Sample records for colours masses star

  1. Galaxy formation in the Planck cosmology - I. Matching the observed evolution of star formation rates, colours and stellar masses (United States)

    Henriques, Bruno M. B.; White, Simon D. M.; Thomas, Peter A.; Angulo, Raul; Guo, Qi; Lemson, Gerard; Springel, Volker; Overzier, Roderik


    We have updated the Munich galaxy formation model to the Planck first-year cosmology, while modifying the treatment of baryonic processes to reproduce recent data on the abundance and passive fractions of galaxies from z = 3 down to z = 0. Matching these more extensive and more precise observational results requires us to delay the reincorporation of wind ejecta, to lower the surface density threshold for turning cold gas into stars, to eliminate ram-pressure stripping in haloes less massive than {˜ }10^{14}{ M_{⊙}}, and to modify our model for radio mode feedback. These changes cure the most obvious failings of our previous models, namely the overly early formation of low-mass galaxies and the overly large fraction of them that are passive at late times. The new model is calibrated to reproduce the observed evolution both of the stellar mass function and of the distribution of star formation rate at each stellar mass. Massive galaxies (log M⋆/M⊙ ≥ 11.0) assemble most of their mass before z = 1 and are predominantly old and passive at z = 0, while lower mass galaxies assemble later and, for log M⋆/M⊙ ≤ 9.5, are still predominantly blue and star forming at z = 0. This phenomenological but physically based model allows the observations to be interpreted in terms of the efficiency of the various processes that control the formation and evolution of galaxies as a function of their stellar mass, gas content, environment and time.

  2. Dissecting the Spitzer colour-magnitude diagrams of extreme Large Magellanic Cloud asymptotic giant branch stars (United States)

    Dell'Agli, F.; Ventura, P.; García Hernández, D. A.; Schneider, R.; Di Criscienzo, M.; Brocato, E.; D'Antona, F.; Rossi, C.


    We trace the full evolution of low- and intermediate-mass stars (1 ≤ M ≤ 8 M⊙) during the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase in the Spitzer two-colour and colour-magnitude diagrams. We follow the formation and growth of dust particles in the circumstellar envelope with an isotropically expanding wind, in which gas molecules impinge upon pre-existing seed nuclei, favour their growth. These models are the first able to identify the main regions in the Spitzer data occupied by AGB stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). The main diagonal sequence traced by LMC extreme stars in the [3.6] - [4.5] versus [5.8] - [8.0] and [3.6] - [8.0] versus [8.0] planes is nicely fit by carbon stars models; it results to be an evolutionary sequence with the reddest objects being at the final stages of their AGB evolution. The most extreme stars, with [3.6] - [4.5] > 1.5 and [3.6] - [8.0] > 3, are 2.5-3 M⊙ stars surrounded by solid carbon grains. In higher mass (>3 M⊙) models dust formation is driven by the extent of hot bottom burning (HBB) - most of the dust formed is in the form of silicates and the maximum obscuration phase by dust particles occurs when the HBB experienced is strongest, before the mass of the envelope is considerably reduced.

  3. Nuclear Masses and Neutron Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Kreim, Susanne; Lunney, David; Schaffner-Bielich, Jürgen


    Precision mass spectrometry of neutron-rich nuclei is of great relevance for astrophysics. Masses of exotic nuclides impose constraints on models for the nuclear interaction and thus affect the description of the equation of state of nuclear matter, which can be extended to describe neutron-star matter. With knowledge of the masses of nuclides near shell closures, one can also derive the neutron-star crustal composition. The Penning-trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP at CERN-ISOLDE has recently achieved a breakthrough measuring the mass of 82Zn, which allowed constraining neutron-star crust composition to deeper layers (Wolf et al., PRL 110, 2013). We perform a more detailed study on the sequence of nuclei in the outer crust of neutron stars with input from different nuclear models to illustrate the sensitivity to masses and the robustness of neutron-star models. The dominant role of the N=50 and N=82 closed neutron shells for the crustal composition is confirmed.

  4. Applications of machine-learning algorithms for infrared colour selection of Galactic Wolf-Rayet stars (United States)

    Morello, Giuseppe; Morris, P. W.; Van Dyk, S. D.; Marston, A. P.; Mauerhan, J. C.


    We have investigated and applied machine-learning algorithms for infrared colour selection of Galactic Wolf-Rayet (WR) candidates. Objects taken from the Spitzer Galactic Legacy Infrared Midplane Survey Extraordinaire (GLIMPSE) catalogue of the infrared objects in the Galactic plane can be classified into different stellar populations based on the colours inferred from their broad-band photometric magnitudes [J, H and Ks from 2 Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS), and the four Spitzer/IRAC bands]. The algorithms tested in this pilot study are variants of the k-nearest neighbours approach, which is ideal for exploratory studies of classification problems where interrelations between variables and classes are complicated. The aims of this study are (1) to provide an automated tool to select reliable WR candidates and potentially other classes of objects, (2) to measure the efficiency of infrared colour selection at performing these tasks and (3) to lay the groundwork for statistically inferring the total number of WR stars in our Galaxy. We report the performance results obtained over a set of known objects and selected candidates for which we have carried out follow-up spectroscopic observations, and confirm the discovery of four new WR stars.

  5. Role of colour doppler sonography in adnexal masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shazia Ashraf Khan, Aamina Banoo


    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the role of colour Doppler sonography in differentiating between benign and malignant adnexal masses. Materials & Methods: One hundred women diagnosed with adnexal masses underwent colour Doppler sonography. Resistance index (RI and Pulsatility index (PI were calculated in each case and lowest RI and PI obtained at any point in the mass were considered for analysis. Masses which were completely a vascular were considered as benign. Histopathological diagnosis was obtained in each case. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of colour Doppler were calculated. Results: Mean RI and Mean PI were significantly lower in malignant masses (0.34 & 0.95 respectively as compared to benign masses (0.72 & 1.97 respectively. Out of 81 benign cases, Doppler could correctly diagnose 78 cases as benign, but labelled 3 cases as malignant which were actually benign. Out of 19 malignant cases, 16 cases were correctly diagnosed, whereas 3 cases were missed by Doppler. Our study showed a sensitivity of 84.2%, specificity of 96.3%, positive predictive value of 84.2%, negative predictive value of 96.3% and accuracy of 94% for colour Doppler. Conclusion: Colour Doppler sonography is helpful in differentiating benign from malignant adnexal masses.

  6. Mass transfer between binary stars (United States)

    Modisette, J. L.; Kondo, Y.


    The transfer of mass from one component of a binary system to another by mass ejection is analyzed through a stellar wind mechanism, using a model which integrates the equations of motion, including the energy equation, with an initial static atmosphere and various temperature fluctuations imposed at the base of the star's corona. The model is applied to several situations and the energy flow is calculated along the line of centers between the two binary components, in the rotating frame of the system, thereby incorporating the centrifugal force. It is shown that relatively small disturbances in the lower chromosphere or photosphere can produce mass loss through a stellar wind mechanism, due to the amplification of the disturbance propagating into the thinner atmosphere. Since there are many possible sources of the disturbance, the model can be used to explain many mass ejection phenomena.

  7. The Neutron Star Mass Distribution (United States)

    Kiziltan, Bülent; Kottas, Athanasios; De Yoreo, Maria; Thorsett, Stephen E.


    In recent years, the number of pulsars with secure mass measurements has increased to a level that allows us to probe the underlying neutron star (NS) mass distribution in detail. We critically review the radio pulsar mass measurements. For the first time, we are able to analyze a sizable population of NSs with a flexible modeling approach that can effectively accommodate a skewed underlying distribution and asymmetric measurement errors. We find that NSs that have evolved through different evolutionary paths reflect distinctive signatures through dissimilar distribution peak and mass cutoff values. NSs in double NS and NS-white dwarf (WD) systems show consistent respective peaks at 1.33 M ⊙ and 1.55 M ⊙, suggesting significant mass accretion (Δm ≈ 0.22 M ⊙) has occurred during the spin-up phase. The width of the mass distribution implied by double NS systems is indicative of a tight initial mass function while the inferred mass range is significantly wider for NSs that have gone through recycling. We find a mass cutoff at ~2.1 M ⊙ for NSs with WD companions, which establishes a firm lower bound for the maximum NS mass. This rules out the majority of strange quark and soft equation of state models as viable configurations for NS matter. The lack of truncation close to the maximum mass cutoff along with the skewed nature of the inferred mass distribution both enforce the suggestion that the 2.1 M ⊙ limit is set by evolutionary constraints rather than nuclear physics or general relativity, and the existence of rare supermassive NSs is possible.

  8. UVI colour gradients of 0.4 star-forming main-sequence galaxies in CANDELS: dust extinction and star formation profiles (United States)

    Wang, Weichen; Faber, S. M.; Liu, F. S.; Guo, Yicheng; Pacifici, Camilla; Koo, David C.; Kassin, Susan A.; Mao, Shude; Fang, Jerome J.; Chen, Zhu; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Kocevski, Dale D.; Ashby, M. L. N.


    This paper uses radial colour profiles to infer the distributions of dust, gas and star formation in z = 0.4-1.4 star-forming main-sequence galaxies. We start with the standard UVJ-based method to estimate dust extinction and specific star formation rate (sSFR). By replacing J with I band, a new calibration method suitable for use with ACS+WFC3 data is created (I.e. UVI diagram). Using a multi-wavelength multi-aperture photometry catalogue based on CANDELS (Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey), UVI colour profiles of 1328 galaxies are stacked in stellar mass and redshift bins. The resulting colour gradients, covering a radial range of 0.2-2.0 effective radii, increase strongly with galaxy mass and with global AV. Colour gradient directions are nearly parallel to the Calzetti extinction vector, indicating that dust plays a more important role than stellar population variations. With our calibration, the resulting AV profiles fall much more slowly than stellar mass profiles over the measured radial range. sSFR gradients are nearly flat without central quenching signatures, except for M⋆ > 1010.5 M⊙, where central declines of 20-25 per cent are observed. Both sets of profiles agree well with previous radial sSFR and (continuum) AV measurements. They are also consistent with the sSFR profiles and, if assuming a radially constant gas-to-dust ratio, gas profiles in recent hydrodynamic models. We finally discuss the striking findings that SFR scales with stellar mass density in the inner parts of galaxies, and that dust content is high in the outer parts despite low stellar mass surface densities there.

  9. Stars Just Got Bigger - A 300 Solar Mass Star Uncovered (United States)


    Using a combination of instruments on ESO's Very Large Telescope, astronomers have discovered the most massive stars to date, one weighing at birth more than 300 times the mass of the Sun, or twice as much as the currently accepted limit of 150 solar masses. The existence of these monsters - millions of times more luminous than the Sun, losing weight through very powerful winds - may provide an answer to the question "how massive can stars be?" A team of astronomers led by Paul Crowther, Professor of Astrophysics at the University of Sheffield, has used ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT), as well as archival data from the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, to study two young clusters of stars, NGC 3603 and RMC 136a in detail. NGC 3603 is a cosmic factory where stars form frantically from the nebula's extended clouds of gas and dust, located 22 000 light-years away from the Sun (eso1005). RMC 136a (more often known as R136) is another cluster of young, massive and hot stars, which is located inside the Tarantula Nebula, in one of our neighbouring galaxies, the Large Magellanic Cloud, 165 000 light-years away (eso0613). The team found several stars with surface temperatures over 40 000 degrees, more than seven times hotter than our Sun, and a few tens of times larger and several million times brighter. Comparisons with models imply that several of these stars were born with masses in excess of 150 solar masses. The star R136a1, found in the R136 cluster, is the most massive star ever found, with a current mass of about 265 solar masses and with a birthweight of as much as 320 times that of the Sun. In NGC 3603, the astronomers could also directly measure the masses of two stars that belong to a double star system [1], as a validation of the models used. The stars A1, B and C in this cluster have estimated masses at birth above or close to 150 solar masses. Very massive stars produce very powerful outflows. "Unlike humans, these stars are born heavy and lose weight as

  10. Binary stars: Mass transfer and chemical composition (United States)

    Lambert, D. L.


    It is noted that mass exchange (and mass loss) within a binary system should produce observable changes in the surface chemical composition of both the mass losing and mass gaining stars as a stellar interior exposed to nucleosyntheses is uncovered. Three topics relating mass exchange and/or mass loss to nucleosynthesis are sketched: the chemical composition of Algol systems; the accretion disk of a cataclysmic variable fed by mass from a dwarf secondary star; and the hypothesis that classical Ba II giants result from mass transfer from a more evolved companion now present as a white dwarf.

  11. Something borrowed, something blue: The nature of blue metal-poor stars inferred from their colours and chemical abundances (United States)

    Hansen, C. J.; Jofré, P.; Koch, A.; McWilliam, A.; Sneden, C. S.


    Blue metal-poor (BMP) stars are main sequence stars that appear bluer and more luminous than normal turnoff stars. They were originally singled out by using B-V and U-B colour cuts.Early studies found that a larger fraction of field BMP stars were binaries compared to normal halo stars. Thus, BMP stars are ideal field blue straggler candidates for investigating internal stellar evolution processes and binary interaction. In particular, the presence or depletion in lithium in their spectra is a powerful indicator of their origin. They are either old, halo blue stragglers experiencing internal mixing processes or mass transfer (Li-depletion), or intermediate-age, single stars of possibly extragalactic origin (2.2 dex halo plateau Li). However, we note that internal mixing processes can lead to an increased level of Li. Hence, this study combines photometry and spectroscopy to unveil the origin of various BMP stars. We first show how to separate binaries from young blue stars using photometry, metallicity and lithium. Using a sample of 80 BMP stars (T > 6300 K), we find that 97% of the BMP binaries have V-Ks0 Based on their radial velocities, Li, α and s- and r-process abundances we show that BPS CS22874-042 is a single star (A(Li) = 2.38 ± 0.10 dex) while with A(Li)= 2.23 ± 0.07 dex CD-48 2445 is a binary, contrary to earlier findings. Our analysis emphasises that field blue stragglers can be segregated from single metal-poor stars, using (V-Ks) colours with a fraction of single stars polluting the binary sample, but not vice versa. These two groups can only be properly separated by using information from stellar spectra, illustrating the need for accurate and precise stellar parameters and high-resolution, high-S/N spectra in order to fully understand and classify this intriguing class of stars. Our high-resolution spectrum analysis confirms the findings from the colour cuts and shows that CS 22874-042 is single, while CD -48 2445 is most likely a binary

  12. HD 38452 - J. R. Hind's star that changed colour (United States)

    Warner, Brian; Sneden, Christopher


    In 1851, John Russell Hind announced that a star previously observed by him to be very red had become bluish white in color. It is shown that this star, HD 38451, is a ninth magnitude shell star which presumably was ejecting a shell when Hind first observed it. From high dispersion coude spectra, low dispersion IUE spectra, and ground-based photometry, HD 38451 is found to be a normal A21V shell star. Its current values of E(B-V) of about 0.14 is probably caused by interstellar rather than circumstellar reddening. There remains a problem to reconcile the large amount of reddening present when Hind first observed the star with its evidently small diminution in visual brightness at that time.


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    Oezel, Feryal; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Santos Villarreal, Antonio [Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Narayan, Ramesh [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138,USA (United States)


    We investigate the distribution of neutron star masses in different populations of binaries, employing Bayesian statistical techniques. In particular, we explore the differences in neutron star masses between sources that have experienced distinct evolutionary paths and accretion episodes. We find that the distribution of neutron star masses in non-recycled eclipsing high-mass binaries as well as of slow pulsars, which are all believed to be near their birth masses, has a mean of 1.28 M{sub Sun} and a dispersion of 0.24 M{sub Sun }. These values are consistent with expectations for neutron star formation in core-collapse supernovae. On the other hand, double neutron stars, which are also believed to be near their birth masses, have a much narrower mass distribution, peaking at 1.33 M{sub Sun }, but with a dispersion of only 0.05 M{sub Sun }. Such a small dispersion cannot easily be understood and perhaps points to a particular and rare formation channel. The mass distribution of neutron stars that have been recycled has a mean of 1.48 M{sub Sun} and a dispersion of 0.2 M{sub Sun }, consistent with the expectation that they have experienced extended mass accretion episodes. The fact that only a very small fraction of recycled neutron stars in the inferred distribution have masses that exceed {approx}2 M{sub Sun} suggests that only a few of these neutron stars cross the mass threshold to form low-mass black holes.

  14. Star Formation in low mass galaxies (United States)

    Mehta, Vihang


    Our current hierarchical view of the universe asserts that the large galaxies we see today grew via mergers of numerous smaller galaxies. As evidenced by recent literature, the collective impact of these low mass galaxies on the universe is more substantial than previously thought. Studying the growth and evolution of these low mass galaxies is critical to our understanding of the universe as a whole. Star formation is one of the most important ongoing processes in galaxies. Forming stars is fundamental to the growth of a galaxy. One of the main goals of my thesis is to analyze the star formation in these low mass galaxies at different redshifts.Using the Hubble UltraViolet Ultra Deep Field (UVUDF), I investigate the star formation in galaxies at the peak of the cosmic star formation history using the ultraviolet (UV) light as a star formation indicator. Particularly, I measure the UV luminosity function (LF) to probe the volume-averaged star formation properties of galaxies at these redshifts. The depth of the UVUDF is ideal for a direct measurement of the faint end slope of the UV LF. This redshift range also provides a unique opportunity to directly compare UV to the "gold standard" of star formation indicators, namely the Hα nebular emission line. A joint analysis of the UV and Hα LFs suggests that, on average, the star formation histories in low mass galaxies (~109 M⊙) are more bursty compared to their higher mass counterparts at these redshifts.Complementary to the analysis of the average star formation properties of the bulk galaxy population, I investigate the details of star formation in some very bursty galaxies at lower redshifts selected from Spitzer Large Area Survey with Hyper-Suprime Cam (SPLASH). Using a broadband color-excess selection technique, I identify a sample of low redshift galaxies with bright nebular emission lines in the Subaru-XMM Deep Field (SXDF) from the SPLASH-SXDF catalog. These galaxies are highly star forming and have

  15. Adiabatic Mass Loss Model in Binary Stars (United States)

    Ge, H. W.


    Rapid mass transfer process in the interacting binary systems is very complicated. It relates to two basic problems in the binary star evolution, i.e., the dynamically unstable Roche-lobe overflow and the common envelope evolution. Both of the problems are very important and difficult to be modeled. In this PhD thesis, we focus on the rapid mass loss process of the donor in interacting binary systems. The application to the criterion of dynamically unstable mass transfer and the common envelope evolution are also included. Our results based on the adiabatic mass loss model could be used to improve the binary evolution theory, the binary population synthetic method, and other related aspects. We build up the adiabatic mass loss model. In this model, two approximations are included. The first one is that the energy generation and heat flow through the stellar interior can be neglected, hence the restructuring is adiabatic. The second one is that he stellar interior remains in hydrostatic equilibrium. We model this response by constructing model sequences, beginning with a donor star filling its Roche lobe at an arbitrary point in its evolution, holding its specific entropy and composition profiles fixed. These approximations are validated by the comparison with the time-dependent binary mass transfer calculations and the polytropic model for low mass zero-age main-sequence stars. In the dynamical time scale mass transfer, the adiabatic response of the donor star drives it to expand beyond its Roche lobe, leading to runaway mass transfer and the formation of a common envelope with its companion star. For donor stars with surface convection zones of any significant depth, this runaway condition is encountered early in mass transfer, if at all; but for main sequence stars with radiative envelopes, it may be encountered after a prolonged phase of thermal time scale mass transfer, so-called delayed dynamical instability. We identify the critical binary mass ratio for the

  16. 30 Doradus: The Low-Mass Stars (United States)

    Zinnecker, H.; Brandl, B.; Brandner, W.; Moneti, A.; Hunter, D.

    We have obtained HST/NICMOS H-band images of the central 1'x1' field around the R136 starburst cluster in the 30 Doradus HII region, in an attempt to reveal the presence (or absence) of a low-mass stellar population (M VIH 3-colour image of the central 30" x 30" area. The result clearly shows unexpected patches of extinction, with one patch only about 5" from the cluster core.

  17. Mechanisms for mass loss from cool stars

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    Morris, M.


    The mechanisms believed responsible for the loss of mass from cool, red giant stars are reviewed. While observations indicate that both radiation pressure on dust grains and pulsations are important, theoretical considerations indicate that neither is sufficient by itself to account for the high rates of mass loss that have been observed. The current picture involves a two-step process wherein pulsations act to levitate matter well above the photosphere to the point at which the gas is sufficiently cool for dust grains to form. Radiation pressure on the dust then drives the matter to infinity. Whereas this model is applicable to spherically symmetric mass loss, the outflowing matter in many mass-losing systems displays a pronounced bipolarity, implying axial symmetry on the large scale. A secondary star appears to be responsible for the geometry of such systems. A new scenario involving two winds is presented to describe how the bipolar geometry might be produced. 91 references.

  18. BODIPY star-shaped molecules as solid state colour converters for visible light communications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vithanage, D. A.; Manousiadis, P. P.; Sajjad, M. T.; Samuel, I. D. W., E-mail:, E-mail:; Turnbull, G. A., E-mail:, E-mail: [Organic Semiconductor Centre, SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, St. Andrews KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Rajbhandari, S. [School of Computing, Electronics and Mathematics, Coventry University, Coventry, West Midlands CV1 2JH (United Kingdom); Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PJ (United Kingdom); Chun, H.; Faulkner, G.; O' Brien, D. C. [Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PJ (United Kingdom); Orofino, C.; Cortizo-Lacalle, D.; Findlay, N. J.; Skabara, P. J. [WestCHEM, Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G1 1XL (United Kingdom); Kanibolotsky, A. L. [WestCHEM, Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G1 1XL (United Kingdom); Institute of Physical-Organic Chemistry and Coal Chemistry, 02160 Kyiv (Ukraine)


    In this paper, we study a family of solid-state, organic semiconductors for visible light communications. The star-shaped molecules have a boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPY) core with a range of side arm lengths which control the photophysical properties. The molecules emit red light with photoluminescence quantum yields ranging from 22% to 56%. Thin films of the most promising BODIPY molecules were used as a red colour converter for visible light communications. The film enabled colour conversion with a modulation bandwidth of 73 MHz, which is 16 times higher than that of a typical phosphor used in LED lighting systems. A data rate of 370 Mbit/s was demonstrated using On-Off keying modulation in a free space link with a distance of ∼15 cm.

  19. Numerical Simulations of Low Mass Star Formation (United States)

    Bhandare, Asmita; Kuiper, R.; Henning, T.; Fendt, C.; Koelligan, A.


    Stars are formed by gravitational collapse of dense cores in magnetized molecular clouds. Details of the earliest epochs of star formation process and protostellar evolution are only vaguely known and strongly depend on the accretion history. Thermodynamical modeling in terms of radiation transport and phase transitions is crucial to identify meaningful results. In this study, we use a gray treatment of radiative transfer coupled with hydrodynamics to simulate Larson's collapse. In spherically symmetric collapse simulations, we investigate properties of prestellar cores in the low mass regime.

  20. Compact stars with specific mass function (United States)

    Maurya, S. K.; Gupta, Y. K.; Rahaman, Farook; Rahaman, Monsur; Banerjee, Ayan


    Aims: In the present work we search for a new model of compact star within embedding class one spacetime i.e., four dimensional spacetime embedded in five dimensional Pseudo Euclidean space. Methods: In particular we propose a new mass function to obtain an exact analytic solutions of the Einstein field equations. For this specific mass function, obtained solutions are well-behaved at the centre of the star, satisfy all energy conditions and the mass-radius relation fall within the limit proposed by Buchdahl (1959). Results: The static equilibrium condition has been maintained under different forces. We have discussed the solutions in detail and compare with a set of astrophysical objects like 4U1608-52, PSR J1903+327, PSR J1614-2230 and X-ray pulsar Vela X-1 is also explored.

  1. NGC 7419: a young open cluster with a number of very young intermediate mass pre-MS stars (United States)

    Subramaniam, Annapurni; Mathew, Blesson; Bhatt, Bhuwan Chandra; Ramya, S.


    We present a photometric and spectroscopic study of the young open cluster NGC 7419, which is known to host a large number of classical Be stars for reasons not well understood. Based on CCD photometric observations of 327 stars in UBV passbands, we estimated the cluster parameters as, reddening [E(B - V)] = 1.65 +/- 0.15 mag and distance = 2900 +/- 400 pc. The turn-off age of the cluster was estimated as 25 +/- 5 Myr using isochrone fits. UBV data of the stars were combined with the JHK data from Two-Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS) and were used to create the near-infrared (NIR) (J - H) versus (H - K) colour-colour diagram. A large fraction of stars (42 per cent) was found to have NIR excess and their location in the diagram was used to identify them as intermediate mass pre-main-sequence (MS) stars. The isochrone fits to pre-MS stars in the optical colour-magnitude diagram showed that the turn-on age of the cluster is 0.3-3 Myr. This indicates that there has been a recent episode of star formation in the vicinity of the cluster. Slitless spectra were used to identify 27 stars which showed Hα in emission in the field of the cluster, of which six are new identifications. All these stars were found to show NIR excess and are located closer to the region populated by Herbig Ae/Be stars in the (J - H) versus (H - K) diagram. Slit spectra of 25 stars were obtained in the region 3700-9000 Å. The spectral features were found to be very similar to those of Herbig Be stars. These stars were found to be more reddened than the main-sequence stars by 0.4 mag, on an average. Thus, the emission-line stars found in this cluster are more similar to the Herbig Be-type stars where the circumstellar material is the remnant of the accretion disc. We conclude that the second episode of star formation has led to the formation of a large number of Herbig Be stars as well as intermediate mass pre-MS stars in the field of NGC 7419, thus explaining the presence of emission-line stars in

  2. First Stars and Their Initial Mass Function (United States)

    Ferrara, A.


    The appearance of the first stars when the universe was only 100 Myr old marked the Cosmic Dawn and the occurrence of a number of physical effects (cosmic reionization, intergalactic medium metal enrichment, black hole formation, magnetic field cosmogenesis and - obviously - galaxy formation) which are now entering the realm of the observability and are strongly governed by so-called 'feedback effects'. These feedback effects due to massive stars and supernovae in the first objects are shown to regulate both galaxy formation/evolution and the reionization process. They are particularly relevant as it is believed that the Initial Mass Function of the first stars was very heavy, thus favoring the formation of massive objects which end their lives as supernovae, or most likely, in even more gigantic explosions which could be connected with high energy events as gamma ray bursts and TeV-neutrino emission until a metallicity-driven transition to a normal star formation mode occurred. I will review the physical basis for this scenario.

  3. Low-Mass Stars and Their Companions (United States)

    Montet, Benjamin Tyler

    In this thesis, I present seven studies aimed towards better understanding the demographics and physical properties of M dwarfs and their companions. These studies focus in turn on planetary, brown dwarf, and stellar companions to M dwarfs. I begin with an analysis of radial velocity and transit timing analyses of multi-transiting planetary systems, finding that if both signals are measured to sufficiently high precision the stellar and planetary masses can be measured to a high precision, eliminating a need for stellar models which may have systematic errors. I then combine long-term radial velocity monitoring and a direct imaging campaign to measure the occurrence rate of giant planets around M dwarfs. I find that 6.5 +/- 3.0% of M dwarfs host a Jupiter mass or larger planet within 20 AU, with a strong dependence on stellar metallicity. I then present two papers analyzing the LHS 6343 system, which contains a widely separated M dwarf binary (AB). Star A hosts a transiting brown dwarf (LHS 6343 C) with a 12.7 day period. By combining radial velocity data with transit photometry, I am able to measure the mass and radius of the brown dwarf to 2% precision, the most precise measurement of a brown dwarf to date. I then analyze four secondary eclipses of the LHS 6343 AC system as observed by Spitzer in order to measure the luminosity of the brown dwarf in both Spitzer bandpasses. I find the brown dwarf is consistent with theoretical models of an 1100 K T dwarf at an age of 5 Gyr and empirical observations of field T5-6 dwarfs with temperatures of 1070 +/- 130 K. This is the first non-inflated brown dwarf with a measured mass, radius, and multi-band photometry, making it an ideal test of evolutionary models of field brown dwarfs. Next, I present the results of an astrometric and radial velocity campaign to measure the orbit and masses of both stars in the GJ 3305 AB system, an M+M binary comoving with 51 Eridani, a more massive star with a directly imaged planetary

  4. The evolution of the stellar mass function in star clusters

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    Kruijssen, J.M.D.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/325799911


    The dynamical escape of stars from star clusters affects the shape of the stellar mass function (MF) in these clusters, because the escape probability of a star depends on its mass. This is found in N-body simulations and has been approximated in analytical cluster models by fitting the evolution of

  5. Mass loss from very young massive stars (United States)

    Henning, Th.

    The physics of mass loss from very young massive stars is reviewed, and mass-loss rates are determined for several objects on the basis of published observational data. The observational evidence for mass loss of 0.0001-0.001 solar mass/yr with velocity 10-60 km/s, dynamical timescale 1000-100,000 yr, and kinetic energy (1-100) x 10 to the 38th W from these objects is chracterized; techniques for estimating mass-loss rates from H recombination lines, CO line profiles maser data, and IR-continuum observations are described; rates for molecular outflows and ionized winds are presented in tabels; and theoretical models developed to explain the mechanism driving bipolar mass loss are examined critically. It is found that neither radiation pressure on dust grins nor the ionized winds can drive the molecular outflow. The models considered most probable are those involving production of holes by original spherical stellar winds (Canto, 1980, rotationally driven magnetic pressure (Draine, 1983), and infall from an accretion disk (Torbett, 1984).

  6. Frequency regularities of acoustic modes and multi-colour mode identification in rapidly rotating stars (United States)

    Reese, D. R.; Lignières, F.; Ballot, J.; Dupret, M.-A.; Barban, C.; van't Veer-Menneret, C.; MacGregor, K. B.


    Context. Mode identification has remained a major obstacle in the interpretation of pulsation spectra in rapidly rotating stars. This has motivated recent work on calculating realistic multi-colour mode visibilities in this type of star. Aims: We would like to test mode identification methods and seismic diagnostics in rapidly rotating stars, using oscillation spectra that are based on these new theoretical predictions. Methods: We investigate the auto-correlation function and Fourier transform of theoretically calculated frequency spectra, in which modes are selected according to their visibilities. Given that intrinsic mode amplitudes are determined by non-linear saturation and cannot currently be theoretically predicted, we experimented with various ad-hoc prescriptions for setting the mode amplitudes, including using random values. Furthermore, we analyse the ratios between mode amplitudes observed in different photometric bands to see up to what extent they can identify modes. Results: When non-random intrinsic mode amplitudes are used, our results show that it is possible to extract a mean value for the large frequency separation or half its value and, sometimes, twice the rotation rate, from the auto-correlation of the frequency spectra. Furthermore, the Fourier transforms are mostly sensitive to the large frequency separation or half its value. The combination of the two methods may therefore measure and distinguish the two types of separations. When the intrinsic mode amplitudes include random factors, which seems more representative of real stars, the results are far less favourable. It is only when the large separation or half its value coincides with twice the rotation rate, that it might be possible to detect the signature of a frequency regularity. We also find that amplitude ratios are a good way of grouping together modes with similar characteristics. By analysing the frequencies of these groups, it is possible to constrain mode identification, as

  7. On the mass distribution of stars in the solar neighborhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninković S.


    Full Text Available The present authors analyze samples consisting of Hipparcos stars. Based on the corresponding HR diagrams they estimate masses of Main-Sequence stars from their visual magnitudes. They find that already beyond the heliocentric radius of 10 pc the effects of observational selection against K and M dwarfs become rather strong. For this reason the authors are inclined to think that the results concerning this heliocentric sphere appear as realistic, i. e. the fraction of low-mass stars (under half solar mass is about 50% and, as a consequence, the mean star mass should be about 0.6 solar masses and Agekyan's factor about 1.2. That stars with masses higher than 5 M○ are very rare is confirmed also from the data concerning more remote stars. It seems that white dwarfs near the Sun are not too frequent so that their presence cannot affect the main results of the present work significantly.

  8. A Statistical Study on Double Neutron Star Masses (United States)

    Yang, Yi-yan; Zhang, Cheng-min; Wang, De-hua; Pan, Yuan-yue; Zhou, Zhu-wen


    By statistically analyzing the masses of twelve double neutron star (DNS) systems, it is concluded that the weighted mean value of DNS masses is (1.339±0.042) M⊙, where the weighted mean masses of the primary and companion stars are respectively (1.439±0.036) M⊙ and (1.239±0.020) M⊙. The mean value of the masses of primary stars is higher than that of companion stars, which indicates that the primary star may increase its mass by accretion, or the mass of its progenitor star is higher. Therefore, the physical process of supernova explosion through which the high-mass stars become NSs can be investigated hereby. Also it is found that the total masses of the DNSs span a narrow range of 2.5∼2.8 M⊙, implying that the companion stars might impact on the mass formation of DNSs. Moreover, the mass ratios of the DNSs (primaries to companions) approximate 1 (slightly larger than 1), indicating that the masses of the progenitors of primary stars are approximately equal to the masses of the progenitors of companion stars. By analyzing the distribution of the 12 DNSs in the surface magnetic field strength versus spin period (B-Ps) diagram, it is found that the surface magnetic field strength in the primary stars of the DNSs is ∼ 1010 Gs, and the spin period is ∼ 50 ms; while the two pulsars, i.e. PSR J1906+0746 and PSR J0737-3039B, are located in the region of normal pulsars in the B-Ps diagram, their surface magnetic field strength is ∼ 1012 Gs, suggesting that they might not be accelerated through accretion.

  9. Luminosities and mass-loss rates of Local Group AGB stars and red supergiants (United States)

    Groenewegen, M. A. T.; Sloan, G. C.


    Context. Mass loss is one of the fundamental properties of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, and through the enrichment of the interstellar medium, AGB stars are key players in the life cycle of dust and gas in the universe. However, a quantitative understanding of the mass-loss process is still largely lacking. Aims: We aim to investigate mass loss and luminosity in a large sample of evolved stars in several Local Group galaxies with a variety of metalliticies and star-formation histories: the Small and Large Magellanic Cloud, and the Fornax, Carina, and Sculptor dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs). Methods: Dust radiative transfer models are presented for 225 carbon stars and 171 oxygen-rich evolved stars in several Local Group galaxies for which spectra from the Infrared Spectrograph on Spitzer are available. The spectra are complemented with available optical and infrared photometry to construct spectral energy distributions. A minimization procedure was used to determine luminosity and mass-loss rate (MLR). Pulsation periods were derived for a large fraction of the sample based on a re-analysis of existing data. Results: New deep K-band photometry from the VMC survey and multi-epoch data from IRAC (at 4.5 μm) and AllWISE and NEOWISE have allowed us to derive pulsation periods longer than 1000 days for some of the most heavily obscured and reddened objects. We derive (dust) MLRs and luminosities for the entire sample. The estimated MLRs can differ significantly from estimates for the same objects in the literature due to differences in adopted optical constants (up to factors of several) and details in the radiative transfer modelling. Updated parameters for the super-AGB candidate MSX SMC 055 (IRAS 00483-7347) are presented. Its current mass is estimated to be 8.5 ± 1.6 M⊙, suggesting an initial mass well above 8 M⊙ in agreement with estimates based on its large Rubidium abundance. Using synthetic photometry, we present and discuss colour-colour and

  10. Thermohaline mixing in evolved low-mass stars


    Cantiello, M.; Langer, N.


    Thermohaline mixing has recently been proposed to occur in low-mass red giants, with large consequence for the chemical yields of low-mass stars. We investigate the role of thermohaline mixing during the evolution of stars between 1Msun and 3Msun, in comparison to other mixing processes acting in these stars. We use a stellar evolution code which includes rotational mixing, internal magnetic fields and thermohaline mixing. We confirm that during the red giant stage, thermohaline mixing has th...

  11. Role of strangeness to the neutron star mass and cooling (United States)

    Lee, Chang-Hwan; Lim, Yeunhwan; Hyun, Chang Ho; Kwak, Kyujin


    Neutron star provides unique environments for the investigation of the physics of extreme dense matter beyond normal nuclear saturation density. In such high density environments, hadrons with strange quarks are expected to play very important role in stabilizing the system. Kaons and hyperons are the lowest mass states with strangeness among meson and bayron families, respectively. In this work, we investigate the role of kaons and hyperons to the neutron star mass, and discuss their role in the neutron star cooling.

  12. The masses of retired A stars with asteroseismology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    North, Thomas S. H.; Campante, Tiago L.; Miglio, Andrea


    We investigate the masses of 'retired A stars' using asteroseismic detections on seven low-luminosity red-giant and sub-giant stars observed by the NASA Kepler and K2 missions. Our aim is to explore whether masses derived from spectroscopy and isochrone fitting may have been systematically...

  13. Observational constraints on mass loss and evolution of massive stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Koter, A.


    We review the empirical mass-loss properties of early-type stars in the upper part of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. Specifically, we focus on the relation between mass loss and chemical composition by comparing properties of massive stars in our galaxy with those in the Magellanic Clouds. The

  14. Thermohaline mixing in evolved low-mass stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cantiello, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304840866; Langer, N.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304829498


    Context. Thermohaline mixing has recently been proposed to occur in low-mass red giants, with large consequence for the chemical yields of low-mass stars. Aims. We investigate the role of thermohaline mixing during the evolution of stars between 1 M and 3 M , in comparison with other mixing

  15. High Mass Star Formation Revealed by Herschel PACS Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwon, Woojin; van der Tak, Floris; Karska, Agata; Herczeg, Gregory; Braine, Jonathan; Herpin, Fabrice; Wyrowski, Friedrich; van Dishoeck, Ewine

    In the past few decades a big picture of low mass star formation has successfully been drawn. However, high mass star formation is little known yet, mainly due to its complexity, distance, and rarity. The Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS) on-board the Herschel Space Observatory

  16. Star-forming galaxies in intermediate-redshift clusters: stellar versus dynamical masses of luminous compact blue galaxies (United States)

    Randriamampandry, S. M.; Crawford, S. M.; Bershady, M. A.; Wirth, G. D.; Cress, C. M.


    We investigate the stellar masses of the class of star-forming objects known as luminous compact blue galaxies (LCBGs) by studying a sample of galaxies in the distant cluster MS 0451.6-0305 at z ≈ 0.54 with ground-based multicolour imaging and spectroscopy. For a sample of 16 spectroscopically confirmed cluster LCBGs (colour B - V SED) models to multiband photometry, and compare with dynamical masses [determined from velocity dispersion in the range 10 SED models. The stellar masses of cluster LCBGs are distributed similarly to those of field LCBGs, but the cluster LCBGs show lower dynamical-to-stellar mass ratios (Mdyn/M⋆ = 2.6) than their field LCBG counterparts (Mdyn/M⋆ = 4.8), echoing trends noted previously in low-redshift dwarf elliptical galaxies. Within this limited sample, the specific star formation rate declines steeply with increasing mass, suggesting that these cluster LCBGs have undergone vigorous star formation.

  17. Supernova Enrichment of Planetary Systems in Low Mass Star Clusters (United States)

    Nicholson, Rhana; Parker, R.


    Short-lived radioactive species have been detected in chondritic meteorites from the early epoch of the Solar system. This implies that the Sun formed in the vicinity of the supernovae of one or more massive stars. Massive stars are more likely to form in massive star clusters (1000 Msun) than lower mass clusters (50-200 Msun). We show that direct enrichment of protoplanetary discs via supernovae occurs as frequently in low mass clusters containing one or two massive stars as in more populous clusters. This significantly relaxes the constraints on the birth environment of the Solar System.

  18. Observational constraints on neutron star masses and radii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman Miller, M. [University of Maryland, Department of Astronomy and Joint Space-Science Institute, College Park, MD (United States); Lamb, Frederick K. [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Center for Theoretical Astrophysics and Department of Physics, Urbana, IL (United States); University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Department of Astronomy, Urbana, IL (United States)


    Precise and reliable measurements of the masses and radii of neutron stars with a variety of masses would provide valuable guidance for improving models of the properties of cold matter with densities above the saturation density of nuclear matter. Several different approaches for measuring the masses and radii of neutron stars have been tried or proposed, including analyzing the X-ray fluxes and spectra of the emission from neutron stars in quiescent low-mass X-ray binary systems and thermonuclear burst sources; fitting the energy-dependent X-ray waveforms of rotation-powered millisecond pulsars, burst oscillations with millisecond periods, and accretion-powered millisecond pulsars; and modeling the gravitational radiation waveforms of coalescing double neutron star and neutron star - black hole binary systems. We describe the strengths and weaknesses of these approaches, most of which currently have substantial systematic errors, and discuss the prospects for decreasing the systematic errors in each method. (orig.)

  19. Millisecond phenomena in mass accreting neutron stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Klis, M.; Cohen, L.


    The past twelve years have seen the discovery, with NASA's Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE), of several long-predicted phenomena associated with the accretion of matter onto a neutron star in a binary (double) star system. These phenomena are observed in the strong X-ray emission produced by these

  20. Constraining the Mass & Radius of Neutron Stars in Globular Clusters (United States)

    Steiner, A. W.; Heinke, C. O.; Bogdanov, S.; Li, C.; Ho, W. C. G.; Bahramian, A.; Han, S.


    We analyze observations of eight quiescent low-mass X-ray binaries in globular clusters and combine them to determine the neutron star mass-radius curve and the equation of state of dense matter. We determine the effect that several uncertainties may have on our results, including uncertainties in the distance, the atmosphere composition, the neutron star maximum mass, the neutron star mass distribution, the possible presence of a hotspot on the neutron star surface, and the prior choice for the equation of state of dense matter. The distance uncertainty is implemented in a new Gaussian blurring method which can be directly applied to the probability distribution over mass and radius. We find that the radius of a 1.4 solar mass neutron star is most likely from 10 to 14 km and that tighter constraints are only possible with stronger assumptions about the nature of the neutron stars, the systematics of the observations, or the nature of dense matter. Strong phase transitions in the equation of state are preferred, and in this case, the radius is likely smaller than 12 km. However, radii larger than 12 km are preferred if the neutron stars have uneven temperature distributions.

  1. Low Mass Stellar Companions to Nearby A and B Stars (United States)

    Gullikson, Kevin; Kraus, Adam L.


    Recent discoveries of planets orbiting retired A-stars on close orbits and young A-stars on very wide orbits have renewed interest in the properties of nearby intermediate-mass stars. Especially interesting are the young stars, because directly-imaged planets orbiting them may be bright enough for characterization (e.g. HR 8799, Beta Pictoris, etc). However, intermediate-mass stars and especially young intermediate mass stars are part of multiple systems more often than not. Close stellar companions may affect the formation and orbital evolution of any planets, and the properties of the companions can help constrain the binary formation mechanism. The mass ratio distribution of a population of stars, especially if it is significantly different from the distribution for wide companions, is helpful to distinguish companions that were born in or affected by the circumprimary disk from those which formed through fragmentation of the molecular core. We have conducted a spectroscopic survey of 400 nearby A- and B-type stars, aimed at detecting stellar companions as late as M4 for all orbital separations <100 AU. We have searched for companions to the stars by cross-correlating the spectra against model templates for F-M type stars; a significant peak in the cross-correlation function indicates a detection. Our cross-correlation technique can detect low-mass companions with orbits that are too wide to detect with radial velocity monitoring and too small to detect with imaging techniques, making it complementary to work already done. We present initial results from our survey and present the distribution of mass ratios for inner companions.

  2. Hertzsprung-Russell diagram and mass distribution of barium stars (United States)

    Escorza, A.; Boffin, H. M. J.; Jorissen, A.; Van Eck, S.; Siess, L.; Van Winckel, H.; Karinkuzhi, D.; Shetye, S.; Pourbaix, D.


    With the availability of parallaxes provided by the Tycho-Gaia Astrometric Solution, it is possible to construct the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram (HRD) of barium and related stars with unprecedented accuracy. A direct result from the derived HRD is that subgiant CH stars occupy the same region as barium dwarfs, contrary to what their designations imply. By comparing the position of barium stars in the HRD with STAREVOL evolutionary tracks, it is possible to evaluate their masses, provided the metallicity is known. We used an average metallicity [Fe/H] = -0.25 and derived the mass distribution of barium giants. The distribution peaks around 2.5 M⊙ with a tail at higher masses up to 4.5 M⊙. This peak is also seen in the mass distribution of a sample of normal K and M giants used for comparison and is associated with stars located in the red clump. When we compare these mass distributions, we see a deficit of low-mass (1 - 2 M⊙) barium giants. This is probably because low-mass stars reach large radii at the tip of the red giant branch, which may have resulted in an early binary interaction. Among barium giants, the high-mass tail is however dominated by stars with barium indices of less than unity, based on a visual inspection of the barium spectral line; that is, these stars have a very moderate barium line strength. We believe that these stars are not genuine barium giants, but rather bright giants, or supergiants, where the barium lines are strengthened because of a positive luminosity effect. Moreover, contrary to previous claims, we do not see differences between the mass distributions of mild and strong barium giants. Full Table A.1 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to ( or via

  3. The evolution of the stellar mass function in star clusters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kruijssen, J.M.D


    ...) in these clusters, because the escape probability of a star depends on its mass. This is found in N-body simulations and has been approximated in analytical cluster models by fitting the evolution of the MF...

  4. Transiting Sub-stellar companions of Intermediate-mass stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Daniel


    Full Text Available We use the CoRoT-survey to search for transiting close-in planets of intermediate-mass stars (M* = 1.3 − 2.1 M⊙. We present recent results of our survey. RV-surveys and direct imaging campaigns showed, that intermediate-mass main-sequence stars have more massive planets then solar-like stars. Even brown dwarfs have been found. In our study we concentrated on short-period planets for which a mass-determination is possible. The detection of close-in planets of intermediate-mass stars put strong constraints on the timescales of the formation and migration. We already have identified transiting Jupiter-like planet candidates with short orbital periods and observed these candidates with high-resolution echelle-spectrographs at various Telescopes.

  5. Prompt merger collapse and the maximum mass of neutron stars. (United States)

    Bauswein, A; Baumgarte, T W; Janka, H-T


    We perform hydrodynamical simulations of neutron-star mergers for a large sample of temperature-dependent nuclear equations of state and determine the threshold mass above which the merger remnant promptly collapses to form a black hole. We find that, depending on the equation of state, the threshold mass is larger than the maximum mass of a nonrotating star in isolation by between 30 and 70 percent. Our simulations also show that the ratio between the threshold mass and maximum mass is tightly correlated with the compactness of the nonrotating maximum-mass configuration. We speculate on how this relation can be used to derive constraints on neutron-star properties from future observations.

  6. Clustered star formation and the origin of stellar masses. (United States)

    Pudritz, Ralph E


    Star clusters are ubiquitous in galaxies of all types and at all stages of their evolution. We also observe them to be forming in a wide variety of environments, ranging from nearby giant molecular clouds to the supergiant molecular clouds found in starburst and merging galaxies. The typical star in our galaxy and probably in others formed as a member of a star cluster, so star formation is an intrinsically clustered and not an isolated phenomenon. The greatest challenge regarding clustered star formation is to understand why stars have a mass spectrum that appears to be universal. This review examines the observations and models that have been proposed to explain these fundamental issues in stellar formation.

  7. Bridging the Mass Divide: Super & Massive AGB Star Yields (United States)

    Doherty, C. L.; Gil-Pons, P.; Lau, H. H. B.; Lattanzio, J. C.


    Super Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars (Super AGBs) lie in the mass range 6-11 M⊙, which bridges the divide between low/intermediate mass AGB and massive stars. During the thermally pulsing phase of evolution competition between hot bottom burning (HBB) and third dredge up (3DU) events determine the stellar yields. Obtaining these yields is far more computationally demanding than those of most AGB stars because Super AGBs undergo up to a few thousand thermal pulses. We describe results from evolutionary and nucleosynthetic calculations for these stellar models. We examine element production in these Super AGB stars over time, with results from five metallicities spanning the range Z = 0.02-10-4 ([Fe/H] 0 to -2.3). Super AGB star nucleosynthetic yields have hitherto been neglected in galactic chemical evolution modelling.

  8. Does mass accretion lead to field decay in neutron stars (United States)

    Shibazaki, N.; Murakami, T.; Shaham, Jacob; Nomoto, K.


    The recent discovery of cyclotron lines from gamma-ray bursts indicates that the strong magnetic fields of isolated neutron stars might not decay. The possible inverse correlation between the strength of the magnetic field and the mass accreted by the neutron star suggests that mass accretion itself may lead to the decay of the magnetic field. The spin and magnetic field evolution of the neutron star was calculated under the hypothesis of the accretion-induced field decay. It is shown that the calculated results are consistent with the observations of binary and millisecond radio pulsars.

  9. New Light on Dark Stars Red Dwarfs, Low-Mass Stars, Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Reid, I. Neill


    There has been very considerable progress in research into low-mass stars, brown dwarfs and extrasolar planets during the past few years, particularly since the fist edtion of this book was published in 2000. In this new edtion the authors present a comprehensive review of both the astrophysical nature of individual red dwarf and brown dwarf stars and their collective statistical properties as an important Galactic stellar population. Chapters dealing with the observational properies of low-mass dwarfs, the stellar mass function and extrasolar planets have been completely revised. Other chapters have been significantly revised and updated as appropriate, including important new material on observational techniques, stellar acivity, the Galactic halo and field star surveys. The authors detail the many discoveries of new brown dwarfs and extrasolar planets made since publication of the first edition of the book and provide a state-of-the-art review of our current knowledge of very low-mass stars, brown dwarfs a...

  10. Rotating neutron stars with exotic cores: masses, radii, stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haensel, P.; Bejger, M.; Fortin, M.; Zdunik, L. [Polish Academy of Sciences, N. Copernicus Astronomical Center, Warszawa (Poland)


    A set of theoretical mass-radius relations for rigidly rotating neutron stars with exotic cores, obtained in various theories of dense matter, is reviewed. Two basic observational constraints are used: the largest measured rotation frequency (716Hz) and the maximum measured mass (2M {sub CircleDot}). The present status of measuring the radii of neutron stars is described. The theory of rigidly rotating stars in general relativity is reviewed and limitations of the slow rotation approximation are pointed out. Mass-radius relations for rotating neutron stars with hyperon and quark cores are illustrated using several models. Problems related to the non-uniqueness of the crust-core matching are mentioned. Limits on rigid rotation resulting from the mass-shedding instability and the instability with respect to the axisymmetric perturbations are summarized. The problem of instabilities and of the back-bending phenomenon are discussed in detail. Metastability and instability of a neutron star core in the case of a first-order phase transition, both between pure phases, and into a mixed-phase state, are reviewed. The case of two disjoint families (branches) of rotating neutron stars is discussed and generic features of neutron-star families and of core-quakes triggered by the instabilities are considered. (orig.)

  11. On the Maximum Mass of Accreting Primordial Supermassive Stars (United States)

    Woods, T. E.; Heger, Alexander; Whalen, Daniel J.; Haemmerlé, Lionel; Klessen, Ralf S.


    Supermassive primordial stars are suspected to be the progenitors of the most massive quasars at z ˜ 6. Previous studies of such stars were either unable to resolve hydrodynamical timescales or considered stars in isolation, not in the extreme accretion flows in which they actually form. Therefore, they could not self-consistently predict their final masses at collapse, or those of the resulting supermassive black hole seeds, but rather invoked comparison to simple polytropic models. Here, we systematically examine the birth, evolution, and collapse of accreting, non-rotating supermassive stars under accretion rates of 0.01-10 M ⊙ yr-1 using the stellar evolution code Kepler. Our approach includes post-Newtonian corrections to the stellar structure and an adaptive nuclear network and can transition to following the hydrodynamic evolution of supermassive stars after they encounter the general relativistic instability. We find that this instability triggers the collapse of the star at masses of 150,000-330,000 M ⊙ for accretion rates of 0.1-10 M ⊙ yr-1, and that the final mass of the star scales roughly logarithmically with the rate. The structure of the star, and thus its stability against collapse, is sensitive to the treatment of convection and the heat content of the outer accreted envelope. Comparison with other codes suggests differences here may lead to small deviations in the evolutionary state of the star as a function of time, that worsen with accretion rate. Since the general relativistic instability leads to the immediate death of these stars, our models place an upper limit on the masses of the first quasars at birth.

  12. On the Maximum Mass of Accreting Primordial Supermassive Stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, T. E.; Heger, Alexander [Monash Centre for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, Monash University, VIC 3800 (Australia); Whalen, Daniel J. [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Dennis Sciama Building, Portsmouth PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Haemmerlé, Lionel; Klessen, Ralf S. [Universität Heidelberg, Zentrum für Astronomie, Institut für Theoretische. Astrophysik, Albert-Ueberle-Str. 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)


    Supermassive primordial stars are suspected to be the progenitors of the most massive quasars at z ∼ 6. Previous studies of such stars were either unable to resolve hydrodynamical timescales or considered stars in isolation, not in the extreme accretion flows in which they actually form. Therefore, they could not self-consistently predict their final masses at collapse, or those of the resulting supermassive black hole seeds, but rather invoked comparison to simple polytropic models. Here, we systematically examine the birth, evolution, and collapse of accreting, non-rotating supermassive stars under accretion rates of 0.01–10 M {sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} using the stellar evolution code Kepler . Our approach includes post-Newtonian corrections to the stellar structure and an adaptive nuclear network and can transition to following the hydrodynamic evolution of supermassive stars after they encounter the general relativistic instability. We find that this instability triggers the collapse of the star at masses of 150,000–330,000 M {sub ⊙} for accretion rates of 0.1–10 M {sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}, and that the final mass of the star scales roughly logarithmically with the rate. The structure of the star, and thus its stability against collapse, is sensitive to the treatment of convection and the heat content of the outer accreted envelope. Comparison with other codes suggests differences here may lead to small deviations in the evolutionary state of the star as a function of time, that worsen with accretion rate. Since the general relativistic instability leads to the immediate death of these stars, our models place an upper limit on the masses of the first quasars at birth.

  13. Masses, Radii, and Equation of State of Neutron Stars


    Ozel, Feryal; Freire, Paulo


    We summarize our current knowledge of neutron star masses and radii. Recent instrumentation and computational advances have resulted in a rapid increase in the discovery rate and precise timing of radio pulsars in binaries in the last few years, leading to a large number of mass measurements. These discoveries show that the neutron star mass distribution is much wider than previously thought, with 3 known pulsars now firmly in the 1.9-2.0 Msun mass range. For radii, large, high quality datase...

  14. Resolving the Birth of High-Mass Binary Stars (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna


    New observations may help us to learn more about the birth of high-mass star systems. For the first time, scientists have imaged a very young, high-mass binary system and resolved the individual disks that surround each star and the binary.Massive MultiplesIts unusually common for high-mass stars to be discovered in multiple-star systems. More than 80% of all O-type stars which have masses greater than 16 times that of the Sun are in close multiple systems, compared with a multiplicity fraction of only 20% for stars of 3 solar masses, for instance.Reconstructed VLTI observations of the two components of the high-mass binary IRAS17216-3801. [Adapted from Kraus et al. 2017]Why do more massive stars preferentially form in multiple-star systems? Many different models of high-mass star formation have been invoked to explain this observation, but before we can better understand the process, we need better observations. In particular, past observations have placed few constraints on the architecture and disk structure of early high-mass stars.Conveniently, a team of scientists led by Stefan Kraus (University of Exeter) may have found exactly what we need: a high-mass protobinary that is still in the process of forming. Using ESOs Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI), Kraus and collaborators have captured the first observations of a very young, high-mass binary system in which the circumbinary disk and the two circumstellar dust disks could all be spatially resolved.Clues from Resolved DisksThe VLTI near-infrared observations reveal that IRAS17216-3801, originally thought to be a single high-mass star, is instead a close binary separated by only 170 AU. Its two components are both surrounded by disks from which the protostars are actively accreting mass, and both of these circumstellar disks are strongly misaligned with respect to the separation vector of the binary. This confirms that the system is very young, as tidal forces havent yet had time to align the disks

  15. Star Masses and Star-Planet Distances for Earth-like Habitability. (United States)

    Waltham, David


    This paper presents statistical estimates for the location and duration of habitable zones (HZs) around stars of different mass. The approach is based upon the assumption that Earth's location, and the Sun's mass, should not be highly atypical of inhabited planets. The results support climate-model-based estimates for the location of the Sun's HZ except models giving a present-day outer-edge beyond 1.64 AU. The statistical approach also demonstrates that there is a habitability issue for stars smaller than 0.65 solar masses since, otherwise, Earth would be an extremely atypical inhabited world. It is difficult to remove this anomaly using the assumption that poor habitability of planets orbiting low-mass stars results from unfavorable radiation regimes either before, or after, their stars enter the main sequence. However, the anomaly is well explained if poor habitability results from tidal locking of planets in the HZs of small stars. The expected host-star mass for planets with intelligent life then has a 95% confidence range of 0.78 M ⊙ planets with at least simple life is 0.57 M ⊙  < M < 1.64 M ⊙ . Key Words: Habitability-Habitable zone-Anthropic-Red dwarfs-Initial mass function. Astrobiology 17, 61-77.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulders, Gijs D.; Pascucci, Ilaria; Apai, Dániel, E-mail: [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)


    Trends in the planet population with host star mass provide an avenue to constrain planet formation theories. We derive the planet radius distribution function for Kepler stars of different spectral types, sampling a range in host star masses. We find that M dwarf stars have 3.5 times more small planets (1.0–2.8 R{sub ⨁}) than main-sequence FGK stars, but two times fewer Neptune-sized and larger (>2.8 R{sub ⨁}) planets. We find no systematic trend in the planet size distribution between spectral types F, G, and K to explain the increasing occurrence rates. Taking into account the mass–radius relationship and heavy-element mass of observed exoplanets, and assuming those are independent of spectral type, we derive the inventory of the heavy-element mass locked up in exoplanets at short orbits. The overall higher planet occurrence rates around M stars are not consistent with the redistribution of the same mass into more, smaller planets. At the orbital periods and planet radii where Kepler observations are complete for all spectral types, the average heavy-element mass locked up in exoplanets increases roughly inversely with stellar mass from 4 M{sub ⨁} in F stars to 5 M{sub ⨁} in G and K stars to 7 M{sub ⨁} in M stars. This trend stands in stark contrast with observed protoplanetary disk masses that decrease toward lower mass stars, and provides a challenge for current planet formation models. Neither models of in situ formation nor migration of fully formed planets are consistent with these results. Instead, these results are indicative of large-scale inward migration of planetary building blocks—either through type-I migration or radial drift of dust grains—that is more efficient for lower mass stars, but does not result in significantly larger or smaller planets.

  17. Measuring Neutron Star Mass and Radius with Three Mass-Radius Relations


    Zhang, C. M.; Yin, H. X.; Kojima, Y.; Chang, H. K.; Xu, R. X.; Li, X. D.; Zhang, B.; Kiziltan, B.


    We propose to determine the mass and the radius of a neutron star (NS) using three measurable mass-radius relationships, namely the ``apparent'' radius inferred from neutron star thermal emission, the gravitational redshift inferred from the absorption lines, as well as the averaged stellar mass density inferred from the orbital Keplerian frequency derived from the kilohertz quasi periodic oscillation (kHz QPO) data. We apply the method to constrain the NS mass and the radius of the X-ray sou...

  18. Simulating Radio Emission from Low-mass Stars (United States)

    Llama, Joe; Jardine, Moira M.; Wood, Kenneth; Hallinan, Gregg; Morin, Julien


    Understanding the origins of stellar radio emission can provide invaluable insight into the strength and geometry of stellar magnetic fields and the resultant space weather environment experienced by exoplanets. Here, we present the first model capable of predicting radio emission through the electron cyclotron maser instability using observed stellar magnetic maps of low-mass stars. We determine the structure of the coronal magnetic field and plasma using spectropolarimetric observations of the surface magnetic fields and the X-ray emission measure. We then model the emission of photons from the locations within the corona that satisfy the conditions for electron cyclotron maser emission. Our model predicts the frequency and intensity of radio photons from within the stellar corona. We have benchmarked our model against the low-mass star V374 Peg. This star has both radio observations from the Very Large Array and a nearly simultaneous magnetic map. Using our model we are able to fit the radio observations of V374 Peg, providing additional evidence that the radio emission observed from low-mass stars may originate from the electron cyclotron maser instability. Our model can now be extended to all stars with observed magnetic maps to predict the expected frequency and variability of stellar radio emission in an effort to understand and guide future radio observations of low-mass stars.

  19. Outflows from low mass young stars and brown dwarfs (United States)

    Ray, T. P.

    The phenomenon of jets from young stars has been known for over two decades. In most cases the jet is generated either by an embedded (IRAS Class I) low mass star or its more evolved, optically visible counterpart (a classical T Tauri star). In the case of the latter the flow can be traced optically right back to the star although its apparent length may be small in angular terms (typically a few arcseconds). For this reason such jets are sometimes referred to as ``micro-jets''. It is argued that brown dwarfs (BDs) outflows, when observed will almost certainly look like scaled-down versions of the micro-jet phenomenon observed in classical T Tauri stars. Not only then will we need large telescopes to detect such flows but it may also be necessary to employ special techniques, like spectro-astrometry, to resolve them.

  20. Outflow forces in intermediate-mass star formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kempen, T. A.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Kristensen, L. E.; Belloche, A.; Klaassen, P. D.; Leurini, S.; San Jose-Garcia, I.; Aykutalp, A.; Choi, Y.; Endo, A.; Frieswijk, W.; Harsono, D.; Karska, A.; Koumpia, E.; van der Marel, N.; Nagy, Z.; Pérez-Beaupuits, J. -P; Risacher, C.; van Weeren, R. J.; Wyrowski, F.; Yıldız, U. A.; Güsten, R.; Boland, W.; Baryshev, A.


    Context. Protostars of intermediate-mass provide a bridge between theories of low- and high-mass star formation. Molecular outflows emerging from such sources can be used to determine the influence of fragmentation and multiplicity on protostellar evolution through the apparent correlation of

  1. The Gaia-ESO Survey: lithium depletion in the Gamma Velorum cluster and inflated radii in low-mass pre-main-sequence stars (United States)

    Jeffries, R. D.; Jackson, R. J.; Franciosini, E.; Randich, S.; Barrado, D.; Frasca, A.; Klutsch, A.; Lanzafame, A. C.; Prisinzano, L.; Sacco, G. G.; Gilmore, G.; Vallenari, A.; Alfaro, E. J.; Koposov, S. E.; Pancino, E.; Bayo, A.; Casey, A. R.; Costado, M. T.; Damiani, F.; Hourihane, A.; Lewis, J.; Jofre, P.; Magrini, L.; Monaco, L.; Morbidelli, L.; Worley, C. C.; Zaggia, S.; Zwitter, T.


    We show that non-magnetic models for the evolution of pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars cannot simultaneously describe the colour-magnitude diagram (CMD) and the pattern of lithium depletion seen in the cluster of young, low-mass stars surrounding γ2 Velorum. The age of 7.5 ± 1 Myr inferred from the CMD is much younger than that implied by the strong Li depletion seen in the cluster M-dwarfs, and the Li depletion occurs at much redder colours than predicted. The epoch at which a star of a given mass depletes its Li and the surface temperature of that star are both dependent on its radius. We demonstrate that if the low-mass stars have radii ˜10 per cent larger at a given mass and age, then both the CMD and the Li-depletion pattern of the Gamma Velorum cluster are explained at a common age of ≃18-21 Myr. This radius inflation could be produced by some combination of magnetic suppression of convection and extensive cool starspots. Models that incorporate radius inflation suggest that PMS stars, similar to those in the Gamma Velorum cluster, in the range 0.2 30 per cent) than inferred from conventional, non-magnetic models in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. Systematic changes of this size may be of great importance in understanding the evolution of young stars, disc lifetimes and the formation of planetary systems.

  2. Star Formation Modes in Low-Mass Disk Galaxies


    Gallagher, J. S.; Matthews, L. D.


    Low-mass disk galaxies with well-organized structures are relatively common in low density regions of the nearby Universe. They display a wide range in levels of star formation activity, extending from sluggishly evolving `superthin' disk systems to nearby starbursts. Investigations of this class of galaxy therefore provides opportunities to test and define models of galactic star formation processes. In this paper we briefly explore characteristics of examples of quiescent and starbursting l...

  3. New Low- and Intermediate-mass Star Yields: CNO Abundances (United States)

    Mollá, M.; Gavilán, M.; Buell, J. F.

    New stellar yields for low and intermediate mass stars have been calculated taking into account the effects of the convective dredge up and the Hot Bottom Burning (HBB), incorporating the most recent improvements in the TP-AGB processes. We present the evaluation of these new yields for these stars by using them as input in a Galactic Chemical Evolution (GCE) model. In particular, we analyze if the contribution of these stars is enough to explain the observed behavior of Carbon and Nitrogen vs. Oxygen.

  4. Investigation of star clusters detected automatically in 2MASS Point Source Catalogue . (United States)

    Glushkova, E.; Koposov, S.

    We have developed a new method of an automatic search for star clusters in huge stellar catalogues based on the convolution with density functions and applied this method to 2MASS catalogue. We also developed a method to verify whether detected stellar groups are real star clusters, which employs the fact that the members of clusters lying on the same isochrone on the colour-magnitude diagramme show the peak on the radial density distribution. By fitting the position of the isochrone, we simultaneously find the main physical parameters of a cluster: age, distance, colour excess. At the initial stage, we fulfilled the detailed analisys of 88 overdensity peaks detected in the field of 16 by 16 degrees in the region of the Galactic anticenter. Physical and structural parameters were determined for 18 of 22 newly discovered clusters and for 9 yet-unstudied known open clusters. The parameters of well-known clusters determined using this method showed a good agreement with published data.

  5. The VLTI/MIDI view on the inner mass loss of evolved stars from the Herschel MESS sample (United States)

    Paladini, C.; Klotz, D.; Sacuto, S.; Lagadec, E.; Wittkowski, M.; Richichi, A.; Hron, J.; Jorissen, A.; Groenewegen, M. A. T.; Kerschbaum, F.; Verhoelst, T.; Rau, G.; Olofsson, H.; Zhao-Geisler, R.; Matter, A.


    Context. The mass-loss process from evolved stars is a key ingredient for our understanding of many fields of astrophysics, including stellar evolution and the chemical enrichment of the interstellar medium (ISM) via stellar yields. Nevertheless, many questions are still unsolved, one of which is the geometry of the mass-loss process. Aims: Taking advantage of the results from the Herschel Mass loss of Evolved StarS (MESS) programme, we initiated a coordinated effort to characterise the geometry of mass loss from evolved red giants at various spatial scales. Methods: For this purpose we used the MID-infrared interferometric Instrument (MIDI) to resolve the inner envelope of 14 asymptotic giant branch stars (AGBs) in the MESS sample. In this contribution we present an overview of the interferometric data collected within the frame of our Large Programme, and we also add archive data for completeness. We studied the geometry of the inner atmosphere by comparing the observations with predictions from different geometric models. Results: Asymmetries are detected for the following five stars: R Leo, RT Vir, π1Gruis, omi Ori, and R Crt. All the objects are O-rich or S-type, suggesting that asymmetries in the N band are more common among stars with such chemistry. We speculate that this fact is related to the characteristics of the dust grains. Except for one star, no interferometric variability is detected, i.e. the changes in size of the shells of non-mira stars correspond to changes of the visibility of less than 10%. The observed spectral variability confirms previous findings from the literature. The detection of dust in our sample follows the location of the AGBs in the IRAS colour-colour diagram: more dust is detected around oxygen-rich stars in region II and in the carbon stars in region VII. The SiC dust feature does not appear in the visibility spectrum of the U Ant and S Sct, which are two carbon stars with detached shells. This finding has implications for

  6. Ages of Young Star Clusters, Massive Blue Stragglers, and the Upper Mass Limit of Stars: Analyzing Age-dependent Stellar Mass Functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, F.R.N.; Izzard, R.G.; de Mink, S.E.; Langer, N.; Stolte, A.; de Koter, A.; Gvaramadze, V.V.; Huβman, B.; Liermann, A.; Sana, H.


    Massive stars rapidly change their masses through strong stellar winds and mass transfer in binary systems. The latter aspect is important for populations of massive stars as more than 70% of all O stars are expected to interact with a binary companion during their lifetime. We show that such mass

  7. Near-Infrared Mass Loss Diagnostics for Massive Stars (United States)

    Sonneborn, George; Bouret, J. C.


    Stellar wind mass loss is a key process which modifies surface abundances, luminosities, and other physical properties of hot, massive stars. Furthermore, mass loss has to be understood quantitatively in order to accurately describe and predict massive star evolution. Two urgent problems have been identified that challenge our understanding of line-driven winds, the so-called weak-wind problem and wind clumping. In both cases, mass-loss rates are drastically lower than theoretically expected (up to a factor 1001). Here we study how the expected spectroscopic capabilities of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), especially NIRSpec, could be used to significantly improve constraints on wind density structures (clumps) and deep-seated phenomena in stellar winds of massive stars, including OB, Wolf-Rayet and LBV stars. Since the IR continuum of objects with strong winds is formed in the wind, IR lines may sample different depths inside the wind than UV-optical lines and provide new information about the shape of the velocity field and clumping properties. One of the most important applications of IR line diagnostics will be the measurement of mass-loss rates in massive stars with very weak winds by means of the H I Bracket alpha line, which has been identified as one of the most promising diagnostics for this problem.

