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Sample records for color similarity slice

  1. SIFT-based Ear Recognition by Fusion of Detected Keypoints from Color Similarity Slice Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Kisku, Dakshina Ranjan; Gupta, Phalguni; Sing, Jamuna Kanta

    2010-01-01

    Ear biometric is considered as one of the most reliable and invariant biometrics characteristics in line with iris and fingerprint characteristics. In many cases, ear biometrics can be compared with face biometrics regarding many physiological and texture characteristics. In this paper, a robust and efficient ear recognition system is presented, which uses Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) as feature descriptor for structural representation of ear images. In order to make it more robust to user authentication, only the regions having color probabilities in a certain ranges are considered for invariant SIFT feature extraction, where the K-L divergence is used for keeping color consistency. Ear skin color model is formed by Gaussian mixture model and clustering the ear color pattern using vector quantization. Finally, K-L divergence is applied to the GMM framework for recording the color similarity in the specified ranges by comparing color similarity between a pair of reference model and probe ear image...

  2. Color changes and acrylamide formation in fried potato slices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedreschi, Franco; Moyano, Pedro; Kaack, Karl;

    2005-01-01

    at 85degreesC for 3.5 min. Unblanched slices were used as the control. Control and blanched potato slices (Panda variety, diameter: 37 mm, width: 2.2 mm) were fried at 120, 150 and 180degreesC until reaching moisture contents of similar to1.8% (total basis) and their acrylamide content and final color...... were measured. Color changes were recorded at different sampling times during frying at the three mentioned temperatures using the chromatic redness parameter a(*). Experimental data of surface temperature, moisture content and color change in potato chips during frying were fit to empirical...... relationship with correlation coefficients greater than 90%. A first-order rate equation was used to model the kinetics of color change. In all case the Arrhenius activation energy decreases alongside with decreasing chip moisture content. Blanching reduced acrylamide formation in potato chips in similar to64...

  3. 100-Meter Resolution Color-Sliced Elevation of Alaska - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The map layer of Color-Sliced Elevation of Alaska is a 100-meter resolution elevation image of Alaska, in an Albers Equal-Area Conic projection. Each color tint...

  4. USGS Small-scale Dataset - 100-Meter Resolution Color-Sliced Elevation of Hawaii 201303 TIFF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The map layer of Color-Sliced Elevation of Hawaii is a 100-meter resolution elevation image of Hawaii, in an Albers Equal-Area Conic projection. Each color tint...

  5. USGS Small-scale Dataset - 100-Meter Resolution Color-Sliced Elevation of Alaska 201303 TIFF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The map layer of Color-Sliced Elevation of Alaska is a 100-meter resolution elevation image of Alaska, in an Albers Equal-Area Conic projection. Each color tint...

  6. 100-Meter Resolution Color-Sliced Elevation of Hawaii - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The map layer of Color-Sliced Elevation of Hawaii is a 100-meter resolution elevation image of Hawaii, in an Albers Equal-Area Conic projection. Each color tint...

  7. Similarly shaped letters evoke similar colors in grapheme-color synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brang, David; Rouw, Romke; Ramachandran, V S; Coulson, Seana

    2011-04-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia is a neurological condition in which viewing numbers or letters (graphemes) results in the concurrent sensation of color. While the anatomical substrates underlying this experience are well understood, little research to date has investigated factors influencing the particular colors associated with particular graphemes or how synesthesia occurs developmentally. A recent suggestion of such an interaction has been proposed in the cascaded cross-tuning (CCT) model of synesthesia, which posits that in synesthetes connections between grapheme regions and color area V4 participate in a competitive activation process, with synesthetic colors arising during the component-stage of grapheme processing. This model more directly suggests that graphemes sharing similar component features (lines, curves, etc.) should accordingly activate more similar synesthetic colors. To test this proposal, we created and regressed synesthetic color-similarity matrices for each of 52 synesthetes against a letter-confusability matrix, an unbiased measure of visual similarity among graphemes. Results of synesthetes' grapheme-color correspondences indeed revealed that more similarly shaped graphemes corresponded with more similar synesthetic colors, with stronger effects observed in individuals with more intense synesthetic experiences (projector synesthetes). These results support the CCT model of synesthesia, implicate early perceptual mechanisms as driving factors in the elicitation of synesthetic hues, and further highlight the relationship between conceptual and perceptual factors in this phenomenon. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Slices

    KAUST Repository

    McCrae, James

    2011-01-01

    Minimalist object representations or shape-proxies that spark and inspire human perception of shape remain an incompletely understood, yet powerful aspect of visual communication. We explore the use of planar sections, i.e., the contours of intersection of planes with a 3D object, for creating shape abstractions, motivated by their popularity in art and engineering. We first perform a user study to show that humans do define consistent and similar planar section proxies for common objects. Interestingly, we observe a strong correlation between user-defined planes and geometric features of objects. Further we show that the problem of finding the minimum set of planes that capture a set of 3D geometric shape features is both NP-hard and not always the proxy a user would pick. Guided by the principles inferred from our user study, we present an algorithm that progressively selects planes to maximize feature coverage, which in turn influence the selection of subsequent planes. The algorithmic framework easily incorporates various shape features, while their relative importance values are computed and validated from the user study data. We use our algorithm to compute planar slices for various objects, validate their utility towards object abstraction using a second user study, and conclude showing the potential applications of the extracted planar slice shape proxies. © 2011 ACM.

  9. 100-Meter Resolution Color-Sliced Elevation of the Conterminous United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The map layer of Color-Sliced Elevation of the Conterminous United States is a 100-meter resolution elevation image of the United States, in an Albers Equal-Area...

  10. COLOR PERCEPTION HISTOGRAM FOR IMAGE RETRIEVAL USING MULTIPLE SIMILARITY MEASURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Malini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to increase the retrieval efficiency of proposed image retrieval system on the basis of color content. A new idea of feature extraction based on color perception histogram is proposed. First, the color histogram is constructed for HSV image. Secondly, the true color and grey color components are identified based on hue and intensity. The weight for true and grey color components is calculated using NBS distance. An updated histogram is constructed using weighted true and grey color values. The color features extracted from the updated histogram of query image and for all the images in image database are compared with existing color histogram based technique by using multiple similarity measures. Experimental results show that proposed image retrieval based on the color perception histogram gives higher retrieval performance in terms of high average precision and average recall with less computational complexity.

  11. Mathematical Modeling of Hot Air Drying Kinetics of Momordica Charantia Slices and Its Color Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Chen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study presented the drying characteristics of fresh Momordica Charantia slices at different drying temperatures (50, 60, 70 and 80°C and different thicknesses (0.5, 0.75 and 1.0 cm. Three mathematical models including Page, Henderson and Pabis and Wang and Singh equations were compared and discussed. The results showed that the Page model provided the best correlation capacity with the decision coefficient R2 of 0.998. The color change of Momordica Charantia slices during hot air drying at different temperatures were also studied by the measuring of color parameters such as the values of Hunter L* (whiteness/darkness, a* (redness/greenness and b* (yellowness/blueness. The total color change (ΔE of the samples was observed to increase as drying temperature increased. The results show that the color ofMomordica Charantia slices changed sharply when temperature was higher than about 70°C. The study could provide theoretical bases of the equipment design and process optimization for hot air drying of Momordica Charantia

  12. Similarly shaped letters evoke similar colors in grapheme-color synesthesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brang, D.; Rouw, R.; Ramachandran, V.S.; Coulson, S.

    2011-01-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia is a neurological condition in which viewing numbers or letters (graphemes) results in the concurrent sensation of color. While the anatomical substrates underlying this experience are well understood, little research to date has investigated factors influencing the

  13. Similarly shaped letters evoke similar colors in grapheme-color synesthesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brang, D.; Rouw, R.; Ramachandran, V.S.; Coulson, S.

    2011-01-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia is a neurological condition in which viewing numbers or letters (graphemes) results in the concurrent sensation of color. While the anatomical substrates underlying this experience are well understood, little research to date has investigated factors influencing the partic

  14. USGS Small-scale Dataset - 100-Meter Resolution Color-Sliced Elevation of the Conterminous United States 201303 TIFF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The map layer of Color-Sliced Elevation of the Conterminous United States is a 100-meter resolution elevation image of the United States, in an Albers Equal-Area...

  15. Effects of illumination and packaging on non-heme iron and color attributes of sliced ham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H; Li, C B; Xu, X L; Zhou, G H

    2012-08-01

    This study was designed to investigate effects of illumination and packaging on color of cooked cured sliced ham during refrigeration, and the possibility of decomposition of nitrosylheme under light and oxygen exposure. Three illumination levels and three packaging films with different oxygen transmission rates (OTRs) were used in two separate experiments during 35 days storage, and pH value, a* value, nitrosylheme, residual nitrite and non-heme iron were evaluated. Packaging OTRs had significant effects (P0.05) nitrosylheme concentration during storage. For both groups, storage time had a significant effect (Pheme iron in the packaging group were observed. Therefore, illumination level and packaging OTR had limited effects on overall pigment stability, but more discoloration and loss of redness occurred on the surface of products.

  16. Color in Reference Production : The Role of Color Similarity and Color Codability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viethen, Jette; van Vessem, Thomas; Goudbeek, Martijn; Krahmer, Emiel

    2016-01-01

    It has often been observed that color is a highly preferred attribute for use in distinguishing descriptions, that is, referring expressions produced with the purpose of identifying an object within a visual scene. However, most of these observations were based on visual displays containing only

  17. 100-Meter Resolution Color-Sliced Elevation of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The map layer of Color-Sliced Elevation of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands is a 100-meter resolution elevation image of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin...

  18. Matching-based fresh-slice method for generating two-color x-ray free-electron lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weilun Qin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Two-color high intensity x-ray free-electron lasers (FELs provide powerful tools for probing ultrafast dynamic systems. A novel concept of realizing fresh-slice two-color lasing through slice-dependent transverse mismatch has been proposed by one of the authors [Y. Chao, SLAC Report No. SLAC-PUB-16935, 2016]. In this paper we present a feasible example following this concept based on the Linac Coherent Light Source parameters. Time-dependent mismatch along the bunch is generated by a passive dechirper module and controlled by downstream matching sections, enabling FEL lasing at different wavelength with a split undulator configuration. Simulations for soft x-ray FELs show that tens of gigawatts pulses with femtosecond duration can be generated.

  19. USGS Small-scale Dataset - 100-Meter Resolution Color-Sliced Elevation of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands 201303 TIFF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The map layer of Color-Sliced Elevation of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands is a 100-meter resolution elevation image of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin...

  20. Infants' preferences for toys, colors, and shapes: sex differences and similarities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadva, Vasanti; Hines, Melissa; Golombok, Susan

    2010-12-01

    Girls and boys differ in their preferences for toys such as dolls and trucks. These sex differences are present in infants, are seen in non-human primates, and relate, in part, to prenatal androgen exposure. This evidence of inborn influences on sex-typed toy preferences has led to suggestions that object features, such as the color or the shape of toys, may be of intrinsically different interest to males and females. We used a preferential looking task to examine preferences for different toys, colors, and shapes in 120 infants, ages 12, 18, or 24 months. Girls looked at dolls significantly more than boys did and boys looked at cars significantly more than girls did, irrespective of color, particularly when brightness was controlled. These outcomes did not vary with age. There were no significant sex differences in infants' preferences for different colors or shapes. Instead, both girls and boys preferred reddish colors over blue and rounded over angular shapes. These findings augment prior evidence of sex-typed toy preferences in infants, but suggest that color and shape do not determine these sex differences. In fact, the direction of influence could be the opposite. Girls may learn to prefer pink, for instance, because the toys that they enjoy playing with are often colored pink. Regarding within sex differences, as opposed to differences between boys and girls, both boys and girls preferred dolls to cars at age 12-months. The preference of young boys for dolls over cars suggests that older boys' avoidance of dolls may be acquired. Similarly, the sex similarities in infants' preferences for colors and shapes suggest that any subsequent sex differences in these preferences may arise from socialization or cognitive gender development rather than inborn factors.

  1. Evaluation of Various Packaging Systems on the Activity of Antioxidant Enzyme, and Oxidation and Color Stabilities in Sliced Hanwoo (Korean Cattle Beef Loin during Chill Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Moon Kang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of various packaging systems, vacuum packaging (VACP, medium oxygen-modified atmosphere packaging (50% O2/20% CO2/30% N2, MOMAP, MOMAP combined with vacuum skin packaging (VSP-MOMAP, high oxygen-MAP (80% O2/20% CO2/0% N2, HOMAP, and HOMAP combined with VSP (VSP-HOMAP, on the activity of antioxidant enzyme, and oxidation and color stabilities in sliced Hanwoo (Korean cattle beef loin were investigated at 4°C for 14 d. Higher (p<0.05 superoxide dismutase activity and total reducing ability were maintained in VSP-MOMAP beef than in HOMAP beef. Lipid oxidation (2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS was significantly (p<0.05 retarded in MOMAP, VSP-MOMAP, and VSP-HOMAP beef compared with HOMAP beef. Production of nonheme iron content was lower (p<0.05 in VSP-MOMAP beef than in HOMAP beef. Red color (a* was kept higher (p<0.05 in VSP-MOMAP beef compared with MOMAP, HOMAP, and VSP-HOMAP beef. However, VACP beef was found to have the most positive effects on the antioxidant activity, oxidation and red color stabilities among the various packaged beef. These findings suggested that VSP-MOMAP was second to VACP in improving oxidation and color stabilities in sliced beef loin during chill storage.

  2. Color-Based Image Retrieval from High-Similarity Image Databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Adsetts Edberg

    Many image classification problems can fruitfully be thought of as image retrieval in a "high similarity image database" (HSID) characterized by being tuned towards a specific application and having a high degree of visual similarity between entries that should be distinguished. We introduce...... a method for HSID retrieval using a similarity measure based on a linear combination of Jeffreys-Matusita (JM) distances between distributions of color (and color derivatives) estimated from a set of automatically extracted image regions. The weight coefficients are estimated based on optimal retrieval...... performance. Experimental results on the difficult task of visually identifying clones of fungal colonies grown in a petri dish and categorization of pelts show a high retrieval accuracy of the method when combined with standardized sample preparation and image acquisition....

  3. Color-Based Image Retrieval from High-Similarity Image Databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Adsetts Edberg; Carstensen, Jens Michael

    2003-01-01

    Many image classification problems can fruitfully be thought of as image retrieval in a "high similarity image database" (HSID) characterized by being tuned towards a specific application and having a high degree of visual similarity between entries that should be distinguished. We introduce...... a method for HSID retrieval using a similarity measure based on a linear combination of Jeffreys-Matusita (JM) distances between distributions of color (and color derivatives) estimated from a set of automatically extracted image regions. The weight coefficients are estimated based on optimal retrieval...... performance. Experimental results on the difficult task of visually identifying clones of fungal colonies grown in a petri dish and categorization of pelts show a high retrieval accuracy of the method when combined with standardized sample preparation and image acquisition....

  4. Human Detection Using Random Color Similarity Feature and Random Ferns Classifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Miaohui; Xin, Ming

    2016-01-01

    We explore a novel approach for human detection based on random color similarity feature (RCS) and random ferns classifier which is also known as semi-naive Bayesian classifier. In contrast to other existing features employed by human detection, color-based features are rarely used in vision-based human detection because of large intra-class variations. In this paper, we propose a novel color-based feature, RCS feature, which is yielded by simple color similarity computation between image cells randomly picked in still images, and can effectively characterize human appearances. In addition, a histogram of oriented gradient based local binary feature (HOG-LBF) is also introduced to enrich the human descriptor set. Furthermore, random ferns classifier is used in the proposed approach because of its faster speed in training and testing than traditional classifiers such as Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier, without a loss in performance. Finally, the proposed method is conducted in public datasets and achieves competitive detection results.

  5. Influência das condições de armazenamento sobre os pigmentos cárneos e a cor do salame italiano fatiado Influence the storage conditions on the meats pigments and the color of the sliced italian salame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Michele Marches

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available O consumo de produtos cárneos fatiados tem aumentado nos últimos anos, particularmente os produtos curados como o salame. Os vários tipos de salame existentes são fatiados pelas indústrias de carne e/ou pelos supermercados, sem levar em conta as possíveis alterações que possam vir a ocorrer com tal procedimento. As alterações que ocorrem nos pigmentos cárneos totais e nitrosos repercutem na cor, que é detectada pelo consumidor e influencia diretamente no consumo de produtos desta natureza. O presente estudo teve como objetivo investigar o efeito da intensidade de luz, do oxigênio e da temperatura na conversão dos pigmentos cárneos em nitrosos, na quantidade de pigmentos cárneos totais e nitrosos e no índice de cor vermelha, nas fatias de salame tipo italiano. Tais fatias foram acondicionadas em quatro modelos de embalagens diferentes quanto à permeabilidade à luz e ao oxigênio e armazenadas durante 32 dias em temperaturas de 10 °C e 15 °C sob 930 LUX, continuamente, sendo estas condições similares às empregadas em gôndolas de supermercados. A quantidade dos pigmentos cárneos totais e nitrosos, o índice de cor vermelha (a*, determinado pelo método CIE* Lab, foram mensurados nas fatias no zero, 4º, 6º, 12º, 14º, 19º, 25º, 27º e 32º dia de armazenamento. Os resultados obtidos foram avaliados estatisticamente por análise de variância e teste de Tukey, adotando nível de confiança de 95% (p The consumption of sliced meat products has grown in the last few years, especially for cured products as pastrami. The different kinds of pastrami are sliced by meat industry or in the supermarkets, without concern on possible alterations that may occur in the product. The changes on the total and nitrous meat pigments influence the color of the product, which is detected by the consumer, and thus directly influences the consumption of this kind of product. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of light

  6. Color Image Segmentation Based on Color Similarity of RGB Model%基于RGB模型颜色相似性的彩色图像分割

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨康叶; 邬春学

    2013-01-01

      图像分割是图像处理的重要步骤,由于彩色图像含有的信息比灰度图像还多,因而对彩色图像分割的研究越来越受到人们的关注。提出一种新的基于 RGB 空间颜色相似性的彩色图像分割方法。首先比较各种颜色模型的优势与不足,然后根据 RGB 颜色空间的颜色信息和亮度信息提出一种计算在 RGB 空间下颜色相似性的方法,再结合提出的图像颜色分量计算方法,从而形成颜色分类地图,最后根据颜色分类图进行像素划分,得到分割结果。实验在 Matlab 平台上进行,结果表明:对于颜色分明的图像,该算法准确性高,有较好的健壮性和较低的计算复杂度,能很好应用在图像前景与背景分割应用上。%The research of color image segmentation attracts more and more people’s attention for color image has more information than gray image. In this paper, a novel color image segmentation method is proposed based on color similarity in RGB color space. According to the color and luminance information in RGB color space, the dominant color is determined firstly;then a scale invariant and semantic mathematic model, called SIMILATION, is exploited to calculating color similarity, and Combined with the proposed calculations method of color component, which creates a color-class map. Finally, the information of the corresponding color-class map is utilized to classify the pixels. Experimental results clearly show that the proposed color similarity based color image segmentation algorithm is accurate, robust with low computational complexity.

  7. Similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostol, Tom M. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    In this 'Project Mathematics! series, sponsored by the California Institute for Technology (CalTech), the mathematical concept of similarity is presented. he history of and real life applications are discussed using actual film footage and computer animation. Terms used and various concepts of size, shape, ratio, area, and volume are demonstrated. The similarity of polygons, solids, congruent triangles, internal ratios, perimeters, and line segments using the previous mentioned concepts are shown.

  8. Architectural slicing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Hansen, Klaus Marius

    2013-01-01

    a system and a slicing criterion, architectural slicing produces an architectural prototype that contain the elements in the architecture that are dependent on the ele- ments in the slicing criterion. Furthermore, we present an initial design and implementation of an architectural slicer for Java.......Architectural prototyping is a widely used practice, con- cerned with taking architectural decisions through experiments with light- weight implementations. However, many architectural decisions are only taken when systems are already (partially) implemented. This is prob- lematic in the context...... of architectural prototyping since experiments with full systems are complex and expensive and thus architectural learn- ing is hindered. In this paper, we propose a novel technique for harvest- ing architectural prototypes from existing systems, \\architectural slic- ing", based on dynamic program slicing. Given...

  9. Slice Sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Neal, R M

    2000-01-01

    Markov chain sampling methods that automatically adapt to characteristics of the distribution being sampled can be constructed by exploiting the principle that one can sample from a distribution by sampling uniformly from the region under the plot of its density function. A Markov chain that converges to this uniform distribution can be constructed by alternating uniform sampling in the vertical direction with uniform sampling from the horizontal `slice' defined by the current vertical position, or more generally, with some update that leaves the uniform distribution over this slice invariant. Variations on such `slice sampling' methods are easily implemented for univariate distributions, and can be used to sample from a multivariate distribution by updating each variable in turn. This approach is often easier to implement than Gibbs sampling, and more efficient than simple Metropolis updates, due to the ability of slice sampling to adaptively choose the magnitude of changes made. It is therefore attractive f...

  10. Architectural Slicing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Hansen, Klaus Marius

    2013-01-01

    a system and a slicing criterion, architectural slicing produces an architectural prototype that contain the elements in the architecture that are dependent on the ele- ments in the slicing criterion. Furthermore, we present an initial design and implementation of an architectural slicer for Java.......Architectural prototyping is a widely used practice, con- cerned with taking architectural decisions through experiments with light- weight implementations. However, many architectural decisions are only taken when systems are already (partially) implemented. This is prob- lematic in the context...... of architectural prototyping since experiments with full systems are complex and expensive and thus architectural learn- ing is hindered. In this paper, we propose a novel technique for harvest- ing architectural prototypes from existing systems, \\architectural slic- ing", based on dynamic program slicing. Given...

  11. Color Image Segmentation Based on Statistics of Location and Feature Similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Fumihiko; Yamada, Hiromitsu; Mizuno, Makoto; Sugano, Naotoshi

    The process of “image segmentation and extracting remarkable regions” is an important research subject for the image understanding. However, an algorithm based on the global features is hardly found. The requisite of such an image segmentation algorism is to reduce as much as possible the over segmentation and over unification. We developed an algorithm using the multidimensional convex hull based on the density as the global feature. In the concrete, we propose a new algorithm in which regions are expanded according to the statistics of the region such as the mean value, standard deviation, maximum value and minimum value of pixel location, brightness and color elements and the statistics are updated. We also introduced a new concept of conspicuity degree and applied it to the various 21 images to examine the effectiveness. The remarkable object regions, which were extracted by the presented system, highly coincided with those which were pointed by the sixty four subjects who attended the psychological experiment.

  12. Color-Based Image Retrieval from High-Similarity Image Databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Adsetts Edberg; Carstensen, Jens Michael

    2003-01-01

    Many image classification problems can fruitfully be thought of as image retrieval in a "high similarity image database" (HSID) characterized by being tuned towards a specific application and having a high degree of visual similarity between entries that should be distinguished. We introduce...

  13. Color-Based Image Retrieval from High-Similarity Image Databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Adsetts Edberg

    Many image classification problems can fruitfully be thought of as image retrieval in a "high similarity image database" (HSID) characterized by being tuned towards a specific application and having a high degree of visual similarity between entries that should be distinguished. We introduce...

  14. Self-similar Hierarchical Wrinkles as a Potential Multifunctional Smart Window with Simultaneously Tunable Transparency, Structural Color, and Droplet Transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Gaojian; Chandrasekaran, Prashant; Lv, Cunjing; Zhang, Qiuting; Tang, Yichao; Han, Lin; Yin, Jie

    2017-08-09

    Smart window has immense potential for energy savings in architectural and vehicular applications, while most studies focus on the tunability of a single property of optical transmittance. Here we explore harnessing dynamically tunable hierarchical wrinkles for design of a potential multifunctional smart window with combined structural color and water droplet transport control. The self-similar hierarchical wrinkles with both nanoscale and microscale features are generated on a prestrained poly(dimethylsiloxane) elastomer through sequential strain release and multistep oxygen plasma treatment. We show that the hierarchically wrinkled elastomer displays both opaqueness and iridescent structural color. We find that restretching/releasing the elastomer leads to the reversible and repeatable switch from opaqueness to transparency, arising from the flattening of large wrinkles (micrometer scale), while a nonvanishing structural color occurs due to the nondisappearing small wrinkles (nanoscale). The unique features of combined reversible large wrinkles and irreversible small wrinkles during hierarchical wrinkling are well reproduced by corresponding finite element simulation. The criteria for generating self-similar hierarchical wrinkles is revealed through a simplified theoretical model and validated by experiments. In addition to its tunable optical property, we further show its ability in control of water droplet transport on demand through mechanical stretching and release. We find that an initially pinned water droplet on the tilted hierarchically wrinkled surface starts to slide when the surface is stretched, and becomes pinned again upon strain release. Such a process is reversible and repeatable. The hierarchically wrinkled surface could find broad potential applications not only in multifunctional smart windows with additional features of aesthetics and water collection, but in microfluidics, design of slippery surfaces, and directional water transportation.

  15. 三种提取物对双孢菇片烫漂颜色和品质的影响%Effect of Three Plant Extracts on Color and Quality of Mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) Slices during Blanching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静; 王安建; 刘丽娜; 魏书信; 田广瑞; 杨慧; 王赵改

    2014-01-01

    In order to select the effective browning inhibitors , the impact of water blanching followed by soaking in plant extracts solution on color and quality of mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) slices were investigated. These pre-treatments, including soaking in rhizoma atractylodes, lophatherum gracile and papaya extracts solution combined with water blanching , can inhibit the browning of the mushroom slices to some extent , and the best treatment concentration were 0.5, 2.0 g/L and 2.0 g/L, respectively. Blanching can significantly reduce the ascorbic acid and total phenol content of mushroom slices. However , those mushrooms undergoing soaking in three plant extracts solution and blanching , as opposed to soaking in water and blanching , exhibited higher ascorbic acid and total phenol content.%为了筛选有效的褐变抑制剂,研究了白术、淡竹叶、木瓜提取物溶液浸泡前处理结合沸水烫漂对双孢菇颜色和品质的影响。结果表明,经白术、淡竹叶、木瓜3种植物提取物前处理均可以在一定程度上抑制菇片的褐变,其最佳处理浓度分别为0.5、2.0、2.0 g/L。沸水烫漂可以显著降低菇片的抗坏血酸和总酚的含量,但经3种植物提取物浸泡前处理的菇片抗坏血酸和总酚的含量均高于清水浸泡前处理的菇片。

  16. Ear Identification by Fusion of Segmented Slice Regions using Invariant Features: An Experimental Manifold with Dual Fusion Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Kisku, Dakshina Ranjan; Sing, Jamuna Kanta

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a robust ear identification system which is developed by fusing SIFT features of color segmented slice regions of an ear. The proposed ear identification method makes use of Gaussian mixture model (GMM) to build ear model with mixture of Gaussian using vector quantization algorithm and K-L divergence is applied to the GMM framework for recording the color similarity in the specified ranges by comparing color similarity between a pair of reference ear and probe ear. SIFT features are then detected and extracted from each color slice region as a part of invariant feature extraction. The extracted keypoints are then fused separately by the two fusion approaches, namely concatenation and the Dempster-Shafer theory. Finally, the fusion approaches generate two independent augmented feature vectors which are used for identification of individuals separately. The proposed identification technique is tested on IIT Kanpur ear database of 400 individuals and is found to achieve 98.25% accuracy for id...

  17. Thick Slice and Thin Slice Teaching Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom, Gail; Tong, Stephanie Tom; Hesse, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Student-based teaching evaluations are an integral component to institutions of higher education. Previous work on student-based teaching evaluations suggest that evaluations of instructors based upon "thin slice" 30-s video clips of them in the classroom correlate strongly with their end of the term "thick slice" student evaluations. This study's…

  18. The pathological slices fission as analysis of characteristics of color%病理切片中核分裂象的彩色特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亮

    2014-01-01

    Tumor size and mitotic figures (MF) is considered the most important and the most convenient objective indicator to predict the behavior of a variety of tumor biology, so the statistics biopsy in the number of mitotic activity is an important basis of de-termining a tumor. This paper attempts to use digital image processing technology, from the state to proceed mitotic staining of tissue sections on the various components of the color analysis for the eventual mitotic count, assistant clinical make a correct diagnosis.%肿瘤大小和核分裂象(MF)被视为最重要和最方便的、组织学标准下预测多种肿瘤生物学行为的客观指标,因此统计病理切片中核分裂象的个数是判断肿瘤的重要依据之一。本文试图利用数字图像处理技术,从核分裂像的染色状态着手,对病理切片中的各个成分进行颜色上的分析,为最终实现核分裂象的计数、辅助临床做出正确诊断提供依据。

  19. HDRK-Man: a whole-body voxel model based on high-resolution color slice images of a Korean adult male cadaver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chan Hyeong; Choi, Sang Hyoun; Jeong, Jong Hwi; Lee, Choonsik; Chung, Min Suk

    2008-08-07

    A Korean voxel model, named 'High-Definition Reference Korean-Man (HDRK-Man)', was constructed using high-resolution color photographic images that were obtained by serially sectioning the cadaver of a 33-year-old Korean adult male. The body height and weight, the skeletal mass and the dimensions of the individual organs and tissues were adjusted to the reference Korean data. The resulting model was then implemented into a Monte Carlo particle transport code, MCNPX, to calculate the dose conversion coefficients for the internal organs and tissues. The calculated values, overall, were reasonable in comparison with the values from other adult voxel models. HDRK-Man showed higher dose conversion coefficients than other models, due to the facts that HDRK-Man has a smaller torso and that the arms of HDRK-Man are shifted backward. The developed model is believed to adequately represent average Korean radiation workers and thus can be used for more accurate calculation of dose conversion coefficients for Korean radiation workers in the future.

  20. Appropriate water blanching treatment to keep quality and color of Agaricus bisporus slices%适宜热烫条件保持双孢蘑菇片品质和颜色

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静; 李顺峰; 王安建; 陈瑾; 田广瑞

    2014-01-01

    Button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) is one of the most popular and valuable mushrooms in the world, and it is usually processed for long-time storage. Button mushrooms are a good source of vitamins, protein, phenolics, polysaccharose and many mineral elements. However, they are highly perishable commodities due to browning, water loss, senescence, and microbial attack, in which, browning reactions limit their shelf life to a few days. The enzyme polyphenoloxidase (PPO) is the responsible cause of this deteriorative process. In view of their highly perishable nature, button mushrooms must be processed to extend their commercial shelf life for off-season use. The production of heat-sterilized preserves represents most usual long-term preservation. Sterilization accounts for more than 60 percent of industrially processed mushrooms. In the preparation process of sterilized mushrooms, blanching is an important pre-treatment, which objectives may be:(i) to reduce enzymatic browning through thermal inactivation of PPO;(ii) to induce volume contraction (shrinkage) to avoid this occurrence at the sterilization stage;(iii) to make the product more pliable to facilitate filling operations. However, some negative features of blanching are the loss of valuable nutritious components, partial biochemical conversions of components resulting in changes in aroma and - in general - deteriorative effects on sensory properties like texture and color, which are the main features taken into account by consumers. To maintain the quality and color of button mushrooms, the content of ascorbic acid and total phenolic, antioxidant capacity, and color of button mushroom slices blanched between 85℃and 100℃with an increment of 5℃ for different times were investigated. Results showed that blanching significantly reduced the content of ascorbic acid and total phenolic, antioxidant capacity, and color. Ascorbic acid and total phenolic content decreased by 66.67 percent-93.33 percent and 12

  1. Comparison of findings of spontaneous splenorenal shunt in color Doppler sonography with multislice CT scan (64 slices) in liver transplant candidates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagheri, Mohammadhadi, E-mail: Bagherimh@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Namazi Hospital, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hajati, Azadeh, E-mail: azadeh.hajati@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Namazi Hospital, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hosseini, Mohammadkazem, E-mail: hosseiniaslm@sums.ac.ir [Department of Radiology, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Namazi Hospital, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ostad, Seyed Pouria, E-mail: Pouria.Ostad@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Namazi Hospital, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    Background: Liver transplantation is the only definite treatment for end stage liver disease and it has high costs for the medical system so decreasing its complication and increasing its effectiveness is crucial. One of the factors that affect liver transplantation is the presence of spontaneous splenorenal shunt. Its diagnosis is mainly overlooked in pre-liver transplant patients. Main modality for its diagnosis is multislice CT scan however this is more expensive than sonography. Also, it exposes the patients to ionizing radiation. Considering the advantages of color Doppler ultrasound, studies to determine the sensitivity and specificity for detection of spontaneous splenorenal shunt is essential. Materials and methods: In our study 70 cirrhotic patients who were referred by liver transplant surgeons for evaluation of abdomen by CT and sonograhy were assessed for presence of spontaneous splenorenal shunt, left adrenal varix and left renal vein diameter and velocity and sensitivity and specificity of both modalities were checked. Patients in whom left renal vein could not evaluated by sonography and patients with splenectomy and nutcracker syndrome were excluded. Results: In the point of 10 mm diameter of left renal vein in CT scan there was 78.6% sensitivity and 67.9% specificity for the presence of spontaneous splenorenal shunt. Left adrenal varix in CT had sensitivity of 71.4%, specificity of 100%, and positive predictive value of 100% and negative predictive value of 70% and varix below spleen in CT had sensitivity of 54.8%, specificity of 96.4%, and positive predictive value of 95.8% and negative predictive value of 58.7% for the presence of spontaneous splenorenal shunt. In the point of 8 mm diameter of left renal vein in sonography there was 66.7% sensitivity and 85.7% specificity for the presence of spontaneous splenorenal shunt. For the velocity of more than 35 cm/s of left renal vein in sonography there was 61.9% sensitivity and 82.1% specificity for

  2. 常用护色剂对水煮藕片品质的影响%Influence on commonly used color fixatives to the quality of boiled sliced lotus root

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡燕; 刘红梅; 王清章

    2011-01-01

    With fresh lotus root as the material, the boiled sliced lotus root was processed with H2O2, NajSO3 and Na-C10. The content of physiological indexes such as total phenolic, reducing sugars, free amino acid, vitamin C and 5 hy-droxyl methyl furfural (5 - HMF) and chromaticity indexes such as lightness (L) , total chromaticity sent ( AE) and browning limit (BI) were determined. The commonly used color fixatives such as H2O2, NajSO3 and NaCIO were applied. The results showed that H2O2, NajSO3 and NaCIO could inhibit the browning of sliced lotus root. H2O2 and NaCIO inhibit the browning by reducing the degree of Maillard reaction. Na2SO3 reduce the reaction rate of the oxidative and decompose of VC as well as reducing the degree Maillard reaction to delay the browning.%为了探讨常用护色剂双氧水( H2O2)、亚硫酸钠(Na2SO3)和次氯酸钠(NaClO)对水煮藕片褐变及生理品质的影响,以新鲜莲藕为试验材料,用护色剂H2O2、Na2 SO3和NaClO对水煮藕片进行了处理,并对其在储藏过程中总酚含量、还原糖含量、游离氨基酸含量、维生素C含量和5 -羟甲基糠醛(5- HMF)等生理指标以及明度L、总色度差△E、褐变度BI等色度指标的变化进行了测量.结果表明:H2O2、Na2SO3和NaClO都可以不同程度的抑制水煮藕片的褐变.H2O2和NaClO可以通过减轻美拉德反应的程度来抑制藕片的褐变;Na2SO3一方面可以降低维生素C的氧化分解速率,另一方面还可以减轻美拉德反应的程度,从而延缓水煮藕片的褐变.

