosimetry protocol for future 252Cf brachytherapy.

  14. Gladstone-Dale constant for CF4. [experimental design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burner, A. W., Jr.; Goad, W. K.

    1980-01-01

    The Gladstone-Dale constant, which relates the refractive index to density, was measured for CF4 by counting fringes of a two-beam interferometer, one beam of which passes through a cell containing the test gas. The experimental approach and sources of systematic and imprecision errors are discussed. The constant for CF4 was measured at several wavelengths in the visible region of the spectrum. A value of 0.122 cu cm/g with an uncertainty of plus or minus 0.001 cu cm/g was determined for use in the visible region. A procedure for noting the departure of the gas density from the ideal-gas law is discussed.

  15. Antibiotic therapy for stable non-CF bronchiectasis in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjaellegaard, Katrine; Sin, Melda Dönmez; Browatzki, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    To provide an update on efficacy and safety of antibiotic treatments for stable non-cystic fibrosis (CF) bronchiectasis (BE). Systematic review based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines was done. Twenty-six studies (1.898 patients) fulfilled......, exacerbations and QoL, whereas studies on aztreonam revealed no significant clinical improvements in the outcomes of interest, including exacerbation rate. Adverse events, including bronchospasm, have been reported in association with tobramycin and aztreonam. Several antibiotic treatment regimens have been...... shown to improve QoL and exacerbation rate, whereas findings regarding sputum production, lung function and admissions have been conflicting. Evidence-based treatment algorithms for antibiotic treatment of stable non-CF BE will have to await large-scale, long-term controlled studies....

  16. PipeCF:a DHT-based Collaborative Filtering recommendation system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Rui-min; YANG Fan; HAN Peng; XIE Bo

    2005-01-01

    Collaborative Filtering (CF) technique has proved to be one of the most successful techniques in recommendation systems in recent years. However, traditional centralized CF system has suffered from its limited scalability as calculation complexity increases rapidly both in time and space when the record in the user database increases. Peer-to-peer (P2P) network has attracted much attention because of its advantage of scalability as an alternative architecture for CF systems. In this paper, authors propose a decentralized CF algorithm, called PipeCF, based on distributed hash table (DHT) method which is the most popular P2P routing algorithm because of its efficiency, scalability, and robustness. Authors also propose two novel approaches: significance refinement (SR) and unanimous amplification (UA), to improve the scalability and prediction accuracy of DHT-based CF algorithm. The experimental data show that our DHT-based CF system has better prediction accuracy, efficiency and scalability than traditional CF systems.

  17. Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment & Living with CF | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... aggressive treatment. Prenatal Screening Prenatal genetic sampling by amniocentesis and chorionic villus can show CF in the ... samples tissue from the placenta to determine CF. Amniocentesis removes and tests a small amount of fluid ...

  18. Bremsstrahlung emission of photons accompanying ternary fission of 252Cf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maydanyuk, S. P.; Olkhovsky, V. S.; Mandaglio, G.; Manganaro, M.; Fazio, G.; Giardina, G.; Saccá, C.

    2011-02-01

    We present the first results on the bremsstrahlung emission of photons accompanying ternary spontaneous fission of the 252Cf nucleus. We also compare our calculations on the basis of quantum model with preliminary experimental data and find a good agreement between theory and experiment for photon energies up to 500 keV, when the α-particle emission is in presence of the field of two fission fragments of the daughter nucleus.

  19. Secondary scintillation in Ar-CF$_4$ mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Beschi, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    In order to build a optical time projection chamber that can be used as a tracking detector, it is necessary to study the scintillation proprieties of gases in order to optimize the light emission. A detailed study of the scintillation of Ar-CF$_4$ mixtures at different concentrations has been performed to study the light emission of the gas in a triple GEM detector.

  20. Oxidation of fluorinated amorphous carbon (a-CF(x)) films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Yang; Broitman, Esteban; Gellman, Andrew J

    2010-01-19

    Amorphous fluorinated carbon (a-CF(x)) films have a variety of potential technological applications. In most such applications these films are exposed to air and undergo partial surface oxidation. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy has been used to study the oxidation of fresh a-CF(x) films deposited by magnetron sputtering. The oxygen sticking coefficient measured by exposure to low pressures (<10(-3) Torr) of oxygen at room temperature is on the order of S approximately 10(-6), indicating that the surfaces of these films are relatively inert to oxidation when compared with most metals. The X-ray photoemission spectra indicate that the initial stages of oxygen exposure (<10(7) langmuirs) result in the preferential oxidation of the carbon atoms with zero or one fluorine atom, perhaps because these carbon atoms are more likely to be found in configurations with unsaturated double bonds and radicals than carbon atoms with two or three fluorine atoms. Exposure of the a-CF(x) film to atmospheric pressures of air (effective exposure of 10(12) langmuirs to O(2)) results in lower levels of oxygen uptake than the low pressure exposures (<10(7) langmuirs). It is suggested that this is the result of oxidative etching of the most reactive carbon atoms, leaving a relatively inert surface. Finally, low pressure exposures to air result in the adsorption of both nitrogen and oxygen onto the surface. Some of the nitrogen adsorbed on the surface at low pressures is in a reversibly adsorbed state in the sense that subsequent exposure to low pressures of O(2) results in the displacement of nitrogen by oxygen. Similarly, when an a-CF(x) film oxidized in pure O(2) is exposed to low pressures of air, some of the adsorbed oxygen is displaced by nitrogen. It is suggested that these forms of nitrogen and oxygen are bound to free radical sites in the film.

  1. Neutron shielding for a {sup 252} Cf source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega C, H.R.; Manzanares A, E.; Hernandez D, V.M. [Unidades Academicas de Estudios Nucleares e Ingenieria Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, C. Cipres 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico); Eduardo Gallego, Alfredo Lorente [Depto. de Ingenieria Nuclear, ETS Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, C. Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain)]. e-mail: fermineutron@yahoo.com

    2006-07-01

    To determine the neutron shielding features of water-extended polyester a Monte Carlo study was carried out. Materials with low atomic number are predominantly used for neutron shielding because these materials effectively attenuate neutrons, mainly through inelastic collisions and absorption reactions. During the selection of materials to design a neutron shield, prompt gamma production as well as radionuclide production induced by neutron activation must be considered. In this investigation the Monte Carlo method was used to evaluate the performance of a water-extended polyester shield designed for the transportation, storage, and use of a {sup 252}Cf isotopic neutron source. During calculations a detailed model for the {sup 252}Cf and the shield was utilized. To compare the shielding features of water extended polyester, the calculations were also made for the bare {sup 252}Cf in vacuum, air and the shield filled with water. For all cases the calculated neutron spectra was utilized to determine the ambient equivalent neutron dose at four sites around the shielding. In the case of water extended polyester and water shielding the calculations were extended to include the prompt gamma rays produced during neutron interactions, with this information the Kerma in air was calculated at the same locations where the ambient equivalent neutron dose was determined. (Author)

  2. Rate coefficients and reaction mechanism for the reaction of OH radicals with (E)-CF3CH═CHF, (Z)-CF3CH═CHF, (E)-CF3CF═CHF, and (Z)-CF3CF═CHF between 200 and 400 K: hybrid density functional theory and canonical variational transition state theory calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaganesh, M; Rajakumar, B

    2012-10-11

    The rate coefficients of ((E)-CF(3)CH═CHF, (Z)-CF(3)CH═CHF, (E)-CF(3)CF═CHF, and (Z)-CF(3)CF═CHF) + OH reactions were computed using M06-2X/6-31+G(d,p) theory in the temperature range of 200 and 400 K. The possible reaction mechanisms of the ((E)-CF(3)CH═CHF, (Z)-CF(3)CH═CHF, (E)-CF(3)CF═CHF, and (Z)-CF(3)CF═CHF) + OH reactions were examined. The rate coefficients for the addition and abstraction reactions were calculated using canonical variational transition state theory (CVT) and conventional transition state theory (CTST), respectively, and we concluded that abstraction reactions are negligible within the temperature range and addition reactions take the lead role. The small curvature tunnelling (SCT) was included in the computation of the rate coefficients. The temperature dependent rate expressions (in cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1)) of the (E)-CF(3)CH═CHF, (Z)-CF(3)CH═CHF, (E)-CF(3)CF═CHF, and (Z)-CF(3)CF═CHF + OH reactions between 200 and 400 K are presented. The atmospheric lifetimes and global warming potentials (GWPs) of the test molecules were computed using the rate coefficients obtained in this study, and it is concluded that these molecules are very short-lived in the Earth's atmosphere with low GWPs.

  3. 75 FR 77570 - Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company CF6 Series Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    ... engine mount assembly (also known ] as Configuration 2). These engines are installed on, but not limited... Company CF6 Series Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of...) for General Electric (GE) CF6-45/-50 series and CF6-80A series turbofan engines with certain...

  4. A parametric study of the output of the optically pumped continuous wave CF4 laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, M.; Godfried, H.P.

    1993-01-01

    A parametric study of laser output versus CF4 pressure and temperature was performed and correlated with a model for the gain in the system, which includes the relevant relaxation processes. Lasing in CF4 was observed at temperatures below 170 K. Cooling the CF4 gas, the output power of the laser in

  5. Density Functional Studies of the C-F Bond Activation of CF3 Radical by Bare Co +

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张冬菊; 刘成卜; 胡海泉; 刘永军

    2001-01-01

    The C—F bond activation mechanism of CF3 radical by bare Co + has been studied by density functional theory. Three local minima and two first-order saddle points were located for the potential energy surface (PES) of [Co, C, F3] + . The activation barrier involving C-F bond activation was calculated to be only 14.73 kJ/mol, while the largest barrier of 149.29 kJ/mol on the PES involves Co-C bond rupture.The bonding mechanism between Co + , C and F atoms were discussed based on Mulliken population. The relevant bond dissociation energy and thermochmistry data were calculated with the limited experimental values, and the results are in good agreement with the experimental findings.

  6. Pulsed eddy current inspection of CF-188 inner wing spar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horan, Peter Francis

    Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) CF-188 Hornet aircraft engineering authorities have stated a requirement for a Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) technique to detect Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) in the inner wing spars without fastener or composite wing skin removal. Current radiographic inspections involve significant aircraft downtime, and Pulsed Eddy Current (PEC) inspection is proposed as a solution. The aluminum inner wing spars of CF-188 Hornet aircraft may undergo stress corrosion cracking (SCC) along the spar between the fasteners that secure carbon-fiber/ epoxy composite skin to the wing. Inspection of the spar through the wing skin is required to avoid wing disassembly. The thickness of the wing skin varies between 8 and 20 mm (0.3 to 0.8 inch) and fasteners may be either titanium or ferrous. PEC generated by a probe centered over a fastener, demonstrates capability of detecting simulated cracks within spars with the wing skin present. Comparison of signals from separate sensors, mounted to either side of the excitation coil, is used to detect differences in induced eddy current fields, which arise in the presence of cracks. To overcome variability in PEC signal response due to variation in 1) skin thickness, 2) fastener material and size, and 3) centering over fasteners, a large calibration data set is acquired. Multi-dimensional scores from a Modified Principal Components Analysis (PCA) of the data are reduced to one dimension (1D) using a Discriminant Analysis method. Under inspection conditions, calibrated PCA scores combined with discriminant analysis permit rapid real time go/no-go PEC detection of cracks in CF-188 inner wing spar. Probe designs using both pickup coils and Giant Magnetoresistive (GMR) sensors were tested on samples with the same ferrous and titanium fasteners found on the CF-188. Flaws were correctly detected at lift-offs of up to 21mm utilizing a variety of insulating skin materials simulating the carbon-fibre reinforced polymer

  7. Comparisons of resistance of CF and Non-CF pathogens to Hydrogen Peroxide and Hypochlorous Acid Oxidants In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ledet Elisa M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cystic fibrosis (CF lung disease has a unique profile of pathogens predominated by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PsA and Staphylococcus aureus (SA. These microorganisms must overcome host immune defense to colonize the CF lungs. Polymorphonuclear neutrophils are a major component of the host defense against bacterial infection. A crucial microbicidal mechanism is the production of oxidants including hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and hypochlorous acid (HOCl by neutrophils to achieve efficient bacterial killing. To determine to what degrees various CF pathogens resist the oxidants relative to non-CF pathogens, we compared the susceptibility of PsA, SA, Burkholderia cepacia (BC, Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP, and Escherichia coli (EC to various concentrations of H2O2 or HOCl, in vitro. The comparative oxidant-resistant profiles were established. Oxidant-induced damage to ATP production and cell membrane integrity of the microbes were quantitatively assessed. Correlation of membrane permeability and ATP levels with bacterial viability was statistically evaluated. Results PsA was relatively resistant to both H2O2 (LD50 = 1.5 mM and HOCl (LD50 = 0.035 mM. SA was susceptible to H2O2 (LD50 = 0.1 mM but resistant to HOCl (LD50 = 0.035 mM. Interestingly, KP was extremely resistant to high doses of H2O2 (LD50 = 2.5-5.0 mM but was very sensitive to low doses of HOCl (LD50 = 0.015 mM. BC was intermediate to resist both oxidants: H2O2 (LD50 = 0.3-0.4 mM and HOCl (LD50 = 0.025 mM. EC displayed the least resistance to H2O2 (LD50 = 0.2-0.3 mM and HOCl (LD50 = 0.015 mM. The identified profile of H2O2-resistance was KP > PsA > BC > EC > SA and the profile of HOCl-resistance PsA > SA > BC > EC > KP. Moreover, both oxidants affected ATP production and membrane integrity of the cells. However, the effects varied among the tested organisms and, the oxidant-mediated damage correlated differentially with the bacterial viability. Conclusions The order of HOCl

  8. PRAGMA-CF. A quantitative structural lung disease CT outcome in young children with cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenow, Tim; Oudraad, Merel C.J.; Murray, Conor P.;

    2015-01-01

    (PRAGMA-CF), a quantitative measure of airways disease, and compared it to the commonly used CF-CT scoring method. METHODS: CT scans from the Australian Respiratory Early Surveillance Team for CF (AREST CF) cohort in Western Australia were included. PRAGMA-CF was performed by annotating a grid overlaid...... reliability, and thirty paired scans obtained at 1 and 3-years old were used for comparison with a validated standard and biological plausibility. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Intraobserver, intraclass correlation coefficients (95% confidence interval) for %Dis, %Bx and %TA were 0.93 (0.86 - 0.97), 0.93 (0...

  9. Atmospheric Chemistry of (CF3)2CF-C≡N: A Replacement Compound for the Most Potent Industrial Greenhouse Gas, SF6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulbaek Andersen, Mads P; Kyte, Mildrid; Andersen, Simone Thirstrup; Nielsen, Claus J; Nielsen, Ole John

    2017-02-07

    FTIR/smog chamber experiments and ab initio quantum calculations were performed to investigate the atmospheric chemistry of (CF3)2CFCN, a proposed replacement compound for the industrially important sulfur hexafluoride, SF6. The present study determined k(Cl + (CF3)2CFCN) = (2.33 ± 0.87) × 10(-17), k(OH + (CF3)2CFCN) = (1.45 ± 0.25) × 10(-15), and k(O3 + (CF3)2CFCN) ≤ 6 × 10(-24) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), respectively, in 700 Torr of N2 or air diluent at 296 ± 2 K. The main atmospheric sink for (CF3)2CFCN was determined to be reaction with OH radicals. Quantum chemistry calculations, supported by experimental evidence, shows that the (CF3)2CFCN + OH reaction proceeds via OH addition to -C(≡N), followed by O2 addition to -C(OH)═N·, internal H-shift, and OH regeneration. The sole atmospheric degradation products of (CF3)2CFCN appear to be NO, COF2, and CF3C(O)F. The atmospheric lifetime of (CF3)2CFCN is approximately 22 years. The integrated cross section (650-1500 cm(-1)) for (CF3)2CFCN is (2.22 ± 0.11) × 10(-16) cm(2) molecule(-1) cm(-1) which results in a radiative efficiency of 0.217 W m(-2) ppb(-1). The 100-year Global Warming Potential (GWP) for (CF3)2CFCN was calculated as 1490, a factor of 15 less than that of SF6.

  10. Carrot fiber (CF) composite films for antioxidant preservation: Particle size effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrovo Encalada, Alondra M; Basanta, Maria F; Fissore, Eliana N; De'Nobili, Maria D; Rojas, Ana M

    2016-01-20

    The effect of particle size (53, 105 and 210 μm) of carrot fiber (CF) on their hydration properties and antioxidant capacity as well as on the performance of the CF-composite films developed with commercial low methoxyl pectin (LMP) was studied. It was determined that CF contained carotenoids and phenolics co-extracted with polysaccharides (80%), rich in pectins (15%). CF showed antioxidant activity and produced homogeneous calcium-LMP-based composites. The 53-μm-CF showed the lowest hydration capability and produced the least elastic and deformable composite film due probably to CF bridged by calcium-crosslinked LMP chains. Antioxidant activity associated to the loaded CF was found in composites. When L-(+)-ascorbic acid (AA) was also loaded, its hydrolytic stability increased with the decrease in CF-particle size, showing the lowest stability in the 0%-CF- and 210 μm-CF-LMP films. Below ≈ 250 μm, the particle size determined the hydration properties of pectin-containing CF, affecting the microstructure and water mobility in composites.

  11. Reactions of (CF3)3BCO with amines and phosphines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finze, Maik; Bernhardt, Eduard; Willner, Helge; Lehmann, Christian W

    2006-01-23

    Reactions of tris(trifluoromethyl)borane carbonyl, (CF(3))(3)BCO, with ammonia yielded either a mixture of [NH(4)][(CF(3))(3)BC(O)NH(2)], [NH(4)][(CF(3))(3)BCN], and [NH(4)](2)[{(CF(3))(3)BC(O)}(2)NH] or neat [NH(4)](2)[{(CF(3))(3)BC(O)}(2)NH] depending on the reaction conditions. The salt K[(CF(3))(3)BC(O)NH(2)] was obtained as the sole product from the reaction of NH(3) with K[(CF(3))(3)BC(O)F]. A simple synthesis for cyanotris(trifluoromethyl)borates, M[(CF(3))(3)BCN], was developed by dehydration of M[(CF(3))(3)BC(O)NH(2)] (M = [NH(4)], K) using phosgene. In addition, syntheses of the tris(trifluoromethyl)boron species [(CF(3))(3)BC(O)NH(n)()Pr](-), [(CF(3))(3)BC(O)NMe(2)](-), and (CF(3))(3)BC(O)NMe(3), as well as of (CF(3))(3)BC(O)PMe(3), were performed. All species were characterized by multinuclear NMR spectroscopy. As far as neat substances resulted, IR and Raman spectra were recorded and their thermal behaviors were studied by differential scanning calorimetry. The interpretation of reaction pathways, structures, and vibrational spectra are supported by DFT calculations. The solid-state structure of K(2)[{(CF(3))(3)BC(O)}(2)NH].2MeCN was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction.

  12. Long Range Alpha the Ternary Cold Fission of $^{252}$Cf

    CERN Document Server

    Misicu, S; Cãrstoiu, F; Rizea, M; Greiner, W; Misicu, Serban

    1998-01-01

    We compute the final kinetic energies of the fragments emitted in the light charged particle accompanied cold fission of $^{252}$Cf taking into account the ground state quadrupole deformation and the finite-size effects of the fragments and integrating the equations of motion for a three-body system subjected only to Coulomb forces. The initial conditions for the trajectory calculations were derived in the frame of a deformed cluster model which includes also the effect due to the absorbative nuclear part. Although the distributions of initial kinetic energies is rather broad we show that in cold fission the initial conditions can be better determined than in the usual spontaneous fission.

  13. Stakeholder Analysis for the CF Counter-IED Training Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    Canada, as represented by the Minister of National Defence, 2010 © Sa Majesté la Reine (en droit du Canada), telle que représentée par le ministre de la...Element #1a Wedding guests arrived Yes MTP #1c Insufficient critique of answer 1 CoachScript MTP #1c Acquired SA Element #1b No cell phone activity...Acq MTP #2b Cultural sensitivity 0 CoachScript MTP #2b Acquired SA Element #2a Recent CF activity displaced ins Yes MTP #2c Insufficient critique of

  14. Ternary particle yields in 249Cf(nth,f)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsekhanovich, I.; Büyükmumcu, Z.; Davi, M.; Denschlag, H. O.; Gönnenwein, F.; Boulyga, S. F.

    2003-03-01

    An experiment measuring ternary particle yields in 249Cf(nth,f) was carried out at the high flux reactor of the Institut Laue-Langevin using the Lohengrin recoil mass separator. Parameters of energy distributions were determined for 27 ternary particles up to 30Mg and their yields were calculated. The yields of 17 further ternary particles were estimated on the basis of the systematics developed. The heaviest particles observed in the experiment are 37Si and 37S; their possible origin is discussed.

  15. Planned Closeout of the Cf-252 Loan/Lease Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, Steven R [ORNL; Patton, Bradley D [ORNL

    2012-09-01

    New funding is sought to pursue planned closeout of the Cf-252 Loan Program. The work will be performed in phases. In the initial phase, users will be surveyed to determine whether they wish to take ownership of sources in their possession, or return them. In the second phase, sources will be recalled from non-DOE entities, and source ownership transfers will be performed. In the third phase, the remaining sources from DOE entities will be recalled. Initial funding of $350K is sought to fund the first phase, and to plan execution of the remaining phases given information collected from user surveys.

  16. Material recognition by using a tagged {sup 252}Cf source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viesti, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell Universita di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); INFN Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy)], E-mail: viesti@pd.infn.it; Cossutta, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Fabris, D. [INFN Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Lunardon, M.; Moretto, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell Universita di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); INFN Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Nebbia, G.; Pesente, S. [INFN Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Pino, F.; Sajo-Bohus, L. [Universidad Simon-Bolivar, Laboratorio Fisica Nuclear, Apartado 8900, 1080 A. Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2008-08-11

    Material recognition by measuring simultaneously the transmission of neutron and gamma ray produced by a {sup 252}Cf source has been studied, determining the average atomic number resolving power. In addition, it is demonstrated the possibility to derive direct signatures able to identify light elements (C, N, O) using the measured transmission versus neutron time-of-flight. This allows one to determine the relevant elemental ratios (C/O and C/N) normally used to identify threat organic materials such as explosives and drugs.

  17. Cadinane sesquiterpenoids from the basidiomycete Stereum cf. sanguinolentum BCC 22926.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunyapaiboonsri, Taridaporn; Yoiprommarat, Seangaroon; Nopgason, Rujirek; Komwijit, Somjit; Veeranondha, Sukitaya; Puyngain, Pucharapa; Boonpratuang, Thitiya

    2014-09-01

    Stereumins Q-U, together with known stereumins A, B, K, L, and N, as well as ent-strobilols E and G were isolated from the culture of Stereum cf. sanguinolentum BCC 22926. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analyses. The absolute configurations of stereumins A and Q, as well as ent-strobilol E were established by application of the modified Mosher's method. Stereumin T displayed antibacterial activity against Bacilluscereus with a MIC value of 3.97μM.

  18. Agroinfiltration is a versatile tool that facilitates comparative analyses of Avr9/Cf-9-induced and Avr4/Cf-4-induced necrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorn, van der R.A.L.; Laurent, F.; Roth, R.; Wit, de P.J.G.M.

    2000-01-01

    The avirulence genes Avr9 and Avr4 from the fungal tomato pathogen Cladosporium fulvum encode extracellular proteins that elicit a hypersensitive response when injected into leaves of tomato plants carrying the matching resistance genes, Cf-9 and Cf-4, respectively. We successfully expressed both

  19. Tropospheric photooxidation of CF3CH2CHO and CF3(CH22CHO initiated by Cl atoms and OH radicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Albaladejo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The absolute rate coefficients for the tropospheric reactions of chlorine (Cl atoms and hydroxyl (OH radicals with CF3CH2CHO and CF3(CH22CHO were measured as a function of temperature (263–371 K and pressure (50–215 Torr of He by pulsed UV laser photolysis techniques. Vacuum UV resonance fluorescence was employed to detect and monitor the time evolution of Cl atoms. Laser induced fluorescence was used in this work as a detection of OH radicals as a function of reaction time. No pressure dependence of the bimolecular rate coefficients, kCl and kOH, was found at all temperatures. At room temperature kCl and kOH were (in 10−11 cm3 molecule−1 s−1: kCl(CF3CH2CHO = (1.55±0.53; kCl(CF3(CH22CHO = (3.39±1.38; kOH(CF3CH2CHO = (0.259±0.050; kOH(CF3(CH22CHO = (1.28±0.24. A slightly negative temperature dependence of kCl was observed for CF3CH2CHO and CF3(CH22CHO, and kOH(CF3CH2CHO. In contrast, kOH(CF3(CH22CHO did not exhibit a temperature dependence in the studied ranged. Arrhenius expressions for these reactions were: kCl(CF3CH2CHO =(4.4±1.0 × 10−11 exp{−(316±68/T} cm3 molecule−1 s−1, kCl(CF3(CH22CHO = (2.9±0.7 × 10−10 exp{−625±80/T} cm3 molecule−1 s−1, kOH(CF3CH2CHO = (7.8±2.2 × 10−12 exp{−(314±90/T} cm3 molecule−1 s−1. The atmospheric impact of the homogeneous removal by OH radicals and Cl atoms of these fluorinated aldehydes is discussed in terms of the global atmospheric lifetimes, taking into account different degradation pathways. The calculated lifetimes show that atmospheric oxidation of CF3(CH2xCHO are globally dominated by OH radicals, however reactions initiated by Cl atoms can act as a source of free radicals at dawn in the troposphere.

  20. Tropospheric photooxidation of CF3CH2CHO and CF3(CH22CHO initiated by Cl atoms and OH radicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Albaladejo

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The absolute rate coefficients for the tropospheric reactions of chlorine (Cl atoms and hydroxyl (OH radicals with CF3CH2CHO and CF3(CH22CHO were measured as a function of temperature (263–371 K and pressure (50–215 Torr of He by pulsed UV laser photolysis techniques. Vacuum UV resonance fluorescence was employed to detect and monitor the time evolution of Cl atoms. Laser induced fluorescence was used in this work for the detection of OH radicals as a function of reaction time. No pressure dependence of the bimolecular rate coefficients, kCl and kOH, was found at all temperatures. At room temperature kCl and kOH were (in 10−11 cm3 molecule−1 s−1: kCl(CF3CH2CHO = (1.55±0.53; kCl(CF3(CH22CHO = (3.39±1.38; kCl(CF3CH2CHO = (0.259±0.050; kCl(CF3(CH22CHO = (1.28±0.24. A slightly positive temperature dependence of kCl was observed for CF3CH2CHO and CF3(CH22CHO, and kOH(CF3CH2CHO. In contrast, kOH(CF3(CH22CHO did not exhibit a temperature dependence over the range investigated. Arrhenius expressions for these reactions were: kCl(CF3CH2CHO = (4.4±1.0×10−11 exp{−(316±68/T} cm3 molecule−1 s−1 kCl(CF3(CH22CHO = (2.9±0.7×10−10 exp{−(625±80/T} cm3 molecule−1 s−1 kOH(CF3CH2CHO = (7.8±2.2×10−12 exp{−(314±90/T} cm3 molecule−1 s−1 The atmospheric impact of the homogeneous removal by OH radicals and Cl atoms of these fluorinated aldehydes is discussed in terms of the global atmospheric lifetimes, taking into account different degradation pathways. The calculated lifetimes show that atmospheric oxidation of CF3(CH2x CHO are globally dominated by OH radicals, however reactions initiated by Cl atoms can act as a source of free radicals at dawn in the troposphere.

  1. Ultrastructural features of the benthic dinoflagellate Ostreopsis cf. ovata (Dinophyceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalera, Laura; Benvenuto, Giovanna; Scalco, Eleonora; Zingone, Adriana; Montresor, Marina

    2014-05-01

    The toxic benthic dinoflagellate Ostreopsis cf. ovata has considerably expanded its distribution range in the last decade, posing risks to human health. Several aspects of this species are still poorly known. We studied ultrastructural features of cultivated and natural populations of Ostreopsis cf. ovata from the Gulf of Naples (Mediterranean Sea) using confocal laser scanning, and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. New information on the morphology and location of several sulcal plates was gained and a new plate designation is suggested that better fits the one applied to other Gonyaulacales. The microtubular component of the cytoskeleton, revealed using an anti-β-tubulin antibody, consisted of a cortical layer of microtubules arranged asymmetrically in the episome and in the hyposome, complemented by a complex inner microtubular system running from the sulcal area towards the internal part of the cell. The conspicuous canal was delimited by two thick, burin-shaped lobes ending in a tubular ventral opening. The canal was surrounded by mucocysts discharging their content into it. A similar structure has been reported in other benthic and planktonic dinoflagellates and may be interpreted as an example of convergent evolution in species producing large amounts of mucus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. The chromospherically--active binary CF Tuc revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Dogru, D; Dogru, S S; Zola, S

    2009-01-01

    New high-resolution spectra, of the chromospherically active binary system CF Tuc, taken at the Mt. John University Observatory in 2007, were analyzed using two methods: cross-correlation and Fourier--based disentangling. As a result, new radial velocity curves of both components were obtained. The resulting orbital elements of CF Tuc are: $a_{1}{\\sin}i$=$0.0254\\pm0.0001$ AU, $a_{2}{\\sin}i$=$0.0228\\pm0.0001$ AU, $M_{1}{\\sin}i$=$0.902\\pm0.005$ $M_{\\odot}$, and $M_{2}{\\sin}i$=$1.008\\pm0.006$ $M_{\\odot}$. The cooler component of the system shows H$\\alpha$ and CaII H & K emissions. Our spectroscopic data and recent $BV$ light curves were solved simultaneously using the Wilson-Devinney code. A dark spot on the surface of the cooler component was assumed to explain large asymmetries observed in the light curves. The following absolute parameters of the components were determined: $M_{1}$=$1.11\\pm0.01$ $M_{\\odot}$, $M_{2}$=$1.23\\pm0.01$ $M_{\\odot}$, $R_{1}$=$1.63\\pm0.02$ $R_{\\odot}$, $R_{2}$=$3.60\\pm0.02$ $R_{\\o...

  3. CfA Nearby Supernova Ia Light Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicken, Malcolm; Berlind, P.; Blondin, S.; Calkins, M.; Challis, P.; Esquerdo, G.; Everett, M.; Fernandez, J.; Jha, S.; Kirshner, R. P.; Latham, D.; Modjaz, M.; Rest, A.; Wood-Vasey, M.

    2007-12-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SN Ia) are central in measuring the accelerated expansion of the Universe and the properties of the underlying dark energy. Nearby SN Ia are compared with distant ones to establish the history of cosmic expansion. In fact, current efforts in SN Ia cosmology are constrained by the limited number of well-observed nearby SN Ia. A significantly improved sample of nearby SN Ia, fully covering the space of Ia properties, is needed to maximize the utility of high-redshift SN Ia. Our ongoing project at the CfA has collected such a set of 170 SN Ia. We have used the FLWO 1.2m telescope. About half of our objects were observed in UBVRI with the 4Shooter camera and have an average of 10 epochs each while the other half was taken in UBVr'i' with the Keplercam instrument and have an average of 17 epochs each. We have now reduced this sample of over 25000 images and present calibrated light curves of these SN Ia along with an analysis of their properties. The CfA Supernova program is supported in part by the National Science Foundation through grant AST-0606772 to Harvard University.

  4. Leotia cf. lubrica forms arbutoid mycorrhiza with Comarostaphylis arbutoides (Ericaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühdorf, Katja; Münzenberger, B; Begerow, D; Gómez-Laurito, J; Hüttl, R F

    2015-02-01

    Arbutoid mycorrhizal plants are commonly found as understory vegetation in forests worldwide where ectomycorrhiza-forming trees occur. Comarostaphylis arbutoides (Ericaceae) is a tropical woody plant and common in tropical Central America. This plant forms arbutoid mycorrhiza, whereas only associations with Leccinum monticola as well as Sebacina sp. are described so far. We collected arbutoid mycorrhizas of C. arbutoides from the Cerro de la Muerte (Cordillera de Talamanca), Costa Rica, where this plant species grows together with Quercus costaricensis. We provide here the first evidence of mycorrhizal status for the Ascomycete Leotia cf. lubrica (Helotiales) that was so far under discussion as saprophyte or mycorrhizal. This fungus formed arbutoid mycorrhiza with C. arbutoides. The morphotype was described morphologically and anatomically. Leotia cf. lubrica was identified using molecular methods, such as sequencing the internal-transcribed spacer (ITS) and the large subunit (LSU) ribosomal DNA regions, as well as phylogenetic analyses. Specific plant primers were used to confirm C. arbutoides as the host plant of the leotioid mycorrhiza.

  5. An atmospheric photochemical source of the persistent greenhouse gas CF4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jubb, Aaron M.; McGillen, Max R.; Portmann, Robert W.; Daniel, John S.; Burkholder, James B.

    2015-11-01

    A previously uncharacterized atmospheric source of the persistent greenhouse gas tetrafluoromethane, CF4, has been identified in the UV photolysis of trifluoroacetyl fluoride, CF3C(O)F, which is a degradation product of several halocarbons currently present in the atmosphere. CF4 quantum yields in the photolysis of CF3C(O)F were measured at 193, 214, 228, and 248 nm, wavelengths relevant to stratospheric photolysis, to be (75.3 ± 1) × 10-4, (23.7 ± 0.4) × 10-4, (6.6 ± 0.2) × 10-4, and ≤0.4 × 10-4, respectively. A 2-D atmospheric model was used to estimate the contribution of the photochemical source to the global CF4 budget. The atmospheric photochemical production of CF4 from CF3CH2F (HFC-134a), CF3CHFCl (HCFC-124), and CF3CCl2F (CFC-114a) per molecule emitted was calculated to be (1-2.5) × 10-5, 1.0 × 10-4, and 2.8 × 10-3, respectively. Although CF4 photochemical production was found to be relatively minor at the present time, the identified mechanism demonstrates that long-lived products with potential climate impacts can be formed from the atmospheric breakdown of shorter-lived source gases.

  6. Transcriptome Analysis of the Cf-12-Mediated Resistance Response to Cladosporium fulvum in Tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Dong-Qi; Chen, Xiu-Ling; Zhang, Hong; Chai, Xin-Feng; Jiang, Jing-Bin; Xu, Xiang-Yang; Li, Jing-Fu

    2017-01-01

    Cf-12 is an effective gene for resisting tomato leaf mold disease caused by Cladosporium fulvum (C. fulvum). Unlike many other Cf genes such as Cf-2, Cf-4, Cf-5, and Cf-9, no physiological races of C. fulvum that are virulent to Cf-12 carrying plant lines have been identified. In order to better understand the molecular mechanism of Cf-12 gene resistance response, RNA-Seq was used to analyze the transcriptome changes at three different stages of C. fulvum infection (0, 4, and 8 days post infection [dpi]). A total of 9100 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between 4 and 0 dpi, 8643 DEGs between 8 and 0 dpi and 2547 DEGs between 8 and 4 dpi were identified. In addition, we found that 736 DEGs shared among the above three groups, suggesting the presence of a common core of DEGs in response to C. fulvum infection. These DEGs were significantly enriched in defense-signaling pathways such as the calcium dependent protein kinases pathway and the jasmonic acid signaling pathway. Additionally, we found that many transcription factor genes were among the DEGs, indicating that transcription factors play an important role in C. fulvum defense response. Our study provides new insight on the molecular mechanism of Cf resistance to C. fulvum, especially the unique features of Cf-12 in responding to C. fulvum infection. PMID:28105042

  7. Rate constants for the reaction of CF3O radicals with hydrocarbons at 298 K

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelly, C.; Treacy, J.; Sidebottom, H.W.;

    1993-01-01

    Rate constant ratios of the reactions of CF3O radicals with a number of hydrocarbons have been determined at 298 +/- 2 K and atmospheric pressure using a relative rate method. Using a previously determined value k(CF30 + C2H6) = 1.2 x 10(-12) cm3 molecule-1 s-1 these rate constant ratios provide......-1. The importance of the reactions of CF3O radicals with hydrocarbons under atmospheric conditions is discussed....

  8. Effective decay time of CF4 secondary scintillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margato, L. M. S.; Morozov, A.; Fraga, M. M. F. R.; Pereira, L.; Fraga, F. A. F.

    2013-07-01

    We report on the time evolution of CF4 secondary scintillation in the pressure range from 1 to 5 bar. Two types of MSGC plates were used for generation of the secondary scintillation in electron avalanches. Time spectra of the scintillation were recorded using several broadband and interference filters in the wavelength range from 220 to 800 nm. The visible emission (450-800 nm) shows a mono-exponential profile with a decay time of ~ 15 ns. The UV emission (220-450 nm) exhibits two components. The fast component has an effective decay time ranging from ~ 2 ns (1 bar) to ~ 10 ns (3-5 bar), while the slow component shows a decay time of ~ 40 ns. The slow component accounts for not more than 10% of the integrated UV emission intensity.

  9. Neutronless $^{10}Be$-Accompanied Ternary Fission of $^{252}Cf$

    CERN Document Server

    Sandulescu, A; Misicu, S; Florescu, A; Ramayya, A V; Hamilton, J H; Greiner, W

    1998-01-01

    A new type of decay corresponding to the neutronless $^{10}$Be-accompanied fragmentation of $^{252}$Cf is studied. We employ a cluster model similar to the model used for the description of cluster radioactivity. No preformation factors were considered. The ternary relative isotopic yields were calculated as the ratio of the penetrability of a given ternary fragmentation over the sum of penetrabilities of all possible ternary neutronless fragmentations. The corresponding barriers between the light and heavy fragment and between the $^{10}$Be cluster and the two heavier fragments were computed with the help of a double folding potential generated by M3Y-$NN$ effective interaction and realistic fragment ground state deformations. Also, we studied the influence of the fragment excitation energies on the yields, by including the level densities and the $\\beta$-stretching of the fragments. The new phenomenon could be experimentally observed by the triple gamma coincidence technique between the fragments and $^{10}...

  10. Evaluation of Li/CF(x)Cells For Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidyanathan, Hari; Rao, Gopalakrishna M.

    2007-01-01

    Panasonic commercialized LiICF(x) cell technology in the 1970's. This technology was a promising primary battery for Aerospace applications such as: Exploration missions, Launch vehicles, Tools and more. This technology offers Wide operation temperature range, Low self-discharge and High specific energy CF(x) cathode material has a theoretical specific energy of 2260 Wh/Kg. Specific energy however achieved as of now is only 10% of theoretical value unless used at a very low rate of C/1000. Research both at Government Labs and Industries is currently in progress to improve the performance. This viewgraph presentation describes the cells, and reviews the results of some of the research using tables and charts.

  11. Design, Construction, and Modeling of a 252Cf Neutron Irradiator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blake C. Anderson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutron production methods are an integral part of research and analysis for an array of applications. This paper examines methods of neutron production, and the advantages of constructing a radioisotopic neutron irradiator assembly using 252Cf. Characteristic neutron behavior and cost-benefit comparative analysis between alternative modes of neutron production are also examined. The irradiator is described from initial conception to the finished design. MCNP modeling shows a total neutron flux of 3 × 105 n/(cm2·s in the irradiation chamber for a 25 μg source. Measurements of the gamma-ray and neutron dose rates near the external surface of the irradiator assembly are 120 μGy/h and 30 μSv/h, respectively, during irradiation. At completion of the project, total material, and labor costs remained below $50,000.

  12. The dissociative recombination of fluorocarbon ions: II. CF{sup +}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novotny, O [PALMS, UMR No 6627 du CNRS, Universite de Rennes I, 35042 Rennes (France); Mitchell, J B A [PALMS, UMR No 6627 du CNRS, Universite de Rennes I, 35042 Rennes (France); LeGarrec, J L [PALMS, UMR No 6627 du CNRS, Universite de Rennes I, 35042 Rennes (France); Florescu-Mitchell, A I [PALMS, UMR No 6627 du CNRS, Universite de Rennes I, 35042 Rennes (France); Rebrion-Rowe, C [PALMS, UMR No 6627 du CNRS, Universite de Rennes I, 35042 Rennes (France); Svendsen, A [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); El Ghazaly, M A [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Andersen, L H [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Ehlerding, A [Department of Physics, Stockholm University, Alba Nova, SE-106 91, Stockholm (Sweden); Viggiano, A A [Air Force Research Laboratory, Space Vehicles Directorate, 29 Randolph Road, Hanscom AFB, MA 01731 (United States); Hellberg, F [Department of Physics, Stockholm University, Alba Nova, SE-106 91, Stockholm (Sweden); Thomas, R D [Department of Physics, Stockholm University, Alba Nova, SE-106 91, Stockholm (Sweden); Zhaunerchyk, V [Department of Physics, Stockholm University, Alba Nova, SE-106 91, Stockholm (Sweden); Geppert, W D [Department of Physics, Stockholm University, Alba Nova, SE-106 91, Stockholm (Sweden); Montaigne, H [Department of Physics, Stockholm University, Alba Nova, SE-106 91, Stockholm (Sweden); Kaminska, M [Swietokrzyska Academy, 25-406 Kielce (Poland); Oesterdahl, F [Department of Physics, Royal Institute of Technology, Alba Nova, SE-106 91, Stockholm (Sweden); Larsson, M [Department of Physics, Stockholm University, Alba Nova, SE-106 91, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2005-05-28

    The dissociative recombination and excitation of CF{sup +} have been measured at the ASTRID and CRYRING storage rings. Though examination of the available potential energy curves would suggest that the recombination rate would be large for this ion, in fact a rate constant of 5.2 {+-} 1.0 x 10{sup -8} (T{sub e}/300){sup -0.8} cm{sup 3} s{sup -1} was found. The recombination cross section at low energies falls off to a minimum at 0.5 eV centre-of-mass collision energy but exhibits resonances at energies above this. The dissociative excitation cross section leading to C{sup +} + F was also measured and this displays an onset beginning at about 7 eV.

  13. Assessment of CF lung disease using motion corrected PROPELLER MRI: a comparison with CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciet, Pierluigi [General Hospital Ca' Foncello, Radiology Department, Treviso (Italy); Sophia Children' s Hospital, Pediatric Pulmonology Erasmus MC, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus MC, Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Serra, Goffredo; Catalano, Carlo [University of Rome ' ' Sapienza' ' , Radiology, Rome (Italy); Bertolo, Silvia; Morana, Giovanni [General Hospital Ca' Foncello, Radiology Department, Treviso (Italy); Spronk, Sandra [Erasmus MC, Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus MC, Epidemiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Ros, Mirco [Ca' Foncello Hospital, Pediatrics, Treviso (Italy); Fraioli, Francesco [University College London (UCL), Institute of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Quattrucci, Serena [University of Rome Sapienza, Pediatrics, Rome (Italy); Assael, M.B. [Azienda Ospedaliera di Verona, Verona CF Center, Verona (Italy); Pomerri, Fabio [University of Padova, Department of Medicine-DIMED, Padova (Italy); Tiddens, Harm A.W.M. [Sophia Children' s Hospital, Pediatric Pulmonology Erasmus MC, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus MC, Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2016-03-15

    To date, PROPELLER MRI, a breathing-motion-insensitive technique, has not been assessed for cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease. We compared this technique to CT for assessing CF lung disease in children and adults. Thirty-eight stable CF patients (median 21 years, range 6-51 years, 22 female) underwent MRI and CT on the same day. Study protocol included respiratory-triggered PROPELLER MRI and volumetric CT end-inspiratory and -expiratory acquisitions. Two observers scored the images using the CF-MRI and CF-CT systems. Scores were compared with intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) and Bland-Altman plots. The sensitivity and specificity of MRI versus CT were calculated. MRI sensitivity for detecting severe CF bronchiectasis was 0.33 (CI 0.09-0.57), while specificity was 100 % (CI 0.88-1). ICCs for bronchiectasis and trapped air were as follows: MRI-bronchiectasis (0.79); CT-bronchiectasis (0.85); MRI-trapped air (0.51); CT-trapped air (0.87). Bland-Altman plots showed an MRI tendency to overestimate the severity of bronchiectasis in mild CF disease and underestimate bronchiectasis in severe disease. Motion correction in PROPELLER MRI does not improve assessment of CF lung disease compared to CT. However, the good inter- and intra-observer agreement and the high specificity suggest that MRI might play a role in the short-term follow-up of CF lung disease (i.e. pulmonary exacerbations). (orig.)

  14. Reactions of CF3O radicals with selected alkenes and aromatics under atmospheric conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelly, C.; Sidebottom, H.W.; Treacy, J.;

    1994-01-01

    Rate data for the reactions of CF3O radicals with alkenes and aromatic compounds have been determined at 298 K using a relative rate method. The data are analyzed in terms of structure-reactivity relationships, and their importance to the atmospheric chemistry of CF3O discussed.......Rate data for the reactions of CF3O radicals with alkenes and aromatic compounds have been determined at 298 K using a relative rate method. The data are analyzed in terms of structure-reactivity relationships, and their importance to the atmospheric chemistry of CF3O discussed....

  15. Detection of extragalactic CF+ toward PKS1830-211 -- Chemical differentiation in the absorbing gas

    CERN Document Server

    Muller, S; Black, J H; Amano, T

    2016-01-01

    We report the first extragalactic detection of CF+, the fluoromethylidynium ion, in the z=0.89 absorber toward PKS1830-211. We estimate an abundance of ~3E-10 relative to H2 and that ~1% of fluorine is captured in CF+. The absorption line profile of CF+ is found to be markedly different from that of other species observed within the same tuning, and is notably anti-correlated with CH3OH. On the other hand, the CF+ profile resembles that of [C I]. Our results are consistent with expected fluorine chemistry and point to chemical differentiation in the column of absorbing gas.

  16. Atmospheric Chemistry of 1H-Heptafluorocyclopentene (cyc-CF2CF2CF2CF═CH-): Rate Constant, Products, and Mechanism of Gas-Phase Reactions with OH Radicals, IR Absorption Spectrum, Photochemical Ozone Creation Potential, and Global Warming Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dongpeng; Qin, Sheng; Li, Wei; Zhang, Di; Guo, Zhikai

    2016-12-08

    The rate constant for gas-phase reactions of OH radicals with 1H-heptafluorocyclopentene (cyc-CF2CF2CF2CF═CH-) was measured using a relative rate method at 298 K: (5.20 ± 0.09) × 10(-14) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1). The quoted uncertainty includes two standard deviations from the least-squares regression, the systematic error from the GC analysis, and the uncertainties of the rate constants of the reference compounds. The OH-radical-initiated oxidation of cyc-CF2CF2CF2CF═CH- gives the main products COF2, CO, and CO2, leading to negligible environmental impact. For consumptions of cyc-CF2CF2CF2CF═CH- of less than 54%, the yield of the formation of ([COF2] + [CO] + [CO2])/5 (based on the conservation of carbon) was 0.99 ± 0.02, which is very close to 100%. A possible degradation mechanism was proposed. The radiative efficiency (RE) of cyc-CF2CF2CF2CF═CH- measured at room temperature was 0.215 W m(-2) ppb(-1). The atmospheric lifetime of cyc-CF2CF2CF2CF═CH- was calculated as 0.61 year, and the photochemical ozone creation potential (POCP) was negligible. The 20-, 100-, and 500-year time horizon global warming potentials (GWPs) were estimated as 153, 42, and 12, respectively.

  17. Hereditary and histologic characteristics of the CF1/b cac mouse cataract model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Tomohiro; Nagai, Hiroaki; Kawashima, Takamune; Taniguchi, Yusuke; Koyabu, Nozomu; Takeshita, Ai; Kusakabe, Ken-Takeshi; Okada, Toshiya

    2014-10-01

    A substrain of mice originating from the CF1 strain (an outbred colony) reared at Osaka Prefecture University (CF1/b cac mice) develops cataracts beginning at 14 d old. Affected mice were fully viable and fertile and had developed cataracts by 22 d of age. The incidence of cataracts did not differ between male and female mice. Histologically, 14-wk-old CF1/b cac mice showed vacuolated lens epithelial cells, swollen lens fibers, many pyknotic nuclei, and vacuolation of the lens cortex. To elucidate the mode of inheritance, we analyzed heterozygous mutants hybrids generated from CF1/b cac and wildtype BALB/c mice and the offspring of the backcrossed heterozygous mutants. None of the heterozygous mutants was affected, but the ratio of affected to unaffected mice was 1:3 among the offspring of the heterozygous mutants. The initial genomewide screen of 20 affected backcrossed offspring (CF1/b cac × [CF1/b cac × BALB/c]) indicated that the mutant gene resides on chromosome 16. For further mapping, we used affected progeny of CF1/b cac × (CF1/b cac × MSM/Ms) mice. We concluded that the cataracts in CF1/b cac mice are inherited through an autosomal recessive mutation and that the mutant gene is located on mouse chromosome 16 between D16Mit5 and D16Mit92 and between D16Mit92 and D16Mit201. The mapping of the mutant gene of the CF1/b cac mice to mouse chromosome 16 provides the positional information necessary to identify the candidate gene responsible for the CF1/b cac phenotype.

  18. Chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection definition: EuroCareCF Working Group report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pressler, T; Bohmova, C; Conway, S;

    2011-01-01

    Chronic pulmonary infection with P. aeruginosa develops in most patients with cystic fibrosis (CF); by adulthood 80% of patients are infected and chronic P. aeruginosa infection is the primary cause of increased morbidity and mortality in CF. Chronic infection is preceded by an intermittent stage...

  19. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1CF8L-1MCEA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1CF8L-1MCEA 1CF8 1MCE L A DIVLTQSPTIMSVSPGEKVTLTCSASSSV--SSNYVYWY...DINVKWKIDGSERQNGVLNSWTDQDSKDSTYSMSSTLTLTKDEYERHNSYTCEATHKTSTSPIVKSFNRNEC- PSALTQ-PPSASGSLGQSVTI...ntryChain> 1MCE A 1MCEA A 1MCEA KVTVLGQPKAN 1MCE A 1MCEA KPSKQ-SNNKY

  20. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1E4XI-1CF8H [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1E4XI-1CF8H 1E4X 1CF8 I H QVQLQQPGAELVKPGPSVKLSCKASGFTFT-NYWMHWVK...EEE EEEEEEEEEE EEEEEEE EEEEEE - 0 1E4X... I 1E4XI...A 262 ASP CA 228 THR CA 300 ARG CA 287 1E4X... I 1E4XI

  1. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1CF5B-2JJRA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1CF5B-2JJRA 1CF5 2JJR B A DVNFDLSTATAKTYTKFIEDFRATLPFSHKVYDIPLLYS...ID> A 2JJRA SYFFNEASATE LEU CA 336 2JJR A 2JJRA...Chain> 2JJR A 2JJRA...bChain>A 2JJRA GKVTS-DIALL

  2. Corrective Feedback (CF) and English-Major EFL Learners' Ability in Grammatical Error Detection and Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asassfeh, Sahail M.

    2013-01-01

    Corrective feedback (CF), the implicit or explicit information learners receive indicating a gap between their current, compared to the desired, performance, has been an area of interest for EFL researchers during the last few decades. This study, conducted on 139 English-major prospective EFL teachers, assessed the impact of two CF types…

  3. Influence of oligomeric silsesquioxane coating treatment on interfacial properties of CF/PAA composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xuezhong; HUANG Yudong; WANG Tianyu; HU Lijiang

    2007-01-01

    Carbon fibres (CF) were modified with different oligomeric silsesquioxane (SSO) coatings to improve the interfacial property of carbon fibres/polyarylacetylene (CF/PAA).The interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) of CF/PAA was tested to determine the effect of the treatment.Atomic force microscopy (AFM) in force modulation mode was adopted to study the cross-section surface of unidirectional CF/PAA composites and the relative stiffness of various phases, including CF,interphase and resin.The probability histogram and line distribution of CF/PAA cross-section surface relative stiffness,obtained from the statistical analysis of relative stiffness image,were used to compare and study the interface characterizations of composites.The results show that the ILSS increases effectively and the effects on interfacial characterizations are distinguished from each other in accor-dance with the CF surface modified with different SSO coatings owing to the various structures.Cage oligomeric silsesquioxane,including large organic groups (methacryl isobutyl-POSS),has better treatment result.AFM observa-tions lead to the conclusion that an interfacial transition layer with different morphology and stiffness appears in CF/PAA composites after being treated by the SSO coatings of different structures.It can be inferred that the appearance of the transition layer may contribute to the improvement of fibre/matrix adhesion.

  4. Neutron Spectra, Fluence and Dose Rates from Bare and Moderated Cf-252 Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radev, Radoslav P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-04-01

    A new, stronger 252Cf source (serial number SR-CF-3050-OR) was obtained from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in 2014 to supplement the existing 252Cf sources which had significantly decayed. A new instrument positioning track system was designed and installed by Hopewell Designs, Inc. in 2011. The neutron field from the new, stronger 252Cf source in the modified calibration environment needed to be characterized as well as the modified neutron fields produced by the new source and seven different neutron moderators. Comprehensive information about our 252Cf source, its origin, production, and isotopic content and decay characteristics needed to be compiled as well. This technical report is intended to address these issues.

  5. All possible ternary fragmentations of Cf252 in collinear configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manimaran, K.; Balasubramaniam, M.

    2011-03-01

    All possible ternary fragmentations in fission of Cf252 are studied in collinear configuration within a spherical approximation using the recently proposed “three cluster model.” The potential energy surface of collinear configuration exhibits a strong valley around Ca48 and its neighboring nuclei Ca50, Ti54, and Cr60. Such strong minima are not seen in the potential energy surface of an equatorial configuration. As a consequence of strong minima in the potential, the overall relative yield is higher for the ternary fragmentation with Ca48, Ca50, Ti54, Cr60, and Ge82 as the third fragment. The results of potential energy and relative yield calculations reveal that collinear configuration increases the probability of emission of heavy fragments like Ca48 (doubly magic nucleus) and its neighboring nuclei as the third fragment. The obtained results indicate that the collinear configuration is the preferred configuration for intermediate nuclei (Ca48, Ca50, Ti54, and Cr60) as the third fragment in particle accompanied fission while the equatorial configuration may be a preferred configuration for light nuclei (He4, Be10) as the third fragment.

  6. Nuclear charge distribution in the spontaneous fission of 252Cf

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Taofeng; Wang, Liming; Men, Qinghua; Han, Hongyin; Xia, Haihong

    2015-01-01

    The measurement for charge distributions of fragments in 252Cf has been performed by using a unique style of detector setup consisting of a typical grid ionization chamber and a dE-E particle telescope. We found that the fragment mass dependency of the average width of the charge distribution shows a systematic decreased trend with the obvious odd-even effect. The variation of widths of charge distribution with kinetic energies shows an approximate V-shape curve due to the large number of neutron emission for the high excitation energies and cold fragmentation with low excitation energies. As for the behavior of the average nuclear charge with respect to its deviation {\\Delta}Z from the unchanged charge distribution (UCD) as a function of the mass number of primary fragments A*, for asymmetric fission products {\\Delta}Z is negative value, while upon approaching mass symmetry {\\Delta}Z turns positive. Concerning the energy dependence of the most probable charge for given primary mass number A*, the obvious inc...

  7. Prompt Neutron Emission in 252CF Spontaneous Fission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambsch, F.-J.; Oberstedt, S.; Zeynalov, Sh.

    2011-10-01

    The prompt neutron emission in spontaneous fission of 252Cf has been investigated applying digital signal electronics. The goal was to compare the results from digital data acquisition and digital signal processing analysis with results of the pioneering work of Budtz-Jørgensen and Knitter. Using a twin Frisch-grid ionization chamber for fission fragment (FF) detection and a NE213-equivalent neutron detector in total about 107 fission fragment-neutron coincidences have been registered. Fission fragment kinetic energy, mass and angular distribution, neutron time-of-flight and pulse shape have been investigated using a 12 bit waveform digitizer. The signal waveforms have been analyzed using digital signal processing algorithms. The results are in very good agreement with literature. For the first time the dependence of the number of emitted neutrons as a function of total kinetic energy (TKE) of the fragments is in very good agreement with theoretical calculations in the range of TKE from 140-220 MeV.

  8. Bayesian approach to cyclic activity of CF Oct

    CERN Document Server

    Borisova, Ana P; Innis, John L

    2011-01-01

    Bayesian statistical methods of Gregory-Loredo and the Bretthorst generalization of the Lomb-Scargle periodogram have been applied for studying activity cycles of the early K-type subgiant star CF Oct. We have used a ~45 year long dataset derived from archival photographic observations, published photoelectric photometry, Hipparcos data series and All Sky Automated Survey archive. We have confirmed the already known rotational period for the star of 20.16 d and have shown evidences that it has exhibited changes from 19.90 d to 20.45 d. This is an indication for stellar surface differential rotation.The Bayesian magnitude and time--residual analysis reveals clearly at least one long-term cycle. The cycle lenght's posterior distributions appear to be multimodal with a pronounced peak at a period of 7.1 y with FWHM of 54 d for time-residuals and at a period of 9.8 y with FWHM of 184 d for magitude data. These results are consistent with the previously postulated cycle of 9+/-3 years.

  9. Erylusamides: Novel Atypical Glycolipids from Erylus cf. deficiens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Helena; Cutignano, Adele; Grauso, Laura; Neng, Nuno; Cachatra, Vasco; Fontana, Angelo; Xavier, Joana; Cerejo, Marta; Vieira, Helena; Santos, Susana

    2016-01-01

    Among marine organisms, sponges are the richest sources of pharmacologically-active compounds. Stemming from a previous lead discovery program that gathered a comprehensive library of organic extracts of marine sponges from the off-shore region of Portugal, crude extracts of Erylus cf. deficiens collected in the Gorringe Bank (Atlantic Ocean) were tested in the innovative high throughput screening (HTS) assay for inhibitors of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and showed activity. Bioassay guided fractionation of the dichloromethane extract led to the isolation of four new glycolipids, named erylusamide A–D. The structures of the isolated compounds were established by 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HR-ESI-MS) and chemical derivatization. The metabolites shared a pentasaccharide moiety constituted by unusual highly acetylated d-glucose moieties as well as d-xylose and d-galactose. The aglycones were unprecedented long chain dihydroxyketo amides. Erylusamides A, B and D differ in the length of the hydrocarbon chain, while erylusamide C is a structural isomer of erylusamide B. PMID:27727161

  10. Erylusamides: Novel Atypical Glycolipids from Erylus cf. deficiens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Gaspar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Among marine organisms, sponges are the richest sources of pharmacologically-active compounds. Stemming from a previous lead discovery program that gathered a comprehensive library of organic extracts of marine sponges from the off-shore region of Portugal, crude extracts of Erylus cf. deficiens collected in the Gorringe Bank (Atlantic Ocean were tested in the innovative high throughput screening (HTS assay for inhibitors of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO and showed activity. Bioassay guided fractionation of the dichloromethane extract led to the isolation of four new glycolipids, named erylusamide A–D. The structures of the isolated compounds were established by 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy, high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HR-ESI-MS and chemical derivatization. The metabolites shared a pentasaccharide moiety constituted by unusual highly acetylated ᴅ-glucose moieties as well as ᴅ-xylose and ᴅ-galactose. The aglycones were unprecedented long chain dihydroxyketo amides. Erylusamides A, B and D differ in the length of the hydrocarbon chain, while erylusamide C is a structural isomer of erylusamide B.