  8. A rocky planet transiting a nearby low-mass star. (United States)

    Berta-Thompson, Zachory K; Irwin, Jonathan; Charbonneau, David; Newton, Elisabeth R; Dittmann, Jason A; Astudillo-Defru, Nicola; Bonfils, Xavier; Gillon, Michaël; Jehin, Emmanuël; Stark, Antony A; Stalder, Brian; Bouchy, Francois; Delfosse, Xavier; Forveille, Thierry; Lovis, Christophe; Mayor, Michel; Neves, Vasco; Pepe, Francesco; Santos, Nuno C; Udry, Stéphane; Wünsche, Anaël


    M-dwarf stars--hydrogen-burning stars that are smaller than 60 per cent of the size of the Sun--are the most common class of star in our Galaxy and outnumber Sun-like stars by a ratio of 12:1. Recent results have shown that M dwarfs host Earth-sized planets in great numbers: the average number of M-dwarf planets that are between 0.5 to 1.5 times the size of Earth is at least 1.4 per star. The nearest such planets known to transit their star are 39 parsecs away, too distant for detailed follow-up observations to measure the planetary masses or to study their atmospheres. Here we report observations of GJ 1132b, a planet with a size of 1.2 Earth radii that is transiting a small star 12 parsecs away. Our Doppler mass measurement of GJ 1132b yields a density consistent with an Earth-like bulk composition, similar to the compositions of the six known exoplanets with masses less than six times that of the Earth and precisely measured densities. Receiving 19 times more stellar radiation than the Earth, the planet is too hot to be habitable but is cool enough to support a substantial atmosphere, one that has probably been considerably depleted of hydrogen. Because the host star is nearby and only 21 per cent the radius of the Sun, existing and upcoming telescopes will be able to observe the composition and dynamics of the planetary atmosphere.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araya, E. D.; Brown, J. E. [Western Illinois University, Physics Department, 1 University Circle, Macomb, IL 61455 (United States); Olmi, L. [INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Ortiz, J. Morales [University of Puerto Rico, Río Piedras Campus, Physical Sciences Department, P.O. Box 23323, San Juan, PR 00931 (United States); Hofner, P.; Creech-Eakman, M. J. [New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Physics Department, 801 Leroy Place, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Kurtz, S. [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apdo. Postal 3-72, 58089 Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico); Linz, H. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)


    The detection of four formaldehyde (H{sub 2}CO) maser regions toward young high-mass stellar objects in the last decade, in addition to the three previously known regions, calls for an investigation of whether H{sub 2}CO masers are an exclusive tracer of young high-mass stellar objects. We report the first survey specifically focused on the search for 6 cm H{sub 2}CO masers toward non high-mass star-forming regions (non HMSFRs). The observations were conducted with the 305 m Arecibo Telescope toward 25 low-mass star-forming regions, 15 planetary nebulae and post-AGB stars, and 31 late-type stars. We detected no H{sub 2}CO emission in our sample of non HMSFRs. To check for the association between high-mass star formation and H{sub 2}CO masers, we also conducted a survey toward 22 high-mass star-forming regions from a Hi-GAL (Herschel infrared Galactic Plane Survey) sample known to harbor 6.7 GHz CH{sub 3}OH masers. We detected a new 6 cm H{sub 2}CO emission line in G32.74−0.07. This work provides further evidence that supports an exclusive association between H{sub 2}CO masers and young regions of high-mass star formation. Furthermore, we detected H{sub 2}CO absorption toward all Hi-GAL sources, and toward 24 low-mass star-forming regions. We also conducted a simultaneous survey for OH (4660, 4750, 4765 MHz), H110α (4874 MHz), HCOOH (4916 MHz), CH{sub 3}OH (5005 MHz), and CH{sub 2}NH (5289 MHz) toward 68 of the sources in our sample of non HMSFRs. With the exception of the detection of a 4765 MHz OH line toward a pre-planetary nebula (IRAS 04395+3601), we detected no other spectral line to an upper limit of 15 mJy for most sources.

  10. Accreting Millisecond Pulsars: Neutron Star Masses and Radii (United States)

    Strohmayer, Tod


    High amplitude X-ray brightness oscillations during thermonuclear X-ray bursts were discovered with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) in early 1996. Spectral and timing evidence strongly supports the conclusion that these oscillations are caused by rotational modulation of the burst emission and that they reveal the spin frequency of neutron stars in low mass X-ray binaries. The recent discovery of X-ray burst oscillations from two accreting millisecond pulsars has confirmed this basic picture and provided a new route to measuring neutron star properties and constraining the dense matter equation of state. I will briefly summarize the current observational understanding of accreting millisecond pulsars, and describe recent attempts to determine the mass and radius of the neutron star in XTE J1814-338.

  11. Molecular line tracers of high-mass star forming regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagy, Zsofia; Van der Tak, Floris; Ossenkopf, Volker; Bergin, Edwin; Black, John; Faure, Alexandre; Fuller, Gary; Gerin, Maryvonne; Goicoechea, Javier; Joblin, Christine; Le Bourlot, Jacques; Le Petit, Franck; Makai, Zoltan; Plume, Rene; Roellig, Markus; Spaans, Marco; Tolls, Volker


    High-mass stars influence their environment in different ways including feedback via their FUV radiation. The penetration of FUV photons into molecular clouds creates Photon Dominated Regions (PDRs) with different chemical layers where the mainly ionized medium changes into mainly molecular.

  12. Molecular line tracers of high-mass star forming regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagy, Zsofia; Van der Tak, Floris; Ossenkopf, Volker; Bergin, Edwin; Black, John; Faure, Alexandre; Fuller, Gary; Gerin, Maryvonne; Goicoechea, Javier; Joblin, Christine; Le Bourlot, Jacques; Le Petit, Franck; Makai, Zoltan; Plume, Rene; Roellig, Markus; Spaans, Marco; Tolls, Volker

    High-mass stars influence their environment in different ways including feedback via their FUV radiation. The penetration of FUV photons into molecular clouds creates Photon Dominated Regions (PDRs) with different chemical layers where the mainly ionized medium changes into mainly molecular.

  13. High-mass stars in Milky Way clusters (United States)

    Negueruela, Ignacio


    Young open clusters are our laboratories for studying high-mass star formation and evolution. Unfortunately, the information that they provide is difficult to interpret, and sometimes contradictory. In this contribution, I present a few examples of the uncertainties that we face when confronting observations with theoretical models and our own assumptions.

  14. Carcass mass gains of steers grazing star grass, with different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... attributed mainly to the differences in mass and condition of the animals at the start of each season and pasture maturation. Keywords: cynodon aethiopicus; grasses; grazing; henderson research station; herbage; herbage yield; nitrogen; pastures; salisbury district; star grass; stocking rate; stocking rates; yield; zimbabwe ...

  15. Carcass mass gains of steers grazing star grass, with different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carcass mass gains of steers grazing dryland Cynodon aethiopicus cv. No. 2 Star grass pastures during the growing season were determined for each of 16 treatments comprising four levels of nitrogen fertilisation in combination with four overlapping sets of stocking rates. The treatments were repeated over four growing ...

  16. The mass-radius relationship of massive compact stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chowdhury, Partha Roy, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Govt. Degree College Kamalpur, Tripura University, Tripura-799285 (India)


    The properties of pure hadronic and hybrid compact stars are reviewed using nuclear equation of state (EoS) for β-equilibrated neutron star (NS) matter obtained using a density-dependent M3Y (DDM3Y) effective nucleon-nucleon interaction. Depending on the model, the energy density of quark matter can be lower than that of this nuclear EoS at higher densities, implying the possibility of transition to quark matter inside the core and the transition density depends on the particular quark matter model used. The recent observations of the binary millisecond pulsar J1614–2230 by P.B. Demorest et al. [1] and PSR J0348+0432 by J. Antoniadis et al. [2] suggest that the masses lie within 1.97 ± 0.04 M{sub ⊙} and 2.01 ± 0.04 M{sub ⊙}, respectively, where M{sub ⊙} is the solar mass. In conformity with recent observations, a pure nucleonic EoS determines that the maximum mass of NS rotating with frequency ν∼ 667 Hz below r-mode instability is ∼ 1.95 M{sub ⊙} with radius ∼ 10 km. Compact stars with quark cores rotating with same frequency have the maximum mass of ∼ 1.72 M{sub ⊙} turns out to be lower than the observed masses.

  17. The First Stars: A Low-Mass Formation Mode (United States)

    Stacy, Athena; Bromm, Volker


    We perform numerical simulations of the growth of a Population III stellar system under photodissociating feedback. We start from cosmological initial conditions at z = 100, self-consistently following the formation of a minihalo at z = 15 and the subsequent collapse of its central gas to high densities. The simulations resolve scales as small as approx. 1 AU, corresponding to gas densities of 10(exp 16)/cu cm. Using sink particles to represent the growing protostars, we evolve the stellar system for the next 5000 yr. We find that this emerging stellar group accretes at an unusually low rate compared with minihalos which form at earlier times (z = 20-30), or with lower baryonic angular momentum. The stars in this unusual system will likely reach masses ranging from <1Stellar Mass to approx. 5 Stellar Mass by the end of their main-sequence lifetimes, placing them in the mass range for which stars will undergo an asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase. Based upon the simulation, we predict the rare existence of Population III stars that have survived to the present day and have been enriched by mass overflow from a previous AGB companion.

  18. An unstable truth: how massive stars get their mass (United States)

    Rosen, Anna L.; Krumholz, Mark R.; McKee, Christopher F.; Klein, Richard I.


    The pressure exerted by massive stars' radiation fields is an important mechanism regulating their formation. Detailed simulation of massive star formation therefore requires an accurate treatment of radiation. However, all published simulations have either used a diffusion approximation of limited validity; have only been able to simulate a single star fixed in space, thereby suppressing potentially important instabilities; or did not provide adequate resolution at locations where instabilities may develop. To remedy this, we have developed a new, highly accurate radiation algorithm that properly treats the absorption of the direct radiation field from stars and the re-emission and processing by interstellar dust. We use our new tool to perform 3D radiation-hydrodynamic simulations of the collapse of massive pre-stellar cores with laminar and turbulent initial conditions and properly resolve regions where we expect instabilities to grow. We find that mass is channelled to the stellar system via gravitational and Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instabilities, in agreement with previous results using stars capable of moving, but in disagreement with methods where the star is held fixed or with simulations that do not adequately resolve the development of RT instabilities. For laminar initial conditions, proper treatment of the direct radiation field produces later onset of instability, but does not suppress it entirely provided the edges of radiation-dominated bubbles are adequately resolved. Instabilities arise immediately for turbulent pre-stellar cores because the initial turbulence seeds the instabilities. Our results suggest that RT features should be present around accreting massive stars throughout their formation.

  19. Multi-colour photometric and spectroscopic monitoring of the WN5 star EZ Canis Majoris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijsens, MFJ; vanderHucht, KA; vanGenderen, AM; Schwarz, HE; Linders, HPJ; Kolkman, OM


    We present and analyse photometric and spectroscopic observations of the WN5 star EZ Canis Majoris obtained over a period of 7 years. We discuss the changing light curve, the shift in phase of the maxima and point to flare type variability seen in one night. Small amplitude variations are reported

  20. Masses, Radii, and the Equation of State of Neutron Stars (United States)

    Özel, Feryal; Freire, Paulo


    We summarize our current knowledge of neutron-star masses and radii. Recent instrumentation and computational advances have resulted in a rapid increase in the discovery rate and precise timing of radio pulsars in binaries in the past few years, leading to a large number of mass measurements. These discoveries show that the neutron-star mass distribution is much wider than previously thought, with three known pulsars now firmly in the 1.9-2.0-M⊙ mass range. For radii, large, high-quality data sets from X-ray satellites as well as significant progress in theoretical modeling led to considerable progress in the measurements, placing them in the 10-11.5-km range and shrinking their uncertainties, owing to a better understanding of the sources of systematic errors. The combination of the massive-neutron-star discoveries, the tighter radius measurements, and improved laboratory constraints of the properties of dense matter has already made a substantial impact on our understanding of the composition and bulk properties of cold nuclear matter at densities higher than that of the atomic nucleus, a major unsolved problem in modern physics.

  1. Mass transfer in white dwarf-neutron star binaries (United States)

    Bobrick, Alexey; Davies, Melvyn B.; Church, Ross P.


    We perform hydrodynamic simulations of mass transfer in binaries that contain a white dwarf and a neutron star (WD-NS binaries), and measure the specific angular momentum of material lost from the binary in disc winds. By incorporating our results within a long-term evolution model, we measure the long-term stability of mass transfer in these binaries. We find that only binaries containing helium white dwarfs (WDs) with masses less than a critical mass of MWD, crit = 0.2 M⊙ undergo stable mass transfer and evolve into ultracompact X-ray binaries. Systems with higher mass WDs experience unstable mass transfer, which leads to tidal disruption of the WD. Our low critical mass compared to the standard jet-only model of mass-loss arises from the efficient removal of angular momentum in the mechanical disc winds, which develop at highly super-Eddington mass-transfer rates. We find that the eccentricities expected for WD-NS binaries when they come into contact do not affect the loss of angular momentum, and can only affect the long-term evolution if they change on shorter time-scales than the mass-transfer rate. Our results are broadly consistent with the observed numbers of both ultracompact X-ray binaries and radio pulsars with WD companions. The observed calcium-rich gap transients are consistent with the merger rate of unstable systems with higher mass WDs.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohanty, Subhanjoy; Mortlock, Daniel [Imperial College London, 1010 Blackett Lab, Prince Consort Rd., London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Greaves, Jane [SUPA, Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, North Haugh, St. Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Pascucci, Ilaria; Apai, Daniel [Department of Planetary Sciences and Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson AZ 85721 (United States); Scholz, Aleks [School of Cosmic Physics, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Place, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Thompson, Mark [Centre for Astrophysics Research, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Lodato, Giuseppe [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita Degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Looper, Dagny, E-mail: [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Dr., Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)


    We present SCUBA-2 850 {mu}m observations of seven very low mass stars (VLMS) and brown dwarfs (BDs). Three are in Taurus and four in the TW Hydrae Association (TWA), and all are classical T Tauri (cTT) analogs. We detect two of the three Taurus disks (one only marginally), but none of the TWA ones. For standard grains in cTT disks, our 3{sigma} limits correspond to a dust mass of 1.2 M{sub Circled-Plus} in Taurus and a mere 0.2 M{sub Circled-Plus} in the TWA (3-10 Multiplication-Sign deeper than previous work). We combine our data with other submillimeter/millimeter (sub-mm/mm) surveys of Taurus, {rho} Oph, and the TWA to investigate the trends in disk mass and grain growth during the cTT phase. Assuming a gas-to-dust mass ratio of 100:1 and fiducial surface density and temperature profiles guided by current data, we find the following. (1) The minimum disk outer radius required to explain the upper envelope of sub-mm/mm fluxes is {approx}100 AU for intermediate-mass stars, solar types, and VLMS, and {approx}20 AU for BDs. (2) While the upper envelope of apparent disk masses increases with M{sub *} from BDs to VLMS to solar-type stars, no such increase is observed from solar-type to intermediate-mass stars. We propose this is due to enhanced photoevaporation around intermediate stellar masses. (3) Many of the disks around Taurus and {rho} Oph intermediate-mass and solar-type stars evince an opacity index of {beta} {approx} 0-1, indicating significant grain growth. Of the only four VLMS/BDs in these regions with multi-wavelength measurements, three are consistent with considerable grain growth, though optically thick disks are not ruled out. (4) For the TWA VLMS (TWA 30A and B), combining our 850 {mu}m fluxes with the known accretion rates and ages suggests substantial grain growth by 10 Myr, comparable to that in the previously studied TWA cTTs Hen 3-600A and TW Hya. The degree of grain growth in the TWA BDs (2M1207A and SSPM1102) remains largely unknown. (5) A

  3. The lowest mass giant planet ever imaged around a star (United States)

    Rameau, J.; Chauvin, G.; Lagrange, A.-M.; Boccaletti, A.; Quanz, S. P.; Bonnefoy, M.; Girard, J. H.; Delorme, P.; Desidera, S.; Klahr, H.; Mordasini, C.; Dumas, C.; Bonavita, M.


    Understanding planetary systems formation and evolution has become one of the challenges in astronomy, since the discovery of the first exoplanet around the solar-type star 51 Peg in the 90's. While more than 800 planets (mostly giants) closer than a few AU have been identified with radial velocity and transit techniques, very few have been imaged and definitely confirmed around stars, at separations below a hundred of astronomical units. Direct imaging detection of exoplanet is indeed a major frontier in planetary astrophysics. It surveys a region of semi-major axes (> 5 AU) that is almost inaccessible to other methods. Moreover, the planets imaged so far orbit young stars; indeed the young planets are still hot and the planetstar contrasts are compatible with the detection limits currently achievable, in contrast with similar planets in older systems. Noticeably, the stars are of early-types, and surrounded by debris disks, i.e. disks populated at least by small grains with lifetimes so short that they must be permanently produced, probably by destruction (evaporation, collisions) of larger solid bodies. Consequently, every single discovery has a tremendous impact on the understanding of the formation, the dynamical evolution, and the physics of giant planets. In this context, I will present our recent discovery of one faint companion to a nearby, dusty, and young A-type star (at 56 AU projected separation). Background contaminants are rejected with high confidence level based on both astrometry and photometry with three dataset at more than a yeartime-laps and two different wavelength regimes. From the system age (10 to 17 Myr) and from model-dependent luminosity estimates, we derive mass of 4 to 5 Jupiter mass. This planet is therefore the one with the lowest mass ever imaged around a star. Given its orbital and physical properties, I will discuss the implication on its atmosphere with respect to other imaged companions but also on its formation which is not

  4. Sequential star formation in IRAS 06084-0611 (GGD 12-15): from intermediate-mass to high-mass stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maaskant, K.M.; Bik, A.; Waters, L.B.F.M.; Kaper, L.; Henning, T.; Puga, E.; Horrobin, M.; Kainulainen, J.


    Context. The formation and early evolution of high- and intermediate-mass stars towards the main sequence involves the interplay of stars in a clustered and highly complex environment. To obtain a full census of this interaction, the Formation and Early evolution of Massive Stars (FEMS)

  5. Energy expenditure during flight in relation to body mass : effects of natural increases in mass and artificial load in Rose Coloured Starlings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt-Wellenburg, Carola A.; Engel, Sophia; Visser, G. Henk

    Rose Coloured Starlings (Sturnus roseus) flew repeatedly for several hours in a wind tunnel while undergoing spontaneous variation in body mass. The treatments were as follows: flying unrestrained (U), with a control harness of 1.2% of their body mass (C), or with a harness of 7.4% of their body

  6. Visually assessed colour overlay features in shear-wave elastography for breast masses: quantification and diagnostic performance. (United States)

    Gweon, Hye Mi; Youk, Ji Hyun; Son, Eun Ju; Kim, Jeong-Ah


    To determine whether colour overlay features can be quantified by the standard deviation (SD) of the elasticity measured in shear-wave elastography (SWE) and to evaluate the diagnostic performance for breast masses. One hundred thirty-three breast lesions in 119 consecutive women who underwent SWE before US-guided core needle biopsy or surgical excision were analysed. SWE colour overlay features were assessed using two different colour overlay pattern classifications. Quantitative SD of the elasticity value was measured with the region of interest including the whole breast lesion. For the four-colour overlay pattern, the area under the ROC curve (Az) was 0.947; with a cutoff point between pattern 2 and 3, sensitivity and specificity were 94.4 % and 81.4 %. According to the homogeneity of the elasticity, the Az was 0.887; with a cutoff point between reasonably homogeneous and heterogeneous, sensitivity and specificity were 86.1 % and 82.5 %. For the SD of the elasticity, the Az was 0.944; with a cutoff point of 12.1, sensitivity and specificity were 88.9 % and 89.7 %. The colour overlay features showed significant correlations with the quantitative SD of the elasticity (P colour overlay features and the SD of the elasticity in SWE showed excellent diagnostic performance and showed good correlations between them.

  7. New light on dark stars red dwarfs, low-mass stars, brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Reid, I Neill


    Perhaps the most common question that a child asks when he or she sees the night sky from a dark site for the first time is: 'How many stars are there?' This happens to be a question which has exercised the intellectual skills of many astronomers over the course of most of the last century, including, for the last two decades, one of the authors of this text. Until recently, the most accurate answer was 'We are not certain, but there is a good chance that almost all of them are M dwarfs. ' Within the last three years, results from new sky-surveys - particularly the first deep surveys at near­ infrared wavelengths - have provided a breakthrough in this subject, solidifying our census of the lowest-mass stars and identifying large numbers of the hitherto almost mythical substellar-mass brown dwarfs. These extremely low-luminosity objects are the central subjects of this book, and the subtitle should be interpreted accordingly. The expression 'low-mass stars' carries a wide range of meanings in the astronomical...

  8. Low-mass stars: Open problems all along their evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heners N.


    Full Text Available Although low-mass stars have a comparatively simple structure, current stellar models are far from reproducing them accurately. In light of the observational progress, in particular of asteroseismology, the deficits of the theory of stellar structure and evolution become increasingly evident, and can no longer be hidden under the carpet of observational errors. In my brief review I will discuss a number of obvious problems of the models, which are mainly – and not surprisingly so – connected with convective and other mixing processes. They begin already on the pre-main sequence and continue throughout the complete evolution. In addition to the deficits in the treatment of physical processes I will also address our difficulties in obtaining completely satisfying agreement between different numerical codes. It will be shown that this concerns already the main sequence evolution of low-mass stars without a convective core. Keeping this in mind, it is no surprise that models for stars on the Asymptotic Giant Branch differ widely.

  9. Renal masses - evaluation by amplitude coded colour Doppler sonography and multiphasic contrast-enhanced CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riccabona, M.; Szolar, D.; Preidler, K.; Uggowitzer, M.; Kugler, C.; Doerfler, O.; Schreyer, H.H. [Graz Univ. (Austria). Dept. of Radiology


    Objective: To assess the efficacy of amplitude coded colour Doppler US (aCDS) in the evaluation of renal masses as shown by multiphasic contrast-enhanced CT. Material and methods: Eighty patients (155 kidneys) with suspicion of renal masses underwent aCDS and spiral CT. The findings were classified into normal kidneys, kidneys with tumours, kidneys with cysts, and those with `other findings` (i.e. bleeding, calcifications, inflammation, parenchymal hypertrophy). The aCDS findings were compared to CT results and to histological findings or clinical, laboratory and follow-up data. Results: Eighteen renal cell carcinomas and 8 other tumours were found; 78 kidneys had cysts, 12 polycystic kidneys and 10 fibrotic kidneys were detected, 20 kidneys showed other findings. Diagnostic aCDS data were obtained in 129 kidneys (83.2%) showing pathology with an accuracy of 94%. CT adequately showed pathology in all patients with some diagnostic uncertainty in the evaluation of complicated cysts. Conclusion: Though contrast-enhanced multiphasic spiral CT is the method of choice for evaluating renal masses, US including aCDS can provide valuable information, particularly in differentiating vascularized from non-vascularized lesions and in the evaluation of complicated renal cysts. (orig.)

  10. Effective mass of free neutrons in neutron star crust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamel, Nicolas [Copernicus Astronomical Center (CAMK), Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Bartycka 18, 00-716 Warsaw (Poland) and LUTH, Paris Observatory, 5 place Jules Janssen, 92195 Meudon (France)]. E-mail:


    The inner layers of a neutron star crust, composed of a Coulomb lattice of neutron rich nuclear clusters immersed in a sea of 'free' superfluid neutrons, are closely analogous to periodic condensed matter systems such as electronic, photonic or phononic crystals. Applying methods from solid state physics to the neutron star context, it has been recently shown that Bragg scattering leads to a strong renormalization of the neutron mass in the bottom layers of the crust. Knowledge of this effective mass throughout the crust is essential in order to understand the dynamical properties of the neutron superfluid and the origin of pulsar glitches. The purpose of the present work is to evaluate this effective mass in the outermost layers of the inner crust, near the drip point {rho}{sub drip}{approx}4x10{sup 11} g-bar cm{sup -3}. The results are compared with the case of electrons in ordinary solids and as an example the corresponding effective electron mass in copper is calculated.

  11. Empirical Isochrones for Low Mass Stars in Nearby Young Associations (United States)

    Herczeg, Gregory J.; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.


    Absolute ages of young stars are important for many issues in pre-main-sequence stellar and circumstellar evolution but long have been recognized as difficult to derive and calibrate. In this paper, we use literature spectral types and photometry to construct empirical isochrones in Hertzsprung-Russell diagrams for low mass stars and brown dwarfs in the η Cha, ɛ Cha, and TW Hya Associations and the β Pic and Tuc-Hor Moving Groups. A successful theory of pre-main-sequence evolution should match the shapes of the stellar loci for these groups of young stars. However, when comparing the combined empirical isochrones to isochrones predicted from evolutionary models, discrepancies lead to a spectral type (mass) dependence in stellar age estimates. Improved prescriptions for convection and boundary conditions in the latest models of pre-main-sequence evolution lead to a significantly improved correspondence between empirical and model isochrones, with small offsets at low temperatures that may be explained by observational uncertainties or by model limitations. Independent of model predictions, linear fits to combined stellar loci of these regions provide a simple empirical method to order clusters by luminosity with a reduced dependence on spectral type. Age estimates calculated from various sets of modern models that reproduce Li depletion boundary ages of the β Pic Moving Group also imply a ˜4 Myr age for the low mass members of the Upper Sco OB Association, which is younger than the 11 Myr age that has been recently estimated for intermediate and high mass members.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristallo, S.; Piersanti, L.; Gobrecht, D. [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Teramo, I-64100 (Italy); Karinkuzhi, D.; Goswami, A. [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Koramangala, Bangalore 560034 (India)


    We analyze a set of published elemental abundances from a sample of CH stars which are based on high resolution spectral analysis of ELODIE and SUBARU/HDS spectra. All the elemental abundances were derived from local thermodynamic equilibrium analysis using model atmospheres, and thus they represent the largest homogeneous abundance data available for CH stars to date. For this reason, we can use the set to constrain the physics and the nucleosynthesis occurring in low mass asymptotic giant branch (AGB) s.tars. CH stars have been polluted in the past from an already extinct AGB companion and thus show s-process enriched surfaces. We discuss the effects induced on the surface AGB s-process distributions by different prescriptions for convection and rotation. Our reference theoretical FRUITY set fits only part of the observations. Moreover, the s-process observational spread for a fixed metallicity cannot be reproduced. At [Fe/H] > −1, a good fit is found when rotation and a different treatment of the inner border of the convective envelope are simultaneously taken into account. In order to increase the statistics at low metallicities, we include in our analysis a selected number of CEMP stars and, therefore, we compute additional AGB models down to [Fe/H] = −2.85. Our theoretical models are unable to attain the large [hs/ls] ratios characterizing the surfaces of those objects. We speculate on the reasons for such a discrepancy, discussing the possibility that the observed distribution is a result of a proton mixing episode leading to a very high neutron density (the so-called i-process).

  13. Relationships between HI Gas Mass, Stellar Mass and Star Formation Rate of HICAT+WISE Galaxies (United States)

    Parkash, Vaishali; Brown, Michael J. I.


    Galaxies grow via a combination of star formation and mergers. In this thesis, I have studied what drives star formation in nearby galaxies. Using archival WISE, Galex, 21-cm data and new IFU observations, I examine the HI content, Hα emission, stellar kinematics, and gas kinematics of three sub-classes of galaxies: spiral galaxies, shell galaxies and HI galaxies with unusually low star formation rates (SFR). In this dissertation talk, I will focus on the scaling relations between atomic (HI) gas, stellar mass and SFR of spiral galaxies. Star formation is fuelled by HI and molecular hydrogen, therefore we expect correlations between HI mass, stellar mass and SFR. However, the measured scaling relationships vary in the prior literature due to sample selection or low completeness. I will discuss new scaling relationships determined using HI Parkes All Sky-Survey Catalogue (HICAT) and the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). The combination of the local HICAT survey with sensitive WISE mid-infrared imaging improves the stellar masses, SFRs and completeness relative to previous literature. Of the 3,513 HICAT sources, we find 3.4 μm counterparts for 2,824 sources (80%), and provide new WISE matched aperture photometry for these galaxies. For a stellar mass selected sample of z ≤ 0.01 spiral galaxies, we find HI detections for 94% of the galaxies, enabling us to accurately measure HI mass as a function of stellar mass. In contrast to HI-selected galaxy samples, we find that star formation efficiency of spiral galaxies is constant at 10-9.5 yr‑1 with a scatter of 0.5 dex for stellar masses above 109.5 solar masses. We find HI mass increases with stellar mass for spiral galaxies, but the scatter is 1.7 dex for all spiral galaxies and 0.6 dex for galaxies with the T-type 5 to 7. We find an upper limit on HI mass that depends on stellar mass, which is consistent with this limit being dictated by the halo spin parameter.

  14. Evolution and nucleosynthesis in low mass Asymptotic Giant Branch stars


    Cristallo, S.


    People usually smile when astrophysicists assert that we are sons of the stars, but human life confirms this sentence: about 65% of the mass of our body is made up of oxygen, carbon occurs in all organic life and is the basis of organic chemistry, nitrogen is an essential part of amino acids and nucleic acids, calcium is a major component of our bones. Moreover, phosphorus plays a major role in biological molecules such as DNA and RNA (where the chemical codes of life is written) and our bloo...

  15. The Relationship between Stellar Mass and Star Formation Rate in Ultra Low-Mass Galaxies (United States)

    Shin, Kaitlyn; Ly, Chun


    Several extragalactic studies have demonstrated that there is a moderately tight (~0.3 dex) relationship between galaxy stellar mass and star formation rate (SFR) that holds for star-forming galaxies at M* ~ 3x108-1011 M⊙. This relationship has often been referred to as the “star formation main sequence.” However, it has yet to be determined whether such a relationship extends to even lower mass galaxies. Here, we present new results on the stellar mass—SFR relation using observations for 1,088 Hα-emitting galaxies from the Subaru Deep Field. These galaxies were selected using optical narrowband imaging that detects redshifted Hα at z ≈ 0.05-0.5. With sensitive measurements, our study is able to identify galaxies with stellar masses between 3x105 to 1010 M⊙ (average: 107.8 M⊙). We derive SFRs using the Hα luminosity, corrected for dust attenuation from spectroscopic Balmer decrement measurements, and we derive stellar masses from modeling the optical-to-infrared spectral energy distribution. Our preliminary results demonstrate that (1) the mass-SFR relation holds for galaxies down to ~107 M⊙ (~1.5 dex below previous studies), and (2) the dispersion in the mass-SFR relation increases toward lower stellar mass. Additionally, we also discuss comparisons between UV- and Hα-derived SFRs, which allow us to examine and test theoretical predictions on how bursty star formation is for low-mass galaxies at lookback times of up to 5 Gyr.

  16. for the internal rotation evolution of low-mass stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinçon Charly


    Full Text Available Due to the space-borne missions CoRoT and Kepler, noteworthy breakthroughs have been made in our understanding of stellar evolution, and in particular about the angular momentum redistribution in stellar interiors. Indeed, the high-precision seismic data provide with the measurement of the mean core rotation rate for thousands of low-mass stars from the subgiant branch to the red giant branch. All these observations exhibit much lower core rotation rates than expected by current stellar evolution codes and they emphasize the need for an additional transport process. In this framework, internal gravity waves (herefater, IGW could play a signifivative role since they are known to be able to transport angular momentum. In this work, we estimate the effciency of the transport by the IGW that are generated by penetrative convection at the interface between the convective and the radiative regions. As a first step, this study is based on the comparison between the timescale for the waves to modify a given rotation profile and the contraction/expansion timescale throughout the radiative zone of 1.3M⊙ stellar models. We show that IGW, on their own, are ineffcient to slow down the core rotation of stars on the red giant branch, where the radiative damping becomes strong enough and prevent the IGW from reaching the innermost layers. However, we find that IGW generated by penetrative convection could effciently modify the core rotation of subgiant stars as soon as the amplitude of the radial differential rotation between the core and the base of the convective zone is high enough, with typical values close to the observed rotation rates in these stars. This result argues for the necessity to account for IGW generated by penetrative convection in stellar modeling and in the angular momentum redistribution issue.

  17. Mass Ejection from Old and Young Stars and the Sun (United States)

    Jatenco-Pereira, V.; Opher, R.


    RESUMEN. Para poder explicar: 1) la enorme cantidad de perdida de masa y la baja velocidad asint5tica de las estrellas gigantes de o, y 2) los flujos de masa observados en protoestrellas, se sugiere un modelo para Ia perdida de masa, en donde se usa un flujo de ondas de Alfvencomo un mecanismo de aceleraci6n para los vientos de estrellas de tipo y vientos en protoestrellas. Se estudian los mecanismos de disipaci5n de las ondas de Alfven: los amortiguamientos no lineal, de superficie reso- nante y turbulento. En nuestro modelo se usa una divergente A(r) = A(R0) (r/r0)5 (donde A(r) es el area a una distancia radial r, y (A(r)/r2)max/(A(ro)/r02 - 10). Tambien se sugiere un modelo para una de hoyo coronal en el Sol. Se muestra que para satisfacer los datos observacionales en el Sol, tomando en cuenta la deposici6n del momento de las ondas de Alfven sobre el viento, se necesita: (a) una divergencia lenta en un hoyo coronal hasta una altura de 0.01 - 0.1 R seguido de (b) una divergencia rap ida de hasta una altura aproximada de 1 R . ABSTRACT: In order to explain (1) a large mass-loss rate and a small asymptotic flow speed of late-type giant stars and (2) the observed protostellar mass outflows, we suggest a model for mass loss, where we use a flux of Alfven waves as a mechanism of acceleration for late-type giant star winds and protostellar winds. We study the Alfven wave dissipation mechanisms: nonlinear damping, resonant surface damping, and turbulent damping. In our model we use a diverging geometry A(r) = A(r0) (r I r )S (where A(r) is the cross sectional area of the geometry at a radial distance r, and(A(r) I r2)max/(A(r0)/r02) = 10). We also suggest a model for a coronal hole geometry in the sun. We show that in order to satisfy the observational data of the sun, taking into account Alfven wave momentum deposition in the wind, we need: (a) a slow divergence in a coronal hole up t6 a height of 0.01 - 0.1 followed by (b) a rapid divergence up to a height of

  18. Mass loss from cool stars, facts, fads, and fallacies (United States)

    Dupree, A. K.

    The accumulation of observational material (ultraviolet spectroscopic measures, quantitative optical spectroscopy, and X-ray photometry) and its use in discerning the presence and character of mass loss across the cool half of the H-R diagram and establishing constraints on theoretical models are discussed. Analogies with closed and open solar magnetic structures are found. Two determinants of atmospheric wind structure, temperature and gravity, may suffice in a most superficial way to define the wind and atmospheric structure in a star, however it is apparent that there is still a missing parameter which may stem from magnetic activity and its particular configuration. Theories that appear successful in reproducing observed line profiles, wind temperatures, and terminal velocities incorporate Alfven wave heating and momentum deposition. Successive observations of an active binary (lambda and G8III-IV) and a supergiant star, alpha Aqr (G2 Ib) revealed that magnetic activity and perhaps mass loss occur on restricted regions of a stellar surface and that long-term structures are present in the wind. These phenomena are present in the solar atmosphere and wind and may be considered a general characteristic of stellar winds.

  19. Low-mass Stars with Extreme Mid-Infrared Excesses: Potential Signatures of Planetary Collisions (United States)

    Theissen, Christopher; West, Andrew


    I investigate the occurrence of extreme mid-infrared (MIR) excesses, a tracer of large amounts of dust orbiting stars, in low-mass stellar systems. Extreme MIR excesses, defined as an excess IR luminosity greater than 1% of the stellar luminosity (LIR/L* ≥ 0.01), have previously only been observed around a small number of solar-mass (M⊙) stars. The origin of this excess has been hypothesized to be massive amounts of orbiting dust, created by collisions between terrestrial planets or large planetesimals. Until recently, there was a dearth of low-mass (M* ≤ 0.6M⊙) stars exhibiting extreme MIR excesses, even though low-mass stars are ubiquitous (~70% of all stars), and known to host multiple terrestrial planets (≥ 3 planets per star).I combine the spectroscopic sample of low-mass stars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7 (70,841 stars) with MIR photometry from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), to locate stars exhibiting extreme MIR excesses. I find the occurrence frequency of low-mass field stars (stars with ages ≥ 1 Gyr) exhibiting extreme MIR excesses is much larger than that for higher-mass field stars (0.41 ± 0.03% versus 0.00067 ± 0.00033%, respectively).In addition, I build a larger sample of low-mass stars based on stellar colors and proper motions using SDSS, WISE, and the Two-Micron All-Sky Survey (8,735,004 stars). I also build a galactic model to simulate stellar counts and kinematics to estimate the number of stars missing from my sample. I perform a larger, more complete study of low-mass stars exhibiting extreme MIR excesses, and find a lower occurrence frequency (0.020 ± 0.001%) than found in the spectroscopic sample but that is still orders of magnitude larger than that for higher-mass stars. I find a slight trend for redder stars (lower-mass stars) to exhibit a higher occurrence frequency of extreme MIR excesses, as well as a lower frequency with increased stellar age. These samples probe important

  20. Star formation in the lagoon nebula & low-mass stars and brown dwarfs (United States)

    Castro, Philip J.

    Topic I of this thesis reports on star formation in the Lagoon Nebula. We report on deep Chandra X-Ray Observatory observations of the Lagoon Nebula (NGC 6530 and the Hourglass Nebula) totaling 233 ks. We find 1482 X-ray sources, 1130 associated with catalogued near-infrared or optical stars. These X-ray sources are mainly concentrated in the young Hourglass Nebula Cluster (HNC), the older NGC 6530 cluster, and the young M8E cluster in the southern rim. The clustering of X-ray sources near 850mum emission along the central ridge of NGC 6530, M8E, the southern ridge, and coincident with the Hourglass Nebula, provides evidence of triggered star formation. Chandra point-source density contours show a ridge of increased density between NGC 6530 and the HNC, 9 Sgr and the HNC, and class III/II contours stretching from 9 Sgr to the HNC, respectively, provide support for a proposed sequence of star formation in the Lagoon Nebula. Topic II of this thesis reports on low-mass stars and brown dwarfs (BDs). We report on Chandra X-Ray Observatory observations of the TW Hydrae BD 2MASSW J1139511-315921 (2M1139). In the combined 31 ks ACIS-S exposure, 2M1139 is detected at the 3sigma confidence level. This object is similar to another TW Hydrae BD member, CD-33 7795B (TWA 5B), previously detected in X-rays an order of magnitude more luminous than 2M1139. We find the discrepancy between their X-ray luminosities is consistent with BDs of similar spectral type in the Orion Nebula Cluster. Though rotation may play a role in the X-ray activity of ultracool dwarfs like 2M1139 and TWA 5B, the discrepancy cannot be explained by rotation alone. We discover five high proper motion spectroscopically confirmed L dwarfs by comparing WISE to 2MASS. Two of these are L dwarfs at the L/T transition within 10 pc, and three are early L dwarfs within 25 pc. Of the early L dwarfs, one is a member of the class of unusually red L dwarfs whose red spectra can not be easily attributed to youth.

  1. Star and jet multiplicity in the high-mass star forming region IRAS 05137+3919 (United States)

    Cesaroni, R.; Massi, F.; Arcidiacono, C.; Beltrán, M. T.; Persi, P.; Tapia, M.; Molinari, S.; Testi, L.; Busoni, L.; Riccardi, A.; Boutsia, K.; Bisogni, S.; McCarthy, D.; Kulesa, C.


    Context. We present a study of the complex high-mass star forming region IRAS 05137+3919 (also known as Mol8), where multiple jets and a rich stellar cluster have been described in previous works. Aims: Our goal is to determine the number of jets and shed light on their origin, and thus determine the nature of the young stars powering these jets. We also wish to analyse the stellar clusters by resolving the brightest group of stars. Methods: The star forming region was observed in various tracers and the results were complemented with ancillary archival data. The new data represent a substantial improvement over previous studies both in resolution and frequency coverage. In particular, adaptive optics provides us with an angular resolution of 80 mas in the near IR, while new mid- and far-IR data allow us to sample the peak of the spectral energy distribution and thus reliably estimate the bolometric luminosity. Results: Thanks to the near-IR continuum and millimetre line data we can determine the structure and velocity field of the bipolar jets and outflows in this star forming region. We also find that the stars are grouped into three clusters and the jets originate in the richest of these, whose luminosity is ~ 2.4 × 104L⊙. Interestingly, our high-resolution near-IR images allow us to resolve one of the two brightest stars (A and B) of the cluster into a double source (A1+A2). Conclusions: We confirm that there are two jets and establish that they are powered by B-type stars belonging to cluster C1. On this basis and on morphological and kinematical arguments, we conclude that the less extended jet is almost perpendicular to the line of sight and that it originates in the brightest star of the cluster, while the more extended one appears to be associated with the more extincted, double source A1+A2. We propose that this is not a binary system, but a small bipolar reflection nebula at the root of the large-scale jet, outlining a still undetected circumstellar

  2. Gravitational waves and mass ejecta from binary neutron star mergers: Effect of the stars' rotation

    CERN Document Server

    Dietrich, Tim; Ujevic, Maximiliano; Tichy, Wolfgang


    We present new (3+1) dimensional numerical relativity simulations of the binary neutron star (BNS) mergers that take into account the NS spins. We consider different spin configurations, aligned or antialigned to the orbital angular momentum, for equal and unequal mass BNS and for two equations of state. All the simulations employ quasiequilibrium circular initial data in the constant rotational velocity approach, i.e. they are consistent with Einstein equations and in hydrodynamical equilibrium. We study the NS rotation effect on the energetics, the gravitational waves (GWs) and on the possible electromagnetic (EM) emission associated to dynamical mass ejecta. For dimensionless spin magnitudes of $\\chi\\sim0.1$ we find that spin-orbit interactions and also spin-induced-quadrupole deformations affect the late-inspiral-merger dynamics. The latter is, however, dominated by finite-size effects. Spin (tidal) effects contribute to GW phase differences up to 5 (20) radians accumulated during the last eight orbits to...

  3. Stellar Mass—Halo Mass Relation and Star Formation Efficiency in High-Mass Halos (United States)

    Kravtsov, A. V.; Vikhlinin, A. A.; Meshcheryakov, A. V.


    We study relation between stellar mass and halo mass for high-mass halos using a sample of galaxy clusters with accurate measurements of stellar masses from optical and ifrared data and total masses from X-ray observations. We find that stellar mass of the brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) scales as M *,BCG ∝ M 500 αBCG with the best fit slope of α BCG ≈ 0.4 ± 0.1. We measure scatter of M *,BCG at a fixed M 500 of ≈0.2 dex. We show that stellar mass-halo mass relations from abundance matching or halo modelling reported in recent studies underestimate masses of BCGs by a factor of ˜2-4. We argue that this is because these studies used stellar mass functions (SMF) based on photometry that severely underestimates the outer surface brightness profiles of massive galaxies. We show that M * -M relation derived using abundance matching with the recent SMF calibration by Bernardi et al. (2013) based on improved photometry is in a much better agreement with the relation we derive via direct calibration for observed clusters. The total stellar mass of galaxies correlates with total mass M 500 with the slope of ≈0.6 ± 0.1 and scatter of 0.1 dex. This indicates that efficiency with which baryons are converted into stars decreases with increasing cluster mass. The low scatter is due to large contribution of satellite galaxies: the stellar mass in satellite galaxies correlates with M 500 with scatter of ≈0.1 dex and best fit slope of αsat ≈ 0.8 ± 0.1. We show that for a fixed choice of the initial mass function (IMF) total stellar fraction in clusters is only a factor of 3-5 lower than the peak stellar fraction reached in M ≈ 1012 M ⊙ halos. The difference is only a factor of ˜1.5-3 if the IMF becomes progressively more bottom heavy with increasing mass in early type galaxies, as indicated by recent observational analyses. This means that the overall efficiency of star formation in massive halos is only moderately suppressed compared to L * galaxies and

  4. Simulations of Fractal Star Cluster Formation. I. New Insights for Measuring Mass Segregation of Star Clusters with Substructure (United States)

    Yu, Jincheng; Puzia, Thomas H.; Lin, Congping; Zhang, Yiwei


    We compare the existent methods, including the minimum spanning tree based method and the local stellar density based method, in measuring mass segregation of star clusters. We find that the minimum spanning tree method reflects more the compactness, which represents the global spatial distribution of massive stars, while the local stellar density method reflects more the crowdedness, which provides the local gravitational potential information. It is suggested to measure the local and the global mass segregation simultaneously. We also develop a hybrid method that takes both aspects into account. This hybrid method balances the local and the global mass segregation in the sense that the predominant one is either caused by dynamical evolution or purely accidental, especially when such information is unknown a priori. In addition, we test our prescriptions with numerical models and show the impact of binaries in estimating the mass segregation value. As an application, we use these methods on the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC) observations and the Taurus cluster. We find that the ONC is significantly mass segregated down to the 20th most massive stars. In contrast, the massive stars of the Taurus cluster are sparsely distributed in many different subclusters, showing a low degree of compactness. The massive stars of Taurus are also found to be distributed in the high-density region of the subclusters, showing significant mass segregation at subcluster scales. Meanwhile, we also apply these methods to discuss the possible mechanisms of the dynamical evolution of the simulated substructured star clusters.

  5. Discovery and Mass Measurements of a Cold, Sub-Neptune Mass Planet and Its Host Star (United States)

    Barry, Richard K., Jr.


    The gravitational microlensing exoplanet detection method is uniquely sensitive to cold, low-mass planets which orbit beyond the snow-line, where the most massive planets are thought to form. The early statistical results from microlensing indicate that Neptune-Saturn mass planets located beyond the snow-line are substantially more common than their counterparts in closer orbits that have found by the Doppler radial velocity method. We present the discovery of the planet MOA-2009-BLG-266Lb, which demonstrates that the gravitational microlensing method also has the capability to measure the masses of cold, low-mass planets. The mass measurements of the host star and the planet are made possible by the detection of the microlensing parallax signal due to the orbital motion or the Earth as well as observations from the EPOXI spacecraft in a Heliocentric orbit. The microlensing light curve indicates a planetary host star mass of M(sun) = 0.54 + / - 0.05M(sun) located at a distance of DL= 2.94 _ 0.21 kpc, orbited by a planet of mass mp= 9.8 +/-1.1M(Earth) with a semi-major axis of a = 3.1(+1.9-0.4)MAU.

  6. The relationship between star formation rates, local density and stellar mass up to z ˜ 3 in the GOODS NICMOS Survey (United States)

    Grützbauch, R.; Conselice, C. J.; Bauer, A. E.; Bluck, A. F. L.; Chuter, R. W.; Buitrago, F.; Mortlock, A.; Weinzirl, T.; Jogee, S.


    We investigate the relation between star formation rates and local galaxy environment for a stellar-mass-selected galaxy sample in the redshift range 1.5 ≤z≤ 3. We use near-infrared imaging from an extremely deep Hubble Space Telescope survey, the GOODS NICMOS Survey (GNS), to measure local galaxy densities based on the nearest neighbour approach, while star formation rates are estimated from rest-frame ultraviolet fluxes. Due to our imaging depth, we can examine galaxies down to a colour-independent stellar mass completeness limit of log M*= 9.5 M⊙ at z˜ 3. We find a strong dependence of star formation activity on galaxy stellar mass over the whole redshift range, which does not depend on local environment. The average star formation rates are largely independent of local environment, apart from those in the highest relative overdensities. Galaxies in overdensities of a factor of >5 have on average lower star formation rates by a factor of 2-3, but only up to redshifts of z˜ 2. We do not see any evidence for active galactic nucleus activity influencing these relations. We also investigate the influence of the very local environment on star formation activity by counting neighbours within 30 kpc radius. This shows that galaxies with two or more close neighbours have on average significantly lower star formation rates as well as lower specific star formation rates up to z˜ 2.5. We suggest that this might be due to star formation quenching induced by galaxy merging processes.

  7. How much mass and angular momentum can the progenitors of carbon-enriched stars accrete? (United States)

    Matrozis, E.; Abate, C.; Stancliffe, R. J.


    The chemically peculiar barium stars, CH stars, and most carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars are all believed to be the products of mass transfer in binary systems from a now extinct asymptotic giant branch (AGB) primary star. The mass of the AGB star and the orbital parameters of the system are the key factors usually considered when determining how much mass is transferred onto the lower-mass main-sequence companion. What is usually neglected, however, is the angular momentum of the accreted material, which should spin up the accreting star. If the star reaches critical rotation, further accretion should cease until the excess angular momentum is somehow dealt with. If the star cannot redistribute or lose the angular momentum while the primary is on the AGB, the amount of mass accreted could be much lower than otherwise expected. Here we present calculations, based on detailed stellar evolution models, of the mass that can be accreted by putative progenitors of Ba and CEMP stars before they reach critical rotation under the assumption that no angular momentum loss occurs during the mass transfer. We consider different accretion rates and values of specific angular momentum. The most stringent limits on the accreted masses result from considering accretion from a Keplerian accretion disk, which is likely present during the formation of most extrinsically-polluted carbon-enriched stars. Our calculations indicate that in this scenario only about 0.05 M⊙ of material can be added to the accreting star before it reaches critical rotation, which is much too low to explain the chemical enrichment of many Ba and CEMP stars. Either the specific angular momentum of the accreted material has to effectively be lower by about a factor of ten than the Keplerian value, or significant angular momentum losses must occur for substantial accretion to take place.

  8. Warm asymmetric quark matter and protoquark stars within the confined isospin-density-dependent mass model (United States)

    Chu, Peng-Cheng; Chen, Lie-Wen


    We extend the confined isospin-density-dependent mass (CIDDM) model to include temperature dependence of the equivalent mass for quarks. Within the CIDDM model, we study the equation of state for β -equilibrium quark matter, quark symmetry energy, quark symmetry free energy, and the properties of quark stars at finite temperatures. We find that including the temperature dependence of the equivalent mass can significantly influence the properties of the strange quark matter as well as the quark symmetry energy, the quark symmetry free energy, and the maximum mass of quark stars at finite temperatures. The mass-radius relations for different stages of the protoquark stars (PQSs) along the star evolution are analyzed. Our results indicate that the heating (cooling) process for PQSs will increase (decrease) the maximum mass within the CIDDM model by including temperature dependence of the equivalent mass for quarks.

  9. The moment of core collapse in star clusters with a mass function (United States)

    Fujii, M. S.; Portegies Zwart, S.


    Star clusters with multimass components dynamically evolve faster than those modelled with equal-mass components. Using a series of direct N-body simulations, we investigate the dynamical evolution of star clusters with mass functions, especially their core-collapse time. Multimass clusters tend to behave like systems with a smaller number of particles, which we call the effective number of particles (Neff) and for which Neff = M/mmax (here M and mmax are the total cluster mass and the mass of the most massive star in the cluster, respectively). We find that the time of core collapse is inversely proportional to the mass of the most massive star in the cluster and analytically confirm that this is because the core collapse of clusters with a mass function proceeds on the dynamical friction time-scale of the most massive stars. As the mass of the most massive star increases, however, the core-collapse time, which is observed as a core bounce of the cluster core from the evolution of the core density or core radius, becomes ambiguous. We find that in that case the total binding energy of the hard binaries gives a good diagnosis for determining the moment of core collapses. Based on the results of our simulations, we argue that the core bounce becomes ambiguous when the mass of the most massive star exceeds 0.1 per cent of the total mass of the cluster.

  10. Compact stars with a small electric charge: the limiting radius to mass relation and the maximum mass for incompressible matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemos, Jose P.S.; Lopes, Francisco J.; Quinta, Goncalo [Universidade de Lisboa, UL, Departamento de Fisica, Centro Multidisciplinar de Astrofisica, CENTRA, Instituto Superior Tecnico, IST, Lisbon (Portugal); Zanchin, Vilson T. [Universidade Federal do ABC, Centro de Ciencias Naturais e Humanas, Santo Andre, SP (Brazil)


    One of the stiffest equations of state for matter in a compact star is constant energy density and this generates the interior Schwarzschild radius to mass relation and the Misner maximum mass for relativistic compact stars. If dark matter populates the interior of stars, and this matter is supersymmetric or of some other type, some of it possessing a tiny electric charge, there is the possibility that highly compact stars can trap a small but non-negligible electric charge. In this case the radius to mass relation for such compact stars should get modifications. We use an analytical scheme to investigate the limiting radius to mass relation and the maximum mass of relativistic stars made of an incompressible fluid with a small electric charge. The investigation is carried out by using the hydrostatic equilibrium equation, i.e., the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff (TOV) equation, together with the other equations of structure, with the further hypothesis that the charge distribution is proportional to the energy density. The approach relies on Volkoff and Misner's method to solve the TOV equation. For zero charge one gets the interior Schwarzschild limit, and supposing incompressible boson or fermion matter with constituents with masses of the order of the neutron mass one finds that the maximum mass is the Misner mass. For a small electric charge, our analytical approximating scheme, valid in first order in the star's electric charge, shows that the maximum mass increases relatively to the uncharged case, whereas the minimum possible radius decreases, an expected effect since the new field is repulsive, aiding the pressure to sustain the star against gravitational collapse. (orig.)


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theissen, Christopher A.; West, Andrew A. [Department of Astronomy, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Dhital, Saurav, E-mail: [Department of Physical Sciences, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, 600 South Clyde Morris Blvd., Daytona Beach, FL 32114 (United States)


    We present a photometric catalog of 8,735,004 proper motion selected low-mass stars (KML-spectral types) within the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) footprint, from the combined SDSS Data Release 10 (DR10), Two Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS) point-source catalog (PSC), and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) AllWISE catalog. Stars were selected using r − i, i − z, r − z, z − J, and z − W1 colors, and SDSS, WISE, and 2MASS astrometry was combined to compute proper motions. The resulting 3,518,150 stars were augmented with proper motions for 5,216,854 earlier type stars from the combined SDSS and United States Naval Observatory B1.0 catalog (USNO-B). We used SDSS+USNO-B proper motions to determine the best criteria for selecting a clean sample of stars. Only stars whose proper motions were greater than their 2σ uncertainty were included. Our Motion Verified Red Stars catalog is available through SDSS CasJobs and VizieR.

  12. Hiding in plain sight - red supergiant imposters? Super-AGB stars - bridging the divide between low/intermediate-mass and high-mass stars (United States)

    Doherty, Carolyn Louise; Gil-Pons, Pilar; Lattanzio, John; Siess, Lionel


    Super Asymptotic Giant Branch (Super-AGB) stars reside in the mass range ~ 6.5-10 M⊙ and bridge the divide between low/intermediate-mass and massive stars. They are characterised by off-centre carbon ignition prior to a thermally pulsing phase which can consist of many tens to even thousands of thermal pulses. With their high luminosities and very large, cool, red stellar envelopes, these stars appear seemingly identical to their slightly more massive red supergiant counterparts. Due to their similarities, super-AGB stars may therefore act as stellar imposters and contaminate red supergiant surveys. Super-AGB stars undergo relatively extreme nucleosynthetic conditions, with very efficient proton-capture nucleosynthesis occurring at the base of the convective envelope and also heavy element (s-process) production during the thermal pulse to be later mixed to the surface during third dredge-up events. The surface enrichment from these two processes may result in a clear nucleosynthetic signature to differentiate these two classes of star.The final fate of super-AGB stars is also quite uncertain and depends primarily on the competition between the core growth and mass-loss rates. If the stellar envelope is removed prior to the core reaching the Chandrasekhar mass, an O-Ne white dwarf will remain, otherwise the star will undergo an electron-capture supernova leaving behind a neutron star. We describe the factors which influence these different final fate channels, such as the efficiency of convection, the mass-loss rates, the third dredge-up efficiency and the Fe-peak opacity instability which may lead to expulsion of the entire remaining stellar envelope. We determine the relative fraction of super-AGB stars that end life as either an O-Ne white dwarf or as a neutron star, and provide a mass limit for the lowest mass supernova over a broad range of metallicities from the earliest time (Z=0) right through until today (Z~0.04).

  13. Disk Masses around Solar-mass Stars are Underestimated by CO Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Mo; Evans II, Neal J. [Astronomy Department, University of Texas, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Dodson-Robinson, Sarah E. [University of Delaware, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 217 Sharp Lab, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Willacy, Karen; Turner, Neal J. [Mail Stop 169-506, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)


    Gas in protostellar disks provides the raw material for giant planet formation and controls the dynamics of the planetesimal-building dust grains. Accurate gas mass measurements help map the observed properties of planet-forming disks onto the formation environments of known exoplanets. Rare isotopologues of carbon monoxide (CO) have been used as gas mass tracers for disks in the Lupus star-forming region, with an assumed interstellar CO/H{sub 2} abundance ratio. Unfortunately, observations of T-Tauri disks show that CO abundance is not interstellar, a finding reproduced by models that show CO abundance decreasing both with distance from the star and as a function of time. Here, we present radiative transfer simulations that assess the accuracy of CO-based disk mass measurements. We find that the combination of CO chemical depletion in the outer disk and optically thick emission from the inner disk leads observers to underestimate gas mass by more than an order of magnitude if they use the standard assumptions of interstellar CO/H{sub 2} ratio and optically thin emission. Furthermore, CO abundance changes on million-year timescales, introducing an age/mass degeneracy into observations. To reach a factor of a few accuracy for CO-based disk mass measurements, we suggest that observers and modelers adopt the following strategies: (1) select low- J transitions; (2) observe multiple CO isotopologues and use either intensity ratios or normalized line profiles to diagnose CO chemical depletion; and (3) use spatially resolved observations to measure the CO-abundance distribution.

  14. Disk Masses around Solar-mass Stars are Underestimated by CO Observations (United States)

    Yu, Mo; Evans, Neal J., II; Dodson-Robinson, Sarah E.; Willacy, Karen; Turner, Neal J.


    Gas in protostellar disks provides the raw material for giant planet formation and controls the dynamics of the planetesimal-building dust grains. Accurate gas mass measurements help map the observed properties of planet-forming disks onto the formation environments of known exoplanets. Rare isotopologues of carbon monoxide (CO) have been used as gas mass tracers for disks in the Lupus star-forming region, with an assumed interstellar CO/H2 abundance ratio. Unfortunately, observations of T-Tauri disks show that CO abundance is not interstellar, a finding reproduced by models that show CO abundance decreasing both with distance from the star and as a function of time. Here, we present radiative transfer simulations that assess the accuracy of CO-based disk mass measurements. We find that the combination of CO chemical depletion in the outer disk and optically thick emission from the inner disk leads observers to underestimate gas mass by more than an order of magnitude if they use the standard assumptions of interstellar CO/H2 ratio and optically thin emission. Furthermore, CO abundance changes on million-year timescales, introducing an age/mass degeneracy into observations. To reach a factor of a few accuracy for CO-based disk mass measurements, we suggest that observers and modelers adopt the following strategies: (1) select low-J transitions; (2) observe multiple CO isotopologues and use either intensity ratios or normalized line profiles to diagnose CO chemical depletion; and (3) use spatially resolved observations to measure the CO-abundance distribution.

  15. Evolution of thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch stars. IV. Constraining mass loss and lifetimes of low mass, low metallicity AGB stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenfield, Philip; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Weisz, Daniel; Williams, Benjamin F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Marigo, Paola [Department of Physics and Astronomy G. Galilei, University of Padova, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 3, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Girardi, Léo; Gullieuszik, Marco [Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova—INAF, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Bressan, Alessandro [Astrophysics Sector, SISSA, Via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste (Italy); Dolphin, Andrew [Raytheon Company, 1151 East Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Aringer, Bernhard [Department of Astrophysics, University of Vienna, Turkenschanzstraße 17, A-1180 Wien (Austria)


    The evolution and lifetimes of thermally pulsating asymptotic giant branch (TP-AGB) stars suffer from significant uncertainties. In this work, we analyze the numbers and luminosity functions of TP-AGB stars in six quiescent, low metallicity ([Fe/H] ≲ –0.86) galaxies taken from the ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury sample, using Hubble Space Telescope (HST) photometry in both optical and near-infrared filters. The galaxies contain over 1000 TP-AGB stars (at least 60 per field). We compare the observed TP-AGB luminosity functions and relative numbers of TP-AGB and red giant branch (RGB) stars, N{sub TP-AGB}/N{sub RGB}, to models generated from different suites of TP-AGB evolutionary tracks after adopting star formation histories derived from the HST deep optical observations. We test various mass-loss prescriptions that differ in their treatments of mass loss before the onset of dust-driven winds (pre-dust). These comparisons confirm that pre-dust mass loss is important, since models that neglect pre-dust mass loss fail to explain the observed N{sub TP-AGB}/N{sub RGB} ratio or the luminosity functions. In contrast, models with more efficient pre-dust mass loss produce results consistent with observations. We find that for [Fe/H] ≲ –0.86, lower mass TP-AGB stars (M ≲ 1 M{sub ☉}) must have lifetimes of ∼0.5 Myr and higher masses (M ≲ 3 M{sub ☉}) must have lifetimes ≲ 1.2 Myr. In addition, assuming our best-fitting mass-loss prescription, we show that the third dredge-up has no significant effect on TP-AGB lifetimes in this mass and metallicity range.

  16. A substantial population of low-mass stars in luminous elliptical galaxies. (United States)

    van Dokkum, Pieter G; Conroy, Charlie


    The stellar initial mass function (IMF) describes the mass distribution of stars at the time of their formation and is of fundamental importance for many areas of astrophysics. The IMF is reasonably well constrained in the disk of the Milky Way but we have very little direct information on the form of the IMF in other galaxies and at earlier cosmic epochs. Here we report observations of the Na (I) doublet and the Wing-Ford molecular FeH band in the spectra of elliptical galaxies. These lines are strong in stars with masses less than 0.3M(⊙) (where M(⊙) is the mass of the Sun) and are weak or absent in all other types of stars. We unambiguously detect both signatures, consistent with previous studies that were based on data of lower signal-to-noise ratio. The direct detection of the light of low-mass stars implies that they are very abundant in elliptical galaxies, making up over 80% of the total number of stars and contributing more than 60% of the total stellar mass. We infer that the IMF in massive star-forming galaxies in the early Universe produced many more low-mass stars than the IMF in the Milky Way disk, and was probably slightly steeper than the Salpeter form in the mass range 0.1M(⊙) to 1M(⊙).

  17. Neutron Star Mass-Radius Constraints Using Evolutionary Optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, A.L.; Fiege, J.D.; Leahy, D.A.; Morsink, S.M.


    The equation of state of cold supra-nuclear-density matter, such as in neutron stars, is an open question in astrophysics. A promising method for constraining the neutron star equation of state is modeling pulse profiles of thermonuclear X-ray burst oscillations from hot spots on accreting neutron

  18. Does mass accretion lead to field decay in neutron stars? (United States)

    Shibazaki, N.; Murakami, T.; Shaham, J.; Nomoto, K.


    Adopting the hypothesis of accretion-induced magnetic field decay in neutron stars, the consequent evolution of a neutron star's spin and magnetic field are calculated. The results are consistent with observations of binary and millisecond radio pulsars. Thermomagnetic effects could provide a possible physical mechanism for such accretion-induced field decay.

  19. Quantifying the Role of Environment in Star Formation: ISM masses along the Cosmic Web (United States)

    Betti, Sarah; Pope, Alexandra; Scoville, Nick; Aussel, Herve; Sheth, Kartik; Yun, Min


    The rate of star formation in galaxies is observed to vary with environment across the cosmic web and this relationship evolves with redshift. Local galaxies in dense environments are in a state of passive evolution with little star formation. However, ongoing star formation is found in galaxies in dense environments at higher redshifts. Observations of the interstellar medium (ISM), including the molecular gas, which is the direct fuel for star formation, are key to determining how long star formation will persist. We present new ALMA observations of 101 galaxies that span a range of environments at z ~ 0.7, when star formation in dense environments was higher than it is today. Using these observations, we calculate the total ISM mass and look for depletion as a function of galaxy density in order to understand the quenching of star formation in galaxies as a function of environment.

  20. The motion of a star with variable mass inside a layered inhomogeneous elliptical galaxy (United States)

    Gasanov, S. A.


    We consider the motion of a variable-mass star inside a layered, inhomogeneous, rotating elliptical variable-mass galaxy. Under certain conditions, the differential equations of motion of a star inside the galaxy admit autonomization. The autonomized differential equations in this problem are similar to those for the motion of a constant-mass star. We have found analogs for the Jacobi integral and the Eddington-Jeans law for the variation of the density of the galaxy in its center and layers.

  1. A prevalence of dynamo-generated magnetic fields in the cores of intermediate-mass stars. (United States)

    Stello, Dennis; Cantiello, Matteo; Fuller, Jim; Huber, Daniel; García, Rafael A; Bedding, Timothy R; Bildsten, Lars; Aguirre, Victor Silva


    Magnetic fields play a part in almost all stages of stellar evolution. Most low-mass stars, including the Sun, show surface fields that are generated by dynamo processes in their convective envelopes. Intermediate-mass stars do not have deep convective envelopes, although 10 per cent exhibit strong surface fields that are presumed to be residuals from the star formation process. These stars do have convective cores that might produce internal magnetic fields, and these fields might survive into later stages of stellar evolution, but information has been limited by our inability to measure the fields below the stellar surface. Here we report the strength of dipolar oscillation modes for a sample of 3,600 red giant stars. About 20 per cent of our sample show mode suppression, by strong magnetic fields in the cores, but this fraction is a strong function of mass. Strong core fields occur only in red giants heavier than 1.1 solar masses, and the occurrence rate is at least 50 per cent for intermediate-mass stars (1.6-2.0 solar masses), indicating that powerful dynamos were very common in the previously convective cores of these stars.

  2. Formation of intermediate-mass black holes through runaway collisions in the first star clusters (United States)

    Sakurai, Yuya; Yoshida, Naoki; Fujii, Michiko S.; Hirano, Shingo


    We study the formation of massive black holes in the first star clusters. We first locate star-forming gas clouds in protogalactic haloes of ≳107 M⊙ in cosmological hydrodynamics simulations and use them to generate the initial conditions for star clusters with masses of ˜105 M⊙. We then perform a series of direct-tree hybrid N-body simulations to follow runaway stellar collisions in the dense star clusters. In all the cluster models except one, runaway collisions occur within a few million years, and the mass of the central, most massive star reaches ˜400-1900 M⊙. Such very massive stars collapse to leave intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs). The diversity of the final masses may be attributed to the differences in a few basic properties of the host haloes such as mass, central gas velocity dispersion and mean gas density of the central core. Finally, we derive the IMBH mass to cluster mass ratios, and compare them with the observed black hole to bulge mass ratios in the present-day Universe.

  3. A two-solar-mass neutron star measured using Shapiro delay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demorest, P.B.; Pennucci, T.; Ransom, S.M.; Roberts, M.S.E.; Hessels, J.W.T.


    Neutron stars are composed of the densest form of matter known to exist in our Universe, the composition and properties of which are still theoretically uncertain. Measurements of the masses or radii of these objects can strongly constrain the neutron star matter equation of state and rule out


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Skillman, Evan D.; Simones, Jacob E. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street, S.E., Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Cannon, John M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macalester College, 1600 Grand Avenue, Saint Paul, MN 55105 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon Company, 1151 E. Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo [Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Space Sciences Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Salzer, John J. [Department of Astronomy, Indiana University, 727 East 3rd Street, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Adams, Elizabeth A. K. [Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON), Postbus 2, 7900 AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Elson, Ed C. [Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravity Centre (ACGC), Department of Astronomy, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Ott, Jürgen, E-mail: [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, 1003 Lopezville Road, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States)


    The Survey of Hi in Extremely Low-mass Dwarfs is an on-going multi-wavelength program to characterize the gas, star formation, and evolution in gas-rich, very low-mass galaxies that populate the faint end of the galaxy luminosity function. The galaxies were selected from the first ∼10% of the Hi Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA survey based on their low Hi mass and low baryonic mass. Here, we measure the star formation properties from optically resolved stellar populations for 12 galaxies using a color–magnitude diagram fitting technique. We derive lifetime average star formation rates (SFRs), recent SFRs, stellar masses, and gas fractions. Overall, the recent SFRs are comparable to the lifetime SFRs with mean birthrate parameter of 1.4, with a surprisingly narrow standard deviation of 0.7. Two galaxies are classified as dwarf transition galaxies (dTrans). These dTrans systems have star formation and gas properties consistent with the rest of the sample, in agreement with previous results that some dTrans galaxies may simply be low-luminosity dwarf irregulars. We do not find a correlation between the recent star formation activity and the distance to the nearest neighboring galaxy, suggesting that the star formation process is not driven by gravitational interactions, but regulated internally. Further, we find a broadening in the star formation and gas properties (i.e., specific SFRs, stellar masses, and gas fractions) compared to the generally tight correlation found in more massive galaxies. Overall, the star formation and gas properties indicate these very low-mass galaxies host a fluctuating, non-deterministic, and inefficient star formation process.