  3. A photometric and spectroscopic survey of solar twin stars within 50 parsecs of the Sun: I. Atmospheric parameters and color similarity to the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    de Mello, G F Porto; da Silva, L; de Nader, R V

    2013-01-01

    Solar twins and analogs are fundamental in the characterization of the Sun's place in the context of stellar measurements, as they are in understanding how typical the solar properties are in its neighborhood. They are also important for representing sunlight observable in the night sky for diverse photometric and spectroscopic tasks, besides being natural candidates for harboring planetary systems similar to ours and possibly even life-bearing environments. We report a photometric and spectroscopic survey of solar twin stars within 50 pc of the Sun. Hipparcos absolute magnitudes and (B-V)_Tycho colors were used to define a 2 sigma box around the solar values, where 133 stars were considered. Additional stars resembling the solar UBV colors in a broad sense, plus stars present in the lists of Hardorp, were also selected. All objects were ranked by a color-similarity index with respect to the Sun, defined by uvby and BV photometry. Moderately high-resolution, high-S/N spectra were used for a subsample of equat...

  4. Color-size Relations of Disc Galaxies with Similar Stellar Masses%同等质量下盘状星系的颜色-尺度关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付炜; 常瑞香; 沈世银; 张波

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the correlations between colors and sizes of disc galaxies with similar stellar masses, a sample of 7959 local face-on disc galaxies is collected from the main galaxy sample of the Seventh Data Release of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS DR7). Our results show that, under the condition that the stellar masses of disc galaxies are similar,the relation between u-r and size is weak, while g-r, r-i and r-z colors decrease with disk size. This means that the color-size relations of disc galaxies with similar stellar masses do exist, i.e., the more extended disc galaxies with similar stellar masses tend to have bluer colors. An artificial sample is constructed to confirm that this correlation is not driven by the color-stellar mass relations and size-stellar mass relation of disc galaxies. Our results suggest that the mass distribution of disk galaxies may have an important influence on their stellar formation history, i.e., the galaxies with more extended mass distribution evolve more slowly.%挑选Sloan数字巡天第7次释放数据(SDSS DR7)的主星系样本中近邻的、面向的盘状星系作为星系样本,统计研究了在恒星总质量相等的情况下盘状星系的颜色和尺度之间的相关性,并对相关性的真实性进行了检验.发现对于同等质量的盘状星系,u-r颜色与尺度相关性很弱,而g-r、r-i、r-z颜色与尺度负相关,即星系的尺度越大,颜色越蓝.该结果意味着盘状星系的质量分布对其恒星形成历史影响很大,物质分布越延展的星系,其演化越慢.

  5. Visible Human Slice Web Server: a first assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersch, Roger D.; Gennart, Benoit A.; Figueiredo, Oscar; Mazzariol, Marc; Tarraga, Joaquin; Vetsch, S.; Messerli, Vincent; Welz, R.; Bidaut, Luc M.

    1999-12-01

    The Visible Human Slice Server started offering its slicing services at the end of June 1998. From that date until the end of May, more than 280,000 slices were extracted from the Visible Man, by layman interested in anatomy, by students and by specialists. The Slice Server is based one Bi-Pentium PC and 16 disks. It is a scaled down version of a powerful parallel server comprising 5 Bi-Pentium Pro PCs and 60 disks. The parallel server program was created thanks to a computer-aided parallelization framework, which takes over the task of creating a multi-threaded pipelined parallel program from a high-level parallel program description. On the full blown architecture, the parallel program enables the extraction and resampling of up to 5 color slices per second. Extracting 5 slice/s requires to access the disks and extract subvolumes of the Visible Human at an aggregate throughput of 105 MB/s. The publicly accessible server enables to extract slices having any orientation. The slice position and orientation can either be specified for each slice separately or as a position and orientation offered by a Java applet and possible future improvements. In the very near future, the Web Slice Server will offer additional services, such as the possibility to extract ruled surfaces and to extract animations incorporating slices perpendicular to a user defined trajectory.

  6. Interactive Slice of the CMS detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Davis, Siona Ruth

    2016-01-01

    This slice shows a colorful cross-section of the CMS detector with all parts of the detector labelled. Viewers are invited to click on buttons associated with five types of particles to see what happens when each type interacts with the sections of the detector. The five types of particles users can select to send through the slice are muons, electrons, neutral hadrons, charged hadrons and photons. Supplementary information on each type of particles is given. Useful for inclusion into general talks on CMS etc. *Animated CMS "slice" for Powerpoint (Mac & PC) Original version - 2004 Updated version - July 2010 *Six slides required - first is a set of buttons; others are for each particle type (muon, electron, charged/neutral hadron, photon) Recommend putting slide 1 anywhere in your presentation and the rest at the end

  7. Phaco slice and separate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshinoff, S A

    1999-04-01

    Phaco slice and separate retains the advantages of the chopping techniques of Nagahara, Koch, and Fukasaku but replaces chopping or snapping with slicing across the center of the phaco-tip-stabilized nucleus using a Nagahara chopper and then repositioning the chopper to optimally separate the divided lens halves. As the lens is rotated in the capsular bag, small pieces of the nuclear pie are sliced off, separated, emulsified, and aspirated. Emulsification and aspiration can alternatively be left until most or all the slices have been made. This technique works with a broader range of lens densities than other chopping techniques and uses no sculpting and very little phaco time. The phaco time required for this technique is relatively independent of nuclear density compared with a sculpting technique.

  8. A visual thalamocortical slice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Jason N; Fenstermaker, Vivian; Watson, Brendon O; Yuste, Rafael

    2006-02-01

    We describe a thalamocortical slice preparation in which connectivity between the mouse lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) and primary visual cortex (V1) is preserved. Through DiI injections in fixed brains we traced and created a three-dimensional model of the mouse visual pathways. From this computer model we designed a slice preparation that contains a projection from LGN to V1. We prepared brain slices with these predicted coordinates and demonstrated anatomical LGN-V1 connectivity in these slices after LGN tracer injections. We also revealed functional LGN-V1 connectivity by stimulating LGN electrically and detecting responses in layer 4 of V1 using calcium imaging, field potential recordings and whole-cell recordings. We also identified layer-4 neurons that receive direct thalamocortical input. Finally, we compared cortical activity after LGN stimulation with spontaneous cortical activity and found significant overlap of the spatiotemporal dynamics generated by both types of events.

  9. Slice hyperholomorphic Schur analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Alpay, Daniel; Sabadini, Irene

    2016-01-01

    This book defines and examines the counterpart of Schur functions and Schur analysis in the slice hyperholomorphic setting. It is organized into three parts: the first introduces readers to classical Schur analysis, while the second offers background material on quaternions, slice hyperholomorphic functions, and quaternionic functional analysis. The third part represents the core of the book and explores quaternionic Schur analysis and its various applications. The book includes previously unpublished results and provides the basis for new directions of research.

  10. Thin layer drying of tomato slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das Purkayastha, Manashi; Nath, Amit; Deka, Bidyut Chandra; Mahanta, Charu Lata

    2013-08-01

    The hot air convective drying characteristics of blanched tomato (Lycopersicon esculantum L.) slices have been investigated. Drying experiments were carried out at four different temperatures (50, 60, 65 and 70 °C). The effect of drying temperatures on the drying behavior of the tomato slices was evaluated. All drying experiments had only falling rate period. The average effective diffusivity values varied from 0.5453 × 10(-9) to 2.3871 × 10(-9) m(2)/s over the temperature range studied and the activation energy was estimated to be 61.004 kJ/mol. In order to select a suitable form of the drying curve, six different thin layer drying models (Henderson-Pabis, Page, Diamante et al., Wang and Singh, Logarithmic and Newton models) were fitted to the experimental data. The goodness of fit tests indicated that the Logarithmic model gave the best fit to experimental results, which was closely followed by the Henderson-Pabis model. The influence of varied drying temperatures on quality attributes of the tomato slices viz. Hunter color parameters, ascorbic acid, lycopene, titratable acidity, total sugars, reducing sugars and sugar/acid ratio of dried slices was also studied. Slices dried at 50 and 60 °C had high amount of total sugars, lycopene, sugar/acid ratio, Hunter L- and a-values. Drying of slices at 50 °C revealed optimum retention of ascorbic acid, sugar/acid ratio and red hue, whereas, drying at higher temperature (65 and 70 °C) resulted in a considerable decrease in nutrients and colour quality of the slices.

  11. A HYBRID DYNAMIC PROGRAM SLICING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Tong; Wu Fangjun

    2005-01-01

    This letter proposes a hybrid method for computing dynamic program slicing. The key element is to construct a Coverage-Testing-based Dynamic Dependence Graph (CTDDG),which makes use of both dynamic and static information to get execution status. The approach overcomes the limitations of previous dynamic slicing methods, which have to redo slicing if slice criterion changes.

  12. Color kinetics and acrylamide formation in NaCl soaked potato chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedreschi, Franco; Bustos, Oscar; Mery, Domingo

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the kinetics of color development in blanched and blanched-NaCl impregnated potato slices during frying by using the dynamic method and also to evaluate the effect of NaCl in reducing acrylamide formation in potato chips. The measurement of color was done......Cl solution of 0.02 g/l 5 min at 200 rpm of agitation. These samples were considered as NaCl soaked potato chips. Blanched and soaked slices were fried at 120, 140, 160 and 180 degrees C until reaching moisture contents of similar to 1.8% (total basis) for color evaluation. Acrylamide content was evaluated...... change in potato chips during frying were fitted to empirical relationships, with correlation coefficients greater than 90%. A first-order rate equation was used to model the kinetics of color change. In all cases, the Arrhenius activation energy decreases alongside with decreasing chip moisture content...

  13. Mechanical characteristics of native tendon slices for tissue engineering scaffold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Ting-Wu; Chen, Qingshan; Sun, Yu-Long; Steinmann, Scott P.; Amadio, Peter C.; An, Kai-Nan; Zhao, Chunfeng

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the mechanical behavior of tendon slices with different thicknesses. Tendon slices of 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 μm thickness were mechanically tested. The 300 μm slices were further tested for strength and modulus after 21,000-cycle fatigue testing under different applied strain levels (0, 1, 3, 5, 8, 10, and 12%). The tendon slice structure, morphology, and viability of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) seeded onto the slices were also examined with histology, scanning electron microscopy, and vital cell labeling, respectively. Tendon slices 300 μm or more in thickness had similar ultimate tensile strength and Young's modulus to the intact tendon bundle. A strain of 5% or less did not cause any structural damage, nor did it change the mechanical properties of a 300 μm-thick tendon slice after 21,000-cycle fatigue testing. BMSCs were viable between and on the tendon slices after 2 weeks in tissue culture. This study demonstrated that, if tendon slices are used as a scaffold for tendon tissue engineering, slices 300 μm or more in thickness would be preferable from a mechanical strength point of view. If mechanical stimulation is performed for seeded-cell preparations, 5% strain or less would be appropriate. PMID:22323314

  14. Mechanical characteristics of native tendon slices for tissue engineering scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Ting-Wu; Chen, Qingshan; Sun, Yu-Long; Steinmann, Scott P; Amadio, Peter C; An, Kai-Nan; Zhao, Chunfeng

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the mechanical behavior of tendon slices with different thicknesses. Tendon slices of 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 μm thickness were mechanically tested. The 300 μm slices were further tested for strength and modulus after 21,000-cycle fatigue testing under different applied strain levels (0, 1, 3, 5, 8, 10, and 12%). The tendon slice structure, morphology, and viability of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) seeded onto the slices were also examined with histology, scanning electron microscopy, and vital cell labeling, respectively. Tendon slices 300 μm or more in thickness had similar ultimate tensile strength and Young's modulus to the intact tendon bundle. A strain of 5% or less did not cause any structural damage, nor did it change the mechanical properties of a 300 μm-thick tendon slice after 21,000-cycle fatigue testing. BMSCs were viable between and on the tendon slices after 2 weeks in tissue culture. This study demonstrated that, if tendon slices are used as a scaffold for tendon tissue engineering, slices 300 μm or more in thickness would be preferable from a mechanical strength point of view. If mechanical stimulation is performed for seeded-cell preparations, 5% strain or less would be appropriate.

  15. Silhouette-Slice Theorems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-20

    with standard expressions of spherical trigonometry is sinr)0 = cos0 sini//0 (4.37) which is consistent with the results obtained previously with...theorems for discrete transforms. However, sampling questions inlroduce difficult obstacles in the develop- ment of a discrete theory. First, sampling...additional obstacle to discrete represen- tations of the CT. An example of qualitative predication of the shape of silhouettes with the Silhouette-Slice

  16. 100-Meter Resolution Color Shaded Relief of Hawaii - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Color Shaded Relief of Hawaii map layer is a 100-meter resolution color-sliced elevation image of Hawaii, with relief shading added to accentuate terrain...

  17. 100-Meter Resolution Color Shaded Relief of Alaska - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Color Shaded Relief of Alaska map layer is a 100-meter resolution color-sliced elevation image of Alaska, with relief shading added to accentuate terrain...

  18. RESULTS OF SLICE MEASUREMENTS

    CERN Document Server

    Rudolph, J

    2011-01-01

    The linear accelerator ELBE delivers high-brightness electron bunches to multiple user stations, including two IR-FEL oscillators [1], [2]. In the framework of an upgrade program the current thermionic injector is being replaced by a SRF-photoinjector [3], [4]. The SRF injector promises higher beam quality, especially required for future experiments with high power laser radiation. During the commissioning phase, the SRF-injector was running in parallel to the thermionic gun. After installation of a injection beamline (dogleg), beam from the SRF-injector can now be injected into the ELBE linac. Detailed characterization of the electron beam quality delivered by the new electron injector includes vertical slice emittance measurements in addition to measurements of projected emittance values. This report gives an overview of the status of the project and summarizes first measurement results as well as results of simulations performed with measurement settings.

  19. Combined infrared-vacuum drying of pumpkin slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaboos, Seyyed Hossein Hosseini; Ardabili, Seyed Mahdi Seyedain; Kashaninejad, Mahdi; Asadi, Gholamhassan; Aalami, Mehran

    2016-05-01

    Infrared-vacuum dehydration characteristics of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) were evaluated in a combined dryer system. The effects of drying parameters, infrared radiation power (204-272 W), system pressure (5-15 kPa), slice thickness (5 and 7 mm) and time (0-220 min) on the drying kinetics and characteristics of pumpkin slices were investigated. The vacuum pressure, lamp power and slice had significant effect on the drying kinetics and various qualities of the dried pumpkin. Moisture ratios were fitted to 10 different mathematical equations using nonlinear regression analysis. The quadratic equation satisfactorily described the drying behavior of pumpkin slices with the highest r value and the lowest SE values. The effective moisture diffusivity increased with power and ranged between 0.71 and 2.86 × 10(-9) m(2)/s. With increasing in infrared radiation power from 204 to 272 W, β-carotene content of dried pumpkins decreased from 30.04 to 24.55 mg/100 g. The rise in infrared power has a negative effect on the color changes (ΔE). The optimum condition was determined as power, 238W, pressure, 5 kPa and slice thickness, 5mm. These conditions resulted into dried pumpkin slices with maximum B-carotene retention.

  20. Evolución del desarrollo del color en sistema modelo de composición similar al dulce de leche. Influencia del tiempo de calentamiento y del Ph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analía Rodríguez Blanco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El color es un atributo importante en la elección del producto dulce de leche por parte del consumidor. El mismo se desarrolla en el proceso de elaboración debido principalmente a las reacciones de pardeamiento no enzimático, las cuales se ven influenciadas por varios factores. En este trabajo se evaluó el desarrollo de color, con el tiempo de tratamiento térmico y el pH inicial como variables tecnológicas, en un sistema modelo compuesto de caseinato, lactosa, sacarosa y agua destilada cuya composición fue similar a la del dulce de leche comercial. El estudio del color se realizó utilizando los parámetros de medición de color del sistema CIELAB y el índice de Kubelka Munk (K/S. Con ambos métodos se constató un aumento significativo del dE*ab y del K/S con el tiempo de tratamiento térmico y el pH inicial. Con el sistema CIELAB además se observó una tendencia a disminuir la luminosidad con el tiempo y el aumento del pH inicial, y el aumento de a* con el tiempo.

  1. Effect of papaya and corn silk extracts on color and quality of mushroom(Agaricus bisporus)slices during blanching%木瓜和玉米须提取物对双孢菇片烫漂后颜色和品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静; 王安建; 刘丽娜; 魏书信; 李顺峰

    2013-01-01

    采用烫漂前浸泡和烫漂时添加两种方式,研究了木瓜和玉米须提取物对双孢菇片烫漂后颜色和品质的影响.结果表明,两种植物提取物的不同添加方式均可以在一定程度上抑制菇片的褐变和保持菇片的品质,其中浸泡前处理效果较好.木瓜和玉米须提取物最佳浸泡浓度均为2.0g/L,最大褐变抑制率分别为16.89%±4.57%、10.02%±3.24%;与清水浸泡前处理相比,维生素C含量分别提高67.30%、21.78%,总酚含量分别提高17.34%、38.29%.%The impact of papaya and corn silk extracts on color and quality of mushroom(Agaricus bisporus)slices during blanching were investigated.Compared with the contrast group,two different extracts addition way(soaking and blanching) could inhibit browning and keep quality of the mushroom slices in a degree,but the better way was soaking treatment. The results showed that the optimum soaking concentration of papaya and corn silk extracts were 2.0g/L,and the maximum browning inhibition rate were 16.89%±4.57% and 10.02%±3.24% respectively. Compared to the water treatment,the vitamin C content of mushroom slices increased by 6730% and 21.78% ,and total phenolic content enhanced by 17.34% and 38.29% ,separately.

  2. Effect of high pressure processing on color, free fatty acids and lipid oxidation of sliced smoked cooked ham%超高压处理对烟熏火腿色泽、游离脂肪酸及脂肪氧化指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙新生; 韩衍青; 徐幸莲; 畅阳; 张维益; 周光宏

    2011-01-01

    为探究超高压处理手段应用于烟熏火腿保鲜的同时是否能够保持产品原有的品质,本实验以400MPa和600MPa的压力在常温下(22℃)对切片真空包装后的烟熏火腿进行10min超高压处理,与未经超高压处理产品(NT组)作对照,4℃下贮藏,研究了超高压前后产品色泽、游离脂肪酸以及脂肪氧化指标的变化.结果表明:超高压处理组样品能够保持原有鲜亮色泽,而未经超高压处理组出现明显褪色;超高压处理后样品的各游离脂肪酸含量变化不显著;贮藏初期超高压处理组与未经超高压处理组样品TBARS值都没有显著变化,而随贮藏期延长,高压处理组样品TBARS值比未处理组略有上升,但TBARS最大值小于0.5ms/100g肉样.实验所用超高压处理条件不会引起真空包装烟熏火腿色泽、游离脂肪酸指标的显著变化,能够较好地保持产品原有游离脂肪酸组成及鲜亮色泽,也不会造成产品的氧化酸败.%The objective of this experiment was to evaluate whether high pressure processing (HPP) influent eating quality when using as preservative methods in smoked ham. Slices of cooked vacuum - packaged ham were submitted to high pressure treatments at 400,600MPa for 10min at room temperature (22℃) and then stored at 4℃ along with controls(not treated samples,NT).Color,free fatty acids and lipid oxidation were determined at 1,15, 30,45d after treatment,respectively.Results showed that HPP treated samples could maintain their original bright color,however,the NT samples faded apparently.Changes of free fatty acid but changes were not significant after HPP treatment.At the beginning of the storage period,TBARS values were not changed significantly both in HPP and NT samples. However during the following 45d,TBARS values of HPP samples increased slightly, but the maximum TBARS values were less than 0.5mg/100g during the whole storage.HPP could not cause significantly changes in color and free

  3. A novel formal approach to program slicing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Program slicing is a well-known program analysis technique that extracts the elements of a program related to a particular computation. The current slicing methods, however, are singular (mainly based on a program or system dependence graph), and lack good reusability and flexibility. In this paper, we present a novel formal method for program slicing, modular monadic program slicing, which abstracts the computation of program slicing as a slice monad transformer, and applies it to semantic descriptions of the program analyzed in a modular way, forming the corresponding monadic slicing algorithms. The modular abstraction mechanism allows our slicing method to possess excellent modularity and language-flexibility properties. We also give the related axioms of our slice monad transformer, the proof of the correctness and the implementation of monadic slicing algorithms. We reveal the relations of our algorithms and graph-reachable slicing algorithms.

  4. Covariance-Adaptive Slice Sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Madeleine; Neal, Radford M.

    2010-01-01

    We describe two slice sampling methods for taking multivariate steps using the crumb framework. These methods use the gradients at rejected proposals to adapt to the local curvature of the log-density surface, a technique that can produce much better proposals when parameters are highly correlated. We evaluate our methods on four distributions and compare their performance to that of a non-adaptive slice sampling method and a Metropolis method. The adaptive methods perform favorably on low-di...

  5. A quantitative theory of human color choices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Komarova, Natalia L; Jameson, Kimberly A

    2013-01-01

    ... color standards are important. Still, with regard to color appearance many perceptual and cognitive factors are known to contribute to color similarity, and, in general, to all cognitive judgments of color...

  6. Antibrowning and antimicrobial properties of sodium acid sulfate in apple slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xuetong; Sokorai, Kimberly J B; Liao, Ching-Hsing; Cooke, Peter; Zhang, Howard Q

    2009-01-01

    There are few available compounds that can both control browning and enhance microbial safety of fresh-cut fruits. In the present study, the antibrowning ability of sodium acid sulfate (SAS) on "Granny Smith" apple slices was first investigated in terms of optimum concentration and treatment time. In a separate experiment, the apple slices were treated with water or 3% of SAS, calcium ascorbate, citric acid, or acidified calcium sulfate for 5 min. Total plate count, color, firmness, and tissue damage were assessed during a 21-d storage at 4 degrees C. Results showed that the efficacy of SAS in inhibiting browning of apple slices increased with increasing concentration. A minimum 3% of SAS was needed to achieve 14 d of shelf life. Firmness was not significantly affected by SAS at 3% or lower concentrations. Antibrowning potential of SAS was similar for all treatment times ranging from 2 to 10 min. However, SAS caused some skin discoloration of apple slices. When cut surface of apple slices were stained with a fluorescein diacetate solution, tissue damage could be observed under a microscope even though visual damage was not evident. Among the antibrowning agents tested, SAS was the most effective in inhibiting browning and microbial growth for the first 14 d. Total plate count of samples treated with 3% SAS was significantly lower than those treated with calcium ascorbate, a commonly used antibrowning agent. Our results suggested that it is possible to use SAS to control browning while inhibiting the growth of microorganisms on the apple slices if the skin damage can be minimized. Practical Application: Fresh-cut apples have emerged as one of the popular products in restaurants, schools, and food service establishments as more consumers demand fresh, convenient, and nutritious foods. Processing of fresh-cut apples induces mechanical damage to the fruit and exposes apple tissue to air, resulting in the development of undesirable tissue browning. The fresh

  7. Color development and acrylamide content of pre-dried potato chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedreschi, Franco; León, Jorge; Mery, Domingo

    2007-01-01

    dimensions were blanched as in the previous step, and then air-dried until reaching a moisture content of 60% (wet basis). These samples were called pre-dried potato slices. Potato slices were fried at 120 degrees C, 140 degrees C, 160 degrees C and 180 degrees C until reaching moisture contents of similar...... to 1.8% (total basis) for color quantification. Acrylamide concentration was determined only in final chips fried at 120 degrees C, 150 degrees C and 180 degrees C and compared with that of two brands of commercial chips produced in Chile (Moms and Frito Lay). Color values in L*a*b* units were recorded......%, 44% lower acrylamide content than that of the control, Moms and Frito Lay chips, respectively....

  8. Color-induced graph colorings

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Ping

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive treatment of color-induced graph colorings is presented in this book, emphasizing vertex colorings induced by edge colorings. The coloring concepts described in this book depend not only on the property required of the initial edge coloring and the kind of objects serving as colors, but also on the property demanded of the vertex coloring produced. For each edge coloring introduced, background for the concept is provided, followed by a presentation of results and open questions dealing with this topic. While the edge colorings discussed can be either proper or unrestricted, the resulting vertex colorings are either proper colorings or rainbow colorings. This gives rise to a discussion of irregular colorings, strong colorings, modular colorings, edge-graceful colorings, twin edge colorings and binomial colorings. Since many of the concepts described in this book are relatively recent, the audience for this book is primarily mathematicians interested in learning some new areas of graph colorings...

  9. A Model for Slicing JAVA Programs Hierarchically

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bi-Xin Li; Xiao-Cong Fan; Jun Pang; Jian-Jun Zhao

    2004-01-01

    Program slicing can be effectively used to debug, test, analyze, understand and maintain objectoriented software. In this paper, a new slicing model is proposed to slice Java programs based on their inherent hierarchical feature. The main idea of hierarchical slicing is to slice programs in a stepwise way, from package level, to class level, method level, and finally up to statement level. The stepwise slicing algorithm and the related graph reachability algorithms are presented, the architecture of the Java program Analyzing Tool (JATO) based on hierarchical slicing model is provided, the applications and a small case study are also discussed.

  10. Asymptotics for Kernel Estimation of Slicing Average Third-Moment Estimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-ping Zhu; Li-xing Zhu

    2006-01-01

    To estimate central dimension-reduction space in multivariate nonparametric regression, Sliced Inverse Regression[7] (SIR), Sliced Average Variance Estimation[4] (SAVE) and Slicing Average Third-moment Estimation[14] (SAT) have been developed. Since slicing estimation has very different asymptotic behavior for SIR and SAVE, the relevant study has been made case by case, when the kernel estimators of SIR and SAVE share similar asymptotic properties. In this paper, we also investigate kernel estimation of SAT. We prove the asymptotic normality, and show that, compared with the existing results, the kernel smoothing for SIR, SAVE and SAT has very similar asymptotic behavior.

  11. Distributed Slicing in Dynamic Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez, Antonio; Jimenez, Ernesto; Kermarrec, Anne-Marie; Raynal, Michel

    2007-01-01

    Peer to peer (P2P) systems are moving from application specific architectures to a generic service oriented design philosophy. This raises interesting problems in connection with providing useful P2P middleware services capable of dealing with resource assignment and management in a large-scale, heterogeneous and unreliable environment. The slicing service, has been proposed to allow for an automatic partitioning of P2P networks into groups (slices) that represent a controllable amount of some resource and that are also relatively homogeneous with respect to that resource. In this paper we propose two gossip-based algorithms to solve the distributed slicing problem. The first algorithm speeds up an existing algorithm sorting a set of uniform random numbers. The second algorithm statistically approximates the rank of nodes in the ordering. The scalability, efficiency and resilience to dynamics of both algorithms rely on their gossip-based models. These algorithms are proved viable theoretically and experimenta...

  12. 100-Meter Resolution Color Shaded Relief of the Conterminous United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Color Shaded Relief of the Conterminous United States map layer is a 100-meter resolution color-sliced elevation image of the United States, with relief shading...

  13. Promoting consumption of fruit in elementary school cafeterias. The effects of slicing apples and oranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Mark; Branscum, Adam; Nakayima, Peace Julie

    2009-10-01

    We examined how slicing apples and oranges affected elementary students' selection and consumption of fruit. Slicing increased the percentage of children selecting and consuming oranges, while a similar effect was not found for apples. The impact of slicing fruit was greatest among younger students. These findings suggest that school cafeterias can increase accessibility and consumption of foods through simple, inexpensive food preparation techniques, with the impact of such measures varying by foods and student characteristics.

  14. Color Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rose in full bloom. If you have a color vision defect, you may see these colors differently than most people. There are three main kinds of color vision defects. Red-green color vision defects are the most ...

  15. Self-similarity Driven Demosaicking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Buades

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Digital cameras record only one color component per pixel, red, green or blue. Demosaicking is the process by which one can infer a whole color matrix from such a matrix of values, thus interpolating the two missing color values per pixel. In this article we propose a demosaicking method based on the property of non-local self-similarity of images.

  16. Viscous fingering of miscible slices

    CERN Document Server

    De Wit, A; Martin, M; Wit, Anne De; Bertho, Yann; Martin, Michel

    2005-01-01

    Viscous fingering of a miscible high viscosity slice of fluid displaced by a lower viscosity fluid is studied in porous media by direct numerical simulations of Darcy's law coupled to the evolution equation for the concentration of a solute controlling the viscosity of miscible solutions. In contrast with fingering between two semi-infinite regions, fingering of finite slices is a transient phenomenon due to the decrease in time of the viscosity ratio across the interface induced by fingering and dispersion processes. We show that fingering contributes transiently to the broadening of the peak in time by increasing its variance. A quantitative analysis of the asymptotic contribution of fingering to this variance is conducted as a function of the four relevant parameters of the problem i.e. the log-mobility ratio R, the length of the slice l, the Peclet number Pe and the ratio between transverse and axial dispersion coefficients $\\epsilon$. Relevance of the results is discussed in relation with transport of vi...

  17. Slice stretching effects for maximal slicing of a Schwarzschild black hole

    OpenAIRE

    Reimann, B.

    2005-01-01

    Slice stretching effects such as slice sucking and slice wrapping arise when foliating the extended Schwarzschild spacetime with maximal slices. For arbitrary spatial coordinates these effects are quantified here in the context of boundary conditions where the lapse arises as a linear combination of odd and even lapse. Favourable boundary conditions are then derived which make the overall slice stretching occur late in numerical simulations. Allowing the lapse to become negative, this require...

