WorldWideScience

Sample records for color validation measurements

  1. Use of the color trails test as an embedded measure of performance validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, George K; Algina, James

    2013-01-01

    One hundred personal injury litigants and disability claimants referred for a forensic neuropsychological evaluation were administered both portions of the Color Trails Test (CTT) as part of a more comprehensive battery of standardized tests. Subjects who failed two or more free-standing tests of cognitive performance validity formed the Failed Performance Validity (FPV) group, while subjects who passed all free-standing performance validity measures were assigned to the Passed Performance Validity (PPV) group. A cutscore of ≥45 seconds to complete Color Trails 1 (CT1) was associated with a classification accuracy of 78%, good sensitivity (66%) and high specificity (90%), while a cutscore of ≥84 seconds to complete Color Trails 2 (CT2) was associated with a classification accuracy of 82%, good sensitivity (74%) and high specificity (90%). A CT1 cutscore of ≥58 seconds, and a CT2 cutscore ≥100 seconds was associated with 100% positive predictive power at base rates from 20 to 50%.

  2. Validation, verification and evaluation of a Train to Train Distance Measurement System by means of Colored Petri Nets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Haifeng; Liu, Jieyu; Schnieder, Eckehard

    2017-01-01

    Validation, verification and evaluation are necessary processes to assure the safety and functionality of a system before its application in practice. This paper presents a Train to Train Distance Measurement System (TTDMS), which can provide distance information independently from existing onboard equipment. Afterwards, we proposed a new process using Colored Petri Nets to verify the TTDMS system functional safety, as well as to evaluate the system performance. Three main contributions are carried out in the paper: Firstly, this paper proposes a formalized TTDMS model, and the model correctness is validated using state space analysis and simulation-based verification. Secondly, corresponding checking queries are proposed for the purpose of functional safety verification. Further, the TTDMS performance is evaluated by applying parameters in the formal model. Thirdly, the reliability of a functional prototype TTDMS is estimated. It is found that the procedure can cooperate with the system development, and both formal and simulation-based verifications are performed. Using our process to evaluate and verify a system is easier to read and more reliable compared to executable code and mathematical methods. - Highlights: • A new Train to Train Distance Measurement System. • New approach verifying system functional safety and evaluating system performance by means of CPN. • System formalization using the system property concept. • Verification of system functional safety using state space analysis. • Evaluation of system performance applying simulation-based analysis.

  3. Validity of estimating the organic carbon content of basin sediment using color measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Toshinori; Sugai, Toshihiko; Ogami, Takashi; Yanagida, Makoto; Yasue, Ken-ichi

    2010-01-01

    Psychometric lightness (L* value) measured by a colorimeter offers a rapid means of obtaining the organic carbon content of sediment. We measured peat and lacustrine sediments covering the past 300 ka - 106 samples for L* value and 197 samples for organic carbon content. L* values are highly correlated with organic carbon contents. Therefore, L* values are a convenient alternative to measuring organic carbon contents. (author)

  4. Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Revision 4, Volume IV: Inherent Optical Properties: Instruments, Characterizations, Field Measurements and Data Analysis Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, J. L.; Fargion, G. S.; McClain, C. R. (Editor); Pegau, S.; Zanefeld, J. R. V.; Mitchell, B. G.; Kahru, M.; Wieland, J.; Stramska, M.

    2003-01-01

    This document stipulates protocols for measuring bio-optical and radiometric data for the Sensor Intercomparision and Merger for Biological and Interdisciplinary Oceanic Studies (SIMBIOS) Project activities and algorithm development. The document is organized into 6 separate volumes as Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Revision 4. Volume I: Introduction, Background, and Conventions; Volume II: Instrument Specifications, Characterization and Calibration; Volume III: Radiometric Measurements and Data Analysis Methods; Volume IV: Inherent Optical Properties: Instruments, Characterization, Field Measurements and Data Analysis Protocols; Volume V: Biogeochemical and Bio-Optical Measurements and Data Analysis Methods; Volume VI: Special Topics in Ocean Optics Protocols and Appendices. The earlier version of Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Revision 3 is entirely superseded by the six volumes of Revision 4 listed above.

  5. What color transparency measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, P.; Ralston, J.P.

    1992-01-01

    Color transparency is commonly accepted to be a prediction of perturbative QCD. However it is more a phenomenon probing the interface between the perturbative and nonperturbative regimes, leading to some intricacy in its theoretical description. In this paper we study the consequences of the impulse approximation to the theory in various quantum mechanical bases. We show that the fully interacting hadronic basis, which consists of eigenstates of the exact Hamiltonian in the presence of the nucleus, provides a natural basis to study color transparency. In this basis we can relate the quark wave function at a small transverse separation distance b 2 2 directly to transparency ratios measured in experiment. With the formalism, experiment can be used to map out the quark wave function in this region. We exhibit several loopholes in existing arguments predicting a rise in transparency ratios with energy, and suggest alternatives. Among the results, we argue that the theoretical prediction of a rising transparency ratio with energy may be on better footing for heavy-quark bound states than for relativistic light-quark systems. We also point out that transparency ratios can be constant with energy and not at variance with perturbative QCD

  6. Spectrophotometer-Based Color Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-24

    equipment. There are several American Society for Testing and Materials ( ASTM ) chapters covering the use of spectrometers for color measurements (refs. 3...Perkin Elmer software and procedures described in ASTM chapter E308 (ref. 3). All spectral data was stored on the computer. A summary of the color...similarity, or lack thereof, between two colors (ref. 5). In this report, the Euclidean distance metric, E, is used and recommended in ASTM D2244

  7. At-line cotton color measurements by portable color spectrophotometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    As a result of reports of cotton bales that had significant color changes from their initial Uster® High Volume Instrument (HVI™) color measurements, a program was implemented to measure cotton fiber color (Rd, +b) at-line in remote locations (warehouse, mill, etc.). The measurement of cotton fiber...

  8. Validation of ocean color sensors using a profiling hyperspectral radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondrusek, M. E.; Stengel, E.; Rella, M. A.; Goode, W.; Ladner, S.; Feinholz, M.

    2014-05-01

    Validation measurements of satellite ocean color sensors require in situ measurements that are accurate, repeatable and traceable enough to distinguish variability between in situ measurements and variability in the signal being observed on orbit. The utility of using a Satlantic Profiler II equipped with HyperOCR radiometers (Hyperpro) for validating ocean color sensors is tested by assessing the stability of the calibration coefficients and by comparing Hyperpro in situ measurements to other instruments and between different Hyperpros in a variety of water types. Calibration and characterization of the NOAA Satlantic Hyperpro instrument is described and concurrent measurements of water-leaving radiances conducted during cruises are presented between this profiling instrument and other profiling, above-water and moored instruments. The moored optical instruments are the US operated Marine Optical BuoY (MOBY) and the French operated Boussole Buoy. In addition, Satlantic processing versions are described in terms of accuracy and consistency. A new multi-cast approach is compared to the most commonly used single cast method. Analysis comparisons are conducted in turbid and blue water conditions. Examples of validation matchups with VIIRS ocean color data are presented. With careful data collection and analysis, the Satlantic Hyperpro profiling radiometer has proven to be a reliable and consistent tool for satellite ocean color validation.

  9. Validating MODIS Above-Cloud Aerosol Optical Depth Retrieved from Color Ratio Algorithm Using Direct Measurements Made by NASA's Airborne AATS and 4STAR Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jethva, Hiren; Torres, Omar; Remer, Lorraine; Redemann, Jens; Livingston, John; Dunagan, Stephen; Shinozuka, Yohei; Kacenelenbogen, Meloe; Segal Rozenhaimer, Michal; Spurr, Rob

    2016-01-01

    We present the validation analysis of above-cloud aerosol optical depth (ACAOD) retrieved from the color ratio method applied to MODIS cloudy-sky reflectance measurements using the limited direct measurements made by NASAs airborne Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS) and Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research (4STAR) sensors. A thorough search of the airborne database collection revealed a total of five significant events in which an airborne sun photometer, coincident with the MODIS overpass, observed partially absorbing aerosols emitted from agricultural biomass burning, dust, and wildfires over a low-level cloud deck during SAFARI-2000, ACE-ASIA 2001, and SEAC4RS 2013 campaigns, respectively. The co-located satellite-airborne match ups revealed a good agreement (root-mean-square difference less than 0.1), with most match ups falling within the estimated uncertainties associated with the MODIS retrievals (about -10 to +50 ). The co-retrieved cloud optical depth was comparable to that of the MODIS operational cloud product for ACE-ASIA and SEAC4RS, however, higher by 30-50% for the SAFARI-2000 case study. The reason for this discrepancy could be attributed to the distinct aerosol optical properties encountered during respective campaigns. A brief discussion on the sources of uncertainty in the satellite-based ACAOD retrieval and co-location procedure is presented. Field experiments dedicated to making direct measurements of aerosols above cloud are needed for the extensive validation of satellite based retrievals.

  10. The Manchester Color Wheel: validation in secondary school pupils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruthers, Helen R; Magee, Linda; Osborne, Susan; Hall, Linda K; Whorwell, Peter J

    2012-09-05

    As part of our research programme into facilitating improved ways of communicating with patients, especially about more sensitive clinical issues, we have been investigating whether there are any non-verbal methods that might aid this process. One such approach is to ask patients to choose a color in response to a particular question, for instance about health or psychological status, and for this purpose we developed the Manchester Color Wheel (MCW). This instrument consists of positive, neutral and negative colors and its validation in normal adults and those with anxiety or depression showed that it is responsive to change and reproducible. It also has the capacity to identify a positive frame of mind. We concluded that it might be a particularly useful instrument in adolescents and therefore this study aimed to validate it in a secondary school. 620 pupils (aged 11-17 years, mean age 14.0 years, 298 (48.1%) males, 322 (51.9%) females) at Sale Grammar School in Greater Manchester were asked to relate their mood to a MCW color and also complete the Hospital Anxiety Depression (HAD) questionnaire. To give these pupils an experience in science, 197 were divided into four subgroups for an 'experiment' to ascertain whether, compared to controls, a change in mood color choice could be induced by participation in sport, music or art activities. Although mood color and HAD depression score are unlikely to be measuring exactly the same psychological state, a negative mood color was chosen by 62.5% of HAD depressed compared to only 14.5% of HAD normal pupils (p color was chosen by 48.9% of normal and only 18.8% of depressed pupils (p colors which reached significance for sport and music. This study confirms the potential utility of the MCW to rapidly and easily assess a variety of health issues in large populations, including adolescents. Some of our results should also be of interest to educationalists.

  11. The Manchester Color Wheel: validation in secondary school pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carruthers Helen R

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As part of our research programme into facilitating improved ways of communicating with patients, especially about more sensitive clinical issues, we have been investigating whether there are any non-verbal methods that might aid this process. One such approach is to ask patients to choose a color in response to a particular question, for instance about health or psychological status, and for this purpose we developed the Manchester Color Wheel (MCW. This instrument consists of positive, neutral and negative colors and its validation in normal adults and those with anxiety or depression showed that it is responsive to change and reproducible. It also has the capacity to identify a positive frame of mind. We concluded that it might be a particularly useful instrument in adolescents and therefore this study aimed to validate it in a secondary school. Methods 620 pupils (aged 11–17 years, mean age 14.0 years, 298 (48.1% males, 322 (51.9% females at Sale Grammar School in Greater Manchester were asked to relate their mood to a MCW color and also complete the Hospital Anxiety Depression (HAD questionnaire. To give these pupils an experience in science, 197 were divided into four subgroups for an ‘experiment’ to ascertain whether, compared to controls, a change in mood color choice could be induced by participation in sport, music or art activities. Results Although mood color and HAD depression score are unlikely to be measuring exactly the same psychological state, a negative mood color was chosen by 62.5% of HAD depressed compared to only 14.5% of HAD normal pupils (p  Conclusion This study confirms the potential utility of the MCW to rapidly and easily assess a variety of health issues in large populations, including adolescents. Some of our results should also be of interest to educationalists.

  12. Validation of Ocean Color Sensors Using a Profiling Hyperspectral Radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Chesapeake Bay, South Florida, Hawaii, and the Gulf of Mexico . Typical data collected for each station include Hyperpro in-water measurements, ASD above...K., Demer, K., Fishe,r K.M., Davis, E., Urizar, C, and Merlini, R., "Assessment of the Eastern Gulf of Mexico Harmful Algal Bloom Operational...conducted in turbid and blue water conditions. Examples of validation matchups with VIIRS ocean color data are presented. With careful data collection

  13. Predictive validity of granulation tissue color measured by digital image analysis for deep pressure ulcer healing: a multicenter prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizaka, Shinji; Kaitani, Toshiko; Sugama, Junko; Nakagami, Gojiro; Naito, Ayumi; Koyanagi, Hiroe; Konya, Chizuko; Sanada, Hiromi

    2013-01-01

    This multicenter prospective cohort study examined the predictive validity of granulation tissue color evaluated by digital image analysis for deep pressure ulcer healing. Ninety-one patients with deep pressure ulcers were followed for 3 weeks. From a wound photograph taken at baseline, an image representing the granulation red index (GRI) was processed in which a redder color represented higher values. We calculated the average GRI over granulation tissue and the proportion of pixels exceeding the threshold intensity of 80 for the granulation tissue surface (%GRI80) and wound surface (%wound red index 80). In the receiver operating characteristics curve analysis, most GRI parameters had adequate discriminative values for both improvement of the DESIGN-R total score and wound closure. Ulcers were categorized by the obtained cutoff points of the average GRI (≤80, >80), %GRI80 (≤55, >55-80, >80%), and %wound red index 80 (≤25, >25-50, >50%). In the linear mixed model, higher classes for all GRI parameters showed significantly greater relative improvement in overall wound severity during the 3 weeks after adjustment for patient characteristics and wound locations. Assessment of granulation tissue color by digital image analysis will be useful as an objective monitoring tool for granulation tissue quality or surrogate outcomes of pressure ulcer healing. © 2012 by the Wound Healing Society.

  14. Color oscillations and measuring the quark charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipkin, H.J.

    1979-01-01

    Color oscillations analogous to neutrino oscillations but with very high frequency are shown to be present in hadron states below color threshold. Experiments to distinguish between fractionally charged and integrally charged quark models both below and above color threshold are discussed. The instantaneous quark charge is shown to be measurable only in very fast processes determined by the high energy behavior of transition amplitudes well above color threshold. Results from the naive parton model for deep inelastic processes which indicate that real charges of quarks and gluons can be measured are shown to be in error because of neglect of color oscillations and interference terms. (author)

  15. Accurate color measurement methods for medical displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Anindita; Kelley, Edward F; Badano, Aldo

    2010-01-01

    The necessity for standard instrumentation and measurements of color that are repeatable and reproducible is the major motivation behind this work. Currently, different instrumentation and methods can yield very different results when measuring the same feature such as color uniformity or color difference. As color increasingly comes into play in medical imaging diagnostics, display color will have to be quantified in order to assess whether the display should be used for imaging purposes. The authors report on the characterization of three novel probes for measuring display color with minimal contamination from screen areas outside the measurement spot or from off-normal emissions. They compare three probe designs: A modified small-spot luminance probe and two conic probe designs based on black frusta. To compare the three color probe designs, spectral and luminance measurements were taken with specialized instrumentation to determine the luminance changes and color separation abilities of the probes. The probes were characterized with a scanning slit method, veiling glare, and a moving laser and LED arrangement. The scanning slit measurement was done using a black slit plate over a white line on an LCD monitor. The luminance was measured in 1 mm increments from the center of the slit to +/- 15 mm above and below the slit at different distances between the probe and the slit. The veiling glare setup consisted of measurements of the luminance of a black spot pattern with a white disk of radius of 100 mm as the black spot increases in 1 mm radius increments. The moving LED and laser method consisted of a red and green light orthogonal to the probe tip for the light to directly shine into the probe. The green light source was moved away from the red source in 1 cm increments to measure color stray-light contamination at different probe distances. The results of the color testing using the LED and laser methods suggest a better performance of one of the frusta probes

  16. Design considerations for prepress color proof measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spooner, David L.

    1993-06-01

    For our purposes, we needed colorimetric measurements or, better yet, spectral reflectance data. Our survey of commercially available instruments identified one spectrocolorimeter, the Hunter PICS (manufactured by Hunter Associates Laboratory, Inc.), which could be programmed to automatically measure the color (and spectral reflectance) of large numbers of samples on a proof sheet. After an evaluation of this instrument, which included measuring over 10,000 exhibits, it was decided that the unit did not fully meet our needs. This resulted in a decision to integrate another instrument, the Byk-Gardner Color Machine (manufactured by Byk-Gardner, Inc.), with an x-y positioning mechanism. This paper describes the design considerations used in the development of our color measurement system.

  17. Modeling human color categorization: Color discrimination and color memory

    OpenAIRE

    Heskes, T.; van den Broek, Egon; Lucas, P.; Hendriks, Maria A.; Vuurpijl, L.G.; Puts, M.J.H.; Wiegerinck, W.

    2003-01-01

    Color matching in Content-Based Image Retrieval is done using a color space and measuring distances between colors. Such an approach yields non-intuitive results for the user. We introduce color categories (or focal colors), determine that they are valid, and use them in two experiments. The experiments conducted prove the difference between color categorization by the cognitive processes color discrimination and color memory. In addition, they yield a Color Look-Up Table, which can improve c...

  18. Temperature measurement with industrial color camera devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidradler, Dieter J.; Berndorfer, Thomas; van Dyck, Walter; Pretschuh, Juergen

    1999-05-01

    This paper discusses color camera based temperature measurement. Usually, visual imaging and infrared image sensing are treated as two separate disciplines. We will show, that a well selected color camera device might be a cheaper, more robust and more sophisticated solution for optical temperature measurement in several cases. Herein, only implementation fragments and important restrictions for the sensing element will be discussed. Our aim is to draw the readers attention to the use of visual image sensors for measuring thermal radiation and temperature and to give reasons for the need of improved technologies for infrared camera devices. With AVL-List, our partner of industry, we successfully used the proposed sensor to perform temperature measurement for flames inside the combustion chamber of diesel engines which finally led to the presented insights.

  19. Preliminary assessments of portable color spectrophotometer measurements of cotton color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton in the U.S. is classified for color with the Uster® High Volume Instrument (HVI), using the parameters Rd (diffuse reflectance) and +b (yellowness). It has been reported that some cotton bales, especially those transported overseas, appear to have changed significantly in color from their in...

  20. Reliability and Validity of Colored Progressive Matrices for 4-6 Age Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Bildiren

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this research, it was aimed to test the reliability and validity of Colored Progressive Matrices for children between the ages of 4 to 6 from 15 schools. The sample of the study consisted of 640 kindergarten children. Test-retest and parallel form were used for reliability analyses. For the validity analysis, the relations between the Colored Progressive Matrices Test and Bender Gestalt Visual Motor Sensitivity Test, WISC-R and TONI-3 tests were examined. The results showed that there was a significant relation between the test-retest results and the parallel forms in all the age groups. Validity analyses showed strong correlations between the Colored Progressive Matrices and all the other measures.

  1. Utilization of Multispectral Images for Meat Color Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinderup, Camilla Himmelstrup; Dahl, Anders Lindbjerg; Carstensen, Jens Michael

    2013-01-01

    This short paper describes how the use of multispectral imaging for color measurement can be utilized in an efficient and descriptive way for meat scientists. The basis of the study is meat color measurements performed with a multispectral imaging system as well as with a standard colorimeter...... of color and color variance than what is obtained by the standard colorimeter....

  2. Validation of MERIS Ocean Color Algorithms in the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marullo, S.; D'Ortenzio, F.; Ribera D'Alcalà, M.; Ragni, M.; Santoleri, R.; Vellucci, V.; Luttazzi, C.

    2004-05-01

    Satellite ocean color measurements can contribute, better than any other source of data, to quantify the spatial and time variability of ocean productivity and, tanks to the success of several satellite missions starting with CZCS up to SeaWiFS, MODIS and MERIS, it is now possible to start doing the investigation of interannual variations and compare level of production during different decades ([1],[2]). The interannual variability of the ocean productivity at global and regional scale can be correctly measured providing that chlorophyll estimate are based on well calibrated algorithms in order to avoid regional biases and instrumental time shifts. The calibration and validation of Ocean Color data is then one of the most important tasks of several research projects worldwide ([3], [4]). Algorithms developed to retrieve chlorophyll concentration need a specific effort to define the error ranges associated to the estimates. In particular, the empirical algorithms, calculated on regression with in situ data, require independent records to verify the degree of uncertainties associated. In addition several evidences demonstrated that regional algorithms can improve the accuracy of the satellite chlorophyll estimates [5]. In 2002, Santoleri et al. (SIMBIOS) first showed a significant overestimation of the SeaWiFS derived chlorophyll concentration in Mediterranean Sea when the standard global NASA algorithms (OC4v2 and OC4v4) are used. The same authors [6] proposed two preliminary new algorithms for the Mediterranean Sea (L-DORMA and NL-DORMA) on a basis of a bio-optical data set collected in the basin from 1998 to 2000. In 2002 Bricaud et al., [7] analyzing other bio-optical data collected in the Mediterranean, confirmed the overestimation of the chlorophyll concentration in oligotrophic conditions and proposed a new regional algorithm to be used in case of low concentrations. Recently, the number of in situ observations in the basin was increased, permitting a first

  3. Measurement of meat color using a computer vision system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girolami, Antonio; Napolitano, Fabio; Faraone, Daniela; Braghieri, Ada

    2013-01-01

    The limits of the colorimeter and a technique of image analysis in evaluating the color of beef, pork, and chicken were investigated. The Minolta CR-400 colorimeter and a computer vision system (CVS) were employed to measure colorimetric characteristics. To evaluate the chromatic fidelity of the image of the sample displayed on the monitor, a similarity test was carried out using a trained panel. The panelists found the digital images of the samples visualized on the monitor very similar to the actual ones (Pmeat sample and the sample image on the monitor in order to evaluate the similarity between them (test A). Moreover, the panelists were asked to evaluate the similarity between two colors, both generated by the software Adobe Photoshop CS3 one using the L, a and b values read by the colorimeter and the other obtained using the CVS (test B); which of the two colors was more similar to the sample visualized on the monitor was also assessed (test C). The panelists found the digital images very similar to the actual samples (Pcolors the panelists found significant differences between them (Pcolor of the sample on the monitor was more similar to the CVS generated color than to the colorimeter generated color. The differences between the values of the L, a, b, hue angle and chroma obtained with the CVS and the colorimeter were statistically significant (Pcolor of meat. Instead, the CVS method seemed to give valid measurements that reproduced a color very similar to the real one. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Repairing method of color TV with measuring instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This book concentrates on repairing method of color TV with measuring instrument, which deals with direction and sorts of measuring instrument for service, application and basic technique of an oscilloscope and a synchroscope, constituent of TV and wave reading, everything for test skill for service man, service technique by electronic voltmeter, service technique by sweep generator and maker generator, dot-bar generator and support skill for color TV and color bar generator and application technology of color circuit.

  5. Validity of FAA-approved color vision tests for class II and class III aeromedical screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-01

    All clinical color vision tests currently used in the medical examination of pilots were studied regarding validity for prediction of performance on practical tests of ability to discriminate the aviation signal colors, red, green, and white given un...

  6. Modernization of Physical Appearance and Solution Color Tests Using Quantitative Tristimulus Colorimetry: Advantages, Harmonization, and Validation Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pack, Brian W; Montgomery, Laura L; Hetrick, Evan M

    2015-10-01

    Color measurements, including physical appearance, are important yet often misunderstood and underappreciated aspects of a control strategy for drug substances and drug products. From a patient safety perspective, color can be an important control point for detecting contamination, impurities, and degradation products, with human visual acuity often more sensitive for colored impurities than instrumental techniques such as HPLC. Physical appearance tests and solution color tests can also serve an important role in ensuring that appropriate steps are taken such that clinical trials do not become unblinded when the active material is compared with another product or a placebo. Despite the importance of color tests, compendial visual tests are not harmonized across the major pharmacopoeias, which results in ambiguous specifications of little value, difficult communication of true sample color, and significant extra work required for global registration. Some pharmacopoeias have not yet recognized or adopted technical advances in the instrumental measurement of color and appearance, whereas others begin to acknowledge the advantage of instrumental colorimetry, yet leave implementation of the technology ambiguous. This commentary will highlight the above-mentioned inconsistencies, provide an avenue toward harmonization and modernization, and outline a scientifically sound approach for implementing quantitative technologies for improved measurement, communication, and control of color and appearance for both solutions and solids. Importantly, this manuscript, for the first time, outlines a color method validation approach that is consistent with the International Conference on Harmonization's guidance on the topic of method validation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  7. Modeling human color categorization: Color discrimination and color memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heskes, T.; van den Broek, Egon; Lucas, P.; Hendriks, Maria A.; Vuurpijl, L.G.; Puts, M.J.H.; Wiegerinck, W.

    2003-01-01

    Color matching in Content-Based Image Retrieval is done using a color space and measuring distances between colors. Such an approach yields non-intuitive results for the user. We introduce color categories (or focal colors), determine that they are valid, and use them in two experiments. The

  8. Validation and Intercomparison of Ocean Color Algorithms for Estimating Particulate Organic Carbon in the Oceans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayley Evers-King

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Particulate Organic Carbon (POC plays a vital role in the ocean carbon cycle. Though relatively small compared with other carbon pools, the POC pool is responsible for large fluxes and is linked to many important ocean biogeochemical processes. The satellite ocean-color signal is influenced by particle composition, size, and concentration and provides a way to observe variability in the POC pool at a range of temporal and spatial scales. To provide accurate estimates of POC concentration from satellite ocean color data requires algorithms that are well validated, with uncertainties characterized. Here, a number of algorithms to derive POC using different optical variables are applied to merged satellite ocean color data provided by the Ocean Color Climate Change Initiative (OC-CCI and validated against the largest database of in situ POC measurements currently available. The results of this validation exercise indicate satisfactory levels of performance from several algorithms (highest performance was observed from the algorithms of Loisel et al., 2002; Stramski et al., 2008 and uncertainties that are within the requirements of the user community. Estimates of the standing stock of the POC can be made by applying these algorithms, and yield an estimated mixed-layer integrated global stock of POC between 0.77 and 1.3 Pg C of carbon. Performance of the algorithms vary regionally, suggesting that blending of region-specific algorithms may provide the best way forward for generating global POC products.

  9. Improving Coastal Ocean Color Validation Capabilities through Application of Inherent Optical Properties (IOPs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannino, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    Understanding how the different components of seawater alter the path of incident sunlight through scattering and absorption is essential to using remotely sensed ocean color observations effectively. This is particularly apropos in coastal waters where the different optically significant components (phytoplankton, detrital material, inorganic minerals, etc.) vary widely in concentration, often independently from one another. Inherent Optical Properties (IOPs) form the link between these biogeochemical constituents and the Apparent Optical Properties (AOPs). understanding this interrelationship is at the heart of successfully carrying out inversions of satellite-measured radiance to biogeochemical properties. While sufficient covariation of seawater constituents in case I waters typically allows empirical algorithms connecting AOPs and biogeochemical parameters to behave well, these empirical algorithms normally do not hold for case I1 regimes (Carder et al. 2003). Validation in the context of ocean color remote sensing refers to in-situ measurements used to verify or characterize algorithm products or any assumption used as input to an algorithm. In this project, validation capabilities are considered those measurement capabilities, techniques, methods, models, etc. that allow effective validation. Enhancing current validation capabilities by incorporating state-of-the-art IOP measurements and optical models is the purpose of this work. Involved in this pursuit is improving core IOP measurement capabilities (spectral, angular, spatio-temporal resolutions), improving our understanding of the behavior of analytical AOP-IOP approximations in complex coastal waters, and improving the spatial and temporal resolution of biogeochemical data for validation by applying biogeochemical-IOP inversion models so that these parameters can be computed from real-time IOP sensors with high sampling rates. Research cruises supported by this project provides for collection and

  10. Convenient method of color measurement of marine sediments by colorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagao, S [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Ibaragi (Japan); Nakashima, S [Akita Univ., Akita (Japan). Research Inst. of Natural Resources

    1991-01-01

    Marine sediments exhibit various colors such as cream, gray, green, red, brown and black. Marine scientists conventionally judged colors of various types of marine sediments by visual observation which has several disadvantages. The purpose of the present study is to establish a color measurement method for various colors of dried marine sediments with the calorimeter and also to try a color measurement of wet core samples on board the ship. A colorimeter (Minolta Chroma Meter CR-200) was used to describe colors of wet and powdered sediment samples in L{sup *}a{sup *}b{sup *} values of the second CIE 1976 color space. Materials studied in this experiment for the color determination are from Japan sea(18 samples from 0-40.5 cm depth), East Pacific(21 samples from 0-42 cm depth) and Suruga Bay(23 samples from 0-110 cm depth), etc. As a result, the following conclusions have been derived : The sensitivity and accuracy of the method are reasonably satisfied for the color description of marine sediments; This method can be applied to shipboard color measurements of original wet sediments with careful consideration of variations of these parameters. 11 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. Automated ocean color product validation for the Southern California Bight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Curtiss O.; Tufillaro, Nicholas; Jones, Burt; Arnone, Robert

    2012-06-01

    Automated match ups allow us to maintain and improve the products of current satellite ocean color sensors (MODIS, MERIS), and new sensors (VIIRS). As part of the VIIRS mission preparation, we have created a web based automated match up tool that provides access to searchable fields for date, site, and products, and creates match-ups between satellite (MODIS, MERIS, VIIRS), and in-situ measurements (HyperPRO and SeaPRISM). The back end of the system is a 'mySQL' database, and the front end is a `php' web portal with pull down menus for searchable fields. Based on selections, graphics are generated showing match-ups and statistics, and ascii files are created for downloads for the matchup data. Examples are shown for matching the satellite data with the data from Platform Eureka SeaPRISM off L.A. Harbor in the Southern California Bight.

  12. A REVIEW OF COLOR MEASURMENTS IN THE TEXTILE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRAD Raluca

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Color is an important factor in the evaluation of aesthetic appearance and functionality of many products, but especially of textile industry ones. In textiles production process, color can be assessed in different stages: the selection of raw materials, the incoming item tests, the preparation of dyeing ingredients, the crocking resistance testing, the color fastness and in all stages, the quality control. Color evaluation can be done visually or using specialized test instruments such as colorimeters or spectrometers, therefore a high accuracy of measurements must be achieved. Standards describe different procedures and testing techniques depending on the product type and the quality level required by the customer. The paper presents the most common systems of color representation and communication, measurement methods and techniques, and standards that define them. The CIE color representation systems have been reviewed, together with the measurement methods offering the repeatability of the process. Most of the standards have been issued in US, but several European and International are stating the color assessment process. We have also conducted a review of latest published papers in the topic of color measurement, comparison and match. Several image processing applications algorithms offers new opportunities for computer assisted evaluation and control of textile color properties.

  13. Quantitative measurement of binocular color fusion limit for non-spectral colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yong Ju; Sohn, Hosik; Lee, Seong-il; Ro, Yong Man; Park, Hyun Wook

    2011-04-11

    Human perception becomes difficult in the event of binocular color fusion when the color difference presented for the left and right eyes exceeds a certain threshold value, known as the binocular color fusion limit. This paper discusses the binocular color fusion limit for non-spectral colors within the color gamut of a conventional LCD 3DTV. We performed experiments to measure the color fusion limit for eight chromaticity points sampled from the CIE 1976 chromaticity diagram. A total of 2480 trials were recorded for a single observer. By analyzing the results, the color fusion limit was quantified by ellipses in the chromaticity diagram. The semi-minor axis of the ellipses ranges from 0.0415 to 0.0923 in terms of the Euclidean distance in the u'v´ chromaticity diagram and the semi-major axis ranges from 0.0640 to 0.1560. These eight ellipses are drawn on the chromaticity diagram. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  14. Comparing objective and subjective error measures for color constancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, M.P.; Gijsenij, A.; Gevers, T.

    2008-01-01

    We compare an objective and a subjective performance measure for color constancy algorithms. Eight hyper-spectral images were rendered under a neutral reference illuminant and four chromatic illuminants (Red, Green, Yellow, Blue). The scenes rendered under the chromatic illuminants were color

  15. Evaluating the accuracy of tooth color measurement by combining the Munsell color system and dental colorimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jiun-Yao; Chen, Wen-Cheng; Huang, Ta-Ko; Wang, Jen-Chyan; Fu, Po-Sung; Chen, Jeng-Huey; Hung, Chun-Cheng

    2012-09-01

    As we pay increasing attention to dental aesthetics, tooth color matching has become an important part of daily dental practice. This aim of this study was to develop a method to enhance the accuracy of a tooth color matching machine. The Munsell color tabs in the range of natural human teeth were measured using a tooth color measuring machine (ShadeEye NCC). The machine's accuracy was analyzed using an analysis of variance test and a Tukey post-hoc test. When matching the Munsell color tabs with the ShadeEye NCC colorimeter, settings of Chroma greater than 6 and Value less than 4 showed unacceptable clinical results. When the CIELAB mode was used, the a* value (which represents the red-green axis in the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage color space) made no significant difference (p=0.84), the L* value (which represents the lightness) resulted in a negative correlation, and the b* value (which represents the yellow-blue axis) resulted in a positive correlation with ΔE. When the Munsell color tabs and the Vitapan were measured in the same mode and compared, the inaccuracies showed that the Vitapan was not a proper tool for evaluating the stability and accuracy of ShadeEye NCC. By knowing the limitations of the machine, we evaluated the data using the Munsell color tabs; shade beyond the acceptable range should be reevaluated using a visual shade matching method, or if measured by another machine, this shade range should be covered to obtain more accurate results. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Measurement of Color in different construction materials

    OpenAIRE

    García Pascua, N.; Sánchez de Rojas, María Isabel; Frías, Moisés

    1999-01-01

    [ES] El empleo de materiales de construcción y la aplicación sobre ellos de productos de reparación requiere un detallado estudio sobre su forma de actuación y la importancia de la conservación del aspecto original de los mismos. Por este motivo, el objetivo principal de este estudio es el determinar un intervalo de color que se conserve a pesar de todas las posibles intervenciones que se acometan en el edificio, tanto cuando se realizan trabajos de restauración, que implican el uso ...

  17. Development, Validation, and Deployment of a Revised Air Traffic Control Color Vision Test: Incorporating Advanced Technologies and Oceanic Procedures and En Route Automation Modernization Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    through direct sampling of form and content of critical display data. Evidence of construct validity is provided by correlation with the Colour ...measured by the Colour Assessment and Diagnosis (CAD; ARTS Background Colors STARS Background Colors ERAM Background Colors Figure 3...Gelade, G. (1980). A feature-integration theory of attention. Cognitive Psychology , 12, 97–136. Xing, J. & Schroeder, D.J. (2006). Reexamination of

  18. Colors of Outer Solar System Objects Measured with VATT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanishin, William; Tegler, S. C.; Consolmagno, G. J.

    2010-10-01

    Over the past 7 years, we have measured optical B-V and V-R colors for about 40 minor outer solar system objects using the 1.8-m Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope (VATT) located on Mt. Graham in southeast Arizona. We will present these colors and use them to update the discussion of colors of minor bodies in the outer solar system. We gratefully acknowledge funding from the NASA Planetary Astronomy Program to Northern Arizona University and the U. of Oklahoma which helped support this work.

  19. Construction and Initial Validation of the Multiracial Experiences Measure (MEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hyung Chol; Jackson, Kelly; Guevarra, Rudy P.; Miller, Matthew J.; Harrington, Blair

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the development and validation of the Multiracial Experiences Measure (MEM): a new measure that assesses uniquely racialized risks and resiliencies experienced by individuals of mixed racial heritage. Across two studies, there was evidence for the validation of the 25-item MEM with 5 subscales including Shifting Expressions, Perceived Racial Ambiguity, Creating Third Space, Multicultural Engagement, and Multiracial Discrimination. The 5-subscale structure of the MEM was supported by a combination of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Evidence of criterion-related validity was partially supported with MEM subscales correlating with measures of racial diversity in one’s social network, color-blind racial attitude, psychological distress, and identity conflict. Evidence of discriminant validity was supported with MEM subscales not correlating with impression management. Implications for future research and suggestions for utilization of the MEM in clinical practice with multiracial adults are discussed. PMID:26460977

  20. Simultaneous Determination of Acetaminophen and Synthetic Color(s) by Derivative Spectroscopy in Syrup Formulations and Validation by HPLC: Exposure Risk of Colors to Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Shanya Das; Dixit, Sumita; Tripathi, Anurag; Das, Mukul

    2015-06-01

    Color additives are used in pediatric syrup formulations as an excipient; though not pre-requisite, but pediatric syrup formulations are normally colored. An attempt has been made to measure simultaneously the single drug, acetaminophen (AT), along with the colors, carmoisine (CA), erythrosine (ET), and sunset yellow FCF (SSY) added in it by three derivative spectroscopy methods namely, 1st order, ratio, and differential derivative methods. Moreover, evaluation has been made for the exposure assessment of the colors added as excipient because some colors have been reported to cause allergic reactions and hypersensitivity in children. The present methods provide simple, accurate, and reproducible quantitative determination of the drug, AT, along with the color in synthetic mixtures and commercial drug formulations without any interference. The limit of detection varied from 0.0001-0.31 μg/ml while limit of quantification ranged from 0.002-1.04 μg/ml in all the three methods. The calibration curve of all the three derivative methods exhibited good linear relationship with excellent regression coefficients (0.9986-1.000). Both intra-day and inter-day precisions showed %RSD value less than 2% while the percentage recovery was found between 96.8-103.8%. The sensitivity of the proposed methods is almost comparable to HPLC and thus, can be used for determination of drug AT, and color simultaneously in pharmaceutical formulation on routine basis. The present methods also showed that colors like SSY and ET are saturating more than 50% of acceptable daily intake (ADI) value which is alarming and needs to be considered for modification by regulatory authorities to safeguard the health of children.

  1. Evaluation of the accuracy and limitations of three tooth-color measuring machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiun-Yao Chang

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: By knowing the limits of each machine after being analyzed with the Munsell Book of Color, we can use the color measuring instrument in the specific color space range that the devices measuring accuracy performs the best in to achieve objective and accurate tooth-color measuring results in routine dental practice.

  2. The measurement of instrumental ADL: content validity and construct validity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, K; Schultz-Larsen, K; Kreiner, S

    1993-01-01

    do not depend on help. It is also possible to add the items in a valid way. However, to obtain valid IADL-scales, we omitted items that were highly relevant to especially elderly women, such as house-work items. We conclude that the criteria employed for this IADL-measure are somewhat contradictory....... showed that 14 items could be combined into two qualitatively different additive scales. The IADL-measure complies with demands for content validity, distinguishes between what the elderly actually do, and what they are capable of doing, and is a good discriminator among the group of elderly persons who...

  3. Validation of color Doppler sonography for evaluating relative displacement between the flexor tendon and subsynovial connective tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tat, Jimmy; Kociolek, Aaron M; Keir, Peter J

    2015-04-01

    A common pathologic finding in carpal tunnel syndrome is fibrosis and thickening of the subsynovial connective tissue. This finding suggests an etiology of excessive shear forces, with relative longitudinal displacement between the flexor tendon and adjacent subsynovial connective tissue. The purpose of this study was to validate color Doppler sonography for measurement of tendon displacement over time. Eight unmatched fresh frozen cadaver arms were used to evaluate color Doppler sonography for measurement of tendon displacement. The middle flexor digitorum superficialis tendon was moved through a physiologic excursion of 20 mm at 3 different tendon velocities (50, 100, and 150 mm/s). We found that color Doppler sonography provided accurate measurement of tendon displacement, with absolute errors of -0.05 mm (50 mm/s), -1.24 mm (100 mm/s), and -2.36 mm (150 mm/s) on average throughout the tendon excursion range. Evaluating relative displacement between the tendon and subsynovial connective tissue during finger flexion-extension movements also offered insight into the gliding mechanism of the subsynovial connective tissue. During flexion, we observed a curvilinear increase in relative displacement, with greater differential motion at the end range of displacement, likely due to the sequential stretch of the fibrils between successive layers of the subsynovial connective tissue. In extension, there was a linear return in relative displacement, suggesting a different unloading mechanism characterized by uniform relaxation of fibrils. We demonstrated the validity of color Doppler displacement for use in the evaluation of relative motion. Color Doppler sonography is useful in our understanding of the behavior of the subsynovial connective tissue during tendon excursion, which may elucidate the role of finger motion in the etiology of shear injury. © 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  4. Two-colorable graph states with maximal Schmidt measure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severini, Simone

    2006-01-01

    The Schmidt measure was introduced by Eisert and Briegel for quantifying the degree of entanglement of multipartite quantum systems [J. Eisert, H.-J. Briegel, Phys. Rev. A 64 (2001) 22306]. For two-colorable graph states, the Schmidt measure is related to the spectrum of the associated graph. We observe that almost all two-colorable graph states have maximal Schmidt measure and we construct specific examples. By making appeal to a result of Ehrenfeucht et al. [A. Ehrenfeucht, T. Harju, G. Rozenberg, Discrete Math. 278 (2004) 45], we point out that the graph operations called local complementation and switching form a transitive group acting on the set of all graph states of a given dimension

  5. Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation. Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fargion, Giulietta S.; Mueller, James L.

    2000-01-01

    The document stipulates protocols for measuring bio-optical and radiometric data for the Sensor Intercomparison and Merger for Biological and Interdisciplinary Oceanic Studies (SIMBIOS) Project activities and algorithm development. This document supersedes the earlier version (Mueller and Austin 1995) published as Volume 25 in the SeaWiFS Technical Report Series. This document marks a significant departure from, and improvement on, theformat and content of Mueller and Austin (1995). The authorship of the protocols has been greatly broadened to include experts specializing in some key areas. New chapters have been added to provide detailed and comprehensive protocols for stability monitoring of radiometers using portable sources, abovewater measurements of remote-sensing reflectance, spectral absorption measurements for discrete water samples, HPLC pigment analysis and fluorometric pigment analysis. Protocols were included in Mueller and Austin (1995) for each of these areas, but the new treatment makes significant advances in each topic area. There are also new chapters prescribing protocols for calibration of sun photometers and sky radiance sensors, sun photometer and sky radiance measurements and analysis, and data archival. These topic areas were barely mentioned in Mueller and Austin (1995).

  6. How is the instrumental color of meat measured?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapp, W N; Yancey, J W S; Apple, J K

    2011-09-01

    Peer-reviewed journal articles (n=1068) were used to gather instrumental color measurement information in meat science research. The majority of articles, published in 10 peer-reviewed journals, originated from European countries (44.8%) and North America (38.5%). The predominant species was pork (44.2%), and most researchers used Minolta (60.0%) over Hunter (31.6%) colorimeters. Much of the research was done using illuminant D65 (32.3%); nevertheless, almost half (48.9%) of the articles did not report the illuminant. Moreover, a majority of the articles did not report aperture size (73.6%) or the number of readings per sample (52.4%). Many factors influence meat color, and a considerable proportion of the peer-reviewed, published research articles failed to include information necessary to replicate and/or interpret instrumental color results; therefore, a standardized set of minimum reportable parameters for meat color evaluation should be identified. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Standard test method for measurement of light reflectance value and small color differences between pieces of ceramic tile

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the measurement of Light Reflectance Value (LRV) and visually small color difference between pieces of glazed or unglazed ceramic tile, using any spectrophotometer that meets the requirements specified in the test method. LRV and the magnitude and direction of the color difference are expressed numerically, with sufficient accuracy for use in product specification. 1.2 LRV may be measured for either solid-colored tile or tile having a multicolored, speckled, or textured surface. For tile that are not solid-colored, an average reading should be obtained from multiple measurements taken in a pattern representative of the overall sample as described in 9.2 of this test method. Small color difference between tiles should only be measured for solid-color tiles. Small color difference between tile that have a multicolored, speckled, or textured surface, are not valid. 1.3 For solid colored tile, a comparison of the test specimen and reference specimen should be made under incandescent, f...

  8. Validity of the Worth 4 Dot Test in Patients with Red-Green Color Vision Defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Eunoo; Yang, Hee Kyung; Hwang, Jeong-Min

    2017-05-01

    The Worth four dot test uses red and green glasses for binocular dissociation, and although it has been believed that patients with red-green color vision defects cannot accurately perform the Worth four dot test, this has not been validated. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to demonstrate the validity of the Worth four dot test in patients with congenital red-green color vision defects who have normal or abnormal binocular vision. A retrospective review of medical records was performed on 30 consecutive congenital red-green color vision defect patients who underwent the Worth four dot test. The type of color vision anomaly was determined by the Hardy Rand and Rittler (HRR) pseudoisochromatic plate test, Ishihara color test, anomaloscope, and/or the 100 hue test. All patients underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination. Binocular sensory status was evaluated with the Worth four dot test and Randot stereotest. The results were interpreted according to the presence of strabismus or amblyopia. Among the 30 patients, 24 had normal visual acuity without strabismus nor amblyopia and 6 patients had strabismus and/or amblyopia. The 24 patients without strabismus nor amblyopia all showed binocular fusional responses by seeing four dots of the Worth four dot test. Meanwhile, the six patients with strabismus or amblyopia showed various results of fusion, suppression, and diplopia. Congenital red-green color vision defect patients of different types and variable degree of binocularity could successfully perform the Worth four dot test. They showed reliable results that were in accordance with their estimated binocular sensory status.

  9. Our Continuing Program of Optical Color Measurements of Centaurs and KBOs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanishin, W.; Tegler, S. C.; Consolmagno, G. J.

    2012-05-01

    We report on our continuing program of BVR color measurement of Centaurs and KBOs. Most of our measurements have been made with the Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope (VATT). We report of new colors obtained through October 2011.

  10. Application of Modern Colour Measurement Dervices in Coloration Industries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHUNG Y.S.; XIN John H.; SIN K.M.

    2002-01-01

    In colour measurement ralated industry, reflectance spectrophotometer is the one of the popular measuring machine for measutring colour and quality control. Colour communications is frequently confusing. This is because the colour appearance is subject to the influence of at least three different phenomena: the light source, the object and the visual system. The variation in either the radiant quantity or the spectral distribution of the source can alter the observed colour. Because of this reason,the objective quantitative tool, colour measurement equipment and communication method; become more important in evaluating of the colour. In fact, based on the advanced in computer system and electronic device,the colour measurement becomes more and more accuracy, especiany in spectrophotometer measurement.In this paper, we will focus on the review of modern spectrophotometers in coloration industries.

  11. Validity of a Measure of Assertiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galassi, John P.; Galassi, Merna D.

    1974-01-01

    This study was concerned with further validation of a measure of assertiveness. Concurrent validity was established for the College Self-Expression Scale using the method of contrasted groups and through correlations of self-and judges' ratings of assertiveness. (Author)

  12. Validation of protein carbonyl measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Augustyniak, Edyta; Adam, Aisha; Wojdyla, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Protein carbonyls are widely analysed as a measure of protein oxidation. Several different methods exist for their determination. A previous study had described orders of magnitude variance that existed when protein carbonyls were analysed in a single laboratory by ELISA using different commercial...... protein carbonyl analysis across Europe. ELISA and Western blotting techniques detected an increase in protein carbonyl formation between 0 and 5min of UV irradiation irrespective of method used. After irradiation for 15min, less oxidation was detected by half of the laboratories than after 5min...... irradiation. Three of the four ELISA carbonyl results fell within 95% confidence intervals. Likely errors in calculating absolute carbonyl values may be attributed to differences in standardisation. Out of up to 88 proteins identified as containing carbonyl groups after tryptic cleavage of irradiated...

  13. The Validity of Two Education Requirement Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, Peter H.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the validity of two education requirement measures. This is important because a key part of the ongoing discussion concerning overeducation is about measurement. Thanks to the Dutch Institute for Labour Studies, we have been given a unique opportunity to compare two education requirement measures: first, Huijgen's…

  14. Single-shot color fringe projection for three-dimensional shape measurement of objects with discontinuities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Meiling; Yang, Fujun; He, Xiaoyuan

    2012-04-20

    A simple but effective fringe projection profilometry is proposed to measure 3D shape by using one snapshot color sinusoidal fringe pattern. One color fringe pattern encoded with a sinusoidal fringe (as red component) and one uniform intensity pattern (as blue component) is projected by a digital video projector, and the deformed fringe pattern is recorded by a color CCD camera. The captured color fringe pattern is separated into its RGB components and division operation is applied to red and blue channels to reduce the variable reflection intensity. Shape information of the tested object is decoded by applying an arcsine algorithm on the normalized fringe pattern with subpixel resolution. In the case of fringe discontinuities caused by height steps, or spatially isolated surfaces, the separated blue component is binarized and used for correcting the phase demodulation. A simple and robust method is also introduced to compensate for nonlinear intensity response of the digital video projector. The experimental results demonstrate the validity of the proposed method.

  15. IMPROVED SPECTROPHOTOMETER FIBER SAMPLING SYSTEM FOR COTTON FIBER COLOR MEASUREMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton in the U.S. is classified for color using the Uster® High Volume Instrument (HVI), and the parameters Rd and +b are used to designate color grades for cotton fiber. However, Rd and +b are cotton-specific color parameters, and the need existed to demonstrate the relationships of Rd and +b to...

  16. Quantitative measurement of hypertrophic scar: interrater reliability and concurrent validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedelec, Bernadette; Correa, José A; Rachelska, Grazyna; Armour, Alexis; LaSalle, Léo

    2008-01-01

    Research into the pathophysiology and treatment of hypertrophic scar (HSc) remains limited by the heterogeneity of scar and the imprecision with which its severity is measured. The objective of this study was to test the interrater reliability and concurrent validity of the Cutometer measurement of elasticity, the Mexameter measurement of erythema and pigmentation, and total thickness measure of the DermaScan C relative to the modified Vancouver Scar Scale (mVSS) in patient-matched normal skin, normal scar, and HSc. Three independent investigators evaluated 128 sites (severe HSc, moderate or mild HSc, donor site, and normal skin) on 32 burn survivors using all of the above measurement tools. The intraclass correlation coefficient, which was used to measure interrater reliability, reflects the inherent amount of error in the measure and is considered acceptable when it is >0.75. Interrater reliability of the totals of the height, pliability, and vascularity subscales of the mVSS fell below the acceptable limit ( congruent with0.50). The individual subscales of the mVSS fell well below the acceptable level (0.89) for each study site with the exception of severe scar. Mexameter and DermaScan C reliability measurements were acceptable for all sites (>0.82). Concurrent validity correlations with the mVSS were significant except for the comparison of the mVSS pliability subscale and the Cutometer maximum deformation measure comparison in severe scar. In conclusion, the Mexameter and DermaScan C measurements of scar color and thickness of all sites, as well as the Cutometer measurement of elasticity in all but the most severe scars shows high interrater reliability. Their significant concurrent validity with the mVSS confirms that these tools are measuring the same traits as the mVSS, and in a more objective way.

  17. Innovative Mobile Smart Photonic Dimensional, Color and Spectral Measurement Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Dr Dietrich, Prof; Dittrich (B. Eng. , Paul-Gerald; Höfner (B. Eng. , Dieter; Kraus, Daniel

    2015-02-01

    Aim of the paper is the demonstration of a paradigm shift in dimensional, color and spectral measurements in industry, biology/medicine, farming/environmental protection and security, as well as in education and training: Measurement engineering and quality assurance become mobile, modular and smart. Smartpads, smartphones and smartwatches (smartcomps) in combination with innovative hardware apps (hwapps) and conventional software apps (swapps) are fundamental enablers for the transformation from conventional stationary working places towards innovative mobile working places with in-field measurements and point-of-care (POC) diagnostics. Furthermore mobile open online courses (MOOCs) are transforming the study habits. Practical examples for the application of innovative photonic micro dimensiometers, colorimeters and spectrometers will be given. The innovative approach opens so far untapped enormous markets for measurement science, engineering, applications, education and training. These innovative working conditions will be fast accepted due to their convenience, reliability and affordability. A highly visible advantage of smartcomps is the huge number of their real distribution, their worldwide connectivity via Internet and cloud services, the standardized interfaces like USB and HDMI and the experienced capabilities of their users for practical operations, obtained with their private smartcomps.

  18. Innovative Mobile Smart Photonic Dimensional, Color and Spectral Measurement Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, Dietrich; Dittrich, Paul-Gerald; Höfner, Dieter; Kraus, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Aim of the paper is the demonstration of a paradigm shift in dimensional, color and spectral measurements in industry, biology/medicine, farming/environmental protection and security, as well as in education and training: Measurement engineering and quality assurance become mobile, modular and smart. Smartpads, smartphones and smartwatches (smartcomps) in combination with innovative hardware apps (hwapps) and conventional software apps (swapps) are fundamental enablers for the transformation from conventional stationary working places towards innovative mobile working places with in-field measurements and point-of-care (POC) diagnostics. Furthermore mobile open online courses (MOOCs) are transforming the study habits. Practical examples for the application of innovative photonic micro dimensiometers, colorimeters and spectrometers will be given. The innovative approach opens so far untapped enormous markets for measurement science, engineering, applications, education and training. These innovative working conditions will be fast accepted due to their convenience, reliability and affordability. A highly visible advantage of smartcomps is the huge number of their real distribution, their worldwide connectivity via Internet and cloud services, the standardized interfaces like USB and HDMI and the experienced capabilities of their users for practical operations, obtained with their private smartcomps

  19. Rigorous results on measuring the quark charge below color threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipkin, H.J.

    1979-01-01

    Rigorous theorems are presented showing that contributions from a color nonsinglet component of the current to matrix elements of a second order electromagnetic transition are suppressed by factors inversely proportional to the energy of the color threshold. Parton models which obtain matrix elements proportional to the color average of the square of the quark charge are shown to neglect terms of the same order of magnitude as terms kept. (author)

  20. The Validity of Subjective Performance Measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Kenneth J.; Winter, Søren C.; O'Toole, Laurence J.

    2015-01-01

    to provide, and are highly policy specific rendering generalization difficult. But are perceptual performance measures valid, and do they generate unbiased findings? We examine these questions in a comparative study of middle managers in schools in Texas and Denmark. The findings are remarkably similar...

  1. Validated Spectrophotometric Methods for Simultaneous Determination of Food Colorants and Sweeteners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Turak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two simple spectrophotometric methods have been proposed for simultaneous determination of two colorants (Indigotin and Brilliant Blue and two sweeteners (Acesulfame-K and Aspartame in synthetic mixtures and chewing gums without any prior separation or purification. The first method, derivative spectrophotometry (ZCDS, is based on recording the first derivative curves (for Indigotin, Brillant Blue, and Acesulfame-K and third-derivative curve (for Aspartame and determining each component using the zero-crossing technique. The other method, ratio derivative spectrophotometry (RDS, depends on application ratio spectra of first- and third-derivative spectrophotometry to resolve the interference due to spectral overlapping. Both colorants and sweeteners showed good linearity, with regression coefficients of 0.9992–0.9999. The LOD and LOQ values ranged from 0.05 to 0.33 μgmL−1 and from 0.06 to 0.47 μgmL−1, respectively. The intraday and interday precision tests produced good RSD% values (<0.81%; recoveries ranged from 99.78% to 100.67% for all two methods. The accuracy and precision of the methods have been determined, and the methods have been validated by analyzing synthetic mixtures containing colorants and sweeteners. Two methods were applied for the above combination, and satisfactory results were obtained. The results obtained by applying the ZCDS method were statistically compared with those obtained by the RDS method.

  2. Evaluation of reliability and validity of three dental color-matching devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiliagkou, Aikaterini; Diamantopoulou, Sofia; Papazoglou, Efstratios; Kakaboura, Afrodite

    2016-01-01

    To assess the repeatability and accuracy of three dental color-matching devices under standardized and freehand measurement conditions. Two shade guides (Vita Classical A1-D4, Vita; and Vita Toothguide 3D-Master, Vita), and three color-matching devices (Easyshade, Vita; SpectroShade, MHT Optic Research; and ShadeVision, X-Rite) were used. Five shade tabs were selected from the Vita Classical A1-D4 (A2, A3.5, B1, C4, D3), and five from the Vita Toothguide 3D-Master (1M1, 2R1.5, 3M2, 4L2.5, 5M3) shade guides. Each shade tab was recorded 15 continuous, repeated times with each device under two different measurement conditions (standardized, and freehand). Both qualitative (color shade) and quantitative (L, a, and b) color characteristics were recorded. The color difference (ΔE) of each recorded value with the known values of the shade tab was calculated. The repeatability of each device was evaluated by the coefficient of variance. The accuracy of each device was determined by comparing the recorded values with the known values of the reference shade tab (one sample t test; α = 0.05). The agreement between the recorded shade and the reference shade tab was calculated. The influence of the parameters (devices and conditions) on the parameter ΔE was investigated (two-way ANOVA). Comparison of the devices was performed with Bonferroni pairwise post-hoc analysis. Under standardized conditions, repeatability of all three devices was very good, except for ShadeVision with Vita Classical A1-D4. Accuracy ranged from good to fair, depending on the device and the shade guide. Under freehand conditions, repeatability and accuracy for Easyshade and ShadeVision were negatively influenced, but not for SpectroShade, regardless of the shade guide. Based on the total of the color parameters assessed per device, SpectroShade was the most reliable of the three color-matching devices studied.

  3. Minimization of operational impacts on spectrophotometer color measurements for cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    A key cotton quality and processing property that is gaining increasing importance is the color of the cotton. Cotton fiber in the U.S. is classified for color using the Uster® High Volume Instrument (HVI), using the parameters Rd and +b. Rd and +b are specific to cotton fiber and are not typical ...

  4. Fiber sample presentation system for spectrophotometer cotton fiber color measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Uster® High Volume Instrument (HVI) is used to class U.S. cotton for fiber color, yielding the industry accepted, cotton-specific color parameters Rd and +b. The HVI examines a 9 square inch fiber sample, and it is also used to test large AMS standard cotton “biscuits” or rectangles. Much inte...