  5. The Colour of the Young Universe (United States)


    . Using the cosmic colour the astronomers were also able to determine how the mean age of relatively unobscured stars in the Universe changed with time. Since the Universe was much bluer in the past than it is now, they concluded that the Universe is not producing as many blue (high mass, short-lived) stars now as it was earlier, while at the same time the red (low mass, long-lived) stars from earlier generations of star formation are still present. Blue, massive stars die more quickly than red, low-mass stars, and therefore as the age of a group of stars increases, the blue short-lived stars die and the average colour of the group becomes redder. So did the Universe as a whole. This behaviour bears some resemblance with the ageing trend in modern Western countries where less babies are born than in the past and people live longer than in the past, with the total effect that the mean age of the population is rising. The astronomers determined how many stars had already formed when the Universe was only about 3,000 million years old. Young stars (of blue colour) emit more light than older (redder) stars. However, since there was just about as much light in the young Universe as there is today - although the galaxies are now much redder - this implies that there were fewer stars in the early Universe than today. The present study inidcates that there were ten times fewer stars at that early time than there is now. Finally, the astronomers found that roughly half of the stars in the observed galaxies have been formed after the time when the Universe was about half as old (7,000 million years after the Big Bang) as it is today (14,000 million years). Although this result was derived from a study of a very small sky field, and therefore may not be completely representative of the Universe as a whole, the present result has been shown to hold in other sky fields.

  6. The effect ofethnicity on appendicular bone m.ass in white, coloured ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mean ages of onset of pubic hair development, breast development and menarche for white girls were. 11,2 ± 0,8 years, 11,2 ± 1,1 years and 13,0 ± 0,9 years, respectively, while for Indian girls they were 11,3 ± 1,2 years, 10,8 ± 1,3 years and 12,9 ± 1,29 years and for coloured girls 11,5 ± 0,9 years, 10,8 ± 1,2 years and.

  7. The positive binding energy envelopes of low-mass helium stars (United States)

    Hall, Philip D.; Jeffery, C. Simon


    It has been hypothesized that stellar envelopes with positive binding energy may be ejected if the release of recombination energy can be triggered and the calculation of binding energy includes this contribution. The implications of this hypothesis for the evolution of normal hydrogen-rich stars have been investigated, but the implications for helium stars - which may represent mass-transfer or merger remnants in binary star systems - have not. Making a set of model helium stars, we find that those with masses between 0.9 and 2.4 {M}_{⊙} evolve to configurations with positive binding energy envelopes. We discuss consequences of the ejection hypothesis for such stars, and possible observational tests of these predictions.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, Thomas; Klessen, Ralf S. [Institut fuer Theoretische Astrophysik, Universitaet Heidelberg, Zentrum fuer Astronomie, Albert-Ueberle-Str. 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Klaassen, Pamela D. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark [Department of Astrophysics, American Museum of Natural History, 79th Street at Central Park West, New York, NY 10024-5192 (United States); Banerjee, Robi, E-mail: [Hamburger Sternwarte, Gojenbergsweg 112, D-21029 Hamburg (Germany)


    The formation of massive stars exceeding 10 M {sub Sun} usually results in large-scale molecular outflows. Numerical simulations, including ionization, of the formation of such stars show evidence for ionization-driven molecular outflows. Here we examine whether the outflows seen in these models reproduce the observations. We compute synthetic ALMA and CARMA maps of CO emission lines of the outflows, and compare their signatures to existing single-dish and interferometric data. We find that the ionization-driven models can only reproduce weak outflows around high-mass star-forming regions. We argue that expanding H II regions probably do not represent the dominant mechanism for driving observed outflows. We suggest instead that observed outflows are driven by the collective action of the outflows from the many lower-mass stars that inevitably form around young massive stars in a cluster.

  9. The mass-metallicity relations for gas and stars in star-forming galaxies: strong outflow versus variable IMF (United States)

    Lian, Jianhui; Thomas, Daniel; Maraston, Claudia; Goddard, Daniel; Comparat, Johan; Gonzalez-Perez, Violeta; Ventura, Paolo


    We investigate the mass-metallicity relations for the gaseous (MZRgas) and stellar components (MZRstar) of local star-forming galaxies based on a representative sample from Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 12. The mass-weighted average stellar metallicities are systematically lower than the gas metallicities. This difference in metallicity increases towards galaxies with lower masses and reaches 0.4-0.8 dex at 109 M⊙ (depending on the gas metallicity calibration). As a result, the MZRstar is much steeper than the MZRgas. The much lower metallicities in stars compared to the gas in low-mass galaxies imply dramatic metallicity evolution with suppressed metal enrichment at early times. The aim of this paper is to explain the observed large difference in gas and stellar metallicity and to infer the origin of the mass-metallicity relations. To this end we develop a galactic chemical evolution model accounting for star formation, gas inflow and outflow. By combining the observed mass-metallicity relation for both gas and stellar components to constrain the models, we find that only two scenarios are able to reproduce the observations. Either strong metal outflow or a steep initial mass function (IMF) slope at early epochs of galaxy evolution is needed. Based on these two scenarios, for the first time we successfully reproduce the observed MZRgas and MZRstar simultaneously, together with other independent observational constraints in the local Universe. Our model also naturally reproduces the flattening of the MZRgas at the high-mass end leaving the MZRstar intact, as seen in observational data.

  10. Detection of non-coloured anthocyanin-flavanol derivatives in Rioja aged red wines by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Sánchez-Ilárduya, María Belén; Sánchez-Fernández, Cristina; Garmón-Lobato, Sergio; Abad-García, Beatriz; Berrueta, Luis Angel; Gallo, Blanca; Vicente, Francisca


    Anthocyanins, responsible for wine colour, are involved in many reactions during wine ageing. Anthocyanin-flavanol associations give rise to derivatives in flavylium form that provide blue hues, but also derivatives that do not directly influence wine colour. These colourless derivatives remain mostly unknown but their roles during wine ageing are important for controlling wine quality. Colourless anthocyanin-flavanol derivatives formed during wine ageing have been studied in three aged red wines from Rioja using a combined method with Column Chromatography (CC) and High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Diode Array and Mass Spectrometric detections (HPLC-DADMS). Twenty-six compounds have been detected: 17 dimers with the anthocyanin in flavene form with possible anthocyanin-flavanol (type 1) and flavanol-anthocyanin (type 2) structures, and 9 with an A-type bicyclic anthocyanin-flavanol structure (type 3). Although some of malvidin derivatives have been previously reported, this is the first time that these derivatives (including different isomers) have also been detected for delphinidin, petunidin and peonidin. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. How fast is mass segregation happening in hierarchically formed embedded star clusters? (United States)

    Domínguez, R.; Fellhauer, M.; Blaña, M.; Farias, J. P.; Dabringhausen, J.


    We investigate the evolution of mass segregation in initially substructured young embedded star clusters with two different background potentials mimicking the gas. Our clusters are initially in virial or subvirial global states and have different initial distributions for the most massive stars: randomly placed, initially mass segregated or even inversely segregated. By means of N-body simulation, we follow their evolution for 5 Myr. We measure the mass segregation using the minimum spanning tree method ΛMSR and an equivalent restricted method. Despite this variety of different initial conditions, we find that our stellar distributions almost always settle very fast into a mass segregated and more spherical configuration, suggesting that once we see a spherical or nearly spherical embedded star cluster, we can be sure it is mass segregated no matter what the real initial conditions were. We, furthermore, report under which circumstances this process can be more rapid or delayed, respectively.

  12. Orbital Scattering of Protoplanets Around low-Mass Stars in Stellar Clusters (United States)

    Ip, Wing-Huen; Cao, Yojng-Sin


    A large proportion of stars are formed in star clusters which will disperse as a result of the strong mass loss process driven by massive stars. During the period of planet formation, the star clusters should still be quite compact and close encounters at low relative speed (~ 3-5 km s-1) within a distance of a few hundred AU could still be frequent enough that some protoplanets in outer regions surrounding their host stars could be subject to strong orbital perturbation changing their near-circular orbits to highly elliptical ones, or even being ejected into interstellar space. In this work, we will report on the statistical results of probable destruction and transformation of first-generation planetary systems of low-eccentricity and low-inclination in M- and K-type stars to planetary systems in chaotic orbits via gravitational interaction with passing stars. Such scenario might have interesting implications on the dynamical origin and evolution of exoplanets around low-mass stars.

  13. A Multi-Fiber Spectroscopic Search for Low-mass Young Stars in Orion OB1 (United States)

    Loerincs, Jacqueline; Briceno, Cesar; Calvet, Nuria; Mateo, Mario L.; Hernandez, Jesus


    We present here results of a low resolution spectroscopic followup of candidate low-mass pre-main sequence stars in the Orion OB1 association. Our targets were selected from the CIDA Variability Survey of Orion (CVSO), and we used the Michigan/Magellan Fiber Spectrograph (M2FS) on the Magellan Clay 6.5m telescope to obtain spectra of 500 candidate T Tauri stars distributed in seven 0.5 deg diameter fields, adding to a total area of ~5.5 deg2. We identify young stars by looking at the distinctive Hα 6563 Å emission and Lithium Li I 6707 Å absorption features characteristic of young low mass pre-main sequence stars. Furthermore, by measuring the strength of their Hα emission lines, confirmed T Tauri stars can be classified as either Classical T Tauris (CTTS) or Weak-line T Tauris (WTTS), which give indication of whether the star is actively accreting material from a gas and dust disk surrounding the star, which may be the precursor of a planetary system. We confirm a total of 90 T Tauri stars, of which 50% are newly identified young members of Orion; out of the 49 new detections,15 are accreting CTTS, and of these all but one are found in the OB1b sub-region. This result is in line with our previous findings that this region is much younger than the more extended Orion OB1a sub-association. The M2FS results add to our growing census of young stars in Orion, that is allowing us to characterize in a systematic and consistent way the distribution of stellar ages across the entire complex, in order to building a complete picture of star formation in this, one of nearest most active sites of star birth.

  14. X-ray Emission Properties of Intermediate-Mass, Pre-Main-Sequence Stars (United States)

    Povich, Matthew S.; Binder, Breanna; Townsley, Leisa K.; Broos, Patrick S.


    Intermediate-mass (2-8 M⊙) main-sequence stars with A to mid-B spectral types occupy an X-ray "desert" of weak intrinsic emission between low- and high-mass stars. Lacking the wind-shock driven emission of massive, O and early B stars or the convectively-driven magnetic reconnection flaring activity of later-type stars, X-ray detections of (non-peculiar) main-sequence AB stars are typically ascribed to the presence of unresolved, lower-mass binary companions. There is mounting evidence, however, that intermediate-mass, pre-main sequence stars (IMPS) with GK spectral types produce intrinsic X-ray emission that rapidly decays with time following the development of a radiative zone as IMPS approach the ZAMS as AB stars. This suggests that X-ray emission from IMPS may be a more luminous analog of the well-studied coronal X-ray emission from lower-mass, T Tauri stars. Statistical studies of young IMPS have been hampered by their scarcety in nearby, unobscured star-forming regions. We present the first results from a spectral-fitting study to measure absorption-corrected X-ray luminosities and plasma temperatures for hundreds of candidate X-ray emitting IMPS found in the MYStIX and MAGiX surveys of massive Galactic star forming regions. Candidate IMPS are placed on the HR diagram via a novel infrared spectral energy distribution modeling technique designed for highly-obscured, young massive star-forming regions. The rapid decay of X-ray emission from these objects has the potential to provide an independent chronometer to constrain star formation rates, and may produce an age-dependent bias in the relationship between the stellar X-ray luminosity function and mass function in distant (>2 kpc) regions observed with relatively shallow X-ray observations.This work is supported by the National Science Foundation under grant CAREER-1454334 and by NASA through Chandra Award 18200040.

  15. Exomoon habitability and tidal evolution in low-mass star systems (United States)

    Zollinger, Rhett R.; Armstrong, John C.; Heller, René


    Discoveries of extrasolar planets in the habitable zone (HZ) of their parent star lead to questions about the habitability of massive moons orbiting planets in the HZ. Around low-mass stars, the HZ is much closer to the star than for Sun-like stars. For a planet-moon binary in such an HZ, the proximity of the star forces a close orbit for the moon to remain gravitationally bound to the planet. Under these conditions, the effects of tidal heating, distortion torques, and stellar perturbations become important considerations for exomoon habitability. Utilizing a model that considers both dynamical and tidal interactions simultaneously, we performed a computational investigation into exomoon evolution for systems in the HZ of low-mass stars (≲0.6 M⊙). We show that dwarf stars with masses ≲0.2 M⊙ cannot host habitable exomoons within the stellar HZ due to extreme tidal heating in the moon. Perturbations from a central star may continue to have deleterious effects in the HZ up to ≈0.5 M⊙, depending on the host planet's mass and its location in the HZ, amongst others. In addition to heating concerns, torques due to tidal and spin distortion can lead to the relatively rapid inward spiraling of a moon. Therefore, moons of giant planets in HZs around the most abundant type of star are unlikely to have habitable surfaces. In cases with lower intensity tidal heating, the stellar perturbations may have a positive influence on exomoon habitability by promoting long-term heating and possibly extending the HZ for exomoons.

  16. Observational constraints on star cluster formation theory. I. The mass-radius relation (United States)

    Pfalzner, S.; Kirk, H.; Sills, A.; Urquhart, J. S.; Kauffmann, J.; Kuhn, M. A.; Bhandare, A.; Menten, K. M.


    Context. Stars form predominantly in groups usually denoted as clusters or associations. The observed stellar groups display a broad spectrum of masses, sizes, and other properties, so it is often assumed that there is no underlying structure in this diversity. Aims: Here we show that the assumption of an unstructured multitude of cluster or association types might be misleading. Current data compilations of clusters in the solar neighbourhood show correlations among cluster mass, size, age, maximum stellar mass, etc. In this first paper we take a closer look at the correlation of cluster mass and radius. Methods: We use literature data to explore relations in cluster and molecular core properties in the solar neighbourhood. Results: We show that for embedded clusters in the solar neighbourhood a clear correlation exists between cluster mass and half-mass radius of the form Mc = CRcγ with γ = 1.7 ± 0.2. This correlation holds for infrared K-band data, as well as for X-ray sources and clusters containing a hundred stars up to those consisting of a few tens of thousands of stars. The correlation is difficult to verify for clusters containing fewer than 30 stars owing to low-number statistics. Dense clumps of gas are the progenitors of the embedded clusters. We find almost the same slope for the mass-size relation of dense, massive clumps as for the embedded star clusters. This might point to a direct translation from gas to stellar mass: however, it is difficult to relate size measurements for clusters (stars) to those for gas profiles. Taking multiple paths for clump mass into cluster mass into account, we obtain an average star-formation efficiency of 18%+9.3-5.7 for the embedded clusters in the solar neighbourhood. Conclusions: The derived mass-radius relation gives constraints for the theory of clustered star formation. Analytical models and simulations of clustered star formation have to reproduce this relation in order to be realistic.

  17. 2-D and 3-D Radiation Transfer Models of High-Mass Star Formation


    Whitney, Barbara A.; Robitaille, Thomas P.; Indebetouw, Remy; Wood, Kenneth; Bjorkman, J. E.; Denzmore, Pia


    2-D and 3-D radiation transfer models of forming stars generally produce bluer 1-10 micron colors than 1-D models of the same evolutionary state and envelope mass. Therefore, 1-D models of the shortwave radiation will generally estimate a lower envelope mass and later evolutionary state than multidimensional models. 1-D models are probably reasonable for very young sources, or longwave analysis (wavelengths > 100 microns). In our 3-D models of high-mass stars in clumpy molecular clouds, we fi...

  18. The Origin and Evolution of the Galaxy Star Formation Rate-Stellar Mass Correlation (United States)

    Gawiser, Eric; Iyer, Kartheik


    The existence of a tight correlation between galaxies’ star formation rates and stellar masses is far more surprising than usually noted. However, a simple analytical calculation illustrates that the evolution of the normalization of this correlation is driven primarily by the inverse age of the universe, and that the underlying correlation is one between galaxies’ instantaneous star formation rates and their average star formation rates since the Big Bang.Our new Dense Basis method of SED fitting (Iyer & Gawiser 2017, ApJ 838, 127) allows star formation histories (SFHs) to be reconstructed, along with uncertainties, for >10,000 galaxies in the CANDELS and 3D-HST catalogs at 0.5star formation rates, providing new constraints on the level of stochasticity in galaxy formation.

  19. Lower limit on radius as a function of mass for neutron stars. (United States)

    Glendenning, N K


    A model-independent limit on neutron star radius as a function of mass based only on well-accepted principles is derived. We discuss our limit in connection with a recent interpretation of x-ray pulsations from SAX J1808.4-3658 as indicating a strange-star candidate, and show that this object can also be a normal neutron star, though one whose central core has very high density. The most plausible high-density phase of hadronic matter, which is also expected to be very compressible, is quark matter. So an alternative to the strange star interpretation of SAX J1808.4-3658 is that it is a hybrid neutron star.

  20. Effects of primordial mass segregation on the dynamical evolution of star clusters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vesperini, E.; McMillan, S.L.W.; Portegies Zwart, S.


    In this paper, we use N-body simulations to study the effects of primordial mass segregation on the early and long-term evolution of star clusters. Our simulations show that in segregated clusters early mass loss due to stellar evolution triggers a stronger expansion than for unsegregated clusters.

  1. The sizes, masses and specific star formation rates of massive galaxies at 1.3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McLure, R. J.; Pearce, H. J.; Dunlop, J. S.; Cirasuolo, M.; Curtis-Lake, E.; Bruce, V. A.; Caputi, K. I.; Almaini, O.; Bonfield, D. G.; Bradshaw, E. J.; Buitrago, F.; Chuter, R.; Foucaud, S.; Hartley, W. G.; Jarvis, M. J.


    We report the results of a comprehensive study of the relationship between galaxy size, stellar mass and specific star formation rate (sSFR) at redshifts 1.3 mass-complete (M⋆ ≥ 6 × 1010 M⊙), spectroscopic sample from the UK Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS) Ultradeep Survey,

  2. Mass-loss Rates from Coronal Mass Ejections: A Predictive Theoretical Model for Solar-type Stars (United States)

    Cranmer, Steven R.


    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are eruptive events that cause a solar-type star to shed mass and magnetic flux. CMEs tend to occur together with flares, radio storms, and bursts of energetic particles. On the Sun, CME-related mass loss is roughly an order of magnitude less intense than that of the background solar wind. However, on other types of stars, CMEs have been proposed to carry away much more mass and energy than the time-steady wind. Earlier papers have used observed correlations between solar CMEs and flare energies, in combination with stellar flare observations, to estimate stellar CME rates. This paper sidesteps flares and attempts to calibrate a more fundamental correlation between surface-averaged magnetic fluxes and CME properties. For the Sun, there exists a power-law relationship between the magnetic filling factor and the CME kinetic energy flux, and it is generalized for use on other stars. An example prediction of the time evolution of wind/CME mass-loss rates for a solar-mass star is given. A key result is that for ages younger than about 1 Gyr (i.e., activity levels only slightly higher than the present-day Sun), the CME mass loss exceeds that of the time-steady wind. At younger ages, CMEs carry 10-100 times more mass than the wind, and such high rates may be powerful enough to dispel circumstellar disks and affect the habitability of nearby planets. The cumulative CME mass lost by the young Sun may have been as much as 1% of a solar mass.

  3. Simulating Electron Cyclotron Maser Emission for Low Mass Stars (United States)

    Llama, Joe; Jardine, Moira


    Zeeman-Doppler Imaging (ZDI) is a powerful technique that enables us to map the large-scale magnetic fields of stars spanning the pre- and main-sequence. Coupling these magnetic maps with field extrapolation methods allow us to investigate the topology of the closed, X-ray bright corona, and the cooler, open stellar wind.Using ZDI maps of young M dwarfs with simultaneous radio light curves obtained from the VLA, we present the results of modeling the Electron-Cyclotron Maser (ECM) emission from these systems. We determine the X-ray luminosity and ECM emission that is produced using the ZDI maps and our field extrapolation model. We compare these findings with the observed radio light curves of these stars. This allows us to predict the relative phasing and amplitude of the stellar X-ray and radio light curves.This benchmarking of our model using these systems allows us to predict the ECM emission for all stars that have a ZDI map and an observed X-ray luminosity. Our model allows us to understand the origin of transient radio emission observations and is crucial for disentangling stellar and exoplanetary radio signals.

  4. The T Tauri Phase Down to Nearly Planetary Masses: Echelle Spectra of 82 Very Low Mass Stars and Brown Dwarfs (United States)

    Mohanty, Subhanjoy; Jayawardhana, Ray; Basri, Gibor


    Using the largest high-resolution spectroscopic sample to date of young, very low mass stars and brown dwarfs, we investigate disk accretion in objects ranging from just above the hydrogen-burning limit all the way to nearly planetary masses. Our 82 targets span spectral types from M5 to M9.5, or masses from 0.15 Msolar down to about 15 jupiters. They are confirmed members of the ρ Ophiuchus, Taurus, Chamaeleon I, IC 348, R Coronae Australis, Upper Scorpius, and TW Hydrae star-forming regions and young clusters, with ages from =M6.5). We have previously presented high-resolution optical spectra for roughly half the sample; the rest are new. This is a close to complete survey of all confirmed brown dwarfs known so far in the regions examined, except in ρ Oph and IC 348 (where we are limited by a combination of extinction and distance). We find that (1) classical T Tauri-like disk accretion persists in the substellar domain down to nearly the deuterium-burning limit; (2) while an Hα 10% width >~200 km s-1 is our prime accretion diagnostic (following our previous work), permitted emission lines of Ca II, O I, and He I are also good accretion indicators, just as in classical T Tauri stars (we caution against a blind use of Hα width alone, since inclination and rotation effects on the line are especially important at the low accretion rates in very low mass objects); (3) the Ca II λ8662 line flux is an excellent quantitative measure of the accretion rate in very low mass stars and brown dwarfs (as in higher mass classical T Tauri Stars), correlating remarkably well with the M˙ obtained from veiling and Hα modeling; (4) the accretion rate diminishes rapidly with mass-our measurements support previous suggestions that M˙~M2* (albeit with considerable scatter) and extend this correlation to the entire range of substellar masses; (5) the fraction of very low mass stellar and substellar accretors decreases substantially with age, as in higher mass stars; (6) at any

  5. High-mass Star Formation through Filamentary Collapse and Clump-fed Accretion in G22 (United States)

    Yuan, Jinghua; Li, Jin-Zeng; Wu, Yuefang; Ellingsen, Simon P.; Henkel, Christian; Wang, Ke; Liu, Tie; Liu, Hong-Li; Zavagno, Annie; Ren, Zhiyuan; Huang, Ya-Fang


    How mass is accumulated from cloud-scale down to individual stars is a key open question in understanding high-mass star formation. Here, we present the mass accumulation process in a hub-filament cloud G22 that is composed of four supercritical filaments. Velocity gradients detected along three filaments indicate that they are collapsing with a total mass infall rate of about 440 M ⊙ Myr‑1, suggesting the hub mass would be doubled in six free-fall times, adding up to ∼2 Myr. A fraction of the masses in the central clumps C1 and C2 can be accounted for through large-scale filamentary collapse. Ubiquitous blue profiles in HCO+ (3–2) and 13CO (3–2) spectra suggest a clump-scale collapse scenario in the most massive and densest clump C1. The estimated infall velocity and mass infall rate are 0.31 km s‑1 and 7.2 × 10‑4 M ⊙ yr‑1, respectively. In clump C1, a hot molecular core (SMA1) is revealed by the Submillimeter Array observations and an outflow-driving high-mass protostar is located at the center of SMA1. The mass of the protostar is estimated to be 11–15 M ⊙ and it is still growing with an accretion rate of 7 × 10‑5 M ⊙ yr‑1. The coexistent infall in filaments, clump C1, and the central hot core in G22 suggests that pre-assembled mass reservoirs (i.e., high-mass starless cores) may not be required to form high-mass stars. In the course of high-mass star formation, the central protostar, the core, and the clump can simultaneously grow in mass via core-fed/disk accretion, clump-fed accretion, and filamentary/cloud collapse.

  6. The low-mass content of the massive young star cluster RCW 38 (United States)

    Mužić, Koraljka; Schödel, Rainer; Scholz, Alexander; Geers, Vincent C.; Jayawardhana, Ray; Ascenso, Joana; Cieza, Lucas A.


    RCW 38 is a deeply embedded young (˜1 Myr), massive star cluster located at a distance of 1.7 kpc. Twice as dense as the Orion nebula cluster, orders of magnitude denser than other nearby star-forming regions and rich in massive stars, RCW 38 is an ideal place to look for potential differences in brown dwarf formation efficiency as a function of environment. We present deep, high-resolution adaptive optics data of the central ˜0.5 × 0.5 pc2 obtained with NACO at the Very Large Telescope. Through comparison with evolutionary models, we determine masses and extinction for ˜480 candidate members, and derive the first initial mass function (IMF) of the cluster extending into the substellar regime. Representing the IMF as a set of power laws in the form dN/dM ∝ M-α, we derive the slope α = 1.60 ± 0.13 for the mass range 0.5-20 M⊙,which is shallower than the Salpeter slope, but in agreement with results in several other young massive clusters. At the low-mass side, we find α = 0.71 ± 0.11 for masses between 0.02 and 0.5 M⊙, or α = 0.81 ± 0.08 for masses between 0.02 and 1 M⊙. Our result is in agreement with the values found in other young star-forming regions, revealing no evidence that a combination of high stellar densities and the presence of numerous massive stars affects the formation efficiency of brown dwarfs and very-low-mass stars. We estimate that the Milky Way galaxy contains between 25 and 100 billion brown dwarfs (with masses >0.03 M⊙).

  7. The initial mass function of star clusters that form in turbulent molecular clouds (United States)

    Fujii, M. S.; Portegies Zwart, S.


    We simulate the formation and evolution of young star clusters using the combination of smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations and direct N-body simulations. We start by performing SPH simulations of the giant molecular cloud (GMC) with a turbulent velocity field, a mass of 4 × 104 to 5 × 106 M⊙, and a density between ρ ˜ 1.7 × 103 and 170 cm-3. We continue the hydrodynamical simulations for a free-fall time-scale (tff ≃ 0.83 and 2.5 Myr), and analyse the resulting structure of the collapsed cloud. We subsequently replace a density-selected subset of SPH particles with stars by adopting a local star formation efficiency proportional to ρ1/2. As a consequence, the local star formation efficiency exceeds 30 per cent, whereas globally only a few per cent of the gas is converted to stars. The stellar distribution by the time gas is converted to stars is very clumpy, with typically a dozen bound conglomerates that consist of 100-104 stars. We continue to evolve the stars dynamically using the collisional N-body method, which accurately treats all pairwise interactions, stellar collisions and stellar evolution. We analyse the results of the N-body simulations when the stars have an age of 2 and 10 Myr. During the dynamical simulations, massive clusters grow via hierarchical merging of smaller clusters. The shape of the cluster mass function that originates from an individual molecular cloud is consistent with a Schechter function with a power-law slope of β = -1.73 at 2 Myr and β = -1.67 at 10 Myr, which fits to observed cluster mass function of the Carina region. The superposition of mass functions have a power-law slope of ≲ -2, which fits the observed mass function of star clusters in the Milky Way, M31 and M83. We further find that the mass of the most massive cluster formed in a single molecular cloud with a mass of Mg scales with 6.1 M_g^{0.51} which also agrees with recent observation of the GMC and young clusters in M51.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Jingzhe; Gonzalez, Anthony H. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Spilker, J. S.; Marrone, D. P. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Strandet, M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69 D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Ashby, M. L. N. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Aravena, M. [Núcleo de Astronomía, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejército 441, Santiago (Chile); Béthermin, M.; Breuck, C. de; Gullberg, B. [European Southern Observatory, Karl Schwarzschild Straße 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Bothwell, M. S. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, JJ Thompson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Brodwin, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, 5110 Rockhill Road, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Chapman, S. C. [Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Fassnacht, C. D. [Department of Physics, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Greve, T. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Hezaveh, Y. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Malkan, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Saliwanchik, B. R., E-mail: [Department of Physics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); and others


    To understand cosmic mass assembly in the universe at early epochs, we primarily rely on measurements of the stellar masses and star formation rates (SFRs) of distant galaxies. In this paper, we present stellar masses and SFRs of six high-redshift (2.8 ≤ z ≤ 5.7) dusty, star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) that are strongly gravitationally lensed by foreground galaxies. These sources were first discovered by the South Pole Telescope (SPT) at millimeter wavelengths and all have spectroscopic redshifts and robust lens models derived from Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array observations. We have conducted follow-up observations to obtain multi-wavelength imaging data using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), Spitzer, Herschel, and the Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment. We use the high-resolution HST/Wide Field Camera 3 images to disentangle the background source from the foreground lens in Spitzer/IRAC data. The detections and upper limits provide important constraints on the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for these DSFGs, yielding stellar masses, IR luminosities, and SFRs. The SED fits of six SPT sources show that the intrinsic stellar masses span a range more than one order of magnitude with a median value ∼5 ×10{sup 10} M{sub ⊙}. The intrinsic IR luminosities range from 4 × 10{sup 12} L{sub ⊙} to 4 × 10{sup 13} L{sub ⊙}. They all have prodigious intrinsic SFRs of 510–4800 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}. Compared to the star-forming main sequence (MS), these six DSFGs have specific SFRs that all lie above the MS, including two galaxies that are a factor of 10 higher than the MS. Our results suggest that we are witnessing ongoing strong starburst events that may be driven by major mergers.

  9. A two-solar-mass neutron star measured using Shapiro delay. (United States)

    Demorest, P B; Pennucci, T; Ransom, S M; Roberts, M S E; Hessels, J W T


    Neutron stars are composed of the densest form of matter known to exist in our Universe, the composition and properties of which are still theoretically uncertain. Measurements of the masses or radii of these objects can strongly constrain the neutron star matter equation of state and rule out theoretical models of their composition. The observed range of neutron star masses, however, has hitherto been too narrow to rule out many predictions of 'exotic' non-nucleonic components. The Shapiro delay is a general-relativistic increase in light travel time through the curved space-time near a massive body. For highly inclined (nearly edge-on) binary millisecond radio pulsar systems, this effect allows us to infer the masses of both the neutron star and its binary companion to high precision. Here we present radio timing observations of the binary millisecond pulsar J1614-2230 that show a strong Shapiro delay signature. We calculate the pulsar mass to be (1.97 ± 0.04)M(⊙), which rules out almost all currently proposed hyperon or boson condensate equations of state (M(⊙), solar mass). Quark matter can support a star this massive only if the quarks are strongly interacting and are therefore not 'free' quarks.

  10. Modulated mass-transfer model for superhumps in SU Ursae Majoris stars (United States)

    Mineshige, Shin


    The response of a circular accretion disk to rapid modulation of the mass-transfer rate into the disk is explored in order to model superhumps in SU UMa stars. It is proposed that periodically enhanced flow may disrupt or heat up the outer disk and produce the dips noted just before the superhump peaks. The elliptical accretion-disk model with extended vertical disk structure can account for the observed characteristics of superhumps in these stars.

  11. Water in low-mass star-forming regions with Herschel: HIFI spectroscopy of NGC 1333


    Kristensen, L. E.; Dominik, C.; Whyborn, N.


    “Water In Star-forming regions with Herschel” (WISH) is a key programme dedicated to studying the role of water and related species during the star-formation process and constraining the physical and chemical properties of young stellar objects. The Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared (HIFI) on the Herschel Space Observatory observed three deeply embedded protostars in the low-mass star-forming region NGC 1333 in several H_(2)^(16)O, H_(2)^(18)O, and CO transitions. Line profiles are r...

  12. The initial mass function for massive stars in the Magellanic Clouds. 3: Luminosity and mass functions for 14 OB associations (United States)

    Hill, Robert J.; Madore, Barry F.; Freedman, Wendy L.


    We have used UBV photometry of stars in 14 associations in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (LMC/SMS) (Hill, Madore, & Freedman) to derive luminosity and mass functions for the most massive stars. The main-sequence luminosity functions for the associations are quite similar, having an average slope of s = 0.03 +/- 0.06. The mass functions for the associations have slopes that span similar ranges about a common mean for both the LMC and SMC and there is no strong evidence for a significant variation in the slopes from one association to another. Accordingly, metal abundance does not appear to have a strong effect on the initial mass function (IMF), at least for the range in metallicity observed between the Magellanic Clouds. The average slope of the IMF for the Magellanic Cloud associations is Gamma = -2.0 +/- 0.5 for M greater than 9 Solar Masses. The range in the derived slopes is more likely due to the large uncertainties associated with the calculations of the mass functions, rather than to real variations in the IMF. There may be some evidence for a decrease in the slope of the IMF at masses below 9 Solar Masses, but incompleteness and the larger photometric errors associated with the faintest stars make this conclusion tentative.

  13. White dwarf stars exceeding the Chandrasekhar mass limit (United States)

    Tomaschitz, Roman


    The effect of nonlinear ultra-relativistic electron dispersion on the mass-radius relation of high-mass white dwarfs is studied. The dispersion is described by a permeability tensor in the Dirac equation, generated by the ionized high-density stellar matter, which constitutes the neutralizing background of the nearly degenerate electron plasma. The electron dispersion results in a stable mass-radius relation for high-mass white dwarfs, in contrast to a mass limit in the case of vacuum permeabilities. In the ultra-relativistic regime, the dispersion relation is a power law whose amplitude and scaling exponent is inferred from mass and radius estimates of two high-mass white dwarfs, Sirius B and LHS 4033. Evidence for the existence of super-Chandrasekhar mass white dwarfs is provided by several Type Ia supernovae (e.g., SN 2013cv, SN 2003fg, SN 2007if and SN 2009dc), whose mass ejecta exceed the Chandrasekhar limit by up to a factor of two. The dispersive mass-radius relation is used to estimate the radii, central densities, Fermi temperatures, bulk and compression moduli and sound velocities of their white dwarf progenitors.

  14. Comoving frame models of hot star winds. II. Reduction of O star wind mass-loss rates in global models (United States)

    Krtička, J.; Kubát, J.


    We calculate global (unified) wind models of main-sequence, giant, and supergiant O stars from our Galaxy. The models are calculated by solving hydrodynamic, kinetic equilibrium (also known as NLTE) and comoving frame (CMF) radiative transfer equations from the (nearly) hydrostatic photosphere to the supersonic wind. For given stellar parameters, our models predict the photosphere and wind structure and in particular the wind mass-loss rates without any free parameters. Our predicted mass-loss rates are by a factor of 2-5 lower than the commonly used predictions. A possible cause of the difference is abandoning of the Sobolev approximation for the calculation of the radiative force, because our models agree with predictions of CMF NLTE radiative transfer codes. Our predicted mass-loss rates agree nicely with the mass-loss rates derived from observed near-infrared and X-ray line profiles and are slightly lower than mass-loss rates derived from combined UV and Hα diagnostics. The empirical mass-loss rate estimates corrected for clumping may therefore be reconciled with theoretical predictions in such a way that the average ratio between individual mass-loss rate estimates is not higher than about 1.6. On the other hand, our predictions are by factor of 4.7 lower than pure Hα mass-loss rate estimates and can be reconciled with these values only assuming a microclumping factor of at least eight.

  15. Memory colours affect colour appearance. (United States)

    Witzel, Christoph; Olkkonen, Maria; Gegenfurtner, Karl R


    Memory colour effects show that colour perception is affected by memory and prior knowledge and hence by cognition. None of Firestone & Scholl's (F&S's) potential pitfalls apply to our work on memory colours. We present a Bayesian model of colour appearance to illustrate that an interaction between perception and memory is plausible from the perspective of vision science.

  16. Instability, finite amplitude pulsation and mass-loss in models of massive OB-type stars (United States)

    Yadav, Abhay Pratap; Glatzel, Wolfgang


    Variability and mass-loss are common phenomena in massive OB-type stars. It is argued that they are caused by violent strange mode instabilities identified in corresponding stellar models. We present a systematic linear stability analysis with respect to radial perturbations of massive OB-type stars with solar chemical composition and masses between 23 and 100 M⊙. For selected unstable stellar models, we perform non-linear simulations of the evolution of the instabilities into the non-linear regime. Finite amplitude pulsations with periods in the range between hours and 100 d are found to be the final result of the instabilities. The pulsations are associated with a mean acoustic luminosity which can be the origin of a pulsationally driven wind. Corresponding mass-loss rates lie in the range between 10-9 and 10-4 M⊙ yr-1 and may thus affect the evolution of massive stars.

  17. A UV spectroscopic snapshot survey of low-mass stars in the Hyades (United States)

    Agueros, Marcel


    Because of its proximity, the 650-Myr-old Hyades open cluster is a unique resource for exploring the relationship between magnetic activity, rotation, and age in low-mass stars. While the cluster has been largely ignored in UV studies of the dependence of activity on rotation, we now have an extensive and growing set of complementary rotation period, Halpha, and X-ray measurements with which to examine in detail the rotation-activity relation at 650 Myr and to constrain theories of magnetic heating. We propose to measure Mg II line emission, the strongest NUV activity tracer, in COS spectra of 86 Hyads ranging in spectral type from G to M with known rotation periods or currently being observed by K2. These stars form a representative sample of low-mass Hyads with known periods and are a significant addition to, and expansion of, the sample of 20 mainly solar-mass rotators with existing (mostly low-resolution) IUE NUV spectra. The Mg II measurements will contribute significantly to our goal of mapping out the rotation-activity relation star-by-star in this benchmark open cluster. This, in turn, will move us toward an improved understanding of the radiation environment and habitability of the exoplanets we continue to find around low-mass stars.

  18. The stellar masses and specific star-formation rates of submillimetre galaxies (United States)

    Michałowski, M. J.; Dunlop, J. S.; Cirasuolo, M.; Hjorth, J.; Hayward, C. C.; Watson, D.


    Establishing the stellar masses, and hence specific star-formation rates of submillimetre galaxies is crucial for determining the role of such objects in the cosmic history of galaxy/star formation. However, there is as yet no consensus over the typical stellar masses of submillimetre galaxies, as illustrated by the widely differing results reported from recent optical-infrared studies of submillimetre galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts z ≃ 2-3. Specifically, even for the same set of submillimetre galaxies, the reported average stellar masses have ranged over an order of magnitude, from ≃5 × 1010 M⊙ to ≃5 × 1011 M⊙. Here we study how different methods of analysis can lead to such widely varying results. We find that, contrary to recent claims in the literature, potential contamination of IRAC 3-8 μm photometry from hot dust associated with an active nucleus is not the origin of the published discrepancies in derived stellar masses. Instead, we expose in detail how inferred stellar mass depends on assumptions made in the photometric fitting, and quantify the individual and cumulative effects of different choices of initial mass function, different "brands" of evolutionary synthesis models, and different forms of assumed star-formation history. We review current observational evidence for and against these alternatives as well as clues from the hydrodynamical simulations, and conclude that, for the most justifiable choices of these model inputs, the average stellar mass of luminous (S850 ≳ 5 mJy) submillimetre galaxies is ≃2 × 1011 M⊙ to within a factor ≃2. We also check and confirm that this number is perfectly reasonable in the light of the latest measurements of the dynamical masses of these objects (≃2-6 × 1011 M⊙ from CO (1-0) observations), and the evolving stellar mass function of the overall galaxy population. Galaxy stellar masses of this order imply that the average specific star-formation rate of submillimetre galaxies is

  19. An evolutionary model for collapsing molecular clouds and their star formation activity. II. Mass dependence of the star formation rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamora-Avilés, Manuel; Vázquez-Semadeni, Enrique [Centro de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apdo. Postal 3-72, Morelia, Michoacán 58089 (Mexico)


    We discuss the evolution and dependence on cloud mass of the star formation rate (SFR) and efficiency (SFE) of star-forming molecular clouds (MCs) within the scenario that clouds are undergoing global collapse and that the SFR is controlled by ionization feedback. We find that low-mass clouds (M {sub max} ≲ 10{sup 4} M {sub ☉}) spend most of their evolution at low SFRs, but end their lives with a mini-burst, reaching a peak SFR ∼10{sup 4} M {sub ☉} Myr{sup –1}, although their time-averaged SFR is only (SFR) ∼ 10{sup 2} M {sub ☉} Myr{sup –1}. The corresponding efficiencies are SFE{sub final} ≲ 60% and (SFE) ≲ 1%. For more massive clouds (M {sub max} ≳ 10{sup 5} M {sub ☉}), the SFR first increases and then reaches a plateau because the clouds are influenced by stellar feedback since earlier in their evolution. As a function of cloud mass, (SFR) and (SFE) are well represented by the fits (SFR) ≈ 100(1 + M {sub max}/1.4 × 10{sup 5} M {sub ☉}){sup 1.68} M {sub ☉} Myr{sup –1} and (SFE) ≈ 0.03(M {sub max}/2.5 × 10{sup 5} M {sub ☉}){sup 0.33}, respectively. Moreover, the SFR of our model clouds follows closely the SFR-dense gas mass relation recently found by Lada et al. during the epoch when their instantaneous SFEs are comparable to those of the clouds considered by those authors. Collectively, a Monte Carlo integration of the model-predicted SFR(M) over a Galactic giant molecular cloud mass spectrum yields values for the total Galactic SFR that are within half an order of magnitude of the relation obtained by Gao and Solomon. Our results support the scenario that star-forming MCs may be in global gravitational collapse and that the low observed values of the SFR and SFE are a result of the interruption of each SF episode, caused primarily by the ionizing feedback from massive stars.

  20. Energy expenditure during flight in relation to body mass: effects of natural increases in mass and artificial load in Rose Coloured Starlings. (United States)

    Schmidt-Wellenburg, Carola A; Engel, Sophia; Visser, G Henk


    Rose Coloured Starlings (Sturnus roseus) flew repeatedly for several hours in a wind tunnel while undergoing spontaneous variation in body mass. The treatments were as follows: flying unrestrained (U), with a control harness of 1.2% of their body mass (C), or with a harness of 7.4% of their body mass, which was either applied immediately before the flight (LS) or at least 9 days in advance (LL). Energy expenditure during flight (ef in W) was measured with the Doubly Labelled Water method. Flight costs in L(S) and LL were not significantly different and therefore were pooled (L). The harness itself did not affect ef, i.e. U and C flights were not different. ef was allometrically related with body mass m (in g). The slopes were not significantly different between the treatments, but ef was increased by 5.4% in L compared to C flights (log10(ef) = 0.050 + 0.47 x log10(m) for C, and log10(ef) = 0.073 + 0.47 x log10(m) for L). The difference in ef between C, LS and LL was best explained by taking the transported mass m transp (in g) instead of m into account (log10(ef) = -0.08 + 0.54 x log10(m transp)). Flight costs increased to a lesser extent than expected from interspecific allometric comparison or aerodynamic theory, regardless of whether the increase in mass occurred naturally or artificially. We did not observe an effect of treatment on breast muscle size and wingbeat frequency. We propose that the relatively low costs at a high mass are rather a consequence of immediate adjustments in physiology and/or flight behaviour than of long-term adaptations.

  1. Hydrogen Burning in Low Mass Stars Constrains Scalar-Tensor Theories of Gravity. (United States)

    Sakstein, Jeremy


    The most general scalar-tensor theories of gravity predict a weakening of the gravitational force inside astrophysical bodies. There is a minimum mass for hydrogen burning in stars that is set by the interplay of plasma physics and the theory of gravity. We calculate this for alternative theories of gravity and find that it is always significantly larger than the general relativity prediction. The observation of several low mass red dwarf stars therefore rules out a large class of scalar-tensor gravity theories and places strong constraints on the cosmological parameters appearing in the effective field theory of dark energy.

  2. The effect of ethnicity on appendicular bone mass in white, coloured ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethnic differences in the incidence and prevalence of osteoporosis have been shown throughout the world. In South Africa the prevalence of osteoporosis is much higher in whites than in blacks. This is surprising, since factors that might predispose to reduce bone mass are more preponderant in black communities.

  3. Simultaneous, multi-wavelength flare observations of nearby low-mass stars (United States)

    Thackeray, Beverly; Barclay, Thomas; Quintana, Elisa; Villadsen, Jacqueline; Wofford, Alia; Schlieder, Joshua; Boyd, Patricia


    Low-mass stars are the most common stars in the Galaxy and have been targeted in the tens-of-thousands by K2, the re-purposed Kepler mission, as they are prime targets to search for and characterize small, Earth-like planets. Understanding how these fully convective stars drive magnetic activity that manifests as stochastic, short-term brightenings, or flares, provides insight into the prospects of planetary habitability. High energy radiation and energetic particle emission associated with these stars can erode atmospheres, and impact habitability. An innovative campaign to study low mass stars through simultaneous multi-wavelength observations is currently underway with observations ongoing in the X-ray, UV, optical, and radio. I will present early results of our pilot study of the nearby M-Dwarf star Wolf 359 (CN Leo) using K2, SWIFT, and ground based radio observatories, forming a comprehensive picture of flare activity from an M-Dwarf, and discuss the potential impact of these results on exoplanets. "This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship Program under Grant No. DGE1322106. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation."

  4. Connecting massive galaxies to dark matter haloes in BOSS - I. Is galaxy colour a stochastic process in high-mass haloes? (United States)

    Saito, Shun; Leauthaud, Alexie; Hearin, Andrew P.; Bundy, Kevin; Zentner, Andrew R.; Behroozi, Peter S.; Reid, Beth A.; Sinha, Manodeep; Coupon, Jean; Tinker, Jeremy L.; White, Martin; Schneider, Donald P.


    We use subhalo abundance matching (SHAM) to model the stellar mass function (SMF) and clustering of the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) `CMASS' sample at z ˜ 0.5. We introduce a novel method which accounts for the stellar mass incompleteness of CMASS as a function of redshift, and produce CMASS mock catalogues which include selection effects, reproduce the overall SMF, the projected two-point correlation function wp, the CMASS dn/dz, and are made publicly available. We study the effects of assembly bias above collapse mass in the context of `age matching' and show that these effects are markedly different compared to the ones explored by Hearin et al. at lower stellar masses. We construct two models, one in which galaxy colour is stochastic (`AbM' model) as well as a model which contains assembly bias effects (`AgM' model). By confronting the redshift dependent clustering of CMASS with the predictions from our model, we argue that that galaxy colours are not a stochastic process in high-mass haloes. Our results suggest that the colours of galaxies in high-mass haloes are determined by other halo properties besides halo peak velocity and that assembly bias effects play an important role in determining the clustering properties of this sample.

  5. U-band photometry as a signature of gas accretion in young low-mass stars (United States)

    Restrepo Gaitán, O. A.; Ramírez Suárez, O. L.; Pinzón Estrada, G. A.; Chaparro Molano, G.


    Low-mass pre-main-sequence stars can be classified as accreting/non-accreting by using a spectral-index dependent criterion based on the equivalent width of the Hα emission line. This limit defines the boundary between Classical T Tauri Stars (CTTS) and Weak-lined T Tauri Stars (WTTS) (Barrado et. al 2003). Some of these stars in nearby associations also show an excess in the U magnitude with respect to the Main Sequence, which cannot be solely explained by chromospheric activity. We propose that this excess can be correlated to the Hα accretion criterion due to the fact that hot shocked gas, that accretes onto the stellar surface, generates high energy photons that can be traced by observations in the U band.

  6. Characterizing K2 Candidate Planetary Systems Orbiting Low-Mass Stars. I. Classifying Low-Mass Host Stars Observed During Campaigns 1-7 (United States)

    Dressing, Courtney D.; Newton, Elisabeth R.; Schlieder, Joshua E.; Charbomeau, David; Krutson, Heather A.; Vanderburg, Andrew; Sinukoff, Evan


    We present near-infrared spectra for 144 candidate planetary systems identified during Campaigns 1-7 of the NASA K2 Mission. The goal of the survey was to characterize planets orbiting low-mass stars, but our Infrared Telescope Facility/SpeX and Palomar/TripleSpec spectroscopic observations revealed that 49% of our targets were actually giant stars or hotter dwarfs reddened by interstellar extinction. For the 72 stars with spectra consistent with classification as cool dwarfs (spectral types K3-M4), we refined their stellar properties by applying empirical relations based on stars with interferometric radius measurements. Although our revised temperatures are generally consistent with those reported in the Ecliptic Plane Input Catalog (EPIC), our revised stellar radii are typically 0.13 solar radius (39%) larger than the EPIC values, which were based on model isochrones that have been shown to underestimate the radii of cool dwarfs. Our improved stellar characterizations will enable more efficient prioritization of K2 targets for follow-up studies.

  7. Characterizing K2 Candidate Planetary Systems Orbiting Low-mass Stars. I. Classifying Low-mass Host Stars Observed during Campaigns 1-7 (United States)

    Dressing, Courtney D.; Newton, Elisabeth R.; Schlieder, Joshua E.; Charbonneau, David; Knutson, Heather A.; Vanderburg, Andrew; Sinukoff, Evan


    We present near-infrared spectra for 144 candidate planetary systems identified during Campaigns 1-7 of the NASA K2 Mission. The goal of the survey was to characterize planets orbiting low-mass stars, but our Infrared Telescope Facility/SpeX and Palomar/TripleSpec spectroscopic observations revealed that 49% of our targets were actually giant stars or hotter dwarfs reddened by interstellar extinction. For the 72 stars with spectra consistent with classification as cool dwarfs (spectral types K3-M4), we refined their stellar properties by applying empirical relations based on stars with interferometric radius measurements. Although our revised temperatures are generally consistent with those reported in the Ecliptic Plane Input Catalog (EPIC), our revised stellar radii are typically 0.13 {R}⊙ (39%) larger than the EPIC values, which were based on model isochrones that have been shown to underestimate the radii of cool dwarfs. Our improved stellar characterizations will enable more efficient prioritization of K2 targets for follow-up studies.

  8. Magnetic Braking of Sun-like and Low-mass Stars: Dependence on Coronal Temperature (United States)

    Pantolmos, George; Matt, Sean P.


    Sun-like and low-mass stars possess high-temperature coronae and lose mass in the form of stellar winds, which are driven by thermal pressure and complex magnetohydrodynamic processes. These magnetized outflows probably do not significantly affect the star’s structural evolution on the main sequence, but they brake the stellar rotation by removing angular momentum, a mechanism known as magnetic braking. Previous studies have shown how the braking torque depends on the magnetic field strength and geometry, stellar mass and radius, mass-loss rate, and rotation rate of the star, assuming a fixed coronal temperature. For this study, we explore how different coronal temperatures can influence the stellar torque. We employ 2.5D, axisymmetric, magnetohydrodynamic simulations, computed with the PLUTO code, to obtain steady-state wind solutions from rotating stars with dipolar magnetic fields. Our parameter study includes 30 simulations with different coronal temperatures and surface magnetic field strengths. We consider a Parker-like (I.e., thermal-pressure-driven) wind, and therefore coronal temperature is the key parameter determining the velocity and acceleration profile of the flow. Since the mass-loss rates for these types of stars are not well-constrained, we determine how the torque scales for a vast range of stellar mass-loss rates. Hotter winds lead to faster acceleration, and we show that (for a given magnetic field strength and mass-loss rate) a hotter outflow leads to a weaker torque on the star. We derive new predictive torque formulae that quantify this effect over a range of possible wind acceleration profiles.

  9. Age and mass of the star cluster around the intermediate-mass black hole HLX-1 (United States)

    Soria, Roberto


    We propose to study the optical counterpart of the intermediate-mass black hole (IMBH) HLX-1, about 3 years after its last X-ray outburst. Previous HST observations taken at epochs closer to an outburst show a variable near-UV/blue component, plus a constant red/near-IR component. The redder component probably comes from an old stellar population around the black hole; the bluer component may be a combination of emission from an irradiated accretion disk, and from a young stellar population. Their relative contributions and the age of the stellar population(s) are still subject of debate. By re-observing the system when the irradiated component is minimal, we will determine whether the near-UV/blue optical emission has declined even further and whether the red/near-IR optical emission has stayed approximately constant. This will tell us whether the optical counterpart is a massive star cluster, and place a strong upper limit to the young stellar population around the IMBH. Having determined the constant contribution of the stellar emission, we will then insert it into broad-band models of the emission in outburst, and obtain a better estimate of the accretion disk parameters, constraining formation and evolution scenarios for the IMBH. We will use the same set of filters as in previous HST observations, for direct comparison of brightness and colors: F140LP (ACS SBC); F300X, F336W, F390W, F555W, F621M, F775W (WFC3 UVIS); F105W, F160W (WFC3 IR). We request a total of 7 orbits.

  10. Exploring the Role of Galaxy Morphology in the Mass-Metallicity-Star Formation Rate Relation (United States)

    Pahl, Anthony; Rafelski, Marc; Scarlata, Claudia; Pacifici, Camilla; Henry, Alaina L.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Elmegreen, Debra M.


    The Mass-Metallicity-Star Formation Rate (M-Z-SFR) fundamental relation reveals the underlying physics behind galaxy evolution: the mechanics of gas inflow, outflow, and the formation of stars are intimately connected. At higher redshift, we observe galaxies which are believed to be more actively accreting from the cosmic web, and as a result bright star-forming clumps are expected to form due to the increased gravitational instability of the galactic medium. We investigate these “clumpy” galaxies in context of their location on the M-Z-SFR plane to search for evidence of metal-poor gas inflows as predicted by theoretical models, and to help us understand how galaxies form and change at a higher redshift (1.3 imaging. We create stamps in their rest-frame UV light to investigate recent star formation and visually classify the morphology of the galaxies. We also utilize stellar population fits of the photometric data to determine properties such as mass and star formation rate. From the grism data of the 3D-HST survey, we select 1861 galaxies based on the strong detection of the [OIII_5007] line, and determine metallicity through the line-diagnostic R_23 using [OIII_5007], [OII_3727] and H_beta. We improve these results through the stacking of spectra to remove a sample bias of requiring strong detections on weak emission lines. Using mass, star formation rate, and metallicity we compare the location of clumpy galaxies on the fundamental plane to investigate possible diminished metallicity and heightened star formation rate compared to the remainder of the sample. This will enable us to better understand the theoretical underpinnings of gas accretion and galaxy evolution at high redshift.

  11. Radiative Feedback from Primordial Protostars and Final Mass of the First Stars (United States)

    Hosokawa, Takashi; Omukai, Kazuyuki; Yoshida, Naoki; Yorke, Harold W.


    In this contribution, we review our efforts toward understanding the typical mass-scale of primordial stars. Our direct numerical simulations show that, in both of Population III.1 and III.2 cases, strong UV stellar radiative feedback terminatesmass accretion onto a protostar.AnHII region formed around the protostar very dynamically expands throughout the gas accreting envelope, which cuts off the gas supply to a circumstellar disk. The disk is exposed to the stellar UV radiation and loses its mass by photoevaporation. The derived final masses are 43 Stellar Mass and 17 Stellar Mass in our fiducial Population III.1 and III.2 cases. Much more massive stars should form in other exceptional conditions. In atomic-cooling halos where H2 molecules are dissociated, for instance, a protostar grows via very rapid mass accretion with the rates M* approx. 0.1 - 1 Stellar Mass/yr. Our newstellar evolution calculations show that the protostar significantly inflates and never contracts to reach the ZAMS stage in this case. Such the "supergiant protostars" have very low UV luminosity, which results in weak radiative feedback against the accretion flow. In the early universe, supermassive stars formed through this process might provide massive seeds of supermassive black holes.

  12. Explosive nucleosynthesis in SN 1987A. II - Composition, radioactivities, and the neutron star mass (United States)

    Thielemann, Friedrich-Karl; Hashimoto, Masa-Aki; Nomoto, Ken'ichi


    The 20 solar mass model of Nomoto and Hashimoto (1988) is utilized with a 6 solar mass. He core is used to perform explosive nucleosynthesis calculations. The employed explosion energy of 10 to the 51st ergs lies within the uncertainty range inferred from the bolometric light curve. The nucleosynthesis processes and their burning products are discussed in detail. The results are compared with abundances from IR observations of SN 1987A and the average nucleosynthesis expected for Type II supernovae in Galactic chemical evolution. The abundances of long-lived radioactive nuclei and their importance for the late light curve and gamma-ray observations are predicted. The position of the mass cut between the neutron star and the ejecta is deduced from the total amount of ejected Ni-56. This requires a neutron star with a baryonic mass of 1.6 + or - 0.045 solar mass, which corresponds to a gravitational mass of 1.43 + or - 0.05 solar mass after subtracting the binding energy of a nonrotating neutron star.

  13. Measuring colour

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hunt, R. W. G; Pointer, Michael, Ph. D


    ... industries.Building upon the success of earlier editions, the 4th edition of [start italics]Measuring Colour[end italics] has been updated throughout with new chapters on colour rendering by light sources...

  14. The Mass/Eccentricity Limit in Double Star Astronomy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Jan 27, 2016 ... A research that we conducted in 1963 on the evolution of the binaries based on the available orbital data to obtain a philosophical degree, led to the establishment of an interesting and new diagram between the logarithm of the total mass and a particular parameter , bound to the areal constant.

  15. Very Low-mass Stars and Brown Dwarfs in Upper Scorpius Using Gaia DR1: Mass Function, Disks, and Kinematics (United States)

    Cook, Neil J.; Scholz, Aleks; Jayawardhana, Ray


    Our understanding of the brown dwarf population in star-forming regions is dependent on knowing distances and proper motions and therefore will be improved through the Gaia space mission. In this paper, we select new samples of very low-mass objects (VLMOs) in Upper Scorpius using UKIDSS colors and optimized proper motions calculated using Gaia DR1. The scatter in proper motions from VLMOs in Upper Scorpius is now (for the first time) dominated by the kinematic spread of the region itself, not by the positional uncertainties. With age and mass estimates updated using Gaia parallaxes for early-type stars in the same region, we determine masses for all VLMOs. Our final most complete sample includes 453 VLMOs of which ˜125 are expected to be brown dwarfs. The cleanest sample is comprised of 131 VLMOs, with ˜105 brown dwarfs. We also compile a joint sample from the literature that includes 415 VLMOs, out of which 152 are likely brown dwarfs. The disk fraction among low-mass brown dwarfs (M< 0.05 {M}⊙ ) is substantially higher than in more massive objects, indicating that disks around low-mass brown dwarfs survive longer than in low-mass stars overall. The mass function for 0.01< M< 0.1 {M}⊙ is consistent with the Kroupa Initial Mass Function. We investigate the possibility that some “proper motion outliers” have undergone a dynamical ejection early in their evolution. Our analysis shows that the color-magnitude cuts used when selecting samples introduce strong bias into the population statistics due to varying levels of contamination and completeness.

  16. Compact stars in the braneworld: A new branch of stellar configurations with arbitrarily large mass (United States)

    Lugones, Germán; Arbañil, José D. V.


    We study the properties of compact stars in the Randall-Sundrum type-II braneworld (BW) model. To this end, we solve the braneworld generalization of the stellar structure equations for a static fluid distribution with spherical symmetry considering that the spacetime outside the star is described by a Schwarzschild metric. First, the stellar structure equations are integrated employing the so-called causal limit equation of state (EOS), which is constructed using a well-established EOS at densities below a fiducial density, and the causal EOS P =ρ above it. It is a standard procedure in general relativistic stellar structure calculations to use such EOSs for obtaining a limit in the mass radius diagram, known as the causal limit, above which no stellar configurations are possible if the EOS fulfills the condition that the sound velocity is smaller than the speed of light. We find that the equilibrium solutions in the braneworld model can violate the general relativistic causal limit, and for sufficiently large mass they approach asymptotically to the Schwarzschild limit M =2 R . Then, we investigate the properties of hadronic and strange quark stars using two typical EOSs: a nonlinear relativistic mean-field model for hadronic matter and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) bag model for quark matter. For masses below ˜1.5 M⊙- 2 M⊙ , the mass versus radius curves show the typical behavior found within the frame of general relativity. However, we also find a new branch of stellar configurations that can violate the general relativistic causal limit and that, in principle, may have an arbitrarily large mass. The stars belonging to this new branch are supported against collapse by the nonlocal effects of the bulk on the brane. We also show that these stars are always stable under small radial perturbations. These results support the idea that traces of extra dimensions might be found in astrophysics, specifically through the analysis of masses and

  17. An all-sky sample of intermediate-mass star-forming regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundquist, Michael J.; Kobulnicky, Henry A.; Alexander, Michael J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Kerton, Charles R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Arvidsson, Kim [Trull School of Sciences and Mathematics, Schreiner University, 2100 Memorial Boulevard, Kerrville, TX 78028 (United States)


    We present an all-sky sample of 984 candidate intermediate-mass Galactic star-forming regions that are color selected from the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) Point Source Catalog and morphologically classify each object using mid-infrared Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) images. Of the 984 candidates, 616 are probable star-forming regions (62.6%), 128 are filamentary structures (13.0%), 39 are point-like objects of unknown nature (4.0%), and 201 are galaxies (20.4%). We conduct a study of four of these regions, IRAS 00259+5625, IRAS 00420+5530, IRAS 01080+5717, and IRAS 05380+2020, at Galactic latitudes |b| > 5° using optical spectroscopy from the Wyoming Infrared Observatory, along with near-infrared photometry from the Two-Micron All Sky Survey, to investigate their stellar content. New optical spectra, color-magnitude diagrams, and color-color diagrams reveal their extinctions, spectrophotometric distances, and the presence of small stellar clusters containing 20-78 M {sub ☉} of stars. These low-mass diffuse star clusters contain ∼65-250 stars for a typical initial mass function, including one or more mid-B stars as their most massive constituents. Using infrared spectral energy distributions we identify young stellar objects near each region and assign probable masses and evolutionary stages to the protostars. The total infrared luminosity lies in the range 190-960 L {sub ☉}, consistent with the sum of the luminosities of the individually identified young stellar objects.

  18. Spectral and timing properties of neutron-star low-mass X-ray binaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lyu, Ming


    In this thesis I analyzed the neutron-star low-mass X-ray binaries using data from several X-ray telescopes. I found that the relations of fluxes of different radiation components in 4U 1636-53 is more complicated than what the simple reflction model predicts. This may be due to either changes in

  19. Mass-Individualism: Converse All Stars and the Paradox of Sartorial Sameness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackinney-Valentin, Maria


    . The concept of mass-individualism is used as a vehicle for understanding this paradox that is heightened both by the social value attributed to individuality in much of contemporary Western society and the image of All Stars as a symbol of individuality and self-expression. The concept is seen as part...

  20. On the stability and maximum mass of differentially rotating relativistic stars (United States)

    Weih, Lukas R.; Most, Elias R.; Rezzolla, Luciano


    The stability properties of rotating relativistic stars against prompt gravitational collapse to a black hole are rather well understood for uniformly rotating models. This is not the case for differentially rotating neutron stars, which are expected to be produced in catastrophic events such as the merger of binary system of neutron stars or the collapse of a massive stellar core. We consider sequences of differentially rotating equilibrium models using the j-constant law and by combining them with their dynamical evolution, we show that a sufficient stability criterion for differentially rotating neutron stars exists similar to the one of their uniformly rotating counterparts. Namely: along a sequence of constant angular momentum, a dynamical instability sets in for central rest-mass densities slightly below the one of the equilibrium solution at the turning point. In addition, following Breu & Rezzolla, we show that 'quasi-universal' relations can be found when calculating the turning-point mass. In turn, this allows us to compute the maximum mass allowed by differential rotation, Mmax,dr, in terms of the maximum mass of the non-rotating configuration, M_{_TOV}, finding that M_{max, dr} ˜eq (1.54 ± 0.05) M_{_TOV} for all the equations of state we have considered.

  1. The Influence of Mass Loss on the Eccentricity of Double Star Orbits (United States)

    Docobo, J. A.; Prieto, C.; Ling, J. F.

    In this comunication we study the behaviour of the eccentricity of double star orbits (visual and wide spectroscopic binaries) according to simplified laws of mass loss. Applications to the systems WDS 05245S0224 - HD 35411, WDS 05387S0236 - HD 37468 and WDS 06154S0902 - HD 43362 are included.

  2. Evidence against field decay proportional to accreted mass in neutron stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijers, R.A.M.J.


    A specific class of pulsar recycling model, in which magnetic field decrease is a function only of the amount of mass accreted on to the neutron star, is examined in detail. It is shown that no model in this class is consistent with all available data on X-ray binaries and recycled pulsars. Only if

  3. Lithium Inventory of 2 Solar Mass Red Clump Stars in Open Clusters: A Test of the Helium Flash Mechanism (United States)

    Carlberg, Joleen K.; Cunha, Katia; Smith, Verne V.


    The temperature distribution of field Li-rich red giants suggests the presence of a population of Li-rich red clump (RC) stars. One proposed explanation for this population is that all stars with masses near 2 solar mass experience a shortlived phase of Li-richness at the onset of core He-burning. Many of these stars have low C-12/C-13, a signature of deep mixing that is presumably associated with the Li regeneration. To test this purported mechanism of Li enrichment, we measured abundances in 38 RC stars and 6 red giant branch (RGB) stars in four open clusters selected to have RC masses near 2 solar mass. We find six Li-rich stars (A(Li) greater than or equal to 1.50 dex) of which only two may be RC stars. None of the RC stars have Li exceeding the levels observed in the RGB stars, but given the brevity of the suggested Li-rich phase and the modest sample size, it is probable that stars with larger Li-enrichments were missed simply by chance. However, we find very few stars in our sample with low C-12/C-13. Such low C-12/C-13, seen in many field Li-rich stars, should persist even after lithium has returned to normal low levels. Thus, if Li synthesis during the He flash occurs, it is a rare, but potentially long-lived occurrence rather than a short-lived phase for all stars. We estimate a conservative upper limit of the fraction of stars going through a Li-rich phase to be less than 47%, based on stars that have low C-12/C-13 for their observed A(Li).

  4. Can newly born neutron star collapse to low-mass black hole?

    CERN Document Server

    Miyazaki, K


    We investigate for the first time the newly born neutron star (NS) containing both hyperons and kaons as strange hadrons within the relativistic mean-field theory. It is found that the maximum baryonic mass of the newly born NS is lower than that of the cold deleptonized NS. Against the suggestion by Brown and Bethe, there is no possibility of the delayed collapse of NS to low-mass black hole.

  5. Identification of synthetic dyes in early colour photographs using capillary electrophoresis and electrospray ionisation-mass spectrometry. (United States)

    López-Montes, Ana Ma; Dupont, Anne-Laurence; Desmazières, Bernard; Lavédrine, Bertrand


    Capillary electrophoresis with photodiode array detection (CE-PDA) and with electrospray ionisation-mass spectrometry (CE-ESI-MS) was used for the separation and the identification of 23 synthetic organic dyes, among those used in early 20th century colour photographs such as autochromes. Both cationic and anionic dyes could be separated within 15min using a single CE-PDA method. The method was used as the basis to develop a CE-ESI-MS methodology through the optimisation of the relevant ESI and MS parameters. Sheath liquid composition, nebulising gas pressure, drying gas flow rate and drying gas temperature were found to influence the sensitivity of the detection. These parameters were optimised in positive and negative ion modes for cationic dyes and anionic dyes, respectively. The two analyses could be carried out successively on a single sample. In view of the application to cultural heritage objects, the CE-ESI-MS analytical procedure was applied to identify the dyes in a Filmcolor artefact, late version of the autochrome. The results complemented and enhanced current knowledge as four cationic dyes and three anionic dyes were identified. Four additional dyes are proposed as possibly present as traces. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Extraction and analysis of colourful eggshell pigments using HPLC and HPLC/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Gorchein, A; Lim, C K; Cassey, P


    The literature on the pigments of avian eggshells is critically reviewed. Methods using methanolic sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid to extract eggshell pigments are unsuitable to detect the occurrence of zinc protoporphyrin or zinc biliverdin because they demetallate these compounds. Extraction methods are described here using EDTA and acetonitrile-acetic acid or acetonitrile-dimethyl sulfoxide, which do not demetallate zinc protoporphyrin. Such extracts were prepared from eggshell of the common nighthawk, Chordeiles minor, and from another six bird species. Protoporphyrin and biliverdin were identified and fully characterized by HPLC/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI-MS/MS) in all samples, but none contained zinc protoporphyrin. The zinc complex of biliverdin, claimed to be an additional pigment responsible for eggshell background colours, was labile to EDTA and acid pH and if occurring naturally could not be extracted intact by the published or the modified protocols. An explanation is advanced for the exceptional report that all porphyrins from uroporphyrin to protoporphyrin were found in eggshells of the fowl Gallus domesticus.

  7. Gas stream in Algol. [mass transfer in binary star systems (United States)

    Cugier, H.; Chen, K.-Y.


    Additional absorption features in the red wings of the Mg II resonance lines near 2800 A are found in observations of Algol made from the Copernicus satellite. The absorption features were clearly seen only during a part of the primary eclipse, in the phase interval 0.90-0.03. The observations are interpreted as being produced by a stream of matter flowing from Algol B in the direction of Algol A. The measured Doppler shifts of the features give the value of 150 km/s as the characteristic velocity of matter in the stream. The mass transfer connected with the stream is estimated to be of the order of 10 to the -13th power solar mass per year.

  8. The Mass/Eccentricity Limit in Double Star Astronomy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Dommanget, J. 1963, Recherches sur l'évolution des étoiles doubles par voie statistique et par application de la mécanique des masses variables; Annales de l'Observatoire Royal de. Belgique, 3me série, IX, fasc. 1, pp. 92. Dommanget, J. 1964, Les étoiles doubles et l'évolution stellaire;Ciel et Terre,80,9–10, pp. 315–.