  11. Erylusamides: Novel Atypical Glycolipids from Erylus cf. deficiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Helena; Cutignano, Adele; Grauso, Laura; Neng, Nuno; Cachatra, Vasco; Fontana, Angelo; Xavier, Joana; Cerejo, Marta; Vieira, Helena; Santos, Susana

    2016-10-11

    Among marine organisms, sponges are the richest sources of pharmacologically-active compounds. Stemming from a previous lead discovery program that gathered a comprehensive library of organic extracts of marine sponges from the off-shore region of Portugal, crude extracts of Erylus cf. deficiens collected in the Gorringe Bank (Atlantic Ocean) were tested in the innovative high throughput screening (HTS) assay for inhibitors of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and showed activity. Bioassay guided fractionation of the dichloromethane extract led to the isolation of four new glycolipids, named erylusamide A-D. The structures of the isolated compounds were established by 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HR-ESI-MS) and chemical derivatization. The metabolites shared a pentasaccharide moiety constituted by unusual highly acetylated ᴅ-glucose moieties as well as ᴅ-xylose and ᴅ-galactose. The aglycones were unprecedented long chain dihydroxyketo amides. Erylusamides A, B and D differ in the length of the hydrocarbon chain, while erylusamide C is a structural isomer of erylusamide B.

  12. Precipitation in CF-8M duplex stainless steel welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Ann M.; Cieslak, Michael J.; Savage, Warren F.

    1983-01-01

    Welds of CF-8M, a cast 316-type stainless steel which normally solidifies as primary delta-ferrite, were induced to solidify as primary austenite by the addition of nitrogen to the shielding gas used during gas tungsten arc welding. Those welds which experienced a shift in solidification mode formed eutectic ferrite during the terminal transient stage of solidification. Primary delta-ferrite and eutectic ferrite are differentiated by their location in the dendritic microstructure. The shape of the ferrite/austenite interface tends to be rounded for primary delta-ferrite and more angular for eutectic ferrite. Elemental profiles were plotted from STEM/EDS measurements across the two types of ferrite, and showed differences between the composition of the austenite immediately adjacent to the primary delta-ferrite, as opposed to the eutectic ferrite. In addition, while the primary delta-ferrite/austenite interfaces are largely devoid of precipitation, the eutectic ferrite/austenite interfaces are densely covered with small precipitates of x-phase. The mean stoichiometry of this phase has been calculated from STEM/EDS data on extraction replicas, and approximates Fe50Cr32Mo13Ni5. Intragranular inclusions were also examined and found to be complex, with most of them containing varying quantities of Mn, Si, and S.

  13. Global Analysis of Several Bands of the CF_4 Molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlos, Mickaël; Gruson, Océane; Boudon, Vincent; Georges, Robert; Pirali, Olivier; Asselin, Pierre

    2016-06-01

    Carbon tetrafluoride is a powerful greenhouse gas, mainly of anthropogenic origin. Its absorption spectrum is, however, still badly modeled, especially for hot bands in the strongly absorbing ν_3 region. To overcome this problem, we have undertaken a systematic study of all the lower rovibrational transitions of this molecule. In particular, new far-infrared spectra recorded at the SOLEIL Synchrotron facility give access to bands implying the ``forbidden'' modes ν_1 and ν_2 which have only been investigated previously thanks to stimulated Raman spectroscopy, that is with a lower accuracy and much less data. Combined with the previous analyses performed in our group, we thus report here a new global fit of line positions of CF_4 by considering several transitions altogether: ν_2, 2ν_2-ν_2, ν_4, 2ν_4, ν_3 and ν_3-2ν_2. This gives a consistent set of molecular parameters that will be of great help for the analysis of hot bands like ν_3+ν_2-ν_2. A second separate global fit including the ν_1, ν_1-ν_4 and 2ν_1-ν_1 bands will also be presented. V. Boudon, D. Bermejo, R. Z. Martinez, J. Raman Spectrosc. 44, 731?738 (2013). V. Boudon, J. Mitchell, A. Domanskaya, C. Maul, R; Georges, A. Benidar, W. G. Harter, Mol. Phys. 109, 17--18 (2011)

  14. Comparative study of electroless nickel film on different organic acids modified cuprammonium fabric (CF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Hang; Lu, Yinxiang, E-mail: yxlu@fudan.edu.cn

    2016-01-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • An etchant-free and moderate surface pre-treatment process was studied. • Citric acid, malic acid and oxalic acid were selected as modification agents. • High adhesive nickel coating on cuprammonium fabric was obtained. • The electromagnetic parameters were evaluated from the experimental data. - Abstract: Nickel films were grown on citric acid (CA), malic acid (MA) and oxalic acid (OA) modified cuprammonium fabric (CF) substrates via electroless nickel deposition. The nickel films were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Their individual deposition rate and electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding effectiveness (SE) were also investigated to compare the properties of electroless nickel films. SEM images illustrated that the nickel film on MA modified CF substrate was smooth and uniform, and the density of nickel nuclei was much higher. Compared with that of CA modified CF, the coverage of nickel nuclei on OA and MA modified CF substrate was very limited and the nickel particles size was too big. XRD analysis showed that the nickel films deposited on the different modified CF substrates had a structure with Ni (1 1 1) preferred orientation. All the nickel coatings via different acid modification were firmly adhered to the CF substrates, as demonstrated by an ultrasonic washing test. The result of tensile test indicated that the electroless nickel plating on CF has ability to strengthen the CF substrate while causes limited effect on tensile elongation. Moreover, the nickel film deposited on MA modified CF substrate showed more predominant in EMI SE than that deposited on CA or OA modified CF.

  15. A Modified Potential Method for Electrons Scattering Total Cross Section Calculations on Several Molecules at 30 ~ 5000 eV: CF4, CCl4, CFCl3, CF2Cl2, and CF3Cl

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A complex optical model potential modified by the concept of bonded atom, which takes into consideration the overlapping effect of electron clouds between two atoms in a molecule, is employed to calculate the total cross sections (TCSs) for electrons scattering from several molecules (CF4, CCl4, CFCl3, CF2 Cl2, and CF3 Cl) over an incident energy range 30 ~ 5000 eV using the additivity rule model at Hartree-Fock level. The quantitative TCSs are compared with those obtained by experiments and other theories wherever available, and good agreement is obtained above 100 eV.It is shown that the modified potential can successfully calculate the TCSs of electron-molecule scattering over a wide energy range, especially at lower energies.

  16. Potential groundwater age tracer found: Halon-1301 (CF3Br), as previously identified as CFC-13 (CF3Cl)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Monique; van der Raaij, Rob; Morgenstern, Uwe; Jackson, Bethanna

    2014-09-01

    Groundwater dating using anthropogenic and natural tracer substances is a powerful tool for understanding groundwater dynamics for improved management of groundwater resources. Due to limitations in individual dating methods, often multiple tracers are used to reduce ambiguities. It is commonly accepted that there is a need for further complementary age tracers, in addition to current ones (e.g., tritium, SF6, and CFCs). We propose a potential new groundwater age tracer, Halon-1301 (CF3Br), which can easily be determined using gas chromatography with an attached electron capture detector (GC/ECD) developed by Busenberg and Plummer (2008). Its peak was noted by Busenberg and Plummer (2008), but they believed it to be CFC-13 (CF3Cl) at that time. We performed rigorous tests on gases containing or excluding Halon-1301 and CFC-13 and modern water samples and concluded that the two compounds have extremely similar retention times. Additionally, we found that the ECD response of CFC-13 is far too low to be detected in groundwater or air using standard volumes and sampling techniques. However, the peak areas and concentrations Busenberg and Plummer (2008) reported are in line with what would be expected for Halon-1301. Thus, we are confident that the peak formerly identified as CFC-13 is actually Halon-1301. Busenberg agrees with our findings. We further suggest that Halon-1301 has potential as a (complementary) age tracer, due to its established atmospheric history, and could hypothetically be used to date groundwater recharged in the 1970s or onward. We discuss known relevant properties, such as solubility and stability of Halon-1301 in the context of how these effect its potential application as a groundwater age tracer. Some open questions remain concerning how conservative Halon-1301 is—is it subject to degradation, retardation, and/or local contamination in groundwater. We are confident that Halon-1301 possesses important tracer relevant properties, but further

  17. Atmospheric chemistry of CH3O(CF2CF2O)(n)CH3 (n=1-3): Kinetics and mechanism of oxidation initiated by Cl atoms and OH radicals, IR spectra, and global warmin potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads Peter Sulbæk; Hurley, MD; Wallington, TJ

    2004-01-01

    Smog chambers equipped with FTIR spectrometers were used to study the Cl atom and OH radical initiated oxidation of CH3O(CF2CF2O)(n)CH3 (n = 1-3) in 720 +/- 20 Torr of air at 296 +/- 3 K. Relative rate techniques were used to measure k(Cl + CH3O(CF2CF2O)(n)CH3) (3.7 +/- 10.7) x 10(-13) and k(OH +...

  18. Infrared spectra of CF(2)=CHD and CF(2)=CD(2): scaled quantum-chemical force fields and an equilibrium structure for 1,1-difluoroethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKean, Donald C; Law, Mark M; Groner, Peter; Conrad, Andrew R; Tubergen, Michael J; Feller, David; Moore, Michael C; Craig, Norman C

    2010-09-02

    Infrared (IR) spectra in the gas phase are reported for CF(2)=CHD and CF(2)=CD(2) in the region 350-4000 cm(-1). Ab initio calculations of an harmonic force-field and anharmonicity constants have been made with an MP2/aug-cc-pVTZ model. These enable a number of Fermi resonances in each species to be analyzed and a complete set of "observed" harmonic frequencies to be derived. The latter are combined with similar data for CF(2)=CH(2) in a scaling of the model harmonic force field to both anharmonic and harmonic frequencies. Inspection of the scale factors reveals minor defects of the model, evident in the out-of-plane wagging modes and in the CF stretch/CF stretch interaction force constant. Fermi resonance treatments involved in all isotopomers studied are compatible with the overall force-field refinement results. The treatment leaves a small anomaly in the (13)C shift on nu(1). Improved microwave spectra are reported for five isotopic species, and a semiexperimental equilibrium structure for F(2)C=CH(2) is determined and compared favorably with the structure obtained from new high-level ab initio calculations. Centrifugal distortion constants are predicted for the five isotopic species, and those for F(2)C=CH(2) are compared with values fit to microwave spectra.

  19. Absolute number density and kinetic analysis of CF, CF{sub 2} and C{sub 2}F{sub 4} molecules in pulsed CF{sub 4}/H{sub 2} rf plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepanov, Sergey

    2010-04-26

    Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy in the mid InfraRed spectral range (IR-TDLAS) has been applied to investigate the behaviour of CF, CF{sub 2} and C{sub 2}F{sub 4} species produced in pulsed CF{sub 4}/H{sub 2} capacitively coupled radio frequency plasmas (13.56 MHz CCP). This experimental technique was shown to be suitable for temporally resolved measurements of the absolute number density of the target molecules in the studied fluorocarbon discharges. The temporal resolution of about 20..40 ms typically achieved in the standard data acquisition mode (''stream mode'') was sufficient for the real-time measurements of CF{sub 2} and C{sub 2}F{sub 4}, but not of CF whose kinetics was observed to be much faster. Therefore, a more sophisticated approach (''burst mode'') providing a temporal resolution of 0.94 ms was established and successfully applied to CF density measurements. In order to enable the TDLAS measurements of the target species, preliminary investigations on their spectroscopic data had been carried out. In particular, pure C{sub 2}F{sub 4} has been produced in laboratory by means of vacuum thermal decomposition (pyrolysis) of polytetrafluoroethylene and used as a reference gas. Therefore, an absorption structure consisting of several overlapping C{sub 2}F{sub 4} lines around 1337.11 cm{sup -1} was selected and carefully calibrated, which provided the first absolute measurements of the species by means of the applied experimental technique. The absolute number density traces measured for CF, CF{sub 2} and C{sub 2}F{sub 4} in the studied pulsed plasmas were then analysed, in which two differential balance equations were proposed for each of the species to describe their behaviour during both ''plasma on'' and ''plasma off'' phases. Analytical solutions of the balance equations were used to fit the experimental data and hence to deduce important information on the

  20. The influence of Cu, Al, or Fe on the insulating capacity of CF3I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Song; Cressault, Yann; Zhang, Xiaoxing; Teulet, Philippe

    2016-12-01

    SF6 is widely used in electrical equipment as an insulating medium. However, SF6 is a serious greenhouse gas. CF3I is considered as one of its potential alternatives. This study verifies whether free metal particle (Cu, Al, or Fe) defects adversely affect CF3I insulation and investigates the incidence from different types and numbers of metal particles. This study is also devoted to calculating specific heat at constant pressure and electrical conductivity of CF3I-metal mixtures. The calculation results prove that with the increase of metal ions, temperature rises faster in the CF3I-Cu plasma or in the CF3I-Fe plasma than in the CF3I plasma without metal absorbing the same energy. The fast development of ionization can promote the increase of free electrons and the rise of electric conductivity. On the basis of the experiments and theoretical analysis, the influence of Cu and Al on the insulating capacity of CF3I is greater than that of Fe.

  1. Isotopic yield in cold binary fission of even-even $^{244-258}$Cf isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Santhosh, K P; Krishnan, Sreejith

    2016-01-01

    The cold binary fission of even-even 244-258Cf isotopes has been studied by taking the interacting barrier as the sum of Coulomb and proximity potential. The favorable fragment combinations are obtained from the cold valley plot (plot of driving potential vs. mass number of fragments) and by calculating the yield for charge minimized fragments. It is found that highest yield for 244,246,248Cf isotopes are for the fragments with isotope of Pb (Z=82) as one fragment, whereas for 250Cf and 252Cf isotopes the highest yield is for the fragments with isotope of Hg (Z=80) as one fragment. In the case of 254,256,258Cf isotopes the highest yield is for the fragments with Sn (Z=50) as one fragment. Thus, the fragment combinations with maximum yield reveal the role of doubly magic and near doubly magic nuclei in binary fission. It is found that asymmetric splitting is favoured for Cf isotopes with mass number A 252. In the case of Cf isotope with A=252, there is an equal probability for asymmetric and symmetric splitti...

  2. Structure of Al-CF composites obtained by infiltration methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dolata-Grosz

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The structure of the composites obtained in infiltration processes 2D and 3D carbon preform by liquid Al alloy have been presented in thispaper. An aluminum alloy with silicon and manganese AlSi9Mn (trimal 37-TR37 was applied in the researches. As the reinforcementused carbon perform prepared with various protective barriers such as the nickel coating, the coating of silicon carbide and pyrolyticcarbon coating. Carbon preforms was prepared at the Institute for Lightweight Structures and Polymer Technology (ILK TU Dresden andat the Institute of Technology and Ceramic Systems (Fraunhofer-IKTS. The process of infiltration of carbon perform by liquid aluminiumalloy was carried out using a pressure-vacuum infiltration on the Degussa press and gas-pressure infiltration (GPI in an autoclavedesigned and built at the Department of Materials Technology at the Silesian University of Technology. The obtained composites werecharacterized by a regular shape, with no surface casting defects. The best connection of components was observed in AlSi9Mn/Cf(Nicomposite, obtained by gas-pressure infiltration method (GPI. On metallographic specimens, good interface between fibres and thealuminium matrix were observed. The obtained research results justify the application of nickel coatings on the fibres. During the failurecrack propagated across fiber. There was no presence of aluminum carbide on the fiber-matrix. It can be assumed that the composite willbe characterized by the good mechanical properties. However, this requires further experimental verification planned in the next stage of research, in the project realized within the DFG program: "3D textile reinforced aluminium matrix composites for complex loadingsituations in lightweight automobile and machine parts".

  3. Fractographic and rheological characterizations of CF/PP-PE-copolymer composites tested in tensile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Helena da Silva Cirilo

    Full Text Available Abstract This work shows the fractographic study of fractured surfaces resulted from tensile tests of thermoplastic composites based on poly(propylene-co-ethylene (PP-PE and modified PP-PE copolymers reinforced with continuous carbon fibers (CF. The PP-PE matrix was modified with two agents called AM1 (based on maleic anhydride and AM2 (containing an elastomeric agent, respectively. Three different laminates - CF/PP-PE, CF/PP-PE(AM1 and CF/PP-PE(AM2 - were manufactured. The best tensile strength and elastic modulus results were determined for the CF/PP-PE(AM1 laminate (507.6 ± 11.8 MPa and 54.7 ± 2.4 GPa, respectively. These results show that the AM1 agent contributed to increase the physicochemical interaction between the CF and the PP-PE matrix. This condition provided a better loading transfer from matrix to the reinforcement. Scanning electron microscopy analyses of the fracture surfaces show the fractographic aspects of the samples and allow evaluating the fiber/matrix-interfacial adhesion. Poor adhesion is observed for the CF/PP-PE and CF/PP-PE(AM2 laminates with the presence of fiber impressions on the polymer rich regions and fiber surfaces totally unprotected of polymer matrix. On the other side, a more consistent adhesion is observed for the CF/PP-PE(AM1 laminate. This result is in agreement with the tensile test data and show the presence of a good interaction between the laminate constituents. The correlation of the mechanical and fractographic results with the curves of complex viscosity versus temperature of the studied polymer matrices shows that the matrix viscosity did not affect the wettability of the reinforcement.

  4. Synthesis and Characterization of Hybrid CF/MWCNTS/Epoxy Resin Composite System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouda, Hany; Guo, Lin; Yue, Yonghai; Chen, Ke; Elsharkawy, Karim

    2017-07-01

    In the present investigation, two methods were used for addition multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTS) into carbon fiber (CF)/epoxy resin composite system. The mechanical properties of the prepared samples were compared to show the best method for addition of MWCNTS from point of view of mechanical properties. The introduction of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) into fiber reinforced polymer composites has been achieved mainly via two routes: mixing CNTs entirely throughout the matrix (matrix modification) or attaching CNTs onto reinforcing fibers (interface modification). In all previous references the addition of CNTs occur through one route from the two routes but in this research, we introduced MWCNTS into CF/epoxy resin composite through the two routes at the same time. Three CF composite samples were prepared CF/epoxy resin composite (C1), CF/1wt% MWCNTS /epoxy resin composite (C2) in which MWCNTS added via one route (epoxy resin system) and the third sample was CF/1wt% MWCNTS / epoxy resin composite (C3) in which MWCNTS added via two routes (epoxy resin and CF fabric). The result shows that the mechanical properties of C3>C2>C1, for example, the flexural strength of C3 higher than C2 by 19% and C2 higher than C1 by 51% respectively. This is because addition MWCNTS via two routes increase the ability of good mixing of CNTS with epoxy resin and good dispersion of CNTs into the CF fabric surface and this leads to improve the interface bonding between the CF and epoxy so improve the mechanical properties.

  5. Super-hydrophobicity and oleophobicity of silicone rubber modified by CF 4 radio frequency plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Song-Hua; Gao, Li-Hua; Zhou, Ke-Sheng

    2011-03-01

    Owing to excellent electric properties, silicone rubber (SIR) has been widely employed in outdoor insulator. For further improving its hydrophobicity and service life, the SIR samples are treated by CF 4 radio frequency (RF) capacitively coupled plasma. The hydrophobic and oleophobic properties are characterized by static contact angle method. The surface morphology of modified SIR is observed by atom force microscope (AFM). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is used to test the variation of the functional groups on the SIR surface due to the treatment by CF 4 plasma. The results indicate that the static contact angle of SIR surface is improved from 100.7° to 150.2° via the CF 4 plasma modification, and the super-hydrophobic surface of modified SIR, which the corresponding static contact angle is 150.2°, appears at RF power of 200 W for a 5 min treatment time. It is found that the super-hydrophobic surface ascribes to the coaction of the increase of roughness created by the ablation action and the formation of [-SiF x(CH 3) 2- x-O-] n ( x = 1, 2) structure produced by F atoms replacement methyl groups reaction, more importantly, the formation of [-SiF 2-O-] n structure is the major factor for super-hydrophobic surface, and it is different from the previous studies, which proposed the fluorocarbon species such as C-F, C-F 2, C-F 3, CF-CF n, and C-CF n, were largely introduced to the polymer surface and responsible for the formation of low surface energy.

  6. Full Space Vectors Modulation for Nine-Switch Converters Including CF & DF Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dehghan Dehnavi, Seyed Mohammad; Mohamadian, Mustafa; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2010-01-01

    Recently, nine-switch inverter was presented as dual output inverter. Two constant frequency (CF) and different frequency (DF) modes are defined for nine-switch inverter. However CF mode is more interesting because reasonable rating. Several switching methods have been presented for nine switch...... converter. As a space vector modulation for DF mode has already been proposed by authors. This paper proposes a full space vector modulation (SVM) for both CF and DF modes. Also practical methods are presented for SVM proposed. In addition a special SVM is proposed that offers minimum total harmonic...... distortion (THD) in DF mode. The performance of the proposed SVM is verified by simulation results....

  7. Franck-Condon factors using supervised artificial neural networks. I. The CF+ cation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, Lourdes; Amero, José M; Vazquez, Gabriel J; Palma, Alejandro

    2014-06-01

    Several studies of the electronic and vibrational structure of CF(+) have been performed since this molecule was first discovered to occur in the interstellar medium, and even before that. However, researchers have paid little attention to calculating its Franck-Condon factors (FCFs), which can aid the identification of this molecule through comparison with the observed intensity spectrum. In this work, an analysis of all of the potential energy curves of CF(+) that were candidates for this kind of calculation was undertaken. The Franck-Condon factors of CF(+) were calculated using a supervised neural network with two layers and a variable learning rate.

  8. Complete mitochondrial genomes of two brown frogs, Rana dybowskii and Rana cf. chensinensis (Anura: Ranidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiao; Lei, Guangchun; Fu, Cuizhang

    2016-01-01

    We first determined complete mitochondrial genomes of Rana dybowskii and Rana cf. chensinensis (Anura: Ranidae). The mitogenomic lengths of R. dybowskii and R. cf. chensinensis were 18,864 and 18,808 bp, respectively. The two mitogenomes have similar gene compositions including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes and a control region. Rana dybowskii and R. cf. chensinensis mitogenomes displayed same gene order arrangements and similar base compositions with an A + T bias. Mitogenomic data of the two species contributed to provide molecular marker for their conservative genetics and clarified their phylogenetic position under mitogenome-based phylogeny of the genus Rana.

  9. Shielding design studies for a neutron irradiator system based on a 252Cf source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, A X; Crispim, V R

    2001-01-01

    This study aims to investigate a shielding design against neutrons and gamma rays from a source of 252Cf, using Monte Carlo simulation. The shielding materials studied were borated polyethylene, borated-lead polyethylene and stainless steel. The Monte Carlo code MCNP4B was used to design shielding for 252Cf based neutron irradiator systems. By normalising the dose equivalent rate values presented to the neutron production rate of the source, the resulting calculations are independent of the intensity of the actual 252Cf source. The results show that the total dose equivalent rates were reduced significantly by the shielding system optimisation.

  10. Deformation effects in the alpha accompanied cold ternary fission of even-even 244-260Cf isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhosh, K. P.; Krishnan, Sreejith

    2016-04-01

    Within the unified ternary fission model (UTFM), the alpha accompanied ternary fission of even-even 244-260Cf isotopes has been studied by taking the interacting barrier as the sum of Coulomb and proximity potential. For the alpha accompanied ternary fission of the 244Cf isotope, the highest yield is obtained for the fragment combination 108Ru + 4He + 132Te, which contains the near doubly magic nucleus 132Te ( N = 80, Z = 52). In the case of 246Cf and 248Cf isotopes, the highest yield is obtained for the fragment combinations with the near doubly magic nucleus 134Te ( N = 82, Z = 52) as the heaviest fragment. The highest yield obtained for 250Cf, 252Cf, 254Cf, 256Cf, 258Cf and 260Cf isotopes is for the fragment combination with the doubly magic nucleus 132Sn ( N = 82), Z = 50 as the heaviest fragment. We have included the effect of deformation and orientation of fragments and this has revealed that in addition to the closed shell effect, ground-state deformation also plays an important role in the calculation of the relative yield of favorable fragment combinations. The computed isotopic yields for the alpha accompanied ternary fission of the 252Cf isotope are found to be in agreement with the experimental data. The emission probability and kinetic energy of the long-range alpha particle is calculated for the various isotopes of Cf and are found to be in good agreement with the experimental data.

  11. Role of excited CF3CFHO radicals in the atmospheric chemistry of HFC-134a

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallington, T.J.; Hurley, M.D.; Fracheboud, J.M.;

    1996-01-01

    CFHO* radicals limits the formation of CF3C(O)F and hence CF3COOH in the atmospheric degradation of HFC-134a. We estimate that the CF3COOH yield from atmospheric oxidation of HFC-134a is 7-20%. Vibrationally excited alkoxy radicals may play an important role in the atmospheric chemistry of other...

  12. TEQC与CF2PS在BDS数据预处理中的应用%Application of TEQC and CF2PS in BDS Data Pre-Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    党金涛; 李建文; 黄海; 罗璠

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the advantages and disadvantages of TEQC and CF2PS ap-plied in the pre-processing of the BDS observational data,and describes the principle and meth-od of TEQC and CF2PS in quality check,data edit and file plot.For poor human-computer in-teraction and slow manual operation of TEQC and CF2PS,the program for the pre-processing of the BDS observational data is wrote,and the functions is actualied of batch processing and graph visualization.Finally,combined with an practical application example,the basic approach of BDS data pre-processing is researched,and the results show that the data quality is improved greatly.%分析了利用 TEQC和 CF2PS进行 BDS观测数据预处理的优缺点,介绍了 TE-QC和CF2PS在质量检查、数据编辑和文件绘图中的原理与方法。针对 TEQC和 CF2PS人机交互性差和手动操作慢的缺点,编写了 BDS观测数据预处理软件,实现了批处理和图形可视化的功能。最后结合实例,探讨了数据预处理的基本思路,结果表明,经过预处理后的数据质量得到了较大提高。

  13. Development of Molecular Marker Linked to Cf-10 Gene Using SSR and AFLP Method in Tomato

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ning; Jiang Jing-bin; Li Jing-fu; Xu Xiang-yang

    2012-01-01

    The leaf mould resistance gene Cf-10 on tomato confered resistant or immune to all prevalent physiological races of Cladosporium fulvum presented in three northeastern provinces of China in inoculation test. In order to better utilize Cf-10 gene in a marker-assisted selection program and to permit the pyramiding of one or several resistance genes in a cultivar, tightly linked SSR and AFLP markers were obtained by the bulked segregant analysis method. One SSR marker and three AFLP markers were identified linked to Cf-10 gene, with the distance of 9.73, 5.8, 8.5, and 10.6 cM, respectively. These markers will facilitate the selection of resistant tomato germplasm containing Cf-10 gene.

  14. The clinical studies on the cased of side effect of CF Herbal Acupuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kye-Sung Kang

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : This study was performed to examine the patterns and to prevent the side effects of CF Herbal Acupuncture treatment Methods : We observed 10 patients who complained the side effects of Herbal acupuncture CF and 2 healthy men for the sake of examine the cause from the August 17 to 24, 2001. Results 1. All of the patients complained severe pain, redish, and edema on the side of injections 2. We were able to witness decrease in pain, redish, and edema, after 2days of injection. After 4days, we were unable to any side effects. 3. According to the clinical studies, we came to determine that the CF herbal abstract which caused the side effects were manufactured between 4 to 13 days, August 4. We assume these side effects were caused by minute quantity of toxin remaining in the screw pressor mixed with the CF herbal abstract.

  15. ANALYSIS USING DATA FRDNE PART CF THE l\\llGERillthl

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ANALYSIS USING DATA FRDNE PART CF THE l\\llGERillthl. BASEMENT ... 2670 kgrn“ used for average crustal density. Further ... Nigeria Basement Complex is derived using the .... for the Bouguer computation, and this is also different from ...

  16. Comprehensive rotational spectroscopy of the newly identified atmospheric ozone depleter CF3CH2Cl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uriarte, Iciar; Kisiel, Zbigniew; Białkowska-Jaworska, Ewa; Pszczółkowski, Lech; Ecija, Patricia; Basterretxea, Francisco J.; Cocinero, Emilio J.

    2017-07-01

    The pure rotational spectrum of CF3CH2Cl (1-choro-2,2,2-trifluoroethane, HCFC-133a) was investigated at 8-18 GHz in supersonic expansion with chirped pulse and cavity rotational spectroscopy, and at 94-309 GHz with broadband millimetre wave spectroscopy. Spectroscopic constants for the two principal isotopic species have been considerably updated from global fits over extensive data sets, numbering close to 3000 lines for the ground state of CF3CH235 Cl and 1800 lines for CF3CH237 Cl. Four different 13 C containing isotopologues have been assigned, as well as several new low lying vibrational states. The new measurements have been augmented with anharmonic force field calculations in an evaluation of the semi-experimental equilibrium geometry for CF3CH2Cl.

  17. PTC/NTC Behavior of PVDF Composites Filled with GF and CF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xin-lei; ZHANG Guo; LI Ji-xin; LI Zhuo-shi; LIU Zhan-fang; LIU Xiu-qi

    2008-01-01

    Conductive polyvinylidene fluoride(PVDF) matrix composites filled with graphited fiber(GF) or carbon fiber(CF) were prepared by the melt-mixing method.The breakage and length distribution of the fibers in the polymer matrix were studied by scanning electron microscope(SEM) and optical microscope(OM) observations,respectively.The differences in the positive temperature coefficient(PTC) effects of the composites were mainly attributed to inter-fiber contact ability.The elimination of the negative temperature coefficient(NTC) effect for CF/PVDF composite was because of an increase in the viscosity of the polymer matrix.With the same filler content,CF could be more effective,to eliminate the NTC effect when compared with GF.Addition of 2% CF(mass fraction) in the PVDF composite with 7% GF(mass fraction) could effectively eliminate the NTC phenomenon of the composite.

  18. Thinning and functionalization of few-layer graphene sheets by CF4 plasma treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Chao

    2012-05-24

    Structural changes of few-layer graphene sheets induced by CF4 plasma treatment are studied by optical microscopy and Raman spectroscopy, together with theoretical simulation. Experimental results suggest a thickness reduction of few-layer graphene sheets subjected to prolonged CF4 plasma treatment while plasma treatment with short time only leads to fluorine functionalization on the surface layer by formation of covalent bonds. Raman spectra reveal an increase in disorder by physical disruption of the graphene lattice as well as functionalization during the plasma treatment. The F/CF3 adsorption and the lattice distortion produced are proved by theoretical simulation using density functional theory, which also predicts p-type doping and Dirac cone splitting in CF4 plasma-treated graphene sheets that may have potential in future graphene-based micro/nanodevices.

  19. Cyclocarya cf. paliurus (Batal.) Iljinskaja (Juglandaceae) from the Hunchun Formation (Eocene), Jilin Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tong-Xing SUN; Albert G. ABLAEV; Yu-Fei WANG; Cheng-Sen LI

    2005-01-01

    The leaflet architecture of Cyclocarya cf. paliurus (Batal.) Iljinskaja from the Hunchun Formation (Middle Eocene) shows similarity to that of modern C. paliurus (Batal.) Iljinskaja and the specimen is the oldest fossil record in Europe and Asia. The distributions of C. cf. paliurus and other fossil records,such as Glyptostrobus, Metasequoia, Nyssa, and Liquidambar, in Hunchun flora show that it would have been a warmer-temperature to subtropical climate in Hunchun District during the Eocene period.

  20. Aggregates of mutant CFTR fragments in airway epithelial cells of CF lungs: new pathologic observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Kai; Karp, Philip H; Ackerley, Cameron; Zabner, Joseph; Keshavjee, Shaf; Cutz, Ernest; Yeger, Herman

    2015-03-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by a mutation in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene resulting in a loss of Cl(-) channel function, disrupting ion and fluid homeostasis, leading to severe lung disease with airway obstruction due to mucus plugging and inflammation. The most common CFTR mutation, F508del, occurs in 90% of patients causing the mutant CFTR protein to misfold and trigger an endoplasmic reticulum based recycling response. Despite extensive research into the pathobiology of CF lung disease, little attention has been paid to the cellular changes accounting for the pathogenesis of CF lung disease. Here we report a novel finding of intracellular retention and accumulation of a cleaved fragment of F508del CFTR in concert with autophagic like phagolysosomes in the airway epithelium of patients with F508del CFTR. Aggregates consisting of poly-ubiquitinylated fragments of only the N-terminal domain of F508del CFTR but not the full-length molecule accumulate to appreciable levels. Importantly, these undegraded intracytoplasmic aggregates representing the NT-NBD1 domain of F508del CFTR were found in ciliated, in basal, and in pulmonary neuroendocrine cells. Aggregates were found in both native lung tissues and ex-vivo primary cultures of bronchial epithelial cells from CF donors, but not in normal control lungs. Our findings present a new, heretofore, unrecognized innate CF gene related cell defect and a potential contributing factor to the pathogenesis of CF lung disease. Mutant CFTR intracytoplasmic aggregates could be analogous to the accumulation of misfolded proteins in other degenerative disorders and in pulmonary "conformational protein-associated" diseases. Consequently, potential alterations to the functional integrity of airway epithelium and regenerative capacity may represent a critical new element in the pathogenesis of CF lung disease.

  1. Ostreopsis cf. ovata dynamics in the NW Mediterranean Sea in relation to biotic and abiotic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnicer, Olga; Guallar, Carles; Andree, Karl B; Diogène, Jorge; Fernández-Tejedor, Margarita

    2015-11-01

    An expansion of the distribution of Ostreopsis cf. ovata, a dinoflagellate which produces palytoxin-like compounds, has been reported in recent years. Economical and social interests are affected by blooms, as they are responsible for respiratory and skin problems in humans and may cause damage to marine organisms. In order to identify the most influential environmental factors that trigger proliferations of O. cf. ovata in the area of the adjacent shallow rocky coast of the Ebro Delta (NW Mediterranean Sea) a three-year survey was performed on the metaphytic microalgae community growing on the macrophytes Jania rubens and Corallina elongata. Small-size diatoms were more abundant than dinoflagellates; O. cf. ovata was identified as the only species present from the genus. Seawater temperature was the primary driver defining the ecological niche of O. cf. ovata. Freshwater and groundwater fluxes were more pronounced in southern than in northern sites, which may have resulted in a distinct O. cf. ovata spatial distribution, with the highest records of abundance and more frequent blooms in the north. In consequence, negative correlations between the abundance of O. cf. ovata and nitrate concentrations and significant positive correlation with salinity were observed. The temporal pattern of O. cf. ovata dynamics from mid-July to early-November is probably due to the fact that this species is observed only above a certain threshold temperature of seawater. Metaphytic cells of O. cf. ovata were smaller in the northern site than in the south, possibly as a result of an increase in cell division, coinciding with higher abundance, and this could be an indicator of favorable conditions. Toxicity in planktonic cells was negatively correlated with cell abundance in the water column, achieving maximum concentrations of 25pg. PLTX eqcell(-1). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Determination of the subcriticality level using the {sup 252}Cf source-detector method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeten, P. [SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Lafuente, A., E-mail: anlafuente@etsii.upm.e [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Janssens, J.; Kochetkov, A. [SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Pazsit, I. [Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Goteborg (Sweden); Van Grieken, G.; Van den Eynde, G. [SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2010-05-15

    Measurement and monitoring of reactivity in a subcritical state, e.g. during the loading of a power reactor, has a clear safety relevance. The methods currently available for the measurement of k{sub eff} in stationary subcritical conditions should be improved as they refer to the critical state. This is also very important in the framework of ADS (accelerator driven systems) where the measurement of a subcritical level without knowledge of the critical state is looked for. An alternative way to achieve this is by mean of the {sup 252}Cf source-detector method. The method makes use of three detectors inserted in the reactor: two 'ordinary' neutron detectors and one {sup 252}Cf source-detector which contains a small amount of {sup 252}Cf that introduces neutrons in the system through spontaneous fission. By observing fissions through the detection system and correlating the signals of the three detectors, the reactivity rho (and hence the multiplication factor k) can be determined. Before the actual measurements took place, a suitable data acquisition system was realized in order to process the signals and compute the auto and cross power spectral densities. The measurements were then performed in the VENUS reactor, using the {sup 252}Cf source-detector and two BF{sub 3} neutron detectors. The multiplication factor was determined using the Cf source method and compared with measurements using other methods and with computational results (Monte Carlo simulations). The Cf method was benchmarked at a UOX core to other experimental methods that used the critical state as reference and to calculations. Afterwards, the Cf source technique was analyzed in a MOX core to study the possible impact of a significant intrinsic source on the results. This benchmarking gives the possibility to validate the Cf method as a reliable technique for the measurement of subcritical levels in steady state and for cores with an intrinsic source like MOX or burnt fuel cores.

  3. Copper-catalyzed intermolecular trifluoromethylazidation of alkenes: convenient access to CF3 -containing alkyl azides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Qi, Xiaoxu; Liang, Zhaoli; Chen, Pinhong; Liu, Guosheng

    2014-02-10

    A novel copper-catalyzed intermolecular trifluoromethylazidation of alkenes has been developed under mild reaction conditions. A variety of CF3 -containing organoazides were directly synthesized from a wide range of olefins, including activated and unactivated alkenes, and the resulting products can be easily transformed into the corresponding CF3 -containing amine derivatives. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Inherited, selective hypoanalgesic response to cytisine in the tail-flick test in CF-1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seale, T W; Nael, R; Singh, S; Basmadjian, G

    1998-01-26

    This study extends the pharmacological characterization of the genotype- dependent difference in analgesic responsiveness to neuronal nicotinic agonists between CD-1 and CF-1 strains of mice. Acute analgesic potency of cytisine measured by the tail-flick assay differed by > 3200-fold between CD-1 and CF-1 outbred strains of mice. Analgesic non-responsiveness of the CF-1 strain was pharmacologically selective. Morphine produced a dose-dependent analgesic response of similar magnitude in both strains. Other pharmacological actions of cytisine, including inhibition of locomotor activity, induction of seizures and lethality, did not differ between these strains. Hyporesponsiveness to the analgesic action of both nicotine and cytisine was observed in two different CF-1 sublines. Biodistribution of [3H]cytisine in blood did not differ between the CF-1 and CD-1 strains. These pharmacological characteristics indicate that the CD-1-CF-1 strain pair provides a useful pharmacogenetic tool for investigating the mechanistic bases of analgesia induced by nicotinic cholinergic agonists.

  5. Atmospheric chemistry of Z- and E-CF3CH=CHCF3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerstrøm, Freja From; Andersen, Simone Thirstrup; Sølling, Theis Ivan

    2017-01-01

    , length as m-dash]CHCF3) = (2.59 ± 0.47) × 10−11, k(Cl + E-CF3CH[double bond, length as m-dash]CHCF3) = (1.36 ± 0.27) × 10−11, k(OH + Z-CF3CH[double bond, length as m-dash]CHCF3) = (4.21 ± 0.62) × 10−13, k(OH + E-CF3CH[double bond, length as m-dash]CHCF3) = (1.72 ± 0.42) × 10−13, k(OD + Z-CF3CH...... radicals. The atmospheric lifetimes of Z- and E-CF3CH[double bond, length as m-dash]CHCF3 are estimated as 27 and 67 days, respectively. IR absorption cross sections are reported and the global warming potentials (GWPs) of Z- and E-CF3CH[double bond, length as m-dash]CHCF3 for the 100 year time horizon...

  6. Two-dimensional evaluation of 3D needled Cf/SiC composite fiber bundle surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jinhua; Lin, Bin; Cao, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Fang, Sheng

    2015-11-01

    The variations of fiber bundle surface microstructure have direct influence on the material performance, especially the friction and wear properties. Therefore, fiber bundle is the smallest evaluation unit of Cf/SiC composite surface. However, due to the anisotropy and inhomogeneity of Cf/SiC composite, it is difficult to evaluate the surface characteristics. Researchers think that two-dimensional evaluation is not suitable for the composites surface assessment any more because of its complex composition and varied surface structure. In this paper, a novel method is introduced for the evaluation of 3D needled Cf/SiC composite fiber bundle surface. On the level of Cf/SiC composite fiber bundle surface, two-dimensional evaluation method is adopted, with which the fiber bundle surface quality can be quantitatively evaluated by the two-dimensional surface roughness Ra. As long as the extracted surface profiles averagely distributed on Cf/SiC composite fiber bundle surface, with appropriate sampling length and sampling number, the mean value of Ra can estimate the whole surface roughness, thus reflecting the roughness degree of surface accurately. This study not only benefits the detection of 3D needled Cf/SiC composite fiber bundle surface quality, and lays a foundation on the evaluation of material functional features in further. And it corresponds to the convenient application in engineering practice.

  7. Signal-CF: a subsite-coupled and window-fusing approach for predicting signal peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Kuo-Chen; Shen, Hong-Bin

    2007-06-01

    We have developed an automated method for predicting signal peptide sequences and their cleavage sites in eukaryotic and bacterial protein sequences. It is a 2-layer predictor: the 1st-layer prediction engine is to identify a query protein as secretory or non-secretory; if it is secretory, the process will be automatically continued with the 2nd-layer prediction engine to further identify the cleavage site of its signal peptide. The new predictor is called Signal-CF, where C stands for "coupling" and F for "fusion", meaning that Signal-CF is formed by incorporating the subsite coupling effects along a protein sequence and by fusing the results derived from many width-different scaled windows through a voting system. Signal-CF is featured by high success prediction rates with short computational time, and hence is particularly useful for the analysis of large-scale datasets. Signal-CF is freely available as a web-server at http://chou.med.harvard.edu/bioinf/Signal-CF/ or http://202.120.37.186/bioinf/Signal-CF/.

  8. Calculated neutron air kerma strength conversion factors for a generically encapsulated Cf-252 brachytherapy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivard, M.J. E-mail: mrivard@lifespan.org; Sganga, J.K.; D' Errico, F.; Tsai, J-S.; Ulin, K.; Engler, M.J

    2002-01-01

    The {sup 252}Cf neutron air kerma strength conversion factor (S{sub KN}/m{sub Cf}) is a parameter needed to convert the radionuclide mass ({mu}g) provided by Oak Ridge National Laboratory into neutron air kerma strength required by modern clinical brachytherapy dosimetry formalisms indicated by Task Group No. 43 of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM). The impact of currently used or proposed encapsulating materials for {sup 252}Cf brachytherapy sources (Pt/Ir-10%, 316L stainless steel, nitinol, and Zircaloy-2) on S{sub KN}/m{sub Cf} was calculated and results were fit to linear equations. Only for substantial encapsulation thicknesses, did S{sub KN}/m{sub Cf} decrease, while the impact of source encapsulation composition is increasingly negligible as Z increases. These findings are explained on the basis of the non-relativistic kinematics governing the majority of {sup 252}Cf neutron interactions. Neutron kerma and energy spectra results calculated herein using MCNP were compared with results of Colvett et al. and Rivard et al.

  9. Kinetic processes for CF{sub 4} abatement of Ar/CF{sub 4}/O{sub 2} gas mixtures in ICP reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, X.; Kushner, M.J. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

    1998-12-31

    Fluorocarbon gas, such as CF{sub 4} and C{sub 2}F{sub 6}, are commonly used in the semiconductor industry for plasma etching. The use of these gases is being questioned by the semiconductor industry due to their global warming potential. For example, the global warning potential of CF{sub 4} is 100 times that of CO{sub 2}. In this paper, the authors discuss abatement strategies for fluorocarbon gases as used in low pressure inductively couple plasma etching reactors. The Hybrid Plasma Equipment Model (HPEM), a 2-dimensional simulation, is used to model the plasma zone and a downstream auxiliary plasma or burn box. As a test system, they consider Ar/CF{sub 4} as the process gas with O{sub 2} injected downstream to facilitate oxidation of the undissociated CF{sub 4}, gas phase reaction products (e.g., C{sub 2}F{sub 6}, C{sub 2}F{sub 4}) and etch product (SiF{sub 4}). They will present results of a parametric study of final emitted species for different gas mixtures, injected O{sub 2} fraction and power deposition.

  10. The difluoromethylene (CF2) group in aliphatic chains: Synthesis and conformational preference of palmitic acids and nonadecane containing CF2 groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Callejo, Ricardo; Slawin, Alexandra M Z; O'Hagan, David

    2014-01-06

    The syntheses of palmitic acids and a nonadecane are reported with CF2 groups located 1,3 or 1,4 to each other along the aliphatic chain. Specifically 8,8,10,10- and 8,8,11,11-tetrafluorohexadecanoic acids (6b and 6c) are prepared as well as the singly modified analogue 8,8-difluorohexadecanoic acid (6a). Also 8,8,11,11-tetrafluorononadecane (27) is prepared as a pure hydrocarbon containing a 1,4-di-CF2 motif. The modified palmitic acids are characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to determine melting points and phase behaviour relative to palmitic acid (62.5 °C). It emerges that 6c, with the CF2 groups placed 1,4- to each other, has a significantly higher melting point (89.9 °C) when compared to the other analogues and palmitic acid itself. It is a crystalline compound and the structure reveals an extended anti-zig-zag chain. Similarly 8,8,11,11-tetrafluorononadecane (27) adopts an extended anti-zig-zag structure. This is rationalized by dipolar relaxation between the two CF2 groups placed 1,4 to each other in the extended anti-zig-zag chain and suggests a design modification for long chain aliphatics which can introduce conformational stability.

  11. Mechanistic model of Rothia mucilaginosa adaptation toward persistence in the CF lung, based on a genome reconstructed from metagenomic data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wei Lim

    Full Text Available The impaired mucociliary clearance in individuals with Cystic Fibrosis (CF enables opportunistic pathogens to colonize CF lungs. Here we show that Rothia mucilaginosa is a common CF opportunist that was present in 83% of our patient cohort, almost as prevalent as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (89%. Sequencing of lung microbial metagenomes identified unique R. mucilaginosa strains in each patient, presumably due to evolution within the lung. The de novo assembly of a near-complete R. mucilaginosa (CF1E genome illuminated a number of potential physiological adaptations to the CF lung, including antibiotic resistance, utilization of extracellular lactate, and modification of the type I restriction-modification system. Metabolic characteristics predicted from the metagenomes suggested R. mucilaginosa have adapted to live within the microaerophilic surface of the mucus layer in CF lungs. The results also highlight the remarkable evolutionary and ecological similarities of many CF pathogens; further examination of these similarities has the potential to guide patient care and treatment.

  12. Comparison of vacuum ultra-violet emission of Ar/CF4 and Ar/CF3I capacitively coupled plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zotovich, A.; Proshina, O.; el Otell, Z.; Lopaev, D.; Rakhimova, T.; Rakhimov, A.; de Marneffe, J.-F.; Baklanov, M. R.

    2016-10-01

    Spectra in the vacuum-ultra violet range (VUV, 30 nm-200 nm) as well as in the ultra-violet(UV) and visible ranges (UV+vis, 200 nm-800 nm) were measured from Ar/CF3I and Ar/CF4 discharges. The discharges were generated in an industrial 300 mm capacitively coupled plasma source with 27 MHz radio-frequency power. It was seen that the measured spectra were strongly modified. This is mainly due to absorption, especially by CF3I, and Ar self-trapping along the line of sight, towards the detector and in the plasma itself. The estimated unabsorbed VUV spectra were revealed from the spectra of mixtures with low fluorocarbon gas content by means of normalization with unabsorbed I* emission, at 206 nm, and CF2\\ast band (1B1(0,v‧,0){{\\to}1} A1(0,{{\\text{v}}\\prime \\prime} ,0)) emission between 230 nm and 430 nm. Absolute fluences of UV CF2\\ast emission were derived using hybrid 1-dimensional (1D) particle-in-cell (PIC) Monte-Carlo (MC) model calculations. Absolute calibration of the VUV emission was performed using these calculated values from the model, which has never been done previously for real etch conditions in an industrial chamber. It was seen that the argon resonant lines play a significant role in the VUV spectra. These lines are dominant in the case of etching recipes close to the standard ones. The restored unabsorbed spectra confirm that replacement of conventional CF4 etchant gas with CF3I in low-k etching recipes leads to an increase in the overall VUV emission intensity. However, emission from Ar exhibited the most intense peaks. Damage to low-k SiCOH glasses by the estimated VUV was calculated for blanket samples with pristine k-value of 2.2. The calculations were then compared with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) data for samples exposed to the similar experimental conditions in the same reactor. It was shown that Ar emission plays the most significant role in VUV-induced damage.

  13. Sequence analysis of the DNA-repair gene rad51 in the tardigrades Milnesium cf. tardigradum, Hypsibius dujardini and Macrobiotus cf. harmsworthi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana A. Beltrán-Pardo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Tardigrades are known for being resistant to extreme conditions, including tolerance to ionising and UV radiation in both the hydrated and the dehydrated state. It is known that these factors may cause damage to DNA. It has recently been shown that single and double DNA strand breaks occur when tardigrades are maintained for a long time in the anhydrobiotic state. This may suggest that perhaps tardigrades rely on efficient DNA repair mechanisms. Among all proteins that comprise the DNA repair system, recombinases such as RecA or Rad51 have a very important function: DNA exchange activity. This enzyme is used in the homologous recombination and allows repair of the damaged strand using homologous non-damaged strands as a template. In this study, Rad51 induction was evaluated by western blot in Milnesium cf. tardigradum, after exposure to gamma radiation. The Rad51 protein was highly induced by radiation, when compared to the control. The rad51 genes were searched in three tardigrades: Milnesium cf. tardigradum, Hypsibius dujardini and Macrobiotus cf. harmsworthi. The gene sequences were obtained by preparing and sequencing transcriptome libraries for H. dujardini and M. cf. harmsworthi and designing rad51 degenerate primers specific for M. cf. tardigradum. Comparison of Rad51 putative proteins from tardigrades with other organisms showed that they are highly similar to the corresponding sequence from the nematode Trichinella spiralis. A structure-based sequence alignment from tardigrades and other organisms revealed that putative Rad51 predicted proteins from tardigrades contain the expected motifs for these important recombinases. In a cladogram tree based on this alignment, tardigrades tend to cluster together suggesting that they have selective differences in these genes that make them diverge between species. Predicted Rad51 structures from tardigrades were also compared with crystalline structure of Rad51 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These

  14. Deformation effects in the alpha accompanied cold ternary fission of even-even $^{244-260}$Cf isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Santhosh, K P

    2016-01-01

    Within the Unified ternary fission model (UTFM), the alpha accompanied ternary fission of even-even $^{244-260}$Cf isotopes has been studied by taking the interacting barrier as the sum of Coulomb and proximity potential. For the alpha accompanied ternary fission of 244^Cf isotope, the highest yield is obtained for the fragment combination 108^Ru+4^He+132^Te, which contain near doubly magic nuclei 132^Te (N=80, Z=52). In the case of 246^Cf and 248^Cf isotopes, the highest yield is obtained for the fragment combinations with near doubly magic nuclei 134^Te (N=82, Z=52) as the heavier fragment. The highest yield obtained for 250^Cf, 252^Cf, 254^Cf, 256^Cf, 258^Cf and 260^Cf isotopes is for the fragment combination with doubly magic nuclei 132^Sn (N=82, Z=50) as the heavier fragment. We have included the effect of deformation and orientation of fragments and this has revealed that in addition to closed shell effect, ground state deformation also plays an important role in the calculation of relative yield of fav...

  15. CF2 transcription factor is involved in the regulation of Mef2 RNA levels, nuclei number and muscle fiber size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arredondo, Juan J; Vivar, Jorge; Laine-Menéndez, Sara; Martínez-Morentin, Leticia; Cervera, Margarita

    2017-01-01

    CF2 and Mef2 influence a variety of developmental muscle processes at distinct stages of development. Nevertheless, the exact nature of the CF2-Mef2 relationship and its effects on muscle building remain yet to be resolved. Here, we explored the regulatory role of CF2 in the Drosophila embryo muscle formation. To address this question and not having proper null CF2 mutants we exploited loss or gain of function strategies to study the contribution of CF2 to Mef2 transcription regulation and to muscle formation. Our data point to CF2 as a factor involved in the regulation of muscle final size and/or the number of nuclei present in each muscle. This function is independent of its role as a Mef2 collaborative factor in the transcriptional regulation of muscle-structural genes. Although Mef2 expression patterns do not change, reductions or increases in parallel in CF2 and Mef2 transcript abundance were observed in interfered and overexpressed CF2 embryos. Since CF2 expression variations yield altered Mef2 expression levels but with correct spatio-temporal Mef2 expression patterns, it can be concluded that only the mechanism controlling expression levels is de-regulated. Here, it is proposed that CF2 regulates Mef2 expression through a Feedforward Loop circuit.

  16. Atmospheric chemistry of Z- and E-CF3CH[double bond, length as m-dash]CHCF3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østerstrøm, Freja F; Andersen, Simone Thirstrup; Sølling, Theis I; Nielsen, Ole John; Sulbaek Andersen, Mads P

    2016-12-21

    The atmospheric fates of Z- and E-CF3CH[double bond, length as m-dash]CHCF3 have been studied, investigating the kinetics and the products of the reactions of the two compounds with Cl atoms, OH radicals, OD radicals, and O3. FTIR smog chamber experiments measured: k(Cl + Z-CF3CH[double bond, length as m-dash]CHCF3) = (2.59 ± 0.47) × 10(-11), k(Cl + E-CF3CH[double bond, length as m-dash]CHCF3) = (1.36 ± 0.27) × 10(-11), k(OH + Z-CF3CH[double bond, length as m-dash]CHCF3) = (4.21 ± 0.62) × 10(-13), k(OH + E-CF3CH[double bond, length as m-dash]CHCF3) = (1.72 ± 0.42) × 10(-13), k(OD + Z-CF3CH[double bond, length as m-dash]CHCF3) = (6.94 ± 1.25) × 10(-13), k(OD + E-CF3CH[double bond, length as m-dash]CHCF3) = (5.61 ± 0.98) × 10(-13), k(O3 + Z-CF3CH[double bond, length as m-dash]CHCF3) = (6.25 ± 0.70) × 10(-22), and k(O3 + E-CF3CH[double bond, length as m-dash]CHCF3) = (4.14 ± 0.42) × 10(-22) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) in 700 Torr of air/N2/O2 diluents at 296 ± 2 K. E-CF3CH[double bond, length as m-dash]CHCF3 reacts with Cl atoms to give CF3CHClC(O)CF3 in a yield indistinguishable from 100%. Z-CF3CH[double bond, length as m-dash]CHCF3 reacts with Cl atoms to give (95 ± 10)% CF3CHClC(O)CF3 and (7 ± 1)% E-CF3CH[double bond, length as m-dash]CHCF3. CF3CHClC(O)CF3 reacts with Cl atoms to give the secondary product CF3C(O)Cl in a yield indistinguishable from 100%, with the observed co-products C(O)F2 and CF3O3CF3. The main atmospheric fate for Z- and E-CF3CH[double bond, length as m-dash]CHCF3 is reaction with OH radicals. The atmospheric lifetimes of Z- and E-CF3CH[double bond, length as m-dash]CHCF3 are estimated as 27 and 67 days, respectively. IR absorption cross sections are reported and the global warming potentials (GWPs) of Z- and E-CF3CH[double bond, length as m-dash]CHCF3 for the 100 year time horizon are calculated to be GWP100 = 2 and 7, respectively. This study provides a comprehensive description of the atmospheric fate and impact of Z- and E-CF

  17. Atmospheric chemistry of CF3CFHCF2OCF3 and CF3CFHCF2OCF2H: Reaction with Cl atoms and OH radicals, degradation mechanism, and global warming potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallington, TJ; Hurley, MD; Nielsen, OJ

    2004-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) smog chamber techniques were used to measure k(Cl + CF3CFHCF2OCF3) = (4.09 +/- 0.42) x 10(-17), k(OH + CF3CFHCF2OCF3) = (1.43 +/- 0.28) x 10(-15), k(Cl + CF3CFHCF2OCF2H) = (6.89 +/- 1.29) x 10(-17), and k(OH + CF3CFHCF2OCF2H) = (1.79 +/- 0.34) x 10(-15) cm(3) mol...... respectively. The 100-year time horizon global warming potentials of CF3CFHCF2OCF3 and CF3CFHCF2OCF2H relative to CO2 are 4530 and 4340. Results are discussed with respect to the atmospheric chemistry of hydrofluoroethers....

  18. Influence of cooling rate on interlaminar fracture properties of unidirectional commingled CF/PEEK composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beehag, Andrew; Ye, Lin

    1995-05-01

    The influence of cooling rates on the mechanical property profile (transverse flexure properties and modes-I and -II interlaminar fracture toughness) has been investigated for unidirectional commingled CF/PEEK composites. A laboratory hot press with a steel mould was used to process the composites at 400°C for 60 min, at an applied pressure of 1 MPa. Cooling rates from fast (quenching in oil) to slow (hot press cooling) were achieved at ambient pressure. The results indicate that different matrix morphology was found at different cooling conditions, although deconsolidation occurred in the CF/PEEK composites during cooling. When the cooling rate was shifted from slow to fast, consolidation quality of the CF/PEEK composites was improved. The resulting effect of the consolidation quality and cooling rates on the mechanical property profile of commingled CF/PEEK composites is presented. It was found that the effect of the cooling rate on the mechanical property profile of the commingled CF/PEEK composites could not be isolated from the consolidation quality.

  19. CfAIR2: Near Infrared Light Curves of 94 Type Ia Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Friedman, Andrew S; Marion, G H; Challis, Peter; Mandel, Kaisey S; Bloom, Joshua S; Modjaz, Maryam; Narayan, Gautham; Hicken, Malcolm; Foley, Ryan; Klein, Christopher R; Starr, Dan L; Morgan, Adam; Rest, Armin; Blake, Cullen H; Miller, Adam A; Falco, Emilio E; Wyatt, William F; Mink, Jessica; Skrutskie, Michael F; Kirshner, Robert P

    2014-01-01

    CfAIR2 is a large homogeneously reduced set of near-infrared (NIR) light curves for Type Ia supernovae (SN Ia) obtained with the 1.3m PAIRITEL (Peters Automated InfraRed Imaging TELescope). This data set includes 4607 measurements of 94 SN Ia and 4 additional SN Iax observed from 2005-2011 at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory on Mount Hopkins, Arizona. CfAIR2 includes JHKs photometric measurements for 88 normal and 6 spectroscopically peculiar SN Ia in the nearby universe, with a median redshift of z~0.021 for the normal SN Ia. CfAIR2 data span the range from -13 days to +127 days from maximum in the B-band. More than half of the light curves begin before the time of maximum and the coverage typically contains ~13-18 epochs of observation, depending on the filter. We present extensive tests that verify the fidelity of the CfAIR2 data pipeline, including comparison to the excellent data of the Carnegie Supernova Project. CfAIR2 contributes to a firm local anchor for supernova cosmology studies in the NIR. ...

  20. Principles of dosimetric planning in contact therapy with high-energy Cf-252 sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chekhonadskij, V.N.; Merkle, K.

    1987-11-01

    In clinical practice, some dosimetric problems of contact therapy with Cf-252 are not yet sufficiently clarified. One possibility to solve these problems is to apply the conception of total photon-equivalent energy dose. This conception serves to calculate clinical guidance values of the RBE of the Cf-252-neutron constituent for late effects in dependence on the total dose rate of the mixed radiation. The correlations indicated are valid for dose rates of 0.05 to 4 Gy/h and 4 to 1.25 . 10/sup 4/ Gy/h. On the basis of these functional correlations and taking into consideration the critical normal tissues of rectum and urinary bladder, the minimum RBE values of the tumors are indicated which allow a therapeutic effect of more than 1 in case of application of Cf-252. The formulas for the RBE dependence of the Cf-252 neutron constituent on the total doses rate permit to take into account any modifications of this value caused by varying source distances in contact therapy. It is concluded from these investigations that in oncologic patients, better results are to be expected from a treatment with high-energy Cf-252 sources than with low-energy sources, if the other treatment conditions are identical.