  5. Color measurement of methylene blue dye/clay mixtures and its application using economical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milosevic, Maja; Kaludjerovic, Lazar; Logar, Mihovil

    2016-04-01

    Identifying the clay mineral components of clay materials by staining tests is rapid and simple, but their applicability is restricted because of the mutual interference of the common components of clay materials and difficulties in color determination. The change of color with concentration of the dye is related to the use of colorants as a field test for identifying clay minerals and has been improved over the years to assure the accuracy of the tests (Faust G. T., 1940). The problem of measurement and standardization of color may be solved by combination of colors observed in staining tests with prepared charts of color chips available in the Munsell Book of Color, published by Munsell Color Co. Under a particular set of illumination conditions, a human eye can achieve an approximate match between the color of the dyed clay sample and that of a standard color chip, even though they do have different spectral reflectance characteristics. Experiments were carried out with diffuse reflectance spectroscopy on selected clay samples (three montmorillonite, three kaolinite and one mix-layer clay samples) saturated with different concentration of methylene blue dye solution. Dominant wavelength and purity of the color was obtained on oriented dry samples and calculated by use of the I. C. I. (x, y) - diagram in the region of 400-700 nm (reflectance spectra) without MB and after saturation with different concentrations of MB solutions. Samples were carefully photographed in the natural light environment and processed with user friendly and easily accessible applications (Adobe color CC and ColorHexa encyclopedia) available for android phones or tablets. Obtained colors were compared with Munsell standard color chips, RGB and Hexa color standards. Changes in the color of clay samples in their interaction with different concentration of the applied dye together with application of economical methods can still be used as a rapid fieldwork test. Different types of clay

  6. Validation of 3D documentation of palatal soft tissue shape, color, and irregularity with intraoral scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deferm, Julie T; Schreurs, Ruud; Baan, Frank; Bruggink, Robin; Merkx, Matthijs A W; Xi, Tong; Bergé, Stefaan J; Maal, Thomas J J

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of 3D intraoral scanning for documentation of palatal soft tissue by evaluating the accuracy of shape, color, and curvature. Intraoral scans of ten participants' upper dentition and palate were acquired with the TRIOS® 3D intraoral scanner by two observers. Conventional impressions were taken and digitized as a gold standard. The resulting surface models were aligned using an Iterative Closest Point approach. The absolute distance measurements between the intraoral models and the digitized impression were used to quantify the trueness and precision of intraoral scanning. The mean color of the palatal soft tissue was extracted in HSV (hue, saturation, value) format to establish the color precision. Finally, the mean curvature of the surface models was calculated and used for surface irregularity. Mean average distance error between the conventional impression models and the intraoral models was 0.02 ± 0.07 mm (p = 0.30). Mean interobserver color difference was - 0.08 ± 1.49° (p = 0.864), 0.28 ± 0.78% (p = 0.286), and 0.30 ± 1.14% (p = 0.426) for respectively hue, saturation, and value. The interobserver differences for overall and maximum surface irregularity were 0.01 ± 0.03 and 0.00 ± 0.05 mm. This study supports the hypothesis that the intraoral scan can perform a 3D documentation of palatal soft tissue in terms of shape, color, and curvature. An intraoral scanner can be an objective tool, adjunctive to the clinical examination of the palatal tissue.

  7. Development of a Method for Measuring the Range of Colors Indicated by Terms Used on Color Samples and Digital Cameras

    OpenAIRE

    畑田, 明信; Hatada, Akinobu

    2009-01-01

     色を指す言葉が示す色空間上の範囲は、その言葉を使う人間の文化的な背景や個人的な嗜好に大きく左右される。このような色を指す言葉が示す色の範囲を測定するための方法は一般的には存在しない。本研究では実験協力者に色見本帳に色を指す言葉に対応する色見本に印をつけてもらい、それをデジタルスチルカメラで撮影した画像から、物理的な色範囲に変換する手法の開発を行った。Color gamut of color word would be different by each personality, background of culture. In other hand, there is no standard method for measuring a gamut of color word. This paper reports a trial of developing a new method of measuring color gamut of color word, and some practical test result by pilot system. It use co...

  8. Top quark mass measurement and color effects at the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalchuk, Nataliia

    2018-04-01

    . Additionally, a tune for a possible color reconnection between the different multiple parton interaction systems is performed for the recently available QCD-inspired model. The predictions obtained by this tune are able to describe underlying event observables as well as measured charged particle multiplicities. The results are used for a more reliable estimation of the corresponding systematic uncertainty.

  9. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... valid prescription that includes the brand name, lens measurements, and expiration date. Purchase the colored contact lenses ... with human-made versions. U.S. News Highlights the Value of Ophthalmologists APR 20, 2018 By Dan T. ...

  10. Comparison of the color of natural teeth measured by a colorimeter and Shade Vision System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Byeong-Hoon; Lim, Yong-Kyu; Lee, Yong-Keun

    2007-10-01

    The objectives were to measure the difference in the color and color parameters of natural teeth measured by a tristimulus colorimeter (CM, used as a reference) and Shade Vision System (SV), and to determine the influence of color parameters on the color difference between the values measured by two instruments. Color of 12 maxillary and mandibular anterior teeth was measured by CM and SV for 47 volunteers (number of teeth=564). Color parameters such as CIE L*, a* and b* values, chroma and hue angle measured by two instruments were compared. Chroma was calculated as C*ab=(a*2 = b*2)1/2, and hue angle was calculated as h degrees =arctan(b*/a*). The influence of color parameters measured by CM on the color difference (DeltaE*(ab)) between the values measured by two instruments was analyzed with multiple regression analysis (alpha=0.01). Mean DeltaE*(ab) value between the values measured by two instruments was 21.7 (+/-3.7), and the mean difference in lightness (CIE L*) and chroma was 16.2 (+/-3.9) and 13.2 (+/-3.0), respectively. Difference in hue angle was high as 132.7 (+/-53.3) degrees . Except for the hue angle, all the color parameters showed significant correlations and the coefficient of determination (r(2)) was in the range of 0.089-0.478. Based on multiple regression analysis, the standardized partial correlation coefficient (beta) of the included predictors for the color difference was -0.710 for CIE L* and -0.300 for C*(ab) (p<0.01). All the color parameters showed significant but weak correlations except for hue angle. When lightness and chroma of teeth were high, color difference between the values measured by two instruments was small. Clinical accuracy of two instruments should be investigated further.

  11. Validity and reliability of food security measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafiero, Carlo; Melgar-Quiñonez, Hugo R; Ballard, Terri J; Kepple, Anne W

    2014-12-01

    This paper reviews some of the existing food security indicators, discussing the validity of the underlying concept and the expected reliability of measures under reasonably feasible conditions. The main objective of the paper is to raise awareness on existing trade-offs between different qualities of possible food security measurement tools that must be taken into account when such tools are proposed for practical application, especially for use within an international monitoring framework. The hope is to provide a timely, useful contribution to the process leading to the definition of a food security goal and the associated monitoring framework within the post-2015 Development Agenda. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  12. A quantitative measurement of binocular color fusion limit for different disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zaiqing; Shi, Junsheng; Tai, Yonghan; Huang, Xiaoqiao; Yun, Lijun; Zhang, Chao

    2018-01-01

    Color asymmetry is a common phenomenon in stereoscopic display system, which can cause visual fatigue or visual discomfort. When the color difference between the left and right eyes exceeds a threshold value, named binocular color fusion limit, color rivalry is said to occur. The most important information brought by stereoscopic displays is the depth perception produced by the disparity. As the stereo pair stimuli are presented separately to both eyes with disparities and those two monocular stimuli differ in color but share an iso-luminance polarity, it is possible for stereopsis and color rivalry to coexist. In this paper, we conducted an experiment to measure the color fusion limit for different disparity levels. In particular, it examines how the magnitude and sign of disparity affect the binocular color fusion limit that yields a fused, stable stereoscopic percept. The binocular color fusion limit was measured at five levels of disparities: 0, +/-60, +/-120 arc minutes for a sample color point which was selected from the 1976 CIE u'v' chromaticity diagram. The experimental results showed that fusion limit for the sample point varied with the level and sign of disparity. It was an interesting result that the fusion limit increased as the disparity decreases at crossed disparity direction (sign -), but there is almost no big change at uncrossed disparity direction (sign +). We found that color fusion was more difficult to achieve at the crossed disparity direction than at the uncrossed disparity direction.

  13. Color Trails Test: normative data and criterion validity for the greek adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messinis, Lambros; Malegiannaki, Amaryllis-Chryssi; Christodoulou, Tessa; Panagiotopoulos, Vassillis; Papathanasopoulos, Panagiotis

    2011-06-01

    The Color Trails Test (CTT) was developed as a culturally fair analog of the Trail Making Test. In the present study, normative data for the CTT were developed for the Greek adult population and further the criterion validity of the CTT was examined in two clinical groups (29 Parkinson's disease [PD] and 25 acute stroke patients). The instrument was applied to 163 healthy participants, aged 19-75. Stepwise linear regression analyses revealed a significant influence of age and education level on completion time in both parts of the CTT (increased age and decreased educational level contributed to slower completion times for both parts), whereas gender did not influence time to completion of part B. Further, the CTT appears to discriminate adequately between the performance of PD and acute stroke patients and matched healthy controls.

  14. Spectrally resolved measurements of the terahertz beam profile generated from a two-color air plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pernille Klarskov; Zalkovskij, Maksim; Strikwerda, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Using a THz camera and THz bandpass filters, we measure the frequency - resolved beam profile emitted from a two - color air plasma. We observe a frequency - independent emission angle from the plasma .......Using a THz camera and THz bandpass filters, we measure the frequency - resolved beam profile emitted from a two - color air plasma. We observe a frequency - independent emission angle from the plasma ....

  15. Discriminant validity of well-being measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, R E; Diener, E; Suh, E

    1996-09-01

    The convergent and discriminant validities of well-being concepts were examined using multitrait-multimethod matrix analyses (D. T. Campbell & D. W. Fiske, 1959) on 3 sets of data. In Study 1, participants completed measures of life satisfaction, positive affect, negative affect, self-esteem, and optimism on 2 occasions 4 weeks apart and also obtained 3 informant ratings. In Study 2, participants completed each of the 5 measures on 2 occasions 2 years apart and collected informant reports at Time 2. In Study 3, participants completed 2 different scales for each of the 5 constructs. Analyses showed that (a) life satisfaction is discriminable from positive and negative affect, (b) positive affect is discriminable from negative affect, (c) life satisfaction is discriminable from optimism and self-esteem, and (d) optimism is separable from trait measures of negative affect.

  16. Broadband IR Measurements for Modis Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessup, Andrew T.

    2003-01-01

    The primary objective of this research was the development and deployment of autonomous shipboard systems for infrared measurement of ocean surface skin temperature (SST). The focus was on demonstrating long-term, all-weather capability and supplying calibrated skin SST to the MODIS Ocean Science Team (MOCEAN). A secondary objective was to investigate and account for environmental factors that affect in situ measurements of SST for validation of satellite products. We developed and extensively deployed the Calibrated, InfraRed, In situ Measurement System, or CIRIMS, for at-sea validation of satellite-derived SST. The design goals included autonomous operation at sea for up to 6 months and an accuracy of +/- 0.1 C. We used commercially available infrared pyrometers and a precision blackbody housed in a temperature-controlled enclosure. The sensors are calibrated at regular interval using a cylindro-cone target immersed in a temperature-controlled water bath, which allows the calibration points to follow the ocean surface temperature. An upward-looking pyrometer measures sky radiance in order to correct for the non-unity emissivity of water, which can introduce an error of up to 0.5 C. One of the most challenging aspects of the design was protection against the marine environment. A wide range of design strategies to provide accurate, all-weather measurements were investigated. The CIRIMS uses an infrared transparent window to completely protect the sensor and calibration blackbody from the marine environment. In order to evaluate the performance of this approach, the design incorporates the ability to make measurements with and without the window in the optical path.

  17. Validation of the AQT Color-Form Additive Model for Screening and Monitoring Pharmacological Treatment of ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Niels Peter; Wiig, Elisabeth Hemmersam

    2013-01-01

    Objective:This retrospective study used A Quick Test of Cognitive Speed (AQT) processing-speed and efficiency measures for evaluating sensitivity and monitoring effects during pharmacological treatment of adults with ADHD. Method: Color (C), form (F), and color-form (CF) combination naming were administered to 69 adults during outpatient…

  18. [Studies on measurement of oral mucosal color with non-contact spectrum colorimeter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohata, Yohei

    2006-03-01

    Color inspection plays an important role in the diagnosis of oral mucosal lesions. However, it is sometimes difficult to diagnose by color, because color is always evaluated subjectively. In order to measure color objectively and quantitatively, we decided to use a newly developed spectrum colorimeter for the oral mucosa. To keep the same angle and distance, a special stick was utilized. Various experiments were performed and suitable conditions for accurate colorimetric measurement were decided, including room temperature with cooling fan, onset time of the device, calibration timing, and the angle between light and the measured surface. The reproducibility of this method was confirmed by measuring the color of the buccal mucosa in healthy persons.

  19. Assessment of performance validity in the Stroop Color and Word Test in mild traumatic brain injury patients: a criterion-groups validation design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guise, Brian J; Thompson, Matthew D; Greve, Kevin W; Bianchini, Kevin J; West, Laura

    2014-03-01

    The current study assessed performance validity on the Stroop Color and Word Test (Stroop) in mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) using criterion-groups validation. The sample consisted of 77 patients with a reported history of mild TBI. Data from 42 moderate-severe TBI and 75 non-head-injured patients with other clinical diagnoses were also examined. TBI patients were categorized on the basis of Slick, Sherman, and Iverson (1999) criteria for malingered neurocognitive dysfunction (MND). Classification accuracy is reported for three indicators (Word, Color, and Color-Word residual raw scores) from the Stroop across a range of injury severities. With false-positive rates set at approximately 5%, sensitivity was as high as 29%. The clinical implications of these findings are discussed. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  20. Validation of measured friction by process tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Morten; Henningsen, Poul; Tan, Xincai

    The objective of sub-task 3.3 is to evaluate under actual process conditions the friction formulations determined by simulative testing. As regards task 3.3 the following tests have been used according to the original project plan: 1. standard ring test and 2. double cup extrusion test. The task...... has, however, been extended to include a number of new developed process tests: 3. forward rod extrusion test, 4. special ring test at low normal pressure, 5. spike test (especially developed for warm and hot forging). Validation of the measured friction values in cold forming from sub-task 3.1 has...... been made with forward rod extrusion, and very good agreement was obtained between the measured friction values in simulative testing and process testing....

  1. Prediction of fermentation index of cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.) based on color measurement and artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Roque, Noemí; Abderrahim, Mohamed; Nuñez-Alejos, Luis; Arribas, Silvia M; Condezo-Hoyos, Luis

    2016-12-01

    Several procedures are currently used to assess fermentation index (FI) of cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.) for quality control. However, all of them present several drawbacks. The aim of the present work was to develop and validate a simple image based quantitative procedure, using color measurement and artificial neural network (ANNs). ANN models based on color measurements were tested to predict fermentation index (FI) of fermented cocoa beans. The RGB values were measured from surface and center region of fermented beans in images obtained by camera and desktop scanner. The FI was defined as the ratio of total free amino acids in fermented versus non-fermented samples. The ANN model that included RGB color measurement of fermented cocoa surface and R/G ratio in cocoa bean of alkaline extracts was able to predict FI with no statistical difference compared with the experimental values. Performance of the ANN model was evaluated by the coefficient of determination, Bland-Altman plot and Passing-Bablok regression analyses. Moreover, in fermented beans, total sugar content and titratable acidity showed a similar pattern to the total free amino acid predicted through the color based ANN model. The results of the present work demonstrate that the proposed ANN model can be adopted as a low-cost and in situ procedure to predict FI in fermented cocoa beans through apps developed for mobile device. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Measurement of reactivity coefficients for code validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuding, Matthias; Loetsch, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    In the year 2003 measurements in the cold reactor state have been performed at the NPP KKI 2 in order to validate the codes that are used for reactor core calculations and especially for the proof of the shutdown margin that is produced by calculations only. For full power states code verification is quite easy because the calculations can be compared with different measured values, e.g. with the activation values determined by the aeroball system. For cold reactor states, however the data base is smaller, especially for reactor cores that are quite 'inhomogeneous' and have rather high Pu-fiss-and 235 U-contents. At the same time the cold reactor state is important regarding the shutdown margin. For these reasons the measurements mentioned above have been performed in order to check the accuracy of the codes that are used by the operator and by our organization for many years. Basically, boron concentrations and control rod worths for different configurations have been measured. The results of the calculation show a very good agreement with the measured values. Therefore, it can be stated that the operator's as well as our code system is suitable for routine use, e.g. during licensing procedures (Authors)

  3. Hunter versus CIE color measurement systems for analysis of milk-based beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ni; Barbano, David M; Drake, Mary Anne

    2018-06-01

    The objective of our work was to determine the differences in sensitivity of Hunter and International Commission on Illumination (CIE) methods at 2 different viewer angles (2 and 10°) for measurement of whiteness, red/green, and blue/yellow color of milk-based beverages over a range of composition. Sixty combinations of milk-based beverages were formulated (2 replicates) with a range of fat level from 0.2 to 2%, true protein level from 3 to 5%, and casein as a percent of true protein from 5 to 80% to provide a wide range of milk-based beverage color. In addition, commercial skim, 1 and 2% fat high-temperature, short-time pasteurized fluid milks were analyzed. All beverage formulations were HTST pasteurized and cooled to 4°C before analysis. Color measurement viewer angle (2 vs. 10°) had very little effect on objective color measures of milk-based beverages with a wide range of composition for either the Hunter or CIE color measurement system. Temperature (4, 20, and 50°C) of color measurement had a large effect on the results of color measurement in both the Hunter and CIE measurement systems. The effect of milk beverage temperature on color measurement results was the largest for skim milk and the least for 2% fat milk. This highlights the need for proper control of beverage serving temperature for sensory panel analysis of milk-based beverages with very low fat content and for control of milk temperature when doing objective color analysis for quality control in manufacture of milk-based beverages. The Hunter system of color measurement was more sensitive to differences in whiteness among milk-based beverages than the CIE system, whereas the CIE system was much more sensitive to differences in yellowness among milk-based beverages. There was little difference between the Hunter and CIE system in sensitivity to green/red color of milk-based beverages. In defining milk-based beverage product specifications for objective color measures for dairy product

  4. Competency measurements: testing convergent validity for two measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowin, Leanne S; Hengstberger-Sims, Cecily; Eagar, Sandy C; Gregory, Linda; Andrew, Sharon; Rolley, John

    2008-11-01

    This paper is a report of a study to investigate whether the Australian National Competency Standards for Registered Nurses demonstrate correlations with the Finnish Nurse Competency Scale. Competency assessment has become popular as a key regulatory requirement and performance indicator. The term competency, however, does not have a globally accepted definition and this has the potential to create controversy, ambiguity and confusion. Variations in meaning and definitions adopted in workplaces and educational settings will affect the interpretation of research findings and have implications for the nursing profession. A non-experimental cross-sectional survey design was used with a convenience sample of 116 new graduate nurses in 2005. The second version of the Australian National Competency Standards and the Nurse Competency Scale was used to elicit responses to self-assessed competency in the transitional year (first year as a Registered Nurse). Correlational analysis of self-assessed levels of competence revealed a relationship between the Australian National Competency Standards (ANCI) and the Nurse Competency Scale (NCS). The correlational relation between ANCI domains and NCS factors suggests that these scales are indeed used to measure related dimensions. A statistically significant relationship (r = 0.75) was found between the two competency measures. Although the finding of convergent validity is insufficient to establish construct validity for competency as used in both measures in this study, it is an important step towards this goal. Future studies on relationships between competencies must take into account the validity and reliability of the tools.

  5. Calculation of color difference and measurement of the spectrum of aerosol based on human visual system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Mengyan; Liu, Jianghai; Cui, Jianlin; Chen, Chunsheng; Jia, Peng

    2017-10-01

    In order to solve the problem of the quantitative test of spectrum and color of aerosol, the measurement method of spectrum of aerosol based on human visual system was proposed. The spectrum characteristics and color parameters of three different aerosols were tested, and the color differences were calculated according to the CIE1976-L*a*b* color difference formula. Three tested powders (No 1# No 2# and No 3# ) were dispersed in a plexglass box and turned into aerosol. The powder sample was released by an injector with different dosages in each experiment. The spectrum and color of aerosol were measured by the PRO 6500 Fiber Optic Spectrometer. The experimental results showed that the extinction performance of aerosol became stronger and stronger with the increase of concentration of aerosol. While the chromaticity value differences of aerosols in the experiment were so small, luminance was verified to be the main influence factor of human eye visual perception and contributed most in the three factors of the color difference calculation. The extinction effect of No 3# aerosol was the strongest of all and caused the biggest change of luminance and color difference which would arouse the strongest human visual perception. According to the sensation level of chromatic color by Chinese, recognition color difference would be produced when the dosage of No 1# powder was more than 0.10 gram, the dosage of No 2# powder was more than 0.15 gram, and the dosage of No 3# powder was more than 0.05 gram.

  6. Study on activity measurement of Nostoc flagelliforme cells based on color identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yizhong; Su, Jianyu; Liu, Tiegen; Kong, Fanzhi; Jia, Shiru

    2008-12-01

    In order to measure the activities of Nostoc flagelliforme cells, a new method based on color identification was proposed in this paper. N. flagelliforme cells were colored with fluoreseein diaeetate. Then, an image of colored N. flagelliforme cells was taken, and changed from RGB model to HIS model. Its histogram of hue H was calculated, which was used as the input of a designed BP network. The output of the BP network was the description of measured activity of N. flagelliforme cells. After training, the activity of N. flagelliforme cells was identified by the BP network according to the histogram of H of their colored image. Experiments were conducted with satisfied results to show the feasibility and usefulness of activity measurement of N. flagelliforme cells based on color identification.

  7. Measurement of luminance noise and chromaticity noise of LCDs with a colorimeter and a color camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehrig, H.; Dallas, W. J.; Krupinski, E. A.; Redford, Gary R.

    2007-09-01

    This communication focuses on physical evaluation of image quality of displays for applications in medical imaging. In particular we were interested in luminance noise as well as chromaticity noise of LCDs. Luminance noise has been encountered in the study of monochrome LCDs for some time, but chromaticity noise is a new type of noise which has been encountered first when monochrome and color LCDs were compared in an ROC study. In this present study one color and one monochrome 3 M-pixel LCDs were studied. Both were DICOM calibrated with equal dynamic range. We used a Konica Minolta Chroma Meter CS-200 as well as a Foveon color camera to estimate luminance and chrominance variations of the displays. We also used a simulation experiment to estimate luminance noise. The measurements with the colorimeter were consistent. The measurements with the Foveon color camera were very preliminary as color cameras had never been used for image quality measurements. However they were extremely promising. The measurements with the colorimeter and the simulation results showed that the luminance and chromaticity noise of the color LCD were larger than that of the monochrome LCD. Under the condition that an adequate calibration method and image QA/QC program for color displays are available, we expect color LCDs may be ready for radiology in very near future.

  8. Design study for a two-color beta measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Design analysis of the beam splitter combined two color beta system is presented. Conventional and dichroic beam splitters are discussed. Design analysis of the beta system employing two beams with focusing at separate points is presented. Alterations and basic parameters of the two beam system are discussed. Alterations in the focus of the initial laser and the returning beams are also discussed. Heterodyne efficiencies for the on axis and off axis reflected radiation are included.

  9. Theoretical evaluation of measurement uncertainties of two-color pyrometry applied to optical diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Tairan; Cheng Xiaofang; Yang Zangjian

    2008-01-01

    We present a theoretical analysis of two-color pyrometry applied to optical diagnostics. A two-color pyrometer built with a single CCD is advantageous due to the simple system design. We evaluate the possibility and degree of ill-conditionness on the basis of measurement uncertainties for different measurement approaches of this two-color system. We classify measurement approaches. The corresponding ill-conditionness criterion is established. The greater the criterion value is, the worse the ill-conditioned degree of solution is. So, the optimum choice of measurement approach for the two-color system is achieved through intercomparison of the criterion values. Numerical examples are also given to illustrate this point. The theoretical analysis not only provides an effective way of evaluating different measurement approaches, but also may help us to better understand the influences that determine the choices between wavelength/waveband measurements and calibration/noncalibration modes for temperature and soot distribution

  10. Image fusion tool: Validation by phantom measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zander, A.; Geworski, L.; Richter, M.; Ivancevic, V.; Munz, D.L.; Muehler, M.; Ditt, H.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Validation of a new image fusion tool with regard to handling, application in a clinical environment and fusion precision under different acquisition and registration settings. Methods: The image fusion tool investigated allows fusion of imaging modalities such as PET, CT, MRI. In order to investigate fusion precision, PET and MRI measurements were performed using a cylinder and a body contour-shaped phantom. The cylinder phantom (diameter and length 20 cm each) contained spheres (10 to 40 mm in diameter) which represented 'cold' or 'hot' lesions in PET measurements. The body contour-shaped phantom was equipped with a heart model containing two 'cold' lesions. Measurements were done with and without four external markers placed on the phantoms. The markers were made of plexiglass (2 cm diameter and 1 cm thickness) and contained a Ga-Ge-68 core for PET and Vitamin E for MRI measurements. Comparison of fusion results with and without markers was done visually and by computer assistance. This algorithm was applied to the different fusion parameters and phantoms. Results: Image fusion of PET and MRI data without external markers yielded a measured error of 0 resulting in a shift at the matrix border of 1.5 mm. Conclusion: The image fusion tool investigated allows a precise fusion of PET and MRI data with a translation error acceptable for clinical use. The error is further minimized by using external markers, especially in the case of missing anatomical orientation. Using PET the registration error depends almost only on the low resolution of the data

  11. Luminescent two-color tracer particles for simultaneous velocity and temperature measurements in microfluidics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massing, J; Kähler, C J; Cierpka, C; Kaden, D

    2016-01-01

    The simultaneous and non-intrusive measurement of temperature and velocity fields in flows is of great scientific and technological interest. To sample the velocity and temperature, tracer particle based approaches have been developed, where the velocity is measured using PIV or PTV and the temperature is obtained from the intensity (LIF, thermographic phosphors) or frequency (TLC) of the light emitted or reflected by the tracer particles. In this article, a measurement technique is introduced, that relates the luminescent intensity ratio of individual dual-color luminescent tracer particles to temperature. Different processing algorithms are tested on synthetic particle images and compared with respect to their accuracy in estimating the intensity ratio. Furthermore, polymer particles which are doped with the temperature sensitive dye europium (III) thenoyltrifluoroacetonate (EuTTA) and the nearly temperature insensitive reference dye perylene are characterized as valid tracers. The results show a reduction of the temperature measurement uncertainty of almost 40% (95% confidence interval) compared to previously reported luminescent particle based measurement techniques for microfluidics. (paper)

  12. Glossiness of Colored Papers based on Computer Graphics Model and Its Measuring Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aida, Teizo

    In the case of colored papers, the color of surface effects strongly upon the gloss of its paper. The new glossiness for such a colored paper is suggested in this paper. First, using the Achromatic and Chromatic Munsell colored chips, the author obtained experimental equation which represents the relation between lightness V ( or V and saturation C ) and psychological glossiness Gph of these chips. Then, the author defined a new glossiness G for the colored papers, based on the above mentioned experimental equations Gph and Cook-Torrance's reflection model which are widely used in the filed of Computer Graphics. This new glossiness is shown to be nearly proportional to the psychological glossiness Gph. The measuring system for the new glossiness G is furthermore descrived. The measuring time for one specimen is within 1 minute.

  13. Genomic ancestry, self-reported "color" and quantitative measures of skin pigmentation in Brazilian admixed siblings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tailce K M Leite

    Full Text Available A current concern in genetic epidemiology studies in admixed populations is that population stratification can lead to spurious results. The Brazilian census classifies individuals according to self-reported "color", but several studies have demonstrated that stratifying according to "color" is not a useful strategy to control for population structure, due to the dissociation between self-reported "color" and genomic ancestry. We report the results of a study in a group of Brazilian siblings in which we measured skin pigmentation using a reflectometer, and estimated genomic ancestry using 21 Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMs. Self-reported "color", according to the Brazilian census, was also available for each participant. This made it possible to evaluate the relationship between self-reported "color" and skin pigmentation, self-reported "color" and genomic ancestry, and skin pigmentation and genomic ancestry. We observed that, although there were significant differences between the three "color" groups in genomic ancestry and skin pigmentation, there was considerable dispersion within each group and substantial overlap between groups. We also saw that there was no good agreement between the "color" categories reported by each member of the sibling pair: 30 out of 86 sibling pairs reported different "color", and in some cases, the sibling reporting the darker "color" category had lighter skin pigmentation. Socioeconomic status was significantly associated with self-reported "color" and genomic ancestry in this sample. This and other studies show that subjective classifications based on self-reported "color", such as the one that is used in the Brazilian census, are inadequate to describe the population structure present in recently admixed populations. Finally, we observed that one of the AIMs included in the panel (rs1426654, which is located in the known pigmentation gene SLC24A5, was strongly associated with skin pigmentation in this sample.

  14. Genomic ancestry, self-reported "color" and quantitative measures of skin pigmentation in Brazilian admixed siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Tailce K M; Fonseca, Rômulo M C; de França, Nanci M; Parra, Esteban J; Pereira, Rinaldo W

    2011-01-01

    A current concern in genetic epidemiology studies in admixed populations is that population stratification can lead to spurious results. The Brazilian census classifies individuals according to self-reported "color", but several studies have demonstrated that stratifying according to "color" is not a useful strategy to control for population structure, due to the dissociation between self-reported "color" and genomic ancestry. We report the results of a study in a group of Brazilian siblings in which we measured skin pigmentation using a reflectometer, and estimated genomic ancestry using 21 Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMs). Self-reported "color", according to the Brazilian census, was also available for each participant. This made it possible to evaluate the relationship between self-reported "color" and skin pigmentation, self-reported "color" and genomic ancestry, and skin pigmentation and genomic ancestry. We observed that, although there were significant differences between the three "color" groups in genomic ancestry and skin pigmentation, there was considerable dispersion within each group and substantial overlap between groups. We also saw that there was no good agreement between the "color" categories reported by each member of the sibling pair: 30 out of 86 sibling pairs reported different "color", and in some cases, the sibling reporting the darker "color" category had lighter skin pigmentation. Socioeconomic status was significantly associated with self-reported "color" and genomic ancestry in this sample. This and other studies show that subjective classifications based on self-reported "color", such as the one that is used in the Brazilian census, are inadequate to describe the population structure present in recently admixed populations. Finally, we observed that one of the AIMs included in the panel (rs1426654), which is located in the known pigmentation gene SLC24A5, was strongly associated with skin pigmentation in this sample.

  15. Genetic Determinants of Skin Color, Aging, and Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.C. Jacobs (Leonie)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractChapter 1 gives a general introduction to this thesis. In Chapter 2 we validated perceived skin color as skin color measurement. In Chapter 3 we investigated whether digitally quantified skin color was a suitable measure to discover new skin color genes. In Chapter 4 we

  16. Present status and task of color measurement method; Sokushiki hoho no genjo to kadai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsui, Hideyuki [Minolta Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-11-01

    Certainly the problem of the color of the appearance occurs, when goods are made. In case of the visual observation, it is generated by individual difference. It may become the comparison under the different condition, even if the colorimeter is used, and the problem occurs. It is observed in the combination of light source and object and eye, when the human observes the color. The fact is to digitize the condition of the visual observation of measuring the color of the object. It is necessary to fix the viewing condition, when surface state of the object is measured. (NEDO)

  17. Classification of Hyperspectral or Trichromatic Measurements of Ocean Color Data into Spectral Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilip K. Prasad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We propose a method for classifying radiometric oceanic color data measured by hyperspectral satellite sensors into known spectral classes, irrespective of the downwelling irradiance of the particular day, i.e., the illumination conditions. The focus is not on retrieving the inherent optical properties but to classify the pixels according to the known spectral classes of the reflectances from the ocean. The method compensates for the unknown downwelling irradiance by white balancing the radiometric data at the ocean pixels using the radiometric data of bright pixels (typically from clouds. The white-balanced data is compared with the entries in a pre-calibrated lookup table in which each entry represents the spectral properties of one class. The proposed approach is tested on two datasets of in situ measurements and 26 different daylight illumination spectra for medium resolution imaging spectrometer (MERIS, moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS, sea-viewing wide field-of-view sensor (SeaWiFS, coastal zone color scanner (CZCS, ocean and land colour instrument (OLCI, and visible infrared imaging radiometer suite (VIIRS sensors. Results are also shown for CIMEL’s SeaPRISM sun photometer sensor used on-board field trips. Accuracy of more than 92% is observed on the validation dataset and more than 86% is observed on the other dataset for all satellite sensors. The potential of applying the algorithms to non-satellite and non-multi-spectral sensors mountable on airborne systems is demonstrated by showing classification results for two consumer cameras. Classification on actual MERIS data is also shown. Additional results comparing the spectra of remote sensing reflectance with level 2 MERIS data and chlorophyll concentration estimates of the data are included.

  18. Food color and appearance measurement, specification and communication, can we do better?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchings, John; Singleton, Mark; Plater, Keith; Dias, Benjamin

    2002-06-01

    Conventional methods of color specification demand a sample that is flat, uniformly colored, diffusely reflecting and opaque. Very many natural, processed and manufactured foods, on the other hand, are three-dimensional, irregularly shaped unevenly colored and translucent. Hence, spectrophotometers and tristimulus colorimeters can only be used for reliable and accurate color measurement in certain cases and under controlled conditions. These techniques are certainly unsuitable for specification of color patterning and other factors of total appearance in which, for example, surface texture and gloss interfere with the surface color. Hence, conventional techniques are more appropriate to food materials than to foods themselves. This paper reports investigations on the application of digital camera and screen technologies to these problems. Results indicated that accuracy sufficient for wide scale use in the food industry is obtainable. Measurement applications include the specification and automatic measurement and classification of total appearance properties of three-dimensional products. This will be applicable to specification and monitoring of fruit and vegetables within the growing, storage and marketing supply chain and to on-line monitoring. Applications to sensory panels include monitoring of color and appearance changes occurring during paneling and the development of physical reference scales based pigment chemistry changes. Digital technology will be extendable to the on-screen judging of real and virtual products as well as to the improvement of appearance archiving and communication.

  19. Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation. Volume 2; Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, James L. (Editor); Fargion, Giulietta S. (Editor); Trees, C.; Austin, R. W.; Pietras, C. (Editor); Hooker, S.; Holben, B.; McClain, Charles R.; Clark, D. K.; Yuen, M.

    2002-01-01

    This document stipulates protocols for measuring bio-optical and radiometric data for the SIMBIOS Project. It supersedes the earlier version, and is organized into four parts: Introductory Background, Instrument Characteristics, Field Measurements and Data Analysis, Data Reporting and Archival. Changes in this revision include the addition of three new chapters: (1) Fundamental Definitions, Relationships and Conventions; (2) MOBY, A Radiometric Buoy for Performance Monitoring and Vicarious Calibration of Satellite Ocean Color Sensors: Measurement and Data Analysis Protocols; and (3) Normalized Water-Leaving Radiance and Remote Sensing Reflectance: Bidirectional Reflectance and Other Factors. Although the present document represents another significant, incremental improvement in the ocean optics protocols, there are several protocols that have either been overtaken by recent technological progress, or have been otherwise identified as inadequate. Revision 4 is scheduled for completion sometime in 2003. This technical report is not meant as a substitute for scientific literature. Instead, it will provide a ready and responsive vehicle for the multitude of technical reports issued by an operational Project. The contributions are published as submitted, after only minor editing to correct obvious grammatical or clerical errors.

  20. Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation. Volume 1; Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, James L. (Editor); Fargion, Giulietta (Editor); Mueller, J. L.; Trees, C.; Austin, R. W.; Pietras, C.; Hooker, S.; Holben, B.; McClain, Charles R.; Clark, D. K.; hide

    2002-01-01

    This document stipulates protocols for measuring bio-optical and radiometric data for the SIMBIOS Project. It supersedes the earlier version, and is organized into four parts: Introductory Background, Instrument Characteristics, Field Measurements and Data Analysis, Data Reporting and Archival. Changes in this revision include the addition of three new chapters: (1) Fundamental Definitions, Relationships and Conventions; (2) MOBY, A Radiometric Buoy for Performance Monitoring and Vicarious Calibration of Satellite Ocean Color Sensors: Measurement and Data Analysis Protocols; and (3) Normalized Water-Leaving Radiance and Remote Sensing Reflectance: Bidirectional Reflectance and Other Factors. Although the present document represents another significant, incremental improvement in the ocean optics protocols, there are several protocols that have either been overtaken by recent technological progress, or have been otherwise identified as inadequate. Revision 4 is scheduled for completion sometime in 2003. This technical report is not meant as a substitute for scientific literature. Instead, it will provide a ready and responsive vehicle for the multitude of technical reports issued by an operational Project. The contributions are published as submitted, after only minor editing to correct obvious grammatical or clerical errors.

  1. Measuring Multiple Minority Stress: The LGBT People of Color Microaggressions Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsam, Kimberly F.; Molina, Yamile; Beadnell, Blair; Simoni, Jane; Walters, Karina

    2014-01-01

    Lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals who are also racial/ethnic minorities (LGBT-POC) are a multiply marginalized population subject to microaggressions associated with both racism and heterosexism. To date, research on this population has been hampered by the lack of a measurement tool to assess the unique experiences associated with the intersection of these oppressions. To address this gap in the literature, we conducted a three-phase, mixed method empirical study to assess microaggressions among LGBT-POC. The LGBT People of Color Microaggressions Scale is an 18-item self-report scale assessing the unique types of microaggressions experienced by ethnic minority LGBT adults. The measure includes three subscales: (a) Racism in LGBT communities, (b) Heterosexism in Racial/Ethnic Minority Communities, and (c) Racism in Dating and Close Relationships, that are theoretically consistent with prior literature on racial/ethnic minority LGBTs and have strong psychometric properties including internal consistency and construct validity in terms of correlations with measures of psychological distress and LGBT-identity variables. Men scored higher on the LGBT-PCMS than women, lesbians and gay men scored higher than bisexual women and men, and Asian Americans scored higher than African Americans and Latina/os. PMID:21604840

  2. Validating Measures of Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Michael

    2007-01-01

    According to Schilling, Blunk, and Hill, the set of papers presented in this journal issue had two main purposes: (1) to use an argument-based approach to evaluate the validity of the tests of mathematical knowledge for teaching (MKT), and (2) to critically assess the author's version of an argument-based approach to validation (Kane, 2001, 2004).…

  3. Raman spectroscopy for the identification of pigments and color measurement in Dugès watercolors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frausto-Reyes, C.; Ortiz-Morales, M.; Bujdud-Pérez, J. M.; Magaña-Cota, G. E.; Mejía-Falcón, R.

    2009-12-01

    Spectroscopic and colorimetric analysis of a representative set of Dugès watercolor paintings was performed. These paintings were the result of scientific studies carried out by the zoologist Alfredo Dugès, who recorded the fauna of the Mexican Republic between 1853 and 1910. Micro-Raman spectroscopy, with an excitation wavelength of 830 nm, and colorimetric techniques were employed in order to understand if different colors with the same hue were reproduced using the same pigments. The color coordinates of the measured areas were obtained in the CIE L* a* b* color space. Raman analysis showed that, in some cases, to reproduce colors with the same hue the pigment employed was not the same. Pigments identified in the watercolors were vermilion, carbon-based black, lead white, gamboge and chrome yellow, Prussian and ultramarine blue. Some of these pigments have been used since ancient times, others as Prussian blue, chrome yellow and synthetic ultramarine blue arrived to the market at the beginning of the 18th and 19th centuries, respectively. Furthermore, regarding the white color, instead of left the paper unpainted, lead white was detected in the eye of a bird. The green color was obtained by mixing Prussian blue with chrome yellow. The results of this work show the suitability of using Raman spectroscopy for watercolor pigment analysis and colorimetric techniques to measure the color of small areas (246 μm × 246 μm) that was the case for the lead white pigment.

  4. Radiation induced coloring of glasses measured during and after electron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swyler, K.J.; Hardy, W.H. II; Levy, P.W.

    1975-01-01

    The growth of color centers during irradiation, and the decay after irradiation, were studied in two glasses using recently developed equipment for making optical absorption and luminescence measurements during and after electron irradiation. The glasses studied were NBS 710, a soda-lime silicate glass, and NBS 711, a lead silicate glass. Both glasses exhibit similar coloring characteristics. The radiation-induced absorption spectra consists of a weak gaussian shaped band in the visible, a stronger gaussian band in the ultraviolet, and a band edge ''shift'' which may be accurately approximated by a third gaussian band. For all absorption bands, the color center vs dose (or irradiation time) curves can be accurately resolved into two saturating exponential and one linear component. The decay curves obtained after the irradiation is terminated can be accurately expressed by three exponential components. Coloring and decay curves made at different dose rates indicate that the processes responsible for decay after irradiation and electron hole recombination during irradiation play important roles in determining the rate and extent of coloring. Results are qualitatively in agreement with some very simple kinetic treatments for color center formation. In some, but not all, respects the quantitative agreement is also good. Lastly, the results indicate that it is necessary to make measurements during irradiation to establish the formation kinetics of color centers that are unstable at the bombardment temperature. (U.S.)

  5. Real-time three-dimensional surface measurement by color encoded light projection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S. Y.; Li, Y. F.; Guan, Q.; Xiao, G.

    2006-01-01

    Existing noncontact methods for surface measurement suffer from the disadvantages of poor reliability, low scanning speed, or high cost. The authors present a method for real-time three-dimensional data acquisition by a color-coded vision sensor composed of common components. The authors use a digital projector controlled by computer to generate desired color light patterns. The unique indexing of the light codes is a key problem and is solved in this study so that surface perception can be performed with only local pattern analysis of the neighbor color codes in a single image. Experimental examples and performance analysis are provided

  6. Evaluation of nonradioactive, colored microspheres for measurement of regional myocardial blood flow in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hale, S.L.; Alker, K.J.; Kloner, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    Measurement of regional myocardial blood flow (RMBF) is crucial in experimental studies of myocardial ischemia and reperfusion in dogs. The standard measurement technique uses radioactive microspheres; however, not all institutions are able to dispose of radioactive waste and therefore cannot make use of this method. We tested a new, nonradioactive microsphere, labeled with colors instead of nuclides. Simultaneous blood flow measurements with two nuclide-labeled and two colored microspheres were performed after coronary occlusion in dogs. Both techniques show a within-method correlation of r greater than 0.98. Duplicate variability for paired RMBF values in 80 samples was 8.7 +/- 0.1% when computed with radioactive microspheres and 13.2 +/- 1.8% when computed with colored microspheres. There was a good correlation in the measurement of RMBF between the radioactive- and colored-microsphere methods (r = 0.98). The best-fitting linear regression line was expressed by the formula: Colored-microsphere RMBF = 1.11 (radioactive-microsphere RMBF)-0.02. When measured by colored microspheres, RMBF was approximately 8% higher than when computed with radioactive microspheres for blood flow values of 0-2 ml/min/g. When blood flow was increased pharmacologically to levels of 2-7.5 ml/min/g, colored microspheres yielded blood flow values 39% higher than the values computed by radioactive microspheres. We conclude that the nonradioactive, colored-microsphere method correlates with the radioactive technique, but at high flows, it yields values greater than those obtained with radioactive microspheres

  7. Color measurement of plastics - From compounding via pelletizing, up to injection molding and extrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botos, J.; Murail, N.; Heidemeyer, P.; Kretschmer, K.; Ulmer, B.; Zentgraf, T.; Bastian, M.; Hochrein, T.

    2014-05-01

    The typical offline color measurement on injection molded or pressed specimens is a very expensive and time-consuming process. In order to optimize the productivity and quality, it is desirable to measure the color already during the production. Therefore several systems have been developed to monitor the color e.g. on melts, strands, pellets, the extrudate or injection molded part already during the process. Different kinds of inline, online and atline methods with their respective advantages and disadvantages will be compared. The criteria are e.g. the testing time, which ranges from real-time to some minutes, the required calibration procedure, the spectral resolution and the final measuring precision. The latter ranges between 0.05 to 0.5 in the CIE L*a*b* system depending on the particular measurement system. Due to the high temperatures in typical plastics processes thermochromism of polymers and dyes has to be taken into account. This effect can influence the color value in the magnitude of some 10% and is barely understood so far. Different suitable methods to compensate thermochromic effects during compounding or injection molding by using calibration curves or artificial neural networks are presented. Furthermore it is even possible to control the color during extrusion and compounding almost in real-time. The goal is a specific developed software for adjusting the color recipe automatically with the final objective of a closed-loop control.

  8. Digit-color synaesthesia only enhances memory for colors in a specific context: A new method of duration thresholds to measure serial recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichmann, A Lina; Nieuwenstein, Mark R; Rich, Anina N

    2017-08-01

    For digit-color synaesthetes, digits elicit vivid experiences of color that are highly consistent for each individual. The conscious experience of synaesthesia is typically unidirectional: Digits evoke colors but not vice versa. There is an ongoing debate about whether synaesthetes have a memory advantage over non-synaesthetes. One key question in this debate is whether synaesthetes have a general superiority or whether any benefit is specific to a certain type of material. Here, we focus on immediate serial recall and ask digit-color synaesthetes and controls to memorize digit and color sequences. We developed a sensitive staircase method manipulating presentation duration to measure participants' serial recall of both overlearned and novel sequences. Our results show that synaesthetes can activate digit information to enhance serial memory for color sequences. When color sequences corresponded to ascending or descending digit sequences, synaesthetes encoded these sequences at a faster rate than their non-synaesthetes counterparts and faster than non-structured color sequences. However, encoding color sequences is approximately 200 ms slower than encoding digit sequences directly, independent of group and condition, which shows that the translation process is time consuming. These results suggest memory advantages in synaesthesia require a modified dual-coding account, in which secondary (synaesthetically linked) information is useful only if it is more memorable than the primary information to be recalled. Our study further shows that duration thresholds are a sensitive method to measure subtle differences in serial recall performance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Clinical validation of a medical grade color monitor for chest radiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, J.; Zanca, F.; Verschakelen, J.; Marchal, G.; Bosmans, H.

    2009-02-01

    Until recently, the specifications of medical grade monochrome LCD monitors outperformed those of color LCD monitors. New generations of color LCD monitors, however, show specifications that are in many respects similar to those of monochrome monitors typically used in diagnostic workstations. The aim of present study was to evaluate the impact of different medical grade monitors in terms of detection of simulated lung nodules in chest x-ray images. Specifically, we wanted to compare a new medical grade color monitor (Barco Coronis 6MP color) to a medical grade grayscale monitor (Barco Coronis 3MP monochrome) and a consumer color monitor (Philips 200VW 1.7MP color) by means of an observer performance experiment. Using the free-response acquisition data paradigm, seven radiologists were asked to detect and locate lung nodules (170 in total), simulated in half of the 200 chest X-ray images used in the experiment. The jackknife free-response receiver operating characteristic (JAFROC) analysis of the data showed a statistically significant difference between at least two monitors, F-value=3.77 and p-value =0.0481. The different Figure of Merit values were 0.727, 0.723 and 0.697 for the new color LCD monitor, the medical grade monitor and the consumer color monitor respectively. There was no difference between the needed reading times but there was a difference between the mean calculated Euclidian distances between the position marked by the observers and the center of the simulated nodule, indicating a better accuracy with both medical grade monitors. Present data suggests that the new generation of medical grade color monitors could be used as diagnostic workstations.

  10. A device for the color measurement and detection of spots on the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pladellorens, Josep; Pintó, Agustí; Segura, Jordi; Cadevall, Cristina; Antó, Joan; Pujol, Jaume; Vilaseca, Meritxell; Coll, Joaquín

    2008-02-01

    In this work, we present a new and fast easy-to-use device that allows the measurement of color and the detection of spots on the human skin. The developed device is highly practical for relatively untrained operators and uses inexpensive consumer equipment, such as a CCD color camera, a light source composed of LEDs and a laptop. The knowledge of the color of the skin and the detection of spots can be useful in several areas such as in dermatology applications, the cosmetics industry, the biometrics field, health care, etc. In order to perform these measurements the system takes a picture of the skin. After that, the operator selects the region of the skin to be analyzed on the displayed image and the system provides the CIELAB color coordinates, the chroma and the ITA parameter (Individual Tipology Angle), allowing the comparison with other reference images by means of CIELAB color differences. The system also detects spots, such as freckles, age spots, sunspots, pimples, black heads, etc., in a determined region, allowing the objective measurement of their size and area. The colorimetric information provided by a conventional spectrophotometer for the tested samples and the computed values obtained with the new developed system are quite similar, meaning that the developed system can be used to perform color measurements with relatively high accuracy. On the other hand, the feasibility of the system in order to detect and measure spots on the human skin has also been checked over a great amount of images, obtaining results with high precision. In this work, we present a new system that may be very useful in order to measure the color and to detect spots of the skin. Its portability and easy applicability will be very useful in dermatologic and cosmetic studies.

  11. The Predictive Validity of Projective Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suinn, Richard M.; Oskamp, Stuart

    Written for use by clinical practitioners as well as psychological researchers, this book surveys recent literature (1950-1965) on projective test validity by reviewing and critically evaluating studies which shed light on what may reliably be predicted from projective test results. Two major instruments are covered: the Rorschach and the Thematic…

  12. TWO CRITERIA FOR GOOD MEASUREMENTS IN RESEARCH: VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haradhan Kumar Mohajan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Reliability and validity are two most important and fundamental features in the evaluation of any measurement instrument or toll for a good research. The purpose of this research is to discuss the validity and reliability of measurement instruments that are used in research. Validity concerns what an instrument measures, and how well it does so. Reliability concerns the faith that one can have in the data obtained from use of an instrument, that is, the degree to which any measuring tool controls for random error. An attempt has been taken here to review the reliability and validity, and threat to them in some details.

  13. Repeatability in Color Measurements of a Spectrophotometer using Different Positioning Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemming, Michael; Kwon, So Ran; Qian, Fang

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the repeatability of color measurements of an intraoral spectrophotometer with the use of three different methods by two operators. A total of 60 teeth were obtained, comprising 30 human maxillary teeth [central incisors (n = 10); canines (n = 10); molars (n = 10)] and 30 artificial teeth [lateral incisors (n = 10); premolar (n = 20)]. Multiple repeated color measurements were obtained from each tooth using three measuring methods by each of the two operators. Five typodonts with alternating artificial and human teeth were made. Measurements were taken by two operators with the Vita EasyShade spectrophotometer using the custom tray (CT), custom jig (CJ) and free hand (FH) method, twice, at an interval of 2 to 7 days. Friedman test was used to detect difference among the three color measuring methods. Post hoc Wilcoxon signed-rank test with Bonferroni correction applied was used for pair-wise comparison of color measurements among the three methods. Additionally, a paired-sample t-test was used to assess a significant difference between the two duplicated measurements made on the same tooth by the same operator for each color parameter and measuring method. For operator A, mean (SD) overall color change-ΔE* (SD) perceived for FH, CT and CJ were 2.21(2.00), 2.39 (1.58) and 2.86 (1.92), respectively. There was statistically significant difference in perceived ΔE* in FH vs CJ (p = 0.0107). However, there were no significant differences between FH and CT (p = 0.2829) or between CT and CJ (p = 0.1159). For operator B mean ΔE* (SD) for FH, CT and CJ were 3.24 (3.46), 1.95 (1.19) and 2.45 (1.56), respectively. There was a significant difference between FH and CT (p = 0.0031). However, there were no statistically significant differences in ΔE* in FH vs CJ (p = 0.3696) or CT vs CJ (p = 0.0809). The repeatability of color measurements was different among the three measuring methods by operators. Overall, the CT method worked well for both

  14. No Measured Effect of a Familiar Contextual Object on Color Constancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanematsu, Erika; Brainard, David H

    2014-08-01

    Some familiar objects have a typical color, such as the yellow of a banana. The presence of such objects in a scene is a potential cue to the scene illumination, since the light reflected from them should on average be consistent with their typical surface reflectance. Although there are many studies on how the identity of an object affects how its color is perceived, little is known about whether the presence of a familiar object in a scene helps the visual system stabilize the color appearance of other objects with respect to changes in illumination. We used a successive color matching procedure in three experiments designed to address this question. Across the experiments we studied a total of 6 subjects (2 in Experiment 1, 3 in Experiment 2, and 4 in Experiment 3) with partial overlap of subjects between experiments. We compared measured color constancy across conditions in which a familiar object cue to the illuminant was available with conditions in which such a cue was not present. Overall, our results do not reveal a reliable improvement in color constancy with the addition of a familiar object to a scene. An analysis of the experimental power of our data suggests that if there is such an effect, it is small: less than approximately a change of 0.09 in a constancy index where an absence of constancy corresponds to an index value of 0 and perfect constancy corresponds to an index value of 1.

  15. Validation of Sodar Measurements for Wind Power

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose

    2006-01-01

    A ground-based SODAR has been tested for 1½ years together with a traditional measurement set-up consisting of cups and vanes for measuring wind data for wind power assessment at a remote location. Many problems associated to the operation of a remote located SODAR have been solved during the project and a new remote power system has been designed. A direct comparison between SODAR and cup measurements revealed a limitation for the SODAR measurements during different weather conditions, espec...

  16. Quantitative skin color measurements in acanthosis nigricans patients: colorimetry and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattamadilok, Bensachee; Devpura, Suneetha; Syed, Zain U; Agbai, Oma N; Vemulapalli, Pranita; Henderson, Marsha; Rehse, Steven J; Mahmoud, Bassel H; Lim, Henry W; Naik, Ratna; Hamzavi, Iltefat H

    2012-08-01

    Tristimulus colorimetry and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) are white-light skin reflectance techniques used to measure the intensity of skin pigmentation. The tristimulus colorimeter is an instrument that measures a perceived color and the DRS instrument measures biological chromophores of the skin, including oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin, melanin and scattering. Data gathered from these tools can be used to understand morphological changes induced in skin chromophores due to conditions of the skin or their treatments. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of these two instruments in color measurements of acanthosis nigricans (AN) lesions. Eight patients with hyperinsulinemia and clinically diagnosable AN were seen monthly. Skin pigmentation was measured at three sites: the inner forearm, the medial aspect of the posterior neck, and anterior neck unaffected by AN. Of the three, measured tristimulus L*a*b* color parameters, the luminosity parameter L* was found to most reliably distinguish lesion from normally pigmented skin. The DRS instrument was able to characterize a lesion on the basis of the calculated melanin concentration, though melanin is a weak indicator of skin change and not a reliable measure to be used independently. Calculated oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin concentrations were not found to be reliable indicators of AN. Tristimulus colorimetry may provide reliable methods for respectively quantifying and characterizing the objective color change in AN, while DRS may be useful in characterizing changes in skin melanin content associated with this skin condition. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. Protocol of measurement techniques - Project colored solar collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schueler, A.; Chambrier, E. De; Roecker, Ch.; Scartezzini, J.-L.

    2004-08-15

    This illustrated annual report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at work done at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne, Switzerland, on multi-layer, thin-film interference coatings for solar collector glazing. The correct combinations of refractive indices and film thickness are discussed. The authors state that corresponding multi-layered thin film stacks will have to be realised experimentally in a controlled and reproducible way. New thin film materials are to be tailored to exhibit optimised optical and ageing properties. The development of these coatings is to be based on various measurement techniques, such as spectro-photometry, measurements of total power throughput by means of a solar simulator, spectroscopic ellipsometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The paper provides many examples of typical data and explains which film properties can be inferred from each method and thus describes both the function and purpose of the different measurement techniques.

  18. A device for the color measurement and detection of spots on the skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pladellorens, Josep; Pintó, Agusti; Segura, Jordi; Cadevall, Cristina; Antó, Joan; Pujol, Jaume; Vilaseca, Meritxell; Coll, Joaquín

    2006-08-01

    In this work we present a new and fast easyâ€``to-use device which allows the measurement of color and the detection of spots on the human skin. The developed device is highly practical for relatively untrained operators and uses inexpensive consumer equipment, such as a CCD color camera, a light source composed of LEDs and a laptop. In order to perform these measurements the system takes a picture of the skin. After that, the operator selects the region of the skin to be analyzed on the image displayed and the system provides the CIELAB color coordinates, the chroma and the ITA parameter (Individual Tipology Angle), allowing the comparison with other reference images by means of the CIELAB color differences. The system also detects the spots, such as freckles, age spots, sun spots, pimples, black heads, etc., in a determined region, allowing the objective measurement of their size and area. The knowledge of the color of the skin and the detection of spots can be useful in several areas such as in dermatology applications, the cosmetics industry, the biometrics field, health care etc.

  19. Correlation of lycopene measured by HPLC with the L, a, b color readings of a hydroponic tomato and the relationship of maturity with color and lycopene content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, R.; Lee, T. C.; Logendra, L.; Janes, H.

    2000-01-01

    Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Laura) were separated, according to the ripening stage, by a sensory panel into seven groups, and color was measured on the tomato surface with a Minolta Chroma meter. The L, a, b, hue, chroma, and lycopene content were plotted against the maturity stages of the tomatoes, and several good correlations were found. The a/b ratio and the lycopene content were the parameters that allowed six of seven maturity groups in the tomato to be statistically distinguished. The lycopene content, measured by HPLC, was also correlated with the color measurements, and the a, a/b, and (a/b)(2) color factors produced the best regressions. An estimation of the lycopene content in tomatoes can be achieved by using a portable chroma meter, with a possible field usage application. Equations to calculate the lycopene content of tomatoes based on the color readings are reported.

  20. Validation of Sodar Measurements for Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose

    2006-01-01

    the project and a new remote power system has been designed. A direct comparison between SODAR and cup measurements revealed a limitation for the SODAR measurements during different weather conditions, especially since the SODAR was not able to measure wind speeds above 15 m/s due to an increasing back-ground......A ground-based SODAR has been tested for 1½ years together with a traditional measurement set-up consisting of cups and vanes for measuring wind data for wind power assessment at a remote location. Many problems associated to the operation of a remote located SODAR have been solved during...... noise. Instead, using the SODAR as a profiler to establish representative wind speed profiles was successful. These wind speed profiles are combined with low height reference measurements to establish reliable hub height wind speed distributions. Representative wind speed profiles can be establish...

  1. Validation of 3D documentation of palatal soft tissue shape, color, and irregularity with intraoral scanning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deferm, Julie T.; Schreurs, Ruud; Baan, Frank; Bruggink, Robin; Merkx, Matthijs A. W.; Xi, Tong; Bergé, Stefaan J.; Maal, Thomas J. J.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of 3D intraoral scanning for documentation of palatal soft tissue by evaluating the accuracy of shape, color, and curvature. Intraoral scans of ten participants' upper dentition and palate were acquired with the TRIOS® 3D intraoral scanner by

  2. Characteristics and New Measurement Method of NCSFs of Individual Color Mechanisms of Human Vision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing-Jing, Ge; Zhao-Qi, Wang; Yan, Wang; Kan-Xing, Zhao

    2010-01-01

    We propose a new method for determining neural contrast sensitivity functions (NCSFs) of isolated color mechanisms based on the measurements of wave-front aberrations and isoluminant color contrast sensitivity functions (CSFs). Compared with the traditional method, this technique avoids the coherent noise and speckle noise, which are brought by the interference of laser beams, and has great flexibility for the measurements of NCSF of different color mechanisms. Our experiments indicate that the mean NCSF and CSF of the red mechanism are higher than those of the green mechanism, respectively, while those of the blue mechanism are the lowest. However the relative heights of the peak of NCSF and CSF between red and green mechanisms vary in subjects. There are some individuals whose peak values of NCSF and/or CSF of green mechanism are higher than that of the red mechanism. The NCSFs and CSFs of isolated color mechanisms all exhibit the similar characteristics and variation tendency. With the statistical average, the NCSFs of the red, green and blue mechanisms are higher than the corresponding CSFs in the whole spatial frequency. Compared with the corresponding CSFs curves, the peaks of the NCSFs of isolated color mechanisms shift toward higher spatial frequencies, especially for that of blue mechanism which has a largest shift of 3.9c/deg

  3. A Major Locus for Quantitatively Measured Shank Skin Color Traits in Korean Native Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Jin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Shank skin color of Korean native chicken (KNC shows large color variations. It varies from white, yellow, green, bluish or grey to black, whilst in the majority of European breeds the shanks are typically yellow-colored. Three shank skin color-related traits (i.e., lightness [L*], redness [a*], and yellowness [b*] were measured by a spectrophotometer in 585 progeny from 68 nuclear families in the KNC resource population. We performed genome scan linkage analysis to identify loci that affect quantitatively measured shank skin color traits in KNC. All these birds were genotyped with 167 DNA markers located throughout the 26 autosomes. The SOLAR program was used to conduct multipoint variance-component quantitative trait locus (QTL analyses. We detected a major QTL that affects b* value (logarithm of odds [LOD] = 47.5, p = 1.60×10−49 on GGA24 (GGA for Gallus gallus. At the same location, we also detected a QTL that influences a* value (LOD = 14.2, p = 6.14×10−16. Additionally, beta-carotene dioxygenase 2 (BCDO2, the obvious positional candidate gene under the linkage peaks on GGA24, was investigated by the two association tests: i.e., measured genotype association (MGA and quantitative transmission disequilibrium test (QTDT. Significant associations were detected between BCDO2 g.9367 A>C and a* (PMGA = 1.69×10−28; PQTDT = 2.40×10−25. The strongest associations were between BCDO2 g.9367 A>C and b* (PMGA = 3.56×10−66; PQTDT = 1.68×10−65. However, linkage analyses conditional on the single nucleotide polymorphism indicated that other functional variants should exist. Taken together, we demonstrate for the first time the linkage and association between the BCDO2 locus on GGA24 and quantitatively measured shank skin color traits in KNC.