  9. The detection rates of merging binary black holes originating from star clusters and their mass function (United States)

    Fujii, Michiko S.; Tanikawa, Ataru; Makino, Junichiro


    Advanced LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory) observations achieved the first detection of the gravitational wave, which was from a merging binary black hole (BBH). In the near future, more merger events will be observed, and the mass distribution of them will become available. The mass distribution of merger events reflects the evolutionary path of BBHs: dynamical formation in dense star clusters or common envelope evolution from primordial binaries. In this paper, we estimate the detection rate of merging BBHs which dynamically formed in dense star clusters by combining the results of N-body simulations, modeling of globular clusters, and cosmic star-cluster formation history. We estimate that the merger rate density in the local universe within the redshift of 0.1 is 13-57 Gpc-3 yr-1. We find that the detection rate is 0.23-4.6 per year for the current sensitivity limit and that it would increase to 5.1-99 per year for the designed sensitivity which will be achieved in 2019. The distribution of merger rate density in the local universe as a function of redshifted chirp mass has a peak close to the low-mass end. The chirp mass function of the detected mergers, on the other hand, has a peak at the high-mass end, but is almost flat. This difference is simply because the detection range is larger for more massive BBHs.

  10. GW170817: a neutron star merger in a mass-transferring triple system (United States)

    Chang, Philip; Murray, Norman


    The light curve of GW170817 is surprisingly blue and bright. Assuming that the event is a binary neutron star merger, we argue that blueness and brightness of the light curve is the result of ejecta that contains an substantial amount of thermal energy. To achieve this, the ejecta must be reheated at a substantial distance (1-2000 solar radii) from the merger to avoid losing the energy to adiabatic cooling. We show that this reheating can occur if the merger occurs in a hierarchical triple system where the outer star has evolved and filled its Roche lobe. The outer star feeds mass to the inner binary, forming a circumbinary disc, driving the inner binary to merge. Because the outer star fills its Roche lobe, a substantial fraction of the dynamical ejecta collides with the evolved star, reheating the ejecta in the process. We suggest that the process of mass transfer in hierarchical triples tends to form coplanar triple systems such as PSR J0337+1715, and may provide electromagnetic counterparts to binary black hole mergers.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cauley, P. Wilson [Department of Astronomy, Wesleyan University, 45 Wyllys Avenue, Middletown, CT 06459 (United States); Johns-Krull, Christopher M., E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, 6100 Main Street, MS 108, Houston, TX 77005 (United States)


    We examine He I λ10830 profile morphologies for a sample of 56 Herbig Ae/Be stars (HAEBES). We find significant differences between HAEBES and classical T-Tauri stars (CTTS) in the statistics of both blueshifted absorption (i.e., mass outflows) and redshifted absorption features (i.e., mass infall or accretion). Our results suggest that, in general, Herbig Be (HBe) stars do not accrete material from their inner disks in the same manner as CTTS, which are believed to accrete material via magnetospheric accretion, whereas Herbig Ae (HAe) stars generally show evidence for magnetospheric accretion. We find no evidence in our sample of narrow blueshifted absorption features, which are typical indicators of inner disk winds and are common in He I λ10830 profiles of CTTS. The lack of inner-disk-wind signatures in HAEBES, combined with the paucity of detected magnetic fields on these objects, suggests that accretion through large magnetospheres that truncate the disk several stellar radii above the surface is not as common for HAe and late-type HBe stars as it is for CTTS. Instead, evidence is found for smaller magnetospheres in the maximum redshifted absorption velocities in our HAEBE sample. These velocities are, on average, a smaller fraction of the system escape velocity than is found for CTTS, suggesting accretion is taking place closer to the star. Smaller magnetospheres, and evidence for boundary layer accretion in HBe stars, may explain the less common occurrence of redshifted absorption in HAEBES. Evidence is found that smaller magnetospheres may be less efficient at driving outflows compared to CTTS magnetospheres.

  12. Exoplanet dynamics. Asynchronous rotation of Earth-mass planets in the habitable zone of lower-mass stars. (United States)

    Leconte, Jérémy; Wu, Hanbo; Menou, Kristen; Murray, Norman


    Planets in the habitable zone of lower-mass stars are often assumed to be in a state of tidally synchronized rotation, which would considerably affect their putative habitability. Although thermal tides cause Venus to rotate retrogradely, simple scaling arguments tend to attribute this peculiarity to the massive Venusian atmosphere. Using a global climate model, we show that even a relatively thin atmosphere can drive terrestrial planets' rotation away from synchronicity. We derive a more realistic atmospheric tide model that predicts four asynchronous equilibrium spin states, two being stable, when the amplitude of the thermal tide exceeds a threshold that is met for habitable Earth-like planets with a 1-bar atmosphere around stars more massive than ~0.5 to 0.7 solar mass. Thus, many recently discovered terrestrial planets could exhibit asynchronous spin-orbit rotation, even with a thin atmosphere. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  13. Neutron Star masses from the Field Correlator Method Equation of State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zappalà D.


    Full Text Available We analyse the hadron-quark phase transition in neutron stars by confronting the hadronic Equation of State (EoS obtained according to the microscopic Brueckner-Hartree-Fock many body theory, with the quark matter EoS derived within the Field Correlator Method. In particular, the latter EoS is only parametrized in terms of the gluon condensate and the large distance quark-antiquark potential, so that the comparison of the results of this analysis with the most recent measurements of heavy neutron star masses provides some physical constraints on these two parameters.

  14. The core mass growth and stellar lifetime of thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalirai, Jason S.; Tremblay, Pier-Emmanuel [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Marigo, Paola, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Padova, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 3, I-35122 Padova (Italy)


    We establish new constraints on the intermediate-mass range of the initial-final mass relation, and apply the results to study the evolution of stars on the thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch (TP-AGB). These constraints derive from newly discovered (bright) white dwarfs in the nearby Hyades and Praesepe star clusters, including a total of 18 high signal-to-noise ratio measurements with progenitor masses of M {sub initial} = 2.8-3.8 M {sub ☉}. We also include a new analysis of existing white dwarfs in the older NGC 6819 and NGC 7789 star clusters, M {sub initial} = 1.6 and 2.0 M {sub ☉}. Over this range of initial masses, stellar evolutionary models for metallicity Z {sub initial} = 0.02 predict the maximum growth of the core of TP-AGB stars. By comparing the newly measured remnant masses to the robust prediction of the core mass at the first thermal pulse on the AGB (i.e., from stellar interior models), we establish several findings. First, we show that the stellar core mass on the AGB grows rapidly from 10% to 30% for stars with M {sub initial} = 1.6 to 2.0 M {sub ☉}. At larger masses, the core-mass growth decreases steadily to ∼10% at M {sub initial} = 3.4 M {sub ☉}, after which there is a small hint of a upturn out to M {sub initial} = 3.8 M {sub ☉}. These observations are in excellent agreement with predictions from the latest TP-AGB evolutionary models in Marigo et al. We also compare to models with varying efficiencies of the third dredge-up and mass loss, and demonstrate that the process governing the growth of the core is largely the stellar wind, while the third dredge-up plays a secondary, but non-negligible role. Based on the new white dwarf measurements, we perform an exploratory calibration of the most popular mass-loss prescriptions in the literature, as well as of the third dredge-up efficiency as a function of the stellar mass. Finally, we estimate the lifetime and the integrated luminosity of stars on the TP-AGB to peak at t

  15. Completion of the universal I-Love-Q relations in compact stars including the mass (United States)

    Reina, Borja; Sanchis-Gual, Nicolas; Vera, Raül; Font, José A.


    In a recent paper, we applied a rigorous perturbed matching framework to show the amendment of the mass of rotating stars in Hartle's model. Here, we apply this framework to the tidal problem in binary systems. Our approach fully accounts for the correction to the Love numbers needed to obtain the universal I-Love-Q relations. We compute the corrected mass versus radius configurations of rotating quark stars, revisiting a classical paper on the subject. These corrections allow us to find a universal relation involving the second-order contribution to the mass δM. We thus complete the set of universal relations for the tidal problem in binary systems, involving four perturbation parameters, namely I, Love, Q and δM. These relations can be used to obtain the perturbation parameters directly from observational data.

  16. An ALMA survey for disks orbiting low-mass stars in the TW Hya Association (United States)

    Rodriguez, David R.; van der Plas, Gerrit; Kastner, Joel H.; Schneider, Adam C.; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Mardones, Diego; Mohanty, Subhanjoy; Principe, David


    We carried out an ALMA survey of 15 confirmed or candidate low-mass (M4-L0 and hence represent the extreme low end of the TWA's mass function. Our ALMA survey has yielded detections of 1.3 mm continuum emission around 4 systems (TWA 30B, 32, 33, and 34), suggesting the presence of cold dust grains. All continuum sources are unresolved. TWA 34 further shows 12CO(2-1) emission whose velocity structure is indicative of Keplerian rotation. Among the sample of known ~7-10 Myr-old star/disk systems, TWA 34, which lies just ~50 pc from Earth, is the lowest mass star thus far identified as harboring cold molecular gas in an orbiting disk.

  17. Gravitational fragmentation in turbulent primordial gas and the initial mass function of Population III stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Paul C.; /ZAH, Heidelberg; Glover, Simon C.O.; /ZAH, Heidelberg; Klessen, Ralf S.; /ZAH, Heidelberg /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Bromm, Volker; /Texas U., Astron. Dept.


    We report results from numerical simulations of star formation in the early universe that focus on the dynamical behavior of metal-free gas under different initial and environmental conditions. In particular we investigate the role of turbulence, which is thought to ubiquitously accompany the collapse of high-redshift halos. We distinguish between two main cases: the birth of Population III.1 stars - those which form in the pristine halos unaffected by prior star formation - and the formation of Population III.2 stars - those forming in halos where the gas is still metal free but has an increased ionization fraction. This latter case can arise either from exposure to the intense UV radiation of stellar sources in neighboring halos, or from the high virial temperatures associated with the formation of massive halos, that is, those with masses greater than {approx} 10{sup 8} M{sub {circle_dot}}. We find that turbulent primordial gas is highly susceptible to fragmentation in both cases, even for turbulence in the subsonic regime, i.e. for rms velocity dispersions as low as 20 % of the sound speed. Contrary to our original expectations, fragmentation is more vigorous and more widespread in pristine halos compared to pre-ionized ones. We therefore predict Pop III.1 stars to be on average of somewhat lower mass, and form in larger groups, than Pop III.2 stars. We find that fragment masses cover over two orders of magnitude, indicating that the resulting Population III initial mass function was significantly extended in mass as well. Our results suggest that the details of the fragmentation process depend on the local properties of the turbulent velocity field and hence we expect considerable variations in the resulting stellar mass spectrum in different halos. In particular, the lowest-mass objects in our sample should have survived to the present day and could potentially provide a unique record of the physical conditions of stellar birth in the primordial universe

  18. Weak and Compact Radio Emission in Early High-Mass Star Forming Regions (United States)

    Rosero Rueda, Viviana Andrea


    I present a high sensitivity radio continuum survey at 6 and 1.3 cm using the Karl. G. Jansky Very Large Array towards a sample of 58 high-mass star forming regions. The sample was chosen from clumps within infrared dark clouds, also known as cold molecular clumps (CMCs) with and without IR sources (CMC-IRs, CMCs, respectively) and hot molecular cores (HMCs), with no previous radio continuum detection at the 1 mJy level. Due to the remarkable improvement in the continuum sensitivity of the VLA, this survey achieved map rms levels of 3-10 ?Jy/beam at sub-arcsecond angular resolution. From this dataset I extracted 70 centimeter continuum sources that are associated with 1.2 mm dust clumps. Most sources are weak, compact, and are prime candidates for high-mass protostars. Detection rates of radio sources associated with the mm dust clumps for CMCs, CMC-IRs and HMCs are 6%, 53% and 100%, respectively. This result is consistent with increasing high-mass star formation activity from CMCs to HMCs. I calculated 5-25 GHz spectral indices using power law fits and obtain a median value of 0.5 (i.e., flux increasing with frequency), which is consistent with thermal emission from ionized jets. Moreover, these detected ionized jets towards high-mass stars are well correlated with jets formed towards lower masses, providing further evidence that ionized jets from any luminosity have a common origin. Ultimately, this set of detections will likely provide good candidates to enable new tests of high-mass star formation theories, in particular testing predictions of core accretion and competitive accretion models.

  19. Numerical calculations of mass transfer flow in semi-detached binary systems. [of stars (United States)

    Edwards, D. A.; Pringle, J. E.


    The details of the mass transfer flow near the inner Lagrangian point in a semidetached binary system are numerically calculated. A polytropic equation of state with n = 3/2 is used. The dependence of the mass transfer rate on the degree to which the star overfills its Roche lobe is calculated, and good agreement with previous analytic estimates is found. The variation of mass transfer rate which occurs if the binary system has a small eccentricity is calculated and is used to cast doubt on the model for superhumps in dwarf novae proposed by Papaloizou and Pringle (1979).

  20. Are We Observing Coronal Mass Ejections in OH/IR AGB Stars? (United States)

    Heiles, Carl


    Solar Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) are magnetic electron clouds that are violently ejected by the same magnetic reconnection events that produce Solar flares. CMEs are the major driving source of the hazardous space weather environments near the Earth. In exoplanet systems, the equivalent of Solar wind and CMEs can affect a planet's atmosphere, and in extreme cases can erode it, as probably happened with Mars, or disrupt the cosmic-ray shielding aspect of the planet's magnetic field.We (Jensen et al. 2013SoPh..285...83J, 2016SoPh..291..465J) have developed a new way to observe the electron column density and magnetic field of CMEs, namely to measure the frequency change and Faraday rotation of a spacecraft downlink carrier produced by propagation effects in the plasma. Surprisingly, this can work on other stars if they have the equivalent of the spacecraft carrier, as do OH/IR stars.OH/IR stars are Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars, which are red giant stars burning He in their final stages of stellar evolution. They have highly convective surfaces and large mass-ejection rates in the form of expanding dense shells of molecular gas and obscuring dust, which were ejected from the star by chaotic turbulent motions and then accelerated by radiation pressure. OH masers reside in these shells, pumped by the IR emission from the dust. The OH masers on the far side of the star (i.e., the positive-velocity masers) are the surrogate for the Solar-case spacecraft signal.The big question: Can we see CMEs in OH/IR stars? We have observed six OH/IR stars with the Arecibo Observatory for a total of about 150 hours over the past 1.5 years. We see changes in OH maser frequency and in the position angle of linear polarization. Both can be produced by electron clouds moving across the line of sight. We will present statistical summaries of the variability and interpret them in terms of CME models.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilly, Simon J.; Carollo, C. Marcella; Pipino, Antonio; Peng Yingjie [Institute for Astronomy, Department of Physics, ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Renzini, Alvio [Department of Physics and Astronomy Galileo Galilei, Universita degli Studi di Padova, via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy)


    A very simple physical model of galaxies is one in which the formation of stars is instantaneously regulated by the mass of gas in a reservoir with mass loss scaling with the star-formation rate (SFR). This model links together three different aspects of the evolving galaxy population: (1) the cosmic time evolution of the specific star-formation rate (sSFR) relative to the growth of halos, (2) the gas-phase metallicities across the galaxy population and over cosmic time, and (3) the ratio of the stellar to dark matter mass of halos. The gas regulator is defined by the gas consumption timescale ({epsilon}{sup -1}) and the mass loading {lambda} of the wind outflow {lambda}{center_dot}SFR. The simplest regulator, in which {epsilon} and {lambda} are constant, sets the sSFR equal to exactly the specific accretion rate of the galaxy; more realistic situations lead to an sSFR that is perturbed from this precise relation. Because the gas consumption timescale is shorter than the timescale on which the system evolves, the metallicity Z is set primarily by the instantaneous operation of the regulator system rather than by the past history of the system. The metallicity of the gas reservoir depends on {epsilon}, {lambda}, and sSFR, and the regulator system therefore naturally produces a Z(m{sub star}, SFR) relation if {epsilon} and {lambda} depend on the stellar mass m{sub star}. Furthermore, this relation will be the same at all epochs unless the parameters {epsilon} and {lambda} themselves change with time. A so-called fundamental metallicity relation is naturally produced by these conditions. The overall mass-metallicity relation Z(m{sub star}) directly provides the fraction f{sub star}(m{sub star}) of incoming baryons that are being transformed into stars. The observed Z(m{sub star}) relation of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) galaxies implies a strong dependence of stellar mass on halo mass that reconciles the different faint-end slopes of the stellar and halo mass

  2. Distinguishing chinese star anise from Japanese star anise using thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Howes, Melanie-Jayne R; Kite, Geoffrey C; Simmonds, Monique S J


    The volatile compounds from the pericarps of Illicium anisatum L., Illicium brevistylum A.C.Sm., Illicium griffithii Hook.f. & Thomson, Illicium henryi Diels, Illicium lanceolatum A.C.Sm., Illicium majus Hook.f. & Thomson, Illicium micranthum Dunn, and Illicium verum Hook.f. were examined by thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS). The volatiles desorbed from the pericarps of I. verum (Chinese star anise), the species traded for culinary purposes, were generally characterized by a high proportion of (E)-anethole (57.6-77.1%) and the presence of foeniculin; the latter was otherwise only detected in the pericarps of I. lanceolatum. In the pericarps of all other species analyzed, the percentage composition of (E)-anethole was comparatively lower (toxic I. anisatum (Japanese star anise) were characterized by the presence of asaricin, methoxyeugenol, and two other eugenol derivatives, none of which were detected in any of the other species examined. TD-GC-MS enables the direct analysis of the volatile components from the pericarps of Illicium and can assist with differentiating the fruits of I. verum from other species of Illicium, particularly the more toxic I. anisatum.

  3. Tidal Dissipation In Rotating Low Mass Stars: Implications For The Orbital Evolution Of Close In Planets (United States)

    Gallet, Florian; Bolmont, Emeline; Mathis, Stéphane; Charbonnel, Corinne; Amard, Louis; Alibert, Yann


    Close-in planets represent a large fraction of the population of confirmed exoplanets. To understand the dynamical evolution of these planets, star-planet interactions must be taken into account. In particular, the dependence of the tidal interactions on the structural parameters of the star, its rotation, and its metallicity should be treated in the models. We quantify how the tidal dissipation in the convective envelope of rotating low-mass stars evolves in time. We also investigate the possible consequences of this evolution on planetary orbital evolution. In Gallet et al. (2017) and Bolmont et al. (2017) we generalized the work of Bolmont & Mathis (2016) by following the orbital evolution of close-in planets using the new tidal dissipation predictions for advanced phases of stellar evolution and non-solar metallicity. We find that during the pre-main sequence the evolution of tidal dissipation is controlled by the evolution of the internal structure of the star through the stellar contraction. On the main-sequence tidal dissipation is strongly driven by the evolution of the surface rotation that is impacted by magnetized stellar winds braking. Finally, during the more evolved phases, the tidal dissipation sharply decreases as radiative core retreats in mass and radius towards the red-giant branch. Using an orbital evolution model, we also show that changing the metallicity leads to diUerent orbital evolutions (e.g., planets migrate farther out from an initially fast rotating metal rich star). By using this model, we qualitatively reproduced the observational trends of the population of hot Jupiters with the metallicity of their host stars. However, more work still remain to be do so as to be able to quantitatively fit our results to the observations.

  4. The scenario of two families of compact stars. Pt. 1. Equations of state, mass-radius relations and binary systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drago, Alessandro; Pagliara, Giuseppe [Ferrara Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica e Scienze della Terra; INFN, Ferrara (Italy); Lavagno, Andrea; Pigato, Daniele [Politecnico di Torino (Italy). Dept. of Applied Science and Technology; INFN, Torino (Italy)


    We present several arguments which favor the scenario of two coexisting families of compact stars: hadronic stars and quark stars. Besides the well-known hyperon puzzle of the physics of compact stars, a similar puzzle exists also when considering delta resonances. We show that these particles appear at densities close to twice saturation density and must be therefore included in the calculations of the hadronic equation of state. Such an early appearance is strictly related to the value of the L parameter of the symmetry energy that has been found, in recent phenomenological studies, to lie in the range 40 < L < 62 MeV. We discuss also the threshold for the formation of deltas and hyperons for hot and lepton-rich hadronic matter. Similarly to the case of hyperons, also delta resonances cause a softening of the equation of state, which makes it difficult to obtain massive hadronic stars. Quark stars, on the other hand, can reach masses up to 2.75M {sub CircleDot} as predicted by perturbative QCD calculations. We then discuss the observational constraints on the masses and the radii of compact stars. The tension between the precise measurements of high masses and the indications of the existence of very compact stellar objects (with radii of the order of 10 km) is relieved when assuming that very massive compact stars are quark stars and very compact stars are hadronic stars. Finally, we discuss recent interesting measurements of the eccentricities of the orbits of millisecond pulsars in low mass X-ray binaries. The high values of the eccentricities found in some cases could be explained by assuming that the hadronic star, initially present in the binary system, converts to a quark star due to the increase of its central density. (orig.)

  5. Modeling The GRB Host Galaxy Mass Distribution: Are GRBs Unbiased Tracers of Star Formation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocevski, Daniel; /KIPAC, Menlo Park; West, Andrew A.; /UC, Berkeley, Astron. Dept. /MIT, MKI; Modjaz, Maryam; /UC, Berkeley, Astron. Dept.


    We model the mass distribution of long gamma-ray burst (GRB) host galaxies given recent results suggesting that GRBs occur in low metallicity environments. By utilizing measurements of the redshift evolution of the mass-metallicity (M-Z) relationship for galaxies, along with a sharp host metallicity cut-off suggested by Modjaz and collaborators, we estimate an upper limit on the stellar mass of a galaxy that can efficiently produce a GRB as a function of redshift. By employing consistent abundance indicators, we find that sub-solar metallicity cut-offs effectively limit GRBs to low stellar mass spirals and dwarf galaxies at low redshift. At higher redshifts, as the average metallicity of galaxies in the Universe falls, the mass range of galaxies capable of hosting a GRB broadens, with an upper bound approaching the mass of even the largest spiral galaxies. We compare these predicted limits to the growing number of published GRB host masses and find that extremely low metallicity cut-offs of 0.1 to 0.5 Z{sub {circle_dot}} are effectively ruled out by a large number of intermediate mass galaxies at low redshift. A mass function that includes a smooth decrease in the efficiency of producing GRBs in galaxies of metallicity above 12+log(O/H){sub KK04} = 8.7 can, however, accommodate a majority of the measured host galaxy masses. We find that at z {approx} 1, the peak in the observed GRB host mass distribution is inconsistent with the expected peak in the mass of galaxies harboring most of the star formation. This suggests that GRBs are metallicity biased tracers of star formation at low and intermediate redshifts, although our model predicts that this bias should disappear at higher redshifts due to the evolving metallicity content of the universe.

  6. A hot Jupiter orbiting a 2-million-year-old solar-mass T Tauri star. (United States)

    Donati, J F; Moutou, C; Malo, L; Baruteau, C; Yu, L; Hébrard, E; Hussain, G; Alencar, S; Ménard, F; Bouvier, J; Petit, P; Takami, M; Doyon, R; Collier Cameron, A


    Hot Jupiters are giant Jupiter-like exoplanets that orbit their host stars 100 times more closely than Jupiter orbits the Sun. These planets presumably form in the outer part of the primordial disk from which both the central star and surrounding planets are born, then migrate inwards and yet avoid falling into their host star. It is, however, unclear whether this occurs early in the lives of hot Jupiters, when they are still embedded within protoplanetary disks, or later, once multiple planets are formed and interact. Although numerous hot Jupiters have been detected around mature Sun-like stars, their existence has not yet been firmly demonstrated for young stars, whose magnetic activity is so intense that it overshadows the radial velocity signal that close-in giant planets can induce. Here we report that the radial velocities of the young star V830 Tau exhibit a sine wave of period 4.93 days and semi-amplitude 75 metres per second, detected with a false-alarm probability of less than 0.03 per cent, after filtering out the magnetic activity plaguing the spectra. We find that this signal is unrelated to the 2.741-day rotation period of V830 Tau and we attribute it to the presence of a planet of mass 0.77 times that of Jupiter, orbiting at a distance of 0.057 astronomical units from the host star. Our result demonstrates that hot Jupiters can migrate inwards in less than two million years, probably as a result of planet–disk interactions.

  7. A planet in a polar orbit of 1.4 solar-mass star

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guenther E.W.


    Full Text Available Although more than a thousand transiting extrasolar planets have been discovered, only very few of them orbit stars that are more massive than the Sun. The discovery of such planets is interesting, because they have formed in disks that are more massive but had a shorter life time than those of solar-like stars. Studies of planets more massive than the Sun thus tell us how the properties of the proto-planetary disks effect the formation of planets. Another aspect that makes these planets interesting is that they have kept their original orbital inclinations. By studying them we can thus find out whether the orbital axes planets are initially aligned to the stars rotational axes, or not. Here we report on the discovery of a planet of a 1.4 solar-mass star with a period of 5.6 days in a polar orbit made by CoRoT. This new planet thus is one of the few known close-in planets orbiting a star that is substantially more massive than the Sun.

  8. Time-of-flight mass measurements for nuclear processes in neutron star crusts. (United States)

    Estradé, A; Matoš, M; Schatz, H; Amthor, A M; Bazin, D; Beard, M; Becerril, A; Brown, E F; Cyburt, R; Elliot, T; Gade, A; Galaviz, D; George, S; Gupta, S S; Hix, W R; Lau, R; Lorusso, G; Möller, P; Pereira, J; Portillo, M; Rogers, A M; Shapira, D; Smith, E; Stolz, A; Wallace, M; Wiescher, M


    We present results from time-of-flight nuclear mass measurements at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory that are relevant for neutron star crust models. The masses of 16 neutron-rich nuclei in the scandium-nickel range were determined simultaneously, with the masses of (61)V, (63)Cr, (66)Mn, and (74)Ni measured for the first time with mass excesses of -30.510(890) MeV, -35.280(650) MeV, -36.900(790) MeV, and -49.210(990) MeV, respectively. With these results the locations of the dominant electron capture heat sources in the outer crust of accreting neutron stars that exhibit super bursts are now experimentally constrained. We find the experimental Q value for the (66)Fe→(66)Mn electron capture to be 2.1 MeV (2.6σ) smaller than predicted, resulting in the transition occurring significantly closer to the neutron star surface. © 2011 American Physical Society

  9. A super-Earth transiting a nearby low-mass star. (United States)

    Charbonneau, David; Berta, Zachory K; Irwin, Jonathan; Burke, Christopher J; Nutzman, Philip; Buchhave, Lars A; Lovis, Christophe; Bonfils, Xavier; Latham, David W; Udry, Stéphane; Murray-Clay, Ruth A; Holman, Matthew J; Falco, Emilio E; Winn, Joshua N; Queloz, Didier; Pepe, Francesco; Mayor, Michel; Delfosse, Xavier; Forveille, Thierry


    A decade ago, the detection of the first transiting extrasolar planet provided a direct constraint on its composition and opened the door to spectroscopic investigations of extrasolar planetary atmospheres. Because such characterization studies are feasible only for transiting systems that are both nearby and for which the planet-to-star radius ratio is relatively large, nearby small stars have been surveyed intensively. Doppler studies and microlensing have uncovered a population of planets with minimum masses of 1.9-10 times the Earth's mass (M[symbol:see text]), called super-Earths. The first constraint on the bulk composition of this novel class of planets was afforded by CoRoT-7b (refs 8, 9), but the distance and size of its star preclude atmospheric studies in the foreseeable future. Here we report observations of the transiting planet GJ 1214b, which has a mass of 6.55M[symbol:see text]), and a radius 2.68 times Earth's radius (R[symbol:see text]), indicating that it is intermediate in stature between Earth and the ice giants of the Solar System. We find that the planetary mass and radius are consistent with a composition of primarily water enshrouded by a hydrogen-helium envelope that is only 0.05% of the mass of the planet. The atmosphere is probably escaping hydrodynamically, indicating that it has undergone significant evolution during its history. The star is small and only 13 parsecs away, so the planetary atmosphere is amenable to study with current observatories.

  10. Asymptotic giant branch stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud: evolution of dust in circumstellar envelopes (United States)

    Dell'Agli, F.; Ventura, P.; Schneider, R.; Di Criscienzo, M.; García-Hernández, D. A.; Rossi, C.; Brocato, E.


    We calculated theoretical evolutionary sequences of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, including the formation and evolution of dust grains in their circumstellar envelopes. By considering stellar populations of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), we calculate synthetic colour-colour and colour-magnitude diagrams, which are compared with those obtained by the Spitzer Space Telescope. The comparison between observations and theoretical predictions outlines that extremely obscured carbon stars and oxygen-rich sources experiencing hot bottom burning (HBB) occupy well-defined, distinct regions in the colour-colour ([3.6] - [4.5], [5.8] - [8.0]) diagram. The C-rich stars are distributed along a diagonal strip that we interpret as an evolutionary sequence, becoming progressively more obscured as the stellar surface layers enrich in carbon. Their circumstellar envelopes host solid carbon dust grains with size in the range 0.05 2, are the descendants of stars with initial mass Min ˜ 2.5-3 M⊙ in the very latest phases of AGB life. The oxygen-rich stars with the reddest colours ([5.8] - [8.0] > 0.6) are those experiencing HBB, the descendants of ˜5 M⊙ objects formed 108 yr ago; alumina and silicate dust starts forming at different distances from the central star. The overall dust production rate in the LMC is ˜4.5 × 10-5 M⊙ yr-1, the relative percentages due to C and M stars being 85 and 15 per cent, respectively.

  11. Consequences of dynamical disruption and mass segregation for the binary frequencies of star clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geller, Aaron M. [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Rd, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); De Grijs, Richard [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Yi He Yuan Lu 5, Hai Dian District, Beijing 100871 (China); Li, Chengyuan [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, Yi He Yuan Lu 5, Hai Dian District, Beijing 100871 (China); Hurley, Jarrod R., E-mail: [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, VIC 3122 (Australia)


    The massive (13,000-26,000 M {sub ☉}) and young (15-30 Myr) Large Magellanic Cloud star cluster NGC 1818 reveals an unexpected increasing binary frequency with radius for F-type stars (1.3-2.2 M {sub ☉}). This is in contrast to many older star clusters that show a decreasing binary frequency with radius. We study this phenomenon with sophisticated N-body modeling, exploring a range of initial conditions, from smooth virialized density distributions to highly substructured and collapsing configurations. We find that many of these models can reproduce the cluster's observed properties, although with a modest preference for substructured initial conditions. Our models produce the observed radial trend in binary frequency through disruption of soft binaries (with semi-major axes, a ≳ 3000 AU), on approximately a crossing time (∼5.4 Myr), preferentially in the cluster core. Mass segregation subsequently causes the binaries to sink toward the core. After roughly one initial half-mass relaxation time (t {sub rh}(0) ∼ 340 Myr) the radial binary frequency distribution becomes bimodal, the innermost binaries having already segregated toward the core, leaving a minimum in the radial binary frequency distribution that marches outward with time. After 4-6 t {sub rh}(0), the rising distribution in the halo disappears, leaving a radial distribution that rises only toward the core. Thus, both a radial binary frequency distribution that falls toward the core (as observed for NGC 1818) and one that rises toward the core (as for older star clusters) can arise naturally from the same evolutionary sequence owing to binary disruption and mass segregation in rich star clusters.

  12. Pulsations of intermediate-mass stars on the asymptotic giant branch (United States)

    Fadeyev, Yu. A.


    Evolutionary tracks from the zero age main sequence to the asymptotic giant branch were computed for stars with initial masses 2 M ⊙ ≤ M ZAMS ≤ 5 M ⊙ and metallicity Z = 0.02. Some models of evolutionary sequences were used as initial conditions for equations of radiation hydrodynamics and turbulent convection describing radial stellar pulsations. The early asymptotic giant branch stars are shown to pulsate in the fundamental mode with periods 30 day ≲ Π ≲ 400day. The rate of period change gradually increases as the star evolves but is too small to be detected (Π˙/Π < 10-5 yr-1). Pulsation properties of thermally pulsing AGB stars are investigated on time intervals comprising 17 thermal pulses for evolutionary sequences with initial masses M ZAMS = 2 M ⊙ and 3 M ⊙ and 6 thermal pulses for M ZAMS = 4 M ⊙ and 5 M ⊙. Stars with initial masses M ZAMS ≤ 3 M ⊙ pulsate either in the fundamental mode or in the first overtone, whereas more massive red giants ( M ZAMS ≥ 4 M ⊙) pulsate in the fundamental mode with periods Π ≲ 103 day. Most rapid pulsation period change with rate -0.02 yr-1 ≲ Π˙/Π ≲ -0.01 yr-1 occurs during decrease of the surface luminosity after the maximum of the luminosity in the helium shell source. The rate of subsequent increase of the period is Π˙/Π ≲ 5 × 10-3 yr-1.

  13. Characterizing Intermediate-Mass, Pre-Main-Sequence Stars via X-Ray Emision (United States)

    Haze Nunez, Evan; Povich, Matthew Samuel; Binder, Breanna Arlene; Broos, Patrick; Townsley, Leisa K.


    The X-ray emission from intermediate-mass, pre-main-sequence stars (IMPS) can provide useful constraints on the ages of very young (${evolution, before the development and rapid growth of a radiation zone. We present our prime candidates for intrinsic, coronal X-ray emission from IMPS identified in the Chandra Carina Complex Project. The Carina massive star-forming complex is of special interest due to the wide variation of star formation stages within the region. Candidate IMPS were identified using infrared spectral energy distribution (SED) models. X-ray properties, including thermal plasma temperatures and absorption-corrected fluxes, were derived from XSPEC fits performed using absorption ($N_{H}$) constrained by the extinction values returned by the infrared SED fits. We find that IMPS have systematically higher X-ray luminosities compared to their lower-mass cousins, the TTauri stars.This work is supported by the National Science Foundation under grant CAREER-1454334 and by NASA through Chandra Award 18200040.

  14. Neutron star mass limit at 2M{sub ⊙} supports the existence of a CEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez-Castillo, D. [JINR Dubna, Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Dubna (Russian Federation); Benic, S. [University of Zagreb, Department of Physics, Zagreb (Croatia); Blaschke, D. [JINR Dubna, Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Dubna (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University (MEPhI), Moscow (Russian Federation); University of Wroclaw, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Wroclaw (Poland); Han, Sophia [University of Tennessee, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Knoxville, TN (United States); Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Physics Division, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Typel, S. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany)


    We point out that the very existence of a ''horizontal branch'' in the mass-radius characteristics for neutron stars indicates a strong first-order phase transition and thus supports the existence of a critical endpoint (CEP) of first-order phase transitions in the QCD phase diagram. This branch would sample a sequence of hybrid stars with quark matter core, leading to the endpoint of stable compact star configurations with the highest possible baryon densities. Since we know of the existence of compact stars with 2M{sub ⊙}, this hypothetical branch has to lie in the vicinity of this mass value, if it exists. We report here a correlation between the maximal radius of the horizontal branch and the pressure at the onset of hadron-to-quark matter phase transition, which is likely to be a universal quantity of utmost relevance to the upcoming experiments with heavy-ion collisions at NICA and FAIR. (orig.)

  15. Transitional Disks Associated with Intermediate-Mass Stars: Results of the SEEDS YSO Survey (United States)

    Grady, C.; Fukagawa, M.; Maruta, Y.; Ohta, Y.; Wisniewski, J.; Hashimoto, J.; Okamoto, Y.; Momose, M.; Currie, T.; McElwain, M.; hide


    Protoplanetary disks are where planets form, grow, and migrate to produce the diversity of exoplanet systems we observe in mature systems. Disks where this process has advanced to the stage of gap opening, and in some cases central cavity formation, have been termed pre-transitional and transitional disks in the hope that they represent intermediate steps toward planetary system formation. Recent reviews have focussed on disks where the star is of solar or sub-solar mass. In contrast to the sub-millimeter where cleared central cavities predominate, at H-band some T Tauri star transitional disks resemble primordial disks in having no indication of clearing, some show a break in the radial surface brightness profile at the inner edge of the outer disk, while others have partially to fully cleared gaps or central cavities. Recently, the Meeus Group I Herbig stars, intermediate-mass PMS stars with IR spectral energy distributions often interpreted as flared disks, have been proposed to have transitional and pre-transitional disks similar to those associated with solar-mass PMS stars, based on thermal-IR imaging, and sub-millimeter interferometry. We have investigated their appearance in scattered light as part of the Strategic Exploration of Exoplanets and Disks with Subaru (SEEDS), obtaining H-band polarimetric imagery of 10 intermediate-mass stars with Meeus Group I disks. Augmented by other disks with imagery in the literature, the sample is now sufficiently large to explore how these disks are similar to and differ from T Tauri star disks. The disk morphologies seen in the Tauri disks are also found for the intermediate-mass star disks, but additional phenomena are found; a hallmark of these disks is remarkable individuality and diversity which does not simply correlate with disk mass or stellar properties, including age, including spiral arms in remnant envelopes, arms in the disk, asymmetrically and potentially variably shadowed outer disks, gaps, and one disk


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ge, Hongwei; Chen, Xuefei; Han, Zhanwen [Yunnan Observatories, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China); Webbink, Ronald F., E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois, 1002 W. Green St., Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)


    In the limit of extremely rapid mass transfer, the response of a donor star in an interacting binary becomes asymptotically one of adiabatic expansion. We survey here adiabatic mass loss from Population I stars (Z = 0.02) of mass 0.10 M{sub ⊙}–100 M{sub ⊙} from the zero-age main sequence to the base of the giant branch, or to central hydrogen exhaustion for lower main sequence stars. The logarithmic derivatives of radius with respect to mass along adiabatic mass-loss sequences translate into critical mass ratios for runaway (dynamical timescale) mass transfer, evaluated here under the assumption of conservative mass transfer. For intermediate- and high-mass stars, dynamical mass transfer is preceded by an extended phase of thermal timescale mass transfer as the star is stripped of most of its envelope mass. The critical mass ratio q{sub ad} (throughout this paper, we follow the convention of defining the binary mass ratio as q ≡ M{sub donor}/M{sub accretor}) above which this delayed dynamical instability occurs increases with advancing evolutionary age of the donor star, by ever-increasing factors for more massive donors. Most intermediate- or high-mass binaries with nondegenerate accretors probably evolve into contact before manifesting this instability. As they approach the base of the giant branch, however, and begin developing a convective envelope, q{sub ad} plummets dramatically among intermediate-mass stars, to values of order unity, and a prompt dynamical instability occurs. Among low-mass stars, the prompt instability prevails throughout main sequence evolution, with q{sub ad} declining with decreasing mass, and asymptotically approaching q{sub ad} = 2/3, appropriate to a classical isentropic n = 3/2 polytrope. Our calculated q{sub ad} values agree well with the behavior of time-dependent models by Chen and Han of intermediate-mass stars initiating mass transfer in the Hertzsprung gap. Application of our results to cataclysmic variables, as systems

  17. Massive stars reveal variations of the stellar initial mass function in the Milky Way stellar clusters (United States)

    Dib, Sami; Schmeja, Stefan; Hony, Sacha


    We investigate whether the stellar initial mass function (IMF) is universal, or whether it varies significantly among young stellar clusters in the Milky Way. We propose a method to uncover the range of variation of the parameters that describe the shape of the IMF for the population of young Galactic clusters.These parameters are the slopes in the low and high stellar mass regimes, γ and Γ, respectively, and the characteristic mass, Mch. The method relies exclusively on the high-mass content of the clusters, but is able to yield information on the distributions of parameters that describe the IMF over the entire stellar mass range. This is achieved by comparing the fractions of single and lonely massive O stars in a recent catalogue of the Milky Way clusters with a library of simulated clusters built with various distribution functions of the IMF parameters. The synthetic clusters are corrected for the effects of the binary population, stellar evolution, sample incompleteness, and ejected O stars. Our findings indicate that broad distributions of the IMF parameters are required in order to reproduce the fractions of single and lonely O stars in Galactic clusters. They also do not lend support to the existence of a cluster mass-maximum stellar mass relation. We propose a probabilistic formulation of the IMF whereby the parameters of the IMF are described by Gaussian distribution functions centred around γ = 0.91, Γ = 1.37, and Mch = 0.41 M⊙, and with dispersions of σγ = 0.25, σΓ = 0.60, and σ _{M_{ch}}=0.27 M⊙ around these values.

  18. Mitigating the mass dependence in the Δν scaling relation of red giant stars (United States)

    Guggenberger, Elisabeth; Hekker, Saskia; Angelou, George C.; Basu, Sarbani; Bellinger, Earl P.


    The masses and radii of solar-like oscillators can be estimated through the asteroseismic scaling relations. These relations provide a direct link between observables, I.e. effective temperature and characteristics of the oscillation spectra, and stellar properties, I.e. mean density and surface gravity (thus mass and radius). These scaling relations are commonly used to characterize large samples of stars. Usually, the Sun is used as a reference from which the structure is scaled. However, for stars that do not have a similar structure as the Sun, using the Sun as a reference introduces systematic errors as large as 10 per cent in mass and 5 per cent in radius. Several alternatives for the reference of the scaling relation involving the large frequency separation (typical frequency difference between modes of the same degree and consecutive radial order) have been suggested in the literature. In a previous paper, we presented a reference function with a dependence on both effective temperature and metallicity. The accuracy of predicted masses and radii improved considerably when using reference values calculated from our reference function. However, the residuals indicated that stars on the red giant branch possess a mass dependence that was not accounted for. Here, we present a reference function for the scaling relation involving the large frequency separation that includes the mass dependence. This new reference function improves the derived masses and radii significantly by removing the systematic differences and mitigates the trend with νmax (frequency of maximum oscillation power) that exists when using the solar value as a reference.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyoung-Soo [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Yale Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Ferguson, Henry C.; Dahlen, Tomas; Grogin, Norman [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Wiklind, Tommy [ALMA/ESO, Santiago (Chile); Dickinson, Mark E. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Giavalisco, Mauro; Guo, Yicheng [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Papovich, Casey [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Messias, Hugo [Departamento de Astronomia, Av. Esteban Iturra 6to piso, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas y Matematicas, Universidad de Concepcion (Chile); Lin, Lihwai [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)


    We investigate how star-forming galaxies typically assemble their masses at high redshift. Taking advantage of the deep multi-wavelength coverage of the GOODS data set, we select two of the largest samples of high-redshift star-forming galaxies based on their UV colors and measure stellar mass of individual galaxies. We use template-fitting photometry to obtain optimal estimates of the fluxes in lower-resolution ground-based and Spitzer images using prior information about galaxy positions, shapes, and orientations. By combining the data and realistic simulations to understand measurement errors and biases, we make a statistically robust determination of stellar mass function (SMF) of the UV-selected star-forming galaxies at z {approx} 4 and 5. We report a broad correlation between stellar mass and UV luminosity, such that more UV-luminous galaxies are, on average, also more massive. However, we show that the correlation has a substantial intrinsic scatter, particularly for UV-faint galaxies, evidenced by the fact there is a non-negligible number of UV faint but massive galaxies. Furthermore, we find that the low-mass end of the SMF does not rise as steeply as the UV luminosity function ({alpha}{sub UVLF} Almost-Equal-To - (1.7-1.8) while {alpha}{sub SMF} Almost-Equal-To - (1.3-1.4)) of the same galaxies. In a smooth and continuous formation scenario where star formation rates (SFRs) are sustained at the observed rates for a long time, these galaxies would have accumulated more stellar mass (by a factor of Almost-Equal-To 3) than observed and therefore the SMF would mirror more closely that of the UV luminosity function. The relatively shallow slope of the SMF is due to the fact that many of the UV-selected galaxies are not massive enough, and therefore are too faint in their rest-frame optical bands, to be detected in the current observations. Our results favor a more episodic formation history in which SFRs of low-mass galaxies vary significantly over cosmic time

  20. Measuring Colour

    CERN Document Server

    Hunt, R W G


    The classic authority on colour measurement now fully revised and updated with the latest CIE recommendations The measurement of colour is of major importance in many commercial applications, such as the textile, paint, and foodstuff industries; as well as having a significant role in the lighting, paper, printing, cosmetic, plastics, glass, chemical, photographic, television, transport, and communication industries. Building upon the success of earlier editions, the 4th edition of Measuring Colour has been updated throughout with new chapters on colour rendering by light sources; colorimetry

  1. Blue Stragglers and Other Stars of Mass Consumption in Globular Clusters (United States)

    Panurach, Teresa; Leigh, Nathan


    Simulations of globular clusters suggest that collisions between main-sequence (MS) stars happen frequently. Stellar evolution models show that these collision products can be photometrically identified, appearing off the MS locus. These collision products can appear brighter and bluer than the MS turnoff, called “blue stragglers,” or even less massive and redder than the MS. We use proper motion-cleaned photometry from the Hubble Space Telescope of 38 globular clusters to identify candidate collision products. We compare the spectral energy distributions of our candidates to theoretical templates for single and multiple star systems, to constrain the possible presence of a binary companion and test consistency with theoretical stellar evolution models for collision products. For the BSs, we also compare the observed velocities from the proper motion catalog along with mass estimates derived from isochrone-fitting to theoretical predictions for both the collision and binary mass transfer models and find better agreement with the former.

  2. Empirical photometric calibration of the Gaia red clump: Colours, effective temperature, and absolute magnitude (United States)

    Ruiz-Dern, L.; Babusiaux, C.; Arenou, F.; Turon, C.; Lallement, R.


    Context. Gaia Data Release 1 allows the recalibration of standard candles such as the red clump stars. To use those stars, they first need to be accurately characterised. In particular, colours are needed to derive interstellar extinction. As no filter is available for the first Gaia data release and to avoid the atmosphere model mismatch, an empirical calibration is unavoidable. Aims: The purpose of this work is to provide the first complete and robust photometric empirical calibration of the Gaia red clump stars of the solar neighbourhood through colour-colour, effective temperature-colour, and absolute magnitude-colour relations from the Gaia, Johnson, 2MASS, HIPPARCOS, Tycho-2, APASS-SLOAN, and WISE photometric systems, and the APOGEE DR13 spectroscopic temperatures. Methods: We used a 3D extinction map to select low reddening red giants. To calibrate the colour-colour and the effective temperature-colour relations, we developed a MCMC method that accounts for all variable uncertainties and selects the best model for each photometric relation. We estimated the red clump absolute magnitude through the mode of a kernel-based distribution function. Results: We provide 20 colour versus G-Ks relations and the first Teff versus G-Ks calibration. We obtained the red clump absolute magnitudes for 15 photometric bands with, in particular, MKs = (-1.606 ± 0.009) and MG = (0.495 ± 0.009) + (1.121 ± 0.128)(G-Ks-2.1). We present a dereddened Gaia-TGAS HR diagram and use the calibrations to compare its red clump and its red giant branch bump with Padova isochrones. Full Table A.1 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to ( or via


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadoya, S.; Tajika, E., E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, The University of Tokyo, Faculty of Science Bldg. 1 #711, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-0033 (Japan)


    The climatic evolution of the Earth depends strongly on the evolution of the insolation from the Sun and the amount of the greenhouse gasses, especially CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere. Here, we investigate the evolution of the climate of hypothetical Earths around stars whose masses are different from the solar mass with a luminosity evolution model of the stars, a mantle degassing model coupled with a parameterized convection model of the planetary interiors, and an energy balance climate model of the planetary surface. In the habitable zone (HZ), the climate of the planets is initially warm or hot, depending on the orbital semimajor axes. We found that, in the inner HZ, the climate of the planets becomes hotter with time owing to the increase in the luminosity of the central stars, while, in the outer HZ, it becomes colder and eventually globally ice-covered owing to the decrease in the CO{sub 2} degassing rate of the planets. The orbital condition for maintaining the warm climate similar to the present Earth becomes very limited, and more interestingly, the planet orbiting in the outer HZ becomes globally ice-covered after a certain critical age (∼3 Gyr for the hypothetical Earth with standard parameters), irrespective of the mass of the central star. This is because the critical age depends on the evolution of the planets and planetary factors, rather than on the stellar mass. The habitability of the Earth-like planet is shown to be limited with age even though it is orbiting within the HZ.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Browning, Matthew K.; Weber, Maria A.; Chabrier, Gilles [Dept of Physics and Astronomy, Stocker Road, University of Exeter, EX4 4QL (United Kingdom); Massey, Angela P., E-mail: [Department of Astronomy, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)


    Observations have suggested that some low-mass stars have larger radii than predicted by 1D structure models. Some theoretical models have invoked very strong interior magnetic fields (of order 1 MG or more) as a possible cause of such large radii. Whether fields of that strength could in principle be generated by dynamo action in these objects is unclear, and we do not address the matter directly. Instead, we examine whether such fields could remain in the interior of a low-mass object for a significant amount of time, and whether they would have any other obvious signatures. First, we estimate the timescales for the loss of strong fields by magnetic buoyancy instabilities. We consider a range of field strengths and simple morphologies, including both idealized flux tubes and smooth layers of field. We confirm some of our analytical estimates using thin flux tube magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the rise of buoyant fields in a fully convective M-dwarf. Separately, we consider the Ohmic dissipation of such fields. We find that dissipation provides a complementary constraint to buoyancy: while small-scale, fibril fields might be regenerated faster than they rise, the dissipative heating associated with such fields would in some cases greatly exceed the luminosity of the star. We show how these constraints combine to yield limits on the internal field strength and morphology in low-mass stars. In particular, we find that for stars of 0.3 solar masses, no fields in flux tubes stronger than about 800 kG are simultaneously consistent with both constraints.

  5. Magnetic Monopole Mass Bounds from Heavy-Ion Collisions and Neutron Stars. (United States)

    Gould, Oliver; Rajantie, Arttu


    Magnetic monopoles, if they exist, would be produced amply in strong magnetic fields and high temperatures via the thermal Schwinger process. Such circumstances arise in heavy-ion collisions and in neutron stars, both of which imply lower bounds on the mass of possible magnetic monopoles. In showing this, we construct the cross section for pair production of magnetic monopoles in heavy-ion collisions, which indicates that they are particularly promising for experimental searches such as MoEDAL.

  6. Hints for Small Disks around Very Low Mass Stars and Brown Dwarfs (United States)

    Hendler, Nathanial P.; Mulders, Gijs D.; Pascucci, Ilaria; Greenwood, Aaron; Kamp, Inga; Henning, Thomas; Ménard, François; Dent, William R. F.; Evans, Neal J., II


    The properties of disks around brown dwarfs and very low mass stars (hereafter VLMOs) provide important boundary conditions on the process of planet formation and inform us about the numbers and masses of planets than can form in this regime. We use the Herschel Space Observatory PACS spectrometer to measure the continuum and [O I] 63 μm line emission toward 11 VLMOs with known disks in the Taurus and Chamaeleon I star-forming regions. We fit radiative transfer models to the spectral energy distributions of these sources. Additionally, we carry out a grid of radiative transfer models run in a regime that connects the luminosity of our sources with brighter T Tauri stars. We find that VLMO disks with sizes 1.3-78 au, smaller than typical T Tauri disks, fit well the spectral energy distributions assuming that disk geometry and dust properties are stellar mass independent. Reducing the disk size increases the disk temperature, and we show that VLMOs do not follow previously derived disk temperature-stellar luminosity relationships if the disk outer radius scales with stellar mass. Only 2 out of 11 sources are detected in [O I] despite a better sensitivity than was achieved for T Tauri stars, suggesting that VLMO disks are underluminous. Using thermochemical models, we show that smaller disks can lead to the unexpected [O I] 63 μm nondetections in our sample. The disk outer radius is an important factor in determining the gas and dust observables. Hence, spatially resolved observations with ALMA—to establish if and how disk radii scale with stellar mass—should be pursued further. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  7. The distribution of local star formation activity as a function of galaxy stellar mass, environment and morphology (United States)

    Lofthouse, E. K.; Kaviraj, S.; Smith, D. J. B.; Hardcastle, M. J.


    We present a detailed inventory of star formation in the local Universe, dissecting the cosmic star formation budget as a function of key variables that influence the star formation rate (SFR) of galaxies: stellar mass, local environment and morphology. We use a large homogeneous data set from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to first study how the star formation budget in galaxies with stellar masses greater than log(M*/M⊙) = 10 splits as a function of each parameter separately. We then explore how the budget behaves as a simultaneous function of these three parameters. We show that the bulk of the star formation at z place in spiral galaxies that reside in the field, and have stellar masses between 10 work at high redshift, will enable us to understand the changes in SFR that have occurred over cosmic time and offers a strong constraint on models of galaxy formation.

  8. Opening up a Colourful Cosmic Jewel Box (United States)


    and exquisite image quality have resulted in a brand-new, very sharp view despite a total exposure time of just 5 seconds. This new image is one of the best ever taken of this cluster from the ground. The Jewel Box may be visually colourful in images taken on Earth, but observing from space allows the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope to capture light of shorter wavelengths than can not be seen by telescopes on the ground. This new Hubble image of the core of the cluster represents the first comprehensive far ultraviolet to near-infrared image of an open galactic cluster. It was created from images taken through seven filters, allowing viewers to see details never seen before. It was taken near the end of the long life of the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 ― Hubble's workhorse camera up until the recent Servicing Mission, when it was removed and brought back to Earth. Several very bright, pale blue supergiant stars, a solitary ruby-red supergiant and a variety of other brilliantly coloured stars are visible in the Hubble image, as well as many much fainter ones. The intriguing colours of many of the stars result from their differing intensities at different ultraviolet wavelengths. The huge variety in brightness of the stars in the cluster exists because the brighter stars are 15 to 20 times the mass of the Sun, while the dimmest stars in the Hubble image are less than half the mass of the Sun. More massive stars shine much more brilliantly. They also age faster and make the transition to giant stars much more quickly than their faint, less-massive siblings. The Jewel Box cluster is about 6400 light-years away and is approximately 16 million years old. Notes [1] Open, or galactic, star clusters are not to be confused with globular clusters ― huge balls of tens of thousands of ancient stars in orbit around our galaxy and others. It seems that most stars, including our Sun, formed in open clusters. [2] The Coal Sack is a dark nebula in the Southern Hemisphere, near the

  9. Determining the stellar masses of submillimetre galaxies: the critical importance of star formation histories (United States)

    Michałowski, Michał J.; Hayward, Christopher C.; Dunlop, James S.; Bruce, Victoria A.; Cirasuolo, Michele; Cullen, Fergus; Hernquist, Lars


    Submillimetre (submm) galaxies are among the most rapidly star-forming and most massive high-redshift galaxies; thus, their properties provide important constraints on galaxy evolution models. However, there is still a debate about their stellar masses and their nature in the context of the general galaxy population. To test the reliability of their stellar mass determinations, we used a sample of simulated submm galaxies for which we created synthetic photometry. The photometry were used to derived their stellar masses via spectral energy distribution (SED) modelling, as is generally done with real observations. We used various SED codes (Grasil, Magphys, Hyperz, and LePhare) and various alternative assumed star formation histories (SFHs). We found that the assumption of SFHs with two independent components enables the SED modelling codes to most accurately recover the true stellar masses of the simulated submm galaxies. Exponentially declining SFHs (tau models) lead to lower masses (albeit still formally consistent with the true stellar masses), while the assumption of single-burst SFHs results in a significant underestimation of the stellar masses. Thus, we conclude that studies based on the higher masses inferred from fitting the SEDs of real submm galaxies with double SFHs are most likely to be correct, implying that submm galaxies lie on the high-mass end of the main sequence of star-forming galaxies. This conclusion appears robust to assumptions of whether submm galaxies are driven by major mergers, since the suite of simulated galaxies modelled here contains examples of both merging and isolated galaxies. We identified discrepancies between the true and inferred stellar ages (rather than the dust attenuation) as the primary determinant of the success or failure of the mass recovery. Regardless of the choice of SFH, the SED-derived stellar masses exhibit a factor of ~2 scatter around the true value, and this scatter is an inherent limitation of the SED

  10. Enormous Li Enhancement Preceding Red Giant Phases in Low-mass Stars in the Milky Way Halo (United States)

    Li, Haining; Aoki, Wako; Matsuno, Tadafumi; Bharat Kumar, Yerra; Shi, Jianrong; Suda, Takuma; Zhao, Gang


    Li abundances in the bulk of low-mass metal-poor stars are well reproduced by stellar evolution models adopting a constant initial abundance. However, a small number of stars have exceptionally high Li abundances, for which no convincing models have been established. We report on the discovery of 12 very metal-poor stars that have large excesses of Li, including an object having more than 100 times higher Li abundance than the values found in usual objects, which is the largest excess in metal-poor stars known to date. The sample is distributed over a wide range of evolutionary stages, including five unevolved stars, showing no clear abundance anomaly in other elements. The results indicate the existence of an efficient process to enrich Li in a small fraction of low-mass stars at the main-sequence or subgiant phase. The wide distribution of Li-rich stars along the red giant branch could be explained by the dilution of surface Li by mixing that occurs when the stars evolve into red giants. Our study narrows down the problem to be solved in order to understand the origins of Li excess found in low-mass stars, suggesting the presence of an unknown process that affects the surface abundances preceding red giant phases. This work is based on data collected at the Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

  11. Evidence for a trophic cascade on rocky reefs following sea star mass mortality in British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica A. Schultz


    Full Text Available Echinoderm population collapses, driven by disease outbreaks and climatic events, may be important drivers of population dynamics, ecological shifts and biodiversity. The northeast Pacific recently experienced a mass mortality of sea stars. In Howe Sound, British Columbia, the sunflower star Pycnopodia helianthoides—a previously abundant predator of bottom-dwelling invertebrates—began to show signs of a wasting syndrome in early September 2013, and dense aggregations disappeared from many sites in a matter of weeks. Here, we assess changes in subtidal community composition by comparing the abundance of fish, invertebrates and macroalgae at 20 sites in Howe Sound before and after the 2013 sea star mortality to evaluate evidence for a trophic cascade. We observed changes in the abundance of several species after the sea star mortality, most notably a four-fold increase in the number of green sea urchins, Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, and a significant decline in kelp cover, which are together consistent with a trophic cascade. Qualitative data on the abundance of sunflower stars and green urchins from a citizen science database show that the patterns of echinoderm abundance detected at our study sites reflected wider local trends. The trophic cascade evident at the scale of Howe Sound was observed at half of the study sites. It remains unclear whether the urchin response was triggered directly, via a reduction in urchin mortality, or indirectly, via a shift in urchin distribution into areas previously occupied by the predatory sea stars. Understanding the ecological implications of sudden and extreme population declines may further elucidate the role of echinoderms in temperate seas, and provide insight into the resilience of marine ecosystems to biological disturbances.

  12. HAZMAT. II. Ultraviolet Variability of Low-mass Stars in the GALEX Archive (United States)

    Miles, Brittany E.; Shkolnik, Evgenya L.


    The ultraviolet (UV) light from a host star influences a planet’s atmospheric photochemistry and will affect interpretations of exoplanetary spectra from future missions like the James Webb Space Telescope. These effects will be particularly critical in the study of planetary atmospheres around M dwarfs, including Earth-sized planets in the habitable zone. Given the higher activity levels of M dwarfs compared to Sun-like stars, time-resolved UV data are needed for more accurate input conditions for exoplanet atmospheric modeling. The Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) provides multi-epoch photometric observations in two UV bands: near-ultraviolet (NUV; 1771-2831 Å) and far-ultraviolet (FUV; 1344-1786 Å). Within 30 pc of Earth, there are 357 and 303 M dwarfs in the NUV and FUV bands, respectively, with multiple GALEX observations. Simultaneous NUV and FUV detections exist for 145 stars in both GALEX bands. Our analyses of these data show that low-mass stars are typically more variable in the FUV than the NUV. Median variability increases with later spectral types in the NUV with no clear trend in the FUV. We find evidence that flares increase the FUV flux density far more than the NUV flux density, leading to variable FUV to NUV flux density ratios in the GALEX bandpasses.The ratio of FUV to NUV flux is important for interpreting the presence of atmospheric molecules in planetary atmospheres such as oxygen and methane as a high FUV to NUV ratio may cause false-positive biosignature detections. This ratio of flux density in the GALEX bands spans three orders of magnitude in our sample, from 0.008 to 4.6, and is 1 to 2 orders of magnitude higher than for G dwarfs like the Sun. These results characterize the UV behavior for the largest set of low-mass stars to date.

  13. HAZMAT. II. Ultraviolet Variability of Low-mass Stars in the GALEX Archive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miles, Brittany E. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Shkolnik, Evgenya L., E-mail: [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, 781 S Terrace Road, Tempe, AZ 85281 (United States)


    The ultraviolet (UV) light from a host star influences a planet’s atmospheric photochemistry and will affect interpretations of exoplanetary spectra from future missions like the James Webb Space Telescope . These effects will be particularly critical in the study of planetary atmospheres around M dwarfs, including Earth-sized planets in the habitable zone. Given the higher activity levels of M dwarfs compared to Sun-like stars, time-resolved UV data are needed for more accurate input conditions for exoplanet atmospheric modeling. The Galaxy Evolution Explorer ( GALEX ) provides multi-epoch photometric observations in two UV bands: near-ultraviolet (NUV; 1771–2831 Å) and far-ultraviolet (FUV; 1344–1786 Å). Within 30 pc of Earth, there are 357 and 303 M dwarfs in the NUV and FUV bands, respectively, with multiple GALEX observations. Simultaneous NUV and FUV detections exist for 145 stars in both GALEX bands. Our analyses of these data show that low-mass stars are typically more variable in the FUV than the NUV. Median variability increases with later spectral types in the NUV with no clear trend in the FUV. We find evidence that flares increase the FUV flux density far more than the NUV flux density, leading to variable FUV to NUV flux density ratios in the GALEX bandpasses.The ratio of FUV to NUV flux is important for interpreting the presence of atmospheric molecules in planetary atmospheres such as oxygen and methane as a high FUV to NUV ratio may cause false-positive biosignature detections. This ratio of flux density in the GALEX bands spans three orders of magnitude in our sample, from 0.008 to 4.6, and is 1 to 2 orders of magnitude higher than for G dwarfs like the Sun. These results characterize the UV behavior for the largest set of low-mass stars to date.

  14. Systematic survey of the effects of wind mass loss algorithms on the evolution of single massive stars (United States)

    Renzo, M.; Ott, C. D.; Shore, S. N.; de Mink, S. E.


    Mass loss processes are a key uncertainty in the evolution of massive stars. They determine the amount of mass and angular momentum retained by the star, thus influencing its evolution and presupernova structure. Because of the high complexity of the physical processes driving mass loss, stellar evolution calculations must employ parametric algorithms, and usually only include wind mass loss. We carried out an extensive parameter study of wind mass loss and its effects on massive star evolution using the open-source stellar evolution code MESA. We provide a systematic comparison of wind mass loss algorithms for solar-metallicity, nonrotating, single stars in the initial mass range of 15 M⊙ to 35 M⊙. We consider combinations drawn from two hot phase (I.e., roughly the main sequence) algorithms, three cool phase (I.e., post-main-sequence) algorithms, and two Wolf-Rayet mass loss algorithms. We discuss separately the effects of mass loss in each of these phases. In addition, we consider linear wind efficiency scale factors of 1, 0.33, and 0.1 to account for suggested reductions in mass loss rates due to wind inhomogeneities. We find that the initial to final mass mapping for each zero-age main-sequence (ZAMS) mass has a 50% uncertainty if all algorithm combinations and wind efficiencies are considered. The ad-hoc efficiency scale factor dominates this uncertainty. While the final total mass and internal structure of our models vary tremendously with mass loss treatment, final luminosity and effective temperature are much less sensitive for stars with ZAMS mass ≲ 30 M⊙. This indicates that uncertainty in wind mass loss does not negatively affect estimates of the ZAMS mass of most single-star supernova progenitors from pre-explosion observations. Our results furthermore show that the internal structure of presupernova stars is sensitive to variations in both main sequence and post main-sequence mass loss. The compactness parameter ξ ∝ ℳ /R(ℳ) has been

  15. The cooling, mass and radius of the neutron star in EXO 0748-676 in quiescence with XMM-Newton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, Zheng; Méndez, Mariano; Díaz-Trigo, María; Costantini, Elisa


    We analyse four XMM-Newton observations of the neutron-star low-mass X-ray binary EXO 0748-676 in quiescence. We fit the spectra with an absorbed neutron-star atmosphere model, without the need for a high-energy (power-law) component; with a 95 per cent confidence the power law contributes less than

  16. c2d Spitzer IRS spectra of embedded low-mass young stars : gas-phase emission lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lahuis, F.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Jorgensen, J. K.; Blake, G. A.; Evans, N. J.

    Context. A survey of mid-infrared gas-phase emission lines of H(2), H(2)O and various atoms toward a sample of 43 embedded low-mass young stars in nearby star-forming regions is presented. The sources are selected from the Spitzer "Cores to Disks" (c2d) legacy program. Aims. The environment of

  17. Dark-matter halo mergers as a fertile environment for low-mass Population III star formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bovino, S.; Latif, M. A.; Grassi, Tommaso


    While Population III (Pop III) stars are typically thought to be massive, pathways towards lower mass Pop III stars may exist when the cooling of the gas is particularly enhanced. A possible route is enhanced HD cooling during the merging of dark-matter haloes. The mergers can lead to a high...

  18. Colour Studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR Nneka


    Apr 14, 2015 ... such as colour of a work is brought to the fore and the lack of consensus on the true primary colours (Willard,1998). So, the art and design student is often ...... possibilities assume a limitless range when organised according to the principles of organisation. For example, the principle of dominance; imagine ...

  19. Colour Studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR Nneka


    Apr 14, 2015 ... colour thus: Color can sway thinking, change actions, and cause reactions. It can irritate or soothe your eyes, raise your blood pressure and suppress ... object and something like a fire from the eye, which sees as a spirit or soul ..... Finally, the study of one's own subjective colour preferences and the field of.

  20. Method of LSD profile asymmetry for estimating the center of mass velocities of pulsating stars (United States)

    Britavskiy, N.; Pancino, E.; Tsymbal, V.; Romano, D.; Cacciari, C.; Clementini, C.


    We present radial velocity analysis for 20 solar neighborhood RR Lyrae and 3 Population II Cepheids. High-resolution spectra were observed with either TNG/SARG or VLT/UVES over varying phases. To estimate the center of mass (barycentric) velocities of the program stars, we utilized two independent methods. First, the 'classic' method was employed, which is based on RR Lyrae radial velocity curve templates. Second, we provide the new method that used absorption line profile asymmetry to determine both the pulsation and the barycentric velocities even with a low number of high-resolution spectra and in cases where the phase of the observations is uncertain. This new method is based on a least squares deconvolution (LSD) of the line profiles in order to an- alyze line asymmetry that occurs in the spectra of pulsating stars. By applying this method to our sample stars we attain accurate measurements (+- 2 kms^-1) of the pulsation component of the radial velocity. This results in determination of the barycentric velocity to within 5 kms^-1 even with a low number of high- resolution spectra. A detailed investigation of LSD profile asymmetry shows the variable nature of the project factor at different pulsation phases, which should be taken into account in the detailed spectroscopic analysis of pulsating stars.

  1. HEASARC Astronomical Archive: GLIESE2MAS - Gliese Catalog Stars with Accurate Coordinates and 2MASS Cross-Identifications (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This table contains precise epoch 2000 coordinates and cross-identifications to sources in the 2MASS Point Source Catalog for nearly all stars in the Gliese,...

  2. Accurate Empirical Radii and Masses of Planets and Their Host Stars with Gaia Parallaxes (United States)

    Stassun, Keivan G.; Collins, Karen A.; Gaudi, B. Scott


    We present empirical measurements of the radii of 116 stars that host transiting planets. These radii are determined using only direct observables—the bolometric flux at Earth, the effective temperature, and the parallax provided by the Gaia first data release—and thus are virtually model independent, with extinction being the only free parameter. We also determine each star’s mass using our newly determined radius and the stellar density, a virtually model independent quantity itself from previously published transit analyses. These stellar radii and masses are in turn used to redetermine the transiting-planet radii and masses, again using only direct observables. The median uncertainties on the stellar radii and masses are 8% and 30%, respectively, and the resulting uncertainties on the planet radii and masses are 9% and 22%, respectively. These accuracies are generally larger than previously published model-dependent precisions of 5% and 6% on the planet radii and masses, respectively, but the newly determined values are purely empirical. We additionally report radii for 242 stars hosting radial-velocity (non-transiting) planets, with a median achieved accuracy of ≈2%. Using our empirical stellar masses we verify that the majority of putative “retired A stars” in the sample are indeed more massive than ˜1.2 {M}⊙ . Most importantly, the bolometric fluxes and angular radii reported here for a total of 498 planet host stars—with median accuracies of 1.7% and 1.8%, respectively—serve as a fundamental data set to permit the re-determination of transiting-planet radii and masses with the Gaia second data release to ≈3% and ≈5% accuracy, better than currently published precisions, and determined in an entirely empirical fashion.