  1. Cardiorespiratory measurements during field tests in CF: use of an ambulatory monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Judy M; Kent, Lisa; O'Neill, Brenda; Nevill, Alan; Boyle, Lesley; Elborn, J Stuart

    2011-03-01

    Respiratory inductive plethysmography (e.g., LifeShirt) may offer in-depth study of the cardiorespiratory responses during field exercise tests. The aims of this study were to assess the reliability, discriminate validity, and responsiveness of cardiorespiratory measurements recorded by the LifeShirt during field exercise tests in adults with CF. To assess reliability and discriminate validity, participants with CF and stable lung disease and healthy participants performed the 6-Minute Walk Test (6MWT) and Modified Shuttle Test (MST) on two occasions. To assess responsiveness, participants with CF experiencing an exacerbation performed the 6MWT at the start and end of an admission for intravenous antibiotics. The LifeShirt was worn during all exercise tests. Reliability and discriminate validity were assessed in 18 participants with CF (mean (SD) age: 26 (10) years; FEV1 %predicted: 69.2 (23)%) and 18 healthy participants (age: 24 (5) years, FEV1 % predicted: 92 (8)%). There was no difference in 6MWT and MST performance between days and reliability of cardiorespiratory measures was acceptable (bias: P > 0.05; CV  0.05; CV tests in adults with CF. Reliability and discriminate validity of key cardiorespiratory measurements recorded by the LifeShirt were demonstrated. Some information on responsiveness is reported.

  2. The etiologies of non-CF bronchiectasis in childhood: a systematic review of 989 subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brower, Kelly S; Del Vecchio, Michael T; Aronoff, Stephen C

    2014-12-10

    While cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common cause of bronchiectasis in childhood, non-CF bronchiectasis is associated with a wide variety of disorders. The objective of this study was to determine the relative prevalence and specific etiologies on non-CF bronchiectasis in childhood. EMBASE, Medline, OVID Cochrane Reviews, Directory of Open Access Journals, Open Science Directory, EPSCO information services, and OAlster were searched electronically and the bibliographies of selected studies were searched manually. The search was conducted independently by 2 authors. (1) any clinical trial, observational study or cross-sectional case series of 10 or more patients with a description of the conditions associated with bronchiectasis; (2) subjects aged 21 years or younger; (3) cystic fibrosis was excluded and; (4) the diagnosis was confirmed by computed tomography of the chest. Patient number, age range, inclusion criteria, diagnostic criteria, patient source, and categorical and specific etiology. From 491 studies identified, 12 studies encompassing 989 children with non-CF bronchiectasis were selected. Sixty-three percent of the subjects had an underlying disorder. Infectious (17%), primary immunodeficiency (16%), aspiration (10%), ciliary dyskinesia (9%), congenital malformation (3%), and secondary immunodeficiency (3%) were the most common disease categories; 999 etiologies were identified. Severe pneumonia of bacterial or viral etiology and B cell defects were the most common disorders identified. The majority of children with non-CF bronchiectasis have an underlying disorder. A focused history and laboratory investigated is recommended.

  3. Time resolved measurements of the CF{sub 2} rotational temperature in pulsed fluorocarbon rf plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabriel, O; Stepanov, S; Pfafferott, M; Meichsner, J [Institute of Physics, University of Greifswald, Domstrasse 10a, D-17498, Greifswald (Germany)

    2006-11-01

    Knowledge of the absolute densities of small radicals like CF, CF{sub 2} and CF{sub 3} in fluorocarbon plasmas is essential for a fundamental understanding of plasma chemical processes and plasma surface interaction. Infrared absorption spectroscopy by means of tunable diode lasers (IR-TDLAS) was established and widely used for density measurements in the last decade. The often unknown parameter in the calculation of absolute radical densities from a measured absorption of a single line is the rotational temperature. In particular, a strong dependence of the line strength on rotational temperature has a significant influence on density calculation. In this paper we report on measurements of the CF{sub 2} rotational temperature in capacitively coupled CF{sub 4}/H{sub 2} plasmas (CCP) with rf (13.56 MHz) powers up to 200 W. Rotational temperatures in continuous and pulsed modes of the discharge were found to be between 300 and 450 K. Furthermore, first measurements of the time dependence of the rotational temperature in pulsed rf plasma are presented. The rotational temperature rises in the plasma phase within 0.1 s and goes down again to the temperature of the background gas in the plasma pause within 0.5 s. It is also shown that accurate density measurements of the radicals by means of single line absorption need correct information about the rotational temperature and careful selection of a suitable absorption line.

  4. Kinetic properties of a single nucleotide binding site on chloroplast coupling factor 1 (CF1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, S; Huchzermeyer, B

    1998-12-01

    The kinetics of nucleotide binding to spinach chloroplast coupling factor CF1 in a fully inhibited state were investigated by stopped-flow experiments using the fluorescent trinitrophenyl analogue (NO2)3Ph-ADP. The CF1 was in a state in which two of the three binding sites on the beta subunits were irreversibly blocked with ADP, Mg2+ and fluoroaluminate, while the three binding sites on the alpha subunits were occupied by nucleotides [Garin, J., Vincon, M., Gagnon, J. & Vignais, P. V. (1994) Biochemistry 33, 3772-3777)]. Thus, it was possible to characterise a single nucleotide-binding site without superimposed nucleotide exchange or binding to an additional site. (NO2)3Ph-ADP binding to the remaining site on the third beta subunit was characterised by a high dissociation rate of 15 s(-1), leading to a very low affinity (dissociation constant higher than 150 microM). Subsequent to isolation, CF1 preparations contained two endogenously bound nucleotides. Pre-loading with ATP yielded CF1 with five tightly bound nucleotides and one free nucleotide-binding site on a beta subunit. Pre-loading with ADP, however, resulted in a CF1 preparation containing four tightly bound nucleotides and two free nucleotide binding sites. One of the two free binding sites was located on a beta subunit, while the other was probably located on an alpha subunit.

  5. Tensile behavior of CF8-CPF8-304H and CF8M-CPF8M-316H stainless steel static and centrifugal castings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEnerney, J.W.; Sikka, V.K.; Booker, M.K.

    1981-10-01

    We have analyzed the tensile behavior of 11 heats of grades CF8-CPF8-304H and 13 heats of grades CF8M-CPF8M-316H static and centrifugal castings from room temperature to 650/sup 0/C. Except for anomalous conditions, the centrifugal castings exhibited uniform composition. All CPF8-304H centrifugal castings contained only radial columnar grains, but some CPF8M-316H castings had columnar, banded, or equiaxed structures. Ultimate tensile strength and total elongation were the properties in which castings showed the most inferiority to wrought material. With increasing ferrite content, 0.2% yield strength and ultimate tensile strength increased while uniform elongation, total elongation, and reduction of area decreased. Although centrifugal castings did not exhibit significant end-to-end variation in tensile behavior, the 0.2% yield strength displayed anisotropy, with axial and circumferential values being greater than radial.

  6. Kinetic analysis of the chemical processes in the decomposition of gaseous dielectrics by a non-equilibrium plasma - part 1: CF4 and CF4/O2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauerfeldt Glauco F.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerical integration of the coupled differential equations which describe a chemical reacting system and sensitivity analysis are becoming increasingly important tools in chemical kinetics. In this work, a numerical modelling analysis of the chemical processes in the gas-phase decomposition of pure CF4 and CF4/O2 mixtures, in the presence of silicon, was performed. The relative importance of individual processes was analysed and the sensitivity coefficients as well as the effect of the parameters uncertainties were determined . The results were compared with experimental data from the literature to adjust the model parameters. The main etching agent in the system is the fluorine atom. The concentrations of the main species (SiF4, CO, CO2 and COF2 depend on the composition of the mixture.

  7. Preparation of CF-1 mouse embryonic fibroblast feeder layers%CF-1小鼠胚胎成纤维细胞饲养层的制备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢海; 张志; 赵毅超; 饶小惠; 江金群; 孟镔; 艾民; 潘明新; 高毅

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mouse embryo fibroblasts as the feeder layer for growth of stem cells exhibit better effects than the circumstance without feeder layer because they can secrete some factors which can promote the growth of stem cells and inhibit the differentiation of stem cells. OBJECTIVE: To establish the optimal method for isolation and culture of CF-1 mouse embryo fibroblast feeder layer and investigate the optimal concentration of mitomycin C in inhibiting the proliferation of fibroblasts and the processing time. METHODS: Fetal mice were taken from CF-1 mice at pregnancy days 10-15. Primary fibroblasts were isolated and treated with different concentrations (5, 10, 15, 20 mg/L) of mitomycin C for different time periods (1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3 hours) to prepare feeder layers. Cell proliferation was observed. Human induced pluripotent stem cells or embryonic stem cells were cultured on mitomycin C-treated feeder layer and the growth of cell colonies was observed. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The optimal fetal age for preparing CF-1 mouse embryo fibroblast feeder layer was 13.0-14.0 days. Treatment with 10 mg mitomycin C for 2.5 hours showed optimal effects on inhibiting the proliferation of CF-1 mouse embryo fibroblasts and fibroblast feeder layer could maintain 5-7 days. Induced pluripotent stem cells and embryonic stem cells can develop into typical “bird nest”-shaped colony of stem cells after treatment with 10 mg/L mitomycin C for 2.5 hours.%背景:小鼠胚胎成纤维细胞作为干细胞生长用饲养层,优于无饲养层,它能够分泌一些既促进干细胞生长又能抑制干细胞分化的因子.目的:建立CF-1 小鼠胚胎成纤维细胞饲养层最佳的分离培养方法,分析丝裂霉素C 抑制成纤维细胞增殖的最佳浓度与时间,用于培养诱导多能性干细胞.方法:取孕10~15 d CF-1 小鼠,分离胎鼠原代成纤维细胞,经不同质量浓度(5,10,15,20 mg/L)丝裂霉素C 处理不同时间(1,1.5,2,2.5,3 h)制备饲养层,并观

  8. TEA CO2 laser-induced reaction of CH3NO2 with CF2HCl: A mechanistic study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rajesh K Vatsa; Sisir K Sarkar; Jai P Mittal

    2001-08-01

    Dissociation of nitromethane has been observed when a mixture of CF2HCl and CH3NO2 is irradiated using pulsed TEA CO2 laser at 9R (24) line (1081 cm-1), which is strongly absorbed by CF2HCl but not by CH3NO2. Under low laser fluence conditions, only nitromethane dissociates, whereas at high fluence CF2HCl also undergoes dissociation, showing that dissociation occurs via the vibrational energy transfer processes from the TEA CO2 laser-excited CF2HCl to CH3NO2. Time-resolved infrared fluorescence from vibrationally excited CF2HCl and CH3NO2 molecules as well as UV absorption of CF2 radicals are carried out to elucidate the dynamics of excitation/dissociation and the chemical reactions of the dissociation products.

  9. Photofragmentation of CF{sub 3}Cl following photoabsorption in the Cl-ls threshold region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindle, D.W.; Manner, W.L.; Steinbeck, L. [and others

    1993-05-01

    Measurements of photofragmentation of CF{sub 3}Cl near the Cl-ls threshold (hv=2.8 keV) are reported. Because of the dominant decay mode of a Cl-ls hole state, Auger-electron emission, usually occurs sequentially in a vacancy cascade, high degrees of ionization of the parent molecule are induced. As a result, the observed photofragment-ion spectra of CF{sub 3}Cl contain primarily singly and multiply charged atomic fragments. Based on modelling of the spectral peak shapes, these fragments have a wide range of kinetic energies due to the dissociation process. Changes in peak shapes are observed following resonant excitation, as oppossed to ionization, of the Cl-ls electron, and may be due to either sequential fragmentation of CF{sub 3}Cl{sup n+} or to angular-distribution effects due to alignment of the initially excited resonant state.

  10. Fluence-to-dose equivalent conversion factors for polyethylene-moderated {sup 252}Cf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanner, J.E.; Soldat, K.L.; Stewart, R.D. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Casson, W.H. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1994-04-01

    Neutron measurements and calculations were conducted to characterize the polyethylene-moderated {sup 252}Cf source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s Radiation Calibration Laboratory (RADCAL). The 12-inch-diameter polyethylene sphere produces a highly scattered neutron spectrum which is more representative of most radiation fields found in the workplace than the D{sub 2}O-moderated {sup 252}Cf neutron spectrum typically used for dosimeter calibration. However, the energy-dependent fluence and dose equivalent must be well known before using such a source for radiation protection purposes. The measurements and calculations were performed as independent checks of the desired quantities which were the flux, the absorbed dose rate, the dose equivalent rate, and the average energy. These quantities were determined for the polyethylene sphere with and without an outer cadmium shell and compared with a D{sub 2}O-moderated {sup 252}Cf source.

  11. Electron drift velocities in fast Argon and CF4 based drift gases

    CERN Document Server

    van Apeldoorn, G

    1998-01-01

    98-063 Electron drift velocities in gas mixtures were measured in a tabletop experiment using a nitrogen laser to create the primary electrons. The maximum drift times for electrons in a 5 mm (10 mm) honeycomb drift cell at 2200 V anode voltage were 28 ns (53 ns) and 21 ns (61 ns) for Ar-Cf4-CH4 (75/18/6) and Ar-CF4-CO2 (68/27/5), respectively. Changing the ratio of the latter mix did not change the drift velocity very much. The gains of the gases are ~10^4 for a single primary electron. CF4 causes electron attachment. The measured drift times agree well with GARFIELD simulations.

  12. Bacterial evolution in PCD and CF patients follows the same mutational steps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen Sommer, Lea Mette; Alanin, Mikkel Christian; Marvig, Rasmus L.

    2016-01-01

    Infections with Pseudomonas aeruginosa increase morbidity in primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) and cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Both diseases are associated with a defect of the mucociliary clearance; in PCD caused by non-functional cilia, in CF by changed mucus. Whole genome sequencing of P...... isolates from 12 PCD patients were whole genome sequenced and phenotypically characterised. Ten out of 12 PCD patients were infected with persisting clone types. We identified convergent evolution in eight genes, which are also important for persistent infections in CF airways: genes related to antibiotic...... resistance, quorum sensing, motility, type III secretion and mucoidity. We document phenotypic and genotypic parallelism in the evolution of P. aeruginosa across infected patients with different genetic disorders. The parallel changes and convergent adaptation and evolution may be caused by similar selective...

  13. Deformation effects in the alpha accompanied cold ternary fission of even-even {sup 244-260}Cf isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santhosh, K.P.; Krishnan, Sreejith [Kannur University, School of Pure and Applied Physics, Payyanur, Kerala (India)

    2016-04-15

    Within the unified ternary fission model (UTFM), the alpha accompanied ternary fission of even-even {sup 244-260}Cf isotopes has been studied by taking the interacting barrier as the sum of Coulomb and proximity potential. For the alpha accompanied ternary fission of the {sup 244}Cf isotope, the highest yield is obtained for the fragment combination {sup 108}Ru + {sup 4}He + {sup 132}Te, which contains the near doubly magic nucleus {sup 132}Te (N = 80, Z = 52). In the case of {sup 246}Cf and {sup 248}Cf isotopes, the highest yield is obtained for the fragment combinations with the near doubly magic nucleus {sup 134}Te (N = 82, Z = 52) as the heaviest fragment. The highest yield obtained for {sup 250}Cf, {sup 252}Cf, {sup 254}Cf, {sup 256}Cf, {sup 258}Cf and {sup 260}Cf isotopes is for the fragment combination with the doubly magic nucleus {sup 132}Sn (N = 82), Z = 50 as the heaviest fragment. We have included the effect of deformation and orientation of fragments and this has revealed that in addition to the closed shell effect, ground-state deformation also plays an important role in the calculation of the relative yield of favorable fragment combinations. The computed isotopic yields for the alpha accompanied ternary fission of the {sup 252}Cf isotope are found to be in agreement with the experimental data. The emission probability and kinetic energy of the long-range alpha particle is calculated for the various isotopes of Cf and are found to be in good agreement with the experimental data. (orig.)

  14. Designing a SCAR molecular marker for monitoring Trichoderma cf. harzianum in experimental communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Gabriel; Verdejo, Valentina; Gondim-Porto, Clarissa; Orlando, Julieta; Carú, Margarita

    2014-11-01

    Several species of the fungal genus Trichoderma establish biological interactions with various micro- and macro-organisms. Some of these interactions are relevant in ecological terms and in biotechnological applications, such as biocontrol, where Trichoderma could be considered as an invasive species that colonizes a recipient community. The success of this invasion depends on multiple factors, which can be assayed using experimental communities as study models. Therefore, the aim of this work is to develop a species-specific sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker to monitor the colonization and growth of T. cf. harzianum when it invades experimental communities. For this study, 16 randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers of 10-mer were used to generate polymorphic patterns, one of which generated a band present only in strains of T. cf. harzianum. This band was cloned, sequenced, and five primers of 20-23 mer were designed. Primer pairs 2F2/2R2 and 2F2/2R3 successfully and specifically amplified fragments of 278 and 448 bp from the T. cf. harzianum BpT10a strain DNA, respectively. Both primer pairs were also tested against the DNA from 14 strains of T. cf. harzianum and several strains of different fungal genera as specificity controls. Only the DNA from the strains of T. cf. harzianum was successfully amplified. Moreover, primer pair 2F2/2R2 was assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using fungal DNA mixtures and DNA extracted from fungal experimental communities as templates. T. cf. harzianum was detectable even when as few as 100 copies of the SCAR marker were available or even when its population represented only 0.1% of the whole community.

  15. UV multiphoton ionization and IR photodissociation of CF{sub 3}I cluster beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lokhman, V.N.; Ogurok, D.D. [Institute of Spectroscopy, Russian Academy of Sciences, 142 190 Troitsk, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Ryabov, E.A. [Institute of Spectroscopy, Russian Academy of Sciences, 142 190 Troitsk, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)], E-mail: ryabov@isan.troitsk.ru

    2007-03-06

    This paper presents the results of studies into the ultraviolet multiphoton ionization (UV MPI) and infrared photodissociation of (CF{sub 3}I){sub n} clusters formed upon the ultrasonic outflow of CF{sub 3}I molecules from a pulsed jet nozzle. The clusters were found to undergo UV MPI under the action of the XeCl-laser radiation (308 nm) to yield I{sup +} and I{sub 2}{sup +} ions as final products. The UV MPI yield was measured as a function of the radiation intensity and stagnation pressure. The efficiency of the UV MPI process was found to depend on the size of the clusters. The IR photodissociation of the (CF{sub 3}I){sub n} clusters was investigated as a function of the energy fluence and frequency of the CO{sub 2}-laser radiation acting on the {nu}{sub 1} mode of the CF{sub 3}I molecule. The size of the clusters and their binding energy were estimated on the basis of the measurement results and model calculations. The main velocity characteristics of the (CF{sub 3}I){sub n} clusters in the beam, namely, the velocity of their directed motion and also the perpendicular and parallel velocity components of their thermal motion, were measured as a function of the CF{sub 3}I gas outflow conditions using their UV MPI and combined UV MPI + IR photodissociation. The thermal motion velocity distributions were demonstrated to be bimodal at the least.

  16. Designing a SCAR molecular marker for monitoring Trichoderma cf. harzianum in experimental communities* #

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Gabriel; Verdejo, Valentina; Gondim-Porto, Clarissa; Orlando, Julieta; Carú, Margarita

    2014-01-01

    Several species of the fungal genus Trichoderma establish biological interactions with various micro- and macro-organisms. Some of these interactions are relevant in ecological terms and in biotechnological applications, such as biocontrol, where Trichoderma could be considered as an invasive species that colonizes a recipient community. The success of this invasion depends on multiple factors, which can be assayed using experimental communities as study models. Therefore, the aim of this work is to develop a species-specific sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker to monitor the colonization and growth of T. cf. harzianum when it invades experimental communities. For this study, 16 randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers of 10-mer were used to generate polymorphic patterns, one of which generated a band present only in strains of T. cf. harzianum. This band was cloned, sequenced, and five primers of 20–23 mer were designed. Primer pairs 2F2/2R2 and 2F2/2R3 successfully and specifically amplified fragments of 278 and 448 bp from the T. cf. harzianum BpT10a strain DNA, respectively. Both primer pairs were also tested against the DNA from 14 strains of T. cf. harzianum and several strains of different fungal genera as specificity controls. Only the DNA from the strains of T. cf. harzianum was successfully amplified. Moreover, primer pair 2F2/2R2 was assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using fungal DNA mixtures and DNA extracted from fungal experimental communities as templates. T. cf. harzianum was detectable even when as few as 100 copies of the SCAR marker were available or even when its population represented only 0.1% of the whole community. PMID:25367789

  17. Nutrient availability as a mechanism for selection of antibiotic tolerant Pseudomonas aeruginosa within the CF airway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas R Hoffman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbes are subjected to selective pressures during chronic infections of host tissues. Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates with inactivating mutations in the transcriptional regulator LasR are frequently selected within the airways of people with cystic fibrosis (CF, and infection with these isolates has been associated with poorer lung function outcomes. The mechanisms underlying selection for lasR mutation are unknown but have been postulated to involve the abundance of specific nutrients within CF airway secretions. We characterized lasR mutant P. aeruginosa strains and isolates to identify conditions found in CF airways that select for growth of lasR mutants. Relative to wild-type P. aeruginosa, lasR mutants exhibited a dramatic metabolic shift, including decreased oxygen consumption and increased nitrate utilization, that is predicted to confer increased fitness within the nutrient conditions known to occur in CF airways. This metabolic shift exhibited by lasR mutants conferred resistance to two antibiotics used frequently in CF care, tobramycin and ciprofloxacin, even under oxygen-dependent growth conditions, yet selection for these mutants in vitro did not require preceding antibiotic exposure. The selection for loss of LasR function in vivo, and the associated adverse clinical impact, could be due to increased bacterial growth in the oxygen-poor and nitrate-rich CF airway, and from the resulting resistance to therapeutic antibiotics. The metabolic similarities among diverse chronic infection-adapted bacteria suggest a common mode of adaptation and antibiotic resistance during chronic infection that is primarily driven by bacterial metabolic shifts in response to nutrient availability within host tissues.

  18. Langmuir Probe and Mass Spectroscopic Measurements in Inductively Coupled CF4 Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, M. V. V. S.; Sharma, Surendra; Cruden, B. A.; Meyyappan, M.

    2001-01-01

    Abstract Electron and ion energy distribution functions and other plasma parameters such as plasma potential (V(sub p)) , electron temperature (T(sub e)), and electron and ion number densities (n (sub e) and n(sub i)) in low pressure CF4 plasmas have been measured. The experiments were conducted in a GEC cell using an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) device powered by a 13.56 MHz radio-frequency (rf) power source. The measurements were made at 300 W of input rf power at 10, 30 and 50 mTorr gas pressures. Langmuir probe measurements suggest that n(sub e), n(sub i) and V(sub p) remain constant over 60% of the central electrode area, beyond which they decrease. Within the limits of experimental error (+/- 0.25 eV), T(sub e) remains nearly constant over the electrode area. T(sub e) and V(sub p) increase with a decrease in pressure. n(sub e) and n(sub i) are not affected as significantly as T(sub e) or V(sub p) by variation in the gas pressure. The electron energy distribution function (EEDF) measurements indicate a highly non-Maxwellian plasma. CF3+ is the most dominant ion product of the plasma, followed by CF2+ and CF+. The concentrations of CF2+ and CF+ are much larger than that is possible from direct electron impact ionization of the parent gas. The cross-section data suggest that the direct electron impact ionization of fragment neutrals and negative ion production by electron attachment may be responsible for increase of the minor ions.

  19. Fabrication and properties of HDPE/CF/CaCO3/PE-g-MAH quaternary composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.-L.; Ming, H.; Yin, H.

    2015-07-01

    In this research, carbon fiber (CF) was taken as reinforcing filler, nano calcium carbonate (CaCO3) was taken as toughener, maleic anhydride grafted polyethylene (PE-g-MAH) was taken as compatibilizer for high density polyethylene (HDPE) modification. Through orthogonal test, the influence of different amount of ingredient CF, CaCO3 and PE-g-MAH on the mechanical properties of the HDPE composites was researched. The optimal composition of the quaternary composites with the good toughness and high strength was obtained.

  20. Barrier Formation on a YBa2Cu3Oy Thin Film Using CF4 Plasma Fluorination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阿巴斯; 康琳; 许伟伟; 杨森祖; 吴培亨

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the surface structure and composition ofa YBa2Cu3Oy (YBCO) thin film modified by CF4 plasma fluorination. In addition to the absorption of hydrocarbons, chemical reactions of the YBCO surface take place during CF4 plasma treatment. Various x-ray photoelectron spectroscopic data are reported and discussed. The existence of a thin barrier is confirmed, which homogeneously covers the edge of the base YBCO film in our interface engineering Josephson junction. Measurements of Auger electron spectroscopic data and the resistance versus temperature indicate that the barrier is a controllable-insulating layer.

  1. Quenching the scintillation in CF{sub 4} Cherenkov gas radiator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blake, T. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry (United Kingdom); D' Ambrosio, C. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Easo, S. [STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot (United Kingdom); European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Eisenhardt, S. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Fitzpatrick, C. [Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne (Switzerland); Forty, R.; Frei, C. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Gibson, V. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Gys, T. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Harnew, N.; Hunt, P. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Jones, C.R. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Lambert, R.W. [Nikhef National Institute for Subatomic Physics and VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Matteuzzi, C. [Sezione INFN di Milano Bicocca, Milano (Italy); Muheim, F. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Papanestis, A., E-mail: antonis.papanestis@stfc.ac.uk [STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot (United Kingdom); European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Perego, D.L. [Sezione INFN di Milano Bicocca, Milano (Italy); Università di Milano Bicocca, Milano (Italy); Piedigrossi, D. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Plackett, R. [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom); Powell, A. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); and others

    2015-08-11

    CF{sub 4} is used as a Cherenkov gas radiator in one of the Ring Imaging Cherenkov detectors at the LHCb experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. CF{sub 4} is well known to have a high scintillation photon yield in the near and far VUV, UV and in the visible wavelength range. A large flux of scintillation photons in our photon detection acceptance between 200 and 800 nm could compromise the particle identification efficiency. We will show that this scintillation photon emission system can be effectively quenched, consistent with radiationless transitions, with no significant impact on the photons resulting from Cherenkov radiation.

  2. The luminosity function for different morphological types in the CfA Redshift Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzke, Ronald O.; Geller, Margaret J.; Huchra, John P.; Corwin, Harold G., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    We derive the luminosity function for different morphological types in the original CfA Redshift Survey (CfA1) and in the first two slices of the CfA Redshift Survey Extension (CfA2). CfA1 is a complete sample containing 2397 galaxies distributed over 2.7 steradians with m(sub z) less than or equal 14.5. The first two complete slices of CfA2 contain 1862 galaxies distributed over 0.42 steradians with m(sub z)=15.5. The shapes of the E-S0 and spiral luminosity functions (LF) are indistinguishable. We do not confirm the steeply decreasing faint end in the E-S0 luminosity function found by Loveday et al. for an independent sample in the southern hemisphere. We demonstrate that incomplete classification in deep redshift surveys can lead to underestimates of the faint end of the elliptical luminosity function and could be partially responsible for the difference between the CfA survey and other local field surveys. The faint end of the LF for the Magellanic spirals and irregulars is very steep. The Sm-Im luminosity function is well fit by a Schechter function with M*=-18.79, alpha=-1.87, and phi*=0.6x10(exp -3) for M(sub z) less than or equal to -13. These galaxies are largely responsible for the excess at the faint end of the general CfA luminosity function. The abundance of intrinsically faint, blue galaxies nearby affects the interpretation of deep number counts. The dwarf population increases the expected counts at B=25 in a no-evolution, q(sub 0)=0.05 model by a factor of two over standard no-evolution estimates. These dwarfs change the expected median redshift in deep redshift surveys by less than 10 percent . Thus the steep Sm-Im LF may contribute to the reconciliation of deep number counts with deep redshift surveys.

  3. Anisotropic ultrafast dissociation probed by the Doppler effect in resonant photoemission from CF4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, K; Kitajima, M; De Fanis, A; Furuta, T; Shindo, H; Tanaka, H; Okada, K; Feifel, R; Sorensen, S L; Yoshida, H; Senba, Y

    2003-06-13

    The resonant Auger spectrum from the decay of F 1s-excited CF4 is measured. Several lines exhibit a nondispersive kinetic energy as the exciting photon energy is tuned through the resonance region. The F 1s(-1) atomiclike Auger line is split into two components due to the emission of Auger electrons by a fragment in motion, when electron emission is observed along the polarization vector of the light. This Doppler splitting is direct evidence that the core excitation leads to T(d)-->C(3v) symmetry lowering, by elongation of a specific C-F bond preferentially aligned along the polarization vector of the incident photon.

  4. Hidden Broad Line Seyfert 2 Galaxies in the CfA and 12micron Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Hien D.

    2001-01-01

    We report the results of a spectropolarimetric survey of the CfA and 12micron samples of Seyfert 2 galaxies (S2s). Polarized (hidden) broad line regions (HBLRs) are confirmed in a number of galaxies, and several new cases (F02581-1136, MCG -3-58-7, NGC 5995, NGC 6552, NGC 7682) are reported. The 12micron S2 sample shows a significantly higher incidence of HBLR (50%) than its CfA counterpart (30%), suggesting that the latter may be incomplete in hidden AGNs. Compared to the non-HBLR S2s, the H...

  5. Final Technical Report for grant entitled "New Horizons in C-F Activation by Main Group Electrophiles"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozerov, Oleg V [Texas A& M University; Ozerov, Oleg V.

    2014-01-16

    We became interested in developing new methods for hydrodefluorination (HDF) and other types of C-F bond conversion in polyfluoroalkanes under mild conditions. We were attracted to an approach to C-F activation, where the key C-F cleavage proceeds by a Lewis acid abstraction of fluoride rather than a redox event. The efforts during the previous period were aimed at a) advancing the HDF reactivity with improvement in scope and catalyst longevity; b) extending C-F activation beyond HDF; c) generating insight about the elementary steps of the reaction and potential intermediates.

  6. VizieR Online Data Catalog: CfA4: light curves for 94 type Ia SNe (Hicken+, 2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicken, M.; Challis, P.; Kirshner, R. P.; Rest, A.; Cramer, C. E.; Wood-Vasey, W. M.; Bakos, G.; Berlind, P.; Brown, W. R.; Caldwell, N.; Calkins, M.; Currie, T.; de Kleer, K.; Esquerdo, G.; Everett, M.; Falco, E.; Fernandez, J.; Friedman, A. S.; Groner, T.; Hartman, J.; Holman, M. J.; Hutchins, R.; Keys, S.; Kipping, D.; Latham, D.; Marion, G. H.; Narayan, G.; Pahre, M.; Pal, A.; Peters, W.; Perumpilly, G.; Ripman, B.; Sipocz, B.; Szentgyorgyi, A.; Tang, S.; Torres, M. A. P.; Vaz, A.; Wolk, S.; Zezas, A.

    2012-07-01

    The CfA4 sample consists of 5522 light-curve points. All 94 SNe have BVr'i' measurements, while 14 have U and 12 have u'. The CfA4 data were obtained on the 1.2m telescope at the FLWO using the single-chip, four-amplifier CCD KeplerCam. CfA4 data processing followed the same three steps used for CfA3: reduction, calibration, and host-galaxy subtraction (see Hicken et al. 2009, Cat. J/ApJ/700/331 for a more detailed treatment). (4 data files).

  7. Ternary fission fragmentation of 252Cf for all possible third fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manimaran, K.; Balasubramaniam, M.

    2010-09-01

    The ternary fragmentation of 252Cf for all possible third fragments has been investigated using the recently proposed three-cluster model within a spherical approximation and satisfying the condition A 1 ≥ A 2 ≥ A 3 . The most probable ternary configurations in the fission of 252Cf accompanied with all possible third fragment mass numbers from A 3 = 1 to 84 are predicted and their independent and overall relative yields are calculated. The calculations of the properly charge minimized potential energy surface (PES) and yield reveal that even-mass third fragments are more favored than odd ones. In the most probable configuration having the minimum in the potential energy and the maximum in yield, among the three fragments, at least one (or two) of the fragment(s) associates itself with the neutron (or proton) closed shell and in some cases even with the doubly closed shell. The calculated relative yields imply that next to 14C (the heaviest third fragment observed in the spontaneous ternary fission of 252Cf , 34, 36, 38Si , 46, 48Ar , and 48, 50Ca are presenting themselves as the most favoured cases to be observed as the third particle in the spontaneous ternary fission of 252Cf.

  8. Proximate and mineral composition of shea ( vitellaria Paradoxa c.f. ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate and mineral composition of shea ( vitellaria Paradoxa c.f. Gaertn) fruit pulp in uganda. ... There was a significant variation (P0.05) in the crude proteins, crude fibre, Vitamin C values and mineral compositions of the shea fruit pulp ... To promote wide consumption of shea fruits, the influence of environmental factors ...

  9. Infrared measurements of increased CF(2)Cl(2) (CFC- 12) absorption above the South Pole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinsland, C P; Goldman, A; Murcray, F J; Murcray, F H; Murcray, D G; Levine, J S

    1988-02-01

    High-resolution ground-based solar spectra recorded at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole station in Dec. 1980 and Nov. 1986 have been analyzed in the region of the CF(2)Cl(2) (chlorofluorocarbon 12) nu(8) band Q branches at 1161 cm(-1). An increase in the CF(2)Cl(2) total vertical column above the South Pole of 1.24 +/- 0.15 over the 6-yr period, corresponding to an average rate of increase of 3.6 +/- 2.1%, is derived. This rate of increase is lower than indicated by in situ measurements at the South Pole over the same time period, but there is agreement when the rather error bars of the spectral measurement results are considered. Spectroscopic parameters that can successfully model CF(2)C1(2) absorption at low temperatures are needed to improve retrieval accuracies and could be applied to a number of pre-1980 atmospheric spectral data sets in the literature to obtain an improved record of early CF(2)Cl(2) concentration trends for comparison with estimates of historical release rates.

  10. Atmospheric chemistry of CF3COOH. Kinetics of the reaction with OH radicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møgelberg, T.E.; Nielsen, O.J.; Sehested, J.;

    1994-01-01

    Two different experimental techniques were used to study the kinetics of the reaction of OH radicals with trifluoroacetic acid, CF3COOH. Using a pulse radiolysis absolute rate technique, rate constants at 315 and 348 K were determined to be (1.6 +/- 0.4) x 10(-13) and (1.5 +/- 0.2) x 10(-13) cm3...

  11. Tagging fast neutrons from a 252Cf fission-fragment source

    CERN Document Server

    Scherzinger, Julius; Annand, John; Fissum, Kevin; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Mauritzson, Nicholai; Messi, Francesco; Perrey, Hanno; Rofors, Emil

    2016-01-01

    Coincidence and time-of-flight measurement techniques are employed to tag fission neutrons emitted from a 252Cf source. Fission fragments detected in a gaseous 4He scintillator detector supply the tag. Neutrons are detected in a NE-213 liquid-scintillator detector. The resulting continuous polychromatic beam of tagged neutrons has an energy dependence that agrees qualitatively with expectations.

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of Triclosan-Resistant Cystic Fibrosis Isolate Achromobacter xylosoxidans CF304.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeukens, Julie; Freschi, Luca; Kukavica-Ibrulj, Irena; Nguyen, Dao; Levesque, Roger C

    2015-07-30

    Achromobacter xylosoxidans is an emerging opportunistic pathogen. Here, we present the genome sequence of cystic fibrosis isolate CF304. Assembly resulted in 29 contigs adding up to 6.3 Mbp. This is the second genome sequence for a cystic fibrosis isolate, and little is known about the genetic basis of pathogenicity in this organism.

  13. High-resolution CT of nontuberculous mycobacterium infection in adult CF patients: diagnostic accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEvoy, Sinead; Lavelle, Lisa; Kilcoyne, Aoife; McCarthy, Colin; Dodd, Jonathan D. [St. Vincent' s University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Dublin (Ireland); DeJong, Pim A. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Loeve, Martine; Tiddens, Harm A.W.M. [Erasmus MC-Sophia Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Department of Pediatric Pulmonology and Allergology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); McKone, Edward; Gallagher, Charles G. [St. Vincent' s University Hospital, Department of Respiratory Medicine and National Referral Centre for Adult Cystic Fibrosis, Dublin (Ireland)

    2012-12-15

    To determine the diagnostic accuracy of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) for the detection of nontuberculous mycobacterium infection (NTM) in adult cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Twenty-seven CF patients with sputum-culture-proven NTM (NTM+) underwent HRCT. An age, gender and spirometrically matched group of 27 CF patients without NTM (NTM-) was included as controls. Images were randomly and blindly analysed by two readers in consensus and scored using a modified Bhalla scoring system. Significant differences were seen between NTM (+) and NTM (-) patients in the severity of the bronchiectasis subscore [45 % (1.8/4) vs. 35 % (1.4/4), P = 0.029], collapse/consolidation subscore [33 % (1.3/3) vs. 15 % (0.6/3)], tree-in-bud/centrilobular nodules subscore [43 % (1.7/3) vs. 25 % (1.0/3), P = 0.002] and the total CT score [56 % (18.4/33) vs. 46 % (15.2/33), P = 0.002]. Binary logistic regression revealed BMI, peribronchial thickening, collapse/consolidation and tree-in-bud/centrilobular nodules to be predictors of NTM status (R{sup 2} = 0.43). Receiver-operator curve analysis of the regression model showed an area under the curve of 0.89, P < 0.0001. In adults with CF, seven or more bronchopulmonary segments showing tree-in-bud/centrilobular nodules on HRCT is highly suggestive of NTM colonisation. (orig.)

  14. LARGE GAMMA ANISOTROPY OBSERVED IN THE CF-252 SPONTANEOUS-FISSION PROCESS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERPLOEG, H; BACELAR, JC; VANDENBERG, T; IACOB, VE; JONGMAN, [No Value; VANDERWOUDE, A

    1992-01-01

    The energy spectrum and the angular dependence relative to the fission direction of photons in the energy region between 2 and 40 MeV have been measured for the spontaneous fission of Cf-252. A large anisotropy was found in the energy region 8 to 12 MeV implying that photons in this region are emitt

  15. STUDY OF THE GAMMA EMISSION PROBABILITY ACCOMPANYING THE SPONTANEOUS FISSION OF CF-252

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERPLOEG, H; LAURENS, CR; BACELAR, JCS; BUDA, A; GAARDHOJE, JJ; VANTHOF, G; KALANTARNAYESTANAKI, N; VANDERWOUDE, A; ZELAZNY, Z

    1994-01-01

    A study of the gamma emission accompanying the spontaneous fission process of Cf-252 has been performed. The photon emission probability between 3 and 70 MeV and its angular dependence with respect to the fission direction were measured. These measurements were performed as a function of the mass as

  16. Monolayers of CF4 Adsorbed on Graphite, Studied by Synchrotron X-Ray Diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Kristian; Nielsen, Mourits; Bohr, Jakob;

    1982-01-01

    With synchrotron x-ray diffraction we have measured the phase diagram of CF4 monolayers adsorbed on the graphite substrate UCAR-ZYX. We have found four two-dimensional crystalline phases including the 2×2 commensurate structure. Between this and the denser incommensurate hexagonal phase we find...

  17. Selective etching of semicrystalline polymers CF4 gas plasma treatment of poly(ethylene)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olde riekerink, M.B.; Terlingen, J.G.A.; Terlingen, J.G.A.; Engbers, G.H.M.; Feijen, Jan

    1999-01-01

    A series of poly(ethylene) (PE) films with different degrees of crystallinity was treated with a radio-frequency tetrafluoromethane (CF4) gas plasma (48-49 W, 0.06-0.07 mbar, and continuous vs pulsed treatment). The etching behavior and surface chemical and structural changes of the PE films were

  18. Selective Etching of Semicrystalline Polymers: CF4 Gas Plasma Treatment of Poly(ethylene)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olde Riekerink, M.B.; Terlingen, J.G.A.; Engbers, G.H.M.; Feijen, J.

    1999-01-01

    A series of poly(ethylene) (PE) films with different degrees of crystallinity was treated with a radio-frequency tetrafluoromethane (CF4) gas plasma (48-49 W, 0.06-0.07 mbar, and continuous vs pulsed treatment). The etching behavior and surface chemical and structural changes of the PE films were st

  19. A specimen of Canis cf. C. etruscus (Mammalia, Carnivora) from the Middle Villafranchian of the Oosterschelde

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reumer, J.W.F.; Piskoulis, P.

    A recent find of a Middle Villafranchian (c. 2.35–2.10 Ma) Canis cf. C. etruscus in the trawlings from the Oosterschelde concerns the oldest dog known from the Netherlands and is the first appearance record of this canid in the North Sea Basin. It shows that the tribe Canini was dispersed beyond

  20. The reaction of CF2Cl2 with gas-phase hydrated electrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengyel, Jozef; van der Linde, Christian; Fárník, Michal; Beyer, Martin K

    2016-09-14

    The reaction of dichlorodifluoromethane (CF2Cl2) with hydrated electrons (H2O)n(-) (n = 30-86) in the gas phase was studied using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry. The hydrated electron reacts with CF2Cl2, forming (H2O)mCl(-) with a rate constant of (8.6 ± 2.2) × 10(-10) cm(3) s(-1), corresponding to an efficiency of 57 ± 15%. The reaction enthalpy was determined using nanocalorimetry, revealing a strongly exothermic reaction with ΔHr(CF2Cl2, 298 K) = -208 ± 41 kJ mol(-1). The combination of the measured reaction enthalpy with thermochemical data from the condensed phase yields a C-Cl bond dissociation enthalpy (BDE) ΔHC-Cl(CF2Cl2, 298 K) = 355 ± 41 kJ mol(-1) that agrees within error limits with the predicted values from quantum chemical calculations and published BDEs.

  1. urCF: An Approach to Integrating User Reviews into Memory-Based Collaborative Filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenxue

    2013-01-01

    Blessed by the Internet age, many online retailers (e.g., Amazon.com) have deployed recommender systems to help their customers identify products that may be of their interest in order to improve cross-selling and enhance customer loyalty. Collaborative Filtering (CF) is the most successful technique among different approaches to generating…

  2. 24-O-Ethylmanoalide, a Manoalide-related Sesterterpene from the Marine sponge Luffariella cf. variabilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Smadja

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A new manoalide-related sesterterpene, 24-O-ethylmanoalide (3, was isolated from the Indian Ocean sponge Luffariella cf. variabilis, together with the known compounds manoalide (1, seco-manoalide, manoalide monoacetate and 24-O-methylmanoalide (2. The structure of compound 3 was elucidated by interpretation of its spectroscopic data.

  3. CT of the paranasal sinuses is not a valid indicator for sinus surgery in CF patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jacob; Aanæs, Kasper; Norling, Rikke

    2012-01-01

    for sinus surgery. METHODS: In this observational cross sectional study, 55 CF cases had their preoperative CT scans scored according to the Lund Mackay- and the Nair-system. Correlations between the CT scans, symptoms, surgical findings and cultures obtained during sinus surgery were made. RESULTS...

  4. Direct amidation of unprotected amino acids using B(OCH2CF3)3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanigan, Rachel M; Karaluka, Valerija; Sabatini, Marco T; Starkov, Pavel; Badland, Matthew; Boulton, Lee; Sheppard, Tom D

    2016-07-07

    A commercially available borate ester, B(OCH2CF3)3, can be used to achieve protecting-group free direct amidation of α-amino acids with a range of amines in cyclopentyl methyl ether. The method can be applied to the synthesis of medicinally relevant compounds, and can be scaled up to obtain gram quantities of products.

  5. 76 FR 68634 - Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company (GE) CF6 Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    ... visual inspections of the forward engine mount assembly side links for cracks, stripping and reapplying... 9346M99P04, installed on the forward engine mount assembly (also known as Configuration 2). Unsafe Condition...-04] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company (GE) CF6 Turbofan Engines...

  6. urCF: An Approach to Integrating User Reviews into Memory-Based Collaborative Filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenxue

    2013-01-01

    Blessed by the Internet age, many online retailers (e.g., Amazon.com) have deployed recommender systems to help their customers identify products that may be of their interest in order to improve cross-selling and enhance customer loyalty. Collaborative Filtering (CF) is the most successful technique among different approaches to generating…

  7. STUDY OF THE GAMMA EMISSION PROBABILITY ACCOMPANYING THE SPONTANEOUS FISSION OF CF-252

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERPLOEG, H; LAURENS, CR; BACELAR, JCS; BUDA, A; GAARDHOJE, JJ; VANTHOF, G; KALANTARNAYESTANAKI, N; VANDERWOUDE, A; ZELAZNY, Z

    1994-01-01

    A study of the gamma emission accompanying the spontaneous fission process of Cf-252 has been performed. The photon emission probability between 3 and 70 MeV and its angular dependence with respect to the fission direction were measured. These measurements were performed as a function of the mass

  8. Effect of fiber-matrix adhesion on the creep behavior of CF/PPS composites: temperature and physical aging characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Motta Dias, M.H.; Jansen, K.M.B.; Luinge, J.W.; Bersee, H.E.N.; Benedictus, R.

    2016-01-01

    The influence of fiber-matrix adhesion on the linear viscoelastic creep behavior of ‘as received’ and ‘surface modified’ carbon fibers (AR-CF and SM-CF, respectively) reinforced polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) composite materials was investigated. Short-term tensile creep tests were performed on ±45°

  9. The influence of fiber-matrix adhesion on the linear viscoelastic creep behavior of CF/PPS composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Motta Dias, M.H.; Jansen, K.M.B.; Luinge, H.; Nayak, K.; Bersee, H.E.N.

    2014-01-01

    The influence of fiber-matrix adhesion on the linear viscoelastic creep behavior of as received and surface modified carbon fiber (AR-CF and SM-CF, respectively) reinforced polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) composite materials was investigated. Short-term tensile creep tests were performed on ±45°

  10. Effect of fiber-matrix adhesion on the creep behavior of CF/PPS composites: temperature and physical aging characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Motta Dias, M.H.; Jansen, K.M.B.; Luinge, J.W.; Bersee, H.E.N.; Benedictus, R.

    2016-01-01

    The influence of fiber-matrix adhesion on the linear viscoelastic creep behavior of ‘as received’ and ‘surface modified’ carbon fibers (AR-CF and SM-CF, respectively) reinforced polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) composite materials was investigated. Short-term tensile creep tests were performed on ±45° sp

  11. The influence of fiber-matrix adhesion on the linear viscoelastic creep behavior of CF/PPS composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Motta Dias, M.H.; Jansen, K.M.B.; Luinge, H.; Nayak, K.; Bersee, H.E.N.

    2014-01-01

    The influence of fiber-matrix adhesion on the linear viscoelastic creep behavior of as received and surface modified carbon fiber (AR-CF and SM-CF, respectively) reinforced polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) composite materials was investigated. Short-term tensile creep tests were performed on ±45° specime

  12. Corrosion of Continuous Fiber Reinforced Aluminum Metal Matrix Composites (CF-AMCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Shruti

    The first objective of this research is to study the atmospheric corrosion behavior of continuous reinforced aluminum matrix composites (CF-AMCs). The materials used for this research were alumina (Al2O3) and nickel (Ni) coated carbon (C) fibers reinforced AMCs. The major focus is to identify the correlation between atmospheric parameters and the corrosion rates of CF-AMCs in the multitude of microclimates and environments in Hawai'i. The micro-structures of CF-AMCs were obtained to correlate the microstructures with their corrosion performances. Also electrochemical polarization experiments were conducted in the laboratory to explain the corrosion mechanism of CF-AMCs. In addition, CF-AMCs were exposed to seven different test sites for three exposure periods. The various climatic conditions like temperature (T), relative humidity (RH), rainfall (RF), time of wetness (TOW), chloride (Cl- ) and sulfate (SO42-) deposition rate, and pH were monitored for three exposure period. Likewise, mass losses of CF-AMCs at each test site for three exposure periods were determined. The microstructure of the CF-AMCS showed that Al/C/50f MMCs contained a Ni-rich phase in the matrix, indicating that the Ni coating on the C fiber dissolved in the matrix. The intermetallic phases obtained in Al-2wt% Cu/Al 2O3/50f-T6 MMC and Al-2wt%-T6 monolith were rich in Cu and Fe. The intermetallic phases obtained in Al 7075/Al2O3/50f-T6 MMC and Al 7075-T6 monolith also contained traces of Mg, Zn, Ni, and Si. Electrochemical polarization experiment indicated that the Al/Al 2O3/50f Al-2wt% Cu/Al2O3/50f-T6 and Al 7075/Al2O3/50f-T6 MMC showed similar corrosion trends as their respective monoliths pure Al, Al-2wt%-T6 and Al 7075-T6 in both aerated and deaerated condition. Al2O3 fiber, being an insulator, did not have a great effect on the polarization behavior of the composites. Al/C/50f MMCs corroded at a much faster rate as compared to pure Al monolith due to the galvanic effect between C and Al

  13. Monte Carlo Simulation of Electron Swarms Parameters in c-C4F8/CF4 Gas Mixtures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xue-li; XIAO Deng-ming; WANG Yan-an; ZHANG Zhou-sheng

    2008-01-01

    The swarm parametes for c-C4F8/CF4 mixtures, including the density-normalized effective ionization coefficient, drift velocity and mean energy were calculated using Monte-Carlo method with the null collision technique. The overall density-reduced electric field strength could be varied between 150 and 500 Td,while the c-C4F8 content in gas mixtures is varied in the range of 0-100%. The value of the density-normalize deffective ionization coefficient shows a strong dependence on the c-C4F8 content, becoming more electronegative as the content of c-C4F8 is increased. The drift velocity of c-C4F4/CF4 mixtures is more affected by CF4. The calculated limiting field strength for c-C4F8/CF4 mixtures is higher than that of SF6/CF4.

  14. Ecological consequence of the introduction of the polychaete Marenzelleria cf. viridis into a shallow-water biotope of the northern Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotta, Jonne; Orav, Helen; Sandberg-Kilpi, Eva

    2001-12-01

    Effects of the North American polychaete Marenzelleria cf. viridis on a simple shallow-water benthic community of the northern Baltic Sea were studied in a field experiment combining natural densities of dominating macrofaunal species. The presence of M. cf. viridis increased benthic production (chlorophyll a) and reduced the survival of the native polychaete Nereis diversicolor. Adult Macoma balthica caused a significant mortality on M. cf. viridis whereas adult Cerastoderma glaucum had no effect on M. cf. viridis. We suggest that the competitive interactions between M. cf. viridis and M. balthica are a possible key factor determining the distribution pattern of M. cf. viridis in the Baltic Sea.

  15. Novel Mutations Detected in Avirulence Genes Overcoming Tomato Cf Resistance Genes in Isolates of a Japanese Population of Cladosporium fulvum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichiro Iida

    Full Text Available Leaf mold of tomato is caused by the biotrophic fungus Cladosporium fulvum which complies with the gene-for-gene system. The disease was first reported in Japan in the 1920s and has since been frequently observed. Initially only race 0 isolates were reported, but since the consecutive introduction of resistance genes Cf-2, Cf-4, Cf-5 and Cf-9 new races have evolved. Here we first determined the virulence spectrum of 133 C. fulvum isolates collected from 22 prefectures in Japan, and subsequently sequenced the avirulence (Avr genes Avr2, Avr4, Avr4E, Avr5 and Avr9 to determine the molecular basis of overcoming Cf genes. Twelve races of C. fulvum with a different virulence spectrum were identified, of which races 9, 2.9, 4.9, 4.5.9 and 4.9.11 occur only in Japan. The Avr genes in many of these races contain unique mutations not observed in races identified elsewhere in the world including (i frameshift mutations and (ii transposon insertions in Avr2, (iii point mutations in Avr4 and Avr4E, and (iv deletions of Avr4E, Avr5 and Avr9. New races have developed by selection pressure imposed by consecutive introductions of Cf-2, Cf-4, Cf-5 and Cf-9 genes in commercially grown tomato cultivars. Our study shows that molecular variations to adapt to different Cf genes in an isolated C. fulvum population in Japan are novel but overall follow similar patterns as those observed in populations from other parts of the world. Implications for breeding of more durable C. fulvum resistant varieties are discussed.

  16. Novel Mutations Detected in Avirulence Genes Overcoming Tomato Cf Resistance Genes in Isolates of a Japanese Population of Cladosporium fulvum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Yuichiro; van 't Hof, Pieter; Beenen, Henriek; Mesarich, Carl; Kubota, Masaharu; Stergiopoulos, Ioannis; Mehrabi, Rahim; Notsu, Ayumi; Fujiwara, Kazuki; Bahkali, Ali; Abd-Elsalam, Kamel; Collemare, Jérôme; de Wit, Pierre J G M

    2015-01-01

    Leaf mold of tomato is caused by the biotrophic fungus Cladosporium fulvum which complies with the gene-for-gene system. The disease was first reported in Japan in the 1920s and has since been frequently observed. Initially only race 0 isolates were reported, but since the consecutive introduction of resistance genes Cf-2, Cf-4, Cf-5 and Cf-9 new races have evolved. Here we first determined the virulence spectrum of 133 C. fulvum isolates collected from 22 prefectures in Japan, and subsequently sequenced the avirulence (Avr) genes Avr2, Avr4, Avr4E, Avr5 and Avr9 to determine the molecular basis of overcoming Cf genes. Twelve races of C. fulvum with a different virulence spectrum were identified, of which races 9, 2.9, 4.9, 4.5.9 and 4.9.11 occur only in Japan. The Avr genes in many of these races contain unique mutations not observed in races identified elsewhere in the world including (i) frameshift mutations and (ii) transposon insertions in Avr2, (iii) point mutations in Avr4 and Avr4E, and (iv) deletions of Avr4E, Avr5 and Avr9. New races have developed by selection pressure imposed by consecutive introductions of Cf-2, Cf-4, Cf-5 and Cf-9 genes in commercially grown tomato cultivars. Our study shows that molecular variations to adapt to different Cf genes in an isolated C. fulvum population in Japan are novel but overall follow similar patterns as those observed in populations from other parts of the world. Implications for breeding of more durable C. fulvum resistant varieties are discussed.

  17. Electron-deficient ruthenium and osmium complexes: From 14-electron species to C-F bond cleavage reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Dejian

    1999-12-01

    Stepwise removal of the fluoride from RuRF(CO)L2 gives [RuR(CO)L 2]BAr'4 (L = PtBu 2Me, R = H, CH3, Ph, Ar' = 3,5- bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl). This 14-electron cation has a saw-horse shape with two bulky L trans and CO and R cis. The two vacant sites are in fact occupied weakly by C-H bonds from the phosphines. [RuH(CO)L2] + has a strong Lewis acidic but weakened π- basic Ru center as it is illustrated by its reactivity pattern towards olefins and alkynes. While organic fluorocarbon is notorious for its inertness due to the strong C-F bond, the α-C-F bond of a transition metal fluorocarbyl complex is activated. The chemistry in Chapter 3 illustrates this argument. Attempts to replace fluoride of MHF(CO)L2 with CF3 using Me 3SiCF3 do not give MH(CF3)(CO)L2, instead, M[HF(CF2)(CO)L2 is isolated. Fast equilibrium exists between RuHF(CF2)(CO)L2 and RuH(CF3)(CO)L 2 but not for OsHF(CF2)(CO)L2, which is converted to OsF2(CFH)(CO)L2 upon heating. In contrast, isomerization of RuHF(CF2)(CO)L2 gives RUF(CF2H)(CO)L 2.

  18. Ab initio full-potential study of mechanical properties and magnetic phase stability of californium monopnictides (CfN and CfP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amari, S., E-mail: siham_amari@yahoo.fr [Faculté des Sciences de la Nature et de la Vie, Université Hassiba Benbouali, Chlef, 02000 (Algeria); Bouhafs, B. [Laboratoire de Modélisation et Simulation en Sciences des Matériaux, Université Djillali Liabès de Sidi Bel-Abbés, Sidi Bel-Abbés, 22000 (Algeria)

    2016-09-15

    Based on the first-principles methods, the structural, elastic, electronic, properties and magnetic ordering of californium monopnictides CfX (X = P) have been studied using the full-potential augmented plane wave plus local orbitals (FP-L/APW + lo) method within the framework of density functional theory (DFT). The electronic exchange correlation energy is described by generalized gradient approximation GGA and GGA+U (U is the Hubbard correction). The GGA+U method is applied to the rare-earth 5f states. We have calculated the lattice parameters, bulk modulii and the first pressure derivatives of the bulk modulii. The elastic properties of the studied compounds are only investigated in the most stable calculated phase. In order to gain further information, we have calculated Young’s modulus, shear modulus, anisotropy factor and Kleinman parameter by the aid of the calculated elastic constants. The results mainly show that californium monopnictides CfX (X = P) have an antiferromagnetic spin ordering. Density of states (DOS) and charge densities for both compounds are also computed in the NaCl (B1) structure.

  19. Dissociative scattering of hyperthermal energy CF3+ ions from modified surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezayat, Talayeh; Shukla, Anil

    2007-02-28

    Dissociative scattering of CF3+ ions in collision with a self-assembled monolayer surface of fluorinated alkyl thiol on a gold 111 crystal has been studied at low ion kinetic energies (from 29 to 159 eV) using a custom built tandem mass spectrometer with a rotatable second stage energy analyzer and mass spectrometer detectors. Energy and intensity distributions of the scattered fragment ions were measured as a function of the fragment ion mass and scattering angle. Inelastically scattered CF3+ ions were not observed even at the lowest energy studied here. All fragment ions, CF2+, CF+, F+, and C+, were observed at all energies studied with the relative intensity of the highest energy pathway, C+, increasing and that of the lowest energy pathway, CF2+, decreasing with collision energy. Also, the dissociation efficiency of CF3+ decreased significantly as the collision energy was increased to 159 eV. Energy distributions of all fragment ions from the alkyl thiol surface showed two distinct components, one corresponding to the loss of nearly all of the kinetic energy and scattered over a broad angular range while the other corresponding to smaller kinetic energy losses and scattered closer to the surface parallel. The latter process is due to delayed dissociation of collisionally excited ions after they have passed the collision region as excited parent ions. A similar study performed at 74 eV using a LiF coated surface on a titanium substrate resulted only in one process for all fragment ions; corresponding to the delayed dissociation process. The intensity maxima for these fragmentation processes were shifted farther away from the surface parallel compared to the thiol surface. A new mechanism is proposed for the delayed dissociation process as proceeding via projectile ions' neutralization to long-lived highly excited Rydberg state(s), reionization by the potential field between the collision region and entrance to the energy analyzer, and subsequent dissociation

  20. Impact of enzymatic digestion on bacterial community composition in CF airway samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayla M. Williamson

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Previous studies have demonstrated the importance of DNA extraction methods for molecular detection of Staphylococcus, an important bacterial group in cystic fibrosis (CF. We sought to evaluate the effect of enzymatic digestion (EnzD prior to DNA extraction on bacterial communities identified in sputum and oropharyngeal swab (OP samples from patients with CF. Methods DNA from 81 samples (39 sputum and 42 OP collected from 63 patients with CF was extracted in duplicate with and without EnzD. Bacterial communities were determined by rRNA gene sequencing, and measures of alpha and beta diversity were calculated. Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCoA was used to assess differences at the community level and Wilcoxon Signed Rank tests were used to compare relative abundance (RA of individual genera for paired samples with and without EnzD. Results Shannon Diversity Index (alpha-diversity decreased in sputum and OP samples with the use of EnzD. Larger shifts in community composition were observed for OP samples (beta-diversity, measured by Morisita-Horn, whereas less change in communities was observed for sputum samples. The use of EnzD with OP swabs resulted in significant increase in RA for the genera Gemella (p < 0.01, Streptococcus (p < 0.01, and Rothia (p < 0.01. Staphylococcus (p < 0.01 was the only genus with a significant increase in RA from sputum, whereas the following genera decreased in RA with EnzD: Veillonella (p < 0.01, Granulicatella (p < 0.01, Prevotella (p < 0.01, and Gemella (p = 0.02. In OP samples, higher RA of Gram-positive taxa was associated with larger changes in microbial community composition. Discussion We show that the application of EnzD to CF airway samples, particularly OP swabs, results in differences in microbial communities detected by sequencing. Use of EnzD can result in large changes in bacterial community composition, and is particularly useful for detection of Staphylococcus in CF OP

  1. 双分子水和氨气催化CF3OH分子裂解的理论研究%Theoretical Study on Decomposition of CF3OH Catalyzed by Water Dimer and Ammonia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙波; 谭兴凤; 隆正文; 任达森; 张为俊

    2011-01-01

    The G3 and CBS-QB3 theoretical methods are employed to study the decomposition of CF3OH into FCFO and HF by water, water dimmer, and ammonia. The decomposition of CF3OH into FCFO and HF is unlikely to occur in the atmosphere due to the high activated energy of 88.7 k J/mol at the G3 level of theory. However, the computed results predict that the barrier for unimolecular decomposition of CF3OH is decreased to 25.1 k J/mol from 188.7 k J/mol with the aid of NH3 at the G3 level of theory, which shows that the ammonia play a strong catalytic effect on the split of CF3OH. In addition, the calculated rate constants show that the decomposition of CF3OH by NH3 is faster than those of H2Oand the water dimmer by 109 and 105 times respectively. The rate constants combined with the corresponding concentrations of these species demonstrate that the reaction CF3 OH with NH3 via TS4 is of great importance for the decomposition of CF3OH in the atmosphere.