  4. Sky brightness and color measurements during the 21 August 2017 total solar eclipse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, Donald G; Bruns, Ronald D

    2018-06-01

    The sky brightness was measured during the partial phases and during totality of the 21 August 2017 total solar eclipse. A tracking CCD camera with color filters and a wide-angle lens allowed measurements across a wide field of view, recording images every 10 s. The partially and totally eclipsed Sun was kept behind an occulting disk attached to the camera, allowing direct brightness measurements from 1.5° to 38° from the Sun. During the partial phases, the sky brightness as a function of time closely followed the integrated intensity of the unobscured fraction of the solar disk. A redder sky was measured close to the Sun just before totality, caused by the redder color of the exposed solar limb. During totality, a bluer sky was measured, dimmer than the normal sky by a factor of 10,000. Suggestions for enhanced measurements at future eclipses are offered.

  5. Underway Sampling of Marine Inherent Optical Properties on the Tara Oceans Expedition as a Novel Resource for Ocean Color Satellite Data Product Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werdell, P. Jeremy; Proctor, Christopher W.; Boss, Emmanuel; Leeuw, Thomas; Ouhssain, Mustapha

    2013-01-01

    Developing and validating data records from operational ocean color satellite instruments requires substantial volumes of high quality in situ data. In the absence of broad, institutionally supported field programs, organizations such as the NASA Ocean Biology Processing Group seek opportunistic datasets for use in their operational satellite calibration and validation activities. The publicly available, global biogeochemical dataset collected as part of the two and a half year Tara Oceans expedition provides one such opportunity. We showed how the inline measurements of hyperspectral absorption and attenuation coefficients collected onboard the R/V Tara can be used to evaluate near-surface estimates of chlorophyll-a, spectral particulate backscattering coefficients, particulate organic carbon, and particle size classes derived from the NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer onboard Aqua (MODISA). The predominant strength of such flow-through measurements is their sampling rate-the 375 days of measurements resulted in 165 viable MODISA-to-in situ match-ups, compared to 13 from discrete water sampling. While the need to apply bio-optical models to estimate biogeochemical quantities of interest from spectroscopy remains a weakness, we demonstrated how discrete samples can be used in combination with flow-through measurements to create data records of sufficient quality to conduct first order evaluations of satellite-derived data products. Given an emerging agency desire to rapidly evaluate new satellite missions, our results have significant implications on how calibration and validation teams for these missions will be constructed.

  6. Space Suit Joint Torque Measurement Method Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valish, Dana; Eversley, Karina

    2012-01-01

    In 2009 and early 2010, a test method was developed and performed to quantify the torque required to manipulate joints in several existing operational and prototype space suits. This was done in an effort to develop joint torque requirements appropriate for a new Constellation Program space suit system. The same test method was levied on the Constellation space suit contractors to verify that their suit design met the requirements. However, because the original test was set up and conducted by a single test operator there was some question as to whether this method was repeatable enough to be considered a standard verification method for Constellation or other future development programs. In order to validate the method itself, a representative subset of the previous test was repeated, using the same information that would be available to space suit contractors, but set up and conducted by someone not familiar with the previous test. The resultant data was compared using graphical and statistical analysis; the results indicated a significant variance in values reported for a subset of the re-tested joints. Potential variables that could have affected the data were identified and a third round of testing was conducted in an attempt to eliminate and/or quantify the effects of these variables. The results of the third test effort will be used to determine whether or not the proposed joint torque methodology can be applied to future space suit development contracts.

  7. Direct measurements of air layer profiles under impacting droplets using high-speed color interferometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, Roeland; Tran, Tuan; Lohse, Detlef; Sun, Chao

    2012-01-01

    A drop impacting on a solid surface deforms before the liquid makes contact with the surface. We directly measure the time evolution of the air layer profile under the droplet using high-speed color interferometry, obtaining the air layer thickness before and during the wetting process. Based on the

  8. Self-referenced axial chromatic dispersion measurement in multiphoton microscopy through 2-color THG imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yu; Zhuang, Ziwei; He, Jiexing; Liu, Hongji; Qiu, Ping; Wang, Ke

    2018-05-16

    With tunable excitation light, multiphoton microscopy (MPM) is widely used for imaging biological structures at subcellular resolution. Axial chromatic dispersion, present in virtually every transmissive optical system including the multiphoton microscope, leads to focal (and the resultant image) plane separation. Here we demonstrate experimentally a technique to measure the axial chromatic dispersion in a multiphoton microscope, using simultaneous 2-color third-harmonic generation (THG) imaging excited by a 2-color soliton source with tunable wavelength separation. Our technique is self-referenced, eliminating potential measurement error when 1-color tunable excitation light is used which necessitates reciprocating motion of the mechanical translation stage. Using this technique, we demonstrate measured axial chromatic dispersion with 2 different objective lenses in a multiphoton microscope. Further measurement in a biological sample also indicates that this axial chromatic dispersion, in combination with 2-color imaging, may open up opportunity for simultaneous imaging of two different axial planes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Objective Color Measurements: Clinimetric Performance of Three Devices on Normal Skin and Scar Tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wal, Martijn; Bloemen, Monica; Verhaegen, Pauline; Tuinebreijer, Wim; de Vet, Henrica; van Zuijlen, Paul; Middelkoop, Esther

    2013-01-01

    Color measurements are an essential part of scar evaluation. Thus, vascularization (erythema) and pigmentation (melanin) are common outcome parameters in scar research. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinimetric properties and clinical feasibility of the Mexameter, Colorimeter, and the

  10. Validation of SAGE II ozone measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunnold, D. M.; Chu, W. P.; Mccormick, M. P.; Veiga, R. E.; Barnes, R. A.

    1989-01-01

    Five ozone profiles from the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II are compared with coincident ozonesonde measurements obtained at Natal, Brazil, and Wallops Island, Virginia. It is shown that the mean difference between all of the measurements is about 1 percent and that the agreement is within 7 percent at altitudes between 20 and 53 km. Good agreement is also found for ozone mixing ratios on pressure surfaces. It is concluded that the SAGE II profiles provide useful ozone information up to about 60 km altitude.

  11. A Validity Review of the Color Company Competition at the United States Naval Academy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dryden, Derek S

    2006-01-01

    .... Using data obtained through the Institutional Research Department, the Physical Education Department, as well as the Activities and Operations Offices, this study examines the validity of the current...

  12. Verification of rapid method for estimation of added food colorant type in boiled sausages based on measurement of cross section color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, J.; Petronijević, R. B.; Lukić, M.; Karan, D.; Parunović, N.; Branković-Lazić, I.

    2017-09-01

    During the previous development of a chemometric method for estimating the amount of added colorant in meat products, it was noticed that the natural colorant most commonly added to boiled sausages, E 120, has different CIE-LAB behavior compared to artificial colors that are used for the same purpose. This has opened the possibility of transforming the developed method into a method for identifying the addition of natural or synthetic colorants in boiled sausages based on the measurement of the color of the cross-section. After recalibration of the CIE-LAB method using linear discriminant analysis, verification was performed on 76 boiled sausages, of either frankfurters or Parisian sausage types. The accuracy and reliability of the classification was confirmed by comparison with the standard HPLC method. Results showed that the LDA + CIE-LAB method can be applied with high accuracy, 93.42 %, to estimate food color type in boiled sausages. Natural orange colors can give false positive results. Pigments from spice mixtures had no significant effect on CIE-LAB results.

  13. Investigations of Bread Production with Postponed Staling Applying Instrumental Measurements of Bread Crumb Color

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir S. Popov

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Crumb color quality characteristics of bread of different compositions (whole grain, rye, barley and diet bread at 24 hours intervals during three days after bread preparation were investigated by means of a MOM-color 100 tristimulus photo colorimeter, in CIE, CIELab, ANLAB and Hunter systems. The highest value of average reflectance y (% was found for barley bread (immediately after preparation, so that can be said that this sample was “conditionally” the lightest. The lowest values of y (% were found for diet bread, so that it can be considered as the “conditionally” the darkest product. Colors of all investigated bread samples were lighter after three days of keeping compared to day 0. Changes of average reflectance of bread samples packed in polyethylene packaging with keeping time can be described by linear equation (correlation coefficient 0.99. The dominant wavelength of barley and diet bread confirm the presence of yellow pigment. Color qualities of the mentioned kinds of bread depend on processes during bread staling and raw material composition of bread (flour. Color quality measurements can be used as easy auxiliary method for screening in the development of slower staling bread.

  14. Preliminary study on the correlation between color measurement of dyed polyester and its image files

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Y. K.; Park, Y. C.

    2017-10-01

    As the internet becomes more popular, buyers send image files to manufacturers instead of sending swatches. However, this method may cause problems because different from the monitor between the buyer and the manufacturer, and also there is a problem depending on the light source. In order to overcome these problems, we investigated the relationship between color measurement values of dyed fabrics and RGB values of image files. The RGB values of image files tended to decrease with increasing dye concentration in all three colors. Correlation between RGB values and a*, b* values was observed at low concentration, but there was little correlation at high concentration. In the case of yellow color, there is no correlation between the L*a*b* values obtained from the dyed fabric and RGB values obtained from the image file.

  15. The Validity of Attribute-Importance Measurement: A Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ittersum, van K.; Pennings, J.M.E.; Wansink, B.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2007-01-01

    A critical review of the literature demonstrates a lack of validity among the ten most common methods for measuring the importance of attributes in behavioral sciences. The authors argue that one of the key determinants of this lack of validity is the multi-dimensionality of attribute importance.

  16. Anxiety measures validated in perinatal populations: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meades, Rose; Ayers, Susan

    2011-09-01

    Research and screening of anxiety in the perinatal period is hampered by a lack of psychometric data on self-report anxiety measures used in perinatal populations. This paper aimed to review self-report measures that have been validated with perinatal women. A systematic search was carried out of four electronic databases. Additional papers were obtained through searching identified articles. Thirty studies were identified that reported validation of an anxiety measure with perinatal women. Most commonly validated self-report measures were the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales (HADS). Of the 30 studies included, 11 used a clinical interview to provide criterion validity. Remaining studies reported one or more other forms of validity (factorial, discriminant, concurrent and predictive) or reliability. The STAI shows criterion, discriminant and predictive validity and may be most useful for research purposes as a specific measure of anxiety. The Kessler 10 (K-10) may be the best short screening measure due to its ability to differentiate anxiety disorders. The Depression Anxiety Stress Scales 21 (DASS-21) measures multiple types of distress, shows appropriate content, and remains to be validated against clinical interview in perinatal populations. Nineteen studies did not report sensitivity or specificity data. The early stages of research into perinatal anxiety, the multitude of measures in use, and methodological differences restrict comparison of measures across studies. There is a need for further validation of self-report measures of anxiety in the perinatal period to enable accurate screening and detection of anxiety symptoms and disorders. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Estimation of color of durum wheat. Comparison of WSB, HPLC, and reflectance colorimeter measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratianni, Alessandra; Irano, Mario; Panfili, Gianfranco; Acquistucci, Rita

    2005-04-06

    Color is an important parameter involved in the definition of semolina and pasta quality. This character is mainly due to natural pigments (carotenoids) that are present at different levels in cereals and cereal products, due to botanical origin, growing conditions, distribution in the kernel, and technological processes. In food industries, color measurements are usually performed by means of automatic instruments that are rapid and safe, as alternatives to the chemical extraction methods. In this study, automatic measurements (CIE, color-space system L, a, b), water-saturated butanol (WSB), and HPLC determinations have been applied to evaluate the carotenoid content in whole meals and respective semolina samples produced from wheat cultivated in the years 2001 and 2002. In whole meals, total carotenoids, determined by HPLC, were about 3.0 microg/g (2001) and 3.5 microg/g (2002) calculated on dry weight (dw) and about 3.0 and 3.2 microg/g dw in corresponding semolina samples. The b values for the same period were 19.78 and 15.75, respectively, in raw materials and 20.03-21.67 in semolina. Results have confirmed lutein and beta-carotene as the main components mainly responsible for the yellow color in wheat grains. The ability of the index b to express natural dyeing was dependent on sample characteristics as demonstrated by the relationships found between this index and pigments, although the best correlation resulted between HPLC and WSB.

  18. Alternative validation practice of an automated faulting measurement method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    A number of states have adopted profiler based systems to automatically measure faulting, : in jointed concrete pavements. However, little published work exists which documents the : validation process used for such automated faulting systems. This p...

  19. The HydroColor App: Above Water Measurements of Remote Sensing Reflectance and Turbidity Using a Smartphone Camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeuw, Thomas; Boss, Emmanuel

    2018-01-16

    HydroColor is a mobile application that utilizes a smartphone's camera and auxiliary sensors to measure the remote sensing reflectance of natural water bodies. HydroColor uses the smartphone's digital camera as a three-band radiometer. Users are directed by the application to collect a series of three images. These images are used to calculate the remote sensing reflectance in the red, green, and blue broad wavelength bands. As with satellite measurements, the reflectance can be inverted to estimate the concentration of absorbing and scattering substances in the water, which are predominately composed of suspended sediment, chlorophyll, and dissolved organic matter. This publication describes the measurement method and investigates the precision of HydroColor's reflectance and turbidity estimates compared to commercial instruments. It is shown that HydroColor can measure the remote sensing reflectance to within 26% of a precision radiometer and turbidity within 24% of a portable turbidimeter. HydroColor distinguishes itself from other water quality camera methods in that its operation is based on radiometric measurements instead of image color. HydroColor is one of the few mobile applications to use a smartphone as a completely objective sensor, as opposed to subjective user observations or color matching using the human eye. This makes HydroColor a powerful tool for crowdsourcing of aquatic optical data.

  20. Color Categories and Color Appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Michael A.; Kay, Paul

    2012-01-01

    We examined categorical effects in color appearance in two tasks, which in part differed in the extent to which color naming was explicitly required for the response. In one, we measured the effects of color differences on perceptual grouping for hues that spanned the blue-green boundary, to test whether chromatic differences across the boundary…

  1. On-line measurement of crystalline color by color-image processing system; Gazo shori system wo mochiita kessho no online iro sokutei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okayasu, S.; Katayama, M.; Shinohara, T. [Ajinomoto Co. Inc., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-01-20

    Aiming for the stable operation and the rationalization of factory plant, the color-image processing has been tried to introduce into the on-line system to measure the crystalline color of L-Lysine in its refining process. Because the practical spectro-photometry was used to be employed by manual measurement. In this paper, the calculation formula of the transmittance by spectrophotometry is theoretically introduced by analyzing the relation of Lambert-Beer`s law of luminous transparency with the Kubelka-Munk`s function of the luminous dispersion using color image data. The parameters of the calculation formula were decided by actual measurement, so that the formula with accuracy value of {plus_minus}3% elucidated the possible estimation of transmittance by spectrophotometry. The system was tested on a commercial plant, and some issues are discussed. 8 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. PlantSize Offers an Affordable, Non-destructive Method to Measure Plant Size and Color in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dóra Faragó

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Plant size, shape and color are important parameters of plants, which have traditionally been measured by destructive and time-consuming methods. Non-destructive image analysis is an increasingly popular technology to characterize plant development in time. High throughput automatic phenotyping platforms can simultaneously analyze multiple morphological and physiological parameters of hundreds or thousands of plants. Such platforms are, however, expensive and are not affordable for many laboratories. Moreover, determination of basic parameters is sufficient for most studies. Here we describe a non-invasive method, which simultaneously measures basic morphological and physiological parameters of in vitro cultured plants. Changes of plant size, shape and color is monitored by repeated photography with a commercial digital camera using neutral white background. Images are analyzed with the MatLab-based computer application PlantSize, which simultaneously calculates several parameters including rosette size, convex area, convex ratio, chlorophyll and anthocyanin contents of all plants identified on the image. Numerical data are exported in MS Excel-compatible format. Subsequent data processing provides information on growth rates, chlorophyll and anthocyanin contents. Proof-of-concept validation of the imaging technology was demonstrated by revealing small but significant differences between wild type and transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing the HSFA4A transcription factor or the hsfa4a knockout mutant, subjected to different stress conditions. While HSFA4A overexpression was associated with better growth, higher chlorophyll and lower anthocyanin content in saline conditions, the knockout hsfa4a mutant showed hypersensitivity to various stresses. Morphological differences were revealed by comparing rosette size, shape and color of wild type plants with phytochrome B (phyB-9 mutant. While the technology was developed with Arabidopsis plants

  3. Combining color chart, colorimetric measurement and chemical compounds for postharvest quality of white wine grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sollazzo, Marco; Baccelloni, Simone; D'Onofrio, Claudio; Bellincontro, Andrea

    2018-01-03

    This paper provides data for the potential use of a color chart to establish the best quality of white wine grapes destined for postharvest processing. Grechetto, Vermentino and Muscat of Alexandria white wine grape varieties were tested by sampling berries at different dates during their quality attribute evolution. A color chart and reflectance spectrocolorimeter were used in combination with analyses of total carotenoids and chlorophylls in all three varieties and of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in Grechetto alone. Total carotenoids decreased from 0.85 to 0.76 µg g -1 in Grechetto berries and from 0.70 to 0.46 µg g -1 in Vermentino berries while increased from 0.70 to 0.80 µg g -1 in Muscat berries during ripening. Total chlorophylls decreased in all varieties, and a strict correlation was found between hue angle (measured by color chart or spectrocolorimeter) and chlorophyll disappearance, with R 2 ranging from 0.81 to 0.95 depending on the variety. VOCs were only measured in Grechetto grapes, and a significant increase in glycosylation was found with ripening. The concentration of different classes of VOCs exhibited a clear decrease during ripening, except for terpenoids and esters which showed a peak at the beginning. The benzenoid class reached the highest concentration, which was almost 50% of the total. Cluster analysis using Ward's method enabled the best grape quality to be identified. This experimental work highlights that a color chart is cheap and easy to use to define the right quality stage for white wine grapes. The color chart enabled the enochemical features to be matched with the VOC results for the aromatic maturity of Grechetto. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Content Validity of a Tool Measuring Medication Errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Nishat; Allana, Saleema; Saeed, Tanveer; Dias, Jacqueline Maria

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine content and face validity of a tool measuring medication errors among nursing students in baccalaureate nursing education. Data was collected from the Aga Khan University School of Nursing and Midwifery (AKUSoNaM), Karachi, from March to August 2014. The tool was developed utilizing literature and the expertise of the team members, expert in different areas. The developed tool was then sent to five experts from all over Karachi for ensuring the content validity of the tool, which was measured on relevance and clarity of the questions. The Scale Content Validity Index (S-CVI) for clarity and relevance of the questions was found to be 0.94 and 0.98, respectively. The tool measuring medication errors has an excellent content validity. This tool should be used for future studies on medication errors, with different study populations such as medical students, doctors, and nurses.

  5. Quantitative multi-color FRET measurements by Fourier lifetime excitation-emission matrix spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ming; Huang, Run; Peng, Leilei

    2012-01-01

    Förster resonant energy transfer (FRET) is extensively used to probe macromolecular interactions and conformation changes. The established FRET lifetime analysis method measures the FRET process through its effect on the donor lifetime. In this paper we present a method that directly probes the time-resolved FRET signal with frequency domain Fourier lifetime excitation-emission matrix (FLEEM) measurements. FLEEM separates fluorescent signals by their different phonon energy pathways from excitation to emission. The FRET process generates a unique signal channel that is initiated by donor excitation but ends with acceptor emission. Time-resolved analysis of the FRET EEM channel allows direct measurements on the FRET process, unaffected by free fluorophores that might be present in the sample. Together with time-resolved analysis on non-FRET channels, i.e. donor and acceptor EEM channels, time resolved EEM analysis allows precise quantification of FRET in the presence of free fluorophores. The method is extended to three-color FRET processes, where quantification with traditional methods remains challenging because of the significantly increased complexity in the three-way FRET interactions. We demonstrate the time-resolved EEM analysis method with quantification of three-color FRET in incompletely hybridized triple-labeled DNA oligonucleotides. Quantitative measurements of the three-color FRET process in triple-labeled dsDNA are obtained in the presence of free single-labeled ssDNA and double-labeled dsDNA. The results establish a quantification method for studying multi-color FRET between multiple macromolecules in biochemical equilibrium. PMID:23187535

  6. Development, Validation, and Deployment of an Occupational Test of Color Vision for Air Traffic Control Specialists

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    direct sampling of form and content of critical display data. Evidence of construct validity is provided by correlation with Colour Assessment and...testing resulted in development of tests such as the Colour Assessment and Diagnosis Test (CAD; Rodriguez -Carmona, Harlow, Walker, & Barbur, 2005...Great Lakes Regional PEPC who failed initial screening on the Dvorine PIP test. Volunteers were recruited through advertisements in local

  7. Technical note: comparing von Luschan skin color tiles and modern spectrophotometry for measuring human skin pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiatoniowski, Anna K; Quillen, Ellen E; Shriver, Mark D; Jablonski, Nina G

    2013-06-01

    Prior to the introduction of reflectance spectrophotometry into anthropological field research during the 1950s, human skin color was most commonly classified by visual skin color matching using the von Luschan tiles, a set of 36 standardized, opaque glass tiles arranged in a chromatic scale. Our goal was to establish a conversion formula between the tile-based color matching method and modern reflectance spectrophotometry to make historical and contemporary data comparable. Skin pigmentation measurements were taken on the forehead, inner upper arms, and backs of the hands using both the tiles and a spectrophotometer on 246 participants showing a broad range of skin pigmentation. From these data, a second-order polynomial conversion formula was derived by jackknife analysis to estimate melanin index (M-index) based on tile values. This conversion formula provides a means for comparing modern data to von Luschan tile measurements recorded in historical reports. This is particularly important for populations now extinct, extirpated, or admixed for which tile-based measures of skin pigmentation are the only data available. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. A low cost color-based bacterial biosensor for measuring arsenic in groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chi-Wei; Wei, Chia-Cheng; Liao, Vivian Hsiu-Chuan

    2015-12-01

    Using arsenic (As) contaminated groundwater for drinking or irrigation has caused major health problems for humans around the world, raising a need to monitor As level efficiently and economically. This study developed a color-based bacterial biosensor which is easy-to-use and inexpensive for measuring As and could be complementary to current As detecting techniques. The arsR-lacZ recombinant gene cassette in nonpathogenic strain Escherichia coli DH5α was used in the color-based biosensor which could be observed by eyes or measured by spectrometer. The developed bacterial biosensor demonstrates a quantitative range from 10 to 500μgL(-1) of As in 3-h reaction time. Furthermore, the biosensor was able to successfully detect and estimate As concentration in groundwater sample by measuring optical density at 595nm (OD595). Among different storage methods used in this study, biosensor in liquid at 4°C showed the longest shelf life about 9d, and liquid storage at RT and cell pellet could also be stored for about 3-5d. In conclusion, this study showed that the As biosensor with reliable color signal and economical preservation methods is useful for rapid screening of As pollutant, providing the potential for large scale screening and better management strategies for environmental quality control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Robust cubature Kalman filter for GNSS/INS with missing observations and colored measurement noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Bingbo; Chen, Xiyuan; Tang, Xihua; Huang, Haoqian; Liu, Xiao

    2018-01-01

    In order to improve the accuracy of GNSS/INS working in GNSS-denied environment, a robust cubature Kalman filter (RCKF) is developed by considering colored measurement noise and missing observations. First, an improved cubature Kalman filter (CKF) is derived by considering colored measurement noise, where the time-differencing approach is applied to yield new observations. Then, after analyzing the disadvantages of existing methods, the measurement augment in processing colored noise is translated into processing the uncertainties of CKF, and new sigma point update framework is utilized to account for the bounded model uncertainties. By reusing the diffused sigma points and approximation residual in the prediction stage of CKF, the RCKF is developed and its error performance is analyzed theoretically. Results of numerical experiment and field test reveal that RCKF is more robust than CKF and extended Kalman filter (EKF), and compared with EKF, the heading error of land vehicle is reduced by about 72.4%. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Relation between consumers' perceptions of color and texture of dairy desserts and instrumental measurements using a generalized procrustes analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Tomás, L; Costell, E

    2006-12-01

    Consumers' perceptions of the color and texture of 8 commercial vanilla dairy desserts were studied and related to color and rheological measurements. First, the 8 desserts were evaluated by a group of consumers by means of the Free Choice Profile. For both color and texture, a 2-dimensional solution was chosen, with dimension 1 highly related to yellow color intensity in the case of color and to thickness in the case of texture. Second, mechanical spectra, flow behavior, and instrumental color were determined. All the samples showed a time-dependent and shear-thinning flow and a mechanical spectrum typical of a weak gel. Differences were found in the flow index, in the apparent viscosity at 10 s(-1), and in the values of the storage modulus, the loss modulus, the loss angle tangent, and the complex viscosity at 1 Hz, as well as in the color parameters. Finally, sensory and instrumental relationships were investigated by a generalized Procrustes analysis. For both color and texture, a 3-dimensional solution explained a high percentage of the total variance (>80%). In these particular samples, the instrumental color parameters provided more accurate information on consumers' color perceptions than was provided by the rheological parameters of consumers' perceptions of texture.

  11. The HydroColor App: Above Water Measurements of Remote Sensing Reflectance and Turbidity Using a Smartphone Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeuw, Thomas; Boss, Emmanuel

    2018-01-01

    HydroColor is a mobile application that utilizes a smartphone’s camera and auxiliary sensors to measure the remote sensing reflectance of natural water bodies. HydroColor uses the smartphone’s digital camera as a three-band radiometer. Users are directed by the application to collect a series of three images. These images are used to calculate the remote sensing reflectance in the red, green, and blue broad wavelength bands. As with satellite measurements, the reflectance can be inverted to estimate the concentration of absorbing and scattering substances in the water, which are predominately composed of suspended sediment, chlorophyll, and dissolved organic matter. This publication describes the measurement method and investigates the precision of HydroColor’s reflectance and turbidity estimates compared to commercial instruments. It is shown that HydroColor can measure the remote sensing reflectance to within 26% of a precision radiometer and turbidity within 24% of a portable turbidimeter. HydroColor distinguishes itself from other water quality camera methods in that its operation is based on radiometric measurements instead of image color. HydroColor is one of the few mobile applications to use a smartphone as a completely objective sensor, as opposed to subjective user observations or color matching using the human eye. This makes HydroColor a powerful tool for crowdsourcing of aquatic optical data. PMID:29337917

  12. Wetting boundary condition for the color-gradient lattice Boltzmann method: Validation with analytical and experimental data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akai, Takashi; Bijeljic, Branko; Blunt, Martin J.

    2018-06-01

    In the color gradient lattice Boltzmann model (CG-LBM), a fictitious-density wetting boundary condition has been widely used because of its ease of implementation. However, as we show, this may lead to inaccurate results in some cases. In this paper, a new scheme for the wetting boundary condition is proposed which can handle complicated 3D geometries. The validity of our method for static problems is demonstrated by comparing the simulated results to analytical solutions in 2D and 3D geometries with curved boundaries. Then, capillary rise simulations are performed to study dynamic problems where the three-phase contact line moves. The results are compared to experimental results in the literature (Heshmati and Piri, 2014). If a constant contact angle is assumed, the simulations agree with the analytical solution based on the Lucas-Washburn equation. However, to match the experiments, we need to implement a dynamic contact angle that varies with the flow rate.

  13. The BETA ® nursing measure: Calibrating construct validity with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The BETA nursing measure has been introduced as a tool to routinely measure and monitor the outcomes of patients' activities of daily living in a restorative nursing care context. Objectives: To investigate the BETA's construct validity using the Rasch model with specific reference to the BETA's potential to be ...

  14. Extending Validity Evidence for Multidimensional Measures of Coaching Competency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Nicholas D.; Wolfe, Edward W.; Maier, Kimberly S.; Feltz, Deborah L.; Reckase, Mark D.

    2006-01-01

    This study extended validity evidence for multidimensional measures of coaching competency derived from the Coaching Competency Scale (CCS; Myers, Feltz, Maier, Wolfe, & Reckase, 2006) by examining use of the original rating scale structure and testing how measures related to satisfaction with the head coach within teams and between teams.…

  15. Studies on color-center formation in glass utilizing measurements made during 1 to 3 MeV electron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swyler, K.J.; Levy, P.W.

    1976-01-01

    The coloring of NBS 710 glass has been studied using a new facility for making optical absorption measurements during and after electron irradiation. The induced absorption contains three Gaussian shaped bands. The color center growth curves contain two saturating exponential and one linear components. After irradiation the coloring decays and can be described by three decreasing exponentials. At room temperature both the coloring curve plateau and coloring rate increase with increasing dose rate. Coloring measurements made at a fixed dose rate but at increasing temperature indicate: (1) the coloring curve plateau decreases with increasing temperature and coloring has not been observed at 400 0 C; (2) the plateau is reached more rapidly as the temperature increases; (3) the decay occurring after irradiation cannot be described by Arrhenius kinetics. At each temperature the coloring can be explained by simple kinetics. The temperature dependence of the decay can be explained if it is assumed that the thermal untrapping is controlled by a distribution of activation energies

  16. Color image analysis technique for measuring of fat in meat: an application for the meat industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballerini, Lucia; Hogberg, Anders; Lundstrom, Kerstin; Borgefors, Gunilla

    2001-04-01

    Intramuscular fat content in meat influences some important meat quality characteristics. The aim of the present study was to develop and apply image processing techniques to quantify intramuscular fat content in beefs together with the visual appearance of fat in meat (marbling). Color images of M. longissimus dorsi meat samples with a variability of intramuscular fat content and marbling were captured. Image analysis software was specially developed for the interpretation of these images. In particular, a segmentation algorithm (i.e. classification of different substances: fat, muscle and connective tissue) was optimized in order to obtain a proper classification and perform subsequent analysis. Segmentation of muscle from fat was achieved based on their characteristics in the 3D color space, and on the intrinsic fuzzy nature of these structures. The method is fully automatic and it combines a fuzzy clustering algorithm, the Fuzzy c-Means Algorithm, with a Genetic Algorithm. The percentages of various colors (i.e. substances) within the sample are then determined; the number, size distribution, and spatial distributions of the extracted fat flecks are measured. Measurements are correlated with chemical and sensory properties. Results so far show that advanced image analysis is useful for quantify the visual appearance of meat.

  17. Development of an Image Colorimeter for Noncontact Skin Color Measurement and Application to the Dermatological Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimoto, Makio; Chen, Yu; Miyazaki, Michio; Yamashita, Toyonobu; Miyakawa, Michio; Hata, Mieko

    The skin is unique as an organ that is highly accessible to direct visual inspection with light. Visual inspection of cutaneous morphology is the mainstay of clinical dermatology, but relies heavily on subjective assessment by the skilled dermatologists. We present an imaging colorimeter of non-contact skin color measuring system and some experimented results using such instrument. The system is comprised by a video camera, light source, a real-time image processing board, magneto optics disk and personal computer which controls the entire system. The CIE-L*a*b* uniform color space is used. This system is used for monitoring of some clinical diagnosis. The instrument is non-contact, easy to operate, and has a high precision unlike the conventional colorimeters. This instrument is useful for clinical diagnoses, monitoring and evaluating the effectiveness of treatment.

  18. Color measurement of tea leaves at different drying periods using hyperspectral imaging technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Chuanqi; Li, Xiaoli; Shao, Yongni; He, Yong

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of using hyperspectral imaging technique for nondestructive measurement of color components (ΔL*, Δa* and Δb*) and classify tea leaves during different drying periods. Hyperspectral images of tea leaves at five drying periods were acquired in the spectral region of 380-1030 nm. The three color features were measured by the colorimeter. Different preprocessing algorithms were applied to select the best one in accordance with the prediction results of partial least squares regression (PLSR) models. Competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS) and successive projections algorithm (SPA) were used to identify the effective wavelengths, respectively. Different models (least squares-support vector machine [LS-SVM], PLSR, principal components regression [PCR] and multiple linear regression [MLR]) were established to predict the three color components, respectively. SPA-LS-SVM model performed excellently with the correlation coefficient (rp) of 0.929 for ΔL*, 0.849 for Δa*and 0.917 for Δb*, respectively. LS-SVM model was built for the classification of different tea leaves. The correct classification rates (CCRs) ranged from 89.29% to 100% in the calibration set and from 71.43% to 100% in the prediction set, respectively. The total classification results were 96.43% in the calibration set and 85.71% in the prediction set. The result showed that hyperspectral imaging technique could be used as an objective and nondestructive method to determine color features and classify tea leaves at different drying periods.

  19. Color measurement of tea leaves at different drying periods using hyperspectral imaging technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanqi Xie

    Full Text Available This study investigated the feasibility of using hyperspectral imaging technique for nondestructive measurement of color components (ΔL*, Δa* and Δb* and classify tea leaves during different drying periods. Hyperspectral images of tea leaves at five drying periods were acquired in the spectral region of 380-1030 nm. The three color features were measured by the colorimeter. Different preprocessing algorithms were applied to select the best one in accordance with the prediction results of partial least squares regression (PLSR models. Competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS and successive projections algorithm (SPA were used to identify the effective wavelengths, respectively. Different models (least squares-support vector machine [LS-SVM], PLSR, principal components regression [PCR] and multiple linear regression [MLR] were established to predict the three color components, respectively. SPA-LS-SVM model performed excellently with the correlation coefficient (rp of 0.929 for ΔL*, 0.849 for Δa*and 0.917 for Δb*, respectively. LS-SVM model was built for the classification of different tea leaves. The correct classification rates (CCRs ranged from 89.29% to 100% in the calibration set and from 71.43% to 100% in the prediction set, respectively. The total classification results were 96.43% in the calibration set and 85.71% in the prediction set. The result showed that hyperspectral imaging technique could be used as an objective and nondestructive method to determine color features and classify tea leaves at different drying periods.

  20. [Precision and accuracy of a dental spectrophotometer in gingival color measurement of maxillary anterior gingival].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yang; Tan, Jian-guo; Chen, Li; Wang, Fang-ping; Tan, Yao; Zhou, Jian-feng

    2012-08-18

    To explore a gingival shade matching method and to evaluate the precision and accuracy of a dental spectrophotometer modified to be used in gingival color measurement. Crystaleye, a dental spectrophotometer (Olympus, Tokyo, Japan) with a custom shading cover was tested. For precision assessment, two experienced experimenters measured anterior maxillary incisors five times for each tooth. A total of 20 healthy gingival sites (attached gingiva, free gingiva and medial gingival papilla in anterior maxillary region) were measured,the Commission Internationale de I' Eclairage (CIE) color parameters (CIE L*a*b*) of which were analyzed using the supporting software. For accuracy assessment, a rectangular area of approximately 3 mm×3 mm was chosen in the attached gingival portion for spectral analysis. PR715 (SpectraScan;Photo Research Inc.,California, USA), a spectroradiometer, was utilized as standard control. Average color differences (ΔE) between the values from PR715 and Crystaleye were calculated. In precision assessment,ΔL* between the values in all the test sites and average values were from(0.28±0.16)to(0.78±0.57), with Δa*and Δb* from(0.28±0.15)to (0.87±0.65),from(0.19±0.09)to( 0.58±0.78), respectively. Average ΔE between values in all test sites and average values were from (0.62 ± 0.17) to (1.25 ± 0.98) CIELAB units, with a total average ΔE(0.90 ± 0.18). In accuracy assessment, ΔL* with control device were from(0.58±0.50)to(2.22±1.89),with Δa*and Δb* from(1.03±0.67)to(2.99±1.32),from(0.68±0.78)to(1.26±0.83), respectively. Average ΔE with the control device were from (2.44±0.82) to (3.51±1.03) CIELAB units, with a total average ΔE (2.96 ± 1.08). With appropriate modification, Crystaleye, the spectrophotometer, has demonstrated relative minor color variations that can be useful in gingival color measurement.

  1. Absolute distance measurement with correction of air refractive index by using two-color dispersive interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hanzhong; Zhang, Fumin; Liu, Tingyang; Li, Jianshuang; Qu, Xinghua

    2016-10-17

    Two-color interferometry is powerful for the correction of the air refractive index especially in the turbulent air over long distance, since the empirical equations could introduce considerable measurement uncertainty if the environmental parameters cannot be measured with sufficient precision. In this paper, we demonstrate a method for absolute distance measurement with high-accuracy correction of air refractive index using two-color dispersive interferometry. The distances corresponding to the two wavelengths can be measured via the spectrograms captured by a CCD camera pair in real time. In the long-term experiment of the correction of air refractive index, the experimental results show a standard deviation of 3.3 × 10-8 for 12-h continuous measurement without the precise knowledge of the environmental conditions, while the variation of the air refractive index is about 2 × 10-6. In the case of absolute distance measurement, the comparison with the fringe counting interferometer shows an agreement within 2.5 μm in 12 m range.

  2. Bayesian model for matching the radiometric measurements of aerospace and field ocean color sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Mhd Suhyb; Su, Zhongbo

    2010-01-01

    A Bayesian model is developed to match aerospace ocean color observation to field measurements and derive the spatial variability of match-up sites. The performance of the model is tested against populations of synthesized spectra and full and reduced resolutions of MERIS data. The model derived the scale difference between synthesized satellite pixel and point measurements with R(2) > 0.88 and relative error < 21% in the spectral range from 400 nm to 695 nm. The sub-pixel variabilities of reduced resolution MERIS image are derived with less than 12% of relative errors in heterogeneous region. The method is generic and applicable to different sensors.

  3. Bayesian Model for Matching the Radiometric Measurements of Aerospace and Field Ocean Color Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mhd. Suhyb Salama

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A Bayesian model is developed to match aerospace ocean color observation tofield measurements and derive the spatial variability of match-up sites. The performance of the model is tested against populations of synthesized spectra and full and reduced resolutions of MERIS data. The model derived the scale difference between synthesized satellite pixel and point measurements with R2 > 0.88 and relative error < 21% in the spectral range from 400 nm to 695 nm. The sub-pixel variabilities of reduced resolution MERIS image are derived with less than 12% of relative errors in heterogeneous region. The method is generic and applicable to different sensors.

  4. Color Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrolstad, Ronald E.; Smith, Daniel E.

    Color, flavor, and texture are the three principal quality attributes that determine food acceptance, and color has a far greater influence on our judgment than most of us appreciate. We use color to determine if a banana is at our preferred ripeness level, and a discolored meat product can warn us that the product may be spoiled. The marketing departments of our food corporations know that, for their customers, the color must be "right." The University of California Davis scorecard for wine quality designates four points out of 20, or 20% of the total score, for color and appearance (1). Food scientists who establish quality control specifications for their product are very aware of the importance of color and appearance. While subjective visual assessment and use of visual color standards are still used in the food industry, instrumental color measurements are extensively employed. Objective measurement of color is desirable for both research and industrial applications, and the ruggedness, stability, and ease of use of today's color measurement instruments have resulted in their widespread adoption.

  5. Development and validation of a measure of food choice values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyerly, Jordan E; Reeve, Charlie L

    2015-06-01

    Food choice values (FCVs) are factors that individuals consider when deciding which foods to purchase and/or consume. Given the potentially important implications for health, it is critical for researchers to have access to a validated measure of FCV. Though there is an existing measure of FCV, this measure was developed 20 years ago and recent research suggests additional FCVs exist that are not included in this measure. A series of four studies was conducted to develop a new expanded measure of FCV. An eight-factor model of FCV was supported and confirmed. In aggregate, results from the four studies indicate that the measure is content valid, and has internally consistent scales that also demonstrated acceptable temporal stability and convergent validity. In addition, the eight scales of the measures were independent of social desirability, met criteria for measurement invariance across income groups, and predicted dietary intake. The development of this new measure of FCV may be useful for researchers examining FCVs (FCVs) in the future, as well as for use in intervention and prevention efforts targeting dietary choices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Validation of Navigation Ultrasound for Clavicular Length Measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høj, Anders Thorsmark; Villa, Chiara; Christensen, Ole M.

    2017-01-01

    interval): approximately ± 7.5 mm, Pearson's correlation R: 0.948-0.974). Navigation ultrasound can measure clavicular length with an intra-rater reliability matching that of 3-D rendered computed tomography scans and with high validity. Its use could spread to other fields requiring accurate...... of 52.5 (range: 21-78 y) were included. Navigation ultrasound exhibited high reliability (intra-class correlation coefficient: 0.942-0.997, standard error of the mean: 0.7-2.9 mm, minimal detectable change: 2.3-8.1 mm) and validity (measurement error: 1.3%-1.8%, limits of agreement (95% confidence...

  7. A precision measurement of the neutron2. Probing the color force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Posik, Matthew R. [Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The g2 nucleon spin-dependent structure function measured in electron deep inelastic scattering contains information beyond the simple parton model description of the nucleon. It provides insight into quark-gluon correlations and a path to access the confining local color force a struck quark experiences just as it is hit by the virtual photon due to the remnant di-quark. The quantity d2, a measure of this local color force, has its information encoded in an x2 weighted integral of a linear combination of spin structure functions g1 and g2 and thus is dominated by the valence-quark region at large momentum fraction x. To date, theoretical calculations and experimental measurements of the neutron d2 differ by about two standard deviations. Therefore, JLab experiment E06-014, performed in Hall A, made a precision measurement of this quantity at two mean four momentum transfers values of 3.21 and 4.32 GeV2. Double spin asymmetries and absolute cross-sections were measured in both DIS and resonance regions by scattering longitudinally polarized electrons at beam energies of 4.74 and 5.89 GeV from a longitudinally and transversely polarized 3He target. Results for the absolute cross-sections and spin structure functions on 3He will be presented in the dissertation, as well as results for the neutron d2 and extracted color forces.

  8. Level validity of self-report whole-family measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manders, Willeke A; Cook, William L; Oud, Johan H L; Scholte, Ron H J; Janssens, Jan M A M; De Bruyn, Eric E J

    2007-12-01

    This article introduces an approach to testing the level validity of family assessment instruments (i.e., whether a family instrument measures family functioning at the level of the system it purports to assess). Two parents and 2 adolescents in 69 families rated the warmth in each of their family relationships and in the family as a whole. Family members' ratings of whole-family warmth assessed family functioning not only at the family level (i.e., characteristics of the family as a whole) but also at the individual level of analysis (i.e., characteristics of family members as raters), indicating a lack of level validity. Evidence was provided for the level validity of a latent variable based on family members' ratings of whole-family warmth. The findings underscore the importance of assessing the level validity of individual ratings of whole-family functioning.

  9. Measurement invariance of the people of Color Racial Identity Attitudes Scale with Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthew J; Alvarez, Alvin N; Li, Robin; Chen, Grace A; Iwamoto, Derek K

    2016-01-01

    Racial identity has been linked to a number of important psychological outcomes, including perceptions of racism, self-esteem, and psychological well-being in Asian American populations. Although the People of Color Racial Identity Attitudes Scale (PRIAS; Helms, 1995) is the most widely used measure in Asian American racial identity research, numerous competing measurement models of the PRIAS have been identified in independent Asian American samples. Therefore, this study tested these competing PRIAS measurement models and also examined PRIAS measurement invariance across generational status, gender, and ethnicity using a combined sample of 1,946 Asian American college students and community adults. Study findings demonstrated the superiority of a 12-item 4-factor PRIAS measurement model that was consistent with Helms's original racial identity theory, suggesting that the PRIAS operates in an equivalent manner across generational status, gender, and ethnicity. Study limitations and future directions for research are discussed. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. COLOR IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Lafon

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to present specific capabilities and limitations of the use of color digital images in a characterization process. The whole process is investigated, from the acquisition of digital color images to the analysis of the information relevant to various applications in the field of material characterization. A digital color image can be considered as a matrix of pixels with values expressed in a vector-space (commonly 3 dimensional space whose specificity, compared to grey-scale images, is to ensure a coding and a representation of the output image (visualisation printing that fits the human visual reality. In a characterization process, it is interesting to regard color image attnbutes as a set of visual aspect measurements on a material surface. Color measurement systems (spectrocolorimeters, colorimeters and radiometers and cameras use the same type of light detectors: most of them use Charge Coupled Devices sensors. The difference between the two types of color data acquisition systems is that color measurement systems provide a global information of the observed surface (average aspect of the surface: the color texture is not taken into account. Thus, it seems interesting to use imaging systems as measuring instruments for the quantitative characterization of the color texture.

  11. Measurement of Dietary Restraint: Validity Tests of Four Questionnaires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Donald A.; Martin, Corby K.; York-Crowe, Emily; Anton, Stephen D.; Redman, Leanne M.; Han, Hongmei; Ravussin, Eric

    2007-01-01

    This study tested the validity of four measures of dietary restraint: Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire, Eating Inventory (EI), Revised Restraint Scale (RS), and the Current Dieting Questionnaire. Dietary restraint has been implicated as a determinant of overeating and binge eating. Conflicting findings have been attributed to different methods for measuring dietary restraint. The validity of four self-report measures of dietary restraint and dieting behavior was tested using: 1) factor analysis, 2) changes in dietary restraint in a randomized controlled trial of different methods to achieve calorie restriction, and 3) correlation of changes in dietary restraint with an objective measure of energy balance, calculated from the changes in fat mass and fat-free mass over a six-month dietary intervention. Scores from all four questionnaires, measured at baseline, formed a dietary restraint factor, but the RS also loaded on a binge eating factor. Based on change scores, the EI Restraint scale was the only measure that correlated significantly with energy balance expressed as a percentage of energy require d for weight maintenance. These findings suggest that that, of the four questionnaires tested, the EI Restraint scale was the most valid measure of the intent to diet and actual caloric restriction. PMID:17101191

  12. Validating an Observation Protocol to Measure Special Education Teacher Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Evelyn S.; Semmelroth, Carrie L.

    2015-01-01

    This study used Kane's (2013) Interpretation/Use Argument (IUA) to measure validity on the Recognizing Effective Special Education Teachers (RESET) observation tool. The RESET observation tool is designed to evaluate special education teacher effectiveness using evidence-based instructional practices as the basis for evaluation. In alignment with…

  13. Validation of the Child and Adolescent Social Perception Measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koning, Cyndie; Magill-Evans, Joyce

    2001-01-01

    Compared 32 adolescent boys who had social skills deficits consistent with Asperger's Disorder to 29 controls matched on age and intelligence quotient. Significant differences were found between groups on Child and Adolescent Social Perception Measure scores, and the validity of the instrument was supported. (Contains 37 references.) (JOW)

  14. Color categories and color appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Michael A.; Kay, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We examined categorical effects in color appearance in two tasks, which in part differed in the extent to which color naming was explicitly required for the response. In one, we measured the effects of color differences on perceptual grouping for hues that spanned the blue–green boundary, to test whether chromatic differences across the boundary were perceptually exaggerated. This task did not require overt judgments of the perceived colors, and the tendency to group showed only a weak and inconsistent categorical bias. In a second case, we analyzed results from two prior studies of hue scaling of chromatic stimuli (De Valois, De Valois, Switkes, & Mahon, 1997; Malkoc, Kay, & Webster, 2005), to test whether color appearance changed more rapidly around the blue–green boundary. In this task observers directly judge the perceived color of the stimuli and these judgments tended to show much stronger categorical effects. The differences between these tasks could arise either because different signals mediate color grouping and color appearance, or because linguistic categories might differentially intrude on the response to color and/or on the perception of color. Our results suggest that the interaction between language and color processing may be highly dependent on the specific task and cognitive demands and strategies of the observer, and also highlight pronounced individual differences in the tendency to exhibit categorical responses. PMID:22176751

  15. Influence of surface layer removal of shade guide tabs on the measured color by spectrophotometer and spectroradiometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Cheol; Yu, Bin; Lee, Yong-Keun

    2008-12-01

    To determine the changes in color parameters of Vitapan 3D-Master shade guide tabs by a spectrophotometer (SP) or a spectroradiometer (SR), and by the removal of the surface layer of the tabs that was performed to make a flat measuring surface for the SP color measurement. Color of the shade tabs was measured before and after removing the surface layer of the tabs using SP and SR. Correlations between the color parameters between the original (OR) and the surface layer removed (RM) tabs and between the SP and the SR measurements were determined (alpha=0.05). Based on SP, the lightness, chroma, CIE a* and b* values measured after the surface layer removal were higher than those of the original tabs except a few cases. Based on SR, the chroma and CIE a* and b* values measured after surface layer removal were higher than those of the original tabs except a few cases; however, in case of the lightness, the changes varied by the shade designation. Type of instrument influenced the changes in color parameters based on paired t-test (pspectrophotometer or a spectroradiometer, measurement protocols should be specified because color difference by the surface layer removal and the instrument was high.

  16. Calibration of a two-color soft x-ray diagnostic for electron temperature measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reusch, L. M., E-mail: lmmcguire@wisc.edu; Den Hartog, D. J.; Goetz, J.; McGarry, M. B. [University of Wisconsin - Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53703 (United States); Franz, P. [Consorzio RFX, Padova (Italy); Stephens, H. D. [University of Wisconsin - Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53703 (United States); Pierce College Fort Steilacoom, Lakewood, Washington 98498 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    The two-color soft x-ray (SXR) tomography diagnostic on the Madison Symmetric Torus is capable of making electron temperature measurements via the double-filter technique; however, there has been a 15% systematic discrepancy between the SXR double-filter (SXR{sub DF}) temperature and Thomson scattering (TS) temperature. Here we discuss calibration of the Be filters used in the SXR{sub DF} measurement using empirical measurements of the transmission function versus energy at the BESSY II electron storage ring, electron microprobe analysis of filter contaminants, and measurement of the effective density. The calibration does not account for the TS and SXR{sub DF} discrepancy, and evidence from experiments indicates that this discrepancy is due to physics missing from the SXR{sub DF} analysis rather than instrumentation effects.

  17. LOWERING UNCERTAINTY IN CRUDE OIL MEASUREMENT BY SELECTING OPTIMIZED ENVELOPE COLOR OF A PIPELINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Saadat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Lowering uncertainty in crude oil volume measurement has been widely considered as one of main purposes in an oil export terminal. It is found that crude oil temperature at metering station has big effects on measured volume and may cause big uncertainty at the metering point. As crude oil flows through an aboveground pipeline, pick up the solar radiation and heat up. This causes the oil temperature at the metering point to rise and higher uncertainty to be created. The amount of temperature rise is depended on exterior surface paint color. In the Kharg Island, there is about 3 km distance between the oil storage tanks and the metering point. The oil flows through the pipeline due to gravity effects as storage tanks are located 60m higher than the metering point. In this study, an analytical model has been conducted for predicting oil temperature at the pipeline exit (the metering point based on climate and geographical conditions of the Kharg Island. The temperature at the metering point has been calculated and the effects of envelope color have been investigated. Further, the uncertainty in the measurement system due to temperature rise has been studied.

  18. Ocean Color Measurements from Landsat-8 OLI using SeaDAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Bryan Alden; Bailey, Sean W.; Kuring, Norman; Werdell, P. Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    The Operational Land Imager (OLI) is a multi-spectral radiometer hosted on the recently launched Landsat-8 satellite. OLI includes a suite of relatively narrow spectral bands at 30-meter spatial resolution in the visible to shortwave infrared that make it a potential tool for ocean color radiometry: measurement of the reflected spectral radiance upwelling from beneath the ocean surface that carries information on the biogeochemical constituents of the upper ocean euphotic zone. To evaluate the potential of OLI to measure ocean color, processing support was implemented in SeaDAS, which is an open-source software package distributed by NASA for processing, analysis, and display of ocean remote sensing measurements from a variety of satellite-based multi-spectral radiometers. Here we describe the implementation of OLI processing capabilities within SeaDAS, including support for various methods of atmospheric correction to remove the effects of atmospheric scattering and absorption and retrieve the spectral remote-sensing reflectance (Rrs; sr exp 1). The quality of the retrieved Rrs imagery will be assessed, as will the derived water column constituents such as the concentration of the phytoplankton pigment chlorophyll a.

  19. Validation and Error Characterization for the Global Precipitation Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidwell, Steven W.; Adams, W. J.; Everett, D. F.; Smith, E. A.; Yuter, S. E.

    2003-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) is an international effort to increase scientific knowledge on the global water cycle with specific goals of improving the understanding and the predictions of climate, weather, and hydrology. These goals will be achieved through several satellites specifically dedicated to GPM along with the integration of numerous meteorological satellite data streams from international and domestic partners. The GPM effort is led by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) of the United States and the National Space Development Agency (NASDA) of Japan. In addition to the spaceborne assets, international and domestic partners will provide ground-based resources for validating the satellite observations and retrievals. This paper describes the validation effort of Global Precipitation Measurement to provide quantitative estimates on the errors of the GPM satellite retrievals. The GPM validation approach will build upon the research experience of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) retrieval comparisons and its validation program. The GPM ground validation program will employ instrumentation, physical infrastructure, and research capabilities at Supersites located in important meteorological regimes of the globe. NASA will provide two Supersites, one in a tropical oceanic and the other in a mid-latitude continental regime. GPM international partners will provide Supersites for other important regimes. Those objectives or regimes not addressed by Supersites will be covered through focused field experiments. This paper describes the specific errors that GPM ground validation will address, quantify, and relate to the GPM satellite physical retrievals. GPM will attempt to identify the source of errors within retrievals including those of instrument calibration, retrieval physical assumptions, and algorithm applicability. With the identification of error sources, improvements will be made to the respective calibration

  20. Validation of the one pass measure for motivational interviewing competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMaster, Fiona; Resnicow, Ken

    2015-04-01

    This paper examines the psychometric properties of the OnePass coding system: a new, user-friendly tool for evaluating practitioner competence in motivational interviewing (MI). We provide data on reliability and validity with the current gold-standard: Motivational Interviewing Treatment Integrity tool (MITI). We compared scores from 27 videotaped MI sessions performed by student counselors trained in MI and simulated patients using both OnePass and MITI, with three different raters for each tool. Reliability was estimated using intra-class coefficients (ICCs), and validity was assessed using Pearson's r. OnePass had high levels of inter-rater reliability with 19/23 items found from substantial to almost perfect agreement. Taking the pair of scores with the highest inter-rater reliability on the MITI, the concurrent validity between the two measures ranged from moderate to high. Validity was highest for evocation, autonomy, direction and empathy. OnePass appears to have good inter-rater reliability while capturing similar dimensions of MI as the MITI. Despite the moderate concurrent validity with the MITI, the OnePass shows promise in evaluating both traditional and novel interpretations of MI. OnePass may be a useful tool for developing and improving practitioner competence in MI where access to MITI coders is limited. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  1. The Potential of Autonomous Ship-Borne Hyperspectral Radiometers for the Validation of Ocean Color Radiometry Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio E. Brando

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Calibration and validation of satellite observations are essential and on-going tasks to ensure compliance with mission accuracy requirements. An automated above water hyperspectral radiometer significantly augmented Australia’s ability to contribute to global and regional ocean color validation and algorithm design activities. The hyperspectral data can be re-sampled for comparison with current and future sensor wavebands. The continuous spectral acquisition along the ship track enables spatial resampling to match satellite footprint. This study reports spectral comparisons of the radiometer data with Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS-Aqua for contrasting water types in tropical waters off northern Australia based on the standard NIR atmospheric correction implemented in SeaDAS. Consistent match-ups are shown for transects of up to 50 km over a range of reflectance values. The MODIS and VIIRS satellite reflectance data consistently underestimated the in situ spectra in the blue with a bias relative to the “dynamic above water radiance and irradiance collector” (DALEC at 443 nm ranging from 9.8 × 10−4 to 3.1 × 10−3 sr−1. Automated acquisition has produced good quality data under standard operating and maintenance procedures. A sensitivity analysis explored the effects of some assumptions in the data reduction methods, indicating the need for a comprehensive investigation and quantification of each source of uncertainty in the estimate of the DALEC reflectances. Deployment on a Research Vessel provides the potential for the radiometric data to be combined with other sampling and observational activities to contribute to algorithm development in the wider bio-optical research community.

  2. The Selective Mutism Questionnaire: Measurement Structure and Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letamendi, Andrea M.; Chavira, Denise A.; Hitchcock, Carla A.; Roesch, Scott C.; Shipon-Blum, Elisa; Stein, Murray B.; Roesch, Scott C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the 17-item Selective Mutism Questionnaire. Method Diagnostic interviews were administered via telephone to 102 parents of children identified with selective mutism (SM) and 43 parents of children without SM from varying U.S. geographic regions. Children were between the ages of 3 and 11 inclusive and comprised 58% girls and 42% boys. SM diagnoses were determined using the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for Children - Parent Version (ADIS-C/P); SM severity was assessed using the 17-item Selective Mutism Questionnaire (SMQ); and behavioral and affective symptoms were assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted to investigate the dimensionality of the SMQ and a modified parallel analysis procedure was used to confirm EFA results. Internal consistency, construct validity, and incremental validity were also examined. Results The EFA yielded a 13-item solution consisting of three factors: a) Social Situations Outside of School, b) School Situations, and c) Home and Family Situations. Internal consistency of SMQ factors and total scale ranged from moderate to high. Convergent and incremental validity were also well supported. Conclusions Measure structure findings are consistent with the 3-factor solution found in a previous psychometric evaluation of the SMQ. Results also suggest that the SMQ provides useful and unique information in the prediction of SM phenomenon beyond other child anxiety measures. PMID:18698268

  3. Measures of agreement between computation and experiment:validation metrics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barone, Matthew Franklin; Oberkampf, William Louis

    2005-08-01

    With the increasing role of computational modeling in engineering design, performance estimation, and safety assessment, improved methods are needed for comparing computational results and experimental measurements. Traditional methods of graphically comparing computational and experimental results, though valuable, are essentially qualitative. Computable measures are needed that can quantitatively compare computational and experimental results over a range of input, or control, variables and sharpen assessment of computational accuracy. This type of measure has been recently referred to as a validation metric. We discuss various features that we believe should be incorporated in a validation metric and also features that should be excluded. We develop a new validation metric that is based on the statistical concept of confidence intervals. Using this fundamental concept, we construct two specific metrics: one that requires interpolation of experimental data and one that requires regression (curve fitting) of experimental data. We apply the metrics to three example problems: thermal decomposition of a polyurethane foam, a turbulent buoyant plume of helium, and compressibility effects on the growth rate of a turbulent free-shear layer. We discuss how the present metrics are easily interpretable for assessing computational model accuracy, as well as the impact of experimental measurement uncertainty on the accuracy assessment.