  3. Estimating the masses and radii of neutron stars using NICER pulse waveform data (United States)

    Lamb, Frederick K.; Miller, M. Coleman


    The key scientific objective of the Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER) is to precisely and reliably measure the mass M and radius R of several neutron stars, in order to tightly constrain the properties of cold ultradense matter. M and R will be measured by fitting energy-dependent pulse waveform models to the observed soft X-ray pulse waveforms of selected rotation-powered millisecond pulsars. These waveforms are thought to be produced by rotation with the stellar surface of hot spots located near the pulsar's magnetic polar caps. We have explored the accuracies and precisions with which NICER should be able to determine M and R, by analyzing synthetic waveform data using Bayesian statistical methods. Here we describe the pulse waveform models that will be used by the NICER mission, the scaling of the uncertainties in M and R estimates with the total number of counts, and the dependence of the uncertainties in M and R estimates on the rotational colatitudes of the hot spots and the inclination of the observer. We show that the shapes of the hot spots and modest variations in the temperature of the emission across them are unlikely to produce significant systematic errors. We find that NICER should be able to measure the masses and radii of a few neutron stars to within 5%.

  4. Effective interactions of hyperons and mass-radius relation of neutron stars (United States)

    Lim, Yeunhwan; Lee, Chang-Hwan; Oh, Yongseok


    We examine the role of hyperons in a neutron star based on the relativistic mean field approach. For nuclear matter below 1.5 times the normal nuclear density we constrain the model parameters by using the symmetric nuclear matter properties and theoretical investigations for neutron matter in the literature. We then extend the model to higher densities by including hyperons and isoscalar vector mesons that contain strangeness degree of freedom. We confirm that the ϕ meson induces a Λ repulsive force and hardens the equation of state. The hardening arising from the ϕ meson compensates the softening from the existence of hyperons. The flavor SU(3) and spin-flavor SU(6) relations are examined as well. We found that the coupling constants fitted by neutron matter properties could yield high enough maximum mass of a neutron star and the obtained results satisfy both the mass and radius constraints. The onset of the hyperon direct Urca process in neutron stars is also investigated using our parametrization.

  5. The Mass Function of GX 339-4 from Spectroscopic Observations of Its Donor Star (United States)

    Heida, M.; Jonker, P. G.; Torres, M. A. P.; Chiavassa, A.


    We obtained 16 VLT/X-shooter observations of GX 339-4 in quiescence during the period 2016 May-September and detected absorption lines from the donor star in its NIR spectrum. This allows us to measure the radial velocity curve and projected rotational velocity of the donor for the first time. We confirm the 1.76 day orbital period and we find that K 2 = 219 ± 3 km s-1, γ = 26 ± 2 km s-1, and v\\sin I = 64 ± 8 km s-1. From these values we compute a mass function f(M) = 1.91 ± 0.08 {M}⊙ , a factor ˜3 lower than previously reported, and a mass ratio q = 0.18 ± 0.05. We confirm the donor is a K-type star and estimate that it contributes ˜ 4 % {--}50 % of the light in the J- and H-bands. We constrain the binary inclination to 37° black hole (BH) mass to 2.3 {M}⊙ < {M}{BH} < 9.5 {M}⊙ . GX 339-4 may therefore be the first BH to fall in the “mass-gap” of 2-5 M ⊙. Based on ESO program IDs 097.D-0915 and 297.D-5048.

  6. Trajectories of bright stars at the Galactic Center as a tool to evaluate a graviton mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakharov Alexander


    Full Text Available Scientists worked in Saint-Petersburg (Petrograd, Leningrad played the extremely important role in creation of scientific school and development of general relativity in Russia. Very recently LIGO collaboration discovered gravitational waves [1] predicted 100 years ago by A. Einstein. In the papers reporting about this discovery, the joint LIGO & VIRGO team presented an upper limit on graviton mass such as mg < 1.2 × 10−22eV [1, 2]. The authors concluded that their observational data do not show violations of classical general relativity because the graviton mass limit is very small. We show that an analysis of bright star trajectories could bound graviton mass with a comparable accuracy with accuracies reached with gravitational wave interferometers and expected with forthcoming pulsar timing observations for gravitational wave detection. This analysis gives an opportunity to treat observations of bright stars near the Galactic Center as a tool for an evaluation specific parameters of the black hole and also to obtain constraints on the fundamental gravity law such as a modifications of Newton gravity law in a weak field approximation. In that way, based on a potential reconstruction at the Galactic Center we give a bounds on a graviton mass.

  7. Autotomy of the Visceral mass in the feather star Himerometra robustipinna (Crinoidea, Comatulida). (United States)

    Bobrovskaya, Nadezhda V; Dolmatov, Igor Yu


    The microanatomy of the attachment sites of the visceral mass to the calyx before and after visceral mass autotomy in the feather star Himerometra robustipinna was investigated. At the aboral site, the visceral mass is linked to the calyx by septa of the aboral coelom and is attached to the tegmen at the peripheral site. The connective tissue of the septa and tegmen contains cells resembling typical juxtaligamental cells of echinoderms, nerve cells, and bundles of axons. Visceral mass autotomy in H. robustipinna can be provoked by mechanical action and occurs relatively rapidly. Immediately after the visceral mass is gripped with forceps, the proximal pinnules are lowered and form a dense cluster covering the calyx. If the visceral mass is held for 20-30 s, the proximal pinnules are raised. At this time, the visceral mass has separated from the calyx and can be easily removed. During autotomy, the aboral coelomic septa are broken under the aboral wall of the subintestinal coelom, and the tegmen is ruptured at the interradii along the periphery of the calyx and at the base of the arms. The juxtaligamental cells probably participate in the alteration of the connective tissue and the breakage of the septa and tegmen. The granules of juxtaligamental cells swell, develop an electron-transparent halo, and are released into the extracellular matrix. In general, our results suggest that separation of the visceral mass in H. robustipinna is characterized by all the features of autotomy.

  8. Mass and metallicity scaling relations of high-redshift star-forming galaxies selected by GRBs (United States)

    Arabsalmani, M.; Møller, P.; Perley, D. A.; Freudling, W.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Le Floc'h, E.; Zwaan, M. A.; Schulze, S.; Tanvir, N. R.; Christensen, L.; Levan, A. J.; Jakobsson, P.; Malesani, D.; Cano, Z.; Covino, S.; D'Elia, V.; Goldoni, P.; Gomboc, A.; Heintz, K. E.; Sparre, M.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Vergani, S. D.


    We present a comprehensive study of the relations between gas kinematics, metallicity and stellar mass in a sample of 82 gamma-ray burst (GRB)-selected galaxies using absorption and emission methods. We find the velocity widths of both emission and absorption profiles to be a proxy of stellar mass. We also investigate the velocity-metallicity correlation and its evolution with redshift. Using 33 GRB hosts with measured stellar mass and metallicity, we study the mass-metallicity relation for GRB host galaxies in a stellar mass range of 108.2-1011.1 M⊙ and a redshift range of z ∼ 0.3-3.4. The GRB-selected galaxies appear to track the mass-metallicity relation of star-forming galaxies but with an offset of 0.15 towards lower metallicities. This offset is comparable with the average error bar on the metallicity measurements of the GRB sample and also the scatter on the mass-metallicity relation of the general population. It is hard to decide whether this relatively small offset is due to systematic effects or the intrinsic nature of GRB hosts. We also investigate the possibility of using absorption-line metallicity measurements of GRB hosts to study the mass-metallicity relation at high redshifts. Our analysis shows that the metallicity measurements from absorption methods can significantly differ from emission metallicities and assuming identical measurements from the two methods may result in erroneous conclusions.

  9. Pulsar J0453+1559: A Double Neutron Star System with a Large Mass Asymmetry (United States)

    Martinez, J. G.; Stovall, K.; Freire, P. C. C.; Deneva, J. S.; Jenet, F. A.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Bagchi, M.; Bates, S. D.; Ridolfi, A.


    To understand the nature of supernovae and neutron star (NS) formation, as well as binary stellar evolution and their interactions, it is important to probe the distribution of NS masses. Until now, all double NS (DNS) systems have been measured as having a mass ratio close to unity (q ≥ 0.91). Here, we report the measurement of the individual masses of the 4.07-day binary pulsar J0453+1559 from measurements of the rate of advance of periastron and Shapiro delay: the mass of the pulsar is Mp = 1.559 ± 0.005 M⊙ and that of its companion is {M}{{c}}=1.174+/- 0.004 M⊙ q = 0.75. If this companion is also an NS, as indicated by the orbital eccentricity of the system (e = 0.11), then its mass is the smallest precisely measured for any such object. The pulsar has a spin period of 45.7 ms and a spin period derivative of \\dot{{\\text{}}P} = (1.8616±0.0007)×10-19 s s-1 from these, we derive a characteristic age of ˜ 4.1×109 years and a magnetic field of ˜ 2.9×109 G, i.e., this pulsar was mildly recycled by the accretion of matter from the progenitor of the companion star. This suggests that it was formed with (very approximately) its current mass. Thus, NSs form with a wide range of masses, which is important for understanding their formation in supernovae. It is also important for the search for gravitational waves released during an NS-NS merger: it is now evident that we should not assume that all DNS systems are symmetric.

  10. Variable stars in the VVV globular clusters. I. 2MASS-GC 02 and Terzan 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso-García, Javier; Dékány, István; Catelan, Márcio; Ramos, Rodrigo Contreras; Gran, Felipe; Leyton, Paul; Minniti, Dante [Instituto de Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Av. Vicuña Mackenna 4860, 782-0436 Macul, Santiago (Chile); Amigo, Pía, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Millennium Institute of Astrophysics, Av. Vicuña Mackenna 4860, 782-0436 Macul, Santiago (Chile)


    The VISTA Variables in the Vía Láctea (VVV) ESO Public Survey is opening a new window to study inner Galactic globular clusters (GCs) using their variable stars. These GCs have been neglected in the past due to the difficulties caused by the presence of elevated extinction and high field stellar densities in their lines of sight. However, the discovery and study of any present variables in these clusters, especially RR Lyrae stars, can help to greatly improve the accuracy of their physical parameters. It can also help to shed some light on the questions raised by the intriguing Oosterhoff dichotomy in the Galactic GC system. In a series of papers we plan to explore variable stars in the GCs falling inside the field of the VVV survey. In this first paper, we search for and study the variables present in two highly reddened, moderately metal-poor, faint, inner Galactic GCs: 2MASS-GC 02 and Terzan 10. We report the discovery of sizable populations of RR Lyrae stars in both GCs. We use near-infrared period–luminosity relations to determine the color excess of each RR Lyrae star, from which we obtain both accurate distances to the GCs and the ratios of the selective-to-total extinction in their directions. We find the extinction toward both clusters to be elevated, non-standard, and highly differential. We also find both clusters to be closer to the Galactic center than previously thought, with Terzan 10 being on the far side of the Galactic bulge. Finally, we discuss their Oosterhoff properties, and conclude that both clusters stand out from the dichotomy followed by most Galactic GCs.

  11. Complex organic molecules toward low-mass and high-mass star forming regions (United States)

    Favre, C.; Ceccarelli, C.; Lefloch, B.; Bergin, E.; Carvajal, M.; Brouillet, N.; Despois, D.; Jørgensen, J.; Kleiner, I.


    One of the most important questions in molecular astrophysics is how, when, and where complex organic molecules, COMs (≥ 6 atoms) are formed. In the Interstellar-Earth connection context, could this have a bearing on the origin of life on Earth? Formation mechanisms of COMs, which include potentially prebiotic molecules, are still debated and may include grain-mantle and/or gas-phase chemistry. Understanding the mechanisms that lead to the interstellar molecular complexification, along with the involved physicochemical processes, is mandatory to answer the above questions. In that context, active researches are ongoing in theory, laboratory experiment, chemical modeling and observations. Thanks to recent progress in radioastronomy instrumentation for both single-dish and millimeter array (e.g. Herschel, NOEMA, ALMA), new results have been obtained. I will review some notable results on the detection of COMs, including prebiotic molecules, towards star forming regions.

  12. WISHes coming true: water in low-mass star-forming regions with Herschel (United States)

    Kristensen, L. E.; Visser, R.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Yıldız, U. A.; Herczeg, G. J.; Doty, S.; Jørgensen, J. K.; van Kempen, T. A.; Brinch, C.; Wampfler, S.; Bruderer, S.; Benz, A. O.


    Water is a key molecule for tracing physical and chemical processes in star-forming regions. The key program "Water in star-forming regions with Herschel" is observing several water transitions towards low-mass protostars with HIFI. Results regarding the 557 GHz transition of water are reported here showing that the line is surprisingly broad, and consists of several different velocity components. The bulk of the emission comes from shocks, where the abundance is increased by several orders of magnitude to ~10-4. The abundance of water in the outer envelope is determined to ~10-8, whereas only an upper limit of 10-5 is derived for the inner, warm envelope.

  13. Models of very-low-mass stars, brown dwarfs and exoplanets. (United States)

    Allard, F; Homeier, D; Freytag, B


    Within the next few years, GAIA and several instruments aiming to image extrasolar planets will be ready. In parallel, low-mass planets are being sought around red dwarfs, which offer more favourable conditions, for both radial velocity detection and transit studies, than solar-type stars. In this paper, the authors of a model atmosphere code that has allowed the detection of water vapour in the atmosphere of hot Jupiters review recent advances in modelling the stellar to substellar transition. The revised solar oxygen abundances and cloud model allow the photometric and spectroscopic properties of this transition to be reproduced for the first time. Also presented are highlight results of a model atmosphere grid for stars, brown dwarfs and extrasolar planets.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacLeod, Morgan; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Grady, Sean; Guillochon, James, E-mail: [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)


    Stars may be tidally disrupted if, in a single orbit, they are scattered too close to a supermassive black hole (SMBH). Tidal disruption events are thought to power luminous but short-lived accretion episodes that can light up otherwise quiescent SMBHs in transient flares. Here we explore a more gradual process of tidal stripping where stars approach the tidal disruption radius by stellar evolution while in an eccentric orbit. After the onset of mass transfer, these stars episodically transfer mass to the SMBH every pericenter passage, giving rise to low-level flares that repeat on the orbital timescale. Giant stars, in particular, will exhibit a runaway response to mass loss and 'spoon-feed' material to the black hole for tens to hundreds of orbital periods. In contrast to full tidal disruption events, the duty cycle of this feeding mode is of order unity for black holes M{sub bh} ∼> 10{sup 7} M{sub ☉}. This mode of quasi-steady SMBH feeding is competitive with indirect SMBH feeding through stellar winds, and spoon-fed giant stars may play a role in determining the quiescent luminosity of local SMBHs.

  15. Empirical Accurate Masses and Radii of Single Stars with TESS and Gaia (United States)

    Stassun, Keivan G.; Corsaro, Enrico; Pepper, Joshua A.; Gaudi, B. Scott


    We present a methodology for the determination of empirical masses of single stars through the combination of three direct observables with Gaia and Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS): (i) the surface gravity via granulation-driven variations in the TESS light curve, (ii) the bolometric flux at Earth via the broadband spectral energy distribution, and (iii) the distance via the Gaia parallax. We demonstrate the method using 525 Kepler stars for which these measures are available in the literature, and show that the stellar masses can be measured with this method to a precision of ∼25%, limited by the surface-gravity precision of the granulation “flicker” method (∼0.1 dex) and by the parallax uncertainties (∼10% for the Kepler sample). We explore the impact of expected improvements in the surface gravity determinations—through the application of granulation background fitting and the use of recently published granulation-metallicity relations—and improvements in the parallaxes with the arrival of the Gaia second data release. We show that the application of this methodology to stars that will be observed by TESS should yield radii good to a few percent and masses good to ≈10%. Importantly, the method does not require the presence of an orbiting, eclipsing, or transiting body, nor does it require spatial resolution of the stellar surface. Thus, we can anticipate the determination of fundamental, accurate stellar radii and masses for hundreds of thousands of bright single stars—across the entire sky and spanning the Hertzsprung–Russell diagram—including those that will ultimately be found to host planets.

  16. A More Stringent Constraint on the Mass Ratio of Binary Neutron Star Merger GW170817 (United States)

    Gao, He; Cao, Zhoujian; Ai, Shunke; Zhang, Bing


    Recently, the LIGO–Virgo Collaborations reported their first detection of gravitational-wave (GW) signals from the low-mass compact binary merger GW170817, which is most likely due to a double neutron star (NS) merger. With the GW signals only, the chirp mass of the binary is precisely constrained to {1.188}-0.002+0.004 {M}ȯ , but the mass ratio is loosely constrained in the range 0.4–1, so that a very rough estimation of the individual NS masses (1.36 M ⊙ constrain the dynamical ejecta mass through performing kilonova modeling of the optical/IR data, by utilizing an empirical relation between the dynamical ejecta mass and the mass ratio of NS binaries, one may place a more stringent constraint on the mass ratio of the system. For instance, considering that the red “kilonova” component is powered by the dynamical ejecta, we reach a tight constraint on the mass ratio in the range of 0.46–0.59. Alternatively, if the blue “kilonova” component is powered by the dynamical ejecta, the mass ratio would be constrained in the range of 0.53–0.67. Overall, such a multi-messenger approach could narrow down the mass ratio of GW170817 system to the range of 0.46–0.67, which gives a more precise estimation of the individual NS mass than pure GW signal analysis, i.e., 1.61 M ⊙ < M 1 < 2.11 M ⊙ and 0.90 M ⊙ < M 2 < 1.16 M ⊙.

  17. Climate and Water Contents on Rocky Planets Near the Inner Boundary of Habitable Zones (IHZ) Around Low Mass Star (United States)

    Bin, Jiayu; Tian, Feng


    Exoplanets around low mass stars are the focus of the search for habitable exoplanets. Previous general circulation models (GCM) studied the locations of the IHZ around stars with effective temperature from 3300 to 4500K (Yang et al. 2014, Kopparapu et al. 2016). However, water vapor mixing ratios at 3 hPa pressure level do not satisfy what is required for scenarios of rapid water loss in the "last converged solution" for stars cooler than 4000 K. In this work we use the Community Earth System Model (CESM) to investigate the IHZ problem for low mass stars. The model includes atmospheres with 1 bar of N2, 1 ppm of CO2, and slab oceans with thermodynamic sea ice. Rotation period is determined by the mass and luminosity of the star and planet orbital distance. Black body spectra of low mass stars are used to obtain top-of-atmosphere incident short wavelength radiation. Our model results are qualitatively consistent but quantitatively different from those in earlier works. Specifically, water vapor mixing ratios required by rapid water loss are found at 3 hPa for hosts star warmer than 3650 K.

  18. Magnetic Inflation and Stellar Mass. I. Revised Parameters for the Component Stars of the Kepler Low-mass Eclipsing Binary T-Cyg1-12664

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Eunkyu; Muirhead, Philip S. [Department of Astronomy and Institute for Astrophysical Research, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Swift, Jonathan J. [The Thacher School, 5025 Thacher Road Ojai, CA 93023 (United States); Baranec, Christoph; Atkinson, Dani [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaiì at Mānoa, Hilo, HI 96720-2700 (United States); Law, Nicholas M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3255 (United States); Riddle, Reed [California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Mace, Gregory N. [McDonald Observatory and The University of Texas, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400, Austin, TX 78712-1205 (United States); DeFelippis, Daniel, E-mail: [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States)


    Several low-mass eclipsing binary stars show larger than expected radii for their measured mass, metallicity, and age. One proposed mechanism for this radius inflation involves inhibited internal convection and starspots caused by strong magnetic fields. One particular eclipsing binary, T-Cyg1-12664, has proven confounding to this scenario. Çakırlı et al. measured a radius for the secondary component that is twice as large as model predictions for stars with the same mass and age, but a primary mass that is consistent with predictions. Iglesias-Marzoa et al. independently measured the radii and masses of the component stars and found that the radius of the secondary is not in fact inflated with respect to models, but that the primary is, which is consistent with the inhibited convection scenario. However, in their mass determinations, Iglesias-Marzoa et al. lacked independent radial velocity measurements for the secondary component due to the star’s faintness at optical wavelengths. The secondary component is especially interesting, as its purported mass is near the transition from partially convective to a fully convective interior. In this article, we independently determined the masses and radii of the component stars of T-Cyg1-12664 using archival Kepler data and radial velocity measurements of both component stars obtained with IGRINS on the Discovery Channel Telescope and NIRSPEC and HIRES on the Keck Telescopes. We show that neither of the component stars is inflated with respect to models. Our results are broadly consistent with modern stellar evolutionary models for main-sequence M dwarf stars and do not require inhibited convection by magnetic fields to account for the stellar radii.

  19. Water in star-forming regions with Herschel (WISH) : IV. A survey of low-J H2O line profiles toward high-mass protostars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Tak, F. F. S.; Chavarria, L.; Herpin, F.; Wyrowski, F.; Walmsley, C. M.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Benz, A. O.; Bergin, E. A.; Caselli, P.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Johnstone, D.; Kristensen, L. E.; Liseau, R.; Nisini, B.; Tafalla, M.

    Context. Water is a key constituent of star-forming matter, but the origin of its line emission and absorption during high-mass star formation is not well understood. Aims. We study the velocity profiles of low-excitation H2O lines toward 19 high-mass star-forming regions and search for trends with

  20. Colour schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Leeuwen, Theo


    This chapter presents a framework for analysing colour schemes based on a parametric approach that includes not only hue, value and saturation, but also purity, transparency, luminosity, luminescence, lustre, modulation and differentiation.......This chapter presents a framework for analysing colour schemes based on a parametric approach that includes not only hue, value and saturation, but also purity, transparency, luminosity, luminescence, lustre, modulation and differentiation....

  1. Radiation-hydrodynamical simulations of massive star formation using Monte Carlo radiative transfer - II. The formation of a 25 solar-mass star (United States)

    Harries, Tim J.; Douglas, Tom A.; Ali, Ahmad


    We present a numerical simulation of the formation of a massive star using Monte Carlo-based radiation hydrodynamics (RHD). The star forms via stochastic disc accretion and produces fast, radiation-driven bipolar cavities. We find that the evolution of the infall rate (considered to be the mass flux across a 1500 au spherical boundary) and the accretion rate on to the protostar, are broadly consistent with observational constraints. After 35 kyr the star has a mass of 25 M⊙ and is surrounded by a disc of mass 7 M⊙ and 1500 au radius, and we find that the velocity field of the disc is close to Keplerian. Once again these results are consistent with those from recent high-resolution studies of discs around forming massive stars. Synthetic imaging of the RHD model shows good agreement with observations in the near- and far-IR, but may be in conflict with observations that suggest that massive young stellar objects are typically circularly symmetric in the sky at 24.5 μm. Molecular line simulations of a CH3CN transition compare well with observations in terms of surface brightness and line width, and indicate that it should be possible to reliably extract the protostellar mass from such observations.

  2. A UKIDSS-based search for low-mass stars and small stellar clumps in off-cloud parts of young star-forming regions* **

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrado y Navascués D.


    Full Text Available The form and universality of the mass function of young and nearby star-forming regions is still under debate. Its relation to the stellar density, its mass peak and the dependency on most recent models shows significant differencies for the various regions and remains unclear up to date. We aim to get a more complete census of two of such regions. We investigate yet unexplored areas of Orion and Taurus-Auriga, observed by the UKIDSS survey. In the latter, we search for low-mass stars via photometric and proper motion criteria and signs for variability. In Orion, we search for small stellar clumps via nearest-neighbor methods. Highlights in Taurus would be the finding of the missing low-mass stars and the detection of a young cluster T dwarf. In Orion, we discovered small stellar associations of its OB1b and OB1c populations. Combined with what is known in literature, we will provide by this investigations a general picture of the results of the star-forming processes in large areas of Taurus and Orion and probe the most recent models.

  3. Pulsating low-mass white dwarfs in the frame of new evolutionary sequences. V. Asteroseismology of ELMV white dwarf stars (United States)

    Calcaferro, Leila M.; Córsico, Alejandro H.; Althaus, Leandro G.


    Context. Many pulsating low-mass white dwarf stars have been detected in the past years in the field of our Galaxy. Some of them exhibit multiperiodic brightness variation, therefore it is possible to probe their interiors through asteroseismology. Aims: We present a detailed asteroseismological study of all the known low-mass variable white dwarf stars based on a complete set of fully evolutionary models that are representative of low-mass He-core white dwarf stars. Methods: We employed adiabatic radial and nonradial pulsation periods for low-mass white dwarf models with stellar masses ranging from 0.1554 to 0.4352 M⊙ that were derived by simulating the nonconservative evolution of a binary system consisting of an initially 1 M⊙ zero-age main-sequence (ZAMS) star and a 1.4 M⊙ neutron star companion. We estimated the mean period spacing for the stars under study (where this was possible), and then we constrained the stellar mass by comparing the observed period spacing with the average of the computed period spacings for our grid of models. We also employed the individual observed periods of every known pulsating low-mass white dwarf star to search for a representative seismological model. Results: We found that even though the stars under analysis exhibit few periods and the period fits show multiplicity of solutions, it is possible to find seismological models whose mass and effective temperature are in agreement with the values given by spectroscopy for most of the cases. Unfortunately, we were not able to constrain the stellar masses by employing the observed period spacing because, in general, only few periods are exhibited by these stars. In the two cases where we were able to extract the period spacing from the set of observed periods, this method led to stellar mass values that were substantially higher than expected for this type of stars. Conclusions: The results presented in this work show the need for further photometric searches, on the one hand

  4. Graviton mass bounds from an analysis of bright star trajectories at the Galactic Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakharov Alexander


    Full Text Available In February 2016 the LIGO & VIRGO collaboration reported the discovery of gravitational waves in merging black holes, therefore, the team confirmed GR predictions about an existence of black holes and gravitational waves in the strong gravitational field limit. Moreover, in their papers the joint LIGO & VIRGO team presented an upper limit on graviton mass such as mg < 1.2 × 10−22 eV (Abbott et al. 2016. So, the authors concluded that their observational data do not show any violation of classical general relativity. We show that an analysis of bright star trajectories could constrain graviton mass with a comparable accuracy with accuracies reached with gravitational wave interferometers and the estimate is consistent with the one obtained by the LIGO & VIRGO collaboration. This analysis gives an opportunity to treat observations of bright stars near the Galactic Center as a useful tool to obtain constraints on the fundamental gravity law such as modifications of the Newton gravity law in a weak field approximation. In that way, based on a potential reconstruction at the Galactic Center we obtain bounds on a graviton mass.

  5. Discovery of a wide planetary-mass companion to the young M3 star GU PSC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naud, Marie-Eve; Artigau, Étienne; Malo, Lison; Albert, Loïc; Doyon, René; Lafrenière, David; Gagné, Jonathan; Boucher, Anne [Département de physique and Observatoire du Mont-Mégantic, Université de Montréal, Montréal H3C 3J7 (Canada); Saumon, Didier [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Morley, Caroline V. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Allard, France; Homeier, Derek [Centre de Recherche Astrophysique de Lyon, UMR 5574 CNRS, Université de Lyon, École Normale Supérieure de Lyon, 46 Allée d' Italie, F-69364 Lyon Cedex 07 (France); Beichman, Charles A.; Gelino, Christopher R., E-mail: [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, MS 100-22, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)


    We present the discovery of a comoving planetary-mass companion ∼42'' (∼2000 AU) from a young M3 star, GU Psc, a likely member of the young AB Doradus Moving Group (ABDMG). The companion was first identified via its distinctively red i – z color (>3.5) through a survey made with Gemini-S/GMOS. Follow-up Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope/WIRCam near-infrared (NIR) imaging, Gemini-N/GNIRS NIR spectroscopy and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer photometry indicate a spectral type of T3.5 ± 1 and reveal signs of low gravity which we attribute to youth. Keck/Adaptive Optics NIR observations did not resolve the companion as a binary. A comparison with atmosphere models indicates T {sub eff} = 1000-1100 K and log g = 4.5-5.0. Based on evolution models, this temperature corresponds to a mass of 9-13 M {sub Jup} for the age of ABDMG (70-130 Myr). The relatively well-constrained age of this companion and its very large angular separation to its host star will allow its thorough characterization and will make it a valuable comparison for planetary-mass companions that will be uncovered by forthcoming planet-finder instruments such as Gemini Planet Imager and SPHERE 9.

  6. Graviton mass bounds from an analysis of bright star trajectories at the Galactic Center (United States)

    Zakharov, Alexander; Jovanović, Predrag; Borka, Dusko; Jovanović, Vesna Borka


    In February 2016 the LIGO & VIRGO collaboration reported the discovery of gravitational waves in merging black holes, therefore, the team confirmed GR predictions about an existence of black holes and gravitational waves in the strong gravitational field limit. Moreover, in their papers the joint LIGO & VIRGO team presented an upper limit on graviton mass such as mg data do not show any violation of classical general relativity. We show that an analysis of bright star trajectories could constrain graviton mass with a comparable accuracy with accuracies reached with gravitational wave interferometers and the estimate is consistent with the one obtained by the LIGO & VIRGO collaboration. This analysis gives an opportunity to treat observations of bright stars near the Galactic Center as a useful tool to obtain constraints on the fundamental gravity law such as modifications of the Newton gravity law in a weak field approximation. In that way, based on a potential reconstruction at the Galactic Center we obtain bounds on a graviton mass.

  7. Metal-Poor, Strongly Star-Forming Galaxies in the DEEP2 Survey: The Relationship Between Stellar Mass, Temperature-Based Metallicity, and Star Formation Rate (United States)

    Ly, Chun; Rigby, Jane R.; Cooper, Michael; Yan, Renbin


    We report on the discovery of 28 redshift (z) approximately equal to 0.8 metal-poor galaxies in DEEP2. These galaxies were selected for their detection of the weak [O (sub III)] lambda 4363 emission line, which provides a "direct" measure of the gas-phase metallicity. A primary goal for identifying these rare galaxies is to examine whether the fundamental metallicity relation (FMR) between stellar mass, gas metallicity, and star formation rate (SFR) holds for low stellar mass and high SFR galaxies. The FMR suggests that higher SFR galaxies have lower metallicity (at fixed stellar mass). To test this trend, we combine spectroscopic measurements of metallicity and dust-corrected SFR with stellar mass estimates from modeling the optical photometry. We find that these galaxies are 1.05 plus or minus 0.61 dex above the redshift (z) approximately 1 stellar mass-SFR relation and 0.23 plus or minus 0.23 dex below the local mass-metallicity relation. Relative to the FMR, the latter offset is reduced to 0.01 dex, but significant dispersion remains dex with 0.16 dex due to measurement uncertainties). This dispersion suggests that gas accretion, star formation, and chemical enrichment have not reached equilibrium in these galaxies. This is evident by their short stellar mass doubling timescale of approximately equal to 100 (sup plus 310) (sub minus 75) million years which suggests stochastic star formation. Combining our sample with other redshift (z) of approximately 1 metal-poor galaxies, we find a weak positive SFR-metallicity dependence (at fixed stellar mass) that is significant at 94.4 percent confidence. We interpret this positive correlation as recent star formation that has enriched the gas but has not had time to drive the metal-enriched gas out with feedback mechanisms.

  8. Habitable Zones Around Main-Sequence Stars: Dependence on Planetary Mass (United States)

    Kopparapu, Ravi Kumar; Ramirez, Ramses M.; Kotte, James Schottel; Kasting, James F.; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn; Eymet, Vincent


    The ongoing discoveries of extra-solar planets are unveiling a wide range of terrestrial mass (size) planets around their host stars. In this Letter, we present estimates of habitable zones (HZs) around stars with stellar effective temperatures in the range 2600 K-7200 K, for planetary masses between 0.1M and 5M. Assuming H2O-(inner HZ) and CO2-(outer HZ) dominated atmospheres, and scaling the background N2 atmospheric pressure with the radius of the planet, our results indicate that larger planets have wider HZs than do smaller ones. Specifically, with the assumption that smaller planets will have less dense atmospheres, the inner edge of the HZ (runaway greenhouse limit) moves outward (approx.10% lower than Earth flux) for low mass planets due to larger greenhouse effect arising from the increased H2O column depth. For larger planets, the H2O column depth is smaller, and higher temperatures are needed before water vapor completely dominates the outgoing long-wave radiation. Hence the inner edge moves inward (approx.7% higher than Earth's flux). The outer HZ changes little due to the competing effects of the greenhouse effect and an increase in albedo. New, three-dimensional climate model results from other groups are also summarized, and we argue that further, independent studies are needed to verify their predictions. Combined with our previous work, the results presented here provide refined estimates of HZs around main-sequence stars and provide a step toward a more comprehensive analysis of HZs.

  9. Mass loss of stars on the asymptotic giant branch. Mechanisms, models and measurements (United States)

    Höfner, Susanne; Olofsson, Hans


    As low- and intermediate-mass stars reach the asymptotic giant branch (AGB), they have developed into intriguing and complex objects that are major players in the cosmic gas/dust cycle. At this stage, their appearance and evolution are strongly affected by a range of dynamical processes. Large-scale convective flows bring newly-formed chemical elements to the stellar surface and, together with pulsations, they trigger shock waves in the extended stellar atmosphere. There, massive outflows of gas and dust have their origin, which enrich the interstellar medium and, eventually, lead to a transformation of the cool luminous giants into white dwarfs. Dust grains forming in the upper atmospheric layers play a critical role in the wind acceleration process, by scattering and absorbing stellar photons and transferring their outward-directed momentum to the surrounding gas through collisions. Recent progress in high-angular-resolution instrumentation, from the visual to the radio regime, is leading to valuable new insights into the complex dynamical atmospheres of AGB stars and their wind-forming regions. Observations are revealing asymmetries and inhomogeneities in the photospheric and dust-forming layers which vary on time-scales of months, as well as more long-lived large-scale structures in the circumstellar envelopes. High-angular-resolution observations indicate at what distances from the stars dust condensation occurs, and they give information on the chemical composition and sizes of dust grains in the close vicinity of cool giants. These are essential constraints for building realistic models of wind acceleration and developing a predictive theory of mass loss for AGB stars, which is a crucial ingredient of stellar and galactic chemical evolution models. At present, it is still not fully possible to model all these phenomena from first principles, and to predict the mass-loss rate based on fundamental stellar parameters only. However, much progress has been made

  10. 2D dynamics of the radiative core of low mass stars (United States)

    Hypolite, Delphine; Mathis, Stéphane; Rieutord, Michel


    Understanding the internal rotation of low mass stars all along their evolution is of primary interest when studying their rotational dynamics, internal mixing and magnetic field generation. In this context, helio- and asteroseismology probe angular velocity gradients deep within solar type stars at different evolutionary stages. Still the rotation close to the center of such stars on the main sequence is hardly detectable and the dynamical interaction of the radiative core with the surface convective envelope is not well understood. For instance, the influence of the differential rotation profile sustained by convection and applied as a boundary condition to the radiation zone is very important in the formation of tachoclines. In this work, we study a 2D hydrodynamical model of a radiative core when an imposed, solar or anti-solar, differential rotation is applied at the upper boundary. This model uses the Boussinesq approximation and we find that the shear induces a cylindrical differential rotation associated with a unique cell of meridional circulation in each hemisphere (counterclockwise when the shear is solar-like and clockwise when it is anti-solar). The results are discussed in the framework of seismic observables (internal rotation rate, core-to-surface rotation ratio) while perspectives to improve our modeling by including magnetic field or transport by internal gravity waves will be discussed.

  11. 2D dynamics of the radiative core of low mass stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hypolite Delphine


    Full Text Available Understanding the internal rotation of low mass stars all along their evolution is of primary interest when studying their rotational dynamics, internal mixing and magnetic field generation. In this context, helio- and asteroseismology probe angular velocity gradients deep within solar type stars at different evolutionary stages. Still the rotation close to the center of such stars on the main sequence is hardly detectable and the dynamical interaction of the radiative core with the surface convective envelope is not well understood. For instance, the influence of the differential rotation profile sustained by convection and applied as a boundary condition to the radiation zone is very important in the formation of tachoclines. In this work, we study a 2D hydrodynamical model of a radiative core when an imposed, solar or anti-solar, differential rotation is applied at the upper boundary. This model uses the Boussinesq approximation and we find that the shear induces a cylindrical differential rotation associated with a unique cell of meridional circulation in each hemisphere (counterclockwise when the shear is solar-like and clockwise when it is anti-solar. The results are discussed in the framework of seismic observables (internal rotation rate, core-to-surface rotation ratio while perspectives to improve our modeling by including magnetic field or transport by internal gravity waves will be discussed.

  12. Modelling the evolution of solar-mass stars with a range of metallicities using MESA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones E.F.


    Full Text Available The nuclides 1,2H, 3,4He, 7Li, 7Be, 8B, 12,13C, 13-15N, 14-18O, 17-19F, 18-22Ne, 22Mg, and 24Mg were used in the code package MESA (Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics[Paxton] to model a one-solar-mass star with a range of metallicities, z, from 0 to 0.1. On HR diagrams of each star model’s luminosity and effective temperature from before zero-age main sequence (pre-ZAMS to white dwarf, oscillations were noted in the horizontal branch at intervals from z = 0 to 0.0070. At z, = 0, the calculated stellar lifetime is 6.09x109 years. The calculated lifetime of the model stars increases to a maximum of 1.25x1010 years at z = 0.022 and then decreases to 2.59x109 years at z = 0.1. A piecewise fit of the model lifetimes vs. metallicity was obtained.

  13. Ejection of Hyper-Velocity Stars by Intermediate-Mass Black Holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgardt, Holger [Argelander Institute for Astronomy, University of Bonn, Auf dem Huegel 71, 53121 Bonn (Germany); Gualandris, Alessia [Astronomical Institute ' Anton Pannekoek' , University of Amsterdam, Kruislaan 403 (Netherlands); Zwart, Simon Portegies [Astronomical Institute ' Anton Pannekoek' , University of Amsterdam, Kruislaan 403 (Netherlands)


    We have performed N-body simulations of the formation of hyper-velocity stars (HVS) in the centre of the Milky Way due to inspiralling intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs). We find that due to dynamical friction, IMBHs sink into the centre of the Galaxy where they deplete the central cusp of stars. Some of these stars become HVS and are ejected with velocities sufficiently high to escape the Galaxy. Our simulations show that HVS are generated in short bursts which last only a few Myrs until the IMBH is swallowed by the supermassive black hole (SMBH). After the HVS have reached the galactic halo, their escape velocities correlate with the distance from the Galactic centre in the sense that the fastest HVS can be found furthest away from the centre. Finally, our simulations show that the presence of an IMBH in the Galactic centre changes the stellar density distribution inside r < 0.02 pc into a core profile, which takes at least 100 Myrs to replenish.

  14. Absence of evidence is not evidence of absence: the colour-density relation at fixed stellar mass persists to z ~ 1 (United States)

    Cooper, Michael C.; Coil, Alison L.; Gerke, Brian F.; Newman, Jeffrey A.; Bundy, Kevin; Conselice, Christopher J.; Croton, Darren J.; Davis, Marc; Faber, S. M.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Koo, David C.; Lin, Lihwai; Weiner, Benjamin J.; Willmer, Christopher N. A.; Yan, Renbin


    We use data drawn from the DEEP2 Galaxy Redshift Survey to investigate the relationship between local galaxy density, stellar mass and rest-frame galaxy colour. At z ~ 0.9, we find that the shape of the stellar mass function at the high-mass [ log 10(M*/h-2 Msolar) > 10.1] end depends on the local environment, with high-density regions favouring more massive systems. Accounting for this stellar mass-environment relation (i.e. working at fixed stellar mass), we find a significant colour-density relation for galaxies with 10.6 role in the transformation of galaxy properties at z > 1. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. E-mail: (MCC); (CNAW); (BJW); (BFG); (JAN); (KB); (MD); (CJC); (DJC); (SMF); (DCK); (PG); (LL); (RY) ‡ Spitzer Fellow. ¶ Alfred P. Sloan Foundation Fellow. § Hubble Fellow.

  15. Periodic Variability of Low-mass Stars in Sloan Digital Sky Survey Stripe 82 (United States)

    Becker, A. C.; Bochanski, J. J.; Hawley, S. L.; Ivezić, Ž.; Kowalski, A. F.; Sesar, B.; West, A. A.


    We present a catalog of periodic stellar variability in the "Stripe 82" region of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. After aggregating and re-calibrating catalog-level data from the survey, we ran a period-finding algorithm (Supersmoother) on all point-source light curves. We used color selection to identify systems that are likely to contain low-mass stars, in particular M dwarfs and white dwarfs. In total, we found 207 candidates, the vast majority of which appear to be in eclipsing binary systems. The catalog described in this paper includes 42 candidate M dwarf/white dwarf pairs, four white dwarf pairs, 59 systems whose colors indicate they are composed of two M dwarfs and whose light-curve shapes suggest they are in detached eclipsing binaries, and 28 M dwarf systems whose light-curve shapes suggest they are in contact binaries. We find no detached systems with periods longer than 3 days, thus the majority of our sources are likely to have experienced orbital spin-up and enhanced magnetic activity. Indeed, 26 of 27 M dwarf systems that we have spectra for show signs of chromospheric magnetic activity, far higher than the 24% seen in field stars of the same spectral type. We also find binaries composed of stars that bracket the expected boundary between partially and fully convective interiors, which will allow the measurement of the stellar mass-radius relationship across this transition. The majority of our contact systems have short orbital periods, with small variance (0.02 days) in the sample near the observed cutoff of 0.22 days. The accumulation of these stars at short orbital period suggests that the process of angular momentum loss, leading to period evolution, becomes less efficient at short periods. These short-period systems are in a novel regime for studying the effects of orbital spin-up and enhanced magnetic activity, which are thought to be the source of discrepancies between mass-radius predictions and measurements of these properties in eclipsing


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sala, G.; Jose, J.; Parikh, A.; Longland, R. [Departament de Fisica i Enginyeria Nuclear, EUETIB, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, c/ Comte d' Urgell 187, E-08036 Barcelona (Spain); Haberl, F. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Pardo, L. C. [Grup de Caracteritzacio de Materials, Departament de Fisica i Enginyeria Nuclear, ETSEIB, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, E-08028 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Andersen, M. [Research and Scientific Support Department, European Space Agency, ESTEC, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2200 AG Noordwijk (Netherlands)


    The Rapid Burster (MXB 1730-335) is a unique object, showing both type I and type II X-ray bursts. A type I burst of the Rapid Burster was observed with Swift/X-Ray Telescope on 2009 March 5, showing photospheric radius expansion (PRE) for the first time in this source. We report here on the mass and radius determination from this PRE burst using a Bayesian approach. After marginalization over the likely distance of the system (5.8-10 kpc), we obtain M = 1.1 {+-} 0.3 M{sub Sun} and R = 9.6 {+-} 1.5 km (1{sigma} uncertainties) for the compact object, ruling out the stiffest equations of state for the neutron star. We study the sensitivity of the results to the distance, the color correction factor, and the hydrogen mass fraction in the envelope. We find that only the distance plays a crucial role.

  17. On the effects of Cosmions upon the structure and evolution of very low mass stars (United States)

    Deluca, E. E.; Griest, K.; Rosner, R.; Wang, J.


    A number of recent studies have suggested that cosmions, or WIMPS, may play an important role in the energetics of the solar interior; in particular, it has been argued that these hypothetical particles may transport sufficient energy within the nuclear-burning solar core so as to depress the solar core temperature to the point of resolving the solar neutrino problem. Solutions to the solar neutrino problem have proven themselves to be quite nonunique, so that it is of some interest whether the cosmion solution can be tested in some independent manner. It is argued that if cosmions solve the solar neutrino problem, then they must also play an important role in the evolution of low mass main sequence stars; and, second, that if they do so, then a simple (long mean free path) model for the interaction of cosmions with baryons leads to changes in the structure of the nuclear-burning core which may be in principal observable. Such changes include suppression of a fully-convective core in very low mass main sequence stars; and a possible thermal runaway in the core of the nuclear burning region. Some of these changes may be directly observable, and hence may provide independent constraints on the properties of the cosmions required to solve the solar neutrino problem, perhaps even ruling them out.

  18. Densovirus associated with sea-star wasting disease and mass mortality (United States)

    Hewson, Ian; Button, Jason B.; Gudenkauf, Brent M.; Miner, Benjamin; Newton, Alisa L.; Gaydos, Joseph K.; Wynne, Janna; Groves, Cathy L.; Hendler, Gordon; Murray, Michael; Fradkin, Steven; Breitbart, Mya; Fahsbender, Elizabeth; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Kilpatrick, A. Marm; Miner, C. Melissa; Raimondi, Peter T.; Lahner, Lesanna L.; Friedman, Carolyn S.; Danielson, Stephen D.; Haulena, Martin; Marliave, Jeffrey; Burge, Colleen A.; Eisenlord, Morgan E.; Harvell, C. Drew


    Populations of at least 20 asteroid species on the Northeast Pacific Coast have recently experienced an extensive outbreak of sea-star (asteroid) wasting disease (SSWD). The disease leads to behavioral changes, lesions, loss of turgor, limb autotomy, and death characterized by rapid degradation (“melting”). Here, we present evidence from experimental challenge studies and field observations that link the mass mortalities to a densovirus (Parvoviridae). Virus-sized material (i.e., killed (i.e., control) virus-sized inoculum remained asymptomatic. Viral metagenomic investigations revealed the sea star-associated densovirus (SSaDV) as the most likely candidate virus associated with tissues from symptomatic asteroids. Quantification of SSaDV during transmission trials indicated that progression of SSWD paralleled increased SSaDV load. In field surveys, SSaDV loads were more abundant in symptomatic than in asymptomatic asteroids. SSaDV could be detected in plankton, sediments and in nonasteroid echinoderms, providing a possible mechanism for viral spread. SSaDV was detected in museum specimens of asteroids from 1942, suggesting that it has been present on the North American Pacific Coast for at least 72 y. SSaDV is therefore the most promising candidate disease agent responsible for asteroid mass mortality.

  19. Is main-sequence galaxy star formation controlled by halo mass accretion? (United States)

    Rodríguez-Puebla, Aldo; Primack, Joel R.; Behroozi, Peter; Faber, S. M.


    The galaxy stellar-to-halo mass relation (SHMR) is nearly time-independent for z dependent constraints on the relation between SFR and MAR. Despite its simplicity and the simplified treatment of mass growth from mergers, the SHARC model is likely to be a good approximation for central galaxies with M* = 109-1010.5 M⊙ that are on the MS, representing most of the star formation in the Universe. SHARC predictions agree with observed SFRs for galaxies on the MS at low redshifts, agree fairly well at z ˜ 4, but exceed observations at z ≳ 4. Assuming that the interstellar gas mass is constant for each galaxy (the `equilibrium condition' in bathtub models), the SHARC model allows calculation of net mass loading factors for inflowing and outflowing gas. With assumptions about preventive feedback based on simulations, SHARC allows calculation of galaxy metallicity evolution. If galaxy SFRs indeed track halo MARs, especially at low redshifts, that may help explain the success of models linking galaxy properties to haloes (including age-matching) and the similarities between two-halo galaxy conformity and halo mass accretion conformity.

  20. The Formation of the First Stars. II. Radiative Feedback Processes and Implications for the Initial Mass Function (United States)

    McKee, Christopher F.; Tan, Jonathan C.


    We consider the radiative feedback processes that operate during the formation of the first stars. (1) Photodissociation of H2 in the local dark matter minihalo occurs early in the growth of the protostar but does not affect subsequent accretion. (2) Lyα radiation pressure acting at the boundary of the H II region that the protostar creates in the accreting envelope reverses infall in the polar directions when the star reaches ~20-30 M⊙ but cannot prevent infall from other directions. (3) Expansion of the H II region beyond the gravitational escape radius for ionized gas occurs at masses ~50-100 M⊙. However, accretion from the equatorial regions can continue since the neutral accretion disk shields a substantial fraction of the accretion envelope from direct ionizing flux. (4) At higher stellar masses, ~140 M⊙ in the fiducial case, photoevaporation-driven mass loss from the disk, together with declining accretion rates, halts the increase in the protostellar mass. We identify this process as the mechanism that determines the mass of Population III.1 stars (i.e., stars with primordial composition that have not been affected by prior star formation). The initial mass function of these stars is set by the distribution of entropy and angular momentum. The Appendix gives approximate solutions to a number of problems relevant to the formation of the first stars: the effect of Rayleigh scattering on line profiles in media of very large optical depth, the intensity of Lyα radiation in very opaque media, radiative acceleration in terms of the gradient of a modified radiation pressure, the flux of radiation in a shell with an arbitrary distribution of opacity, and the vertical structure of an accretion disk supported by gas pressure with constant opacity.

  1. HOBYS and W43-HERO: Two more steps toward a Galaxy-wide understanding of high-mass star formation (United States)

    Motte, Frédérique; Bontemps, Sylvain; Tigé, Jérémy

    The Herschel/HOBYS key program allows to statistically study the formation of 10-20 M ⊙ stars. The IRAM/W43-HERO large program is itself dedicated to the much more extreme W43 molecular complex, which forms stars up to 50 M ⊙. Both reveal high-density cloud filaments of several pc3, which are forming clusters of OB-type stars. Given their activity, these so-called mini-starburst cloud ridges could be seen as ``miniature and instant models'' of starburst galaxies. Both surveys also strongly suggest that high-mass prestellar cores do not exist, in agreement with the dynamical formation of cloud ridges. The HOBYS and W43 surveys are necessary steps towards Galaxy-wide studies of high-mass star formation.

  2. Quark matter in compact stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, H., E-mail: harg@cefet-rj.b [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica do Rio de Janeiro, Av. Maracana 249, 20271-110, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Duarte, S.B., E-mail: sbd@cbpf.b [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud 150, 22290-180, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Oliveira, J.C.T., E-mail: jcto@cbpf.b [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Roraima, Campus do Paricarana s/n, 69310-270, Boa Vista, RR (Brazil)


    Recently reported massive compact stars (Mapprox2M{sub o}) have provided strong constraints on the properties of the ultradense matter beyond the saturation nuclear density. Therefore, realistic quark or hybrid star models must be compatible with these observational data. Some used equations of state (EoS) describing quark matter are in general too soft and hence are not suitable to explain the stability of high compact star masses. In this work, we present the calculations of static spherically symmetric quark star structure by using an equation of state which takes into account the superconducting colour-flavour locked phase of the strange quark matter. In addition, some fundamental aspects of QCD (asymptotic freedom and confinement) are considered by means of a phenomenological description of the deconfined quark phase, the density-dependent quark mass model. We discuss the influence of the obtained quark matter equation of state on the mass-radius relationship of quark stars. Massive quark stars are found due to the stiffness of the equation of state, when reasonable values of the superconducting gap, taken as a free parameter, are used.

  3. Towards a Unified View of Inhomogeneous Stellar Winds in Isolated Supergiant Stars and Supergiant High Mass X-Ray Binaries (United States)

    Martínez-Núñez, Silvia; Kretschmar, Peter; Bozzo, Enrico; Oskinova, Lidia M.; Puls, Joachim; Sidoli, Lara; Sundqvist, Jon Olof; Blay, Pere; Falanga, Maurizio; Fürst, Felix; Gímenez-García, Angel; Kreykenbohm, Ingo; Kühnel, Matthias; Sander, Andreas; Torrejón, José Miguel; Wilms, Jörn


    Massive stars, at least ˜10 times more massive than the Sun, have two key properties that make them the main drivers of evolution of star clusters, galaxies, and the Universe as a whole. On the one hand, the outer layers of massive stars are so hot that they produce most of the ionizing ultraviolet radiation of galaxies; in fact, the first massive stars helped to re-ionize the Universe after its Dark Ages. Another important property of massive stars are the strong stellar winds and outflows they produce. This mass loss, and finally the explosion of a massive star as a supernova or a gamma-ray burst, provide a significant input of mechanical and radiative energy into the interstellar space. These two properties together make massive stars one of the most important cosmic engines: they trigger the star formation and enrich the interstellar medium with heavy elements, that ultimately leads to formation of Earth-like rocky planets and the development of complex life. The study of massive star winds is thus a truly multidisciplinary field and has a wide impact on different areas of astronomy. In recent years observational and theoretical evidences have been growing that these winds are not smooth and homogeneous as previously assumed, but rather populated by dense "clumps". The presence of these structures dramatically affects the mass loss rates derived from the study of stellar winds. Clump properties in isolated stars are nowadays inferred mostly through indirect methods (i.e., spectroscopic observations of line profiles in various wavelength regimes, and their analysis based on tailored, inhomogeneous wind models). The limited characterization of the clump physical properties (mass, size) obtained so far have led to large uncertainties in the mass loss rates from massive stars. Such uncertainties limit our understanding of the role of massive star winds in galactic and cosmic evolution. Supergiant high mass X-ray binaries (SgXBs) are among the brightest X

  4. Asymptotic giant branch stars at low metallicity: the challenging interplay between the mass-loss and molecular opacities (United States)

    Ventura, P.; Marigo, P.


    We investigate the main physical properties of low-metallicity asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars with the aim of quantifying the uncertainties that presently affect the predicted chemical yields of these stars, associated with the mass-loss and description of molecular opacities. We find that above a threshold mass, M ~= 3.5Msolar for Z = 0.001, the results are little dependent on the opacity treatment, as long as the hot-bottom burning (HBB) prevents the surface C/O ratio from exceeding unity; the yields of these massive AGB stars are expected to be mostly determined by the efficiency of convection, with a relatively mild dependence on the mass-loss description. A much higher degree of uncertainty is associated with the yields of less-massive models, which critically depend on the adopted molecular opacities. An interval of masses exists, say, 2.0-3.0Msolar (the exact range depends on the mass-loss), in which the HBB may be even extinguished following the cooling produced by the opacity of C-bearing molecules. The yields of these stars are the most uncertain, the variation range being the largest (up to ~2dex) for the nitrogen and sodium yields. For very low mass models, not experiencing the HBB (M <= 1.5Msolar), the description of mass-loss and the treatment of the convective boundaries are crucial for the occurrence of the third dredge-up, with a sizeable impact on the CNO yields.

  5. The geometry and dynamics of mass-loss at milli-arcsecond scales of massive stars in transition (United States)

    de Wit, W. J.; Wheelwright, H.; Oudmaijer, R. D.; Mehner, A.


    The dynamics, geometry and abundances of circumstellar material provide the crucial information necessary to reconstruct the post-main sequence evolution and final fate of high-mass stars. In this context, we will present recent discoveries made by means of infra-red high spectral and spatial resolution observations using VLTI/AMBER, VLTI/PIONIER and VLT/CRIRES. The observations shed new light on the ongoing mass-loss of high-mass stars transiting the HR-diagram. In particular, we discuss new results on the milli-arcsecond (mas) scale mass-loss geometry of the yellow hypergiant IRC+10420. They indicate an hour-glass wind geometry and a high mass-loss rate that results in a pseudo-photosphere (Oudmaijer & de Wit 2013). Whether the wind is shaped because of a secondary component or because of slow/fast wind interactions is discussed. In the case of supergiant B[e] stars, binarity may have an important effect on the dynamics and geometry of the mass loss on masscales (Wheelwright et al. 2012a, 2012b, 2013). Our studies of the circumstellar environment of sgB[e] stars have discovered several circumbinary discs that exhibit Keplerian rotation, contrary to expectations based on the dual outflow model. We raise the question of whether binarity is responsible for the Galactic sgB[e] phenomenon or whether the blue supergiant component's mass loss is intrinsically peculiar in sgB[e]s.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Placco, Vinicius M.; Rossi, Silvia [Departamento de Astronomia-Instituto de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP 05508-900 (Brazil); Frebel, Anna [Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Beers, Timothy C. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Karakas, Amanda I.; Kennedy, Catherine R. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston, ACT 2611 (Australia); Christlieb, Norbert [Zentrum fuer Astronomie der Universitaet Heidelberg, Landessternwarte, Koenigstuhl 12, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Stancliffe, Richard J. [Argelander-Institut fuer Astronomie der Universitaet Bonn, Auf dem Huegel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany)


    We present a comprehensive abundance analysis of two newly discovered carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars. HE 2138-3336 is a s-process-rich star with [Fe/H] = -2.79, and has the highest [Pb/Fe] abundance ratio measured thus far, if non-local thermodynamic equilibrium corrections are included ([Pb/Fe] = +3.84). HE 2258-6358, with [Fe/H] = -2.67, exhibits enrichments in both s- and r-process elements. These stars were selected from a sample of candidate metal-poor stars from the Hamburg/ESO objective-prism survey, and followed up with medium-resolution (R {approx} 2000) spectroscopy with GEMINI/GMOS. We report here on derived abundances (or limits) for a total of 34 elements in each star, based on high-resolution (R {approx} 30, 000) spectroscopy obtained with Magellan-Clay/MIKE. Our results are compared to predictions from new theoretical asymptotic giant branch (AGB) nucleosynthesis models of 1.3 M{sub Sun} with [Fe/H] = -2.5 and -2.8, as well as to a set of AGB models of 1.0 to 6.0 M{sub Sun} at [Fe/H] = -2.3. The agreement with the model predictions suggests that the neutron-capture material in HE 2138-3336 originated from mass transfer from a binary companion star that previously went through the AGB phase, whereas for HE 2258-6358, an additional process has to be taken into account to explain its abundance pattern. We find that a narrow range of progenitor masses (1.0 {<=} M(M{sub Sun }) {<=} 1.3) and metallicities (-2.8 {<=} [Fe/H] {<=}-2.5) yield the best agreement with our observed elemental abundance patterns.

  7. The cooling, mass and radius of the neutron star in EXO 0748-676 in quiescence with XMM-Newton (United States)

    Cheng, Zheng; Méndez, Mariano; Díaz-Trigo, María; Costantini, Elisa


    We analyse four XMM-Newton observations of the neutron-star low-mass X-ray binary EXO 0748-676 in quiescence. We fit the spectra with an absorbed neutron-star atmosphere model, without the need for a high-energy (power-law) component; with a 95 per cent confidence the power law contributes less than 1 per cent to the total flux of the source in 0.5-10.0 keV. The fits show significant residuals at around 0.5 keV which can be explained by either a hot gas component around the neutron star or a moderately broad emission line from a residual accretion disc. The temperature of the neutron star has decreased significantly compared to the previous observation, from 124 to 105 eV, with the cooling curve being consistent with either an exponential decay plus a constant or a (broken) power law. The best-fitting neutron-star mass and radius can be better constrained if we extend the fits down to the lowest possible energy available. For an assumed distance of 7.1 kpc, the best-fitting neutron-star mass and radius are 2.00_{-0.24}^{+0.07} M_{⊙} and 11.3_{-1.0}^{+1.3} km if we fit the spectrum over the 0.3-10 keV range, but 1.50_{-1.0}^{+0.4} M_{⊙} and 12.2_{-3.6}^{+0.8} km if we restrict the fits to the 0.5-10 keV range. We finally discuss the effect of the assumed distance to the source upon the best-fitting neutron-star mass and radius. As systematic uncertainties in the deduced mass and radius depending on the distance are much larger than the statistical errors, it would be disingenuous to take these results at face value.

  8. Evolution and excitation conditions of outflows in high-mass star-forming regions (United States)

    Sánchez-Monge, Á.; López-Sepulcre, A.; Cesaroni, R.; Walmsley, C. M.; Codella, C.; Beltrán, M. T.; Pestalozzi, M.; Molinari, S.


    Context. Theoretical models suggest that massive stars form via disk-mediated accretion in a similar fashion to low-mass stars. In this scenario, bipolar outflows ejected along the disk axis play a fundamental role, and their study can help characterize the different evolutionary stages involved in the formation of a high-mass star. A recent study toward massive molecular outflows has revealed a decrease in the SiO line intensity as the object evolves. Aims: The present study aims to characterize the variation of the molecular outflow properties with time and to study the SiO excitation conditions in outflows associated with high-mass young stellar objects (YSOs). Methods: We used the IRAM 30-m telescope on Pico Veleta (Spain) to map 14 high-mass star-forming regions in the SiO (2-1), SiO (5-4), and HCO+ (1-0) lines, which trace the molecular outflow emission. The FTS backend, covering a total frequency range of ~15 GHz, allowed us to simultaneously map several dense gas (e.g., N2H+, C2H, NH2D, H13CN) and hot-core (CH3CN) tracers. We used the Hi-GAL data to improve the previous spectral energy distributions and obtained a more accurate dust envelope mass and bolometric luminosity for each source. We calculated the luminosity-to-mass ratio, which is believed to be a good indicator of the evolutionary stage of the YSO. Results: We detect SiO and HCO+ outflow emission in all fourteen sources and bipolar structures in six of them. The outflow parameters are similar to those found toward other massive YSOs with luminosities 103-104L⊙. We find an increase in the HCO+ outflow energetics as the object evolves, and a decrease in the SiO abundance with time from 10-8 to 10-9. The SiO (5-4) to (2-1) line ratio is found to be low at the ambient gas velocity, and increases as we move to red-/blue-shifted velocities, indicating that the excitation conditions of the SiO change with the velocity of the gas. In particular, the high-velocity SiO gas component seems to arise from

  9. The stellar mass, star formation rate and dark matter halo properties of LAEs at z ˜ 2 (United States)

    Kusakabe, Haruka; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Ouchi, Masami; Nakajima, Kimihiko; Goto, Ryosuke; Hashimoto, Takuya; Konno, Akira; Harikane, Yuichi; Silverman, John D.; Capak, Peter L.


    We present average stellar population properties and dark matter halo masses of z ˜ 2 Lyα emitters (LAEs) from spectral energy distribution fitting and clustering analysis, respectively, using ≃ 1250 objects (\\mathit {NB387}\\le 25.5) in four separate fields of ≃ 1 deg2 in total. With an average stellar mass of 10.2 ± 1.8 × 108 M⊙ and star formation rate of 3.4 ± 0.4 M⊙ yr-1, the LAEs lie on an extrapolation of the star-formation main sequence (MS) to low stellar mass. Their effective dark matter halo mass is estimated to be 4.0_{-2.9}^{+5.1} × 10^{10}{ }M_{\\odot } with an effective bias of 1.22^{+0.16}_{-0.18}, which is lower than that of z ˜ 2 LAEs (1.8 ± 0.3) obtained by a previous study based on a three times smaller survey area, with a probability of 96%. However, the difference in the bias values can be explained if cosmic variance is taken into account. If such a low halo mass implies a low H I gas mass, this result appears to be consistent with the observations of a high Lyα escape fraction. With the low halo masses and ongoing star formation, our LAEs have a relatively high stellar-to-halo mass ratio (SHMR) and a high efficiency of converting baryons into stars. The extended Press-Schechter formalism predicts that at z = 0 our LAEs are typically embedded in halos with masses similar to that of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC); they will also have similar SHMRs to the LMC, if their star formation rates are largely suppressed after z ˜ 2 as some previous studies have reported for the LMC itself.

  10. Pre-explosion Spiral Mass Loss of a Binary Star Merger (United States)

    Pejcha, Ondřej; Metzger, Brian D.; Tyles, Jacob G.; Tomida, Kengo


    Binary stars commonly pass through phases of direct interaction, which result in the rapid loss of mass, energy, and angular momentum. Though crucial to understanding the fates of these systems, including their potential as gravitational wave sources, this short-lived phase is poorly understood and has thus far been unambiguously observed in only a single event, V1309 Sco. Here we show that the complex and previously unexplained photometric behavior of V1309 Sco prior to its main outburst results naturally from the runaway loss of mass and angular momentum from the outer Lagrange point, which lasts for thousands of orbits prior to the final dynamical coalescence, much longer than predicted by contemporary models. This process enshrouds the binary in a “death spiral” outflow, which affects the amplitude and phase modulation of its light curve, and contributes to driving the system together. The total amount of mass lost during this gradual phase (∼ 0.05 {M}ȯ ) rivals the mass lost during the subsequent dynamical interaction phase, which has been the main focus of “common envelope” modeling so far. Analogous features in related transients suggest that this behavior is ubiquitous.

  11. The Impact of Star Formation Histories on Stellar Mass Estimation: Implications from the Local Group Dwarf Galaxies (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-Xin; Puzia, Thomas H.; Weisz, Daniel R.


    Building on the relatively accurate star formation histories (SFHs) and metallicity evolution of 40 Local Group (LG) dwarf galaxies derived from resolved color-magnitude diagram modeling, we carried out a comprehensive study of the influence of SFHs, metallicity evolution, and dust extinction on the UV-to-near-IR color-mass-to-light ratio (color-{log}{{{\\Upsilon }}}\\star (λ)) distributions and M ⋆ estimation of local universe galaxies. We find that (1) the LG galaxies follow color-{log}{{{\\Upsilon }}}\\star (λ) relations that fall in between the ones calibrated by previous studies; (2) optical color-{log}{{{\\Upsilon }}}\\star (λ) relations at higher [M/H] are generally broader and steeper; (3) the SFH “concentration” does not significantly affect the color-{log}{{{\\Upsilon }}}\\star (λ) relations; (4) light-weighted ages }λ and metallicities }λ together constrain {log}{{{\\Upsilon }}}\\star (λ) with uncertainties ranging from ≲0.1 dex for the near-IR up to 0.2 dex for the optical passbands; (5) metallicity evolution induces significant uncertainties to the optical but not near-IR {{{\\Upsilon }}}\\star (λ) at a given }λ and }λ ; (6) the V band is the ideal luminance passband for estimating {{{\\Upsilon }}}\\star (λ) from single colors, because the combinations of {{{\\Upsilon }}}\\star (V) and optical colors such as B - V and g - r exhibit the weakest systematic dependences on SFHs, metallicities, and dust extinction; and (7) without any prior assumption on SFHs, M ⋆ is constrained with biases ≲0.3 dex by the optical-to-near-IR SED fitting. Optical passbands alone constrain M ⋆ with biases ≲0.4 dex (or ≲0.6 dex) when dust extinction is fixed (or variable) in SED fitting. SED fitting with monometallic SFH models tends to underestimate M ⋆ of real galaxies. M ⋆ tends to be overestimated (or underestimated) at the youngest (or oldest) }{mass}.

  12. Vaporizing neutron stars in low-mass x-ray binaries and the statistics of millisecond pulsars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavani, M. (California Univ., Livermore, CA (United States). Inst. of Geophysics and Planetary Physics)


    Recent data on low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) and msec pulsars (MSPs) pose a challenge to evolutionary which neglect the effects of disk and companion irradiation. Here we discuss the main features of a radiation-driven (RD) evolutionary model that may be applicable to several LMXBs. According to this model, irradiation from the accreting compact star LMXBs vaporizes'' the accretion disk and the companion star by driving a self-sustained mass loss until a sudden accretion-turn of occurs. The main characteristics of the RD-evolution are: (1) the lifetime of RD-LMXB's is of order 10{sup 7} years or less: (2) both the orbital period gap and the X-ray luminosity may be consequences of RD-evolution of LMXB's containing lower main sequence and degenerate companion stars; (3) the companion star may transfer mass to the primary even if it underfills its Roche lobe; (4) the recycled msec pulsar can continue to vaporize the low-mass companion star even after the accretion turn-off produced by a strong pulsar wind; (5) the RD-evolutionary model resolves the apparent statistical discrepancy between the number of MSP's and their LMXB progenitors. 14 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  13. Evidence for Different Disk Mass Distributions between Early- and Late-type Be Stars in the BeSOS Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arcos, C.; Kanaan, S.; Curé, M. [Instituto de Física y Astronomía, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valparaíso. Av. Gran Bretana 1111, Valparaíso (Chile); Jones, C. E.; Sigut, T. A. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada)


    The circumstellar disk density distributions for a sample of 63 Be southern stars from the BeSOS survey were found by modeling their H α emission line profiles. These disk densities were used to compute disk masses and disk angular momenta for the sample. Average values for the disk mass are 3.4 × 10{sup −9} and 9.5 × 10{sup −10} M {sub ⋆} for early (B0–B3) and late (B4–B9) spectral types, respectively. We also find that the range of disk angular momentum relative to the star is (150–200) J {sub ⋆}/ M {sub ⋆} and (100–150) J {sub ⋆}/ M {sub ⋆}, again for early- and late-type Be stars, respectively. The distributions of the disk mass and disk angular momentum are different between early- and late-type Be stars at a 1% level of significance. Finally, we construct the disk mass distribution for the BeSOS sample as a function of spectral type and compare it to the predictions of stellar evolutionary models with rapid rotation. The observed disk masses are typically larger than the theoretical predictions, although the observed spread in disk masses is typically large.

  14. Gas kinematics in high-mass star-forming regions from the Perseus spiral arm (United States)

    Kirsanova, M. S.; Sobolev, A. M.; Thomasson, M.


    We present results of a survey of 14 star-forming regions from the Perseus spiral armin CS (2-1) and 13CO (1-0) lines with the Onsala Space Observatory 20 m telescope. Maps of 10 sources in both lines are obtained. For the remaining sources a map in just one line or a single-point spectrum is obtained. On the basis of newly obtained and published observational data we consider the relation between velocities of the "quasi-thermal" CS (2-1) line and 6.7 GHz methanol maser line in 24 high-mass star-forming regions in the Perseus arm. We show that, surprisingly, velocity ranges of 6.7 GHz methanol maser emission are predominantly red-shifted with respect to corresponding CS (2-1) line velocity ranges in the Perseus arm. We suggest that the predominance of the "red-shifted masers" in the Perseus arm could be related to the alignment of gas flows caused by the large-scalemotions in the Galaxy. Large-scale galactic shock related to the spiral structure is supposed to affect the local kinematics of the star-forming regions. Part of the Perseus arm, between galactic longitudes from 85° to 124° , does not contain blue-shifted masers at all. Radial velocities of the sources are the greatest in this particular part of the arm, so the velocity difference is clearly pronounced. 13CO (1-0) and CS (2-1) velocity maps of G183.35-0.58 show gas velocity difference between the center and the periphery of the molecular clump up to 1.2 km s-1. Similar situation is likely to occur in G85.40-0.00. This can correspond to the case when the large-scale shock wave entrains the outer parts of a molecular clump in motion while the dense central clump is less affected by the shock.