  2. Cf/SiC陶瓷基复合材料在航天领域的研究与应用%Application and Development of Cf/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites in Aerospace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦淑颖; 闫联生; 崔红; 刘建超

    2007-01-01

    碳纤维增强碳化硅(Cf/SiC)陶瓷基复合材料是近年来发展起来的新型高温结构材料.综述了Cf/SiC陶瓷复合材料的主要制备工艺和氧化防护方面的研究进展,概括介绍了Cf/SiC陶瓷复合材料在航天领域的应用与研究,最后指出了有待解决的问题和研究方向.

  3. 孵化水热环境对渔异色蛇孵化卵和孵出幼体的影响%INFLUENCES OF THERMAL AND HYDRIC ENVIRONMENTS ON INCUBATING EGGS AND RESULTANT HATCHLINGS IN A COLUBRID SNAKE (XENOCHROPHIS PISCATOR)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    计翔; 杜卫国; 许雪峰

    2001-01-01

    Influence of thermal and hydric environments on incubating eggs, embryonic use of energy and hatchling characteristics were studied in a colubrid snake, Xenochrophis piscator. All viable eggs increased in mass over the course of incubation because these eggs absorbed water from surroundings, and mass gain during incubation was dependent on initial egg mass and substrate water potential. Duration of incubation, hatching success, embryonic use of nutrients and energy and sex ratio, size and mass of hatchlings were unaffected over a wide range of substrate moisture. Duration of incubation decreased as incubation temperature increased. There was a strong family effect on incubation length. Incubation temperature did not determine sex of hatchlings, but profoundly affected hatching success, embryonic use of nutrients and energy, size and mass of hatchlings, carcass mass and post-hatching yolk mass. There was no significant difference in total length (SVL plus TL) between female and male hatchlings, but the newborns did exhibit sexual dimorphism in snout-vent length and tail length, with females having longer SVL and shorter TL than did males. 32℃ was not a suitable temperature for incubating X. piscator eggs for two reasons: (1) eggs at 32℃ produced hatchlings with less developed carcass, greater amount of unutilized yolk and abnormal tail; (2) embryos expended more energy at 32℃ than at lower temperatures to complete development. Given that eggs at 24℃ and 26℃ both produced well-developed hatchlings of which the measured variables were nearly the same for the newborns from the two temperatures, we conclude that 26℃ is the best incubation temperature for X. piscator in this study.%渔异色蛇卵孵化时能从环境中吸收水分导致质量增加,卵质量的增加与初始卵质量和孵化基质湿度有关。较大幅度的孵化基质湿度变化对孵化期、孵化成功率、胚胎动用卵内物质和能量、孵出幼体的性比、大小和

  4. Effect of the electric field on the primary scintillation from CF{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morozov, A., E-mail: andrei@coimbra.lip.p [LIP-Coimbra and Departamento de Fisica, Universidade de Coimbra, 3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); Fraga, M.M.F.R.; Pereira, L. [LIP-Coimbra and Departamento de Fisica, Universidade de Coimbra, 3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); Margato, L.M.S. [LIP-Coimbra and Departamento de Fisica, Universidade de Coimbra, 3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); Institut Laue Langevin, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble (France); Fetal, S.T.G. [LIP-Coimbra and Departamento de Fisica, Universidade de Coimbra, 3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); Guerard, B.; Manzin, G. [Institut Laue Langevin, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble (France); Fraga, F.A.F. [LIP-Coimbra and Departamento de Fisica, Universidade de Coimbra, 3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal)

    2011-02-01

    The effect of an electric field on the primary scintillation from CF{sub 4} in the ultraviolet and visible wavelength regions (200-800 nm) is reported. The study was performed in the pressure range from 1 to 5 bar and at electric fields of up to 2 kV/cm. Photon emission spectra, fully corrected for the detection response, and the absolute photon yields in the ultraviolet and visible regions are reported. The CF{sub 4} emission spectra and the photon fluxes show no variations with the field at low pressures ({approx}1bar), while at higher pressures the effect of the field on the scintillation is strong: the ultraviolet emission intensity increases and the visible intensity decreases with the field strength. Time spectra of the primary scintillation for several applied electric field strengths are also reported for the two wavelength regions of light emission.

  5. Direct Measurement of the Bubble Nucleation Energy Threshold in a CF3I Bubble Chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Behnke, E; Brice, S J; Broemmelsiek, D; Collar, J I; Cooper, P S; Crisler, M; Dahl, C E; Fustin, D; Hall, J; Harnish, C; Levine, I; Lippincott, W H; Moan, T; Nania, T; Neilson, R; Ramberg, E; Robinson, A E; Sonnenschein, A; Vázquez-Jáuregui, E; Rivera, R A; Uplegger, L

    2013-01-01

    We have directly measured the energy threshold and efficiency for bubble nucleation from iodine recoils in a CF3I bubble chamber in the energy range of interest for a dark matter search. These interactions cannot be probed by standard neutron calibration methods, so we develop a new technique by observing the elastic scattering of 12 GeV/c negative pions. The pions are tracked with a silicon pixel telescope and the reconstructed scattering angle provides a measure of the nuclear recoil kinetic energy. The bubble chamber was operated with a nominal threshold of (13.6+-0.6) keV. Interpretation of the results depends on the response to fluorine and carbon recoils, but in general we find agreement with the predictions of the classical bubble nucleation theory. This measurement confirms the applicability of CF3I as a target for spin-independent dark matter interactions and represents a novel technique for calibration of superheated fluid detectors.

  6. Stress Distribution of CF/EP Laminated Composites under Supercritical Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haihong Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Enormous amounts of wastes have been produced due to extensive use of carbon fiber/epoxy resin (CF/EP composites. The fact that the supercritical fluid can be used to recycle these composites efficiently has attracted widespread concerns. A three-dimensional model of CF/EP laminates considering the interfacial layers was established. The internal stress distribution of laminates was simulated based on a heat transfer model; and the change of shear stress with supercritical temperature and pressure was investigated. The results show that the shear stress concentration was located in the interfacial layers; the maximum shear stress can be expressed by a curve of convex parabola to the temperature; and the most serious damage occurred in interfacial layers when temperature approached the glass-transition temperature of resin.

  7. Validation of IRDFF in 252Cf Standard and IRDF-2002 Reference Neutron Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simakov Stanislav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of validation of the latest release of International Reactor Dosimetry and Fusion File, IRDFF-1.03, in the standard 252Cf(s.f. and reference 235U(nth,f neutron benchmark fields are presented. The spectrum-averaged cross sections were shown to confirm IRDFF-1.03 in the 252Cf standard spontaneous fission spectrum; that was not the case for the current recommended spectra for 235U(nth,f. IRDFF was also validated in the spectra of the research reactor facilities ISNF, Sigma-Sigma and YAYOI, which are available in the IRDF-2002 collection. The ISNF facility was re-simulated to remove unphysical oscillations in the spectrum. IRDFF-1.03 was shown to reproduce reasonably well the spectrum-averaged data measured in these fields except for the case of YAYOI.

  8. Multiple Regression Prediction Model for Cutting Forces in Turning Carbon-Reinforced PEEK CF30

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Mata

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the thermoplastic polymers available, the reinforced polyetheretherketone with 30% of carbon fibres (PEEK CF 30 demonstrates a particularly good combination of strength, rigidity, and hardness, which prove ideal for industrial applications. Considering these properties and potential areas of application, it is necessary to investigate the machining of PEEK CF30. In this study, response surface methodology was applied to predict the cutting forces in turning operations using TiN-coated cutting tools under dry conditions where the machining parameters are cutting speed ranges, feed rate, and depth of cut. For this study, the experiments have been conducted using full factorial design in the design of experiments (DOEs on CNC turning machine. Based on statistical analysis, multiple quadratic regression model for cutting forces was derived with satisfactory 2-squared correlation. This model proved to be highly preferment for predicting cutting forces.

  9. The CfAO's Astronomy Course in COSMOS: Curriculum Design, Rationale, and Application

    CERN Document Server

    Cooksey, Kathy L; Porter, Jason; Raschke, Lynne; Severson, Scott; Hinkley, Sasha

    2010-01-01

    From 2001 to 2007, COSMOS provided a teaching and outreach venue for the Center for Adaptive Optics Professional Development Program (CfAO PDP). COSMOS is a four-week residential mathematics and science summer program for high-school students organized by the University of California on four of its campuses. Two topical science courses comprised each COSMOS cluster. An astronomy course has always formed a basis for the CfAO PDP-affiliated cluster. The course included a variety of pedagogical techniques to address a diversity of learners and goals. We outline the astronomy course---lectures, activities, etc.---and provide the rationale for what was taught, how it was aught, and when it was taught.

  10. IRAS galaxies and the large-scale structure in the CfA slice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babul, Arif; Postman, Marc

    1990-01-01

    The spatial distributions of the IRAS and the optical galaxies in the first CfA slice are compared. The IRAS galaxies are generally less clustered than optical ones, but their distribution is essentially identical to that of late-type optical galaxies. The discrepancy between the clustering properties of the IRAS and optical samples in the CfA slice region is found to be entirely due to the paucity of IRAS galaxies in the core of the Coma cluster. The spatial distributions of the IRAS and the optical galaxies, both late and early types, outside the dense core of the Coma cluster are entirely consistent with each other. This conflicts with the prediction of the linear biasing scenario.

  11. Proportional counters aged anode wire recovering using an 80%CF4 + 20%CO2 gas mixture

    CERN Document Server

    Gavrilov, Gennady; Conti, Richard; Fetisov, Andrey; Maysuzenko, Dmitry; Shvecova, Natalia; Vakhtel, Victor

    2011-01-01

    A technique to recover a gas proportional counter having an aged anode wire using a glow discharge in an 80%CF4 + 20%CO2 gas mixture has been developed and tested. Studies of aging effects were carried out under sustained irradiation by an intense 90Sr -source of the straw proportional counters operated with a 60%Ar + 30%CO2 + 10%CF4 gas mixture. Special attention was paid to the aging mechanism of the anode wires. Our experience showed that using a given gas mixture the swelling of the anode wires is a typical mode of aging that leads to degradation of the gas gain. The proposed method of recovery provided a complete restoration of the gas gain and the signal amplitude in the damaged zone of the wire. SEM/XEM analysis confirmed successful cleaning WOx deposits from the wire surface. The application of this method to recover the aged gaseous detectors in real experimental conditions is discussed.

  12. Dynamics of the tri-nuclear system at spontaneous fission of $^{252}$Cf

    CERN Document Server

    Tashkhodjaev, R B; Alpomeshev, E Kh

    2016-01-01

    To describe of dynamics of ternary fission of $^{252}$Cf an equation of motion of the tri-nuclear system is calculated. The fission of the $^{70}$Ni+$^{50}$Ca+$^{132}$Sn channel was chosen as one of the more probable channels of true ternary fission of $^{252}$Cf. The collinearity of ternary fission has been checked by analyzing results of the equation of motion. The results show that if initially all nuclei are placed collinearly (potential energy of this position is the smallest) and the component of the middle fragment's initial velocity which is perpendicular to this line, is zero then ternary fission is collinear, otherwise the non collinear ternary fission takes place.

  13. How does heart rate recovery after sub-maximal exercise correlate with maximal exercise testing in children with CF?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Sarah P; Orenstein, David M

    2014-12-01

    Disease progression in cystic fibrosis (CF) is marked by worsening exercise tolerance. Further, maximal exercise capacity (VO2 peak) correlates with survival in CF, but maximal tests are uncomfortable and resource-intensive. A three-minute step test (STEP) has been validated in CF. Heart rate (HR) recovery after exercise correlates with all-cause mortality in adult non-CF populations. We compared HR recovery after the three-minute step test with VO2 peak in children with CF. Twenty-four children with CF performed STEP and a maximal exercise test. Correlation between the tests was assessed. Maximum HR on STEP was lower than on the maximal test (140 vs. 190, p<0.01). Peak HR during STEP correlated inversely with VO2 peak. In subjects with mild lung disease, faster HR recovery after STEP correlated with higher VO2 peak. The three-minute step test is a feasible submaximal test in this patient population. HR during and after a three-minute step test may reflect VO2 peak in children with CF. Copyright © 2014 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Cluster description of cold (neutronless) α ternary fission of 252Cf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Săndulescu, A.; Carstoiu, F.; Bulboacă, I.; Greiner, W.

    1999-10-01

    A coplanar three body cluster model (two deformed fragments and an α particle) similar to the model used for the description of cold binary fission was employed for the description of cold (neutronless) α accompanied fission of 252Cf. No preformation factors were considered. The three body potential was computed with the help of a double folding potential generated by the M3Y-NN effective interaction and realistic fragment ground state deformations. From the minimum action principle, the α particle trajectory equations, the corresponding ternary barriers, and an approximate WKB expression for the barrier penetrability are obtained. The relative cold ternary yields were calculated as the ratio of the penetrability of a given ternary fragmentation and the sum of the penetrabilities of all possible cold ternary fragmentations. Different scenarios were considered depending on the trajectories of the fragments. It was shown that two regions of cold fragmentation exist, a deformed one corresponding to large fragment deformations and a spherical one around 132Sn, similarly to the case of the cold binary fission of 252Cf. We have shown that for the scenario corresponding to the Lagrange point, where all forces acting on the α particle are in equilibrium, the cold α ternary yields of 252Cf are strongly correlated with the cold binary yields of the daughter nucleus 248Cm into the same heavy fragments. For all other scenarios only the spherical splittings are favored. We concluded that due to the present available experimental data on cold α ternary yields only the Lagrange scenario could describe the cold α ternary fission of 252Cf.

  15. Preformation probabilities for light ternary particles in the cold (neutronless) fission of 252Cf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florescu, A.; Sandulescu, A.; Delion, D. S.; Hamilton, J. H.; Ramayya, A. V.; Greiner, W.

    2000-05-01

    The preformation amplitudes for α and 10Be clusters in the cold ternary fission of 252Cf are estimated within a microscopic model starting from single particle spherical Woods-Saxon wave functions and with a large space BCS-type configuration mixing. The resulting position of the maximum of cluster preformation probability is situated in the region between the two heavier fragments near the scission point, and approaches the fission axis as the distance between the fragments increases.

  16. ESKAPE/CF: A Knowledge Acquisition Tool for Expert Systems Using Cognitive Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-01

    model can capture all levels or types of expertise (Olson & Rueter 1987), careful evaluation cf available knowledgle acquisition tools and techniques i... careful evaluation of available knowledge acquisition tools and techniques is required to match the tool with the particular application (Kitto & Boose...and accuracy of the models would be of paramount concern. The system should be contrasted with existing automated tools such as Kitten and Aquinas

  17. Full Space Vectors Modulation for Nine-Switch Converters Including CF & DF Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dehghan Dehnavi, Seyed Mohammad; Mohamadian, Mustafa; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2010-01-01

    converter. As a space vector modulation for DF mode has already been proposed by authors. This paper proposes a full space vector modulation (SVM) for both CF and DF modes. Also practical methods are presented for SVM proposed. In addition a special SVM is proposed that offers minimum total harmonic...... distortion (THD) in DF mode. The performance of the proposed SVM is verified by simulation results....

  18. Tailoring the chemical composition and dispersion behavior of fluorinated graphene oxide via CF4 plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Baoming; Qian, Xiaoming; Li, Mingming; Ma, Jilan; Liu, Liangsen; Hu, Chuansheng; Xu, Zhiwei; Jiao, Xiaoning

    2015-03-01

    Grafting fluorine onto graphene oxide (GO) by CF4 plasma treatment was investigated in this study. An easy, low-cost, and effective synthesis of the high-dispersive fluorinated GO (FGO) with tunable atomic ratio of F/O ( R F/O) has been realized and the R F/O can be readily manipulated just by adjusting the reaction time. The influence of plasma treatment time on the microstructure, morphology, and dispersion of graphene nanosheets was systematically analyzed. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis confirmed that fluorine has been grafted onto graphene, and the R F/O was gradually increased to 3.54 for the FGO treated for 20 min. Morphology investigation indicated that etching on the edge of GO occurred during the fluorination. The dispersion performance of FGO in water reduced continuously, which in N, N-dimethylacetamide (DMAc) increased firstly and then decreased with the increase in plasma time. The zeta potentials of FGO in DMAc reached the lowest at -28.6 mV when GO was treated for 10 min. The dispersion of FGO in water should be attributed to the decrease of C-O group, while there was a same variation trend of FGO zeta potential in DMAc as the value of C-F content, regardless of R F/O, CF2 group content and CF3 group content. The GO film was super-hydrophilic and the film of FGO treated for 20 min was found to be neither hydrophilic nor hydrophobic.

  19. Mechanisms and Kinetics of Reactions of the O (1D,3p) + CF3Cl System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ In the stratosphere, CF3Cl (CFC 13) can either photodecompose or react directly with atomic oxygen to generate ozone-depleting agents such as Cl and ClO in the gas phase[1-3]. Since the 1970s, attention has been focused on the effects of these compounds on the destruction of ozone in the stratosphere and on global warming[4,5].

  20. Lupeol is the cytotoxic principle in the leaf extract of Dendropanax cf. querceti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarity, D M; Huang, J; Yancey, C A; Zhang, P; Setzer, W N; Lawton, R O; Bates, R B; Caldera, S

    1998-05-01

    The crude ethanol extract from the leaves of Dendropanax cf. querceti (Araliaceae) from Monteverde, Costa Rica, exhibits cytotoxic activity against Hep-G2, A-431, and H-4IIE tumor cell lines. The active component has been isolated by activity-directed separation and identified by 1H- and 13C-NMR spectroscopy as the triterpene lupeol. The mechanism of cytotoxic activity of lupeol has been determined to be inhibition of topoisomerase II.

  1. Caregiver burden and vocational participation among parents of adolescents with CF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, Luca; Lucidi, Vincenzina; Catastini, Paola; Colombo, Carla

    2016-03-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) require parents to make significant lifestyle changes to accommodate their children's treatments. We examined the impact of CF-related caregiving on parents' occupational adjustment and labor supply in terms of organizational changes, presenteeism, and absenteeism. Nineteen Italian CF referral centers joined the LINFA group. We enrolled 168 adolescents with the disease and their parents (n = 225) in a cross-sectional survey research. Patients and their parents answered a self-administered questionnaire (child: SF-12, satisfaction with life, MRC Dyspnea scale; parent: caregiver burden scale, short depression-happiness scale, self-rated health, socio-demographic factors). A pediatrician recorded clinical information (pulmonary exacerbations, CF-related complications, treatment, BMI percentile, Fev1 %). Patients mean age was 16 ± 2.6 and mean BMI percentile was 42.1 ± 29.1; 92 patients (55%) had FEV1 % > 80. Mean parents' age was 45.9 ± 5.9 years, and 59% were women; 75% of women and 24% of men reported to be the primary caregiver. Only 12% had a graduate or post-graduate degree and 56.4% were employed. Approximately 34% of parents reported short depression-happiness scale scores suggestive of clinical depression. Higher caregiving strain was associated with increased likelihood of changing job, work shift schedule, or giving up career opportunities in order to fulfill their caregiving role and increased productivity losses due to family leaves and presenteeism. Caregiving burden is a relevant and frequent issue among parents of adolescent patients with cystic fibrosis. We showed that the humanistic and vocational impact of caring for young patients with the disease is striking and demands health-care and welfare supportive actions. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Redshifts for a sample of fainter galaxies in the first CfA survey slice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorstensen, J. R.; Wegner, G. A.; Hamwey, R.; Boley, F.; Geller, M. J.

    1989-01-01

    Redshifts were measured for 93 of the 94 galaxies in the Zwicky-Nilson merged catalog with the value of m(B/01) between 15.5 and 15.7 and with right ascension alpha between 8(h) and 17(h) and declination delta between 29 and 30 deg. This region is within the one covered by the first slice of the CfA (Center for Astrophysics) survey. The galaxies reinforce features already visible in the earlier survey.

  3. New insights on cytological and metabolic features of Ostreopsis cf. ovata Fukuyo (Dinophyceae: a multidisciplinary approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Honsell

    Full Text Available The harmful dinoflagellate Ostreopsis cf. ovata has been causing toxic events along the Mediterranean coasts and other temperate and tropical areas, with increasing frequency during the last decade. Despite many studies, important biological features of this species are still poorly known. An integrated study, using different microscopy and molecular techniques, Raman microspectroscopy and high resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HR LC-MS, was undertaken to elucidate cytological aspects, and identify main metabolites including toxins. The species was genetically identified as O. cf. ovata, Atlantic-Mediterranean clade. The ultrastructural results show unique features of the mucilage network abundantly produced by this species to colonize benthic substrates, with a new role of trichocysts, never described before. The amorphous polysaccharidic component of mucilage appears to derive from pusule fibrous material and mucocysts. In all stages of growth, the cells show an abundant production of lipids. Different developmental stages of chloroplasts are found in the peripheral cytoplasm and in the centre of cell. In vivo Raman microspectroscopy confirms the presence of the carotenoid peridinin in O. cf. ovata, and detects in several specimen the abundant presence of unsaturated lipids structurally related to docosahexaenoic acid. The HR LC-MS analysis reveals that ovatoxin-a is the predominant toxin, together with decreasing amounts of ovatoxin-b, -d/e, -c and putative palytoxin. Toxins concentration on a per cell basis increases from exponential to senescent phase. The results suggest that benthic blooms of this species are probably related to features such as the ability to create a unique mucilaginous sheath covering the sea bottom, associated with the production of potent toxins as palytoxin-like compounds. In this way, O. cf. ovata may be able to rapidly colonize benthic substrates outcompeting other species.

  4. APOBEC1 complementation factor (A1CF) is dispensable for C-to-U RNA editing in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Elizabeth M.; McCarty, Christopher; Mehalow, Adrienne; Svenson, Karen L.; Murray, Stephen A.; Korstanje, Ron; Braun, Robert E.

    2017-01-01

    Editing of the human and murine ApoB mRNA by APOBEC1, the catalytic enzyme of the protein complex that catalyzes C-to-U RNA editing, creates an internal stop codon within the APOB coding sequence, generating two protein isoforms. It has been long held that APOBEC1-mediated editing activity is dependent on the RNA binding protein A1CF. The function of A1CF in adult tissues has not been reported because a previously reported null allele displays embryonic lethality. This work aimed to address the function of A1CF in adult mouse tissues using a conditional A1cf allele. Unexpectedly, A1cf-null mice were viable and fertile with modest defects in hematopoietic, immune, and metabolic parameters. C-to-U RNA editing was quantified for multiple targets, including ApoB, in the small intestine and liver. In all cases, no changes in RNA editing efficiency were observed. Blood plasma analysis demonstrated a male-specific increase in solute concentration and increased cellularity in the glomeruli of male A1cf-null mice. Urine analysis showed a reduction in solute concentration, suggesting abnormal water homeostasis and possible kidney abnormalities exclusive to the male. Computational identification of kidney C-to-U editing sites from polyadenylated RNA-sequencing identified a number of editing sites exclusive to the kidney. However, molecular analysis of kidney C-to-U editing showed no changes in editing efficiency with A1CF loss. Taken together, these observations demonstrate that A1CF does not act as the APOBEC1 complementation factor in vivo under normal physiological conditions and suggests new roles for A1CF, specifically within the male adult kidney. PMID:28069890

  5. APOBEC1 complementation factor (A1CF) is dispensable for C-to-U RNA editing in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Elizabeth M; McCarty, Christopher; Mehalow, Adrienne; Svenson, Karen L; Murray, Stephen A; Korstanje, Ron; Braun, Robert E

    2017-04-01

    Editing of the human and murine ApoB mRNA by APOBEC1, the catalytic enzyme of the protein complex that catalyzes C-to-U RNA editing, creates an internal stop codon within the APOB coding sequence, generating two protein isoforms. It has been long held that APOBEC1-mediated editing activity is dependent on the RNA binding protein A1CF. The function of A1CF in adult tissues has not been reported because a previously reported null allele displays embryonic lethality. This work aimed to address the function of A1CF in adult mouse tissues using a conditional A1cf allele. Unexpectedly, A1cf-null mice were viable and fertile with modest defects in hematopoietic, immune, and metabolic parameters. C-to-U RNA editing was quantified for multiple targets, including ApoB, in the small intestine and liver. In all cases, no changes in RNA editing efficiency were observed. Blood plasma analysis demonstrated a male-specific increase in solute concentration and increased cellularity in the glomeruli of male A1cf-null mice. Urine analysis showed a reduction in solute concentration, suggesting abnormal water homeostasis and possible kidney abnormalities exclusive to the male. Computational identification of kidney C-to-U editing sites from polyadenylated RNA-sequencing identified a number of editing sites exclusive to the kidney. However, molecular analysis of kidney C-to-U editing showed no changes in editing efficiency with A1CF loss. Taken together, these observations demonstrate that A1CF does not act as the APOBEC1 complementation factor in vivo under normal physiological conditions and suggests new roles for A1CF, specifically within the male adult kidney.

  6. Cracking behavior of thermally aged and irradiated CF-8 cast austenitic stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Y., E-mail: Yiren_Chen@anl.gov [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Ave, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Alexandreanu, B.; Chen, W.-Y.; Natesan, K. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Ave, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Li, Z.; Yang, Y. [University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Rao, A.S. [US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, 11545 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    To assess the combined effect of thermal aging and neutron irradiation on the cracking behavior of CF-8 cast austenitic stainless steel, crack growth rate (CGR) and fracture toughness J-R curve tests were carried out on compact-tension specimens in high-purity water with low dissolved oxygen. Both unaged and thermally aged specimens were irradiated at ∼320 °C to 0.08 dpa. Thermal aging at 400 °C for 10,000 h apparently had no effect on the corrosion fatigue and stress corrosion cracking behavior in the test environment. The cracking susceptibility of CF-8 was not elevated significantly by neutron irradiation at 0.08 dpa. Transgranular cleavage-like cracking was the main fracture mode during the CGR tests, and a brittle morphology of delta ferrite was often seen on the fracture surfaces at the end of CGR tests. The fracture toughness J-R curve tests showed that both thermal aging and neutron irradiation can induce significant embrittlement. The loss of fracture toughness due to neutron irradiation was more pronounced in the unaged than aged specimens. After neutron irradiation, the fracture toughness values of the unaged and aged specimens were reduced to a similar level. G-phase precipitates were observed in the aged and irradiated specimens with or without prior aging. The similar microstructural changes resulting from thermal aging and irradiation suggest a common microstructural mechanism of inducing embrittlement in CF-8.

  7. Interpreting the near-infrared spectra of the 'golden standard' Type Ia supernova 2005cf

    CERN Document Server

    Gall, E E E; Kromer, M; Sim, S A; Benetti, S; Blanc, G; Elias-Rosa, N; Hillebrandt, W

    2012-01-01

    We present nine near-infrared (NIR) spectra of supernova (SN) 2005cf at epochs from -10 d to +42 d with respect to B-band maximum, complementing the existing excellent data sets available for this prototypical Type Ia SN at other wavelengths. The spectra show a time evolution and spectral features characteristic of normal Type Ia SNe, as illustrated by a comparison with SNe 1999ee, 2002bo and 2003du. The broad-band spectral energy distribution (SED) of SN 2005cf is studied in combined ultraviolet (UV), optical and NIR spectra at five epochs between ~ 8 d before and ~ 10 d after maximum light. We also present synthetic spectra of the hydrodynamic explosion model W7, which reproduce the key properties of SN 2005cf not only at UV-optical as previously reported, but also at NIR wavelengths. From the radiative-transfer calculations we infer that fluorescence is the driving mechanism that shapes the SED of SNe Ia. In particular, the NIR part of the spectrum is almost devoid of absorption features, and instead domin...

  8. Use of the Endophytic Fungus Daldinia cf. concentrica and Its Volatiles as Bio-Control Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liarzi, Orna; Bar, Einat; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Ezra, David

    2016-01-01

    Endophytic fungi are organisms that spend most of their life cycle within plant tissues without causing any visible damage to the host plant. Many endophytes were found to secrete specialized metabolites and/or emit volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which may be biologically active and assist fungal survival inside the plant as well as benefit their hosts. We report on the isolation and characterization of a VOCs-emitting endophytic fungus, isolated from an olive tree (Olea europaea L.) growing in Israel; the isolate was identified as Daldinia cf. concentrica. We found that the emitted VOCs were active against various fungi from diverse phyla. Results from postharvest experiments demonstrated that D. cf. concentrica prevented development of molds on organic dried fruits, and eliminated Aspergillus niger infection in peanuts. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis of the volatiles led to identification of 27 VOCs. On the basis of these VOCs we prepared two mixtures that displayed a broad spectrum of antifungal activity. In postharvest experiments these mixtures prevented development of molds on wheat grains, and fully eliminated A. niger infection in peanuts. In light of these findings, we suggest use of D. cf. concentrica and/or its volatiles as an alternative approach to controlling phytopathogenic fungi in the food industry and in agriculture. PMID:27977739

  9. Decision Making about Risk of Infection by Young Adults with CF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Reynolds

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Young people with cystic fibrosis (CF are asked to avoid a number of environments associated with increased infection risk, but in practice they need to balance this with competing priorities such as building and sustaining relationships with friends and family. This study explored the process by which young people make these decisions. Mixed methods were used: a vignette study presenting choices around engaging in activities involving a degree of infection risk and a thematic analysis of participant's accounts of their decision making. The eight participants chose to engage in high risk behaviours in 59% of the choices. All participants chose to engage in at least one risky behavior, though this was less likely when the risk was significant. Thematic analysis revealed large areas of misunderstanding and lack of knowledge, leading to some potentially worrying misconceptions about the nature of infections and risk. Young people with CF are not currently making informed decisions around activities that involve increased risk of infection, and there is an urgent need for CF teams to address this in information provision.

  10. Water sorption of CH3- and CF3-Bis-GMA based resins with additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuradha Prakki

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of additives on the water sorption characteristics of Bis-GMA based copolymers and composites containing TEGDMA, CH3Bis-GMA or CF3Bis-GMA. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifteen experimental copolymers and corresponding composites were prepared combining Bis-GMA and TEGDMA, CH3Bis-GMA or CF3Bis-GMA, with aldehyde or diketone (24 and 32 mol% totaling 30 groups. For composites, barium aluminosilicate glass and pyrogenic silica was added to comonomer mixtures. Photopolymerization was effected by 0.2 wt% each of camphorquinone and N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine. Specimen densities in dry and water saturated conditions were obtained by Archimedes' method. Water sorption and desorption were evaluated in a desorption-sorption-desorption cycle. Water uptake (%WU, water desorption (%WD, equilibrium solubility (ES; µg/mm³, swelling (f and volume increase (%V were calculated using appropriate equations. RESULTS: All resins with additives had increased %WU and ES. TEGDMA-containing systems presented higher %WU, %WD, ES, f and %V values, followed by resins based on CH3Bis-GMA and CF3Bis-GMA. CONCLUSIONS: Aldehyde and diketone led to increases in the water sorption characteristics of experimental resins.

  11. Potamotrygon cf. henlei stingray mucus: biochemical features of a novel antimicrobial protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conceição, Katia; Monteiro-dos-Santos, Juliane; Seibert, Carla Simone; Silva, Pedro Ismael; Marques, Elineide Eugênio; Richardson, Michael; Lopes-Ferreira, Mônica

    2012-10-01

    Antimicrobial molecules are important components of the innate immune system in vertebrates. They have been studied widely in several fishes, but little is known about these defence factors in stingrays, which are thought to have less sophisticated adaptive immune systems when compared to other teleosts. Stingrays from the specie Potamotrygon cf. henlei are distributed throughout the rivers of central-west Brazil, being the cause of numerous envenomations occurring in the dry seasons. In a previous study, we reported that the mucus of the stingray P. cf. henlei shows antimicrobial effects. Here, to analyze the antimicrobial compounds from the mucus of P. cf. henlei, we employed solid-phase extraction, chromatographic separation followed by ESI-MS, and Edman degradation. A protein similar to the β-chain of hemoglobin was identified, isolated and partially sequenced by Edman degradation. This protein has a molecular weight of 16072.8 Da, and was shown to be active against bacteria (Micrococcus luteus and Escherichiacoli) and yeast (Candida tropicalis) without hemolytic activity. Effects of this new protein in the microcirculation environment were also evaluated. The results obtained provide fundamental information for future basic research, clinical diagnosis and development of new therapies to accident treatment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of a bioactive polypeptide from the mucus of a stingray.

  12. Scintillation properties of N2 and CF4 and performances of a scintillating ionization chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehaut, G.; Salvador, S.; Fontbonne, J.-M.; Lecolley, F.-R.; Perronnel, J.; Vandamme, Ch.

    2015-10-01

    In this work, we studied the emission yields, decay times and coincidence resolving times (CRT) of two gases, nitrogen (N2) and tetrafluoromethane (CF4), used for particle detection in the context of fission products measurement. The set-up was made of an ionization chamber and two photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) placed front-to-front on each side of the active zone of the chamber. Using the photomultiplier tubes, the number of photoelectrons (phe) converted at the photocathodes from the scintillation processes in each gas was quantified and the scintillation time spectra were recorded. A scintillation emission yield of 24 phe MeV-1 with a decay time of τd = 2.5 ns in N2, and 225 phe MeV-1 with τd = 6.2 ns for CF4, has been measured. With our set-up, the coincidence resolving time (σ values) between the two PMTs have been measured using alpha particles at 1.4 ns and 0.34 ns for N2 and CF4, respectively.

  13. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy of CF4 on the GEC Reference Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, M. V. V. S.; Sharma, S. P.; Meyyappan, M.; Cruden, Brett A.; Arnold, Jim (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) has been used to characterize inductively coupled CF4 plasmas in a GEC Reference Cell in-situ In examining these FTIR spectra, several assumptions and approximations of FTIR analysis are addressed. This includes the density dependence of cross-sections, non-linear effects in the addition of overlapping bands and the effect of spatial variations in density and temperature, This analysis demonstrates that temperatures extracted from MR spectra may provide a poor estimate of the true neutral plasma temperature. The FTIR spectra are dominated by unreacted CF, accounting for 40-60% of the gas products. The amount of CF4 consumption is found to have a marked dependence on power, and is nearly independent of pressure in the range of 10-50 mtorr. Small amounts of C2F6 are observed at low power. Also observed are etching products from the quartz window SiF4 COF2 and CO which occur in approximately equal ratios and together account for less than 10% of the gas. The concentrations of these species are nearly independent of pressure. CFx radicals are below the detection limit of this apparatus (approx. 1012/cc).

  14. Phase stability in thermally-aged CASS CF8 under heavy ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Meimei, E-mail: mli@anl.gov [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Miller, Michael K. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Chen, Wei-Ying [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Thermally-aged CF8 was irradiated with 1 MeV Kr ions at 400 °C. • Atom probe tomography revealed a strong dose dependence of G-phase precipitates. • Phase separation of α and α′ in ferrite was reduced after irradiation. - Abstract: The stability of the microstructure of a cast austenitic stainless steel (CASS), before and after heavy ion irradiation, was investigated by atom probe tomography (APT). A CF8 ferrite–austenite duplex alloy was thermally aged at 400 °C for 10,000 h. After this treatment, APT revealed nanometer-sized G-phase precipitates and Fe-rich α and Cr-enriched α′ phase separated regions in the ferrite. The thermally-aged CF8 specimen was irradiated with 1 MeV Kr ions to a fluence of 1.88 × 10{sup 19} ions/m{sup 2} at 400 °C. After irradiation, APT analysis revealed a strong spatial/dose dependence of the G-phase precipitates and the α–α′ spinodal decomposition in the ferrite. For the G-phase precipitates, the number density increased and the mean size decreased with increasing dose, and the particle size distribution changed considerably under irradiation. The inverse coarsening process can be described by recoil resolution. The amplitude of the α–α′ spinodal decomposition in the ferrite was apparently reduced after heavy ion irradiation.

  15. Calculated neutron air kerma strength conversion factors for a generically encapsulated Cf-252 brachytherapy source

    CERN Document Server

    Rivard, M J; D'Errico, F; Tsai, J S; Ulin, K; Engler, M J

    2002-01-01

    The sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf neutron air kerma strength conversion factor (S sub K sub N /m sub C sub f) is a parameter needed to convert the radionuclide mass (mu g) provided by Oak Ridge National Laboratory into neutron air kerma strength required by modern clinical brachytherapy dosimetry formalisms indicated by Task Group No. 43 of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM). The impact of currently used or proposed encapsulating materials for sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf brachytherapy sources (Pt/Ir-10%, 316L stainless steel, nitinol, and Zircaloy-2) on S sub K sub N /m sub C sub f was calculated and results were fit to linear equations. Only for substantial encapsulation thicknesses, did S sub K sub N /m sub C sub f decrease, while the impact of source encapsulation composition is increasingly negligible as Z increases. These findings are explained on the basis of the non-relativistic kinematics governing the majority of sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf neutron interactions. Neutron kerma and energy spectra resul...

  16. Laboratory rotational ground state transitions of NH$_3$D$^+$ and CF$^+$

    CERN Document Server

    Stoffels, Alexander; Schlemmer, Stephan; Brünken, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Aims. This paper reports accurate laboratory frequencies of the rotational ground state transitions of two astronomically relevant molecular ions, NH3D+ and CF+. Methods. Spectra in the millimeter-wave band were recorded by the method of rotational state-selective attachment of He-atoms to the molecular ions stored and cooled in a cryogenic ion trap held at 4 K. The lowest rotational transition in the A state (ortho state) of NH$_3$D$^+$ ($J_K = 1_0 - 0_0$), and the two hyperfine components of the ground state transition of CF$^+$($J = 1 - 0$) were measured with a relative precision better than $10^{-7}$. Results. For both target ions the experimental transition frequencies agree with recent observations of the same lines in different astronomical environments. In the case of NH$_3$D$^+$ the high-accuracy laboratory measurements lend support to its tentative identification in the interstellar medium. For CF$^+$ the experimentally determined hyperfine splitting confirms previous quantum-chemical calculations a...

  17. Hydrophobic treatment on polymethylmethacrylate surface by nanosecond-pulse DBDs in CF{sub 4} at atmospheric pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Cheng [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Key Laboratory of Power Electronics and Electric Drive, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Zhou, Yang [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Shao, Tao, E-mail: st@mail.iee.ac.cn [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Key Laboratory of Power Electronics and Electric Drive, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Xie, Qing [State Key Laboratory of Alternate Electrical Power System with Renewable Energy Sources, North China Electric Power University, Baoding 071003 (China); Xu, Jiayu [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Yang, Wenjin [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Key Laboratory of Power Electronics and Electric Drive, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2014-08-30

    Highlights: • Increase in hydrophobicity on PMMA is achieved after the DBD treatment in CF{sub 4}, and the water contact angle can increase from 68° to 100° after treatment. • Nanosecond-pulse DBD is used for the surface treatment and the power density is about 114.8 mW/cm{sup 2}. • The effects of applied voltage, CF{sub 4} flow, and time on plasma treatment are investigated. • Plasma treatment causes morphological change, significantly increases the roughness of the surface, and introduces fluorine-containing groups into the polymethylmethacrylate surface. • Hydrophobic behavior of the treated PMMA surface is slightly affected by the aging effect. - Abstract: Nanosecond-pulse dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) can provide non-thermal plasmas with extremely high energy and high density, which can result in a series of complicated physical and chemical reactions in the surface treatment of polymers. Therefore, in this paper, hydrophobic treatment of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) surface is conducted by nanosecond-pulse DBD in carbon tetrafluoride (CF{sub 4}) at atmospheric pressure. Investigations on surface morphology and chemical composition before and after the DBD treatment in CF{sub 4} are conducted with the contact angle measurement, atomic force microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectrometer. The effects of the applied voltage, CF{sub 4} flow rate, and treatment time on the hydrophobic modification are studied. Results show that the contact angles of the treated PMMA surface increases with the applied voltage, and it could be greatly affected by the CF{sub 4} flow rate and the treatment time. The water contact angle can increase from 68° to 100° after the treatment. Furthermore, both surface morphology and chemical composition of the PMMA samples are changed. Both the increase of the surface roughness and the occurrence of fluorine-containing functional groups on the PMMA surface treated by DBD in CF

  18. On the use of a (252Cf-3He) assembly for landmine detection by the neutron back-scattering method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsheikh, N; Viesti, G; ElAgib, I; Habbani, F

    2012-04-01

    Experiments were carried out to optimize the performance of the neutron back-scattering (NBS) technique in landmine detection using an assembly consisting of three different layers placed above a (252)Cf neuron source, producing about 10(4)s(-1), in conjunction with a (3)He detector. The assembly was optimized experimentally. The selected assembly configuration was then examined against different (252)Cf stand-off distances and mine burial depths using dummy landmines. Furthermore, Monte Carlo simulations were performed to study the effect of the shield when a (252)Cf source in the range 10(4)-10(7)s(-1) was employed, and to optimize the geometry for future prototypes.

  19. The CF-CIRC study: a French collaborative study to assess the accuracy of Cystic Fibrosis diagnosis in neonatal screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bellon Gabriel

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cystic fibrosis (CF is caused by mutations in the gene encoding for the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR protein, which acts as a chloride channel after activation by cyclic AMP (cAMP. Newborn screening programs for CF usually consist of an immunoreactive trypsinogen (IRT assay, followed when IRT is elevated by testing for a panel of CF-causing mutations. Some children, however, may have persistent hypertrypsinogenemia, only one or no identified CFTR gene mutation, and sweat chloride concentrations close to normal values. In vivo demonstration of abnormal CFTR protein function would be an important diagnostic aid in this situation. Measurements of transepithelial nasal potential differences (NPD in adults accurately characterize CFTR-related ion transport. The aim of the present study is to establish reference values for NPD measurements for healthy children and those with CF aged 3 months to 3 years, the age range of most difficult-to-diagnose patients with suspected CF. The ultimate goal of our study is to validate NPD testing as a diagnostic tool for children with borderline results in neonatal screening. Methods/Design We adapted the standard NPD protocol for young children, designed a special catheter for them, used a slower perfusion rate, and shortened the protocol to include only measurement of basal PD, transepithelial sodium (Na+ transport in response to the Na+ channel inhibitor amiloride, and CFTR-mediated chloride (Cl- secretion in response to isoproterenol, a β-agonist in a Cl- free solution. The study will include 20 children with CF and 20 healthy control children. CF children will be included only if they carry 2 CF-causing mutations in the CFTR gene or have sweat chloride concentrations > 60 mEq/L or both. The healthy children will be recruited among the siblings of the CF patients, after verification that they do not carry the familial mutation. Discussion A preliminary study of 3 adult control

  20. Reactive ion beam etching studies of tungsten with CF sub 4 /argon mixtures using ion scattering spectroscopy and SIMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, T.I.; Deshmukh, V.G.I. (Royal Signals and Radar Establishment, Malvern (UK)); Armour, D.G. (Salford Univ. (UK). Dept. of Electrical Engineering)

    1989-01-01

    Tungsten foil was bombarded at 550 eV with ion beams generated from CF{sub 4}/Ar gas mixtures. The chemical compositions of the bombarded surface and etch products were determined using Ion Scattering Spectroscopy and Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry respectively. As the ratio CF{sub 4}/Ar was increased, the tungsten surface became covered with fluorine atoms. The products observed were positive ions of W, WF, and WF{sub 2}, with WF{sub 2} being only formed above a threshold concentration of CF{sub 4} in the gas mixture. (author).

  1. A second gene at the tomato Cf-4 locus confers resistance to Cladosporium fulvum through recognition of a novel avirulence determinant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijkamp, HJJ; Takken, Frank L.W.; Thomas, Colwyn M.; Joosten, Matthieu H.A.J.; Golstein, Catherine; Westerink, Nienke; Hille, Jacques; Nijkamp, H. John J.; Wit, Pierre J.G.M. de; Jones, Jonathan D.G.

    1999-01-01

    The tomato Cf-4 and Cf-9 genes confer resistance to the leaf mould pathogen Cladosporium fulvum and map at a complex locus on the short arm of chromosome 1. It was previously shown that the gene encoding Cf-4, which recognizes the Avr4 avirulence determinant, is one of five tandemly duplicated homol

  2. A rapid method for the measurement of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), trifluoromethyl sulfur pentafluoride (SF5CF3), and Halon 1211 (CF2ClBr) in hydrologic tracer studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busenberg, Eurybiades; Plummer, L. Niel

    2010-01-01

    A rapid headspace method for the simultaneous laboratory determination of intentionally introduced hydrologic tracers, sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), trifluoromethyl sulfur pentafluoride (SF5CF3), Halon 1211 (CF2ClBr), and other halocarbons in water and gases is described. The high sensitivity of the procedure allows for introduction of minimal tracer mass (a few grams) into hydrologic systems with a large dynamic range of analytical detection (dilutions to 1:108). Analysis times by gas chromatography with electron capture detector are less than 1 min for SF6; about 2 min for SF6 and SF5CF3; and 4 min for SF6, SF5CF3, and Halon 1211. Many samples can be rapidly collected, preserved in stoppered septum bottles, and analyzed at a later time in the laboratory. Examples are provided showing the effectiveness of the gas tracer test studies in varied hydrogeological settings.

  3. ISOLATION AND GROWTH OF DINOFLAGELLATE, Scrippsiella sp. AND DIATOM, Melosira cf. moniliformis IN CONTROLLED CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wa Iba

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The growth of the dinoflagellate, Scrippsiella sp. from Narragansett Bay, USA and the chain-forming benthic diatom, Melosira cf. moniliformis from Kendari Bay, Indonesia was evaluated under optimized laboratory conditions to investigate potential new candidates for shrimp aquaculture hatchery feeds. Isolation of microalgae was performed using capillary pipets in f/8-Si for Scrippsiella sp. and f/2 for M. cf. moniliformis. Isolated cells were placed in an incubator with a photoperiod of 12:12 hour (light : dark cycle, at light intensities of 62-89 μmol photons.m-2.s and at temperature of 20oC. Microalgae cells were cultured in 150-mL Erlenmeyer flasks containing 100 mL of f/2-Si medium for Scrippsiella spin triplicates and in 50-mL culture tubes containing 20 mL of f/2 medium for M. cf. moniliformis in four replicates. The cells in culture flasks were used in cell counting experiments while those in tubes were for fluorometer trials. Growth evaluation was conducted every 2-3 days. The diatom, M. cf. moniliformis was in logarithmic phase when observed at 2 to 7 days after inoculation and showed a high growth rate (μ = 0.52 day-1 and high division rate (k = 0.76 day-1, 1 division every 1.3 days. Logarithmic phase of Scrippsiella in culture flasks was started on day 7 to 30 (μ = 0.17 day-1 and k = 0.25 day-1 or 1 division every 4 days. In culture tubes, Scrippsiella sp. reached logarithmic phase at day 21 to 47 (μ = 0.12 day-1 and k = 0.18 day-1, 1 division every 5.65 days. This study indicates that M. cf. moniliformis can be used for aquaculture hatcheries feed but further study for the nutrition composition is needed. Scrippsiella sp. is potentially toxic for aquaculture at high densities, therefore they should be assessed carefully if used for aquaculture feeds.

  4. A pilot trial on safety and efficacy of erythrocyte-mediated steroid treatment in CF patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bella S

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic neutrophil inflammation of the respiratory tract tissues plays a key role in the pathogenesis and in prognosis of cystic fibrosis (CF. It is evident that an anti-inflammatory therapy represents an important step in the treatment of CF patients. Corticosteroids and ibuprofen have been proven to slow down the impairment of the pulmonary function in CF patients but their use is limited by the frequency of adverse events. A novel strategy for delivering low doses of steroids for long periods through the infusion of autologous erythrocytes loaded with dexamethasone has been recently set up. A recent study suggested the feasibility of therapy with low doses of corticosteroids delivered through engineered erythrocytes in CF patients. This study presents a further analysis of safety and efficacy of this therapy. Methods The treatment group was not randomised and the assignment was based on the patient's consent. Patients entered the study if they had a forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 Results Nine patients in the experimental group received the treatment once a month for a period of 24 month. Patients did not develop diabetes, cataract, or hypertension, or other typical side effects of steroid treatment during the follow up period. There was a constant improvement of FEV1 in patients undergoing the experimental treatment compared to a gradual decrease of the same parameter in the standard therapy group (P = 0.04. The average of clinic and radiological indexes did not vary. The number of infective relapses that have required antibiotic intravenous therapy was not different in the two groups, although the average of these episodes was slightly higher in the experimental therapy group. Conclusion Intraerythrocyte corticosteroid treatment may stabilize the respiratory function in CF patients but is often considered too invasive by patients. The results obtained by our study may help planning an experimental, controlled

  5. Evaluación de las Poblaciones de Cebus albifrons cf. aequatorialis en los Bosques Suroccidentales Ecuatorianos

    OpenAIRE

    Albuja Viteri, Luis Humberto; Arcos, Rodrigo

    2007-01-01

    En este estudio los resultados muestran que del total de localidades visitadas, tan solo en ocho se verificó la presencia de Cebus albifrons cf. aequatorialis y únicamente en dos de ellas se pudo tener contato con la especie.

  6. Atmospheric chemistry of HFC-134a. Kinetic and mechanistic study of the CF3CFHO2 + NO2 reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møgelberg, T.E.; Nielsen, O.J.; Sehested, J.;

    1994-01-01

    A pulse radiolysis system was used to study the kinetics of the reaction of CF3CFHO2 with NO2. By monitoring the rate of the decay of NO2 using its absorption at 400 nm the reaction rate constant was determined to be k = (5.0 +/- 0.5) x 10(-12) cm3 molecule-1 s-1. A long path length Fourier......-transform infrared technique was used to investigate the thermal decomposition of the product CF3CFHO2NO2. At 296 K in the presence of 700 Torr of air, decomposition of CF3CFHO2NO2 was rapid (greater than 90% decomposition within 3 min). The results are discussed in the context of atmospheric chemistry of CF3CFH2...

  7. CF4 decomposition without water over a solid ternary mixture consisting of NaF, silicon and one metal oxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiufeng Xu; Xianjun Niu; Jie Fan; Yanan Wang; Ming Feng

    2011-01-01

    A solid ternary mixture consisting of NaF,silicon and one of the metal oxides such as Al2O3,MgO,CaO,SrO,BaO was prepared and used as a defluorinated reagent for CF4 decomposition.The results show that the initial conversion of CF4 reached 100% over NaF-Si-MgO and NaF-Si-CaO at 850 ℃,and the reagent with NaF/Si/MgO molar ratio of 33/34/33 exhibited a high reactivity with a full conversion of CF4 lasting for 57 min.The plausible paths of CF4 decomposition over NaF-Si-Al2O3,NaF-Si-MgO,NaF-Si-CaO,NaF-Si-SrO and NaF-Si-BaO are proposed.

  8. Cooperative effect of silver in copper-catalyzed trifluoromethylation of aryl iodides using Me3SiCF3

    KAUST Repository

    Weng, Zhiqiang

    2011-06-13

    An effective model of cooperative effect of silver for the coppercatalyzed trifluoromethylation of activated and unactivated aryl iodides to trifluoromethylated arenes using Me3SiCF3 was achieved with a broad substrate scope. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  9. An Experimental Study on Hybrid Noncompression CF Bracing and GF Sheet Wrapping Reinforcement Method to Restore Damaged RC Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Seok Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a novel technique for restoration of reinforced concrete (RC structures that have sustained damage during an earthquake. The reinforcement scheme described here is a hybrid seismic retrofitting technique that combines noncompression X-bracing using CF with externally bonded GF sheets to strengthen RC structures that have sustained damage following an earthquake. The GF sheet is used to improve the ductility of columns, and the noncompression CF X-bracing system, which consists of CF bracing and anchors to replace the conventional steel bracing and bolt connections, is used to increase the lateral strength of the framing system. We report seismic restoration capacity, which enables reuse of the damaged RC frames via the hybrid CF X-bracing and GF sheet wrapping system. Cyclic loading tests were carried out to investigate hysteresis of the lateral load-drift relations, as well as the ductility. The GF sheet significantly improved the ductility of columns, resulting in a change in failure mode. The strengthening effect of conventional CF sheets used in columns is not sufficient with respect to lateral strength and stiffness. However, this study results in a significant increase in the strength of the structure due to the use of CF X-bracing and inhibited buckling failure of the bracing. This result can be exploited to develop guidelines for the application of the reinforcement system to restore damaged RC structures.

  10. Study on the atmospheric photochemical reaction of CF3 radicals using ultraviolet photoelectron and photoionization mass spectrometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A study of the atmospheric photochemical reaction of CF3 radical with CO and O2 was performed by using a homemade ultraviolet photoelectron spectrometer-photoionization mass spectrometer (PES- PIMS). The electronic structures and mechanism of ionization and dissociation of CF3OC(O)OOC(O)- OCF3 were investigated. It was indicated that the two bands on the photoelectron spectrum of CF3OC(O)OOC(O)OCF3 are the result of ionization of an electron from a lone pair of oxygen and a fluo- rine lone pair of CF3 group. The outermost electrons reside in the oxygen lone pair. The experimental and theoretical first vertical ionization energy is 13.21 and 13.178 eV, respectively, with the PES and OVGF method. They are in good agreement. The photo ionization and dissociation processes were discussed with the help of theoretical calculations and PES-PIMS experiment. After ionization, the parent ions prefer the dissociation of the C-O bond and giving the fragments CF3OCO+ and CF3+. It demonstrated that the ultraviolet photoelectron and photoionization mass spectrometer could be ap- plied widely in the study of atmospheric photochemical reaction.

  11. Experimental studies on the power-frequency breakdown voltage of CF3I/N2/CO2 gas mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoxing; Tian, Shuangshuang; Xiao, Song; Li, Yi; Deng, Zaitao; Tang, Ju

    2017-03-01

    Trifluoroiodomethane is a promising alternative to SF6 because of its good insulation properties and much less serious greenhouse effect than SF6. Previous studies have shown that the insulation performance of CF3I mixed with CO2 or N2 can equal that of SF6. This study explored the frequency breakdown characteristics of CF3I and SF6 mixed with two buffer gases. The effects of air pressure and field strength were analyzed. The fixed mixing ratio of CF3I and SF6 was 30% in the experiment. The breakdown experiment was conducted by changing the mixing ratio of CO2 and N2. Results showed that the CO2/N2 mixture ratio did not exert a synergetic effect, and the CF3I/CO2 breakdown performance was better than that of CF3I/N2 in the quasi-uniform and highly non-uniform electric fields. CO2 possibly provided the C atoms for the entire system to maintain a certain balance in C, and this balance inhibited the decomposition of CF3I. The breakdown performance of SF6/N2 was good in quasi-uniform field, whereas that of SF6/CO2 was good in the highly non-uniform field.

  12. Using CF0218-ELISA to distinguish Chlamydophila felis-infected cats from vaccinated and uninfected domestic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohya, Kenji; Okuda, Hideko; Maeda, Sadatoshi; Yamaguchi, Tsuyoshi; Fukushi, Hideto

    2010-12-15

    Chlamydophila felis is a causative agent of acute and chronic conjunctivitis and pneumonia in cats. Cats can be vaccinated with killed or attenuated C. felis. However, current serodiagnostics cannot distinguish these cats from naturally infected cats. This causes difficulty of early diagnosis and seroepidemiological survey for C. felis. We previously reported that C. felis CF0218 can be used as a C. felis-infection-specific diagnostic antigen in experimentally infected and/or vaccinated cats. In this study, we evaluated an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using recombinant CF0218 as antigen (CF0218-ELISA) to detect anti-C. felis antibody in 714 sera of domestic cats whose histories of vaccination against C. felis are known. The 44 vaccinated cats were 93% negative using CF0218-ELISA; half of these scored positive by immunofluorescence assay (IFA) using C. felis-infected cells as antigen. The 670 non-vaccinated cats had CF0218-ELISA positivity rates that were statistically in agreement with IFA (18% vs. 21%). These results show that CF0218, which was identified as a C. felis-infection-specific antigen, is a useful serodiagnostic antigen to distinguish naturally C. felis-infected cats from vaccinated and non-infected cats.

  13. Experimental and theoretical studies of the reaction between CF3 and NO2 at 298 K

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagsberg, P.; Jodkowski, J.T.; Ratajczak, E.;

    1998-01-01

    The title reaction has been studied by pulse radiolysis combined with time-resolved infrared diode laser spectroscopy. The kinetics of CF3 were analysed taking into account the two competing reactions CF3 + CF3 M --> C2F6 + M (1) and CF3 + NO2 --> CF2O + FNO (2a). Based on studies of the yield...... and kinetics of CF3 we determined values of the absorption cross section, sigma(CF3) = (1.96 +/- 0.20) X 10(-17) cm(2) molecule(-1) at 1263.567 cm(-1) and the bimolecular rate constant, k(1) = (1.04 +/- 0.12) X 10(-11) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) with a bath gas pressure of 20 mbar at 298 K. Reaction (2a...