  4. The Online Social Support Scale: Measure development and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nick, Elizabeth A; Cole, David A; Cho, Sun-Joo; Smith, Darcy K; Carter, T Grace; Zelkowitz, Rachel L

    2018-05-21

    A new measure, the Online Social Support Scale, was developed based on previous theory, research, and measurement of in-person social support. It includes four subscales: Esteem/Emotional Support, Social Companionship, Informational Support, and Instrumental Support. In college and community samples, factor analytic and item response theory results suggest that subtypes of in-person social support also pertain in the online world. Evidence of reliability, convergent validity, and discriminant validity provide excellent psychometric support for the measure. Construct validity accrues to the measure vis-à-vis support for three hypotheses: (a) Various broad types of Internet platforms for social interactions are differentially associated with online social support and online victimization; (b) similar to in-person social support, online social support offsets the adverse effect of negative life events on self-esteem and depression-related outcome; and (c) online social support counteracts the effects of online victimization in much the same way that in-person friends in one social niche counterbalance rejection in other social niches. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Preferred skin color enhancement for photographic color reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huanzhao; Luo, Ronnier

    2011-01-01

    Skin tones are the most important colors among the memory color category. Reproducing skin colors pleasingly is an important factor in photographic color reproduction. Moving skin colors toward their preferred skin color center improves the color preference of skin color reproduction. Several methods to morph skin colors to a smaller preferred skin color region has been reported in the past. In this paper, a new approach is proposed to further improve the result of skin color enhancement. An ellipsoid skin color model is applied to compute skin color probabilities for skin color detection and to determine a weight for skin color adjustment. Preferred skin color centers determined through psychophysical experiments were applied for color adjustment. Preferred skin color centers for dark, medium, and light skin colors are applied to adjust skin colors differently. Skin colors are morphed toward their preferred color centers. A special processing is applied to avoid contrast loss in highlight. A 3-D interpolation method is applied to fix a potential contouring problem and to improve color processing efficiency. An psychophysical experiment validates that the method of preferred skin color enhancement effectively identifies skin colors, improves the skin color preference, and does not objectionably affect preferred skin colors in original images.

  6. Sensory Properties and Color Measurements of Dietary Chocolates with Different Compositions During Storage for Up to 360 Days

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanka V. Popov-Raljić

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work sensory characteristics (appearance – color, brilliance, shape and surface; texture – structure, break, firmness and chewiness; aroma – odor and taste of dietary chocolates of different compositions were evaluated, in parallel with color parameter measurements. Color was determined instrumentally on the top and bottom surfaces, using a "MINOLTA" Chroma meter CR 400 thristimulus colorimeter. Sensory evaluation was performed by a group of experienced panelists immediately after the production (0 – 30 days, and then after 90, 180, 270 and 360 days of storage under ambient conditions (t = 18 – 20°C. Results were statistically analyzed by the two-factorial analysis of variance (MANOVA and with the LSD – test. It was concluded that the storage time up to one year had statistically highly significant (p < 0.01 effects on the sensory attributes of chocolate, as well as on instrumentally measured color parameters.

  7. Preliminary Exploration of the Chromatic Differential: The Measurement of the Meaning of Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Edward A.

    A study investigated the reciprocal relationship between colors and semantic terms--just as certain semantic terms elicit thoughts of particular colors, so those colors may also elicit their reciprocal semantic terms. Twenty-six students were each shown 18 words: 3 each of bipolar pairs that expressed evaluation, activity, or potency. The students…

  8. Portable digital lock-in instrument to determine chemical constituents with single-color absorption measurements for Global Health Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacas-Jacques, Paulino; Linnes, Jacqueline; Young, Anna; Gerrard, Victoria; Gomez-Marquez, Jose

    2014-03-01

    Innovations in international health require the use of state-of-the-art technology to enable clinical chemistry for diagnostics of bodily fluids. We propose the implementation of a portable and affordable lock-in amplifier-based instrument that employs digital technology to perform biochemical diagnostics on blood, urine, and other fluids. The digital instrument is composed of light source and optoelectronic sensor, lock-in detection electronics, microcontroller unit, and user interface components working with either power supply or batteries. The instrument performs lock-in detection provided that three conditions are met. First, the optoelectronic signal of interest needs be encoded in the envelope of an amplitude-modulated waveform. Second, the reference signal required in the demodulation channel has to be frequency and phase locked with respect to the optoelectronic carrier signal. Third, the reference signal should be conditioned appropriately. We present three approaches to condition the signal appropriately: high-pass filtering the reference signal, precise offset tuning the reference level by low-pass filtering, and by using a voltage divider network. We assess the performance of the lock-in instrument by comparing it to a benchmark device and by determining protein concentration with single-color absorption measurements. We validate the concentration values obtained with the proposed instrument using chemical concentration measurements. Finally, we demonstrate that accurate retrieval of phase information can be achieved by using the same instrument.

  9. Portable digital lock-in instrument to determine chemical constituents with single-color absorption measurements for Global Health Initiatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vacas-Jacques, Paulino [Little Devices Group, SUTD-MIT International Design Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Wellman Center for Photomedicine and Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States); Linnes, Jacqueline [Little Devices Group, SUTD-MIT International Design Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Biomedical Engineering Department, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Young, Anna; Gomez-Marquez, Jose [Little Devices Group, SUTD-MIT International Design Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Gerrard, Victoria [Little Devices Group, SUTD-MIT International Design Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Opportunity Lab, Singapore University for Technology and Design, Singapore 138682 (Singapore)

    2014-03-15

    Innovations in international health require the use of state-of-the-art technology to enable clinical chemistry for diagnostics of bodily fluids. We propose the implementation of a portable and affordable lock-in amplifier-based instrument that employs digital technology to perform biochemical diagnostics on blood, urine, and other fluids. The digital instrument is composed of light source and optoelectronic sensor, lock-in detection electronics, microcontroller unit, and user interface components working with either power supply or batteries. The instrument performs lock-in detection provided that three conditions are met. First, the optoelectronic signal of interest needs be encoded in the envelope of an amplitude-modulated waveform. Second, the reference signal required in the demodulation channel has to be frequency and phase locked with respect to the optoelectronic carrier signal. Third, the reference signal should be conditioned appropriately. We present three approaches to condition the signal appropriately: high-pass filtering the reference signal, precise offset tuning the reference level by low-pass filtering, and by using a voltage divider network. We assess the performance of the lock-in instrument by comparing it to a benchmark device and by determining protein concentration with single-color absorption measurements. We validate the concentration values obtained with the proposed instrument using chemical concentration measurements. Finally, we demonstrate that accurate retrieval of phase information can be achieved by using the same instrument.

  10. Convergent validity of two decision making style measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berisha, Gentrit

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Decision making research has witnessed a growing number of studies on individual differences and decision making styles, yet the lack of comprehensive frameworks and widely accepted measures has hindered research for a long time. There is an ongoing debate on whether individuals’ styles dynamically change across time and situations according to circumstances. Furthermore, it is an open question whether these styles are mutually exclusive. Decision style measures seek to determine one’s dominant style as well as less used styles. To our knowledge this is the first study of the convergent validity of two widely used decision making style measures: The Decision Style Inventory (DSI and the General Decision Making Style (GDMS. The direction and strength of correlation between directive, analytical, conceptual and behavioral styles as measured by DSI and rational, intuitive, dependent, avoidant and spontaneous styles as measured by GDMS have been tested. Results of the current study are compared with previous studies that have used one or both of the instruments. Correlations between styles are consistent with findings from other studies using one of the decision style measures, but the strength of correlations indicates that there is no convergent validity between DSI and GDMS.

  11. Validating precision--how many measurements do we need?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ÅSberg, Arne; Solem, Kristine Bodal; Mikkelsen, Gustav

    2015-10-01

    A quantitative analytical method should be sufficiently precise, i.e. the imprecision measured as a standard deviation should be less than the numerical definition of the acceptable standard deviation. We propose that the entire 90% confidence interval for the true standard deviation shall lie below the numerical definition of the acceptable standard deviation in order to assure that the analytical method is sufficiently precise. We also present power function curves to ease the decision on the number of measurements to make. Computer simulation was used to calculate the probability that the upper limit of the 90% confidence interval for the true standard deviation was equal to or exceeded the acceptable standard deviation. Power function curves were constructed for different scenarios. The probability of failure to assure that the method is sufficiently precise increases with decreasing number of measurements and with increasing standard deviation when the true standard deviation is well below the acceptable standard deviation. For instance, the probability of failure is 42% for a precision experiment of 40 repeated measurements in one analytical run and 7% for 100 repeated measurements, when the true standard deviation is 80% of the acceptable standard deviation. Compared to the CLSI guidelines, validating precision according to the proposed principle is more reliable, but demands considerably more measurements. Using power function curves may help when planning studies to validate precision.

  12. Measurements of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) Validation through 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmons, L. K.; Edwards, D. P.; Deeter, M. N.; Gille, J. C.; Campos, T.; Nedelec, P.; Novelli, P.; Sachse, G.

    2009-01-01

    Comparisons of aircraft measurements of carbon monoxide (CO) to the retrievals of CO using observations from the Measurements of Pollution in The Troposphere (MOPITT) instrument onboard the Terra satellite are presented. Observations made as part of the NASA INTEX-B and NSF MIRAGE field campaigns during March May 2006 are used to validate the MOPITT CO retrievals, along with routine samples from 2001 through 2006 from NOAA and the MOZAIC measurements from commercial aircraft. A significant positive bias, around 20% for total column CO, in MOPITT CO was found in the comparison to in situ measurements during 2006. Comparisons to the long-term records of measurements from NOAA and MOZAIC revealed an increasing bias in the V3 MOPITT CO retrievals over time. The impact of an instrumental drift is illustrated through retrieval simulations.

  13. Encyclopedia of color science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of Color Science and Technology provides an authoritative single source for understanding and applying the concepts of color to all fields of science and technology, including artistic and historical aspects of color. Many topics are discussed in this timely reference, including an introduction to the science of color, and entries on the physics, chemistry and perception of color. Color is described as it relates to optical phenomena of color and continues on through colorants and materials used to modulate color and also to human vision of color. The measurement of color is provided as is colorimetry, color spaces, color difference metrics, color appearance models, color order systems and cognitive color. Other topics discussed include industrial color, color imaging, capturing color, displaying color and printing color. Descriptions of color encodings, color management, processing color and applications relating to color synthesis for computer graphics are included in this work. The Encyclo...

  14. Measuring awareness of financial skills: reliability and validity of a new measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, K; Tuokko, H A; Mateer, C A; Hultsch, D F

    2004-03-01

    This paper examines the psychometric properties of a three-part (participant, informant, and performance) Measure for assessing Awareness of Financial Skills (MAFS). The MAFS was administered to 10 seniors with dementia and 25 well-functioning seniors, and their informants. Measures of cognitive functioning, social desirability, neuroticism, and perceived control were administered to each participant to allow for an assessment of validity. Internal consistency estimates for the participant and informant questionnaires were found to be 0.92 and 0.97, respectively. Convergent validity analysis indicated that performance on this measure was related to level of cognitive functioning, with higher level of unawareness associated with decreased cognitive ability. Discriminant validity analysis showed that performance on this measure was not related to social desirability or neuroticism. This study provides evidence that the MAFS is a reliable and valid tool for assessing awareness of financial skills in older adults.

  15. Is BMI a valid measure of obesity in postmenopausal women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banack, Hailey R; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Hovey, Kathleen M; Stokes, Andrew

    2018-03-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is a widely used indicator of obesity status in clinical settings and population health research. However, there are concerns about the validity of BMI as a measure of obesity in postmenopausal women. Unlike BMI, which is an indirect measure of obesity and does not distinguish lean from fat mass, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) provides a direct measure of body fat and is considered a gold standard of adiposity measurement. The goal of this study is to examine the validity of using BMI to identify obesity in postmenopausal women relative to total body fat percent measured by DXA scan. Data from 1,329 postmenopausal women participating in the Buffalo OsteoPerio Study were used in this analysis. At baseline, women ranged in age from 53 to 85 years. Obesity was defined as BMI ≥ 30 kg/m and body fat percent (BF%) greater than 35%, 38%, or 40%. We calculated sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value to evaluate the validity of BMI-defined obesity relative BF%. We further explored the validity of BMI relative to BF% using graphical tools, such as scatterplots and receiver-operating characteristic curves. Youden's J index was used to determine the empirical optimal BMI cut-point for each level of BF% defined obesity. The sensitivity of BMI-defined obesity was 32.4% for 35% body fat, 44.6% for 38% body fat, and 55.2% for 40% body fat. Corresponding specificity values were 99.3%, 97.1%, and 94.6%, respectively. The empirical optimal BMI cut-point to define obesity is 24.9 kg/m for 35% BF, 26.49 kg/m for 38% BF, and 27.05 kg/m for 40% BF according to the Youden's index. Results demonstrate that a BMI cut-point of 30 kg/m does not appear to be an appropriate indicator of true obesity status in postmenopausal women. Empirical estimates of the validity of BMI from this study may be used by other investigators to account for BMI-related misclassification in older women.

  16. A Measure of Perceived Chronic Social Adversity: Development and Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingqiu Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to develop a measure that assesses negative daily social encounters. Specifically, we examined the concept of perceived chronic social adversity and its assessment, the Perceived Chronic Social Adversity Questionnaire (PCSAQ. The PCSAQ focused on the subjective processing of daily social experiences. Psychometric properties were examined within two non-clinical samples (N = 331 and N = 390 and one clinical sample (N = 86. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported a three-factor model of the PCSAQ, which corresponds to three types of daily social stressors. The final 28-item PCSAQ was shown to be internally consistent, and to have good construct validity in terms of factor structure and group differences. It was also shown to have good concurrent validity in terms of association with outcome variables (sense of control, happiness, and mood and anxiety symptoms. Perceived chronic social adversity was also shown to be correlated with PTSD severity. Taken together, these findings suggest that the PCSAQ is a reliable, valid, and useful measure that can be used to assess negative social and clinical aspects of personal experiences. This study is an important exploratory step in improving our understanding of the relationship between the cumulative effect of negative social encounters and psychological difficulty.

  17. Polarization-based enhancement of ocean color signal for estimating suspended particulate matter: radiative transfer simulations and laboratory measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; He, Xianqiang; Liu, Jiahang; Bai, Yan; Wang, Difeng; Chen, Tieqiao; Wang, Yihao; Zhu, Feng

    2017-04-17

    Absorption and scattering by molecules, aerosols and hydrosols, and the reflection and transmission over the sea surface can modify the original polarization state of sunlight. However, water-leaving radiance polarization, containing embedded water constituent information, has largely been neglected. Here, the efficiency of the parallel polarization radiance (PPR) for enhancing ocean color signal of suspended particulate matter is examined via vector radiative transfer simulations and laboratory experiments. The simulation results demonstrate that the PPR has a slightly higher ocean color signal at the top-of-atmosphere as compared with that of the total radiance. Moreover, both the simulations and laboratory measurements reveal that, compared with total radiance, PPR can effectively enhance the normalized ocean color signal for a large range of observation geometries, wavelengths, and suspended particle concentrations. Thus, PPR has great potential for improving the ocean color signal detection from satellite.

  18. Halal Literacy: A Concept Exploration and Measurement Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Salehudin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Muslim consumers have strict commandments which guides their consumption behavior. However, Muslim individuals may have different compliance regarding the commandments. This difference in compliance may be explained by difference in halal literacy. Halal literacy is the ability to differentiate permissible (halal and forbidden (haram goods and services which came from better understanding of Islamic laws (shariah.Thus, the purpose of this paper is to explore the concept of Halal Literacy as well as to develop and validate an instrument to measure Halal Literacy for Muslim consumers. Halal literacy was measured using two methods. One method using six items of five point Likert self evaluation scale and the other using fifteen true-false test questions with an option to choose doesn’t know. Proportion of correct and incorrect was used as weights in scoring to represent the difficulty of items. Scoring results were then analyzed with Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA using Weighted Least Square method to test construct validity. Scores were then used to classify cases into high, moderate and low Literacy groups.Self evaluation halal literacy and switching Intentions are compared between groups using ANOVA to determine concurrent validity. Only ten out of fifteen items are considered valid using Confirmatory Factor Analysis. ANOVA showed that grouping of high, moderate and low literacy score can distinguish differences in perceived halal literacy and switching intentions between the groups. Post hoc tests and descriptive statistics revealed interesting non linear relationship between the halal literacy scores; self evaluated halal literacy and intentions to switch from products without halal labels.

  19. Psychological Capital: Convergent and discriminant validity of a reconfigured measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Grobler

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although attention has been given to the importance of positivity in the workplace, it has only recently been proposed as a new way in which to focus on organisational behaviour. The psychological resources which meet the criteria for positive organisational behaviour best are hope, self-efficacy, optimism and resilience.   Aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate the construct validity of the Psychological Capital Questionnaire (PCQ, with specific reference to its psychometric properties.   Setting: The sample included a total of 1749 respondents, 60 each from 30 organisations in South Africa.   Methods: A multi-factorial model was statistically explored and confirmed (with exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis, respectively.   Results: The results support the original conceptualisation and empirically-confirmed factorial composition of Psychological Capital (PsyCap by four elements, namely Hope, Optimism, Resilience and Self-efficacy. However, the study yielded a three-factor solution, with Hope and Optimism as a combined factor and Resilience and Self-efficacy made up of a reconfigured set of substantively justifiable items (three of the original 24 items were found not to be suitable. The three reconfigured factors showed good psychometric properties, good fit (in support of construct validity and acceptable levels of convergent and discriminant validity. Recommendations were made for further studies.   Conclusion: Based on the results obtained, it seems that the PCQ is a suitable (valid and reliable instrument for measuring PsyCap. This study could thus serve as a reference for the accurate measurement of PsyCap.

  20. Vulcan - A low-resolution spectrophotometer for measuring the integrated colors of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakos, K.D.; Weiss, W.W.; Mueller, S.; Pressberger, R.; Wachtler, P.

    1990-01-01

    Recent advances in fiber optics, holographic gratings, and blue CCD sensitivity have been combined to develop a low-resolution spectrophotometer. Combining the principles of aperture photometry and spectroscopy, this device is designed specifically to measure the light from galaxies with low contrast to the sky brightness (i.e., low surface brightness galaxies). The instrument consists of two large apertures (up to several arcmin) with fast-field lens for imaging the entrance pupil onto a fiber-optics cable. The circular configuration for the input end of the fiber cable is modified to a rectangular slit at the output end. The output is then imaged onto a concave holographic grating producing a spectrum from 3200 A to 7600 A with a resolution of 140 A. The main purpose of this instrument is to obtain narrow-band optical colors for low surface brightness galaxies, which can then be applied to the study of stellar populations in these galaxies. 11 refs

  1. Real-Time Detection and Measurement of Eye Features from Color Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Borza

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The accurate extraction and measurement of eye features is crucial to a variety of domains, including human-computer interaction, biometry, and medical research. This paper presents a fast and accurate method for extracting multiple features around the eyes: the center of the pupil, the iris radius, and the external shape of the eye. These features are extracted using a multistage algorithm. On the first stage the pupil center is localized using a fast circular symmetry detector and the iris radius is computed using radial gradient projections, and on the second stage the external shape of the eye (of the eyelids is determined through a Monte Carlo sampling framework based on both color and shape information. Extensive experiments performed on a different dataset demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach. In addition, this work provides eye annotation data for a publicly-available database.

  2. Validation of the Dyadic Coping Inventory with Chinese couples: Factorial structure, measurement invariance, and construct validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feng; Hilpert, Peter; Randall, Ashley K; Li, Qiuping; Bodenmann, Guy

    2016-08-01

    The Dyadic Coping Inventory (DCI, Bodenmann, 2008) assesses how couples support each other when facing individual (e.g., workload) and common (e.g., parenting) stressors. Specifically, the DCI measures partners' perceptions of their own (Self) and their partners' behaviors (Partner) when facing individual stressors, and partners' common coping behaviors when facing common stressors (Common). To date, the DCI has been validated in 6 different languages from individualistic Western cultures; however, because culture can affect interpersonal interactions, it is unknown whether the DCI is a reliable measure of coping behaviors for couples living in collectivistic Eastern cultures. Based on data from 474 Chinese couples (N = 948 individuals), the current study examined the Chinese version of the DCI's factorial structure, measurement invariance (MI), and construct validity of test scores. Using 3 cultural groups (China, Switzerland, and the United States [U.S.]), confirmatory factor analysis revealed a 5-factor structure regarding Self and Partner and a 2-factor structure regarding Common dyadic coping (DC). Results from analyses of MI indicated that the DCI subscales met the criteria for configural, metric, and full/partial scalar invariance across cultures (Chinese-Swiss and Chinese-U.S.) and genders (Chinese men and women). Results further revealed good construct validity of the DCI test scores. In all, the Chinese version of the DCI can be used for measuring Chinese couples' coping behaviors, and is available for cross-cultural studies examining DC behaviors between Western and Eastern cultures. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Evaporation measurement in the validation drift - part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Kunio

    1991-01-01

    Evaporation rate distribution over the wall surface of the validation drift was detaily mapped by using an equipment newly developed. The evaporation measurement was carried out to make clear the spatial variability of the inflow rate of groundwater seeping toward the tunnel. Air in the tunnel was warmed by an electric heater during the measurement period for reducing the relative humidity of air and for drying up the wall surface. Evaporation rates from rock matrix as well as from some major fractures were measured at about 500 points. Spatial distributions of evaporation rates over the tunnel wall were obtained under two different ventilation conditions. The average evaporation rates from the rock matrix of the wall were 0.29-0.35 mg/m 2 /s under these ventilation conditions. The average evaporation rate measured on some major fractures was about 1.3 mg/m 2 /s. The maximum evaporation rate measured was 12.8 mg/m 2 /s. Some spots of high evaporation rate were clearly found along some major fractures and these spots seemed to be the special seepage ways (channels) developed in those fractures. The fracture flow is relatively small compared with the matrix flow in the inner part of the drift. This measurement was performed about 1 month after the excavation of the validation drift. Groundwater flow around the tunnel might not be in a steady state because the period between tunnel excavation and the measurement was not so long. The evaporation rate distribution under the steady state of groundwater flow will be studied in 1991. (au)

  4. Evaporation measurement in the validation drift - part 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, K.

    1991-12-01

    Two evaporation measurement series were carried out during April 3 - April 18, 1990 and May 27 . June 13, 1991 respectively in the validation drift. The first and the second measurement series were performed about one month and 14 months after the excavation, respectively. The results obtained by these measurement series are compared to each other with the aim to know the evaporation rate change during the period between these series. The evaporation rate from the matrix part of the rock mass decreased from the first measurement to the second. The average evaporation rate obtained from the second measurement series was about 1/4 of the first measurement. The frequency distribution of the evaporation rate measured in the second measurement series was more concentrated compared to the distribution of the first measurement series. The frequency distribution obtained by the second measurement seems to be approximated with a normal distribution curve. The evaporation rate from some major fractures did not decrease so much compared to the rate on the matrix part. The average rate obtained in the second measurement series on some fractures was about 80% of that of the first measurement series. The reduction of the evaporation rate may be due to the creation of an unsaturated zone around the drift. As the permeability decreases significantly when the saturation of the rock mass decreases, the evaporation rate or in the other word, the inflow rate must become smaller. An attempt was made to estimate the ratio between the matrix flow and the fracture flow. However, a detailed study is needed on unsaturated flow in rock mass for precise estimation. (au)

  5. Signal validation in nuclear power plants using redundant measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glockler, O.; Upadhyaya, B.R.; Morgenstern, V.M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the basic principles of a multivariable signal validation software system utilizing redundant sensor readings of process variables in nuclear power plants (NPPs). The technique has been tested in numerical experiments, and was applied to actual data from a pressurized water reactor (PWR). The simultaneous checking within one redundant measurement set, and the cross-checking among redundant measurement sets of dissimilar process variables, results in an algorithm capable of detecting and isolating bias-type errors. A case in point occurs when a majority of the direct redundant measurements of more than one process variable has failed simultaneously by a common-mode or correlated failures can be detected by the developed approach. 5 refs

  6. Use of Synchronized Phasor Measurements for Model Validation in ERCOT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuthalapati, Sarma; Chen, Jian; Shrestha, Prakash; Huang, Shun-Hsien; Adams, John; Obadina, Diran; Mortensen, Tim; Blevins, Bill

    2013-05-01

    This paper discusses experiences in the use of synchronized phasor measurement technology in Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) interconnection, USA. Implementation of synchronized phasor measurement technology in the region is a collaborative effort involving ERCOT, ONCOR, AEP, SHARYLAND, EPG, CCET, and UT-Arlington. As several phasor measurement units (PMU) have been installed in ERCOT grid in recent years, phasor data with the resolution of 30 samples per second is being used to monitor power system status and record system events. Post-event analyses using recorded phasor data have successfully verified ERCOT dynamic stability simulation studies. Real time monitoring software "RTDMS"® enables ERCOT to analyze small signal stability conditions by monitoring the phase angles and oscillations. The recorded phasor data enables ERCOT to validate the existing dynamic models of conventional and/or wind generator.

  7. Do focal colors look particularly "colorful"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzel, Christoph; Franklin, Anna

    2014-04-01

    If the most typical red, yellow, green, and blue were particularly colorful (i.e., saturated), they would "jump out to the eye." This would explain why even fundamentally different languages have distinct color terms for these focal colors, and why unique hues play a prominent role in subjective color appearance. In this study, the subjective saturation of 10 colors around each of these focal colors was measured through a pairwise matching task. Results show that subjective saturation changes systematically across hues in a way that is strongly correlated to the visual gamut, and exponentially related to sensitivity but not to focal colors.

  8. Color structured light system of chest wall motion measurement for respiratory volume evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huijun; Cheng, Yuan; Liu, Dongdong; Zhang, Xiaodong; Zhang, Jue; Que, Chengli; Wang, Guangfa; Fang, Jing

    2010-03-01

    We present a structured light system to dynamically measure human chest wall motion for respiratory volume estimation. Based on a projection of an encoded color pattern and a few active markers attached to the trunk, respiratory volumes are obtained by evaluating the 3-D topographic changes of the chest wall in an anatomically consistent measuring region during respiration. Three measuring setups are established: a single-sided illuminating-recording setup for standing posture, an inclined single-sided setup for supine posture, and a double-sided setup for standing posture. Results are compared with the pneumotachography and show good agreement in volume estimations [correlation coefficient: R>0.99 (Pvolume during the isovolume maneuver (standard deviationpulmonary functional differences between the diseased and the contralateral sides of the thorax, and subsequent improvement of this imbalance after drainage. These results demonstrate the proposed optical method is capable of not only whole respiratory volume evaluation with high accuracy, but also regional pulmonary function assessment in different chest wall behaviors, with the advantage of whole-field measurement.

  9. Validation Testing for Automated Solubility Measurement Equipment Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lachut, J. S. [Washington River Protection Solutions LLC, Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-01-11

    Laboratory tests have been completed to test the validity of automated solubility measurement equipment using sodium nitrate and sodium chloride solutions (see test plan WRPS-1404441, “Validation Testing for Automated Solubility Measurement Equipment”). The sodium nitrate solution results were within 2-3% of the reference values, so the experiment is considered successful using the turbidity meter. The sodium chloride test was done by sight, as the turbidity meter did not work well using sodium chloride. For example, the “clear” turbidity reading was 53 FNU at 80 °C, 107 FNU at 55 °C, and 151 FNU at 20 °C. The sodium chloride did not work because it is granular and large; as the solution was stirred, the granules stayed to the outside of the reactor and just above the stir bar level, having little impact on the turbidity meter readings as the meter was aimed at the center of the solution. Also, the turbidity meter depth has an impact. The salt tends to remain near the stir bar level. If the meter is deeper in the slurry, it will read higher turbidity, and if the meter is raised higher in the slurry, it will read lower turbidity (possibly near zero) because it reads the “clear” part of the slurry. The sodium chloride solution results, as measured by sight rather than by turbidity instrument readings, were within 5-6% of the reference values.

  10. Stroop Color-Word Test: A Screening Measure of Selective Attention to Differentiate LD From Non LD Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Philip J.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Used the Stroop Color-Word Test to measure selective attention in learning disabled (N=45) and nonLD (N=50) children. Results indicated that LD children have a significant weakness in the process of selective attention compared to the nonLD children. Findings suggested that the Stroop is an effective screening measure. (JAC)

  11. Validation of an inertial measurement unit for the measurement of jump count and height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Kerry; Bahr, Roald; Baltich, Jennifer; Whittaker, Jackie L; Meeuwisse, Willem H

    2017-05-01

    To validate the use of an inertial measurement unit (IMU) for the collection of total jump count and assess the validity of an IMU for the measurement of jump height against 3-D motion analysis. Cross sectional validation study. 3D motion-capture laboratory and field based settings. Thirteen elite adolescent volleyball players. Participants performed structured drills, played a 4 set volleyball match and performed twelve counter movement jumps. Jump counts from structured drills and match play were validated against visual count from recorded video. Jump height during the counter movement jumps was validated against concurrent 3-D motion-capture data. The IMU device captured more total jumps (1032) than visual inspection (977) during match play. During structured practice, device jump count sensitivity was strong (96.8%) while specificity was perfect (100%). The IMU underestimated jump height compared to 3D motion-capture with mean differences for maximal and submaximal jumps of 2.5 cm (95%CI: 1.3 to 3.8) and 4.1 cm (3.1-5.1), respectively. The IMU offers a valid measuring tool for jump count. Although the IMU underestimates maximal and submaximal jump height, our findings demonstrate its practical utility for field-based measurement of jump load. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Measuring older adults' sedentary time: reliability, validity, and responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Paul A; Clark, Bronwyn K; Healy, Genevieve N; Eakin, Elizabeth G; Winkler, Elisabeth A H; Owen, Neville

    2011-11-01

    With evidence that prolonged sitting has deleterious health consequences, decreasing sedentary time is a potentially important preventive health target. High-quality measures, particularly for use with older adults, who are the most sedentary population group, are needed to evaluate the effect of sedentary behavior interventions. We examined the reliability, validity, and responsiveness to change of a self-report sedentary behavior questionnaire that assessed time spent in behaviors common among older adults: watching television, computer use, reading, socializing, transport and hobbies, and a summary measure (total sedentary time). In the context of a sedentary behavior intervention, nonworking older adults (n = 48, age = 73 ± 8 yr (mean ± SD)) completed the questionnaire on three occasions during a 2-wk period (7 d between administrations) and wore an accelerometer (ActiGraph model GT1M) for two periods of 6 d. Test-retest reliability (for the individual items and the summary measure) and validity (self-reported total sedentary time compared with accelerometer-derived sedentary time) were assessed during the 1-wk preintervention period, using Spearman (ρ) correlations and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Responsiveness to change after the intervention was assessed using the responsiveness statistic (RS). Test-retest reliability was excellent for television viewing time (ρ (95% CI) = 0.78 (0.63-0.89)), computer use (ρ (95% CI) = 0.90 (0.83-0.94)), and reading (ρ (95% CI) = 0.77 (0.62-0.86)); acceptable for hobbies (ρ (95% CI) = 0.61 (0.39-0.76)); and poor for socializing and transport (ρ < 0.45). Total sedentary time had acceptable test-retest reliability (ρ (95% CI) = 0.52 (0.27-0.70)) and validity (ρ (95% CI) = 0.30 (0.02-0.54)). Self-report total sedentary time was similarly responsive to change (RS = 0.47) as accelerometer-derived sedentary time (RS = 0.39). The summary measure of total sedentary time has good repeatability and modest validity and is

  13. Measurement of luminance and color uniformity of displays using the large-format scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazikowski, Adam

    2017-08-01

    Uniformity of display luminance and color is important for comfort and good perception of the information presented on the display. Although display technology has developed and improved a lot over the past years, different types of displays still present a challenge in selected applications, e.g. in medical use or in case of multi-screen installations. A simplified 9-point method of determining uniformity does not always produce satisfactory results, so a different solution is proposed in the paper. The developed system consists of the large-format X-Y-Z ISEL scanner (isel Germany AG), Konica Minolta high sensitivity spot photometer-colorimeter (e.g. CS-200, Konica Minolta, Inc.) and PC computer. Dedicated software in LabView environment for control of the scanner, transfer the measured data to the computer, and visualization of measurement results was also prepared. Based on the developed setup measurements of plasma display and LCD-LED display were performed. A heavily wornout plasma TV unit, with several artifacts visible was selected. These tests show the advantages and drawbacks of described scanning method with comparison with 9-point simplified uniformity determining method.

  14. Development and validation of resource flexibility measures for manufacturing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulshan Chauhan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Global competition and ever changing customers demand have made manufacturing organizations to rapidly adjust to complexities, uncertainties, and changes. Therefore, flexibility in manufacturing resources is necessary to respond cost effectively and rapidly to changing production needs and requirements.  Ability of manufacturing resources to dynamically reallocate from one stage of a production process to another in response to shifting bottlenecks is recognized as resource flexibility. This paper aims to develop and validate resource flexibility measures for manufacturing industry that could be used by managers/ practitioners in assessing and improving the status of resource flexibility for the optimum utilization of resources. Design/methodology/approach: The study involves survey carried out in Indian manufacturing industry using a questionnaire to assess the status of various aspects of resource flexibility and their relationships. A questionnaire was specially designed covering various parameters of resource flexibility. Its reliability was checked by finding the value of Cronback alpha (0.8417. Relative weightage of various measures was found out by using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP. Pearson’s coefficient of correlation analysis was carried out to find out relationships between various parameters. Findings: From detailed review of literature on resource flexibility, 17 measures of resource flexibility and 47 variables were identified. The questionnaire included questions on all these measures and parameters. ‘Ability of machines to perform diverse set of operations’ and ability of workers to work on different machines’ emerged to be important measures with contributing weightage of 20.19% and 17.58% respectively.  All the measures were found to be significantly correlated with overall resource flexibility except ‘training of workers’, as shown by Pearson’s coefficient of correlation. This indicates that

  15. Validation of a questionnaire measuring the regulation of autonomic function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthes H

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To broaden the range of outcomes that we can measure for patients undergoing treatment for oncological and other chronic conditions, we aimed to validate a questionnaire measuring self-reported autonomic regulation (aR, i.e. to characterise a subject's autonomic functioning by questions on sleeping and waking, vertigo, morningness-eveningness, thermoregulation, perspiration, bowel movements and digestion. Methods We administered the questionnaire to 440 participants (♀: N = 316, ♂: N = 124: 95 patients with breast cancer, 49 with colorectal cancer, 60 with diabetes mellitus, 39 with coronary heart disease, 28 with rheumatological conditions, 32 with Hashimoto's disease, 22 with multiple morbidities and 115 healthy people. We administered the questionnaire a second time to 50.2% of the participants. External convergence criteria included the German version of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-D, a short questionnaire on morningness-eveningness, the Herdecke Quality of Life Questionnaire (HLQ and a short version questionnaire on self-regulation. Results A principal component analysis yielded a three dimensional 18-item inventory of aR. The subscales orthostatic-circulatory, rest/activity and digestive regulation had internal consistency (Cronbach-α: rα = 0.65 – 0.75 and test-retest reliability (rrt = 0.70 – 85. AR was negatively associated with anxiety, depression, and dysmenorrhoea but positively correlated to HLQ, self-regulation and in part to morningness (except digestive aR (0.49 – 0.13, all p Conclusion An internal validation of the long-version scale of aR yielded consistent relationships with health versus illness, quality of life and personality. Further studies are required to clarify the issues of external validity, clinical and physiological relevance.

  16. Real-time three-dimensional color doppler evaluation of the flow convergence zone for quantification of mitral regurgitation: Validation experimental animal study and initial clinical experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitges, Marta; Jones, Michael; Shiota, Takahiro; Qin, Jian Xin; Tsujino, Hiroyuki; Bauer, Fabrice; Kim, Yong Jin; Agler, Deborah A.; Cardon, Lisa A.; Zetts, Arthur D.; hide

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pitfalls of the flow convergence (FC) method, including 2-dimensional imaging of the 3-dimensional (3D) geometry of the FC surface, can lead to erroneous quantification of mitral regurgitation (MR). This limitation may be mitigated by the use of real-time 3D color Doppler echocardiography (CE). Our objective was to validate a real-time 3D navigation method for MR quantification. METHODS: In 12 sheep with surgically induced chronic MR, 37 different hemodynamic conditions were studied with real-time 3DCE. Using real-time 3D navigation, the radius of the largest hemispherical FC zone was located and measured. MR volume was quantified according to the FC method after observing the shape of FC in 3D space. Aortic and mitral electromagnetic flow probes and meters were balanced against each other to determine reference MR volume. As an initial clinical application study, 22 patients with chronic MR were also studied with this real-time 3DCE-FC method. Left ventricular (LV) outflow tract automated cardiac flow measurement (Toshiba Corp, Tokyo, Japan) and real-time 3D LV stroke volume were used to quantify the reference MR volume (MR volume = 3DLV stroke volume - automated cardiac flow measurement). RESULTS: In the sheep model, a good correlation and agreement was seen between MR volume by real-time 3DCE and electromagnetic (y = 0.77x + 1.48, r = 0.87, P time 3DCE-derived MR volume also showed a good correlation and agreement with the reference method (y = 0.89x - 0.38, r = 0.93, P time 3DCE can capture the entire FC image, permitting geometrical recognition of the FC zone geometry and reliable MR quantification.

  17. Validation of Leaf Area Index measurements based on the Wireless Sensor Network platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Q.; Li, X.; Liu, Q.

    2017-12-01

    The leaf area index (LAI) is one of the important parameters for estimating plant canopy function, which has significance for agricultural analysis such as crop yield estimation and disease evaluation. The quick and accurate access to acquire crop LAI is particularly vital. In the study, LAI measurement of corn crops is mainly through three kinds of methods: the leaf length and width method (LAILLW), the instruments indirect measurement method (LAII) and the leaf area index sensor method(LAIS). Among them, LAI value obtained from LAILLW can be regarded as approximate true value. LAI-2200,the current widespread LAI canopy analyzer,is used in LAII. LAIS based on wireless sensor network can realize the automatic acquisition of crop images,simplifying the data collection work,while the other two methods need person to carry out field measurements.Through the comparison of LAIS and other two methods, the validity and reliability of LAIS observation system is verified. It is found that LAI trend changes are similar in three methods, and the rate of change of LAI has an increase with time in the first two months of corn growth when LAIS costs less manpower, energy and time. LAI derived from LAIS is more accurate than LAII in the early growth stage,due to the small blade especially under the strong light. Besides, LAI processed from a false color image with near infrared information is much closer to the true value than true color picture after the corn growth period up to one and half months.

  18. Validation of three Setswana measures for psychological wellbeing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marié Philipina Wissing

    2010-12-01

    Research purpose: The aim of this study was therefore to explore the psychometric properties of Setswana versions of three measures of psychological wellbeing, namely the Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC (the 29-item version (Antonovsky, 1987, Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS (Diener, Emmons, Larson & Griffen, 1985 and Affectometer 2 (AFM (Kammann & Flett, 1983. Research design, approach and method: A cross-sectional survey design was implemented for this study. Questionnaires were translated, back-translated and evaluated in a research-committee approach. A stratified sample of 738 Setswana-speaking participants completed the questionnaires in randomly selected sites of the North West province of South Africa as part of the multi-disciplinary Transition and Health during Urbanisation of South Africans project. Reliability indices, means, standard deviations, ranges of scores, patterns of correlations and factor structures were established for all the scales. Main findings: The present Setswana SWLS and AFM are reliable and valid for use in this group, as is, to some extent, the SOC. The factor structures of the three scales were also consistent with the latent factor structures of the original scales. Practical implications: These validated measures are instruments for use in the clinical, community and work contexts of Setswana-speaking people.

  19. Validity and repeatability of inertial measurement units for measuring gait parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washabaugh, Edward P; Kalyanaraman, Tarun; Adamczyk, Peter G; Claflin, Edward S; Krishnan, Chandramouli

    2017-06-01

    Inertial measurement units (IMUs) are small wearable sensors that have tremendous potential to be applied to clinical gait analysis. They allow objective evaluation of gait and movement disorders outside the clinic and research laboratory, and permit evaluation on large numbers of steps. However, repeatability and validity data of these systems are sparse for gait metrics. The purpose of this study was to determine the validity and between-day repeatability of spatiotemporal metrics (gait speed, stance percent, swing percent, gait cycle time, stride length, cadence, and step duration) as measured with the APDM Opal IMUs and Mobility Lab system. We collected data on 39 healthy subjects. Subjects were tested over two days while walking on a standard treadmill, split-belt treadmill, or overground, with IMUs placed in two locations: both feet and both ankles. The spatiotemporal measurements taken with the IMU system were validated against data from an instrumented treadmill, or using standard clinical procedures. Repeatability and minimally detectable change (MDC) of the system was calculated between days. IMUs displayed high to moderate validity when measuring most of the gait metrics tested. Additionally, these measurements appear to be repeatable when used on the treadmill and overground. The foot configuration of the IMUs appeared to better measure gait parameters; however, both the foot and ankle configurations demonstrated good repeatability. In conclusion, the IMU system in this study appears to be both accurate and repeatable for measuring spatiotemporal gait parameters in healthy young adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A concise, content valid, gender invariant measure of workplace incivility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Russell A; Ritter, Kelsey-Jo

    2016-07-01

    The authors present a short, valid, gender invariant measure of workplace incivility that should have a high degree of utility in a variety of research designs, especially those concerned with reducing participant burden such as experience sampling and multiwave longitudinal designs. Given ongoing concerns about the psychometric properties of workplace mistreatment constructs, they validated a 4-item measure of experienced incivility based on series of 3 independent field studies (N = 2,636). In addition to retaining items on the basis of employee rated conceptual alignment (i.e., judgmental criteria) with a standard incivility definition (i.e., ambiguous intent to harm), items were also chosen based on external criteria in terms of their ability to explain incremental variance in outcomes of interest (e.g., role overload, interpersonal deviance). Items with large systematic relationships with other mistreatment constructs (i.e., abusive supervision, supervisor undermining) were excluded. In turn, the authors demonstrated that the 4-item measure is gender invariant, a critical issue that has received limited attention in the literature to date. They also experimentally investigated the effect of recall window (2 weeks, 1 month, 1 year) and found a differential pattern of effect sizes for various outcomes of interest. A fourth independent field study was conducted as a practical application of the measure within a longitudinal framework. An autoregressive model examining experienced incivility and counterproductive work behaviors was tested. Data was collected from a sample of 278 respondents at 3 time points with 1 month between assessments. Implications of these findings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. How Color Coding Formulaic Writing Enhances Organization: A Qualitative Approach for Measuring Student Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geigle, Bryce A.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to investigate and present the status of student synthesis with color coded formula writing for grade level six through twelve, and to make recommendations for educators to teach writing structure through a color coded formula system in order to increase classroom engagement and lower students' affect. The thesis first…

  2. Tests of a two-color interferometer and polarimeter for ITER density measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Zeeland, M. A.; Carlstrom, T. N.; Finkenthal, D. K.; Boivin, R. L.; Colio, A.; Du, D.; Gattuso, A.; Glass, F.; Muscatello, C. M.; O'Neill, R.; Smiley, M.; Vasquez, J.; Watkins, M.; Brower, D. L.; Chen, J.; Ding, W. X.; Johnson, D.; Mauzey, P.; Perry, M.; Watts, C.; Wood, R.

    2017-12-01

    A full-scale 120 m path length ITER toroidal interferometer and polarimeter (TIP) prototype, including an active feedback alignment system, has been constructed and undergone initial testing at General Atomics. In the TIP prototype, two-color interferometry is carried out at 10.59 μm and 5.22 μm using a CO2 and quantum cascade laser (QCL) respectively while a separate polarimetry measurement of the plasma induced Faraday effect is made at 10.59 μm. The polarimeter system uses co-linear right and left-hand circularly polarized beams upshifted by 40 and 44 MHz acousto-optic cells respectively, to generate the necessary beat signal for heterodyne phase detection, while interferometry measurements are carried out at both 40 MHz and 44 MHz for the CO2 laser and 40 MHz for the QCL. The high-resolution phase information is obtained using an all-digital FPGA based phase demodulation scheme and precision clock source. The TIP prototype is equipped with a piezo tip/tilt stage active feedback alignment system responsible for minimizing noise in the measurement and keeping the TIP diagnostic aligned indefinitely on its 120 m beam path including as the ITER vessel is brought from ambient to operating temperatures. The prototype beam path incorporates translation stages to simulate ITER motion through a bake cycle as well as other sources of motion or misalignment. Even in the presence of significant motion, the TIP prototype is able to meet ITER’s density measurement requirements over 1000 s shot durations with demonstrated phase resolution of 0.06° and 1.5° for the polarimeter and vibration compensated interferometer respectively. TIP vibration compensated interferometer measurements of a plasma have also been made in a pulsed radio frequency device and show a line-integrated density resolution of δ {nL}=3.5× {10}17 m-2.

  3. Anatomy education environment measurement inventory: A valid tool to measure the anatomy learning environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadie, Siti Nurma Hanim; Hassan, Asma'; Ismail, Zul Izhar Mohd; Asari, Mohd Asnizam; Khan, Aaijaz Ahmed; Kasim, Fazlina; Yusof, Nurul Aiman Mohd; Manan Sulong, Husnaida Abdul; Tg Muda, Tg Fatimah Murniwati; Arifin, Wan Nor; Yusoff, Muhamad Saiful Bahri

    2017-09-01

    Students' perceptions of the education environment influence their learning. Ever since the major medical curriculum reform, anatomy education has undergone several changes in terms of its curriculum, teaching modalities, learning resources, and assessment methods. By measuring students' perceptions concerning anatomy education environment, valuable information can be obtained to facilitate improvements in teaching and learning. Hence, it is important to use a valid inventory that specifically measures attributes of the anatomy education environment. In this study, a new 11-factor, 132-items Anatomy Education Environment Measurement Inventory (AEEMI) was developed using Delphi technique and was validated in a Malaysian public medical school. The inventory was found to have satisfactory content evidence (scale-level content validity index [total] = 0.646); good response process evidence (scale-level face validity index [total] = 0.867); and acceptable to high internal consistency, with the Raykov composite reliability estimates of the six factors are in the range of 0.604-0.876. The best fit model of the AEEMI is achieved with six domains and 25 items (X 2  = 415.67, P education environment in Malaysia. A concerted collaboration should be initiated toward developing a valid universal tool that, using the methods outlined in this study, measures the anatomy education environment across different institutions and countries. Anat Sci Educ 10: 423-432. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.

  4. Measuring Leaf Area in Soy Plants by HSI Color Model Filtering and Mathematical Morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benalcázar, M; Padín, J; Brun, M; Pastore, J; Ballarin, V; Peirone, L; Pereyra, G

    2011-01-01

    There has been lately a significant progress in automating tasks for the agricultural sector. One of the advances is the development of robots, based on computer vision, applied to care and management of soy crops. In this task, digital image processing plays an important role, but must solve some important problems, like the ones associated to the variations in lighting conditions during image acquisition. Such variations influence directly on the brightness level of the images to be processed. In this paper we propose an algorithm to segment and measure automatically the leaf area of soy plants. This information is used by the specialists to evaluate and compare the growth of different soy genotypes. This algorithm, based on color filtering using the HSI model, detects green objects from the image background. The segmentation of leaves (foliage) was made applying Mathematical Morphology. The foliage area was estimated counting the pixels that belong to the segmented leaves. From several experiments, consisting in applying the algorithm to measure the foliage of about fifty plants of various genotypes of soy, at different growth stages, we obtained successful results, despite the high brightness variations and shadows in the processed images.

  5. Precision Measurement of the Neutron Twist-3 Matrix Element dn2: Probing Color Forces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Posik, Matthew; Flay, David; Parno, Diana; Allada, Kalyan; Armstrong, Whitney; Averett, Todd; Benmokhtar, Fatiha; Bertozzi, William; Camsonne, Alexandre; Canan, Mustafa; Cates, Gordon; Chen, Chunhua; Chen, Jian-Ping; Choi, Seonho; Chudakov, Eugene; Cusanno, Francesco; Dalton, Mark; Deconinck, Wouter; De Jager, Cornelis; Deng, Xiaoyan; Deur, Alexandre; Dutta, Chiranjib; El Fassi, Lamiaa; Franklin, Gregg; Friend, Megan; Gao, Haiyan; Garibaldi, Franco; Gilad, Shalev; Gilman, Ronald; Glamazdin, Oleksandr; Golge, Serkan; Gomez, Javier; Guo, Lei; Hansen, Jens-Ole; Higinbotham, Douglas; Holmstrom, Timothy; Huang, J; Hyde, Charles; Ibrahim Abdalla, Hassan; Jiang, Xiaodong; Jin, Ge; Katich, Joseph; Kelleher, Aidan; Kolarkar, Ameya; Korsch, Wolfgang; Kumbartzki, Gerfried; LeRose, John; Lindgren, Richard; Liyanage, Nilanga; Long, Elena; Lukhanin, Oleksandr; Mamyan, Vahe; McNulty, Dustin; Meziani, Zein-Eddine; Michaels, Robert; Mihovilovic, Miha; Moffit, Bryan; Muangma, Navaphon; Nanda, Sirish; Narayan, Amrendra; Nelyubin, Vladimir; Norum, Blaine; Nuruzzaman, nfn; Oh, Yongseok; Peng, Jen-chieh; Qian, Xin; Qiang, Yi; Rakhman, Abdurahim; Riordan, Seamus; Saha, Arunava; Sawatzky, Bradley; Hashemi Shabestari, Mitra; Shahinyan, Albert; Sirca, Simon; Solvignon-Slifer, Patricia; Subedi, Ramesh; Sulkosky, Vincent; Tobias, William; Troth, Wolfgang; Wang, Diancheng; Wang, Y; Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan; Yan, X; Yao, Huan; Ye, Yunxiu; Ye, Zhihong; Yuan, Lulin; Zhan, X; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Y -W; Zhao, Bo; Zheng, Xiaochao

    2014-07-01

    Double-spin asymmetries and absolute cross sections were measured at large Bjorken x (0.25 lte x lte 0.90), in both the deep-inelastic and resonance regions, by scattering longitudinally polarized electrons at beam energies of 4.7 and 5.9 GeV from a transversely and longitudinally polarized 3He target. In this dedicated experiment, the spin structure function g2 on 3He was determined with precision at large x, and the neutron twist-three matrix element dn2 was measured at ?Q2? of 3.21 and 4.32 GeV2/c2, with an absolute precision of about 10?5. Our results are found to be in agreement with lattice QCD calculations and resolve the disagreement found with previous data at ?Q2?= 5 GeV2/c2. Combining dn2 and a newly extracted twist-four matrix element, fn2, the average neutron color electric and magnetic forces were extracted and found to be of opposite sign and about 60 MeV/fm in magnitude.

  6. Two-color spatial and temporal temperature measurements using a streaked soft x-ray imager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, A. S., E-mail: alastair.moore@physics.org; Ahmed, M. F.; Soufli, R.; Pardini, T.; Hibbard, R. L.; Bailey, C. G.; Bell, P. M.; Hau-Riege, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551-0808 (United States); Benstead, J.; Morton, J.; Guymer, T. M.; Garbett, W. J.; Rubery, M. S.; Skidmore, J. W. [Directorate Science and Technology, AWE Aldermaston, Reading RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); Bedzyk, M.; Shoup, M. J.; Regan, S. P.; Agliata, T.; Jungquist, R. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Schmidt, D. W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); and others

    2016-11-15

    A dual-channel streaked soft x-ray imager has been designed and used on high energy-density physics experiments at the National Ignition Facility. This streaked imager creates two images of the same x-ray source using two slit apertures and a single shallow angle reflection from a nickel mirror. Thin filters are used to create narrow band pass images at 510 eV and 360 eV. When measuring a Planckian spectrum, the brightness ratio of the two images can be translated into a color-temperature, provided that the spectral sensitivity of the two images is well known. To reduce uncertainty and remove spectral features in the streak camera photocathode from this photon energy range, a thin 100 nm CsI on 50 nm Al streak camera photocathode was implemented. Provided that the spectral shape is well-known, then uncertainties on the spectral sensitivity limits the accuracy of the temperature measurement to approximately 4.5% at 100 eV.

  7. Measuring Leaf Area in Soy Plants by HSI Color Model Filtering and Mathematical Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benalcázar, M.; Padín, J.; Brun, M.; Pastore, J.; Ballarin, V.; Peirone, L.; Pereyra, G.

    2011-12-01

    There has been lately a significant progress in automating tasks for the agricultural sector. One of the advances is the development of robots, based on computer vision, applied to care and management of soy crops. In this task, digital image processing plays an important role, but must solve some important problems, like the ones associated to the variations in lighting conditions during image acquisition. Such variations influence directly on the brightness level of the images to be processed. In this paper we propose an algorithm to segment and measure automatically the leaf area of soy plants. This information is used by the specialists to evaluate and compare the growth of different soy genotypes. This algorithm, based on color filtering using the HSI model, detects green objects from the image background. The segmentation of leaves (foliage) was made applying Mathematical Morphology. The foliage area was estimated counting the pixels that belong to the segmented leaves. From several experiments, consisting in applying the algorithm to measure the foliage of about fifty plants of various genotypes of soy, at different growth stages, we obtained successful results, despite the high brightness variations and shadows in the processed images.

  8. Application of validity theory and methodology to patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs): building an argument for validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Melanie; Elsworth, Gerald R; Osborne, Richard H

    2018-07-01

    Data from subjective patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) are now being used in the health sector to make or support decisions about individuals, groups and populations. Contemporary validity theorists define validity not as a statistical property of the test but as the extent to which empirical evidence supports the interpretation of test scores for an intended use. However, validity testing theory and methodology are rarely evident in the PROM validation literature. Application of this theory and methodology would provide structure for comprehensive validation planning to support improved PROM development and sound arguments for the validity of PROM score interpretation and use in each new context. This paper proposes the application of contemporary validity theory and methodology to PROM validity testing. The validity testing principles will be applied to a hypothetical case study with a focus on the interpretation and use of scores from a translated PROM that measures health literacy (the Health Literacy Questionnaire or HLQ). Although robust psychometric properties of a PROM are a pre-condition to its use, a PROM's validity lies in the sound argument that a network of empirical evidence supports the intended interpretation and use of PROM scores for decision making in a particular context. The health sector is yet to apply contemporary theory and methodology to PROM development and validation. The theoretical and methodological processes in this paper are offered as an advancement of the theory and practice of PROM validity testing in the health sector.

  9. Validating a new device for measuring tear evaporation rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohit, Athira; Ehrmann, Klaus; Naduvilath, Thomas; Willcox, Mark; Stapleton, Fiona

    2014-01-01

    To calibrate and validate a commercially available dermatology instrument to measure tear evaporation rate of contact lens wearers. A dermatology instrument was modified by attaching a swim goggle cup such that the cup sealed around the eye socket. Results for the unmodified instrument are dependent on probe area and enclosed volume. Calibration curves were established using a model eye, to account for individual variations in chamber volume and exposed area. Fifteen participants were recruited and the study included a contact lens wear and a no contact lens wear stage. Day and diurnal variation of the measurements were assessed by taking the measurement three times a day over 2 days. The coefficient of repeatability of the measurement was calculated and a linear mixed model assessed the influence of humidity, temperature, contact lens wear, day and diurnal variations on tear evaporation rate. The associations between variables were assessed using Pearson correlation coefficient. Absolute evaporation rates with and without contact lens wear were calculated based on the new calibration. The measurements were most repeatable during the evening with no lens wear (COR = 49 g m⁻² h) and least repeatable during the evening with contact lens wear (COR = 93 g m⁻² h). Humidity (p = 0.007), and contact lens wear (p evaporation rate. However, temperature (p = 0.54) diurnal variation (p = 0.85) and different days (p = 0.65) had no significant effect after controlling for humidity. Tear evaporation rates can be measured using a modified dermatology instrument. Measurements were higher and more variable with lens wear consistent with previous literature. Control of environmental conditions is important as a higher humidity results in a reduced evaporation rate. © 2013 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2013 The College of Optometrists.

  10. Intrapreneurial competencies: development and validation of a measurement scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Vargas-Halabí

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose - Few models have attempted to explain intrapreneurial behavior from the perspective of competencies. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to contribute along this line by developing and validating a scale to measure intrapreneurial competencies for a Costa Rican organizational context. Design/methodology/approach - A three stage process was followed. The first stage considered literature review, expert judgment, cognitive interviews, and back-translation. In the second stage, the questionnaire was administered to a sample of 543 university professionals who worked mainly in private organizations in Costa Rica. The third stage led to evaluate of the proposed scale’s psychometric properties, including, exploratory factor analysis procedure performing by SPSS 19; confirmatory factor analysis procedures by means of structural equation modeling using EQS 6.2 version and finally, a linear regression model to obtain evidence of external criterion-related validity, performed by SPSS 19. Findings - This study provides evidence of five sub-dimensions of employee attributes, i.e., “opportunity promoter”, “proactivity”, “flexibility”, “drive”, and “risk taking” that constitute a higher-level construct called intrapreneurial competencies. The scale provided evidence of convergent, discriminant, and criterion-related validity – the latter, using an employee innovative behavior scale. Originality/value - The model offers a first step to continue studies that aim at developing a robust model of intrapreneurial competencies. This potential predictive capacity of an instrument of this nature would be useful for the business sector, particularly as a diagnostic instrument to strengthen processes of staff development in areas that promote the development of innovation and the creation of new businesses for the company.