  15. Observations of Cyanopolyynes toward Four High-mass Star-forming Regions Containing Hot Cores (United States)

    Taniguchi, Kotomi; Saito, Masao; Hirota, Tomoya; Ozeki, Hiroyuki; Miyamoto, Yusuke; Kaneko, Hiroyuki; Minamidani, Tetsuhiro; Shimoikura, Tomomi; Nakamura, Fumitaka; Dobashi, Kazuhito


    We carried out line survey observations at the 26-30 GHz band toward the four high-mass star-forming regions containing hot cores, G10.30-0.15, G12.89+0.49, G16.86-2.16, and G28.28-0.36, with the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope. We have detected HC5N from all of the sources, and HC7N from the three sources, except for G10.30-0.15. We further conducted observations of HC5N at the 42-46 GHz and 82-103 GHz bands toward the three sources, G12.89+0.49, G16.86-2.16, and G28.28-0.36, with the Nobeyama 45 m radio telescope. The rotational lines of HC5N with the high-excitation energies ({E}{{u}}/k˜ 63{--}100 K), which are hardly excited in the cold dark clouds, have been detected from the three sources. The rotational temperatures of HC5N are found to be ˜13-20 K in the three sources. The detection of the lines with the high-excitation energies and the derived rotational temperatures indicate that HC5N exists in the warm gas within 0.07-0.1 pc radii around massive young stellar objects. The column densities of HC5N in the three sources are derived to be (˜2.0-2.8) × {10}13 cm-2. We compare the ratios between N(HC5N) the column density of HC5N and W(CH3OH) the integrated intensity of the thermal CH3OH emission line among the three high-mass star-forming regions. We found a possibility of the chemical differentiation in the three high-mass star-forming regions; G28.28-0.36 shows the largest N(HC5N)/W(CH3OH) ratio of > 8.0× {10}14 in units of (K km s-1)-1 cm-2, while G12.89+0.49 and G16.86-2.16 show the smaller values (˜ 2× {10}13).

  16. Identification and characterization of low mass stars and brown dwarfs using Virtual Observatory tools (United States)

    Aberasturi, Miriam


    Context: Two thirds of the stars in our galactic neighborhood (d building a shortlist with the best possible candidates for exoplanet searches. Brown dwarfs (BDs) are self-gravitating objects that do not get enough mass to maintain a sufficiently high temperature in their core for stable hydrogen fusion. They represent the link between low-mass stars and giant planets. Due to their low temperatures, BDs emit significant flux at mid-infrared wavelength which makes this range very adequate to look for this type of objects. The Virtual Observatory (VO) is an international initiative designed to help the astronomical community in the exploitation of the multi-wavelength information that resides in data archives. In the last years the Spanish Virtual Observatory is conducting a number of projects focused on the study of substellar objects taking advantage of Virtual Observatory tools for an easy data access and analysis of large area surveys. This is the framework where this thesis has been carried out. This dissertation addresses three problems in the framework of low-mass stars and brown dwarfs, namely, the search for brown dwarf candidates crossmatching catalogues (Chapter 4), the search for nearby bright M dwarfs and the subsequent spectroscopic characterization (Chapter 5), and a study of binarity in mid to late-T brown dwarfs (Chapter 6); the first two topics use Virtual Observatory tools. Aims and methodology:In the first paper we carried out a search of brown dwarfs in the sky area in common to the WISE, 2MASS Point Source and SDSS catalogues. A VO-workflow with the criteria that must accomplish our candidates was built using STILTS. The workflow returned 138 sources that were visually inspected. For the six new candidates that passed the inspection, proper motions were calculated using the positions and the different observing epochs of the catalogues previously quoted. Effective temperatures were estimated using VOSA and spectral types and distances using

  17. Herschel/HIFI observations of spectrally resolved methylidyne signatures toward the high-mass star-forming core NGC 6334I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wiel, M.H.D.; van der Tak, F.F.S.; Lis, D.C.; Bell, T.; Bergin, E.A.; Comito, C.; Emprechtinger, M.; Schilke, P.; Caux, E.; Ceccarelli, C.; Baudry, A.; Goldsmith, P.F.; Herbst, E.; Langer, W.; Lord, S.; Neufeld, D.; Pearson, J.; Phillips, T.; Rolffs, R.; Yorke, H.; Bacmann, A.; Benedettini, M.; Blake, G.A.; Boogert, A.; Bottinelli, S.; Cabrit, S.; Caselli, P.; Castets, A.; Cernicharo, J.; Codella, C.; Coutens, A.; Crimier, N.; Demyk, K.; Dominik, C.; Encrenaz, P.; Falgarone, E.; Fuente, A.; Gerin, M.; Helmich, F.; Hennebelle, P.; Henning, T.; Hily-Blant, P.; Jacq, T.; Kahane, C.; Kama, M.; Klotz, A.; Lefloch, B.; Lorenzani, A.; Maret, S.; Melnick, G.; Nisini, B.; Pacheco, S.; Pagani, L.; Parise, B.; Salez, M.; Saraceno, P.; Schuster, K.; Tielens, A.G.G.M.; Vastel, C.; Viti, S.; Wakelam, V.; Walters, A.; Wyrowski, F.; Edwards, K.; Zmuidzinas, J.; Morris, P.; Samoska, L.A.; Teyssier, D.


    Context. In contrast to the more extensively studied dense star-forming cores, little is known about diffuse gas surrounding star-forming regions. Aims. We study the molecular gas in the Galactic high-mass star-forming region NGC 6334I, which contains diffuse, quiescent components that are

  18. Herschel/HIFI observations of spectrally resolved methylidyne signatures toward the high-mass star-forming core NGC 6334I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wiel, M. H. D.; van der Tak, F. F. S.; Lis, D. C.; Bell, T.; Bergin, E. A.; Comito, C.; Emprechtinger, M.; Schilke, P.; Caux, E.; Ceccarelli, C.; Baudry, A.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Herbst, E.; Langer, W.; Lord, S.; Neufeld, D.; Pearson, J.; Phillips, T.; Rolffs, R.; Yorke, H.; Bacmann, A.; Benedettini, M.; Blake, G.A.; Boogert, A.; Bottinelli, S.; Cabrit, S.; Caselli, P.; Castets, A.; Cernicharo, J.; Codella, C.; Coutens, A.; Crimier, N.; Demyk, K.; Dominik, C.; Encrenaz, P.; Falgarone, E.; Fuente, A.; Gerin, M.; Helmich, F.; Hennebelle, P.; Henning, T.; Hily-Blant, P.; Jacq, T.; Kahane, C.; Kama, M.; Klotz, A.; Lefloch, B.; Lorenzani, A.; Maret, S.; Melnick, G.; Nisini, B.; Pacheco, S.; Pagani, L.; Parise, B.; Salez, M.; Saraceno, P.; Schuster, K.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Vastel, C.; Viti, S.; Wakelam, V.; Walters, A.; Wyrowski, F.; Edwards, K.; Zmuidzinas, J.; Morris, P.; Samoska, L. A.; Teyssier, D.


    Context. In contrast to the more extensively studied dense star-forming cores, little is known about diffuse gas surrounding star-forming regions. Aims. We study the molecular gas in the Galactic high-mass star-forming region NGC 6334I, which contains diffuse, quiescent components that are


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, J. S.; Hoyer, S.; Jones, M. I.; Rojo, P.; Day-Jones, A. C.; Ruiz, M. T. [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Chile, Camino el Observatorio 1515, Las Condes, Santiago, Casilla 36-D (Chile); Jones, H. R. A.; Tuomi, M.; Barnes, J. R.; Pavlenko, Y. V.; Pinfield, D. J. [Center for Astrophysics, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane Campus, Hatfield, Hertfordshire, AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Murgas, F. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, Via Lactea, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Ivanyuk, O. [Main Astronomical Observatory of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 27 Zabolotnoho, Kyiv 127, 03680 (Ukraine); Jordan, A., E-mail: [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, 7820436 Macul, Santiago (Chile)


    We announce the discovery of a low-mass planet orbiting the super metal-rich K0V star HD 77338 as part of our ongoing Calan-Hertfordshire Extrasolar Planet Search. The best-fit planet solution has an orbital period of 5.7361 {+-} 0.0015 days and with a radial velocity semi-amplitude of only 5.96 {+-} 1.74 ms{sup -1}, we find a minimum mass of 15.9{sup +4.7}{sub -5.3} M{sub Circled-Plus }. The best-fit eccentricity from this solution is 0.09{sup +0.25}{sub -0.09}, and we find agreement for this data set using a Bayesian analysis and a periodogram analysis. We measure a metallicity for the star of +0.35 {+-} 0.06 dex, whereas another recent work finds +0.47 {+-} 0.05 dex. Thus HD 77338b is one of the most metal-rich planet-host stars known and the most metal-rich star hosting a sub-Neptune-mass planet. We searched for a transit signature of HD 77338b but none was detected. We also highlight an emerging trend where metallicity and mass seem to correlate at very low masses, a discovery that would be in agreement with the core accretion model of planet formation. The trend appears to show that for Neptune-mass planets and below, higher masses are preferred when the host star is more metal-rich. Also a lower boundary is apparent in the super metal-rich regime where there are no very low mass planets yet discovered in comparison to the sub-solar metallicity regime. A Monte Carlo analysis shows that this low-mass planet desert is statistically significant with the current sample of 36 planets at the {approx}4.5{sigma} level. In addition, results from Kepler strengthen the claim for this paucity of the lowest-mass planets in super metal-rich systems. Finally, this discovery adds to the growing population of low-mass planets around low-mass and metal-rich stars and shows that very low mass planets can now be discovered with a relatively small number of data points using stable instrumentation.

  20. The evolution of kicked stellar-mass black holes in star cluster environments (United States)

    Webb, Jeremy J.; Leigh, Nathan W. C.; Singh, Abhishek; Ford, K. E. Saavik; McKernan, Barry; Bellovary, Jillian


    We consider how dynamical friction acts on black holes that receive a velocity kick while located at the centre of a gravitational potential, analogous to a star cluster, due to either a natal kick or the anisotropic emission of gravitational waves during a black hole-black hole merger. Our investigation specifically focuses on how well various Chandrasekhar-based dynamical friction models can predict the orbital decay of kicked black holes with mbh ≲ 100 M⊙ due to an inhomogeneous background stellar field. In general, the orbital evolution of a kicked black hole follows that of a damped oscillator where two-body encounters and dynamical friction serve as sources of damping. However, we find models for approximating the effects of dynamical friction do not accurately predict the amount of energy lost by the black hole if the initial kick velocity vk is greater than the stellar velocity dispersion σ. For all kick velocities, we also find that two-body encounters with nearby stars can cause the energy evolution of a kicked BH to stray significantly from standard dynamical friction theory as encounters can sometimes lead to an energy gain. For larger kick velocities, we find the orbital decay of a black hole departs from classical theory completely as the black hole's orbital amplitude decays linearly with time as opposed to exponentially. Therefore, we have developed a linear decay formalism, which scales linearly with black hole mass and v_k/σ in order to account for the variations in the local gravitational potential.

  1. CI as a Tracer of Gas Mass in Star Forming Galaxies (United States)

    Bourne, Nathan


    Research in galaxy evolution aims to understand the cosmic industry of converting gas into stars. While SFR and stellar mass evolution are well constrained by current data, our knowledge of gas in galaxies throughout cosmic time is comparatively lacking. Almost all high-redshift gas measurements to date rely on CO as a tracer, but this is subject to systematic uncertainties due to optically thick emission and poorly constrained dependences on gas density, distribution and metallicity. Recently, some attention has been given to dust continuum as an alternative gas tracer, which shows promise for large samples but still requires accurate calibration on a direct gas tracer at high redshift. The [CI] 492GHz emission line could overcome much of the systematic uncertainty, as it is optically thin and has similar excitation conditions to CO(1-0), but observational limitations have so far restricted CI measurements to very small samples. I will presen t some new data from ALMA, for the first time testing the CI/dust correlation in a representative sample of star-forming galaxies at z=1, and discuss how future observations could be designed to more widely exploit this independent gas tracer.

  2. 3D Realistic Radiative Hydrodynamic Modeling of a Moderate-Mass Star: Effects of Rotation (United States)

    Kitiashvili, Irina; Kosovichev, Alexander G.; Mansour, Nagi N.; Wray, Alan A.


    Recent progress in stellar observations opens new perspectives in understanding stellar evolution and structure. However, complex interactions in the turbulent radiating plasma together with effects of magnetic fields and rotation make inferences of stellar properties uncertain. The standard 1D mixing-length-based evolutionary models are not able to capture many physical processes of stellar interior dynamics, but they provide an initial approximation of the stellar structure that can be used to initialize 3D time-dependent radiative hydrodynamics simulations, based on first physical principles, that take into account the effects of turbulence, radiation, and others. In this presentation we will show simulation results from a 3D realistic modeling of an F-type main-sequence star with mass 1.47 Msun, in which the computational domain includes the upper layers of the radiation zone, the entire convection zone, and the photosphere. The simulation results provide new insight into the formation and properties of the convective overshoot region, the dynamics of the near-surface, highly turbulent layer, the structure and dynamics of granulation, and the excitation of acoustic and gravity oscillations. We will discuss the thermodynamic structure, oscillations, and effects of rotation on the dynamics of the star across these layers.

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: HAZMAT. II. Low-mass stars with GALEX UV observations (Miles+, 2017) (United States)

    Miles, B. E.; Shkolnik, E. L.


    In this second paper of the HAbitable Zones and M dwarf Activity across Time (HAZMAT) series, we use archived data from both Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) photometric bands to measure the variability of 376 low-mass stars with spectral types ranging from K7 to M7. Our target list consisted of 1124 low-mass stars with photometric distances out to 25pc of Earth assuming field ages (Reid et al. 2007, Cat. J/AJ/133/2825). (1 data file).

  4. The formation of high-mass stars and stellar clusters in the extreme environment of the Central Molecular Zone (United States)

    Walker, Daniel Lewis


    The process of converting gas into stars underpins much of astrophysics, yet many fundamental questions surrounding this process remain unanswered. For example - how sensitive is star formation to the local environmental conditions? How do massive and dense stellar clusters form, and how does this crowded environment influence the stars that form within it? How do the most massive stars form and is there an upper limit to the stellar initial mass function (IMF)? Answering questions such as these is crucial if we are to construct an end-to-end model of how stars form across the full range of conditions found throughout the Universe. The research described in this thesis presents a study that utilises a multi-scale approach to identifying and characterising the early precursors to young massive clusters and high-mass proto-stars, with a specific focus on the extreme environment in the inner few hundred parsecs of the Milky Way - the Central Molecular Zone (CMZ). The primary sources of interest that are studied in detail belong to the Galactic centre dust ridge - a group of six high-mass (M 10^(4-5) Msun), dense (R 1-3 pc, n > 10^(4) cm^(-3)), and quiescent molecular clouds. These properties make these clouds ideal candidates for representing the earliest stages of high-mass star and cluster formation. The research presented makes use of single-dish and interferometric far-infrared and (sub-)millimetre observations to study their global and small-scale properties. A comparison of the known young massive clusters (YMCs) and their likely progenitors (the dust ridge clouds) in the CMZ shows that the stellar content of YMCs is much more dense and centrally concentrated than the gas in the clouds. If these clouds are truly precursors to massive clusters, the resultant stellar population would have to undergo significant dynamical evolution to reach central densities that are typical of YMCs. This suggests that YMCs in the CMZ are unlikely to form monolithically. Extending


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deason, Alis J.; Mao, Yao-Yuan; Wechsler, Risa H., E-mail: [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology and Physics Department, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)


    We study the mass spectrum of destroyed dwarfs that contribute to the accreted stellar mass of Milky Way (MW)-mass (M{sub vir} ∼ 10{sup 12.1} M{sub ⊙}) halos using a suite of 45 zoom-in dissipationless simulations. Empirical models are employed to relate (peak) subhalo mass to dwarf stellar mass, and we use constraints from z = 0 observations and hydrodynamical simulations to estimate the metallicity distribution of the accreted stellar material. The dominant contributors to the accreted stellar mass are relatively massive dwarfs with M{sub star} ∼ 10{sup 8}–10{sup 10}M{sub ⊙}. Halos with more quiescent accretion histories tend to have lower mass progenitors (10{sup 8}–10{sup 9} M{sub ⊙}), and lower overall accreted stellar masses. Ultra-faint mass (M{sub star} < 10{sup 5} M{sub ⊙}) dwarfs contribute a negligible amount (≪1%) to the accreted stellar mass and, despite having low average metallicities, supply a small fraction (∼2%–5%) of the very metal-poor stars with [Fe/H] < −2. Dwarfs with masses 10{sup 5} < M{sub star}/M{sub ⊙} < 10{sup 8} provide a substantial amount of the very metal-poor stellar material (∼40%–80%), and even relatively metal-rich dwarfs with M{sub star} > 10{sup 8} M{sub ⊙} can contribute a considerable fraction (∼20%–60%) of metal-poor stars if their metallicity distributions have significant metal-poor tails. Finally, we find that the generic assumption of a quiescent assembly history for the MW halo seems to be in tension with the mass spectrum of its surviving dwarfs. We suggest that the MW could be a “transient fossil”; a quiescent halo with a recent accretion event(s) that disguises the preceding formation history of the halo.

  6. Pulsations of the Low-Mass ZZ Ceti Star HS 1824+6000 (United States)

    Steinfadt, Justin D. R.; Bildsten, Lars; Ofek, Eran O.; Kulkarni, Shri R.


    Measuring g-mode pulsations of isolated white dwarfs can reveal their interior properties to high precision. With a spectroscopic mass of ≈0.51 M⊙ (log g = 7.82), the DAV white dwarf HS 1824+6000 is near the transition between carbon/oxygen-core and helium-core white dwarfs, motivating our photometric search for additional pulsations from the Palomar 60-inch telescope. We confirmed (with much greater precision) the three frequencies: 2.751190 ± 0.000010 mHz (363.479 sec), 3.116709 ± 0.000006 mHz (320.851 sec), 3.495113 ± 0.000009 mHz (286.114 sec), previously found by B. Voss and collaborators, and found an additional pulsation at 4.443120 ± 0.000012 mHz (225.067 sec). These observed frequencies are similar to those found in other ZZ Ceti white dwarfs of comparable mass (e.g. log g hope that future observations of much lower-mass ZZ Ceti stars (< 0.4 M⊙) will reveal pulsational differences attributable to a hydrogen covered helium core.

  7. The mass of the super-Earth orbiting the brightest Kepler planet hosting star (United States)

    Lopez-Morales, Mercedes; HARPS-N Team


    HD 179070, aka Kepler-21, is a V = 8.25 oscillating F6IV star and the brightest exoplanet host discovered by Kepler. An early analysis of the Q0 - Q5 Kepler light curves by Howell et al. (2012) revealed transits of a planetary companion, Kepler-21b, with a radius of 1.6 R_Earth and an orbital period of 2.7857 days. However, they could not determine the mass of the planet from the initial radial velocity observations with Keck-HIRES, and were only able to impose a 2s upper limit of about 10 M_Earth. Here we present 82 new radial velocity observations of this system obtained with the HARPS-N spectrograph. We detect the Doppler shift signal of Kepler-21b at the 3.6s level, and measure a planetary mass of 5.9 ± 1.6 M_Earth. We also update the radius of the planet to 1.65 ± 0.08 R_Earth, using the now available Kepler Q0 - Q17 photometry for this target. The mass of Kepler-21b appears to fall on the apparent dividing line between super-Earths that have lost all the material in their outer layers and those that have retained a significant amount of volatiles. Based on our results Kepler-21b belongs to the first group. Acknowledgement: This work was supported by funding from the NASA XRP Program and the John Templeton Foundation.

  8. High-mass Star Formation in the Outer Scutum-Centaurus Arm (United States)

    Armentrout, W. P.; Anderson, L. D.; Balser, Dana S.; Bania, T. M.; Dame, T. M.; Wenger, Trey V.


    The Outer Scutum-Centaurus (OSC) spiral arm is the most distant molecular spiral arm in the Milky Way, but until recently little was known about this structure. Discovered by Dame and Thaddeus, the OSC lies ˜15 kpc from the Galactic Center. Due to the Galactic warp, it rises to nearly 4° above the Galactic Plane in the first Galactic quadrant, leaving it unsampled by most Galactic plane surveys. Here we observe H II region candidates spatially coincident with the OSC using the Very Large Array to image radio continuum emission from 65 targets and the Green Bank Telescope to search for ammonia and water maser emission from 75 targets. This sample, drawn from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer Catalog of Galactic H II Regions, represents every H II region candidate near the longitude-latitude ({\\ell },b) locus of the OSC. Coupled with their characteristic mid-infrared morphologies, detection of radio continuum emission strongly suggests that a target is a bona fide H II region. Detections of associated ammonia or water maser emission allow us to derive a kinematic distance and determine if the velocity of the region is consistent with that of the OSC. Nearly 60% of the observed sources were detected in radio continuum, and more than 20% have ammonia or water maser detections. The velocities of these sources mainly place them beyond the Solar orbit. These very distant high-mass stars have stellar spectral types as early as O4. We associate high-mass star formation at 2 new locations with the OSC, increasing the total number of detected H II regions in the OSC to 12.

  9. Bipolar Molecular Outflows within 1pc of Sgr A*:Evidence for Low-mass Star Formation Activity (United States)

    Yusef-Zadeh, Farhad; Wardle, Mark; Kunneriath, Devaky; Royster, Marc; Wootten, Al; Roberts, Douglas


    The 4 million solar mass black hole, Sgr A*, is expected to suppress star formation because the measured density of the cloud is insufficient for self-gravity to overcome tidal disruption by the black hole's gravitational field. Nevertheless, objects resembling dust-enshrouded young stars and photo-evaporative flows from their disks have been identified within 2pc of Sgr A*. Clear identification of the nature of these objects has been hampered by the Galactic center's distance, 30 magnitudes of foreground extinction, and stellar crowding. Here, we report the discovery of 11 bipolar molecular outflows using ALMA within a projected distance of one pc from Sgr A*. These unambiguous signatures of young protostars manifest as approaching and receding lobes of dense gas swept up by the jets created during the formation and early evolution of low-mass stars. The mean dynamical age of the outflow sources and the rate of star formation are estimated to be ~6500 years and ~5x10^{-4} solar mass per year, respectively. These measurements suggest that star formation could take place in the immediate vicinity of supermassive black holes in the nuclei of external galaxies.

  10. Very Low Mass Stellar and Substellar Companions to Solar-like Stars from MARVELS. IV. A Candidate Brown Dwarf or Low-mass Stellar Companion to HIP 67526 (United States)

    Jiang, Peng; Ge, Jian; Cargile, Phillip; Crepp, Justin R.; De Lee, Nathan; Porto de Mello, Gustavo F.; Esposito, Massimiliano; Ferreira, Letícia D.; Femenia, Bruno; Fleming, Scott W.; Gaudi, B. Scott; Ghezzi, Luan; González Hernández, Jonay I.; Hebb, Leslie; Lee, Brian L.; Ma, Bo; Stassun, Keivan G.; Wang, Ji; Wisniewski, John P.; Agol, Eric; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brewington, Howard; Chang, Liang; Nicolaci da Costa, Luiz; Eastman, Jason D.; Ebelke, Garrett; Gary, Bruce; Kane, Stephen R.; Li, Rui; Liu, Jian; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Maia, Marcio A. G.; Malanushenko, Viktor; Malanushenko, Elena; Muna, Demitri; Nguyen, Duy Cuong; Ogando, Ricardo L. C.; Oravetz, Audrey; Oravetz, Daniel; Pan, Kaike; Pepper, Joshua; Paegert, Martin; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Rebolo, Rafael; Santiago, Basilio X.; Schneider, Donald P.; Shelden Bradley, Alaina C.; Sivarani, Thirupathi; Snedden, Stephanie; van Eyken, J. C.; Wan, Xiaoke; Weaver, Benjamin A.; Zhao, Bo


    We report the discovery of a candidate brown dwarf (BD) or a very low mass stellar companion (MARVELS-5b) to the star HIP 67526 from the Multi-object Apache point observatory Radial Velocity Exoplanet Large-area Survey (MARVELS). The radial velocity curve for this object contains 31 epochs spread over 2.5 yr. Our Keplerian fit, using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo approach, reveals that the companion has an orbital period of 90.2695^{+0.0188}_{-0.0187} days, an eccentricity of 0.4375 ± 0.0040, and a semi-amplitude of 2948.14^{+16.65}_{-16.55} m s-1. Using additional high-resolution spectroscopy, we find the host star has an effective temperature T eff = 6004 ± 34 K, a surface gravity log g (cgs) =4.55 ± 0.17, and a metallicity [Fe/H] =+0.04 ± 0.06. The stellar mass and radius determined through the empirical relationship of Torres et al. yields 1.10 ± 0.09 M ⊙ and 0.92 ± 0.19 R ⊙. The minimum mass of MARVELS-5b is 65.0 ± 2.9M Jup, indicating that it is likely to be either a BD or a very low mass star, thus occupying a relatively sparsely populated region of the mass function of companions to solar-type stars. The distance to this system is 101 ± 10 pc from the astrometric measurements of Hipparcos. No stellar tertiary is detected in the high-contrast images taken by either FastCam lucky imaging or Keck adaptive optics imaging, ruling out any star with mass greater than 0.2 M ⊙ at a separation larger than 40 AU.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Peng; Ge Jian; De Lee, Nathan; Fleming, Scott W.; Lee, Brian L.; Ma Bo; Wang, Ji [Astronomy Department, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Science Center, P.O. Box 112055, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Cargile, Phillip; Hebb, Leslie; Stassun, Keivan G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Crepp, Justin R. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Porto de Mello, Gustavo F.; Ferreira, Leticia D. [Observatorio do Valongo, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Ladeira do Pedro Antonio, 43, CEP: 20080-090, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Esposito, Massimiliano; Femenia, Bruno; Gonzalez Hernandez, Jonay I. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, C/Via Lactea S/N, E-38200 La Laguna (Spain); Gaudi, B. Scott [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Ghezzi, Luan [Laboratorio Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia (LIneA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20921-400 (Brazil); Wisniewski, John P. [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 West Brooks Street, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Agol, Eric, E-mail: [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States); and others


    We report the discovery of a candidate brown dwarf (BD) or a very low mass stellar companion (MARVELS-5b) to the star HIP 67526 from the Multi-object Apache point observatory Radial Velocity Exoplanet Large-area Survey (MARVELS). The radial velocity curve for this object contains 31 epochs spread over 2.5 yr. Our Keplerian fit, using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo approach, reveals that the companion has an orbital period of 90.2695{sup +0.0188}{sub -0.0187} days, an eccentricity of 0.4375 {+-} 0.0040, and a semi-amplitude of 2948.14{sup +16.65}{sub -16.55} m s{sup -1}. Using additional high-resolution spectroscopy, we find the host star has an effective temperature T{sub eff} = 6004 {+-} 34 K, a surface gravity log g (cgs) =4.55 {+-} 0.17, and a metallicity [Fe/H] =+0.04 {+-} 0.06. The stellar mass and radius determined through the empirical relationship of Torres et al. yields 1.10 {+-} 0.09 M{sub Sun} and 0.92 {+-} 0.19 R{sub Sun }. The minimum mass of MARVELS-5b is 65.0 {+-} 2.9M{sub Jup}, indicating that it is likely to be either a BD or a very low mass star, thus occupying a relatively sparsely populated region of the mass function of companions to solar-type stars. The distance to this system is 101 {+-} 10 pc from the astrometric measurements of Hipparcos. No stellar tertiary is detected in the high-contrast images taken by either FastCam lucky imaging or Keck adaptive optics imaging, ruling out any star with mass greater than 0.2 M{sub Sun} at a separation larger than 40 AU.

  12. The Constant Average Relationship between Dust-obscured Star Formation and Stellar Mass from z = 0 to z = 2.5 (United States)

    Whitaker, Katherine E.; Pope, Alexandra; Cybulski, Ryan; Casey, Caitlin M.; Popping, Gergö; Yun, Min S.


    The total star formation budget of galaxies consists of the sum of the unobscured star formation, as observed in the rest-frame ultraviolet (UV), together with the obscured component that is absorbed and re-radiated by dust grains in the infrared. We explore how the fraction of obscured star formation depends on stellar mass for mass-complete samples of galaxies at 0Legacy Survey (CANDELS) fields. We find a strong dependence of the fraction of obscured star formation (f obscured = SFRIR/SFRUV+IR) on stellar mass, with remarkably little evolution in this fraction with redshift out to z = 2.5. 50% of star formation is obscured for galaxies with log(M/M ⊙) = 9.4 although unobscured star formation dominates the budget at lower masses, there exists a tail of low-mass, extremely obscured star-forming galaxies at z> 1. For log(M/M ⊙) > 10.5, >90% of star formation is obscured at all redshifts. We also show that at fixed total SFR, {f}{obscured} is lower at higher redshift. At fixed mass, high-redshift galaxies are observed to have more compact sizes and much higher star formation rates, gas fractions, and hence surface densities (implying higher dust obscuration), yet we observe no redshift evolution in {f}{obscured} with stellar mass. This poses a challenge to theoretical models, where the observed compact sizes at high redshift seem in tension with lower dust obscuration.

  13. Star Formation in Low Mass Magnetized Cores: The Formation of Disks and Outflows (United States)

    Duffin, Dennis F.


    Protostellar discs are generally thought to drive molecular outflows and jets observed in star forming regions, but there has been some debate as to how they form. The details of the driving and collimation of outflows help determine how much mass is cleared out and how much energy is fed back into the surroundings. Recently it has been argued that the magnetic brake is so strong that early protostellar disks cannot form. We have performed 3D ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of collapsing Bonnor-Ebert spheres, employing sink particles within an AMR grid and using a cooling function to model radiative cooling of the gas. This allows us to follow the formation and early evolution of the accretion disc (2-8)×10^4 years further into the Class 0 phase of its evolution. We form a rotationally dominated disc with a radius of 100 AU embedded inside a transient, unstable, flattened, rotating structure extending out to 2000 AU. The inner disc becomes unstable to a warping instability due to the magnetic structure of the outflow, warping 30 deg with respect to the rotation-axis by the end of the simulation. The disc is unstable to a Parker instability and sheds magnetic loops, degrading the orientation of the mean threading field. This reduces and locally reverses the magnetic braking torque of the large scale field back upon the disc. The reduction of magnetic braking allows a nearly Keplerian disc to form and may be the key way in which low mass stellar systems produce rotationally dominated discs. We discuss the relevance of our disc misalignment concerning the formation of mis-aligned hot Jupiters. Protostellar outflows are implicated in clearing mass from collapsing cores, and limiting the final mass of newly formed stars. The details of the driving and collimation of outflows help determine how much mass is cleared out and how much energy is fed back into the surroundings. The simulations generate outflows which are precessing, kinked, contain internal

  14. Constraining RRc candidates using SDSS colours


    Bányai, E.; Plachy, E.; Molnár, L.; Dobos, L.; Szabó, R.


    The light variations of first-overtone RR Lyrae stars and contact eclipsing binaries can be difficult to distinguish. The Catalina Periodic Variable Star catalog contains several misclassified objects, despite the classification efforts by Drake et al. (2014). They used metallicity and surface gravity derived from spectroscopic data (from the SDSS database) to rule out binaries. Our aim is to further constrain the catalog using SDSS colours to estimate physical parameters for stars that did n...

  15. Constraining the range of Yukawa gravity interaction from S2 star orbits II: Bounds on graviton mass

    CERN Document Server

    Zakharov, Alexander F; Borka, Dusko; Jovanovic, Vesna Borka


    Recently LIGO collaboration discovered gravitational waves \\cite{Abbott_16} predicted 100 years ago by A. Einstein. Moreover, in the key paper reporting about the discovery, the joint LIGO \\& VIRGO team presented an upper limit on graviton mass such as $m_g < 1.2 \\times 10^{-22} eV$ (Abbott et al. (LIGO collaboration) PRL 116 (2016) 061102). Since the graviton mass limit is so small the authors concluded that their observational data do not show violations of classical general relativity. We consider another opportunity to evaluate a graviton mass from phenomenological consequences of massive gravity and show that an analysis of bright star trajectories could bound graviton mass with a comparable accuracy with accuracies reached with gravitational wave interferometers and expected with forthcoming pulsar timing observations for gravitational wave detection. It gives an opportunity to treat observations of bright stars near the Galactic Center as a wonderful tool not only for an evaluation specific para...

  16. Evolution of the mass-metallicity relations in passive and star-forming galaxies from SPH-cosmological simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velonà, A. D Romeo; Sommer-Larsen, J.; Napolitano, N. R.


    We present results from SPH-cosmological simulations, including self-consistent modeling of supernova feedback and chemical evolution, of galaxies belonging to two clusters and 12 groups. We reproduce the mass-metallicity (ZM) relation of galaxies classified in two samples according to their star...

  17. Herschel-HIFI observations of H2O in high-mass star-forming regions : First results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Tak, F.; Herpin, F.; Wyrowski, F.; Röllig, M.; Simon, R.; Ossenkopf, V.; Stutzki, J.


    This paper reviews the first results of observations of H2O line emission with Herschel-HIFI towards high-mass star-forming regions, obtained within the WISH guaranteed time program. The data reveal three kinds of gas-phase H2O: "cloud water" in cold tenuous foreground clouds, "envelope water" in

  18. Herschel-HIFI observations of H2O in high-mass star-forming regions: first results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Tak, F.; Herpin, F.; Wyrowski, F.


    This paper reviews the first results of observations of H2O line emission with Herschel-HIFI towards high-mass star-forming regions, obtained within the WISH guaranteed time program. The data reveal three kinds of gas-phase H2O: "cloud water" in cold tenuous foreground clouds, "envelope water" in

  19. e-MERLIN 21 cm constraints on the mass-loss rates of OB stars in Cyg OB2 (United States)

    Morford, J. C.; Fenech, D. M.; Prinja, R. K.; Blomme, R.; Yates, J. A.


    We present e-MERLIN 21 cm (L-band) observations of single luminous OB stars in the Cygnus OB2 association, from the Cyg OB2 Radio Survey Legacy programme. The radio observations potentially offer the most straightforward, least model-dependent, determinations of mass-loss rates, and can be used to help resolve current discrepancies in mass-loss rates via clumped and structured hot star winds. We report here that the 21 cm flux densities of O3 to O6 supergiant and giant stars are less than ˜70 μJy. These fluxes may be translated to `smooth' wind mass-loss upper limits of ˜4.4-4.8 × 10-6 M⊙ yr -1 for O3 supergiants and ≲2.9 × 10-6 M⊙ yr -1 for B0 to B1 supergiants. The first ever resolved 21 cm detections of the hypergiant (and luminous blue variable candidate) Cyg OB2 #12 are discussed; for multiple observations separated by 14 d, we detect an ˜69 per cent increase in its flux density. Our constraints on the upper limits for the mass-loss rates of evolved OB stars in Cyg OB2 support the model that the inner wind region close to the stellar surface (where Hα forms) is more clumped than the very extended geometric region sampled by our radio observations.

  20. Securing HST's UV Legacy in the Local Volume: Probing Star Formation and the Interstellar Medium in Low Mass Galaxies (United States)

    Gilbert, Karoline


    We propose WFC3 ultraviolet imaging of the stellar populations of a volume limited sample of 22 low-mass, nearby (physics of galaxy formation, producing quantitative constraints on the energies and timescales of interactions between gas, dust, and stars in the low-mass, low-metallicity regime. When combined with existing data from HST, Spitzer, VLA, GALEX, and CARMA, the proposed UV data will make these galaxies a benchmark for ISM studies in low metallicity environments.

  1. Phase shifts and nonellipsoidal light curves: Challenges from mass determinations in x-ray binary stars (United States)

    Cantrell, Andrew Glenn

    We consider two types of anomalous observations which have arisen from efforts to measure dynamical masses of X-ray binary stars: (1) Radial velocity curves which seemingly show the primary and the secondary out of antiphase in most systems, and (2) The observation of double-waved light curves which deviate significantly from the ellipsoidal modulations expected for a Roche lobe filling star. We consider both problems with the joint goals of understanding the physical origins of the anomalous observations, and using this understanding to allow robust dynamical determinations of mass in X-ray binary systems. In our analysis of phase-shifted radial velocity curves, we discuss a comprehensive sample of X-ray binaries with published phase-shifted radial velocity curves. We show that the most commonly adopted explanation for phase shifts is contradicted by many observations, and consider instead a generalized form of a model proposed by Smak in 1970. We show that this model is well supported by a range of observations, including some systems which had previously been considered anomalous. We lay the groundwork for the derivation of mass ratios based on our explanation for phase shifts, and we discuss the work necessary to produce more detailed physical models of the phase shift. In our analysis of non-ellipsoidal light curves, we focus on the very well-studied system A0620-00. We present new VIH SMARTS photometry spanning 1999-2007, and supplement this with a comprehensive collection of archival data obtained since 1981. We show that A0620-00 undergoes optical state changes within X-ray quiescence and argue that not all quiescent data should be used for determinations of the inclination. We identify twelve light curves which may reliably be used for determining the inclination. We show that the accretion disk contributes significantly to all twelve curves and is the dominant source of nonellipsoidal variations. We derive the disk fraction for each of the twelve curves

  2. Tidal Timelines: Evolution of Terrestrial Exoplanet Habitability Around Low Mass Stars (United States)

    Mullins, K.; Barnes, R.


    The range of orbits for planetary habitability have traditionally been based on the stellar flux that allows liquid water to persist on a planetary surface. However, when considering terrestrial (rocky) planets close to a low mass star (≤0.35M⊙), tidal effects must be considered because of the additional energy input from tidal heating. Of further interest is the time over which habitable conditions are generated by tidal interaction. Tides cause orbital evolution, during which the heat flux varies, which may cause the planet to migrate in and out of habitable zones and possibly result in sterilization. So, the heating history of a planet should be a consideration when searching for life-supporting planets. We apply heat flux limitations on habitability (based on observations within our solar system) and tidally evolve planets across a range of initial conditions of orbits and masses. Our results provide a visualization of the time a planet has spent with a favorable amount of tidal heat for habitability and/or the amount of time until the heating is no longer conducive to habitability. As a greater number of close in terrestrial planets are found, these results can provide a method for identifying those planets with the highest potential for life.

  3. Probing mass-radius relation of protoneutron stars from gravitational-wave asteroseismology (United States)

    Sotani, Hajime; Kuroda, Takami; Takiwaki, Tomoya; Kotake, Kei


    The gravitational-wave (GW) asteroseismology is a powerful technique for extracting interior information of compact objects. In this work, we focus on spacetime modes, the so-called w modes, of GWs emitted from a proto-neutron star (PNS) in the postbounce phase of core-collapse supernovae. Using results from recent three-dimensional supernova models, we study how to infer the properties of the PNS based on a quasi-normal mode analysis in the context of the GW asteroseismology. We find that the w1-mode frequency multiplied by the PNS radius is expressed as a linear function with respect to the ratio of the PNS mass to the PNS radius. This relation is insensitive to the nuclear equation of state (EOS) employed in this work. Combining with another universal relation of the f -mode oscillations, we point out that the time dependent mass-radius relation of the PNS can be obtained by observing both the f - and w1-mode GWs simultaneously. Our results suggest that the simultaneous detection of the two modes could provide a new probe into finite-temperature nuclear EOS that predominantly determines the PNS evolution.

  4. Colour association and "colour amnesia" in aphasia.


    Varney, N R


    "Colour association" performance of 50 aphasic patients was investigated by means of a test in which they identified the characteristic colours of objects shown in line drawings. All aphasics with defects in colour association were impaired in reading comprehension. However, some (33%) retained normal aural comprehension. Approximately half the aphasics with receptive language impairment performed normally in colour association. The findings suggest that "colour amnesia" may be the result of ...

  5. Orbital misalignment of the Neptune-mass exoplanet GJ 436b with the spin of its cool star (United States)

    Bourrier, Vincent; Lovis, Christophe; Beust, Hervé; Ehrenreich, David; Henry, Gregory W.; Astudillo-Defru, Nicola; Allart, Romain; Bonfils, Xavier; Ségransan, Damien; Delfosse, Xavier; Cegla, Heather M.; Wyttenbach, Aurélien; Heng, Kevin; Lavie, Baptiste; Pepe, Francesco


    The angle between the spin of a star and the orbital planes of its planets traces the history of the planetary system. Exoplanets orbiting close to cool stars are expected to be on circular, aligned orbits because of strong tidal interactions with the stellar convective envelope. Spin–orbit alignment can be measured when the planet transits its star, but such ground-based spectroscopic measurements are challenging for cool, slowly rotating stars. Here we report the three-dimensional characterization of the trajectory of an exoplanet around an M dwarf star, derived by mapping the spectrum of the stellar photosphere along the chord transited by the planet. We find that the eccentric orbit of the Neptune-mass exoplanet GJ 436b is nearly perpendicular to the stellar equator. Both eccentricity and misalignment, surprising around a cool star, can result from dynamical interactions (via Kozai migration) with a yet-undetected outer companion. This inward migration of GJ 436b could have triggered the atmospheric escape that now sustains its giant exosphere.

  6. Orbital misalignment of the Neptune-mass exoplanet GJ 436b with the spin of its cool star. (United States)

    Bourrier, Vincent; Lovis, Christophe; Beust, Hervé; Ehrenreich, David; Henry, Gregory W; Astudillo-Defru, Nicola; Allart, Romain; Bonfils, Xavier; Ségransan, Damien; Delfosse, Xavier; Cegla, Heather M; Wyttenbach, Aurélien; Heng, Kevin; Lavie, Baptiste; Pepe, Francesco


    The angle between the spin of a star and the orbital planes of its planets traces the history of the planetary system. Exoplanets orbiting close to cool stars are expected to be on circular, aligned orbits because of strong tidal interactions with the stellar convective envelope. Spin-orbit alignment can be measured when the planet transits its star, but such ground-based spectroscopic measurements are challenging for cool, slowly rotating stars. Here we report the three-dimensional characterization of the trajectory of an exoplanet around an M dwarf star, derived by mapping the spectrum of the stellar photosphere along the chord transited by the planet. We find that the eccentric orbit of the Neptune-mass exoplanet GJ 436b is nearly perpendicular to the stellar equator. Both eccentricity and misalignment, surprising around a cool star, can result from dynamical interactions (via Kozai migration) with a yet-undetected outer companion. This inward migration of GJ 436b could have triggered the atmospheric escape that now sustains its giant exosphere.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimmy; Tran, Kim-Vy [George P. and Cynthia W. Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Saintonge, Amélie; Accurso, Gioacchino [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Place, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Brough, Sarah; Oliva-Altamirano, Paola [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 915, North Ryde, NSW 1670 (Australia)


    Using a sample of dwarf galaxies observed using the VIMOS IFU on the Very Large Telescope, we investigate the mass–metallicity relation (MZR) as a function of star formation rate (FMR{sub SFR}) as well as HI-gas mass (FMR{sub HI}). We combine our IFU data with a subsample of galaxies from the ALFALFA HI survey crossmatched to the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) to study the FMR{sub SFR} and FMR{sub HI} across the stellar mass range 10{sup 6.6}–10{sup 8.8} M{sub ⊙}, with metallicities as low as 12 + log(O/H) = 7.67. We find the 1σ mean scatter in the MZR to be 0.05 dex. The 1σ mean scatter in the FMR{sub SFR} (0.02 dex) is significantly lower than that of the MZR. The FMR{sub SFR} is not consistent between the IFU observed galaxies and the ALFALFA/SDSS galaxies for SFRs lower than 10{sup −2.4} M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}, however, this could be the result of limitations of our measurements in that regime. The lowest mean scatter (0.01 dex) is found in the FMR{sub HI}. We also find that the FMR{sub HI} is consistent between the IFU observed dwarf galaxies and the ALFALFA/SDSS crossmatched sample. We introduce the fundamental metallicity luminosity counterpart to the FMR, again characterized in terms of SFR (FML{sub SFR}) and HI-gas mass (FML{sub HI}). We find that the FML{sub HI} relation is consistent between the IFU observed dwarf galaxy sample and the larger ALFALFA/SDSS sample. However, the 1σ scatter for the FML{sub HI} relation is not improved over the FMR{sub HI} scenario. This leads us to conclude that the FMR{sub HI} is the best candidate for a physically motivated fundamental metallicity relation.

  8. Very hard states in neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries (United States)

    Parikh, A. S.; Wijnands, R.; Degenaar, N.; Altamirano, D.; Patruno, A.; Gusinskaia, N. V.; Hessels, J. W. T.


    We report on unusually very hard spectral states in three confirmed neutron-star low-mass X-ray binaries (1RXS J180408.9-342058, EXO 1745-248 and IGR J18245-2452) at a luminosity between ˜1036 and 1037 erg s-1. When fitting the Swift X-ray spectra (0.5-10 keV) in those states with an absorbed power-law model, we found photon indices of Γ ˜ 1, significantly lower than the Γ = 1.5-2.0 typically seen when such systems are in their so called hard state. For individual sources, very hard spectra were already previously identified, but here we show for the first time that likely our sources were in a distinct spectral state (i.e. different from the hard state) when they exhibited such very hard spectra. It is unclear how such very hard spectra can be formed; if the emission mechanism is similar to that operating in their hard states (i.e. up-scattering of soft photons due to hot electrons), then the electrons should have higher temperatures or a higher optical depth in the very hard state compared to those observed in the hard state. By using our obtained Γ as a tracer for the spectral evolution with luminosity, we have compared our results with those obtained by Wijnands et al. Our sample of sources follows the same track as the other neutron star systems in Wijnands et al., confirming their general results. However, we do not find that the accreting millisecond pulsars are systematically harder than the non-pulsating systems.

  9. Predicting the locations of possible long-lived low-mass first stars: importance of satellite dwarf galaxies (United States)

    Magg, Mattis; Hartwig, Tilman; Agarwal, Bhaskar; Frebel, Anna; Glover, Simon C. O.; Griffen, Brendan F.; Klessen, Ralf S.


    The search for metal-free stars has so far been unsuccessful, proving that if there are surviving stars from the first generation, they are rare, they have been polluted or we have been looking in the wrong place. To predict the likely location of Population III (Pop III) survivors, we semi-analytically model early star formation in progenitors of Milky Way-like galaxies and their environments. We base our model on merger trees from the high-resolution dark matter only simulation suite Caterpillar. Radiative and chemical feedback are taken into account self-consistently, based on the spatial distribution of the haloes. Our results are consistent with the non-detection of Pop III survivors in the Milky Way today. We find that possible surviving Pop III stars are more common in Milky Way satellites than in the main Galaxy. In particular, low-mass Milky Way satellites contain a much larger fraction of Pop III stars than the Milky Way. Such nearby, low-mass Milky Way satellites are promising targets for future attempts to find Pop III survivors, especially for high-resolution, high signal-to-noise spectroscopic observations. We provide the probabilities of finding a Pop III survivor in the red giant branch phase for all known Milky Way satellites to guide future observations.

  10. Water in low-mass star-forming regions with Herschel . HIFI spectroscopy of NGC 1333 (United States)

    Kristensen, L. E.; Visser, R.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Yıldız, U. A.; Doty, S. D.; Herczeg, G. J.; Liu, F.-C.; Parise, B.; Jørgensen, J. K.; van Kempen, T. A.; Brinch, C.; Wampfler, S. F.; Bruderer, S.; Benz, A. O.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Deul, E.; Bachiller, R.; Baudry, A.; Benedettini, M.; Bergin, E. A.; Bjerkeli, P.; Blake, G. A.; Bontemps, S.; Braine, J.; Caselli, P.; Cernicharo, J.; Codella, C.; Daniel, F.; de Graauw, Th.; di Giorgio, A. M.; Dominik, C.; Encrenaz, P.; Fich, M.; Fuente, A.; Giannini, T.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Helmich, F.; Herpin, F.; Jacq, T.; Johnstone, D.; Kaufman, M. J.; Larsson, B.; Lis, D.; Liseau, R.; Marseille, M.; McCoey, C.; Melnick, G.; Neufeld, D.; Nisini, B.; Olberg, M.; Pearson, J. C.; Plume, R.; Risacher, C.; Santiago-García, J.; Saraceno, P.; Shipman, R.; Tafalla, M.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; van der Tak, F.; Wyrowski, F.; Beintema, D.; de Jonge, A.; Dieleman, P.; Ossenkopf, V.; Roelfsema, P.; Stutzki, J.; Whyborn, N.


    “Water In Star-forming regions with Herschel” (WISH) is a key programme dedicated to studying the role of water and related species during the star-formation process and constraining the physical and chemical properties of young stellar objects. The Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared (HIFI) on the Herschel Space Observatory observed three deeply embedded protostars in the low-mass star-forming region NGC 1333 in several H_216O, H_218O, and CO transitions. Line profiles are resolved for five H_216O transitions in each source, revealing them to be surprisingly complex. The line profiles are decomposed into broad (>20 km s-1), medium-broad (~5-10 km s-1), and narrow (20 km s-1), indicating that its physical origin is the same as for the broad H_216O component. In one of the sources, IRAS4A, an inverse P Cygni profile is observed, a clear sign of infall in the envelope. From the line profiles alone, it is clear that the bulk of emission arises from shocks, both on small (⪉1000 AU) and large scales along the outflow cavity walls (~10 000 AU). The H2O line profiles are compared to CO line profiles to constrain the H2O abundance as a function of velocity within these shocked regions. The H2O/CO abundance ratios are measured to be in the range of ~0.1-1, corresponding to H2O abundances of ~10-5-10-4 with respect to H2. Approximately 5-10% of the gas is hot enough for all oxygen to be driven into water in warm post-shock gas, mostly at high velocities. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.Tables 2 and 3 (page 6) are only available in electronic form at

  11. Hybrid stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    from two classes of EOS's and discuss their implications. Keywords. Neutron stars; phase transition. It is generally believed that the evolutionary journey of a star after it has exhausted all its fuel culminates into the formation of a compact object in the form of a white dwarf, a neutron star or a black hole depending on its mass.

  12. The 2014-2017 outburst of the young star ASASSN-13db. A time-resolved picture of a very-low-mass star between EXors and FUors (United States)

    Sicilia-Aguilar, A.; Oprandi, A.; Froebrich, D.; Fang, M.; Prieto, J. L.; Stanek, K.; Scholz, A.; Kochanek, C. S.; Henning, Th.; Gredel, R.; Holoien, T. W.-S.; Rabus, M.; Shappee, B. J.; Billington, S. J.; Campbell-White, J.; Zegmott, T. J.


    Context. Accretion outbursts are key elements in star formation. ASASSN-13db is a M5-type star with a protoplanetary disk, the lowest-mass star known to experience accretion outbursts. Since its discovery in 2013, it has experienced two outbursts, the second of which started in November 2014 and lasted until February 2017. Aims: We explore the photometric and spectroscopic behavior of ASASSN-13db during the 2014-2017 outburst. Methods: We use high- and low-resolution spectroscopy and time-resolved photometry from the ASAS-SN survey, the LCOGT and the Beacon Observatory to study the light curve of ASASSN-13db and the dynamical and physical properties of the accretion flow. Results: The 2014-2017 outburst lasted for nearly 800 days. A 4.15 d period in the light curve likely corresponds to rotational modulation of a star with hot spot(s). The spectra show multiple emission lines with variable inverse P-Cygni profiles and a highly variable blue-shifted absorption below the continuum. Line ratios from metallic emission lines (Fe I/Fe II, Ti I/Ti II) suggest temperatures of 5800-6000 K in the accretion flow. Conclusions: Photometrically and spectroscopically, the 2014-2017 event displays an intermediate behavior between EXors and FUors. The accretion rate ([Ṁ]= 1-3 × 10-7 M⊙/yr), about two orders of magnitude higher than the accretion rate in quiescence, is not significantly different from the accretion rate observed in 2013. The absorption features in the spectra suggest that the system is viewed at a high angle and drives a powerful, non-axisymmetric wind, maybe related to magnetic reconnection. The properties of ASASSN-13db suggest that temperatures lower than those for solar-type stars are needed for modeling accretion in very-low-mass systems. Finally, the rotational modulation during the outburst reveals that accretion-related structures settle after the beginning of the outburst and can be relatively stable and long-lived. Our work also demonstrates the power

  13. Binaries among low-mass stars in nearby young moving groups (United States)

    Janson, Markus; Durkan, Stephen; Hippler, Stefan; Dai, Xiaolin; Brandner, Wolfgang; Schlieder, Joshua; Bonnefoy, Mickaël; Henning, Thomas


    The solar galactic neighborhood contains a number of young co-moving associations of stars (known as young moving groups) with ages of 10-150 Myr, which are prime targets for a range of scientific studies, including direct imaging planet searches. The late-type stellar populations of such groups still remain in their pre-main sequence phase, and are thus well suited for purposes such as isochronal dating. Close binaries are particularly useful in this regard since they allow for a model-independent dynamical mass determination. Here we present a dedicated effort to identify new close binaries in nearby young moving groups, through high-resolution imaging with the AstraLux Sur Lucky Imaging camera. We surveyed 181 targets, resulting in the detection of 61 companions or candidates, of which 38 are new discoveries. An interesting example of such a case is 2MASS J00302572-6236015 AB, which is a high-probability member of the Tucana-Horologium moving group, and has an estimated orbital period of less than 10 yr. Among the previously known objects is a serendipitous detection of the deuterium burning boundary circumbinary companion 2MASS J01033563-5515561 (AB)b in the z' band, thereby extending the spectral coverage for this object down to near-visible wavelengths. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Chile (Programs 096.C-0243 and 097.C-0135).Tables 1-3 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to ( or via

  14. SDSS-IV MaNGA: The Spatial Distribution of Star Formation and its Dependence on Mass, Structure and Environment (United States)

    Spindler, Ashley; Wake, David; Belfiore, Francesco; Bershady, Matthew; Bundy, Kevin; Drory, Niv; Masters, Karen; Thomas, Daniel; Westfall, Kyle; Wild, Vivienne


    We study the spatially resolved star formation of 1494 galaxies in the SDSSIV-MaNGA Survey. SFRs are calculated using a two-step process, using Hα in star forming regions and Dn4000 in regions identified as AGN/LI(N)ER or lineless. The roles of secular and environmental quenching processes are investigated by studying the dependence of the radial profiles of specific star formation rate on stellar mass, galaxy structure and environment. We report on the existence of `Centrally Suppressed' galaxies, which have suppressed SSFR in their cores compared to their disks. The profiles of centrally suppressed and unsuppressed galaxies are distibuted in a bimodal way. Galaxies with high stellar mass and core velocity dispersion are found to be much more likely to be centrally suppressed than low mass galaxies, and we show that this is related to morphology and the presence of AGN/LI(N)ER like emission. Centrally suppressed galaxies also display lower star formation at all radii compared to unsuppressed galaxies. The profiles of central and satellite galaxies are also compared, and we find that satellite galaxies experience lower specific star formation rates at all radii than central galaxies. This uniform suppression could be a signal of the stripping of hot halo gas in the process known as strangulation. We find that satellites are not more likely to be suppressed in their cores than centrals, indicating that the core suppression is an entirely internal process. We find no correlation between the local environment density and the profiles of star formation rate surface density.

  15. Self-consistent atmosphere modeling with cloud formation for low-mass stars and exoplanets (United States)

    Juncher, Diana; Jørgensen, Uffe G.; Helling, Christiane


    Context. Low-mass stars and extrasolar planets have ultra-cool atmospheres where a rich chemistry occurs and clouds form. The increasing amount of spectroscopic observations for extrasolar planets requires self-consistent model atmosphere simulations to consistently include the formation processes that determine cloud formation and their feedback onto the atmosphere. Aims: Our aim is to complement the MARCS model atmosphere suit with simulations applicable to low-mass stars and exoplanets in preparation of E-ELT, JWST, PLATO and other upcoming facilities. Methods: The MARCS code calculates stellar atmosphere models, providing self-consistent solutions of the radiative transfer and the atmospheric structure and chemistry. We combine MARCS with a kinetic model that describes cloud formation in ultra-cool atmospheres (seed formation, growth/evaporation, gravitational settling, convective mixing, element depletion). Results: We present a small grid of self-consistently calculated atmosphere models for Teff = 2000-3000 K with solar initial abundances and log (g) = 4.5. Cloud formation in stellar and sub-stellar atmospheres appears for Teff < 2700 K and has a significant effect on the structure and the spectrum of the atmosphere for Teff < 2400 K. We have compared the synthetic spectra of our models with observed spectra and found that they fit the spectra of mid- to late-type M-dwarfs and early-type L-dwarfs well. The geometrical extension of the atmospheres (at τ = 1) changes with wavelength resulting in a flux variation of 10%. This translates into a change in geometrical extension of the atmosphere of about 50 km, which is the quantitative basis for exoplanetary transit spectroscopy. We also test DRIFT-MARCS for an example exoplanet and demonstrate that our simulations reproduce the Spitzer observations for WASP-19b rather well for Teff = 2600 K, log (g) = 3.2 and solar abundances. Our model points at an exoplanet with a deep cloud-free atmosphere with a substantial

  16. Kinematic and Thermal Structure at the onset of high-mass star formation (United States)

    Bihr, Simon; Beuther, Henrik


    Even though high-mass stars are crucial for understanding a diversity of processes within our galaxy and beyond, their formation and initial conditions are still poorly constrained. We want to understand the kinematic and thermal properties of young massive gas clumps prior to and at the earliest evolutionary stages. Do we find signatures of gravitational collapse? Do we find temperature gradients in the vicinity or absence of infrared emission sources? Do we find coherent velocity structures toward the centre of the dense and cold gas clumps?To determine kinematics and gas temperatures, we used ammonia, because it is known to be a good tracer and thermometer of dense gas. We observed the NH3 (1,1) and (2,2) lines within seven very young high-mass star-forming regions comprised of infrared dark clouds (IRDCs), along with ISO-selected far-infrared emission sources (ISOSS) with the VLA and the Effelsberg 100m telescope. The molecular line data allows us to study velocity structures, linewidths, and gas temperatures at high spatial resolution of 3-5'', corresponding to ~0.05pc at a typical source distance of 2.5kpc. We find on average cold gas clumps with temperatures in the range between 10K and 30K. The observations do not reveal a clear correlation between infrared emission peaks and ammonia temperature peaks. Several infrared emission sources show ammonia temperature peaks up to 30K, whereas other infrared emission sources show no enhanced kinetic gas temperature in their surrounding. We report an upper limit for the linewidth of ~1.3km/s, at the spectral resolution limit of our VLA observation. This indicates a relatively low level of turbulence on the scale of the observations. Velocity gradients are present in almost all regions with typical velocity differences of 1 to 2km/s and gradients of 5 to 10km/s/pc. These velocity gradients are smooth in most cases, but there is one exceptional source (ISOSS23053), for which we find several velocity components with a

  17. Trigonometric parallaxes of high mass star forming regions: the structure and kinematics of the Milky Way

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, M. J.; Dame, T. M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Menten, K. M.; Brunthaler, A.; Wu, Y.; Zhang, B.; Sanna, A.; Sato, M.; Choi, Y. K.; Immer, K. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Zheng, X. W. [Department of Astronomy, Nanjing University Nanjing 210093 (China); Xu, Y. [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Hachisuka, K. [Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, 80 Nandan Rd., Shanghai (China); Moscadelli, L. [Arcetri Observatory, Firenze (Italy); Rygl, K. L. J. [European Space Agency (ESA-ESTEC), Keplerlaan 1, P.O. Box 299, 2200 AG, Noordwijk (Netherlands); Bartkiewicz, A. [Centre for Astronomy, Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Informatics, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Grudziadzka 5, 87-100 Torun (Poland)


    Over 100 trigonometric parallaxes and proper motions for masers associated with young, high-mass stars have been measured with the Bar and Spiral Structure Legacy Survey, a Very Long Baseline Array key science project, the European VLBI Network, and the Japanese VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry project. These measurements provide strong evidence for the existence of spiral arms in the Milky Way, accurately locating many arm segments and yielding spiral pitch angles ranging from about 7° to 20°. The widths of spiral arms increase with distance from the Galactic center. Fitting axially symmetric models of the Milky Way with the three-dimensional position and velocity information and conservative priors for the solar and average source peculiar motions, we estimate the distance to the Galactic center, R {sub 0}, to be 8.34 ± 0.16 kpc, a circular rotation speed at the Sun, Θ{sub 0}, to be 240 ± 8 km s{sup –1}, and a rotation curve that is nearly flat (i.e., a slope of –0.2 ± 0.4 km s{sup –1} kpc{sup –1}) between Galactocentric radii of ≈5 and 16 kpc. Assuming a 'universal' spiral galaxy form for the rotation curve, we estimate the thin disk scale length to be 2.44 ± 0.16 kpc. With this large data set, the parameters R {sub 0} and Θ{sub 0} are no longer highly correlated and are relatively insensitive to different forms of the rotation curve. If one adopts a theoretically motivated prior that high-mass star forming regions are in nearly circular Galactic orbits, we estimate a global solar motion component in the direction of Galactic rotation, V {sub ☉} = 14.6 ± 5.0 km s{sup –1}. While Θ{sub 0} and V {sub ☉} are significantly correlated, the sum of these parameters is well constrained, Θ{sub 0} + V {sub ☉} = 255.2 ± 5.1 km s{sup –1}, as is the angular speed of the Sun in its orbit about the Galactic center, (Θ{sub 0} + V {sub ☉})/R {sub 0} = 30.57 ± 0.43 km s{sup –1} kpc{sup –1}. These parameters improve the accuracy

  18. CO Band Head Spectroscopy of IC 342: Mass and Age of the Nuclear Star Cluster (United States)

    Böker, Torsten; van der Marel, Roeland P.; Vacca, William D.


    We have used the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) to observe the nuclear stellar cluster in the nearby, face-on, giant Scd spiral IC 342. From high-resolution (lambda/Deltalambda=21,500) spectra of the ^12CO (2-0) band head at 2.3 mum, we derive a line-of-sight stellar velocity dispersion sigma=(33+/-3) km s^-1. To interpret this observation we construct dynamical models based on the Jeans equation for a spherical system. The light distribution of the cluster is modeled using an archival Hubble Space Telescope (HST) V-band image and a new ground-based K-band image. Under the assumption of an isotropic velocity distribution, the observed kinematics imply a K-band mass-to-light ratio M/L_K=0.05, and a cluster mass M~6x10^6 M_solar. We compare the derived mass-to-light ratio with the ``Starburst99'' stellar population synthesis models of Leitherer and collaborators and infer a best-fitting cluster age in the range 10^6.8-7.8 yr. Although this result depends somewhat on a number of uncertainties in the modeling (e.g., the assumed extinction along the line of sight toward the nucleus, the initial mass function of the stellar population model, and the velocity dispersion anisotropy of the cluster), none of the model parameters can be plausibly modified to yield a significantly larger age. Also, the inferred age is consistent with that found in our previous study based on the near-infrared absorption-line equivalent widths of the cluster (Böker, Förster-Schreiber, & Genzel). Recent HST observations of large samples of spiral galaxies have shown that nuclear stellar clusters are very common in intermediate- to late-type spirals. The cluster in IC 342 is more luminous than the clusters found in most other nearby spiral galaxies. If the nuclear stellar clusters in spiral galaxies all have a mass similar to that of the cluster in IC 342, then stellar population synthesis models indicate a median age for these clusters of several Gyr. This may be consistent with a

  19. The EBLM project. III. A Saturn-size low-mass star at the hydrogen-burning limit (United States)

    von Boetticher, Alexander; Triaud, Amaury H. M. J.; Queloz, Didier; Gill, Sam; Lendl, Monika; Delrez, Laetitia; Anderson, David R.; Collier Cameron, Andrew; Faedi, Francesca; Gillon, Michaël; Gómez Maqueo Chew, Yilen; Hebb, Leslie; Hellier, Coel; Jehin, Emmanuël; Maxted, Pierre F. L.; Martin, David V.; Pepe, Francesco; Pollacco, Don; Ségransan, Damien; Smalley, Barry; Udry, Stéphane; West, Richard


    We report the discovery of an eclipsing binary system with mass-ratio q ˜ 0.07. After identifying a periodic photometric signal received by WASP, we obtained CORALIE spectroscopic radial velocities and follow-up light curves with the Euler and TRAPPIST telescopes. From a joint fit of these data we determine that EBLM J0555-57 consists of a sun-like primary star that is eclipsed by a low-mass companion, on a weakly eccentric 7.8-day orbit. Using a mass estimate for the primary star derived from stellar models, we determine a companion mass of 85 ± 4 MJup (0.081 M⊙) and a radius of 0.84+ 0.14-0.04RJup (0.084 R⊙) that is comparable to that of Saturn. EBLM J0555-57Ab has a surface gravity log g2 =5.50+ 0.03-0.13 and is one of the densest non-stellar-remnant objects currently known. These measurements are consistent with models of low-mass stars. The photometry tables and radial velocities are only available at the CDS and on demand via anonymous ftp to ( or via


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Chen [School of Space Science and Physics, Shandong University, Weihai, Weihai, Shandong 264209 (China); Xu, Cong Kevin; Lu, Nanyao; Mazzarella, Joe [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology 100-22, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Domingue, Donovan; Ronca, Joseph; Jacques, Allison [Georgia College and State University, CBX 82, Milledgeville, GA 31061 (United States); Buat, Veronique [Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille—LAM, Université d’Aix-Marseille and CNRS, UMR7326, 38 rue F. Joliot-Curie, F-13388 Marseille Cedex 13 (France); Cheng, Yi-Wen [Institute of Astronomy, National Central University, Chung-Li 32054, Taiwan (China); Gao, Yu [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 2 West Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China); Huang, Jiasheng [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Jarrett, Thomas H. [Astronomy Department, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Lisenfeld, Ute [Departamento de Fisica Teórica y del Cosmos, Universidad de Granada (Spain); Sun, Wei-Hsin [Institute of Astrophysics, National Taiwan University and The National Museum of Natural Science, Taiwan (China); Wu, Hong [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Yun, Min S., E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)


    We present Herschel PACS and SPIRE far-infrared (FIR) and submillimeter imaging observations for a large K-band selected sample of 88 close major-merger pairs of galaxies (H-KPAIRs) in 6 photometric bands (70, 100, 160, 250, 350, and 500 μm). Among 132 spiral galaxies in the 44 spiral–spiral (S+S) pairs and 44 spiral–elliptical (S+E) pairs, 113 are detected in at least 1 Herschel band. The star formation rate (SFR) and dust mass (M{sub dust}) are derived from the IR SED fitting. The mass of total gas (M{sub gas}) is estimated by assuming a constant dust-to-gas mass ratio of 0.01. Star-forming spiral galaxies (SFGs) in S+S pairs show significant enhancements in both specific star formation rate (sSFR) and star formation efficiency (SFE), while having nearly the same gas mass compared to control galaxies. On the other hand, for SFGs in S+E pairs, there is no significant sSFR enhancement and the mean SFE enhancement is significantly lower than that of SFGs in S+S pairs. This suggests an important role for the disk–disk collision in the interaction-induced star formation. The M{sub gas} of SFGs in S+E pairs is marginally lower than that of their counterparts in both S+S pairs and the control sample. Paired galaxies with and without interaction signs do not differ significantly in their mean sSFR and SFE. As found in previous works, this much larger sample confirms that the primary and secondary spirals in S+S pairs follow a Holmberg effect correlation on sSFR.

  1. ALMA Detection of Bipolar Outflows: Evidence for Low-mass Star Formation within 1 pc of Sgr A* (United States)

    Yusef-Zadeh, F.; Wardle, M.; Kunneriath, D.; Royster, M.; Wootten, A.; Roberts, D. A.


    We report the discovery of 11 bipolar outflows within a projected distance of 1 pc from Sgr A* based on deep ALMA observations of 13CO, H30α, and SiO (5-4) lines with subarcsecond and ˜1.3 km s-1 resolutions. These unambiguous signatures of young protostars manifest as approaching and receding lobes of dense gas swept up by the jets created during the formation and early evolution of stars. The lobe masses and momentum transfer rates are consistent with young protostellar outflows found throughout the disk of the Galaxy. The mean dynamical age of the outflow population is estimated to be {6.5}-3.6+8.1× {10}3 years. The rate of star formation is ˜5 × 10-4 {M}⊙ yr-1 assuming a mean stellar mass of ˜0.3 {M}⊙ . This discovery provides evidence that star formation is taking place within clouds surprisingly close to Sgr A*, perhaps due to events that compress the host cloud, creating condensations with sufficient self-gravity to resist tidal disruption by Sgr A*. Low-mass star formation over the past few billion years at this level would contribute significantly to the stellar mass budget in the central few parsecs of the Galaxy. The presence of many dense clumps of molecular material within 1 pc of Sgr A* suggests that star formation could take place in the immediate vicinity of supermassive black holes in the nuclei of external galaxies.