  18. Relationship Between Color Parameters and Free Amino Acids and Biogenic Amines of Sliced Cooked Cured Beef Ham%西式蒸煮火腿切片货架期褪色与游离氨基酸和生物胺的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙卫青; 周光宏; 徐幸莲

    2014-01-01

    Objective]Discoloration during storage is a key problem that limits the shelf-life of cooked cured meats. The purpose of the experiment is to study the relationship of color parameters and amino acids and biogenic amines of sliced cooked cured beef ham (SCCBH), to reveal the effects of the nitrogen compounds in meat products on the stability of the heme pigment and apparent color, in the hope of providing theoretical guidances for color protection of this type of products. [Method]Color parameters, free amino acids and biological amines of SCCH during storage were examined and factor analysis was used to explain the effect of free amino acids and biogenic amines on the color parameters. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to extract the principal factor. Varimax orthogonal rotation with Kaiser normalization method was adopted in data analysis. [Result]Eight kinds of biogenic amines and 16 kinds of free amino acids were detected in this experiment. Biological amines showed no significant changes during storage, while, threonine (Thr), valine (Val), methionine (Met), lysine (Lys) and arginine (Arg) changed significantly. The factor analysis results showed that the first principal factor (F1) explained 45.72% of the total variation, and the second (F2) explained 21.52%. F1 was a concentrated reflection of color changes of SCCBH during storage, especially of the redness (a*), Chroma (C) and pigment NO-Heme (NH), and nitrogen compounds directly affecting the apparent color. F2 was mainly expressed the information of the hue and of the nitrogen compounds indirectly affecting apparent redness through the hue (H) or yellowness (b*), these nitrogen compounds mainly contained acidic and alkaline free amino acids. Tyramine (TYR) and spermine (SPM) significantly affected the stability of heme pigment and apparent color of SCCBH, which were shown by a high factor loading value (0.98) in F1. Further, TYR and SPM negatively correlated with the color parameters of SCCBH

  19. Stochastic neural network model for spontaneous bursting in hippocampal slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswal, B; Dasgupta, C

    2002-11-01

    A biologically plausible, stochastic, neural network model that exhibits spontaneous transitions between a low-activity (normal) state and a high-activity (epileptic) state is studied by computer simulation. Brief excursions of the network to the high-activity state lead to spontaneous population bursting similar to the behavior observed in hippocampal slices bathed in a high-potassium medium. Although the variability of interburst intervals in this model is due to stochasticity, first return maps of successive interburst intervals show trajectories that resemble the behavior expected near unstable periodic orbits (UPOs) of systems exhibiting deterministic chaos. Simulations of the effects of the application of chaos control, periodic pacing, and anticontrol to the network model yield results that are qualitatively similar to those obtained in experiments on hippocampal slices. Estimation of the statistical significance of UPOs through surrogate data analysis also leads to results that resemble those of similar analysis of data obtained from slice experiments and human epileptic activity. These results suggest that spontaneous population bursting in hippocampal slices may be a manifestation of stochastic bistable dynamics, rather than of deterministic chaos. Our results also question the reliability of some of the recently proposed, UPO-based, statistical methods for detecting determinism and chaos in experimental time-series data.

  20. Microbial growth and sensory quality of dried potato slices irradiated by electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Jin; Song, Hyeon-Jeong; Song, Kyung-Bin

    2011-06-01

    Electron beam irradiation was applied to secure the microbial safety of dried purple sweet potato. After purple sweet potato slices had been dehydrated with 20% (w/w) maltodextrin solution, the samples were irradiated at doses 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 kGy and then stored at 20 °C for 60 days. Microbiological data indicated that the populations of total aerobic bacteria and of yeast and molds significantly decreased with increase in irradiation dosage. Specifically, microbial load was reduced by about three log cycles at 6 kGy compared to those of the control. Based on the color measurement of the potato slices, electron beam irradiation treatment did not affect the color quality. Sensory evaluation results also showed that electron beam irradiation did not affect overall sensory scores during storage. These results suggest that electron beam irradiation could be useful for improving microbial safety without impairing the quality of the potato slices during storage.

  1. Microbial growth and sensory quality of dried potato slices irradiated by electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun-Jin; Song, Hyeon-Jeong [Department of Food Science and Technology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Kyung-Bin, E-mail: kbsong@cnu.ac.k [Department of Food Science and Technology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    Electron beam irradiation was applied to secure the microbial safety of dried purple sweet potato. After purple sweet potato slices had been dehydrated with 20% (w/w) maltodextrin solution, the samples were irradiated at doses 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 kGy and then stored at 20 {sup o}C for 60 days. Microbiological data indicated that the populations of total aerobic bacteria and of yeast and molds significantly decreased with increase in irradiation dosage. Specifically, microbial load was reduced by about three log cycles at 6 kGy compared to those of the control. Based on the color measurement of the potato slices, electron beam irradiation treatment did not affect the color quality. Sensory evaluation results also showed that electron beam irradiation did not affect overall sensory scores during storage. These results suggest that electron beam irradiation could be useful for improving microbial safety without impairing the quality of the potato slices during storage.

  2. Automatic basal slice detection for cardiac analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paknezhad, Mahsa; Marchesseau, Stephanie; Brown, Michael S.

    2016-03-01

    Identification of the basal slice in cardiac imaging is a key step to measuring the ejection fraction (EF) of the left ventricle (LV). Despite research on cardiac segmentation, basal slice identification is routinely performed manually. Manual identification, however, has been shown to have high inter-observer variability, with a variation of the EF by up to 8%. Therefore, an automatic way of identifying the basal slice is still required. Prior published methods operate by automatically tracking the mitral valve points from the long-axis view of the LV. These approaches assumed that the basal slice is the first short-axis slice below the mitral valve. However, guidelines published in 2013 by the society for cardiovascular magnetic resonance indicate that the basal slice is the uppermost short-axis slice with more than 50% myocardium surrounding the blood cavity. Consequently, these existing methods are at times identifying the incorrect short-axis slice. Correct identification of the basal slice under these guidelines is challenging due to the poor image quality and blood movement during image acquisition. This paper proposes an automatic tool that focuses on the two-chamber slice to find the basal slice. To this end, an active shape model is trained to automatically segment the two-chamber view for 51 samples using the leave-one-out strategy. The basal slice was detected using temporal binary profiles created for each short-axis slice from the segmented two-chamber slice. From the 51 successfully tested samples, 92% and 84% of detection results were accurate at the end-systolic and the end-diastolic phases of the cardiac cycle, respectively.

  3. USGS Small-scale Dataset - 100-Meter Resolution Color Shaded Relief of Alaska 201304 GeoTIFF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Color Shaded Relief of Alaska map layer is a 100-meter resolution color-sliced elevation image of Alaska, with relief shading added to accentuate terrain...

  4. USGS Small-scale Dataset - 100-Meter Resolution Color Shaded Relief of Hawaii 201304 GeoTIFF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Color Shaded Relief of Hawaii map layer is a 100-meter resolution color-sliced elevation image of Hawaii, with relief shading added to accentuate terrain...

  5. USGS Small-scale Dataset - 100-Meter Resolution Color Shaded Relief of the Conterminous United States 201304 GeoTIFF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Color Shaded Relief of the Conterminous United States map layer is a 100-meter resolution color-sliced elevation image of the United States, with relief shading...

  6. Color Blindness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严双红

    2007-01-01

    About one in 12 boys is color-blind, and one in every 400 girls, so in each school class there are likely to be at least one or two people who are color-blind. Because they are color- blind from birth, most people do not know that they are color-

  7. Laser color recording unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, E.

    1984-05-01

    A color recording unit was designed for output and control of digitized picture data within computer controlled reproduction and picture processing systems. In order to get a color proof picture of high quality similar to a color print, together with reduced time and material consumption, a photographic color film material was exposed pixelwise by modulated laser beams of three wavelengths for red, green and blue light. Components of different manufacturers for lasers, acousto-optic modulators and polygon mirrors were tested, also different recording methods as (continuous tone mode or screened mode and with a drum or flatbed recording principle). Besides the application for the graphic arts - the proof recorder CPR 403 with continuous tone color recording with a drum scanner - such a color hardcopy peripheral unit with large picture formats and high resolution can be used in medicine, communication, and satellite picture processing.

  8. Web Similarity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, A.R.; Vitányi, P.M.B.

    2015-01-01

    Normalized web distance (NWD) is a similarity or normalized semantic distance based on the World Wide Web or any other large electronic database, for instance Wikipedia, and a search engine that returns reliable aggregate page counts. For sets of search terms the NWD gives a similarity on a scale fr

  9. PROGRAM SLICING BASED ON INTERESTING INDEX

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Fangjun; Yi Tong

    2004-01-01

    With the scale of programs becoming increasingly bigger, and the complexity degree higher, how to select program fragments for slicing has become an important research topic. A new type of criterion called interesting index is proposed for selecting parts of procedures or procedure fragments to do program slicing. This new criterion considers not only the subjective aspects in users, namely users' emphasis on the time efficiency, storage capacity or readability,but also the objective aspect in large procedures. It also represents the benefit of the users, while displaying the many-faceted roles that program slicing plays. In this way users can proceed with program slicing to large systems or unfinished systems.

  10. The effect of thermal processing condition on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of fermented sausages dried by Quick-Dry-Slice process®.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrini, G; Arnau, J; Guàrdia, M D; Comaposada, J

    2014-02-01

    The effect of different thermal processing conditions just after fermentation on physicochemical parameters and sensory attributes of salami and chorizo slices dried by Quick-Dry-Slice process®, was evaluated. Meat and common additives were mixed, stuffed and fermented. Previous to drying the sausages were subjected to thermal treatment at 53 °C at different exposure times (0, 50, 65, 80, 95 and 110 min). Finally, the sausages were sliced and dried using QDS process®. Color, instrumental texture and sensory analysis were performed. Lightness (L*) after fermentation increased with thermal processing in both products while redness (a*) and yellowness (b*) decreased only in salami. Thermal treatment after fermentation increased the initial force (F0). Cooked appearance, cooked fat odor, cooked flavor and stringiness increased when the thermal processing time was increased. Thermal processing of salami and chorizo at 53 °C for 50 min and drying up to 30% of weight loss resulted in a similar product to that obtained without thermal processing.

  11. Electrohydrodynamic drying of carrot slices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changjiang Ding

    Full Text Available Carrots have one of the highest levels of carotene, and they are rich in vitamins, fiber and minerals. However, since fresh carrots wilt rapidly after harvest under inappropriate storage conditions, drying has been used to improve their shelf life and retain nutritional quality. Therefore, to further investigate the potential of this method, carrot slices were dried in an EHD system in order to study the effect of different voltages on drying rate. As measures of quality, carotene content and rehydration ratio were, respectively, compared against the conventional oven drying regime. Carotene, the main component of the dried carrot, and rehydration characteristics of the dried product can both indicate quality by physical and chemical changes during the drying process. Mathematical modeling and simulation of drying curves were also performed, using root mean square error, reduced mean square of the deviation and modeling efficiency as the primary criteria to select the equation that best accounts for the variation in the drying curves of the dried samples. Theoretically, the Page model was best suited for describing the drying rate curve of carrot slices at 10kV to 30kV. Experimentally, the drying rate of carrots was notably greater in the EHD system when compared to control, and quality, as determined by carotene content and rehydration ratio, was also improved when compared to oven drying. Therefore, this work presents a facile and effective strategy for experimentally and theoretically determining the drying properties of carrots, and, as a result, it provides deeper insight into the industrial potential of the EHD drying technique.

  12. Ocean Color

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Satellite-derived Ocean Color Data sets from historical and currently operational NASA and International Satellite missions including the NASA Coastal Zone Color...

  13. Entropy, color, and color rendering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Luke L A

    2012-12-01

    The Shannon entropy [Bell Syst. Tech J.27, 379 (1948)] of spectral distributions is applied to the problem of color rendering. With this novel approach, calculations for visual white entropy, spectral entropy, and color rendering are proposed, indices that are unreliant on the subjectivity inherent in reference spectra and color samples. The indices are tested against real lamp spectra, showing a simple and robust system for color rendering assessment. The discussion considers potential roles for white entropy in several areas of color theory and psychophysics and nonextensive entropy generalizations of the entropy indices in mathematical color spaces.

  14. Integrating interface slicing into software engineering processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Jon

    1993-01-01

    Interface slicing is a tool which was developed to facilitate software engineering. As previously presented, it was described in terms of its techniques and mechanisms. The integration of interface slicing into specific software engineering activities is considered by discussing a number of potential applications of interface slicing. The applications discussed specifically address the problems, issues, or concerns raised in a previous project. Because a complete interface slicer is still under development, these applications must be phrased in future tenses. Nonetheless, the interface slicing techniques which were presented can be implemented using current compiler and static analysis technology. Whether implemented as a standalone tool or as a module in an integrated development or reverse engineering environment, they require analysis no more complex than that required for current system development environments. By contrast, conventional slicing is a methodology which, while showing much promise and intuitive appeal, has yet to be fully implemented in a production language environment despite 12 years of development.

  15. Color invariance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geusebroek, J.M.; van den Boomgaard, R.; Smeulders, A.W.M.; Geerts, H.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the measurement of colored object reflectance, under different, general assumptions regarding the imaging conditions. We exploit the Gaussian scale-space paradigm for color images to define a framework for the robust measurement of object reflectance from color images. Object ref

  16. Color Algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Jeffrey B.

    2017-01-01

    A color algebra refers to a system for computing sums and products of colors, analogous to additive and subtractive color mixtures. We would like it to match the well-defined algebra of spectral functions describing lights and surface reflectances, but an exact correspondence is impossible after the spectra have been projected to a three-dimensional color space, because of metamerism physically different spectra can produce the same color sensation. Metameric spectra are interchangeable for the purposes of addition, but not multiplication, so any color algebra is necessarily an approximation to physical reality. Nevertheless, because the majority of naturally-occurring spectra are well-behaved (e.g., continuous and slowly-varying), color algebras can be formulated that are largely accurate and agree well with human intuition. Here we explore the family of algebras that result from associating each color with a member of a three-dimensional manifold of spectra. This association can be used to construct a color product, defined as the color of the spectrum of the wavelength-wise product of the spectra associated with the two input colors. The choice of the spectral manifold determines the behavior of the resulting system, and certain special subspaces allow computational efficiencies. The resulting systems can be used to improve computer graphic rendering techniques, and to model various perceptual phenomena such as color constancy.

  17. Color Categories and Color Appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Michael A.; Kay, Paul

    2012-01-01

    We examined categorical effects in color appearance in two tasks, which in part differed in the extent to which color naming was explicitly required for the response. In one, we measured the effects of color differences on perceptual grouping for hues that spanned the blue-green boundary, to test whether chromatic differences across the boundary…

  18. Color Categories and Color Appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Michael A.; Kay, Paul

    2012-01-01

    We examined categorical effects in color appearance in two tasks, which in part differed in the extent to which color naming was explicitly required for the response. In one, we measured the effects of color differences on perceptual grouping for hues that spanned the blue-green boundary, to test whether chromatic differences across the boundary…

  19. Discovery of Hyperpolarized Molecular Imaging Biomarkers in a Novel Prostate Tissue Slice Culture Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    compatible bioreactor optimized in year 1 to identify hyperpolarized metabolic biomarkers of prostate cancer presence and aggressiveness. To...accomplish this goal my group finished the engineering of a 5 mm bioreactor and acquired hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate data indicating that similar signal...to noise and quality data can be achieved with 4 to 5 prostate tissue slices in the 5 mm bioreactor as was acquired from 30-40 tissue slices in the

  20. Similarity Scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnack, Dalton D.

    In Lecture 10, we introduced a non-dimensional parameter called the Lundquist number, denoted by S. This is just one of many non-dimensional parameters that can appear in the formulations of both hydrodynamics and MHD. These generally express the ratio of the time scale associated with some dissipative process to the time scale associated with either wave propagation or transport by flow. These are important because they define regions in parameter space that separate flows with different physical characteristics. All flows that have the same non-dimensional parameters behave in the same way. This property is called similarity scaling.

  1. Color Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrolstad, Ronald E.; Smith, Daniel E.

    Color, flavor, and texture are the three principal quality attributes that determine food acceptance, and color has a far greater influence on our judgment than most of us appreciate. We use color to determine if a banana is at our preferred ripeness level, and a discolored meat product can warn us that the product may be spoiled. The marketing departments of our food corporations know that, for their customers, the color must be "right." The University of California Davis scorecard for wine quality designates four points out of 20, or 20% of the total score, for color and appearance (1). Food scientists who establish quality control specifications for their product are very aware of the importance of color and appearance. While subjective visual assessment and use of visual color standards are still used in the food industry, instrumental color measurements are extensively employed. Objective measurement of color is desirable for both research and industrial applications, and the ruggedness, stability, and ease of use of today's color measurement instruments have resulted in their widespread adoption.

  2. Processing of Color Words Activates Color Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Tobias; Zwaan, Rolf A.

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate whether color representations are routinely activated when color words are processed. Congruency effects of colors and color words were observed in both directions. Lexical decisions on color words were faster when preceding colors matched the color named by the word. Color-discrimination responses…

  3. Colored operads

    CERN Document Server

    Yau, Donald

    2016-01-01

    The subject of this book is the theory of operads and colored operads, sometimes called symmetric multicategories. A (colored) operad is an abstract object which encodes operations with multiple inputs and one output and relations between such operations. The theory originated in the early 1970s in homotopy theory and quickly became very important in algebraic topology, algebra, algebraic geometry, and even theoretical physics (string theory). Topics covered include basic graph theory, basic category theory, colored operads, and algebras over colored operads. Free colored operads are discussed in complete detail and in full generality. The intended audience of this book includes students and researchers in mathematics and other sciences where operads and colored operads are used. The prerequisite for this book is minimal. Every major concept is thoroughly motivated. There are many graphical illustrations and about 150 exercises. This book can be used in a graduate course and for independent study.

  4. The ATLAS Trigger Muon "Vertical Slice"

    CERN Document Server

    Sidoti, A; Biglietti, M; Carlino, G; Cataldi, G; Conventi, F; Del Prete, T; Di Mattia, A; Falciano, S; Gorini, S; Kanaya, N; Kohno, T; Krasznahorkay, A; Lagouri, T; Luci, C; Luminari, L; Marzano, F; Nagano, K; Nisati, A; Panikashvili, N; Pasqualucci, E; Primavera, M; Scannicchio, D A; Spagnolo, S; Tarem, S; Tarem, Z; Tokushuku, K; Usai, G; Ventura, A; Vercesi, V; Yamazaki, Y; 10th Pisa Meeting on Advanced Detectors : Frontier Detectors For Frontier Physics

    2007-01-01

    The muon trigger system is a fundamental component of the ATLAS detector at the LHC collider. In this paper we describe the ATLAS multi-level trigger selecting events with muons: the Muon Trigger Slice.

  5. How Slice Stretching arises when Maximally Slicing the Schwarzschild Spacetime with Vanishing Shift

    CERN Document Server

    Reimann, B

    2004-01-01

    When foliating the extended Schwarzschild spacetime with maximal slices while using zero shift, slice stretching effects such as slice sucking and slice wrapping arise. These effects are due to the differential infall of Eulerian observers and can be quantified for arbitrary spatial coordinates in the context of even boundary conditions. As examples logarithmic and isotropic grid coordinates are discussed. For boundary conditions where the lapse arises as a linear combination of odd and even lapse, two integrals are introduced which characterize the overall slice stretching. Favorable boundary conditions are then derived which make slice stretching occur late in numerical simulations. Allowing the lapse to become negative, this requirement leads to lapse functions which approach at late times the odd lapse corresponding to the static Schwarzschild metric. Demanding in addition that a numerically favorable lapse remains non-negative, as result the average of odd and even lapse is obtained. At late times the la...

  6. The Role of Familiarity, Priming and Perception in Similarity Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    cessing that can detect both color similarity and brightness difference between colors . It is based on the CIEDE2000 al- gorithm ( CIE , 2001), and has...process approach to selecting color scales for complex visualizations. Journal of Experimental Psychol- ogy: Applied, 15(1), 25-34. CIE . (2001...perceptual stimuli where the only feature was color (so there are no features to comparatively weigh), and where the color hues are fairly similar (so there is

  7. COLOR IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Lafon

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to present specific capabilities and limitations of the use of color digital images in a characterization process. The whole process is investigated, from the acquisition of digital color images to the analysis of the information relevant to various applications in the field of material characterization. A digital color image can be considered as a matrix of pixels with values expressed in a vector-space (commonly 3 dimensional space whose specificity, compared to grey-scale images, is to ensure a coding and a representation of the output image (visualisation printing that fits the human visual reality. In a characterization process, it is interesting to regard color image attnbutes as a set of visual aspect measurements on a material surface. Color measurement systems (spectrocolorimeters, colorimeters and radiometers and cameras use the same type of light detectors: most of them use Charge Coupled Devices sensors. The difference between the two types of color data acquisition systems is that color measurement systems provide a global information of the observed surface (average aspect of the surface: the color texture is not taken into account. Thus, it seems interesting to use imaging systems as measuring instruments for the quantitative characterization of the color texture.

  8. Image reconstruction for brain CT slices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴建明; 施鹏飞

    2004-01-01

    Different modalities in biomedical images, like CT, MRI and PET scanners, provide detailed cross-sectional views of human anatomy. This paper introduces three-dimensional brain reconstruction based on CT slices. It contains filtering, fuzzy segmentation, matching method of contours, cell array structure and image animation. Experimental results have shown its validity. The innovation is matching method of contours and fuzzy segmentation algorithm of CT slices.

  9. Color Naming Experiment in Mongolian Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandin-Erdene Osorjamaa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous researches on color terms and names in many languages. In Mongolian language there are few doctoral theses on color naming. Cross cultural studies of color naming have demonstrated Semantic relevance in French and Mongolian color name Gerlee Sh. (2000; Comparisons of color naming across English and Mongolian Uranchimeg B. (2004; Semantic comparison between Russian and Mongolian idioms Enhdelger O. (1996; across symbolism Dulam S. (2007 and few others. Also a few articles on color naming by some Mongolian scholars are Tsevel, Ya. (1947, Baldan, L. (1979, Bazarragchaa, M. (1997 and others. Color naming studies are not sufficiently studied in Modern Mongolian. Our research is considered to be the first intended research on color naming in Modern Mongolian, because it is one part of Ph.D dissertation on color naming. There are two color naming categories in Mongolian, basic color terms and non- basic color terms. There are seven basic color terms in Mongolian. This paper aims to consider how Mongolian color names are derived from basic colors by using psycholinguistics associative experiment. It maintains the students and researchers to acquire the specific understanding of the differences and similarities of color naming in Mongolian and  English languages from the psycho-linguistic aspect. Keywords: modern Mongolian, basic color terms, non-basic color terms, associative experiment, signal word, response word, color naming

  10. 法、汉语中典型颜色词的语义功能异同对比研究%A Comparative Research on the Similarities and Dissimi-larities of Semantic Functions of Typical Color Words in French and Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林师茂

    2014-01-01

    颜色词具有深厚的民族文化内涵和丰富的感情色彩。本文对法汉颜色词在日常生活和新闻政论中的语义内涵的异同和固定表达进行对比分析,了解其所承载的文化信息,以此来比较中法文化的异同,进而有效地进行跨文化的言语交际,不断促进和加强中法之间文化的交流与融合。%Color words possess profound connotation of national culture and rich emotional colors. This paper made a compara-tive analysis on the similarities and dissimilarities of the se-mantic connotations of French and Chinese color words in daily life, news and political comments, as well as their fixed expres-sions, in order to understand the cultural information color words convey, thereby comparing the similarities and dissimi-larities of Chinese and French culture,and then effectively carry out intercultural language communication,and continuously pro-mote and strengthen Chinese-French cultural communication and integration.

  11. Slicing Strategy for Selective Laser Melting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Xin; LIU Ji-quan; FAN Shu-qian

    2014-01-01

    Selective laser melting (SLM) is one of the most popular additive manufacturing (AM) technologies for metal parts. Slicing result, especially for the different dimensional slicing geometry and its topology, plays an important role because of the thermodynamic behavior of metal powders. To get correct geometry and reliable topology, a slicing strategy for SLM is proposed. The unavoidable numerical error caused by sampling and geometric transformation is suppressed firstly, according to shifting the z-coordinate of a vertex with a small value such the shifted vertex is on a slicing plane. The result of vertex-shifting makes it possible to identify different geometric features such as skin surfaces, overhang surfaces, extreme edges and volumetric solid. Second, from geometric primitives a hierarchy of axis-aligned bounding boxes (AABBs) is constructed and used to speed up intersection of slicing planes against sets of triangles. All intersecting segments are given different signs to depict their geometric or topological information. Based the different signs, the different dimensional geometry that is eventually represented by simple and anticlockwise oriented polygons, are identified. Finally, the polygons are classified and nested in a multi-tree data structure set to produce correct topological relations. The result of digital and physical experiments shows the proposed slicing strategy is feasible and robust.

  12. Organotypic slice culture of embryonic brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daza, Ray A M; Englund, Chris; Hevner, Robert F

    2007-12-01

    INTRODUCTIONThis protocol describes how to dissect, assemble, and cultivate mouse embryonic (E) brain tissue from age E11.5 to E18.5 (days) for organotypic slice culture. These preparations can be used for a variety of assays and studies including coculture of different brain regions, cell migration assays, axon guidance assays, and DNA electroporation experiments. During electroporation, an electric current is applied to the surface of a specific target area of the brain slice in order to open holes in the plasma membrane and introduce a plasmid of coding DNA. The floating slice-on-membrane construct helps to preserve the structural integrity of the brain slices, while maintaining easy experimental access and optimal viability. Experiments can be monitored in living slices (e.g., with confocal imaging), and further studies can be completed using slices that have been fixed and cryosectioned at the end of the experiment. Any region of embryonic brain or spinal tissue can be used in this protocol.

  13. Color-avoiding percolation

    CERN Document Server

    Krause, Sebastian M; Zlatić, Vinko

    2016-01-01

    Many real world networks have groups of similar nodes which are vulnerable to the same failure or adversary. Nodes can be colored in such a way that colors encode the shared vulnerabilities. Using multiple paths to avoid these vulnerabilities can greatly improve network robustness. Color-avoiding percolation provides a theoretical framework for analyzing this scenario, focusing on the maximal set of nodes which can be connected via multiple color-avoiding paths. In this paper we extend the basic theory of color-avoiding percolation that was published in [Krause et. al., Phys. Rev. X 6 (2016) 041022]. We explicitly account for the fact that the same particular link can be part of different paths avoiding different colors. This fact was previously accounted for with a heuristic approximation. We compare this approximation with a new, more exact theory and show that the new theory is substantially more accurate for many avoided colors. Further, we formulate our new theory with differentiated node functions, as s...

  14. Effect of Hops Beta Acids on the Survival of Unstressed- or Acid-Stress-Adapted-Listeria Monocytogenes and on the Quality and Sensory Attributes of Commercially Cured Ham Slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; McKeith, Amanda Gipe; Shen, Cangliang; Carter, Kelsey; Huff, Alyssa; McKeith, Russell; Zhang, Xinxia; Chen, Zhengxing

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluated the antilisterial activity of hops beta acids (HBA) and their impact on the quality and sensory attributes of ham. Commercially cured ham slices were inoculated with unstressed- and acid-stress-adapted (ASA)-L. monocytogenes (2.2 to 2.5 log CFU/cm(2) ), followed by no dipping (control), dipping in deionized (DI) water, or dipping in a 0.11% HBA solution. This was followed by vacuum or aerobic packaging and storage (7.2 °C, 35 or 20 d). Samples were taken periodically during storage to check for pH changes and analyze the microbial populations. Color measurements were obtained by dipping noninoculated ham slices in a 0.11% HBA solution, followed by vacuum packaging and storage (4.0 °C, 42 d). Sensory evaluations were performed on ham slices treated with 0.05% to 0.23% HBA solutions, followed by vacuum packaging and storage (4.0 °C, 30 d). HBA caused immediate reductions of 1.2 to 1.5 log CFU/cm(2) (P < 0.05) in unstressed- and ASA-L. monocytogenes populations on ham slices. During storage, the unstressed-L. monocytogenes populations on HBA-treated samples were 0.5 to 2.0 log CFU/cm(2) lower (P < 0.05) than control samples and those dipped in DI water. The lag-phase of the unstressed-L. monocytogenes population was extended from 3.396 to 7.125 d (control) to 7.194 to 10.920 d in the HBA-treated samples. However, the ASA-L. monocytogenes population showed resistance to HBA because they had a higher growth rate than control samples and had similar growth variables to DI water-treated samples during storage. Dipping in HBA solution did not adversely affect the color or sensory attributes of the ham slices stored in vacuum packages. These results are useful for helping ready-to-eat meat processors develop operational procedures for applying HBA on ham slices.

  15. Development of an Electrically Operated Cassava Peeling and Slicing Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Aji

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The development and construction of an electrically operated cassava peeling and slicing machine was described in this paper. The objective was to design, construct and test an electrically operated machine that will peel and slice cassava root into chips, to aid the processes of drying, pelletizing and storage. The methodology adopted includes; design, construction, calculation, specification, assembly of component parts and performance test. The machine was able to Peel and slice cassava to fairly similar sizes. Performance test reveals that 7 kg of cassava tuber was peeled and chipped in one minute, which shows that, the machine developed can significantly reduce the cost of labour and time wastage associated with traditional processing of cassava tubers into dried cassava pellets, and finished products, such as; garri, and cassava flour. The machine has a capacity of 6.72 kg/min, with peeling and chipping efficiency of 66.2% and 84.0% respectively. The flesh loss of the peeled tuber was 8.52%, while overall machine efficiency obtained as 82.4%. The machine is recommended for use by small scale industries and by cassava farmers in the rural areas. It has an overall cost of N46100 ($150. The machine can easily be operated by an individual and maintained, by using warm water to wash the component parts, and sharpening of the chipping disc when required.

  16. Reliability and validity of nonverbal thin slices in social interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Nora A; Hall, Judith A; Schmid Mast, Marianne; Ruben, Mollie A; Frauendorfer, Denise; Blanch-Hartigan, Danielle; Roter, Debra L; Nguyen, Laurent

    2015-02-01

    Four studies investigated the reliability and validity of thin slices of nonverbal behavior from social interactions including (a) how well individual slices of a given behavior predict other slices in the same interaction; (b) how well a slice of a given behavior represents the entirety of that behavior within an interaction; (c) how long a slice is necessary to sufficiently represent the entirety of a behavior within an interaction; (d) which slices best capture the entirety of behavior, across different behaviors; and (e) which behaviors (of six measured behaviors) are best captured by slices. Notable findings included strong reliability and validity for thin slices of gaze and nods, and that a 1.5-min slice from the start of an interaction may adequately represent some behaviors. Results provide useful information to researchers making decisions about slice measurement of behavior.

  17. Angle-independent structural colors of silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund-Nielsen, Emil; Weirich, Johannes; Nørregaard, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    Structural colors are optical phenomena of physical origin, where microscale and nanoscale structures determine the reflected spectrum of light. Artificial structural colors have been realized within recent years. However, multilayer structures require substantial fabrication. Instead we considered...... in the visual spectrum, causing robust colors to be defined for a large angular interval. The result is a manifestation of a uniformly defined color, similar to pigment-based colors. These mechanisms hold potential for color engineering and can be used to explain and predict the structural-color appearance...

  18. Dynamic Characteristics of Sliced Cooked Ham under Different Storage Temperatures%不同贮藏温度西式火腿切片品质变化规律研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋丽施; 贺稚非; 李洪军; 袁先群; 姚艳玲

    2012-01-01

    In order to explore the quality and safety of sliced cooked ham, the dynamic characteristics of vacuum packaged sliced cooked ham under different storage temperatures were monitored. The dynamic changes of quality parameters such as sensory quality, colony number, coliform number, color, pH, water content and water retention as well as texture characteristics of sliced cooked ham stored at 0-4 ℃ and 7- 11 ℃ were analyzed. The results indicated that the quality change of sliced cooked ham during storage under two different temperature conditions revealed a similar trend. Slower colony growth and more stable water content, pH, water retention and textural properties of sliced cooked ham stored at 0-4 ℃ were observed when compared with sliced cooked ham stored at 7 - 11 ℃. Therefore, low temperature storage is beneficial for the stability and safety of sliced cooked ham products, thus prolonging the shelf life.%为研究市场上低温火腿切片的质量和安全性,对不同贮藏温度的真空包装火腿切片的品质变化进行动态跟踪,分析产品在0~4、7~11℃条件下,其感官品质、菌落总数、大肠菌群、色泽、pH值、水分含量、保水性和质构特性的动态变化。结果表明:两种产品品质变化的规律大致相同。0~4℃贮藏比7~11℃产品的菌落总数增长相对缓慢,pH值、水分含量,保水性和质构特性的变化更加稳定。低温更有利于保持产品品质的稳定性和安全性,延长肉品的货架期。

  19. The modern Japanese color lexicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriki, Ichiro; Lange, Ryan; Muto, Yumiko; Brown, Angela M; Fukuda, Kazuho; Tokunaga, Rumi; Lindsey, Delwin T; Uchikawa, Keiji; Shioiri, Satoshi

    2017-03-01

    Despite numerous prior studies, important questions about the Japanese color lexicon persist, particularly about the number of Japanese basic color terms and their deployment across color space. Here, 57 native Japanese speakers provided monolexemic terms for 320 chromatic and 10 achromatic Munsell color samples. Through k-means cluster analysis we revealed 16 statistically distinct Japanese chromatic categories. These included eight chromatic basic color terms (aka/red, ki/yellow, midori/green, ao/blue, pink, orange, cha/brown, and murasaki/purple) plus eight additional terms: mizu ("water")/light blue, hada ("skin tone")/peach, kon ("indigo")/dark blue, matcha ("green tea")/yellow-green, enji/maroon, oudo ("sand or mud")/mustard, yamabuki ("globeflower")/gold, and cream. Of these additional terms, mizu was used by 98% of informants, and emerged as a strong candidate for a 12th Japanese basic color term. Japanese and American English color-naming systems were broadly similar, except for color categories in one language (mizu, kon, teal, lavender, magenta, lime) that had no equivalent in the other. Our analysis revealed two statistically distinct Japanese motifs (or color-naming systems), which differed mainly in the extension of mizu across our color palette. Comparison of the present data with an earlier study by Uchikawa & Boynton (1987) suggests that some changes in the Japanese color lexicon have occurred over the last 30 years.