  11. Validity of the Neuromuscular Recovery Scale: a measurement model approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velozo, Craig; Moorhouse, Michael; Ardolino, Elizabeth; Lorenz, Doug; Suter, Sarah; Basso, D Michele; Behrman, Andrea L

    2015-08-01

    To determine how well the Neuromuscular Recovery Scale (NRS) items fit the Rasch, 1-parameter, partial-credit measurement model. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and principal components analysis (PCA) of residuals were used to determine dimensionality. The Rasch, 1-parameter, partial-credit rating scale model was used to determine rating scale structure, person/item fit, point-measure item correlations, item discrimination, and measurement precision. Seven NeuroRecovery Network clinical sites. Outpatients (N=188) with spinal cord injury. Not applicable. NRS. While the NRS met 1 of 3 CFA criteria, the PCA revealed that the Rasch measurement dimension explained 76.9% of the variance. Ten of 11 items and 91% of the patients fit the Rasch model, with 9 of 11 items showing high discrimination. Sixty-nine percent of the ratings met criteria. The items showed a logical item-difficulty order, with Stand retraining as the easiest item and Walking as the most challenging item. The NRS showed no ceiling or floor effects and separated the sample into almost 5 statistically distinct strata; individuals with an American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale (AIS) D classification showed the most ability, and those with an AIS A classification showed the least ability. Items not meeting the rating scale criteria appear to be related to the low frequency counts. The NRS met many of the Rasch model criteria for construct validity. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Neighborhood walkability: field validation of geographic information system measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajna, Samantha; Dasgupta, Kaberi; Halparin, Max; Ross, Nancy A

    2013-06-01

    Given the health benefits of walking, there is interest in understanding how physical environments favor walking. Although GIS-derived measures of land-use mix, street connectivity, and residential density are commonly combined into indices to assess how conducive neighborhoods are to walking, field validation of these measures is limited. To assess the relationship between audit- and GIS-derived measures of overall neighborhood walkability and between objective (audit- and GIS-derived) and participant-reported measures of walkability. Walkability assessments were conducted in 2009. Street-level audits were conducted using a modified version of the Pedestrian Environmental Data Scan. GIS analyses were used to derive land-use mix, street connectivity, and residential density. Participant perceptions were assessed using a self-administered questionnaire. Audit, GIS, and participant-reported indices of walkability were calculated. Spearman correlation coefficients were used to assess the relationships between measures. All analyses were conducted in 2012. The correlation between audit- and GIS-derived measures of overall walkability was high (R=0.7 [95% CI=0.6, 0.8]); the correlations between objective (audit and GIS-derived) and participant-reported measures were low (R=0.2 [95% CI=0.06, 0.3]; R=0.2 [95% CI=0.04, 0.3], respectively). For comparable audit and participant-reported items, correlations were higher for items that appeared more objective (e.g., sidewalk presence, R=0.4 [95% CI=0.3, 0.5], versus safety, R=0.1 [95% CI=0.003, 0.3]). The GIS-derived measure of walkability correlated well with the in-field audit, suggesting that it is reasonable to use GIS-derived measures in place of more labor-intensive audits. Interestingly, neither audit- nor GIS-derived measures correlated well with participants' perceptions of walkability. Copyright © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Study of colored anodized aluminum with calcon in sulfuric acidic solution using cyclic voltammetry and impedance measurement methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norouzi, P.; Ganjali, M.R.; Golmohamaddi, M.; Mousavi, S. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran); Vatankhah, G. [Iranian Organization for Science and Technology (IROST), Isfahan Center, A5 Ghezelbash Avenue, Tohid Street, Isfahan 8173954541 (Iran)

    2003-04-01

    The effect of coloring condition of Al with Calcon (sodium 2,2'-dihydroxy-azonaphthalene-4-sulfonate), on the corrosion resistance of Al in 0.1 M sulfuric acid solution was studied, using cyclic voltammetry and measurement of impedance noise methods. The changes in the corrosion resistance of colored aluminum electrodes were evaluated by measuring the magnitude of impedance and cyclic voltammetric responses of anodized and colored electrodes. An irreversible corrosion response was observed at the cyclic voltammogram of the colored aluminum electrode. The current and threshold potential of corrosion responses strongly depends on the applied conditions during anodizing, coloring and sealing stages. In addition, significant changes in impedance at the ac voltammogram and noise level at some ac frequencies were observed, when the electrodes were colored under various conditions. In this regard, the surface of the electrode was studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Comparison of SEM images of the colored and uncolored aluminum specimens showed that the colored surface contained a significant numbers of pits. The results indicated that coloring aluminum with Calcon could reduce corrosion resistance of aluminum and increase roughness of the oxide film. (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [German] Mit Hilfe zyklischer Voltammetrie und Messungen mit Impedanzrauschmethoden wurde der Einfluss der Faerbungsbedingungen von Aluminium mit Calcon (Natrium 2,2'-Dihydroxyazonaphthalen-4-Sulfonat) auf den Korrosionswiderstand von Aluminium in 0,1 M Schwefelsaeure untersucht. Die Veraenderungen des Korrosionswiderstandes von gefaerbten Aluminiumelektroden wurden durch Messungen der Hoehe der Impedanzreaktion bzw. der Reaktion bei der zyklischen Voltammetrie von anodisierten und gefaerbten Elektroden beurteilt. Eine irreversible Korrosionsreaktion wurde beim zyklischen Voltammogramm der gefaerbten Aluminiumelektrode beobachtet. Der Strom und das

  14. Validation of image cytometry for sperm concentration measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeberg Palme, Dorte L.; Johannsen, Trine Holm; Petersen, Jørgen Holm

    2017-01-01

    Sperm concentration is an essential parameter in the diagnostic evaluation of men from infertile couples. It is usually determined by manual counting using a hemocytometer, and is therefore both laborious and subjective. We have earlier shown that a newly developed image cytometry (IC) method may...... be used to determine sperm concentration. Here we present a validation of the IC method by analysis of 4010 semen samples. There was high agreement between IC and manual counting at sperm concentrations above 3 mill/ml and in samples with concentrations above 12 mill/ml the two methods can be used...... a lower coefficient of variation than the manual method (5% vs 10%), indicating a better precision of the IC method. In conclusion, measurement of sperm concentration by IC can be used at concentrations above 3 mill/ml and seems more accurate and precise than manual counting, making it an attractive...

  15. Laplace Synthesis Validation through Measurements on Underground Transmission Cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uribe-Campos Felipe Alejandro

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Underground cable electrical parameters ZY as well as their modal propagation characteristics are highly frequency dependent which in certain cases turns its analysis difficult. To perform electromagnetic transient studies of cables the calculation of electrical parameters is essential to obtain the waves propagation solution through the multiconductor system. At the same time this requires to solve the inverse Laplace transform on a numerical form. Although the analytic Laplace transform has an indisputable accuracy, the application of its numerical version up-to-date has not been completely accepted. A complete methodology is developed in this work to guide analyst engineers or graduate students in the calculation of electromagnetic transients of underground cable systems. Finally, to help the validation of the numerical inverse Laplace transform a scaled prototype experiment is performed in the laboratory in which a transient step-response at the remote end of an energized conductor is measured.

  16. Is the color-octet mechanism consistent with the double J/ψ production measurement at B-factories?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Yu [Third Military Medical University, Department of Physics, School of Biomedical Engineering, Chongqing (China); Sun, Zhan [Guizhou Minzu University, School of Science, Guiyang (China); Zhang, Hong-Fei [Third Military Medical University, Department of Physics, School of Biomedical Engineering, Chongqing (China); Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications, School of Science, Chongqing (China)

    2017-04-15

    Double J/ψ production in e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions involving color-octet channels are evaluated up to order α{sup 2}α{sub s}{sup 3}. Having implemented the variation of the parameters (m{sub c}, μ{sub r} and long-distance matrix elements), we found that the cross sections for producing double J/ψ at B-factories range from -0.016 to 0.245 fb, which are even much smaller than that via the color-singlet mechanism. Accordingly, this result is consistent with the measurement by the Belle and BABAR Collaborations. (orig.)

  17. Measuring stakeholder participation in evaluation: an empirical validation of the Participatory Evaluation Measurement Instrument (PEMI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigneault, Pierre-Marc; Jacob, Steve; Tremblay, Joël

    2012-08-01

    Stakeholder participation is an important trend in the field of program evaluation. Although a few measurement instruments have been proposed, they either have not been empirically validated or do not cover the full content of the concept. This study consists of a first empirical validation of a measurement instrument that fully covers the content of participation, namely the Participatory Evaluation Measurement Instrument (PEMI). It specifically examines (1) the intercoder reliability of scores derived by two research assistants on published evaluation cases; (2) the convergence between the scores of coders and those of key respondents (i.e., authors); and (3) the convergence between the authors' scores on the PEMI and the Evaluation Involvement Scale (EIS). A purposive sample of 40 cases drawn from the evaluation literature was used to assess reliability. One author per case in this sample was then invited to participate in a survey; 25 fully usable questionnaires were received. Stakeholder participation was measured on nominal and ordinal scales. Cohen's κ, the intraclass correlation coefficient, and Spearman's ρ were used to assess reliability and convergence. Reliability results ranged from fair to excellent. Convergence between coders' and authors' scores ranged from poor to good. Scores derived from the PEMI and the EIS were moderately associated. Evidence from this study is strong in the case of intercoder reliability and ranges from weak to strong in the case of convergent validation. Globally, this suggests that the PEMI can produce scores that are both reliable and valid.

  18. Color and textural quality of packaged wild rocket measured by multispectral imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkke, Mette Marie; Seefeldt, Helene Fast; Skov, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Green color and texture are important attributes for the perception of freshness of wild rocket. Packaging of green leafy vegetables can postpone senescence and yellowing, but a drawback is the risk of anaerobic respiration leading to loss of tissue integrity and development of an olive-brown color....... The hypothesis underlying this paper is that color and textural quality of packaged wild rocket leaves can be predicted by multispectral imaging for faster evaluation of visual quality of leafy green vegetables in scientific experiments. Multispectral imaging was correlated to sensory evaluation of packaged wild...... rocket quality. CIELAB values derived from the multispectral images and from a spectrophotometer changed during storage, but the data were insufficient to describe variation in sensory perceived color and texture. CIELAB values from the multispectral images allowed for a more detailed determination...

  19. Color Doppler measurement of blood flow in the inferior thyroid artery in patients with autoimmune thyroid diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caruso, Giuseppe; Attard, Marco; Caronia, Aurelio; Lagalla, Roberto

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the study is to find out whether the measurement of peak systolic velocity in the inferior thyroid artery (ITA) is a valuable parameter to differentiate autoimmune thyroid diseases (hyper-, normo- or hypofunctional) and to evaluate the efficacy of medical treatment. Material and methods: The ITA of 31 patients (eight with Graves' disease, 23 with subclinical hypothyroidism) was examined with color Doppler and pulsed Doppler. The final diagnosis was obtained by citology and by hormonal and antibodies assays. The patients were monitorized by ultrasound for a period of 8 months. Results: In all the patients with Graves' disease the peak systolic velocity was always over 150 cm/s, while in other autoimmune thyroiditis the peak systolic velocity was within the normal range, and never exceeding 65 cm/s. In the first group, the measurement taken in the ITA showed also the efficacy of the pharmacological treatment earlier and more reliably than the color Doppler pattern obtained in the parenchyma. Conclusions: The color Doppler measurement of the ITA seems to be a promising technique with low-cost and easy approach. In our experience, the color Doppler of the ITA could have a clinical role in the differential diagnosis of diffuse thyroid diseases and in the follow-up of the Graves' disease during medical treatment

  20. Color Doppler measurement of blood flow in the inferior thyroid artery in patients with autoimmune thyroid diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caruso, Giuseppe; Attard, Marco; Caronia, Aurelio; Lagalla, Roberto

    2000-10-01

    Purpose: The aim of the study is to find out whether the measurement of peak systolic velocity in the inferior thyroid artery (ITA) is a valuable parameter to differentiate autoimmune thyroid diseases (hyper-, normo- or hypofunctional) and to evaluate the efficacy of medical treatment. Material and methods: The ITA of 31 patients (eight with Graves' disease, 23 with subclinical hypothyroidism) was examined with color Doppler and pulsed Doppler. The final diagnosis was obtained by citology and by hormonal and antibodies assays. The patients were monitorized by ultrasound for a period of 8 months. Results: In all the patients with Graves' disease the peak systolic velocity was always over 150 cm/s, while in other autoimmune thyroiditis the peak systolic velocity was within the normal range, and never exceeding 65 cm/s. In the first group, the measurement taken in the ITA showed also the efficacy of the pharmacological treatment earlier and more reliably than the color Doppler pattern obtained in the parenchyma. Conclusions: The color Doppler measurement of the ITA seems to be a promising technique with low-cost and easy approach. In our experience, the color Doppler of the ITA could have a clinical role in the differential diagnosis of diffuse thyroid diseases and in the follow-up of the Graves' disease during medical treatment.

  1. Validation of Storm Water Management Model Storm Control Measures Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, M. A.; Platz, M. C.

    2017-12-01

    EPA's Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) is a computational code heavily relied upon by industry for the simulation of wastewater and stormwater infrastructure performance. Many municipalities are relying on SWMM results to design multi-billion-dollar, multi-decade infrastructure upgrades. Since the 1970's, EPA and others have developed five major releases, the most recent ones containing storm control measures modules for green infrastructure. The main objective of this study was to quantify the accuracy with which SWMM v5.1.10 simulates the hydrologic activity of previously monitored low impact developments. Model performance was evaluated with a mathematical comparison of outflow hydrographs and total outflow volumes, using empirical data and a multi-event, multi-objective calibration method. The calibration methodology utilized PEST++ Version 3, a parameter estimation tool, which aided in the selection of unmeasured hydrologic parameters. From the validation study and sensitivity analysis, several model improvements were identified to advance SWMM LID Module performance for permeable pavements, infiltration units and green roofs, and these were performed and reported herein. Overall, it was determined that SWMM can successfully simulate low impact development controls given accurate model confirmation, parameter measurement, and model calibration.

  2. An exploratory sequential design to validate measures of moral emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez, Margarita G; Delgado, Ana R

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents an exploratory and sequential mixed methods approach in validating measures of knowledge of the moral emotions of contempt, anger and disgust. The sample comprised 60 participants in the qualitative phase when a measurement instrument was designed. Item stems, response options and correction keys were planned following the results obtained in a descriptive phenomenological analysis of the interviews. In the quantitative phase, the scale was used with a sample of 102 Spanish participants, and the results were analysed with the Rasch model. In the qualitative phase, salient themes included reasons, objects and action tendencies. In the quantitative phase, good psychometric properties were obtained. The model fit was adequate. However, some changes had to be made to the scale in order to improve the proportion of variance explained. Substantive and methodological im-plications of this mixed-methods study are discussed. Had the study used a single re-search method in isolation, aspects of the global understanding of contempt, anger and disgust would have been lost.

  3. Predicting Soil Organic Carbon and Total Nitrogen in the Russian Chernozem from Depth and Wireless Color Sensor Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailova, E. A.; Stiglitz, R. Y.; Post, C. J.; Schlautman, M. A.; Sharp, J. L.; Gerard, P. D.

    2017-12-01

    Color sensor technologies offer opportunities for affordable and rapid assessment of soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) in the field, but the applicability of these technologies may vary by soil type. The objective of this study was to use an inexpensive color sensor to develop SOC and TN prediction models for the Russian Chernozem (Haplic Chernozem) in the Kursk region of Russia. Twenty-one dried soil samples were analyzed using a Nix Pro™ color sensor that is controlled through a mobile application and Bluetooth to collect CIEL*a*b* (darkness to lightness, green to red, and blue to yellow) color data. Eleven samples were randomly selected to be used to construct prediction models and the remaining ten samples were set aside for cross validation. The root mean squared error (RMSE) was calculated to determine each model's prediction error. The data from the eleven soil samples were used to develop the natural log of SOC (lnSOC) and TN (lnTN) prediction models using depth, L*, a*, and b* for each sample as predictor variables in regression analyses. Resulting residual plots, root mean square errors (RMSE), mean squared prediction error (MSPE) and coefficients of determination ( R 2, adjusted R 2) were used to assess model fit for each of the SOC and total N prediction models. Final models were fit using all soil samples, which included depth and color variables, for lnSOC ( R 2 = 0.987, Adj. R 2 = 0.981, RMSE = 0.003, p-value < 0.001, MSPE = 0.182) and lnTN ( R 2 = 0.980 Adj. R 2 = 0.972, RMSE = 0.004, p-value < 0.001, MSPE = 0.001). Additionally, final models were fit for all soil samples, which included only color variables, for lnSOC ( R 2 = 0.959 Adj. R 2 = 0.949, RMSE = 0.007, p-value < 0.001, MSPE = 0.536) and lnTN ( R 2 = 0.912 Adj. R 2 = 0.890, RMSE = 0.015, p-value < 0.001, MSPE = 0.001). The results suggest that soil color may be used for rapid assessment of SOC and TN in these agriculturally important soils.

  4. The potential of ground gravity measurements to validate GRACE data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Crossley

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available New satellite missions are returning high precision, time-varying, satellite measurements of the Earth’s gravity field. The GRACE mission is now in its calibration/- validation phase and first results of the gravity field solutions are imminent. We consider here the possibility of external validation using data from the superconducting gravimeters in the European sub-array of the Global Geodynamics Project (GGP as ‘ground truth’ for comparison with GRACE. This is a pilot study in which we use 14 months of 1-hour data from the beginning of GGP (1 July 1997 to 30 August 1998, when the Potsdam instrument was relocated to South Africa. There are 7 stations clustered in west central Europe, and one station, Metsahovi in Finland. We remove local tides, polar motion, local and global air pressure, and instrument drift and then decimate to 6-hour samples. We see large variations in the time series of 5–10µgal between even some neighboring stations, but there are also common features that correlate well over the 427-day period. The 8 stations are used to interpolate a minimum curvature (gridded surface that extends over the geographical region. This surface shows time and spatial coherency at the level of 2– 4µgal over the first half of the data and 1–2µgal over the latter half. The mean value of the surface clearly shows a rise in European gravity of about 3µgal over the first 150 days and a fairly constant value for the rest of the data. The accuracy of this mean is estimated at 1µgal, which compares favorably with GRACE predictions for wavelengths of 500 km or less. Preliminary studies of hydrology loading over Western Europe shows the difficulty of correlating the local hydrology, which can be highly variable, with large-scale gravity variations.Key words. GRACE, satellite gravity, superconducting gravimeter, GGP, ground truth

  5. Protocol: validation of the INCODE barometer to measure the innovation compe-tence through the Rasch Measurement Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Sanchez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This communication presents a protocol in order to show the different phases that must be followed in order to validate the INCODE barometer, which is used to measure the innovation competence, with Rasch Measurement Theory. Five phases are stated: dimensionality analysis, individual reliability and validity analysis of ítems and persons, global reliability and validity analysis, and cathegory analysis.

  6. Detailed validation of the bidirectional effect in various Case 1 waters for application to ocean color imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. J. Voss

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The radiance viewed from the ocean depends on the illumination and viewing geometry along with the water properties, and this variation is called the bidirectional effect. This bidirectional effect depends on the inherent optical properties of the water, including the volume scattering function, and is important when comparing data from different satellite sensors. The current model of f/Q, which contains the bidirectional effect, by Morel et al. (2002 depends on modeled, not measured, water parameters, thus must be carefully validated. In this paper we combined upwelling radiance distribution data from several cruises, in varied water types and with a wide range of solar zenith angles. We compared modeled and measured Lview/Lnadir and found that the average difference between the model and data was less than 0.01, while the RMS difference between the model and data was on the order of 0.02–0.03. This is well within the statistical noise of the data, which was on the order of 0.04–0.05, due to environmental noise sources such as wave focusing.

  7. Testing and Validation of the Dynamic Inertia Measurement Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Alexander W.; Herrera, Claudia Y.; Spivey, Natalie D.; Fladung, William A.; Cloutier, David

    2015-01-01

    The Dynamic Inertia Measurement (DIM) method uses a ground vibration test setup to determine the mass properties of an object using information from frequency response functions. Most conventional mass properties testing involves using spin tables or pendulum-based swing tests, which for large aerospace vehicles becomes increasingly difficult and time-consuming, and therefore expensive, to perform. The DIM method has been validated on small test articles but has not been successfully proven on large aerospace vehicles. In response, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Armstrong Flight Research Center (Edwards, California) conducted mass properties testing on an "iron bird" test article that is comparable in mass and scale to a fighter-type aircraft. The simple two-I-beam design of the "iron bird" was selected to ensure accurate analytical mass properties. Traditional swing testing was also performed to compare the level of effort, amount of resources, and quality of data with the DIM method. The DIM test showed favorable results for the center of gravity and moments of inertia; however, the products of inertia showed disagreement with analytical predictions.

  8. Color-blind racial ideology: theory, training, and measurement implications in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, Helen A; Awad, Germine H; Brooks, James E; Flores, Michelle P; Bluemel, Jamie

    2013-09-01

    Synthesizing the interdisciplinary literature, we characterize color-blind racial ideology (CBRI) as consisting of two interrelated domains: color-evasion (i.e., denial of racial differences by emphasizing sameness) and power-evasion (i.e., denial of racism by emphasizing equal opportunities). Mounting empirical data suggest that the color-evasion dimension is ineffective and in fact promotes interracial tension and potential inequality. CBRI may be conceived as an ultramodern or contemporary form of racism and a legitimizing ideology used to justify the racial status quo. Four types of CBRI are described: denial of (a) race, (b) blatant racial issues, (c) institutional racism, and (d) White privilege. We discuss empirical findings suggesting a relationship between CBRI and increased racial prejudice, racial anger, and racial fear. Implications for education, training, and research are provided. © 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Development and Validation of the Marijuana Motives Measure Short Form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezquita, Laura; Ruiz-Valero, Lucía; Martínez-Gómez, Naiara; Ibáñez, Manuel I; Ortet, Generós

    2018-01-15

    Marijuana motives are a proximal variable to marijuana use. This research aimed to adapt and validate the short form of the Marijuana Motives Measure (MMM; Simons, Correia, Carey, y Borsari, 1998), the MMM SF, in Spanish.  The sample comprised 232 participants (mean age = 25.11 (7.58), 50.43% males) who had tried marijuana at least once in their lifetime. Item and Rasch analyses were performed to choose the final pool of 15 items. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) showed an adequate 5-factor structure (S-BX2(80) = 121.30, p = .002; NNFI = .944; CFI = .958; IFI = .959; MFI = .915; RMSEA = .047(0.029, 0.063); AIC = -38.70), and the multi-group CFA between males and females showed acceptable fit indices (S-BX2(160) = 230.01, p = .000; NNFI = .900; CFI = .924; IFI = .927; MFI = .860; RMSEA = .062(.043, .078); AIC = -89.99). The questionnaire indicated metric (S-BX2diff (15) = 13.61, p = .556)), scalar (S-BX2diff (15) = 23.15, p = .081)) and error measurement invariance (S-BX2diff (15) = 8.65, p = .895)) between gender groups. The internal consistencies and ordinal omega of the scales were between .79 and .90. In the regression analysis, enhancement, coping and low conformity motives predicted frequency and quantity of marijuana smoked. The best predictor of frequency and quantity consumed during the heaviest smoking period was enhancement, while coping and, to a lesser extent, low conformity, were the only predictors of cannabis-related problems when marijuana frequency and quantity were controlled for.  The MMM SF shows adequate psychometric properties and is a suitable instrument to assess marijuana motives, especially during time-limited sessions.

  10. The Dark Side of Galaxy Color: evidence from new SDSS measurements of galaxy clustering and lensing

    OpenAIRE

    Hearin, Andrew P.; Watson, Douglas F.; Becker, Matthew R.; Reyes, Reinabelle; Berlind, Andreas A.; Zentner, Andrew R.

    2013-01-01

    The age matching model has recently been shown to predict correctly the luminosity L and g-r color of galaxies residing within dark matter halos. The central tenet of the model is intuitive: older halos tend to host galaxies with older stellar populations. In this paper, we demonstrate that age matching also correctly predicts the g-r color trends exhibited in a wide variety of statistics of the galaxy distribution for stellar mass M* threshold samples. In particular, we present new measureme...

  11. Towards Validating Risk Indicators Based on Measurement Theory (Extended version)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morali, A.; Wieringa, Roelf J.

    Due to the lack of quantitative information and for cost-efficiency, most risk assessment methods use partially ordered values (e.g. high, medium, low) as risk indicators. In practice it is common to validate risk indicators by asking stakeholders whether they make sense. This way of validation is

  12. Industrial Color Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Georg A

    2010-01-01

    This unique book starts with a short historical overview of the development of the theories of color vision and applications of industrial color physics. The three dominant factors producing color - light source, color sample, and observer - are described in detail. The standardized color spaces are shown and related color values are applied to characteristic color qualities of absorption as well as of effect colorants. The fundamentals of spectrometric and colorimetric measuring techniques together with specific applications are described. Theoretical models for radiative transfer in transparent, translucent, and opaque layers are detailed; the two, three, and multi-flux approximations are presented for the first time in a coherent formalism. These methods constitute the fundamentals not only for the important classical methods, but also modern methods of recipe prediction applicable to all known colorants. The text is supplied with 52 tables, more than 200 partially colored illustrations, an appendix, and a...

  13. Time-of-flight Measurement Of Hole-tunneling Properties And Emission Color Control In Organic Light-emitting Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurata, K.; Kashiwabara, K.; Nakajima, K.; Mizoguchi, Y.; Ohtani, N.

    2011-12-01

    Hole transport properties of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with a thin hole-blocking layer (HBL) were evaluated by time-of-flight measurement. Electroluminescence (EL) spectra of OLEDs with various HBL thicknesses were also evaluated. The results clearly show that the time-resolved photocurrent response and the emission color strongly depend on HBL thickness. This can be attributed to hole-tunneling through the thin HBL. We successfully fabricated a white OLED by controlling the thickness of HBL.

  14. The Multifactor Measure of Performance: Its Development, Norming, and Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-On, Reuven

    2018-01-01

    This article describes the development as well as the initial norming and validation of the Multifactor Measure of Performance™ (MMP™), which is a psychometric instrument that is designed to study, assess and enhance key predictors of human performance to help individuals perform at a higher level. It was created by the author, for the purpose of going beyond existing conceptual and psychometric models that often focus on relatively few factors that are purported to assess performance at school, in the workplace and elsewhere. The relative sparsity of multifactorial pre-employment assessment instruments exemplifies, for the author, one of the important reasons for developing the MMP™, which attempts to comprehensively evaluate a wider array of factors that are thought to contribute to performance. In that this situation creates a need in the area of test-construction that should be addressed, the author sought to develop a multifactorial assessment and development instrument that could concomitantly evaluate a combination of physical, cognitive, intra-personal, inter-personal, and motivational factors that significantly contribute to performance. The specific aim of this article is to show why, how and if this could be done as well as to present and discuss the potential importance of the results obtained to date. The findings presented here will hopefully add to what is known about human performance and thus contribute to the professional literature, in addition to contribute to the continued development of the MMP™. The impetus for developing the MMP™ is first explained below, followed by a detailed description of the process involved and the findings obtained; and their potential application is then discussed as well as the possible limitations of the present research and the need for future studies to address them.

  15. Measuring Workplace Travel Behaviour: Validity and Reliability of Survey Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A. Petrunoff

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The purpose of this study was to assess the (previously untested reliability and validity of survey questions commonly used to assess travel mode and travel time. Methods. Sixty-five respondents from a staff survey of travel behaviour conducted in a south-western Sydney hospital agreed to complete a travel diary for a week, wear an accelerometer over the same period, and twice complete an online travel survey an average of 21 days apart. The agreement in travel modes between the self-reported online survey and travel diary was examined with the kappa statistic. Spearman’s correlation coefficient was used to examine agreement of travel time from home to workplace measured between the self-reported online survey and four-day travel diary. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA time of active and nonactive travellers was compared by t-test. Results. There was substantial agreement between travel modes (K=0.62, P<0.0001 and a moderate correlation for travel time (ρ=0.75, P<0.0001 reported in the travel diary and online survey. There was a high level of agreement for travel mode (K=0.82, P<0.0001 and travel time (ρ=0.83, P<0.0001 between the two travel surveys. Accelerometer data indicated that for active travellers, 16% of the journey-to-work time is MVPA, compared with 6% for car drivers. Active travellers were significantly more active across the whole workday. Conclusions. The survey question “How did you travel to work this week? If you used more than one transport mode specify the one you used for the longest (distance portion of your journey” is reliable over 21 days and agrees well with a travel diary.

  16. Robust and efficient modulation transfer function measurement with CMOS color sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsani, Raziyeh A.; Sure, Thomas; Apel, Uwe

    2017-06-01

    Increasing challenges of the industry to improve camera performance with control and test of the alignment process will be discussed in this paper. The major difficulties, such as special CFAs that have white/clear pixels instead of a Bayer pattern and non-homogeneous back light illumination of the targets, used for such tests, will be outlined and strategies on how to handle them will be presented. The proposed algorithms are applied to synthetically generated edges, as well as to experimental images taken from ADAS cameras in standard illumination conditions, to validate the approach. In addition, to consider the influence of the chromatic aberration of the lens and the CFA's influence on the total system MTF, the on-axis focus behavior of the camera module will be presented for each pixel class separately. It will be shown that the repeatability of the measurement results of the system MTF is improved, as a result of a more accurate and robust edge angle detection, elimination of systematic errors, using an improved lateral shift of the pixels and analytical modeling of the edge transition. Results also show the necessity to have separated measurements of contrast in the different pixel classes to ensure a precise focus position.

  17. Color Sense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Heidi S. S.; Maki, Jennifer A.

    2009-01-01

    This article reports a study conducted by members of the WellU Academic Integration Subcommittee of The College of St. Scholastica's College's Healthy Campus Initiative plan whose purpose was to determine whether changing color in the classroom could have a measurable effect on students. One simple improvement a school can make in a classroom is…

  18. Color transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pire, B.; Ralston, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reviews the physics of color transparency and the unexpected energy dependence of recent measurements of high-energy fixed-angle elastic scattering in nuclear targets. The authors point out advantages of using transparency as a tool, introducing two concepts - spin and flavor flow filtering - that may be studied with nuclear targets. The special case of electroproduction is also considered

  19. Spectral BRDF-based determination of proper measurement geometries to characterize color shift of special effect coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, Alejandro; Rabal, Ana; Campos, Joaquín; Martínez-Verdú, Francisco; Chorro, Elísabet; Perales, Esther; Pons, Alicia; Hernanz, María Luisa

    2013-02-01

    A reduced set of measurement geometries allows the spectral reflectance of special effect coatings to be predicted for any other geometry. A physical model based on flake-related parameters has been used to determine nonredundant measurement geometries for the complete description of the spectral bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF). The analysis of experimental spectral BRDF was carried out by means of principal component analysis. From this analysis, a set of nine measurement geometries was proposed to characterize special effect coatings. It was shown that, for two different special effect coatings, these geometries provide a good prediction of their complete color shift.

  20. Simple transmission Raman measurements using a single multivariate model for analysis of pharmaceutical samples contained in capsules of different colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeojin; Kim, Jaejin; Lee, Sanguk; Woo, Young-Ah; Chung, Hoeil

    2012-01-30

    Direct transmission Raman measurements for analysis of pharmaceuticals in capsules are advantageous since they can be used to determine active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) concentrations in a non-destructive manner and with much less fluorescence background interference from the capsules themselves compared to conventional back-scattering measurements. If a single calibration model such as developed from spectra simply collected in glass vials could be used to determine API concentrations of samples contained in capsules of different colors rather than constructing individual models for each capsule color, the utility of transmission measurements would be further enhanced. To evaluate the feasibility, transmission Raman spectra of binary mixtures of ambroxol and lactose were collected in a glass vial and a partial least squares (PLS) model for the determination of ambroxol concentration was developed. Then, the model was directly applied to determine ambroxol concentrations of samples contained in capsules of 4 different colors (blue, green, white and yellow). Although the prediction performance was slightly degraded when the samples were placed in blue or green capsules, due to the presence of weak fluorescence, accurate determination of ambroxol was generally achieved in all cases. The prediction accuracy was also investigated when the thickness of the capsule was varied. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Patient Experiences with the Preoperative Assessment Clinic (PEPAC): validation of an instrument to measure patient experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edward, G. M.; Lemaire, L. C.; Preckel, B.; Oort, F. J.; Bucx, M. J. L.; Hollmann, M. W.; de Haes, J. C. J. M.

    2007-01-01

    Background. Presently, no comprehensive and validated questionnaire to measure patient experiences of the preoperative assessment clinic (PAC) is available. We developed and validated the Patient Experiences with the Preoperative Assessment Clinic (PEPAC) questionnaire, which can be used for

  2. Colorism/Neo-Colorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Joel

    2017-01-01

    There are numerous aspects to being non-Caucasian that may not be known by Whites. Persons of color suggest folks who are African, South Americans, Native Americans, Biracial, Asians and others. The question is what do these individuals feel relative to their color and facial characteristics. Eugene Robinson suggest that the future favorable color…

  3. Psychophysical Measurements of Luminance Contrast Sensitivity and Color Discrimination with Transparent and Blue-Light Filter Intraocular Lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Marcelo Fernandes; Júnior, Augusto Paranhos; Lottenberg, Claudio Luiz; Castro, Leonardo Cunha; Ventura, Dora Fix

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure luminance contrast sensitivity and color vision thresholdfs in normal subjects using a blue light filter lens and transparent intraocular lens material. Monocular luminance grating contrast sensitivity was measured with Psycho for Windows (version 2.36; Cambridge Research Systems) at 3.0, 6.0, 12.0, 20.0, and 30.0 cycles per degree of visual angle (cpd) in 15 normal subjects (eight female), with a mean age of 21.6 years (SD = 3.8 years). Chromatic discrimination was assessed with the Cambridge colour test (CCT) along the protan, deutan, and tritan color confusion axes. Both tests were performed in a darkened room under two situations: with a transparent lens and with blue light filter lens. Subjective impressions were taken by subjects regarding their visual experience under both conditions. No difference was found between the luminance contrast sensitivity measured with transparent and blue light filter. However, 13/15 (87%) of the subjects reported more comfortable vision with the blue filter. In the color vision test, tritan thresholds were significantly higher for the blue filter compared with the transparent filter (p = 0.003). For protan and deutan thresholds no differences were found. Blue-yellow color vision is impaired with the blue light filter, and no impairment occurs with the transparent filter. No significant differences in thresholds were found in the luminance contrast sensitivity comparing the blue light and transparent filters. The impact of short wavelength light filtering on intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells is also discussed.

  4. The effect of isometric exercise of the hand on the synovial blood flow in patients with rheumatoid arthritis measured by color Doppler ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Karen; Torp-Pedersen, Søren; Lund, Hans

    2013-01-01

    made it possible to investigate the direct effect on blood supply in the synovium after training. In this case-control study, 24 patients with RA with USD activity in the wrist joint participated. The USD activity was measured by the color fraction (CF) (CF = colored pixels/total number of pixels...

  5. Measurement of color in different construction materials. The restoration in sandstone buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Pascua, N.

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of construction materials and their subsequent repair purposes include a search of knowledge and preservation of their original appearance. For this reason, the main aim of this study is to determine a color range which does not change with the possible actions on a building, both when restoration works which imply the use and repair of "ancient" materials are carried out, and when construction is carried out with new materials. It is necessary to obtain the quantification of this property in order to check its variation over the passage of time. Each construction material must be taken into account as an isolated problem, since the color is different in each case.

    El empleo de materiales de construcción y la aplicación sobre ellos de productos de reparación requiere un detallado estudio sobre su forma de actuación y la importancia de la conservación del aspecto original de los mismos. Por este motivo, el objetivo principal de este estudio es el determinar un intervalo de color que se conserve a pesar de todas las posibles intervenciones que se acometan en el edificio, tanto cuando se realizan trabajos de restauración, que implican el uso y reparación de materiales "viejos", o bien cuando se llevan a cabo trabajos de construcción con materiales nuevos. Es necesario cuantificar dicha propiedad para poder controlar el paso del tiempo. Cada material de construcción debe ser considerado como un problema aislado, ya que el color es distinto en cada caso.

  6. Enhance field water-color measurements with a Secchi disk and its implication for fusion of active and passive ocean-color remote sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Zhongping; Shang, Shaoling; Du, Keping; Liu, Bingyi; Lin, Gong; Wei, Jianwei; Li, Xiaolong

    2018-05-01

    Inversion of the total absorption (a) and backscattering coefficients of bulk water through a fusion of remote sensing reflectance (R rs ) and Secchi disk depth (Z SD ) is developed. An application of such a system to a synthesized wide-range dataset shows a reduction of ∼3 folds in the uncertainties of inverted a(λ) (in a range of ∼0.01-6.8  m -1 ) from R rs (λ) for the 350-560 nm range. Such a fusion is further proposed to process concurrent active (ocean LiDAR) and passive (ocean-color) measurements, which can lead to nearly "exact" analytical inversion of an R rs spectrum. With such a fusion, it is found that the uncertainty in the inverted total a in the 350-560 nm range could be reduced to ∼2% for the synthesized data, which can thus significantly improve the derivation of a coefficients of other varying components. Although the inclusion of Z SD places an extra constraint in the inversion of R rs , no apparent improvement over the quasi-analytical algorithm (QAA) was found when the fusion of Z SD and R rs was applied to a field dataset, which calls for more accurate determination of the absorption coefficients from water samples.

  7. Improving the Validity of Quantitative Measures in Applied Linguistics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpura, James E.; Brown, James Dean; Schoonen, Rob

    2015-01-01

    In empirical applied linguistics research it is essential that the key variables are operationalized in a valid and reliable way, and that the scores are treated appropriately, allowing for a proper testing of the hypotheses under investigation. The current article addresses several theoretical and practical issues regarding the use of measurement…

  8. Improving the validity of quantitative measures in applied linguistics research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purpura, J.E.; Brown, J.D.; Schoonen, R.

    2015-01-01

    In empirical applied linguistics research it is essential that the key variables are operationalized in a valid and reliable way, and that the scores are treated appropriately, allowing for a proper testing of the hypotheses under investigation. The current article addresses several theoretical and

  9. Geostatistical validation and cross-validation of magnetometric measurements of soil pollution with Potentially Toxic Elements in problematic areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabijańczyk, Piotr; Zawadzki, Jarosław

    2016-04-01

    Field magnetometry is fast method that was previously effectively used to assess the potential soil pollution. One of the most popular devices that are used to measure the soil magnetic susceptibility on the soil surface is a MS2D Bartington. Single reading using MS2D device of soil magnetic susceptibility is low time-consuming but often characterized by considerable errors related to the instrument or environmental and lithogenic factors. In this connection, measured values of soil magnetic susceptibility have to be usually validated using more precise, but also much more expensive, chemical measurements. The goal of this study was to analyze validation methods of magnetometric measurements using chemical analyses of a concentration of elements in soil. Additionally, validation of surface measurements of soil magnetic susceptibility was performed using selected parameters of a distribution of magnetic susceptibility in a soil profile. Validation was performed using selected geostatistical measures of cross-correlation. The geostatistical approach was compared with validation performed using the classic statistics. Measurements were performed at selected areas located in the Upper Silesian Industrial Area in Poland, and in the selected parts of Norway. In these areas soil magnetic susceptibility was measured on the soil surface using a MS2D Bartington device and in the soil profile using MS2C Bartington device. Additionally, soil samples were taken in order to perform chemical measurements. Acknowledgment The research leading to these results has received funding from the Polish-Norwegian Research Programme operated by the National Centre for Research and Development under the Norwegian Financial Mechanism 2009-2014 in the frame of Project IMPACT - Contract No Pol-Nor/199338/45/2013.

  10. Validating Future Force Performance Measures (Army Class): End of Training Longitudinal Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    Caramagno, John Fisher, Patricia Keenan, Julisara Mathew, Alicia Sawyer, Jim Takitch, Shonna Waters, and Elise Weaver Drasgow Consulting Group...promise for enhancing the classification of entry-level Soldiers (Ingerick, Diaz , & Putka, 2009). In Year 2 (2007), the emphasis of the Army...Social Sciences. Ingerick, M., Diaz , T., & Putka, D. (2009). Investigations into Army enlisted classification systems: Concurrent validation report

  11. GPM GROUND VALIDATION ENVIRONMENT CANADA (EC) MANUAL PRECIPITATION MEASUREMENTS GCPEX V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Environment Canada (EC) Manual Precipitation Measurements GCPEx dataset was collected during the GPM Cold-season Precipitation Experiment...

  12. Concurrent Validation of Experimental Army Enlisted Personnel Selection and Classification Measures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Knapp, Deirdre J; Tremble, Trueman R

    2007-01-01

    .... This report documents the method and results of the criterion-related validation. The predictor set includes measures of cognitive ability, temperament, psychomotor skills, values, expectations...

  13. The GAMMA® nursing measure: Its calibration for construct validity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To subject the GAMMA nursing measure to the Rasch Measurement Model and to report if the measure can function as an interval scale to provide metric measurements of patients' ability to perform instrumental activities of daily living. Method: A quantitative design was followed whereby GAMMA raw scores were ...

  14. Radionuclide, scintillation cocktail and chemical/color quench influence on discriminator setting in gross alpha/beta measurements by LSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stojković, Ivana; Tenjović, Branislava; Nikolov, Jovana; Todorović, Nataša

    2015-01-01

    Gross alpha/beta measurements in drinking waters enable radiochemical composition analysis in environmental studies providing efficient screening method that can indicate whether water contains elevated levels of any radionuclide. Routine gross alpha/beta activity monitoring in drinking waters has been carried out for a few years in laboratory for low-level radioactivity measurements in Novi Sad according to ASTM method, performing measurements on liquid scintillation counter Quantulus 1220 which can simultaneously generate alpha/beta spectra of samples by Pulse Shape Analysis (PSA circuit). In this paper, PSA discriminator impact was investigated to ensure obtaining of accurate and reliable alpha/beta activities. One novelty of presented work is PSA parameter setup with two combinations of radionuclides ( 241 Am, 226 Ra and 90 Sr/ 90 Y) with varying activity concentrations. Performed experiments also make contribution to investigations on the manner in which chemical and color quench affect optimal PSA parameter setting and further on, their altogether influence on gross alpha/beta activity measurements. Nitromethane, 15.8 M nitric acid and water, as well as yellow and yellow-orange dye, were used as quenching agents in order to test PSA/interference factor behavior in the presence of quenchers with different quenching strengths. Variation of PSA setting in quenched samples with two different commercially available cocktails (Ultima Gold LLT and OptiPhase HiSafe 3) was also tested. Lastly, application i.e. assessment of obtained PSA-SQP(E) correlation on the obtained results of activity concentrations of few artesian well water samples and colored spiked samples, based on the measured SQP(E) value of samples, has been demonstrated. - Highlights: • Thorough study on influence of relevant factors on optimal PSA level in gross alpha/beta measurements in waters is presented. • Experiments were performed on liquid scintillation counter Quantulus 1220™ according

  15. Development and validation of a multidimensional measure of lean manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A. Marin-Garcia

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In the last 30 years of research of lean manufacturing many different questionnaires was proposed to check the degree of the use of the concept. The set of the items used changed considerably from one investigation to another one. Until now isn’t appreciate a movement that converge towards the use, by the investigators, of a few instruments whose validity and reliability have been compared in different surroundings. In fact, the majority of investigations are based on ad-hoc questionnaires and a few of them present the questionnaire validation checking only the unidimensionality and -Cronbach. Nevertheless it seems to have a consensus in identifying 5 big constructs that compose the lean manufacturing (TQM, JIT, TPM, supply chain management and high-involvement. Our research has consisted of identifying and summarizing the models that have been published previously to add the items in constructs or sub-scales of constructs. Later we developed an integrating questionnaire, starting off of the items that appeared in previous investigations. Finally we realized the sub-scales and models validation through a confirmatory factorial analysis, using date of a sample of Spanish Sheltered Work Centre’s (N=128. Of all proposed models, the best an adjustment takes place with the first order model with 20 sub-scales. Our investigation contributes to an integrating vision of the published models and the lean manufacturing sub-scales validity and reliability verification raised by other investigators. Due to his confirming approach, it can serve as generalization of studies that had been realized in contexts with different samples to which we have used for the replication.

  16. Color M-mode Doppler flow propagation velocity is a preload insensitive index of left ventricular relaxation: animal and human validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, M J; Smedira, N G; Greenberg, N L; Main, M; Firstenberg, M S; Odabashian, J; Thomas, J D

    2000-01-01

    To determine the effect of preload in color M-mode Doppler flow propagation velocity (v(p)). The interpretation of Doppler filling patterns is limited by confounding effects of left ventricular (LV) relaxation and preload. Color M-mode v(p) has been proposed as a new index of LV relaxation. We studied four dogs before and during inferior caval (IVC) occlusion at five different inotropic stages and 14 patients before and during partial cardiopulmonary bypass. Left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic volumes (LV-EDV), the time constant of isovolumic relaxation (tau), left atrial (LA) pre-A and LV end-diastolic pressures (LV-EDP) were measured. Peak velocity during early filling (E) and v(p) were extracted by digital analysis of color M-mode Doppler images. In both animals and humans, LV-EDV and LV-EDP decreased significantly from baseline to IVC occlusion (both p < 0.001). Peak early filling (E) velocity decreased in animals from 56 +/- 21 to 42 +/- 17 cm/s (p < 0.001) without change in v(p) (from 35 +/- 15 to 35 +/- 16, p = 0.99). Results were similar in humans (from 69 +/- 15 to 53 +/- 22 cm/s, p < 0.001, and 37 +/- 12 to 34 +/- 16, p = 0.30). In both species, there was a strong correlation between LV relaxation (tau) and v(p) (r = 0.78, p < 0.001, r = 0.86, p < 0.001). Our results indicate that color M-mode Doppler v(p) is not affected by preload alterations and confirms that LV relaxation is its main physiologic determinant in both animals during varying lusitropic conditions and in humans with heart disease.

  17. How to measure wisdom: content, reliability, and validity of five measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glück, Judith; König, Susanne; Naschenweng, Katja; Redzanowski, Uwe; Dorner, Lara; Straßer, Irene; Wiedermann, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Wisdom is a field of growing interest both inside and outside academic psychology, and researchers are increasingly interested in using measures of wisdom in their work. However, wisdom is a highly complex construct, and its various operationalizations are based on quite different definitions. Which measure a researcher chooses for a particular research project may have a strong influence on the results. This study compares four well-established measures of wisdom—the Self-Assessed Wisdom Scale (Webster, 2003, 2007), the Three-Dimensional Wisdom Scale (Ardelt, 2003), the Adult Self-Transcendence Inventory (Levenson et al., 2005), and the Berlin Wisdom Paradigm (Baltes and Smith, 1990; Baltes and Staudinger, 2000)—with respect to content, reliability, factorial structure, and construct validity (relationships to wisdom nomination, interview-based wisdom ratings, and correlates of wisdom). The sample consisted of 47 wisdom nominees and 123 control participants. While none of the measures performed “better” than the others by absolute standards, recommendations are given for researchers to select the most suitable measure for their substantive interests. In addition, a “Brief Wisdom Screening Scale” is introduced that contains those 20 items from the three self-report scales that were most highly correlated with the common factor across the scales. PMID:23874310

  18. The Value Of Different Standards And Measurement Systems To Determine The Optical Properties Of Paper And For Standardized Color Reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobotica, Werner

    1990-06-01

    Several terms are used to determine the optical properties of paper and board. Brightness, whiteness, diffuse reflectance factor, diffuse blue reflectance factor, specular gloss, spectral reflectivity and whiteness and yellowness are the used terms. The mainly used term is brightness of paper, an important property in many specifications, but this property has no visual perceptual foundation. Instead it is based on the filter chosen to measure the reflectance of pulp in the region most sensitive to the effects, of bleaching. Therefore an increasing demand for a specification of whiteness can be observed. Belonging to the concept of color, whiteness has to be measured and interpreted in the scope of CIE (Commission Internationale l'Eclairage) based on colorimetri tristimulus data transformed to agree with the perceptual assessment of whiteness. Human observers differentiate between the whiteness of the object being viewed and its brightness. A special index of whiteness is needed. No general agreement was so far reached regarding the best index which could and should be adopted universally among the two recommended by the CIE. Nearly every white sample is a little colored, having bluish, greenish or redish tint. In the post no numerical measure of tint was assigned to any of the whiteness indexes. Further problems arise that fluorescent whiteness agents are added to paper and board to increase their whiteness. This requires not only instrumental design and calibration but also the illuminant to be adopted for such measurements.

  19. Measurement of color transparency by C(p,2p) reactions at large momentum transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, A.S.

    1997-12-01

    The subject of color transparency, the enhancement of the ability of hadrons to penetrate nuclear matter by kinematic selection, is both interesting and controversial. The description of the collision of hadrons with nucleons inside nuclei, and the connection with initial and final state interactions involve fundamental questions of quantum mechanics, and nuclear and particle physics. Interest in color transparency was greatly increased by AGS Experiment 834 which observed dramatic changes with incident momentum for a variety of nuclei. A new experiment, E850, has studied the (p,2p) quasi-elastic reaction near 90 degree cm for momenta between 5.9 and 9 GeV/c. The quasi-elastic reaction was compared to the elastic reaction on free protons to determine the transparency. With limited statistics, but with better kinematic definition in a new detector, the authors have confirmed the rise in Carbon transparency ratio seen in Expt 834. The Tr(D/H) for deuterium is consistent with no energy dependence. Unlike the free dσ/dt for hydrogen, the dσ/dt from protons in a nucleus is consistent with the exact s -10 scaling. This suggests two components to the pp scattering amplitude; one small and perturbative, the other spatially large and varying, but filtered away by the nuclear matter in the Carbon nucleus. The plan is to complete the repairs of the superconducting solenoid early this fall, reassemble the detector, and collect data starting next spring

  20. Scanning Color Laser Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awamura, D.; Ode, T.; Yonezawa, M.

    1988-01-01

    A confocal color laser microscope which utilizes a three color laser light source (Red: He-Ne, Green: Ar, Blue: Ar) has been developed and is finding useful applications in the semiconductor field. The color laser microscope, when compared to a conventional microscope, offers superior color separation, higher resolution, and sharper contrast. Recently some new functions including a Focus Scan Memory, a Surface Profile Measurement System, a Critical Dimension Measurement system (CD) and an Optical Beam Induced Current Function (OBIC) have been developed for the color laser microscope. This paper will discuss these new features.

  1. Working with Error and Uncertainty to Increase Measurement Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrein-Beardsley, Audrey; Barnett, Joshua H.

    2012-01-01

    Over the previous two decades, the era of accountability has amplified efforts to measure educational effectiveness more than Edward Thorndike, the father of educational measurement, likely would have imagined. Expressly, the measurement structure for evaluating educational effectiveness continues to rely increasingly on one sole…

  2. Are we really measuring what we say we're measuring? Using video techniques to supplement traditional construct validation procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podsakoff, Nathan P; Podsakoff, Philip M; Mackenzie, Scott B; Klinger, Ryan L

    2013-01-01

    Several researchers have persuasively argued that the most important evidence to consider when assessing construct validity is whether variations in the construct of interest cause corresponding variations in the measures of the focal construct. Unfortunately, the literature provides little practical guidance on how researchers can go about testing this. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to describe how researchers can use video techniques to test whether their scales measure what they purport to measure. First, we discuss how researchers can develop valid manipulations of the focal construct that they hope to measure. Next, we explain how to design a study to use this manipulation to test the validity of the scale. Finally, comparing and contrasting traditional and contemporary perspectives on validation, we discuss the advantages and limitations of video-based validation procedures. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Validation of OMI UV measurements against ground-based measurements at a station in Kampala, Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muyimbwa, Dennis; Dahlback, Arne; Stamnes, Jakob; Hamre, Børge; Frette, Øyvind; Ssenyonga, Taddeo; Chen, Yi-Chun

    2015-04-01

    We present solar ultraviolet (UV) irradiance data measured with a NILU-UV instrument at a ground site in Kampala (0.31°N, 32.58°E), Uganda for the period 2005-2014. The data were analyzed and compared with UV irradiances inferred from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) for the same period. Kampala is located on the shores of lake Victoria, Africa's largest fresh water lake, which may influence the climate and weather conditions of the region. Also, there is an excessive use of worn cars, which may contribute to a high anthropogenic loading of absorbing aerosols. The OMI surface UV algorithm does not account for absorbing aerosols, which may lead to systematic overestimation of surface UV irradiances inferred from OMI satellite data. We retrieved UV index values from OMI UV irradiances and validated them against the ground-based UV index values obtained from NILU-UV measurements. The UV index values were found to follow a seasonal pattern similar to that of the clouds and the rainfall. OMI inferred UV index values were overestimated with a mean bias of about 28% under all-sky conditions, but the mean bias was reduced to about 8% under clear-sky conditions when only days with radiation modification factor (RMF) greater than 65% were considered. However, when days with RMF greater than 70, 75, and 80% were considered, OMI inferred UV index values were found to agree with the ground-based UV index values to within 5, 3, and 1%, respectively. In the validation we identified clouds/aerosols, which were present in 88% of the measurements, as the main cause of OMI inferred overestimation of the UV index.

  4. Validation of theoretical models through measured pavement response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullidtz, Per

    1999-01-01

    mechanics was quite different from the measured stress, the peak theoretical value being only half of the measured value.On an instrumented pavement structure in the Danish Road Testing Machine, deflections were measured at the surface of the pavement under FWD loading. Different analytical models were...... then used to derive the elastic parameters of the pavement layeres, that would produce deflections matching the measured deflections. Stresses and strains were then calculated at the position of the gauges and compared to the measured values. It was found that all analytical models would predict the tensile...

  5. Measuring Prosocial Tendencies in Germany: Sources of Validity and Reliablity of the Revised Prosocial Tendency Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Johannes; Ulrich, Natalie; Mussel, Patrick; Carlo, Gustavo; Hewig, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    The prosocial tendencies measure (PTM; Carlo and Randall, 2002) is a widely used measurement for prosocial tendencies in English speaking participants. This instrument distinguishes between six different types of prosocial tendencies that partly share some common basis, but also can be opposed to each other. To examine these constructs in Germany, a study with 1067 participants was conducted. The study investigated the structure of this German version of the PTM-R via exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, correlations with similar constructs in subsamples as well as via measurement invariance test concerning the original English version. The German translation showed a similar factor structure to the English version in exploratory factor analysis and in confirmatory factor analysis. Measurement invariance was found between the English and German language versions of the PTM and support for the proposed six-factor structure (altruistic, anonymous, compliant, dire, emotional and public prosocial behavior) was also found in confirmatory factor analysis. Furthermore, the expected interrelations of these factors of prosocial behavior tendencies were obtained. Finally, correlations of the prosocial behavior tendencies with validating constructs and behaviors were found. Thus, the findings stress the importance of seeing prosocial behavior not as a single dimension construct, but as a factored construct which now can also be assessed in German speaking participants. PMID:29270144

  6. Shift Colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Publications & News Shift Colors Pages default Sign In NPC Logo Banner : Shift Colors Search Navy Personnel Command > Reference Library > Publications & News > Shift Colors Top Link Bar Navy Personnel Library Expand Reference Library Quick Launch Shift Colors Shift Colors Archives Mailing Address How to

  7. Dual photon absorptiometry: Validation of mineral and fat measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heymsfield, S.B.; Wang, J.; Sulet, M.; Lichtman, S.; Pierson, R.N. Jr.; Kehayias, J.; Lindsay, R.

    1989-01-01

    Photons passing through human tissue undergo attenuation in relation to the specific chemical substances with which they interact. By selecting two appropriate photon energies and recording their attenuation, the investigator can solve simultaneous equations that subdivide body mass into two components: soft tissue and bone mineral ash. The aim of this paper is to describe and to validate the estimates of body composition derived by dual photon systems. The initial studies largely involved dual photon absorptiometers, although the discussion will also include the more recently developed dual energy x-ray absorptiometers. 13 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs

  8. Validity of Willingness to Pay Measures under Preference Uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Carola; Rehdanz, Katrin; Schmidt, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies in the marketing literature developed a new method for eliciting willingness to pay (WTP) with an open-ended elicitation format: the Range-WTP method. In contrast to the traditional approach of eliciting WTP as a single value (Point-WTP), Range-WTP explicitly allows for preference uncertainty in responses. The aim of this paper is to apply Range-WTP to the domain of contingent valuation and to test for its theoretical validity and robustness in comparison to the Point-WTP. Using data from two novel large-scale surveys on the perception of solar radiation management (SRM), a little-known technique for counteracting climate change, we compare the performance of both methods in the field. In addition to the theoretical validity (i.e. the degree to which WTP values are consistent with theoretical expectations), we analyse the test-retest reliability and stability of our results over time. Our evidence suggests that the Range-WTP method clearly outperforms the Point-WTP method.

  9. Validity of Willingness to Pay Measures under Preference Uncertainty.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carola Braun

    Full Text Available Recent studies in the marketing literature developed a new method for eliciting willingness to pay (WTP with an open-ended elicitation format: the Range-WTP method. In contrast to the traditional approach of eliciting WTP as a single value (Point-WTP, Range-WTP explicitly allows for preference uncertainty in responses. The aim of this paper is to apply Range-WTP to the domain of contingent valuation and to test for its theoretical validity and robustness in comparison to the Point-WTP. Using data from two novel large-scale surveys on the perception of solar radiation management (SRM, a little-known technique for counteracting climate change, we compare the performance of both methods in the field. In addition to the theoretical validity (i.e. the degree to which WTP values are consistent with theoretical expectations, we analyse the test-retest reliability and stability of our results over time. Our evidence suggests that the Range-WTP method clearly outperforms the Point-WTP method.

  10. Creating and validating GIS measures of urban design for health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purciel, Marnie; Neckerman, Kathryn M; Lovasi, Gina S; Quinn, James W; Weiss, Christopher; Bader, Michael D M; Ewing, Reid; Rundle, Andrew

    2009-12-01

    Studies relating urban design to health have been impeded by the unfeasibility of conducting field observations across large areas and the lack of validated objective measures of urban design. This study describes measures for five dimensions of urban design - imageability, enclosure, human scale, transparency, and complexity - created using public geographic information systems (GIS) data from the US Census and city and state government. GIS measures were validated for a sample of 588 New York City block faces using a well-documented field observation protocol. Correlations between GIS and observed measures ranged from 0.28 to 0.89. Results show valid urban design measures can be constructed from digital sources.

  11. A Discrete Model for Color Naming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Boi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to associate labels to colors is very natural for human beings. Though, this apparently simple task hides very complex and still unsolved problems, spreading over many different disciplines ranging from neurophysiology to psychology and imaging. In this paper, we propose a discrete model for computational color categorization and naming. Starting from the 424 color specimens of the OSA-UCS set, we propose a fuzzy partitioning of the color space. Each of the 11 basic color categories identified by Berlin and Kay is modeled as a fuzzy set whose membership function is implicitly defined by fitting the model to the results of an ad hoc psychophysical experiment (Experiment 1. Each OSA-UCS sample is represented by a feature vector whose components are the memberships to the different categories. The discrete model consists of a three-dimensional Delaunay triangulation of the CIELAB color space which associates each OSA-UCS sample to a vertex of a 3D tetrahedron. Linear interpolation is used to estimate the membership values of any other point in the color space. Model validation is performed both directly, through the comparison of the predicted membership values to the subjective counterparts, as evaluated via another psychophysical test (Experiment 2, and indirectly, through the investigation of its exploitability for image segmentation. The model has proved to be successful in both cases, providing an estimation of the membership values in good agreement with the subjective measures as well as a semantically meaningful color-based segmentation map.

  12. A Discrete Model for Color Naming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menegaz, G.; Le Troter, A.; Sequeira, J.; Boi, J. M.

    2006-12-01

    The ability to associate labels to colors is very natural for human beings. Though, this apparently simple task hides very complex and still unsolved problems, spreading over many different disciplines ranging from neurophysiology to psychology and imaging. In this paper, we propose a discrete model for computational color categorization and naming. Starting from the 424 color specimens of the OSA-UCS set, we propose a fuzzy partitioning of the color space. Each of the 11 basic color categories identified by Berlin and Kay is modeled as a fuzzy set whose membership function is implicitly defined by fitting the model to the results of an ad hoc psychophysical experiment (Experiment 1). Each OSA-UCS sample is represented by a feature vector whose components are the memberships to the different categories. The discrete model consists of a three-dimensional Delaunay triangulation of the CIELAB color space which associates each OSA-UCS sample to a vertex of a 3D tetrahedron. Linear interpolation is used to estimate the membership values of any other point in the color space. Model validation is performed both directly, through the comparison of the predicted membership values to the subjective counterparts, as evaluated via another psychophysical test (Experiment 2), and indirectly, through the investigation of its exploitability for image segmentation. The model has proved to be successful in both cases, providing an estimation of the membership values in good agreement with the subjective measures as well as a semantically meaningful color-based segmentation map.

  13. Accredited dose measurements for validation of radiation sterilized products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, A.

    1993-01-01

    for control of radiation sterilization. The accredited services include: 1. 1. Irradiation of dosimeters and test samples with cobalt-60 gamma rays. 2. 2. Irradiation of dosimeters and test samples with 10 MeV electrons. 3. 3. Issue of and measurement with calibrated dosimeters. 4. 4. Measurement...... of the dosimetric parameters of an irradiation facility. 5. 5. Measurement of absorbed dose distribution in irradiated products. The paper describes these services and the procedures necessary for their execution....