  2. Very massive stars, pair-instability supernovae and intermediate-mass black holes with the sevn code (United States)

    Spera, Mario; Mapelli, Michela


    Understanding the link between massive (≳30 M⊙) stellar black holes (BHs) and their progenitor stars is a crucial step to interpret observations of gravitational-wave events. In this paper, we discuss the final fate of very massive stars (VMSs), with zero-age main sequence (ZAMS) mass >150 M⊙, accounting for pulsational pair-instability supernovae (PPISNe) and for pair-instability supernovae (PISNe). We describe an updated version of our population synthesis code sevn, in which we added stellar evolution tracks for VMSs with ZAMS mass up to 350 M⊙ and we included analytical prescriptions for PPISNe and PISNe. We use the new version of sevn to study the BH mass spectrum at different metallicity Z, ranging from Z = 2.0 × 10-4 to 2.0 × 10-2. The main effect of PPISNe and PISNe is to favour the formation of BHs in the mass range of the first gravitational-wave event (GW150914), while they prevent the formation of remnants with mass 60-120 M⊙. In particular, we find that PPISNe significantly enhance mass-loss of metal-poor (Z ≤ 2.0 × 10-3) stars with ZAMS mass 60 ≤ MZAMS/ M⊙ ≤ 125. In contrast, PISNe become effective only for moderately metal-poor (Z < 8.0 × 10-3) VMSs. VMSs with mZAMS ≳ 220 M⊙ and Z < 10-3 do not undergo PISNe and form intermediate-mass BHs (with mass ≳200 M⊙) via direct collapse.

  3. ALMA observations of the nearby AGB star L2 Puppis. I. Mass of the central star and detection of a candidate planet (United States)

    Kervella, P.; Homan, W.; Richards, A. M. S.; Decin, L.; McDonald, I.; Montargès, M.; Ohnaka, K.


    Six billion years from now, while evolving on the asymptotic giant branch (AGB), the Sun will metamorphose from a red giant into a beautiful planetary nebula. This spectacular evolution will impact the solar system planets, but observational confirmations of the predictions of evolution models are still elusive as no planet orbiting an AGB star has yet been discovered. The nearby AGB red giant L2 Puppis (d = 64 pc) is surrounded by an almost edge-on circumstellar dust disk. We report new observations with ALMA at very high angular resolution (18 × 15 mas) in band 7 (ν ≈ 350 GHz) that allow us to resolve the velocity profile of the molecular disk. We establish that the gas velocity profile is Keplerian within the central cavity of the dust disk, allowing us to derive the mass of the central star L2 Pup A, mA = 0.659 ± 0.011 ± 0.041 M⊙ (± 6.6%). From evolutionary models, we determine that L2 Pup A had a near-solar main-sequence mass, and is therefore a close analog of the future Sun in 5 to 6 Gyr. The continuum map reveals a secondary source (B) at a radius of 2 AU contributing fB/fA = 1.3 ± 0.1% of the flux of the AGB star. L2 Pup B is also detected in CO emission lines at a radial velocity of vB = 12.2 ± 1.0 km s-1. The close coincidence of the center of rotation of the gaseous disk with the position of the continuum emission from the AGB star allows us to constrain the mass of the companion to mB = 12 ± 16 MJup. L2 Pup B is most likely a planet or low-mass brown dwarf with an orbital period of about five years. Its continuum brightness and molecular emission suggest that it may be surrounded by an extended molecular atmosphere or an accretion disk. L2 Pup therefore emerges as a promising vantage point on the distant future of our solar system.

  4. Massive Stars (United States)

    Livio, Mario; Villaver, Eva


    Participants; Preface Mario Livio and Eva Villaver; 1. High-mass star formation by gravitational collapse of massive cores M. R. Krumholz; 2. Observations of massive star formation N. A. Patel; 3. Massive star formation in the Galactic center D. F. Figer; 4. An X-ray tour of massive star-forming regions with Chandra L. K. Townsley; 5. Massive stars: feedback effects in the local universe M. S. Oey and C. J. Clarke; 6. The initial mass function in clusters B. G. Elmegreen; 7. Massive stars and star clusters in the Antennae galaxies B. C. Whitmore; 8. On the binarity of Eta Carinae T. R. Gull; 9. Parameters and winds of hot massive stars R. P. Kudritzki and M. A. Urbaneja; 10. Unraveling the Galaxy to find the first stars J. Tumlinson; 11. Optically observable zero-age main-sequence O stars N. R. Walborn; 12. Metallicity-dependent Wolf-Raynet winds P. A. Crowther; 13. Eruptive mass loss in very massive stars and Population III stars N. Smith; 14. From progenitor to afterlife R. A. Chevalier; 15. Pair-production supernovae: theory and observation E. Scannapieco; 16. Cosmic infrared background and Population III: an overview A. Kashlinsky.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youn Kil Jung


    Full Text Available We present the Pre-Main Sequence (PMS evolutionary tracks of stars with 0.065~5.0M_⨀. The models were evolved from the PMS stellar birthline to the onset of hydrogen burning in the core. The convective turnover timescales which enables an observational test of theoretical model, particulary in the stellar dynamic activity, are also calculated. All models have Sun-like metal abundance, typically considered as the stars in the Galactic disk and the star formation region of Population I star. The convection phenomenon is treated by the usual mixing length approximation. All evolutionary tracks are available upon request.

  6. Constraining the Maximum Mass of Neutron Stars from Multi-messenger Observations of GW170817 (United States)

    Margalit, Ben; Metzger, Brian D.


    We combine electromagnetic (EM) and gravitational-wave (GW) information on the binary neutron star (NS) merger GW170817 in order to constrain the radii {R}{ns} and maximum mass {M}\\max of NSs. GW170817 was followed by a range of EM counterparts, including a weak gamma-ray burst (GRB), kilonova (KN) emission from the radioactive decay of the merger ejecta, and X-ray/radio emission consistent with being the synchrotron afterglow of a more powerful off-axis jet. The type of compact remnant produced in the immediate merger aftermath, and its predicted EM signal, depend sensitively on the high-density NS equation of state (EOS). For a soft EOS that supports a low {M}\\max , the merger undergoes a prompt collapse accompanied by a small quantity of shock-heated or disk-wind ejecta, inconsistent with the large quantity ≳ {10}-2 {M}ȯ of lanthanide-free ejecta inferred from the KN. On the other hand, if {M}\\max is sufficiently large, then the merger product is a rapidly rotating supramassive NS (SMNS), which must spin down before collapsing into a black hole. A fraction of the enormous rotational energy necessarily released by the SMNS during this process is transferred to the ejecta, either into the GRB jet (energy {E}{GRB}) or the KN ejecta (energy {E}{ej}), also inconsistent with observations. By combining the total binary mass of GW170817 inferred from the GW signal with conservative upper limits on {E}{GRB} and {E}{ej} from EM observations, we constrain the likelihood probability of a wide range of previously allowed EOSs. These two constraints delineate an allowed region of the {M}\\max {--}{R}{ns} parameter space, which, once marginalized over NS radius, places an upper limit of {M}\\max ≲ 2.17 {M}ȯ (90%), which is tighter or arguably less model-dependent than other current constraints.

  7. Jetted tidal disruptions of stars as a flag of intermediate mass black holes at high redshifts (United States)

    Fialkov, Anastasia; Loeb, Abraham


    Tidal disruption events (TDEs) of stars by single or binary supermassive black holes (SMBHs) brighten galactic nuclei and reveal a population of otherwise dormant black holes. Adopting event rates from the literature, we aim to establish general trends in the redshift evolution of the TDE number counts and their observable signals. We pay particular attention to (I) jetted TDEs whose luminosity is boosted by relativistic beaming and (II) TDEs around binary black holes. We show that the brightest (jetted) TDEs are expected to be produced by massive black hole binaries if the occupancy of intermediate mass black holes (IMBHs) in low-mass galaxies is high. The same binary population will also provide gravitational wave sources for the evolved Laser Interferometer Space Antenna. In addition, we find that the shape of the X-ray luminosity function of TDEs strongly depends on the occupancy of IMBHs and could be used to constrain scenarios of SMBH formation. Finally, we make predictions for the expected number of TDEs observed by future X-ray telescopes finding that a 50 times more sensitive instrument than the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) on board the Swift satellite is expected to trigger ˜10 times more events than BAT, while 6-20 TDEs are expected in each deep field observed by a telescope 50 times more sensitive than the Chandra X-ray Observatory if the occupation fraction of IMBHs is high. Because of their long decay times, high-redshift TDEs can be mistaken for fixed point sources in deep field surveys and targeted observations of the same deep field with year-long intervals could reveal TDEs.

  8. Surprisingly different star-spot distributions on the near equal-mass equal-rotation-rate stars in the M dwarf binary GJ 65 AB (United States)

    Barnes, J. R.; Jeffers, S. V.; Haswell, C. A.; Jones, H. R. A.; Shulyak, D.; Pavlenko, Ya. V.; Jenkins, J. S.


    We aim to understand how stellar parameters such as mass and rotation impact the distribution of star-spots on the stellar surface. To this purpose, we have used Doppler imaging to reconstruct the surface brightness distributions of three fully convective M dwarfs with similar rotation rates. We secured high cadence spectral time series observations of the 5.5 au separation binary GJ 65, comprising GJ 65A (M5.5V, Prot = 0.24 d) and GJ 65B (M6V, Prot = 0.23 d). We also present new observations of GJ 791.2A (M4.5V, Prot = 0.31 d). Observations of each star were made on two nights with UVES, covering a wavelength range from 0.64 - 1.03μm. The time series spectra reveal multiple line distortions that we interpret as cool star-spots and which are persistent on both nights suggesting stability on the time-scale of 3 d. Spots are recovered with resolutions down to 8.3° at the equator. The global spot distributions for GJ 791.2A are similar to observations made a year earlier. Similar high latitude and circumpolar spot structure is seen on GJ 791.2A and GJ 65A. However, they are surprisingly absent on GJ 65B, which instead reveals more extensive, larger, spots concentrated at intermediate latitudes. All three stars show small amplitude latitude-dependent rotation that is consistent with solid body rotation. We compare our measurements of differential rotation with previous Doppler imaging studies and discuss the results in the wider context of other observational estimates and recent theoretical predictions.

  9. Interferometric Observations of High-Mass Star-Forming Clumps With Unusual N2H+/HCO+ Line Ratios (United States)

    Stephens, Ian W.; Jackson, James M.; Sanhueza, Patricio; Whitaker, J. Scott; Hoq, Sadia; Rathborne, Jill M.; Foster, Jonathan B.


    The Millimetre Astronomy Legacy Team 90 GHz (MALT90) survey has detected high-mass star-forming clumps with anomalous N2H+/HCO+(1-0) integrated intensity ratios that are either unusually high (“N2H+ rich”) or unusually low (“N2H+ poor”). With 3 mm observations from the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA), we imaged two N2H+ rich clumps, G333.234-00.061 and G345.144-00.216, and two N2H+ poor clumps, G351.409+00.567 and G353.229+00.672. In these clumps, the N2H+ rich anomalies arise from extreme self-absorption of the HCO+ line. G333.234-00.061 contains two of the most massive protostellar cores known with diameters of less than 0.1 pc, separated by a projected distance of only 0.12 pc. Unexpectedly, the higher mass core appears to be at an earlier evolutionary stage than the lower mass core, which may suggest that two different epochs of high-mass star formation can occur in close proximity. Through careful analysis of the ATCA observations and MALT90 clumps (including the G333, NGC 6334, and NGC 6357 star formation regions), we find that N2H+ poor anomalies arise at clump scales and are caused by lower relative abundances of N2H+ due to the distinct chemistry of H ii regions or photodissociation regions.

  10. Wide Binary Stars in the Galactic Field - A Statistical Approach (United States)

    Longhitano, Marco


    This thesis focuses on the statistical properties of wide binary (WB) star systems in the Galactic field. For the present study we select a homogeneous sample covering about 675 square degrees in the direction of the NGP. It contains nearly 670,000 MS stars with apparent magnitudes between 15 and 20.5 mag and spectral classes later than G5. The data were taken from the SDSS. We construct the two-point correlation function (2PCF) for angular separations between 2 and 30 arcsecs. The resulting clustering signal is modeled by means of the Wasserman-Weinberg technique. We show that the distribution of semi-major axis is consistent with the canonical Oepik law and infer that about 10% of all stars in the solar neighbourhood belong to a WB system. To reduce the noise from optical pairs and to increase the sensitivity of the analysis at larger separations, we include distance information from photometric parallaxes. Introducing a novel weighting procedure based on the binding probability of a double star, we infer the distribution of colours and mass ratios, which were carefully corrected for observational selection effects. About 4,000 WBs were taken into account statistically, whose components have masses between 0.2 and 0.85 solar masses. We find that the WB colour distribution is in accord with the colour distribution of single field stars. However, pairs with a mass difference exceeding 0.5 solar masses seem to be systematically underrepresented as compared to a random pairing of field stars. Our results are broadly in agreement with prior studies but a direct comparison is difficult and often impossible. The novel procedure presented in this thesis can be regarded as complementary to common proper motion studies, and constitutes a viable approach to study the statistical properties of WBs in the Galactic field.

  11. The distribution of water in the high-mass star-forming region NGC 6334 I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emprechtinger, M.; Lis, D. C.; Bell, T.; Phillips, T. G.; Schilke, P.; Comito, C.; Rolffs, R.; van der Tak, F.; Ceccarelli, C.; Aarts, H.; Bacmann, A.; Baudry, A.; Benedettini, M.; Bergin, E. A.; Blake, G.; Boogert, A.; Bottinelli, S.; Cabrit, S.; Caselli, P.; Castets, A.; Caux, E.; Cernicharo, J.; Codella, C.; Coutens, A.; Crimier, N.; Demyk, K.; Dominik, C.; Encrenaz, P.; Falgarone, E.; Fuente, A.; Gerin, M.; Goldsmith, P.; Helmich, F.; Hennebelle, P.; Henning, T.; Herbst, E.; Hily-Blant, P.; Jacq, T.; Kahane, C.; Kama, M.; Klotz, A.; Kooi, J.; Langer, W.; Lefloch, B.; Loose, A.; Lord, S.; Lorenzani, A.; Maret, S.; Melnick, G.; Neufeld, D.; Nisini, B.; Ossenkopf, V.; Pacheco, S.; Pagani, L.; Parise, B.; Pearson, J.; Risacher, C.; Salez, M.; Saraceno, P.; Schuster, K.; Stutzki, J.; Tielens, X.; van der Wiel, M.; Vastel, C.; Viti, S.; Wakelam, V.; Walters, A.; Wyrowski, F.; Yorke, H.


    Aims. We present observations of twelve rotational transitions of (H2O)-O-16, (H2O)-O-18, and (H2O)-O-17 toward the massive star-forming region NGC 6334 I, carried out with Herschel/HIFI as part of the guaranteed time key program Chemical HErschel Surveys of Star forming regions (CHESS). We analyze

  12. Water in low-mass star-forming regions with Herschel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, L. E.; Visser, R.; Van Dishoeck, E. F.


    "Water In Star-forming regions with Herschel" (WISH) is a key programme dedicated to studying the role of water and related species during the star-formation process and constraining the physical and chemical properties of young stellar objects. The Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared (HIF...

  13. Theoretical investigation on the mass loss impact on asteroseismic grid-based estimates of mass, radius, and age for RGB stars (United States)

    Valle, G.; Dell'Omodarme, M.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Degl'Innocenti, S.


    Aims: We aim to perform a theoretical evaluation of the impact of the mass loss indetermination on asteroseismic grid based estimates of masses, radii, and ages of stars in the red giant branch (RGB) phase. Methods: We adopted the SCEPtER pipeline on a grid spanning the mass range [0.8; 1.8] M⊙. As observational constraints, we adopted the star effective temperatures, the metallicity [Fe/H], the average large frequency spacing Δν, and the frequency of maximum oscillation power νmax. The mass loss was modelled following a Reimers parametrization with the two different efficiencies η = 0.4 and η = 0.8. Results: In the RGB phase, the average random relative error (owing only to observational uncertainty) on mass and age estimates is about 8% and 30% respectively. The bias in mass and age estimates caused by the adoption of a wrong mass loss parameter in the recovery is minor for the vast majority of the RGB evolution. The biases get larger only after the RGB bump. In the last 2.5% of the RGB lifetime the error on the mass determination reaches 6.5% becoming larger than the random error component in this evolutionary phase. The error on the age estimate amounts to 9%, that is, equal to the random error uncertainty. These results are independent of the stellar metallicity [Fe/H] in the explored range. Conclusions: Asteroseismic-based estimates of stellar mass, radius, and age in the RGB phase can be considered mass loss independent within the range (η ∈ [0.0,0.8]) as long as the target is in an evolutionary phase preceding the RGB bump.

  14. A Wide Dispersion in Star Formation Rate and Dynamical Mass of 108 Solar Mass Black Hole Host Galaxies at Redshift 6 (United States)

    Willott, Chris J.; Bergeron, Jacqueline; Omont, Alain


    Atacama Large Millimeter Array [C II] line and continuum observations of five redshift z> 6 quasars are presented. This sample was selected to probe quasars with lower black hole mass than most previous studies. We find a wide dispersion in properties with CFHQS J0216-0455, a low-luminosity quasar with absolute magnitude {M}1450=-22.2, remaining undetected implying a limit on the star formation rate in the host galaxy of ≲ 10 {M}⊙ {{yr}}-1, whereas other host galaxies have star formation rates up to hundreds of solar masses per year. Two other quasars have particularly interesting properties. VIMOS2911 is one of the least luminous z> 6 quasars known with {M}1450=-23.1, yet its host galaxy is experiencing a very powerful starburst. PSO J167-13 has a broad and luminous [C II] line and a neighboring galaxy a projected distance of 5 kpc away that is also detected in the [C II] line and continuum. Combining with similar observations from the literature, we study the ratio of the [C II] line to the far-infrared luminosity, finding that this ratio increases at high redshift at a fixed far-infrared luminosity, likely due to lower dust content, lower metallicity and/or higher gas masses. We compile a sample of 21 high-redshift quasars with dynamical masses and investigate the relationship between black hole mass and dynamical mass. The new observations presented here reveal dynamical masses consistent with the relationship defined by local galaxies. However, the full sample shows a very wide scatter across the black hole mass-dynamical mass plane, whereas both the local relationship and simulations of high-redshift quasars show a much lower dispersion in dynamical mass.

  15. Mass Modelling of Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies: the Effect of Unbound Stars From Tidal Tails And the Milky Way

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klimentowski, Jaroslaw; Lokas, Ewa L.; /Warsaw, Copernicus Astron. Ctr.; Kazantzidis, Stelios; /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Prada, Francisco; /IAA, Granada; Mayer, Lucio; /Zurich,; Mamon, Gary A.; /Paris, Inst. Astrophys. /Meudon Observ.


    We study the origin and properties of the population of unbound stars in the kinematic samples of dwarf spheroidal galaxies. For this purpose we have run a high resolution N- body simulation of a two-component dwarf galaxy orbiting in a Milky Way potential. In agreement with the tidal stirring scenario of Mayer et al., the dwarf is placed on a highly eccentric orbit, its initial stellar component is in the form of an exponential disk and it has a NFW-like dark matter halo. After 10 Gyrs of evolution the dwarf produces a spheroidal stellar component and is strongly tidally stripped so that mass follows light and the stars are on almost isotropic orbits. From this final state, we create mock kinematic data sets for 200 stars by observing the dwarf in different directions.We find that when the dwarf is observed along the tidal tails the kinematic samples are strongly contaminated by unbound stars from the tails.We also study another source of possible contamination by adding stars from the Milky Way. We demonstrate that most of the unbound stars can be removed by the method of interloper rejection proposed by den Hartog & Katgert and recently tested on simulated dark matter haloes. We model the cleaned up kinematic samples using solutions of the Jeans equation with constant mass-to-light ratio and velocity anisotropy parameter. We show that even for such strongly stripped dwarf the Jeans analysis, when applied to cleaned samples, allows us to reproduce the mass and mass-to-light ratio of the dwarf with accuracy typically better than 25 percent and almost exactly in the case when the line of sight is perpendicular to the tidal tails. The analysis was applied to the new data for the Fornax dSph galaxy for which we find a mass-to-light ratio of 11 solar units and isotropic orbits. We demonstrate that most of the contamination in the kinematic sample of Fornax probably originates from the Milky Way.

  16. The Evolutionary Properties and Peculiar Thermal Pulses of Metal-deficient Low-Mass Stars (United States)

    Cassisi, Santi; Castellani, Vittorio; Tornambe, Amedeo


    We investigate the evolutionary behavior of low-mass star models with very low original metal content (log Z = -10, -6, -5) and Y = 0.23. The computations have been extended from the main sequence up to the double shell burning phase. Theoretical isochrones on the H-R diagram are presented for a range of ages spanning 7-15 x 10 yr. Attention has been paid to understand whether, and to what extent, stellar populations in the quoted metallicity range can produce currently observable RR Lyrae variables, the result being that, apart from an intrinsic scarcity of existing stars with such a composition, evolutionary properties are such that a vanishingly small number of RR Lyrae variables is expected to exist. However, if existing, metal-deficient RR Lyrae stars would present pulsational properties not easily distinguishable from those of standard Population II variables. Double shell burning structures are presented with discussion of the dependence of selected evolutionary features on the original metal content and, in particular, the occurrence of unusually strong He shell flashes following the first reignition of He shell burning. The H shell burning along the He intershell accretion phase and the following He shell burning reignition of the M = 0.8 M0, log Z = -10 model are discussed in detail. It is found that, even at the first episode of He shell reignition, the burning grows in so strong a flash that a convective shell develops at once, becoming large enough to interact with the H shell, so that a large amount of fresh protons is suddenly injected into the high-temperature He-burning region. After the third episode of hydrogen ingestion, it has not been possible to follow in detail the development of the instability since a time-dependent treatment of the convection would be required. It is however estimated that during the flash a maximum luminosity of LHe = 2.5' x 108 Lo would have been attained by He burning alone, in contrast with a maximum of LHe = 7.5 x 10

  17. Evolution, Nucleosynthesis, and Yields of AGB Stars at Different Metallicities. III. Intermediate-mass Models, Revised Low-mass Models, and the ph-FRUITY Interface (United States)

    Cristallo, S.; Straniero, O.; Piersanti, L.; Gobrecht, D.


    We present a new set of models for intermediate-mass asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars (4.0, 5.0, and 6.0 M⊙) at different metallicities (-2.15 ≤ [Fe/H] ≤ +0.15). This set integrates the existing models for low-mass AGB stars (1.3 ≤ M/M⊙ ≤ 3.0) already included in the FRUITY database. We describe the physical and chemical evolution of the computed models from the main sequence up to the end of the AGB phase. Due to less efficient third dredge up episodes, models with large core masses show modest surface enhancements. This effect is due to the fact that the interpulse phases are short and, therefore, thermal pulses (TPs) are weak. Moreover, the high temperature at the base of the convective envelope prevents it from deeply penetrating the underlying radiative layers. Depending on the initial stellar mass, the heavy element nucleosynthesis is dominated by different neutron sources. In particular, the s-process distributions of the more massive models are dominated by the 22Ne(α,n)25Mg reaction, which is efficiently activated during TPs. At low metallicities, our models undergo hot bottom burning and hot third dredge up. We compare our theoretical final core masses to available white dwarf observations. Moreover, we quantify the influence intermediate-mass models have on the carbon star luminosity function. Finally, we present the upgrade of the FRUITY web interface, which now also includes the physical quantities of the TP-AGB phase for all of the models included in the database (ph-FRUITY).

  18. High-mass star formation possibly triggered by cloud-cloud collision in the H II region RCW 34 (United States)

    Hayashi, Katsuhiro; Sano, Hidetoshi; Enokiya, Rei; Torii, Kazufumi; Hattori, Yusuke; Kohno, Mikito; Fujita, Shinji; Nishimura, Atsushi; Ohama, Akio; Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Tachihara, Kengo; Hasegawa, Yutaka; Kimura, Kimihiro; Ogawa, Hideo; Fukui, Yasuo


    We report on the possibility that the high-mass star located in the H II region RCW 34 was formed by a triggering induced by a collision of molecular clouds. Molecular gas distributions of the 12CO and 13CO J = 2-1 and 12CO J = 3-2 lines in the direction of RCW 34 were measured using the NANTEN2 and ASTE telescopes. We found two clouds with velocity ranges of 0-10 km s-1 and 10-14 km s-1. Whereas the former cloud is as massive as ˜1.4 × 104 M⊙ and has a morphology similar to the ring-like structure observed in the infrared wavelengths, the latter cloud, with a mass of ˜600 M⊙, which has not been recognized by previous observations, is distributed to just cover the bubble enclosed by the other cloud. The high-mass star with a spectral type of O8.5V is located near the boundary of the two clouds. The line intensity ratio of 12CO J = 3-2/J = 2-1 yields high values (≳1.0), suggesting that these clouds are associated with the massive star. We also confirm that the obtained position-velocity diagram shows a similar distribution to that derived by a numerical simulation of the supersonic collision of two clouds. Using the relative velocity between the two clouds (˜5 km s-1), the collisional time scale is estimated to be ˜0.2 Myr with the assumption of a distance of 2.5 kpc. These results suggest that the high-mass star in RCW 34 was formed rapidly within a time scale of ˜0.2 Myr via a triggering of a cloud-cloud collision.

  19. Thermohaline instability and rotation-induced mixing in low and intermediate mass stars: Consequences on global asteroseismic quantities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekström S.


    Full Text Available Thermohaline mixing has been recently identified as the probable dominating process that governs the photospheric composition of low-mass bright red giant stars. Here, we present the predictions of stellar models computed with the code STAREVOL including this process together with rotational mixing. We compare our theoretical predictions with recent observations, and discuss the effects of both mechanisms on asteroseismic diagnostics.

  20. Developmental colour agnosia. (United States)

    van Zandvoort, Martine J E; Nijboer, Tanja C W; de Haan, Edward


    Colour agnosia concerns the inability to recognise colours despite intact colour perception, semantic memory for colour information, and colour naming. Patients with selective colour agnosia have been described and the deficit is associated with left hemisphere damage. Here we report a case study of a 43-year-old man who was referred to us with a stroke in his right cerebellar hemisphere. During the standard assessment it transpired that he was unable to name coloured patches. Detailed assessment of his colour processing showed that he suffers from a selective colour agnosia. As he claimed to have had this problem all his life, and the fact that the infratentorial infarct that he had incurred was in an area far away from the brain structures that are known to be involved in colour processing, we suggest that he is the first reported case of developmental colour agnosia.

  1. On the Origin of Sub-subgiant Stars. II. Binary Mass Transfer, Envelope Stripping, and Magnetic Activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leiner, Emily; Mathieu, Robert D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 475 North Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Geller, Aaron M., E-mail: [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States)


    Sub-subgiant stars (SSGs) lie to the red of the main sequence and fainter than the red giant branch in cluster color–magnitude diagrams (CMDs), a region not easily populated by standard stellar evolution pathways. While there has been speculation on what mechanisms may create these unusual stars, no well-developed theory exists to explain their origins. Here we discuss three hypotheses of SSG formation: (1) mass transfer in a binary system, (2) stripping of a subgiant’s envelope, perhaps during a dynamical encounter, and (3) reduced luminosity due to magnetic fields that lower convective efficiency and produce large starspots. Using the stellar evolution code MESA, we develop evolutionary tracks for each of these hypotheses, and compare the expected stellar and orbital properties of these models with six known SSGs in the two open clusters M67 and NGC 6791. All three of these mechanisms can create stars or binary systems in the SSG CMD domain. We also calculate the frequency with which each of these mechanisms may create SSG systems, and find that the magnetic field hypothesis is expected to create SSGs with the highest frequency in open clusters. Mass transfer and envelope stripping have lower expected formation frequencies, but may nevertheless create occasional SSGs in open clusters. They may also be important mechanisms to create SSGs in higher mass globular clusters.

  2. Accuracy of Mass and Radius Determination for Neutron Stars in X-ray Bursters from Simulated LOFT Spectra (United States)

    Majczyna, A.; Madej, J.; Różańska, A.; Należyty, M.


    We present a simulation of an X-ray spectrum of a hot neutron star, as would be seen by the LAD detector on board of LOFT satellite. We also compute a grid of theoretical spectra corresponding to a range of effective temperatures Teff and surface gravities log g with values corresponding to compact stars in Type I X-ray bursters. A neutron star with the mass M=1.64 M⊙ and the radius R=11.95 km (which yields the surface gravity log g=14.30 [cgs] and the surface redshift z=0.30) is used in simulation. Accuracy of mass and radius determination by fitting theoretical spectra to the observed one is found to be M=1.64+0.16-0.02 M⊙ and R=11.95+1.57-0.40 km (2σ). The confidence contours for these two variables are narrow but elongated, and therefore the resulting constraints on the EOS cannot be strong. Note, that in this paper we aim to discuss error contours of NS mass and radius, whereas discussion of EOS is beyond the scope of this work.

  3. On the Origin of Sub-subgiant Stars. II. Binary Mass Transfer, Envelope Stripping, and Magnetic Activity (United States)

    Leiner, Emily; Mathieu, Robert D.; Geller, Aaron M.


    Sub-subgiant stars (SSGs) lie to the red of the main sequence and fainter than the red giant branch in cluster color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs), a region not easily populated by standard stellar evolution pathways. While there has been speculation on what mechanisms may create these unusual stars, no well-developed theory exists to explain their origins. Here we discuss three hypotheses of SSG formation: (1) mass transfer in a binary system, (2) stripping of a subgiant’s envelope, perhaps during a dynamical encounter, and (3) reduced luminosity due to magnetic fields that lower convective efficiency and produce large starspots. Using the stellar evolution code MESA, we develop evolutionary tracks for each of these hypotheses, and compare the expected stellar and orbital properties of these models with six known SSGs in the two open clusters M67 and NGC 6791. All three of these mechanisms can create stars or binary systems in the SSG CMD domain. We also calculate the frequency with which each of these mechanisms may create SSG systems, and find that the magnetic field hypothesis is expected to create SSGs with the highest frequency in open clusters. Mass transfer and envelope stripping have lower expected formation frequencies, but may nevertheless create occasional SSGs in open clusters. They may also be important mechanisms to create SSGs in higher mass globular clusters. This is paper number 74 in the WIYN Open Cluster Study.

  4. The Eating Habits of Milky Way-mass Halos: Destroyed Dwarf Satellites and the Metallicity Distribution of Accreted Stars (United States)

    Deason, Alis J.; Mao, Yao-Yuan; Wechsler, Risa H.


    We study the mass spectrum of destroyed dwarfs that contribute to the accreted stellar mass of Milky Way (MW)-mass (Mvir ˜ 1012.1 M⊙) halos using a suite of 45 zoom-in dissipationless simulations. Empirical models are employed to relate (peak) subhalo mass to dwarf stellar mass, and we use constraints from z = 0 observations and hydrodynamical simulations to estimate the metallicity distribution of the accreted stellar material. The dominant contributors to the accreted stellar mass are relatively massive dwarfs with Mstar ˜ 108-1010M⊙. Halos with more quiescent accretion histories tend to have lower mass progenitors (108-109 M⊙), and lower overall accreted stellar masses. Ultra-faint mass (Mstar 108 M⊙ can contribute a considerable fraction (˜20%-60%) of metal-poor stars if their metallicity distributions have significant metal-poor tails. Finally, we find that the generic assumption of a quiescent assembly history for the MW halo seems to be in tension with the mass spectrum of its surviving dwarfs. We suggest that the MW could be a “transient fossil” a quiescent halo with a recent accretion event(s) that disguises the preceding formation history of the halo.

  5. Revisiting the Microlensing Event OGLE 2012-BLG-0026: A Solar Mass Star with Two Cold Giant Planets (United States)

    Beaulieu, J.-P.; Bennett, D. P.; Batista, V.; Fukui, A.; Marquette, J.-B.; Brillant, S.; Cole, A. A.; Rogers, L. A.; Sumi, T.; Abe, F.


    Two cold gas giant planets orbiting a G-type main-sequence star in the galactic disk were previously discovered in the high-magnification microlensing event OGLE-2012-BLG-0026. Here, we present revised host star flux measurements and a refined model for the two-planet system using additional light curve data. We performed high angular resolution adaptive optics imaging with the Keck and Subaru telescopes at two epochs while the source star was still amplified. We detected the lens flux, H = 16.39 +/- 0.08. The lens, a disk star, is brighter than predicted from the modeling in the original study. We revisited the light curve modeling using additional photometric data from the B and C telescope in New Zealand and CTIO 1.3 m H-band light curve. We then include the Keck and Subaru adaptive optic observation constraints. The system is composed of an approximately 4-9 Gyr lens star of M(sub lens) = 1.06 +/- 0.05 solar mass at a distance of D(sub lens) = 4.0 +/- 0.3 kpc, orbited by two giant planets of 0.145 +/- 0.008 M(sub Jup) and 0.86 +/- 0.06 M(sub Jup), with projected separations of 4.0 +/- 0.5 au and 4.8 +/- 0.7 au, respectively. Because the lens is brighter than the source star by 16 +/- 8% in H, with no other blend within one arcsec, it will be possible to estimate its metallicity using subsequent IR spectroscopy with 8-10 m class telescopes. By adding a constraint on the metallicity it will be possible to refine the age of the system.

  6. A Search for Transiting Neptune-Mass Extrasolar Planets in High-Precision Photometry of Solar-Type Stars (United States)

    Henry, Stephen M.; Gillman, Amelie r.; Henry, Gregory W.


    Tennessee State University operates several automatic photometric telescopes (APTs) at Fairborn Observatory in southern Arizona. Four 0.8 m APTs have been dedicated to measuring subtle luminosity variations that accompany magnetic cycles in solar-type stars. Over 1000 program and comparison stars have been observed every clear night in this program for up to 12 years with a precision of approximately 0.0015 mag for a single observation. We have developed a transit-search algorithm, based on fitting a computed transit template for each trial period, and have used it to search our photometric database for transits of unknown companions. Extensive simulations with the APT data have shown that we can reliably recover transits with periods under 10 days as long as the transits have a depth of at least 0.0024 mag, or about 1.6 times the scatter in the photometric observations. Thus, due to our high photometric precision, we are sensitive to transits of possible short-period Neptune-mass planets that likely would have escaped detection by current radial velocity techniques. Our search of the APT data sets for 1087 program and comparison stars revealed no new transiting planets. However, the detection of several unknown grazing eclipsing binaries from among our comparison stars, with eclipse depths of only a few millimags, illustrates the success of our technique. We have used this negative result to place limits on the frequency of Neptune-mass planets in close orbits around solar-type stars in the Sun's vicinity.

  7. Spectral-Timing Analysis of Kilohetrz Quasi-Periodic Osciallations in Neutron Star Low-Mass X-ray Binaries (United States)

    Cackett, Edward; Troyer, Jon; Peille, Philippe; Barret, Didier


    Kilohertz quasi-periodic oscillations or kHz QPOs are intensity variations that occur in the X-ray band observed in neutron star low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) systems. In such systems, matter is transferred from a secondary low-mass star to a neutron star via the process of accretion. kHz QPOs occur on the timescale of the inner accretion flow and may carry signatures of the physics of strong gravity (c2 ~ GM/R) and possibly clues to constraining the neutron star equation of state (EOS). Both the timing behavior of kHz QPOs and the time-averaged spectra of these systems have been studied extensively. No model derived from these techniques has been able to illuminate the origin of kHz QPOs. Spectral-timing is an analysis technique that can be used to derive information about the nature of physical processes occurring within the accretion flow on the timescale of the kHz QPO. To date, kHz QPOs of (4) neutron star LMXB systems have been studied with spectral-timing techniques. We present a comprehensive study of spectral-timing products of kHz QPOs from systems where data is available in the RXTE archive to demonstrate the promise of this technique to gain insights regarding the origin of kHz QPOs. Using data averaged over the entire RXTE archive, we show correlated time-lags as a function of QPO frequency and energy, as well as energy-dependent covariance spectra for the various LMXB systems where spectral-timing analysis is possible. We find similar trends in all average spectral-timing products for the objects studied. This suggests a common origin of kHz QPOs.

  8. Habitable zones around low mass stars and the search for extraterrestrial life. (United States)

    Kasting, J F


    Habitable planets are likely to exist around stars not too different from the Sun if current theories about terrestrial climate evolution are correct. Some of these planets may have evolved life, and some of the inhabited planets may have evolved O2-rich atmospheres. Such atmospheres could be detected spectroscopically on planets around nearby stars using a space-based interferometer to search for the 9.6 micron band of O3. Planets with O2-rich atmospheres that lie within the habitable zone around their parent star are, in all probability, inhabited.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romeo Velona, A. D.; Gavignaud, I.; Meza, A. [Departamento de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Andres Bello, Av. Republica 220, Santiago (Chile); Sommer-Larsen, J. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Mariesvej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Napolitano, N. R. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Salita Moiariello 16, I-80131 Napoli (Italy); Antonuccio-Delogu, V. [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, v. S. Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Cielo, S., E-mail: [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)


    We present results from SPH-cosmological simulations, including self-consistent modeling of supernova feedback and chemical evolution, of galaxies belonging to two clusters and 12 groups. We reproduce the mass-metallicity (ZM) relation of galaxies classified in two samples according to their star-forming (SF) activity, as parameterized by their specific star formation rate (sSFR), across a redshift range up to z = 2. The overall ZM relation for the composite population evolves according to a redshift-dependent quadratic functional form that is consistent with other empirical estimates, provided that the highest mass bin of the brightest central galaxies is excluded. Its slope shows irrelevant evolution in the passive sample, being steeper in groups than in clusters. However, the subsample of high-mass passive galaxies only is characterized by a steep increase of the slope with redshift, from which it can be inferred that the bulk of the slope evolution of the ZM relation is driven by the more massive passive objects. The scatter of the passive sample is dominated by low-mass galaxies at all redshifts and keeps constant over cosmic times. The mean metallicity is highest in cluster cores and lowest in normal groups, following the same environmental sequence as that previously found in the red sequence building. The ZM relation for the SF sample reveals an increasing scatter with redshift, indicating that it is still being built at early epochs. The SF galaxies make up a tight sequence in the SFR-M{sub *} plane at high redshift, whose scatter increases with time alongside the consolidation of the passive sequence. We also confirm the anti-correlation between sSFR and stellar mass, pointing at a key role of the former in determining the galaxy downsizing, as the most significant means of diagnostics of the star formation efficiency. Likewise, an anti-correlation between sSFR and metallicity can be established for the SF galaxies, while on the contrary more active

  10. Supernova progenitor stars in the initial range of 23 to 33 solar masses and their relation with the SNR Cassiopeia A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pérez-Rendón, B.; Garcia-Segura, G.; Langer, N.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304829498


    Context. Multi wavelength observations of Cassiopeia A (Cas A) have provided us with strong evidence of circumstellar material surrounding the progenitor star. It has been suggested that its progenitor was a massive star with strong mass loss. But, despite the large amount of observational data from

  11. Filamentary structure and Keplerian rotation in the high-mass star-forming region G35.03+0.35 imaged with ALMA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beltrán, M. T.; Sánchez-Monge, Á.; Cesaroni, R.; Kumar, M. S. N.; Galli, D.; Walmsley, C. M.; Etoka, S.; Furuya, R. S.; Moscadelli, L.; Stanke, T.; van der Tak, F. F. S.; Vig, S.; Wang, K.-S.; Zinnecker, H.; Elia, D.; Schisano, E.


    Context. Theoretical scenarios propose that high-mass stars are formed by disk-mediated accretion. Aims: To test the theoretical predictions on the formation of massive stars, we wish to make a thorough study at high-angular resolution of the structure and kinematics of the dust and gas emission

  12. Mass Measurement of 56Sc Reveals a Small A = 56 Odd-Even Mass Staggering, Implying a Cooler Accreted Neutron Star Crust. (United States)

    Meisel, Z; George, S; Ahn, S; Bazin, D; Brown, B A; Browne, J; Carpino, J F; Chung, H; Cole, A L; Cyburt, R H; Estradé, A; Famiano, M; Gade, A; Langer, C; Matoš, M; Mittig, W; Montes, F; Morrissey, D J; Pereira, J; Schatz, H; Schatz, J; Scott, M; Shapira, D; Smith, K; Stevens, J; Tan, W; Tarasov, O; Towers, S; Wimmer, K; Winkelbauer, J R; Yurkon, J; Zegers, R G T


    We present the mass excesses of (52-57)Sc, obtained from recent time-of-flight nuclear mass measurements at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory at Michigan State University. The masses of 56Sc and 57Sc were determined for the first time with atomic mass excesses of -24.85(59)((-54)(+0))  MeV and -21.0(1.3)  MeV, respectively, where the asymmetric uncertainty for 56Sc was included due to possible contamination from a long-lived isomer. The 56Sc mass indicates a small odd-even mass staggering in the A = 56 mass chain towards the neutron drip line, significantly deviating from trends predicted by the global FRDM mass model and favoring trends predicted by the UNEDF0 and UNEDF1 density functional calculations. Together with new shell-model calculations of the electron-capture strength function of 56Sc, our results strongly reduce uncertainties in model calculations of the heating and cooling at the 56Ti electron-capture layer in the outer crust of accreting neutron stars. We find that, in contrast to previous studies, neither strong neutrino cooling nor strong heating occurs in this layer. We conclude that Urca cooling in the outer crusts of accreting neutron stars that exhibit superbursts or high temperature steady-state burning, which are predicted to be rich in A≈56 nuclei, is considerably weaker than predicted. Urca cooling must instead be dominated by electron capture on the small amounts of adjacent odd-A nuclei contained in the superburst and high temperature steady-state burning ashes. This may explain the absence of strong crust Urca cooling inferred from the observed cooling light curve of the transiently accreting x-ray source MAXI J0556-332.

  13. Mass Measurement of 56Sc Reveals a Small A =56 Odd-Even Mass Staggering, Implying a Cooler Accreted Neutron Star Crust (United States)

    Meisel, Z.; George, S.; Ahn, S.; Bazin, D.; Brown, B. A.; Browne, J.; Carpino, J. F.; Chung, H.; Cole, A. L.; Cyburt, R. H.; Estradé, A.; Famiano, M.; Gade, A.; Langer, C.; Matoš, M.; Mittig, W.; Montes, F.; Morrissey, D. J.; Pereira, J.; Schatz, H.; Schatz, J.; Scott, M.; Shapira, D.; Smith, K.; Stevens, J.; Tan, W.; Tarasov, O.; Towers, S.; Wimmer, K.; Winkelbauer, J. R.; Yurkon, J.; Zegers, R. G. T.


    We present the mass excesses of 52-57Sc, obtained from recent time-of-flight nuclear mass measurements at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory at Michigan State University. The masses of 56Sc and 57Sc were determined for the first time with atomic mass excesses of -24.85 (59 )(-54+0) MeV and -21.0 (1.3 ) MeV , respectively, where the asymmetric uncertainty for 56Sc was included due to possible contamination from a long-lived isomer. The 56Sc mass indicates a small odd-even mass staggering in the A =56 mass chain towards the neutron drip line, significantly deviating from trends predicted by the global FRDM mass model and favoring trends predicted by the UNEDF0 and UNEDF1 density functional calculations. Together with new shell-model calculations of the electron-capture strength function of 56Sc, our results strongly reduce uncertainties in model calculations of the heating and cooling at the 56Ti electron-capture layer in the outer crust of accreting neutron stars. We find that, in contrast to previous studies, neither strong neutrino cooling nor strong heating occurs in this layer. We conclude that Urca cooling in the outer crusts of accreting neutron stars that exhibit superbursts or high temperature steady-state burning, which are predicted to be rich in A ≈56 nuclei, is considerably weaker than predicted. Urca cooling must instead be dominated by electron capture on the small amounts of adjacent odd-A nuclei contained in the superburst and high temperature steady-state burning ashes. This may explain the absence of strong crust Urca cooling inferred from the observed cooling light curve of the transiently accreting x-ray source MAXI J0556-332.

  14. Star Wreck

    CERN Document Server

    Kusenko, A; Tinyakov, Peter G; Tkachev, Igor I; Kusenko, Alexander; Shaposhnikov, Mikhail; Tkachev, Igor I.


    Electroweak models with low-energy supersymmetry breaking predict the existence of stable non-topological solitons, Q-balls, that can be produced in the early universe. The relic Q-balls can accumulate inside a neutron star and gradually absorb the baryons into the scalar condensate. This causes a slow reduction in the mass of the star. When the mass reaches a critical value, the neutron star becomes unstable and explodes. The cataclysmic destruction of the distant neutron stars may be the origin of the gamma-ray bursts.

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: CMD and mass distribution of Ba stars (Escorza+, 2017) (United States)

    Escorza, A.; Boffin, H. M. J.; Jorissen, A.; van Eck, S.; Siess, L.; van Winckel, H.; Karinkuzhi, D.; Shetye, S.; Pourbaix, D.


    This catalogue contains the effective temperatures and luminosities obtained for a sample of barium and related stars by an SED fitting method and using MARCS models with three different metallicities. (1 data file).

  16. Synaesthesia and colour constancy. (United States)

    Erskine, Holly; Mattingley, Jason B; Arnold, Derek H


    Grapheme-colour synaesthesia is an atypical condition characterized by the perception of colours when reading achromatic text. We investigated the level of colour processing responsible for these experiences. To do so, we tapped a central characteristic of colour perception. In different lighting conditions the same wavelength of light can prompt the perception of different colours. This helps humans recognize distinctive coloured objects despite changes in illumination. We wanted to see if synaesthetic colours were generated at a neural locus that was susceptible to colour constancy analyses. We used colour matching and naming tasks to examine interactions between simulated coloured illuminants and synaesthetic colours. Neither synaesthetic colour matching or naming was impacted. This contrasted with non-synaesthetic control participants, who performed the colour-matching task with graphemes physically coloured to mimic synaesthesia. Our data suggest that synaesthetic colour signals are not generated at lower-levels of colour processing, but are introduced at higher levels of analysis and are therefore not impacted by the processes responsible for perceptual constancy. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Colour Perception in ADHD (United States)

    Banaschewski, Tobias; Ruppert, Sinje; Tannock, Rosemary; Albrecht, Bjorn; Becker, Andreas; Uebel, Henrik; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Rothenberger, Aribert


    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with unexplained impairments on speeded naming of coloured stimuli. These deficits may reflect hypofunctioning retinal dopaminergic mechanisms impairing particularly blue-yellow colour discrimination. Colour perception and rapid colour naming ability were investigated in 14 children…

  18. Black Hole Growth Is Mainly Linked to Host-galaxy Stellar Mass Rather Than Star Formation Rate (United States)

    Yang, G.; Chen, C.-T. J.; Vito, F.; Brandt, W. N.; Alexander, D. M.; Luo, B.; Sun, M. Y.; Xue, Y. Q.; Bauer, F. E.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Lehmer, B. D.; Liu, T.; Schneider, D. P.; Shemmer, O.; Trump, J. R.; Vignali, C.; Wang, J.-X.


    We investigate the dependence of black hole accretion rate (BHAR) on host-galaxy star formation rate (SFR) and stellar mass (M *) in the CANDELS/GOODS-South field in the redshift range of 0.5≤slant zteam through spectral energy distribution fitting. The average BHAR is correlated positively with both SFR and M *, and the BHAR-SFR and BHAR-M * relations can both be described acceptably by linear models with a slope of unity. However, BHAR appears to be correlated more strongly with M * than SFR. This result indicates that M * is the primary host-galaxy property related to supermassive black hole (SMBH) growth, and the apparent BHAR-SFR relation is largely a secondary effect due to the star-forming main sequence. Among our sources, massive galaxies ({M}* ≳ {10}10{M}⊙ ) have significantly higher BHAR/SFR ratios than less massive galaxies, indicating that the former have higher SMBH fueling efficiency and/or higher SMBH occupation fraction than the latter. Our results can naturally explain the observed proportionality between {M}{BH} and M * for local giant ellipticals and suggest that their {M}{BH}/{M}* is higher than that of local star-forming galaxies. Among local star-forming galaxies, massive systems might have higher {M}{BH}/{M}* compared to dwarfs.

  19. The earliest phases of high-mass star formation, as seen in NGC 6334 by Herschel-HOBYS (United States)

    Tigé, J.; Motte, F.; Russeil, D.; Zavagno, A.; Hennemann, M.; Schneider, N.; Hill, T.; Nguyen Luong, Q.; Di Francesco, J.; Bontemps, S.; Louvet, F.; Didelon, P.; Könyves, V.; André, Ph.; Leuleu, G.; Bardagi, J.; Anderson, L. D.; Arzoumanian, D.; Benedettini, M.; Bernard, J.-P.; Elia, D.; Figueira, M.; Kirk, J.; Martin, P. G.; Minier, V.; Molinari, S.; Nony, T.; Persi, P.; Pezzuto, S.; Polychroni, D.; Rayner, T.; Rivera-Ingraham, A.; Roussel, H.; Rygl, K.; Spinoglio, L.; White, G. J.


    Aims: To constrain models of high-mass star formation, the Herschel-HOBYS key program aims at discovering massive dense cores (MDCs) able to host the high-mass analogs of low-mass prestellar cores, which have been searched for over the past decade. We here focus on NGC 6334, one of the best-studied HOBYS molecular cloud complexes. Methods: We used Herschel/PACS and SPIRE 70-500 μm images of the NGC 6334 complex complemented with (sub)millimeter and mid-infrared data. We built a complete procedure to extract 0.1 pc dense cores with the getsources software, which simultaneously measures their far-infrared to millimeter fluxes. We carefully estimated the temperatures and masses of these dense cores from their spectral energy distributions (SEDs). We also identified the densest pc-scale cloud structures of NGC 6334, one 2 pc × 1 pc ridge and two 0.8 pc × 0.8 pc hubs, with volume-averaged densities of 105 cm-3. Results: A cross-correlation with high-mass star formation signposts suggests a mass threshold of 75 M⊙ for MDCs in NGC 6334. MDCs have temperatures of 9.5-40 K, masses of 75-1000 M⊙, and densities of 1 × 105-7 × 107 cm-3. Their mid-infrared emission is used to separate 6 IR-bright and 10 IR-quiet protostellar MDCs while their 70 μm emission strength, with respect to fitted SEDs, helps identify 16 starless MDC candidates. The ability of the latter to host high-mass prestellar cores is investigated here and remains questionable. An increase in mass and density from the starless to the IR-quiet and IR-bright phases suggests that the protostars and MDCs simultaneously grow in mass. The statistical lifetimes of the high-mass prestellar and protostellar core phases, estimated to be 1-7 × 104 yr and at most 3 × 105 yr respectively, suggest a dynamical scenario of high-mass star formation. Conclusions: The present study provides good mass estimates for a statistically significant sample, covering the earliest phases of high-mass star formation. High-mass

  20. Effect of accretion on the pre-main-sequence evolution of low-mass stars and brown dwarfs (United States)

    Vorobyov, Eduard I.; Elbakyan, Vardan; Hosokawa, Takashi; Sakurai, Yuya; Guedel, Manuel; Yorke, Harold


    Aims: The pre-main-sequence evolution of low-mass stars and brown dwarfs is studied numerically starting from the formation of a protostellar or proto-brown dwarf seed and taking into account the mass accretion onto the central object during the initial several Myr of evolution. Methods: The stellar evolution was computed using the STELLAR evolution code with recent modifications. The mass accretion rates were taken from numerical hydrodynamics models by computing the circumstellar disk evolution starting from the gravitational collapse of prestellar cloud cores of various mass and angular momentum. The resulting stellar evolution tracks were compared with the isochrones and isomasses calculated using non-accreting models. Results: We find that mass accretion in the initial several Myr of protostellar evolution can have a strong effect on the subsequent evolution of young stars and brown dwarfs. The disagreement between accreting and non-accreting models in terms of the total stellar luminosity L∗, stellar radius R∗, and effective temperature Teff depends on the thermal efficiency of accretion, that is, on the fraction of accretion energy that is absorbed by the central object. The largest mismatch is found for the cold accretion case, in which essentially all accretion energy is radiated away. The relative deviations in L∗ and R∗ in this case can reach 50% for objects 1.0 Myr old, and they remain notable even for objects 10 Myr old. In the hot and hybrid accretion cases, in which a constant fraction of accretion energy is absorbed, the disagreement between accreting and non-accreting models becomes less pronounced, but still remains notable for objects 1.0 Myr old. These disagreements may lead to an incorrect age estimate for objects of (sub-)solar mass when using the isochrones that are based on non-accreting models, as has also been noted previously. We find that objects with strong luminosity bursts exhibit notable excursions in the L∗-Teff diagram

  1. When stars collide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glebbeek, E.; Pols, O.R.


    When two stars collide and merge they form a new star that can stand out against the background population in a star cluster as a blue straggler. In so called collision runaways many stars can merge and may form a very massive star that eventually forms an intermediate mass blackhole. We have

  2. The Birth of Massive Stars and Star Clusters


    Tan, Jonathan C.


    In the present-day universe, it appears that most, and perhaps all, massive stars are born in star clusters. It also appears that all star clusters contain stars drawn from an approximately universal initial mass function, so that almost all rich young star clusters contain massive stars. In this review I discuss the physical processes associated with both massive star formation and with star cluster formation. First I summarize the observed properties of star-forming gas clumps, then address...

  3. Is the Link Between the Observed Velocities of Neutron Stars and their Progenitors a Simple Mass Relationship? (United States)

    Bray, J. C.


    While the imparting of velocity `kicks' to compact remnants from supernovae is widely accepted, the relationship of the `kick' to the progenitor is not. We propose the `kick' is predominantly a result of conservation of momentum between the ejected and compact remnant masses. We propose the `kick' velocity is given by v kick = α(M ejecta/M remnant)+β, where α and β are constants we wish to determine. To test this we use the BPASS v2 (Binary Population and Spectral Synthesis) code to create stellar populations from both single star and binary star evolutionary pathways. We then use our Remnant Ejecta and Progenitor Explosion Relationship (REAPER) code to apply `kicks' to neutron stars from supernovae in these models using a grid of α and β values, (from 0 to 200 km s-1 in steps of 10 km s-1), in three different `kick' orientations, (isotropic, spin-axis aligned and orthogonal to spin-axis) and weighted by three different Salpeter initial mass functions (IMF's), with slopes of -2.0, -2.35 and -2.70. We compare our synthetic 2D and 3D velocity probability distributions to the distributions provided by Hobbs et al. (1995).

  4. From Stars to Superplanets: The Low-Mass Initial Mass Function in the Young Cluster IC 348

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Najita, Joan R; Tiede, Glenn P; Carr, John S


    We investigate the low-mass population of the young cluster IC 348 down to the deuterium-burning limit, a fiducial boundary between brown dwarf and planetary mass objects, using a new and innovative...

  5. Novel modelling of ultracompact X-ray binary evolution - stable mass transfer from white dwarfs to neutron stars (United States)

    Sengar, Rahul; Tauris, Thomas M.; Langer, Norbert; Istrate, Alina G.


    Tight binaries of helium white dwarfs (He WDs) orbiting millisecond pulsars (MSPs) will eventually 'merge' due to gravitational damping of the orbit. The outcome has been predicted to be the production of long-lived ultracompact X-ray binaries (UCXBs), in which the WD transfers material to the accreting neutron star (NS). Here we present complete numerical computations, for the first time, of such stable mass transfer from a He WD to a NS. We have calculated a number of complete binary stellar evolution tracks, starting from pre-low-mass X-ray binary systems, and evolved these to detached MSP+WD systems and further on to UCXBs. The minimum orbital period is found to be as short as 5.6 min. We followed the subsequent widening of the systems until the donor stars become planets with a mass of ˜0.005 M⊙ after roughly a Hubble time. Our models are able to explain the properties of observed UCXBs with high helium abundances and we can identify these sources on the ascending or descending branch in a diagram displaying mass-transfer rate versus orbital period.

  6. Using Gravitational-wave Observations and Quasi-universal Relations to Constrain the Maximum Mass of Neutron Stars (United States)

    Rezzolla, Luciano; Most, Elias R.; Weih, Lukas R.


    Combining the GW observations of merging systems of binary neutron stars and quasi-universal relations, we set constraints on the maximum mass that can be attained by nonrotating stellar models of neutron stars. More specifically, exploiting the recent observation of the GW event GW170817 and drawing from basic arguments on kilonova modeling of GRB 170817A together with the quasi-universal relation between the maximum mass of nonrotating stellar models {M}{TOV} and the maximum mass supported through uniform rotation {M}\\max =({1.20}-0.05+0.02){M}{TOV}, we set limits for the maximum mass to be {2.01}-0.04+0.04≤slant {M}{TOV}/{M}ȯ ≲ {2.16}-0.15+0.17, where the lower limit in this range comes from pulsar observations. Our estimate, which follows a very simple line of arguments and does not rely on the modeling of the electromagnetic signal in terms of numerical simulations, can be further refined as new detections become available. We briefly discuss the impact that our conclusions have on the equation of state of nuclear matter.

  7. A colour image reproduction framework for 3D colour printing


    Xiao, Kaida; Sohiab, Ali; Sun , Pei-li; Yates, Julian; Li, Changjun; Wuerger, Sophie


    In this paper, the current technologies in full colour 3D printing technology were introduced. A framework of colour image reproduction process for 3D colour printing is proposed. A special focus was put on colour management for 3D printed objects. Two approaches, colorimetric colour reproduction and spectral based colour reproduction are proposed in order to faithfully reproduce colours in 3D objects. Two key studies, colour reproduction for soft tissue prostheses and colour uniformity corre...

  8. Upper Bounds on r-Mode Amplitudes from Observations of Low-Mass X-Ray Binary Neutron Stars (United States)

    Mahmoodifar, Simin; Strohmayer, Tod


    We present upper limits on the amplitude of r-mode oscillations and gravitational-radiation-induced spin-down rates in low-mass X-ray binary neutron stars, under the assumption that the quiescent neutron star luminosity is powered by dissipation from a steady-state r-mode. For masses <2M solar mass we find dimensionless r-mode amplitudes in the range from about 1×10(exp-8) to 1.5×10(exp-6). For the accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar sources with known quiescent spin-down rates, these limits suggest that approx. less than 1% of the observed rate can be due to an unstable r-mode. Interestingly, the source with the highest amplitude limit, NGC 6440, could have an r-mode spin-down rate comparable to the observed, quiescent rate for SAX J1808-3658. Thus, quiescent spin-down measurements for this source would be particularly interesting. For all sources considered here, our amplitude limits suggest that gravitational wave signals are likely too weak for detection with Advanced LIGO. Our highest mass model (2.21M solar mass) can support enhanced, direct Urca neutrino emission in the core and thus can have higher r-mode amplitudes. Indeed, the inferred r-mode spin-down rates at these higher amplitudes are inconsistent with the observed spin-down rates for some of the sources, such as IGR J00291+5934 and XTE J1751-305. In the absence of other significant sources of internal heat, these results could be used to place an upper limit on the masses of these sources if they were made of hadronic matter, or alternatively it could be used to probe the existence of exotic matter in them if their masses were known.

  9. Simulations of the tidal interaction and mass transfer of a star in an eccentric orbit around an intermediate-mass black hole: the case of HLX-1 (United States)

    van der Helm, Edwin; Portegies Zwart, Simon; Pols, Onno


    The X-ray source HLX-1 near the spiral galaxy ESO 243-49 is currently the best intermediate-mass black hole candidate. It has a peak bolometric luminosity of 1042 erg s-1, which implies a mass inflow rate of ˜10-4 M⊙ yr-1, but the origin of this mass is unknown. It has been proposed that there is a star on an eccentric orbit around the black hole which transfers mass at pericentre. To investigate the orbital evolution of this system, we perform stellar evolution simulations using MESA and smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of a stellar orbit around an intermediate-mass black hole using FI. We run and couple these simulations using the AMUSE framework. We find that mass is lost through both the first and second Lagrange points and that there is a delay of up to 10 d between the pericentre passage and the peak mass-loss event. The orbital evolution time-scales we find in our simulations are larger than what is predicted by analytical models, but these models fall within the errors of our results. Despite the fast orbital evolution, we are unable to reproduce the observed change in outburst period. We conclude that the change in the stellar orbit, with the system parameters investigated here, is unable to account for all observed features of HLX-1.

  10. Rethinking Colour Constancy. (United States)

    Logvinenko, Alexander D; Funt, Brian; Mirzaei, Hamidreza; Tokunaga, Rumi


    Colour constancy needs to be reconsidered in light of the limits imposed by metamer mismatching. Metamer mismatching refers to the fact that two objects reflecting metameric light under one illumination may reflect non-metameric light under a second; so two objects appearing as having the same colour under one illuminant can appear as having different colours under a second. Yet since Helmholtz, object colour has generally been believed to remain relatively constant. The deviations from colour constancy registered in experiments are usually thought to be small enough that they do not contradict the notion of colour constancy. However, it is important to determine how the deviations from colour constancy relate to the limits metamer mismatching imposes on constancy. Hence, we calculated metamer mismatching's effect for the 20 Munsell papers and 8 pairs of illuminants employed in the colour constancy study by Logvinenko and Tokunaga and found it to be so extensive that the two notions-metamer mismatching and colour constancy-must be mutually exclusive. In particular, the notion of colour constancy leads to some paradoxical phenomena such as the possibility of 20 objects having the same colour under chromatic light dispersing into a hue circle of colours under neutral light. Thus, colour constancy refers to a phenomenon, which because of metamer mismatching, simply cannot exist. Moreover, it obscures the really important visual phenomenon; namely, the alteration of object colours induced by illumination change. We show that colour is not an independent, intrinsic attribute of an object, but rather an attribute of an object/light pair, and then define a concept of material colour in terms of equivalence classes of such object/light pairs. We suggest that studying the shift in material colour under a change in illuminant will be more fruitful than pursuing colour constancy's false premise that colour is an intrinsic attribute of an object.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Lopezlira, Rosa A. [On sabbatical leave from the Centro de Radioastronomia y Astrofisica, UNAM, Campus Morelia, Michoacan, C.P. 58089, Mexico. (Mexico); Pflamm-Altenburg, Jan; Kroupa, Pavel, E-mail: [Argelander Institut fuer Astronomie, Universitaet Bonn, Auf dem Huegel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany)


    We analyze the relationship between maximum cluster mass and surface densities of total gas ({Sigma}{sub gas}), molecular gas ({Sigma}{sub H{sub 2}}), neutral gas ({Sigma}{sub H{sub I}}), and star formation rate ({Sigma}{sub SFR}) in the grand-design galaxy M51, using published gas data and a catalog of masses, ages, and reddenings of more than 1800 star clusters in its disk, of which 223 are above the cluster mass distribution function completeness limit. By comparing the two-dimensional distribution of cluster masses and gas surface densities, we find for clusters older than 25 Myr that M{sub 3rd}{proportional_to}{Sigma}{sub H{sub I}{sup 0.4{+-}0.2}}, whereM{sub 3rd} is the median of the five most massive clusters. There is no correlation with{Sigma}{sub gas},{Sigma}{sub H2}, or{Sigma}{sub SFR}. For clusters younger than 10 Myr, M{sub 3rd}{proportional_to}{Sigma}{sub H{sub I}{sup 0.6{+-}0.1}} and M{sub 3rd}{proportional_to}{Sigma}{sub gas}{sup 0.5{+-}0.2}; there is no correlation with either {Sigma}{sub H{sub 2}} or{Sigma}{sub SFR}. The results could hardly be more different from those found for clusters younger than 25 Myr in M33. For the flocculent galaxy M33, there is no correlation between maximum cluster mass and neutral gas, but we have determined M{sub 3rd}{proportional_to}{Sigma}{sub gas}{sup 3.8{+-}0.3}, M{sub 3rd}{proportional_to}{Sigma}{sub H{sub 2}{sup 1.2{+-}0.1}}, and M{sub 3rd}{proportional_to}{Sigma}{sub SFR}{sup 0.9{+-}0.1}. For the older sample in M51, the lack of tight correlations is probably due to the combination of strong azimuthal variations in the surface densities of gas and star formation rate, and the cluster ages. These two facts mean that neither the azimuthal average of the surface densities at a given radius nor the surface densities at the present-day location of a stellar cluster represent the true surface densities at the place and time of cluster formation. In the case of the younger sample, even if the clusters have not yet

  12. Measuring the masses of Intermediate Polars with NuSTAR: V709 Cas, NY Lup and V1223 Sgr


    Shaw, A. W.; Heinke, C. O.; Mukai, K.; Sivakoff, G. R.; Tomsick, J. A.; Rana, V.


    The X-ray spectra of intermediate polars can be modelled to give a direct measurement of white dwarf mass. Here we fit accretion column models to NuSTAR spectra of three intermediate polars; V709 Cas, NY Lup and V1223 Sgr in order to determine their masses. From fits to 3-78 keV spectra, we find masses of $M_{\\rm WD}=0.88^{+0.05}_{-0.04}M_{\\odot}$, $1.16^{+0.04}_{-0.02}M_{\\odot}$ and $0.75\\pm0.02M_{\\odot}$ for V709 Cas, NY Lup and V1223 Sgr, respectively. Our measurements are generally in agr...

  13. Star formation in blue compact dwarf Galaxies (United States)

    Ramya, S.; Prabhu, T. P.; Sahu, D. K.

    Blue compact dwarf galaxies (BCDGs) are dwarfs undergoing current burst of star formation (SF). In our work, we determine the ages of the underlying old stellar population to be ˜4 Gyr that is dominating the mass of the galaxy, underlying the current burst of SF. An intermediate population of ˜500 Myr which dominates the stellar light from the galaxy is also detected. The burst of SF at the present epoch spans ˜10 Myr as estimated from various age estimators like Hα, diagnostic diagrams and colour-colour diagrams. BCDGs undergo a burst of SF for a longer duration (of about a few 100 Myr to a Gyr) followed by a short/long quiescence. The amount of column density of localized neutral hydrogen required for the current burst to occur seems to be 10^{21} cm^{-2}. This could be the threshold required for SF. Radio continuum emission reveals that the emission is coincident with the star forming regions. The star formation rates (SFR) estimated from Hα match well with the SFR estimated using non-thermal radio emission for individual star forming regions, but are ˜6-7 times less as compared to the SFR calculated from far-IR (FIR) emission.

  14. The Milky Way's Circular Velocity Curve and Its Constraint on the Galactic Mass with RR Lyrae Stars (United States)

    Ablimit, Iminhaji; Zhao, Gang


    We present a sample of 1148 ab-type RR Lyrae (RRLab) variables identified from Catalina Surveys Data Release 1, combined with SDSS DR8 and LAMOST DR4 spectral data. We first use a large sample of 860 Galactic halo RRLab stars and derive the circular velocity distributions for the stellar halo. With the precise distances and carefully determined radial velocities (the center-of-mass radial velocities) and by considering the pulsation of the RRLab stars in our sample, we can obtain a reliable and comparable stellar halo circular velocity curve. We follow two different prescriptions for the velocity anisotropy parameter β in the Jeans equation to study the circular velocity curve and mass profile. Additionally, we test two different solar peculiar motions in our calculation. The best result we obtained with the adopted solar peculiar motion 1 of (U, V, W) = (11.1, 12, 7.2) km s-1 is that the enclosed mass of the Milky Way within 50 kpc is (3.75 ± 1.33) × 1011 M ⊙ based on β = 0 and the circular velocity 180 ± 31.92 (km s-1) at 50 kpc. This result is consistent with dynamical model results, and it is also comparable to the results of previous similar works.

  15. Mass loss and rotational CO emission from Asymptotic Giant Branch stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemper, F.; Stark, R.; Justtanont, K.; Koter, A. de; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Waters, L. B. F. M.; Cami, J.; Dijkstra, C.

    Abstract: We present submillimeter observations of rotational transitions of carbon monoxide from J = 2 -> 1 up to 7 -> 6 for a sample of Asymptotic Giant Branch stars and red supergiants. It is the first time that the high transitions J = 6 -> 5 and 7 -> 6 are included in such a study. With line

  16. Interferometric Observations of High-Mass Star-Forming Clumps with Unusual N2H+/HCO+ Line Ratios


    Stephens, Ian W.; Jackson, James M.; Sanhueza, Patricio; Whitaker, J. Scott; Hoq, Sadia; Rathborne, Jill M.; Foster, Jonathan B.


    The Millimetre Astronomy Legacy Team 90 GHz (MALT90) survey has detected high-mass star-forming clumps with anomalous N$_2$H$^+$/HCO$^+$(1-0) integrated intensity ratios that are either unusually high ("N$_2$H$^+$ rich") or unusually low ("N$_2$H$^+$ poor"). With 3 mm observations from the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA), we imaged two N$_2$H$^+$ rich clumps, G333.234-00.061 and G345.144-00.216, and two N$_2$H$^+$ poor clumps, G351.409+00.567 and G353.229+00.672. In these clumps, the...

  17. Optical manifestations of mass outflows from young stars - At atlas of CCD images of Herbig-Haro objects (United States)

    Strom, K. M.; Strom, S. E.; Wenz, M.; Wolff, S. C.; Morgan, J.


    An attempt is made to provide deep CCD images suitable for tracing the shock-excited and scattered-light components characterizing extended Herbig-Haro complexes. Tabular data include astrometric positions for all stars, shock-excited emission knots, prominent scattered-light patches, as well as an identification for all H-alpha emission objects within the CCD images. It is concluded that: (1) optical outflows are not always accompanied by molecular flows, (2) optical outflows show a higher degree of collimation than their molecular counterparts, and (3) the Herbig-Haro phenomenon is not restricted to low-mass young stellar objects.