  20. Differential Conditioning of Associative Synaptic Enhancement in Hippocampal Brain Slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelso, Stephen R.; Brown, Thomas H.

    1986-04-01

    An electrophysiological stimulation paradigm similar to one that produces Pavlovian conditioning was applied to synaptic inputs to pyramidal neurons of hippocampal brain slices. Persistent synaptic enhancement was induced in one of two weak synaptic inputs by pairing high-frequency electrical stimulation of the weak input with stimulation of a third, stronger input to the same region. Forward (temporally overlapping) but not backward (temporally separate) pairings caused this enhancement. Thus hippocampal synapses in vitro can undergo the conditional and selective type of associative modification that could provide the substrate for some of the mnemonic functions in which the hippocampus is thought to participate.

  1. Abscisic Acid accumulation in spinach leaf slices in the presence of penetrating and nonpenetrating solutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creelman, R A; Zeevaart, J A

    1985-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) accumulated in detached, wilted leaves of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. cv Savoy Hybrid 612) and reached a maximum level within 3 to 4 hours. The increase in ABA over that found in detached turgid leaves was approximately 10-fold. The effects of water stress could be mimicked by the use of thin slices of spinach leaves incubated in the presence of 0.6 molar mannitol, a compound which causes plasmolysis (loss of turgor). About equal amounts of ABA were found both in the leaf slices and in detached leaves, whereas 2 to 4 times more ABA accumulated in the medium than in the slices. When spinach leaf slices were incubated with ethylene glycol, a compound which rapidly penetrates the cell membrane causing a decrease in the osmotic potential of the tissue and only transient loss of turgor, no ABA accumulated. Ethylene glycol was not inhibitory with respect to ABA accumulation. Spinach leaf slices incubated in both ethylene glycol and mannitol had ABA levels similar to those found when slices were incubated with mannitol alone. Increases similar to those found with mannitol also occurred when Aquacide III, a highly purified form of polyethylene glycol, was used. Aquacide III causes cytorrhysis, a situation similar to that found in wilted leaves. Thus, it appears that loss of turgor is essential for ABA accumulation.When spinach leaf slices were incubated with solutes which are supposed to disturb membrane integrity (KHSO(3), 2-propanol, or KCl) no increase in ABA was observed. These data indicate that, with respect to the accumulation of ABA, mannitol caused a physical stress (loss of turgor) rather than a chemical stress (membrane damage).

  2. Color constancy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Foster, David H

    2011-01-01

    ... despite changes in the spectrum of the illumination. At about the same time, new models of color constancy appeared, along with physiological data on cortical mechanisms and photographic colorimetric measurements of natural scenes...

  3. Dynamic Slicing of Object-Oriented Programs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Program slice has many applications such as program debugging,testing, maintena n ce, and complexity measurement. A static slice consists of all statements in pro gram P that may effect the value of variable v at some point p, and a dynamic s lice consists only of statements that influence the value of variable occurrence for specific program inputs. In this paper, we concern the problem of dynamic s licing of object-oriented programs which, to our knowledge, has not been addres s ed in the literatures. To solve this problem, we present the dynamic object-ori e nted dependence graph (DODG)which is an arc-classified digraph to explicitly re p resent various dynamic dependence between statement instances for a particular e xecution of an object-oriented program. Based on the DODG, we present a two-ph as e backward algorithm for computing a dynamic slice of an object-oriented program.

  4. Staining protocol for organotypic hippocampal slice cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogolla, Nadine; Galimberti, Ivan; DePaola, Vincenzo; Caroni, Pico

    2006-01-01

    This protocol details a method to immunostain organotypic slice cultures from mouse hippocampus. The cultures are based on the interface method, which does not require special equipment, is easy to execute and yields slice cultures that can be imaged repeatedly, from the time of isolation at postnatal day 6-9 up to 6 months in vitro. The preserved tissue architecture facilitates the analysis of defined hippocampal synapses, cells and entire projections. Time-lapse imaging is based on transgenes expressed in the mice or on constructs introduced through transfection or viral vectors; it can reveal processes that develop over periods ranging from seconds to months. Subsequent to imaging, the slices can be processed for immunocytochemistry to collect further information about the imaged structures. This protocol can be completed in 3 d.

  5. Color tejido

    OpenAIRE

    Rius Tormo, Palmira

    2010-01-01

    Póster presentado en el IX Congreso Nacional del Color, Alicante, 29-30 junio, 1-2 julio 2010. La exposición que se propone tiene como núcleo principal el color y muestra las posibilidades expresivas que aporta a los diferentes materiales. Las 7 obras presentadas buscan la armonía estética y la fuerza simbólica.

  6. Projection-slice theorem based 2D-3D registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Bom, M. J.; Pluim, J. P. W.; Homan, R.; Timmer, J.; Bartels, L. W.

    2007-03-01

    In X-ray guided procedures, the surgeon or interventionalist is dependent on his or her knowledge of the patient's specific anatomy and the projection images acquired during the procedure by a rotational X-ray source. Unfortunately, these X-ray projections fail to give information on the patient's anatomy in the dimension along the projection axis. It would be very profitable to provide the surgeon or interventionalist with a 3D insight of the patient's anatomy that is directly linked to the X-ray images acquired during the procedure. In this paper we present a new robust 2D-3D registration method based on the Projection-Slice Theorem. This theorem gives us a relation between the pre-operative 3D data set and the interventional projection images. Registration is performed by minimizing a translation invariant similarity measure that is applied to the Fourier transforms of the images. The method was tested by performing multiple exhaustive searches on phantom data of the Circle of Willis and on a post-mortem human skull. Validation was performed visually by comparing the test projections to the ones that corresponded to the minimal value of the similarity measure. The Projection-Slice Theorem Based method was shown to be very effective and robust, and provides capture ranges up to 62 degrees. Experiments have shown that the method is capable of retrieving similar results when translations are applied to the projection images.

  7. Color vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gegenfurtner, Karl R; Kiper, Daniel C

    2003-01-01

    Color vision starts with the absorption of light in the retinal cone photoreceptors, which transduce electromagnetic energy into electrical voltages. These voltages are transformed into action potentials by a complicated network of cells in the retina. The information is sent to the visual cortex via the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) in three separate color-opponent channels that have been characterized psychophysically, physiologically, and computationally. The properties of cells in the retina and LGN account for a surprisingly large body of psychophysical literature. This suggests that several fundamental computations involved in color perception occur at early levels of processing. In the cortex, information from the three retino-geniculate channels is combined to enable perception of a large variety of different hues. Furthermore, recent evidence suggests that color analysis and coding cannot be separated from the analysis and coding of other visual attributes such as form and motion. Though there are some brain areas that are more sensitive to color than others, color vision emerges through the combined activity of neurons in many different areas.

  8. Color confinement multi quark resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Fan [Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Joint Center for Particle Nuclear Physics and Cosmology, Nanjing University and Pupil Mountain Observatory, Nanjing, 210008 (China); Ping, J.L. [Department of Physics, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, 210097 (China); Pang, H.R. [Department of Physics, Southeast University, Nanjing, 210008 (China); Chen, L.Z. [Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Joint Center for Particle Nuclear Physics and Cosmology, Nanjing University and Pupil Mountain Observatory, Nanjing, 210008 (China)

    2007-06-15

    A new kind microscopic resonance, the color confinement multi quark resonance is proposed and studied. The quark delocalization color screening model is compared to one of the chiral quark model, the Salamanca model, and a new mechanism of the intermediate range NN interaction, the mutual distortion of interacting nucleons, is checked to be similar to the {sigma} meson exchange.

  9. Transfer color to night vision images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shaoyuan Sun; Zhongliang Jing; Gang Liu; Zhenhua Li

    2005-01-01

    @@ Natural color appearance is the key problem of color night vision field. In this paper, the color mood of daytime color image is transferred to the monochromic night vision image. This method gives the night image a natural color appearance. For each pixel in the night vision image, the best matching pixel in the color image is found based on texture similarity measure. Entropy, energy, contrast, homogeneity, and correlation features based on co-occurrence matrix are combined as texture similarity measure to find the corresponding pixels between the two images. We use a genetic algorithm (GA) to find the optimistic weighting factors assigned to the five different features. GA is also employed in searching the matching pixels to make the color transfer algorithm faster. When the best matching pixel in the color image is found, the chromaticity values are transferred to the corresponding pixel of the night vision image. The experiment results demonstrate the efficiency of this natural color transfer technique.

  10. Ultrashort pulse laser slicing of semiconductor crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunho; Shimotsuma, Yasuhiko; Sakakura, Masaaki; Miura, Kiyotaka

    2016-07-01

    Meanwhile, by the convention wire-saw technique, it is difficult to slice off a thin wafer from bulk SiC crystal without the reserving space for cutting. In this study, we have achieved exfoliation of 4H-SiC single crystal by femtosecond laser induced slicing method. By using this, the exfoliated surface with the root-mean-square roughness of 3 μm and the cutting-loss thickness smaller than 30 μm was successfully demonstrated. We have also observed the nanostructure on the exfoliated surface in SiC crystal.

  11. Holographic entanglement entropy on generic time slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusuki, Yuya; Takayanagi, Tadashi; Umemoto, Koji

    2017-06-01

    We study the holographic entanglement entropy and mutual information for Lorentz boosted subsystems. In holographic CFTs at zero and finite temperature, we find that the mutual information gets divergent in a universal way when the end points of two subsystems are light-like separated. In Lifshitz and hyperscaling violating geometries dual to non-relativistic theories, we show that the holographic entanglement entropy is not well-defined for Lorentz boosted subsystems in general. This strongly suggests that in non-relativistic theories, we cannot make a real space factorization of the Hilbert space on a generic time slice except the constant time slice, as opposed to relativistic field theories.

  12. Localized gene transfer into organotypic hippocampal slice cultures and acute hippocampal slices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casaccia-Bonnefil, P; Benedikz, Eirikur; Shen, H;

    1993-01-01

    Viral vectors derived from herpes simplex virus, type-1 (HSV), can transfer and express genes into fully differentiated, post-mitotic neurons. These vectors also transduce cells effectively in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures. Nanoliter quantities of a virus stock of HSVlac, an HSV vector...... or hippocampal slices. The rapid expression of beta-gal by HSVlac allowed efficient transduction of acute hippocampal slices. Many genes have been transduced and expressed using HSV vectors; therefore, this microapplication method can be applied to many neurobiological questions....

  13. Color vision test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... present from birth) color vision problems: Achromatopsia -- complete color blindness , seeing only shades of gray Deuteranopia -- difficulty telling ... Vision test - color; Ishihara color vision test Images Color blindness tests References Bowling B. Hereditary fundus dystrophies. In: ...

  14. The influence of surface color information and color knowledge information in object recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramão, Inês; Faísca, Luís; Petersson, Karl Magnus; Reis, Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    In order to clarify whether the influence of color knowledge information in object recognition depends on the presence of the appropriate surface color, we designed a name-object verification task. The relationship between color and shape information provided by the name and by the object photo was manipulated in order to assess color interference independently of shape interference. We tested three different versions for each object: typically colored, black and white, and nontypically colored. The response times on the nonmatching trials were used to measure the interference between the name and the photo. We predicted that the more similar the name and the photo are, the longer it would take to respond. Overall, the color similarity effect disappeared in the black-and-white and nontypical color conditions, suggesting that the influence of color knowledge on object recognition depends on the presence of the appropriate surface color information.

  15. Modeling human color categorization: Color discrimination and color memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heskes, T.; van den Broek, Egon; Lucas, P.; Hendriks, Maria A.; Vuurpijl, L.G.; Puts, M.J.H.; Wiegerinck, W.

    2003-01-01

    Color matching in Content-Based Image Retrieval is done using a color space and measuring distances between colors. Such an approach yields non-intuitive results for the user. We introduce color categories (or focal colors), determine that they are valid, and use them in two experiments. The experim

  16. Modeling human color categorization: Color discrimination and color memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heskes, T.; van den Broek, Egon; Lucas, P.; Hendriks, Maria A.; Vuurpijl, L.G.; Puts, M.J.H.; Wiegerinck, W.

    2003-01-01

    Color matching in Content-Based Image Retrieval is done using a color space and measuring distances between colors. Such an approach yields non-intuitive results for the user. We introduce color categories (or focal colors), determine that they are valid, and use them in two experiments. The

  17. The color of night: surface color categorization by color defective observers under dim illuminations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorny, Joel; Lutze, Margaret; Cao, Dingcai; Zele, Andrew J

    2008-01-01

    People with normal trichromatic color vision experience variegated hue percepts under dim illuminations where only rod photoreceptors mediate vision. Here, hue perceptions were determined for persons with congenital color vision deficiencies over a wide range of light levels, including very low light levels where rods alone mediate vision. Deuteranomalous trichromats, deuteranopes and protanopes served as observers. The appearances of 24 paper color samples from the OSA Uniform Color Scales were gauged under successively dimmer illuminations from 10 to 0.0003 Lux (1.0 to -3.5 log Lux). Triads of samples were chosen representing each of eight basic color categories; "red," "pink," "orange," "yellow," "green," "blue," "purple," and "gray." Samples within each triad varied in lightness. Observers sorted samples into groups that they could categorize with specific color names. Above -0.5 log Lux, the dichromatic and anomalous trichromatic observers sorted the samples into the original representative color groups, with some exceptions. At light levels where rods alone mediate vision, the color names assigned by the deuteranomalous trichromats were similar to the color names used by color normals; higher scotopic reflectance samples were classified as blue-green-grey and lower reflectance samples as red-orange. Color names reported by the dichromats at the dimmest light levels had extensive overlap in their sample scotopic lightness distributions. Dichromats did not assign scotopic color names based on the sample scotopic lightness, as did deuteranomalous trichromats and colour-normals. We reasoned that the reduction in color gamut that a dichromat experiences at photopic light levels leads to a limited association of rod color perception with objects differing in scotopic reflectance.

  18. Sautéed Fish Slices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    Ingredients: A fresh fish, cooking oil, scallion, ginger, egg white, salt, MSG, cooking wine, cornstarch. Directions: 1. Clean and scale the fish and take out the internal organs. 2. Fillet the fish. Slice the fish into thin pieces. Coat the fish

  19. Neuroprotection against diisopropylfluorophosphate in acute hippocampal slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferchmin, P. A.; Pérez, Dinely; Cuadrado, Brenda L.; Carrasco, Marimée; Martins, Antonio H.; Eterović, Vesna A.

    2015-01-01

    Diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP) is an irreversible inhibitor of acetylcholine esterase (AChE) and a surrogate of the organophosphorus (OP) nerve agent sarin. The neurotoxicity of DFP was assessed as a reduction of population spike (PS) area elicited by synaptic stimulation in acute hippocampal slices. Two classical antidotes, atropine, and pralidoxime, and two novel antidotes, 4R-cembranotriene-diol (4R) and a caspase 9 inhibitor, were tested. Atropine, pralidoxime, and 4R significantly protected when applied 30 min after DFP. The caspase inhibitor was neuroprotective when applied 5–10 min before or after DFP, suggesting that early synaptic apoptosis is responsible for the loss of PSs. It is likely that apoptosis starts at the synapses and, if antidotes are not applied, descends to the cell bodies, causing death. The acute slice is a reliable tool for mechanistic studies, and the assessment of neurotoxicity and neuroprotection with PS areas is, in general, pharmacologically congruent with in vivo results and predicts the effect of drugs in vivo. 4R was first found to be neuroprotective in slices and later we demonstrated that 4R is neuroprotective in vivo. The mechanism of neurotoxicity of OPs is not well understood, and there is a need for novel antidotes that could be discovered using acute slices. PMID:26438150

  20. Detecting Psychopathy from Thin Slices of Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Katherine A.; Lilienfeld, Scott O.; Patrick, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    This study is the first to demonstrate that features of psychopathy can be reliably and validly detected by lay raters from "thin slices" (i.e., small samples) of behavior. Brief excerpts (5 s, 10 s, and 20 s) from interviews with 96 maximum-security inmates were presented in video or audio form or in both modalities combined. Forty raters used…

  1. Abscisic acid accumulation in spinach leaf slices in the presence of penetrating and nonpenetrating solutes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creelman, R.A.; Zeevaart, J.A.D.

    1985-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) accumulated in detached, wilted leaves of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. cv Savoy Hybrid 612) and reached a maximum level within 3 to 4 hours. The increase in ABA over that found in detached turgid leaves was approximately 10-fold. The effects of water stress could be mimicked by the use of thin slices of spinach leaves incubated in the presence of 0.6 molar mannitol, a compound which causes plasmolysis (loss of turgor). When spinach leaf slices were incubated with ethylene glycol, a compound which rapidly penetrates the cell membrane causing a decrease in the osmotic potential of the tissue and only transient loss of turgor, no ABA accumulated. Spinach leaf slices incubated in both ethylene glycol and mannitol had ABA levels similar to those found when slices were incubated with mannitol alone. Increases similar to those found with mannitol also occurred when Aquacide III, a highly purified form of polyethylene glycol, was used. When spinach leaf slices were incubated with solutes which are supposed to disturb membrane integrity no increase in ABA was observed. These data indicate that, with respect to the accumulation of ABA, mannitol caused a physical stress rather than a chemical stress.

  2. Color superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilczek, F. [Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    1997-09-22

    The asymptotic freedom of QCD suggests that at high density - where one forms a Fermi surface at very high momenta - weak coupling methods apply. These methods suggest that chiral symmetry is restored and that an instability toward color triplet condensation (color superconductivity) sets in. Here I attempt, using variational methods, to estimate these effects more precisely. Highlights include demonstration of a negative pressure in the uniform density chiral broken phase for any non-zero condensation, which we take as evidence for the philosophy of the MIT bag model; and demonstration that the color gap is substantial - several tens of MeV - even at modest densities. Since the superconductivity is in a pseudoscalar channel, parity is spontaneously broken.

  3. Color constancy of color-deficient observers under illuminations defined by individual color discrimination ellipsoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ruiqing; Kawamoto, Ken-Ichiro; Shinomori, Keizo

    2016-03-01

    We explored the color constancy mechanisms of color-deficient observers under red, green, blue, and yellow illuminations. The red and green illuminations were defined individually by the longer axis of the color discrimination ellipsoid measured by the Cambridge Colour Test. Four dichromats (3 protanopes and 1 deuteranope), two anomalous trichromats (2 deuteranomalous observers), and five color-normal observers were asked to complete the color constancy task by making a simultaneous paper match under asymmetrical illuminations in haploscopic view on a monitor. The von Kries adaptation model was applied to estimate the cone responses. The model fits showed that for all color-deficient observers under all illuminations, the adjustment of the S-cone response or blue-yellow chromatically opponent responses modeled with the simple assumption of cone deletion in a certain type (S-M, S-L or S-(L+M)) was consistent with the principle of the von Kries model. The degree of adaptation was similar to that of color-normal observers. The results indicate that the color constancy of color-deficient observers is mediated by the simplified blue-yellow color system with a von Kries-type adaptation effect, even in the case of brightness match, as well as by a possible cone-level adaptation to the S-cone when the illumination produces a strong S-cone stimulation, such as blue illumination.

  4. Slice stretching effects for maximal slicing of a Schwarzschild black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimann, Bernd

    2005-11-01

    Slice stretching effects such as slice sucking and slice wrapping arise when foliating the extended Schwarzschild spacetime with maximal slices. For arbitrary spatial coordinates these effects are quantified here in the context of boundary conditions where the lapse arises as a linear combination of odd and even lapse. Favourable boundary conditions are then derived which make the overall slice stretching occur late in numerical simulations. Allowing the lapse to become negative, this requirement leads to lapse functions which approach at late times the odd lapse corresponding to the static Schwarzschild metric. Demanding, however, that a numerically favourable lapse remains non-negative, as a result the average of odd and even lapse is obtained. At late times the lapse with zero gradient at the puncture arising for the puncture evolution is precisely of this form. Finally, analytic arguments are given on how slice stretching effects can be avoided. Here the excision technique and the working mechanism of the shift function are studied in detail.

  5. THE EFFECT OF ETHYLENE IN MAINTAINING QUALITY OF TOMATO SLICES

    OpenAIRE

    Darwin H. Pangaribuan1)

    2009-01-01

    Processes such as slicing tomato fruits disrupt the plant tissue so the products become more perishable compared with the intact fruit. Ethylene production is stimulated during the slicing of fresh cut tomato slices. Experiments were conducted to investigate if ethylene absorbent and exogenous ethylene influences the quality of tomato slices cv. ‘Revolution’ during storage at 5C. In the experiment of ethylene absorbent, experiment was laid out in a completely randomised design. The treat...

  6. Colored Preons

    CERN Document Server

    Finkelstein, Robert J

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested complementary models of the elementary particles as (a) quantum knots and (b) preonic nuclei that are field and particle descriptions, respectively, of the same particles. This earlier work, carried out in the context of standard electroweak (SU(2) x U(1)) physics, is here extended to the strong interactions by the introduction of color (SU(3)) charges.

  7. Color Sense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Heidi S. S.; Maki, Jennifer A.

    2009-01-01

    This article reports a study conducted by members of the WellU Academic Integration Subcommittee of The College of St. Scholastica's College's Healthy Campus Initiative plan whose purpose was to determine whether changing color in the classroom could have a measurable effect on students. One simple improvement a school can make in a classroom is…

  8. Automated attenuation-based tube voltage selection for body CTA: Performance evaluation of 192-slice dual-source CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winklehner, Anna; Gordic, Sonja; Lauk, Eliane; Frauenfelder, Thomas; Alkadhi, Hatem; Husarik, Daniela B. [University Hospital Zurich, Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Leschka, Sebastian [University Hospital Zurich, Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Division of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, St. Gallen (Switzerland)

    2015-08-15

    To assess radiation dose and image quality in body CT-angiography (CTA) with automated attenuation-based tube voltage selection (ATVS) on a 192-slice dual-source CT (DSCT). Forty patients (69.5 ± 9.6 years) who had undergone body CTA with ATVS (ref.kVp 100, ref.mAs 90) using a 2x192-slice CT in single-source mode were retrospectively included. All patients had undergone prior CTA with a 2x128-slice CT and ATVS with identical imaging and contrast media protocols, serving for comparison. Images were reconstructed with iterative reconstruction at similar strength levels. Radiation dose was determined. Image quality was assessed semi-quantitatively (1:excellent, 5:non-diagnostic), aortic attenuation, noise and CNR were determined. As compared to 128-slice DSCT, 192-slice DSCT selected tube voltages were lower in 30 patients (75 %), higher in 3 (7.5 %), and similar in 7 patients (17.5 %). CTDI{sub vol} was lower with 192-slice DSCT (4.7 ± 1.9 mGy vs. 5.8 ± 2.1 mGy; p < 0.001). Subjective image quality, mean aortic attenuation (342 ± 67HU vs. 268 ± 67HU) and CNR (9.8 ± 2.5 vs. 8.2 ± 2.9) were higher with 192-slice DSCT (all p < 0.01), all datasets being diagnostic. Our study suggests that ATVS of 192-slice DSCT for body CTA is associated with an improved image quality and further radiation dose reduction of 19 % compared to 128-slice DSCT. (orig.)

  9. Isoproterenol effects evaluated in heart slices of human and rat in comparison to rat heart in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, Julia E.; Heale, Jason; Bieraugel, Mike; Ramos, Meg [Drug Safety Evaluation, Allergan Inc., 2525 Dupont Dr, Irvine, CA 92612 (United States); Fisher, Robyn L. [Vitron Inc., Tucson, AZ (United States); Vickers, Alison E.M., E-mail: vickers_alison@allergan.com [Drug Safety Evaluation, Allergan Inc., 2525 Dupont Dr, Irvine, CA 92612 (United States)

    2014-01-15

    Human response to isoproterenol induced cardiac injury was evaluated by gene and protein pathway changes in human heart slices, and compared to rat heart slices and rat heart in vivo. Isoproterenol (10 and 100 μM) altered human and rat heart slice markers of oxidative stress (ATP and GSH) at 24 h. In this in vivo rat study (0.5 mg/kg), serum troponin concentrations increased with lesion severity, minimal to mild necrosis at 24 and 48 h. In the rat and the human heart, isoproterenol altered pathways for apoptosis/necrosis, stress/energy, inflammation, and remodeling/fibrosis. The rat and human heart slices were in an apoptotic phase, while the in vivo rat heart exhibited necrosis histologically and further progression of tissue remodeling. In human heart slices genes for several heat shock 70 kD members were altered, indicative of stress to mitigate apoptosis. The stress response included alterations in energy utilization, fatty acid processing, and the up-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase, a marker of increased oxidative stress in both species. Inflammation markers linked with remodeling included IL-1α, Il-1β, IL-6 and TNFα in both species. Tissue remodeling changes in both species included increases in the TIMP proteins, inhibitors of matrix degradation, the gene/protein of IL-4 linked with cardiac fibrosis, and the gene Ccl7 a chemokine that induces collagen synthesis, and Reg3b a growth factor for cardiac repair. This study demonstrates that the initial human heart slice response to isoproterenol cardiac injury results in apoptosis, stress/energy status, inflammation and tissue remodeling at concentrations similar to that in rat heart slices. - Highlights: • Human response to isoproterenol induced cardiac injury evaluated in heart slices. • Isoproterenol altered apoptosis, energy, inflammation and remodeling pathways. • Human model verified by comparison to rat heart slices and rat heart in vivo. • Human and rat respond to isoproterenol

  10. Bovine liver slices: A multifunctional in vitro model to study the prohormone dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijk, Jeroen C W; Bovee, Toine F H; Peijnenburg, Ad A C M; Groot, Maria J; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Nielen, Michel W F

    2012-09-01

    Biotransformation of inactive prohormones like dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) can lead to the formation of potent androgens and subsequent androgenic responses in target tissues. In the present study, precision-cut bovine liver slices were used to study the effects of DHEA on the metabolite, transcript and androgenic activity level. Bovine liver slices were exposed for 6h to various concentrations of DHEA. Changes in androgenic activity of the DHEA containing cell culture media were measured using a yeast androgen bioassay and metabolites were identified using ultra performance liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-TOFMS), while gene expression in the DHEA-treated liver slices was examined using bovine microarrays and compared with the profile as obtained with 17ß-testosterone (17ß-T). An increase in androgenic activity was observed in the bioassay upon testing of samples from incubations of DHEA with liver slices and the formation of 4-androstenedione (4-AD), 5-androstene-3ß,17ß-diol, 17ß-T, 7α-hydroxy-DHEA, 7-keto-DHEA and 17α-T could be confirmed by UPLC-TOFMS analysis. Exposure of liver slices to DHEA and the strong androgen 17ß-T resulted in the identification of significantly up- and down-regulated genes and revealed similar gene expression profiles for both compounds. The results indicate that DHEA itself is biologically not very active, but is rapidly converted by the liver slices into the more androgen active compounds 4-AD and 17ß-T. Moreover, the present data highlight the multi-functionality of bovine liver slices as an in vitro bioactivation model, allowing the assessment of androgen activity or gene expression as effect-based endpoints for prohormone exposure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Influence of Thin Slice Reconstruction on CT Brain Perfusion Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bennink, Edwin; Oosterbroek, Jaap; Horsch, Alexander D.; Dankbaar, Jan Willem; Velthuis, BK; Viergever, Max A.; de Jong, Hugo W. A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Although CT scanners generally allow dynamic acquisition of thin slices (1 mm), thick slice (>= 5 mm) reconstruction is commonly used for stroke imaging to reduce data, processing time, and noise level. Thin slice CT perfusion (CTP) reconstruction may suffer less from partial volume effec

  12. Impartial coloring games

    CERN Document Server

    Beaulieu, Gabriel; Duchêne, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Coloring games are combinatorial games where the players alternate painting uncolored vertices of a graph one of $k > 0$ colors. Each different ruleset specifies that game's coloring constraints. This paper investigates six impartial rulesets (five new), derived from previously-studied graph coloring schemes, including proper map coloring, oriented coloring, 2-distance coloring, weak coloring, and sequential coloring. For each, we study the outcome classes for special cases and general computational complexity. In some cases we pay special attention to the Grundy function.

  13. Efeito do processo de desidratação osmótica a pulso de vácuo na transferência de massa e nas propriedades reológicas e de cor de fatias de manga Influence of pulsed vacuum osmotic dehydration on mass transfer, color and rheological properties of mango slices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Ito

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo estudar as propriedades reológicas, de cor e a cinética do processo de desidratação osmótica, a pulso de vácuo, de fatias de manga. As fatias de manga foram imersas em soluções hipertônicas de sacarose, nas concentrações de 45, 55 e 65 ºBrix com temperatura controlada (20 e 30 ºC. No início do processo, aplicou-se ou não um pulso de vácuo, utilizando as pressões de 50 e 100 mbar por 10 minutos. As frutas foram desidratadas por 5 horas, sendo avaliadas em diferentes tempos em relação à perda de peso, perda de água, ganho de sólidos, a w, cor e propriedades reológicas (tensão e deformação na ruptura. O aumento da concentração e da temperatura da solução causou um aumento na perda de peso e de água enquanto que a incorporação de solutos foi favorecida em baixas concentrações e altas temperaturas e com a aplicação do pulso de vácuo. O amaciamento do produto, caracterizado pela diminuição da tensão máxima de ruptura, e o aumento da deformação na ruptura da amostra ocorreram nas condições de maior incorporação de solutos. Não houve alteração dos parâmetros de cor das mangas durante o processo de desidratação.The aim of this work was to study rheological and colour properties and process kinetics of mango slices subject to pulsed vacuum osmotic dehydration. The slices were immersed in osmotic sucrose solutions (45, 55 and 65 ºBrix at 20 or 30 ºC. At the beginning, a sub-atmospheric pressure was applied or not to the solid-liquid system (50 or 100 mbar of pressure for 10 minutes followed by an atmospheric pressure operation up to 5 hours. Fruit samples were evaluated after pre-determined times in terms of weight loss, water loss, solids gain, a w, colour and rheological properties (stress and strain at rupture. The concentration and temperature increases lead to a weight and water reduction. Solid gain was favoured by lower concentration and a higher

  14. Evaluation of methylmercury biotransformation using rat liver slices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasutake, A. [Biochemistry Section, National Inst. for Minamata Disease, Minamata, Kumamoto (Japan); Hirayama, K. [Kumamoto University College of Medical Science, Kuhonji (Japan)

    2001-09-01

    To examine the demethylation reaction of methylmercury (MeHg) in rat liver, slices prepared from MeHg-treated rats were incubated in L-15 medium under 95% O{sub 2}/5% CO{sub 2} atmosphere. During the incubation, the amount of inorganic Hg in the slices markedly increased in a time-dependent manner, although the concentration of total Hg remained unchanged. Since the C-Hg bond in MeHg was demonstrated to be cleaved by the action of some reactive oxygen species, the effects on MeHg demethylation of several reagents that could modify reactive oxygen production were examined in the present system. Methylviologen was found to be an effective enhancer of the demethylation reaction with only a minor effect on lipid peroxidation. On the other hand, ferrous ion added to the medium showed no effect on demethylation in the presence or absence of methylviologen, although lipid peroxide levels were increased significantly by ferrous ion. Similarly, deferoxamine mesylate, which effectively suppressed the increase in lipid peroxide levels, also had no effect on demethylation. Furthermore, hydroxy radical scavengers, such as mannitol and dimethylsulfoxide, had no effect on inorganic Hg production. Rotenone, an inhibitor of complex I in the mitochondrial electron transport system, increased levels of both inorganic Hg and lipid peroxide. However, other inhibitors, such as antimycin A, myxothiazole and NaCN, significantly suppressed the demethylation reaction. Cell fractionation of the MeHg-treated rat liver revealed that the ratio of inorganic Hg to total Hg was highest in the mitochondrial fraction. Furthermore, superoxide anion could degrade MeHg in an organic solvent but not in water. These results suggested that the demethylation of MeHg by the liver slice would proceed with the aid of superoxide anion produced in the electron transfer system at the hydrophobic mitochondrial inner membrane. Furthermore, the involvement of hydroxy radicals, which have been demonstrated to be

  15. Separable geodesic action slicing in stationary spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Bini, Donato; Jantzen, Robert T

    2014-01-01

    A simple observation about the action for geodesics in a stationary spacetime with separable geodesic equations leads to a natural class of slicings of that spacetime whose orthogonal geodesic trajectories represent freely falling observers. The time coordinate function can then be taken to be the observer proper time, leading to a unit lapse function. This explains some of the properties of the original Painlev\\'e-Gullstrand coordinates on the Schwarzschild spacetime and their generalization to the Kerr-Newman family of spacetimes, reproducible also locally for the G\\"odel spacetime. For the static spherically symmetric case the slicing can be chosen to be intrinsically flat with spherically symmetric geodesic observers, leaving all the gravitational field information in the shift vector field.