  14. Enhancing the Validity of a Quality of Life Measure for Autistic People

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConachie, Helen; Mason, David; Parr, Jeremy R.; Garland, Deborah; Wilson, Colin; Rodgers, Jacqui

    2018-01-01

    Accurate measurement of quality of life (QoL) is important for evaluation of autism services and trials of interventions. We undertook psychometric validation of the World Health Organisation measure--WHOQoL-BREF, examined construct validity of the WHO Disabilities module and developed nine additional autism-specific items (ASQoL) from extensive…

  15. A Framework for Mixing Methods in Quantitative Measurement Development, Validation, and Revision: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyt, Russell

    2012-01-01

    A framework for quantitative measurement development, validation, and revision that incorporates both qualitative and quantitative methods is introduced. It extends and adapts Adcock and Collier's work, and thus, facilitates understanding of quantitative measurement development, validation, and revision as an integrated and cyclical set of…

  16. Validation of Portable Muscle Tone Measurement Device Based on a Motor-Driven System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Jia-Jin

    2001-01-01

    .... The aim of this study is to extend a sophisticated motor-driven measurement system, developed in our previous research, as a validation platform for developing a portable muscle tone measurement system...

  17. Relationship Between Wood Color Parameters Measured by the CIELab System and Extractive and Phenol Content in Acacia mangium and Vochysia guatemalensis from Fast-Growth Plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Tenorio

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The heterogeneity of color distribution between sapwood and heartwood limits the market for wood from fast-growth plantations of tropical species. Wood color is associated with wood extractives contents. This study presents the relationship between wood color parameters measured by the CIELab color system and total amount of extractives and phenolic-type extractives in ethanol-toluene and hot water extracts of wood from two fast-growth plantation species. The results demonstrated that the difference in sapwood and hardwood color in Vochysia guatemalensis and Acacia mangium is caused by lower concentrations of extractives in sapwood of both species. Additionally, variations in total extractive and phenolic content have different effects on the color parameters (L*, a* and b* of both species studied. In Vochysia guatemalensis wood, parameter L* decreases as total extractive and phenolic content increases; however, parameter a* increases as the content of extractives and phenols increases. In Acacia mangium, the amount of phenols showed no relationship with the color parameters. The ethanol-toluene total extractive content, however, shows a relationship with several color parameters. An increase in the content of total extractives in water and ethanol-toluene increases parameter a*, but decreases parameter L*.

  18. Toward Valid Measurement of Stephen Pepper's World Hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, John A.

    Two measures of the "world hypotheses" of Stephen Pepper were mailed to 100 sociobiologists, 87 behaviorists, 79 personality psychologists, and 45 human developmentalists. The World Hypothesis Scale (WHS) was designed to measure Pepper's four world views: (1) formism; (2) mechanism; (3) organicism; and (4) contextualism. The…

  19. Testing and Validation of the Dynamic Interia Measurement Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Alexander; Herrera, Claudia; Spivey, Natalie; Fladung, William; Cloutier, David

    2015-01-01

    This presentation describes the DIM method and how it measures the inertia properties of an object by analyzing the frequency response functions measured during a ground vibration test (GVT). The DIM method has been in development at the University of Cincinnati and has shown success on a variety of small scale test articles. The NASA AFRC version was modified for larger applications.

  20. The Hemingway: Measure of Adolescent Connectedness-- Validation Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karcher, Michael J.

    This investigation reports the development of a measure of adolescent connectedness and estimates of its psychometric properties. A measure was developed to assess the ecological and developmental dimensions of adolescent connectedness, defined as adolescents' caring for and involvement in specific relationships and contexts within their social…

  1. Validation of the measurement model concept for error structure identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, Pavan K.; Orazem, Mark E.; Crisalle, Oscar D.

    2004-01-01

    The development of different forms of measurement models for impedance has allowed examination of key assumptions on which the use of such models to assess error structure are based. The stochastic error structures obtained using the transfer-function and Voigt measurement models were identical, even when non-stationary phenomena caused some of the data to be inconsistent with the Kramers-Kronig relations. The suitability of the measurement model for assessment of consistency with the Kramers-Kronig relations, however, was found to be more sensitive to the confidence interval for the parameter estimates than to the number of parameters in the model. A tighter confidence interval was obtained for Voigt measurement model, which made the Voigt measurement model a more sensitive tool for identification of inconsistencies with the Kramers-Kronig relations

  2. Remote estimation of colored dissolved organic matter and chlorophyll-a in Lake Huron using Sentinel-2 measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiang; Zhu, Weining; Tian, Yong Q.; Yu, Qian; Zheng, Yuhan; Huang, Litong

    2017-07-01

    Colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and chlorophyll-a (Chla) are important water quality parameters and play crucial roles in aquatic environment. Remote sensing of CDOM and Chla concentrations for inland lakes is often limited by low spatial resolution. The newly launched Sentinel-2 satellite is equipped with high spatial resolution (10, 20, and 60 m). Empirical band ratio models were developed to derive CDOM and Chla concentrations in Lake Huron. The leave-one-out cross-validation method was used for model calibration and validation. The best CDOM retrieval algorithm is a B3/B5 model with accuracy coefficient of determination (R2)=0.884, root-mean-squared error (RMSE)=0.731 m-1, relative root-mean-squared error (RRMSE)=28.02%, and bias=-0.1 m-1. The best Chla retrieval algorithm is a B5/B4 model with accuracy R2=0.49, RMSE=9.972 mg/m3, RRMSE=48.47%, and bias=-0.116 mg/m3. Neural network models were further implemented to improve inversion accuracy. The applications of the two best band ratio models to Sentinel-2 imagery with 10 m×10 m pixel size presented the high potential of the sensor for monitoring water quality of inland lakes.

  3. Color Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Pate, Monica; Raclariu, Ana-Maria; Strominger, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    A transient color flux across null infinity in classical Yang-Mills theory is considered. It is shown that a pair of test `quarks' initially in a color singlet generically acquire net color as a result of the flux. A nonlinear formula is derived for the relative color rotation of the quarks. For weak color flux the formula linearizes to the Fourier transform of the soft gluon theorem. This color memory effect is the Yang-Mills analog of the gravitational memory effect.

  4. Validity of Cognitive Load Measures in Simulation-Based Training: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naismith, Laura M; Cavalcanti, Rodrigo B

    2015-11-01

    Cognitive load theory (CLT) provides a rich framework to inform instructional design. Despite the applicability of CLT to simulation-based medical training, findings from multimedia learning have not been consistently replicated in this context. This lack of transferability may be related to issues in measuring cognitive load (CL) during simulation. The authors conducted a review of CLT studies across simulation training contexts to assess the validity evidence for different CL measures. PRISMA standards were followed. For 48 studies selected from a search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycInfo, CINAHL, and ERIC databases, information was extracted about study aims, methods, validity evidence of measures, and findings. Studies were categorized on the basis of findings and prevalence of validity evidence collected, and statistical comparisons between measurement types and research domains were pursued. CL during simulation training has been measured in diverse populations including medical trainees, pilots, and university students. Most studies (71%; 34) used self-report measures; others included secondary task performance, physiological indices, and observer ratings. Correlations between CL and learning varied from positive to negative. Overall validity evidence for CL measures was low (mean score 1.55/5). Studies reporting greater validity evidence were more likely to report that high CL impaired learning. The authors found evidence that inconsistent correlations between CL and learning may be related to issues of validity in CL measures. Further research would benefit from rigorous documentation of validity and from triangulating measures of CL. This can better inform CLT instructional design for simulation-based medical training.

  5. Validation of Standing Wave Liner Impedance Measurement Method, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Hersh Acoustical Engineering, Inc. proposes to establish the feasibility and practicality of using the Standing Wave Method (SWM) to measure the impedance of...

  6. Using Fluorescence XANES Measurement to Correct the Content of Hexavalent Chromium in Chromate Conversion Coatings Determined by Diphenyl Carbazide Color Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishino, Junichi; Ofuchi, Hironori; Taniguchi, Yosuke; Honma, Tetsuo; Sekikawa, Toshikazu; Otani, Haruka; Bando, Akio

    2007-01-01

    The Restriction of the use of certain Hazardous Substances (RoHS) directive will take effect on July 1 of this year. From that date, the use of chromate conversion coatings containing hexavalent chromium will not be permitted. By comparing the concentration of Cr6+ determined by the diphenyl carbazide color test and by fluorescence XANES (X-Ray Absorption Near Edge Structure) measurement, we can correct for the Cr6+ content of the color test. This will enable the use of the diphenyl carbazide color test to check product shipments in compliance with the RoHS directive

  7. MEASURING GALAXY STAR FORMATION RATES FROM INTEGRATED PHOTOMETRY: INSIGHTS FROM COLOR-MAGNITUDE DIAGRAMS OF RESOLVED STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Benjamin D. [Institute d' Astrophysique de Paris, CNRS, UPMC, 98bis Bd Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Weisz, Daniel R.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Johnson, L. C.; Williams, Benjamin F. [Department of Astronomy, Box 351580, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Dale, Daniel A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon, 1151 E. Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Gil de Paz, Armando [CEI Campus Moncloa, UCM-UPM, Departamento de Astrofisica y CC. de la Atmosfera, Facultad de CC. Fisicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avda. Complutense s/n, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Kennicutt, Robert C. Jr. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Lee, Janice C. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Skillman, Evan D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Boquien, Mederic [Marseille Universite, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille (France)

    2013-07-20

    We use empirical star formation histories (SFHs), measured from Hubble-Space-Telescope-based resolved star color-magnitude diagrams, as input into population synthesis codes to model the broadband spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 50 nearby dwarf galaxies (6.5 < log M{sub *}/M{sub Sun} < 8.5, with metallicities {approx}10% solar). In the presence of realistic SFHs, we compare the modeled and observed SEDs from the ultraviolet (UV) through near-infrared and assess the reliability of widely used UV-based star formation rate (SFR) indicators. In the FUV through i bands, we find that the observed and modeled SEDs are in excellent agreement. In the Spitzer 3.6 {mu}m and 4.5 {mu}m bands, we find that modeled SEDs systematically overpredict observed luminosities by up to {approx}0.2 dex, depending on treatment of the TP-AGB stars in the synthesis models. We assess the reliability of UV luminosity as a SFR indicator, in light of independently constrained SFHs. We find that fluctuations in the SFHs alone can cause factor of {approx}2 variations in the UV luminosities relative to the assumption of a constant SFH over the past 100 Myr. These variations are not strongly correlated with UV-optical colors, implying that correcting UV-based SFRs for the effects of realistic SFHs is difficult using only the broadband SED. Additionally, for this diverse sample of galaxies, we find that stars older than 100 Myr can contribute from <5%-100% of the present day UV luminosity, highlighting the challenges in defining a characteristic star formation timescale associated with UV emission. We do find a relationship between UV emission timescale and broadband UV-optical color, though it is different than predictions based on exponentially declining SFH models. Our findings have significant implications for the comparison of UV-based SFRs across low-metallicity populations with diverse SFHs.

  8. Diurnal changes in ocean color in coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnone, Robert; Vandermeulen, Ryan; Ladner, Sherwin; Ondrusek, Michael; Kovach, Charles; Yang, Haoping; Salisbury, Joseph

    2016-05-01

    Coastal processes can change on hourly time scales in response to tides, winds and biological activity, which can influence the color of surface waters. These temporal and spatial ocean color changes require satellite validation for applications using bio-optical products to delineate diurnal processes. The diurnal color change and capability for satellite ocean color response were determined with in situ and satellite observations. Hourly variations in satellite ocean color are dependent on several properties which include: a) sensor characterization b) advection of water masses and c) diurnal response of biological and optical water properties. The in situ diurnal changes in ocean color in a dynamic turbid coastal region in the northern Gulf of Mexico were characterized using above water spectral radiometry from an AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET -WavCIS CSI-06) site that provides up to 8-10 observations per day (in 15-30 minute increments). These in situ diurnal changes were used to validate and quantify natural bio-optical fluctuations in satellite ocean color measurements. Satellite capability to detect changes in ocean color was characterized by using overlapping afternoon orbits of the VIIRS-NPP ocean color sensor within 100 minutes. Results show the capability of multiple satellite observations to monitor hourly color changes in dynamic coastal regions that are impacted by tides, re-suspension, and river plume dispersion. Hourly changes in satellite ocean color were validated with in situ observation on multiple occurrences during different times of the afternoon. Also, the spatial variability of VIIRS diurnal changes shows the occurrence and displacement of phytoplankton blooms and decay during the afternoon period. Results suggest that determining the temporal and spatial changes in a color / phytoplankton bloom from the morning to afternoon time period will require additional satellite coverage periods in the coastal zone.

  9. Design and Validation with Measurements of the LEIR Injection Line

    CERN Document Server

    Roncarolo, F; Chanel, M; Dumas, L; Scrivens, R

    2006-01-01

    The CERN Low Energy Ion Ring (LEIR) commissioning started in the year 2005. O4+and Pb54+ion beams are transferred at 4.2 MeV/nucleon from Linac 3 to LEIR through a low energy transfer line, for which the constraints and the resulting optics design are presented. First trajectory and dispersion measurements agreed only poorly with the theoretical model. Iterations of a refined optics model and further measurements improved the agreement between experimental observations and expectations. In particular, the effect of quadrupole errors in the line dipole magnets is discussed.

  10. Development and empirical validation of symmetric component measures of multidimensional constructs: customer and competitor orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Hans Eibe; Slater, Stanley F

    2008-08-01

    Atheoretical measure purification may lead to construct deficient measures. The purpose of this paper is to provide a theoretically driven procedure for the development and empirical validation of symmetric component measures of multidimensional constructs. Particular emphasis is placed on establishing a formalized three-step procedure for achieving a posteriori content validity. Then the procedure is applied to development and empirical validation of two symmetrical component measures of market orientation, customer orientation and competitor orientation. Analysis suggests that average variance extracted is particularly critical to reliability in the respecification of multi-indicator measures. In relation to this, the results also identify possible deficiencies in using Cronbach alpha for establishing reliable and valid measures.

  11. Assessing the validity of parenting measures in a sample of chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supple, Andrew J; Peterson, Gary W; Bush, Kevin R

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the construct validity of adolescent-report parenting behavior measures (primarily derived from the Parental Behavior Measure) in a sample of 480 adolescents from Beijing, China. Results suggest that maternal support, monitoring, and autonomy granting were valid measures when assessing maternal socialization strategies and Chinese adolescent development. Measures of punitiveness and love withdrawal demonstrated limited validity, whereas maternal positive induction demonstrated little validity. The major implications of these results are that measures of "negative" parenting that included physical or psychological manipulations may not have salience for the development of Chinese adolescents. Moreover, researchers and clinicians should question the applicability of instruments and measures designed to assess family process when working with individuals in families from diverse cultural backgrounds. Copyright 2004 American Psychological Association

  12. Validation of a Comprehensive Executive Learning and Development Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akrofi, Solomon; Clarke, Nicholas; Vernon, Guy

    2011-01-01

    Evaluating the returns on intangible assets in general and executive human capital in particular is still a challenging endeavour. One possible means of addressing this challenge involves developing a broad measure of executive learning and development (L&D), encapsulating both the formal and informal activities that closely reflect the dynamic…

  13. Fiber-Optic Current Sensor Validation with Triggered Lightning Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Truong X.; Ely, Jay J.; Szatkowski, George N.; Mata, Carlos T.; Mata, Angel G.; Snyder, Gary P.

    2013-01-01

    A fiber optic current sensor based on the Faraday Effect is developed that is highly suitable for aircraft installation and can measure total current enclosed in a fiber loop down to DC. Other attributes include being small, light-weight, non-conducting, safe from electromagnetic interference, and free of hysteresis and saturation. The Faraday Effect causes light polarization to rotate when exposed to a magnetic field in the direction of light propagation. Measuring the induced light polarization rotation in fiber loops yields the total current enclosed. Two sensor systems were constructed and installed at Camp Blanding, Florida, measuring rocket-triggered lightning. The systems were similar in design but with different laser wavelengths, sensitivities and ranges. Results are compared to a shunt resistor as reference. The 850nm wavelength system tested in summer 2011 showed good result comparison early. However, later results showed gradual amplitude increase with time, attributed to corroded connections affecting the 50-ohm output termination. The 1550nm system also yielded good results in the summer 2012. The successful measurements demonstrate the fiber optic sensor's accuracies in capturing real lightning currents, and represent an important step toward future aircraft installation.

  14. The Construct Validity of an Instrument for Measuring Type 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Purpose: To develop an instrument (DSCKQ-30) for measuring type 2 diabetic patients' knowledge of self-care practices. Methods: A 30-item questionnaire (DSCKQ-30) consisting of close ended questions was developed for this study. DSCKQ-30 was self administered to a cross-section of randomly selected 400 ...

  15. Construct Validity of Three Self-Report Measures of Creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleenor, John W.; Taylor, Sylvester

    1994-01-01

    Relations were examined among the CPI Creativity Scale (CPI-CT), the MBTI Creativity Index (MBTI-CI), and the Kirton Adaption-Innovation Inventory (KAI; a style measure of behavioral preference) for samples of 431 to 12,115 managers. KAI scores were related to CPI-CT and MBTI-CI creativity levels. (SLD)

  16. Measuring the experience of hospitality : Scale development and validation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijls-Hoekstra, Ruth; Groen, Brenda H.; Galetzka, Mirjam; Pruyn, Adriaan T.H.

    2017-01-01

    This paper identifies what customers experience as hospitality and subsequently presents a novel and compact assessment scale for measuring customers’ experience of hospitality at any kind of service organization. The Experience of Hospitality Scale (EH-Scale) takes a broader perspective compared to

  17. Cyclopentane combustion. Part II. Ignition delay measurements and mechanism validation

    KAUST Repository

    Rachidi, Mariam El

    2017-06-12

    This study reports cyclopentane ignition delay measurements over a wide range of conditions. The measurements were obtained using two shock tubes and a rapid compression machine, and were used to test a detailed low- and high-temperature mechanism of cyclopentane oxidation that was presented in part I of this study (Al Rashidi et al., 2017). The ignition delay times of cyclopentane/air mixtures were measured over the temperature range of 650–1350K at pressures of 20 and 40atm and equivalence ratios of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0. The ignition delay times simulated using the detailed chemical kinetic model of cyclopentane oxidation show very good agreement with the experimental measurements, as well as with the cyclopentane ignition and flame speed data available in the literature. The agreement is significantly improved compared to previous models developed and investigated at higher temperatures. Reaction path and sensitivity analyses were performed to provide insights into the ignition-controlling chemistry at low, intermediate and high temperatures. The results obtained in this study confirm that cycloalkanes are less reactive than their non-cyclic counterparts. Moreover, cyclopentane, a high octane number and high octane sensitivity fuel, exhibits minimal low-temperature chemistry and is considerably less reactive than cyclohexane. This study presents the first experimental low-temperature ignition delay data of cyclopentane, a potential fuel-blending component of particular interest due to its desirable antiknock characteristics.

  18. Cyclopentane combustion. Part II. Ignition delay measurements and mechanism validation

    KAUST Repository

    Rachidi, Mariam El; Má rmol, Juan C.; Banyon, Colin; Sajid, Muhammad Bilal; Mehl, Marco; Pitz, William J.; Mohamed, Samah; Alfazazi, Adamu; Lu, Tianfeng; Curran, Henry J.; Farooq, Aamir; Sarathy, Mani

    2017-01-01

    This study reports cyclopentane ignition delay measurements over a wide range of conditions. The measurements were obtained using two shock tubes and a rapid compression machine, and were used to test a detailed low- and high-temperature mechanism of cyclopentane oxidation that was presented in part I of this study (Al Rashidi et al., 2017). The ignition delay times of cyclopentane/air mixtures were measured over the temperature range of 650–1350K at pressures of 20 and 40atm and equivalence ratios of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0. The ignition delay times simulated using the detailed chemical kinetic model of cyclopentane oxidation show very good agreement with the experimental measurements, as well as with the cyclopentane ignition and flame speed data available in the literature. The agreement is significantly improved compared to previous models developed and investigated at higher temperatures. Reaction path and sensitivity analyses were performed to provide insights into the ignition-controlling chemistry at low, intermediate and high temperatures. The results obtained in this study confirm that cycloalkanes are less reactive than their non-cyclic counterparts. Moreover, cyclopentane, a high octane number and high octane sensitivity fuel, exhibits minimal low-temperature chemistry and is considerably less reactive than cyclohexane. This study presents the first experimental low-temperature ignition delay data of cyclopentane, a potential fuel-blending component of particular interest due to its desirable antiknock characteristics.

  19. Validation of radioactivity measurements under the Safe Drinking Water Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldin, Abraham S.

    1978-01-01

    Radioactivity measurements are made under the Safe Drinking Water Act to obtain information on the potential radiological hazard of water and to institute regulatory action when water quality does not meet requirements. Measurements must be both precise and accurate if these goals are to be met. Regulations issued under the act require that analyses be performed by approved (certified) laboratories, which must carry out quality assurance programs. This paper briefly describes the certification requirements and discusses the components of an effective quality assurance program. The Environmental Protection Agency has established procedures for the certification of laboratories making radioactivity measurements of drinking water. These procedures recommend minimum laboratory qualifications for personnel, facilities, equipment, and procedures; proficiency testing by analysis of samples provided by the Agency; and operation of a quality assurance program. A major function of a quality assurance program is to provide the Laboratory Director an ongoing flow of information on laboratory analytical performance. A properly designed and conducted program provides this information in a timely manner, indicates areas where discrepancies exist, and often suggests ways of correcting the discrepancies. Pertinent aspects of radioactivity measurements for drinking water are discussed, including how analyses of blanks, blind duplicates, and reference samples contribute needed information, and evaluations by control charts and statistical analyses. Examples of the usefulness of quality control in correcting both procedural and background problems are given. (author)

  20. Brief Report: Concurrent Validity of Autism Symptom Severity Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reszka, Stephanie S.; Boyd, Brian A.; McBee, Matthew; Hume, Kara A.; Odom, Samuel L.

    2014-01-01

    The autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnostic classifications, according to the DSM-5, include a severity rating. Several screening and/or diagnostic measures, such as the autism diagnostic and observation schedule (ADOS), Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) and social responsiveness scale (SRS) (teacher and parent versions), include an…

  1. Reducing health care-associated infections by implementing separated environmental cleaning management measures by using disposable wipes of four colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Swee Siang; Huang, Cheng Hua; Yang, Chiu Chu; Hsieh, Yi Pei; Kuo, Chen Ni; Chen, Yi Ru; Chen, Li Ching

    2018-01-01

    Environmental cleaning is a fundamental principle of infection control in health care settings. We determined whether implementing separated environmental cleaning management measures in MICU reduced the density of HAI. We performed a 4-month prospective cohort intervention study between August and December 2013, at the MICU of Cathay General hospital. We arranged a training program for all the cleaning staff regarding separated environmental cleaning management measures by using disposable wipes of four colors to clean the patients' bedside areas, areas at a high risk of contamination, paperwork areas, and public areas. Fifteen high-touch surfaces were selected for cleanliness evaluation by using the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) bioluminescence test. Then data regarding HAI densities in the MICU were collected during the baseline, intervention, and late periods. A total of 120 ATP readings were obtained. The total number of clean high-touch surfaces increased from 13% to 53%, whereas that of unclean high-touch surface decreased from 47% to 20%. The densities of HAI were 14.32‰ and 14.90‰ during the baseline and intervention periods, respectively. The HAI density did not decrease after the intervention period, but it decreased to 9.07‰ during the late period. Implementing separated environmental cleaning management measures by using disposable wipes of four colors effectively improves cleanliness in MICU environments. However, no decrease in HAI density was observed within the study period. Considering that achieving high levels of hand-hygiene adherence is difficult, improving environmental cleaning is a crucial adjunctive measure for reducing the incidence of HAIs.

  2. Reliability and validity of non-radiographic methods of thoracic kyphosis measurement: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Eva; McCreesh, Karen; Lewis, Jeremy

    2014-02-01

    A wide array of instruments are available for non-invasive thoracic kyphosis measurement. Guidelines for selecting outcome measures for use in clinical and research practice recommend that properties such as validity and reliability are considered. This systematic review reports on the reliability and validity of non-invasive methods for measuring thoracic kyphosis. A systematic search of 11 electronic databases located studies assessing reliability and/or validity of non-invasive thoracic kyphosis measurement techniques. Two independent reviewers used a critical appraisal tool to assess the quality of retrieved studies. Data was extracted by the primary reviewer. The results were synthesized qualitatively using a level of evidence approach. 27 studies satisfied the eligibility criteria and were included in the review. The reliability, validity and both reliability and validity were investigated by sixteen, two and nine studies respectively. 17/27 studies were deemed to be of high quality. In total, 15 methods of thoracic kyphosis were evaluated in retrieved studies. All investigated methods showed high (ICC ≥ .7) to very high (ICC ≥ .9) levels of reliability. The validity of the methods ranged from low to very high. The strongest levels of evidence for reliability exists in support of the Debrunner kyphometer, Spinal Mouse and Flexicurve index, and for validity supports the arcometer and Flexicurve index. Further reliability and validity studies are required to strengthen the level of evidence for the remaining methods of measurement. This should be addressed by future research. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Validation of ozone measurements from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Dupuy

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents extensive {bias determination} analyses of ozone observations from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE satellite instruments: the ACE Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS and the Measurement of Aerosol Extinction in the Stratosphere and Troposphere Retrieved by Occultation (ACE-MAESTRO instrument. Here we compare the latest ozone data products from ACE-FTS and ACE-MAESTRO with coincident observations from nearly 20 satellite-borne, airborne, balloon-borne and ground-based instruments, by analysing volume mixing ratio profiles and partial column densities. The ACE-FTS version 2.2 Ozone Update product reports more ozone than most correlative measurements from the upper troposphere to the lower mesosphere. At altitude levels from 16 to 44 km, the average values of the mean relative differences are nearly all within +1 to +8%. At higher altitudes (45–60 km, the ACE-FTS ozone amounts are significantly larger than those of the comparison instruments, with mean relative differences of up to +40% (about +20% on average. For the ACE-MAESTRO version 1.2 ozone data product, mean relative differences are within ±10% (average values within ±6% between 18 and 40 km for both the sunrise and sunset measurements. At higher altitudes (~35–55 km, systematic biases of opposite sign are found between the ACE-MAESTRO sunrise and sunset observations. While ozone amounts derived from the ACE-MAESTRO sunrise occultation data are often smaller than the coincident observations (with mean relative differences down to −10%, the sunset occultation profiles for ACE-MAESTRO show results that are qualitatively similar to ACE-FTS, indicating a large positive bias (mean relative differences within +10 to +30% in the 45–55 km altitude range. In contrast, there is no significant systematic difference in bias found for the ACE-FTS sunrise and sunset measurements.

  4. Focus measure method based on the modulus of the gradient of the color planes for digital microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado-Pérez, Román; Toxqui-Quitl, Carina; Padilla-Vivanco, Alfonso; Aguilar-Valdez, J. Félix; Ortega-Mendoza, Gabriel

    2018-02-01

    The modulus of the gradient of the color planes (MGC) is implemented to transform multichannel information to a grayscale image. This digital technique is used in two applications: (a) focus measurements during autofocusing (AF) process and (b) extending the depth of field (EDoF) by means of multifocus image fusion. In the first case, the MGC procedure is based on an edge detection technique and is implemented in over 15 focus metrics that are typically handled in digital microscopy. The MGC approach is tested on color images of histological sections for the selection of in-focus images. An appealing attribute of all the AF metrics working in the MGC space is their monotonic behavior even up to a magnification of 100×. An advantage of the MGC method is its computational simplicity and inherent parallelism. In the second application, a multifocus image fusion algorithm based on the MGC approach has been implemented on graphics processing units (GPUs). The resulting fused images are evaluated using a nonreference image quality metric. The proposed fusion method reveals a high-quality image independently of faulty illumination during the image acquisition. Finally, the three-dimensional visualization of the in-focus image is shown.

  5. Use of electrochemical sensors for measurement of air pollution: correcting interference response and validating measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Eben S.; Williams, Leah R.; Lewis, David K.; Magoon, Gregory R.; Onasch, Timothy B.; Kaminsky, Michael L.; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Jayne, John T.

    2017-09-01

    The environments in which we live, work, and play are subject to enormous variability in air pollutant concentrations. To adequately characterize air quality (AQ), measurements must be fast (real time), scalable, and reliable (with known accuracy, precision, and stability over time). Lower-cost air-quality-sensor technologies offer new opportunities for fast and distributed measurements, but a persistent characterization gap remains when it comes to evaluating sensor performance under realistic environmental sampling conditions. This limits our ability to inform the public about pollution sources and inspire policy makers to address environmental justice issues related to air quality. In this paper, initial results obtained with a recently developed lower-cost air-quality-sensor system are reported. In this project, data were acquired with the ARISense integrated sensor package over a 4.5-month time interval during which the sensor system was co-located with a state-operated (Massachusetts, USA) air quality monitoring station equipped with reference instrumentation measuring the same pollutant species. This paper focuses on validating electrochemical (EC) sensor measurements of CO, NO, NO2, and O3 at an urban neighborhood site with pollutant concentration ranges (parts per billion by volume, ppb; 5 min averages, ±1σ): [CO] = 231 ± 116 ppb (spanning 84-1706 ppb), [NO] = 6.1 ± 11.5 ppb (spanning 0-209 ppb), [NO2] = 11.7 ± 8.3 ppb (spanning 0-71 ppb), and [O3] = 23.2 ± 12.5 ppb (spanning 0-99 ppb). Through the use of high-dimensional model representation (HDMR), we show that interference effects derived from the variable ambient gas concentration mix and changing environmental conditions over three seasons (sensor flow-cell temperature = 23.4 ± 8.5 °C, spanning 4.1 to 45.2 °C; and relative humidity = 50.1 ± 15.3 %, spanning 9.8-79.9 %) can be effectively modeled for the Alphasense CO-B4, NO-B4, NO2-B43F, and Ox-B421 sensors, yielding (5 min average) root

  6. MEASURING INSTRUMENT CONSTRUCTION AND VALIDATION IN ESTIMATING UNICYCLING SKILL LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Granić

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Riding the unicycle presupposes the knowledge of the set of elements which describe motoric skill, or just part of that set with which we could measure the level of that knowledge. Testing and evaluation of the elements is time consuming. In order to design a unique, composite measuring instrument, to facilitate the evaluation of the initial level of unicycling skill, we tested 17 recreative subjects who were learning to ride the unicycle in 15 hours of training, without any previous knowledge or experience what was measured before the beginning of the training. At the beginning and at the end of the training they were tested with the set of the 12 riding elements test that was carried out to record only successful attempts, followed by unique SLALOM test which include previously tested elements. It was found that the unique SLALOM test has good metric features and a high regression coefficient showed that the SLALOM could be used instead of the 12 elements of unicycle riding skill, and it could be used as a uniform test to evaluate learned or existing knowledge. Because of its simplicity in terms of action and simultaneous testing of more subjects, the newly constructed test could be used in evaluating the unicycling recreational level, but also for monitoring and programming transformation processes to develop the motor skills of riding of unicycle. Because of its advantages, it is desirable to include unicycling in the educational processes of learning new motor skills, which can be evaluated by the results of this research. The obtained results indicate that the unicycle should be seriously consider as a training equipment to “refresh” or expand the recreational programs, without any fear that it is just for special people. Namely, it was shown that the previously learned motor skills (skiing, roller-skating, and cycling had no effect on the results of final testing.

  7. Development and validation of a preference weight multiattribute health outcome measure for rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Chiun-Fang; Suarez-Almazor, Maria E; Sherbourne, Cathy D; Chang, Chih-Hung; Reyes, Carolina; Dylan, Michelle; Ofman, Joshua; Wallace, Daniel J; Mizutani, Wesley; Weisman, Michael

    2006-12-01

    To develop and validate multiattribute measures for patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) to report health states and estimate preference weights. Survey materials were mailed to 748 patients. Factor analysis, an item response theory-based model, and an internal consistency test were used to identify attributes and evaluate items. Two multiattribute preference weight functions (MAPWF) were constructed. Construct validity of the new measures was then tested. Four hundred eighty-seven patients returned the survey; 24 items on 6 health attributes were selected to form the new outcomes measure. Two MAPWF were derived with preference weights measured with time tradeoff and visual analog scales as dependent variables. All validity test results were statistically significant. Our results reveal that the new measures are reliable and valid in assessing health states and associated preference weights of patients with RA.

  8. Reliability and validity of the AutoCAD software method in lumbar lordosis measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letafatkar, Amir; Amirsasan, Ramin; Abdolvahabi, Zahra; Hadadnezhad, Malihe

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the reliability and validity of the AutoCAD software method in lumbar lordosis measurement. Fifty healthy volunteers with a mean age of 23 ± 1.80 years were enrolled. A lumbar lateral radiograph was taken on all participants, and the lordosis was measured according to the Cobb method. Afterward, the lumbar lordosis degree was measured via AutoCAD software and flexible ruler methods. The current study is accomplished in 2 parts: intratester and intertester evaluations of reliability as well as the validity of the flexible ruler and software methods. Based on the intraclass correlation coefficient, AutoCAD's reliability and validity in measuring lumbar lordosis were 0.984 and 0.962, respectively. AutoCAD showed to be a reliable and valid method to measure lordosis. It is suggested that this method may replace those that are costly and involve health risks, such as radiography, in evaluating lumbar lordosis.

  9. Validation of landfill methane measurements from an unmanned aerial system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allen, Grant; Williams, Paul; Ricketts, hugo

    Landfill gas is made up of roughly equal amounts of methane and carbon dioxide. Modern UK landfills capture and use much of the methane gas as a fuel. But some methane escapes and is emitted to the atmosphere. Methane is an important greenhouse gas and controls on methane emissions are a part...... of international and national strategies to limit climate change. Better estimates of methane emissions from landfills and other similar sources would allow the UK to improve the quantification and control of greenhouse gas emissions. This project tested the accuracy of methane measurement using an unmanned aerial...

  10. Adaptive pixel-to-pixel projection intensity adjustment for measuring a shiny surface using orthogonal color fringe pattern projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao; Gao, Nan; Wang, Xiangjun; Zhang, Zonghua

    2018-05-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) shape measurement based on fringe pattern projection techniques has been commonly used in various fields. One of the remaining challenges in fringe pattern projection is that camera sensor saturation may occur if there is a large range of reflectivity variation across the surface that causes measurement errors. To overcome this problem, a novel fringe pattern projection method is proposed to avoid image saturation and maintain high-intensity modulation for measuring shiny surfaces by adaptively adjusting the pixel-to-pixel projection intensity according to the surface reflectivity. First, three sets of orthogonal color fringe patterns and a sequence of uniform gray-level patterns with different gray levels are projected onto a measured surface by a projector. The patterns are deformed with respect to the object surface and captured by a camera from a different viewpoint. Subsequently, the optimal projection intensity at each pixel is determined by fusing different gray levels and transforming the camera pixel coordinate system into the projector pixel coordinate system. Finally, the adapted fringe patterns are created and used for 3D shape measurement. Experimental results on a flat checkerboard and shiny objects demonstrate that the proposed method can measure shiny surfaces with high accuracy.

  11. Analysis and Compensation for Lateral Chromatic Aberration in a Color Coding Structured Light 3D Measurement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Junhui; Xue, Qi; Wang, Zhao; Gao, Jianmin

    2016-01-01

    While color-coding methods have improved the measuring efficiency of a structured light three-dimensional (3D) measurement system, they decreased the measuring accuracy significantly due to lateral chromatic aberration (LCA). In this study, the LCA in a structured light measurement system is analyzed, and a method is proposed to compensate the error caused by the LCA. Firstly, based on the projective transformation, a 3D error map of LCA is constructed in the projector images by using a flat board and comparing the image coordinates of red, green and blue circles with the coordinates of white circles at preselected sample points within the measurement volume. The 3D map consists of the errors, which are the equivalent errors caused by LCA of the camera and projector. Then in measurements, error values of LCA are calculated and compensated to correct the projector image coordinates through the 3D error map and a tri-linear interpolation method. Eventually, 3D coordinates with higher accuracy are re-calculated according to the compensated image coordinates. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified in the following experiments. PMID:27598174

  12. Feasibility and validity of frailty measurement in geriatric rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjunan, Aparna; Peel, Nancye M; Hubbard, Ruth E

    2018-02-10

    The measurement of frailty using a Frailty Index (FI) has been criticised as too time-consuming for use in hospital settings. We aimed to assess the feasibility and characteristics of an FI derived from routinely collected data. A total of 258 participants aged 65 and older were included in a single-centre prospective cohort study conducted in inpatient geriatric rehabilitation wards. The functional independence measure (FIM™), medication count and comorbidities were coded as deficits. An FI could be derived in all participants. It was normally distributed with a mean (SD) of 0.42 (0.13) and reached a submaximal limit of 0.69. Adjusting for age and sex, the odds ratio of a poor outcome (death/discharge to higher care) was 1.38 (confidence interval 1.11-1.70) per unit (0.1) increase in FI. Derivation of an FI from routinely collected data is feasible in geriatric rehabilitation settings and is predictive of poor outcomes. © 2018 AJA Inc.

  13. Simple procedure for phase-space measurement and entanglement validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundle, R. P.; Mills, P. W.; Tilma, Todd; Samson, J. H.; Everitt, M. J.

    2017-08-01

    It has recently been shown that it is possible to represent the complete quantum state of any system as a phase-space quasiprobability distribution (Wigner function) [Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 180401 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.180401]. Such functions take the form of expectation values of an observable that has a direct analogy to displaced parity operators. In this work we give a procedure for the measurement of the Wigner function that should be applicable to any quantum system. We have applied our procedure to IBM's Quantum Experience five-qubit quantum processor to demonstrate that we can measure and generate the Wigner functions of two different Bell states as well as the five-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state. Because Wigner functions for spin systems are not unique, we define, compare, and contrast two distinct examples. We show how the use of these Wigner functions leads to an optimal method for quantum state analysis especially in the situation where specific characteristic features are of particular interest (such as for spin Schrödinger cat states). Furthermore we show that this analysis leads to straightforward, and potentially very efficient, entanglement test and state characterization methods.

  14. Validation of an Instrument to Measure High School Students' Attitudes toward Fitness Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier, Kevin; Silverman, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this investigation was to develop an instrument that has scores that are valid and reliable for measuring students' attitudes toward fitness testing. Method: The method involved the following steps: (a) an elicitation study, (b) item development, (c) a pilot study, and (d) a validation study. The pilot study included 427…

  15. Validation of measures for assessing management and evaluation skills in university professors

    OpenAIRE

    Domínguez Guedea, Miriam; Laros, Jacobo; Domínguez Guedea, Rosario–Leticia

    2010-01-01

    We present the results of a validation process two scales to measure skills of teachers teaching in a public university in Mexico. The elements to consider in this project were checking to test the construct validity and reliability of the method of collection, as well as contributing to the technical dimension of the evaluation of teachers.

  16. The Reliability and Validity of Discrete and Continuous Measures of Psychopathology: A Quantitative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markon, Kristian E.; Chmielewski, Michael; Miller, Christopher J.

    2011-01-01

    In 2 meta-analyses involving 58 studies and 59,575 participants, we quantitatively summarized the relative reliability and validity of continuous (i.e., dimensional) and discrete (i.e., categorical) measures of psychopathology. Overall, results suggest an expected 15% increase in reliability and 37% increase in validity through adoption of a…

  17. Validity Evidence for the Security Scale as a Measure of Perceived Attachment Security in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ryzin, Mark J.; Leve, Leslie D.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the validity of a self-report measure of children's perceived attachment security (the Kerns Security Scale) was tested using adolescents. With regards to predictive validity, the Security Scale was significantly associated with (1) observed mother-adolescent interactions during conflict and (2) parent- and teacher-rated social…

  18. Measuring Children’s Perceptions of Robots’ Social Competence : Design and Validation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davison, Daniel Patrick; Charisi, Vasiliki; Wijnen, Frances Martine; Reidsma, Dennis; Evers, Vanessa; Kheddar, Abderrahmane; Yoshida, Eiichi; Ge, Shuzhi Sam; Suzuki, Kenji; Cabibihan, John-John; Eyssel, Friederike; He, Hongsheng

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the design and validation of a measurement instrument for children’s perceptions of robots’ social competence. The need for a standardized validated instrument has emerged as a requisite for meta-analyses and comparisons among various studies in the field of child-robot

  19. Predictive Validity of Curriculum-Based Measures for English Learners at Varying English Proficiency Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jennifer Sun; Vanderwood, Michael L.; Lee, Catherine Y.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the predictive validity of curriculum-based measures in reading for Spanish-speaking English learners (ELs) at various levels of English proficiency. Third-grade Spanish-speaking EL students were screened during the fall using DIBELS Oral Reading Fluency (DORF) and Daze. Predictive validity was examined in relation to spring…

  20. Validation of ACE-FTS N2O measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Stiller

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE, also known as SCISAT, was launched on 12 August 2003, carrying two instruments that measure vertical profiles of atmospheric constituents using the solar occultation technique. One of these instruments, the ACE Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS, is measuring volume mixing ratio (VMR profiles of nitrous oxide (N2O from the upper troposphere to the lower mesosphere at a vertical resolution of about 3–4 km. In this study, the quality of the ACE-FTS version 2.2 N2O data is assessed through comparisons with coincident measurements made by other satellite, balloon-borne, aircraft, and ground-based instruments. These consist of vertical profile comparisons with the SMR, MLS, and MIPAS satellite instruments, multiple aircraft flights of ASUR, and single balloon flights of SPIRALE and FIRS-2, and partial column comparisons with a network of ground-based Fourier Transform InfraRed spectrometers (FTIRs. Between 6 and 30 km, the mean absolute differences for the satellite comparisons lie between −42 ppbv and +17 ppbv, with most within ±20 ppbv. This corresponds to relative deviations from the mean that are within ±15%, except for comparisons with MIPAS near 30 km, for which they are as large as 22.5%. Between 18 and 30 km, the mean absolute differences for the satellite comparisons are generally within ±10 ppbv. From 30 to 60 km, the mean absolute differences are within ±4 ppbv, and are mostly between −2 and +1 ppbv. Given the small N2O VMR in this region, the relative deviations from the mean are therefore large at these altitudes, with most suggesting a negative bias in the ACE-FTS data between 30 and 50 km. In the comparisons with the FTIRs, the mean relative differences between the ACE-FTS and FTIR partial columns (which cover a mean altitude range of 14 to 27 km are within ±5.6% for eleven of the twelve contributing stations. This mean relative difference is negative at ten stations

  1. Field Trial Measurements to Validate a Stochastic Aircraft Boarding Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Schultz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Efficient boarding procedures have to consider both operational constraints and the individual passenger behavior. In contrast to the aircraft handling processes of fueling, catering and cleaning, the boarding process is more driven by passengers than by airport or airline operators. This paper delivers a comprehensive set of operational data including classification of boarding times, passenger arrival times, times to store hand luggage, and passenger interactions in the aircraft cabin as a reliable basis for calibrating models for aircraft boarding. In this paper, a microscopic approach is used to model the passenger behavior, where the passenger movement is defined as a one-dimensional, stochastic, and time/space discrete transition process. This model is used to compare measurements from field trials of boarding procedures with simulation results and demonstrates a deviation smaller than 5%.

  2. Development and Validation of the Pretending Orgasm Reasons Measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Danya L; Gillath, Omri; Haj-Mohamadi, Parnia

    2017-10-01

    Pretending orgasm is a widespread phenomenon, reported by both men and women. We report here on the development of a new measure to assess reasons for pretending. In three studies, using large diverse samples, we obtained a comprehensive list of reasons for pretending orgasms (Study 1; N = 46) and conducted both exploratory (Study 2; N = 416) and confirmatory (Study 3; N = 1010) factor analyses identifying six reasons for pretending an orgasm: feels good, for partner, not into sex, manipulation/power, insecurity, and emotional communication. Sexual dysfunction was correlated with frequency of pretending orgasms for reasons such as insecure, not into sex, for partner, and emotional communication. Usefulness for future research and clinical implications are discussed.

  3. Validation of protein carbonyl measurement: A multi-centre study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Augustyniak

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Protein carbonyls are widely analysed as a measure of protein oxidation. Several different methods exist for their determination. A previous study had described orders of magnitude variance that existed when protein carbonyls were analysed in a single laboratory by ELISA using different commercial kits. We have further explored the potential causes of variance in carbonyl analysis in a ring study. A soluble protein fraction was prepared from rat liver and exposed to 0, 5 and 15 min of UV irradiation. Lyophilised preparations were distributed to six different laboratories that routinely undertook protein carbonyl analysis across Europe. ELISA and Western blotting techniques detected an increase in protein carbonyl formation between 0 and 5 min of UV irradiation irrespective of method used. After irradiation for 15 min, less oxidation was detected by half of the laboratories than after 5 min irradiation. Three of the four ELISA carbonyl results fell within 95% confidence intervals. Likely errors in calculating absolute carbonyl values may be attributed to differences in standardisation. Out of up to 88 proteins identified as containing carbonyl groups after tryptic cleavage of irradiated and control liver proteins, only seven were common in all three liver preparations. Lysine and arginine residues modified by carbonyls are likely to be resistant to tryptic proteolysis. Use of a cocktail of proteases may increase the recovery of oxidised peptides. In conclusion, standardisation is critical for carbonyl analysis and heavily oxidised proteins may not be effectively analysed by any existing technique.

  4. Latency-Based and Psychophysiological Measures of Sexual Interest Show Convergent and Concurrent Validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ó Ciardha, Caoilte; Attard-Johnson, Janice; Bindemann, Markus

    2018-04-01

    Latency-based measures of sexual interest require additional evidence of validity, as do newer pupil dilation approaches. A total of 102 community men completed six latency-based measures of sexual interest. Pupillary responses were recorded during three of these tasks and in an additional task where no participant response was required. For adult stimuli, there was a high degree of intercorrelation between measures, suggesting that tasks may be measuring the same underlying construct (convergent validity). In addition to being correlated with one another, measures also predicted participants' self-reported sexual interest, demonstrating concurrent validity (i.e., the ability of a task to predict a more validated, simultaneously recorded, measure). Latency-based and pupillometric approaches also showed preliminary evidence of concurrent validity in predicting both self-reported interest in child molestation and viewing pornographic material containing children. Taken together, the study findings build on the evidence base for the validity of latency-based and pupillometric measures of sexual interest.

  5. Software Process Validation: Quantitatively Measuring the Correspondence of a Process to a Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cook, Jonathan E; Wolf, Alexander L

    1997-01-01

    .... When process models and process executions diverge, something significant is happening. The authors have developed techniques for uncovering and measuring the discrepancies between models and executions, which they call process validation...

  6. Measuring self-esteem in dieting disordered patients: the validity of the Rosenberg and Coopersmith contrasted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, R A; Beumont, P J; Giannakopoulos, E; Russell, J; Schotte, D; Thornton, C; Touyz, S W; Varano, P

    1999-03-01

    In order to ascertain the most appropriate measure of self-esteem for dieting disordered patients, this study contrasted the construct and convergent validities of two widely used measures. In addition, dieting disordered subgroups were compared on levels of self-esteem. One hundred and seventeen male and female patients diagnosed with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, or eating disorder not otherwise specified completed the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (SES), the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (SEI), and measures of dieting disorder pathology and depression. No significant differences among the three dieting disorder subgroups were found. In determining convergent validity, regression analyses indicated that the SES was a significant predictor of dieting disorder psychopathology whereas the SEI was not. Of the two self-esteem measures, only the SES showed evidence of convergent validity. The results suggest that the SES has sounder construct and convergent validity than the SEI. Hence, the SES may be more appropriate for use with dieting disordered populations.

  7. Quantum Fisher information on its own is not a valid measure of the coherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyukjoon; Tan, Kok Chuan; Choi, Seongjeon; Jeong, Hyunseok

    2018-06-01

    We show that contrary to the claim in Feng and Wei (2017), the quantum Fisher information itself is not a valid measure of the coherence based on the resource theory because it can increase via an incoherent operation.

  8. Construction and Validation of a Scale to Measure Maslow's Concept of Self-Actualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kenneth Melvin; Randolph, Daniel Lee

    1978-01-01

    Designed to measure self-actualization as defined by Abraham Maslow, the Jones Self Actualizing Scale, as assessed in this study, possesses content validity, reliability, and a number of other positive characteristics. (JC)

  9. Measuring production loss due to health and work environment problems: construct validity and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Malin Lohela; Bergström, Gunnar; Björklund, Christina; Hagberg, Jan; Jensen, Irene

    2013-12-01

    The aim was to validate two measures of production loss, health-related and work environment-related production loss, concerning their associations with health status and work environment factors. Validity was assessed by evaluating the construct validity. Health problems related and work environment-related problems (or factors) were included in separate analyses and evaluated regarding the significant difference in proportion of explained variation (R) of production loss. health problems production loss was not found to fulfill the criteria for convergent validity in this study; however, the measure of work environment-related production loss did fulfill the criteria that were set up. The measure of work environment-related production loss can be used to screen for production loss due to work environment problems as well as an outcome measure when evaluating the effect of organizational interventions.

  10. Optical transition measurements in laser active medium candidates: application to color centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, E.

    1990-01-01

    In the present work we describe a spectroscopy method that can determine the energy level diagram of the species under investigation, the decay time, quantum efficiency and emission cross section. Firstly, the decay time was measured by using a sinusoidal pumping excitation and phase sensitive detection. Using a specially home design cryostat we were able to measure the decay time in the temperature range of 77K to 310K, and therefore, the temperature dependence of the quantum efficiency. (author)

  11. Development and empirical validation of symmetric component measures of multi-dimensional constructs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Hans Eibe; Slater, Stanley F.

    2008-01-01

    Atheoretical measure purification may lead to construct deficient measures. The purpose of this paper is to provide a theoretically driven procedure for the development and empirical validation of symmetric component measures of multi-dimensional constructs. We place particular emphasis on establ...

  12. Measures of Emotional Intelligence and Social Acceptability in Children: A Concurrent Validity Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windingstad, Sunny; McCallum, R. Steve; Bell, Sherry Mee; Dunn, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    The concurrent validity of two measures of Emotional Intelligence (EI), one considered a trait measure, the other an ability measure, was examined by administering the Emotional Quotient Inventory: Youth Version (EQi:YV; Bar-On & Parker, 2000), the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test: Youth Version (MSCEIT:YV; Mayer, Salovey, &…

  13. Measuring the Effect of Tourism Services on Travelers' Quality of Life: Further Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Janet D.; Sirgy, M. Joseph; Uysal, Muzaffer

    2004-01-01

    lication and extension study provided additional validational support of the original tourism services satisfaction measure in relation to QOL-related measures.Neal, Sirgy and Uysal (1999) developed a model and a measure to capture the effect of tourism services on travelers' quality of life (QOL). They hypothesized that travelers' overall life…

  14. Experimental validation of error in temperature measurements in thin walled ductile iron castings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl Martin; Tiedje, Niels Skat

    2007-01-01

    An experimental analysis has been performed to validate the measurement error of cooling curves measured in thin walled ductile cast iron. Specially designed thermocouples with Ø0.2 mm thermocouple wire in Ø1.6 mm ceramic tube was used for the experiments. Temperatures were measured in plates...

  15. The Deaf Acculturation Scale (DAS): Development and Validation of a 58-Item Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell-McCaw, Deborah; Zea, Maria Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    This study involved the development and validation of the Deaf Acculturation Scale (DAS), a new measure of cultural identity for Deaf and hard-of-hearing (hh) populations. Data for this study were collected online and involved a nation-wide sample of 3,070 deaf/hh individuals. Results indicated strong internal reliabilities for all the subscales, and construct validity was established by demonstrating that the DAS could discriminate groups based on parental hearing status, school background, and use of self-labels. Construct validity was further demonstrated through factorial analyses, and findings resulted in a final 58-item measure. Directions for future research are discussed. PMID:21263041

  16. Development and validation of a questionnaire designed to measure foot-health status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, P J; Patterson, C; Wearing, S; Baglioni, T

    1998-09-01

    The aim of this study was to apply the principles of content, criterion, and construct validation to a new questionnaire specifically designed to measure foot-health status. One hundred eleven subjects completed two different questionnaires designed to measure foot health (the new Foot Health Status Questionnaire and the previously validated Foot Function Index) and underwent a clinical examination in order to provide data for a second-order confirmatory factor analysis. Presented herein is a psychometrically evaluated questionnaire that contains 13 items covering foot pain, foot function, footwear, and general foot health. The tool demonstrates a high degree of content, criterion, and construct validity and test-retest reliability.

  17. Establishing best practices for the validation of atmospheric composition measurements from satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Jean-Christopher

    As a contribution to the implementation of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS), the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) is developing a data quality strategy for satellite measurements. To achieve GEOSS requirements of consistency and interoperability (e.g. for comparison and for integrated interpretation) of the measurements and their derived data products, proper uncertainty assessment is essential and needs to be continuously monitored and traceable to standards. Therefore, CEOS has undertaken the task to establish a set of best practices and guidelines for satellite validation, starting with current practices that could be improved with time. Best practices are not intended to be imposed as firm requirements, but rather to be suggested as a baseline for comparing against, which could be used by the widest community and provide guidance to newcomers. The present paper reviews the current development of best practices and guidelines for the validation of atmospheric composition satellites. Terminologies and general principles of validation are reminded. Going beyond elementary definitions of validation like the assessment of uncertainties, the specific GEOSS context calls also for validation of individual service components and against user requirements. This paper insists on two important aspects. First one, the question of the "collocation". Validation generally involves comparisons with "reference" measurements of the same quantities, and the question of what constitutes a valid comparison is not the least of the challenges faced. We present a tentative scheme for defining the validity of a comparison and of the necessary "collocation" criteria. Second focus of this paper: the information content of the data product. Validation against user requirements, or the verification of the "fitness for purpose" of both the data products and their validation, needs to identify what information, in the final product, is contributed really

  18. Measurement of informal care: an empirical study into the valid measurement of time spent on informal caregiving.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, Bernard van den; Spauwen, Pol

    2006-01-01

    The incorporation of informal care into economic evaluations of health care is troublesome. The debate focuses on the valuation of time spent on informal caregiving, while time measurement, a related and may be even a more important issue, tends to be neglected. Valid time measurement is a necessary

  19. Full-frame, high-speed 3D shape and deformation measurements using stereo-digital image correlation and a single color high-speed camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Liping; Pan, Bing

    2017-08-01

    Full-frame, high-speed 3D shape and deformation measurement using stereo-digital image correlation (stereo-DIC) technique and a single high-speed color camera is proposed. With the aid of a skillfully designed pseudo stereo-imaging apparatus, color images of a test object surface, composed of blue and red channel images from two different optical paths, are recorded by a high-speed color CMOS camera. The recorded color images can be separated into red and blue channel sub-images using a simple but effective color crosstalk correction method. These separated blue and red channel sub-images are processed by regular stereo-DIC method to retrieve full-field 3D shape and deformation on the test object surface. Compared with existing two-camera high-speed stereo-DIC or four-mirror-adapter-assisted singe-camera high-speed stereo-DIC, the proposed single-camera high-speed stereo-DIC technique offers prominent advantages of full-frame measurements using a single high-speed camera but without sacrificing its spatial resolution. Two real experiments, including shape measurement of a curved surface and vibration measurement of a Chinese double-side drum, demonstrated the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed technique.

  20. Measurement of the proton $A_1$ and $A_2$ spin asymmetries. Probing Color Forces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, Whitney [Temple University, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2015-05-01

    The Spin Asymmetries of the Nucleon Experiment (SANE) measured the proton spin structure function $g_2$ in a range of Bjorken x, 0.3 < x < 0.8, where extraction of the twist-3 matrix element $d_2^p$ (an integral of $g_2$ weighted by $x^2$) is most sensitive. The data was taken from $Q^2$ equal to 2.5 $GeV^2$ up to 6.5 $GeV^2$. In this polarized electron scattering off a polarized hydrogen target experiment, two double spin asymmetries, A∥ and A⊥ were measured using the BETA (Big Electron Telescope Array) Detector. BETA consisted of a scintillator hodoscope, gas Cerenkov counter, lucite hodoscope and a large lead glass electromagnetic calorimeter. With a unique open geometry, a threshold gas Cerenkov detector allowed BETA to cleanly identify electrons for this inclusive experiment. A measurement of $d_2^p$ is compared to lattice QCD calculations.

  1. Measurement of Non-Invasive Blood Glucose Level Based Sensor Color TCS3200 and Arduino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniadi Wardana, Humaidillah; Indahwati, Elly; Arifah Fitriyah, Lina

    2018-04-01

    Design and measurement of Arduino-based urinary (non-invasive) urine glucose using RGB tcs3200 sensor. This research was conducted by making use of the urine in diabetes patients detected by sensor colours then measured levels of colour based on the RGB colour of the urine of diabetics. The detection is done on 4 urine samples with each consisting of 3 diabetics and 1 non-diabetics. Equipment used in this research, among others, Arduino Uno, colour sensor tcs3200, LCD 16x4. The results showed that the detection of RGB values in diabetics 230 with blue and not diabetics 200 with red.

  2. Use of electrochemical sensors for measurement of air pollution: correcting interference response and validating measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Cross

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The environments in which we live, work, and play are subject to enormous variability in air pollutant concentrations. To adequately characterize air quality (AQ, measurements must be fast (real time, scalable, and reliable (with known accuracy, precision, and stability over time. Lower-cost air-quality-sensor technologies offer new opportunities for fast and distributed measurements, but a persistent characterization gap remains when it comes to evaluating sensor performance under realistic environmental sampling conditions. This limits our ability to inform the public about pollution sources and inspire policy makers to address environmental justice issues related to air quality. In this paper, initial results obtained with a recently developed lower-cost air-quality-sensor system are reported. In this project, data were acquired with the ARISense integrated sensor package over a 4.5-month time interval during which the sensor system was co-located with a state-operated (Massachusetts, USA air quality monitoring station equipped with reference instrumentation measuring the same pollutant species. This paper focuses on validating electrochemical (EC sensor measurements of CO, NO, NO2, and O3 at an urban neighborhood site with pollutant concentration ranges (parts per billion by volume, ppb; 5 min averages, ±1σ: [CO]  =  231 ± 116 ppb (spanning 84–1706 ppb, [NO]  =  6.1 ± 11.5 ppb (spanning 0–209 ppb, [NO2]  =  11.7 ± 8.3 ppb (spanning 0–71 ppb, and [O3]  =  23.2 ± 12.5 ppb (spanning 0–99 ppb. Through the use of high-dimensional model representation (HDMR, we show that interference effects derived from the variable ambient gas concentration mix and changing environmental conditions over three seasons (sensor flow-cell temperature  =  23.4 ± 8.5 °C, spanning 4.1 to 45.2 °C; and relative humidity  =  50.1 ± 15.3 %, spanning 9.8–79.9

  3. Validity of parent-reported weight and height of preschool children measured at home or estimated without home measurement: a validation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cox Bianca

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parental reports are often used in large-scale surveys to assess children's body mass index (BMI. Therefore, it is important to know to what extent these parental reports are valid and whether it makes a difference if the parents measured their children's weight and height at home or whether they simply estimated these values. The aim of this study is to compare the validity of parent-reported height, weight and BMI values of preschool children (3-7 y-old, when measured at home or estimated by parents without actual measurement. Methods The subjects were 297 Belgian preschool children (52.9% male. Participation rate was 73%. A questionnaire including questions about height and weight of the children was completed by the parents. Nurses measured height and weight following standardised procedures. International age- and sex-specific BMI cut-off values were employed to determine categories of weight status and obesity. Results On the group level, no important differences in accuracy of reported height, weight and BMI were identified between parent-measured or estimated values. However, for all 3 parameters, the correlations between parental reports and nurse measurements were higher in the group of children whose body dimensions were measured by the parents. Sensitivity for underweight and overweight/obesity were respectively 73% and 47% when parents measured their child's height and weight, and 55% and 47% when parents estimated values without measurement. Specificity for underweight and overweight/obesity were respectively 82% and 97% when parents measured the children, and 75% and 93% with parent estimations. Conclusions Diagnostic measures were more accurate when parents measured their child's weight and height at home than when those dimensions were based on parental judgements. When parent-reported data on an individual level is used, the accuracy could be improved by encouraging the parents to measure weight and height

  4. Spatially Resolved Two-Color Diffusion Measurements in Human Skin Applied to Transdermal Liposome Penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brewer, Jonathan; Bloksgaard, Maria; Kubiak, Jakub

    2013-01-01

    A multiphoton excitation-based fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy method, Raster image correlation spectroscopy (RICS), was used to measure the local diffusion coefficients of distinct model fluorescent substances in excised human skin. In combination with structural information obtained by mu......; doi:10.1038/jid.2012.461....