  18. Effects of Memory Colour on Colour Constancy for Unknown Coloured Objects


    Jeroen J M Granzier; Gegenfurtner, Karl R.


    The perception of an object's colour remains constant despite large variations in the chromaticity of the illumination—colour constancy. Hering suggested that memory colours, the typical colours of objects, could help in estimating the illuminant's colour and therefore be an important factor in establishing colour constancy. Here we test whether the presence of objects with diagnostical colours (fruits, vegetables, etc) within a scene influence colour constancy for unknown coloured objects in...

  19. How Do Stars Gain Their Mass? A JCMT/SCUBA-2 Transient Survey of Protostars in Nearby Star-forming Regions (United States)

    Herczeg, Gregory J.; Johnstone, Doug; Mairs, Steve; Hatchell, Jennifer; Lee, Jeong-Eun; Bower, Geoffrey C.; Chen, Huei-Ru Vivien; Aikawa, Yuri; Yoo, Hyunju; Kang, Sung-Ju; Kang, Miju; Chen, Wen-Ping; Williams, Jonathan P.; Bae, Jaehan; Dunham, Michael M.; Vorobyov, Eduard I.; Zhu, Zhaohuan; Rao, Ramprasad; Kirk, Helen; Takahashi, Satoko; Morata, Oscar; Lacaille, Kevin; Lane, James; Pon, Andy; Scholz, Aleks; Samal, Manash R.; Bell, Graham S.; Graves, Sarah; Lee, E.'lisa M.; Parsons, Harriet; He, Yuxin; Zhou, Jianjun; Kim, Mi-Ryang; Chapman, Scott; Drabek-Maunder, Emily; Chung, Eun Jung; Eyres, Stewart P. S.; Forbrich, Jan; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro; Kim, Gwanjeong; Kim, Kyoung Hee; Kuan, Yi-Jehng; Kwon, Woojin; Lai, Shih-Ping; Lalchand, Bhavana; Lee, Chang Won; Lee, Chin-Fei; Long, Feng; Lyo, A.-Ran; Qian, Lei; Scicluna, Peter; Soam, Archana; Stamatellos, Dimitris; Takakuwa, Shigehisa; Tang, Ya-Wen; Wang, Hongchi; Wang, Yiren


    Most protostars have luminosities that are fainter than expected from steady accretion over the protostellar lifetime. The solution to this problem may lie in episodic mass accretion—prolonged periods of very low accretion punctuated by short bursts of rapid accretion. However, the timescale and amplitude for variability at the protostellar phase is almost entirely unconstrained. In A James Clerk Maxwell Telescope/SCUBA-2 Transient Survey of Protostars in Nearby Star-forming Regions, we are monitoring monthly with SCUBA-2 the submillimeter emission in eight fields within nearby (< 500 pc) star-forming regions to measure the accretion variability of protostars. The total survey area of ˜1.6 deg2 includes ˜105 peaks with peaks brighter than 0.5 Jy/beam (43 associated with embedded protostars or disks) and 237 peaks of 0.125-0.5 Jy/beam (50 with embedded protostars or disks). Each field has enough bright peaks for flux calibration relative to other peaks in the same field, which improves upon the nominal flux calibration uncertainties of submillimeter observations to reach a precision of ˜2%-3% rms, and also provides quantified confidence in any measured variability. The timescales and amplitudes of any submillimeter variation will then be converted into variations in accretion rate and subsequently used to infer the physical causes of the variability. This survey is the first dedicated survey for submillimeter variability and complements other transient surveys at optical and near-IR wavelengths, which are not sensitive to accretion variability of deeply embedded protostars.

  20. NuSTAR view of the Z-type neutron star low-mass X-ray binary Cygnus X-2 (United States)

    Mondal, Aditya S.; Dewangan, G. C.; Pahari, M.; Raychaudhuri, B.


    We report on the NuSTAR observation of the Z-type neutron star low-mass X-ray binary Cygnus X-2 performed on 2015 January 7. During this observation, the source exhibited a sudden decrease in count rate (dips) and stronger variability in 3-79 keV X-ray light curve. The hardness-intensity diagram shows that the source remained in the so-called normal branch of the Z-track, although an extended `flaring branch' is observed during the dips. The source was in a soft spectral state with the 3-45 keV luminosity of L ≃ (0.5-1.1) × 1038 erg s-1, assuming a distance of 8 kpc. Both the non-dip and dip X-ray spectra are well represented by models in which the soft band is dominated by the emission from the disc, while the hard X-ray band is dominated by the Comptonized emission from the boundary layer/corona and its reflected emission from the disc. The X-ray spectrum also revealed a broad Fe K α emission line which is nearly symmetric at the higher flux and asymmetric when the flux is reduced by a factor of ˜2. The relativistic reflection model predicts the inner radius of the accretion disc as Rin ≃ 2.5-6.0 RISCO (≃30-73 km) for the non-dip state and Rin ≃ 2.0-2.6 RISCO (≃24-32 km) for the dip state. If the inner disc is truncated due to the pressure arising from a magnetic field, this implies an upper limit of the magnetic field strength of ≤7.6 × 109 G at the magnetic poles which is consistent with other estimates.

  1. On the properties of young multiple stars (United States)

    Delgado-Donate, E. J.; Clarke, C. J.; Bate, M. R.; Hodgkin, S. T.


    We present numerical results on the properties of young binary and multiple stellar systems. Our analysis is based on a series of smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) +N-body simulations of the fragmentation of small molecular clouds, which fully resolve the opacity limit for fragmentation. These simulations demonstrate that multiple star formation is a major channel for star formation in turbulent flows. We have produced a statistically significant number of stable multiple systems, with component separations in the range ~1-103 au. At the end of the hydrodynamic stage (0.5 Myr), we find that ~60 per cent of stars and brown dwarfs are members of multiples systems, with about a third of these being low-mass, weakly bound outliers in wide eccentric orbits. Our results imply that in the stellar regime most stars are in multiples (~80 per cent) and that this fraction is an increasing function of primary mass. After N-body integration to 10.5 Myr, the percentage of bound objects has dropped to about 40 per cent, this decrease arising mostly from very low-mass stars and brown dwarfs that have been released into the field. Brown dwarfs are never found to be very close companions to stars (the brown dwarf desert at very small separations), but one case exists of a brown dwarf companion at intermediate separations (10 au). Our simulations can accommodate the existence of brown dwarf companions at large separations, but only if the primaries of these systems are themselves multiples. We have compared the outcome of our simulations with the properties of real stellar systems as deduced from the infrared colour-magnitude diagram of the Praesepe cluster and from spectroscopic and high-resolution imaging surveys of young clusters and the field. We find that the spread of the observed main sequence of Praesepe in the 0.4-1 Msolar range appears to require that stars are indeed commonly assembled into high-order multiple systems. Similarly, observational results from Taurus and

  2. Neutron Stars (United States)

    Cottam, J.


    Neutron stars were discovered almost 40 years ago, and yet many of their most fundamental properties remain mysteries. There have been many attempts to measure the mass and radius of a neutron star and thereby constrain the equation of state of the dense nuclear matter at their cores. These have been complicated by unknown parameters such as the source distance and burning fractions. A clean, straightforward way to access the neutron star parameters is with high-resolution spectroscopy. I will present the results of searches for gravitationally red-shifted absorption lines from the neutron star atmosphere using XMM-Newton and Chandra.

  3. Nitrogen and hydrogen fractionation in high-mass star-forming cores from observations of HCN and HNC (United States)

    Colzi, L.; Fontani, F.; Caselli, P.; Ceccarelli, C.; Hily-Blant, P.; Bizzocchi, L.


    The ratio between the two stable isotopes of nitrogen, 14N and 15N, is well measured in the terrestrial atmosphere ( 272), and for the pre-solar nebula ( 441, deduced from the solar wind). Interestingly, some pristine solar system materials show enrichments in 15N with respect to the pre-solar nebula value. However, it is not yet clear if and how these enrichments are linked to the past chemical history because we have only a limited number of measurements in dense star-forming regions. In this respect, dense cores, which are believed to be the precursors of clusters and also contain intermediate- and high-mass stars, are important targets because the solar system was probably born within a rich stellar cluster, and such clusters are formed in high-mass star-forming regions. The number of observations in such high-mass dense cores has remained limited so far. In this work, we show the results of IRAM-30 m observations of the J = 1-0 rotational transition of the molecules HCN and HNC and their 15N-bearing counterparts towards 27 intermediate- and high-mass dense cores that are divided almost equally into three evolutionary categories: high-mass starless cores, high-mass protostellar objects, and ultra-compact HII regions. We have also observed the DNC(2-1) rotational transition in order to search for a relation between the isotopic ratios D/H and 14N/15N. We derive average 14N/15N ratios of 359 ± 16 in HCN and of 438 ± 21 in HNC, with a dispersion of about 150-200. We find no trend of the 14N/15N ratio with evolutionary stage. This result agrees with what has been found for N2H+ and its isotopologues in the same sources, although the 14N/15N ratios from N2H+ show a higher dispersion than in HCN/HNC, and on average, their uncertainties are larger as well. Moreover, we have found no correlation between D/H and 14N/15N in HNC. These findings indicate that (1) the chemical evolution does not seem to play a role in the fractionation of nitrogen, and that (2) the

  4. Measuring the masses of the habitable planets around the 50 closest solar-type stars with Theia (United States)

    Malbet, Fabien; Leger, Alain; Anglada-Escude, Guillem; Sozzetti, Alessandro; Crouzier, Antooine; Theia Consortium


    A major goal of exoplanetary science is the search for possible biosignatures on planets where life similar to ours would have emerged and modified the atmosphere. These planets can be detected by remote sensing using spectroscopic observation of O2, O3, H2O, CO2, and CH4 gases, but in the present context of funding, only missions in the range B$1-2 are seen as feasible for the next decades. This cost cap imposes serious constraints on the number of accessible targets limiting the exploration to the 20 nearest systems with space coronagraphy in the visible wavelength range and 40 systems with space interferometers working in thermal IR. It is thus imperative that promising target be identified ahead of time, to minimize several classes of risks intrinsic to the 'blind search' approach. Furthermore, the masses and the three-dimensional orbits of such habitable planets are key elements for deriving exobiological statements in the future, even the most basic ones. The mission called Theia has been submitted to the ESA call for M4 mission in 2015. Theia is a space observatory able to carry out high precision differential astrometry at the sub-microarcsecond level that allows mass determination of Earth-mass habitable planets around the 50 closest Solar-type stars using 15 - 20 % of the time of a three years mission. Theia is a single telescope designed to perform high accuracy astrometry using interferometric calibration and operating in L2. We will present the mission and its capability to measure the mass and orbit characteristics of the 50 closest planetary systems down to the Earth mass in the habitable zone of solar-type stars.

  5. Colour Blocking: Disregarding Traditional Artistic Colour Harmonies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A development in the world of design – costume, fashion, graphics, architecture and general decor whereby traditional colour harmonies are reengineered to suite the taste of the time engages the attention of the paper. The trending phenomenon popularly referred to as 'colour blocking' involves the use of bright ...

  6. Coronal mass ejection (CME) activity of low mass M stars as an important factor for the habitability of terrestrial exoplanets. I. CME impact on expected magnetospheres of Earth-like exoplanets in close-in habitable zones. (United States)

    Khodachenko, Maxim L; Ribas, Ignasi; Lammer, Helmut; Griessmeier, Jean-Mathias; Leitner, Martin; Selsis, Franck; Eiroa, Carlos; Hanslmeier, Arnold; Biernat, Helfried K; Farrugia, Charles J; Rucker, Helmut O


    Low mass M- and K-type stars are much more numerous in the solar neighborhood than solar-like G-type stars. Therefore, some of them may appear as interesting candidates for the target star lists of terrestrial exoplanet (i.e., planets with mass, radius, and internal parameters identical to Earth) search programs like Darwin (ESA) or the Terrestrial Planet Finder Coronagraph/Inferometer (NASA). The higher level of stellar activity of low mass M stars, as compared to solar-like G stars, as well as the closer orbital distances of their habitable zones (HZs), means that terrestrial-type exoplanets within HZs of these stars are more influenced by stellar activity than one would expect for a planet in an HZ of a solar-like star. Here we examine the influences of stellar coronal mass ejection (CME) activity on planetary environments and the role CMEs may play in the definition of habitability criterion for the terrestrial type exoplanets near M stars. We pay attention to the fact that exoplanets within HZs that are in close proximity to low mass M stars may become tidally locked, which, in turn, can result in relatively weak intrinsic planetary magnetic moments. Taking into account existing observational data and models that involve the Sun and related hypothetical parameters of extrasolar CMEs (density, velocity, size, and occurrence rate), we show that Earth-like exoplanets within close-in HZs should experience a continuous CME exposure over long periods of time. This fact, together with small magnetic moments of tidally locked exoplanets, may result in little or no magnetospheric protection of planetary atmospheres from a dense flow of CME plasma. Magnetospheric standoff distances of weakly magnetized Earth-like exoplanets at orbital distances

  7. HIghMass-high H I mass, H I-rich galaxies at z ∼ 0 sample definition, optical and Hα imaging, and star formation properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Shan; Matsushita, Satoki [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, 11F of Astronomy-Mathematics Building, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Hallenbeck, Gregory; Jones, Michael G.; Adams, Elizabeth A. K. [Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Space Sciences Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Brinchmann, Jarle [Sterrewacht Leiden, Leiden University, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Chengalur, Jayaram N. [National Centre for Radio Astrophysics, Tata Institute for Fundamental Research, Pune 411007 (India); Hunt, Leslie K. [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo East Fermi 5, I-50125, Firenze (Italy); Masters, Karen L. [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, Dennis Sciama Building, Burnaby Road, Portsmouth POI 3FX (United Kingdom); Saintonge, Amelie [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Place, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Spekkens, Kristine, E-mail: [Royal Military College of Canada, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 17000, Station Forces, Kingston, ON K7K 7B4 (Canada)


    We present first results of the study of a set of exceptional H I sources identified in the 40% ALFALFA extragalactic H I survey catalog α.40 as both being H I massive (M{sub HI}>10{sup 10} M{sub ⊙}) and having high gas fractions for their stellar masses: the HIghMass galaxy sample. We analyze UV- and optical-broadband and Hα images to understand the nature of their relatively underluminous disks in optical and to test whether their high gas fractions can be tracked to higher dark matter halo spin parameters or late gas accretion. Estimates of their star formation rates (SFRs) based on spectral energy distribution fitting agree within uncertainties with the Hα luminosity inferred current massive SFRs. The H II region luminosity functions, parameterized as dN/dlog L∝L {sup α}, have standard slopes at the luminous end (α ∼ –1). The global SFRs demonstrate that the HIghMass galaxies exhibit active ongoing star formation (SF) with moderate SF efficiency but, relative to normal spirals, a lower integrated SFR in the past. Because the SF activity in these systems is spread throughout their extended disks, they have overall lower SFR surface densities and lower surface brightness in the optical bands. Relative to normal disk galaxies, the majority of HIghMass galaxies have higher Hα equivalent widths and are bluer in their outer disks, implying an inside-out disk growth scenario. Downbending double exponential disks are more frequent than upbending disks among the gas-rich galaxies, suggesting that SF thresholds exist in the downbending disks, probably as a result of concentrated gas distribution.

  8. Beyond the Horizon Distance: LIGO-Virgo can Boost Gravitational-Wave Detection Rates by Exploiting the Mass Distribution of Neutron Stars. (United States)

    Bartos, I; Márka, S


    The masses of neutron stars in neutron star binaries are observed to fall in a narrow mass range around ∼1.33M_{⊙}. We explore the advantage of focusing on this region of the parameter space in gravitational-wave searches. We find that an all-sky (externally triggered) search with an optimally reduced template bank is expected to detect 14% (61%) more binary mergers than without the reduction. A reduced template bank can also represent significant improvement in technical cost. We also develop a more detailed search method using binary mass distribution, and find a sensitivity increase similar to that due to the reduced template bank.

  9. Does Colour Preference Have a Role in Colour Term Acquisition? (United States)

    Pitchford, Nicola J.; Davis, Emma E.; Scerif, Gaia


    A developmental association exists between colour preference and emerging colour term acquisition in young children. Colour preference might influence colour term acquisition by directing attention towards or away from a particular colour, making it more or less memorable. To investigate the role that colour preference may have in the acquisition…

  10. Reaction rate uncertainties and the operation of the neNa and MgAl chains during HBB in intermediate-mass AGB stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Izzard, R.G.; Lugaro, M.A.; Karakas, A.I.; Iliadis, C.; van Raai, M.A.


    We test the effect of proton-capture reaction rate uncertainties on the abundances of the Ne, Na, Mg and Al isotopes processed by the NeNa and MgAl chains during hot bottom burning (HBB) in asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars of intermediate mass between 4 and 6 solar masses and metallicities

  11. A necklace of dense cores in the high-mass star forming region G35.20-0.74 N: ALMA observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sánchez-Monge, Á.; Beltrán, M. T.; Cesaroni, R.; Etoka, S.; Galli, D.; Kumar, M. S. N.; Moscadelli, L.; Stanke, T.; van der Tak, F. F. S.; Vig, S.; Walmsley, C. M.; Wang, K.-S.; Zinnecker, H.; Elia, D.; Molinari, S.; Schisano, E.

    Context. The formation process of high-mass stars (with masses >8 M⊙) is still poorly understood, and represents a challenge from both the theoretical and observational points of view. The advent of the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) is expected to provide observational evidence to better

  12. Low-mass Pre-He White Dwarf Stars in Kepler Eclipsing Binaries with Multi-periodic Pulsations (United States)

    Zhang, X. B.; Fu, J. N.; Liu, N.; Luo, C. Q.; Ren, A. B.


    We report the discovery of two thermally bloated low-mass pre-He white dwarfs (WDs) in two eclipsing binaries, KIC 10989032 and KIC 8087799. Based on the Kepler long-cadence photometry, we determined comprehensive photometric solutions of the two binary systems. The light curve analysis reveals that KIC 10989032 is a partially eclipsed detached binary system containing a probable low-mass WD with the temperature of about 10,300 K. Having a WD with the temperature of about 13,300, KKIC 8087799 is typical of an EL CVn system. By utilizing radial velocity measurements available for the A-type primary star of KIC 10989032, the mass and radius of the WD component are determined to be 0.24+/- 0.02 {M}⊙ and 0.50+/- 0.01 {R}⊙ , respectively. The values of mass and radius of the WD in KIC 8087799 are estimated as 0.16 ± 0.02 M ⊙ and 0.21 ± 0.01 R ⊙, respectively, according to the effective temperature and mean density of the A-type star derived from the photometric solution. We therefore introduce KIC 10989032 and KIC 8087799 as the eleventh and twelfth dA+WD eclipsing binaries in the Kepler field. Moreover, both binaries display marked multi-periodic pulsations superimposed on binary effects. A preliminary frequency analysis is applied to the light residuals when subtracting the synthetic eclipsing light curves from the observations, revealing that the light pulsations of the two systems are both due to the δ Sct-type primaries. We hence classify KIC 10989032 and KIC 8087799 as two WD+δ Sct binaries.

  13. Hundred metre virtual telescope captures unique detailed colour image (United States)


    appearance of the star before, but it is quite astounding that we can now see it, and in colour." Although it is only 15 by 15 pixel across, the reconstructed image shows an extreme close-up of a star 100 times larger than the Sun, a diameter corresponding roughly to the distance between the Earth and the Sun. This star is, in turn, surrounded by a sphere of molecular gas, which is about three times as large again. T Leporis, in the constellation of Lepus (the Hare), is located 500 light-years away. It belongs to the family of Mira stars, well known to amateur astronomers. These are giant variable stars that have almost extinguished their nuclear fuel and are losing mass. They are nearing the end of their lives as stars, and will soon die, becoming white dwarfs. The Sun will become a Mira star in a few billion years, engulfing the Earth in the dust and gas expelled in its final throes. Mira stars are among the biggest factories of molecules and dust in the Universe, and T Leporis is no exception. It pulsates with a period of 380 days and loses the equivalent of the Earth's mass every year. Since the molecules and dust are formed in the layers of atmosphere surrounding the central star, astronomers would like to be able to see these layers. But this is no easy task, given that the stars themselves are so far away -- despite their huge intrinsic size, their apparent radius on the sky can be just half a millionth that of the Sun. "T Leporis looks so small from the Earth that only an interferometric facility, such as the VLTI at Paranal, can take an image of it. VLTI can resolve stars 15 times smaller than those resolved by the Hubble Space Telescope," says Le Bouquin. To create this image with the VLTI astronomers had to observe the star for several consecutive nights, using all the four movable 1.8-metre VLT Auxiliary Telescopes (ATs). The ATs were combined in different groups of three, and were also moved to different positions, creating more new interferometric

  14. The Evolution of the Stellar Mass Functions of Star-forming and Quiescent Galaxies to z = 4 from the COSMOS/UltraVISTA Survey (United States)

    Muzzin, Adam; Marchesini, Danilo; Stefanon, Mauro; Franx, Marijn; McCracken, Henry J.; Milvang-Jensen, Bo; Dunlop, James S.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Brammer, Gabriel; Labbé, Ivo; van Dokkum, Pieter G.


    We present measurements of the stellar mass functions (SMFs) of star-forming and quiescent galaxies to z = 4 using a sample of 95,675 Ks -selected galaxies in the COSMOS/UltraVISTA field. The SMFs of the combined population are in good agreement with previous measurements and show that the stellar mass density of the universe was only 50%, 10%, and 1% of its current value at z ~ 0.75, 2.0, and 3.5, respectively. The quiescent population drives most of the overall growth, with the stellar mass density of these galaxies increasing as ρstarvprop(1 + z)-4.7 ± 0.4 since z = 3.5, whereas the mass density of star-forming galaxies increases as ρstarvprop(1 + z)-2.3 ± 0.2. At z > 2.5, star-forming galaxies dominate the total SMF at all stellar masses, although a non-zero population of quiescent galaxies persists to z = 4. Comparisons of the Ks -selected star-forming galaxy SMFs with UV-selected SMFs at 2.5 3.5. We estimate the average mass growth of individual galaxies by selecting galaxies at fixed cumulative number density. The average galaxy with log(M star/M ⊙) = 11.5 at z = 0.3 has grown in mass by only 0.2 dex (0.3 dex) since z = 2.0 (3.5), whereas those with log(M star/M ⊙) = 10.5 have grown by >1.0 dex since z = 2. At z budget in the SMFs. Based on data products from observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under ESO programme ID 179.A-2005 and on data products produced by TERAPIX and the Cambridge Astronomy Survey Unit on behalf of the UltraVISTA consortium.

  15. Sgr A* and Its Environment: Low-mass Star Formation, the Origin of X-Ray Gas and Collimated Outflow (United States)

    Yusef-Zadeh, F.; Wardle, M.; Schödel, R.; Roberts, D. A.; Cotton, W.; Bushouse, H.; Arendt, R.; Royster, M.


    We present high-resolution multiwavelength radio continuum images of the region within 150″ of Sgr A*, revealing a number of new extended features and stellar sources in this region. First, we detect a continuous 2″ east-west ridge of radio emission, linking Sgr A* and a cluster of stars associated with IRS 13 N and IRS 13E. The ridge suggests that an outflow of east-west blob-like structures is emerging from Sgr A*. In particular, we find arc-like radio structures within the ridge with morphologies suggestive of photoevaporative protoplanetary disks. We use infrared Ks and L‧ fluxes to show that the emission has similar characteristics to those of a protoplanetary disk irradiated by the intense radiation field at the Galactic center. This suggests that star formation has taken place within the S-cluster 2″ from Sgr A*. We suggest that the diffuse X-ray emission associated with Sgr A* is due to an expanding hot wind produced by the mass loss from B-type main sequence stars, and/or the disks of photoevaporation of low mass young stellar objects (YSOs) at a rate of ˜10-6 {M}⊙ yr-1. The proposed model naturally reduces the inferred accretion rate and is an alternative to the inflow-outflow style models to explain the underluminous nature of Sgr A*. Second, on a scale of 5″ from Sgr A*, we detect new cometary radio and infrared sources at a position angle PA ˜ 50° which is similar to that of two other cometary sources X3 and X7, all of which face Sgr A*. In addition, we detect a striking tower of radio emission at a PA ˜ 50°-60° along the major axis of the Sgr A East supernova remnant shell on a scale of 150″ from Sgr A*. We suggest that the cometary sources and the tower feature are tracing interaction sites of a mildly relativistic jet from Sgr A* with the atmosphere of stars and the nonthermal Sgr A East shell at a PA ˜ 50°-60° with \\dot{M}˜ 1× {10}-7 {M}⊙ {{yr}}-1, and opening angle 10°. Lastly, we suggest that the east-west ridge of

  16. Characterizing K2 Candidate Planetary Systems Orbiting Low-mass Stars. II. Planetary Systems Observed During Campaigns 1-7 (United States)

    Dressing, Courtney D.; Vanderburg, Andrew; Schlieder, Joshua E.; Crossfield, Ian J. M.; Knutson, Heather A.; Newton, Elisabeth R.; Ciardi, David R.; Fulton, Benjamin J.; Gonzales, Erica J.; Howard, Andrew W.; Isaacson, Howard; Livingston, John; Petigura, Erik A.; Sinukoff, Evan; Everett, Mark; Horch, Elliott; Howell, Steve B.


    We recently used near-infrared spectroscopy to improve the characterization of 76 low-mass stars around which K2 had detected 79 candidate transiting planets. 29 of these worlds were new discoveries that had not previously been published. We calculate the false positive probabilities that the transit-like signals are actually caused by non-planetary astrophysical phenomena and reject five new transit-like events and three previously reported events as false positives. We also statistically validate 17 planets (7 of which were previously unpublished), confirm the earlier validation of 22 planets, and announce 17 newly discovered planet candidates. Revising the properties of the associated planet candidates based on the updated host star characteristics and refitting the transit photometry, we find that our sample contains 21 planets or planet candidates with radii smaller than 1.25 R ⊕, 18 super-Earths (1.25-2 R ⊕), 21 small Neptunes (2-4 R ⊕), three large Neptunes (4-6 R ⊕), and eight giant planets (>6 R ⊕). Most of these planets are highly irradiated, but EPIC 206209135.04 (K2-72e, {1.29}-0.13+0.14 {R}\\oplus ), EPIC 211988320.01 ({R}p={2.86}-0.15+0.16 {R}\\oplus ), and EPIC 212690867.01 ({2.20}-0.18+0.19 {R}\\oplus ) orbit within optimistic habitable zone boundaries set by the “recent Venus” inner limit and the “early Mars” outer limit. In total, our planet sample includes eight moderately irradiated 1.5-3 R ⊕ planet candidates (F p ≲ 20 F ⊕) orbiting brighter stars (Ks planets orbit relatively bright stars (Kp < 12.5) and are expected to yield radial velocity semi-amplitudes of at least 2 m s-1. Accordingly, they are possible targets for radial velocity mass measurement with current facilities or the upcoming generation of red optical and near-infrared high-precision RV spectrographs.

  17. Sounds of a Star (United States)


    colours show element displacements in opposite directions. Geologists monitor how seismic waves generated by earthquakes propagate through the Earth, and thus learn about the inner structure of our planet. The same technique works for stars. The Sun, our nearest star and a typical middle-age member of its class, has been investigated in this way since the 1960's. With "solar seismology" , astronomers have been able to learn much about the inner parts of the star, and not only the outer layers normally visible to the telescopes. In the Sun, heat is bubbling up from the central regions where enormous amount of energy is created by nuclear reactions . In the so-called convective zone , the gas is virtually boiling, and hot gas-bubbles are rising with a speed that is close to that of sound. Much like you can hear when water starts to boil, the turbulent convection in the Sun creates noise . These sound waves then propagate through the solar interior and are reflected on the surface, making it oscillate. This "ringing" is well observed in the Sun, where the amplitude and frequency of the oscillations provide astronomers with plenty of information about the physical conditions in the solar interior. From the Sun to the stars There is every reason to believe that our Sun is a quite normal star of its type. Other stars that are similar to the Sun are therefore likely to pulsate in much the same way as the Sun. The search for such oscillations in other solar-like stars has, however, been a long and difficult one. The problem is simply that the pulsations are tiny, so very great precision is needed in the measurements. However, the last few years have seen considerable progress in asteroseismology, and François Bouchy and Fabien Carrier from the Geneva Observatory have now been able to detect unambiguous acoustic oscillations in the Solar-twin star, Alpha Centauri A. The bright and nearby star Alpha Centauri Alpha Centauri (Alpha Cen) [1] is the brightest star in the constellation

  18. New insights into the earliest phases of low-mass star formation with the Herschel Space Observatory (United States)

    Di Francesco, J.

    The Herschel Space Observatory has been revolutionizing our understanding of the the earliest phases of star formation. In this contribution, we describe early results from the Gould Belt Survey, a Herschel Key Project to map 15 nearby molecular clouds in continuum emission from 70 μm to 500 μm. In particular, I describe how the sensitive and wide maps of the Aquila Rift have strongly confirmed the similarity between the shapes of the stellar Initial Mass Function and the prestellar core mass function (CMF). Also, the Herschel map sensitivity to larger scale emission has revealed that prestellar cores form almost exclusively within dense filaments that exceed a critical mass per unit length defined by temperature (and gravity). Finally, filaments in three clouds, IC 5146, Polaris and Aquila, are found to have similar widths of ˜0.1 pc, approximately the scale where the turbulent velocity equals the sound speed of 10 K gas. This common width suggests filaments themselves are formed through collisional shocks of turbulent flows and evolve in quasi-virial balance through mass accretion.

  19. Semi-analytic derivation of the threshold mass for prompt collapse in binary neutron-star mergers (United States)

    Bauswein, Andreas; Stergioulas, Nikolaos


    The threshold mass for prompt collapse in binary neutron-star (NS) mergers was empirically found to depend on the stellar properties of the maximum-mass non-rotating NS model. Here, we present a semi-analytic derivation of this empirical relation, which suggests that it is rather insensitive to thermal effects, to deviations from axisymmetry and to the exact rotation law in merger remnants. We utilize axisymmetric, cold equilibrium models with differential rotation and determine the threshold mass for collapse from the comparison between an empirical relation that describes the angular momentum in the remnant for a given total binary mass and the sequence of rotating equilibrium models at the threshold to collapse (the latter assumed to be near the turning point of fixed-angular-momentum sequences). In spite of the various simplifying assumptions, the empirical relation for prompt collapse is reproduced with good accuracy, which demonstrates its robustness. We discuss implications of our methodology and results for understanding other empirical relations satisfied by NS merger remnants that have been discovered by numerical simulations and that play a key role in constraining the high-density equation of state through gravitational-wave observations.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosero, V.; Hofner, P. [Physics Department, New Mexico Tech, 801 Leroy Pl., Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Claussen, M. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 1003 Lopezville Rd., Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Kurtz, S.; Carrasco-González, C.; Rodríguez, L. F.; Loinard, L. [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Morelia 58090, México (Mexico); Cesaroni, R. [INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Araya, E. D. [Physics Department, Western Illinois University, 1 University Circle, Macomb, IL 61455 (United States); Menten, K. M.; Wyrowski, F. [Max-Planck-Institute für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Ellingsen, S. P. [School of Physical Sciences, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 37, Hobart, Tasmania 7001 (Australia)


    We present a high-sensitivity radio continuum survey at 6 and 1.3 cm using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array toward a sample of 58 high-mass star-forming regions. Our sample was chosen from dust clumps within infrared dark clouds with and without IR sources (CMC–IRs and CMCs, respectively), and hot molecular cores (HMCs), with no previous, or relatively weak radio continuum detection at the 1 mJy level. Due to the improvement in the continuum sensitivity of the Very Large Array, this survey achieved map rms levels of ∼3–10  μ Jy beam{sup −1} at sub-arcsecond angular resolution. We extracted 70 continuum sources associated with 1.2 mm dust clumps. Most sources are weak, compact, and prime candidates for high-mass protostars. Detection rates of radio sources associated with the millimeter dust clumps for CMCs, CMC–IRs, and HMCs are 6%, 53%, and 100%, respectively. This result is consistent with increasing high-mass star formation activity from CMCs to HMCs. The radio sources located within HMCs and CMC–IRs occur close to the dust clump centers, with a median offset from it of 12,000 au and 4000 au, respectively. We calculated 5–25 GHz spectral indices using power-law fits and obtained a median value of 0.5 (i.e., flux increasing with frequency), suggestive of thermal emission from ionized jets. In this paper we describe the sample, observations, and detections. The analysis and discussion will be presented in Paper II.

  1. Is colour cognitive? (United States)

    Skorupski, Peter; Chittka, Lars


    In recent years, colour-vision abilities have been rather generously ascribed to various invertebrates and even bacteria. This uncertainty of when to diagnose colour vision stems in part from confusing what colour vision can do with what it is. What colour vision can do is discriminate wavelength independent of intensity. However, if we take this as a definition of what colour vision is, then we might be obliged to conclude that some plants and bacteria have colour vision. Moreover, there is a similar confusion of what are necessary and what are sufficient mechanisms and behavioural abilities for colour vision. To humans, seeing in colour means seeing an image in which objects/lights have chromatic attributes—in contrast to the sensation that we have when viewing monochrome movies, or our experience in dim light when only rod vision is possible. The necessary basic equipment for this is to have at least two types of photoreceptors that differ in spectral sensitivity, and at least one type of spectrally opponent cell to compare the signals from the photoreceptors. Clearly, however, a necessary additional prerequisite for colour vision is to have vision, which entails the identification of shapes, sizes and locations of objects in the world. Thus, if an animal has colour vision, it should see an image in which distinct objects/lights have colour attributes. This distinguishes colour vision from wavelength discrimination, but also from what has historically been called wavelength-specific behaviour: a type of behaviour triggered by fixed configurations of spectral receptor signals; however, we discuss difficulties in diagnosing wavelength-specific behaviour as an indicator of the absence of colour vision. Finally, we discuss whether colour vision, by definition, contains a cognitive dimension for ordering and classifying perceptual experience.

  2. Mind Your Ps and Qs: The Interrelation between Period (P) and Mass-ratio (Q) Distributions of Binary Stars (United States)

    Moe, Maxwell; Di Stefano, Rosanne


    We compile observations of early-type binaries identified via spectroscopy, eclipses, long-baseline interferometry, adaptive optics, common proper motion, etc. Each observational technique is sensitive to companions across a narrow parameter space of orbital periods P and mass ratios q = {M}{comp}/M 1. After combining the samples from the various surveys and correcting for their respective selection effects, we find that the properties of companions to O-type and B-type main-sequence (MS) stars differ among three regimes. First, at short orbital periods P ≲ 20 days (separations a ≲ 0.4 au), the binaries have small eccentricities e ≲ 0.4, favor modest mass ratios ≈ 0.5, and exhibit a small excess of twins q > 0.95. Second, the companion frequency peaks at intermediate periods log P (days) ≈ 3.5 (a ≈ 10 au), where the binaries have mass ratios weighted toward small values q ≈ 0.2-0.3 and follow a Maxwellian “thermal” eccentricity distribution. Finally, companions with long orbital periods log P (days) ≈ 5.5-7.5 (a ≈ 200-5000 au) are outer tertiary components in hierarchical triples and have a mass ratio distribution across q ≈ 0.1-1.0 that is nearly consistent with random pairings drawn from the initial mass function. We discuss these companion distributions and properties in the context of binary-star formation and evolution. We also reanalyze the binary statistics of solar-type MS primaries, taking into account that 30% ± 10% of single-lined spectroscopic binaries likely contain white dwarf companions instead of low-mass stellar secondaries. The mean frequency of stellar companions with q > 0.1 and log P (days) < 8.0 per primary increases from 0.50 ± 0.04 for solar-type MS primaries to 2.1 ± 0.3 for O-type MS primaries. We fit joint probability density functions f({M}1,q,P,e)\

  3. A search for new double-lined, detached, eclipsing binaries to test the theoretical models of stars below one solar mass (United States)

    Lopez-Morales, Mercedes

    Very low mass stars (M-dwarfs) account for at least 70% of the stars in the Galaxy. They are small, faint objects, that emit most of their light at red or near- infrared wavelengths. Their intrinsic faintness hindered the discovery of many of these stars, until new advances in recent years in infrared techniques eased their detection. The sudden increase in observations of low- mass stars triggered efforts to derive theoretical stellar models that reproduced those observations. Challenging physics is involved in those models, since they require non-ideal equations of state, and extended tables of molecular opacities to describe the interior and atmospheres of the stars. At present, the models cannot be fully tested because observations of fundamental parameters of low-mass stars; namely their masses and radii, are scarce. The work presented in this dissertation addresses this last problem. I have pursued a search for low-mass, detached, eclipsing binaries (the only objects from which masses and radii can be accurately measured, with the current observational techniques), to provide observations to test the models. I built a fully automated robotic telescope, the Pisgah Survey, to search for those binaries, and started a simultaneous parallel search for them among public time-series photometry databases. The main result of my efforts, to date, is the identification of GU Boo; a new system with stellar masses of M1 = 0.608 ± 0.017 and M2 = 0.598 ± 0.017 M⊙ , and radii of R1 = 0.626 ± 0.016 and R2 = 0.603 ± 0.014 R⊙ . GU Boo increases by 33% the amount of current observational data for stars below 1 M⊙ . A comparison of the parameters of GU Boo with the models reveals that all of them underestimate the stellar radii by at least 10%, confirming the trend observed by Torres & Ribas (2002) and Ribas (2003) for the other two low-mass binaries YY Gem and CU Cnc. My main conclusion is that the current models, in particular their treatment of the interior equation

  4. Validation of a colour rendering index based on memory colours


    Smet, Kevin; Jost-Boissard, Sophie; Ryckaert, Wouter; Deconinck, Geert; Hanselaer, Peter


    In this paper the performance of a colour rendering index based on memory colours is investigated in comparison with the current CIE Colour Rendering Index, the NIST Colour Quality Scale and visual appreciation results obtained at CNRS at Lyon University for a set of 3000K and 4000K LED light sources. The Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients between each colour rendering metric and the two sets of visual results were calculated. It was found that the memory colour based colour render...

  5. Four issues concerning colour constancy and relational colour constancy


    Foster, David H.; Nascimento, Sérgio M. C.; Craven, B. J.; Linnell, Karina J.; Cornelissen, Frans W.; Brenner, Eli


    Four issues concerning colour constancy and relational colour constancy are briefly considered: (1) the equivalence of colour constancy and relational colour constancy; (2) the dependence of relational colour constancy on ratios of cone excitations due to light from different reflecting surfaces, and the association of such ratios with von Kries' coefficient rule; (3) the contribution of chromatic edges to colour constancy and relational colour constancy; and (4) the effects of instruction an...

  6. Colour Reconnection at LEP2

    CERN Document Server

    Nandakumar, Raja


    Colour reconnection is the final state interaction between quarks from different sources. It is not yet fully understood and is a source of systematic error for W-boson mass and width measurements in hadronic \\WW decays at LEP2. The methods of measuring this effect and the results of the 4 LEP experiments at $183\\gev\\leq\\rts\\leq 202\\gev$ will be presented.

  7. The disk wind in the rapidly spinning stellar-mass black hole 4U 1630-472 observed with NuSTAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    King, Ashley L.; Walton, Dominic J.; Miller, Jon M.


    We present an analysis of a short NuSTAR observation of the stellar-mass black hole and low-mass X-ray binary 4U 1630-472. Reflection from the inner accretion disk is clearly detected for the first time in this source, owing to the sensitivity of NuSTAR. With fits to the reflection spectrum, we...... find evidence for a rapidly spinning black hole, (1σ statistical errors). However, archival data show that the source has relatively low radio luminosity. Recently claimed relationships between jet power and black hole spin would predict either a lower spin or a higher peak radio luminosity. We also...

  8. Colour constancy in insects. (United States)

    Chittka, Lars; Faruq, Samia; Skorupski, Peter; Werner, Annette


    Colour constancy is the perceptual phenomenon that the colour of an object appears largely unchanged, even if the spectral composition of the illuminating light changes. Colour constancy has been found in all insect species so far tested. Especially the pollinating insects offer a remarkable opportunity to study the ecological significance of colour constancy since they spend much of their adult lives identifying and choosing between colour targets (flowers) under continuously changing ambient lighting conditions. In bees, whose colour vision is best studied among the insects, the compensation provided by colour constancy is only partial and its efficiency depends on the area of colour space. There is no evidence for complete 'discounting' of the illuminant in bees, and the spectral composition of the light can itself be used as adaptive information. In patchy illumination, bees adjust their spatial foraging to minimise transitions between variously illuminated zones. Modelling allows the quantification of the adaptive benefits of various colour constancy mechanisms in the economy of nature. We also discuss the neural mechanisms and cognitive operations that might underpin colour constancy in insects.

  9. Really Hot Stars (United States)


    " object (a white dwarf, a neutron star, or a black hole) and the other an "ordinary" star can produce an intense X-ray emission. This happens because the compact object is so dense and massive that it siphons off matter from its companion star - astronomers refer to this as an accretion process, sometimes also called "stellar cannibalism". When the "stolen" matter approaches the compact object, it gradually heats up and may reach temperatures of millions of degrees. It then emits X-rays. At the same time, ultraviolet radiation is also emitted, which may produce high excitation regions in the surrounding nebula. This scenario can also explain the association of HeII nebulae with ultraluminous X-ray sources in other galaxies. VLT observations of highly excited nebulae in the MCs Observations of a number of highly excited nebulae in the Magellanic Clouds were carried out by a team composed of Belgian and American astronomers [1] in January 2002, by means of the FORS1 multi-mode instrument at the 8.2-m VLT MELIPAL telescope. Detailed images were obtained through various special optical filters - they bring into light the complex structure of these nebulae and reveal for the first time the exact morphology of the high excitation zones. Some of exposures have been combined to produce the colour photos shown in PR Photos 09a-d/03. Here, the blue colour traces the exceptional HeII emission, whilst the red and green correspond to the more common nebular emissions from atomic hydrogen and doubly-ionized oxygen, respectively. All four nebulae shown were found to be associated with very hot stars. They carry rather prosaic names: BAT99-2 and BAT99-49, AB7 and N44C Star #2 [2]. The first three of these objects contain some of the highly evolved massive stars, of the so-called Wolf-Rayet (WR) type, while the fourth is an mid-age massive star, of type O. Massive stars, with masses more than 20 times that of the Sun, are very bright (100,000 to 10 million times brighter than the Sun

  10. Sharpest views of Betelgeuse reveal how supergiant stars lose mass-Unveiling the true face of a behemoth (United States)


    Using different state-of-the-art techniques on ESO's Very Large Telescope, two independent teams of astronomers have obtained the sharpest ever views of the supergiant star Betelgeuse. They show that the star has a vast plume of gas almost as large as our Solar System and a gigantic bubble boiling on its surface. These discoveries provide important clues to help explain how these mammoths shed material at such a tremendous rate. Betelgeuse - the second brightest star in the constellation of Orion (the Hunter) - is a red supergiant, one of the biggest stars known, and almost 1000 times larger than our Sun [1]. It is also one of the most luminous stars known, emitting more light than 100000 Suns. Such extreme properties foretell the demise of a short-lived stellar king. With an age of only a few million years, Betelgeuse is already nearing the end of its life and is soon doomed to explode as a supernova. When it does, the supernova should be seen easily from Earth, even in broad daylight. Red supergiants still hold several unsolved mysteries. One of them is just how these behemoths shed such tremendous quantities of material - about the mass of the Sun - in only 10 000 years. Two teams of astronomers have used ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) and the most advanced technologies to take a closer look at the gigantic star. Their combined work suggests that an answer to the long-open mass-loss question may well be at hand. The first team used the adaptive optics instrument, NACO, combined with a so-called "lucky imaging" technique, to obtain the sharpest ever image of Betelgeuse, even with Earth's turbulent, image-distorting atmosphere in the way. With lucky imaging, only the very sharpest exposures are chosen and then combined to form an image much sharper than a single, longer exposure would be. The resulting NACO images almost reach the theoretical limit of sharpness attainable for an 8-metre telescope. The resolution is as fine as 37 milliarcseconds, which is roughly

  11. Infrared observations of low-mass star formation in Orion - HH objects (United States)

    Harvey, P. M.; Wilking, B. A.; Cohen, M.


    The results of a preliminary analysis of IR data on Herbig-Haro objects in the Orion nebula are reported. The observations were made with the high angular resolution IR photometry equipment on the NASA Kuiper Airborne Observatory and the NASA facility on Mauna Kea, HI. Data were taken in the 1-200 microns region with 40, 6, and 8 arcsec resolution. Attention was focused on NGC 1999 (HH1-3) and M78 (HH24-25) and the determination of absolute luminosities of the exciting stars. Measurements were also made of the IR energy distribution in the thermally emitting dust clouds and the point sources. Herbig-Haro objects featured compact and far IR sizes and large visual extinction, in addition to a steeply rising energy distribution up to 50-100 microns, where the luminosity emitted was concentrated.

  12. Gamma ray heating rates due to chromium isotopes in stellar core during late stages of high mass stars (>10M⊙

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabi Jameel-Un


    Full Text Available Gamma ray heating rates are thought to play a crucial role during the pre-supernova stage of high mass stars. Gamma ray heating rates, due to β±-decay and electron (positron capture on chromium isotopes, are calculated using proton-neutron quasiparticle random phase approximation theory. The electron capture significantly affects the lepton fraction (Ye and accelerates the core contraction. The gamma rays emitted as a result of weak processes heat the core and tend to hinder the cooling and contraction due to electron capture and neutrino emission. The emitted gamma rays tend to produce enormous entropy and set the convection to play its role at this stage. The gamma heating rates, on 50-60Cr, are calculated for the density range 10 < ρ ( < 1011 and temperature range 107 < T (K < 3.0×1010.

  13. Colour harmony of two colour combinations in clothes matching (United States)

    Wicaksono, Sungging Haryo; Fu, Tzu-Hao; Chen, Liang-Ya; Hou, Chien-Yu; Ou, Li-Chen


    There are many definitions and theories about colour harmony. But no consistent rules and definitions can be determined. Some previous researches show that there are many factors that influence the colour harmony. Colour harmony is highly depends on the external factors, including the context of colour besides their colour combinations. In the current research an experiment conducted by observing two colour combinations which applied in shirt and trousers. Twenty observers involved in the experiment, consist of ten male and ten female. Each observer predict colour harmony score in 58 samples of shirt and trouser pairs, the colour combination then applied upside down. Based on the experimental results, male and female group has similar tendency in colour harmony score prediction in the same colour samples (correlation coefficient, r=0.84). Upside down colour combinations will change the impression of observer about colour harmony and yields a different value of colour harmony prediction score which indicated from correlation coefficient results of 0.53.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanner, Angelle [Mississippi State University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Hilbun Hall, Starkville, MS 39762 (United States); Boyajian, Tabetha S.; Brewer, John M.; Fischer, Debra [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Von Braun, Kaspar; Van Belle, Gerard T. [Lowell Observatory, 1400 W. Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Kane, Stephen [Department of Physics and Astronomy, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA 94132 (United States); Farrington, Chris; Brummelaar, Theo A. ten; McAlister, Harold A.; Schaefer, Gail [Center for High Angular Resolution Astronomy and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, P.O. Box 4106, Atlanta, GA 30302-4106 (United States); Beichman, Charles A. [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, California Institute of Technology, MC 100-22, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)


    We used the CHARA Array to directly measure the angular diameter of HD 69830, home to three Neptune mass planets and an asteroid belt. Our measurement of 0.674 ± 0.014 mas for the limb-darkened angular diameter of this star leads to a physical radius of R {sub *} = 0.9058 ± 0.0190 R {sub ☉} and luminosity of L {sub *} = 0.622 ± 0.014 L {sub ☉} when combined with a fit to the spectral energy distribution of the star. Placing these observed values on an Hertzsprung-Russel diagram along with stellar evolution isochrones produces an age of 10.6 ± 4 Gyr and mass of 0.863 ± 0.043 M {sub ☉}. We use archival optical echelle spectra of HD 69830 along with an iterative spectral fitting technique to measure the iron abundance ([Fe/H] = –0.04 ± 0.03), effective temperature (5385 ± 44 K), and surface gravity (log g = 4.49 ± 0.06). We use these new values for the temperature and luminosity to calculate a more precise age of 7.5 ± 3 Gyr. Applying the values of stellar luminosity and radius to recent models on the optimistic location of the habitable zone produces a range of 0.61-1.44 AU; partially outside the orbit of the furthest known planet (d) around HD 69830. Finally, we estimate the snow line at a distance of 1.95 ± 0.19 AU, which is outside the orbit of all three planets and its asteroid belt.

  15. Neutron star mass and radius measurements from atmospheric model fits to X-ray burst cooling tail spectra (United States)

    Nättilä, J.; Miller, M. C.; Steiner, A. W.; Kajava, J. J. E.; Suleimanov, V. F.; Poutanen, J.


    Observations of thermonuclear X-ray bursts from accreting neutron stars (NSs) in low-mass X-ray binary systems can be used to constrain NS masses and radii. Most previous work of this type has set these constraints using Planck function fits as a proxy: the models and the data are both fit with diluted blackbody functions to yield normalizations and temperatures that are then compared with each other. For the first time, we here fit atmosphere models of X-ray bursting NSs directly to the observed spectra. We present a hierarchical Bayesian fitting framework that uses current X-ray bursting NS atmosphere models with realistic opacities and relativistic exact Compton scattering kernels as a model for the surface emission. We test our approach against synthetic data and find that for data that are well described by our model, we can obtain robust radius, mass, distance, and composition measurements. We then apply our technique to Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer observations of five hard-state X-ray bursts from 4U 1702-429. Our joint fit to all five bursts shows that the theoretical atmosphere models describe the data well, but there are still some unmodeled features in the spectrum corresponding to a relative error of 1-5% of the energy flux. After marginalizing over this intrinsic scatter, we find that at 68% credibility, the circumferential radius of the NS in 4U 1702-429 is R = 12.4±0.4 km, the gravitational mass is M = 1.9±0.3 M⊙, the distance is 5.1 < D/ kpc < 6.2, and the hydrogen mass fraction is X < 0.09.

  16. Four issues concerning colour constancy and relational colour constancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foster, DH; Nascimento, SMC; Craven, BJ; Linnell, KJ; Cornelissen, FW; Brenner, E

    Four issues concerning colour constance and relational colour constancy are briefly considered: (I) the equivalence of colour constancy and relational colour constancy; (2) the dependence of relational colour constancy on ratios of cone excitations due to light from different reflecting surfaces,

  17. Dynamic plasmonic colour display (United States)

    Duan, Xiaoyang; Kamin, Simon; Liu, Na


    Plasmonic colour printing based on engineered metasurfaces has revolutionized colour display science due to its unprecedented subwavelength resolution and high-density optical data storage. However, advanced plasmonic displays with novel functionalities including dynamic multicolour printing, animations, and highly secure encryption have remained in their infancy. Here we demonstrate a dynamic plasmonic colour display technique that enables all the aforementioned functionalities using catalytic magnesium metasurfaces. Controlled hydrogenation and dehydrogenation of the constituent magnesium nanoparticles, which serve as dynamic pixels, allow for plasmonic colour printing, tuning, erasing and restoration of colour. Different dynamic pixels feature distinct colour transformation kinetics, enabling plasmonic animations. Through smart material processing, information encoded on selected pixels, which are indiscernible to both optical and scanning electron microscopies, can only be read out using hydrogen as a decoding key, suggesting a new generation of information encryption and anti-counterfeiting applications. PMID:28232722

  18. Heavy Metal Stars (United States)


    atomic mass and hence, increasing positive charge of the nuclei, the electric repulsion between the nuclei becomes stronger and stronger. In fact, the fusion process only works up to a certain mass limit, corresponding to the element Iron [2]. All elements that are heavier than Iron cannot be produced via this path. But then, how were those heavy elements we now find on the Earth produced in the first place? From where comes the Zirconium in artificial diamonds, the Barium that colours fireworks, the Tungsten in the filaments in electric bulbs? Which process made the Lead in your car battery? Beyond iron The production of elements heavier than Iron takes place by adding neutrons to the atomic nuclei . These neutral particles do not feel any electrical repulsion from the charged nuclei. They can therefore easily approach them and thereby create heavier nuclei. This is indeed the way the heaviest chemical elements are built up. There are actually two different stellar environments where this process of "neutron capture" can happen. One place where this process occurs is inside very massive stars when they explode as supernovae . In such a dramatic event, the build-up proceeds very rapidly, via the so-called "r-process" ( "r" for rapid ). The AGB stars But not all heavy elements are created in such an explosive way. A second possibility follows a more "peaceful" road. It takes place in rather normal stars, when they burn their Helium towards the end of their lives. In the so-called "s-process" ( "s" for slow ), heavier elements are then produced by a rather gentle addition of neutral neutrons to atomic nuclei. In fact, roughly half of all the elements heavier than Iron are believed to be synthesized by this process during the late evolutionary phases of stars. This process takes place during a specific stage of stellar evolution, known as the "AGB" phase [3]. It occurs just before an old star expels its gaseous envelope into the surrounding interstellar space and sometime

  19. Segmenting memory colours


    Fredembach, Clément; Estrada, Francisco,; Süsstrunk, Sabine


    Memory colours refer to the colour of specific image classes that have the essential attribute of being perceived in a consistent manner by human observers. In colour correction or rendering tasks, this consistency implies that they have to be faithfully reproduced; their importance, in that respect, is greater than other regions in an image. Before these regions can be properly addressed, one must in general detect them. There are various schemes and attributes to do so, but the preferred me...

  20. Colour and Organization Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beyes, Timon


    Colour is inescapable. It fills and forms the world, shaping what can be felt and known, desired and expressed. It thus becomes social technology and organizational tool. At the same time, however, colour betrays, undermines and subverts the attempts to manage it. Based on an understanding...... of colour as aesthetic force and medium of transformation, the essay presents a montage of scenes that set up encounters with what colour does: how it affects organization, and how it is affected by organization; how it organizes what is given to perception, knowledge and organization itself, and how...

  1. Plasmonic colour laser printing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Xiaolong; Vannahme, Christoph; Højlund-Nielsen, Emil


    Colour generation by plasmonic nanostructures and metasurfaces has several advantages over dye technology: reduced pixel area, sub-wavelength resolution and the production of bright and non-fading colours. However, plasmonic colour patterns need to be pre-designed and printed either by e-beam lit......Colour generation by plasmonic nanostructures and metasurfaces has several advantages over dye technology: reduced pixel area, sub-wavelength resolution and the production of bright and non-fading colours. However, plasmonic colour patterns need to be pre-designed and printed either by e......-beam lithography (EBL) or focused ion beam (FIB), both expensive and not scalable processes that are not suitable for post-processing customization. Here we show a method of colour printing on nanoimprinted plasmonic metasurfaces using laser post-writing. Laser pulses induce transient local heat generation...... that leads to melting and reshaping of the imprinted nanostructures. Depending on the laser pulse energy density, different surface morphologies that support different plasmonic resonances leading to different colour appearances can be created. Using this technique we can print all primary colours...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmon, Brett; Papovich, Casey; Tilvi, Vithal [George P. and Cynthia W. Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Department of Physics and Astronomy Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Finkelstein, Steven L. [Department of Astronomy, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Finlator, Kristian [DARK fellow, Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen University, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen O (Denmark); Behroozi, Peter; Lu, Yu; Wechsler, Risa H. [Physics Department, Stanford University, Particle Astrophysics, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Dahlen, Tomas; Ferguson, Henry C. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD (United States); Davé, Romeel [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Dekel, Avishai [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Dickinson, Mark [National Optical Astronomy Observatories, Tucson, AZ (United States); Giavalisco, Mauro [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Long, James [Department of Statistics, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-3143 (United States); Mobasher, Bahram; Reddy, Naveen [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, 900 University Avenue, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Somerville, Rachel S., E-mail: [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)


    Distant star-forming galaxies show a correlation between their star formation rates (SFRs) and stellar masses, and this has deep implications for galaxy formation. Here, we present a study on the evolution of the slope and scatter of the SFR-stellar mass relation for galaxies at 3.5 ≤ z ≤ 6.5 using multi-wavelength photometry in GOODS-S from the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) and Spitzer Extended Deep Survey. We describe an updated, Bayesian spectral-energy distribution fitting method that incorporates effects of nebular line emission, star formation histories that are constant or rising with time, and different dust-attenuation prescriptions (starburst and Small Magellanic Cloud). From z = 6.5 to z = 3.5 star-forming galaxies in CANDELS follow a nearly unevolving correlation between stellar mass and SFR that follows SFR ∼ M{sub ⋆}{sup a} with a =0.54 ± 0.16 at z ∼ 6 and 0.70 ± 0.21 at z ∼ 4. This evolution requires a star formation history that increases with decreasing redshift (on average, the SFRs of individual galaxies rise with time). The observed scatter in the SFR-stellar mass relation is tight, σ(log SFR/M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}) < 0.3-0.4 dex, for galaxies with log M {sub *}/M {sub ☉} > 9 dex. Assuming that the SFR is tied to the net gas inflow rate (SFR ∼ M-dot {sub gas}), then the scatter in the gas inflow rate is also smaller than 0.3–0.4 dex for star-forming galaxies in these stellar mass and redshift ranges, at least when averaged over the timescale of star formation. We further show that the implied star formation history of objects selected on the basis of their co-moving number densities is consistent with the evolution in the SFR-stellar mass relation.

  3. Filamentary structure and Keplerian rotation in the high-mass star-forming region G35.03+0.35 imaged with ALMA (United States)

    Beltrán, M. T.; Sánchez-Monge, Á.; Cesaroni, R.; Kumar, M. S. N.; Galli, D.; Walmsley, C. M.; Etoka, S.; Furuya, R. S.; Moscadelli, L.; Stanke, T.; van der Tak, F. F. S.; Vig, S.; Wang, K.-S.; Zinnecker, H.; Elia, D.; Schisano, E.


    Context. Theoretical scenarios propose that high-mass stars are formed by disk-mediated accretion. Aims: To test the theoretical predictions on the formation of massive stars, we wish to make a thorough study at high-angular resolution of the structure and kinematics of the dust and gas emission toward the high-mass star-forming region G35.03+0.35, which harbors a disk candidate around a B-type (proto)star. Methods: We carried out ALMA Cycle 0 observations at 870 μm of dust of typical high-density, molecular outflow, and cloud tracers with resolutions of 107 cm -3, and masses in the range 1-5 M⊙, and they are subcritical. Core A, which is associated with a hypercompact Hii region and could be the driving source of the molecular outflow observed in the region, is the most chemically rich source in G35.03+0.35 with strong emission of typical hot core tracers such as CH3CN. Tracers of high density and excitation show a clear velocity gradient along the major axis of the core, which is consistent with a disk rotating about the axis of the associated outflow. The PV plots along the SE-NW direction of the velocity gradient show clear signatures of Keplerian rotation, although infall could also be present, and they are consistent with the pattern of an edge-on Keplerian disk rotating about a star with a mass in the range 5-13 M⊙. The high tff/trot ratio for core A suggests that the structure rotates fast and that the accreting material has time to settle into a centrifugally supported disk. Conclusions: G35.03+0.35 is one of the most convincing examples of Keplerian disks rotating about high-mass (proto)stars. This supports theoretical scenarios according to which high-mass stars, at least B-type stars, would form through disk-mediated accretion. Appendices are available in electronic form at

  4. On the correlation between neutron star magnetic field and accreted mass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijers, R.A.M.J.; Arzoumanian, Z.; van der Hooft, F.; van den Heuvel, E.P.J.


    The correlation between accreted mass and field which appears to hold for a class of binary millisecond pulsars is tested for wider applicability. When all known constraints from X-ray binaries and recycled pulsars are combined, no universal relation between amount of field decay and amount of

  5. Overcooled haloes at z ≥ 10: a route to form low-mass first stars

    CERN Document Server

    Prieto, Joaquin; Verde, Licia


    It has been shown by Shchekinov & Vasiliev2006 (SV06) that HD molecules can be an important cooling agent in high redshift z >10 haloes if they undergo mergers under specific conditions so suitable shocks are created. Here we build upon Prieto et al. (2012) who studied in detail the merger-generated shocks, and show that the conditions for HD cooling can be studied by combining these results with a suite of dark-matter only simulations. We have performed a number of dark matter only simulations from cosmological initial conditions inside boxes with sizes from 1 to 4 Mpc. We look for haloes with at least two progenitors of which at least one has mass M > M_cr (z), where M_cr (z) is the SV06 critical mass for HD over-cooling. We find that the fraction of over-cooled haloes with mass between M_cr (z) and 10^{0.2} M_cr (z), roughly below the atomic cooling limit, can be as high as ~ 0.6 at z ~ 10 depending on the merger mass ratio. This fraction decreases at higher redshift reaching a value ~0.2 at z ~ 15. Fo...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willott, Chris J. [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council, 5071 West Saanich Rd, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Omont, Alain; Bergeron, Jacqueline, E-mail: [UPMC Univ Paris 06 and CNRS, UMR7095, Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, F-75014 Paris (France)


    We present Atacama Large Millimeter Array observations of rest-frame far-infrared continuum and [C II] line emission in two z = 6.4 quasars with black hole masses of Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 8} M{sub Sun }. CFHQS J0210-0456 is detected in the continuum with a 1.2 mm flux of 120 {+-} 35 {mu}Jy, whereas CFHQS J2329-0301 is undetected at a similar noise level. J2329-0301 has a star formation rate limit of <40 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}, considerably below the typical value at all redshifts for this bolometric luminosity. Through comparison with hydro simulations, we speculate that this quasar is observed at a relatively rare phase where quasar feedback has effectively shut down star formation in the host galaxy. [C II] emission is also detected only in J0210-0456. The ratio of [C II] to far-infrared luminosity is similar to that of low-redshift galaxies of comparable luminosity, suggesting that the previous finding of an offset in the relationships between this ratio and far-infrared luminosity at low and high redshifts may be partially due to a selection effect due to the limited sensitivity of previous continuum data. The [C II] line of J0210-0456 is relatively narrow (FWHM = 189 {+-} 18 km s{sup -1}), indicating a dynamical mass substantially lower than expected from the local black hole-velocity dispersion correlation. The [C II] line is marginally resolved at 0.''7 resolution with the blue and red wings spatially offset by 0.''5 (3 kpc) and a smooth velocity gradient of 100 km s{sup -1} across a scale of 6 kpc, possibly due to the rotation of a galaxy-wide disk. These observations are consistent with the idea that stellar mass growth lags black hole accretion for quasars at this epoch with respect to more recent times.

  7. The evolution of the stellar mass functions of star-forming and quiescent galaxies to z = 4 from the COSMOS/ultraVISTA survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muzzin, Adam; Marchesini, Danilo; Stefano, Mauro


    We present measurements of the stellar mass functions (SMFs) of star-forming and quiescent galaxies to z = 4 using a sample of 95,675 Ks -selected galaxies in the COSMOS/UltraVISTA field. The SMFs of the combined population are in good agreement with previous measurements and show that the stellar...

  8. Colour knowledge: the role of the right hemisphere in colour processing and object colour knowledge. (United States)

    Barnett, Kylie J


    The lateralisation of colour processing is not well understood, although there is a reasonable amount of evidence indicating a right hemisphere bias for colour processing. Tasks that require colour naming are associated with a left hemisphere bias and it is likely that asymmetry of colour processing is influenced by task demands. It is not known whether object colour knowledge is lateralised. In the current study colour and achromatic Mondrian-like objects were presented to either the left or right hemisphere to assess the lateralisation of colour processing. Participants were required to judge whether the objects were colour or achromatic. To assess colour knowledge, congruently and incongruently coloured familiar objects were presented to either the left or right hemisphere and participants were required to judge whether the objects were correctly or incorrectly coloured. The data show that both colour processing and colour knowledge are associated with a right hemisphere bias.

  9. On the Relative Mass Column Densities of Giant Star-forming Complexes in Clumpy GOODS Galaxies (United States)

    Elmegreen, Debra M.; Elmegreen, B.; Marcus, M.; Shahinyan, K.; Yau, A.; Petersen, M.


    Some galaxies in the HST ACS images of GOODS fields show an extremely clumpy structure, like the clump clusters and chain galaxies we have studied in the UDF. The GOODS galaxies are at lower redshift than the UDF galaxies, and are therefore less subject to morphology corrections due to bandshifting. These lower redshift cases may also show evolutionary trends toward modern spiral galaxies. Here we investigate the ratio of clump mass column density to background disk column density in all of the clump clusters in GOODS. Population synthesis models are used to convert colors and surface brightnesses into age and mass column densities. We compare these ratios to analogous measurements in GOODS spirals. There is a clear trend toward less prominent clumps in spirals than in clump clusters. The large column density ratios in many clump clusters are consistent with our simulations (e.g., Bournaud et al. 2007), which suggest that clumps interact and migrate toward the center to make a bulge.

  10. Plasmonic colour generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Anders; Yang, Joel K. W.; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.


    and whispering-gallery modes. We discuss plasmonic colour nanotechnology based on localized surface plasmon resonances, such as gap plasmons and hybridized disk–hole plasmons, which allow for colour printing with sub-diffraction resolution. We also address a range of fabrication approaches that enable large...

  11. The colours of CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso


    Would you move into an office painted in a colour you hate? As we all know, taste in colour is individual. Thanks to the establishment of a new Painting Charter, conflicting opinions will be unified.   The four new paint colours established in the Painting Charter. There were many reasons behind the creation of the Painting Charter by the GS SEM Department. Unlike many companies, CERN has not until now regulated which colours can be used inside buildings. With many nationalities passing through CERN, tastes tend to differ: northern countries usually prefer colder colours, while southern countries seem to prefer warm colours. It’s not hard to imagine how quickly we could make a rainbow! In addition, whenever an office needs to be repainted, it can be difficult to find exactly the same colour. This results in entire walls being repainted, which increases the cost. If – by chance – the original colour is found, it could be out of stock. While ...

  12. The Three Colour Problem

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is easy to create a graph from a map - represent each region by a vertex and join two vertices if and only if their corresponding regions are neighbouring with quite a dubious map of Southern. Africa (Figures 2 and 3). Next we colour the graph. This simply means we assign a colour (usually represented by a number) to.

  13. Graph Colouring Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husfeldt, Thore


    This chapter presents an introduction to graph colouring algorithms. The focus is on vertex-colouring algorithms that work for general classes of graphs with worst-case performance guarantees in a sequential model of computation. The presentation aims to demonstrate the breadth of available...... techniques and is organized by algorithmic paradigm....

  14. Legal and Illegal Colours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian


    food colours in the EU (ongoing, but one opinion on Red 2G has been published; EFSA, 2007), and (3) evaluation of 'the Southampton study' on hyperactivity in children after intake of food colours (and sodium benzoate) (ongoing at the time of this presentation, but an opinion has now been published...

  15. The Colour of Words. (United States)

    Farrar, Bernice Lever

    Students from the ages of 13 or 14 onward need to know the "colours of words" which can let them live fully in the rainbow of life, thus eliminating student fears associated with written language and of being pawns of those who have the power of words, especially written words. Colour coding the eight basic types of work that words can…

  16. Recolouring-resistant colourings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, A. S.; Rautenbach, D.


    of a graph, Discrete Appl. Math. 91 (1999) 127-141]. Given a graph and a colouring, a recolouring operation specifies a set of vertices of the graph on which the colouring can be changed. We consider two such operations: One which allows the recolouring of all vertices within some given distance of some...

  17. Some like it hot: Linking diffuse X-ray luminosity, baryonic mass, and star formation rate in compact groups of galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desjardins, Tyler D.; Gallagher, Sarah C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada); Hornschemeier, Ann E.; Tzanavaris, Panayiotis [Laboratory for X-ray Astrophysics, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Mulchaey, John S. [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Walker, Lisa May; Johnson, Kelsey E. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Brandt, William N.; Charlton, Jane C. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)


    We present an analysis of the diffuse X-ray emission in 19 compact groups (CGs) of galaxies observed with Chandra. The hottest, most X-ray luminous CGs agree well with the galaxy cluster X-ray scaling relations in L{sub X} -T and L{sub X} -σ, even in CGs where the hot gas is associated with only the brightest galaxy. Using Spitzer photometry, we compute stellar masses and classify Hickson CGs 19, 22, 40, and 42, and RSCGs 32, 44, and 86 as fossil groups using a new definition for fossil systems that includes a broader range of masses. We find that CGs with total stellar and H I masses ≳ 10{sup 11.3} M{sub ☉} are often X-ray luminous, while lower-mass CGs only sometimes exhibit faint, localized X-ray emission. Additionally, we compare the diffuse X-ray luminosity against both the total UV and 24 μm star formation rates of each CG and optical colors of the most massive galaxy in each of the CGs. The most X-ray luminous CGs have the lowest star formation rates, likely because there is no cold gas available for star formation, either because the majority of the baryons in these CGs are in stars or the X-ray halo, or due to gas stripping from the galaxies in CGs with hot halos. Finally, the optical colors that trace recent star formation histories of the most massive group galaxies do not correlate with the X-ray luminosities of the CGs, indicating that perhaps the current state of the X-ray halos is independent of the recent history of stella