  16. slice of a LEP bending magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    This is a slice of a LEP dipole bending magnet, made as a concrete and iron sandwich The bending field needed in LEP is small (about 1000 Gauss), equivalent to two of the magnets people stick on fridge doors. Because it is very difficult to keep a low field steady, a high field was used in iron plates embedded in concrete. A CERN breakthrough in magnet design, LEP dipoles can be tuned easily and are cheaper than conventional magnets.

  17. Slice of a LEP bending magnet

    CERN Document Server

    This is a slice of a LEP dipole bending magnet, made as a concrete and iron sandwich. The bending field needed in LEP is small (about 1000 Gauss), equivalent to two of the magnets people stick on fridge doors. Because it is very difficult to keep a low field steady, a high field was used in iron plates embedded in concrete. A CERN breakthrough in magnet design, LEP dipoles can be tuned easily and are cheaper than conventional magnets.

  18. Circadian rhythm modulates long-term potentiation induced at CA1 in rat hippocampal slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatsuka, Hiroki; Natsume, Kiyohisa

    2014-03-01

    Circadian rhythm affects neuronal plasticity. Consistent with this, some forms of synaptic long-term potentiation (LTP) are modulated by the light/dark cycle (LD cycle). For example, this type of modulation is observed in hippocampal slices. In rodents, which are nocturnal, LTP is usually facilitated in the dark phase, but the rat hippocampal CA1 is an exception. The reason why LTP in the dark phase is suppressed in CA1 remains unknown. Previously, LTP was induced with high-frequency stimulation. In this study, we found that in the dark phase, theta-burst stimulation-induced LTP is indeed facilitated in CA1, similar to other regions in the rodent brain. Population excitatory postsynaptic potentials (pEPSP)-LTP and population spikes (PS)-LTP were recorded at CA1. The magnitude of PS-LTP in dark-phase slices was significantly larger than in light-phase slices, while that of pEPSP-LTP was unchanged. Using antidromic-orthodromic stimulation, we found that recurrent inhibition is suppressed in the dark phase. Local gabazine-application to stratum pyramidale in light-phase slices mimicked this disinhibition and facilitated LTP in dark-phase slices. These results suggest that the disinhibition of a GABAA recurrent inhibitory network can be induced in the dark phase, thereby facilitating LTP.

  19. Whole-body diffusion imaging applying simultaneous multi-slice excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenkel, David; Wurning, M.C.; Filli, L.; Ulbrich, E.J.; Boss, A. [Universitaetsspital Zuerich (Switzerland). Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Runge, V.M. [Univ. Hospital Zurich (Switzerland). Dept. of Neuroradiology; Beck, T. [Siemens Healthcare GmbH, Erlangen (Germany)

    2016-04-15

    The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility of a fast protocol for whole-body diffusion-weighted imaging (WB-DWI) using a slice-accelerated echo-planar sequence, which, when using comparable image acquisition parameters, noticeably reduces measurement time compared to a conventional WB-DWI protocol. A single-shot echo-planar imaging sequence capable of simultaneous slice excitation and acquisition was optimized for WB-DWI on a 3 T MR scanner, with a comparable conventional WB-DWI protocol serving as the reference standard. Eight healthy individuals and one oncologic patient underwent WB-DWI. Quantitative analysis was carried out by measuring the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and its coefficient of variation (CV) in different organs. Image quality was assessed qualitatively by two independent radiologists using a 4-point Likert scale. Using our proposed protocol, the scan time of the WB-DWI measurement was reduced by up to 25.9 %. Both protocols, the slice-accelerated protocol and the conventional protocol, showed comparable image quality without statistically significant differences in the reader scores. Similarly, no significant differences of the ADC values of parenchymal organs were found, whereas ADC values of brain tissue were slightly higher in the slice-accelerated protocol. It was demonstrated that slice-accelerated DWI can be applied to WB-DWI protocols with the potential to greatly reduce the required measurement time, thereby substantially increasing clinical applicability.

  20. Slices: A shape-proxy based on planar sections

    KAUST Repository

    McCrae, James

    2011-12-01

    Minimalist object representations or shape-proxies that spark and inspire human perception of shape remain an incompletely understood, yet powerful aspect of visual communication. We explore the use of planar sections, i.e., the contours of intersection of planes with a 3D object, for creating shape abstractions, motivated by their popularity in art and engineering. We first perform a user study to show that humans do define consistent and similar planar section proxies for common objects. Interestingly, we observe a strong correlation between user-defined planes and geometric features of objects. Further we show that the problem of finding the minimum set of planes that capture a set of 3D geometric shape features is both NP-hard and not always the proxy a user would pick. Guided by the principles inferred from our user study, we present an algorithm that progressively selects planes to maximize feature coverage, which in turn influence the selection of subsequent planes. The algorithmic framework easily incorporates various shape features, while their relative importance values are computed and validated from the user study data. We use our algorithm to compute planar slices for various objects, validate their utility towards object abstraction using a second user study, and conclude showing the potential applications of the extracted planar slice shape proxies.

  1. Absence of synaptic regulation by phosducin in retinal slices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James H Long

    Full Text Available Phosducin is an abundant photoreceptor protein that binds G-protein βγ subunits and plays a role in modulating synaptic transmission at photoreceptor synapses under both dark-adapted and light-adapted conditions in vivo. To examine the role of phosducin at the rod-to-rod bipolar cell (RBC synapse, we used whole-cell voltage clamp recordings to measure the light-evoked currents from both wild-type (WT and phosducin knockout (Pd(-/- RBCs, in dark- and light-adapted retinal slices. Pd(-/- RBCs showed smaller dim flash responses and steeper intensity-response relationships than WT RBCs, consistent with the smaller rod responses being selectively filtered out by the non-linear threshold at the rod-to-rod bipolar synapse. In addition, Pd(-/- RBCs showed a marked delay in the onset of the light-evoked currents, similar to that of a WT response to an effectively dimmer flash. Comparison of the changes in flash sensitivity in the presence of steady adapting light revealed that Pd(-/- RBCs desensitized less than WT RBCs to the same intensity. These results are quantitatively consistent with the smaller single photon responses of Pd(-/- rods, owing to the known reduction in rod G-protein expression levels in this line. The absence of an additional synaptic phenotype in these experiments suggests that the function of phosducin at the photoreceptor synapse is abolished by the conditions of retinal slice recordings.

  2. Viscosity scaling of fingering instability in finite slices with Korteweg stress

    CERN Document Server

    Pramanik, Satyajit

    2015-01-01

    We perform linear stability analyses (LSA) and direct numerical simulations (DNS) to investigate the influence of the dynamic viscosity on viscous fingering (VF) instability in miscible slices. Selecting the characteristic scales appropriately the importance of the magnitude of the dynamic viscosity of individual fluids on VF in miscible slice has been shown in the context of the transient interfacial tension. Further, we have confirmed this result for immiscible fluids and manifest the similarities between VF in immiscible and miscible slices with transient interfacial tension. In a more general setting, the findings of this letter will be very useful for multiphase viscous flow, in which the momentum balance equation contains an additional stress term free from the dynamic viscosity.

  3. Three-dimensions Volume Reconstruction of Grayscale Serial Slice Images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Jianming(吴建明); Shi Pengfei; Zhang Luoming

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses on basic geometric and topological access methods, and computational operations implemented by various data objects. It covers such methods as inter-slices point matching, stream slices, sorting of octree blocks, cell operations and experimental results. At first, this paper discusses in detail the feature points matching of inter-slices. Then it introduces stream slices eigenfields and octree data structures theories. Next, it discusses cell operations and its data structure. Finally, it shows an experimental result. The innovations in the paper is the data structure of slices feature and cell feature, and the feature matching methods owns the properties both quickly and exactly.

  4. CT quality assurance: computer assisted slice thickness determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiders, N J; Bushong, S C

    1980-01-01

    The precise slice geometry of a CT scanner is an important, albeit tedious to determine, characteristic. A series of computer programs have been developed to analyze the slice thickness insert of the AAPM phantom. Without operator assistance they generate the beam profiles and slice thicknesses at three points in the scan field. A representative analysis is done on an AS&E scanner with slice thickness settings of 2 to 10 mm. The resulting discrepent measured thicknesses, ranging from 3 to 8 mm, indicate the need to perform such slice thickness measurements as part of a regular quality assurance program.

  5. Application of Dynamic Slicing in Test Data Generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QUO Suwei; ZHAO Ruilian; LI Lijian

    2007-01-01

    The program slicing technique is employed to calculate the current values of the variables at some interest points in software test data generation. This paper introduces the concept of statement domination to represent the multiple nests, and presents a dynamic program slice algorithm based on forward analysis to generate dynamic slices. In the approach, more attention is given to the statement itself or its domination node, so computing program slices is more easy and accurate, especially for those programs with multiple nests. In addition, a case study is discussed to illustrate our algorithm. Experimental results show that the slicing technique can be used in software test data generation to enhance the effectiveness.

  6. Computing with Colored Tangles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avishy Y. Carmi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We suggest a diagrammatic model of computation based on an axiom of distributivity. A diagram of a decorated colored tangle, similar to those that appear in low dimensional topology, plays the role of a circuit diagram. Equivalent diagrams represent bisimilar computations. We prove that our model of computation is Turing complete and with bounded resources that it can decide any language in complexity class IP, sometimes with better performance parameters than corresponding classical protocols.

  7. A Review of Variable Slicing in Fused Deposition Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadiyapara, Hitesh Hirjibhai; Pande, Sarang

    2016-06-01

    The paper presents a literature survey in the field of fused deposition of plastic wires especially in the field of slicing and deposition using extrusion of thermoplastic wires. Various researchers working in the field of computation of deposition path have used their algorithms for variable slicing. In the study, a flowchart has also been proposed for the slicing and deposition process. The algorithm already been developed by previous researcher will be used to be implemented on the fused deposition modelling machine. To demonstrate the capabilities of the fused deposition modeling machine a case study has been taken. It uses a manipulated G-code to be fed to the fused deposition modeling machine. Two types of slicing strategies, namely uniform slicing and variable slicing have been evaluated. In the uniform slicing, the slice thickness has been used for deposition is varying from 0.1 to 0.4 mm. In the variable slicing, thickness has been varied from 0.1 in the polar region to 0.4 in the equatorial region Time required and the number of slices required to deposit a hemisphere of 20 mm diameter have been compared with that using the variable slicing.

  8. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter Costume ... use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses ...

  9. Objective color harmony assessment for visible and infrared color fusion images of typical scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shaoshu; Jin, Weiqi; Wang, Lingxue

    2012-11-01

    For visible and infrared color fusion images of three typical scenes, color harmony computational models are proposed to evaluate the color quality of fusion images without reference images. The models are established based on the color-combination harmony model and focus on the influence of the color characteristics of typical scenes and the color region sizes in the fusion image. For the influence of the color characteristics of typical scenes, color harmony adjusting factors for natural scene images (green plants, sea, and sky) are defined by measuring the similarity between image colors and corresponding memory colors, and that for town and building images are presented based on the optimum colorfulness range suited for a human. Simultaneously, considering the influence of color region sizes, the weight coefficients are established using areas of the color regions to optimize the color harmony model. Experimental results show that the proposed harmony models are consistent with human perception and that they are suitable to evaluate the color harmony for color fusion images of typical scenes.

  10. COLORING PROPERTIES OF WOOL FABRIC COLORED BY NEW DYESTUFFS - AZOMETHINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DJORDJEVIC Dragan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The azomethines have broad applications in food and dyestuff industries, and in analytical chemistry, catalysis and also in the field of agrochemical. These have played an influential part in the improvement of modern coordination chemistry, but also they can also be found at key points in the development of inorganic biochemistry, catalysis and also in optical materials. The present paper describes coloring properties of wool fabric colored by new dyestuffs - azomethines, derivate of isatin. Synthesizing of dyestuffs can often have one to six chromogen, which can be defined as the photoactive components that contain colored or uncolored absorbent components. In addition of monoazo, diazo, poly-azo, anthraquinone, xanthan and similar systems, the azomethines or imines, also includes to the chromogen groups. Azomethines, such as, isatin-3-hydrazone, isatin-3-thiosemicarbazone and isatin-3-phenylhydrazone, were synthesized and their coloring performance on wool fabric assessed. The synthesized azomethines showed very good substantively for wool fibers with good coloring performance according to CIEL*a*b* system which characterized quantitative and qualitative coloring property. Dyestuff 3 or isatin-3-phenylhydrazone bound to woolen textiles to a greater extent and greater intensity (minimum value of L. Dyestuff 2 or isatin-3-thiosemicarbazone linked to the minimum amount for textiles (the largest value of L. Although it must be noted that it is a lighter shade (yellow color as opposed to the dyestuff 3 (red color.

  11. Computational color technology

    CERN Document Server

    Kang, Henry R

    2006-01-01

    Henry Kang provides the fundamental color principles and mathematical tools to prepare the reader for a new era of color reproduction, and for subsequent applications in multispectral imaging, medical imaging, remote sensing, and machine vision. This book is intended to bridge the gap between color science and computational color technology, putting color adaptation, color constancy, color transforms, color display, and color rendition in the domain of vector-matrix representations and theories. Computational Color Technology deals with color digital images on the spectral level using vector-m

  12. A quantitative theory of human color choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarova, Natalia L; Jameson, Kimberly A

    2013-01-01

    The system for colorimetry adopted by the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) in 1931, along with its subsequent improvements, represents a family of light mixture models that has served well for many decades for stimulus specification and reproduction when highly controlled color standards are important. Still, with regard to color appearance many perceptual and cognitive factors are known to contribute to color similarity, and, in general, to all cognitive judgments of color. Using experimentally obtained odd-one-out triad similarity judgments from 52 observers, we demonstrate that CIE-based models can explain a good portion (but not all) of the color similarity data. Color difference quantified by CIELAB ΔE explained behavior at levels of 81% (across all colors), 79% (across red colors), and 66% (across blue colors). We show that the unexplained variation cannot be ascribed to inter- or intra-individual variations among the observers, and points to the presence of additional factors shared by the majority of responders. Based on this, we create a quantitative model of a lexicographic semiorder type, which shows how different perceptual and cognitive influences can trade-off when making color similarity judgments. We show that by incorporating additional influences related to categorical and lightness and saturation factors, the model explains more of the triad similarity behavior, namely, 91% (all colors), 90% (reds), and 87% (blues). We conclude that distance in a CIE model is but the first of several layers in a hierarchy of higher-order cognitive influences that shape color triad choices. We further discuss additional mitigating influences outside the scope of CIE modeling, which can be incorporated in this framework, including well-known influences from language, stimulus set effects, and color preference bias. We also discuss universal and cultural aspects of the model as well as non-uniformity of the color space with respect to different

  13. Color blindness and Rorschach color responsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsino, B V

    1985-10-01

    Color vision deficits occur in 10% of the American white male population. Thus, color blindness may invalidate diagnostic hypotheses generated from Rorschach data. The Rorschach protocols of 43 white, college male color-blind subjects were compared to the protocols of normally sighted controls. The color-blind group manifested fewer pure "C" responses. No significant between group differences emerged for any of the other primary Rorschach color variables. Pure "C" responses rarely figure prominently in Rorschach evaluations, and the apparent lowered frequency of these responses by the color-blind is insufficient to warrant modification of current Rorschach practice. The data suggest that color blindness is unlikely to confound Rorschach assessment.

  14. Influence of Thin Slice Reconstruction on CT Brain Perfusion Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Bennink

    Full Text Available Although CT scanners generally allow dynamic acquisition of thin slices (1 mm, thick slice (≥5 mm reconstruction is commonly used for stroke imaging to reduce data, processing time, and noise level. Thin slice CT perfusion (CTP reconstruction may suffer less from partial volume effects, and thus yield more accurate quantitative results with increased resolution. Before thin slice protocols are to be introduced clinically, it needs to be ensured that this does not affect overall CTP constancy. We studied the influence of thin slice reconstruction on average perfusion values by comparing it with standard thick slice reconstruction.From 50 patient studies, absolute and relative hemisphere averaged estimates of cerebral blood volume (CBV, cerebral blood flow (CBF, mean transit time (MTT, and permeability-surface area product (PS were analyzed using 0.8, 2.4, 4.8, and 9.6 mm slice reconstructions. Specifically, the influence of Gaussian and bilateral filtering, the arterial input function (AIF, and motion correction on the perfusion values was investigated.Bilateral filtering gave noise levels comparable to isotropic Gaussian filtering, with less partial volume effects. Absolute CBF, CBV and PS were 22%, 14% and 46% lower with 0.8 mm than with 4.8 mm slices. If the AIF and motion correction were based on thin slices prior to reconstruction of thicker slices, these differences reduced to 3%, 4% and 3%. The effect of slice thickness on relative values was very small.This study shows that thin slice reconstruction for CTP with unaltered acquisition protocol gives relative perfusion values without clinically relevant bias. It does however affect absolute perfusion values, of which CBF and CBV are most sensitive. Partial volume effects in large arteries and veins lead to overestimation of these values. The effects of reconstruction slice thickness should be taken into account when absolute perfusion values are used for clinical decision making.

  15. TEST COVERAGE ANALYSIS BASED ON PROGRAM SLICING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Zhenqiang; Xu Baowen; Guanjie

    2003-01-01

    Coverage analysis is a structural testing technique that helps to eliminate gaps in atest suite and determines when to stop testing. To compute test coverage, this letter proposes anew concept coverage about variables, based on program slicing. By adding powers accordingto their importance, the users can focus on the important variables to obtain higher test coverage.The letter presents methods to compute basic coverage based on program structure graphs. Inmost cases, the coverage obtained in the letter is bigger than that obtained by a traditionalmeasure, because the coverage about a variable takes only the related codes into account.

  16. Number of discernible colors for color-deficient observers estimated from the MacAdam limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perales, Esther; Martínez-Verdú, Francisco Miguel; Linhares, João Manuel Maciel; Nascimento, Sérgio Miguel Cardoso

    2010-10-01

    We estimated the number of colors perceived by color normal and color-deficient observers when looking at the theoretic limits of object-color stimuli. These limits, the optimal color stimuli, were computed for a color normal observer and CIE standard illuminant D65, and the resultant colors were expressed in the CIELAB and DIN99d color spaces. The corresponding color volumes for abnormal color vision were computed using models simulating for normal trichromatic observers the appearance for dichromats and anomalous trichomats. The number of colors perceived in each case was then computed from the color volumes enclosed by the optimal colors also known as MacAdam limits. It was estimated that dichromats perceive less than 1% of the colors perceived by normal trichromats and that anomalous trichromats perceive 50%-60% for anomalies in the medium-wavelength-sensitive and 60%-70% for anomalies in the long-wavelength-sensitive cones. Complementary estimates obtained similarly for the spectral locus of monochromatic stimuli suggest less impairment for color-deficient observers, a fact that is explained by the two-dimensional nature of the locus.

  17. Slicing Method for curved façade and window extraction from point clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iman Zolanvari, S. M.; Laefer, Debra F.

    2016-09-01

    Laser scanning technology is a fast and reliable method to survey structures. However, the automatic conversion of such data into solid models for computation remains a major challenge, especially where non-rectilinear features are present. Since, openings and the overall dimensions of the buildings are the most critical elements in computational models for structural analysis, this article introduces the Slicing Method as a new, computationally-efficient method for extracting overall façade and window boundary points for reconstructing a façade into a geometry compatible for computational modelling. After finding a principal plane, the technique slices a façade into limited portions, with each slice representing a unique, imaginary section passing through a building. This is done along a façade's principal axes to segregate window and door openings from structural portions of the load-bearing masonry walls. The method detects each opening area's boundaries, as well as the overall boundary of the façade, in part, by using a one-dimensional projection to accelerate processing. Slices were optimised as 14.3 slices per vertical metre of building and 25 slices per horizontal metre of building, irrespective of building configuration or complexity. The proposed procedure was validated by its application to three highly decorative, historic brick buildings. Accuracy in excess of 93% was achieved with no manual intervention on highly complex buildings and nearly 100% on simple ones. Furthermore, computational times were less than 3 sec for data sets up to 2.6 million points, while similar existing approaches required more than 16 hr for such datasets.

  18. Complement C1q expression induced by Abeta in rat hippocampal organotypic slice cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Rong; Tenner, Andrea J

    2004-02-01

    Amyloid beta peptide (Abeta) is a major component of senile plaques, one of the principle pathological features in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brains. Fibrillar Abeta has been shown to bind C1 via C1q, the recognition component of the classical complement pathway, resulting in the activation of the complement pathway, thereby initiating an inflammatory cascade in the brain. C1q has also been shown to enhance phagocytic activities of microglia, which could benefit in clearance of apoptotic cells or cellular debris. To begin to define the role of C1q in tissue injury mediated by Abeta, we assessed the appearance of C1q in hippocampal slice cultures treated with freshly solubilized or fibrillar Abeta 1-42. Here we demonstrate a dose- and time-dependent uptake of exogenously applied Abeta by pyramidal neurons in organotypic slice cultures from rat hippocampus. Importantly, when slices were immunostained with antibody against rat C1q, a distinct reactivity for C1q in cells within the neuronal cell layer of cornu ammonis (CA) of hippocampus, primarily the CA1/CA2, was observed in the Abeta-treated slices. No such immunoreactivity was detected in untreated cultures or upon addition of control peptides. ELISA assays also showed an increase in C1q in tissue extracts from slices of the treated group. Similarly, the mRNA level of C1q in slices was increased within 24 h after Abeta treatment. These data demonstrate that upon exposure to Abeta, C1q is expressed in neurons in this organotypic system. The induction of C1q may be an early, perhaps beneficial, tissue or cellular response to injury triggered by particular pathogenic stimuli.

  19. Energetic and exergetic performance analysis and modeling of drying kinetics of kiwi slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvishi, Hosain; Zarein, Mohammad; Farhudi, Zanyar

    2016-05-01

    This work focused on the effects of the moisture content, slices thickness and microwave power on aspects of energy and exergy, drying kinetics, moisture diffusivity, activation energy, and modeling of the thin layer drying of kiwi slices. Results showed that energy and exergy efficiency increased with increasing microwave power and decreasing slice thickness while values of energy efficiency (15.15-32.27 %) were higher than exergy efficiency (11.35-24.68 %). Also, these parameters decreased with a decrease in moisture content. Specific energy consumption varied from 7.79 to 10.02, 8.59 to 10.77 and 9.57 to16.20 to MJ/kg water evaporated for 3, 6 and 9 mm, respectively. The values of exergy loss were found to be in the range of 5.90 and 14.39 MJ/kg water and decreased as the microwave power increased and slice thickness decreased. Effective diffusivity increased with decreasing moisture content and increasing microwave power and slice thickness. Average effective moisture diffusivity of kiwi slices changes between 1.47 × 10(-9) and 39.29 × 10(-9) m(2)/s within the given variables range. Activation energy (17.96-21.38 W/g) showed a significant dependence on the moisture content. Although the Midilli model showed the best fit, Page's model was selected, since it had almost a similar performance but the model is simpler with two parameters instead of four.

  20. Dichromatic color language: "reds" and "greens" don't look alike but their colors do.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jameson, D; Hurvich, L M

    1978-06-01

    When protanopes or deuteranopes arrange the Farnsworth Dichotomous Test colors in order of similarity, they reveal their lack of red/green hue discriminations by alternating chips that the normal trichromat sees as reddish and greenish test colors. The dichromatic orderings follow a systematic variation in saturation of blue hues through neutral and into yellow hues as described by theory for each of the two types. Some dichromats who show the typical test behavior nevertheless use reddish and greenish hue terms appropriately when instructed to name the same test colors. Lightness cues are probably used by these dichromats in the naming task but ignored in the perceptual similarity task. Thus, unlike normal trichromats, who use similar names for perceptually similar colors, dichromats may use dissimilar names for perceptually similar colors. In this way they can achieve concordance with the normative language system despite its discordance with their impoverished color perceptions.

  1. [A nucleus area extraction method for image analysis of kidney-tissue slice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Zhu, Hong

    2007-08-01

    To analyze the nuclei in the glomeruli of human kidneys, the problem of miss extraction or wrong extraction of nuclei caused by the effects of many factors during making slice must be solved. Aiming at this question, this paper proposed a dynamic thresholding method using eigenvalue feedback strategy based on multicenter. First, according to the information of R channel in the RGB color space and the information of C channel in the CMYK color space, after the process of filtering by LOG, we can get the correct positions of nuclei. Second, adjusting the threshold value surface by eigenvalue feedback strategy, we can solve the problem of conglutination of different nuclei. Then by combining the position information of nuclei, we can realize the nuclei segmentation accurately. The experimental results have demonstrated the high precision of this method.

  2. Harmony between groups : nuancing traditional views of color-blindness and color-consciousness/

    OpenAIRE

    Maquil, Annemie

    2007-01-01

    Color-blindness and color-consciousness are two ideologies aiming at prejudice and negative intergroup behavior reduction. Whereas color-blindness emphasizes the importance of breaking down group differences and considering everybody as an individal similar and equal to each other, color-consciousness emphasizes the recognition and appreciation of group differences. This dissertation is about the positive and negative aspects of both ideologies, as well as about their differential effects on ...

  3. Application of gamma irradiation for the microbiological safety of sliced cheddar cheese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Joo; Song, Beom Seok; Kim, Jae Hun; Choi, Jong Ill; Lee, Ju Woon; Byun, Myung Woo [Radiation Research Center for Innovative Technology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Cheo Run [Dept. of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-05-15

    This study was conducted to establish the microbiological safety of sliced cheddar cheese with gamma irradiation. Total aerobic bacteria was 2.50 Log CFUg-1 in non-irradiated sample. No viable cells were observed in the gamma-irradiated at 1 kGy and over. D10 value for Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus inoculated in sliced cheddar cheese were 0.64 and 0.54 kGy, respectively. TBARS (2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) values were increased as irradiation dose was increased, but there was no significant difference between nonirradiated and irradiated samples at 1 kGy. Sensory evaluation showed there was no significant difference between samples irradiated at 1 kGy and non-irradiated in respect of color, odor, overall acceptability. Theses results indicated that gamma irradiation at 1 kGy was considered to be an effective treatment to ensure the microbiological safety of sliced cheddar cheese with minimal change of sensory, even though further studies should be investigated to reduce the deterioration of sensory quality induced by gamma irradiation.

  4. Interspecific hybridization between Tigridia pavonia and T. augusta through ovary slice culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piña-Escutia, J-L; Vázquez-García, L-M; Arzate-Fernández, A-M

    2013-01-16

    Tigridia pavonia is the most popular species in the Tigridia genus, and is currently marketed in Europe, Asia, and Australia as a landscape plant. Although it is native to Mexico, there are no breeding programs for it. In this study, we attempted to increase its flower color spectrum and growth habit by interspecific hybridization with T. augusta. Interspecific hybrids between T. pavonia and T. augusta were successfully obtained for the first time using the cut-style pollination and ovary slice culture techniques. On the contrary, no hybrids were obtained from a reciprocal cross. At three, four, and five days after pollination (DAP) ovaries were sliced and cultured on Murashige and Skoog medium without growth regulators and ammonium nitrate, but were supplemented with 6% sucrose, 50 mg/L yeast extract, and 0.25% Gelrite. After 80 days of culture initiation, the germination of only 10 embryos was observed in ovary slices cultured at three DAP. After transfer to identical fresh medium, six hybrid embryos developed into seedlings. All obtained hybrid seedlings were transplanted successfully to soil, and grew normally. The progenies investigated were identified as true hybrids based on randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis.

  5. Dependence Analysis Based on Dynamic Slicing for Debugging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Dynamic program slicing is an effective technique for narrowingthe errors to t h e relevant parts of a program when debugging. Given a slicing criterion, the dyn amic slice contains only those statements that actually affect the variables in the slicing criterion. This paper proposes a dynamic slicing method based on sta tic dependence analysis. It uses the program dependence graph and other static i nformation to reduce the information needed to be traced during program executio n. Thus, the efficiency is dramatically improved while the precision is not depr e ssed. The slicing criterion is modified to fit for debugging. It consists of fil e-name and the line number at which the statement is.

  6. Stark effect on a geometry defined by a cake' slice

    CERN Document Server

    Reyes-Esqueda, J A; Castillo-Mussot, M; Vazquez, G J; Reyes-Esqueda, Jorge-Alejandro; Mendoza, Carlos I.; Castillo-Mussot, Marcelo del; Vazquez, Gerardo J.

    2005-01-01

    By using a variational calculation, we study the effect of an external applied electric field on the ground state of electrons confined in a quantum box with a geometry defined by a slice of a cake. This geometry is a first approximation for a tip of a cantilever of an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). By modeling the tip with the slice, we calculate the electronic ground state energy as function of the slice's diameter, its angular aperture, its thickness and the intensity of the external electric field applied along the slice. For the applied field pointing to the wider part of the slice, a confining electronic effect in the opposite side is clearly observed. This effect is sharper as the angular slice's aperture is smaller and there is more radial space to manifest itself.

  7. An improved method for determining CT image slice thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiders, N J; Bushong, S C

    1981-01-01

    One of the important characteristics of a computed tomography scanner is the image slice thickness. Most phantoms designed to measure this parameter do so with a ramp or tilted wire. Such a phantom must be precisely aligned to avoid possible significant inaccuracy. We present here a procedure for measuring the image slice thickness using a phantom containing two crossed ramps. The procedure produced consistent and accurate measurements of slice thickness without having to carry out a time consuming alignment procedure.

  8. Preliminary Study of Realistic Blast Impact on Cultured Brain Slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    hippocampal slice samples to better understand blast-induced brain damage. 15. SUBJECT TERMS RDX spheres , organotypic cultures of hippocampus, small...Preliminary Study of Realistic Blast Impact on Cultured Brain Slices by Thuvan Piehler, Rohan Banton, Lars Piehler, Richard Benjamin, Ray...Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005-5066 ARL-TR-7197 April 2015 Preliminary Study of Realistic Blast Impact on Cultured Brain Slices Thuvan

  9. 100-Meter Resolution Color Shaded Relief of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Color Shaded Relief of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands map layer is a 100-meter resolution color-sliced elevation image of Puerto Rico and the U.S....

  10. THE EFFECT OF ETHYLENE IN MAINTAINING QUALITY OF TOMATO SLICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darwin H. Pangaribuan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Processes such as slicing tomato fruits disrupt the plant tissue so the products become more perishable compared with the intact fruit. Ethylene production is stimulated during the slicing of fresh cut tomato slices. Experiments were conducted to investigate if ethylene absorbent and exogenous ethylene influences the quality of tomato slices cv. ‘Revolution’ during storage at 5C. In the experiment of ethylene absorbent, experiment was laid out in a completely randomised design. The treatments were plus 10 g and minus ethylene absorbent (KMnO4; Purafil; 5C for 12 d. In the experiment of ethylene concentrations, experiment was laid out in a completely randomised design. The treatments were exogenous ethylene concentrations of 0 (control, 0.1, 1 or 10 L L–1 respectively (5C for 6 h. In both experiments, the treatments were replicated 5 fold. Results showed that ethylene absorbent resulted in reduced ethylene accumulation, and CO2 accumulation in enclosed containers, and firmer slices. Ethylene applied 2 days after slicing stimulated the rate of ethylene production, CO2 production, and produced softer slices during storage. Changes in soluble solids concentration and titratable acidity development were independent of ethylene effects. These experiments showed that ethylene produced by slicing or introduced exogenously had an undesirable effect of accelerating softening of tomato slices.