  5. Measuring Nutrition Literacy in Spanish-Speaking Latinos: An Exploratory Validation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Heather D; Camargo, Juliana M T B; Owens, Sarah; Gajewski, Byron; Cupertino, Ana Paula

    2017-11-21

    Nutrition is important for preventing and treating chronic diseases highly prevalent among Latinos, yet no tool exists for measuring nutrition literacy among Spanish speakers. This study aimed to adapt the validated Nutrition Literacy Assessment Instrument for Spanish-speaking Latinos. This study was developed in two phases: adaptation and validity testing. Adaptation included translation, expert item content review, and interviews with Spanish speakers. For validity testing, 51 participants completed the Short Assessment of Health Literacy-Spanish (SAHL-S), the Nutrition Literacy Assessment Instrument in Spanish (NLit-S), and socio-demographic questionnaire. Validity and reliability statistics were analyzed. Content validity was confirmed with a Scale Content Validity Index of 0.96. Validity testing demonstrated NLit-S scores were strongly correlated with SAHL-S scores (r = 0.52, p internal consistency was excellent (Cronbach's α = 0.92). The NLit-S demonstrates validity and reliability for measuring nutrition literacy among Spanish-speakers.

  6. Feasibility and validity of accelerometer measurements to assess physical activity in toddlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Bourdeaudhuij Ilse

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accelerometers are considered to be the most promising tool for measuring physical activity (PA in free-living young children. So far, no studies have examined the feasibility and validity of accelerometer measurements in children under 3 years of age. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to examine the feasibility and validity of accelerometer measurements in toddlers (1- to 3-year olds. Methods Forty-seven toddlers (25 boys; 20 ± 4 months wore a GT1M ActiGraph accelerometer for 6 consecutive days and parental perceptions of the acceptability of wearing the monitor were assessed to examine feasibility. To investigate the validity of the ActiGraph and the predictive validity of three ActiGraph cut points, accelerometer measurements of 31 toddlers (17 boys; 20 ± 4 months during free play at child care were compared to directly observed PA, using the Observational System for Recording Physical Activity in Children-Preschool (OSRAC-P. Validity was assessed using Pearson and Spearman correlations and predictive validity using area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve (ROC-AUC. Results The feasibility examination indicated that accelerometer measurements of 30 toddlers (63.8% could be included with a mean registration time of 564 ± 62 min during weekdays and 595 ± 83 min during weekend days. According to the parental reports, 83% perceived wearing the accelerometer as 'not unpleasant and not pleasant' and none as 'unpleasant'. The validity evaluation showed that mean ActiGraph activity counts were significantly and positively associated with mean OSRAC-P activity intensity (r = 0.66; p Conclusions The present findings suggest that ActiGraph accelerometer measurements are feasible and valid for quantifying PA in toddlers. However, further research is needed to accurately identify PA intensities in toddlers using accelerometry.

  7. Polarimetric, Two-Color, Photon-Counting Laser Altimeter Measurements of Forest Canopy Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, David J.; Dabney, Philip W.; Valett, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Laser altimeter measurements of forest stands with distinct structures and compositions have been acquired at 532 nm (green) and 1064 nm (near-infrared) wavelengths and parallel and perpendicular polarization states using the Slope Imaging Multi-polarization Photon Counting Lidar (SIMPL). The micropulse, single photon ranging measurement approach employed by SIMPL provides canopy structure measurements with high vertical and spatial resolution. Using a height distribution analysis method adapted from conventional, 1064 nm, full-waveform lidar remote sensing, the sensitivity of two parameters commonly used for above-ground biomass estimation are compared as a function of wavelength. The results for the height of median energy (HOME) and canopy cover are for the most part very similar, indicating biomass estimations using lidars operating at green and near-infrared wavelengths will yield comparable estimates. The expected detection of increasing depolarization with depth into the canopies due to volume multiple-scattering was not observed, possibly due to the small laser footprint and the small detector field of view used in the SIMPL instrument. The results of this work provide pathfinder information for NASA's ICESat-2 mission that will employ a 532 nm, micropulse, photon counting laser altimeter.

  8. [Changes of renal blood flow during organ-associated foot reflexology measured by color Doppler sonography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudmeier, I; Bodner, G; Egger, I; Mur, E; Ulmer, H; Herold, M

    1999-06-01

    Using colour Doppler sonography blood flow changes of the right kidney during foot reflexology were determined in a placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomised study. 32 healthy young adults (17 women, 15 men) were randomly assigned to the verum or placebo group. The verum group received foot reflexology at zones corresponding to the right kidney, the placebo group was treated on other foot zones. Before, during and after foot reflexology the blood flow of three vessels of the right kidney was measured using colour Doppler sonography. Systolic peak velocity and end diastolic peak velocity were measured in cm/s, and the resistive index, a parameter of the vascular resistance, was calculated. The resistive index in the verum group showed a highly significant decrease (p foot reflexology. There was no difference between men and women and no difference between smokers and non-smokers. Verum and placebo group significantly differed concerning alterations of the resistive index both between the measuring points before versus during foot reflexology (p = 0.002) and those during versus after foot reflexology (p = 0.031). The significant decrease of the resistive index during foot reflexology in the verum group indicates a decrease of flow resistance in renal vessels and an increase of renal blood flow. These findings support the hypothesis that organ-associated foot reflexology is effective in changing renal blood flow during therapy.

  9. The Myotonometer: Not a Valid Measurement Tool for Active Hamstring Musculotendinous Stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamukoff, Derek N; Bell, Sarah E; Ryan, Eric D; Blackburn, J Troy

    2016-05-01

    Hamstring musculotendinous stiffness (MTS) is associated with lower-extremity injury risk (ie, hamstring strain, anterior cruciate ligament injury) and is commonly assessed using the damped oscillatory technique. However, despite a preponderance of studies that measure MTS reliably in laboratory settings, there are no valid clinical measurement tools. A valid clinical measurement technique is needed to assess MTS and permit identification of individuals at heightened risk of injury and track rehabilitation progress. To determine the validity and reliability of the Myotonometer for measuring active hamstring MTS. Descriptive laboratory study. Laboratory. 33 healthy participants (15 men, age 21.33 ± 2.94 y, height 172.03 ± 16.36 cm, mass 74.21 ± 16.36 kg). Hamstring MTS was assessed using the damped oscillatory technique and the Myotonometer. Intraclass correlations were used to determine the intrasession, intersession, and interrater reliability of the Myotonometer. Criterion validity was assessed via Pearson product-moment correlation between MTS measures obtained from the Myotonometer and from the damped oscillatory technique. The Myotonometer demonstrated good intrasession (ICC3,1 = .807) and interrater reliability (ICC2,k = .830) and moderate intersession reliability (ICC2,k = .693). However, it did not provide a valid measurement of MTS compared with the damped oscillatory technique (r = .346, P = .061). The Myotonometer does not provide a valid measure of active hamstring MTS. Although the Myotonometer does not measure active MTS, it possesses good reliability and portability and could be used clinically to measure tissue compliance, muscle tone, or spasticity associated with multiple musculoskeletal disorders. Future research should focus on portable and clinically applicable tools to measure active hamstring MTS in efforts to prevent and monitor injuries.

  10. Review and evaluation of performance measures for survival prediction models in external validation settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shafiqur Rahman

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When developing a prediction model for survival data it is essential to validate its performance in external validation settings using appropriate performance measures. Although a number of such measures have been proposed, there is only limited guidance regarding their use in the context of model validation. This paper reviewed and evaluated a wide range of performance measures to provide some guidelines for their use in practice. Methods An extensive simulation study based on two clinical datasets was conducted to investigate the performance of the measures in external validation settings. Measures were selected from categories that assess the overall performance, discrimination and calibration of a survival prediction model. Some of these have been modified to allow their use with validation data, and a case study is provided to describe how these measures can be estimated in practice. The measures were evaluated with respect to their robustness to censoring and ease of interpretation. All measures are implemented, or are straightforward to implement, in statistical software. Results Most of the performance measures were reasonably robust to moderate levels of censoring. One exception was Harrell’s concordance measure which tended to increase as censoring increased. Conclusions We recommend that Uno’s concordance measure is used to quantify concordance when there are moderate levels of censoring. Alternatively, Gönen and Heller’s measure could be considered, especially if censoring is very high, but we suggest that the prediction model is re-calibrated first. We also recommend that Royston’s D is routinely reported to assess discrimination since it has an appealing interpretation. The calibration slope is useful for both internal and external validation settings and recommended to report routinely. Our recommendation would be to use any of the predictive accuracy measures and provide the corresponding predictive

  11. Color Algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Jeffrey B.

    2017-01-01

    A color algebra refers to a system for computing sums and products of colors, analogous to additive and subtractive color mixtures. The difficulty addressed here is the fact that, because of metamerism, we cannot know with certainty the spectrum that produced a particular color solely on the basis of sensory data. Knowledge of the spectrum is not required to compute additive mixture of colors, but is critical for subtractive (multiplicative) mixture. Therefore, we cannot predict with certainty the multiplicative interactions between colors based solely on sensory data. There are two potential applications of a color algebra: first, to aid modeling phenomena of human visual perception, such as color constancy and transparency; and, second, to provide better models of the interactions of lights and surfaces for computer graphics rendering.

  12. Ocean Color

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Satellite-derived Ocean Color Data sets from historical and currently operational NASA and International Satellite missions including the NASA Coastal Zone Color...

  13. Reliability and Validity of a Newly Developed Measure of Citizenship Among Persons with Mental Illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Maria J; Clayton, Ashley; Rowe, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Following development of a 46-item of measure citizenship, a framework for supporting the full membership in society of persons with mental illness, this study tested the measure's reliability and validity. 110 persons from a mental health center completed a questionnaire packet containing the citizenship measure and other measures to assess internal consistency and validity of the citizenship instrument. Correlation matrices were examined for associations between the citizenship instrument and other measures. Stepwise regression examines demographic factors, sense of community, and social capital as predictors of citizenship, recovery, and well-being. Analyses revealed that the measure is psychometrically sound. The measure captures subjective information about the degree to which individuals experience rights, sense of belonging, and other factors associated with community membership that have been previously difficult to assess. The measure establishes a platform for interventions to support the full participation in society of persons with mental illnesses.

  14. Solar Sail Models and Test Measurements Correspondence for Validation Requirements Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Anthony; Adams, Charles

    2004-01-01

    Solar sails are being developed as a mission-enabling technology in support of future NASA science missions. Current efforts have advanced solar sail technology sufficient to justify a flight validation program. A primary objective of this activity is to test and validate solar sail models that are currently under development so that they may be used with confidence in future science mission development (e.g., scalable to larger sails). Both system and model validation requirements must be defined early in the program to guide design cycles and to ensure that relevant and sufficient test data will be obtained to conduct model validation to the level required. A process of model identification, model input/output documentation, model sensitivity analyses, and test measurement correspondence is required so that decisions can be made to satisfy validation requirements within program constraints.

  15. Validation of a pediatric caregiver diary to measure symptoms of postacute respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santanello, Nancy C; Norquist, Josephine M; Nelsen, Linda M

    2005-01-01

    consistent, supporting a unidimensional scale structure. Test-retest reliabilities for the percentage of SFD and CSS were above the recommended cut point of 0.70. Cross-sectional and longitudinal correlations were sizeable and statistically significant, demonstrating construct validity. Hypothesized known......Acute respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-induced bronchiolitis is often associated with continuing respiratory symptoms following hospitalization. To date, there is no validated objective measure to evaluate symptoms of RSV-induced bronchiolitis. We report on the reliability, validity...... the 4-week treatment period of the reported prospective, placebo-controlled trial of montelukast for treatment of postacute RSV were used to assess reliability (internal consistency and test-retest), construct validity (cross-sectional and longitudinal correlations), discriminant validity (known...

  16. Color naming

    OpenAIRE

    Şahin, Ebru

    1998-01-01

    Ankara : Bilkent University, Department of Interior Architecture and Environmental Design and Institute of Fine Arts, 1998. Thesis (Ph.D) -- Bilkent University, 1998 Includes bibliographical refences. In this study, visual aspects of color and neurophysiological processes involved in the phenomenon, language of color and color models were explained in addition to the discussion of different ideas, orientations and previous works behind the subject of matter. Available color ...

  17. Colored Dissolved Organic Matter in Shallow Estuaries: The Effects of Source and Transport on Light Attenuation and Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oestreich, W. K.; Ganju, N. K.; Pohlman, J.; Suttles, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    Light is of great importance to the health and ecological function of shallow estuaries. Primary production in such estuaries, which is typically dominated by seagrass, is contingent upon light penetration to the deeper part of the estuarine water column. A major component contributing to light attenuation in these systems is colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM). CDOM is most often measured via a proxy, fluorescing dissolved organic matter (fDOM), due to the ease of taking rapid, accurate fDOM measurements. Fluorescence data can then be converted to absorbance by CDOM for use in light attenuation models. However, this fDOM-CDOM conversion has proven to be quite variable between estuaries, and even between sites along a given estuary. We displayed and attempted to explain this variability through the study of three diverse estuaries: West Falmouth Harbor (MA), Barnegat Bay (NJ), and Chincoteague Bay (MD/VA). Land use surrounding these estuaries ranges from wastewater treatment to agricultural operations and residential communities. Measurements of fDOM and absorbance by CDOM (quantified via spectrophotometer measurement of 0.2μm-filtered samples) were taken along a gradient from terrestrial to oceanic end-members. These measurements yielded highly variable fDOM-CDOM relationships between estuaries. The mean ratio of absorption coefficient at 340nm (m-1) to fDOM (QSU) was much higher in West Falmouth Harbor (0.874) than in Barnegat Bay (0.227) and Chincoteague Bay (0.173). This fDOM-CDOM relationship was also observed to be variable between sites within West Falmouth Harbor and Barnegat Bay, but consistent throughout sites along Chincoteague Bay. This variability, both within and between estuaries, is likely due to differing CDOM sources as a result of differences in land use in the areas surrounding these estuaries. Stable carbon isotope analysis of DOC from each site and hydrodynamic model results will be used to differentiate sources and further elucidate the

  18. Personalized 2D color maps

    KAUST Repository

    Waldin, Nicholas; Bernhard, Matthias; Rautek, Peter; Viola, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    . In this paper we present a novel method to measure a user's ability to distinguish colors of a two-dimensional color map on a given monitor. We show how to adapt the color map to the user and display to optimally compensate for the measured deficiencies

  19. Design, construction, and validation of a scale to measure cyberbullying in a work environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz N. Fernández-López

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to design, construct, and validate a scale to measure cyberbullying in a work environment. The design used was quantitative, not experimental, and transversal. The research method was based on the Reactive Response Theory. This research produced a validated scale with a sample of the work environment in Puerto Rico. Three analyses were performed: content validity, reliability analysis of the Cronbach alpha coefficient, and the divergent type construct validity. Based on the analysis of the results, the scale was deemed to be useful for the purpose it was designed. Building a scale that measures cyberbullying contributes to the design of new instruments and the revision of existing ones; furthermore, it may serve as the basis for future re- search related to the topic of cyberbullying.

  20. Validation of the actuator line/Navier Stokes technique using mexico measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Wen Zhong; Zhu, Wei Jun; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2010-01-01

    This paper concerns the contribution of DTU MEK in the international research collaboration project (MexNext) within the framework of IEA Annex 29 to validate aerodynamic models or CFD codes using the existing measurements made in the previous EU funded projectMEXICO (Model Experiments in Control......This paper concerns the contribution of DTU MEK in the international research collaboration project (MexNext) within the framework of IEA Annex 29 to validate aerodynamic models or CFD codes using the existing measurements made in the previous EU funded projectMEXICO (Model Experiments...... in Controlled Conditions). The Actuator Line/Navier Stokes (AL/NS) technique developed at DTU is validated against the detailed MEXICO measurements. The AL/NS computations without the DNW wind tunnel with speeds of 10m/s, 15m/s and 24m/s. Comparisons of blade loading between computations and measurements show...

  1. On the dimensionality of organizational justice: a construct validation of a measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colquitt, J A

    2001-06-01

    This study explores the dimensionality of organizational justice and provides evidence of construct validity for a new justice measure. Items for this measure were generated by strictly following the seminal works in the justice literature. The measure was then validated in 2 separate studies. Study 1 occurred in a university setting, and Study 2 occurred in a field setting using employees in an automobile parts manufacturing company. Confirmatory factor analyses supported a 4-factor structure to the measure, with distributive, procedural, interpersonal, and informational justice as distinct dimensions. This solution fit the data significantly better than a 2- or 3-factor solution using larger interactional or procedural dimensions. Structural equation modeling also demonstrated predictive validity for the justice dimensions on important outcomes, including leader evaluation, rule compliance, commitment, and helping behavior.

  2. Design and Implementation Content Validity Study: Development of an instrument for measuring Patient-Centered Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Zamanzadeh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: The importance of content validity in the instrument psychometric and its relevance with reliability, have made it an essential step in the instrument development. This article attempts to give an overview of the content validity process and to explain the complexity of this process by introducing an example. Methods: We carried out a methodological study conducted to examine the content validity of the patient-centered communication instrument through a two-step process (development and judgment. At the first step, domain determination, sampling (item generation and instrument formation and at the second step, content validity ratio, content validity index and modified kappa statistic was performed. Suggestions of expert panel and item impact scores are used to examine the instrument face validity. Results: From a set of 188 items, content validity process identified seven dimensions includes trust building (eight items, informational support (seven items, emotional support (five items, problem solving (seven items, patient activation (10 items, intimacy/friendship (six items and spirituality strengthening (14 items. Content validity study revealed that this instrument enjoys an appropriate level of content validity. The overall content validity index of the instrument using universal agreement approach was low; however, it can be advocated with respect to the high number of content experts that makes consensus difficult and high value of the S-CVI with the average approach, which was equal to 0.93. Conclusion: This article illustrates acceptable quantities indices for content validity a new instrument and outlines them during design and psychometrics of patient-centered communication measuring instrument.

  3. Validation of an instrument to measure quality of life in British children with inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, C A; Akobeng, A K; Abbott, J; Aggett, P; Sood, M R; Thomas, A G

    2011-09-01

    To validate IMPACT-III (UK), a health-related quality of life (HRQoL) instrument, in British children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). One hundred six children and parents were invited to participate. IMPACT-III (UK) was validated by inspection by health professionals and children to assess face and content validity, factor analysis to determine optimum domain structure, use of Cronbach alpha coefficients to test internal reliability, ANOVA to assess discriminant validity, correlation with the Child Health Questionnaire to assess concurrent validity, and use of intraclass correlation coefficients to assess test-retest reliability. The independent samples t test was used to measure differences between sexes and age groups, and between paper and computerised versions of IMPACT-III (UK). IMPACT-III (UK) had good face and content validity. The most robust factor solution was a 5-domain structure: body image, embarrassment, energy, IBD symptoms, and worries/concerns about IBD, all of which demonstrated good internal reliability (α = 0.74-0.88). Discriminant validity was demonstrated by significant (P  measure HRQoL in British children with IBD.

  4. Color and appearance metrology facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The NIST Physical Measurement Laboratory has established the color and appearance metrology facility to support calibration services for 0°/45° colored samples, 20°,...

  5. Model-based wear measurements in total knee arthroplasty : development and validation of novel radiographic techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJsseldijk, van E.A.

    2016-01-01

    The primary aim of this work was to develop novel model-based mJSW measurement methods using a 3D reconstruction and compare the accuracy and precision of these methods to conventional mJSW measurement. This thesis contributed to the development, validation and clinical application of model-based

  6. Reliability and Validity of Finger Strength and Endurance Measurements in Rock Climbing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michailov, Michail Lubomirov; Baláš, Jirí; Tanev, Stoyan Kolev; Andonov, Hristo Stoyanov; Kodejška, Jan; Brown, Lee

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: An advanced system for the assessment of climbing-specific performance was developed and used to: (a) investigate the effect of arm fixation (AF) on construct validity evidence and reliability of climbing-specific finger-strength measurement; (b) assess reliability of finger-strength and endurance measurements; and (c) evaluate the…

  7. Testing the Validity of the Uses and Gratifications Measures: Do They Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherer, Michael D.; Ervin, R. Ferrell

    Based on data gathered in a larger study of audience response to the debates held during the 1976 campaign for the presidency of the United States, a study examined the validity of uses and gratifications measures and explored how these measures were affected by differing levels of audience media activity. The data was drawn from telephone…

  8. Development and validation of a survey instrument to measure children's advertising literacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozendaal, E.; Opree, S.J.; Buijzen, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and validate a survey measurement instrument for children's advertising literacy. Based on the multidimensional conceptualization of advertising literacy by 0056"> Rozendaal, Lapierre, Van Reijmersdal, and Buijzen (2011), 39 items were created to measure two

  9. On the Validity of Working Memory Measures for Elementary School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morra, Sergio; Scopesi, Alda

    The literature on the measurement of working memory is discussed, with emphasis on the validity of such measurement with elementary school students. Approaches by J. Pascual-Leone, R. Case, A. D. Baddeley, and C. Hulme are considered. An experimental study is presented, in which 100 boys and 91 girls (aged from 6 years to 10 years 11 months) were…

  10. The validity of owner-reported property cost as a measure of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paucity of objective indicators of property values is pervasive in developing countries. This necessitates the use of proxy measures. However, there are huge gaps in knowledge on the validity of such measures. The main objective of the study reported here is to contribute to efforts aimed at closing these gaps. It does so ...

  11. Measuring Constructs in Family Science: How Can Item Response Theory Improve Precision and Validity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Rachel A.

    2015-01-01

    This article provides family scientists with an understanding of contemporary measurement perspectives and the ways in which item response theory (IRT) can be used to develop measures with desired evidence of precision and validity for research uses. The article offers a nontechnical introduction to some key features of IRT, including its…

  12. The Development, Validity, and Reliability of a Psychometric Instrument Measuring Competencies in Student Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriram, Rishi

    2014-01-01

    The study of competencies in student affairs began more than 4 decades ago, but no instrument currently exists to measure competencies broadly. This study builds upon previous research by developing an instrument to measure student affairs competencies. Results not only validate the competencies espoused by NASPA and ACPA, but also suggest adding…

  13. Validity and interobserver agreement of reagent strips for measurement of glucosuria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekhof, Jolita; Kollen, Boudewijn J.; Groot-Jebbink, Liesbeth J. M.; Deiman, Corrie; Van de Leur, Sjef J. C. M.; Van Straaten, Henrica L. M.

    Background. Measurement of glucosuria by means of a visually readable reagent test strip is frequently used in a wide variety of clinical settings. The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of this semi-quantitative measurement of glucosuria compared to laboratory

  14. Development of a youth-report measure of DPN symptoms: Conceptualization and content validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Moser

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions: This study is the first to generate a content valid self-report measure of youth’s lived experiences with DPN that uses developmentally appropriate terminology. With further psychometric testing, the measure could be used to advance research on pediatric DPN and enhance clinicians’ capacity to identify the condition in childhood.

  15. Connectedness among Taiwanese Middle School Students: A Validation Study of the Hemingway Measure of Adolescent Connectedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karcher, Michael J.; Lee, Yun

    2002-01-01

    Examines the psychometric properties of the Hemingway Measure of Adolescent Connectedness among 320 Taiwanese junior high school students. Finds that connectedness measure subscales and composite scales demonstrated acceptable reliability and concurrent validity. Also finds, among other things, that girls report more connectedness to school than…

  16. Development, validity and reliability of the food allergy independent measure (FAIM)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velde, J. L.; Flokstra-de Blok, B. M. J.; Vlieg-Boerstra, B. J.; Oude Elberink, J. N. G.; DunnGalvin, A.; Hourihane, J. O.'B.; Duiverman, E. J.; Dubois, A. E. J.

    2010-01-01

    The Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire-Child Form, -Teenager Form and -Adult Form (FAQLQ-CF, -TF and -AF) have recently been developed. To measure construct validity in the FAQLQs, a suitable independent measure was needed with which FAQLQ scores could be correlated. However, in food

  17. Development, validity and reliability of the food allergy independent measure (FAIM)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velde, J. L.; Flokstra-de Blok, B. M. J.; Vlieg - Boerstra, B. J.; Oude Elberink, J. N. G.; DunnGalvin, A.; Hourihane, J. O'B.; Duiverman, E. J.; Dubois, A. E. J.

    Background: The Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire-Child Form, -Teenager Form and -Adult Form (FAQLQ-CF, -TF and -AF) have recently been developed. To measure construct validity in the FAQLQs, a suitable independent measure was needed with which FAQLQ scores could be correlated. However, in

  18. Ultrasound as an Outcome Measure in Gout. A Validation Process by the OMERACT Ultrasound Working Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terslev, Lene; Gutierrez, Marwin; Schmidt, Wolfgang A

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To summarize the work performed by the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) Ultrasound (US) Working Group on the validation of US as a potential outcome measure in gout. METHODS: Based on the lack of definitions, highlighted in a recent literature review on US as an outcome tool...

  19. Validation of streamflow measurements made with M9 and RiverRay acoustic Doppler current profilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldt, Justin A.; Oberg, Kevin A.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Office of Surface Water (OSW) previously validated the use of Teledyne RD Instruments (TRDI) Rio Grande (in 2007), StreamPro (in 2006), and Broadband (in 1996) acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) for streamflow (discharge) measurements made by the USGS. Two new ADCPs, the SonTek M9 and the TRDI RiverRay, were first used in the USGS Water Mission Area programs in 2009. Since 2009, the OSW and USGS Water Science Centers (WSCs) have been conducting field measurements as part of their stream-gaging program using these ADCPs. The purpose of this paper is to document the results of USGS OSW analyses for validation of M9 and RiverRay ADCP streamflow measurements. The OSW required each participating WSC to make comparison measurements over the range of operating conditions in which the instruments were used until sufficient measurements were available. The performance of these ADCPs was evaluated for validation and to identify any present and potential problems. Statistical analyses of streamflow measurements indicate that measurements made with the SonTek M9 ADCP using firmware 2.00–3.00 or the TRDI RiverRay ADCP using firmware 44.12–44.15 are unbiased, and therefore, can continue to be used to make streamflow measurements in the USGS stream-gaging program. However, for the M9 ADCP, there are some important issues to be considered in making future measurements. Possible future work may include additional validation of streamflow measurements made with these instruments from other locations in the United States and measurement validation using updated firmware and software.

  20. Measurement of blood flow in the carotid arteries using color doppler in healthy Korean adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Ki Ho; Jeon, Do Ig; Choi, Chang Ho; Ro, Young Jin; Kim, Hak Jin; Lee, Suck Hong; Kim, Byung Soo

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the blood flow patterns and velocities of the carotid arteries in healthy Korean adults. We evaluated the blood flow patterns and measured the peak systolic and end-diastolic velocities of the common, internal and external carotid arteries in 48 healthy adults who did not have cardiovascular disorders and neck lesions. The velocity difference was analyzed according to different age groups. In addition, peak systolic and end-diastolic velocity ratio of the internal to common carotid artery was estimated, and our data were compared with values reported by other authors. Generally, the velocity in the younger age group tends be to higher than in older group. The peak systolic and end diastolic velocities of the internal carotid artery were 84.5 cm/sec and 30.5 cm/sec. The peak systolic and end diastolic velocity ratio of the internal to common carotid artery were 0.715 and 0.966. The internal carotid artery was less resistant in blood flow than the external carotid artery. Our data were lower than the values which were reported by Bluth et al. The blood flow velocities of the internal carotid artery in healthy adults were lower than those of previous reported foreign values, but the patterns were similar

  1. Two color interferometric electron density measurement in an axially blown arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoller, Patrick; Carstensen, Jan; Galletti, Bernardo; Doiron, Charles; Sokolov, Alexey; Salzmann, René; Simon, Sandor; Jabs, Philipp

    2016-09-01

    High voltage circuit breakers protect the power grid by interrupting the current in case of a short circuit. To do so an arc is ignited between two contacts as they separate; transonic gas flow is used to cool and ultimately extinguish the arc at a current-zero crossing of the alternating current. A detailed understanding of the arc interruption process is needed to improve circuit breaker design. The conductivity of the partially ionized gas remaining after the current-zero crossing, a key parameter in determining whether the arc will be interrupted or not, is a function of the electron density. The electron density, in turn, is a function of the detailed dynamics of the arc cooling process, which does not necessarily occur under local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) conditions. In this work, we measure the spatially resolved line-integrated index of refraction in a near-current-zero arc stabilized in an axial flow of synthetic air with two nanosecond pulsed lasers at wavelengths of 532 nm and 671 nm. Generating a stable, cylindrically symmetric arc enables us to determine the three-dimensional index of refraction distribution using Abel inversion. Due to the wavelength dependence of the component of the index of refraction related to the free electrons, the information at two different wavelengths can be used to determine the electron density. This information allows us to determine how important it is to take into account non-equilibrium effects for accurate modeling of the physics of decaying arcs.

  2. Determining Reliability and Validity of the Persian Version of Software Usability Measurements Inventory (SUMI) Questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    seyed abolfazl zakerian; Roya Azizi; Mehdi Rahgozar

    2013-01-01

    The term usability refers to a special index for success of an operating system. This study aimed to determine the reliability and validity of the Software Usability Measurements Inventory (SUMI) questionnaire as one of the valid and common questionnaires about usability evaluation. The back translation method was used to translate the questionnaire from English to Persian back to English. Moreover, repeatability or test-retest reliability was practically used to determine the reliability of ...

  3. Measuring color change of tooth enamel by in vitro remineralization of white spot lesion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betina Tolcachir

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective colour determination is based on calculating the colorimetric distance (ΔE within a colour space. So far, the most used colour space in dentistry is CIE L*a*b (Comission Internationale de l´Éclairage. CIE L*C*h* has been recently developed, showing a better correlation with the perception of the human eye. Objective: To determine the ability of an in vitro remineralisation substance to blend the colour of white spot lesions (WSL with sound enamel, determining ΔE by using the CIE L*C*h* colour space. Methods: In vitro WSL was generated by immersing 10 samples obtained from human third molars in a demineralization solution for 72h. Amorphous calcium phosphate stabilized by casein phosphopeptide (CPP-ACP was then applied for 60 days while maintaining the samples in artificial saliva at 37ºC. To evaluate the colour of enamel, images were taken from the samples placed in specifically designed silicone moulds after generating the WSL (pre-stage and after remineralisation by scanning, applying the colorimetric distance equation (ΔE*CMC according to the Colour Measurement Committee. Results: Treatment with CPP-ACP caused a significant ΔE decrease with respect to the pre-stage (p<0.001, while the analysis of parameters that make up the colour showed a reduction in the difference of hue (∆H (p<0.001 and brightness (∆L (p<0.01 after applying CPP-ACP. Discussion: CPP-ACP penetrated to the depth of the white spot lesion, making its appearance similar to that of the sound enamel, probably because of the formation of different mineral phases than that of the original structure, although pores were not completely filled.

  4. Reliability and validity of advanced theory-of-mind measures in middle childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Elizabeth O; Homer, Bruce D

    2017-09-01

    Although theory-of-mind (ToM) development is well documented for early childhood, there is increasing research investigating changes in ToM reasoning in middle childhood and adolescence. However, the psychometric properties of most advanced ToM measures for use with older children and adolescents have not been firmly established. We report on the reliability and validity of widely used, conventional measures of advanced ToM with this age group. Notable issues with both reliability and validity of several of the measures were evident in the findings. With regard to construct validity, results do not reveal a clear empirical commonality between tasks, and, after accounting for comprehension, developmental trends were evident in only one of the tasks investigated. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Second-order false belief tasks have acceptable internal consistency. The Eyes Test has poor internal consistency. Validity of advanced theory-of-mind tasks is often based on the ability to distinguish clinical from typical groups. What does this study add? This study examines internal consistency across six widely used advanced theory-of-mind tasks. It investigates validity of tasks based on comprehension of items by typically developing individuals. It further assesses construct validity, or commonality between tasks. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  5. Simultaneous two-phase flow measurement of spray mixing process by means of high-speed two-color PIV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Ming; Xu, Min; Hung, David L S

    2014-01-01

    In this article, a novel high-speed two-color PIV optical diagnostic technique has been developed and applied to simultaneously measure the velocity flow-fields of a multi-hole spark-ignition direct injection (SIDI) fuel injector spray and its ambient gas in a high-pressure constant volume chamber. To allow for the phase discrimination between the fuel droplets and ambient gas, a special tracer-filter system was designed. Fluorescent seeding particles with Sauter mean diameter (SMD) of 4.8 µm were used to trace the gas inside the chamber. With a single high-speed Nd:YLF laser sheet (527 nm) as the incident light source, the Mie-scattering signal marked the phase of the fuel spray, while the fluorescent signal generated from the seeding particles tracked the phase of ambient gas. A high-speed camera, with an image-doubler (mounted in front of the camera lens) that divided the camera pixels into two parts focusing on the same field of view, was used to collect the Mie-scattering signal and LIF (laser induced fluorescence) signal simultaneously with two carefully selected optical filters. To accommodate the large dynamic range of velocities in the two phases (1–2 orders of magnitude difference), two separation times (dt) were introduced. This technique was successfully applied to the liquid spray and ambient gas two-phase flow measurement. The measurement accuracy was compared with those from LDV (laser Doppler velocimetry) measurement and good agreement was obtained. Ambient gas motion surrounding the fuel spray was investigated and characterized into three zones. The momentum transfer process between the fuel spray and ambient gas in each zone was analyzed. The two-phase flow interaction under various superheated conditions was investigated. A strengthened momentum transfer from the liquid spray to the ambient was observed with increased superheat degree. (paper)

  6. Development and Validation of Measures of Secondary Science Teachers' PCK for Teaching Photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soonhye; Suh, Jeekyung; Seo, Kyungwoon

    2017-04-01

    This paper describes procedures by which two types of measures of Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) were developed and validated: (a) PCK Survey and (b) PCK Rubric. Given the topic-specificity of PCK, the measures centered on photosynthesis as taught in high school classrooms. The measures were conceptually grounded in the pentagon model of PCK and designed to measure indispensable PCK that can be applied to any teacher, in any teaching context, for the given topic. Because of the exploratory nature of the study, the measures focus on two key components of PCK: (a) knowledge of students' understanding in science and (b) knowledge of instructional strategies and representations. Both measures have established acceptable levels of reliability as determined by internal consistency and inter-rater agreement. Evidence related to content validity was gathered through expert consultations, while evidence related to construct validity was collected through analysis of think-aloud interviews and factor analyses. Issues and challenges emerging from the course of the measure development, administration, and validation are discussed with strategies for confronting them. Directions for future research are proposed in three areas: (a) relationships between PCK and teaching experiences, (b) differences in PCK between science teachers and scientists, and (c) relationships between PCK and student learning.

  7. Development and Validation of Measures of Secondary Science Teachers' PCK for Teaching Photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soonhye; Suh, Jeekyung; Seo, Kyungwoon

    2018-06-01

    This paper describes procedures by which two types of measures of Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) were developed and validated: (a) PCK Survey and (b) PCK Rubric. Given the topic-specificity of PCK, the measures centered on photosynthesis as taught in high school classrooms. The measures were conceptually grounded in the pentagon model of PCK and designed to measure indispensable PCK that can be applied to any teacher, in any teaching context, for the given topic. Because of the exploratory nature of the study, the measures focus on two key components of PCK: (a) knowledge of students' understanding in science and (b) knowledge of instructional strategies and representations. Both measures have established acceptable levels of reliability as determined by internal consistency and inter-rater agreement. Evidence related to content validity was gathered through expert consultations, while evidence related to construct validity was collected through analysis of think-aloud interviews and factor analyses. Issues and challenges emerging from the course of the measure development, administration, and validation are discussed with strategies for confronting them. Directions for future research are proposed in three areas: (a) relationships between PCK and teaching experiences, (b) differences in PCK between science teachers and scientists, and (c) relationships between PCK and student learning.

  8. Family-centred services in the Netherlands : validating a self-report measure for paediatric service providers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siebes, RC; Ketelaar, M; Wijnroks, L; van Schie, PE; Nijhuis, Bianca J G; Vermeer, A; Gorter, JW

    Objective: To validate the Dutch translation of the Canadian Measure of Processes of Care for Service Providers questionnaire (MPOC-SP) for use in paediatric rehabilitation settings in the Netherlands. Design: The construct validity, content validity, face validity, and reliability of the Dutch

  9. Color Terms and Color Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidoff, Jules

    2006-01-01

    In their lead articles, both Kowalski and Zimiles (2006) and O'Hanlon and Roberson (2006) declare a general relation between color term knowledge and the ability to conceptually represent color. Kowalski and Zimiles, in particular, argue for a priority for the conceptual representation in color term acquisition. The complexities of the interaction…

  10. Validity of plant fiber length measurement : a review of fiber length measurement based on kenaf as a model

    Science.gov (United States)

    James S. Han; Theodore. Mianowski; Yi-yu. Lin

    1999-01-01

    The efficacy of fiber length measurement techniques such as digitizing, the Kajaani procedure, and NIH Image are compared in order to determine the optimal tool. Kenaf bast fibers, aspen, and red pine fibers were collected from different anatomical parts, and the fiber lengths were compared using various analytical tools. A statistical analysis on the validity of the...

  11. Validity of a parent-report measure of vocabulary and grammar for Spanish-speaking toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thal, D; Jackson-Maldonado, D; Acosta, D

    2000-10-01

    The validity of the Fundación MacArthur Inventario del Desarrollo de Habilidades Comunicativas: Palabras y Enunciados (IDHC:PE) was examined with twenty 20- and nineteen 28-month-old, typically developing, monolingual, Spanish-speaking children living in Mexico. One measure of vocabulary (number of words) and two measures of grammar (mean of the three longest utterances and grammatical complexity score) from the IDHC:PE were compared to behavioral measures of vocabulary (number of different words from a language sample and number of objects named in a confrontation naming task) and one behavioral measure of grammar (mean length of utterance from a language sample). Only vocabulary measures were assessed in the 20-month-olds because of floor effects on the grammar measures. Results indicated validity for assessing expressive vocabulary in 20-month-olds and expressive vocabulary and grammar in 28-month-olds.

  12. Non-destructive measurements of nuclear wastes. Validation and industrial operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saas, A.; Tchemitciieff, E.

    1993-01-01

    After a short survey of the means employed for the non-destructive measurement of specific activities (γ and X-ray) in waste packages and raw waste, the performances of the device and the ANDRA requirements are presented. The validation of the γ and X-ray measurements on packages is obtained through determining, by destructive means, the same activity on coring samples. The same procedure is used for validating the homogeneity measurements on packages (either homogeneous or heterogeneous). Different operating experiences are then exposed for several kinds of packages and waste. Up to now, about twenty different types of packages have been examined and more than 200 packages have allowed the calibration, validation, and control

  13. Validating Machine Learning Algorithms for Twitter Data Against Established Measures of Suicidality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, Scott R; Giraud-Carrier, Christophe; West, Josh; Barnes, Michael D; Hanson, Carl Lee

    2016-05-16

    One of the leading causes of death in the United States (US) is suicide and new methods of assessment are needed to track its risk in real time. Our objective is to validate the use of machine learning algorithms for Twitter data against empirically validated measures of suicidality in the US population. Using a machine learning algorithm, the Twitter feeds of 135 Mechanical Turk (MTurk) participants were compared with validated, self-report measures of suicide risk. Our findings show that people who are at high suicidal risk can be easily differentiated from those who are not by machine learning algorithms, which accurately identify the clinically significant suicidal rate in 92% of cases (sensitivity: 53%, specificity: 97%, positive predictive value: 75%, negative predictive value: 93%). Machine learning algorithms are efficient in differentiating people who are at a suicidal risk from those who are not. Evidence for suicidality can be measured in nonclinical populations using social media data.

  14. Validation of the high performance leadership competencies as measured by an assessment centre in-basket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. H. Spangenberg

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to validate Schroder’s High Performance Leadership Competencies (HPLCs, measured by a specially designed In-basket, against multiple criteria. These consisted of six measures of managerial success, representing managerial advancement and salary progress criteria, and a newly developed comprehensive measure of work unit performance, the Performance Index. An environmental dynamism and complexity questionnaire served as moderator variable. Results indicated disappointing predictive validity quotients for the HPLCs as measured by an In-basket, in contrast to satisfactory predictive and construct validity obtained in previous studies by means of a full assessment centre. The implications of the findings are discussed and suggestions are made for improving the validity of the In-basket. Opsomming Die doel van hierdie studie was die validering van Schroder se Hoëvlak Leierskapsbevoegdhede, gemeet deur ‘n spesiaal ontwerpte Posmandjie, teen veelvoudige kriteria. Dit behels ses metings van bestuursukses wat bestuursbevorderings- en salarisvorderingskriteria insluit, sowel as ‘n nuutontwikkelde, omvattende meting van werkeenheidsprestasie, die Prestasie indeks. ‘n Vraelys wat die dinamika en kompleksiteit van die omgewing meet, het as moderator veranderlike gedien. Resultate dui op teleurstellende geldigheidskwosiënte vir die Hoëvlak Leierskapsbevoegdhede soos gemeet deur ‘n posmandjie, in teenstelling met bevredigende voorspellings- en konstrukgeldigheid wat in vorige studies deur middel van ‘n volle takseersentrum verkry is. Die bevindinge word bespreek en voorstelle word gemaak om die geldigheidskwosiënte te verbeter.

  15. The bogus taste test: Validity as a measure of laboratory food intake

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Eric; Haynes, Ashleigh; Hardman, Charlotte A.; Kemps, Eva; Higgs, Suzanne; Jones, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Because overconsumption of food contributes to ill health, understanding what affects how much people eat is of importance. The ?bogus? taste test is a measure widely used in eating behaviour research to identify factors that may have a causal effect on food intake. However, there has been no examination of the validity of the bogus taste test as a measure of food intake. We conducted a participant level analysis of 31 published laboratory studies that used the taste test to measure food inta...

  16. Development and validation of the Treatment Related Impact Measure of Weight (TRIM-Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lessard Suzanne

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of prescription anti-obesity medication (AOM is becoming increasingly common as treatment options grow and become more accessible. However, AOM may not be without a wide range of potentially negative impacts on patient functioning and well being. The Treatment Related Impact Measure (TRIM-Weight is an obesity treatment-specific patient reported outcomes (PRO measure designed to assess the key impacts of prescription anti-obesity medication. This paper will present the validation findings for the TRIM-Weight. Methods The online validation battery survey was administered in four countries (the U.S., U.K., Australia, and Canada. Eligible subjects were over age eighteen, currently taking a prescription AOM and were currently or had been obese during their life. Validation analyses were conducted according to an a priori statistical analysis plan. Item level psychometric and conceptual criteria were used to refine and reduce the preliminary item pool and factor analysis to identify structural domains was performed. Reliability and validity testing was then performed and the minimally importance difference (MID explored. Results Two hundred and eight subjects completed the survey. Twenty-one of the 43 items were dropped and a five-factor structure was achieved: Daily Life, Weight Management, Treatment Burden, Experience of Side Effects, and Psychological Health. A-priori criteria for internal consistency and test-retest coefficients for the total score and all five subscales were met. All pre-specified hypotheses for convergent and known group validity were also met with the exception of the domain of Daily Life (proven in an ad hoc analysis as well as the 1/2 standard deviation threshold for the MID. Conclusion The development and validation of the TRIM-Weight has been conducted according to well-defined principles for the creation of a PRO measure. Based on the evidence to date, the TRIM-Weight can be considered a brief

  17. Validation of a Measure of Family Resilience among Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, Erin P; Pugh, Mary Jo; Palmer, Raymond F

    2016-01-01

    Although interactions within veterans' families may support or inhibit resilient coping to stress and trauma across the deployment cycle, research on family resilience has been hampered by the lack of a brief assessment. Using a three-stage mixed-method study, we developed and conducted preliminary validation of a measure of family resilience tailored for Iraq and Afghanistan veterans (IAV), the Family Resilience Scale for Veterans (FRS-V) , which was field-tested using a survey of 151 IAV. Our findings indicate the resulting 6-item measure shows strong initial reliability and validity and support the application of existing models of family resilience in this population.

  18. A pilot study to validate measures of the theory of reasoned action for organ donation behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Shui Hung; Chow, Amy Yin Man

    2018-04-01

    The present study aimed at taking the first attempt in validating the measures generated based on the theory of reasoned action (TRA). A total of 211 university students participated in the study, 95 were included in the exploratory factor analysis and 116 were included in the confirmatory factor analysis. The TRA measurements were established with adequate psychometric properties, internal consistency, and construct validity. Findings also suggested that attitude toward organ donation has both a cognitive and affective nature, while the subjective norm of the family seems to be important to students' views on organ donation.

  19. Design, validation, and reliability of survey to measure female athlete triad knowledge among coaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jillian E. Frideres

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to design and to test the validity and reliability of an instrument to evaluate coaches' knowledge about the female athlete triad syndrome and their confidence in this knowledge. The instrument collects information regarding: knowledge of the syndrome, components, prevention and intervention; confidence of the coaches in their answers; and coach's characteristics (gender, degree held, years of experience in coaching females, continuing education participation specific to the syndrome and its components, and sport coached. The process of designing the questionnaire and testing the validity and reliability of it was done in four phases: a design and development of the instrument, b content validity, c instrument reliability, and d concurrent validity. The results show that the instrument is suitable for measuring coaches' female athlete triad knowledge. The instrument can contribute to assessing the coaches' knowledge level in relation to this topic.

  20. Performance Validity Testing in Neuropsychology: Methods for Measurement Development and Maximizing Diagnostic Accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodushek, Thomas R; Greher, Michael R

    2017-05-01

    In the first column in this 2-part series, Performance Validity Testing in Neuropsychology: Scientific Basis and Clinical Application-A Brief Review, the authors introduced performance validity tests (PVTs) and their function, provided a justification for why they are necessary, traced their ongoing endorsement by neuropsychological organizations, and described how they are used and interpreted by ever increasing numbers of clinical neuropsychologists. To enhance readers' understanding of these measures, this second column briefly describes common detection strategies used in PVTs as well as the typical methods used to validate new PVTs and determine cut scores for valid/invalid determinations. We provide a discussion of the latest research demonstrating how neuropsychologists can combine multiple PVTs in a single battery to improve sensitivity/specificity to invalid responding. Finally, we discuss future directions for the research and application of PVTs.

  1. Attitudes Toward Transgender Men and Women: Development and Validation of a New Measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J Billard

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A series of three studies were conducted to generate, develop, and validate the Attitudes toward Transgender Men and Women (ATTMW scale. In Study 1, 120 American adults responded to an open-ended questionnaire probing various dimensions of their perceptions of transgender individuals and identity. Qualitative thematic analysis generated 200 items based on their responses. In Study 2, 238 American adults completed a questionnaire consisting of the generated items. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA revealed two non-identical 12-item subscales (ATTM and ATTW of the full 24-item scale. In Study 3, 150 undergraduate students completed a survey containing the ATTMW and a number of validity-testing variables. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA verified the single-factor structures of the ATTM and ATTW subscales, and the convergent, discriminant, predictive, and concurrent validities of the ATTMW were also established. Together, our results demonstrate that the ATTMW is a reliable and valid measure of attitudes toward transgender individuals.

  2. Processing of Color Words Activates Color Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Tobias; Zwaan, Rolf A.

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate whether color representations are routinely activated when color words are processed. Congruency effects of colors and color words were observed in both directions. Lexical decisions on color words were faster when preceding colors matched the color named by the word. Color-discrimination responses…

  3. The validity and reliability of the Functional Strength Measurement (FSM) in children with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aertssen, W F M; Steenbergen, B; Smits-Engelsman, B C M

    2018-06-07

    There is lack of valid and reliable field-based tests for assessing functional strength in young children with mild intellectual disabilities (IDs). The aim of this study was to investigate the test-retest reliability and construct validity of the Functional Strength Measurement in children with ID (FSM-ID). Fifty-two children with mild ID (40 boys and 12 girls, mean age 8.48 years, SD = 1.48) were tested with the FSM. Test-retest reliability (n = 32) was examined by a two-way interclass correlation coefficient for agreement (ICC 2.1A). Standard error of measurement and smallest detectable change were calculated. Construct validity was determined by calculating correlations between the FSM-ID and handheld dynamometry (HHD) (convergent validity), FSM-ID, FSM-ID and subtest strength of the Bruininks-Oseretsky test of motor proficiency - second edition (BOT-2) (convergent validity) and the FSM-ID and balance subtest of the BOT-2 (discriminant validity). Test-retest reliability ICC ranged 0.89-0.98. Correlation between the items of the FSM-ID and HHD ranged 0.39-0.79 and between FSM-ID and BOT-2 (strength items) 0.41-0.80. Correlation between items of the FSM-ID and BOT-2 (balance items) ranged 0.41-0.70. The FSM-ID showed good test-retest reliability and good convergent validity with the HHD and BOT-2 subtest strength. The correlations assessing discriminant validity were higher than expected. Poor levels of postural control and core stability in children with mild IDs may be the underlying factor of those higher correlations. © 2018 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Influence of Light Conditions and Light Sources on Clinical Measurement of Natural Teeth Color using VITA Easyshade Advance 4,0® Spectrophotometer. Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posavec, Ivona; Prpić, Vladimir; Zlatarić, Dubravka Knezović

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare lightness (L), chroma (C) and hue (h), green-red (a) and blue-yellow (b) character of the color of maxillary right central incisors in different light conditions and light sources. Two examiners who were well trained in digital color evaluation participated in the research. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were used to analyze intra- and interobserver reliability. The LCh and L*a*b* values were determined at 08.15 and at 10.00 in the morning under three different light conditions. Tooth color was assessed in 10 subjects using intraoral spectrophotometer VITA Easyshade Advance 4.0 ® set at the central region of the vestibular surface of the measured tooth. Intra- and interobserver ICC values were high for both examiners and ranged from 0.57 to 0.99. Statistically significant differences in LCh and L*a*b* values measured in different time of the day and certain light condition were not found (p>0.05). Statistically significant differences in LCh and L*a*b* values measured under three different light conditions were not found, too (p>0.05). VITA Easyshade Advance 4.0 ® is reliable enough for daily clinical work in order to assess tooth color during the fabrication of esthtic appliances because it is not dependent on light conditions and light sources.

  5. Ovarian and cervical cancer awareness: development of two validated measurement tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Alice E; Wardle, Jane; Grimmett, Chloe; Power, Emily; Corker, Elizabeth; Menon, Usha; Matheson, Lauren; Waller, Jo

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the study was to develop and validate measures of awareness of symptoms and risk factors for ovarian and cervical cancer (Ovarian and Cervical Cancer Awareness Measures). Potentially relevant items were extracted from the literature and generated by experts. Four validation studies were carried out to establish reliability and validity. Women aged 21-67 years (n=146) and ovarian and cervical cancer experts (n=32) were included in the studies. Internal reliability was assessed psychometrically. Test-retest reliability was assessed over a 1-week interval. To establish construct validity, Cancer Awareness Measure (CAM) scores of cancer experts were compared with equally well-educated comparison groups. Sensitivity to change was tested by randomly assigning participants to read either a leaflet giving information about ovarian/cervical cancer or a leaflet with control information, and then completing the ovarian/cervical CAM. Internal reliability (Cronbach's α=0.88 for the ovarian CAM and α=0.84 for the cervical CAM) and test-retest reliability (r=0.84 and r=0.77 for the ovarian and cervical CAMs, respectively) were both high. Validity was demonstrated with cancer experts achieving higher scores than controls [ovarian CAM: t(36)= -5.6, pcancer leaflet scored higher than those who received a control leaflet [ovarian CAM: t(49)=7.5, pcancer awareness in the general population.

  6. Measuring patient activation in The Netherlands: translation and validation of the American short form Patient Activation Measure (PAM13).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rademakers, Jany; Nijman, Jessica; van der Hoek, Lucas; Heijmans, Monique; Rijken, Mieke

    2012-07-31

    The American short form Patient Activation Measure (PAM) is a 13-item instrument which assesses patient (or consumer) self-reported knowledge, skills and confidence for self-management of one's health or chronic condition. In this study the PAM was translated into a Dutch version; psychometric properties of the Dutch version were established and the instrument was validated in a panel of chronically ill patients. The translation was done according to WHO guidelines. The PAM 13-Dutch was sent to 4178 members of the Dutch National Panel of people with Chronic illness or Disability (NPCD) in April 2010 (study A) and again to a sub sample of this group (N = 973) in June 2010 (study B). Internal consistency, test-retest reliability and cross-validation with the SBSQ-D (a measure for Health literacy) were computed. The Dutch results were compared to similar Danish and American data. The psychometric properties of the PAM 13-Dutch were generally good. The level of internal consistency is good (α = 0.88) and item-rest correlations are moderate to strong. The Dutch mean PAM score (61.3) is comparable to the American (61.9) and lower than the Danish (64.2). The test-retest reliability was moderate. The association with Health literacy was weak to moderate. The PAM-13 Dutch is a reliable instrument to measure patient activation. More research is needed into the validity of the Patient Activation Measure, especially with respect to a more comprehensive measure of Health literacy.

  7. A Prospective Validation Study of a Rainbow Model of Integrated Care Measurement Tool in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurjono, Milawaty; Valentijn, Pim P; Bautista, Mary Ann C; Wei, Lim Yee; Vrijhoef, Hubertus Johannes Maria

    2016-04-08

    The conceptual ambiguity of the integrated care concept precludes a full understanding of what constitutes a well-integrated health system, posing a significant challenge in measuring the level of integrated care. Most available measures have been developed from a disease-specific perspective and only measure certain aspects of integrated care. Based on the Rainbow Model of Integrated Care, which provides a detailed description of the complex concept of integrated care, a measurement tool has been developed to assess integrated care within a care system as a whole gathered from healthcare providers' and managerial perspectives. This paper describes the methodology of a study seeking to validate the Rainbow Model of Integrated Care measurement tool within and across the Singapore Regional Health System. The Singapore Regional Health System is a recent national strategy developed to provide a better-integrated health system to deliver seamless and person-focused care to patients through a network of providers within a specified geographical region. The validation process includes the assessment of the content of the measure and its psychometric properties. If the measure is deemed to be valid, the study will provide the first opportunity to measure integrated care within Singapore Regional Health System with the results allowing insights in making recommendations for improving the Regional Health System and supporting international comparison.

  8. Development And Validation Of An Organisational Justice Measurement Instrument For A South African Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ophillia Ledimo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Measuring organisational justice in a South African context is a concern as the concept is multi-dimensional and there is no comprehensive definition; therefore, an integrative and well-developed measure of organisational justice can advance the measurement and analysis of this concept. This study investigates the development and validity of an organisational justice measuring instrument (OJMI, and determines the relationships between the different dimensions of the concept organisational justice. Data was gathered from 289 participants, employed in a public service organisation. To analyse the data the descriptive and inferential statistics used are Cronbach alpha coefficient, means, the explanatory factor analysis (EFA and the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA. It was found that the model fitted the data well and the measurement of each dimension, namely strategic direction; distributive, procedural, interactional, informational, diversity management; customer relations; service delivery innovation as well as ethical leadership and management justice were confirmed to be statistically significant and positive. These results indicate that OJMI is a reliable and valid measure that organisations need in order to measure perceptions of fairness, and to monitor trends of fair practices. The validated measuring instrument for organisational justice and the conducted analysis of the interrelationships between the different dimensions of the concept will enable organisations to initiate proactive and reactive interventions to facilitate justice and fair practices.

  9. The reward probability index: design and validation of a scale measuring access to environmental reward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, John P; Gawrysiak, Michael J; Hellmuth, Julianne C; McNulty, James K; Magidson, Jessica F; Lejuez, C W; Hopko, Derek R

    2011-06-01

    Behavioral models of depression implicate decreased response-contingent positive reinforcement (RCPR) as critical toward the development and maintenance of depression (Lewinsohn, 1974). Given the absence of a psychometrically sound self-report measure of RCPR, the Reward Probability Index (RPI) was developed to measure access to environmental reward and to approximate actual RCPR. In Study 1 (n=269), exploratory factor analysis supported a 20-item two-factor model (Reward Probability, Environmental Suppressors) with strong internal consistency (α=.90). In Study 2 (n=281), confirmatory factor analysis supported this two-factor structure and convergent validity was established through strong correlations between the RPI and measures of activity, avoidance, reinforcement, and depression (r=.65 to .81). Discriminant validity was supported via smaller correlations between the RPI and measures of social support and somatic anxiety (r=-.29 to -.40). Two-week test-retest reliability was strong (r=.69). In Study 3 (n=33), controlling for depression symptoms, hierarchical regression supported the incremental validity of the RPI in predicting daily diary reports of environmental reward. The RPI represents a parsimonious, reliable, and valid measure that may facilitate understanding of the etiology of depression and its relationship to overt behaviors. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. What are validated self-report adherence scales really measuring?: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thi-My-Uyen; La Caze, Adam; Cottrell, Neil

    2014-03-01

    Medication non-adherence is a significant health problem. There are numerous methods for measuring adherence, but no single method performs well on all criteria. The purpose of this systematic review is to (i) identify self-report medication adherence scales that have been correlated with comparison measures of medication-taking behaviour, (ii) assess how these scales measure adherence and (iii) explore how these adherence scales have been validated. Cinahl and PubMed databases were used to search articles written in English on the development or validation of medication adherence scales dating to August 2012. The search terms used were medication adherence, medication non-adherence, medication compliance and names of each scale. Data such as barriers identified and validation comparison measures were extracted and compared. Sixty articles were included in the review, which consisted of 43 adherence scales. Adherence scales include items that either elicit information regarding the patient's medication-taking behaviour and/or attempts to identify barriers to good medication-taking behaviour or beliefs associated with adherence. The validation strategies employed depended on whether the focus of the scale was to measure medication-taking behaviour or identify barriers or beliefs. Supporting patients to be adherent requires information on their medication-taking behaviour, barriers to adherence and beliefs about medicines. Adherence scales have the potential to explore these aspects of adherence, but currently there has been a greater focus on measuring medication-taking behaviour. Selecting the 'right' adherence scale(s) requires consideration of what needs to be measured and how (and in whom) the scale has been validated. © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.