  14. Structure and anterior regeneration of musculature and nervous system in Cirratulus cf. cirratus (Cirratulidae, Annelida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidhase, Michael; Bleidorn, Christoph; Helm, Conrad

    2014-12-01

    Annelids provide suitable models for studying regeneration. By now, comprehensive information is restricted to only a few taxa. For many other annelids, comparative data are scarce or even missing. Here, we describe the regeneration of a member of the Cirratulus cirratus species complex. Using phalloidin-labeling and antibody-stainings combined with subsequent confocal laser scanning microscopy, we provide data about the organization of body wall musculature and nervous system of intact specimens, as well as about anteriorly regenerating specimens. Our analyses show that C. cf. cirratus exhibits a prominent longitudinal muscle layer forming a dorsal muscle plate, two ventral muscle strands and a ventral-median muscle fiber. The circular musculature forms closed rings which are interrupted in the area of parapodia. The nervous system of C. cf. cirratus shows a typical rope-ladder like arrangement and the circumesophageal connectives exhibit two separate roots leading to the brain. During regeneration, the nervous system redevelops remarkably earlier than the musculature, first constituting a tripartite loop-like structure which later become the circumesophageal connectives. Regeneration of longitudinal musculature starts with diffuse ingrowth and subsequent structuring into the blastema. In contrast, circular musculature develops independently inside the blastema. Our findings constitute the first analysis of regeneration for a member of the Cirratuliformia on a structural level. Summarizing the regeneration process in C. cf. cirratus, five main phases can be subdivided: 1) wound closure, 2) blastema formation, 3) blastema differentiation, 4) resegmentation, and 5) growth, respectively elongation. Additionally, the described tripartite loop-like structure of the regenerating nervous system has not been reported for any other annelid taxon. In contrast, the regeneration of circular and longitudinal musculature originating from different groups of cells seems to be a

  15. The effect of mucolytic agents on gene transfer across a CF sputum barrier in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, M; Caplen, N J; Browning, J E; Griesenbach, U; Sorgi, F; Huang, L; Gruenert, D C; Marriot, C; Crystal, R G; Geddes, D M; Alton, E W

    1998-01-01

    Trials of gene transfer for cystic fibrosis (CF) are currently underway. However, direct application to the airways may be impeded by the presence of airway secretions. We have therefore assessed the effect of CF sputum on the expression of the reporter gene beta-galactosidase complexed with the cationic liposome DC-Chol/DOPE in a number of cell lines in vitro. Transfection was markedly inhibited in the presence of sputum; the effect was concentration dependent and was only partially ameliorated by removal of sputum with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) washing before gene transfer. However, treatment of the sputum-covered cells with recombinant human DNase (rhDNase, 50 micrograms/ml) but not with N-acetylcysteine, Nacystelyn, lysine (all 20 mM) or recombinant alginase (0.5 U/ml) significantly (P < 0.005) improved gene transfer. Adenovirus-mediated gene transfer efficiency in the presence of sputum was similarly inhibited, and again, treatment with rhDNase before transfection significantly improved gene transfer (P < 0.005). Transfection of Cos 7 cells in the presence of exogenous genomic DNA alone demonstrated similar inhibition to that observed with sputum and was also ameliorated by pre-treatment of DNA-covered cells with rhDNase. In a separate series of experiments performed in the absence of added sputum or genomic DNA, increasing concentrations of rhDNase resulted in a concentration-related decline in transfection efficiency. However, even at the highest concentration (500 micrograms/ml of rhDNase), transfection efficiency remained more than 50% of control. Thus, pre-treatment of CF airways with rhDNase may be appropriate before liposome or adenovirus-mediated gene therapy.

  16. Interpreting the near-infrared spectra of the 'golden standard' Type Ia supernova 2005cf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, E. E. E.; Taubenberger, S.; Kromer, M.; Sim, S. A.; Benetti, S.; Blanc, G.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Hillebrandt, W.

    2012-12-01

    We present nine near-infrared (NIR) spectra of supernova (SN) 2005cf at epochs from -10 to +42 d with respect to B-band maximum, complementing the existing excellent data sets available for this prototypical Type Ia SN at other wavelengths. The spectra show a time evolution and spectral features characteristic of normal Type Ia SNe, as illustrated by a comparison with SNe 1999ee, 2002bo and 2003du. The broad-band spectral energy distribution (SED) of SN 2005cf is studied in combined ultraviolet (UV), optical and NIR spectra at five epochs between ˜8 d before and ˜10 d after maximum light. We also present synthetic spectra of the hydrodynamic explosion model W7, which reproduce the key properties of SN 2005cf not only at UV-optical as previously reported, but also at NIR wavelengths. From the radiative-transfer calculations we infer that fluorescence is the driving mechanism that shapes the SED of SNe Ia. In particular, the NIR part of the spectrum is almost devoid of absorption features, and instead dominated by fluorescent emission of both iron-group material and intermediate-mass elements at pre-maximum epochs, and pure iron-group material after maximum light. A single P-Cygni feature of Mg II at early epochs and a series of relatively unblended Co II lines at late phases allow us to constrain the regions of the ejecta in which the respective elements are abundant. Based on observations collected at European Southern Observatory, Paranal. Program ID 075.D-0823(B).

  17. Marine-derived fungus Aspergillus cf. tubingensis LAMAI 31: a new genetic resource for xylanase production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Juliana A; Vieira, Juliana M F; Videira, Alexandre; Meirelles, Lucas A; Rodrigues, André; Taniwaki, Marta H; Sette, Lara D

    2016-03-01

    Marine-derived fungi have been reported as relevant producers of enzymes, which can have different properties in comparison with their terrestrial counterparts. The aim of the present study was to select from a collection of 493 marine-derived fungi the best producer of xylanase in order to evaluate the enzymatic production under different conditions. A total of 112 isolates produced xylanase in solid medium containing xylan as the carbon source, with 31 of them able to produce at least 10 U/mL of the enzyme. The best production (49.41 U/mL) was achieved by the strain LAMAI 31, identified as Aspergillus cf. tubingensis. After confirming the lack of pathogenicity (absence of ochratoxin A and fumonisin B2 production) this fungus was submitted to the experimental design in order to evaluate the effect of different variables on the enzymatic production, with the aim of optimizing culture conditions. Three experimental designs (two Plackett-Burman and one factorial fractional) were applied. The best condition for the enzymatic production was defined, resulting in an increase of 12.7 times in comparison with the initial production during the screening experiments. In the validation assay, the peak of xylanase production (561.59 U/mL) was obtained after 96 h of incubation, being the best specific activity achieved after 72 h of incubation. Xylanase from A. cf. tubingensis LAMAI 31 had optimum pH and temperature at 5.0 and 55 °C, respectively, and was shown to be stable at a range of 40-50 °C, and in pH from 3.6 to 7.0. Results from the present work indicate that A. cf. tubingensis LAMAI 31 can be considered as a new genetic resource for xylanase production.

  18. Effect of the gas contamination on CF4 primary and secondary scintillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margato, L. M. S.; Morozov, A.; Pereira, L.; Fraga, M. M. F. R.; Fraga, F. A. F.

    2012-12-01

    The effect of gas contamination on light emission properties of CF4 is presented. The study was performed in the UV (220-450 nm) and visible (450-800 nm) wavelength ranges and the relative light emission intensity and effective decay times were measured. Gas contamination effects, as well as the effect of controllable addition of small quantities of gas admixtures were investigated for both the primary and secondary scintillation. The primary ionization was produced by alpha-particles from an Am-241 alpha source, and MSGC plates were used for electron multiplication and secondary light production. Two types of commercial gas purifiers were tested.

  19. Effect of the gas contamination on CF{sub 4} primary and secondary scintillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margato, L.M.S., E-mail: margato@coimbra.lip.pt [LIP-Coimbra, Universidade de Coimbra, 3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); Morozov, A.; Pereira, L.; Fraga, M.M.F.R.; Fraga, F.A.F. [LIP-Coimbra, Universidade de Coimbra, 3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal)

    2012-12-11

    The effect of gas contamination on light emission properties of CF{sub 4} is presented. The study was performed in the UV (220-450 nm) and visible (450-800 nm) wavelength ranges and the relative light emission intensity and effective decay times were measured. Gas contamination effects, as well as the effect of controllable addition of small quantities of gas admixtures were investigated for both the primary and secondary scintillation. The primary ionization was produced by alpha-particles from an Am-241 alpha source, and MSGC plates were used for electron multiplication and secondary light production. Two types of commercial gas purifiers were tested.

  20. Thermophysical properties of CF4/O2 and SF6/O2 gas mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damyanova, M.; Hohm, U.; Balabanova, E.; Barton, D.

    2016-03-01

    Fitting formulae are presented for the calculation of the second interaction virial coefficients, mixture viscosities and binary diffusion coefficients for CF4/O2 and SF6/O2 gas mixtures in the temperature range between 200 K and 1000 K. The data recommended are obtained from the isotropic (n-6) Lennard-Jones intermolecular interaction potentials of the pure substances by using the Hohm-Zarkova-Damyanova mixing rules. In general, a good agreement is observed between our results and the experimental and theoretical data found in the literature.

  1. Carbon preformation probabilities in the cold ternary fragmentation of sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf

    CERN Document Server

    Florescu, A

    2002-01-01

    The preformation probabilities for sup 1 sup 2 C and sup 1 sup 4 C clusters in the cold ternary fission of sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf are estimated within a microscopic model starting from single particle spherical Woods-Saxon wave functions and with a large space BCS-type configuration mixing. One obtains that the maximum of cluster preformation probability is situated in the region between two heavier fragments near the scission point and it approaches the fission axis as the distance between the final fragments increases. (author)

  2. Ternary-fission mass distribution of 252Cf: A level-density approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramaniam, M.; Karthikraj, C.; Selvaraj, S.; Arunachalam, N.

    2014-11-01

    We study here the ternary-fission mass distribution of the 252Cf nucleus for a fixed third fragment 48Ca using the level-density approach within the framework of statistical theory. For the evaluation of nuclear level densities, the single-particle energies of the finite-range droplet model are used. Our results for temperatures T =1 and 2 MeV reproduce qualitatively the experimental expectation of ternary fragmentation of 132Sn +72Ni +48Ca . In addition, different possible ternary-fission modes are highlighted.

  3. Orientation of the water moiety in CF4-H2O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelisti, Luca; Feng, Gang; Gou, Qian; Guidetti, Gloria; Caminati, Walther

    2012-12-01

    The rotational spectrum of CF4-H217O has been investigated by pulsed jet Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. A symmetric top effective rotational spectrum has been observed, similarly to the case of the parent species (W. Caminati, A. Maris, A. Dell'Erba, P.G. Favero, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 45 (2006) 6711). The experimental value of the 17O χaa quadrupole coupling constant, 0.54(1) MHz, allows to determine the average value of the angle between the C2 axis of H2O and the C⋯O line, β = 24°.

  4. Measurement of 235U Fission Yield Induced by 252Cf Fission Neutron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG; Yi; LIU; Shi-long; JIANG; Wen-gang

    2015-01-01

    We measured fission yields of 235U by 252Cf fission neutrons with the directγray spectrometric method.Square sample foils of 15 mm,abundance of 235U is 90.2%,mass of 0.7gram,covered by pure aluminum foil.After irradiations every sample was measured by HPGe spectrometry for about 2months.Based on 140Ba’s fission yield,we get relative fission yields and the results were shown in Fig.1.

  5. Elastic differential cross sections of electron scattering by CF4 at intermediate energies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The elastic differential cross sections(DCS)for electron scattering from CF4 are calculated at six impact energies(in 100-700 eV)employing the independent atom model(IAM)with partial waves. The atoms are presented by a model complex optical potential which is composed of static, exchange, polarization, and absorption terms. The electron density function ρ(r) is obtained by a fitting procedue to the Dirac-Hartree-Fock-Slater sef-consistent data. Compared with available experimental data, the present approach gives good results.

  6. Role of energy cost in the yield of cold ternary fission of 252Cf

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P V Kunhikrishnan; K P Santhosh

    2013-01-01

    The energy costs in the cold ternary fission of 252Cf for various light charged particle emission are calculated by includingWong's correction for Coulomb potential. Energy cost is found to be higher in cold fission than in normal fission. It is found that energy cost always increases with decrease in experimental yield in all the light charged particle emissions. The higher ground state deformation of the fragments, the odd–even effect and the enhanced yield in the octupole region observed in cold fission are found to be consistent with the concept of energy cost.

  7. The peculairities of material crystallization experiments in the CF-18 centrifuge under high gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdin, B. V.; Regel, L. L.; Turchaninov, A. M.; Shumaev, O. V.

    1992-04-01

    This paper presents data on the crystallization of various materials using the CF-18 centrifuge at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Center. The geometry and equipment are described. Consideration is given to some peculiarities of preparing and conducting crystal growth experiments in this centrifuge. Vibration in a coordinate system fixed to the crystal growth equipment and the reasons for its initiation are shown. From the results of experiments conducted during the last 10 years, it was concluded that there are many possibilities of using various classes of model materials to study crystal growth processes under high gravity conditions.

  8. Magnetic properties of the new rare earth carbide fluoride layered compound: Ho 2CF 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, R. K.; Cockcroft, J. K.; Mattausch, Hj.; Raju, N. P.; Simon, A.

    1992-02-01

    We present magnetic susceptibility, specific heat and neutron diffraction data of the new layered rare earth carbide flouride Ho 2CF 2. The susceptibility displays a rounded maximum centered around 4.6 K and a Curie-Weiss law at higher temperatures with a paramagnetic Curie temperature of -4.9(2) K. The specific heat shows a sharp anomaly at 3.61(5) K indicating the onset of long range ordering but also a considerable high temperature tail pointing to low dimensional magnetic behaviour. Low temperature neutron powder diffraction reveals additional magnetic Bragg peaks with significant critical scattering remaining well above the long range ordering temperature.

  9. A General Method for Imine Formation Using B(OCH2CF3)3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Jonathan T; Visco, Michael D; Marsini, Maurice A; Grinberg, Nelu; Busacca, Carl A; Mattson, Anita E; Senanayake, Chris H

    2015-05-15

    Tris(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)borate [B(OCH2CF3)3] was found to be a mild and general reagent for the formation of a variety of imines by condensation of amides or amines with carbonyl compounds. N-Sulfinyl, N-toluenesulfonyl, N-(dimethylamino)sulfamoyl, N-diphenylphosphinoyl, N-(α-methylbenzyl), and N-(4-methoxyphenyl) aldimines are all accessible using this reagent at room temperature. The reactions are operationally simple, and the products are obtained without special workup or isolation procedures.

  10. Prompt neutron fission spectrum mean energies for the fissile nuclides and /sup 252/Cf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holden, N.E.

    1985-01-01

    The international standard for a neutron spectrum is that produced from the spontaneous fission of /sup 252/Cf, while the thermal neutron induced fission neutron spectra for the four fissile nuclides, /sup 233/U, /sup 235/U, /sup 239/Pu, and /sup 241/Pu are of interest from the standpoint of nuclear reactors. The average neutron energies of these spectra are tabulated. The individual measurements are recorded with the neutron energy range measured, the method of detection as well as the average neutron energy for each author. Also tabulated are the measurements of the ratio of mean energies for pairs of fission neutron spectra. 75 refs., 9 tabs. (LEW)

  11. Improved Dark Energy Constraints From ~ 100 New CfA Supernova Type Ia Light Curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hicken, Malcolm; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys. /Harvard U.; Wood-Vasey, W.Michael; /Pittsburgh U.; Blondin, Stephane; /European Southern Observ.; Challis, Peter; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Jha, Saurabh; /Rutgers U., Piscataway; Kelly, Patrick L.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Rest, Armin; /Harvard U. /Cerro-Tololo InterAmerican Obs.; Kirshner, Robert P.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.

    2012-04-06

    We combine the CfA3 supernovae Type Ia (SN Ia) sample with samples from the literature to calculate improved constraints on the dark energy equation of state parameter, w. The CfA3 sample is added to the Union set of Kowalski et al. to form the Constitution set and, combined with a BAO prior, produces 1 + w = 0.013{sub -0.068}{sup +0.066} (0.11 syst), consistent with the cosmological constant. The CfA3 addition makes the cosmologically useful sample of nearby SN Ia between 2.6 and 2.9 times larger than before, reducing the statistical uncertainty to the point where systematics play the largest role. We use four light-curve fitters to test for systematic differences: SALT, SALT2, MLCS2k2 (R{sub V} = 3.1), and MLCS2k2 (R{sub V} = 1.7). SALT produces high-redshift Hubble residuals with systematic trends versus color and larger scatter than MLCS2k2. MLCS2k2 overestimates the intrinsic luminosity of SN Ia with 0.7 < {Delta} < 1.2. MLCS2k2 with R{sub V} = 3.1 overestimates host-galaxy extinction while R{sub V} {approx} 1.7 does not. Our investigation is consistent with no Hubble bubble. We also find that, after light-curve correction, SN Ia in Scd/Sd/Irr hosts are intrinsically fainter than those in E/S0 hosts by 2{sigma}, suggesting that they may come from different populations. We also find that SN Ia in Scd/Sd/Irr hosts have low scatter (0.1 mag) and reddening. Current systematic errors can be reduced by improving SN Ia photometric accuracy, by including the CfA3 sample to retrain light-curve fitters, by combining optical SN Ia photometry with near-infrared photometry to understand host-galaxy extinction, and by determining if different environments give rise to different intrinsic SN Ia luminosity after correction for light-curve shape and color.

  12. Compsopogon cf. coeruleus, a benthic red alga (Rhodophyta) new to the Laurentian Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manny, Bruce A.; Edsall, Thomas A.; Wujek, Daniel E.

    1991-01-01

    We found Compsopogon cf. coeruleus for the first time in the Laurentian Great Lakes, growing on limestone rocks at a depth of 21 m on Six Fathom Bank in central Lake Huron. It is the first freshwater red alga to be found in the Great Lakes and the only red alga ever found on an offshore reef in the Great Lakes. However, because this alga usually inhabits water 10–28 °C and has not survived freezing winter temperatures elsewhere, it may not be a permanent member of the flora.

  13. Chemical reactivity of C-F bonds attached to graphene with diamines depending on their nature and location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Baoyin; He, Taijun; Wang, Zaoming; Cheng, Zheng; Liu, Yang; Chen, Teng; Lai, Wenchuan; Wang, Xu; Liu, Xiangyang

    2016-06-29

    The attachment of fluorine to graphene is a facile means to activate the carbon bonds for subsequent covalent bonding to other molecules for the preparation of desired graphene derivatives. Therefore, an insight into the chemical reactivity of fluorinated graphene (FG) is very essential to enable precise control of the composition and structure of the final products. In this study, FG has been treated with various mass amounts of poly(oxypropylene)diamine (PEA) ranging from starvation to saturation to explore the dependence of a substitution reaction of diamines on the nature and location (attached onto the basal planes or along defects or edges) of C-F bonds. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy directly tracked the atomic percentage of fluorine present and the carbon 1s bonding state, showing that the grafting ratio of diamines gradually increases with increased diamine mass ratio. The varying of the types and orientation of C-F bonds characterized by polarized attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicates that "covalent" C-F bonds are more sensitive to the substitution reaction of diamines than ''semi-ionic'' C-F bonds, and the C-F bonds attached onto basal planes more preferably participate in the functionalization reaction of diamines than that of C-F bonded on non-coplanar regions (edges or defects). The one-dimensional expansion along the graphene c-axis shown by wide angle X-ray diffraction provides further evidence on the preferred functionalization reaction of C-F attached on the basal planes, resulting in a change of the average intersheet distance by various magnitudes.

  14. Super-hydrophobicity and oleophobicity of silicone rubber modified by CF{sub 4} radio frequency plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao Songhua, E-mail: gaosonghua2005@126.com [Functional Materials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Sanming University, Sanming 365004 (China); Gao Lihua [Functional Materials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Sanming University, Sanming 365004 (China); Zhou Kesheng [School of Physics Science and Technology, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2011-03-15

    Owing to excellent electric properties, silicone rubber (SIR) has been widely employed in outdoor insulator. For further improving its hydrophobicity and service life, the SIR samples are treated by CF{sub 4} radio frequency (RF) capacitively coupled plasma. The hydrophobic and oleophobic properties are characterized by static contact angle method. The surface morphology of modified SIR is observed by atom force microscope (AFM). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is used to test the variation of the functional groups on the SIR surface due to the treatment by CF{sub 4} plasma. The results indicate that the static contact angle of SIR surface is improved from 100.7 deg. to 150.2 deg. via the CF{sub 4} plasma modification, and the super-hydrophobic surface of modified SIR, which the corresponding static contact angle is 150.2 deg., appears at RF power of 200 W for a 5 min treatment time. It is found that the super-hydrophobic surface ascribes to the coaction of the increase of roughness created by the ablation action and the formation of [-SiF{sub x}(CH{sub 3}){sub 2-x}-O-]{sub n} (x = 1, 2) structure produced by F atoms replacement methyl groups reaction, more importantly, the formation of [-SiF{sub 2}-O-]{sub n} structure is the major factor for super-hydrophobic surface, and it is different from the previous studies, which proposed the fluorocarbon species such as C-F, C-F{sub 2}, C-F{sub 3}, CF-CF{sub n}, and C-CF{sub n}, were largely introduced to the polymer surface and responsible for the formation of low surface energy.

  15. 聚醚砜改性Cf/BMI复合材料的制备与性能%Preparation and Properties of Cf/BMI Composites Modified by Polyethersulphone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫丽; 安学锋; 董慧民; 张晨乾

    2014-01-01

    基于“离位”增韧技术,将“离位”增韧剂聚醚砜(PES)均匀地附载在碳纤维织物上,采用RTM工艺制备了Cf/BMI复合材料(U3160/6421),通过低速冲击、DMA、SEM和基本力学性能测试分析,研究了PES对U3160/6421复合材料性能的影响.结果表明,采用PES附载的ES-Fabric织物制备的复合材料具有良好的增韧效果,其CAI值提高了85%.由于PES的加入,在复合材料层间出现了PES和树脂BMI6421的相反转结构,改善了复合材料的损伤阻抗,提高了复合材料的损伤容限,并且“离位”层间增韧对复合材料的力学性能影响不大.

  16. STUDY ON DAMPING PROPERTIES OF CF/KF HYBRID FIBERS COMPOSITES%CF/KF混杂纤维复合材料阻尼性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张群; 李炜

    2012-01-01

    本文采用热动态力学分析测试技术测试材料的损耗因子来评价材料的阻尼性能,研究了CF/KF混杂纤维复合材料的混杂比、铺层顺序、混杂方式对材料阻尼性能和力学性能的影响.实验表明,铺层中外层纤维的种类和含量对材料的阻尼性能和力学性能影响很大,混杂界面数对材料的阻尼性能和力学性能也有一定的影响.%This paper tested loss factor by thermal dynamic mechanics analysis technique to evaluate damping properties of composites, studied the influences of the hybrid ratios, stacking sequences and hybrid modes on the damping and mechanical properties of carbon fiber/kevlar fiber reinforced composites. The results show that the category and content of outermost fibers have significant influences the damping and mechanical properties of composites. The number of hybrid interfaces also influences the damping and mechanical properties of composites.

  17. LDA-CF: A Mixture Model for Collaborative Filtering%LDA-CF:一种混合协同过滤方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廉涛; 马军; 王帅强; 崔超然

    2014-01-01

    推荐系统是一种克服信息过载的重要工具,其中最流行的方法是协同过滤.该文提出一种结合潜在因素模型和邻域方法的混合协同过滤方法LDA-CF.我们首先将评分矩阵转换成伪文档集合,使用LDA(LatentDirichlet Allocation)主题模型发现用户和物品潜在因素向量;然后在低维潜在因素空间计算用户和物品相似度;最后采用邻域方法预测未知评分.在MovieLens 100k数据集上的实验表明:在评分预测任务中,LDA-CF取得的MAE性能指标优于传统的邻域方法.因此,LDA可以有效地从评分矩阵中发现对计算相似度十分有用的用户和物品低维特征表示,在一定程度上缓解了数据稀疏问题.

  18. Fragments mass and charge distribution in the light particle accompanied fission of 252Cf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikraj, C.; Ren, Zhongzhou

    2017-06-01

    The ternary fission mass and charge distribution of 252Cf for different light third fragments (A 3 = 4He, 10Be, 14C, 20O, 20Ne and 24Ne) are studied with the use of statistical theory of fission. Two different approaches are adopted to generate the possible ternary fragment combinations: in one case, the Z/A of the products is the same as 252Cf, in the other the finite-range droplet model (FRDM) data are used, creating all the possible combinations also with different Z/A. For the calculation of the nuclear level densities, single-particle level energies of FRDM are also used. When the lighter fragment A 3 is 4He, our calculated mass and charge distribution results, at T = 1 MeV, show the larger yield for the deformed fragment combinations which is in line with the experimental observation. Interestingly, for various third fragments, our calculated results at T = 2 MeV indicate that the favorable ternary configuration contains closed shell nucleus either Pb or Sn as the heaviest fragment. In addition, we have compared our calculated ternary isotopic yields with the available experimental and theoretical data.

  19. Angular momenta of fission fragments in the α-accompanied fission of 252Cf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandel, M.; Kliman, J.; Krupa, L.; Morháč, M.; Hamilton, J. H.; Kormicki, J.; Ramayya, A. V.; Hwang, J. K.; Luo, Y. X.; Fong, D.; Gore, P.; Ter-Akopian, G. M.; Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; Rodin, A. M.; Fomichev, A. S.; Popeko, G. S.; Daniel, A. V.; Rasmussen, J. O.; Macchiavelli, A. O.; Stoyer, M. A.; Donangelo, R.; Cole, J. D.

    2005-06-01

    For the first time, average angular momenta of the ternary fission fragments 100, 102Zr, 106Mo, 144, 146Ba and 138, 140, 142Xe from the α-accompanied fission of 252Cf were obtained from relative intensities of prompt γ-ray transitions with the use of the statistical model calculation. Average values of the angular momenta were compared with the corresponding values for the same fission fragments from the binary fission of 252Cf. Results indicate the presence of a decreasing trend in the average values of angular momenta induced in ternary fission fragments compared to the same binary fission fragments. On the average, the total angular momentum extracted for ternary fission fragments is ˜1.4 ℏ lower than in binary fission. Consequently, results indicate that the mechanism of the ternary α-particles emission may directly effect an induction of angular momenta of fission fragments, and possible scenarios of such mechanisms are discussed. Further, the dependence of the angular momenta of 106Mo and 140Xe on the number of emitted neutrons from correlated pairs of primary fragments was obtained also showing a decreasing dependence of average angular momenta with increasing number of emitted neutrons. Consequences are briefly discussed.

  20. Study on Anticorrosive Cerium Conversion Coating of Cf/6061Al Composite Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The optimum chemical passivation process of the rare earth metal (REM) conversion coating on the Cf/6061Al composite surface was introduced in this paper and its polarization curves properties were investigated. Ridge-like coatings were found by scanning electro microscope (SEM) observations, and the Al matrix and carbon fibre reinforcement were both coated with Ce conversion coatings, with some minor cracks. The energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) plane scan analysis indicates that the major elements in the coating are Ce, O, Si, Al and the Ce content reaches 47.48%(mass fraction). The Ce conversion coatings increase the corrosion resisting properties of Cf/6061Al composite, with a higher free corrosion potential (Ecorr) and a lower free corrosion current density (icorr) for the coated composite than those of the bare composite. And the Boehmite-treatment would enhance the corrosion resistance of the REM conversion coating. The cathodic polarization and anodic polarization were retarded by REM conversion coating, resulting in an improved corrosion resistance.

  1. GEANT4 and PHITS simulations of the shielding of neutrons from $^{252}$Cf source

    CERN Document Server

    Shin, Jae Won

    2014-01-01

    Neutron shielding simulations by using GEANT4 and PHITS code are performed. As a neutron source, $^{252}$Cf is considered and the energy distribution of the neutrons emitted from $^{252}$Cf is assumed the Watt fission spectrum. The neutron dose equivalent rates with and without the shield are estimated for shielding materials such as graphite, iron, polyethylene, NS-4-FR and KRAFTON-HB. For the neutron shielding simulations by using GEANT4, high precision (G4HP) model with G4NDL 4.2 based on ENDF-VII data are used. And for PHITS simulations, JENDL-4.0 library are used for the same purpose. It is found that differences between the shielding calculations by using GEANT4 with G4NDL 4.2 and PHITS with JENDL-4.0 library are not significant for all cases considered in this work. We investigate the accuracy of the neutron dose equivalent rates obtained from GEANT4 and PHITS by comparing our simulation results with experimental data and other values calculated earlier. Calculated neutron dose equivalent rates agree w...

  2. Reinvestigation of the α-decays of 249Cf and 233U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aka, A. Koua; Ardisson, G.; Barci, V.; El Samad, O.; Trubert, D.; Ahmad, I.

    1996-02-01

    The alpha-particle decay of 249Cf has been reinvestigated using coaxial and planar HPGe detectors. Energies and emission probabilities of thirty γ-rays were measured, of which nine are reported for the first time. All transitions have been included in the 245Cm level scheme suggested in this work: 14 excited states are found to be fed and assigned to 4 rotational bands. The Iπ = {11}/{2}- member of the {7}/{2} [743] Nilsson state was found to be fed at 772.3 keV. Alpha-particle transition probabilities were calculated from the revised 249Cf decay scheme. The alpha-particle decay of 233U has been reinvestigated using a UO 22+ source purified continuously from daughters by ion exchange chromatography. Energies and intensities of 178 γ-rays were determined, of which 49 are reported for the first time. γ-γ coincidence studies were also performed to help in the construction of the 229Th level scheme.

  3. Direct Measurement of the Bubble Nucleation Energy Threshold in a CF3I Bubble Chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behnke, E. [Indiana Univ. South Bend, IN (United States); Benjamin, T. [Indiana Univ. South Bend, IN (United States); Brice, S. J. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Broemmelsiek, D. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Collar, J. I. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Cooper, P. S. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Crisler, M. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Dahl, C. E. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Fustin, D. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Hall, Jeter C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Harnish, C. [Indiana Univ. South Bend, IN (United States); Levine, I. [Indiana Univ. South Bend, IN (United States); Lippincott, W. H. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Moan, T. [Indiana Univ. South Bend, IN (United States); Nania, T. [Indiana Univ. South Bend, IN (United States); Neilson, R. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Ramberg, E. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Robinson, A. E. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Ruschman, M. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Sonnenschein, Andrew [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Vazquez-Jauregui, E. [SNOLAB, Sudbury, ON (Canada); RIvera, R. A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Uplegger, L. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2013-07-30

    Here, we measured the energy threshold and efficiency for bubble nucleation from iodine recoils in a CF3I bubble chamber in the energy range of interest for a dark matter search. These interactions cannot be probed by standard neutron calibration methods, so we develop a new technique by observing the elastic scattering of 12 GeV/c negative pions. The pions are tracked with a silicon pixel telescope and the reconstructed scattering angle provides a measure of the nuclear recoil kinetic energy. The bubble chamber was operated with a nominal threshold of (13.6±0.6) keV. Interpretation of the results depends on the response to fluorine and carbon recoils, but in general we find agreement with the predictions of the classical bubble-nucleation theory. Moreover, this measurement confirms the applicability of CF3I as a target for spin-independent dark matter interactions and represents a novel technique for calibration of superheated fluid detectors.

  4. Neutron dose rate for {sup 252} Cf AT source in medical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paredes, L.; Balcazar, M. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Azorin, J. [UAM-I, 09340 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Francois, J.L. [FI-UNAM, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    The AAPM TG-43 modified protocol was used for the calculation of the neutron dose rate of {sup 252}Cf sources for two tissue substitute materials, five normal tissues and six tumours. The {sup 252}Cf AT source model was simulated using the Monte Carlo MCNPX code in spherical geometry for the following factors: a) neutron air kerma strength conversion factor, b) dose rate constant, c) radial dose function, d) geometry factor, e) anisotropy function and f) neutron dose rate. The calculated dose rate in water at 1 cm and 90 degrees from the source long axis, using the Watt fission spectrum, was D{sub n}(r{sub 0}, {theta}{sub 0})= 1.9160 cGy/h-{mu}g. When this value is compared with Rivard et al. calculation using MCNP4B code, 1.8730 cGy/h-{mu}g, a difference of 2.30% is obtained. The results for the reference neutron dose rate in other media show how small variations in the elemental composition between the tissues and malignant tumours, produce variations in the neutron dose rate up to 12.25%. (Author)

  5. High resolution investigation of the v3 band of trifluoromethyliodide (CF3I)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willaert, F.; Roy, P.; Manceron, L.; Perrin, A.; Kwabia-Tchana, F.; Appadoo, D.; McNaughton, D.; Medcraft, C.; Demaison, J.

    2015-09-01

    The high-resolution absorption spectrum of trifluoromethyliodide (CF3I), an alternative gas to chlorofluorocarbons but with potential greenhouse effects, has been recorded at 0.001 cm-1 resolution in the 200-350 cm-1 region with the Bruker IFS125HR Fourier transform spectrometer at synchrotron SOLEIL. Due to the spectral congestion and the presence of numerous hot bands, the spectra have been recorded at the AILES Beamline facility at SOLEIL either at room temperature using a 150 m optical path length cell or at 163 K using the new LISA-SOLEIL cryogenic cell and at the Australian synchrotron using a flow cooling cell. This enables a detailed analysis of the v3 band at 286.29712(3) cm-1 of CF3I. The results of previous microwave measurements in the v3 = 1 and v6 = 1 vibrational states (Walters and Whiffen, 1983; Wahi, 1987) were combined with those of the present infrared analysis of the v3 band to obtain an improved set of parameters for the v3 = 1 (C-I stretching) and v6 = 1 (I-C-F bending) interacting vibrational states accounting for the Coriolis resonance coupling the v3 = 1 energy levels with those of the dark v6 = 1 state (located at ∼261.5 or at ∼267.6 cm-1). Finally, a first investigation of the 2v3 - v3 hot band is also performed.

  6. APLIKASI DIAGNOSA GEJALA DEMAM PADA BALITA MENGGUNAKAN METODE CERTAINTY FACTOR (CF DAN JARINGAN SYARAF TIRUAN (JST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Septya Maharani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Symptoms of fever of toddlers have a devastating effect if too late to get treatment is not appropriate, to make it easier for parents to detect the type of disease, it is necessary to build an expert system application detection of disease symptoms of fever in children for early detection of disease. Knowledge base is implemented as a basis for expert system applications by using a combination of certainty factors (certainty factor and ANN (artificial neural networks. Methods This study is a combination of CF as CF is the rule and the results will form a pattern which is a merger of the ANN clinical parameter that indicates the amount of trust as the knowledge base of disease diagnosis of fever in children 10 to 40 symptoms, the system uses a total of 40 symptoms as a medic training data with records of 20 patients. From the results of such testing, the application has been concluded at 86.67% accuracy rate.   Keywords: fever, expert systems, Certainty Factor, Neural Networks

  7. Test and evaluation results of the /sup 252/Cf shuffler at the Savannah River Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crane, T.W.

    1981-03-01

    The /sup 252/Cf Shuffler, a nondestructive assay instrument employing californium neutron source irradiation and delayed-neutron counting, was developed for measuring /sup 235/U content of scrap and waste items generated at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) reactor fuel fabrication facility. The scrap and waste items include high-purity uranium-aluminum alloy ingots as well as pieces of castings, saw and lathe chips from machining operations, low-purity items such as oxides of uranium or uranium intermixed with flux materials found in recovery operations, and materials not recoverable at SRP such as floor sweepings or residues from the uranium scrap recovery operation. The uranium contains about 60% /sup 235/U with the remaining isotopes being /sup 236/U, /sup 238/U, and /sup 234/U in descending order. The test and evaluation at SRP concluded that the accuracy, safety, reliability, and ease of use made the /sup 252/Cf Shuffler a suitable instrument for routine use in an industrial, production-oriented plant.

  8. Half-lives of several states in isotopes produced in the SF of ^252Cf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, J. K.; Ramayya, A. V.; Hamilton, J. H.; Fong, D.; Beyer, C. J.; Gore, P. M.; Jones, E. F.; Teran, E.; Oberacker, V. E.; Umar, A. S.; Luo, Y. X.; Rasmussen, J. O.; Zhu, S. J.; Wu, S. C.; Lee, I. Y.; Fallon, P.; Stoyer, M. A.; Asztalos, S. J.; Ginter, T. N.; Cole, J. D.; Ter-Akopian, G. M.; Donangelo, R.

    2003-10-01

    Half-lives (T_1/2) of 15 states in isotopes produced in the SF of ^252Cf have been determined using a new technique. The ^252Cf source was placed inside the Gammasphere, and triple and higher fold coincidence events were recorded. The half-lives and quadrupole deformations of ^104Zr, ^152Ce, and ^158Sm are determined for the first time. Except for ^102Sr, ^104Zr(β_2=0.45(4)) and ^158Sm(β_2=0.46(5)) are the most deformed among medium and heavy nuclei. Large deformation could have its origin in the high spin down-sloping orbitals near Z=38,40,62 and N=40,64,96. These large prolate deformations at ^104Zr and ^158Sm are confirmed by Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov calculations carried out in the present work. Further, an excited rotational band including seven new γ transitions in ^97Sr was also identified. The band head energy of the 829.8 keV state in ^97Sr has an half-life of 265(27) nsec.

  9. Stability of {sup 248–254}Cf isotopes against alpha and cluster radioactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santhosh, K.P., E-mail: drkpsanthosh@gmail.com; Biju, R.K.

    2013-07-15

    Stability of {sup 248–254}Cf nuclei against alpha and cluster emissions is studied within our Coulomb and proximity potential model (CPPM). It is found that these nuclei are stable against light clusters (except alpha particles) and unstable against heavy cluster (A{sub 2}≥40) emissions. For heavy cluster emissions the daughter nuclei lead to doubly magic {sup 208}Pb or the neighbouring one. The effects of quadrupole and hexadecapole deformations of parent nuclei, daughter nuclei and emitted cluster on half lives are also studied. The computed alpha decay half life values (including quadrupole deformation β{sub 2}) are in close agreement with experimental data. Inclusion of quadrupole deformation reduces the height and width of the barrier (increases the barrier penetrability) and hence half life decreases. -- Highlights: •{sup 248–254}Cf parents are stable against light clusters (except alpha particles) and are unstable against heavy clusters ({sup 46}Ar, {sup 48,50}Ca etc.). •For the case of heavy cluster emissions the daughter nuclei are doubly magic {sup 208}Pb or neighbouring one. •The alpha decay half lives are in agreement with experimental data. •The cluster decay half lives decrease with the inclusion of quadrupole deformation.

  10. Optimizing the transverse thermal conductivity of 2D-SiCf/SiC composites, I. Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youngblood, Gerald E.; Senor, David J.; Jones, Russell H.

    2002-12-31

    For potential fusion applications, considerable fabrication efforts have been directed to obtaining transverse thermal conductivity (Keff) values in excess of 30 W/mK (unirradiated) in the 800-1000°C temperature range for 2D-SiCf/SiC composites. To gain insight into the factors affecting Keff, at PNNL we have tested three different analytic models for predicting Keff in terms of constituent (fiber, matrix and interphase) properties. The tested models were: the Hasselman-Johnson (H-J) “2-Cylinder” model, which examines the effects of fiber-matrix (f/m) thermal barriers; the Markworth “3-Cylinder” model, which specifically examines the effects of interphase thickness and thermal conductivity; and a newly-developed Anisotropic “3-Square” model, which examines the potential effect of introducing a fiber coating with anisotropic properties to enhance (or diminish) f/m thermal coupling. The first two models are effective medium models, while the third model is a simple combination of parallel and series conductances. Model predictions suggest specific designs and/or development efforts directed to optimize the overall thermal transport performance of 2D-SiCf/SiC.

  11. Desiccation tolerance of Muellerius cf. capillaris (Nematoda: Protostrongylidae) first-stage larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, A; Ilan, P; Itamar, G

    1998-08-01

    Muellerius cf. capillaris is the most common lung worm of wild Nubian ibex (Capra ibex nubiana) in the northern Negev desert, Israel. The capacity of the free-living stages (L1) of the parasite to survive extreme desiccation was tested under 2 different dehydration regimes at 23 C: rapid dehydration through direct exposure to 0% relative humidity (RH), and a slow dehydration regime of preconditioning at 33% RH for 7 days prior to exposure to 0% RH for a further 21 days. In direct exposures to 0% and 33% RH, by day 11 survival rates of L1 were significantly higher than when stored in water and in 97% RH (P 0.1). L1 surviving after 21 days of desiccation at 0% RH were, on the other hand, less infective to T. pisana. The percentage of such postdesiccated L1 reaching infective stage (L3) was, however, the same as that of the control group. The ability of M. cf. capillaris L1 to survive anhydrobiosis and retain infectivity to land snails after extreme desiccation enables their coexistence with the Nubian ibex in desert habitat.

  12. On the generation of a bubbly universe - A quantitative assessment of the CfA slice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostriker, J. P.; Strassler, M. J.

    1989-01-01

    A first attempt is made to calculate the properties of the matter distribution in a universe filled with overlapping bubbles produced by multiple explosions. Each spherical shell follows the cosmological Sedov-Taylor solution until it encounters another shell. Thereafter, mergers are allowed to occur in pairs on the basis of N-body results. At the final epoch, the matrix of overlapping shells is populated with 'galaxies' and the properties of slices through the numerically constructed cube compare well with CfA survey results for specified initial conditions. A statistic is found which measures the distance distribution from uniformly distributed points to the nearest galaxies on the projected plane which appears to provide a good measure of the bubbly character of the galaxy distribution. In a quantitative analysis of the CfA 'slice of the universe', a very good match is found between simulation and the real data for final average bubble radii of (13.5 + or - 1.5)/h Mpc with formal filling factor 1.0-1.5 or actual filling factor of 65-80 percent.

  13. Fragment angular momenta and descent dynamics in sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf spontaneous fission

    CERN Document Server

    Popeko, J S; Ter-Akopian, G M

    2002-01-01

    Average angular momentum values of primary fission fragments as a function of neutron multiplicity and neutron-to-proton ratio were extracted for the first time for the Mo-Ba and Zr-Ce charge splittings of sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf. The results are discussed in terms of the energy balance occurring at the scission point. For the first time we show that for large fragment elongation associated with larger numbers of evaporated neutrons (v sub t sub o sub t >=6), essentially only zero point bending oscillation takes places, i.e. T = 0 for this degree of freedom. For the major part of the fission events, with v sub t sub o sub t = 2-5, the banding oscillation is excited to a temperature of 2-3 MeV. Such a high bending temperature implies that the coupling between the collective and internal degrees of freedom is weak at the descent of the even-even nucleus of sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf to the scission point. The dipole oscillations occurring at the descent take away some 2.5 - 3.0 MeV from the release energy. A correlation...

  14. Langmuir Probe Measurements in an Inductively Coupled Ar/CF4 Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, M. V. V. S.; Meyyappan, M.; Sharma, S. P.; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Technological advancement in the microelectronics industry requires an understanding of the physical and chemical processes occurring in plasmas of fluorocarbon gases, such as carbon tetrafluoride (CF4) which is commonly used as an etchant, and their mixtures to optimize various operating parameters. In this paper we report data on electron number density (ne), electron temperature'(Te), electron energy distribution function (EEDF), mean electron energy, ion number density (ni), and plasma potential (Vp) measured by using Langmuir probe in an inductively coupled 13.56 MHz radio frequency plasmas generated in 50%Ar:50%CF4 mixture in the GEC cell. The probe data were recorded at various radial positions providing radial profiles of these plasma parameters at 10-50 mTorr pressures and 200 W and 300 W of RF power. Present measurements indicate that the electron and ion number densities increase with increase in pressure and power. Whereas the plasma potential and electron temperature decrease with increase in pressure, and they weakly depend on RF power. The radial profiles exhibit that the electron and ion number densities and the plasma potential peak at the center of the plasma with an exponential fall away from it, while the electron temperature has a minimum at the center and it increases steadily towards the electrode edge. The EEDFs have a characteristic drop near the low energy end at all pressures and pressures and their shapes represent non-Maxwellian plasma and exhibit more like Druyvesteyn energy distribution.v

  15. Phase stability in thermally-aged CASS CF8 under heavy ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Meimei; Miller, M; Chen, Wei-Ying

    2015-07-01

    The stability of the microstructure of a cast austenitic stainless steel (CASS), before and after heavy ion irradiation, was investigated by atom probe tomography (APT). A CF8 ferrite-austenite duplex alloy was thermally aged at 400 degrees C for 10,000 h. After this treatment, APT revealed nanometer-sized G-phase precipitates and Fe-rich alpha and Cr-enriched alpha' phase separated regions in the ferrite. The thermally-aged CF8 specimen was irradiated with 1 MeV Kr ions to a fluence of 1.88 x 10(19) ions/m(2) at 400 degrees C. After irradiation, APT analysis revealed a strong spatial/dose dependence of the G-phase precipitates and the alpha-alpha' spinodal decomposition in the ferrite. For the G-phase precipitates, the number density increased and the mean size decreased with increasing dose, and the particle size distribution changed considerably under irradiation. The inverse coarsening process can be described by recoil resolution. The amplitude of the alpha-alpha' spinodal decomposition in the ferrite was apparently reduced after heavy ion irradiation. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved

  16. Assignment of Infrared and Far-Infrared Transitions of CH2CF2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘煜炎; 黄光明; 石丽华; 段传喜

    2002-01-01

    Starting from the Watson A-reduced Hamiltonian and considering the infrared transitions with ΔKa = 0, Δ Kc =±1 (A-type) or ΔKα = ±1, ΔKc = ±1 (B-type), and the far-infrared transitions with ΔKa = 0,±2 and ΔKc = ±1, we calculate all the possible infrared absorption and far-infrared emission transitions of the v4and v9 bands of 1,1-difluoroethylene (CH2CF2) pumped by 10P10 and 10P12 C02 laser lines. We assign four previously unassigned CH2CF2 far-infrared laser lines (291.3μm, 339.3μm, 349.5μm and 657.9μm), where Kaand Kc represent the quantum number K of the limiting prolate top and the limiting oblate top, respectively.The 291.3μm line is identified as being generated from the cascade transition. The assignment of the 288.5μm line by Lafferty et al. (J. Mol. Spectrosc. 87(1981)416) is also confirmed.

  17. Multi-modal fission in collinear ternary cluster decay of 252Cf(sf, fff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. von Oertzen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the multiple decay modes of collinear fission in 252Cf(sf, fff, with three fragments as suggested by the potential energy surface (PES. Fission as a statistical decay is governed by the phase space of the different decay channels, which are suggested in the PES-landscape. The population of the fission modes is determined by the minima in the PES at the scission points and on the internal potential barriers. The ternary collinear decay proceeds as a sequential process, in two steps. The originally observed ternary decay of 252Cf(sf into three different masses (e.g. 132–140Sn, 52–48Ca, 68–72Ni, observed by the FOBOS group in the FLNR (Flerov Laboratory for Nuclear Reactions of the JINR (Dubna the collinear cluster tripartition (CCT, is one of the ternary fission modes. This kind of “true ternary fission” of heavy nuclei has often been predicted in theoretical works during the last decades. In the present note we discuss different ternary fission modes in the same system. The PES shows pronounced minima, which correspond to several modes of ternary fragmentations. These decays have very similar dynamical features as the previously observed CCT-decays. The data obtained in the experiments on CCT allow us to extract the yields for different decay modes using specific gates on the measured parameters, and to establish multiple modes of the ternary fission decay.

  18. Fission dynamics of 240Cf* formed in 34,36S induced reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Deepika

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the entrance channel effects in the decay of Compound nucleus 240Cf* formed in 34S+206Pb and 36S+204Pb reactions by using energy density dependent nuclear proximity potential in the framework of dynamical cluster-decay model (DCM. At different excitation energies, the fragmentation potential and preformation probability of decaying fragments are almost identical for both the entrance channels, which seem to suggest that decay is independent of its formation and entrance channel excitation energy. It is also observed that, with inclusion of deformation effects upto quadrupole within the optimum orientation approach, the fragmentation path governing potential energy surfaces gets modified significantly. Beside this, the fission mass distribution of Cf* isotopes is also investigated. The calculated fission cross-sections using SIII force for both the channels find nice agreement with the available experimental data for deformed choice of fragments, except at higher energies. In addition to this, the comparative analysis with Blocki based nuclear attraction is also worked out. It is observed that Blocki proximity potential accounts well for the CN decay at all energies whereas the use of EDF based nuclear potential suggests the presence of some non-compound nucleus process (such as quasi-fission (qf at higher energies.

  19. CF3CH2CF2CH3(HFC-365mfc)与Cl原子反应的微观机理及动力学性质%Mechanism and Kinetics for Reaction of CF3CH2CF2CH3(HFC-365mfc) with Cl Atom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金铜音; 王钦; 刘靖尧

    2013-01-01

    采用密度泛函理论方法M06-2X结合6-31+G(d,p)基组研究了CF3 CH2 CF2 CH3与Cl原子反应的反应机理.计算获得了CF3 CH2 CF2 CH3的两种可区分的稳定几何构象RC1和RC2以及与它们相对应的8条氢提取反应通道和2条取代反应通道.运用改进的正则变分过渡态理论(ICVT)并结合小曲率隧道效应校正(SCT),在M06-2X/6-31 +G(d,p)水平上计算了各氢提取通道的速率常数,并由Bohzmann配分函数得到总包反应的速率常数kT(cm3-molecule-1·s-1).计算结果表明,体系的总反应速率常数与已有实验值相吻合,进而给出了该反应在200~1000 K温度区间内反应速率常数κT的三参数表达式kT=1.88×10-22T3.76·exp(-1780.69/T),并讨论了两种构象RC1和RC2对总反应的贡献及各构象中氢提取发生在-CH3或-CH2-基团上的位置选择性.此外,由于缺少相关反应物及产物自由基标准生成焓△Hf,298K的数据,利用等化学键法估算了在上述物种的标准生成焓.%The mechanism of the CF3CH2CF2CH3+C1 reaction was investigated by the M06-2X method combining with the 6-31+G(d,p) basis set[ M06-2X/6-31+G(d,p) ]. There were two distinguishable stable con-formers (RC1 and RC2) for the reactant CF3CH2CF2CH3, and eight H-abstraction channels as well as two substitution channels were located associated with them. The rate constants for each of the H-abstraction channels were evaluated by the improved canonical variational transition state theory (ICVT) with the small-curvature tunneling(SCT) approximation at the M06-2X/6-31+G(d,p) level. The overall rate constant(kT) was obtained by considering the weight factor of each conformer from the Boltzmann distribution function, and the calculated values agree well with the available experimental values. Moreover, the contribution of the two con-formers to the whole reaction as well as the site selectivity for each of the conformers were discussed. A three-parameter rate constant-temperature expression

  20. Preparation & characterization of SiO2 interface layer by dip coating technique on carbon fibre for Cf/SiC composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Kundan; Jariwala, C.; Pillai, R.; Chauhan, N.; Raole, P. M.

    2015-08-01

    Carbon fibres (Cf) are one of the most important reinforced materials for ceramic matrix composites such as Cf - SiC composites and they are generally sought for high temperature applications in as space application, nuclear reactor and automobile industries. But the major problem arise when Cf reinforced composites exposed to high temperature in an oxidizing environment, Cf react with oxygen and burnt away. In present work, we have studied the effect of silica (SiO2) coating as a protective coating on Cf for the Cf / SiC composites. The silica solution prepared by the sol-gel process and coating on Cf is done by dip coating technique with varying the withdrawing speed i.e. 2, 5, 8 mm/s with fixed dipping cycle (3 Nos.). The uniform silica coating on the Cf is shown by the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analysis. The tensile test shows the increase in tensile strength with respect to increase in withdrawing speed. The isothermal oxidation analysis confirmed enhancement of oxidation resistance of silica coated Cf as compared tothe uncoated Cf.

  1. Shock wave studies of the pyrolysis of fluorocarbon oxygenates. I. The thermal dissociation of C3F6O and CF3COF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobos, C J; Hintzer, K; Sölter, L; Tellbach, E; Thaler, A; Troe, J

    2017-01-25

    The thermal decomposition of hexafluoropropylene oxide, C3F6O, to perfluoroacetyl fluoride, CF3COF, and CF2 has been studied in shock waves highly diluted in Ar between 630 and 1000 K. The measured rate constant k1 = 1.1 × 10(14) exp(-162(±4) kJ mol(-1)/RT) s(-1) agrees well with literature data and modelling results. Using the reaction as a precursor, equimolar mixtures of CF3COF and CF2 were further heated. Combining experimental observations with theoretical modelling (on the CBS-QB3 and G4MP2 ab initio composite levels), CF3COF is shown to dissociate on two channels, either leading to CF2 + COF2 or to CF3 + FCO. By monitoring the CF2 signals, the branching ratio was determined between 1400 and 1900 K. The high pressure rate constants for the two channels were obtained from theoretical modelling as k5,∞(CF3COF → CF2 + COF2) = 7.1 × 10(14) exp(-320 kJ mol(-1)/RT) s(-1) and k6,∞(CF3COF → CF3 + FCO) = 3.9 × 10(15) exp(-355 kJ mol(-1)/RT) s(-1). The experimental results obtained at [Ar] ≈ 5 × 10(-6) mol cm(-3) were consistent with modelling results, showing that the reaction is in the falloff range of the unimolecular dissociation. The mechanism of secondary reactions following CF3COF dissociation has been analysed as well.

  2. The Clinical Study on Acupuncture Sensation in CC, CF and BV Herbal Acupuncture -The Basic Study on Placebo Herbal Acupuncture-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seo Jung-Chul

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective : This study was designed to find out whether NS(normal saline is able to be constituted as an appropriate control group for CC(Cervi Cornu Parvum herbal acupuncture, CF(Carthami-Flos herbal acupuncture and BV(bee venom herbal acupuncture. Methods : NS and three herbal acupuncture were inserted into Quchi(LI 11 of the subjects. After 5 minutes the subjects completed a questionnaire rating the intensity of 21 kinds of acupuncture sensation; hurting, penetrating, sharp, aching, intense, spreading, radiating, tingling, pricking, stinging, pulling, heavy, dull, numb, electric, shocking, hot, burning, cool, pulsing, and throbbing. We compared subjective evaluations of acupuncture sensation between or among the groups. Results : As for CC half items of the acupuncture sensation were significantly different from NS. As for CF all items were not significantly different from NS. As for CC all items were significantly different from NS except one item. In general the score of CF acupuncture sensation was lower than the others and the score of BV acupuncture sensation was higher than the others from comparison of sensation among herbal acupunctures(CC, CF, BV. Conclusion : We found that NS is able to be an appropriate placebo herbal acupuncture for CF. Further study is needed for new placebo herbal acupuncture for CC and BV.

  3. Dry decontamination of UO{sub 2} in CF{sub 4}/O{sub 2} RF plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Jin Yong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong Soo [Nuclear Engineering Department, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-07-01

    Research on the dry decontamination of UO{sub 2} in CF{sub 4}/O{sub 2} rf plasma is carried out . The reaction rates are investigated as functions of CF{sub 4}/O{sub 2} ratio, plasma power, and substrate temperature. The highest etching rate of 0.4 {mu}m/min is obtained at 20% O{sub 2} mole fraction, regardless of rf power and substrate temperature. The existence of the optimum CF{sub 4}/O{sub 2} ratio of four is confirmed by XPS and XRD analysis. The mass spectrometry analysis result reveals that the major reaction product is uranium hexa fluoride UF{sub 6}. Based on the experimental findings, dominant overall reaction of UO{sub 2} in CF{sub 4}/O{sub 2} plasma is determined as : UO{sub 2} + 3/2CF{sub 4} + 3/8O{sub 2} {yields} UF{sub 6} + 3/2(CO or CO{sub 2}) (author)

  4. {sup 252}Cf plasma desorption and laser desorption mass spectrometry for the determination of molecular weight distribution of coal derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, B.R.; Bartle, K.D.; Ross, A.B.; Herod, A.A.; Kandiyoti, R.; Larsen, J.W. [University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom). School of Chemistry

    1999-11-01

    A detailed knowledge of the molecular mass (MM) distribution in coal and its derived products is essential for a fundamental understanding of coal structure, and of the processes occurring during coal conversion. Fractionation using size exclusion chromatography (s.e.c.) using N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone as the mobile phase has been applied to such materials and has provided improved MM distributions. Absolute calibration has been provided using matrix assisted laser desorption ionisation mass spectrometry (MAl.d.I.-m.s.). An alternative method of volatilising and ionising large molecules for mass spectrometry (m.s.) is {sup 252}Cf plasma desorption ({sup 252}Cf p.d.-m.s.). This involves the use of energetic fission fragments from the decay of {sup 252}Cf and produces mass spectra consisting predominantly of molecular ions from a range of polymers and biomolecules. This has been used by other workers to determine the molecular weight distribution of heavy distillation residues obtained from coal liquefaction processes either unfractionated or fractionated into broad fractions. Generally, a good agreement was obtained between values of MM determined by {sup 252}Cf p.d.-m.s. and s.e.c. A comparison is reported of MM distribution determined by {sup 252}Cf p.d.-m.s. and laser desorption mass spectrometry (l.d.-m.s.) for narrower fractions separated by s.e.c. from a coal tar pitch. 19 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Field Continuous Measurement of Dissolved Gases with a CF-MIMS: Applications to the Physics and Biogeochemistry of Groundwater Flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatton, Eliot; Labasque, Thierry; de La Bernardie, Jérôme; Guihéneuf, Nicolas; Bour, Olivier; Aquilina, Luc

    2017-01-17

    In the perspective of a temporal and spatial exploration of aquatic environments (surface and groundwater), we developed a technique for field continuous measurements of dissolved gases with a precision better than 1% for N2, O2, CO2, He, Ar, 2% for Kr, 8% for Xe, and 3% for CH4, N2O and Ne. With a large resolution (from 1 × 10(-9) to 1 × 10(-2) ccSTP/g) and a capability of high frequency analysis (1 measure every 2 s), the CF-MIMS (Continuous Flow Membrane Inlet Mass Spectrometer) is an innovative tool allowing the investigation of a large panel of hydrological and biogeochemical processes in aquatic systems. Based on the available MIMS technology, this study introduces the development of the CF-MIMS (conception for field experiments, membrane choices, ionization) and an original calibration procedure allowing the quantification of mass spectral overlaps and temperature effects on membrane permeability. This study also presents two field applications of the CF-MIMS involving the well-logging of dissolved gases and the implementation of groundwater tracer tests with dissolved (4)He. The results demonstrate the analytical capabilities of the CF-MIMS in the field. Therefore, the CF-MIMS is a valuable tool for the field characterization of biogeochemical reactivity, aquifer transport properties, groundwater recharge, groundwater residence time and aquifer-river exchanges from few hours to several weeks experiments.

  6. Novel regulator of acylated ghrelin, CF801, reduces weight gain, rebound feeding after a fast, and adiposity in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin K Wellman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ghrelin is a 28 amino-acid hormonal peptide that is intimately related to the regulation of food intake and body weight. Once secreted, ghrelin binds to the growth hormone secretagogue receptor-1a (GHSR-1a, the only known receptor for ghrelin and is capable of activating a number of signaling cascades ultimately resulting in an increase in food intake and adiposity. Because ghrelin has been linked to overeating and the development of obesity, a number of pharmacological interventions have been generated in order to interfere with either the activation of ghrelin or interrupting ghrelin signaling as a means to reducing appetite and decrease weight gain. Here we present a novel peptide, CF801, capable of reducing circulating acylated ghrelin levels and subsequent body weight gain and adiposity. To this end, we show that IP administration of CF801 is sufficient to reduce circulating plasma acylated ghrelin levels. Acutely, intraperitoneal injections of CF801 resulted in decreased rebound feeding after an overnight fast. When delivered chronically decreased weight gain and adiposity without affecting caloric intake. CF801, however, did cause a change in diet preference, decreasing preference for a high fat diet and increasing preference for regular chow diet. Given the complexity of ghrelin receptor function, we propose that CF801 along with other compounds that regulate ghrelin secretion may prove to be a beneficial tool in the study of the ghrelin system, and potential targets for ghrelin based obesity treatments without altering the function of ghrelin receptors.