  11. Thin slices of child personality: Perceptual, situational, and behavioral contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tackett, Jennifer L; Herzhoff, Kathrin; Kushner, Shauna C; Rule, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined whether thin-slice ratings of child personality serve as a resource-efficient and theoretically valid measurement of child personality traits. We extended theoretical work on the observability, perceptual accuracy, and situational consistency of childhood personality traits by examining intersource and interjudge agreement, cross-situational consistency, and convergent, divergent, and predictive validity of thin-slice ratings. Forty-five unacquainted independent coders rated 326 children's (ages 8-12) personality in 1 of 15 thin-slice behavioral scenarios (i.e., 3 raters per slice, for over 14,000 independent thin-slice ratings). Mothers, fathers, and children rated children's personality, psychopathology, and competence. We found robust evidence for correlations between thin-slice and mother/father ratings of child personality, within- and across-task consistency of thin-slice ratings, and convergent and divergent validity with psychopathology and competence. Surprisingly, thin-slice ratings were more consistent across situations in this child sample than previously found for adults. Taken together, these results suggest that thin slices are a valid and reliable measure to assess child personality, offering a useful method of measurement beyond questionnaires, helping to address novel questions of personality perception and consistency in childhood.

  12. [Design and accuracy analysis of upper slicing system of MSCT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Rongjian

    2013-05-01

    The upper slicing system is the main components of the optical system in MSCT. This paper focuses on the design of upper slicing system and its accuracy analysis to improve the accuracy of imaging. The error of slice thickness and ray center by bearings, screw and control system were analyzed and tested. In fact, the accumulated error measured is less than 1 microm, absolute error measured is less than 10 microm. Improving the accuracy of the upper slicing system contributes to the appropriate treatment methods and success rate of treatment.

  13. Simple perceptual color space for color specification and real-time processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsarenko, Yuriy; Ramos, Fernando

    2011-08-01

    In this work an alternative color space is described that defines the color elements in terms of approximated brightness, hue and saturation, similar to other color spaces commonly used in computer applications. The classical color spaces such as HSL and HSV in the form that is widely used are made for convenience, and do not model colors based on human perception. Other classical color spaces such as CIELAB, DIN99 and even more recent CIECAM-based color spaces are too cumbersome and difficult to work with. The proposed alternative, on the other hand, is simple to work with and has its "lightness" component tuned up to represent the perceived brightness closer to the reality. It is based on how luma is calculated in color spaces such as YUV and YIQ among others, but instead of using constant coefficients, it uses Euclidean distance formula with weighting coefficients. Several experiments are described that illustrate the proposed color space visualized in 3D and compared to other color spaces in perceptual terms and performance benchmarks. This is aided by a novel technique that allows normalizing the chroma of existing color spaces within a fixed interval. The experiments show that the proposed color space is a viable alternative for applications that already use HSV and HSL. A practical application is described, where the color space is used for 3D illumination with specular reflections running on dedicated graphics processor unit using shaders. This resolves visual defects present in the classical approaches that use RGB color space.

  14. Modeling human color categorization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Egon; Schouten, Th.E.; Kisters, P.M.F.

    2008-01-01

    A unique color space segmentation method is introduced. It is founded on features of human cognition, where 11 color categories are used in processing color. In two experiments, human subjects were asked to categorize color stimuli into these 11 color categories, which resulted in markers for a Colo

  15. Modeling human color categorization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Egon; Schouten, Th.E.; Kisters, P.M.F.

    A unique color space segmentation method is introduced. It is founded on features of human cognition, where 11 color categories are used in processing color. In two experiments, human subjects were asked to categorize color stimuli into these 11 color categories, which resulted in markers for a

  16. 7 CFR 51.1906 - Similar varietal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Fresh Tomatoes Definitions § 51.1906 Similar varietal characteristics. Similar varietal characteristics means that the tomatoes are alike as to color, i.e., bright...

  17. Quality and shelf life of packaged fresh sliced mushrooms stored at two different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. GONZÁLEZ-FANDOS

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The sensory and microbiological quality of sliced mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus L. packaged in films of perforated and non-perforated PVC and stored at 3 and 9ºC, was studied. The carbon dioxide and oxygen content inside the packages, colour, weight loss, sensory attributes, mesophiles, Pseudomonas, Enterobacteriaceae, aerobic and anaerobic spore formers were determined. The atmosphere generated with the perforated PVC film was similar to that of air atmosphere at 3 or 9ºC. T.he non-perforated PVC film generated inside the packages CO2 : O2 concentrations of 3.4% : 8.1% at 3ºC and CO2 : O2 concentrations of 4.5% : 0.15% at 9ºC. Browning of mushrooms was lower at 3 than at 9ºC. The quality of sliced mushrooms packaged in perforated PVC and stored at 3ºC was adequate after 9 days. However, at 9ºC, the slice deformation and brown blotches incidence were severe after 9 days. The atmosphere generated with non-perforated PVC inhibited aerobic microorganism growth compared to mushrooms packaged in perforated PVC. At 3ºC, the shelf life of mushrooms packaged in non perforated PVC was around 13 days. However, the extremely low O2 atmospheres generated at 9ºC was accompanied by off-odours and growth of anaerobic spore formers, although the appearance of sliced mushrooms was acceptable.;

  18. A Comparative Study of Spiral Tomograms with Different Slice Thicknesses in Dental Implant Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon Sook Ja [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Chonnam University Hospital, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-02-15

    To know whether there would be a difference among spiral tomograms of different slice thicknesses in the measurement of distances which are used for dental implant planning. 10 dry mandibules and 40 metal balls are used to take total 120 Scanora tomograms with the slice thickness of 2 mm, 4 mm and 8 mm. 3 oral radiologists interpreted each tomogram to measure the distances from the mandibular canal to the alveoalr crest and buccal, lingual and inferior borders of mandible. 3 observers recorded grades of 0, 1 or 2 to evaluate the perceptibility of alveolar crest and the superior border of mandibular canal. For statistical analysis, ANOVA with repeated measure, Chi-square tests and intraclass correlation coefficient (R2, alpha) were used. There was not a statistically significant difference among spiral tomograms with different slice thicknesses in the measurement of the distances and in the perceptibility of alveolar crest and mandibular canal (p>0.05). All of them showed a good relationship in the reliability analysis. The perceptibility of alveolar crest and mandibular canal was almost similar and an excellent relationship was seen on all of them. There would be no significant difference, no matter which spiral tomogram of any slice thickness may be used in dental implant planning, considering the thickness of dental implant fixture.

  19. The Role of Monosialoganglioside GM1 in LTP-Induction in Rat Hippocampal Slices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永新; 梅镇彤

    1994-01-01

    The effect of monosialoganglioside GM1 of different doses on the long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic transmission has been studied in the CA1 region of rat hippocampal slices, and the possible role that calcium ion and NMDA receptor play has also been investigated. The results reveal that larger magnitude of LTP is induced in hippocampal slices pre-incubated with GM1. The dose-response curve appears in diphase, and the largest magnitude of LTP has been obtained at the GM1 concentration of 50 mg/L in incubation ACSF. Moreover, the magnitude of LTP induced from the slices pre-incubated with GM1 at lower calcium ion concentration is similar to that obtained from the control slices at normal calcium ion concentration. Under higher calcium ion concentration, the enhancing effect of GM1 on LTP seems relatively feeble. After NMDA receptors were blocked, no enhancing effect of GM1 was observed. The mechanism of GM1 action on LTP is discussed.

  20. Improving the time efficiency of the Fourier synthesis method for slice selection in magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahayori, B; Khaneja, N; Johnston, L A; Farrell, P M; Mareels, I M Y

    2016-01-01

    The design of slice selective pulses for magnetic resonance imaging can be cast as an optimal control problem. The Fourier synthesis method is an existing approach to solve these optimal control problems. In this method the gradient field as well as the excitation field are switched rapidly and their amplitudes are calculated based on a Fourier series expansion. Here, we provide a novel insight into the Fourier synthesis method via representing the Bloch equation in spherical coordinates. Based on the spherical Bloch equation, we propose an alternative sequence of pulses that can be used for slice selection which is more time efficient compared to the original method. Simulation results demonstrate that while the performance of both methods is approximately the same, the required time for the proposed sequence of pulses is half of the original sequence of pulses. Furthermore, the slice selectivity of both sequences of pulses changes with radio frequency field inhomogeneities in a similar way. We also introduce a measure, referred to as gradient complexity, to compare the performance of both sequences of pulses. This measure indicates that for a desired level of uniformity in the excited slice, the gradient complexity for the proposed sequence of pulses is less than the original sequence.

  1. Originator usage control with business process slicing

    CERN Document Server

    Su, Ziyi

    2012-01-01

    Originator Control allows information providers to define the information re-dissemination condition. Combined with usage control policy, fine-grained 'downstream usage control' can be achieved, which specifies what attributes the downstream consumers should have and how data is used. This paper discusses originator usage control, paying particular attention to enterprise-level dynamic business federations. Rather than 'pre-defining' the information re-dissemination paths, our business process slicing method 'capture' the asset derivation pattern, allowing to maintain originators' policies during the full lifecycle of assets in a collaborative context. First, we propose Service Call Graph (SCG), based on extending the System Dependency Graph, to describe dependencies among partners. When SCG (and corresponding 'service call tuple' list) is built for a business process, it is analyzed to group partners into sub-contexts, according to their dependency relations. Originator usage control can be achieved focusing...

  2. Reality, No Matter How You Slice It

    CERN Document Server

    Wharton, Ken

    2013-01-01

    In order to reject the notion that information is always about something, the "It from Bit" idea relies on the nonexistence of a realistic framework that might underly quantum theory. This essay develops the case that there is a plausible underlying reality: one actual spacetime-based history, although with behavior that appears strange when analyzed dynamically (one time-slice at a time). By using a simple model with no dynamical laws, it becomes evident that this behavior is actually quite natural when analyzed "all-at-once" (as in classical statistical mechanics). The "It from Bit" argument against a spacetime-based reality must then somehow defend the importance of dynamical laws, even as it denies a reality on which such fundamental laws could operate.

  3. LHC slice of dipolewires and collars

    CERN Multimedia

    Dipole model slice 1994, Ansaldo  About LHC Dipole magnets: There will be 1232 dipole magnets in the LHC, used to guide the particles around the 27 km ring. Dipole magnets must have an extremely uniform field, which means the current flowing in the coils has to be very precisely controlled. Nowhere before has such precision been achieved at such high currents. The temperature is measured to five thousandths of a degree, the current to one part in a million. The current creating the magnetic field will pass through superconducting wires at up to 12 500 amps, about 30 000 times the current flowing in a 100 W light bulb. Because the LHC will accelerate two particle beams moving in opposite directions, it is really two accelerators in one. To keep the machine as compact and economical as possible, two dipole magnets are built into a single housing.

  4. Optimization in spectrum-sliced optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day Rosario Assis, Karcius; Ferreira dos Santos, Alex; Almeida, Raul C.

    2013-12-01

    Current communication in optical networks presents a wide range of granularities, making it hard to use the optical spectrum efficiently under the WDM framework. In Spectrum Sliced Optical Networks, the WDM rigid frequency grid is replaced by a more flexible structure, in which the spectrum is organized in frequency slots, and each traffic flow is assigned to an appropriate set of contiguous slots. The classical Routing and Wavelength Assignment (RWA) problem is then replaced by a Routing and Spectrum assignment (RSA) problem. This paper addresses an iterativa approach to balance the network load during the routing decision in Spectrum-Elastic Optical Path Networks. We have built numerical examples to illustrate the performance of our routing approach. Comparisons to other routing techniques show that our approach mitigates the lightpath requests blocking probability.

  5. Coloring and Guarding Arrangements

    CERN Document Server

    Bose, Prosenjit; Collette, Sébastien; Hurtado, Ferran; Korman, Matias; Langerman, Stefan; Taslakian, Perouz

    2012-01-01

    Given an arrangement of lines in the plane, what is the minimum number $c$ of colors required to color the lines so that no cell of the arrangement is monochromatic? In this paper we give bounds on the number c both for the above question, as well as some of its variations. We redefine these problems as geometric hypergraph coloring problems. If we define $\\Hlinecell$ as the hypergraph where vertices are lines and edges represent cells of the arrangement, the answer to the above question is equal to the chromatic number of this hypergraph. We prove that this chromatic number is between $\\Omega (\\log n / \\log\\log n)$. and $O(\\sqrt{n})$. Similarly, we give bounds on the minimum size of a subset $S$ of the intersections of the lines in $\\mathcal{A}$ such that every cell is bounded by at least one of the vertices in $S$. This may be seen as a problem on guarding cells with vertices when the lines act as obstacles. The problem can also be defined as the minimum vertex cover problem in the hypergraph $\\Hvertexcell$...

  6. Embedding Color Watermarks in Color Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Tung-Lin

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Robust watermarking with oblivious detection is essential to practical copyright protection of digital images. Effective exploitation of the characteristics of human visual perception to color stimuli helps to develop the watermarking scheme that fills the requirement. In this paper, an oblivious watermarking scheme that embeds color watermarks in color images is proposed. Through color gamut analysis and quantizer design, color watermarks are embedded by modifying quantization indices of color pixels without resulting in perceivable distortion. Only a small amount of information including the specification of color gamut, quantizer stepsize, and color tables is required to extract the watermark. Experimental results show that the proposed watermarking scheme is computationally simple and quite robust in face of various attacks such as cropping, low-pass filtering, white-noise addition, scaling, and JPEG compression with high compression ratios.

  7. Color vision and color formation in dragonflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futahashi, Ryo

    2016-10-01

    Dragonflies including damselflies are colorful and large-eyed insects, which show remarkable sexual dimorphism, color transition, and color polymorphism. Recent comprehensive visual transcriptomics has unveiled an extraordinary diversity of opsin genes within the lineage of dragonflies. These opsin genes are differentially expressed between aquatic larvae and terrestrial adults, as well as between dorsal and ventral regions of adult compound eyes. Recent topics of color formation in dragonflies are also outlined. Non-iridescent blue color is caused by coherent light scattering from the quasiordered nanostructures, whereas iridescent color is produced by multilayer structures. Wrinkles or wax crystals sometimes enhances multilayer structural colors. Sex-specific and stage-specific color differences in red dragonflies is attributed to redox states of ommochrome pigments.

  8. Drying characteristics of zucchini slices under periodic infrared-microwave vacuum conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chayjan, Reza Amiri; Dibagar, Nesa; Alaei, Behnam

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of the presented study was to describe the effects of various drying conditions on the drying behavior of zucchini slices as well as specifications of diffusivity, activation energy, shrinkage, and color. Zucchini samples, as the richest fount of macronutrient and micronutrient, were subjected to periodic microwave vacuum drying (at 450 W) at three levels of temperature (40, 50 and 60 °C), absolute pressure (20, 40 and 60 kPa) and exposure time (20-3, 30-4.5 and 40-6 s-min). An increase in the drying temperature and exposure time along with a decrease in absolute pressure caused a reduction in total drying time, however, greater heat damages and adversely texture and color effects were observed in this case. The effective moisture diffusivity of zucchini varied between 5.41×10-10 and 1.75×10-9, indicating that under circumstances of high temperature, long exposure time and low absolute pressure water was able to rapidly diffuse out of the tissue in the experimental domain. Lowering the absolute pressure of vacuum flask and increasing the exposure time led to the reduction in the activation energy of samples. The shrinkage coefficient was within the range of 79.91 to 84.92%. As such, the greatest total color difference was calculated between the color of raw and dried samples for those experiments with the largest increase in temperature, exposure time and a decrease in absolute pressure.

  9. Urine - abnormal color

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003139.htm Urine - abnormal color To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine ...

  10. Skin color - patchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003224.htm Skin color - patchy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Patchy skin color is areas where the skin color is irregular. ...

  11. P1-15: Categorical Color Perception of LED Illuminant Color for Deuteranomals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeko Oishi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Color information has great value in our everyday lives, but it is not mindful of people with color vision deficiency (CVD. We can choose several color names to categorize a lot of colors around us. Eleven color names (white, black, red, green, yellow, blue, brown, orange, pink, and gray are known as basic color categories, but people with CVD cannot necessarily describe colors as people who are color vision normal (CVN do. Previous studies showed that it was hard for people with CVD to discriminate illuminant color from object color, and their color perception changed largely depending on experimental conditions. In this study we investigated categorical color perception of illuminant color for deuteranomals, using a mixture of light which consists of a red, a green, and a blue LED as a test stimulus. We tested those stimuli with three luminance levels (180 cd/m2, 18 cd/m2, 1.8 cd/m2 and two visual angles (10 deg, 0.5 deg. Subjects were three deuteranomals and three people who are CVN. Our result showed that the categorical color of mild deuteranomals was similar to that of those who were CVN, but that of severe deuteranomals was not. Severe deuteranomals judged more low chromatic colors as achromatic colors than those who were CVN. The smaller visual angle or lower luminance level the test stimulus had, the more deuteranomals confused color. The results suggest that the effect of the Bezold-Brucke phenomenon is greater to deuteranomals than to those who are CVN. Furthermore, deuteranomals use not only chromatic information but also luminance information when they describe color.

  12. Eigenvalues of collective emission in multi-slice slab configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedberg, Richard [Department of Physics, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Manassah, Jamal T. [HMS Consultants, Inc., PO Box 592, New York, NY 10028 (United States)], E-mail: jmanassah@gmail.com

    2008-06-02

    We compute the eigenmodes of collective emission from multi-slice slab configurations, using the transfer matrix formalism. We elucidate within this formalism the phenomena of 'Invisible Gaps' in multiple-slice configuration and of 'Precocious Superradiance' in periodic structures previously observed in numerical solutions of Maxwell-Bloch equations.

  13. Long-term brain slice culturing in a microfluidic platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedarethinam, Indumathi; Avaliani, N.; Tønnesen, J.;

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we present the development of a transparent poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) based microfluidic culture system for handling long-term brain slice cultures independent of an incubator. The different stages of system development have been validated by culturing GFP producing brain...... brain slice culturing for 16 days....

  14. Digital color imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez-Maloigne, Christine; Macaire, Ludovic

    2013-01-01

    This collective work identifies the latest developments in the field of the automatic processing and analysis of digital color images.For researchers and students, it represents a critical state of the art on the scientific issues raised by the various steps constituting the chain of color image processing.It covers a wide range of topics related to computational color imaging, including color filtering and segmentation, color texture characterization, color invariant for object recognition, color and motion analysis, as well as color image and video indexing and retrieval. <

  15. A survey of program slicing for software engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Jon

    1993-01-01

    This research concerns program slicing which is used as a tool for program maintainence of software systems. Program slicing decreases the level of effort required to understand and maintain complex software systems. It was first designed as a debugging aid, but it has since been generalized into various tools and extended to include program comprehension, module cohesion estimation, requirements verification, dead code elimination, and maintainence of several software systems, including reverse engineering, parallelization, portability, and reuse component generation. This paper seeks to address and define terminology, theoretical concepts, program representation, different program graphs, developments in static slicing, dynamic slicing, and semantics and mathematical models. Applications for conventional slicing are presented, along with a prognosis of future work in this field.

  16. Acetic acid pretreatment improves the hardness of cooked potato slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenlin; Shehzad, Hussain; Yan, Shoulei; Li, Jie; Wang, Qingzhang

    2017-08-01

    The effects of acetic acid pretreatment on the texture of cooked potato slices were investigated in this work. Potato slices were pretreated with acetic acid immersion (AAI), distilled water immersion (DWI), or no immersion (NI). Subsequently, the cell wall material of the pretreated samples was isolated and fractioned to evaluate changes in the monosaccharide content and molar mass (MM), and the hardness and microscopic structure of the potato slices in different pretreatments before and after cooking were determined. The results showed that the highest firmness was obtained with more intact structure of the cell wall for cooked potato slices with AAI pretreatment. Furthermore, the MM and sugar ratio demonstrated that the AAI pretreated potato slices contained a higher content of the small molecular polysaccharides of cell walls, especially in the hemicellulose fraction. This work may provide a reference for potato processing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Seamless Ligation Cloning Extract (SLiCE) cloning method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongwei; Werling, Uwe; Edelmann, Winfried

    2014-01-01

    SLiCE (Seamless Ligation Cloning Extract) is a novel cloning method that utilizes easy to generate bacterial cell extracts to assemble multiple DNA fragments into recombinant DNA molecules in a single in vitro recombination reaction. SLiCE overcomes the sequence limitations of traditional cloning methods, facilitates seamless cloning by recombining short end homologies (15-52 bp) with or without flanking heterologous sequences and provides an effective strategy for directional subcloning of DNA fragments from bacterial artificial chromosomes or other sources. SLiCE is highly cost-effective and demonstrates the versatility as a number of standard laboratory bacterial strains can serve as sources for SLiCE extract. We established a DH10B-derived E. coli strain expressing an optimized λ prophage Red recombination system, termed PPY, which facilitates SLiCE with very high efficiencies.

  18. Color Word Acquisition: Conceptual or Linguistic Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soja, Nancy N.

    A study investigated children's difficulty in learning color words and attempted to determine whether the difficulty was perceptual, conceptual, or linguistic. The subjects were 24 two-year-olds, half with knowledge of color words and half without, and a similar control group. The experimental subjects were given conceptual and comprehension tasks…

  19. Color vision: mice see hue too.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Bevil R

    2007-06-19

    A transgenic mouse has been generated with three cone types, instead of the normal murine two. Remarkably, some of these mice use the extra cone to make trichromatic color discriminations similar to those that are the basis of human color vision.

  20. 一种过程间单子切片方法%An Approach of Monadic Slicing for Interprocedural Programs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张迎周; 符炜

    2013-01-01

    在现有的过程内单子切片算法基础上,提出基于回填待定标号的过程间单子切片算法:先以待定标号初始化子过程中开始处参数变量的切片;再对其进行过程内单子切片分析,据此可得相应参数间依赖关系;最后回填切片表中相应的待定标号,从而获得所需的过程间单子切片。算法充分利用了过程内单子切片的结果,相当程度上避免了重复计算,无需进一步构造诸如特征子图、连接语法等中间形式,同时通过参数间依赖避免了调用上下文问题。此外,文中算法保留了过程内单子切片算法的强语言适应性和组合性。%Program slicing is a technique for simplifying programs by focusing on selected aspects of semantics .This paper extends our previously presented intraprocedural monadic slicing to handle procedures .It presents backfilling labels based monadic approach to compute static slices of a program with call-by-value-result procedures .It first uses some given labels to initialize the monadic slices of the corresponding formal parameters at the beginning of a procedure ;then analyzes this procedure through in-traprocedural monadic slicing methods ,whose slice result can be used to obtain the dependences among the parameters .It lastly ob-tains the final slice tables by backfilling the corresponding given labels .The algorithms in this paper make the best of the slice result from intraprocedural monadic slicing algorithms ,without the need of a characteristic graph ,a system dependence graph ,or similar intermediate structure .They can also address calling-context problem through the dependence relations among the corresponding pa-rameters .Furthermore ,they reserve the excellent properties of compositionality and language-flexibility from intraprocedural monadic slicing algorithms .

  1. Synesthetic Colors for Japanese Scripts in Japanese Synesthetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiko Yokosawa

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The determinants of synesthetic colors for Japanese scripts were studied in six Japanese grapheme-color synesthetes. We investigated the influence of linguistic properties such as phonology, orthography, and meaning on synesthetic colors for logographic characters (Kanji, phonetic characters (hiragana and katakana, and digits. From a palette of 138 colors, the synesthetes selected colors for 79 Kanji, 71 hiragana, and 71 katakana characters, and 9 digits. The results revealed that the color choices for hiragana and katakana characters representing the same sound were remarkably consistent, indicating that color selection depended on phonology and not visual form. On the other hand, synesthetic colors for Kanji characters, which are usually learned later, depended on meaning and phonology. Kanji characters representing concepts that are highly related to colors (eg, names of objects with typical colors were associated with those colors. Digits and corresponding Kanji numerals elicited strikingly similar colors. Colors for Kanji and hiragana characters sharing the same sound were likely to be similar. These results suggest that synesthetic colors are generalized from digits and phonetic scripts to Kanji characters via meaning and phonology. This study provides insights into the generalization of synesthetic colors to later acquired sets of graphemes within a language.

  2. Color identification testing device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brawner, E. L.; Martin, R.; Pate, W.

    1970-01-01

    Testing device, which determines ability of a technician to identify color-coded electric wires, is superior to standard color blindness tests. It tests speed of wire selection, detects partial color blindness, allows rapid testing, and may be administered by a color blind person.

  3. Texture affects color emotion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, M.P.; Gevers, T.; Gijsenij, A.

    2011-01-01

    Several studies have recorded color emotions in subjects viewing uniform color (UC) samples. We conduct an experiment to measure and model how these color emotions change when texture is added to the color samples. Using a computer monitor, our subjects arrange samples along four scales: warm-cool,

  4. Texture affects color emotion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, M.P.; Gevers, T.; Gijsenij, A.

    2011-01-01

    Several studies have recorded color emotions in subjects viewing uniform color (UC) samples. We conduct an experiment to measure and model how these color emotions change when texture is added to the color samples. Using a computer monitor, our subjects arrange samples along four scales: warm-cool,

  5. Sensory Drive, Color, and Color Vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Trevor D

    2017-08-01

    Colors often appear to differ in arbitrary ways among related species. However, a fraction of color diversity may be explained because some signals are more easily perceived in one environment rather than another. Models show that not only signals but also the perception of signals should regularly evolve in response to different environments, whether these primarily involve detection of conspecifics or detection of predators and prey. Thus, a deeper understanding of how perception of color correlates with environmental attributes should help generate more predictive models of color divergence. Here, I briefly review our understanding of color vision in vertebrates. Then I focus on opsin spectral tuning and opsin expression, two traits involved in color perception that have become amenable to study. I ask how opsin tuning is correlated with ecological differences, notably the light environment, and how this potentially affects perception of conspecific colors. Although opsin tuning appears to evolve slowly, opsin expression levels are more evolutionarily labile but have been difficult to connect to color perception. The challenge going forward will be to identify how physiological differences involved in color vision, such as opsin expression levels, translate into perceptual differences, the selection pressures that have driven those differences, and ultimately how this may drive evolution of conspecific colors.

  6. Attack diagnosis on binary executables using dynamic program slicing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shan; Zheng, Yudi; Zhang, Ruoyu

    2011-12-01

    Nowadays, the level of the practically used programs is often complex and of such a large scale so that it is not as easy to analyze and debug them as one might expect. And it is quite difficult to diagnose attacks and find vulnerabilities in such large-scale programs. Thus, dynamic program slicing becomes a popular and effective method for program comprehension and debugging since it can reduce the analysis scope greatly and drop useless data that do not influence the final result. Besides, most of existing dynamic slicing tools perform dynamic slicing in the source code level, but the source code is not easy to obtain in practice. We believe that we do need some kinds of systems to help the users understand binary programs. In this paper, we present an approach of diagnosing attacks using dynamic backward program slicing based on binary executables, and provide a dynamic binary slicing tool named DBS to analyze binary executables precisely and efficiently. It computes the set of instructions that may have affected or been affected by slicing criterion set in certain location of the binary execution stream. This tool also can organize the slicing results by function call graphs and control flow graphs clearly and hierarchically.

  7. A Hierarchical Slicing Tool Model%一个分层切片工具模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭毅; 朱平; 李必信; 郑国梁

    2001-01-01

    Most of the traditional methods of slicing are based on dependence graph. But constructing dependence graph for object oriented programs directly is very complicated. The design and implementation of a hierarchical slicing tool model are described. By constructing the package level dependence graph, class level dependence graph, method level dependence graph and statement level dependence graph, package level slice, class level slice, method level slice and program slice are obtained step by step.

  8. Spacetime Slices and Surfaces of Revolution

    CERN Document Server

    Giblin, J T; Jr, John T. Giblin; Hwang, Andrew D.

    2004-01-01

    Under certain conditions, a $(1+1)$-dimensional slice $\\hat{g}$ of a spherically symmetric black hole spacetime can be equivariantly embedded in $(2+1)$-dimensional Minkowski space. The embedding depends on a real parameter that corresponds physically to the surface gravity $\\kappa$ of the black hole horizon. Under conditions that turn out to be closely related, a real surface that possesses rotational symmetry can be equivariantly embedded in 3-dimensional Euclidean space. The embedding does not obviously depend on a parameter. However, the Gaussian curvature is given by a simple formula: If the metric is written $g = \\phi(r)^{-1} dr^2 + \\phi(r) d\\theta^2$, then $\\K_g=-{1/2}\\phi''(r)$. This note shows that metrics $g$ and $\\hat{g}$ occur in dual pairs, and that the embeddings described above are orthogonal facets of a single phenomenon. In particular, the metrics and their respective embeddings differ by a Wick rotation that preserves the ambient symmetry. Consequently, the embedding of $g$ depends on a real...

  9. Sliced Inverse Regression for Time Series Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Sue

    1995-11-01

    In this thesis, general nonlinear models for time series data are considered. A basic form is x _{t} = f(beta_sp{1} {T}X_{t-1},beta_sp {2}{T}X_{t-1},... , beta_sp{k}{T}X_ {t-1},varepsilon_{t}), where x_{t} is an observed time series data, X_{t } is the first d time lag vector, (x _{t},x_{t-1},... ,x _{t-d-1}), f is an unknown function, beta_{i}'s are unknown vectors, varepsilon_{t }'s are independent distributed. Special cases include AR and TAR models. We investigate the feasibility applying SIR/PHD (Li 1990, 1991) (the sliced inverse regression and principal Hessian methods) in estimating beta _{i}'s. PCA (Principal component analysis) is brought in to check one critical condition for SIR/PHD. Through simulation and a study on 3 well -known data sets of Canadian lynx, U.S. unemployment rate and sunspot numbers, we demonstrate how SIR/PHD can effectively retrieve the interesting low-dimension structures for time series data.

  10. Industrial Color Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Georg A

    2010-01-01

    This unique book starts with a short historical overview of the development of the theories of color vision and applications of industrial color physics. The three dominant factors producing color - light source, color sample, and observer - are described in detail. The standardized color spaces are shown and related color values are applied to characteristic color qualities of absorption as well as of effect colorants. The fundamentals of spectrometric and colorimetric measuring techniques together with specific applications are described. Theoretical models for radiative transfer in transparent, translucent, and opaque layers are detailed; the two, three, and multi-flux approximations are presented for the first time in a coherent formalism. These methods constitute the fundamentals not only for the important classical methods, but also modern methods of recipe prediction applicable to all known colorants. The text is supplied with 52 tables, more than 200 partially colored illustrations, an appendix, and a...

  11. OBTENTION OF CARAMEL COLOR FOR CARBONATED BEVERAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isnel Benítez Cortés

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This work is done in order to evaluate a process for the preparation of caramel color to produce carbonated soft drinks. The effect of the concentration of phosphoric acid and ammonium hydroxide in caramel color properties such as density, pH, color and Brix is evaluated and it is compared with a color pattern caramel color which was imported. The results indicate that the prepared sample with 3.6 mL of phosphoric acid and 46 mL of ammonium hydroxide has similar characteristics to the sample pattern. With this sample, iromber and cola syrup is prepared, showing very good results for the case of the cola, not so for iromber syrup. Durability studies are favorable, keeping the pH constant and color stability.

  12. Application of Graph Coloring to Biological Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Khor, Susan

    2009-01-01

    We explore the application of graph coloring to biological networks, specifically protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks. First, we find that given similar conditions (i.e. number of nodes, number of links, degree distribution and clustering), fewer colors are needed to color disassortative (high degree nodes tend to connect to low degree nodes and vice versa) than assortative networks. Fewer colors create fewer independent sets which in turn imply higher concurrency potential for a network. Since PPI networks tend to be disassortative, we suggest that in addition to functional specificity and stability proposed previously by Maslov and Sneppen (Science 296, 2002), the disassortative nature of PPI networks may promote the ability of cells to perform multiple, crucial and functionally diverse tasks concurrently. Second, since graph coloring is closely related to the presence of cliques in a graph, the significance of node coloring information to the problem of identifying protein complexes, i.e. dense subg...

  13. Blanching, salting and sun drying of different pumpkin fruit slices

    OpenAIRE

    Workneh, T. S.; Zinash, A.; Woldetsadik, K.