  11. Enhancing rigour in the validation of patient reported outcome measures (PROMs: bridging linguistic and psychometric testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts Gwerfyl

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A strong consensus exists for a systematic approach to linguistic validation of patient reported outcome measures (PROMs and discrete methods for assessing their psychometric properties. Despite the need for robust evidence of the appropriateness of measures, transition from linguistic to psychometric validation is poorly documented or evidenced. This paper demonstrates the importance of linking linguistic and psychometric testing through a purposeful stage which bridges the gap between translation and large-scale validation. Findings Evidence is drawn from a study to develop a Welsh language version of the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II and investigate its psychometric properties. The BDI-II was translated into Welsh then administered to Welsh-speaking university students (n = 115 and patients with depression (n = 37 concurrent with the English BDI-II, and alongside other established depression and quality of life measures. A Welsh version of the BDI-II was produced that, on administration, showed conceptual equivalence with the original measure; high internal consistency reliability (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.90; 0.96; item homogeneity; adequate correlation with the English BDI-II (r = 0.96; 0.94 and additional measures; and a two-factor structure with one overriding dimension. Nevertheless, in the student sample, the Welsh version showed a significantly lower overall mean than the English (p = 0.002; and significant differences in six mean item scores. This prompted a review and refinement of the translated measure. Conclusions Exploring potential sources of bias in translated measures represents a critical step in the translation-validation process, which until now has been largely underutilised. This paper offers important findings that inform advanced methods of cross-cultural validation of PROMs.

  12. The development and validation of measures to assess cooking skills and food skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavelle, Fiona; McGowan, Laura; Hollywood, Lynsey; Surgenor, Dawn; McCloat, Amanda; Mooney, Elaine; Caraher, Martin; Raats, Monique; Dean, Moira

    2017-09-02

    With the increase use of convenience food and eating outside the home environment being linked to the obesity epidemic, the need to assess and monitor individuals cooking and food skills is key to help intervene where necessary to promote the usage of these skills. Therefore, this research aimed to develop and validate a measure for cooking skills and one for food skills, that are clearly described, relatable, user-friendly, suitable for different types of studies, and applicable across all sociodemographic levels. Two measures were developed in light of the literature and expert opinion and piloted for clarity and ease of use. Following this, four studies were undertaken across different cohorts (including a sample of students, both 'Food preparation novices' and 'Experienced food preparers', and a nationally representative sample) to assess temporal stability, psychometrics, internal consistency reliability and construct validity of both measures. Analysis included T-tests, Pearson's correlations, factor analysis, and Cronbach's alphas, with a significance level of 0.05. Both measures were found to have a significant level of temporal stability (P cooking skills confidence measure ranged from 0.78 to 0.93 across all cohorts. The food skills confidence measure's Cronbach's alpha's ranged from 0.85 to 0.94. The two measures also showed a high discriminate validity as there were significant differences (P cooking skills confidence and P cooking skills confidence measure and the food skills confidence measure have been shown to have a very satisfactory reliability, validity and are consistent over time. Their user-friendly applicability make both measures highly suitable for large scale cross-sectional, longitudinal and intervention studies to assess or monitor cooking and food skills levels and confidence.

  13. A Community Based Study to Test the Reliability and Validity of Physical Activity Measurement Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puneet Misra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Physical activity (PA is protective against non-communicable diseases and it can reduce premature mortality. However, it is difficult to assess the frequency, duration, type and intensity of PA. The global physical activity questionnaire (GPAQ has been developed by World Health Organization with the aim of having valid and reliable estimates of PA. The primary aim of this study is to assess the repeatability of the GPAQ instrument and the secondary aim is to validate it against International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ and against an objective measure of PA (i.e., using pedometers in both rural and peri-urban areas of North India. Methods: A total of 262 subjects were recruited by random selection from Ballabgarh Block of Haryana State in India. For test retest repeatability of GPAQ and IPAQ, the instruments were administered on two occasions separated by at least 3 days. For concurrent validity, both questionnaires were administered in random order and for criterion validity step counters were used. Spearman′s correlation coefficient, intra-class correlation (ICC and Cohen′s kappa was used in the analysis. Results: For GPAQ validity, the spearman′s Rho ranged from 0.40 to 0.59 and ICC ranged from 0.43 to 0.81 while for IPAQ validity, spearman correlation coefficient ranged from 0.42 to 0.43 and ICC ranged from 0.56 to 0.68. The observed concurrent validity coefficients suggested that both the questionnaires had reasonable agreement (Spearman Rho of >0.90; P < 0.0001; ICC: 0.76-0.91, P < 0.05. Conclusions: GPAQ is similar to IPAQ in measuring PA and can be used for measurement of PA in community settings.

  14. Colored operads

    CERN Document Server

    Yau, Donald

    2016-01-01

    The subject of this book is the theory of operads and colored operads, sometimes called symmetric multicategories. A (colored) operad is an abstract object which encodes operations with multiple inputs and one output and relations between such operations. The theory originated in the early 1970s in homotopy theory and quickly became very important in algebraic topology, algebra, algebraic geometry, and even theoretical physics (string theory). Topics covered include basic graph theory, basic category theory, colored operads, and algebras over colored operads. Free colored operads are discussed in complete detail and in full generality. The intended audience of this book includes students and researchers in mathematics and other sciences where operads and colored operads are used. The prerequisite for this book is minimal. Every major concept is thoroughly motivated. There are many graphical illustrations and about 150 exercises. This book can be used in a graduate course and for independent study.

  15. Preliminary Validation of a New Measure of Negative Response Bias: The Temporal Memory Sequence Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegedish, Omer; Kivilis, Naama; Hoofien, Dan

    2015-01-01

    The Temporal Memory Sequence Test (TMST) is a new measure of negative response bias (NRB) that was developed to enrich the forced-choice paradigm. The TMST does not resemble the common structure of forced-choice tests and is presented as a temporal recall memory test. The validation sample consisted of 81 participants: 21 healthy control participants, 20 coached simulators, and 40 patients with acquired brain injury (ABI). The TMST had high reliability and significantly high positive correlations with the Test of Memory Malingering and Word Memory Test effort scales. Moreover, the TMST effort scales exhibited high negative correlations with the Glasgow Coma Scale, thus validating the previously reported association between probable malingering and mild traumatic brain injury. A suggested cutoff score yielded acceptable classification rates in the ABI group as well as in the simulator and control groups. The TMST appears to be a promising measure of NRB detection, with respectable rates of reliability and construct and criterion validity.

  16. Development of a Duplex Ultrasound Simulator and Preliminary Validation of Velocity Measurements in Carotid Artery Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zierler, R Eugene; Leotta, Daniel F; Sansom, Kurt; Aliseda, Alberto; Anderson, Mark D; Sheehan, Florence H

    2016-07-01

    Duplex ultrasound scanning with B-mode imaging and both color Doppler and Doppler spectral waveforms is relied upon for diagnosis of vascular pathology and selection of patients for further evaluation and treatment. In most duplex ultrasound applications, classification of disease severity is based primarily on alterations in blood flow velocities, particularly the peak systolic velocity (PSV) obtained from Doppler spectral waveforms. We developed a duplex ultrasound simulator for training and assessment of scanning skills. Duplex ultrasound cases were prepared from 2-dimensional (2D) images of normal and stenotic carotid arteries by reconstructing the common carotid, internal carotid, and external carotid arteries in 3 dimensions and computationally simulating blood flow velocity fields within the lumen. The simulator displays a 2D B-mode image corresponding to transducer position on a mannequin, overlaid by color coding of velocity data. A spectral waveform is generated according to examiner-defined settings (depth and size of the Doppler sample volume, beam steering, Doppler beam angle, and pulse repetition frequency or scale). The accuracy of the simulator was assessed by comparing the PSV measured from the spectral waveforms with the true PSV which was derived from the computational flow model based on the size and location of the sample volume within the artery. Three expert examiners made a total of 36 carotid artery PSV measurements based on the simulated cases. The PSV measured by the examiners deviated from true PSV by 8% ± 5% (N = 36). The deviation in PSV did not differ significantly between artery segments, normal and stenotic arteries, or examiners. To our knowledge, this is the first simulation of duplex ultrasound that can create and display real-time color Doppler images and Doppler spectral waveforms. The results demonstrate that an examiner can measure PSV from the spectral waveforms using the settings on the simulator with a mean absolute error

  17. Color metallography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasson, Raymond.

    1976-06-01

    After a short introduction explaining the reasons why color metallography was adopted, the various operations involved in this technique are described in turn and illustrated by colored photomicrographs. The sample preparation (cutting, covering) and surface preparation (trimming, polishing, finishing) are described briefly. The operations specific to color metallography are then detailed: revelation of the structure of polished surfaces, dye impregnation techniques, optical systems used in macrography, in micrography, different light sources used in microscopy, photographic methods [fr

  18. Personalized 2D color maps

    KAUST Repository

    Waldin, Nicholas

    2016-06-24

    2D color maps are often used to visually encode complex data characteristics such as heat or height. The comprehension of color maps in visualization is affected by the display (e.g., a monitor) and the perceptual abilities of the viewer. In this paper we present a novel method to measure a user\\'s ability to distinguish colors of a two-dimensional color map on a given monitor. We show how to adapt the color map to the user and display to optimally compensate for the measured deficiencies. Furthermore, we improve user acceptance of the calibration procedure by transforming the calibration into a game. The user has to sort colors along a line in a 3D color space in a competitive fashion. The errors the user makes in sorting these lines are used to adapt the color map to his perceptual capabilities.

  19. Color constancy in Japanese animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichihara, Yasuyo G.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we measure the colors used in a Japanese Animations. The result can be seen on CIE-xy color spaces. It clearly shows that the color system is not a natural appearance system but an imagined and artistic appearance system. Color constancy of human vision can tell the difference in skin and hair colors between under moonlight and day light. Human brain generates a match to the memorized color of an object from daylight viewing conditions to the color of the object in different viewing conditions. For example, Japanese people always perceive the color of the Rising Sun in the Japanese flag as red even in a different viewing condition such as under moonlight. Color images captured by a camera cannot present those human perceptions. However, Japanese colorists in Animation succeeded in painting the effects of color constancy not only under moonlight but also added the memory matching colors. They aim to create a greater impact on viewer's perceptions by using the effect of the memory matching colors. In this paper, we propose the Imagined Japanese Animation Color System. This system in art is currently a subject of research in Japan. Its importance is that it could also provide an explanation on how human brain perceives the same color under different viewing conditions.

  20. Construct validity of adolescents' self-reported big five personality traits: importance of conceptual breadth and initial validation of a short measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morizot, Julien

    2014-10-01

    While there are a number of short personality trait measures that have been validated for use with adults, few are specifically validated for use with adolescents. To trust such measures, it must be demonstrated that they have adequate construct validity. According to the view of construct validity as a unifying form of validity requiring the integration of different complementary sources of information, this article reports the evaluation of content, factor, convergent, and criterion validities as well as reliability of adolescents' self-reported personality traits. Moreover, this study sought to address an inherent potential limitation of short personality trait measures, namely their limited conceptual breadth. In this study, starting with items from a known measure, after the language-level was adjusted for use with adolescents, items tapping fundamental primary traits were added to determine the impact of added conceptual breadth on the psychometric properties of the scales. The resulting new measure was named the Big Five Personality Trait Short Questionnaire (BFPTSQ). A group of expert judges considered the items to have adequate content validity. Using data from a community sample of early adolescents, the results confirmed the factor validity of the Big Five structure in adolescence as well as its measurement invariance across genders. More important, the added items did improve the convergent and criterion validities of the scales, but did not negatively affect their reliability. This study supports the construct validity of adolescents' self-reported personality traits and points to the importance of conceptual breadth in short personality measures. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Perceived Organizational Justice in Care Services: creation and multi-sample validation of a measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Arechaederra, Diana; Briones, Elena; Lind, Allan; García-Ortiz, Luis

    2014-02-01

    Organizational justice (OJ) perceptions predict attitudes and behaviors of customers and employees across a broad range of services. Although OJ has proven predictive power and relevance, it has rarely been studied in health care settings. This stems partially from the lack of a reliable and valid measure of patients' OJ in health care encounters. The objective here was to create and validate a measure of patients' OJ. With that purpose, a survey study with two sampling contexts - the U.S. and Spain - was carried out in order to provide a cross-national validation of the scale in two versions: English (Perceived Organizational Justice in Care Services, PJustCS) and Spanish (Percepción de Justicia Organizacional en el Ámbito Sanitario, PJustAS). Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) were used to select the appropriate items in the final version of the instrument. Reliability and validity of the measure were tested. A total of 406 patients in the U.S. and 473 patients in Spain participated. The measures used were the newly created scale of Perceived Organizational Justice in Care Services (PJustCS/PJustAS) and scales of patients' Satisfaction, Trust and Global Justice. Factor Analyses supported the four dimensional structure of the instrument for each group. Multigroup CFA substantiated invariant factor loadings and invariant structural models across both samples, hence, supporting that the instrument is applicable in its two versions: English and Spanish. Validation results showed expected positive relations of OJ with patients' satisfaction, trust in clinicians and global perceived justice. These results point out the importance of health care customers' perceived organizational justice in the explanation of health care dynamics. The scale has desirable psychometric properties and shows adequate validity, contributing to the potential development of the area. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Validity of a Scale to Measure Teachers' Attitudes towards Sex Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida Reis, Maria Helena; Vilar, Duarte Goncalo Rei

    2006-01-01

    Despite the current legislation requiring sex education as part of the school curriculum in Portugal, great obstacles to its implementation remain. Furthermore, sex education is far from being systematically administered. Thus, the main interest in our project was to validate a scale that measures teachers' attitudes towards sex education. There…

  3. Novel monorail infusion catheter for volumetric coronary blood flow measurement in humans: in vitro validation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van 't Veer, M.; Adjedj, J.; Wijnbergen, I.; Tóth, G.G.; Rutten, M.C.M.; Barbato, E.; van Nunen, L.X.; Pijls, N.H.J.; de Bruyne, B.

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: The aim of this study is to validate a novel monorail infusion catheter for thermodilution-based quantitative coronary flow measurements. METHODS AND RESULTS: Based on the principles of thermodilution, volumetric coronary flow can be determined from the flow rate of a continuous saline

  4. Validity Evidence for the Measurement of the Strength of Motivation for Medical School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusurkar, Rashmi; Croiset, Gerda; Kruitwagen, Cas; ten Cate, Olle

    2011-01-01

    The Strength of Motivation for Medical School (SMMS) questionnaire is designed to determine the strength of motivation of students particularly for medical study. This research was performed to establish the validity evidence for measuring strength of motivation for medical school. Internal structure and relations to other variables were used as…

  5. Measuring Students' Motivation: Validity Evidence for the MUSIC Model of Academic Motivation Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brett D.; Skaggs, Gary

    2016-01-01

    This study provides validity evidence for the MUSIC Model of Academic Motivation Inventory (MUSIC Inventory; Jones, 2012), which measures college students' beliefs related to the five components of the MUSIC Model of Motivation (MUSIC model; Jones, 2009). The MUSIC model is a conceptual framework for five categories of teaching strategies (i.e.,…

  6. Parent-reported social support for child’s fruit and vegetable intake: validity of measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of our study was to develop and validate measures of parental social support to increase their child’s fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption. We used a cross-sectional study design by studying participants at school and home. We studied two hundred three parents with at least 1 elemen...

  7. Validation of the instrument IMAQE-Food to measure effectiveness of food quality management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiegel, van der M.; Boer, de W.J.; Luning, P.A.; Ziggers, G.W.; Jongen, W.M.F.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to show that manufacturers use several quality assurance systems to assure quality. This paper aims to describe the validation of IMAQE-Food - an instrument that measures effectiveness of food quality systems. Design/methodology/approach - Generalisability,

  8. Memory Complaint Questionnaire performed poorly as screening tool : validation against psychometric tests and affective measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reid, Meagan; Parkinson, Lynne; Gibson, Richard; Schofield, Peter; D'Este, Catherine; Attia, John; Tavener, Meredith; Byles, Julie

    Objective: This study examined the internal and external validity of the Memory Complaint Questionnaire (MAC-Q), a brief measure of subjective memory complaint in people with normal cognitive function. Study Design and Setting: The Study of Health Outcomes in Aircraft Maintenance Personnel was a

  9. Validating a Measure of Stages of Change in Career Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Marie S.; Michael, Tony; Luke, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Research on the processes of change in career development has focused on developmental stages rather than processes. This manuscript reports on the development and validation of the stages of change-career development scale, adapted from McConnaughy, Prochaska, & Velicer (1983) measure of stages of change in psychotherapy. Data from 875…

  10. Validation of the Automated Method VIENA: An Accurate, Precise, and Robust Measure of Ventricular Enlargement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrenken, H.; Vos, E.K.; van der Flier, W.M.; Sluimer, I.C.; Cover, K.S.; Knol, D.L.; Barkhof, F.

    2014-01-01

    Background: In many retrospective studies and large clinical trials, high-resolution, good-contrast 3DT1 images are unavailable, hampering detailed analysis of brain atrophy. Ventricular enlargement then provides a sensitive indirect measure of ongoing central brain atrophy. Validated automated

  11. The Interpersonal Measure of Psychopathy: Construct and Incremental Validity in Male Prisoners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolondek, Stacey; Lilienfeld, Scott O.; Patrick, Christopher J.; Fowler, Katherine A.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined the construct and incremental validity of the Interpersonal Measure of Psychopathy (IM-P), a relatively new instrument designed to detect interpersonal behaviors associated with psychopathy. Observers of videotaped Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) interviews rated male prisoners (N = 93) on the IM-P. The IM-P correlated…

  12. Children's Assertive Behavior: The Reliability and Validity of Three Self-Report Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, Elizabeth M.; Ollendick, Thomas H.

    1985-01-01

    The internal consistency and validity of three new scales for measuring assertiveness in children were tested. Two of the scales were able to "unbind" aggressive from assertive behavior, while the third was able to "unbind" submissive from assertive behavior. At present, a combination of the three scales is recommended. (KH)

  13. Development and Validation of Instruments to Measure Learning of Expert-Like Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Wendy K.; Wieman, Carl E.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the process for creating and validating an assessment test that measures the effectiveness of instruction by probing how well that instruction causes students in a class to think like experts about specific areas of science. The design principles and process are laid out and it is shown how these align with professional…

  14. Dynamic radar cross section measurements of a full-scale aircraft for RCS modelling validation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Schalkwyk, Richard F

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the process followed in generating a high fidelity reference data set for radar cross section (RCS) modelling validation for a full-scale aircraft, is presented. An overview of two dynamic RCS measurement campaigns, involving both...

  15. New Multiple-Choice Measures of Historical Thinking: An Investigation of Cognitive Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mark D.

    2018-01-01

    History education scholars have recognized the need for test validity research in recent years and have called for empirical studies that explore how to best measure historical thinking processes. The present study was designed to help answer this call and to provide a model that others can adapt to carry this line of research forward. It employed…

  16. Establishing Reliability and Construct Validity for an Instrument to Measure Environmental Connectedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beery, Thomas H.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study is to establish a reliable and valid measure of environmental connectedness (EC) to allow for further exploration of the Swedish Outdoor Recreation in Change national survey data. The Nordic concept of friluftsliv (nature-based outdoor recreation) and the environmental psychology concept of EC are explored to…

  17. Initial Development and Validation of the BullyHARM: The Bullying, Harassment, and Aggression Receipt Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, William J.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the development and preliminary validation of the Bullying, Harassment, and Aggression Receipt Measure (BullyHARM). The development of the BullyHARM involved a number of steps and methods, including a literature review, expert review, cognitive testing, readability testing, data collection from a large sample, reliability…

  18. Reproducibility and validity of video screen measurements of gait in children with spastic cerebral palsy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grunt, S.; van Kampen, P.M.; van der Krogt, M.M.; Brehm, M.A.; Doorenbosch, C.A.M.; Becher, J.G.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the reproducibility and validity of video screen measurement (VSM) of sagittal plane joint angles during gait. Methods: 17 children with spastic cerebral palsy walked on a 10. m walkway. Videos were recorded and 3d-instrumented gait analysis was performed. Two investigators

  19. Reproducibility and validity of video screen measurements of gait in children with spastic cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grunt, Sebastian; van Kampen, Petra J.; van der Krogt, Marjolein M.; Brehm, Merel-Anne; Doorenbosch, Caroline A. M.; Becher, Jules G.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine the reproducibility and validity of video screen measurement (VSM) of sagittal plane joint angles during gait. METHODS: 17 children with spastic cerebral palsy walked on a 10m walkway. Videos were recorded and 3d-instrumented gait analysis was performed. Two investigators

  20. The Deaf Acculturation Scale (DAS): Development and Validation of a 58-Item Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell-McCaw, Deborah; Zea, Maria Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    This study involved the development and validation of the Deaf Acculturation Scale (DAS), a new measure of cultural identity for Deaf and hard-of-hearing (hh) populations. Data for this study were collected online and involved a nation-wide sample of 3,070 deaf/hh individuals. Results indicated strong internal reliabilities for all the subscales,…

  1. Measuring Social Anxiety in 11 Countries Development and Validation of the Social Anxiety Questionnaire for Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caballo, V.E.; Salazar, I.C.; Irurtia, M.J.; Arias, B.; Hofmann, S.G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on two studies conducted to develop and validate a new self-report measure of social phobia/anxiety - the Social Anxiety Questionnaire for Adults (SAQ-A) (Cuestionario de ansiedad social para adultos, CASO-A). A diary-item recording procedure was used to generate the initial pool

  2. Validation of the Adolescent Concerns Measure (ACM): Evidence from Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Rebecca P.; Chong, Wan Har; Huan, Vivien S.; Yeo, Lay See

    2007-01-01

    This article reports the development and initial validation of scores obtained from the Adolescent Concerns Measure (ACM), a scale which assesses concerns of Asian adolescent students. In Study 1, findings from exploratory factor analysis using 619 adolescents suggested a 24-item scale with four correlated factors--Family Concerns (9 items), Peer…

  3. Assessing College Student-Athletes' Life Stress: Initial Measurement Development and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Frank Jing-Horng; Hsu, Ya-Wen; Chan, Yuan-Shuo; Cheen, Jang-Rong; Kao, Kuei-Tsu

    2012-01-01

    College student-athletes have unique life stress that warrants close attention. The purpose of this study was to develop a reliable and valid measurement assessing college student-athletes' life stress. In Study 1, a focus group discussion and Delphi method produced a questionnaire draft, termed the College Student-Athletes' Life Stress Scale. In…

  4. Measurement and data analysis methods for field-scale wind erosion studies and model validation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zobeck, T.M.; Sterk, G.; Funk, R.F.; Rajot, J.L.; Stout, J.E.; Scott Van Pelt, R.

    2003-01-01

    Accurate and reliable methods of measuring windblown sediment are needed to confirm, validate, and improve erosion models, assess the intensity of aeolian processes and related damage, determine the source of pollutants, and for other applications. This paper outlines important principles to

  5. Understanding and Measuring Evaluation Capacity: A Model and Instrument Validation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor-Ritzler, Tina; Suarez-Balcazar, Yolanda; Garcia-Iriarte, Edurne; Henry, David B.; Balcazar, Fabricio E.

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the development and validation of the Evaluation Capacity Assessment Instrument (ECAI), a measure designed to assess evaluation capacity among staff of nonprofit organizations that is based on a synthesis model of evaluation capacity. One hundred and sixty-nine staff of nonprofit organizations completed the ECAI. The 68-item…

  6. Validation of an Instrument to Measure Students' Motivation and Self-Regulation towards Technology Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Pey-Yan; Kuo, Pei-Jung

    2014-01-01

    Background: Few studies have examined students' attitudinal perceptions of technology. There is no appropriate instrument to measure senior high school students' motivation and self-regulation toward technology learning among the current existing instruments in the field of technology education. Purpose: The present study is to validate an…

  7. Decay heat measurement on fusion reactor materials and validation of calculation code system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekawa, Fujio; Ikeda, Yujiro; Wada, Masayuki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    Decay heat rates for 32 fusion reactor relevant materials irradiated with 14-MeV neutrons were measured for the cooling time period between 1 minute and 400 days. With using the experimental data base, validity of decay heat calculation systems for fusion reactors were investigated. (author)

  8. Psychometrically and qualitatively validating a cross-national cumulative measure of fear-based xenophobia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veer, C.G.; Ommundsen, R.; Yakushko, O.; Higler, L.E.A.; Woelders, S.; Hagen, K.A.

    2013-01-01

    The article reports the results of a Mokken Scale Procedure (MSP) developing a hierarchical cross-national scale to measure xenophobia, and a qualitative validation of this scale. A pool of 30 xenophobic scale items were collected from several sources and edited according to established

  9. Examining the Validity of Self-Reports on Scales Measuring Students' Strategic Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelstuen, Marit S.; Braten, Ivar

    2007-01-01

    Background: Self-report inventories trying to measure strategic processing at a global level have been much used in both basic and applied research. However, the validity of global strategy scores is open to question because such inventories assess strategy perceptions outside the context of specific task performance. Aims: The primary aim was to…

  10. Validation of the actuator line method using near wake measurements of the MEXICO rotor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Karl; Shen, Wen Zhong; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present work is to validate the capability of the actuator line method to compute vortex structures in the near wake behind the MEXICO experimental wind turbine rotor. In the MEXICO project/MexNext Annex, particle image velocimetry measurements have made it possible to determine...

  11. The Servant Leadership Survey: Development and Validation of a Multidimensional Measure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. van Dierendonck (Dirk); I.A.P.M. Nuijten (Inge)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the development and validation of a multi-dimensional instrument to measure servant leadership. Design/Methodology/Approach Based on an extensive literature review and expert judgment, 99 items were formulated. In three steps, using

  12. RF propagation measurement and model validation during RF/IR synergy trial vampira

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heemskerk, H.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    The member nations of AC/323 SET-RTG056/RTG32 on Integration of Radar and Infrared for Ship Self Defence have performed the Validation Measurements for Propagation in the Infrared and Radar (VAMPIRA). The objective was to get insight into the radar and infrared synergy concentrated on propagation in

  13. Offshore Wind Turbine Foundation Model Validation with Wind Farm Measurements and Uncertainty Quantification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koukoura, Christina; Natarajan, Anand; Krogh, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The variation in simulated monopile substructure loads is quantified by validating an aero-hydro-servo-elastic design tool with offshore foundation load measurements. A three bladed 3.6MW pitch controlled variable speed wind turbine for offshore monopile foundations is modeled in the HAWC2...

  14. Predictive Validity of Early Literacy Measures for Korean English Language Learners in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jeanie Nam; Vanderwood, Michael L.; Lee, Catherine Y.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the predictive validity of early literacy measures with first-grade Korean English language learners (ELLs) in the United States at varying levels of English proficiency. Participants were screened using Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) Phoneme Segmentation Fluency (PSF), DIBELS Nonsense Word Fluency…

  15. Validating an instrument for measuring brand equity of CSR driven organizations in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Dara Singh Karpal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to develop and propose a valid and reliable instrument to measure brand equity of CSR driven organizations in Malaysia. An instrument to measure brand equity was constructed with adaptations from two key sources, namely Yew Leh and Lee (2011 and Yoo and Donthu (2001. As such the study only focuses on the development and validation of an instrument to measure brand equity of CSR driven organizations. The usable sample population included 909 respondents from 12 states of West Malaysia which were selected using a quota sampling plan. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA and reliability analysis were carried out to test and validate the proposed brand equity instrument containing four components (brand awareness, brand association, perceived quality and brand loyalty with a total of 13 items. Results from the CFA and reliability analysis indicated that all the items representing the four components were valid and can be used to measure the brand equity of organizations that are practicing CSR. The study tried to set an empirical basis for brand equity and CSR related research which could be used by future researchers in different industries and geographical locations. The study also implies the need for organizations to assess the success of their CSR efforts through the use of the proposed instrument in order to gauge whether all their CSR efforts translate to improved brand equity.

  16. Validating Remotely Sensed Land Surface Evapotranspiration Based on Multi-scale Field Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Z.; Liu, S.; Ziwei, X.; Liang, S.

    2012-12-01

    The land surface evapotranspiration plays an important role in the surface energy balance and the water cycle. There have been significant technical and theoretical advances in our knowledge of evapotranspiration over the past two decades. Acquisition of the temporally and spatially continuous distribution of evapotranspiration using remote sensing technology has attracted the widespread attention of researchers and managers. However, remote sensing technology still has many uncertainties coming from model mechanism, model inputs, parameterization schemes, and scaling issue in the regional estimation. Achieving remotely sensed evapotranspiration (RS_ET) with confident certainty is required but difficult. As a result, it is indispensable to develop the validation methods to quantitatively assess the accuracy and error sources of the regional RS_ET estimations. This study proposes an innovative validation method based on multi-scale evapotranspiration acquired from field measurements, with the validation results including the accuracy assessment, error source analysis, and uncertainty analysis of the validation process. It is a potentially useful approach to evaluate the accuracy and analyze the spatio-temporal properties of RS_ET at both the basin and local scales, and is appropriate to validate RS_ET in diverse resolutions at different time-scales. An independent RS_ET validation using this method was presented over the Hai River Basin, China in 2002-2009 as a case study. Validation at the basin scale showed good agreements between the 1 km annual RS_ET and the validation data such as the water balanced evapotranspiration, MODIS evapotranspiration products, precipitation, and landuse types. Validation at the local scale also had good results for monthly, daily RS_ET at 30 m and 1 km resolutions, comparing to the multi-scale evapotranspiration measurements from the EC and LAS, respectively, with the footprint model over three typical landscapes. Although some

  17. Measurement of the Color-Suppressed B0->D(*)0 pi0 /omega/eta/eta Prime Branching Fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prudent, X

    2008-11-05

    The authors report results on the branching fraction (BF) measurement of the color-suppressed decays {bar B}{sup 0} {yields} D{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}, D*{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}, D{sup 0}{eta}, D*{sup 0}{eta}, D{sup 0}{omega}, D*{sup 0}{omega}, D{sup 0}{eta}{prime}, and D*{sup 0}{eta}{prime}. They measure the branching fractions BF(D{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}) = (2.78 {+-} 0.08 {+-} 0.20) x 10{sup -4}, BF(D*{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}) = (1.78 {+-} 0.13 {+-} 0.23) x 10{sup -4}, BF(D{sup 0}{eta}) = (2.41 {+-} 0.09 {+-} 0.17) x 10{sup -4}, BF(D*{sup 0}{eta}) = (2.32 {+-} 0.13 {+-} 0.22) x 10{sup -4}, BF(D{sup 0}{omega}) = (2.77 {+-} 0.13 {+-} 0.22) x 10{sup -4}, BF(D*{sup 0}{omega}) = (4.44 {+-} 0.23 {+-} 0.61) x 10{sup -4}, BF(D{sup 0}{eta}{prime}) = (1.38 {+-} 0.12 {+-} 0.22) x 10{sup -4} and BF(D*{sup 0}{eta}{prime}) = (1.29 {+-} 0.23 {+-} 0.23) x 10{sup -4}, where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic. The result is based on a sample of (454 {+-} 5) x 10{sup 6} B{bar B} pairs collected at the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance from 1999 to 2007, with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II storage rings at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The measurements are compared to theoretical predictions by factorization, SCET and pQCD. The presence of final state interactions predictions by factorization, SCET and pQCD. The presence of final state interactions is confirmed and the measurements seem to be more in favor of SCET compared to pQCD.

  18. Assessing anger regulation in middle childhood: development and validation of a behavioral observation measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Lara Rohlf

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available An observational measure of anger regulation in middle childhood was developed that facilitated the in situ assessment of five maladaptive regulation strategies in response to an anger-eliciting task. 599 children aged 6-10 years (M = 8.12, SD = 0.92 participated in the study. Construct validity of the measure was examined through correlations with parent- and self-reports of anger regulation and anger reactivity. Criterion validity was established through links with teacher-rated aggression and social rejection measured by parent-, teacher-, and self-reports. The observational measure correlated significantly with parent- and self-reports of anger reactivity, whereas it was unrelated to parent- and self-reports of anger regulation. It also made a unique contribution to predicting aggression and social rejection.

  19. Validity of Multisensor Array for Measuring Energy Expenditure of an Activity Bout in Early Stroke Survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Flora Kramer

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Stroke survivors use more energy than healthy people during activities such as walking, which has consequences for the way exercise is prescribed for stroke survivors. There is a need for wearable device that can validly measure energy expenditure (EE of activity to inform exercise prescription early after stroke. We aimed to determine the validity and reliability of the SenseWear-Armband (SWA to measure EE and step-counts during activity 0.75 for walking and sit-to-stand, respectively. However, agreement levels changed with increasing EE levels (i.e., proportional bias. The SWA did not accurately measure step-counts. Conclusion. The SWA should be used with caution to measure EE of activity of mild to moderate stroke survivors <1 month after stroke.

  20. Data Visualization and Analysis Tools for the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Validation Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Kenneth R.; Schwaller, Mathew

    2010-01-01

    The Validation Network (VN) prototype for the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission compares data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite Precipitation Radar (PR) to similar measurements from U.S. and international operational weather radars. This prototype is a major component of the GPM Ground Validation System (GVS). The VN provides a means for the precipitation measurement community to identify and resolve significant discrepancies between the ground radar (GR) observations and similar satellite observations. The VN prototype is based on research results and computer code described by Anagnostou et al. (2001), Bolen and Chandrasekar (2000), and Liao et al. (2001), and has previously been described by Morris, et al. (2007). Morris and Schwaller (2009) describe the PR-GR volume-matching algorithm used to create the VN match-up data set used for the comparisons. This paper describes software tools that have been developed for visualization and statistical analysis of the original and volume matched PR and GR data.

  1. Salzburger State Reactance Scale (SSR Scale): Validation of a Scale Measuring State Reactance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sittenthaler, Sandra; Traut-Mattausch, Eva; Steindl, Christina; Jonas, Eva

    This paper describes the construction and empirical evaluation of an instrument for measuring state reactance, the Salzburger State Reactance (SSR) Scale. The results of a confirmatory factor analysis supported a hypothesized three-factor structure: experience of reactance, aggressive behavioral intentions, and negative attitudes. Correlations with divergent and convergent measures support the validity of this structure. The SSR Subscales were strongly related to the other state reactance measures. Moreover, the SSR Subscales showed modest positive correlations with trait measures of reactance. The SSR Subscales correlated only slightly or not at all with neighboring constructs (e.g., autonomy, experience of control). The only exception was fairness scales, which showed moderate correlations with the SSR Subscales. Furthermore, a retest analysis confirmed the temporal stability of the scale. Suggestions for further validation of this questionnaire are discussed.

  2. Assessing the Validity of Single-item Life Satisfaction Measures: Results from Three Large Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Felix; Lucas, Richard E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The present paper assessed the validity of single-item life satisfaction measures by comparing single-item measures to the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) - a more psychometrically established measure. Methods Two large samples from Washington (N=13,064) and Oregon (N=2,277) recruited by the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and a representative German sample (N=1,312) recruited by the Germany Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP) were included in the present analyses. Single-item life satisfaction measures and the SWLS were correlated with theoretically relevant variables, such as demographics, subjective health, domain satisfaction, and affect. The correlations between the two life satisfaction measures and these variables were examined to assess the construct validity of single-item life satisfaction measures. Results Consistent across three samples, single-item life satisfaction measures demonstrated substantial degree of criterion validity with the SWLS (zero-order r = 0.62 – 0.64; disattenuated r = 0.78 – 0.80). Patterns of statistical significance for correlations with theoretically relevant variables were the same across single-item measures and the SWLS. Single-item measures did not produce systematically different correlations compared to the SWLS (average difference = 0.001 – 0.005). The average absolute difference in the magnitudes of the correlations produced by single-item measures and the SWLS were very small (average absolute difference = 0.015 −0.042). Conclusions Single-item life satisfaction measures performed very similarly compared to the multiple-item SWLS. Social scientists would get virtually identical answer to substantive questions regardless of which measure they use. PMID:24890827

  3. Assessing the validity of single-item life satisfaction measures: results from three large samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Felix; Lucas, Richard E

    2014-12-01

    The present paper assessed the validity of single-item life satisfaction measures by comparing single-item measures to the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS)-a more psychometrically established measure. Two large samples from Washington (N = 13,064) and Oregon (N = 2,277) recruited by the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and a representative German sample (N = 1,312) recruited by the Germany Socio-Economic Panel were included in the present analyses. Single-item life satisfaction measures and the SWLS were correlated with theoretically relevant variables, such as demographics, subjective health, domain satisfaction, and affect. The correlations between the two life satisfaction measures and these variables were examined to assess the construct validity of single-item life satisfaction measures. Consistent across three samples, single-item life satisfaction measures demonstrated substantial degree of criterion validity with the SWLS (zero-order r = 0.62-0.64; disattenuated r = 0.78-0.80). Patterns of statistical significance for correlations with theoretically relevant variables were the same across single-item measures and the SWLS. Single-item measures did not produce systematically different correlations compared to the SWLS (average difference = 0.001-0.005). The average absolute difference in the magnitudes of the correlations produced by single-item measures and the SWLS was very small (average absolute difference = 0.015-0.042). Single-item life satisfaction measures performed very similarly compared to the multiple-item SWLS. Social scientists would get virtually identical answer to substantive questions regardless of which measure they use.

  4. Positive mental health literacy: development and validation of a measure among Norwegian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanne Nissen Bjørnsen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental health literacy (MHL, or the knowledge and abilities necessary to benefit mental health, is a significant determinant of mental health and has the potential to benefit both individual and public mental health. MHL and its measures have traditionally focused on knowledge and beliefs about mental -ill-health rather than on mental health. No measures of MHL addressing knowledge of good or positive mental health have been identified. Aim: This study aimed to develop and validate an instrument measuring adolescents’ knowledge of how to obtain and maintain good mental health and to evaluate the psychometric properties of the instrument. More specifically, the factor structure, internal and construct validity, and test-retest reliability were assessed. Methods The participants were Norwegian upper secondary school students aged 15–21 years. The development and validation of the instrument entailed three phases: 1 item generation based on the basic psychological needs theory (BPNT, focus group interviews, and a narrative literature review, 2 a pilot study (n = 479, and 3 test-retest (n = 149, known-groups validity (n = 44, and scale construction, item reduction through principal component analysis (PCA, and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA for factor structure and psychometric properties assessment (n = 1888. Results Thirty-two items were initially generated, and 15 were selected for the pilot study. PCA identified cross-loadings, and a one-factor solution was examined. After removing five problematic items, CFA yielded a satisfactory fit for a 10-item one-factor model, referred to as the mental health-promoting knowledge (MHPK-10 measure. The test-retest evaluation supported the stability of the measure. McDonald’s omega was 0.84, and known-groups validity test indicated good construct validity. Conclusion A valid and reliable one-dimensional instrument measuring knowledge of factors promoting good mental

  5. Positive mental health literacy: development and validation of a measure among Norwegian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørnsen, Hanne Nissen; Eilertsen, Mary Elizabeth Bradley; Ringdal, Regine; Espnes, Geir Arild; Moksnes, Unni Karin

    2017-09-18

    Mental health literacy (MHL), or the knowledge and abilities necessary to benefit mental health, is a significant determinant of mental health and has the potential to benefit both individual and public mental health. MHL and its measures have traditionally focused on knowledge and beliefs about mental -ill-health rather than on mental health. No measures of MHL addressing knowledge of good or positive mental health have been identified. This study aimed to develop and validate an instrument measuring adolescents' knowledge of how to obtain and maintain good mental health and to evaluate the psychometric properties of the instrument. More specifically, the factor structure, internal and construct validity, and test-retest reliability were assessed. The participants were Norwegian upper secondary school students aged 15-21 years. The development and validation of the instrument entailed three phases: 1) item generation based on the basic psychological needs theory (BPNT), focus group interviews, and a narrative literature review, 2) a pilot study (n = 479), and 3) test-retest (n = 149), known-groups validity (n = 44), and scale construction, item reduction through principal component analysis (PCA), and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) for factor structure and psychometric properties assessment (n = 1888). Thirty-two items were initially generated, and 15 were selected for the pilot study. PCA identified cross-loadings, and a one-factor solution was examined. After removing five problematic items, CFA yielded a satisfactory fit for a 10-item one-factor model, referred to as the mental health-promoting knowledge (MHPK-10) measure. The test-retest evaluation supported the stability of the measure. McDonald's omega was 0.84, and known-groups validity test indicated good construct validity. A valid and reliable one-dimensional instrument measuring knowledge of factors promoting good mental health among adolescents was developed. The instrument has the

  6. Identification of validated questionnaires to measure adherence to pharmacological antihypertensive treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez-Escamilla B

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Beatriz Pérez-Escamilla,1 Lucía Franco-Trigo,1 Joanna C Moullin,2 Fernando Martínez-Martínez,1 José P García-Corpas1 1Academic Centre in Pharmaceutical Care, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Granada, Granada, Spain; 2Graduate School of Health, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia Background: Low adherence to pharmacological treatments is one of the factors associated with poor blood pressure control. Questionnaires are an indirect measurement method that is both economic and easy to use. However, questionnaires should meet specific criteria, to minimize error and ensure reproducibility of results. Numerous studies have been conducted to design questionnaires that quantify adherence to pharmacological antihypertensive treatments. Nevertheless, it is unknown whether questionnaires fulfil the minimum requirements of validity and reliability. The aim of this study was to compile validated questionnaires measuring adherence to pharmacological antihypertensive treatments that had at least one measure of validity and one measure of reliability. Methods: A literature search was undertaken in PubMed, the Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE, and the Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature database (Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde [LILACS]. References from included articles were hand-searched. The included papers were all that were published in English, French, Portuguese, and Spanish from the beginning of the database’s indexing until July 8, 2013, where a validation of a questionnaire (at least one demonstration of the validity and at least one of reliability was performed to measure adherence to antihypertensive pharmacological treatments. Results: A total of 234 potential papers were identified in the electronic database search; of these, 12 met the eligibility criteria. Within these 12 papers, six questionnaires were validated: the Morisky

  7. Cross-cultural validation of health literacy measurement tools in Italian oncology patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zotti, Paola; Cocchi, Simone; Polesel, Jerry; Cipolat Mis, Chiara; Bragatto, Donato; Cavuto, Silvio; Conficconi, Alice; Costanzo, Carla; De Giorgi, Melissa; Drace, Christina A; Fiorini, Federica; Gangeri, Laura; Lisi, Andrea; Martino, Rosalba; Mosconi, Paola; Paradiso, Angelo; Ravaioli, Valentina; Truccolo, Ivana; De Paoli, Paolo

    2017-06-19

    The aim of this study was to assess the psychometric characteristics of four Health Literacy (HL) measurement tools, viz. Newest Vital Sign (NVS), Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (STOFHLA), Single Item Literacy Screener (SILS) and Single question on Self-rated Reading Ability (SrRA) among Italian oncology patients. The original version of the tools were translated from the English language into Italian using a standard forward-backward procedure and according to internationally recognized good practices. Their internal consistency (reliability) and validity (construct, convergent and discriminative) were tested in a sample of 245 consecutive cancer patients recruited from seven Italian health care centers. The internal consistency of the STOFHLA-I was Chronbach's α=0.96 and that of NVS-I was α=0.74. The STOFHLA-I, NVS-I, SILS-I and SrRA-I scores were in a good relative correlation and in all tools the discriminative known-group validity was confirmed. The reliability and validity values were similar to those obtained from other cultural context studies. The psychometric characteristics of the Italian version of NVS, STHOFLA, SILS and SrRA were found to be good, with satisfactory reliability and validity. This indicates that they could be used as a screening tool in Italian patients. Moreover, the use of the same cross-cultural tools, validated in different languages, is essential for implementing multicenter studies to measure and compare the functional HL levels across countries.

  8. Reliability and Validity of the Behavioral Addiction Measure for Video Gaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, James L; Williams, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    Most tests of video game addiction have weak construct validity and limited ability to correctly identify people in denial. The purpose of the present research was to investigate the reliability and validity of a new test of video game addiction (Behavioral Addiction Measure-Video Gaming [BAM-VG]) that was developed in part to address these deficiencies. Regular adult video gamers (n = 506) were recruited from a Canadian online panel and completed a survey containing three measures of excessive video gaming (BAM-VG; DSM-5 criteria for Internet Gaming Disorder [IGD]; and the IGD-20), as well as questions concerning extensiveness of video game involvement and self-report of problems associated with video gaming. One month later, they were reassessed for the purposes of establishing test-retest reliability. The BAM-VG demonstrated good internal consistency as well as 1 month test-retest reliability. Criterion-related validity was demonstrated by significant correlations with the following: time spent playing, self-identification of video game problems, and scores on other instruments designed to assess video game addiction (DSM-5 IGD, IGD-20). Consistent with the theory, principal component analysis identified two components underlying the BAM-VG that roughly correspond with impaired control and significant negative consequences deriving from this impaired control. Together with its excellent construct validity and other technical features, the BAM-VG represents a reliable and valid test of video game addiction.

  9. The Karen instruments for measuring quality of nursing care: construct validity and internal consistency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Margareta; Andersson, Inger S

    2011-06-01

    Valid and reliable instruments for measuring the quality of care are needed for evaluation and improvement of nursing care. Previously developed and evaluated instruments, the Karen-patient and the Karen-personnel based on Donabedian's Structure-Process-Outcome triad (S-P-O triad) had promising content validity, discriminative power and internal consistency. The objective of this study was to further develop the instruments with regard to construct validity and internal consistency. This prospective study was carried out in medical and surgical wards at a hospital in Sweden. A total of 95 patients and 120 personnel were included. The instruments were tested for construct validity by performing factor analyses in two steps and for internal consistency using Cronbach's alpha coefficient. The first confirmatory factor analyses, with a pre-determined three-factor solution did not load well according to the S-P-O triad, but the second exploratory factor analysis with a six-factor solution appeared to be more coherent and the distribution of variables seemed to be logical. The reliability, i.e. internal consistency, was good in both factor analyses. The Karen-patient and the Karen-personnel instruments have achieved acceptable levels of construct validity. The internal consistency of the instruments is good. This indicates that the instruments may be suitable to use in clinical practice for measuring the quality of nursing care.

  10. Flipping the Continuing Medical Education Classroom: Validating a Measure of Attendees' Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Christopher R; Wang, Amy T; Szostek, Jason H; Bonnes, Sara L; Ratelle, John T; Mahapatra, Saswati; Mandrekar, Jayawant N; Beckman, Thomas J; Wittich, Christopher M

    2016-01-01

    New teaching approaches for CME are needed. In flipped classrooms, coursework is completed beforehand and applied during class time. Studies of flipped classrooms and their potential benefits in CME have not been published. We sought to develop and validate an instrument measuring flipped classroom perceptions, identify whether participation changed perceptions, and determine which flipped classroom components were perceived as most effective. In this cross-sectional validation study, 167 participants in the Mayo Clinic's 2015 Internal Medicine Board Review course received surveys. Online modules were developed to deliver content before flipped classroom courses on acid-base disorders and electrolyte disorders. A flipped classroom perception instrument (FCPI) was developed and validated. The FCPI, with eight items structured on 5-point Likert scales, was given to participants before and after their flipped classroom experiences. Of the 167 participants, 111 returned surveys. Flipped classroom perceptions improved, with mean (SD) FCPI scores increasing from 3.74 (0.75) to 3.94 (0.76) (P flipped classrooms increased from 38% before the course to 53% after (P = .002). Positive changes in FCPI scores were unrelated to module completion. Most participants thought knowledge was enhanced by in-class sessions and online modules equally. The FCPI, the first validated measure of participants' perceptions of a CME flipped classroom, has strong validity evidence. Participants' perceptions of and preference for the flipped classroom improved after experiencing the flipped CME classroom. These findings support the need to further explore flipped classroom models in CME.

  11. Validation of Nonlinear Bipolar Transistor Model by Small-Signal Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidkjær, Jens; Porra, V.; Zhu, J.

    1992-01-01

    A new method for the validity analysis of nonlinear transistor models is presented based on DC-and small-signal S-parameter measurements and realistic consideration of the measurement and de-embedding errors and singularities of the small-signal equivalent circuit. As an example, some analysis...... results for an extended Gummel Poon model are presented in the case of a UHF bipolar power transistor....

  12. Measurement of alienation among adolescents: construct validity of three scales on powerlessness, meaninglessness and social isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayce, Signe Boe; Kreiner, Svend; Damsgaard, Mogens Trab; Nielsen, Tine; Holstein, Bjørn Evald

    2017-01-01

    Psychological alienation is an important concept in the study of adolescents' health and behavior but no gold standard for measuring alienation among adolescents exists. There is a need for new scales with high validity for use in adolescent health and social research. The purpose of the present study was to develop and validate alienation scales in accordance with Seeman's conceptualization of alienation focusing on three independent variants specifically relevant in adolescent health research: powerlessness, meaninglessness and social isolation. Cross-sectional data from 3083 adolescents aged 13 to 15 years from the Danish contribution to the cross-national study Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) were used. We identified and developed items, addressed content and face validity through interviews, and examined the criterion-related construct validity of the scales using graphical loglinear Rasch models (GLLRM). The three scales each comprised three to five face valid items. The powerlessness scale reflected the adolescent's expectancy as to whether his/her behavior can determine the outcome or reinforcement he/she seeks. The meaninglessness scale reflected the expectancy as to whether satisfactory predictions regarding the effects of one's behavior are possible. Finally, the social isolation scale reflected whether the adolescent had a low expectancy for inclusion and social acceptance. All scales contained some uniform local dependency and differential item functioning. However, only to a limited degree, which could be accounted for using GLLRM. Thus the scales fitted GLLRMs and can therefore be considered to be essentially construct valid and essentially objective. The three alienation scales appear to be content and face valid and fulfill the psychometric properties of a good construct valid reflective scale. This suggests that the scales may be appropriate in future large-scale surveys to examine the relation between alienation and a range of

  13. Method for Pre-Conditioning a Measured Surface Height Map for Model Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidick, Erkin

    2012-01-01

    This software allows one to up-sample or down-sample a measured surface map for model validation, not only without introducing any re-sampling errors, but also eliminating the existing measurement noise and measurement errors. Because the re-sampling of a surface map is accomplished based on the analytical expressions of Zernike-polynomials and a power spectral density model, such re-sampling does not introduce any aliasing and interpolation errors as is done by the conventional interpolation and FFT-based (fast-Fourier-transform-based) spatial-filtering method. Also, this new method automatically eliminates the measurement noise and other measurement errors such as artificial discontinuity. The developmental cycle of an optical system, such as a space telescope, includes, but is not limited to, the following two steps: (1) deriving requirements or specs on the optical quality of individual optics before they are fabricated through optical modeling and simulations, and (2) validating the optical model using the measured surface height maps after all optics are fabricated. There are a number of computational issues related to model validation, one of which is the "pre-conditioning" or pre-processing of the measured surface maps before using them in a model validation software tool. This software addresses the following issues: (1) up- or down-sampling a measured surface map to match it with the gridded data format of a model validation tool, and (2) eliminating the surface measurement noise or measurement errors such that the resulted surface height map is continuous or smoothly-varying. So far, the preferred method used for re-sampling a surface map is two-dimensional interpolation. The main problem of this method is that the same pixel can take different values when the method of interpolation is changed among the different methods such as the "nearest," "linear," "cubic," and "spline" fitting in Matlab. The conventional, FFT-based spatial filtering method used to

  14. Variance composition, measurement invariance by gender, and construct validity of the Femininity Ideology Scale-Short Form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levant, Ronald F; Alto, Kathleen M; McKelvey, Daniel K; Richmond, Katherine A; McDermott, Ryon C

    2017-11-01

    The current study extended prior work on the Femininity Ideology Scale (FIS), a multidimensional measure of traditional femininity ideology (TFI), in several ways. First, we conducted exploratory factor and bifactor analyses, which revealed a general TFI factor and 3 specific factors: dependence/deference, purity, and emotionality/traditional roles. Second, based on these results we developed the 12-item FIS-Short Form (FIS-SF). Third, we assessed the FIS-SF using confirmatory factor analysis on a separate sample, finding that the items loaded on the general factor and 3 specific factors as hypothesized, and that the bifactor model fit better than common factors and unidimensional models. Fourth, model-based reliability estimates tentatively support the use of raw scores to represent the general TFI factor and the emotionality/traditional roles specific factor, but the other 2 specific factors are best measured using SEM or by ipsatizing their scores. Fifth, we assessed measurement invariance across 2 gender groups, finding evidence for configural invariance for all factors, and for partial metric invariance for the specific factors. Sixth, we found evidence for the convergent construct validity of the FIS-SF general factor and the emotionality/traditional roles specific factors by examining relationships with the latent variables of several constructs in the nomological network. The results are discussed in relationship to prior literature, future research directions, applications to counseling practice, and limitations. Data (N = 1,472, 907 women, 565 men, 530 people of color) were from community and college participants who responded to an online survey. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Colored Chaos

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released 7 May 2004 This daytime visible color image was collected on May 30, 2002 during the Southern Fall season in Atlantis Chaos. The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the martian surface using its five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from the use of multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -34.5, Longitude 183.6 East (176.4 West). 38 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D

  16. The Servant Leadership Survey: Development and Validation of a Multidimensional Measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dierendonck, Dirk; Nuijten, Inge

    2011-09-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper is to describe the development and validation of a multi-dimensional instrument to measure servant leadership. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: Based on an extensive literature review and expert judgment, 99 items were formulated. In three steps, using eight samples totaling 1571 persons from The Netherlands and the UK with a diverse occupational background, a combined exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis approach was used. This was followed by an analysis of the criterion-related validity. FINDINGS: The final result is an eight-dimensional measure of 30 items: the eight dimensions being: standing back, forgiveness, courage, empowerment, accountability, authenticity, humility, and stewardship. The internal consistency of the subscales is good. The results show that the Servant Leadership Survey (SLS) has convergent validity with other leadership measures, and also adds unique elements to the leadership field. Evidence for criterion-related validity came from studies relating the eight dimensions to well-being and performance. IMPLICATIONS: With this survey, a valid and reliable instrument to measure the essential elements of servant leadership has been introduced. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: The SLS is the first measure where the underlying factor structure was developed and confirmed across several field studies in two countries. It can be used in future studies to test the underlying premises of servant leadership theory. The SLS provides a clear picture of the key servant leadership qualities and shows where improvements can be made on the individual and organizational level; as such, it may also offer a valuable starting point for training and leadership development.

  17. Reliability and validity of two self-report measures of cognitive flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnco, Carly; Wuthrich, Viviana M; Rapee, Ronald M

    2014-12-01

    Neuropsychological testing currently represents the gold standard in assessing cognitive flexibility. However, this format presents some challenges in terms of time and skills required for administration, scoring, and interpretation. Two self-report measures of cognitive flexibility have been developed to measure aspects of cognitive flexibility in everyday settings, although neither has been validated in an older sample. In this study, we investigated the psychometric properties of 2 self-report measures of cognitive flexibility, the Cognitive Flexibility Inventory (CFI; Dennis & Vander Wal, 2010) and the Cognitive Flexibility Scale (CFS; Martin & Rubin, 1995), against neuropsychological measures of cognitive flexibility in a clinical sample of 47 older adults with comorbid anxiety and depression and a nonclinical sample of 53 community-dwelling older adults. Internal consistency was good for the CFS and CFI in all samples. The clinical sample reported poorer cognitive flexibility than did the nonclinical sample on self-report measures and performed more poorly on some neuropsychological measures. There was evidence of convergent validity between the 2 self-report measures but little relationship between the self-report and neuropsychological measures of cognitive flexibility, suggesting that self-report measures assess a different aspect of cognitive flexibility than does neuropsychological testing. Divergent validity was weak from measures of anxiety and depression in the combined and nonclinical samples but acceptable in the clinical sample. Results suggest that these measures are suitable for use with an older adult sample but do not assess the same aspects of cognitive flexibility as are assessed by neuropsychological assessment. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Comparing the Validity of Non-Invasive Methods in Measuring Thoracic Kyphosis and Lumbar Lordosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Yousefi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: the purpose of this article is to study the validity of each of the non-invasive methods (flexible ruler, spinal mouse, and processing the image versus the one through-Ray radiation (the basic method and comparing them with each other.Materials and Methods: for evaluating the validity of each of these non-invasive methods, the thoracic Kyphosis and lumber Lordosis angle of 20 students of Birjand University (age mean and standard deviation: 26±2, weight: 72±2.5 kg, height: 169±5.5 cm through fours methods of flexible ruler, spinal mouse, and image processing and X-ray.Results: the results indicated that the validity of the methods including flexible ruler, spinal mouse, and image processing in measuring the thoracic Kyphosis and lumber Lordosis angle respectively have an adherence of 0.81, 0.87, 0.73, 0.76, 0.83, 0.89 (p>0.05. As a result, regarding the gained validity against the golden method of X-ray, it could be stated that the three mentioned non-invasive methods have adequate validity. In addition, the one-way analysis of variance test indicated that there existed a meaningful relationship between the three methods of measuring the thoracic Kyphosis and lumber Lordosis, and with respect to the Tukey’s test result, the image processing method is the most precise one.Conclusion as a result, this method could be used along with other non-invasive methods as a valid measuring method.

  19. Measurement and validation of measures for impulsive food choice across obese and healthy-weight individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, Kelsie L; Rasmussen, Erin B; Lawyer, Steven R

    2015-07-01

    The present study established a brief measure of delay discounting for food, the Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ), and compared it to another more established measure of food discounting that uses the adjusting amount (AA) procedure. One hundred forty-four undergraduate participants completed either two measures of hypothetical food discounting (a computerized food AA procedure or the FCQ) or two measures of hypothetical money discounting [a computerized monetary AA procedure or the Monetary Choice questionnaire (MCQ)]. The money condition was used as a replication of previous work. Results indicated that the FCQ yielded consistent data that strongly correlated with the AA food discounting task. Moreover, a magnitude effect was found with the FCQ, such that smaller amounts of food were discounted more steeply than larger amounts. In addition, individuals with higher percent body fat (PBF) discounted food more steeply than individuals with lower PBF. The MCQ, which also produced a magnitude effect, and the monetary adjusting amount procedure yielded data that were orderly, consistent, and correlated strongly with one another, replicating previous literature. This study is the first to show that a novel measure of food discounting (the FCQ) yields consistent data strongly correlated with an established measure of food discounting and is sensitive to PBF. Moreover, the FCQ is easier and quicker to administer than the AA procedure, which may interest researchers who use discounting tasks in food-related research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The color of melt ponds on Arctic sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Peng; Leppäranta, Matti; Cheng, Bin; Li, Zhijun; Istomina, Larysa; Heygster, Georg

    2018-04-01

    Pond color, which creates the visual appearance of melt ponds on Arctic sea ice in summer, is quantitatively investigated using a two-stream radiative transfer model for ponded sea ice. The upwelling irradiance from the pond surface is determined and then its spectrum is transformed into RGB (red, green, blue) color space using a colorimetric method. The dependence of pond color on various factors such as water and ice properties and incident solar radiation is investigated. The results reveal that increasing underlying ice thickness Hi enhances both the green and blue intensities of pond color, whereas the red intensity is mostly sensitive to Hi for thin ice (Hi 1.5 m), similar to the behavior of melt-pond albedo. The distribution of the incident solar spectrum F0 with wavelength affects the pond color rather than its intensity. The pond color changes from dark blue to brighter blue with increasing scattering in ice, and the influence of absorption in ice on pond color is limited. The pond color reproduced by the model agrees with field observations for Arctic sea ice in summer, which supports the validity of this study. More importantly, the pond color has been confirmed to contain information about meltwater and underlying ice, and therefore it can be used as an index to retrieve Hi and Hp. Retrievals of Hi for thin ice (Hi measurements than retrievals for thick ice, but those of Hp are not good. The analysis of pond color is a new potential method to obtain thin ice thickness in summer, although more validation data and improvements to the radiative transfer model will be needed in future.