  7. Atmospheric chemistry of CF3C(O)O2 radicals. Kinetics of their reaction with NO2 and kinetics of the thermal decomposition of the product CF3C(O)O2NO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallington, T.J.; Sehested, J.; Nielsen, O.J.

    1994-01-01

    A pulse radiolysis technique has been used to measure a rate constant of (6.6 +/- 1.3) x 10(-12) cm3 molecule-1 s-1 for the association reaction between CF3C(O)O2 radicals and NO2 at 295 K and one atmosphere total pressure of SF6 diluent. A FTIR/smog chamber system was used to study the thermal...... decomposition CF3C(O)O2NO2. The rate of decomposition of CF3C(O)O2NO2 was independent of the total pressure of N2 diluent over the range 100-700 Torr and was fit by the expression k-1 = (1.9(-1.5)+7.6) x 10(16) exp[(-14000 +/- 480)/T] s-1. Implications for the atmospheric chemistry of CFC replacements...

  8. The bivalve Thyasira cf. gouldi hosts chemoautotrophic symbiont populations with strain level diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonita McCuaig

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Invertebrates from various marine habitats form nutritional symbioses with chemosynthetic bacteria. In chemosynthetic symbioses, both the mode of symbiont transmission and the site of bacterial housing can affect the composition of the symbiont population. Vertically transmitted symbionts, as well as those hosted intracellularly, are more likely to form clonal populations within their host. Conversely, symbiont populations that are environmentally acquired and extracellular may be more likely to be heterogeneous/mixed within host individuals, as observed in some mytilid bivalves. The symbionts of thyasirid bivalves are also extracellular, but limited 16S rRNA sequencing data suggest that thyasirid individuals contain uniform symbiont populations. In a recent study, Thyasira cf. gouldi individuals from Bonne Bay, Newfoundland, Canada were found to host one of three 16S rRNA phylotypes of sulfur-oxidizing gammaproteobacteria, suggesting environmental acquisition of symbionts and some degree of site-specificity. Here, we use Sanger sequencing of both 16S RNA and the more variable ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBisCO PCR products to further examine Thyasira cf. gouldi symbiont diversity at the scale of host individuals, as well as to elucidate any temporal or spatial patterns in symbiont diversity within Bonne Bay, and relationships with host OTU or size. We obtained symbiont 16S rRNA and RuBisCO Form II sequences from 54 and 50 host individuals, respectively, during nine sampling trips to three locations over four years. Analyses uncovered the same three closely related 16S rRNA phylotypes obtained previously, as well as three divergent RuBisCO phylotypes; these were found in various pair combinations within host individuals, suggesting incidents of horizontal gene transfer during symbiont evolution. While we found no temporal patterns in phylotype distribution or relationships with host OTU or size, some spatial effects were noted, with

  9. The effects of thermal aging on material behavior and strength of CF8M in nuclear reactor coolant system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Jae Do; Lee, Yong Seon; Nam, Uk Hui; Park, Jung Cheol; Pae, Yong Tak; In, Jae Hyeon; Woo, Seung Wan [Yeungnam Univ., Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-03-15

    The following investigations are performed in order to estimate the mechanism of the thermal integrity, and the life prediction. The CF8M is observed a brittle behavior in the range of 475 .deg. C. The five classes of the thermally aged CF8M specimen are prepared using an artificially accelerated aging method. Namely, after the specimen are held for 100, 300, 900, 1800 and 3600 hrs. at 430 .deg. C respectively, the specimen are water cooled to room temperature. The impact energy variations are measures for both the aged and virgin specimen at -173, -70, -32, 27 and 100 .deg. C respectively through the Charpy impact tests in addition to the hardness tests. The tests results are to be a guide line to predict the life of CF8M, a RCS component material caused by thermal aging. The critical flaw size can be estimated by KIC obtained from the impact energy.

  10. Correlation between ionic conductivity and fluidity of polymer gel electrolytes containing NH4CF3SO3

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Harinder Pal Singh; Rajiv Kumar; S S Sekhon

    2005-08-01

    Nonaqueous polymer gel electrolytes containing ammonium triflate (NH4CF3SO3) and dimethylacetamide (DMA) with polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) as the gelling polymer have been synthesized which show high value of conductivity (∼ 10-2 S/cm) at 25°C. The conductivity of polymer gel electrolytes containing different concentrations of NH4CF3SO3 shows a small decrease with the addition of PMMA and this has been correlated with the variation of fluidity of these gel electrolytes. The small decrease in conductivity with PMMA addition shows that polymer plays the role of stiffener and this is supported by FTIR results which also indicates the absence of any active interaction between polymer and NH4CF3SO3 in these gel electrolytes.

  11. Quantum chemical calculations of anion complex [B12Hx(CF3)12-x]2-, x = 9 - 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koblova, Elena A.; Saldin, Vitaly I.; Ustinov, Alexander Yu.

    2016-12-01

    The geometric, energetic, spectral and electronic properties of the most stable isomers of B12Hx(CF3)12-X2- anion complex with x = 9 - 12 have been studied using Density Functional Theory (B3LYP/6-311++G**). It was shown that these isomers are characterized by the preference to form the most symmetric structures with uniformly distributed charge densities. However, when replacing a hydrogen atom with fluoromethyl group, an inductive effect occurs. Blue shifts in the IR spectrum compared to the vibrations of the free CF3 molecule are in the range of 2 - 69 cm-1 and points to the stability of B12Hx(CF3)12-x2- anions.

  12. A Study on Reactive Ion Etching of Barium Strontium Titanate Films Using Mixtures of Argon (Ar), Carbon Tetrafluoride (CF4), and Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF6)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    A Study on Reactive Ion Etching of Barium Strontium Titanate Films Using Mixtures of Argon (Ar), Carbon Tetrafluoride (CF4), and Sulfur...Etching of Barium Strontium Titanate Films Using Mixtures of Argon (Ar), Carbon Tetrafluoride (CF4), and Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF6) Samuel G...Study on Reactive Ion Etching of Barium Strontium Titanate Films Using Mixtures of Argon (Ar), Carbon Tetrafluoride (CF4), and Sulfur Hexafluoride

  13. Using CF11 cellulose columns to inexpensively and effectively remove human DNA from Plasmodium falciparum-infected whole blood samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesan Meera

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome and transcriptome studies of Plasmodium nucleic acids obtained from parasitized whole blood are greatly improved by depletion of human DNA or enrichment of parasite DNA prior to next-generation sequencing and microarray hybridization. The most effective method currently used is a two-step procedure to deplete leukocytes: centrifugation using density gradient media followed by filtration through expensive, commercially available columns. This method is not easily implemented in field studies that collect hundreds of samples and simultaneously process samples for multiple laboratory analyses. Inexpensive syringes, hand-packed with CF11 cellulose powder, were recently shown to improve ex vivo cultivation of Plasmodium vivax obtained from parasitized whole blood. This study was undertaken to determine whether CF11 columns could be adapted to isolate Plasmodium falciparum DNA from parasitized whole blood and achieve current quantity and purity requirements for Illumina sequencing. Methods The CF11 procedure was compared with the current two-step standard of leukocyte depletion using parasitized red blood cells cultured in vitro and parasitized blood obtained ex vivo from Cambodian patients with malaria. Procedural variations in centrifugation and column size were tested, along with a range of blood volumes and parasite densities. Results CF11 filtration reliably produces 500 nanograms of DNA with less than 50% human DNA contamination, which is comparable to that obtained by the two-step method and falls within the current quality control requirements for Illumina sequencing. In addition, a centrifuge-free version of the CF11 filtration method to isolate P. falciparum DNA at remote and minimally equipped field sites in malaria-endemic areas was validated. Conclusions CF11 filtration is a cost-effective, scalable, one-step approach to remove human DNA from P. falciparum-infected whole blood samples.

  14. Field continuous measurement of dissolved gases with a CF-MIMS: Applications to the physics and biogeochemistry of groundwater flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatton, Eliot; Labasque, Thierry; de La Bernardie, Jérôme; Guihéneuf, Nicolas; Bour, Olivier; Aquilina, Luc

    2017-04-01

    In the perspective of a temporal and spatial exploration of aquatic environments (surface and ground water), we developed a technique for precise field continuous measurements of dissolved gases (N2, O2, CO2, CH4, N2O, H2, He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe). With a large resolution (from 1×10-9 to 1×10-2 ccSTP/g) and a capability of high frequency analysis (1 measure every 2 seconds), the CF-MIMS (Continuous Flow Membrane Inlet Mass Spectrometer) is an innovative tool allowing the investigation of a large panel of hydrological and biogeochemical processes in aquatic systems. Based on the available MIMS technology, this study introduces the development of the CF-MIMS (conception for field experiments, membrane choices, ionisation) and an original calibration procedure allowing the quantification of mass spectral overlaps and temperature effects on membrane permeability. This study also presents two field applications of the CF-MIMS (Chatton et al, 2016) involving the well-logging of dissolved gases and the implementation of groundwater tracer tests with dissolved 4He. The results demonstrate the analytical capabilities of the CF-MIMS in the field. Therefore, the CF-MIMS is a valuable tool for the field characterisation of biogeochemical reactivity, aquifer transport properties, groundwater recharge, groundwater residence time and aquifer-river exchanges from few hours to several weeks experiments. Eliot Chatton, Thierry Labasque, Jérôme de La Bernardie, Nicolas Guihéneuf, Olivier Bour and Luc Aquilina; Field Continuous Measurement of Dissolved Gases with a CF-MIMS: Applications to the Physics and Biogeochemistry of Groundwater Flow; Environmental Science & Technology, in press, 2016.

  15. Combination of forward osmosis (FO) process with coagulation/flocculation (CF) for potential treatment of textile wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Gang; Liang, Can-Zeng; Chung, Tai-Shung; Weber, Martin; Staudt, Claudia; Maletzko, Christian

    2016-03-15

    A novel combination of forward osmosis (FO) process with coagulation/flocculation (CF) (FO-CF) has been experimentally conceived for the treatment and reuse of textile wastewater. FO is employed to spontaneously recover water from the wastewater via osmosis and thus effectively reduces its volume with a dramatically enhanced dye concentration. CF is then applied to precipitate and remove dyes from the FO concentrated stream with much improved efficiency and reduced chemical dosage. The FO-CF hybrid system exhibits unique advantages of high water flux and recovery rate, well controlled membrane fouling, high efficiency, and minimal environmental impact. Using a lab-made thin-film composite (TFC) FO membrane, an initial water flux (Jw) of 36.0 L m(-2) h(-1) with a dye rejection of 99.9% has been demonstrated by using 2 M NaCl as the draw solution and synthetic textile wastewater containing multiple textile dyes, inorganic salts and organic additives as the feed under the FO mode. The Jw could be maintained at a high value of 12.0 L m(-2) h(-1) even when the recovery rate of the wastewater reaches 90%. Remarkable reverse fouling behavior has also been observed where the Jw of the fouled membrane can be almost fully restored to the initial value by physical flushing without using any chemicals. Due to the great dye concentration in the FO concentrated wastewater stream, the CF process could achieve more than 95% dye removal with a small dosage of coagulants and flocculants at 500-1000 ppm. The newly developed FO-CF hybrid process may open up new exploration of alternative technologies for the effective treatment and reuse of textile effluents.

  16. Sex differences in the incidence of total callosal agenesis in BALB/cCF mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manhães, Alex C; Medina, Alexandre E; Schmidt, Sergio L

    2002-06-14

    Corpus callosum (CC) development and adult morphology seems to be affected by sex. Here we analyzed the incidence of total callosal agenesis in 341 adult male and 318 female BALB/cCF mice. This strain of mice presents total or partial callosal agenesis in approximately 20-30% of its population. No significant differences were found in overall distributions of CC lengths and in average callosal lengths (totally acallosal excluded) between male and female mice. However, a highly significant difference in the incidence of total callosal agenesis was demonstrated: 18% (n=56) of the female mice presented such trait as opposed to 10% of males (n=34). This last result suggests that sex is a relevant factor in callosal development in its earliest stages of formation.

  17. Molecular Collective Vibrations in the Ternary Neutronless Fission of $^{252}Cf$

    CERN Document Server

    Misicu, S; Sandulescu, A; Greiner, W

    1999-01-01

    Based on a recent experimental finding which may suggest the existence of a tri-nuclear molecular structure before the cold ternary fragmentation of $^{252}$Cf takes place, we solved the eigenvalue problem of a certain class of vibrations which are very likely to occur in these molecules. These oscillations are the result of the joined action of rotations of the heavier fragments and the transversal vibrations of the lighter spherical cluster with respect to the fission axis. In the calculation of the interaction between the heavier fragments we took into account higher multipole deformations, including the hexadecupole one, and introduced a repulsive nuclear part to insure the creation of a potential pocket in which a few molecular states can be accommodated. The possibility to observe the de-excitation of such states is discussed in connection with the molecular life-time.

  18. Feline diarrhoea associated with Tritrichomonas cf. foetus and Giardia co-infection in an Australian cattery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissett, S A; Gowan, R A; O'Brien, C R; Stone, M R; Gookin, J L

    2008-11-01

    A 10-week-old female Ocicat was presented at a primary care feline veterinary practice for failure to thrive and diarrhoea. Numerous trophozoites, atypical for Giardia sp., were detected on a direct faecal examination, in addition to Giardia cysts. Although the failure to thrive and diarrhoea resolved following treatment for giardiasis, further diagnostic tests performed on faecal specimens from the kitten and 15 other Ocicats from the same cattery, including culture of trophozoites in In Pouch medium, PCR testing and molecular sequencing of PCR amplicons, confirmed infection with Tritrichomonas cf. foetus. This is the first report in Australia of feline trichomoniasis, which appears to be an emerging infectious disease of cats. Pertinent information regarding the clinical features, diagnosis, therapy, and potential source of feline trichomoniasis within Australia are discussed.

  19. New Horizons in C-F Activation by Main Group Electrophiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozerov, Oleg V. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2016-02-13

    This technical report describes progress on the DOE sponsored project "New Horizons in C-F Activation by Main Group Electrophiles" during the period of 09/15/2010 – 08/31/2015. The main goal of this project was to develop improved catalysts for conversion of carbon-fluorine bonds in potentially harmful compounds. The approach involved combining of a highly reactive positively charged main-group compound with a highly unreactive negatively charged species (anions) as a way to access potent catalysts for carbon-fluorine bond activation. This report details progress made in improving synthetic pathways to a variety of new anions with improved properties and analysis of their potential in catalysis.

  20. Appearance of males in a thelytokous strain of Milnesium cf. tardigradum (Tardigrada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Atsushi C

    2008-08-01

    Tardigrades are generally gonochoristic. Many moss-dwelling species propagate by parthenogenesis, but heterogony has not yet been found. Milnesium tardigradum, a carnivorous tardigrade, also has both sexes, but males are usually rare and many populations appear to have only parthenogenetic reproduction. Since 2000, I have maintained a thelytokous strain of Milnesium cf. tardigradum that originated from one female. Individuals of this strain were thought to be all females, but here I report that males have emerged in this strain at a very low frequency. This is the first report of the appearance of males in parthenogenetic tardigrades. On the first pair of legs of some individuals, I observed the modified claws characteristic of males of this species. It is unknown whether these males can actually function in sexual reproduction; however, they might allow some possibility of genetic exchange among clonal populations. No environmental factors that generate males were determined.

  1. Microsatellite multiplex assay for the coral-eating crown-of-thorns starfish, Acanthaster cf. planci

    KAUST Repository

    Harrison, Hugo B.

    2015-03-20

    Population outbreaks of crown-of-thorns starfish (Acanthaster spp.) represent one of the most significant biological disturbances on Indo-Pacific coral reefs. Here, we combine 15 published and 11 newly isolated polymorphic microsatellite markers from the coral-eating starfish, A. cf. planci and describe their integration into four multiplex PCRs. All markers were polymorphic with a mean of 11.7 ± 1.9 SE alleles per locus and an average observed heterozygosity of 0.619 ± 0.049 SE across 195 genotyped individuals from the Great Barrier Reef. This multiplex assay provides an effective means of investigating the population dynamics of crown-of-thorns starfish and the initiation and spread of population outbreaks.

  2. Stability of 248-254^Cf isotopes against alpha and cluster radioactivity

    CERN Document Server

    Santhosh, K P

    2013-01-01

    Stability of 248-254^Cf nuclei against alpha and cluster emission is studied within our Coulomb and proximity potential model (CPPM). It is found that these nuclei are stable against light clusters (except alpha particle) and instable against heavy cluster emissions. For heavy cluster emissions the daughter nuclei lead to doubly magic 208^Pb or neighbouring one. The effect of quadrapole and hexadecapole deformations of parent nuclei, daughter nuclei and emitted cluster on half lives are also studied. The computed alpha decay half life values (with including quadrupole deformation {\\beta}2) are in close agreement with experimental data. Inclusion of quadrupole deformation reduces the height and width of the barrier (increases the barrier penetrability) and hence half life decreases.

  3. Report on the side-effects of Pharmacopuncture Lubricants(CF, JsD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Young, Lee

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : This study aims to report inflammatory reactions of Pharmacopuncture lubricants (CF and JsD when administered on GB21, GB20, and TE23 in clinical trials. Methods : Follow-up studies were made on each patient's clinical observation and specific managemen. Results : 1. Inflammation induced by pharmacopuncture lubricants were limited to local area of administration. 2. Intensity of inflammation was depended on the patient's condition. 3. Inflammation caused pain, skin flare, and discomfort on the patient. Inflammation subsided when dissipating technique was rendered with the conventional acupuncture needle. Conclusions : It appears that prolonged usage of pharmacopuncture lubricant on the specific point can induce inflammation, thus using alternative pharmacopuncture is recommended.

  4. Ionic conductivity in the polymer electrolytes PEO/CF{sub 3}COONa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado, I.; Chacon, M.; Vargas, R.A. [Valle Univ., Cali (Colombia). Dept. de Fisica; Castillo, J. [Ingenieria Electronica, Univ. del Quindio, Armenia (Colombia)

    2000-07-01

    In the present work, the electrical and thermal characterization of polymer electrolytes based on PEO/CF{sub 3}COONa are reported, which turn out to be good ionic conductors near room temperature (of the order 10{sup -4} {omega}{sup -1} cm{sup -1} for high salt concentrations). The variation of conductivity with temperature (plotted as ln {sigma} versus 1/T) and salt concentration suggests a complex formation. This is confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), which also indicates that the blends are thermally stable up to approximately 480 K. The high conductivity and the single-phase behavior of the blends are explained in terms of the plastification effect of the organic salt on the PEO. (orig.)

  5. Effect of fiber characteristics on fracture behavior of Cf/SiC composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何新波; 杨辉; 张新明

    2002-01-01

    Cf/SiC composites were prepared by precursor pyrolysis-hot pressing, and the effect of fiber characteristics on the fracture behavior of the composites was investigated. Because the heat treatment temperature of fiber T300 (below 1500℃) was much lower than that of fiber M40JB (over 2000℃), fiber T300 had lower degree of graphitization and consisted of more impurities compared with fiber M40JB, suggesting that T300 exhibits higher chemical activity. As a result, the composite with T300 showed a brittle fracture behavior, which is mainly ascribed to a strongly bonded fiber/matrix interface as well as the degradation of fibers during the preparation of the composite. However, the composite with M40JB exhibits a tough fracture behavior, which is primarily attributed to a weakly bonded fiber/matrix interface and higher strength retention of the fibers.

  6. An algorithm for 252Cf-Source-Driven neutron signal denoising based on Compressive Sensing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鹏程; 魏彪; 冯鹏; 何鹏; 米德伶

    2015-01-01

    As photoelectrically detected 252Cf-source-driven neutron signals always contain noise, a denoising algorithm is proposed based on compressive sensing for the noised neutron signal. In the algorithm, Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) is applied to decompose the noised neutron signal and then find out the noised Intrinsic Mode Function (IMF) automatically. Thus, we only need to use the basis pursuit denoising (BPDN) algorithm to denoise these IMFs. For this reason, the proposed algorithm can be called EMDCSDN (Empirical Mode Decomposition Compressive Sensing Denoising). In addition, five indicators are employed to evaluate the denoising effect. The results show that the EMDCSDN algorithm is more effective than the other denoising algorithms including BPDN. This study provides a new approach for signal denoising at the front-end.

  7. Kinetics and Mechanism of Interfacial Reaction in a SiCf/Ti Composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guoxing ZHANG; Qiang KANG; Nanlin SHI; Geping LI; Dong LI

    2003-01-01

    In order to evaluate the interfacial reaction, a SiCf/Ti (TA1) composite was fabricated by a vacuum hot pressingmethod and then heat-treated in vacuum at 800℃ for up to 100 h. The elemental distributions of C, Si and Ti at theinterfacial reaction zone were investigated. It was found that the reaction zone occurs during the fabrication processand continuously grows at high temperature because the Si and C atoms diffuse from SiC fibers to the matrix and Tiatoms diffuse in the opposite direction. The growth of the reaction zone is diffusion controlled and the mechanismof the reaction can be described by a reactive diffusion model of solid-state growth of an AmBn layer between twoelementary substances A and B.

  8. Beta decay of 252Cf on the way to scission from the exit point

    CERN Document Server

    Pomorski, K; Quentin, P

    2015-01-01

    Upon increasing significantly the nuclear elongation, the beta-decay energy grows. This paper investigates within a simple yet partly microscopic approach, the transition rate of the beta decay of the 252Cf nucleus on the way to scission from the exit point for a spontaneous fission process. A rather crude classical approximation is made for the corresponding damped collective motion assumed to be one dimensional. Given these assumptions, we only aim in this paper at providing the order of magnitudes of such a phenomenon. At each deformation the energy available for beta decay, is determined from such a dynamical treatment. Then, for a given elongation, transition rates for the allowed (Fermi) beta decay are calculated from pair correlated wave functions obtained within a macroscopic-microscopic approach and then integrated over the time corresponding to the whole descent from exit to scission. The results are presented as a function of the damping factor (inverse of the characteristic damping time) in use in...

  9. Anchors for the Cosmic Distance Scale: the Cepheids U Sgr, CF Cas and CEab Cas

    CERN Document Server

    Majaess, D; Bidin, C Moni; Bonatto, C; Berdnikov, L; Balam, D; Moyano, M; Gallo, L; Turner, D; Lane, D; Gieren, W; Borissova, J; Kovtyukh, V; Beletsky, Y

    2013-01-01

    New and existing X-ray, UBVJHKsW(1-4), and spectroscopic observations were analyzed to constrain fundamental parameters for M25, NGC 7790, and dust along their sight-lines. The star clusters are of particular importance given they host the classical Cepheids U Sgr, CF Cas, and the visual binary Cepheids CEa and CEb Cas. Precise results from the multiband analysis, in tandem with a comprehensive determination of the Cepheids' period evolution (dP/dt) from ~140 years of observations, helped resolve concerns raised regarding the clusters and their key Cepheid constituents. Specifically, distances derived for members of M25 and NGC 7790 are 630+-25 pc and 3.40+-0.15 kpc, respectively.

  10. Analysis of an algebraic model for the chromophore vibrations of CF$_3$CHFI

    CERN Document Server

    Jung, C; Taylor, H S

    2004-01-01

    We extract the dynamics implicit in an algebraic fitted model Hamiltonian for the hydrogen chromophore's vibrational motion in the molecule $CF_3CHFI$. The original model has 4 degrees of freedom, three positions and one representing interbond couplings. A conserved polyad allows the reduction to 3 degrees of freedom. For most quantum states we can identify the underlying motion that when quantized gives the said state. Most of the classifications, identifications and assignments are done by visual inspection of the already available wave function semiclassically transformed from the number representation to a representation on the reduced dimension toroidal configuration space corresponding to the classical action and angle variables. The concentration of the wave function density to lower dimensional subsets centered on idealized simple lower dimensional organizing structures and the behavior of the phase along such organizing centers already reveals the atomic motion. Extremely little computational work is...

  11. Computer analysis of nuclear track emulsion exposed to thermal neutrons and Cf source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamatkulov, K. Z.; Ambřozová, I.; Artemenkov, D. A.; Bradnova, V.; Kamanin, D. V.; Kattabekov, R. R.; Majling, L.; Marey, A.; Ploc, O.; Rusakova, V. V.; Stanoeva, R.; Turek, K.; Zaitsev, A. A.; Zarubin, P. I.; Zarubina, I. G.

    2016-02-01

    Application of the nuclear track emulsion technique (NTE) in radioactivity and nuclear fission studies is discussed. It is suggested to use a HSP-1000 automated microscope for searching for a collinear cluster tri-partition of heavy nuclei implanted in NTE. Calibrations of α-particles and ion ranges in a novel NTE are carried out. Surface exposures of NTE samples to a Cf-252 source started. Planar events containing fragments and long-range α-particles as well as fragment triples only are studied. Splittings induced by thermal neutrons are studied in boron-enriched emulsion. Use of the image recognition program ”ImageJ” for obtaining characteristics of individual events and for events from the large scan area is presented.

  12. Chest physical therapy, breathing techniques and exercise in children with CF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlwaine, Maggie

    2007-03-01

    Chest physiotherapy in the form of airway clearance techniques and exercise has played an important role in the treatment of cystic fibrosis. Until the 1990s the primary airway clearance technique used was postural drainage combined with percussion and vibration (PD&P). It was introduced into the treatment of CF with little evidence to support its efficacy and once established, it has been difficult ethically to perform a study comparing PD&P to no treatment. A common question, yet unanswered is when should it be commenced, especially for the newly diagnosed asymptomatic CF patient? Recently, the technique of PD&P has been modified to include only non-dependant head-down positioning due to the detrimental effects of placing a person in a Trendelenburg position. In the 1990s other airway clearance techniques gained popularity, in that they could be performed independently, in a sitting position and avoided many of the detrimental effects of PD&P. These techniques include the Active cycle of breathing technique, formally called the Forced expiration technique and Autogenic drainage. Both these breathing techniques aim at using expiratory airflow to mobilize secretions up the airways and incorporate breathing strategies to assist in the homogeneity of ventilation. Studies suggest that both these techniques are as effective if not more effective than as PD&P and offer many advantages over PD&P. It has been suggested that exercise can be used as an airway clearance technique; however the literature does not support this. Rather, when exercise is used in addition to an airway clearance technique there is enhanced secretion removal and an overall benefit to the patient. Further research needs to be directed at assessing the effects of an airway clearance technique on the individual patient using appropriate outcome measures.

  13. Low-energy charpy impact of interleaved CF/EP laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Q.; Friedrich, K.; Karger-Kocsis, J.

    1995-03-01

    Carbon fiber (CF) reinforced epoxy (CF/EP) laminates laid up in different ways (cross-ply and quasi-isotropic) with and without various adhesive interlayers (A) were studied under three-point bending using instrumented low-energy impact at single and multiple bounces. Interleaves were a modified EP resin on polyester fabric, a modified EP resin, and a polyethersulphone (PES) film. The impact response depends strongly on whether the CFs are oriented longitudinally (L) or transversely (T) to the hammer edge in the outer bounced ply. The threshold incident energy ( E in,th) associated with severe damage to the laminates was much lower with the longitudinal outer ply. The impact fatigue response of the transverse cross-ply (TCP) and quasi-isotropic (TQI) composite beams showed that stiffness degradation starts at a certain a threshold number of impact (NOI) and follows a logarithmic decay as a function of NOI. This is in close analogy to fatigue tests under usual conditions. Deterioration in stiffness can be assigned to the relative change in the secant slope ( E max/ x max) of the load-displacement ( F-x) traces. The related load-time ( F-t) traces flatten due to impact fatigue so that their load maximum ( F max) shifts toward higher contact time. The efficiency of the interleaving was assessed in both single (at E in,th≈3 J) and repeated impact (at E in=1 J). The first technique allowed us to differentiate between the various interleaves, whereas the latter contributed to finding the optimum stacking and position of the interleaves.

  14. A physics investigation of deadtime losses in neutron counting at low rates with Cf252

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Louise G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Croft, Stephen [CANBERRA INDUSTRIES, INC.

    2009-01-01

    {sup 252}Cf spontaneous fission sources are used for the characterization of neutron counters and the determination of calibration parameters; including both neutron coincidence counting (NCC) and neutron multiplicity deadtime (DT) parameters. Even at low event rates, temporally-correlated neutron counting using {sup 252}Cf suffers a deadtime effect. Meaning that in contrast to counting a random neutron source (e.g. AmLi to a close approximation), DT losses do not vanish in the low rate limit. This is because neutrons are emitted from spontaneous fission events in time-correlated 'bursts', and are detected over a short period commensurate with their lifetime in the detector (characterized by the system die-away time, {tau}). Thus, even when detected neutron events from different spontaneous fissions are unlikely to overlap in time, neutron events within the detected 'burst' are subject to intrinsic DT losses. Intrinsic DT losses for dilute Pu will be lower since the multiplicity distribution is softer, but real items also experience self-multiplication which can increase the 'size' of the bursts. Traditional NCC DT correction methods do not include the intrinsic (within burst) losses. We have proposed new forms of the traditional NCC Singles and Doubles DT correction factors. In this work, we apply Monte Carlo neutron pulse train analysis to investigate the functional form of the deadtime correction factors for an updating deadtime. Modeling is based on a high efficiency {sup 3}He neutron counter with short die-away time, representing an ideal {sup 3}He based detection system. The physics of dead time losses at low rates is explored and presented. It is observed that new forms are applicable and offer more accurate correction than the traditional forms.

  15. The mitochondrial genomes of two nemerteans, Cephalothrix sp. (Nemertea: Palaeonemertea) and Paranemertes cf. peregrina (Nemertea: Hoplonemertea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hai-Xia; Sundberg, Per; Wu, Hai-Yi; Sun, Shi-Chun

    2011-10-01

    The mitochondrial genome sequences were determined for two species of nemerteans, Cephalothrix sp. (15,800 bp sequenced, near-complete) and Paranemertes cf. peregrina (14,558 bp, complete). As seen in most metazoans, the genomes encode 13 protein, 2 ribosomal RNA and 22 transfer RNA genes. The nucleotide composition is strongly biased toward A and T, as is typical for metazoan mtDNAs. There is also a significant strand skew in the distribution of these nucleotides, with the coding strand being richer in T than A and in G than C. All genes are transcribed in the same direction except for trnP and trnT, which is consistent with that reported for Cephalothrix hongkongiensis and Lineus viridis. Gene arrangement of Cephalothrix sp. is identical to that of C. hongkongiensis, while in P. cf. peregrina it is similar to L. viridis, but differs significantly from the three Cephalothrix species in the position of four protein-coding genes and seven tRNAs. Some protein-coding genes have 3' end stem-loop structures, which may allow mRNA processing without flanking tRNAs. The major non-coding regions observed in the two genomes with potential to form stem-loop structures may be involved in the initiation of replication or transcription. The average Ka/Ks values, varying from 0.12 to 0.89, are markedly different among the 13 mitochondrial protein-coding genes, suggesting that there may exist different selective pressure among mitochondrial genes of nemerteans.

  16. Actinide production in /sup 136/Xe bombardments of /sup 249/Cf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregorich, K.E.

    1985-08-01

    The production cross sections for the actinide products from /sup 136/Xe bombardments of /sup 249/Cf at energies 1.02, 1.09, and 1.16 times the Coulomb barrier were determined. Fractions of the individual actinide elements were chemically separated from recoil catcher foils. The production cross sections of the actinide products were determined by measuring the radiations emitted from the nuclides within the chemical fractions. The chemical separation techniques used in this work are described in detail, and a description of the data analysis procedure is included. The actinide production cross section distributions from these /sup 136/Xe + /sup 249/Cf bombardments are compared with the production cross section distributions from other heavy ion bombardments of actinide targets, with emphasis on the comparison with the /sup 136/Xe + /sup 248/Cm reaction. A technique for modeling the final actinide cross section distributions has been developed and is presented. In this model, the initial (before deexcitation) cross section distribution with respect to the separation energy of a dinuclear complex and with respect to the Z of the target-like fragment is given by an empirical procedure. It is then assumed that the N/Z equilibration in the dinuclear complex occurs by the transfer of neutrons between the two participants in the dinuclear complex. The neutrons and the excitation energy are statistically distributed between the two fragments using a simple Fermi gas level density formalism. The resulting target-like fragment initial cross section distribution with respect to Z, N, and excitation energy is then allowed to deexcite by emission of neutrons in competition with fission. The result is a final cross section distribution with respect to Z and N for the actinide products. 68 refs., 33 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. Early alterations in airway mucociliary clearance and inflammation of the lamina propria in CF mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahm, J M; Gaillard, D; Dupuit, F; Hinnrasky, J; Porteous, D; Dorin, J R; Puchelle, E

    1997-03-01

    In cystic fibrosis (CF), whether cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) dysfunction leads to decreased mucociliary clearance and mucus hypersecretion, before bacterial infection, remains an open question. To answer this question, we quantified in a blind trial the mucociliary transport velocity, the histological state, and the degree of inflammation of the tracheal mucosa in 23 cftr(m1HGU/cftr(m1HGU) transgenic mice (Dorin, J. R., P. Dickinson, E. W. F. W. Alton, S. N. Smith, D. M. Geddes, B. J. Stevenson, W. L. Kimber, S. Fleming, A. R. Clark, M. L. Hooper, L. Anderson, R. S. P. Beddington, and D. J. Porteous. Nature Lond. 359: 211-215, 1992) and in 30 control littermates housed in pathogen-free conditions. The nasal and tracheal transepithelial potential difference (PD) measured in basal conditions was significantly more negative in the cftr(m1HGU) mutant mice as compared with the control mice (nasal PD: -7.1 +/- 0.6 and -4.6 +/- 0.5 mV, respectively, P < 0.01; tracheal PD: -30.8 +/- 2.1 and -21.4 +/- 1.8 mV, respectively, P < 0.04). In the cftr(m1HGU)/cftr(m1HGU) mice, the mucociliary transport velocity was significantly lower (14.2 +/- 4.4 microm/mm, P < 0.04) compared with the control mice (30.6 +/- 5.9 microm/mm). The number of inflammatory cells in the lamina propria was significantly higher in the cftr(m1HGU)/cftr(m1HGU) mice (1048.7 +/- 124.7 cells/mm2, P < 0.03) compared with the control mice (640.5 +/- 58.2 cells/mm2). These results suggest that in CF, decreased airway mucociliary clearance and airway submucosal inflammation represent early alterations, before any airway infection.

  18. Influence of nuclear dissipation on fission dynamics of the excited nucleus $^{248}$Cf within a stochastic approach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ESLAMIZADEH HADI

    2016-07-01

    A stochastic approach to fission dynamics based on two-dimensional Langevin equations was applied to calculate the anisotropy of the fission fragments angular distribution and average pre-scission neutron multiplicities for the compound nucleus 248Cf formed in the $${16}$O+$^{232}$Th reactions. Postsaddle nuclear dissipation strength of $(12–14) \\times 10^{21} s^{−1}$ was extracted for Cf nucleus by fitting the results of calculations with the experimentaldata. Furthermore, it was found that the results of calculations for the anisotropy of the fission fragments angular distribution and pre-scission neutron multiplicities are very sensitive to the magnitude of post-saddle nucleardissipation.

  19. OER by survival time for Cf-252, low dose rate Cs-137 and acute Co-60 for LSA lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, Y.; Feola, J.M.; Magura, C.; Onomura, C.I.; Beach, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    RBE and OER were determined for LSA tumor by survival time assay. The RBE/sub n/ of Cf vs. Cs-137 was 5.8 and the OER was --1.4 by experiments performed in vitro and assayed in vivo. When tumor was irradiated in an advanced state in the living mouse, the RBE/sub n/ was determined to be 5.2 vs. Cs-137. The RBE for hypoxic tumor is larger than for the oxic tumor for Cf-252 neutron irradiation.

  20. Pharmacotherapy of impaired mucociliary clearance in non-CF pediatric lung disease. A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boogaard, Ruben; de Jongste, Johan C; Merkus, Peter J F M

    2007-11-01

    Mucoactive agents are used to treat a variety of lung diseases involving impaired mucociliary clearance or mucus hypersecretion. The mucoactive agents studied most frequently are N-acetylcysteine (NAC), recombinant human DNase (rhDNase), and hypertonic saline. Studies on the efficacy of these have been mainly conducted in adults, and in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). The exact role of mucoactive agents in children with non-CF lung disease is not well established. We present an overview of the current literature reporting clinical outcome measures of treatment with NAC, rhDNase, and hypertonic saline in children.

  1. Dissociative electron attachment and vibrational excitation of CF{sub 3}Cl: Effect of two vibrational modes revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarana, Michal [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588 (United States); JILA, University of Colorado and NIST, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0440 (United States); Houfek, Karel; Horacek, Jiri [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague, V Holesovickach 2, Prague (Czech Republic); Fabrikant, Ilya I. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-15

    We present a study of dissociative electron attachment and vibrational excitation processes in electron collisions with the CF{sub 3}Cl molecule. The calculations are based on the two-dimensional nuclear dynamics including the C-Cl symmetric stretch coordinate and the CF{sub 3} symmetric deformation (umbrella) coordinate. The complex potential energy surfaces are calculated using the ab initio R-matrix method. The results for dissociative attachment and vibrational excitation of the umbrella mode agree quite well with experiment whereas the cross section for excitation of the C-Cl symmetric stretch vibrations is about a factor-of-three too low in comparison with experimental data.

  2. Effect of pheromone induction on transfer of the Enterococcus faecalis plasmid pCF10 in intestinal mucus ex vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licht, Tine Rask; Hammerum, Anette Marie; Jensen, Lars Bogø;

    2001-01-01

    The effect of synthetic sex pheromone on pheromone-inducible conjugation between the isogenic Enterococcus faecalis strains OG1RF and OG1SS was investigated in (i) Todd-Hewitt broth medium and (ii) intestinal mucus isolated from germ-free rats. In broth, the presence of synthetic pheromone cCF10...... in the experiment. We suggest that due to differences in diffusion rates and medium-binding of the pheromones, the effect of the synthetic cCF10 was immediately dominated by the effect of pheromones produced by the recipient E. faecalis strain in broth, while this happened later in mucus....

  3. Complete genome sequence of the actinobacterium Amycolatopsis japonica MG417-CF17T (=DSM 44213T) producing (S,S)-N,N′-ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stegmann, Evi; Albersmeier, Andreas; Spohn, Marius

    2014-01-01

    We report the complete genome sequence of Amycolatopsis japonica MG417-CF17T (=DSM 44213T) which was identified as the producer of (S,S)-N,N′-ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid during a screening for phospholipase C inhibitors. The genome of A. japonica MG417-CF17T consists of two replicons: the chro......We report the complete genome sequence of Amycolatopsis japonica MG417-CF17T (=DSM 44213T) which was identified as the producer of (S,S)-N,N′-ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid during a screening for phospholipase C inhibitors. The genome of A. japonica MG417-CF17T consists of two replicons...

  4. Complete identification of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator mutations in the CF population of Saguenay Lac-Saint-Jean (Quebec, Canada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Braekeleer, M; Mari, C; Verlingue, C; Allard, C; Leblanc, J P; Simard, F; Aubin, G; Férec, C

    1998-01-01

    Over the past few years, we have conducted a systematic study of 230 cystic fibrosis (CF) chromosomes in the Saguenay Lac-Saint-Jean (SLSJ) population which has a high CF incidence (1/936 live births). We identified 11 mutations accounting for 100% of the CF chromosomes found in patients born in SLSJ. Our results indicate that denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) is a powerful method of identifying CF mutations. They have also considerable implications for genetic counselling and molecular characterization of doubtful patients. They make carrier screening technically feasible in this population.

  5. Thallium(I) complexes of fluorinated bis- and tris(pyrazolyl)borate ligands: [H2B{3,5-(CF3)2pz}2]Tl and [HB{3,5-(CF3)2pz}3]Tl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, H V Rasika; Thankamani, Jose

    2013-09-01

    X-ray crystal structural data at 100 (2) K for the thallium(I) complex of a fluorinated bis(pyrazolyl)borate, {bis[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl-κN(2)]borato}thallium(I), [Tl(C10H4BF12N4)], abbreviated as [H2B{3,5-(CF3)2pz}2]Tl, and the related tris(pyrazolyl)borate, {tris[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl-κN(2)]borato}thallium(I), [Tl(C15H4BF18N6)], abbreviated as [HB{3,5-(CF3)2pz}3]Tl, are reported. [H2B{3,5-(CF3)2pz}2]Tl features a two-coordinate Tl(I) atom with a bent geometry and a boat-shaped bis(pyrazolyl)borate ligand. It also has several additional inter- and intramolecular Tl···H and Tl···F contacts in the solid state. The tris(pyrazolyl)borate analogue [HB{3,5-(CF3)2pz}3]Tl has a trigonal-pyramidal thallium centre and features inter- and intramolecular Tl···F contacts.

  6. Apobec-1 Complementation Factor (A1CF Inhibits Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Migration of Normal Rat Kidney Proximal Tubular Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyuan Huang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Apobec-1 complementation factor (A1CF is a member of the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNP family, which participates in site-specific posttranscriptional RNA editing of apolipoprotein B (apoB transcript. The posttranscriptional editing of apoB mRNA by A1CF in the small intestine is required for lipid absorption. Apart from the intestine, A1CF mRNA is also reported to be highly expressed in the kidneys. However, it is remained unknown about the functions of A1CF in the kidneys. The aim of this paper is to explore the potential functions of A1CF in the kidneys. Our results demonstrated that in C57BL/6 mice A1CF was weakly expressed in embryonic kidneys from E15.5dpc while strongly expressed in mature kidneys after birth, and it mainly existed in the tubules of inner cortex. More importantly, we identified A1CF negatively regulated the process of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT in kidney tubular epithelial cells. Our results found ectopic expression of A1CF up-regulated the epithelial markers E-cadherin, and down-regulated the mesenchymal markers vimentin and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA in NRK52e cells. In addition, knockdown of A1CF enhanced EMT contrary to the overexpression effect. Notably, the two A1CF variants led to the similar trend in the EMT process. Taken together, these data suggest that A1CF may be an antagonistic factor to the EMT process of kidney tubular epithelial cells.

  7. Development of antibiotic resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa during two decades of antipseudomonal treatment at the Danish CF Center

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciofu, O; Giwercman, B; Pedersen, S S

    1994-01-01

    At the Danish CF Center patients with chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection were treated 3-4 times a year (from 1976) with a 2-week intravenous antipseudomonal course which included preferentially an aminoglycoside and a beta-lactam antibiotic. We investigated the development of antibiotic...

  8. Infrared measurements of increased CF/sub 2/Cl/sub 2/ (CFC-12) absorption above the South Pole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinsland, C.P.; Goldman, A.; Murcray, F.J.; Murcray, F.H.; Murcray, D.G.; Levine, J.S.

    1988-02-01

    High-resolution ground-based solar spectra recorded at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole station in Dec. 1980 and Nov. 1986 have been analyzed in the region of the CF/sub 2/Cl/sub 2/ (chlorofluorocarbon 12) atgn/sub 8/ band Q branches at 1161 cm/sup arrow-right-left//sup 1/. An increase in the CF/sub 2/Cl/sub 2/ total vertical column above the South Pole of 1.24 atmapprox. = 0.15 over the 6-yr period, corresponding to an average rate of increase of 3.6 atmapprox. = 2.1%, is derived. This rate of increase is lower than indicated by in situ measurements at the South Pole over the same time period, but there is agreement when the rather error bars of the spectral measurement results are considered. Spectroscopic parameters that can successfully model CF/sub 2/Cl/sub 2/ absorption at low temperatures are needed to improve retrieval accuracies and could be applied to a number of pre-1980 atmospheric spectral data sets in the literature to obtain an improved record of early CF/sub 2/Cl/sub 2/ concentration trends for comparison with estimates of historical release rates.

  9. 1,2-Difluoroethane: the angular dependance on 1J(CF) coupling constants is independent of hyperconjugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Matheus P; Bühl, Michael; O'Hagan, David

    2012-02-28

    1,2-Difluoroethane is widely recognised to adopt a lower energy gauche rather than anti conformation; this gauche effect has its origin in hyperconjugation; however, surprisingly the (1)J(CF) coupling constant is not influenced by hyperconjugation; instead, its magnitude changes with the overall molecular dipole.

  10. Effect of fiber-matrix adhesion on the creep behavior of CF/PPS composites: temperature and physical aging characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta Dias, M. H.; Jansen, K. M. B.; Luinge, J. W.; Bersee, H. E. N.; Benedictus, R.

    2016-06-01

    The influence of fiber-matrix adhesion on the linear viscoelastic creep behavior of `as received' and `surface modified' carbon fibers (AR-CF and SM-CF, respectively) reinforced polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) composite materials was investigated. Short-term tensile creep tests were performed on ±45° specimens under six different isothermal conditions, 40, 50, 60, 65, 70 and 75 °C. Physical aging effects were evaluated on both systems using the short-term test method established by Struik. The results showed that the shapes of the curves were affected neither by physical aging nor by the test temperature, allowing then superposition to be made. A unified model was proposed with a single physical aging and temperature-dependent shift factor, a_{T,te}. It was suggested that the surface treatment carried out in SM-CF/PPS had two major effects on the creep response of CF/PPS composites at a reference temperature of 40 °C: a lowering of the initial compliance of about 25 % and a slowing down of the creep response of about 1.1 decade.

  11. KRAS mutations in the circulating free DNA (cfDNA) of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villatoro, Sergi; Teixidó, Cristina; Mayo, Clara; Martínez, Alejandro; de los Llanos Gil, Maria; Viteri, Santiago; Morales-Espinosa, Daniela; Rosell, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Circulating free DNA (cfDNA) is obtained from serum or plasma by non-invasive methods such as a simple blood draw, a technique known as “liquid biopsy”. Genetic analyses of driver alterations in cfDNA have proved very effective to predict survival and treatment response of cancer patients according to tumoral cfDNA burden in blood. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with higher concentration of tumoral cfDNA in blood have, on average, shorter progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Regarding specific genetic alterations, KRAS proto-oncogene, GTPase (KRAS) is one of the main genes involved in NSCLC and several studies have been performed to determine its value as a predictive and prognostic biomarker in liquid biopsy. Unfortunately, to date no strong conclusions can be drawn since they have yielded contradictory results. Therefore, further investigations are necessary to establish the value of KRAS testing in liquid biopsy as prognostic or predictive factor in NSCLC. Herein, we review the current knowledge on the importance of KRAS as prognostic and predictive biomarker using non-invasive approaches and the scientific data available regarding its application in clinical practice for treatment of NSCLC. PMID:27826532

  12. Lower biodiversity of native fish but only marginally altered plankton biomass in tropical lakes hosting introduced piscivorous Cichla cf. ocellaris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menezes, R.F.; Attayde, J.L.; Lacerot, G.; Kosten, S.; Costa, L.S.; Coimbra e Sousa, L.; Nes, van E.H.; Jeppesen, E.

    2012-01-01

    We compared the species richness and abundance of fish, zooplankton and phytoplankton in nine mesotrophic coastal shallow lakes (Northeastern Brazil) with and without the exotic predator cichlid tucunaré or ‘peacock bass’ (Cichla cf. ocellaris). We hypothesized that the introduction of tucunaré woul

  13. Potential anxiolytic properties of R-(+)-8-OSO2CF3-PAT, a 5-HT1A receptor agonist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barf, T; Korte, SM; KorteBouws, G; Sonesson, C; Damsma, G; Bohus, B; Wikstrom, H

    1996-01-01

    The anxiolytic property of R-(+)-8-OSO3CF3-PAT (R-(+)-8-[[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]oxy]-2-(n-propyl-amino)tetralin), a 5-HT1A receptor agonist, was evaluated in Wistar rats by means of animal models of anxiety, the conditioned defensive burying model and the conditioned stress-induced freezing resp

  14. Tomato Cf resistance proteins mediate recognition of cognate homologous effectors from fungi pathogenic on diots and monocots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stergiopoulos, I.; Burg, van den H.A.; Ökmen, B.; Beenen, H.G.; Liere, van S.; Kema, G.H.J.; Wit, de P.J.G.M.

    2010-01-01

    Most fungal effectors characterized so far are species-specific and facilitate virulence on a particular host plant. During infection of its host tomato, Cladosporium fulvum secretes effectors that function as virulence factors in the absence of cognate Cf resistance proteins and induce

  15. Spanish- and English-Speaking Pregnant Women's Views on cfDNA and Other Prenatal Screening: Practical and Ethical Reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Erin; Allyse, Megan A; Michie, Marsha

    2016-10-01

    The rapid clinical implementation of cell-free DNA (cfDNA) screening, a non-invasive method of prenatal genetic screening, has outpaced research on its social and ethical implications. This study is the first to compare the ethical and practical views of Spanish- and English-speaking pregnant women in the United States about cfDNA screening. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with diverse Spanish- and English-speaking women who had received prenatal care at a large academic medical center. Of the 24 interviewees, ten were Latinas who were interviewed in Spanish; English-language interviews were conducted with seven non-Hispanic Asian and seven non-Hispanic White women. Participants held positive opinions concerning the accuracy of cfDNA screening and often noted that it would enhance preparedness. Participants also expressed concerns about the possibility of inaccurate results and the potentially negative effects of cfDNA screening on the experience of pregnancy. Differences emerged between Spanish and English speakers in their portrayals of their relationships with prenatal health care providers, the extent to which they questioned providers' advice, their ethical concerns, and their informational needs. We emphasize the importance of customizing prenatal test counseling to the needs of the individual patient, providing educationally appropriate counseling and literature, and mitigating potential language barriers.

  16. Switchable hydrophobic/hydrophilic surface of electrospun poly (L-lactide) membranes obtained by CF4 microwave plasma treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Mengyao; Zhou, Baoming; Jiao, Kunyan; Qian, Xiaoming; Xu, Zhiwei; Teng, Kunyue; Zhao, Lihuan; Wang, Jiajun; Jiao, Yanan

    2015-02-01

    A switchable surface that promotes either hydrophobic or hydrophilic wettability of poly (L-lactide) (PLLA) microfibrous membranes is obtained by CF4 microwave plasma treatment in this paper. The results indicated that both etching and grafting process occurred during the CF4 plasma treatment and these two factors synergistically affected the final surface wettability of PLLA membranes. When plasma treatment was taken under a relatively low power, the surface wettability of PLLA membranes turned from hydrophobic to hydrophilic. Especially when CF4 plasma treatment was taken under 100 W for 10 min and 150 W for 5 min, the water contact angle sharply decreased from 116 ± 3.0° to ∼0°. According to Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) results, the PLLA fibers were notably etched by CF4 plasma treatment. Combined with the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements, only a few fluorine-containing groups were grafted onto the surface, so the etching effect directly affected the surface wettability of PLLA membranes in low plasma power condition. However, with the plasma power increasing to 200 W, the PLLA membrane surface turned to hydrophobic again. In contrast, the morphology changes of PLLA fiber surfaces were not obvious while a large number of fluorine-containing groups grafted onto the surface. So the grafting effect gradually became the major factor for the final surface wettability.

  17. Lower biodiversity of native fish but only marginally altered plankton biomass in tropical lakes hosting introduced piscivorous Cichla cf. ocellaris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menezes, Rosemberg; Attayde, José Luiz; Lacerot, Gissell

    2012-01-01

    We compared the species richness and abundance of fish, zooplankton and phytoplankton in nine mesotrophic coastal shallow lakes (Northeastern Brazil) with and without the exotic predator cichlid tucunaré or ‘peacock bass’ (Cichla cf. ocellaris). We hypothesized that the introduction of tucunaré w...

  18. 75 FR 1785 - Agrium Inc. and CF Industries Holding, Inc.; Analysis of the Agreement Containing Consent Orders...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-13

    ... health information, such as medical records or other individually identifiable health information. In..., Washington terminal. The Order to Hold Separate and Maintain Assets requires Agrium to maintain the assets to... effective divestiture of the key assets that today allow CF to provide an independent competitive...

  19. Niobium(v)-catalyzed defluorinative triallylation of α,α,α-trifluorotoluene derivatives by triple C-F bond activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kodai; Umi, Taishi; Yamada, Takayuki; Suga, Takuya; Akiyama, Takahiko

    2017-02-22

    The catalytic defluorinative triallylation of α,α,α-trifluorotoluene derivatives via C-F bond activation has been achieved by the use of the NbCl5 catalyst and allyltrimethylsilane as a nucleophile. Several control experiments have suggested the importance of the conjugation between the fluorine atoms and the carbocation center in this reaction.

  20. Field and Laboratory Observations on Predation and Prey Selectivity of the Scyphomedusa Chrysaora cf.caliparea in Southeast Indian Waters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Govindan Kanagaraj; Pazhaniyappan Ezhilarasan; Pitchai Sampathkumar; André C. Morandini; Velayudhan pillai Sivakumar

    2011-01-01

    Chrysaora cf. caliparea, one of the most abundant medusae species in India, seems to be an important predator in the coastal waters of Bay of Bengal. The ability of Chrysaora cf. caliparea to feed at maximum rate in high prey concentrations implies that this jellyfish can efficiently exploit dense prey patches, at least for a short period. This study presents preliminary information regarding digestion and feeding rate upon copepods in a warm water environment. The ingestion rate of the average-sized medusae Chrysaora cf. caliparea is well balanced in nature, which in turn implies that this jellyfish is tuned for optimal utilization of available prey resources. Comparison with earlier research indicates that prey escape speed is one important factor governing which prey will be captured. A full understanding of predation mechanics awaits further investigation of both predator and prey behavior. However, because of the scarcity of long-term quantitative population data most insights have to be made indirectly. Nevertheless, low abundance of Chrysaora cf. caliparea in the water column during summer (May 2007) and the overall annual abundance seem not to considerably affect the zooplankton population, especially copepods. The present work contributes to the knowledge of prey-predator relationship of the forgotten fauna in Indian waters, which is especially crucial for understanding the process of ecological recovery of coastal water environment.

  1. Mechanical properties of Cf/Si-O-C composites prepared by hot-pressing assisted pyrolysis of polysiloxane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马青松; 陈朝辉; 郑文伟; 胡海峰

    2004-01-01

    Silicon oxycarbide composites reinforced by three-dimensional braided carbon fiber (3D-B Cf/Si-O-C)were fabricated via precursor infiltration and pyrolysis of polysiloxane, and the effects of processing variables on mechanical properties and microstructures of 3D-B Cf/Si-O-C composites were investigated. It is found that the mechanical properties and densities of 3D-B Cf/Si-O-C composites can be increased if the first pyrolysis cycle is assisted by hot-pressing. Pyrolysis temperature has great effects on mechanical properties and microstructures of 3D-B Cf/SiO-C composites. The composite, which is hot-pressed at 1 600 ℃ for 5 min with pressure of 10 MPa in the first pyrolysis cycle, exhibits high mechanical properties. bending strength 502 MPa and fracture toughness 23.7 MPa ·m1/2. The high mechanical properties are mainly attributed to desirable interfacial structure and high density.

  2. Structure and ionic conductivity of ionic liquid embedded PEO- LiCF3SO3 polymer electrolyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Karmakar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we have reported electrical and other physical properties of polyethylene oxide (PEO - LiCF3SO3 polymer electrolytes embedded with 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate ionic liquid. The addition of the ionic liquid to PEO- LiCF3SO3 electrolyte increases the amorphous phase content considerably and decreases the glass transition temperature. The relative amounts of different ionic species present in these electrolytes have been determined. It is observed that the fraction of free anions increase with the increase of ionic liquid concentration, whereas the fraction for ion pairs and aggregates show a decreasing trend under the same condition. The ionic conductivity of the PEO- LiCF3SO3 polymer electrolyte embedded with ionic liquid is higher than that of the PEO- LiCF3SO3 electrolyte. The ionic conductivity shows a transition around 323 K. The ionic conductivity above 323 K exhibits Arrhenius behavior with an activation energy, which decreases with the increase of ionic liquid concentration. However, below 323 K the conductivity shows Vogel–Tamman–Fulcher (VTF type behavior.

  3. Influence of breathing pattern on pulmonary aerosol deposition in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF): A pharmacokinetic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Velzen, A.J.; Uges, J.W.F.; Le Brun, P.P.H.; Shahbabai, P.; Touw, D.J.; Heijerman, H.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    The therapeutic effect of inhaled antibiotics on lung infection in CF patients is dependent on the aerosol deposition achieved in the lungs. Objectives: To evaluate the influence of two breathing patterns on pulmonary aerosol deposition using pharmacokinetic parameters as surrogate for deposition. M

  4. Comparison of 252Cf time correlated induced fission with AmLi induced fission on fresh MTR reserach reactor fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Jay Prakash [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The objectives of this project are to calibrate the Advanced Experimental Fuel Counter (AEFC), benchmark MCNP simulations using experimental results, investigate the effects of change in fuel assembly geometry, and finally to show the boost in doubles count rates with 252Cf active soruces due to the time correlated induced fission (TCIF) effect.

  5. Quantum cascade laser based monitoring of CF2 radical concentration as a diagnostic tool of dielectric etching plasma processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübner, M.; Lang, N.; Zimmermann, S.; Schulz, S. E.; Buchholtz, W.; Röpcke, J.; van Helden, J. H.

    2015-01-01

    Dielectric etching plasma processes for modern interlevel dielectrics become more and more complex by the introduction of new ultra low-k dielectrics. One challenge is the minimization of sidewall damage, while etching ultra low-k porous SiCOH by fluorocarbon plasmas. The optimization of this process requires a deeper understanding of the concentration of the CF2 radical, which acts as precursor in the polymerization of the etch sample surfaces. In an industrial dielectric etching plasma reactor, the CF2 radical was measured in situ using a continuous wave quantum cascade laser (cw-QCL) around 1106.2 cm-1. We measured Doppler-resolved ro-vibrational absorption lines and determined absolute densities using transitions in the ν3 fundamental band of CF2 with the aid of an improved simulation of the line strengths. We found that the CF2 radical concentration during the etching plasma process directly correlates to the layer structure of the etched wafer. Hence, this correlation can serve as a diagnostic tool of dielectric etching plasma processes. Applying QCL based absorption spectroscopy opens up the way for advanced process monitoring and etching controlling in semiconductor manufacturing.

  6. Copper-Catalyzed Intermolecular Trifluoromethylazidation and Trifluoromethylthiocyanation of Allenes: Efficient Access to CF3-Containing Allyl Azides and Thiocyanates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Na; Wang, Fei; Chen, Pinhong; Ye, Jinxing; Liu, Guosheng

    2015-07-17

    A mild and efficient method for copper-catalyzed trifluoromethylazidation and trifluoromethylthiocyanation of allenes was explored. A series of CF3-containing allyl azides and thiocyanates were obtained with high yields and good stereoselectivities, which can be used for further transformation to some valuable compounds.

  7. Tomato Cf resistance proteins mediate recognition of cognate homologous effectors from fungi pathogenic on diots and monocots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stergiopoulos, I.; Burg, van den H.A.; Ökmen, B.; Beenen, H.G.; Liere, van S.; Kema, G.H.J.; Wit, de P.J.G.M.

    2010-01-01

    Most fungal effectors characterized so far are species-specific and facilitate virulence on a particular host plant. During infection of its host tomato, Cladosporium fulvum secretes effectors that function as virulence factors in the absence of cognate Cf resistance proteins and induce effector-tri

  8. An elusive fulvene 1,7,11,24-C60(CF3)4 and its unusual reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, James B; Kuvychko, Igor V; Shustova, Natalia B; Chen, Yu-Sheng; Strauss, Steven H; Boltalina, Olga V

    2014-02-07

    The X-ray crystal structure of a trifluoromethylfullerene (TMF), 1,7,11,24-C60(CF3)4, is reported for the first time. This elusive intermediate, while highly air stable as a solid, exhibits highly regioselective reactivity towards molecular oxygen in polar solvents, and only when exposed to light.