    2012-01-01

    The study was aimed at assessing the quality of pumpkin (Cucuribita Spp.) slices that were subjected to pre-drying treatments and drying using two drying methods (uncontrolled sun and oven) fruit accessions. Pre-drying had significant (P ≤ 0.05) effect on the quality of dried pumpkin slices. 10 % salt solution dipped pumpkin fruit slices had good chemical quality. The two-way interaction between drying methods and pre-drying treatments had significant (P ≤ 0.05) effect on chemical qualities. ...

  14. Automatic Registration and Error Detection of Multiple Slices Using Landmarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Frimmel

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. When analysing the 3D structure of tissue, serial sectioning and staining of the resulting slices is sometimes the preferred option. This leads to severe registration problems. In this paper, a method for automatic registration and error detection of slices using landmark needles has been developed. A cost function takes some parameters from the current state of the problem to be solved as input and gives a quality of the current solution as output. The cost function used in this paper, is based on a model of the slices and the landmark needles. The method has been used to register slices of prostates in order to create 3D computer models. Manual registration of the same prostates has been undertaken and compared with the results from the algorithm. Methods. Prostates from sixteen men who underwent radical prostatectomy were formalin fixed with landmark needles, sliced and the slices were computer reconstructed. The cost function takes rotation and translation for each prostate slice, as well as slope and offset for each landmark needle as input. The current quality of fit of the model, using the input parameters given, is returned. The function takes the built‐in instability of the model into account. The method uses a standard algorithm to optimize the prostate slice positions. To verify the result, s standard method in statistics was used. Results. The methods were evaluated for 16 prostates. When testing blindly, a physician could not determine whether the registration shown to him were created by the automated method described in this paper, or manually by an expert, except in one out of 16 cases. Visual inspection and analysis of the outlier confirmed that the input data had been deformed. The automatic detection of erroneous slices marked a few slices, including the outlier, as suspicious. Conclusions. The model based registration performs better than traditional simple slice‐wise registration. In the case of prostate

  15. Water Hammer Model of Shock Absorber Throttle Slice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yi-jie; GU Liang; LEI Sheng-guang; GUAN Ji-fu

    2008-01-01

    In allusion to easy invalidation of damping valve in vehicle shock absorber caused by the impact from the road surface, the importance of the study of damping valve water hammer pressure is presented. The physical model of damping valve with the circle throttle slice is established. The time for the throttle slice deformation is studied by using the finite software, and the laws that how the structure parameters affect the deformation time are obtained. Combining the theory of water hammer, the water hammer initial and boundary condition of the damping valve is deduced, and the water hammer model of throttle slice is established. The analysis of simulation results indicates that the water hammer pressure amplitude and the amount of water hammer oscillation period can be reduced and the dependability of the valve can be enhanced by modifying the structure parameters and aperture width between slice and valve body.

  16. Study of Energy Consumption of Potato Slices During Drying Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafezi Negar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the new methods of food drying using infrared heating under vacuum is to increase the drying rate and maintain the quality of dried product. In this study, potato slices were dried using vacuum-infrared drying. Experiments were performed with the infrared lamp power levels 100, 150 and 200 W, absolute pressure levels 20, 80, 140 and 760 mmHg, and with three thicknesses of slices 1, 2 and 3 mm, in three repetitions. The results showed that the infrared lamp power, absolute pressure and slice thickness have important effects on the drying of potato. With increasing the radiation power, reducing the absolute pressure (acts of vacuum in the dryer chamber and also reducing the thickness of potato slices, drying time and the amount of energy consumed is reduced. In relation to thermal utilization efficiency, results indicated that with increasing the infrared radiation power and decreasing the absolute pressure, thermal efficiency increased.

  17. Microfluidics and multielectrode array-compatible organotypic slice culture method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdichevsky, Yevgeny; Sabolek, Helen; Levine, John B; Staley, Kevin J; Yarmush, Martin L

    2009-03-30

    Organotypic brain slice cultures are used for a variety of molecular, electrophysiological, and imaging studies. However, the existing culture methods are difficult or expensive to apply in studies requiring long-term recordings with multielectrode arrays (MEAs). In this work, a novel method to maintain organotypic cultures of rodent hippocampus for several weeks on standard MEAs in an unmodified tissue culture incubator is described. Polydimethylsiloxane (Sylgard) mini-wells were used to stabilize organotypic cultures on glass and MEA surfaces. Hippocampus slices were successfully maintained within PDMS mini-wells for multiple weeks, with preserved pyramidal layer organization, connectivity, and activity. MEAs were used to record the development of spontaneous activity in an organotypic cultures for 4 weeks. This method is compatible with integration of microchannels into the culture substrate. Microchannels were incorporated into the mini-wells and applied to the guidance of axons originating within the slice, paving the way for studies of axonal sprouting using organotypic slices.

  18. Skin Diseases Take Big Slice Out of America's Health, Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diseases Take Big Slice Out of America's Health, Economy The sometimes deadly conditions cost $75 billion in 2013, report says To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. (*this ...

  19. Colour behaviour on mango (Mangifera indica) slices self stabilized ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-02-19

    Feb 19, 2008 ... sive preservation techniques to produce high quality and ... guarantee the microbial quality and appearance of the products during ... Syrup composition to package the mango slices. Syrup ... MATERIALS AND METHODS.

  20. USGS Small-scale Dataset - 100-Meter Resolution Color Shaded Relief of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands 201304 GeoTIFF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Color Shaded Relief of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands map layer is a 100-meter resolution color-sliced elevation image of Puerto Rico and the U.S....

  1. Dynamic Frequency Allocation in SLICE Considering both BER and Distance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Chen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Proposed in this paper is a dynamic resource-aware routing and frequency slots allocation scheme with consideration of both BER requirement and distance adaptive modulation (RA-BERR-DA for spectrum-sliced elastic optical path networks (SLICE.Numerical simulations are conducted to analysis network performance such as blocking rate and the number of used frequency slots. The results demonstrate that this scheme is able to decrease traffic blocking and improve resource utilization in dynamic spectrum assignment.

  2. Coloring mixed hypergraphs

    CERN Document Server

    Voloshin, Vitaly I

    2002-01-01

    The theory of graph coloring has existed for more than 150 years. Historically, graph coloring involved finding the minimum number of colors to be assigned to the vertices so that adjacent vertices would have different colors. From this modest beginning, the theory has become central in discrete mathematics with many contemporary generalizations and applications. Generalization of graph coloring-type problems to mixed hypergraphs brings many new dimensions to the theory of colorings. A main feature of this book is that in the case of hypergraphs, there exist problems on both the minimum and th

  3. Illustrating Color Evolution and Color Blindness by the Decoding Model of Color Vision

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Chenguang

    2011-01-01

    A symmetrical model of color vision, the decoding model as a new version of zone model, was introduced. The model adopts new continuous-valued logic and works in a way very similar to the way a 3-8 decoder in a numerical circuit works. By the decoding model, Young and Helmholtz's tri-pigment theory and Hering's opponent theory are unified more naturally; opponent process, color evolution, and color blindness are illustrated more concisely. According to the decoding model, we can obtain a transform from RGB system to HSV system, which is formally identical to the popular transform for computer graphics provided by Smith (1978). Advantages, problems, and physiological tests of the decoding model are also discussed.

  4. Perception of color emotions for single colors in red-green defective observers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Keiko; Inoue, Takaaki

    2016-01-01

    It is estimated that inherited red-green color deficiency, which involves both the protan and deutan deficiency types, is common in men. For red-green defective observers, some reddish colors appear desaturated and brownish, unlike those seen by normal observers. Despite its prevalence, few studies have investigated the effects that red-green color deficiency has on the psychological properties of colors (color emotions). The current study investigated the influence of red-green color deficiency on the following six color emotions: cleanliness, freshness, hardness, preference, warmth, and weight. Specifically, this study aimed to: (1) reveal differences between normal and red-green defective observers in rating patterns of six color emotions; (2) examine differences in color emotions related to the three cardinal channels in human color vision; and (3) explore relationships between color emotions and color naming behavior. Thirteen men and 10 women with normal vision and 13 men who were red-green defective performed both a color naming task and an emotion rating task with 32 colors from the Berkeley Color Project (BCP). Results revealed noticeable differences in the cleanliness and hardness ratings between the normal vision observers, particularly in women, and red-green defective observers, which appeared mainly for colors in the orange to cyan range, and in the preference and warmth ratings for colors with cyan and purple hues. Similarly, naming errors also mainly occurred in the cyan colors. A regression analysis that included the three cone-contrasts (i.e., red-green, blue-yellow, and luminance) as predictors significantly accounted for variability in color emotion ratings for the red-green defective observers as much as the normal individuals. Expressly, for warmth ratings, the weight of the red-green opponent channel was significantly lower in color defective observers than in normal participants. In addition, the analyses for individual warmth ratings in

  5. Perception of color emotions for single colors in red-green defective observers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiko Sato

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that inherited red-green color deficiency, which involves both the protan and deutan deficiency types, is common in men. For red-green defective observers, some reddish colors appear desaturated and brownish, unlike those seen by normal observers. Despite its prevalence, few studies have investigated the effects that red-green color deficiency has on the psychological properties of colors (color emotions. The current study investigated the influence of red-green color deficiency on the following six color emotions: cleanliness, freshness, hardness, preference, warmth, and weight. Specifically, this study aimed to: (1 reveal differences between normal and red-green defective observers in rating patterns of six color emotions; (2 examine differences in color emotions related to the three cardinal channels in human color vision; and (3 explore relationships between color emotions and color naming behavior. Thirteen men and 10 women with normal vision and 13 men who were red-green defective performed both a color naming task and an emotion rating task with 32 colors from the Berkeley Color Project (BCP. Results revealed noticeable differences in the cleanliness and hardness ratings between the normal vision observers, particularly in women, and red-green defective observers, which appeared mainly for colors in the orange to cyan range, and in the preference and warmth ratings for colors with cyan and purple hues. Similarly, naming errors also mainly occurred in the cyan colors. A regression analysis that included the three cone-contrasts (i.e., red-green, blue-yellow, and luminance as predictors significantly accounted for variability in color emotion ratings for the red-green defective observers as much as the normal individuals. Expressly, for warmth ratings, the weight of the red-green opponent channel was significantly lower in color defective observers than in normal participants. In addition, the analyses for individual warmth

  6. Generalized Fourier slice theorem for cone-beam image reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shuang-Ren; Jiang, Dazong; Yang, Kevin; Yang, Kang

    2015-01-01

    The cone-beam reconstruction theory has been proposed by Kirillov in 1961, Tuy in 1983, Feldkamp in 1984, Smith in 1985, Pierre Grangeat in 1990. The Fourier slice theorem is proposed by Bracewell 1956, which leads to the Fourier image reconstruction method for parallel-beam geometry. The Fourier slice theorem is extended to fan-beam geometry by Zhao in 1993 and 1995. By combining the above mentioned cone-beam image reconstruction theory and the above mentioned Fourier slice theory of fan-beam geometry, the Fourier slice theorem in cone-beam geometry is proposed by Zhao 1995 in short conference publication. This article offers the details of the derivation and implementation of this Fourier slice theorem for cone-beam geometry. Especially the problem of the reconstruction from Fourier domain has been overcome, which is that the value of in the origin of Fourier space is 0/0. The 0/0 type of limit is proper handled. As examples, the implementation results for the single circle and two perpendicular circle source orbits are shown. In the cone-beam reconstruction if a interpolation process is considered, the number of the calculations for the generalized Fourier slice theorem algorithm is O(N^4), which is close to the filtered back-projection method, here N is the image size of 1-dimension. However the interpolation process can be avoid, in that case the number of the calculations is O(N5).

  7. Chemical, biochemical, and microbiological aspects of chitosan quaternary salt as active coating on sliced apples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas de Britto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The biocompatibility of chitosan and chitosan quaternary salt coatings was evaluated for use as edible coatings for sliced apple. Measurement of water loss, color change, and fungal growth appearance were monitored as a function of time. A significant brownish effect was observed on chitosan coated slices, varying greatly from L* = 76.5 and Hue angle = 95.9° (t = 0 to L* = 45.3 and Hue angle = 69.8° (t = 3 days, whilst for TMC coated samples the variation was considerable lower (L* = 74.1; Hue angle = 95.0° to (L* = 67.0; Hue angle = 83.8° within the same period. The hydrosoluble derivative N,N,N-trimethylchitosan demonstrated good antifungal activity against P. expansum although highly dependent on the polymer properties such as degree of quaternization. The most efficient formulation was that prepared from derivative having a degree of quaternization of 45%, high solubility, and high viscosity. This formulation restrained fungus spreading up to 30%, while for the control it reached almost 80% of the total assessed surfaces during 7 days of storage.

  8. Effect of nitric oxide on ethylene synthesis and softening of banana fruit slice during ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Guiping; Yang, En; Lu, Wangjin; Jia, Yongxia; Jiang, Yueming; Duan, Xuewu

    2009-07-08

    The effects of nitric oxide (NO) on ethylene synthesis and softening of ripening-initiated banana slice were investigated. Fruit firmness, color, and contents of starch and acid-soluble pectin (ASP) were measured. In addition, ethylene production, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) content, expression and activities of ACC synthase (ACS) and ACC oxidase (ACO), and activities of cell-wall-modifying enzymes, polygalacturonase (PG), pectin methylesterase (PME), and endo-beta-1,4-glucanase, were analyzed. Application of NO reduced ethylene production, inhibited degreening of the peel and delayed softening of the pulp. The decrease of ethylene production was associated with the reduction in the activity of ACO and the expression of the MA-ACO1 gene. Moreover, the NO-treated fruit showed a lower expression of the MA-ACS1 gene but higher ACS activity and ACC content. In addition, NO treatment decreased the activities of PG, PME, and endo-beta-1,4-glucanase and maintained higher contents of ASP and starch, which may account for the delay of softening. We proposed that the inhibition of ACO activity and transcription of gene MA-ACO1 by NO resulted in decreased ethylene synthesis and the delay of ripening of banana slice.

  9. Quality measure of color images based on properties of vision psychology and color distortion in MPEG-21

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Qiang; CHEN He-xin; SANG Ai-jun

    2007-01-01

    In this article, a new way to evaluate the quality of color images is proposed, in which the properties of human vision psychology, objective fidelity, edge information, and color distortion will be combined through utilizing 3-D matrix transform. There exists color redundancy and structural similarity between three different frames of a color image, the definition of vision properties will be measured by 3-D submatrix integration transform (SIT), in which three color components are integrated into one model and color redundancy can be exploited fully. The simulation results show that the measure index is very effective and objective in accord with vision properties.

  10. A Software Application to Detect Dental Color

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan SÎMPĂLEAN

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Choosing dental color for missing teeth or tooth reconstruction is an important step and it usually raises difficulties for dentists due to a significant amount of subjective factors that can influence the color selection. Dental reconstruction presumes the combination between dentistry and chromatics, thus implying important challenges. Purpose: The aim of this study was to develop and implement a software application for detecting dental color to come to the aid of dentists and largely to remove the inherent subjectiveness of the human vision. Basic Methods: The implemented application was named Color Detection and the application’s source code is written using the C++ language. During application development, for creating the GUI (graphical user interface the wxWidgets 2.8 library it was used. Results: The application displays the average color of the selected area of interest, the reference color from the key collection existent in the program and also the degree of similarity between the original (the selected area of interest and the nearest reference key. This degree of similarity is expressed as a percentage. Conclusions: The Color Detection Program, by eliminating the subjectivity inherent to human sight, can help the dentist to select an appropriate dental color with precision.

  11. The perceptual balance of color

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Kyle C.; Webster, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    The cone contrasts carrying different dimensions of color vision vary greatly in magnitude, yet the perceived contrast of color and luminance in the world appears similar. We examined how this perceptual balance is adjusted by adaptation to the contrast in images. Observers set the level of L vs. M and S vs. LM contrast in 1/f noise images to match the perceived strength of a fixed level of luminance contrast. The perceptual balance of color in the images was roughly consistent with the range of contrasts characteristic of natural images. Relative perceived contrast could be strongly biased by brief prior exposure to images with lower or higher levels of chromatic contrast. Similar adaptation effects were found for luminance contrast in images of natural scenes. For both, observers reliably chose the contrast balance that appeared correct, and these choices were rapidly recalibrated by adaptation. This recalibration of the norm for contrast could reflect both changes in sensitivity and shifts in criterion. Our results are consistent with the possibility that color mechanisms adjust the range of their responses to match the range of signals in the environment, and that contrast adaptation plays an important role in these adjustments. PMID:22330367

  12. Effect of glucuronosylation on anthocyanin color stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmani, Sarah Anne; Hansen, Esben Halkjaer; Malien-Aubert, Céline; Olsen, Carl-Erik; Bak, Søren; Møller, Birger Lindberg

    2009-04-22

    The effect of glucuronosylation on the color stability of anthocyanins was investigated using glucuronosylated anthocyanins isolated from the flower petals of the red daisy (Bellis perennis) or obtained by enzymatic in vitro synthesis using heterologously expressed red daisy glucuronosyltransferase BpUGT94B1. Color stability toward light and heat stress was assessed by monitoring CIELAB color coordinates and stability at pH 7.0 by A(550). Cyanidin-3-O-2''-O-glucuronosylglucoside showed improved color stability in response to light compared to both cyanidin 3-O-glucoside and cyanidin 3-O-2''-O-diglucoside. A similar increase in color stability was not observed following heat treatment. Glucuronosylation did not increase the stability of anthocyanins at pH 7.0 as determined by A(550). To test for a possible effect of glucuronosylation on the color stability of anthocyanins in plant extracts used for food coloration, an elderberry (Sambucus nigra) extract was glucuronosylated in vitro. Glucuronosylation of approximately 50% of total anthocyanins proceeded fast and resulted in increased color stability in response to both heat and light. The data show that glucuronosylation may be used to stabilize industrially used extracts of natural colorants.

  13. Color and polarization vision in foraging Papilio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Michiyo; Arikawa, Kentaro

    2014-06-01

    This paper gives an overview of behavioral studies on the color and polarization vision of the Japanese yellow swallowtail butterfly, Papilio xuthus. We focus on indoor experiments on foraging individuals. Butterflies trained to visit a disk of certain color correctly select that color among various other colors and/or shades of gray. Correct selection persists under colored illumination, but is systematically shifted by background colors, indicating color constancy and simultaneous color contrast. While their eyes contain six classes of spectral receptors, their wavelength discrimination performance indicates that their color vision is tetrachromatic. P. xuthus innately prefers brighter targets, but can be trained to select dimmer ones under certain conditions. Butterflies trained to a dark red stimulus select an orange disk presented on a bright gray background over one on dark gray. The former probably appears darker to them, indicating brightness contrast. P. xuthus has a strong innate preference for vertically polarized light, but the selection of polarized light changes depending on the intensity of simultaneously presented unpolarized light. Discrimination of polarization also depends on background intensity. Similarities between brightness and polarization vision suggest that P. xuthus perceive polarization angle as brightness, such that vertical polarization appears brighter than horizontal polarization.

  14. Coronary 64-slice CT angiography predicts outcome in patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaemperli, Oliver; Valenta, Ines; Schepis, Tiziano [University Hospital Zurich NUK C 32, Cardiovascular Center, Zurich (Switzerland); Husmann, Lars; Scheffel, Hans; Desbiolles, Lotus; Leschka, Sebastian; Alkadhi, Hatem [University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Kaufmann, Philipp A. [University Hospital Zurich NUK C 32, Cardiovascular Center, Zurich (Switzerland); University of Zurich, Zurich Center for Integrative Human Physiology (ZIHP), Zurich (Switzerland)

    2008-06-15

    The aim of this study was to assess the prognostic value of 64-slice CT angiography (CTA) in patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). Sixty-four-slice coronary CTA was performed in 220 patients [mean age 63 {+-} 11 years, 77 (35%) female] with known or suspected CAD. CTA images were analyzed with regard to the presence and number of coronary lesions. Patients were followed-up for the occurrence of the following clinical endpoints: death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, unstable angina, and coronary revascularization. During a mean follow-up of 14 {+-} 4 months, 59 patients (27%) reached at least one of the predefined clinical endpoints. Patients with abnormal coronary arteries on CTA (i.e., presence of coronary plaques) had a 1st-year event rate of 34%, whereas in patients with normal coronary arteries no events occurred (event rate, 0%, p < 0.001). Similarly, obstructive lesions ({>=}50% luminal narrowing) on CTA were associated with a high first-year event rate (59%) compared to patients without stenoses (3%, p < 0.001). The presence of obstructive lesions was a significant independent predictor of an adverse cardiac outcome. Sixty-four-slice CTA predicts cardiac events in patients with known or suspected CAD. Conversely, patients with normal coronary arteries on CTA have an excellent mid-term prognosis. (orig.)

  15. Altered network timing in the CA3-CA1 circuit of hippocampal slices from aged mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Kanak

    Full Text Available Network patterns are believed to provide unique temporal contexts for coordinating neuronal activity within and across different regions of the brain. Some of the characteristics of network patterns modeled in vitro are altered in the CA3 or CA1 subregions of hippocampal slices from aged mice. CA3-CA1 network interactions have not been examined previously. We used slices from aged and adult mice to model spontaneous sharp wave ripples and carbachol-induced gamma oscillations, and compared measures of CA3-CA1 network timing between age groups. Coherent sharp wave ripples and gamma oscillations were evident in the CA3-CA1 circuit in both age groups, but the relative timing of activity in CA1 stratum pyramidale was delayed in the aged. In another sample of aged slices, evoked Schaffer collateral responses were attenuated in CA3 (antidromic spike amplitude and CA1 (orthodromic field EPSP slope. However, the amplitude and timing of spontaneous sharp waves recorded in CA1 stratum radiatum were similar to adults. In both age groups unit activity recorded juxtacellularly from unidentified neurons in CA1 stratum pyramidale and stratum oriens was temporally modulated by CA3 ripples. However, aged neurons exhibited reduced spike probability during the early cycles of the CA3 ripple oscillation. These findings suggest that aging disrupts the coordination of patterned activity in the CA3-CA1 circuit.

  16. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... lentes de contacto de color Sep. 26, 2013 It started as an impulsive buy from a souvenir ... Can Ruin Vision Eye Makeup Safety In fact, it is illegal to sell colored contact lenses without ...

  17. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses you are ... from dry eye now have a completely new, drug-free alternative to lubricating eye drops and topical ...

  18. Color chiral solitons

    CERN Document Server

    Novozhilov, V Yu; Novozhilov, Victor; Novozhilov, Yuri

    2002-01-01

    We discuss specific features of color chiral solitons (asymptotics, possibility of confainment, quantization) at example of isolated SU(2) color skyrmions, i.e. skyrmions in a background field which is the vacuum field forming the gluon condensate.

  19. Color vision: retinal blues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Jamie; Esposti, Federico; Lagnado, Leon

    2012-08-21

    Two complementary studies have resolved the circuitry underlying green-blue color discrimination in the retina. A blue-sensitive interneuron provides the inhibitory signal required for computing green-blue color opponency.

  20. Colors Can Affect Us!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张俊斌

    2006-01-01

    Different colors affect us differently.The following will show us how they work. Experiment proves that math problems worked on yellow paper have fewer mistakes than problems written on other colors of paper.

  1. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Vision and Daily Eye Drops After One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter Costume Contacts May Contain Chemicals ...

  2. Survival and growth of foodborne microorganisms in processed and individually wrapped cheese slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linton, Richard H; Harper, Nigel

    2008-03-01

    The objectives of the research reported here were to determine the growth, survival, or inactivation of selected microorganisms on individually wrapped processed cheese (IWC) slices stored at 5 degrees C and 22 degrees C, and to compare quality indices. IWC slices were spot-inoculated with foodborne pathogenic bacteria (Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella spp.), spoilage bacteria (Pseudomonas spp. and Lactobacillus spp.), and spoilage molds (Penicillium spp. and Cladosporium spp.). Each bacterium was inoculated at 10(5) CFUs/g for determination of growth, survival, or inactivation. Molds were inoculated at 10(2) spores per gram and observed for growth. Fifty percent of the inoculated product samples were held at 5 degrees C (to simulate refrigeration), and the other 50 percent were held at 22 degrees C (to simulate ambient temperature) throughout shelf life. Samples taken on days 0, 3, 7,10, 14, and 28 and after 2, 3, 6, and 9 months, and were evaluated for surviving cells (by means of appropriate selective media), color (with the cheese color guide), and lipid oxidation (by means of peroxide values). Bacterial inactivation was observed in all conditions. At 14 days, a 5-log reduction was observed for Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella, while a 3-log reduction was observed for Staphylococcus aureus. For Pseudomonas spp. and Lactobacillus spp., a 2-log reduction was observed within 3 days, with an additional 1-log reduction noted after several months. Mold levels showed no change during the first several weeks of storage. At 84 days, mold levels decreased at 5 degrees C, but they showed growth at 22 degrees C, to approximately 10(5) CFUs/g. Visual color was evaluated on a 10-point National Cheese Institute scale. During storage at 5 degrees C or 22 degrees C, color became darker and values increased from 4 to 5 and 4 to 7, respectively. Higher peroxide values were also obtained for the samples held at 22 degrees C versus 5 degrees C

  3. Color: Implications in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sikri Vimal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The success of restorative dentistry is determined on the basis of functional and esthetic results. To achieve esthetics, four basic determinants are required in sequence; viz., position, contour, texture and color. The knowledge of the concept of color is essential for achieving good esthetics. This review compiles the various aspects of color, its measurements and shade matching in dentistry.

  4. Measurement of Color Texture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoang, M.A.; Geusebroek, J.M.; Chantler, M.

    2002-01-01

    In computer vision, measurement of image properties such as color or texture is essential. In this paper, we propose a solid framework for the local measurement of texture in color images. We give a physical basis for the integration of the well-known Gabor filters with the measurement of color. Our

  5. Reimagining the Color Wheel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Color wheels are a traditional project for many teachers. The author has used them in art appreciation classes for many years, but one problem she found when her pre-service art education students created colored wheels was that they were boring: simple circles, with pie-shaped pieces, which students either painted or colored in. This article…

  6. Preparation and Applications of Organotypic Thymic Slice Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Aditi; Dong, Mengqi; Melichar, Heather J

    2016-08-06

    Thymic selection proceeds in a unique and highly organized thymic microenvironment resulting in the generation of a functional, self-tolerant T cell repertoire. In vitro models to study T lineage commitment and development have provided valuable insights into this process. However, these systems lack the complete three-dimensional thymic milieu necessary for T cell development and, therefore, are incomplete approximations of in vivo thymic selection. Some of the challenges related to modeling T cell development can be overcome by using in situ models that provide an intact thymic microenvironment that fully supports thymic selection of developing T cells. Thymic slice organotypic cultures complement existing in situ techniques. Thymic slices preserve the integrity of the thymic cortical and medullary regions and provide a platform to study development of overlaid thymocytes of a defined developmental stage or of endogenous T cells within a mature thymic microenvironment. Given the ability to generate ~20 slices per mouse, thymic slices present a unique advantage in terms of scalability for high throughput experiments. Further, the relative ease in generating thymic slices and potential to overlay different thymic subsets or other cell populations from diverse genetic backgrounds enhances the versatility of this method. Here we describe a protocol for the preparation of thymic slices, isolation and overlay of thymocytes, and dissociation of thymic slices for flow cytometric analysis. This system can also be adapted to study non-conventional T cell development as well as visualize thymocyte migration, thymocyte-stromal cell interactions, and TCR signals associated with thymic selection by two-photon microscopy.

  7. Color vision test for dichromatic and trichromatic macaque monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koida, Kowa; Yokoi, Isao; Okazawa, Gouki; Mikami, Akichika; Widayati, Kanthi Arum; Miyachi, Shigehiro; Komatsu, Hidehiko

    2013-11-01

    Dichromacy is a color vision defect in which one of the three cone photoreceptors is absent. Individuals with dichromacy are called dichromats (or sometimes "color-blind"), and their color discrimination performance has contributed significantly to our understanding of color vision. Macaque monkeys, which normally have trichromatic color vision that is nearly identical to humans, have been used extensively in neurophysiological studies of color vision. In the present study we employed two tests, a pseudoisochromatic color discrimination test and a monochromatic light detection test, to compare the color vision of genetically identified dichromatic macaques (Macaca fascicularis) with that of normal trichromatic macaques. In the color discrimination test, dichromats could not discriminate colors along the protanopic confusion line, though trichromats could. In the light detection test, the relative thresholds for longer wavelength light were higher in the dichromats than the trichromats, indicating dichromats to be less sensitive to longer wavelength light. Because the dichromatic macaque is very rare, the present study provides valuable new information on the color vision behavior of dichromatic macaques, which may be a useful animal model of human dichromacy. The behavioral tests used in the present study have been previously used to characterize the color behaviors of trichromatic as well as dichromatic new world monkeys. The present results show that comparative studies of color vision employing similar tests may be feasible to examine the difference in color behaviors between trichromatic and dichromatic individuals, although the genetic mechanisms of trichromacy/dichromacy is quite different between new world monkeys and macaques.

  8. Similarity transformations of MAPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersen Allan T.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the notion of similar Markovian Arrival Processes (MAPs and show that the event stationary point processes related to two similar MAPs are stochastically equivalent. This holds true for the time stationary point processes too. We show that several well known stochastical equivalences as e.g. that between the H 2 renewal process and the Interrupted Poisson Process (IPP can be expressed by the similarity transformations of MAPs. In the appendix the valid region of similarity transformations for two-state MAPs is characterized.

  9. 7 CFR 51.763 - Similar varietal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Similar varietal characteristics. 51.763 Section 51.763 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... characteristics. Similar varietal characteristics means that the fruits in any container are similar in color...

  10. Tanslation of Color Words

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐丹

    2009-01-01

    Being a minor part in the translation field,the translation of color words is far more complex than people may have imagined.Apart from the literal meaning of color words in the target language,there are other factors that affect the understanding.This paper mainly focuses on three main characteristics of color words that make the translation work difficult-color words'variations and combinations,rich symbolic meanings and culture differences.It also provides possible ways to deal with the prickly problem of finding equivalents,the complexity of transferring symbolic meanings and the subtle problem of crossing culture boundaries in translation of color words.

  11. Color of Meat and Poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or freezer, color changes are normal for fresh meat and poultry. 2. Does a change in color indicate spoilage? Change in color alone does not mean the product is spoiled. Color changes are normal for fresh ...

  12. Comparison of the performance of masterbatch and liquid color concentrates for mass coloration of polypropylene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haastrup, Sonja; Yu, Donghong; Broch, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The properties of polypropylene (PP) mixed with masterbatch (MB) and liquid color concentrates (LCC), respectively, were compared by preparing samples of PP with MB and PP with LCC and neat PP as a reference material using 1–4 extrusion cycles. Two colors were examined, i.e., a white color...... consisting of pigment white 6, and a green color consisting of pigment white 6, pigment blue 15:3, and pigment green 7. The color difference between PP prepared with MB and LCC was determined and the mechanical, rheological, and crystalline properties of PP prepared with MB and LCC were found to be generic....... The color of PP obtained from MB and LCC were comparable. Further, it was found that the tensile strength, the viscosity, and the crystal structure obtained were similar when using LCC instead of MB. The viscosity of the treated PP generally decreased with increasing extruder retention time due to thermal...

  13. Scalable structural color printing using pixelated nanostructures in RGB primary colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hao; Kaminska, Bozena

    2016-03-01

    Commercially available conventional color printing techniques mainly rely on patterning pigment-based pixels on a substrate. In recent years, structural colors have become increasingly important for their intrinsic advantages such as chemical stability, high resolution and color properties. However, to apply structural color pixels in printing color images for consumer-based demands remains a daunting challenge because such pixels usually require very high resolution patterning at a high speed and low cost. In this paper, we present novel color printing techniques based on micro-patterning of prefabricated nanostructure pixels in RGB primary colors. According to the micro-patterning techniques, the presented techniques are: a) solvent-free optical and thermal patterning of nanostructure pixels, b) photographic exposure through nanostructure color filters and c) inkjet printing of silver on nanostructures. These three presented techniques share some similar characteristics with popular conventional techniques, and can be considered as new-generation printing techniques evolved from their conventional counterparts. The preliminary results suggest that implementing the presented techniques, full-color images can be printed with much improved throughput than other nano-patterning techniques and imply these techniques can potentially be applied towards color production for general consumer use.

  14. Short pulse generation by laser slicing at NSLSII

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, L.; Blednykh, A.; Guo, W.; Krinsky, S.; Li, Y.; Shaftan, T.; Tchoubar, O.; Wang, G.; Willeke, F.; Yang, L.