  9. Synthesis and Mechanism of CF3I%三氟碘甲烷的合成及机理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李勤华; 谈玲华; 杭祖圣; 冒爱琴; 潘仁明

    2011-01-01

    Trifluoroiodomethane(CF3I)is synthesized via the vapor-phase catalytic method using trif-luoromethane(CHF3) and iodine (I2). The product is characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, gas chromatography, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and molecular weight determination. The catalyst is investigated with the BET(Brunauer,Emmett and Teller)specific surface area method and thermogravimetry. The results show that the conversion of CHF3 is 52. 3% and the selectivity of CF3I is 56.2%. The BET surface area and the pore volume of catalyst are 776. 8 m2/g and 0. 38 cmVg before the reaction and decrease to 359. 2 m2/g and 0. 18 cmVg after the reaction. The weight loss of the used catalyst reaches 12wt% over the temperature range of 250 ~ 350℃, which shows that coke forms in the process of reaction. The possible mechanism of the product and by-products is proposed based on the difluorocarbene(CF2)disproportionate and coke formation.%该文采用气相催化法以三氟甲烷( CHF3)和碘为原料合成了三氟碘甲烷(CF3I).对产物进行气相色谱-质谱、气相色谱、傅里叶变换红外光谱和分子量等测试,并对使用前后的催化剂进行BET( Brunauer、Emmett和Teller)比表面积测试和热重分析.结果表明:反应生成CF3I,转化率达到52.3%,选择性达到56.2%.催化剂的比表面积和孔体积降低,分别由反应前的776.8 m2/g和0.38 cm3/g下降到反应后的359.2 m2/g和0.18 cm3/g.反应后的催化剂在250 ~350℃之间失重率达到12wt%,说明在反应过程中催化剂表面产生积炭.根据二氟卡宾( CF2)的歧化机理和催化剂的表面积炭现象,提出了产物CF3I和副产物可能的形成机理.

  10. The role of chloride anion and CFTR in killing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by normal and CF neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Richard G; Bonvillain, Ryan W; Valentine, Vincent G; Lombard, Gisele A; LaPlace, Stephanie G; Nauseef, William M; Wang, Guoshun

    2008-06-01

    Chloride anion is essential for myeloperoxidase (MPO) to produce hypochlorous acid (HOCl) in polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs). To define whether chloride availability to PMNs affects their HOCl production and microbicidal capacity, we examined how extracellular chloride concentration affects killing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PsA) by normal neutrophils. PMN-mediated bacterial killing was strongly dependent on extracellular chloride concentration. Neutrophils in a chloride-deficient medium killed PsA poorly. However, as the chloride level was raised, the killing efficiency increased in a dose-dependent manner. By using specific inhibitors to selectively block NADPH oxidase, MPO, and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) functions, neutrophil-mediated killing of PsA could be attributed to three distinct mechanisms: CFTR-dependent and oxidant-dependent; chloride-dependent but not CFTR- and oxidant-dependent; and independent of any of the tested factors. Therefore, chloride anion is involved in oxidant- and nonoxidant-mediated bacterial killing. We previously reported that neutrophils from CF patients are defective in chlorination of ingested bacteria, suggesting that the chloride channel defect might impair the MPO-hydrogen peroxide-chloride microbicidal function. Here, we compared the competence of killing PsA by neutrophils from normal donors and CF patients. The data demonstrate that the killing rate by CF neutrophils was significantly lower than that by normal neutrophils. CF neutrophils in a chloride-deficient environment had only one-third of the bactericidal capacity of normal neutrophils in a physiological chloride environment. These results suggest that CFTR-dependent chloride anion transport contributes significantly to killing PsA by normal neutrophils and when defective as in CF, may compromise the ability to clear PsA.

  11. Influence of water chemistry on the acute toxicity of copper and zinc to the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia cf dubia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyne, Ross V; Pablo, Fleur; Julli, Moreno; Markich, Scott J

    2005-07-01

    This study determined the influence of key water chemistry parameters (pH, alkalinity, dissolved organic carbon [DOC], and hardness) on the aqueous speciation of copper and zinc and its relationship to the acute toxicity of these metals to the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia cf dubia. Immobilization tests were performed for 48-h in synthetic or natural waters buffered at various pH values from 5.5 to 8.4 (other chemical parameters held constant). The toxicity of copper to C. cf dubia decreased fivefold with increasing pH, whereas the toxicity of zinc increased fivefold with increasing pH. The effect of DOC on copper and zinc toxicity to C. cf dubia was determined using natural fulvic acid in the synthetic water. Increasing DOC was found to decrease linearly the toxicity of copper, with the mean effect concentration of copper that immobilized 50% of the cladocerans (EC50) value 45 times higher at 10 mg/L, relative to 0.1 mg/L DOC at pH 6.5. In contrast, the addition of 10 mg/L DOC only resulted in a very small (1.3-fold) reduction in the toxicity of zinc to C. cf dubia. Copper toxicity to C. cf dubia generally did not vary as a function of hardness, whereas zinc toxicity was reduced by a factor of only two, with an increase in water hardness from 44 to 374 mg CaCO3/L. Increasing bicarbonate alkalinity of synthetic waters (30-125 mg/L as CaCO3) decreased the toxicity of copper up to fivefold, which mainly could be attributed to the formation of copper-carbonate complexes, in addition to a pH effect. The toxicity of copper added to a range of natural waters with varying DOC content, pH, and hardness was consistent with the toxicity predicted using the data obtained from the synthetic waters.

  12. Inhibitory effect of polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUAs) on the growth of the toxic benthic dinoflagellate Ostreopsis cf. ovata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichierri, Salvatore; Pezzolesi, Laura; Vanucci, Silvana; Totti, Cecilia; Pistocchi, Rossella

    2016-10-01

    Diatoms have been shown to produce and release a wide range of secondary metabolites that mediate interactions between individuals of different species. Among these compounds, different types of fatty acid derived long-chained polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUAs) have been related to multiple functions such as intra- or interspecific signals and adverse effect on the reproduction of marine organisms. Several studies have reported changes on growth, cell membrane permeability, flow cytometric properties and cell morphology in phytoplankton organisms exposed to PUAs, but little information is available on the effect of these compounds on benthic microalgae. Ostreopsis cf. ovata is a toxic benthic dinoflagellate which causes massive blooms along the Mediterranean coasts typically during the late summer period. In this study the effects of three toxic PUAs known to be produced by several algae (2E,4E-decadienal, 2E,4E-octadienal and 2E,4E-heptadienal) on the growth, cytological features and cell morphology of O. cf. ovata were investigated. Our results show a clear decrease of O. cf. ovata growth with longer-chain molecules than with shorter-chain ones, confirmed also by EC50 values calculated at 48h for 2E,4E-decadienal and 2E,4E-octadienal (6.6±1.5, 17.9±2.6μmolL(-1) respectively) and at 72h for 2E,4E-heptadienal (18.4±0.7μmolL(-1)). Moreover, morphological analysis highlighted up to 79% of abnormal forms of O. cf. ovata at the highest concentrations of 2E,4E-decadienal tested (9, 18 and 36μmolL(-1)), a gradual DNA degradation and an increase of lipid droplets with all tested PUAs. Further studies are needed to better clarify the interactions between diatoms and O. cf. ovata, especially on bloom-forming dynamics.

  13. Satellites of Xe transitions induced by infrared active vibrational modes of CF4 and C2F6 molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseev, Vadim A; Schwentner, Nikolaus

    2011-07-28

    Absorption and luminescence excitation spectra of Xe/CF(4) mixtures were studied in the vacuum UV region at high resolution using tunable synchrotron radiation. Pressure-broadened resonance bands and bands associated with dipole-forbidden states of the Xe atom due to collision-induced breakdown of the optical selection rules are reported. The spectra display in addition numerous satellite bands corresponding to transitions to vibrationally excited states of a Xe-CF(4) collisional complex. These satellites are located at energies of Xe atom transition increased by one quantum energy in the IR active v(3) vibrational mode of CF(4) (v(3) = 1281 cm(-1)). Satellites of both resonance and dipole-forbidden transitions were observed. Satellites of low lying resonance states are spectrally broad bands closely resembling in shape their parent pressure-broadened resonance bands. In contrast, satellites of dipole-forbidden states and of high lying resonance states are spectrally narrow bands (FWHM ∼10 cm(-1)). The satellites of dipole-forbidden states are orders of magnitude stronger than transitions to their parent states due to collision-induced breakdown of the optical selection rules. These satellites are attributed to a coupling of dipole-forbidden and resonance states induced by the electric field of the transient CF(4) (v(3) = 0 ↔ v(3) = 1) dipole. Similar satellites are present in spectra of Xe/C(2)F(6) mixtures where these bands are induced by the IR active v(10) mode of C(2)F(6). Transitions to vibrationally excited states of Xe-CF(4)(C(2)F(6)) collision pairs were also observed in two-photon LIF spectra.

  14. Oxygen isotope analysis of phosphate: improved precision using TC/EA CF-IRMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPorte, D F; Holmden, C; Patterson, W P; Prokopiuk, T; Eglington, B M

    2009-06-01

    Oxygen isotope values of biogenic apatite have long demonstrated considerable promise for paleothermometry potential because of the abundance of material in the fossil record and greater resistance of apatite to diagenesis compared to carbonate. Unfortunately, this promise has not been fully realized because of relatively poor precision of isotopic measurements, and exceedingly small size of some substrates for analysis. Building on previous work, we demonstrate that it is possible to improve precision of delta18O(PO4) measurements using a 'reverse-plumbed' thermal conversion elemental analyzer (TC/EA) coupled to a continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometer (CF-IRMS) via a helium stream [Correction made here after initial online publication]. This modification to the flow of helium through the TC/EA, and careful location of the packing of glassy carbon fragments relative to the hot spot in the reactor, leads to narrower, more symmetrically distributed CO elution peaks with diminished tailing. In addition, we describe our apatite purification chemistry that uses nitric acid and cation exchange resin. Purification chemistry is optimized for processing small samples, minimizing isotopic fractionation of PO4(-3) and permitting Ca, Sr and Nd to be eluted and purified further for the measurement of delta44Ca and 87Sr/86Sr in modern biogenic apatite and 143Nd/144Nd in fossil apatite. Our methodology yields an external precision of +/- 0.15 per thousand (1sigma) for delta18O(PO4). The uncertainty is related to the preparation of the Ag3PO4 salt, conversion to CO gas in a reversed-plumbed TC/EA, analysis of oxygen isotopes using a CF-IRMS, and uncertainty in constructing calibration lines that convert raw delta18O data to the VSMOW scale. Matrix matching of samples and standards for the purpose of calibration to the VSMOW scale was determined to be unnecessary. Our method requires only slightly modified equipment that is widely available. This fact, and the

  15. Complete Genome Sequence of Paenibacillus polymyxa CF05, a Strain of Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium with Elicitation of Induced Systemic Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Mengying; Lu, Peng; Jin, Liping; Wang, Yan; Qin, Jialing; Xu, Xi; Zhang, Liqin; Wang, Yongjun

    2015-04-16

    Paenibacillus polymyxa CF05 is a Gram-positive rod-shaped bacterium isolated from the interior of an ancient tree, Cryptomeria fortunei, in China. This bacterium displays potent biocontrol effects against certain soil-borne diseases and the elicitation of induced systemic resistance in tomatoes. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of P. polymyxa CF05.

  16. Atmospheric Chemistry of cis-CF3CH=CHF: Kinetics of reactions with OH radicals and O3 and products of OH radical initiated oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Elna Johanna Kristina; Nielsen, Ole John; Johnson, Matthew Stanley

    2009-01-01

    which are indistinguishable from 100%. The atmospheric lifetime of cis-CF3CH@CHF is determined by its reaction with OH and is approximately 10 days. cis-CF3CH@CHF has an integrated IR absorption cross section (600–2000 cm1) of (1.71 ± 0.09) 1016 cm molecule1 and a global warming potential...

  17. On the use of a ({sup 252}Cf-{sup 3}He) assembly for landmine detection by the neutron back-scattering method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsheikh, N., E-mail: nassreldeen.elsheikh@yahoo.com [College of Applied and Industrial Science, Department of Physics, University of Juba, Khartoum, P.O. Box 12327/1 (Sudan); Viesti, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia dell' Universita di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); ElAgib, I. [College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455 (Saudi Arabia); Habbani, F. [Faculty of Science, Physics Department, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, P.O. Box 321 (Sudan)

    2012-04-15

    Experiments were carried out to optimize the performance of the neutron back-scattering (NBS) technique in landmine detection using an assembly consisting of three different layers placed above a {sup 252}Cf neuron source, producing about 10{sup 4} s{sup -1}, in conjunction with a {sup 3}He detector. The assembly was optimized experimentally. The selected assembly configuration was then examined against different {sup 252}Cf stand-off distances and mine burial depths using dummy landmines. Furthermore, Monte Carlo simulations were performed to study the effect of the shield when a {sup 252}Cf source in the range 10{sup 4}-10{sup 7} s{sup -1} was employed, and to optimize the geometry for future prototypes. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A suitable shielded ({sup 252}Cf-{sup 3}He) assembly for landmine detection was developed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Experimental tests and MCNP simulations were performed for a {sup 252}Cf of (10{sup 4}-10{sup 7})s{sup -1}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Experimental and MCNP results for {sup 252}Cf of 10{sup 4}s{sup -1} supports the use of the shield. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MCNP Results recommends {sup 252}Cf of 10{sup 6}s{sup -1} for hand-held detection system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MCNP Results recommends {sup 252}Cf of 10{sup 7}s{sup -1} for a robotic detection system.

  18. Fast Etching of Molding Compound by an Ar/O2/CF4 Plasma and Process Improvements for Semiconductor Package Decapsulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, J.; Gruber, D.; Schelen, J.B.J.; Funke, H.J.; Beenakker, C.I.M.

    2012-01-01

    Decapsulation of a SOT23 semiconductor package with 23 um copper wire bonds is conducted with an especially designed microwave induced plasma system. It is found that a 30%-60% CF4 addition in the O2/CF4 etchant gas results in high molding compound etching rate. Si3N4 overetching which is encountere

  19. Fast Etching of Molding Compound by an Ar/O2/CF4 Plasma and Process Improvements for Semiconductor Package Decapsulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, J.; Gruber, D.; Schelen, J.B.J.; Funke, H.J.; Beenakker, C.I.M.

    2012-01-01

    Decapsulation of a SOT23 semiconductor package with 23 um copper wire bonds is conducted with an especially designed microwave induced plasma system. It is found that a 30%-60% CF4 addition in the O2/CF4 etchant gas results in high molding compound etching rate. Si3N4 overetching which is

  20. Feasibility, reliability, and validity of adolescent health status measurement by the Child Health Questionnaire Child Form (CHQ-CF): Internet administration compared with the standard paper version

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Raat (Hein); R.T. Mangunkusumo; J.M. Landgraf (Jeanne); G. Kloek (Gitte); J. Brug (Hans)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractAims: In this study we evaluated indicators of the feasibility, reliability, and validity of the Child Health Questionnaire-Child Form (CHQ-CF). We compared the results in a subgroup of adolescents who completed the standard paper version of the CHQ-CF with the results in another subgrou

  1. 全氟烷基磺酸酯C-O键断裂的同面SN2反应%Front-Side SN2 Reaction, CF3SO3CF2CF3+ F-, Leading to the C-O Cleavage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭丽; 虞忠衡; 朱士正; 陈庆云

    2005-01-01

    用密度泛函理论研究了CF3SO3CF2CF3+F的碳氧键断裂反应的机理.首先,用DFT方法优化了反应物、中间体、过渡态、产物的平衡构型,分析了碳氧键断裂反应的势能面变化.发现在SN2反应机理中,除了S-O断裂SN2反应外,引起C-O键断裂的同面进攻也是一个可能的反应途径.理论计算表明,最终反应的产物是受热力学控制的,S-O键的断裂绝对地优于C-O的断裂.因此,C-O断裂的同面机理虽然是可能的,但却难以被实验观察到.本文还讨论了端基-CF3在同面SN2反应中的邻位效应,以及基组对这个效应的影响.

  2. Photolysis of CF3CH2CHO in the presence of O2 at 248 and 266 nm: quantum yields, products, and mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antiñolo, M; Bettinelli, C; Jain, C; Dréan, P; Lemoine, B; Albaladejo, J; Jiménez, E; Fittschen, C

    2013-10-17

    Three different detection techniques, coupled to pulsed laser photolysis (PLP), have been employed to determine the quantum yields of CF3CH2CHO at 248 and 266 nm: CF3CH2CHO + hν → CF3CH2 + HCO (R1a), CF3CH2CHO + hν → CF3CH3 + CO (R1b), and CF3CH2CHO + hν → CF3CH2O + H (R1c). (a) In the presence of air, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was employed at a total pressure of 760 Torr to monitor and quantify the loss of CF3CH2CHO at both wavelengths as well as the build-up of formed products (CO, CF3CH3, CF3CHO, and CF3CH2OH) after various laser pulses. Cyclohexane was added as OH-scavenger in most experiments. CF3CH3 was observed and quantified at both wavelengths, confirming that channel R1b is occurring. Small amounts of HCOOH and COF2 were also detected. (b) Time-resolved cw-cavity ring down spectroscopy (cw-CRDS) at 40 Torr He coupled to photolysis at 248 nm was employed for the detection of HO2 radicals. Varying the O2 concentration allows distinguishing the origin of the HO2 radicals from either R1a or R1c. OH radicals were simultaneously detected by laser-induced fluorescence. (c) Time-resolved tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) at 30 Torr N2 coupled to photolysis at 266 nm was employed for the determination of the quantum yields of CO. By varying the O2 concentration, a distinction can be achieved between the yields of prompt CO R1b or decomposition of highly excited CF3CH2CO from R1c and HCO radicals R1a. Channel R1a has been identified as the major reaction path. The overall quantum yield, Φλ(CF3CH2CHO), at 248 nm was found as Φ248nm = (0.76 ± 0.14) and (0.73 ± 0.20) from cw-CRDS and FTIR experiments, respectively. At 266 nm, the overall quantum yield was found as Φ266nm = (0.55 ± 0.10) and (0.47 ± 0.10) from TDLAS and FTIR experiments, respectively.

  3. Atmospheric chemistry of trans-CF3CH = CHCl: Kinetics of the gas-phase reactions with Cl atoms, OH radicals, and O-3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads Peter Sulbæk; Nilsson, E. J. K.; Nielsen, O. J.

    2008-01-01

    = CHCl) = (5.22 +/- 0.72) x 10(-11) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), k(OH + t-CF3CH = CHCl) = (4.40 +/- 0.38) x 10(-13) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) and k(O-3 + t-CF3CH = CHCl) = (1.46 +/- 0.12) x 10(-21) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), were established (quoted uncertainties are 2 sigma: see Experimental section). The IR...... spectrum of t-CF3CH = CHCl is reported. The atmospheric lifetime of t-CF3CH = CHCl is determined by reaction with OH radicals and is approximately 26 days. The global warming potential of t-CF3CH = CHCl is approximately 7 for a 100-year time horizon. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  4. Induction of external abnormalities in offspring of male mice irradiated with [sup 252]Cf neutron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurishita, Akihiro; Ono, Tetsuya; Mori, Yuriko (Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan). Department of Radiation Research); Okada, Shigefumi (Kyoto University (Japan). Radiation Biology Center); Sawada, Syozo (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Nuclear Medicine and Biology)

    1992-08-01

    To assess the genetic effects of fission neutron, the induction of external malformations was studied in F[sub 1] fetuses after F[sub 0] male mice were irradiated. Male mice of the ICR:MCH strain were irradiated with [sup 252]Cf neutron at doses of 0.238, 0.475, 0.95 and 1.9 Gy. They were mated with non-irradiated female mice at 71-120 days after irradiation. Pregnant females were autopsied on day 18 of gestation and their fetuses were examined for deaths and external abnormalities. No increases of pre- and post-implantation losses were noted at any dose. External abnormalities were observed at rates of 1.40% in the 0.238 Gy, 2.23% in the 0.475 Gy, 3.36% in the 0.95 and 3.26% in the 1.9 Gy groups; the rate in the control group was 1.65%. The dose-response curve was linear up to 0.95 Gy, and then flattened out; the induction rate of external abnormalities was 2.7x10[sup -4]/gamete/cGy based on the linear regression. These results indicated that fission neutron effectively induces external abnormalities in F[sub 1] fetuses after spermatogonial irradiation. (author). 29 refs.; 1 fig.; 2 tabs.

  5. Dark Matter Search Results from the PICO-60 CF$_3$I Bubble Chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Amole, C; Asner, D M; Baxter, D; Behnke, E; Bhattacharjee, P; Borsodi, H; Bou-Cabo, M; Brice, S J; Broemmelsiek, D; Clark, K; Collar, J I; Cooper, P S; Crisler, M; Dahl, C E; Daley, S; Das, M; Debris, F; Dhungana, N; Farine, J; Felis, I; Filgas, R; Girard, F; Giroux, G; Grandison, A; Hai, M; Hall, J; Harris, O; Jin, M; Krauss, C B; Fallows, S; Lafrenière, M; Laurin, M; Lawson, I; Levine, I; Lippincott, W H; Mann, E; Maurya, D; Mitra, P; Neilson, R; Noble, A J; Plante, A; Podviianiuk, R B; Priya, S; Ramberg, E; Robinson, A E; Rucinski, R; Ruschman, M; Scallon, O; Seth, S; Simon, P; Sonnenschein, A; Štekl, I; Vàzquez-Jàuregui, E; Wells, J; Wichoski, U; Zacek, V; Zhang, J; Shkrob, I A

    2015-01-01

    New data are reported from the operation of the PICO-60 dark matter detector, a bubble chamber filled with 36.8 kg of CF$_3$I and located in the SNOLAB underground laboratory. PICO-60 is the largest bubble chamber to search for dark matter to date. With an analyzed exposure of 92.8 live-days, PICO-60 exhibits the same excellent background rejection observed in smaller bubble chambers. Alpha decays in PICO-60 exhibit frequency-dependent acoustic calorimetry, similar but not identical to that reported recently in a C$_3$F$_8$ bubble chamber. PICO-60 also observes a large population of unknown background events, exhibiting acoustic, spatial, and timing behaviors inconsistent with those expected from a dark matter signal. These behaviors allow for analysis cuts to remove all background events while retaining $48.2\\%$ of the exposure. Stringent limits on WIMPs interacting via spin-dependent proton and spin-independent processes are set, and the interpretation of the DAMA/LIBRA modulation signal as dark matter inte...

  6. Langmuir Probe Measurements of Inductively Coupled Plasma in CF4/AR/O2 Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, M. V. V. S.; Cruden, Brett; Sharma, Surendra; Meyyappan, Meyya

    2001-01-01

    Inductively coupled plasmas of CF4:Ar:O2, which have been of importance to material processing, were studied in the GEC cell at 80:10:10, 60:20:20, and 40:30:30 mixture ratios. Radial distributions of plasma potential (V(sub p)), electron and ion number densities (n(sub e) and n(sub i)), electron temperature (T(sub e)), and electron energy distribution functions (EEDFs) were measured in the mid-plane of plasma across the electrodes in the pressure range of 10-50 mTorr, and RF power of 200 and 300 W. V(sub p), n(sub e) and n(sub i), which peak in the center of the plasma, increase with decrease of pressure. T(sub e) also increases with pressure but peaks toward the electrode edge. Both V(sub p) and T(sub e) remain nearly independent of RF power, whereas n(sub e) and n(sub i) increase with power. In all conditions the EEDFs exhibit non-Maxwellian shape and are more like Druyvesteyn form at higher energies. They exhibit a broad lip in the energy range 0-10 eV suggesting an electron loss mechanism, which could be due to via resonance electron attachment processes producing negative ions in this rich electronegative gas mixture. This behavior is more prominent towards the electrode edge.

  7. Cold valleys in the radioactive decay of 248-254Cf isotopes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R K Biju; Sabina Sahadevan; K P Santosh; Antony Joseph

    2008-04-01

    Based on the concept of cold valley in cold fission and fusion, we have investigated the cluster decay process in 248-254Cf isotopes. In addition to alpha particle minima, other deep minima occur for S, Ar and Ca clusters. It is found that inclusion of proximity potential does not change the position of minima but minima become deeper. Taking Coulomb and proximity potential as interacting barrier for post-scission region, we computed half-lives and other characteristics for various clusters from these parents. Our study reveals that these parents are stable against light clusters and unstable against heavy clusters. Computed half-lives for alpha decay agree with experimental values within two orders of magnitude. The most probable clusters from these parents are predicted to be 46Ar, 48,50Ca which indicate the role of doubly or near doubly magic clusters in cluster radioactivity. Odd A clusters are found to be favorable for emission from odd A parents. Cluster decay model is extended to symmetric region and it is found that symmetric fission is also probable which stresses the role of doubly or near doubly magic 132Sn nuclei. Geiger-Nuttal plots were studied for various clusters and are found to be linear with varying slopes and intercepts.

  8. Improving Corrosion Resistance of Cf/Mg Composites using Rare Earth Conversion Coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Meihui; Wang Chunyu; Wu Gaohui

    2007-01-01

    The surface of carbon fiber reinforced Mg matrix (Cf/Mg) composites was modified by treatment of rare earth conversion coating, and nontoxic, non-pollution Ce conversion coatings were prepared. The effect of the coatings on corrosion behaviors of composites was investigated by electrochemical polarization technology and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in 3.5% NaCl solution. The higher Ecorr and lower icorr were obtained by Ce conversion coatings. EIS results showed that the higher values of R2 were obtained by treatment containing CeCl3, the high corrosion resistance occured in treatment containing CeCl3, the low corrosion resistance in uncoating sample, the coating of treatment containing Ce(NO3)3 was medium. The microstructure of Ce conversion coatings was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the elements of corresponding for coatings was characterized by energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). The micro-cracks and Ce-riched spherical particles were characteristics of these coatings.

  9. Description of a ZZ/ZW sex chromosome system in Thoracocharax cf. stellatus (Teleostei, Characiformes, Gasteropelecidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho Margarida Lima

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The family Gasteropelecidae is composed of three genera and eight species. This study shows that Thoracocharax cf. stellatus has 2n = 52 chromosomes for both sexes. The five males studied showed 8 metacentric, 16 submetacentric, 4 subtelocentric, and 24 acrocentric chromosomes; the seven females showed only one submetacentric chromosome, belonging to pair 11, and one extra acrocentric chromosome, smaller than all the other chromosomes, characterizing the presence of a ZZ/ZW sex chromosome system in this species. Nucleolus organizing regions (NORs were detected on the short arms of the subtelocentric chromosome pair 13. Constitutive heterochromatin was identified at pericentromeric and terminal positions in almost all chromosomes. The W chromosome was almost entirely heterochromatic, except for a small terminal euchromatic segment. The analyses of the amount of nuclear DNA found 2.18 ± 0.09 pg of DNA per diploid nucleus, without significant differences between sexes. A discussion about the evolution of the sex chromosomes in this group is presented.

  10. Structures of the neutron-rich nuclei observed in fission of {sup 252}Cf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramayya, A. V.; Hamilton, J. H.; Goodin, C. J.; Brewer, N. T.; Hwang, J. K. [Department of Physics, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States); Luo, Y. X. [Department of Physics, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 USA and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Liu, S. H. [Department of Physics, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 USA and UNRIB/Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Rasmussen, J. O.; Lee, I. Y. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Stone, N. J. [Department of Physics, Oxford University, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Daniel, A. V. [Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, JINR, Dubna (Russian Federation); Zhu, S. J. [Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2014-08-14

    Analysis of high statistics triple coincidence fission γ data from {sup 252}Cf at Gammasphere including angular correlations yielded well-expanded high-spin level schemes with more complete and reliable spin/parity assignments for {sup 82}Ge, {sup 118,120,122}Cd and {sup 114,115}Rh. Both the quasi-particle/hole couplings and quasi-rotational degrees of freedom are implied to play roles in these Cd isotopes. Evidence for triaxial shapes and octupole components in the Cd isotopes is presented. These Cd isotopes may have triaxial deformations. High-spin level schemes of {sup 114,115}Rh have been established for the first time. The existence of a relatively large signature splitting and an yrare band shows typical features of a triaxially deformed nucleus. Possible excited deformed rotational bands are observed, for the first time, in {sup 82}Ge. From the multipole mixing ratio measurement, the ground state configurations of {sup 109,111}Ru, as well as excited states in {sup 103,107}Mo and {sup 111}Ru were determined.

  11. The sup 252 Cf-source-driven noise measurements of unreflected uranium hydride cylinder subcriticality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihalczo, J.T.; Pare, V.K.; Blakeman, E.D. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

    1991-01-01

    Subcritical neutron multiplication factors have been measured by the {sup 252}Cf-source-driven noise analysis method for unreflected, 15.0-cm-diam uranium hydride cylinders of varying heights. Because of the difficulty and cost of controlling the H/U ratio in damp uranium (93.2 wt% {sup 235}U) oxide power and fabricating sufficient material for experiments, few experiments have been performed with materials of low H/U ratios. These measurements may provide alternate information that can be used for verifying calculational methods since the H/U ratio for this material is 3.00. These measurements, which are the first application of this method to uranium hydride, were performed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Critical Experiments Facility in 1989. These measurements were used to demonstrate the capability of this measurement method for this type of material and to provide a benchmark experiment for calculational methods with slightly moderated systems. Previous experiments by this method were for a wide variety of well-moderated systems or unmoderated uranium metal cylinders.

  12. Quantitation of normal CFTR mRNA in CF patients with splice-site mutations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Z.; Olsen, J.C.; Silverman, L.M. [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Previously we identified two mutations in introns of the CFTR gene associated with partially active splice sites and unusual clinical phenotypes. One mutation in intron 19 (3849+10 kb C to T) is common in CF patients with normal sweat chloride values; an 84 bp sequence from intron 19, which contains a stop codon, is inserted between exon 19 and exon 20 in most nasal CFTR transcripts. The other mutation in intron 14B (2789+5 G to A) is associated with elevated sweat chloride levels, but mild pulmonary disease; exon 14B (38 bp) is spliced out of most nasal CFTR transcipts. The remaining CFTR cDNA sequences, other than the 84 bp insertion of exon 14B deletion, are identical to the published sequence. To correlate genotype and phenotype, we used quantitative RT-PCR to determine the levels of normally-spliced CFTR mRNA in nasal epithelia from these patients. CFTR cDNA was amplified (25 cycles) by using primers specific for normally-spliced species, {gamma}-actin cDNA was amplified as a standard.

  13. Mass-energy correlation measurements for /sup 252/Cf spontaneous fission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sicre, A.; Barreau, G.; Caitucoli, F.; Doan, T.P.; Leroux, B.; Martinez, G.; Asghar, M.; Benfoughal, T.

    1985-01-01

    Fragment-mass and kinetic energy distribution measurements for /sup 252/Cf(sf) have been extended to the far-out asymmetric low yield fission region up to Msub(H) = 190 compared with the existing data that go up to Msub(H) approximately 168. The mass yield Y(M) shows an important enhancement for Msub(H) >= 176. The (M), sigmasub(Esub(K))(M) and, to a lesser extent, Y(M) distributions show strong and correlated amplitude fluctuations for Msub(H) >= 170. These data indicate strong and rapid changes in deformation of the nascent fragments. These structures are discussed in terms of the static macro-microscopic potential energy calculations. Several spherical and deformed shells are involved to stabilize the light fragment and especially the proton spherical shell Z = 28. So it is possible to observe very rich neutron nuclei like /sub 28//sup 73/Ni. Furthermore we select small excitation energy events (E* = Qsub(R) - Esub(KT) <= 8 MeV). The distribution Y(M) for these nearly cold fragmentations is dominated by the strong neutron deformed shell N = 88 and shows an important charge odd-even effect.

  14. Promise and Challenges of SiCf/SiC Composites for Fusion Energy Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Russell H.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Giancarli, L. (CEA, Centre d' Etudes de Saclay); Hasegawa, Akira (UNKNOWN); Katoh, Y.; Kohyama, Akira (UNIVERSITY OF TOKYO); Riccardi, B (ENEA-CR Frascati); Snead, Lance L.(UNKNOWN); Weber, William J.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

    2002-12-30

    Silicon carbide fiber/silicon carbide matrix composites are a promising structural material for fusion energy applications. They have been specified in several recent fusion power plant design studies because of their high operating temperature (1000-1100?C) and hence high energy conversion efficiencies. Radiation resistance of the b-phase of SiC, excellent high-temperature fracture, creep, corrosion and thermal shock resistance and safety advantages arising from low induced radioactivity and afterheat are all positive attributes favoring the selection of SiCf/SiC composites. With the promise of these materials comes a number of challenges such as their thermal conductivity, radiation stability, gaseous transmutation rates, hermetic behavior and joining technology. Recent advances have been made in understanding radiation damage in SiC at the fundamental level through molecular dynamics simulations of displacement cascades. Radiation stability of composites made with the advanced fibers of Nicalon Type S and the UBE Tyranno SA, where no change in strength was observed up to 10 dpa at 800?C, in the development of materials with improved thermal conductivity, modeling of thermal conductivity, joining techniques and models for life-prediction. High transmutation rates of C and Si to form H, He, Mg, and Al continue to be a concern.

  15. Distribution of cadmium in gravid CF-1 mice following chronic administration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reihart, M.J.; Mahalik, M.P.; Hitner, H.W.; Prozialeck, W.C. (PCOM, Philadelphia, PA (United States))

    1991-03-11

    Previous studies, in which cadmium (Cd{sup 2+}) was administered via osmotic minipumps to gravid CF-1 mice showed that Cd{sup 2+} produces dose-dependent teratogenic effects. The present studies examined the patterns of distribution when Cd{sup 2+} is given by this route to gravid and non-gravid mice. A total dose of 5.6 umoles CdCl{sub 2} containing 1 uCi {sup 109}Cd{sup 2+} was administered via 14 day Alzet osmotic minipumps implanted subcutaneously on day 5 of gestation. On day 12 and day 18 of gestation, the animals were sacrificed. Samples of various tissues were removed, solubilized and counted for radioactivity in a liquid scintillation counter. The results showed that the highest levels of Cd were present in the maternal liver and kidney. The levels of Cd{sup 2+} in the kidney on day 18 were much higher than those on day 12 suggesting a gradual redistribution of Cd{sup 2+} accumulated in the placenta, little was present in the amnionic fluid or fetuses. These patterns of distribution for Cd{sup 2+} administered by osmotic minipumps are similar to those previously reported for other parenteral routes of administration. The authors finding that Cd{sup 2+} accumulates in the placenta but does not readily cross into the amniotic fluid or fetus is consistent with the hypothesis that Cd{sup 2+} may produce some of its teratogenic effects by selectively damaging the placenta.

  16. Bleeding with the artificial heart: Gastrointestinal hemorrhage in CF-LVAD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurvits, Grigoriy E; Fradkov, Elena

    2017-06-14

    Continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices (CF-LVADs) have significantly improved outcomes for patients with end-stage heart failure when used as a bridge to cardiac transplantation or, more recently, as destination therapy. However, its implantations carries a risk of complications including infection, device malfunction, arrhythmias, right ventricular failure, thromboembolic disease, postoperative and nonsurgical bleeding. A significant number of left ventricular assist devices (LVAD) recipients may experience recurrent gastrointestinal hemorrhage, mainly due to combination of antiplatelet and vitamin K antagonist therapy, activation of fibrinolytic pathway, acquired von Willebrand factor deficiency, and tendency to develop small intestinal angiodysplasias due to increased rotary speed of the pump. Gastrointestinal bleeding in LVAD patients remains a source of increased morbidity including the need for blood transfusions, extended hospital stays, multiple readmissions, and overall mortality. Management of gastrointestinal bleeding in LVAD patients involves multidisciplinary approach in stabilizing the patients, addressing risk factors and performing structured endoluminal evaluation with focus on upper gastrointestinal tract including jejunum to find and eradicate culprit lesion. Medical and procedural intervention is largely successful and universal bleeding cessation occurs in transplanted patients.

  17. Broad-band properties of the CfA Seyfert Galaxies. II - Infrared to millimeter properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelson, R. A.; Malkan, M. A.; Rieke, G. H.

    1987-01-01

    IR and mm observations of the 48 Seyfert 1 and 2 galaxies (SG1s and SG2s) of the CfA sample (Huchra and Berg, 1987) are reported. Data obtained (1) in the NIR using the 1.55-m reflector at Stewart Observatory and the 3-m IRTF during 1984-1986, (2) in the FIR with IRAS, and (3) at 1.3 mm using the 12-m NRAO telescope at KPNO in June 1984 are presented in extensive tables and graphs and characterized in detail. None of the objects was detected at 1.3 mm, and the IR spectra of the SG2s are found to be significantly steeper (indicating thermal emission) than those of SG1s and QSOs (nonthermal emission). Turnover in the IR emission below 100 microns (in half of the objects detected at three or more IRAS wavelengths) is shown to be consistent with an accretion disk in dust-free SG1s and with unusually warm (35-65 K) dust in SG2s. It is inferred that a 60-100-micron cool excess is masking turnover in the other SGs, so that a general association of SG nuclei with strong star formation can be confirmed.

  18. Correlations in prompt neutrons and gamma-rays from Cf-252 spontaneous fission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcath M.J.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available New event-by-event fission models have prompt neutrons and gamma-rays that are correlated in time, energy, and multiplicity, however there is limited measurement data available to validate these models. Measurement of high-order fission neutron and gamma-ray coincidences is difficult and there has previously been little motivation to measure properties of both particle types simultaneously. High-order Cf-252 spontaneous fission neutron and gamma-ray coincidences were measured with a cylindrical array of 22 liquid organic and 8 NaI(Tl scintillation detectors, 50 cm from a central axis. Waveforms were acquired and saved for post-processing using four time-synchronized CAEN V1720 digitizers. Liquid organic scintillator waveforms were analyzed with off-line pulse shape discrimination techniques to categorize neutron and gamma-ray detections. Detected multiplicity was compared with MCNPX-PoliMi simulation results, where built-in fission models and event-by-event fission models, CGMF and FREYA, have been implemented. Additionally, measured neutron energy by time-of-flight and gamma-ray energy correlated by detected multiplicity were compared to simulated results.

  19. Evaluation of Potential Thrombin Inhibitors from the White Mangrove (Laguncularia racemosa (L. C.F. Gaertn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Fabri Bittencourt Rodrigues

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to verify the effects of methanol (MeOH and hydroalcoholic (HA extracts and their respective partition phases obtained from white mangrove (Laguncularia racemosa (L. C.F. Gaertn. leaves on human thrombin activity. Among the extracts and phases tested, only the ethyl acetate and butanolic partitions significantly inhibited human thrombin activity and the coagulation of plasma in the presence of this enzyme. Chromatographic analyses of the thrombin samples incubated with these phases revealed that different compounds were able to interact with thrombin. The butanolic phase of the MeOH extract had the most potent inhibitory effects, reducing enzymatic activity and thrombin-induced plasma coagulation. Two glycosylated flavonoids in this partition were identified as the most potent inhibitors of human thrombin activity, namely quercetin-3-O-arabinoside (QAra and quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside (Qn. Chromatographic analyses of thrombin samples incubated with these flavonoids demonstrated the chemical modification of this enzyme, suggesting that the MeOH extract contained other compounds that both induced structural changes in thrombin and diminished its activity. In this article, we show that despite the near absence of the medical use of mangrove compounds, this plant contains natural compounds with potential therapeutic applications.

  20. Langmuir Probe Measurements of Inductively Coupled Plasmas in CF4/Ar/O2 Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, M. V. V. S.; Cruden, Brett; Sharma, Surendra; Meyyappan, Meyya

    2001-01-01

    Inductively coupled plasmas of CF4:Ar:O2, which have been of importance to material processing, were studied in the GEC cell at 80:10:10, 60:20:20, and 40:30:30 mixture ratios. Radial distributions of plasma potential (V(sub p)), electron and ion number densities (n(sub e) and n(sub i), electron temperature (T(sub e)), and electron energy distribution functions (EEDFs) were measured in the mid-plane of plasma across the electrodes in the pressure range of 10-50 mTorr, and RF (radio frequency) power of 200 and 300 W. V(sub p), n(sub e) and n(sub i), which peak in the center of the plasma, increase with decrease of pressure. T(sub e) also increases with pressure but peaks toward the electrode edge. Both V(sub p) and T(sub e) remain nearly independent of RF power, whereas n(sub e) and n(sub i) increase with power. In all conditions the EEDFs exhibit non-Maxwellian shape and are more like Druyvesteyn form at higher energies. They exhibit a broad dip in the energy range 0-10 eV suggesting an electron loss mechanism, which could be due to via resonance electron attachment processes producing negative ions in this rich electronegative gas mixture. This behavior is more prominent towards the electrode edge.

  1. Neutron calibration field of bare {sup 252}Cf source in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le, Ngoc Thiem; Tran, Hoai Nam; Nguyen, Khai Tuan [Institute for Nuclear Science and Technology, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Trinh, Glap Van [Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, Da Nang (Viet Nam)

    2017-02-15

    This paper presents the establishment and characterization of a neutron calibration field using a bare {sup 252}Cf source of low neutron source strength in Vietnam. The characterization of the field in terms of neutron flux spectra and neutron ambient dose equivalent rates were performed by Monte Carlo simulations using the MCNP5 code. The anisotropy effect of the source was also investigated. The neutron ambient dose equivalent rates at three reference distances of 75, 125, and 150 cm from the source were calculated and compared with the measurements using the Aloka TPS-451C neutron survey meters. The discrepancy between the calculated and measured values is found to be about 10%. To separate the scattered and the direct components from the total neutron flux spectra, an in-house shadow cone of 10% borated polyethylene was used. The shielding efficiency of the shadow cone was estimated using the MCNP5 code. The results confirmed that the shielding efficiency of the shadow cone is acceptable.

  2. Sensitivity of 252Cf(sf) Neutron Observables to FREYA Inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Ramona; Randrup, Jorgen; Talou, Patrick

    2016-09-01

    Within the framework of the fission event generator FREYA , (Fission Reaction Event Yield Algorithm) we have studied the sensitivity of various neutron observables to the yield distribution Y (A , Z , TKE) used as input to the code. Concentrating on the spontaneous fission of 252Cf, we generate a large number of different input yield distributions by performing simultaneous variations in the mass and charge yields as well as the kinetic energy distribution, governed by yield covariance matrices established from experimental data sets. For each of these input yield distributions, we then use FREYA to generate a large sample of complete fission events from which we extract various neutron observables, in particular the neutron multiplicity distribution, and the neutron spectrum associated with each multiplicity. On this basis, we are able to determine the sensitivity of those observables to the uncertainties in the input yield distribution obtained experimentally. This kind of study can be applied to any other case of interest and the information obtained can help to establish any needs and target accuracies required for further measurements to ensure reliable data validation. The work of J.R. was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Dept. of Energy by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC02-05CH11231. The work of P.T. was performed under the auspices of the National Nuclear Security Administration.

  3. Skeletonema cf. costatum biogenic silica production rate determinated by PDMPO method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guicheng; Leng, Xiaoyun; Feng, Yuanyuan; Li, Xia; Sun, Jun

    2017-04-01

    Diatoms are the only ecological phytoplankton that require silicic acid for growth. They are also the dominant contributor of ocean's total primary productivity. Generation and circulation with silica walls, which the siliceous organisms form, is an important component of the marine biological pump. It is crucial to the study of the operational mechanisms of biological pump with different sea areas. Moreover, it is the key link to the study of global silicon cycle. This paper introduces the basic mechanism of the formation of diatom silica walls and a new way of researching silicic acid metabolism, namely the 2-(4-pyridyl)-5-((4-(2-dimethylaminoethylaminocarbamoyl)- methoxy)phenyl)oxazole (PDMPO) dyeing method. Under a fluorescence microscope after excitation with bright green fluorescence, it can combine with silicic acid to form a complex into the Si deposition within diatom cells. The advantage of this method is that it can monitor the metabolism of silicate after adding PDMPO. For experimentation and sample collection in each of the specified time points, samples were determinated through the unutilized silicic acid, silica dissoluble intracellular and Si deposition within diatom cells, not only using hot alkaline digestions method but also PDMPO dyeing method. Results showed a good linear relationship between PDMPO fluorescent value and biogenic silica concentration. It was also indicated that PDMPO had no deleterious impact on Skeletonema cf. costatum growth for 34 h and was useful for tracking newly-deposited biogenic silica in diatoms' frustules.

  4. Phase diagram of polymer electrolyte: (x(PEO - ( 1-xCF3COOLi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Iban Delgado

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A partir de poli(oxido de etileno y trifluoro acetato litio (CF3COOLi, se prepararon electrolitos sólidos poliméricos por el método de solución, para diferentes concentraciones de sal. Las membranas resultantes de la evaporación lenta, se analizaron por calorimetría diferencial de barrido (DSC y se realizó un diagrama de fases a partir de los segundos calentamientos. Las curvas de DSC para un primer barrido muestran tres anomalías a 303, 308 y 393 K, las que cambian lentamente con el contenido de sal. Para altas concentraciones, la intensidad del pico endotérmico asociado con el punto de fusión del PEO (338K decrece, mientras que para la tercera anomalía (asociada a la fusión del complejo PEO:sal la intensidad aumenta. La segunda anomalía desaparece por completo, cuando la concentración de sal alcanza un valor de X = 0,405 (dada en fracción de masa: sal/(sal + PEO. Estos resultados junto alta conductividad del sistema, muestran la formación de un nuevo complejo entre el PEO y la sal.

  5. A new chemical approach to improving discharge capacity of Li/(CF x) n cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Sanchez, Bryan

    Although (CF x) n has the highest theoretical specific energy of all lithium primary batteries known, the practical specific energy (including packaging) is very small on the order of ∼10% for small capacity cells (100 Ah). Even these can be achieved only at a very low discharge rate ABA) to the electrolyte solution to dissolve the LiF generated in the discharge reaction. We studied three boron containing neutral ABAs and the most promising ABA {Tris(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoroisopropyl)borate} will be discussed further. The delivered capacity/energy (per unit weight of the cathode) is higher for SNL-built coin cells containing the ABA additive than for the commercial coin cells by 80%. These cells were tested at a C/44 rate. This improvement especially at a high discharge rate is attributed to the ability of the ABA to dissolve the LiF from plugging the cathode pores and thus keep the bulk of the cathode accessible for further discharge reaction. We have also tested commercial cells and commercial electrodes in coin cells. In general, at high rate discharge, the performance of SNL cells containing our electrolyte and electrode were better than the rest.

  6. Electronic Structures and OH-Induced Atmospheric Degradation of CF3NSF2: A Potential Green Dielectric Replacement for SF6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lin; Yu, Xiaojuan; Zhao, Kun; Hou, Hua; Wang, Baoshan

    2017-04-06

    Electronic structures of [(trifluoromethyl)imino]sulfur difluoride (CF3NSF2) and degradation mechanisms by hydroxyl radical have been investigated using density functional theory (M06-2X), the complete basis set quadratic CBS-Q, and the explicitly correlated coupled-cluster methods [CCSD(T)-F12]. The d-function augmented correlation-consistent basis sets including triple- and quadruple-ξ were employed for the sulfur-containing species. It was found that CF3NSF2 exists as two conformations connected by the internal rotation of CF3 around the central NS bond. The distorted syn conformer is more stable than the symmetrical anti conformer. The nitrogen-sulfur link in CF3NSF2 was revealed to be predominantly ionic CF3N(-)-(+)SF2 in structure rather than the conventional N═S double bond on the basis of natural bond orbital analysis. OH radical prefers to attach on the S atom of CF3NSF2 along the opposite direction of the S-F bond via a nucleophilic addition mechanism with a barrier of 2.9 kcal/mol whereas the ON association pathway is negligible. Although many product channels are thermodynamically favorable, none of them is kinetically accessible because of the significant barriers along the reaction routes. However, the degradation of CF3NSF2 by OH can be accelerated considerably in the presence of a single water molecule, which acts as a bridge for the consecutive proton migration within the floppy cyclic geometries. The half-life of CF3NSF2 was estimated to be 2.5 year, and the final products are exclusively CF3NH and SF2O. Theoretical calculation supports that CF3NSF2 is an environment-friendly green gas. It is worthy of testing its dielectric properties to replace SF6 for practical use.

  7. INFLUENCE OF CF SURFACE GRAFTING ON THE INTERFACE PROPERTY OF CF/PI (PMR-15)%碳纤维(CF)表面接枝对聚酰亚胺(PMR-15)基复合材料界面性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张德庆; 胡玉洁; 魏月贞

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, CF was treated by the surface continuous grafting technology of cold plasma. The changes of characteristic groups and surface feature of CF surface were analysed by means of XPS. The interlayer shear strength, tensile strength and impact strength of CF/PMR-15 were measured, and the influence of surface grafting on the interface strength and toughness of CF/PMR-15 was studied. x%通过冷等离子体连续表面接枝技术对CF进行表面处理,采用XPS对CF表面组成及特征基团变化进行分析。同时测定了CF/PMR-15层间剪切强度、拉伸强度和冲击强度,研究了表面接枝对CF/PMR-15界面强度和韧性的影响。

  8. CF-62钢制球罐防范硫化氢应力腐蚀措施%Countermeasures of H2S Stress Corrosion in CF-62 Steel Spherical Tank

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘巍

    2000-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the characteristics of CF-62 steel material,explains the stress corrosion mechanisms,restriction factors and makes a comprehensive stress analysis for spherical tank,from which,the medium critical pressure is derived.Based upon the relationship between steel hardness and critical value of H2S concentration which causes stress corrosion,the safety control conditions are developed,while countermeasures of general spherical tank are presented.

  9. INFLUENCE OF CARBON FIBER SURFACE TREATMENT ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CF/PMR-15 COMPOSITES%炭纤维表面处理对CF/PMR-15复合材料力学性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    研究了炭纤维表面不同处理方法对复合材料力学性能的影响。采用等离子体和等离子体接枝技术对炭纤维表面进行处理后,CF/PMR-15复合材料的界面剪切强度与层间剪切强度均有所提高,随着界面状态的改善,界面剪切强度提高的幅度比层间剪切强度提高的大。本文为指导炭纤维的表面处理、评价处理效果,进一步预报复合材料的宏观性能打下了基础。%The influence of carbon fiber surface treatment on the mechanical Properties of CF/PMR-15 composites is dicussed.After carbon fiber Surface was treated with plasma and plasma grafting technique,the interfacial shear strength(IFSS)and interlaminar shear strength(ILSS)of CF/PMR-15 composites are all increased.With improvement of interface properties,there is a bigger increase in IFSS than in ILSS.This has laid foundations for directing carbon fiber surface treatment ,evaluating treatment effect and predicting general properties of composites.

  10. Radioactive Beams from 252CF Fission Using a Gas Catcher and an ECR Charge Breeder at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Pardo, Richard C; Hecht, Adam; Moore, Eugene F; Savard, Guy

    2005-01-01

    An upgrade to the radioactive beam capability of the ATLAS facility has been proposed using 252Cf fission fragments thermalized and collected into a low-energy particle beam using a helium gas catcher. In order to reaccelerate these beams an existing ATLAS ECR ion source will be reconfigured as a charge breeder source. A 1Ci 252Cf source is expected to provide sufficient yield to deliver beams of up to ~106 far from stability ions per second on target. A facility description, the expected performance and the expected performance will be presented in this paper. This work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Physics, under contract W-31-109-ENG-38.

  11. Unambiguous observation of F-atom core-hole localization in CF4 through body-frame photoelectron angular distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurdy, C. W.; Rescigno, T. N.; Trevisan, C. S.; Lucchese, R. R.; Gaire, B.; Menssen, A.; Schöffler, M. S.; Gatton, A.; Neff, J.; Stammer, P. M.; Rist, J.; Eckart, S.; Berry, B.; Severt, T.; Sartor, J.; Moradmand, A.; Jahnke, T.; Landers, A. L.; Williams, J. B.; Ben-Itzhak, I.; Dörner, R.; Belkacem, A.; Weber, Th.

    2017-01-01

    A dramatic symmetry breaking in K -shell photoionization of the CF4 molecule in which a core-hole vacancy is created in one of four equivalent fluorine atoms is displayed in the molecular frame angular distribution of the photoelectrons. Observing the photoejected electron in coincidence with an F+ atomic ion after Auger decay is shown to select the dissociation path where the core hole was localized almost exclusively on that atom. A combination of measurements and ab initio calculations of the photoelectron angular distribution in the frame of the recoiling CF3+ and F+ atoms elucidates the underlying physics that derives from the Ne-like valence structure of the F(1 s-1 ) core-excited atom.

  12. Matrix Extension Study: Validation of the Compact Dry CF Method for Enumeration of Total Coliform Bacteria in Selected Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuochi, Shingo; Nelson, Maria; Baylis, Chris; Green, Becky; Jewell, Keith; Monadjemi, Farinaz; Chen, Yi; Salfinger, Yvonne; Fernandez, Maria Cristina

    2016-01-01

    The Compact Dry "Nissui" CF method, Performance Tested Method(SM) 110401, was originally certified for enumeration of coliform bacteria by the AOAC Research Institute Performance Tested Methods(SM) program for raw meat products. Compact Dry CF is a ready-to-use dry media sheet, containing a cold-soluble gelling agent, a chromogenic medium, and selective agents, which are rehydrated by adding 1 mL of diluted sample. Coliform bacteria produce blue/blue-green colonies on the Compact Dry CF, allowing a coliform colony count to be determined in the sample after 24 ± 2 h incubation. A validation study was organized by Campden BRI (formerly Campden and Chorleywood Food Research Association Technology, Ltd), Chipping Campden, United Kingdom, to extend the method's claim to include cooked chicken, fresh bagged prewashed shredded iceberg lettuce, frozen fish, milk powder, and pasteurized 2% milk. Campden BRI collected single-laboratory data for cooked chicken, lettuce, frozen fish, and milk powder, whereas a multilaboratory study was conducted on pasteurized milk. Thirteen laboratories participated in the interlaboratory study. The Compact Dry CF method was compared to ISO 4832:2006 "Microbiology of food and animal feeding stuffs-Horizontal method for the enumeration of coliforms-Colony-count technique," the current version at the time this study was conducted. Each matrix was evaluated at either four or five contamination levels of coliform bacteria (including an uncontaminated level). After logarithmic transformation of counts at each level, the data for pasteurized whole milk were analyzed for sr, sR, RSDr, and RSDR. Regression analysis was also performed and r(2) was reported. Mean difference between methods with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated. A log10 range of -0.5 to 0.5 for the CI was used as the acceptance criterion to establish significant statistical difference between methods. In the single-laboratory evaluation (for cooked chicken, lettuce, frozen

  13. Direct synthesis of amides from carboxylic acids and amines using B(OCH2CF3)3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanigan, Rachel M; Starkov, Pavel; Sheppard, Tom D

    2013-05-03

    B(OCH2CF3)3, prepared from readily available B2O3 and 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol, is as an effective reagent for the direct amidation of a variety of carboxylic acids with a broad range of amines. In most cases, the amide products can be purified by a simple filtration procedure using commercially available resins, with no need for aqueous workup or chromatography. The amidation of N-protected amino acids with both primary and secondary amines proceeds effectively, with very low levels of racemization. B(OCH2CF3)3 can also be used for the formylation of a range of amines in good to excellent yield, via transamidation of dimethylformamide.

  14. Measurement of the Range Component Directional Signature in a DRIFT-II Detector using 252Cf Neutrons

    CERN Document Server

    Burgos, S; Forbes, J; Ghag, C; Gold, M; Hagemann, C; Kudryavtsev, V A; Lawson, T B; Loomba, D; Majewski, P; Muna, D; Murphy, A St J; Nicklin, G G; Paling, S M; Petkov, A; Plank, S J S; Robinson, M; Sanghi, N; Snowden-Ifft, D P; Spooner, N J C; Turk, J; Tziaferi, E

    2008-01-01

    The DRIFT collaboration utilizes low pressure gaseous detectors to search for WIMP dark matter with directional signatures. A 252Cf neutron source was placed on each of the principal axes of a DRIFT detector in order to test its ability to measure directional signatures from the three components of very low energy (~keV/amu) recoil ranges. A high trigger threshold and the event selection procedure ensured that only sulfur recoils were analyzed. Sulfur recoils produced in the CS2 target gas by the 252Cf source closely match those expected from massive WIMP induced sulfur recoils. For each orientation of the source a directional signal from the range components was observed, indicating that the detector is directional along all 3 axes. An analysis of these results yields an optimal orientation for DRIFT detectors when searching for a directional signature from WIMPs. Additional energy dependent information is provided to aid in understanding this effect.

  15. Neutron dosimetry for low dose rate Cf-252 AT sources and adherence to recent clinical dosimetry protocol for brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivard, M.J.; Wierzbicki, J.G.; Van den Heuvel, F. [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Martin, R.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Chemical Technology Div.

    1997-12-01

    In 1995, the American Association of Physicists in Medicine Task Group 43 (AAPM TG-43) published a protocol obsoleting all mixed-field radiation dosimetry for Cf-252. Recommendations for a new brachytherapy dosimetry formalism made by this Task Group favor quantification of source strength in terms of air kerma rather than apparent Curies or other radiation units. Additionally, representation of this dosimetry data in terms of radial dose functions, anisotropy functions, geometric factors, and dose rate constants are in an angular and radial (spherical) coordinate system as recommended, rather than the along-away dosimetry data (Cartesian coordinate system) currently available. This paper presents the initial results of calculated neutron dosimetry in a water phantom for a Cf-252 applicator tube (AT) type medical source soon available from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL).

  16. The role of competition in the phase shift to dominance of the zoanthid Palythoa cf. variabilis on coral reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Igor Cristino Silva; Meira, Verena Henschen; de Kikuchi, Ruy Kenji Papa; Creed, Joel Christopher

    2016-04-01

    Phase shift phenomena are becoming increasingly common. However, they are also opportunities to better understand how communities are structured. In Southwest Atlantic coral reefs, a shift to the zoanthid Palythoa cf. variabilis dominance has been described. To test if competition drove this process, we carried out a manipulative experiment with three coral species. To estimate the natural frequency of encounters we assess the relationship between the proportion of encounters and this zoanthids coverage. The contact causes necrosis in 78% of coral colonies (6.47 ± SD 7.92 cm(2)) in 118 days. We found a logarithmic relationship between the proportion of these encounters and the cover of P. cf. variabilis, where 5.5% coverage of this zoanthid is enough to put 50% of coral colonies in contact, increasing their partial mortality. We demonstrate that zoanthid coverage increase followed by coral mortality increase will reduce coral cover and that competition drives the phase shift process.

  17. Metschnikowia cf. typographi and other pathogens from the bark beetle Ips sexdentatus - Prevalence, histological and ultrastructural evidence, and molecular characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleespies, Regina G; Lim, Young Woon; Tkaczuk, Cezary

    2017-01-01

    Ips sexdentatus (six-spined engraver beetle) from Austria and Poland were dissected and examined for the presence of pathogens. Specimens collected in Austria were found to contain the ascomycetous fungus Metschnikowia cf. typographi. Infection rates ranged from 3.6% to 26.8% at different...... collection sites. M. cf. typographi infected midguts were investigated by histological, ultrastructural and molecular techniques. Extraordinary ultrastructural details are shown, such as ascospores with bilateral flattened flanks resembling alar rims at both sides of their attenuating tube-like ends....... The eugregarine Gregarina typographi was diagnosed most frequently. Infection rates of all I. sexdentatus specimens ranged from 21.4% to 71.9% in Austria and 54.1% to 68.8% in Poland. Other entomopathogenic protists, bacteria, or viruses were not detected....

  18. Functional analysis of the conserved transcriptional regulator CfWor1 in Cladosporium fulvum reveals diverse roles in the virulence of plant pathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okmen, Bilal; Collemare, Jérôme; Griffiths, Scott; van der Burgt, Ate; Cox, Russell; de Wit, Pierre J G M

    2014-04-01

    Fungal Wor1-like proteins are conserved transcriptional regulators that are reported to regulate the virulence of several plant pathogenic fungi by affecting the expression of virulence genes. Here, we report the functional analysis of CfWor1, the homologue of Wor1 in Cladosporium fulvum. Δcfwor1 mutants produce sclerotium-like structures and rough hyphae, which are covered with a black extracellular matrix. These mutants do not sporulate and are no longer virulent on tomato. A CE.CfWor1 transformant that constitutively expresses CfWor1 produces fewer spores with altered morphology and is also reduced in virulence. RNA-seq and RT-qrtPCR analyses suggest that reduced virulence of Δcfwor1 mutants is due to global downregulation of transcription, translation and mitochondrial respiratory chain. The reduced virulence of the CE.CfWor1 transformant is likely due to downregulation of effector genes. Complementation of a non-virulent Δfosge1 (Wor1-homologue) mutant of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici with CfWor1 restored expression of the SIX effector genes in this fungus, but not its virulence. Chimeric proteins of CfWor1/FoSge1 also only partially restored defects of the Δfosge1 mutant, suggesting that these transcriptional regulators have functionally diverged. Altogether, our results suggest that CfWor1 primarily regulates development of C. fulvum, which indirectly affects the expression of a subset of virulence genes.

  19. Inspection of CF188 composite flight control surfaces with neutron radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, W.J.; Bennett, L.G.I. [Royal Military Coll. of Canada, Kingston, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering; Mullin, S.K. [Aerospace and Telecommunications Engineering Support Squadron, Astra, Ontario (Canada). Nondestructive Testing Center Development Section

    1996-12-31

    At the Royal Military College of Canada`s SLOWPOKE-2 Facility, a neutron radiography facility has been designed and installed using a small (20kWth), pool-type research reactor called the SLOWPOKE-2 (Safe Low Power c(K)ritical Experiment) as the neutron source. Since then, the research has continued along two fronts: developing applications and improving the quality of the neutron beam. The most interesting applications investigated to date has been the inspection of various metal ceramic composites and the inspection of the composite flight control surfaces of some of the CF188 Hornet aircraft. As part of the determination of the integrity of the aircraft, it was decided to inspect an aircraft with the highest flight house using both X- and neutron radiography. The neutron radiography and, to a lesser extent, X-radiography inspections completed at McClellan AFB revealed 93 anomalies. After returning to Canada, the component with the greatest structural significance, namely the right hand rudder from the vertical stabilizer, was removed from the aircraft and put through a rigorous program of numerous NDT inspections, including X-radiography (film and real-time), eddy current, ultrasonics (through transmission and pitch-catch), infrared thermography, and neutron radiography. Therefore, of all the techniques investigated, only through transmission ultrasonics and neutron radiography were able to identify large areas of hydration. However, only neutron radiography could identify the small areas of moisture and hydration. Given the structural significance of the flight control surfaces in modern fighter aircraft, even the smallest amounts of hydration could potentially lead to catastrophic results.

  20. Psyttalia cf. concolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) for biological control of olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Victoria Y; Rendón, Pedro A; Sivinski, John

    2008-06-01

    The larval parasitoid, Psyttalia cf. concolor (Szépligeti), reared on Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Weidemann), by the USDA-APHIS-PPQ, Guatemala City, Guatemala, was imported into California for biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), in olives, Olea europaea L. Mean percentage parasitism of olive fruit fly third instars infesting fruit in field cages ranged from 7.0 in Grapevine to 59.7 in Santa Barbara and in free releases ranged from 0 in Grapevine to 10.6 in Santa Barbara after 4- to 6-d exposures. In the laboratory, more parasitoids developed to adults in olive fruit fly larvae that were 11-13 d old than in larvae 8-10 d old. Adult parasitoids lived significantly longer when provided with water than adults without water in environmental chambers at 5 degrees C, 85% RH; 15 degrees C, 65% RH; 25 degrees C, 25% RH; and 35 degrees C, 25% RH. Adult parasitoids lived for 48 d with honey for food and water and 32 d with food and sugar solution at 15 degrees C and 65% RH. Survival of adult parasitoids without food and water in greenhouse tests was approximately 4 d in a simulated coastal climate and 1 d in a simulated inland valley climate and was significantly increased by providing food and water. The parasitoid did not develop in the beneficial seedhead fly, Chaetorellia succinea (Costa), in yellow star thistle. The rate of parasitism of walnut husk fly, Rhagoletis completa Cresson, larvae in green walnut husks was 28.4% in laboratory no-choice tests. In choice tests, the rate of parasitism of walnut husk fly versus olive fruit fly larvae in olives was 11.5 and 24.2%, respectively.

  1. Calculation of Ambient (H*(10)) and Personal (Hp(10)) Dose Equivalent from a 252Cf Neutron Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traub, Richard J.

    2010-03-26

    The purpose of this calculation is to calculate the neutron dose factors for the Sr-Cf-3000 neutron source that is located in the 318 low scatter room (LSR). The dose factors were based on the dose conversion factors published in ICRP-21 Appendix 6, and the Ambient dose equivalent (H*(10)) and Personal dose equivalent (Hp(10)) dose factors published in ICRP Publication 74.

  2. Brachypotherium cf. brachypus and Lartetotherium sp. (Rhinocerotidae, Perissodactyla, Mammalia from the Middle Miocene Dúbravka-Pole site (western Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia Zervanová

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The vertebrate fossil record from the Dúbravka-Pole site in the territory of Devínska Kobyla consists of Brachypotherium cf. brachypus and Lartetotherium sp. dental and osteological remains. The both taxa lived in swampy to forested land at the shore of shallow brackish sea (or lagoon? during the Early Sarmatian (MN 7/8. Their occurrence is probably a result of intermittent faunal migrations during changing environmental conditions at the end of the Middle Miocene.

  3. The effects of an intensive behavior and nutrition intervention compared to standard of care on weight outcomes in CF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Lori J; Opipari-Arrigan, Lisa; Quittner, Alexandra L; Bean, Judy; Powers, Scott W

    2011-01-01

    Inadequate intake and suboptimal growth are common problems for patients with CF and a critical target for intervention. The purpose of this study was to compare the growth outcomes of children with CF who participated in a randomized clinical trial to improve energy intake and weight to children with CF receiving standard of care during the same time period. Our primary outcome was change in body mass index z-score (BMI z-score) over 2 years. An exploratory outcome was forced expiratory volume at 1-sec (FEV(1) ) over 2 years. Participants were children ages 4-12 with CF, who participated in a randomized clinical trial of behavior plus nutrition intervention versus nutrition education alone, and a matched Comparison Sample receiving standard of care drawn from the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation (CFF) Registry. Children in the Clinical Trial Group (N=67) participated in a 9-week, nutrition intervention and were followed at regular intervals (3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months) for 2 years post-treatment to obtain anthropometric and pulmonary function data. For each child in the Comparison Sample (N=346), these measures were obtained from the CFF Registry at matching intervals for the 27-month period corresponding to the clinical trial. Over 27 months, children in the Clinical Trial Group (the combined sample of the behavior plus nutrition and the nutrition alone) demonstrated significantly less decline in BMI z-score, -0.05 (SD=0.68, CI= -0.23 to 0.13), as compared to children in the Comparison Sample, -0.21 (SD=0.67, CI= -0.31 to -0.11). No statistically significant differences were found for decline in FEV(1) between children in the Clinical Trial Group and the Comparison Sample. The key implication of these findings is that intensive behavioral and nutritional intervention is effective and needs to be adapted so that it can be broadly disseminated into clinical practice.

  4. Effect of c-f hybridization on electric and magnetic properties of some Heavy Fermion (HF) systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, J.; Nayak, P.

    2017-02-01

    Representing the heavy fermion systems by the Periodic Anderson Model (PAM), we have used Zubarev technique to see the effect of c-f hybridization on the temperature dependence of resistivity and magnetic susceptibility. The calculated resistivity and magnetic susceptibility show the general features observed in these materials experimentally. Further, we have shown how the strength of hybridization as well as the position of the f-level affects both the properties and the Kondo temperature of these systems.

  5. Pollination ecology of Chengam Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea C.F. Gaertn. (Magnoliopsida: Rubiales: Rubiaceae, a non-viviparous evergreen tree species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J. Solomon Raju

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea C.F. Gaertn. or Chengam is a non-viviparous evergreen tree species. The flowers are bisexual, self-compatible, self-pollinating, temporally dioecious and exhibit a mixed breeding system.  The plant is both melittophilous and anemophilous at the study area.  Natural fruit set is 100% but seeds are non-viable which might be due to a genetic disorder. 

  6. Colonization of CF patients' upper airways with S. aureus contributes more decisively to upper airway inflammation than P. aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janhsen, Wibke Katharina; Arnold, Christin; Hentschel, Julia; Lehmann, Thomas; Pfister, Wolfgang; Baier, Michael; Böer, Klas; Hünniger, Kerstin; Kurzai, Oliver; Hipler, Uta-Christina; Mainz, Jochen Georg

    2016-10-01

    In cystic fibrosis (CF) patients' airways, inflammatory processes decisively contribute to remodeling and pulmonary destruction. The aims of this study were to compare upper airway (UAW) inflammation in the context of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonization in a longitudinal setting, and to examine further factors influencing UAW inflammation. Therefore, we analyzed soluble inflammatory mediators in noninvasively obtained nasal lavage (NL) of CF patients together with microbiology, medication, and relevant clinical parameters. NL, applying 10 mL of isotonic saline per nostril, was serially performed in 74 CF patients (326 samples). Concentrations of the inflammatory mediators' interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, and its anti-protease TIMP-1 were quantified by bead-based multiplexed assay, neutrophil elastase (NE) via ELISA. Culture-based microbiology of the upper and lower airways (LAW), as well as serological and clinical findings, were compiled. Our results indicate that UAW colonization with S. aureus significantly impacts the concentration of all measured inflammatory mediators in NL fluid except TIMP-1, whereas these effects were not significant for P. aeruginosa. Patients with S. aureus colonization of both the UAW and LAW showed significantly increased concentrations of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, MMP-9, and slightly elevated concentrations of NE in NL fluid compared to non-colonized patients. This work elaborates a survey on S. aureus' virulence factors that may contribute to this underestimated pathology. Serial assessment of epithelial lining fluid by NL reveals that colonization of the UAW with S. aureus contributes more to CF airway inflammatory processes than hitherto expected.

  7. Chlamydophila felis CF0218 is a novel TMH family protein with potential as a diagnostic antigen for diagnosis of C. felis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohya, Kenji; Takahara, Yu; Kuroda, Etsuko; Koyasu, Saori; Hagiwara, Shigeyuki; Sakamoto, Maki; Hisaka, Mitsuaki; Morizane, Kazuko; Ishiguro, Shinryou; Yamaguchi, Tsuyoshi; Fukushi, Hideto

    2008-10-01

    Chlamydophila felis is a causative agent of acute and chronic conjunctivitis and pneumonia in cats (feline chlamydiosis). Also, C. felis is a suspected zoonotic agent of such diseases as non-Chlamydia trachomatis conjunctivitis in humans, although this is controversial. At present, there is no serodiagnostic system that specifically detects C. felis infection conveniently. Current systems use antigens such as lipopolysaccharide that cross-react with all chlamydia species. In addition, it is difficult to distinguish between cats that are vaccinated with the commercial vaccine against C. felis and cats that are infected with C. felis. Here, we describe a new candidate diagnostic antigen for diagnosis of C. felis infection, CF0218, that was obtained by screening a genomic expression library of C. felis Fe/C-56 with C. felis-immunized serum. CF0218 was a putative transmembrane head (TMH) family protein with bilobed hydrophobic motifs at its N terminus, and orthologues of CF0218 were not found in the Chlamydophila pneumoniae or Chlamydia trachomatis genomes. The recombinant CF0218 was not recognized by antiserum against C. trachomatis, suggesting that CF0218 is C. felis specific. CF0218 transcription during the course of C. felis infection was confirmed by reverse transcription-PCR. By indirect immunofluorescence analysis, CF0218 was colocalized with the C. felis-formed inclusion bodies in the infected cells. The antibody response against CF0218 was elevated following C. felis infection but not by vaccination in experimentally vaccinated and infected cats. These results suggest that CF0218, a novel TMH family protein of C. felis, possesses potential as a C. felis infection-specific diagnostic antigen.

  8. Overexpression of a novel Arabidopsis PP2C isoform, AtPP2CF1, enhances plant biomass production by increasing inflorescence stem growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Hiroki; Kondo, Satoshi; Tanaka, Tomoko; Imamura, Chie; Muramoto, Nobuhiko; Hattori, Etsuko; Ogawa, Ken’ichi; Mitsukawa, Norihiro; Ohto, Chikara

    2014-01-01

    In contrast to mammals, higher plants have evolved to express diverse protein phosphatase 2Cs (PP2Cs). Of all Arabidopsis thaliana PP2Cs, members of PP2C subfamily A, including ABI1, have been shown to be key negative regulators of abscisic acid (ABA) signalling pathways, which regulate plant growth and development as well as tolerance to adverse environmental conditions. However, little is known about the enzymatic and signalling roles of other PP2C subfamilies. Here, we report a novel Arabidopsis subfamily E PP2C gene, At3g05640, designated AtPP2CF1. AtPP2CF1 was dramatically expressed in response to exogenous ABA and was expressed in vascular tissues and guard cells, similar to most subfamily A PP2C genes. In vitro enzymatic activity assays showed that AtPP2CF1 possessed functional PP2C activity. However, yeast two-hybrid analysis revealed that AtPP2CF1 did not interact with PYR/PYL/RCAR receptors or three SnRK2 kinases, which are ABI1-interacting proteins. This was supported by homology-based structural modelling demonstrating that the putative active- and substrate-binding site of AtPP2CF1 differed from that of ABI1. Furthermore, while overexpression of ABI1 in plants induced an ABA-insensitive phenotype, Arabidopsis plants overexpressing AtPP2CF1 (AtPP2CF1oe) were weakly hypersensitive to ABA during seed germination and drought stress. Unexpectedly, AtPP2CF1oe plants also exhibited increased biomass yield, mainly due to accelerated growth of inflorescence stems through the activation of cell proliferation and expansion. Our results provide new insights into the physiological significance of AtPP2CF1 as a candidate gene for plant growth production and for potential application in the sustainable supply of plant biomass. PMID:25038254

  9. Ablation behavior and mechanism of 3D Cf/ZrC-SiC composites in a plasma wind tunnel environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinggang Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional needle-like Cf/ZrC-SiC composites were successfully fabricated by polymer infiltration and pyrolysis combined with ZrC precursor impregnation. The ablation properties of the composites were tested in a plasma wind tunnel environment at different temperatures and different times. The microstructure and morphology of the composites were examined after ablation by scanning electron microscopy, and their composition was confirmed by energy dispersive spectroscopy. The composites exhibited good configurational stability with a surface temperature of greater than 2273 K over a 300–1000 s period. The formation of ZrSiO4 and SiO2 melts on the surface of the 3D Cf/ZrC-SiC composites contributed significantly to improvement in their ablation properties. However, these composites exhibited serious ablation when the temperature was increased to 2800 K. The 3D Cf/ZrC-SiC composites obtained after ablation showed three different layers attributed to the temperature and pressure gradients: the ablation central region, the ablation transition region, and the unablation region.

  10. CF-Pursuit: A Pursuit Method with a Clothoid Fitting and a Fuzzy Controller for Autonomous Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunxiao Shan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Simple and efficient geometric controllers, like Pure-Pursuit, have been widely used in various types of autonomous vehicles to solve tracking problems. In this paper, we have developed a new pursuit method, named CFPursuit, which has been based on Pure-Pursuit but with certain differences. In CF-Pursuit, in order to reduce fitting errors, we used a clothoid C1 curve to replace the circle employed in Pure-Pursuit. This improvement to the fitting method helps the Pursuit method to decrease tracking errors. As regards the selection of look-ahead distance, we employed a fuzzy system to directly consider the path’s curvature. There are three input variables in this fuzzy system, 6mcurvature, 9mcurvature and 12mcurvature, calculated from the clothoid fit with the current position and the goal position on the defined path. A Sugeno fuzzy model was adapted to output a reasonable look-ahead distance using the experiences of human drivers as well as our own tests. Compared with some other geometric controllers, CF-Pursuit performs better in robustness, cross track errors and stability. The results from field tests have proven the CF-Pursuit is a practical and efficient geometric method for the path tracking problems of autonomous vehicles.

  11. Convergence of reference frequencies by multiple CF-FM bats (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum nippon) during paired flights evaluated with onboard microphones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furusawa, Yuto; Hiryu, Shizuko; Kobayasi, Kohta I; Riquimaroux, Hiroshi

    2012-09-01

    The constant frequency component of the second harmonic (CF(2)) of echolocation sounds in Rhinolophus ferrumequinum nippon were measured using onboard telemetry microphones while the bats exhibited Doppler-shift compensation during flights with conspecifics. (1) The CF(2) frequency of pulses emitted by individual bats at rest (F (rest)) showed a long-term gradual decline by 0.22 kHz on average over a period of 3 months. The mean neighboring F (rest) (interindividual differences in F (rest) between neighboring bats when the bats were arranged in ascending order according to F (rest)) ranged from 0.08 to 0.11 kHz among 18 bats in a laboratory colony. (2) The standard deviation of observed echo CF(2) (reference frequency) for bats during paired flights ranged from 50 to 90 Hz, which was not significantly different from that during single flights. This finding suggests that during paired flights, bats exhibit Doppler-shift compensation with the same accuracy as when they fly alone. (3) In 60% (n = 29) of the cases, the difference in the reference frequency between two bats during paired flights significantly decreased compared to when the bats flew alone. However, only 15% of the cases (n = 7) showed a significant increase during paired flights. The difference in frequency between two bats did not increase even when the reference frequencies of the individuals were not statistically different during single flights.

  12. A Golden Standard Type Ia Supernova SN 2005cf: Observations from the Ultraviolet to the Near-Infrared Wavebands

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xiaofeng; Filippenko, Alexei V; Foley, R J; Kirshner, R P; Modjaz, M; Bloom, J; Brown, P J; Carter, D; Friedman, A S; Gal-Yam, A; Ganeshalingam, M; Hicken, M; Krisciunas, K; Milne, P; Suntzeff, N B; Wood-Vasey, W M; Cenko, S B; Challis, P; Fox, D B; Kirkman, D; Li, J Z; Li, T P; Malkan, M A; Reitzel, D B; Rich, R M; Serduke, F; Shang, R C; Silverman, J M; Steele, T N; Swift, B J; Tao, C; Wong, D S; Zhang, S N

    2008-01-01

    We present extensive photometry at ultraviolet (UV), optical, and near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths, as well as dense sampling of optical spectra, for the normal type Ia supernova (SN Ia) 2005cf. From the well-sampled light curves, we find that SN 2005cf reached a B-band maximum at 13.63+/-0.02 mag, with an observed luminosity decline rate dm_15(B) = 1.05+/-0.03 mag. The correlations between the decline rate and various color indexes, recalibrated on the basis of an expanded SN Ia sample, yielded E(B-V)_host=0.09+/-0.03 mag for SN2005cf. The UV photometry was obtained with the HST and the Swift Ultraviolet/Optical Telescope, and the results match each other to within 0.1-0.2 mag. The UV light curves show similar evolution to the broadband U, with an exception in the 2000-2500 Angstrom spectral range (corresponding to the F220W/uvm2 filters), where the light curve appears broader and much fainter than that on either side (likely owing to the intrinsic spectral evolution). Combining the UV data with the ground-ba...

  13. Validation of the Serbian adaptation of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Child Form (TEIQue-CF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banjac Sonja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated trait EI in childhood in a Serbian population by validating a Serbian adaptation of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire - Child Form (TEIQue-CF. All 606 participants (Mage = 10.33, SD = 1.55 completed the TEIQue-CF, the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (revised version, and the Guess Who peer assessment. Data on academic achievement and truancy were also obtained. The Serbian TEIQue-CF demonstrated robust psychometric properties with satisfactory internal consistencies and extensive evidence of validity in relation to criteria such as emotion recognition, academic grades, truancy rates, and peer ratings. Factor analyses suggested a two-factor solution for the total sample, but a unifactorial structure for the two groups of younger children aged 8 to 9 and 10 to 11. Overall, the results corroborate the validity of the Serbian adaptation and the theoretical and practical importance of the construct of trait EI in children. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179018

  14. Dielectric and conduction mechanism studies of PEMA/ENR-50 blend with LiCF3SO3 salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukri, N.; Mohamed, N. S.; Subban, R. H. Y.

    2017-09-01

    Solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) composed of a blend of Poly(ethyl methacrylate) (PEMA) and Epoxidized Natural Rubber-50 (ENR-50) and Lithium triflate (LiCF3SO3) were prepared by solution casting technique. The conductivity was measured by using electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Measurement of conductivity was carried out as a function of frequency at various concentrations of salt. The SPE exhibit high conductivity of ˜10-5 S/cm at ambient temperature when 40 wt% of LiCF3SO3 was added. Increase in conductivity is attributed to increasing number of charge carriers due to dissociation of salt when the concentration of salt increased. Dielectric properties and ac conductivity of the samples were analyzed. The values of dielectric constant were found to increase with increasing conductivity of the samples. The electrical modulus shows the formation of dispersion peaks. Relaxation time of ionic charge carriers were extracted from the maximum peak of loss tangent at various concentrations of LiCF3SO3 salt. The temperature dependence of the power law exponent s is explained by the overlapping large polaron-tunnelling (OLPT) model.

  15. 基于SimBiology洋葱伯克霍尔德菌CF-66发酵过程的模拟%Simulation of Burkholderia cepacia CF-66 fermentation process using SimBiology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘俏; 权春善; 范圣第

    2011-01-01

    The overuse of chemical pesticides has caused serious environmental problems, thus the demand for safer microbial pesticides is increasing. Burkholderia cepacia CF-66 (B. Cepacia CF-66) isolated from compost samples in our lab has ability to suppress a range of pathogens on several important crop plants, produce a novel antibiotic with broad spectrum of antifungal activity. The purified antibiotic has the potential of being applied in biopesticide. Batch cultivation (BC) in a 3.70 L fennentor were carried out to test fermentability of using B. Cepacia CF-66. A mathematical model of BC based on experimentally matched rate equations for B. Cepacia CF-66 fermentation was developed in Matlab SimBiology. Using SimBiology graphical user interface, the fermentation parameters were estimated and the model were simulated through modified Monod and Gaden equations with the aim of predicting changes in the concentration levels of the biomass, substrate and metabolic product The model predictions and experimental observations agree reasonably well for the fermentation process. The estimated parameters μmax(the maximal specific growth rate of the biomass), Yz/s (yield coefficient of biomass to substrate) and β (production rate equation coefficient) are (0.3220±0.0075) h-1, (0.0278±0.0072) and (0.1244±0.0025) h-1, respectively. The approach of using SimBiology as a dynamic visual model for BC represents a simple method which can be applied to a variety of biological pathways.%过度使用化学农药所引起的一系列环境问题,使人们对安全的生物农药的需求不断增长.本实验室从堆肥中筛选出一株对若干植物病原霉菌和病原真菌具有强烈抑制作用、并显示广谱抗菌活性的洋葱伯克霍尔德菌CF-66,发酵液通过分离纯化后得到一种新型抗菌物质,有望作为新型生物农药来开发利用.为了检测洋葱伯克霍尔德菌CF-66的发酵能力,预测其发酵过程中菌体、底物及代谢产物的

  16. Microstructure and properties of CF/Al composite manufactured by hot isostatic pressing%热等静压制备CF/Al复合材料的微观结构及性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喻思; 郎利辉; 姚松; 王刚; 黄西娜; 续秋玉

    2015-01-01

    采用热等静压(HIP)工艺制备连续碳纤维(CF)增强Al基复合材料。利用扫描电镜、粒度仪和X射线衍射仪表征2A12铝合金粉末形貌、粒度分布和相组成;利用光学显微镜、扫描电镜和能谱仪观察复合材料的显微组织、断口形貌和界面扩散反应特征,并对其主要力学性能进行测试。结果表明:粉末形貌呈球形,粒度主要分布在150~180μm;复合材料致密,界面连接紧密无孔洞缺陷;与基体铝合金材料相比,复合材料的拉伸强度和断后伸长率分别提高5%和54%,断裂方式为脆性断裂;Al基体裂纹起源于粉末颗粒界面,CF/Al界面断口呈现CF拔出和断裂失效形式;CF/Al界面发生元素扩散,界面反应生成Al 4 C 3金属间化合物。%Aluminum matrix composite reinforced with continuous carbon fiber (CF) was manufactured by hot isostatic pressing (HIP). The morphology, grain size distribution and phase of the powders were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM), particle analyzer and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The microstructure, fracture surface morphologies and CF/Al interface reaction characteristic were observed by optical microscope (OM), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). The mechanical properties of the composites were also tested. The results indicate that, the powders are nearly spherical, the particle size is mainly 150−180μm;the composites are compact and the interface bonding is tight without porosity defect;compared with the aluminum matrix alloy, the tensile strength and elongation of the composites increase by above 5%and 54%, respectively, and the fracture mechanism is brittle fracture;the fracture of the Al matrix is along the powder interface, carbon fibers are pulled out and fractured in the CF/Al interface zone; the interface of the CF/Al appears element diffusion, and the interfacial reaction product is Al4C3 intermetallic compound.

  17. 复方斑蝥胶囊联合CPT-11+CF+5Fu治疗晚期大肠癌的临床观察%Comparative study on treatment of advanced colorectal cancer by Banmao capsule combined with CPT-11+CF+5Fu regimen and by CPT-11+CF+5Fu regimen alone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林燕; 陆明

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy and adverse reaction of Banmao capsule combined with CPT-11+CF+5Fu regimen for treatment of patients with advanced colorectal cancer and controlled with those of CPT-11 + CF+5Fu regimen alone. Methods 87 patients were randomly devided into two groups. All the patients received CPT-11 + CF+5Fu regimen,I , e. CPT-11 150-180 mg/m2 intravenous dropping in on day 1,C F 200 mg/m2 intravenous dropping and 5-FU 40 mg/m2 intravenous injection followed with 600 mg/m2 continuous infusion by micro-pump in 22 h on day 1 and 2,14 days as one course. Besides,to the treatment group (47 patients ), Banmao capsules was PO for 15 successive days,while to the control group(40 patients),no additional medication was given. Results The response rate in the treatment group was 44. 81% and in the control group 33. 6% (P = 0. 3355). The KPS score improving rate in the two groups was 65. 96% and 40%, respectively (P<0. 005). The lyear survival rate was 53. 19% and 40. 38% , respectively (P=0. 2193),and the adverse reaction presented in the treatment group was greatly less than that in the control group (P<0. 05). Conclusion Banmao capsules in combining with CPT-11+CF+5Fu regimen can enhance the efficacy, reduce the adverse reaction of chemotherapy in treating advanced colorectal cancer, and could also improve the quality of life and prolong the survival time of patients.%目的 观察复方斑蝥胶囊联合CPT-11+CF+5Fu化疗治疗晚期大肠癌的近期疗效和不良反应,方法将87例大肠癌患者随机分两组,对照组40例,单用CPT-11+CF+5Fu化疗方案,用法:CPT-11150~180 mg/m2,第1、8天,亚叶酸钙200 mg/m2静脉滴注2h,第1、2天,5-氟脲嘧啶300mg/m2静脉推注,第1、2天,600mg/m2持续微泵推入22 h,第1、2天,21天为1个周期;治疗组47例,在对照组治疗基础上加用复方斑蝥胶囊0.75 g,2次/日,连用15天.结果 治疗组和对照组有效率分别是44.81%和33.6%,差异无显著性(P=0

  18. Population structure and characterization of viridans group streptococci (VGS) including Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from adult patients with cystic fibrosis (CF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Yasunori; Elborn, J Stuart; Parkins, Michael D; Reihill, James; Goldsmith, Colin E; Coulter, Wilson A; Mason, Charlene; Millar, B Cherie; Dooley, James S G; Lowery, Colm J; Ennis, Madeleine; Rendall, Jacqueline C; Moore, John E

    2011-03-01

    A study was undertaken to examine the population structure of viridans group streptococci (VGS) in the sputum of adult patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Freshly expectorated sputa (n=58) from 45 adult CF patients were examined by selective conventional culture on Mitis-Salivarius agar and yielded 190 isolates of VGS. Sequence analyses of the rpnB and 16-23S rRNA ITS genes identified these isolates to belong to 12 species of VGS and included S. anginosus, S. australis, S. cristatus, S. gordonii, S. infantis, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. parasanguinis, S. pneumoniae, S. salivarius and S. sanguinis. The most frequently VGS organism isolated was S. salivarius (47/190; 24.7%), followed by S. mitis (36/190; 19%), S. sanguinis (25/190; 13.2%), S. oralis (20/190; 11.0%), S. pneumoniae (19/190; 10.0%), S. parasanguinis (16/190; 8.4%), S. infantis (11/190; 5.8%), S. gordonii (7/190; 3.7%), S. anginosus (4/190; 2.1%), S. cristatus (2/190; 1.1%), S. australis (1/190; 0.5%), S. mutans (1/190; 0.5%) and S. agalactiae (1/190; 0.5%). All, but four, patients harboured at least one VGS species, which ranged from one to five streptococcal species, with a mean of 2.85 species per patient. There was no clonality at the subspecies level employing ERIC RAPD PCR. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined by Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) testing against penicillin, erythromycin and ciprofloxacin. Overall, resistance to penicillin with all VGS was 73/190 (38.4%) and 167/190 (87.9%) for erythromycin. With regard to ciprofloxacin, 27/190 (14.2%) were fully resistant, whilst a further 21/190 (11.1%) showed intermediate resistance, which equated to approximately three quarters (74.7%) of isolates being fully sensitive to this agent. In addition, as a comparator control population, we examined antibiotic susceptibility, as above, in a non-CF population comprising 12 individuals (50 VGS isolates), who were not receiving chronic antibiotics. In comparison, 8% and 38% of VGS

  19. Synthesis, structural characterization, and reactivity studies of 5-CF3SO3-B10H13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkeley, Emily R; Ewing, William C; Carroll, Patrick J; Sneddon, Larry G

    2014-05-19

    In contrast to previous reactions carried out in cyclopentane solvent at room temperature that produced 6-TfO-B10H13 (TfO = CF3SO3), the reaction of closo-B10H10(2-) with a large excess of trifluoromethanesulfonic acid in the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate (bmimOTf) gave exclusively the previously unknown 5-TfO-B10H13 isomer. Experimental and computational studies demonstrated that the difference in the products of the two reactions is a result of 6-TfO-B10H13 isomerizing to 5-TfO-B10H13 above room temperature in bmimOTf solutions. Reactivity studies showed that 5-TfO-B10H13: (1) is deprotonated by reaction with 1,8-bis(dimethylamino)naphthalene to form the 5-TfO-B10H12(1-) anion; (2) reacts with alcohols to produce 6-RO-B10H13 boryl ethers (R = Me and 4-CH3O-C6H4); (3) undergoes olefin-hydroboration reactions to form 5-TfO-6,9-R2-B10H11 derivatives; and (4) forms a 5-TfO-6,9-(Me2S)2-B10H11 adduct at its Lewis acidic 6,9-borons upon reaction with dimethylsulfide. The 5-TfO-6,9-(Me2S)2-B10H11 adduct was also found to undergo alkyne-insertion reactions to form a range of previously unreported triflate-substituted 4-TfO-ortho-carboranes (1-R-4-TfO-1,2-C2B10H10) and reactions with triethylamine or ammonia to form the first TfO-substituted decaborate [R3NH(+)]2[2-TfO-B10H9(2-)], and [R3NH(+)]2[1-TfO-B10H9(2-)] (R = H, Et) salts.

  20. Power spectrum, correlation function, and tests for luminosity bias in the CfA redshift survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Changbom; Vogeley, Michael S.; Geller, Margaret J.; Huchra, John P.

    1994-01-01

    We describe and apply a method for directly computing the power spectrum for the galaxy distribution in the extension of the Center for Astrophysics Redshift Survey. Tests show that our technique accurately reproduces the true power spectrum for k greater than 0.03 h Mpc(exp -1). The dense sampling and large spatial coverage of this survey allow accurate measurement of the redshift-space power spectrum on scales from 5 to approximately 200 h(exp -1) Mpc. The power spectrum has slope n approximately equal -2.1 on small scales (lambda less than or equal 25 h(exp -1) Mpc) and n approximately -1.1 on scales 30 less than lambda less than 120 h(exp -1) Mpc. On larger scales the power spectrum flattens somewhat, but we do not detect a turnover. Comparison with N-body simulations of cosmological models shows that an unbiased, open universe CDM model (OMEGA h = 0.2) and a nonzero cosmological constant (CDM) model (OMEGA h = 0.24, lambda(sub zero) = 0.6, b = 1.3) match the CfA power spectrum over the wavelength range we explore. The standard biased CDM model (OMEGA h = 0.5, b = 1.5) fails (99% significance level) because it has insufficient power on scales lambda greater than 30 h(exp -1) Mpc. Biased CDM with a normalization that matches the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) anisotropy (OMEGA h = 0.5, b = 1.4, sigma(sub 8) (mass) = 1) has too much power on small scales to match the observed galaxy power spectrum. This model with b = 1 matches both Cosmic Background Explorer Satellite (COBE) and the small-scale power spect rum but has insufficient power on scales lambda approximately 100 h(exp -1) Mpc. We derive a formula for the effect of small-scale peculiar velocities on the power spectrum and combine this formula with the linear-regime amplification described by Kaiser to compute an estimate of the real-space power spectrum. Two tests reveal luminosity bias in the galaxy distribution: First, the amplitude of the pwer spectrum is approximately 40% larger for the brightest

  1. Effect of the Solution Annealing and Chemical Passivation Followed by Aging on the Corrosion of Shell Mold Cast CF8 Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kuk-Jin; Ju, Heongkyu; Moon, Young-Dae; Hong, Jun Ho; Pak, Sung Joon

    2016-10-01

    The effects of solution annealing and passivation of shell mold cast CF8 stainless steels on Elbow pipe fittings with 2-month room temperature aging have been studied using a corrosion technique. The resistance of corrosion increased with 2-month room temperature aging combined with solid solution annealing and chemical passivation. The mode of corrosion was deeply related to the δ-ferrite content, permeability, and passivation. The corrosion probability decreased as both the δ-ferrite content and the permeability decreased. Therefore, it is considered that δ-ferrite content and passive film of Cr2O3 play an important role in corrosion resistance of CF8 Elbow pipe fittings due to the long-term aging with solid solution annealing and chemical passivation. This result shows that the corrosion resistance of CF8 fittings can be enhanced by the solid solution annealing and chemical passivation. Decreased ferrite phases and permeability improve IGC resistance in CF8 steel.

  2. Improvement of the fracture toughness of hydroxyapatite (HAp) by incorporation of carboxyl functionalized single walled carbon nanotubes (CfSWCNTs) and nylon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, S P; Mahfuz, H; Rondinone, A J; Leventouri, Th

    2016-03-01

    The potential of improving the fracture toughness of synthetic hydroxyapatite (HAp) by incorporating carboxyl functionalized single walled carbon nanotubes (CfSWCNTs) and polymerized ε-caprolactam (nylon) was studied. A series of HAp samples with CfSWCNTs concentrations varying from 0 to 1.5 wt.%, without, and with nylon addition was prepared. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) were used to characterize the samples. The three point bending test was applied to measure the fracture toughness of the composites. A reproducible value of 3.6±0.3 MPa.√m was found for samples containing 1 wt.% CfSWCNTs and nylon. This value is in the range of the cortical bone fracture toughness. Increase of the CfSWCNTs content results to decrease of the fracture toughness, and formation of secondary phases.

  3. Snowmass Cosmic Frontiers 6 (CF6) Working Group Summary --The Bright Side of the Cosmic Frontier: Cosmic Probes of Fundamental Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Beatty, J.J.; Olinto, A.; Sinnis, G.; Abeysekara, A.U.; Anchordoqui, L.A.; Aramaki, T.; Belz, J.; Buckley, J.H.; Byrum, K.; Cameron, R.; Chen, Mu-Chun; Clark, K.; Connolly, A.; Cowen, D.F.; DeYoung, T.; von Doetinchem, P.; Dumm, J.; Errando, M.; Farrar, G.; Ferrer, F.; Fortson, L.; Funk, S.; Grant, D.; Griffiths, S.; Gross, A.; Hailey, C.; Hogan, C.; Holder, J.; Humensky, B.; Kaaret, P.; Klein, S.R.; Krawczynski, H.; Krennrich, F.; Krings, K.; Krizmanic, J.; Kusenko, A.; Linnemann, J.T.; MacGibbon, J.H.; Matthews, J.; McCann, A.; Mitchell, J.; Mukherjee, R.; Nitz, D.; Ong, R.A.; Orr, M.; Otte, N.; Paul, T.; Resconi, E.; Sanchez-Conde, M.A.; Sokolsky, P.; Stecker, F.; Stump, D.; Taboada, I.; Thomson, G.B.; Tollefson, K.; Ukwatta, T.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Vasileiou, V.; Vassileiv, V.V.; Weiler, T.J.; Williams, D.A.; Weinstein, A.; Wood, M.; Zitzer, B.

    2013-01-01

    Report of the CF6 Working Group at Snowmass 2013. Topics addressed include ultra-high energy cosmic rays, neutrinos, gamma rays, baryogenesis, and experiments probing the fundamental nature of spacetime.

  4. Atmospheric chemistry of CH3CHF2 (R-152a): mechanism of the CH3CF2O2+HO2 reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashikawa, Y; Kawasaki, M; Andersen, Mads Peter Sulbæk

    2004-01-01

    FTIR smog chamber techniques have been used to investigate the mechanism of the reaction of CH3CF2O2 with HO2 radicals in 100-700 Torr of synthetic air at 296 K. The reaction gives CH3CF2OOH and COF2 in molar yields of 0.53 +/- 0.05 and 0.47 +/- 0.05, respectively. Results are discussed with resp...

  5. 75 FR 910 - Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company CF34-1A, -3A, -3A1, -3A2, -3B, and -3B1...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-07

    ... instructions related to operators who fly a regional jet (RJ) with the CF34-3A1 engine as a business jet (BJ.... We also estimate that it would take about 2 work-hours per engine to perform the required actions... Company CF34-1A, -3A, -3A1, -3A2, -3B, and -3B1 Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation...

  6. Atmospheric chemistry of trans-CF3CH=CHCl: Kinetics of the gas-phase reactions with Cl atoms, OH radicals, and O3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads Peter Sulbaek; Nilsson, Elna Johanna Kristina; Nielsen, Ole John;

    2008-01-01

    Long path length Fourier transform infrared (FTIR)–smog chamber techniques were used to study the kinetics of the gas-phase reactions of Cl atoms, OH radicals and O3 with trans-3,3,3-trifluoro-1-chloropropene, t-CF3CH CHCl, in 700 Torr total pressure at 295±2K. Values of k(Cl + t-CF3CH CHCl) = (5...

  7. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation: The application of {sup 252}Cf-plasma desorption mass spectrometry to analysis of direct coal liquefaction heavy products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, J.W.; Lapucha, A.R.

    1992-10-01

    This study demonstrated the feasibility of using {sup 252}Cf PDMS, GPC, and MPLC for the examination of the tetrahydrofuran (THF)-soluble portion of distillation resid materials derived from direct coal liquefaction. The {sup 252}Cf-PDMS technique was used to determine molecular weight distributions of twenty-five THF-soluble resids. In order to detemine if {sup 252}Cf-PDMS responds differently to different chemical classes of compounds, Lehigh separated five of the samples into chemically distinct fractions by MPLC, then analyzed the parent samples, their fractions, and the re-mixed fractions by {sup 252}Cf-PDMS and GPC. Irreversible alteration of the samples upon separation was noted by Lehigh. This was confirmed by use of gas chromatographic (GC) analyses. The noted irreversible alterations prevented a direct comparison of the remixed materials and the original samples. Thus, the selective response of {sup 252}Cf-PDMS to different chemical classes of compounds could not be confirmed or ruled out. The number average molecular weights (M{sub n}) obtained by {sup 252}Cf-PDMS and GPC agreed well. However, the weight average molecular weights (M{sub w}) obtained by GPC are always higher than the corresponding {sup 252}Cf-PDMS results. Number average molecular weights and weight average molecular weights obtained with {sup 252}Cf-PDMS and GPC were compared with those obtained by field ionization mass spectrometry (FIMS), previously reported by SRI International for the parent resid samples from which the Lehigh THF-soluble samples were derived.

  8. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation: The application of [sup 252]Cf-plasma desorption mass spectrometry to analysis of direct coal liquefaction heavy products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, J.W.; Lapucha, A.R.

    1992-10-01

    This study demonstrated the feasibility of using [sup 252]Cf PDMS, GPC, and MPLC for the examination of the tetrahydrofuran (THF)-soluble portion of distillation resid materials derived from direct coal liquefaction. The [sup 252]Cf-PDMS technique was used to determine molecular weight distributions of twenty-five THF-soluble resids. In order to detemine if [sup 252]Cf-PDMS responds differently to different chemical classes of compounds, Lehigh separated five of the samples into chemically distinct fractions by MPLC, then analyzed the parent samples, their fractions, and the re-mixed fractions by [sup 252]Cf-PDMS and GPC. Irreversible alteration of the samples upon separation was noted by Lehigh. This was confirmed by use of gas chromatographic (GC) analyses. The noted irreversible alterations prevented a direct comparison of the remixed materials and the original samples. Thus, the selective response of [sup 252]Cf-PDMS to different chemical classes of compounds could not be confirmed or ruled out. The number average molecular weights (M[sub n]) obtained by [sup 252]Cf-PDMS and GPC agreed well. However, the weight average molecular weights (M[sub w]) obtained by GPC are always higher than the corresponding [sup 252]Cf-PDMS results. Number average molecular weights and weight average molecular weights obtained with [sup 252]Cf-PDMS and GPC were compared with those obtained by field ionization mass spectrometry (FIMS), previously reported by SRI International for the parent resid samples from which the Lehigh THF-soluble samples were derived.

  9. The CF-modifying gene EHF promotes p.Phe508del-CFTR residual function by altering protein glycosylation and trafficking in epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanke, Frauke; van Barneveld, Andrea; Hedtfeld, Silke; Wölfl, Stefan; Becker, Tim; Tümmler, Burkhard

    2014-05-01

    The three-base-pair deletion c.1521_1523delCTT (p.Phe508del, F508del) in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is the most frequent disease-causing lesion in cystic fibrosis (CF). The CFTR gene encodes a chloride and bicarbonate channel at the apical membrane of epithelial cells. Altered ion transport of CFTR-expressing epithelia can be used to differentiate manifestations of the so-called CF basic defect. Recently, an 11p13 region has been described as a CF modifier by the North American CF Genetic Modifier Study Consortium. Selecting the epithelial-specific transcription factor EHF (ets homologous factor) as the likely candidate gene on 11p13, we have genotyped two intragenic microsatellites in EHF to replicate the 11p13 finding in the patient cohort of the European CF Twin and Sibling Study. We could observe an association of rare EHF haplotypes among homozygotes for c.1521_1523delCTT in CFTR, which exhibit a CF-untypical manifestation of the CF basic defect such as CFTR-mediated residual chloride secretion and low response to amiloride. We have reviewed transcriptome data obtained from intestinal epithelial samples of homozygotes for c.1521_1523delCTT in CFTR, which were stratified for their EHF genetic background. Transcripts that were upregulated among homozygotes for c.1521_1523delCTT in CFTR, who carry two rare EHF alleles, were enriched for genes that alter protein glycosylation and trafficking, both mechanisms being pivotal for the effective targeting of fully functional p.Phe508del-CFTR to the apical membrane of epithelial cells. We conclude that EHF modifies the CF phenotype by altering capabilities of the epithelial cell to correctly process the folding and trafficking of mutant p.Phe508del-CFTR.

  10. Copper-Catalyzed Redox-Triggered Remote C-H Functionalization: Highly Selective Formation of C-CF3 and C-O Bonds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Taotao Li; Peng Yu; Jin-Shun Lin; Yonggang Zhi; Xin-Yuan Liu

    2016-01-01

    A Cu-catalyzed remote sp3 C-H/unactivated alkenes functionalization reaction for the concomitant construction ofC-CF3 and C-O bonds was described.An 1,5-H radical transfer involving an sp3 C-H bond adjacent to a nitrogen atom and an α-CF3-alkyl radical intermediate derived from unactivated alkenes was observed and demonstrated to proceed via the radical process.

  11. Molecular evolution and nucleotide sequences of the maize plastid genes for the alpha subunit of CF1 (atpA) and the proteolipid subunit of CF0 (atpH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodermel, S R; Bogorad, L

    1987-05-01

    The nucleotide sequences of the maize plastid genes for the alpha subunit of CF1 (atpA) and the proteolipid subunit of CF0 (atpH) are presented. The evolution of these genes among higher plants is characterized by a transition mutation bias of about 2:1 and by rates of synonymous and nonsynonymous substitution which are much lower than similar rates for genes from other sources. This is consistent with the notion that the plastid genome is evolving conservatively in primary sequence. Yet, the mode and tempo of sequence evolution of these and other plastid-encoded coupling factor genes are not the same. In particular, higher rates of nonsynonymous substitution in atpE (the gene for the epsilon subunit of CF1) and higher rates of synonymous substitution in atpH in the dicot vs. monocot lineages of higher plants indicate that these sequences are likely subject to different evolutionary constraints in these two lineages. The 5'- and 3'-transcribed flanking regions of atpA and atpH from maize, wheat and tobacco are conserved in size, but contain few putative regulatory elements which are conserved either in their spatial arrangement or sequence complexity. However, these regions likely contain variable numbers of "species-specific" regulatory elements. The present studies thus suggest that the plastid genome is not a passive participant in an evolutionary process governed by a more rapidly changing, readily adaptive, nuclear compartment, but that novel strategies for the coordinate expression of genes in the plastid genome may arise through rapid evolution of the flanking sequences of these genes.

  12. CF101, An Agonist to the A3 Adenosine Receptor, Enhances the Chemotherapeutic Effect of 5-Fluorouracil in a Colon Carcinoma Murine Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Bar-Yehuda

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available NF-κB and the upstream kinase PKB/Akt are highly expressed in chemoresistance tumor cells and may hamper the apoptotic pathway. CF101, a specific agonist to the A3 adenosine receptor, inhibits the development of colon carcinoma growth in cell cultures and xenograft murine models. Because CF101 has been shown to downregulate PKB/Akt and NF-κB protein expression level, we presumed that its combination with chemotherapy will enhance the antitumor effect of the cytotoxic drug. In this study, we utilized 3-[4,5Dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT and colony formation assays and a colon carcinoma xenograft model. It has been shown that a combined treatment of CF101 and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU enhanced the cytotoxic effect of the latter on HCT-116 human colon carcinoma growth. Downregulation of PKB/Akt, NF-κB, and cyclin D1, and upregulation of caspase-3 protein expression level were observed in cells and tumor lesions on treatment with a combination of CF101 and 5-FU. Moreover, in mice treated with the combined therapy, myelotoxicity was prevented as was evidenced by normal white blood cell and neutrophil counts. These results show that CF101 potentiates the cytotoxic effect of 5-FU, thus preventing drug resistance. The myeloprotective effect of CF101 suggests its development as an add-on treatment to 5-FU.

  13. Kinetic study of vibrational energy transfer from a wide range of vibrational levels of O2(X(3)Sigma(g)-, v = 6-12) to CF4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Shinji; Fujii, Hidekazu; Kohguchi, Hiroshi; Hatano, Takayuki; Tokue, Ikuo; Yamasaki, Katsuyoshi

    2008-10-02

    A wide range of vibrational levels of O2(X(3)Sigma(g)(-), v = 6-13) generated in the ultraviolet photolysis of O3 was selectively detected by the laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) technique. The time-resolved LIF-excited B(3)Sigma(u)(-)-X(3)Sigma(g)(-) system in the presence of CF4 has been recorded and analyzed by the integrated profiles method (IPM). The IPM permitted us to determine the rate coefficients k(v)(CF4) for vibrational relaxation of O2(X(3)Sigma(g)(-), v = 6-12) by collisions with CF4. Energy transfer from O2 (v = 6-12) to CF4 is surprisingly efficient compared to that of other polyatomic relaxation partners studied so far. The k(v)(CF4) increases with vibrational quantum number v from [1.5 +/- 0.2(2sigma)] x 10(-12) for v = 6 to [7.3 +/- 1.5(2sigma)] x 10(-11) for v = 12, indicating that the infrared-active nu3 vibrational mode of CF4 mainly governs the energy transfer with O2(X(3)Sigma(g)(-), v = 6-12). The correlation between the rate coefficients and fundamental infrared intensities has been discussed based on a comparison of the efficiency of energy transfer by several collision partners.

  14. Combination therapy with lysin CF-301 and antibiotic is superior to antibiotic alone for treating methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus-induced murine bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuch, Raymond; Lee, Han M; Schneider, Brent C; Sauve, Karen L; Law, Christina; Khan, Babar K; Rotolo, Jimmy A; Horiuchi, Yuki; Couto, Daniel E; Raz, Assaf; Fischetti, Vincent A; Huang, David B; Nowinski, Robert C; Wittekind, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Lysins are bacteriophage-derived enzymes that degrade bacterial peptidoglycans. Lysin CF-301 is being developed to treat Staphylococcus aureus because of its potent, specific, and rapid bacteriolytic effects. It also demonstrates activity on drug-resistant strains, has a low resistance profile, eradicates biofilms, and acts synergistically with antibiotics. CF-301 was bacteriolytic against 250 S. aureus strains tested including 120 methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates. In time-kill studies with 62 strains, CF-301 reduced S. aureus by 3-log10 within 30 minutes compared to 6-12 hours required by antibiotics. In bacteremia, CF-301 increased survival by reducing blood MRSA 100-fold within 1 hour. Combinations of CF-301 with vancomycin or daptomycin synergized in vitro and increased survival significantly in staphylococcal-induced bacteremia compared to treatment with antibiotics alone (P combinations with antibiotics was confirmed in 26 independent bacteremia studies. Combinations including CF-301 and antibiotics represent an attractive alternative to antibiotic monotherapies currently used to treat S. aureus bacteremia.

  15. Therapy of CF-Patients with Amitriptyline and Placebo - a Randomised, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Phase IIb Multicenter, Cohort-Study

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    Lutz Nährlich

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Several recent studies revealed an accumulation of ceramide in bronchial, tracheal and intestinal epithelial cells of mice and patients with cystic fibrosis (CF. Normalization of ceramide concentrations in lungs of CF mice employing the functional acid sphingomyelinase inhibitor amitriptyline also normalized mucociliary clearance, chronic inflammation and infection susceptibility to pulmonary P. aeruginosa in these mice. Methods: To test for a beneficial effect of amitriptyline in vivo, we performed a phase IIb randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Twenty-one CF patients were treated with 25 mg/d amitriptyline twice daily for 28 days. The placebo consisted of 19 patients and was also treated twice per day. The primary endpoint was the change in lung function in the intention-to-treat (ITT population. Secondary endpoints were ceramide levels in epithelial cells and safety. Results: After treatment, forced expiratory volume in 1 sec predicted (FEV1 increased 6.3±11.5% (p=0.08 in the ITT population (36 of 40 CF patients and 8.5±10% (p=0.013 in the per protocol (PP population (29 of 40 patients. Ceramide levels decreased in nasal epithelial cells after amitriptyline treatment. Amitriptyline had no severe and only mild and mostly transient adverse effects, i.e. xerostomia and tiredness. Conclusion: Amitriptyline is safe in CF-patients, increases FEV1 and reduces ceramide in lung cells of CF patients.

  16. Fluorine segregation in crystalline materials: structural control and solid-state [2+2] cycloaddition in CF(3)-substituted tetrathiafulvalene derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeannin, Olivier; Fourmigué, Marc

    2006-04-03

    The well-known influence of long perfluorinated chains on the structures and stability of amphiphilic molecules in liquid crystalline mesophases or mesoscopic micellar arrangements is evaluated here in the realm of crystalline materials based on rigid aromatic molecules bearing only a limited number of CF(3) moieties. Tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) derivatives bearing one or two CF(3) groups, that is, (Z)- and (E)-(CF(3))(2)TTF ((Z)-1, (E)-1), EDT-TTF-CF(3) (2), and EDT-TTF(CF(3))(2) (3) (EDT=ethylenedithio) are prepared from the 1,3-dipolar reaction of methyl 4,4,4-trifluorotetrolate with ethylenetrithiocarbonate. The structures of neutral (Z)-1, (E)-1, 2, and 3 as indicated by single-crystal X-ray diffraction measurements reveal the recurrent formation of layered structures with a strong segregation of the fluorinated moieties and formation of fluorous bilayers, attributed to the amphiphilic character of those TTF derivatives upon CF(3) functionalization, and without need for longer C(n)F(2n+1) (n>1) perfluorinated chains. The short intermolecular distance between outer C==C double bonds observed in the layered structure of (E)-1 allows a solid-state [2+2] photocyclization with formation of chiral dyads incorporating the characteristic cyclobutane ring. These dyads containing two dihydrotetrathiafulvalene moieties facing each other exhibit reversible oxidation to the mixed-valence radical cation state and organize in the solid-state into the same layered structures with fluorous bilayers.

  17. 冷等离子体改性CF/PMR-15复合材料耐老化性能的研究%Study on the anti-aging properties of cold plasma modified CF/PMR-15

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张德庆; 魏月贞

    2000-01-01

    通过沸水试验、316℃高温试验、375℃热氧化试验对冷等离子体改性CF的PMR-15复合材料的抗老化性能进行研究,表明冷等离子体改性CF/PMR-15具有较好的湿热稳定性、高温性能和热氧稳定性.

  18. Assessment and self-assessment of the pharmacists' competencies using the global competency framework (GbCF in Serbia

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    Stojkov Svetlana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Pharmacists' competence represents a dynamic framework of knowledge, skills and abilities to carry out tasks, and it reflects on improving the quality of life and on patients’ health. One of the documents for the Evaluation and Competency Development of Pharmacists is the Global Competency Framework (GbCF. The aim of this study was to implement the GBCF document into Serbian pharmacies, to perform assessment and self assessment of the competencies. Methods. The assessment and self-assessment of pharmacists’ competencies were performed during the period 2012−13 year in eight community pharmacy chains, in seven cities in Serbia. For assessment and self-assessment of pharmacists competencies the GbCF model was applied, which was adjusted to pharmaceutical practice and legislation in Serbia. External assessment was conducted by teams of pharmacists using the structured observation of the work of pharmacists during regular working hours. Evaluated pharmacists filled out the questionnaire about demographic indicators about the pharmacist and the pharmacy where they work. Results. A total of 123 pharmacists were evaluated. Pharmacists’ Professional Competency Cluster (KK1 had the lowest score (average value 2.98, while the cluster Management and Organizational Competency (KK2 had the highest score (average value 3.15. The competence Recognition of the Diagnosis and Patient Counseling (K8, which belonged to the cluster KK1, had the lowest score (average value for assessment and self-assessment were 2.09, and 2.34, respectively among the all evaluated competencies. Conclusion. GbCF might be considered as an instrument for the competencies' evaluation/selfevaluation and their improvement, accordingly.

  19. Atmospheric observations for quantifying emissions of point-source synthetic greenhouse gases (CF4, NF3 and HFC-23)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Tim; Manning, Alistair J.; Li, Shanlan; Kim, Jooil; Park, Sunyoung; Fraser, Paul J.; Mitrevski, Blagoj; Steele, L. Paul; Krummel, Paul B.; Mühle, Jens; Weiss, Ray F.

    2016-04-01

    The fluorinated species carbon tetrafluoride (CF4; PFC-14), nitrogen trifluoride (NF3) and trifluoromethane (CHF3; HFC-23) are potent greenhouse gases with 100-year global warming potentials of 6,630, 16,100 and 12,400, respectively. Unlike the majority of CFC-replacement compounds that are emitted from fugitive and mobile emission sources, these gases are largely emitted from large single point sources - semiconductor manufacturing facilities (all three), aluminium smelting plants (CF4) and chlorodifluoromethane factories (HFC-23). In this work we show the potential for atmospheric measurements to understand regional sources of these gases and to highlight emission 'hotspots'. We target our analysis on measurements from two Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE) long term monitoring sites that are particularly sensitive to regional emissions of these gases: Gosan on Jeju Island in the Republic of Korea and Cape Grim on Tasmania in Australia. These sites measure CF4, NF3 and HFC-23 alongside a suite of greenhouse and stratospheric ozone depleting gases every two hours using automated in situ gas-chromatography mass-spectrometry instrumentation. We couple each measurement to an analysis of air history using the regional atmospheric transport model NAME (Numerical Atmospheric dispersion Modelling Environment) driven by 3D meteorology from the Met Office's Unified Model, and use a Bayesian inverse method (InTEM - Inversion Technique for Emission Modelling) to calculate yearly emission changes over a decade (2005-2015) at high spatial resolution. At present these gases make a small contribution to global radiative forcing, however, given that their impact could rise significantly and that point sources of such gases can be mitigated, atmospheric monitoring could be an important tool for aiding emissions reduction policy.

  20. Children and young adults with CF in the USA have better lung function compared with the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, Christopher H; MacNeill, Stephanie J; Quinton, Hebe B; Marshall, Bruce C; Elbert, Alexander; Knapp, Emily A; Petren, Kristofer; Gunn, Elaine; Osmond, Joanne; Bilton, Diana

    2015-03-01

    People with cystic fibrosis (CF) are managed differently in the USA and UK providing an opportunity to learn from differences in practice patterns. To compare cross-sectional demographics, practice patterns and clinical outcomes between US and UK CF patients. This was a cross-sectional study using 2010 data from patients in the US Cystic Fibrosis Foundation and the UK Cystic Fibrosis patient registries. The a priori outcome measures of interest were lung function and nutritional status. Descriptive statistics and two sample comparisons were performed. Stratification and multivariable linear regression were used to adjust for confounding. The study cohort included 13 777 children and 11 058 adults from the USA and 3968 children and 3965 adults from the UK. In children, mean body mass index centiles were similar. Lung function (FEV1 and FVC% predicted) was significantly higher in US patients ages 6-25 years of age. In a regression model adjusted for only age, FEV1% predicted was on average 3.31% of predicted (95% CI 2.65 to 3.96) higher in the USA compared with the UK. When adjusted for age, age at diagnosis, gender, pancreatic insufficiency and genotype, FEV1% predicted was on average 3.03% of predicted (95% CI 2.37 to 3.69) higher in the USA compared with the UK These differences persisted despite adjustment for possible confounders. Hypertonic saline and dornase alfa were much more commonly prescribed in US children. Children and young adults with CF have better lung function in the USA compared with the UK despite similar nutritional status. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.