    2011-03-28

    We discuss an upgrade R&D project for NSLSII to generate sub-pico-second short x-ray pulses using laser slicing. We discuss its basic parameters and present a specific example for a viable design and its performance. Since the installation of the laser slicing system into the storage ring will break the symmetry of the lattice, we demonstrate it is possible to recover the dynamical aperture to the original design goal of the ring. There is a rapid growth of ultrafast user community interested in science using sub-pico-second x-ray pulses. In BNL's Short Pulse Workshop, the discussion from users shows clearly the need for a sub-pico-second pulse source using laser slicing method. In the proposal submitted following this workshop, NSLS team proposed both hard x-ray and soft x-ray beamlines using laser slicing pulses. Hence there is clearly a need to consider the R&D efforts of laser slicing short pulse generation at NSLSII to meet these goals.

  15. Rapid and quantitative discrimination of tumour cells on tissue slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kai-Wen; Chieh, Jen-Jie; Liao, Shu-Hsien; Wei, Wen-Chun; Hsiao, Pei-Yi; Yang, Hong-Chang; Horng, Herng-Er

    2016-06-01

    After a needle biopsy, immunohistochemistry is generally used to stain tissue slices for clinically confirming tumours. Currently, tissue slices are immersed in a bioprobe-linked fluorescent reagent for several minutes, washed to remove the unbound reagent, and then observed using a fluorescence microscope. However, the observation must be performed by experienced pathologists, and producing a qualitative analysis is time consuming. Therefore, this study proposes a novel scanning superconducting quantum interference device biosusceptometry (SSB) method for avoiding these drawbacks. First, stain reagents were synthesised for the dual modalities of fluorescent and magnetic imaging by combining iron-oxide magnetic nanoparticles and the currently used fluorescent reagent. The reagent for the proposed approach was stained using the same procedure as that for the current fluorescent reagent, and tissue slices were rapidly imaged using the developed SSB for obtaining coregistered optical and magnetic images. Analysing the total intensity of magnetic spots in SSB images enables quantitatively determining the tumour cells of tissue slices. To confirm the magnetic imaging results, a traditional observation methodology entailing the use of a fluorescence microscope was also performed as the gold standard. This study determined high consistency between the fluorescent and magnetic spots in different regions of the tissue slices, demonstrating the feasibility of the proposed approach, which will benefit future clinical pathology.

  16. Acquired color vision deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simunovic, Matthew P

    2016-01-01

    Acquired color vision deficiency occurs as the result of ocular, neurologic, or systemic disease. A wide array of conditions may affect color vision, ranging from diseases of the ocular media through to pathology of the visual cortex. Traditionally, acquired color vision deficiency is considered a separate entity from congenital color vision deficiency, although emerging clinical and molecular genetic data would suggest a degree of overlap. We review the pathophysiology of acquired color vision deficiency, the data on its prevalence, theories for the preponderance of acquired S-mechanism (or tritan) deficiency, and discuss tests of color vision. We also briefly review the types of color vision deficiencies encountered in ocular disease, with an emphasis placed on larger or more detailed clinical investigations.

  17. Clustering by Pattern Similarity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-xun Wang; Jian Pei

    2008-01-01

    The task of clustering is to identify classes of similar objects among a set of objects. The definition of similarity varies from one clustering model to another. However, in most of these models the concept of similarity is often based on such metrics as Manhattan distance, Euclidean distance or other Lp distances. In other words, similar objects must have close values in at least a set of dimensions. In this paper, we explore a more general type of similarity. Under the pCluster model we proposed, two objects are similar if they exhibit a coherent pattern on a subset of dimensions. The new similarity concept models a wide range of applications. For instance, in DNA microarray analysis, the expression levels of two genes may rise and fall synchronously in response to a set of environmental stimuli. Although the magnitude of their expression levels may not be close, the patterns they exhibit can be very much alike. Discovery of such clusters of genes is essential in revealing significant connections in gene regulatory networks. E-commerce applications, such as collaborative filtering, can also benefit from the new model, because it is able to capture not only the closeness of values of certain leading indicators but also the closeness of (purchasing, browsing, etc.) patterns exhibited by the customers. In addition to the novel similarity model, this paper also introduces an effective and efficient algorithm to detect such clusters, and we perform tests on several real and synthetic data sets to show its performance.

  18. Judgments of brand similarity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijmolt, THA; Wedel, M; Pieters, RGM; DeSarbo, WS

    This paper provides empirical insight into the way consumers make pairwise similarity judgments between brands, and how familiarity with the brands, serial position of the pair in a sequence, and the presentation format affect these judgments. Within the similarity judgment process both the

  19. New Similarity Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdani, Hossein; Ortiz-Arroyo, Daniel; Kwasnicka, Halina

    2016-01-01

    In data science, there are important parameters that affect the accuracy of the algorithms used. Some of these parameters are: the type of data objects, the membership assignments, and distance or similarity functions. This paper discusses similarity functions as fundamental elements in membership...

  20. Judgments of brand similarity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijmolt, THA; Wedel, M; Pieters, RGM; DeSarbo, WS

    1998-01-01

    This paper provides empirical insight into the way consumers make pairwise similarity judgments between brands, and how familiarity with the brands, serial position of the pair in a sequence, and the presentation format affect these judgments. Within the similarity judgment process both the formatio

  1. New Similarity Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdani, Hossein; Ortiz-Arroyo, Daniel; Kwasnicka, Halina

    2016-01-01

    In data science, there are important parameters that affect the accuracy of the algorithms used. Some of these parameters are: the type of data objects, the membership assignments, and distance or similarity functions. This paper discusses similarity functions as fundamental elements in membership...... assignments. The paper introduces Weighted Feature Distance (WFD), and Prioritized Weighted Feature Distance (PWFD), two new distance functions that take into account the diversity in feature spaces. WFD functions perform better in supervised and unsupervised methods by comparing data objects on their feature...... spaces, in addition to their similarity in the vector space. Prioritized Weighted Feature Distance (PWFD) works similarly as WFD, but provides the ability to give priorities to desirable features. The accuracy of the proposed functions are compared with other similarity functions on several data sets...

  2. Colors, colored overlays, and reading skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arcangelo eUccula

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we are concerned with the role of colors in reading written texts. It has been argued that colored overlays applied above written texts positively influence both reading fluency and reading speed. These effects would be particularly evident for those individuals affected by the so called Meares-Irlen syndrome, i.e. who experience eyestrain and/or visual distortions – e.g. color, shape or movement illusions – while reading. This condition would interest the 12-14% of the general population and up to the 46% of the dyslexic population. Thus, colored overlays have been largely employed as a remedy for some aspects of the difficulties in reading experienced by dyslexic individuals, as fluency and speed. Despite the wide use of colored overlays, how they exert their effects has not been made clear yet. Also, according to some researchers, the results supporting the efficacy of colored overlays as a tool for helping readers are at least controversial. Furthermore, the very nature of the Meares-Irlen syndrome has been questioned. Here we provide a concise, critical review of the literature.

  3. Color Reproduction with a Smartphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoms, Lars-Jochen; Colicchia, Giuseppe; Girwidz, Raimund

    2013-01-01

    The world is full of colors. Most of the colors we see around us can be created on common digital displays simply by superposing light with three different wavelengths. However, no mixture of colors can produce a fully pure color identical to a spectral color. Using a smartphone, students can investigate the main features of primary color addition…

  4. Color Reproduction with a Smartphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoms, Lars-Jochen; Colicchia, Giuseppe; Girwidz, Raimund

    2013-01-01

    The world is full of colors. Most of the colors we see around us can be created on common digital displays simply by superposing light with three different wavelengths. However, no mixture of colors can produce a fully pure color identical to a spectral color. Using a smartphone, students can investigate the main features of primary color addition…

  5. Neural locus of color afterimages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Qasim; Ennis, Robert; Cao, Dingcai; Lee, Barry

    2012-02-07

    After fixating on a colored pattern, observers see a similar pattern in complementary colors when the stimulus is removed [1-6]. Afterimages were important in disproving the theory that visual rays emanate from the eye, in demonstrating interocular interactions, and in revealing the independence of binocular vision from eye movements. Afterimages also prove invaluable in exploring selective attention, filling in, and consciousness. Proposed physiological mechanisms for color afterimages range from bleaching of cone photopigments to cortical adaptation [4-9], but direct neural measurements have not been reported. We introduce a time-varying method for evoking afterimages, which provides precise measurements of adaptation and a direct link between visual percepts and neural responses [10]. We then use in vivo electrophysiological recordings to show that all three classes of primate retinal ganglion cells exhibit subtractive adaptation to prolonged stimuli, with much slower time constants than those expected of photoreceptors. At the cessation of the stimulus, ganglion cells generate rebound responses that can provide afterimage signals for later neurons. Our results indicate that afterimage signals are generated in the retina but may be modified like other retinal signals by cortical processes, so that evidence presented for cortical generation of color afterimages is explainable by spatiotemporal factors that modify all signals.

  6. Color prediction in textile application

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lucia, Maurizio; Buonopane, Massimo

    2004-09-01

    Nowadays production systems of fancy yarns for knits allow the creation of extremely complex products in which many effects are obtained by means of color alteration. Current production technique consists in defining type and quantity of fibers by making preliminary samples. This samples are then compared with a reference one. This comparison is based on operator experience. Many samples are required in order to achieve a sample similar to the reference one. This work requires time and then additional costs for a textile manufacturer. In addition, the methodology is subjective. Nowadays, spectrophotometers are the only devices that seem to be able to provide objective indications. They are based on a spectral analysis of the light reflected by the knit material. In this paper the study of a new method for color evaluation of a mix of wool fibers with different colors is presented. First of all fiber characterization were carried out through scattering and absorption coefficients using the Kubelka-Munk theory. Then the estimated color was compared with a reference item, in order to define conformity by means of objective parameters. Finally, theoretical characterization was compared with the measured quantity. This allowed estimation of prediction quality.

  7. Colored neon flanks and line gap enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redies, C; Spillmann, L; Kunz, K

    1984-01-01

    When a colored line connects two black (or differently colored) lines across a gap, colored neon flanks are seen on either side of it. These flanks extend over gap sizes of 50 min arc foveally and are not explained by Bezold-type assimilation. They may be elicited by black lines as short as 6 min arc adjoining the colored line at each end. To maximize these flanks, the black and colored lines must appear linearly continuous. Nonaligned junctions weaken the effect and an angular tilt of more than 40 dog destroys it. In this and other respects, (local) neon flanks are similar to van Tuijl's (global) neon color spreading (1975). Both phenomena have analogs in brightness perception. We propose that neon spreading is a lateral extension of neon flanks across the empty space between them, and discuss similarities of these effects with other brightness illusions (Schumann, Prandtl, Ehrenstein). For this group of illusions the term "line gap enhancement" is introduced to imply perceptual enhancement of changes in brightness and/or color along lines. Correspondences between the psychophysical properties and structural prerequisites for line gap enhancement on one hand and neuronal response properties of end-zone inhibited (hypercomplex) cortical cells on the other are discussed.

  8. The semantic similarity ensemble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ballatore

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Computational measures of semantic similarity between geographic terms provide valuable support across geographic information retrieval, data mining, and information integration. To date, a wide variety of approaches to geo-semantic similarity have been devised. A judgment of similarity is not intrinsically right or wrong, but obtains a certain degree of cognitive plausibility, depending on how closely it mimics human behavior. Thus selecting the most appropriate measure for a specific task is a significant challenge. To address this issue, we make an analogy between computational similarity measures and soliciting domain expert opinions, which incorporate a subjective set of beliefs, perceptions, hypotheses, and epistemic biases. Following this analogy, we define the semantic similarity ensemble (SSE as a composition of different similarity measures, acting as a panel of experts having to reach a decision on the semantic similarity of a set of geographic terms. The approach is evaluated in comparison to human judgments, and results indicate that an SSE performs better than the average of its parts. Although the best member tends to outperform the ensemble, all ensembles outperform the average performance of each ensemble's member. Hence, in contexts where the best measure is unknown, the ensemble provides a more cognitively plausible approach.

  9. Similar component analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hong; WANG Xin; LI Junwei; CAO Xianguang

    2006-01-01

    A new unsupervised feature extraction method called similar component analysis (SCA) is proposed in this paper. SCA method has a self-aggregation property that the data objects will move towards each other to form clusters through SCA theoretically,which can reveal the inherent pattern of similarity hidden in the dataset. The inputs of SCA are just the pairwise similarities of the dataset,which makes it easier for time series analysis due to the variable length of the time series. Our experimental results on many problems have verified the effectiveness of SCA on some engineering application.

  10. Automatic Circuit Extractor for HDL Description Using Program Slicing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tun Li; Yang Guo; Si-Kun Li

    2004-01-01

    Design extraction and reduction have been extensively used in modern VLSI design process. The extracted and reduced design can be efficiently processed by various applications, such as formal verification,simulation, automatic test pattern generation (ATPG), etc. This paper presents a new circuit extraction method using program slicing technique, and develops an elegant theoretical basis based on program slicing for circuit extraction from Verilog description. The technique can obtain a chaining slice for given signals of interest. Compared with related researches, the main advantages of the method include that it is fine grain; it has no hardware description language (HDL) coding style limitation; it is precise and is capable of dealing with various Verilog constructions. The technique has been integrated with a commercial simulation environment and incorporated into a design process. The results of practical designs show the significant benefits of the approach.

  11. 40-slice coronary CTA: initial experience and establishing a practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, C. [Dept. of Radiology, Fletcher Allen Health Care and the Univ. of Vermont Coll. of Medicine, Burlington, VT (United States); Watkins, M. [Dept. of Cardiology, Fletcher Allen Health Care and the Univ. of Vermont Coll. of Medicine, Burlington, VT (United States)

    2005-07-01

    The introduction of 4-slice scanners with subsecond gantry rotation times paved way for such demanding applications as cardiac imaging. However, challenges remained. For example, the breath hold times of 40 seconds caused many patient groups to be excluded. Some of these issues were addressed by the introduction of 16-slice CT scanners with submillimeter spatial resolution and faster gantry rotation times, resulting in a significant decrease in the coverage time (less than 20 s). Further developments in scanner technology were brought about by the introduction of 40- and 64-slice scanners, such as the Philips' Brilliance, with a z-axis coverage of 40 mm, making it possible to cover the entire cardiac anatomy in less than 15 seconds [1]. Additionally, the COBRA trademark adaptive multi-cycle reconstruction approach can result in further improvement in temporal resolution by using projection data from two or more cardiac cycles [2-5]. (orig.)

  12. On Synergy of Metal, Slicing, and Symbolic Execution

    CERN Document Server

    Slabý, Jiří; Trtík, Marek

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a novel technique for finding real errors in programs. The technique is based on a synergy of three well-known methods: metacompilation, slicing, and symbolic execution. More precisely, we instrument a given program with a code that tracks runs of state machines representing various kinds of errors. Next we slice the program to reduce its size without affecting runs of state machines. And then we symbolically execute the sliced program. Depending on the kind of symbolic execution, the technique can be applied as a stand-alone bug finding technique, or to weed out some false positives from an output of another bug-finding tool. We provide several examples demonstrating the practical applicability of our technique.

  13. Feature extraction from slice data for reverse engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yingjie; LU Shangning

    2007-01-01

    A new approach to feature extraction for slice data points is presented. The reconstruction of objects is performed as follows. First, all contours in each slice are extracted by contour tracing algorithms. Then the data points on the contours are analyzed, and the curve segments of the contours are divided into three categories: straight lines, conic curves and B-spline curves. The curve fitting methods are applied for each curve segment to remove the unwanted points with pre-determined tolerance. Finally, the features, which consist of the object and connection relations among them, are founded by matching the corresponding contours in adjacent slices, and 3D models are reconstructed based on the features. The proposed approach has been implemented in OpenGL, and the feasibility of the proposed method has been verified by several cases.

  14. Novel culturing platform for brain slices and neuronal cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Winnie Edith; Al Atraktchi, Fatima Al-Zahraa; Bakmand, Tanya

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate a novel culturing system for brain slices and neuronal cells, which can control the concentration of nutrients and the waste removal from the culture by adjusting the fluid flow within the device. The entire system can be placed in an incubator. The system has been te...... tested successfully with brain slices and PC12 cells. The culture substrate can be modified using metal electrodes and/or nanostructures for conducting electrical measurements while culturing and for better mimicking the in vivo conditions.......In this paper we demonstrate a novel culturing system for brain slices and neuronal cells, which can control the concentration of nutrients and the waste removal from the culture by adjusting the fluid flow within the device. The entire system can be placed in an incubator. The system has been...

  15. Drying kinetics and colour change of lemon slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvishi, Hosain; Khoshtaghaza, Mohammad H.; Minaei, Saeid

    2014-03-01

    The effect of microwave-convective heating on drying characteristics and colour change of lemon slices was investigated. The drying experiments were carried out at 180, 360, 540 and 720Wand at 22°C, with air velocity of 1ms-1. The values of effective moisture diffusivity were found to be in the range between 1.87 10-8 and 3.95 10-8 m2 s-1, and the activation energy was estimated to be 10.91 Wg-1. The drying data were fitted with ten mathematical models available in the literature. The model describing drying kinetics of lemon slices in the best way was found. The colour change of the dried lemon slices was analysed and considered as a quality index affecting the drying quality of the product. The values of lightness/darkness, yellowness/blueness and hue angle increased, while the value of redness/greenness decreased with increasing microwave power.

  16. Autoregressive trispectrum and its slices analysis of magnetorheological damping device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丙三; 黄宜坚

    2008-01-01

    A combined magnetorheological damper combined with rubber spring and magnetorheological damper is addressed.This type of damping device has inherited the merits of rubber spring and the magnetorheological damper.The test damping device is made up of combined magnetorheological damper,amplitude controller,signal collecting device,computer software for dynamic analysis,etc.When a zeromean and non-Gaussian white noise interfere with the device,a time series autoregressive(AR) model is conducted by using the sampled experimental data.Trispectrum and its slices analysis are emerging as a new powerful technique in signal processing,which is put forward for investigating the dynamic characteristics of the magnetorheological vibrant device.The present of trispectrum and its slices analysis change with the variation of controllable working magnetic field of the damper correspondingly.It is indicated that AR trispectrum and its slices analysis methods are feasible and effective for investigation of magnetorheological vibrant device.

  17. GEAR CRACK EARLY DIAGNOSIS USING BISPECTRUM DIAGONAL SLICE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A study of bispectral analysis in gearbox condition monitoring is presented.The theory of bispectrum and quadratic phase coupling (QPC) is first introduced, and then equations for computing bispectrum slices are obtained.To meet the needs of online monitoring, a simplified method of computing bispectrum diagonal slice is adopted.Industrial gearbox vibration signals measured from normal and tooth cracked conditions are analyzed using the above method.Experiments results indicate that bispectrum can effectively suppress the additive Gaussian noise and chracterize the QPC phenomenon.It is also shown that the 1-D bispectrum diagonal slice can capture the non-Gaussian and nonlinear feature of gearbox vibration when crack occurred, hence, this method can be employed to gearbox real time monitoring and early diagnosis.

  18. Unstable periodic orbits in human epileptic hippocampal slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pen-Ning Yu; Min-Chi Hsiao; Dong Song; Liu, Charles Y; Heck, Christi N; Millett, David; Berger, Theodore W

    2014-01-01

    Inter-ictal activity is studied in hippocampal slices resected from patients with epilepsy using local field potential recording. Inter-ictal activity in the dentate gyrus (DG) is induced by high-potassium (8 mM), low-magnesium (0.25 mM) aCSF with additional 100 μM 4-aminopyridine(4-AP). The dynamics of the inter-ictal activity is investigated by developing the first return map with inter-pulse intervals. Unstable periodic orbits (UPOs) are detected in the hippocampal slice at the DG area according to both the topological recurrence method and the periodic orbit transform method. Surrogate analysis suggests the presence of UPOs in hippocampal slices from patients with epilepsy. This finding also suggests that inter-ictal activity is a chaotic system and will allow us to apply chaos control techniques to manipulate inter-ictal activity.

  19. Effect of process variables on the osmotic dehydration of star-fruit slices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Dalben Madeira Campos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the effect of blanching and the influence of temperature, solution concentration, and the initial fruit:solution ratio on the osmotic dehydration of star-fruit slices. For blanching, different concentrations of citric and ascorbic acids were studied. The samples immersed in 0.75% citric acid presented little variation in color in relation to the fresh star-fruit. Osmotic dehydration was carried out in an incubator with orbital shaking, controlled temperature, and constant shaking at 120 rpm. The influence of process variables was studied in trials defined by a complete 23 central composite design. In general, water loss and solids gain were positively influenced by temperature and by solution concentration. Nevertheless, lower temperatures reduced water loss throughout the osmotic dehydration process. An increase in the amount of dehydrating solution (initial fruit:solution ratio slightly influenced the evaluated responses. The process carried out at 50 ºC with a solution concentration of 50% resulted in a product with lower solids gain and greater water loss. Under these conditions, blanching minimized the effect of the osmotic treatment on star-fruit browning, and therefore the blanched fruits showed little variation in color in relation to the fresh fruit.

  20. Affective Image Colorization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Hui Wang; Jia Jia; Han-Yu Liao; Lian-Hong Cai

    2012-01-01

    Colorization of gray-scale images has attracted many attentions for a long time.An important role of image color is the conveyer of emotions (through color themes).The colorization with an undesired color theme is less useful,even it is semantically correct.However this has been rarely considered.Automatic colorization respecting both the semantics and the emotions is undoubtedly a challenge.In this paper,we propose a complete system for affective image colorization.We only need the user to assist object segmentation along with text labels and an affective word.First,the text labels along with other object characters are jointly used to filter the internet images to give each object a set of semantically correct reference images.Second,we select a set of color themes according to the affective word based on art theories.With these themes,a generic algorithm is used to select the best reference for each object,balancing various requirements.Finally,we propose a hybrid texture synthesis approach for colorization.To the best of our knowledge,it is the first system which is able to efficiently colorize a gray-scale image semantically by an emotionally controllable fashion.Our experiments show the effectiveness of our system,especially the benefit compared with the previous Markov random field (MRF) based method.

  1. The nature of colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Pos, Osvaldo

    2002-06-01

    Color is a visible aspect of objects and lights, and as such is an objective characteristic of our phenomenal world. Correspondingly also objects and lights are objective, although their subjectivity cannot be disregarded since they belong to our phenomenal world. The distinction between perception and sensation deals with colors seen either in complex displays or in isolation. Reality of colors is apparently challenged by virtual reality, while virtual reality is a good example of what colors are. It seems difficult to combine that aspect of reality colors have in our experience and the concept that colors represent something in the external environment: the distinction between stimulation and perceived object is crucial for understanding the relationships between phenomenal world and physical reality. A modern concept of isomorphism seems useful in interpreting the role of colors. The relationship between the psychological structure of colors and the physical stimulation is enlightened by the analysis of pseudocolors. The perceptual, subjective characteristics of colors go along with the subjectivity of scientific concepts. Colors, emotions, and concepts are all in some people's mind: none of them is independent of the subject mind. Nevertheless they can be communicated from person to person by an appropriate scientific terminology.

  2. Gender similarities and differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2014-01-01

    Whether men and women are fundamentally different or similar has been debated for more than a century. This review summarizes major theories designed to explain gender differences: evolutionary theories, cognitive social learning theory, sociocultural theory, and expectancy-value theory. The gender similarities hypothesis raises the possibility of theorizing gender similarities. Statistical methods for the analysis of gender differences and similarities are reviewed, including effect sizes, meta-analysis, taxometric analysis, and equivalence testing. Then, relying mainly on evidence from meta-analyses, gender differences are reviewed in cognitive performance (e.g., math performance), personality and social behaviors (e.g., temperament, emotions, aggression, and leadership), and psychological well-being. The evidence on gender differences in variance is summarized. The final sections explore applications of intersectionality and directions for future research.

  3. Selection of small color palette for color image quantization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Wing K.; Wong, S. K. M.; Yang, Xuedong; Wan, Shijie J.

    1992-05-01

    Two issues are involved in color image quantization: color palette selection and color mapping. A common practice for color palette selection is to minimize the color distortion for each pixel (the median-cut, the variance-based and the k-means algorithms). After the color palette has been chosen, a quantized image may be generated by mapping the original color of each pixel onto its nearest color in the color palette. Such an approach can usually produce quantized images of high quality with 128 or more colors. For 32 - 64 colors, the quality of the quantized images is often acceptable with the aid of dithering techniques in the color mapping process. For 8 - 16 color, however, the above statistical method for color selection becomes no longer suitable because of the great reduction of color gamut. In order to preserve the color gamut of the original image, one may want to select the colors in such a way that the convex hull formed by these colors in the RGB color space encloses most colors of the original image. Quantized images generated in such a geometrical way usually preserve a lot of image details, but may contain too much high frequency noises. This paper presents an effective algorithm for the selection of very small color palette by combining the strengths of the above statistical and geometrical approaches. We demonstrate that with the new method images of high quality can be produced by using only 4 to 8 colors.

  4. Preparing polished crystal slices with high precision orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, S. Ipsen; Gerward, Leif; Pedersen, O.

    1974-01-01

    A polishing procedure is described which utilizes a high precision Laue technique for crystal orientation. Crystal slices with their final polished surfaces parallel to a crystallographic plane within 0.02° can be prepared. ©1974 The American Institute of Physics......A polishing procedure is described which utilizes a high precision Laue technique for crystal orientation. Crystal slices with their final polished surfaces parallel to a crystallographic plane within 0.02° can be prepared. ©1974 The American Institute of Physics...

  5. Slice Energy and Conformal Frames in Theories of Gravitation

    CERN Document Server

    Cotsakis, S

    2004-01-01

    We examine and compare the behaviour of the scalar field slice energy in different classes of theories of gravity, in particular higher-order and scalar-tensor theories. We find a universal formula for the energy and compare the resulting conservation laws with those known in general relativity. This leads to a comparison between the inflaton, the dilaton and other forms of scalar fields present in these generalized theories. It also shows that all such conformally-related, generalized theories of gravitation allow for the energy on a slice to be invariably defined and its fundamental properties be insensitive to conformal transformations.

  6. Colorimetric characterization for comparative analysis of fungal pigments and natural food colorants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapari, Sameer A S; Meyer, Anne S; Thrane, Ulf

    2006-09-20

    Exogenous pigments produced by ascomycetous filamentous fungi belonging to the genera Penicillium, Epicoccum, and Monascus, preselected based on chemotaxonomic knowledge, have been extracted and characterized by quantitative colorimetry. The color characteristics of the fungal extracts were compared to water soluble natural colorants derived from sources currently in use. The tested fungal extracts also included some commercially available Monascus colorants. The a values for the fungal extracts were found to be both positive and negative, the b values were found to be positive, while the hue angles of the fungal color extracts ranged from 40 to 110 indicating the color distribution of fungal extracts over the red-orange-yellow region of the CIELAB color space. The fungal extracts exhibited additional color hues in the red spectrum and similar hues in the yellow spectrum as compared to the reference natural colorants. They were also found to be similar or brighter in terms of chroma to some of the reference natural colorants. Principal component analysis was performed to group and distinguish different colors based on the a and b values. The fungal color extracts could be grouped in accordance with the similarity or difference in the color to those of the existing natural colorants. The diversity of colors was not only found among different fungal genera and/or species but also within the same species on changing the media. There was a marked change in the color composition of the extracts resulting in relatively different hues. Our results, thus, indicate that there exists pigment-producing genera of ascomycetous fungi other than Monascus that produce color shades in the red and the yellow spectra in addition or similar to reference colorants. These color shades could add to the color palette of the natural colorants currently in use. In addition, the multivariate approach in distinguishing and classifying the colorants was shown to be a very useful tool in

  7. Impaired acquisition of novel grapheme-color correspondences in synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brang, David; Ghiam, Michael; Ramachandran, Vilayanur S

    2013-01-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia is a neurological phenomenon in which letters and numbers (graphemes) consistently evoke particular colors (e.g., A may be experienced as red). These sensations are thought to arise through the cross-activation of grapheme processing regions in the fusiform gyrus and color area V4, supported by anatomical and functional imaging. However, the developmental onset of grapheme-color synesthesia remains elusive as research in this area has largely relied on self-report of these experiences in children. One possible account suggests that synesthesia is present at or near birth and initially binds basic shapes and forms to colors, which are later refined to grapheme-color associations through experience. Consistent with this view, studies show that similarly shaped letters and numbers tend to elicit similar colors in synesthesia and that some synesthetes consciously associate basic shapes with colors; research additionally suggests that synesthetic colors can emerge for newly learned characters with repeated presentation. This model further predicts that the initial shape-color correspondences in synesthesia may persist as implicit associations, driving the acquisition of colors for novel characters. To examine the presence of latent color associations for novel characters, synesthetes and controls were trained on pre-defined associations between colors and complex shapes, on the assumption that the prescribed shape-color correspondences would on average differ from implicit synesthetic associations. Results revealed synesthetes were less accurate than controls to learn novel shape-color associations, consistent with our suggestion that implicit form-color associations conflicted with the learned pairings.

  8. Impaired acquisition of novel grapheme-color correspondences in synesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eBrang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Grapheme-color synesthesia is a neurological phenomenon in which letters and numbers (graphemes consistently evoke particular colors (e.g. A may be experienced as red. These sensations are thought to arise through the cross-activation of grapheme processing regions in the fusiform gyrus and color area V4, supported by anatomical and functional imaging. However, the developmental onset of grapheme-color synesthesia remains elusive as research in this area has largely relied on self-report of these experiences in children. One possible account suggests that synesthesia is present at or near birth and initially binds basic shapes and forms to colors, which are later refined to grapheme-color associations through experience. Consistent with this view, studies show that similarly shaped letters and numbers tend to elicit similar colors in synesthesia and that some synesthetes consciously associate basic shapes with colors; research additionally suggests that synesthetic colors can emerge for newly learned characters with repeated presentation. This model further predicts that the initial shape-color correspondences in synesthesia may persist as implicit associations, driving the acquisition of colors for novel characters. To examine the presence of latent color associations for novel characters, synesthetes and controls were trained on pre-defined associations between colors and complex shapes, on the assumption that the prescribed shape-color correspondences would on average differ from implicit synesthetic associations. Results revealed synesthetes were less accurate than controls to learn novel shape-color associations, consistent with our suggestion that implicit form-color associations conflicted with the learned pairings.

  9. The road coloring problem

    CERN Document Server

    Trahtman, A N

    2007-01-01

    The synchronizing word of deterministic automaton is a word in the alphabet of colors (considered as letters) of its edges that maps the automaton to a single state. A coloring of edges of a directed graph is synchronizing if the coloring turns the graph into deterministic finite automaton possessing a synchronizing word. The road coloring problem is a problem of synchronizing coloring of directed finite strongly connected graph with constant outdegree of all its vertices if the greatest common divisor of lengths of all its cycles is one. The problem was posed by Adler, Goodwyn and Weiss over 30 years ago and evoked a noticeable interest among the specialists in theory of graphs, deterministic automata and symbolic dynamics. The problem is described even in "Vikipedia" - the popular Internet Encyclopedia. The positive solution of the road coloring problem is presented.

  10. Imaging skeletal anatomy of injured cervical spine specimens: comparison of single-slice vs multi-slice helical CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obenauer, S.; Alamo, L.; Herold, T.; Funke, M.; Kopka, L.; Grabbe, E. [Department of Radiology, Georg August-University Goettingen, Robert-Koch-Strasse 40, 37075 Goettingen (Germany)

    2002-08-01

    Our objective was to compare a single-slice CT (SS-CT) scanner with a multi-slice CT (MS-CT) scanner in the depiction of osseous anatomic structures and fractures of the upper cervical spine. Two cervical spine specimens with artificial trauma were scanned with a SS-CT scanner (HighSpeed, CT/i, GE, Milwaukee, Wis.) by using various collimations (1, 3, 5 mm) and pitch factors (1, 1.5, 2, 3) and a four-slice helical CT scanner (LightSpeed, QX/i, GE, Milwaukee, Wis.) by using various table speeds ranging from 3.75 to 15 mm/rotation for a pitch of 0.75 and from 7.5 to 30 mm/rotation for a pitch of 1.5. Images were reconstructed with an interval of 1 mm. Sagittal and coronal multiplanar reconstructions of the primary and reconstructed data set were performed. For MS-CT a tube current resulting in equivalent image noise as with SS-CT was used. All images were judged by two observers using a 4-point scale. The best image quality for SS-CT was achieved with the smallest slice thickness (1 mm) and a pitch smaller than 2 resulting in a table speed of up to 2 mm per gantry rotation (4 points). A reduction of the slice thickness rather than of the table speed proved to be beneficial at MS-CT. Therefore, the optimal scan protocol in MS-CT included a slice thickness of 1.25 mm with a table speed of 7.5 mm/360 using a pitch of 1.5 (4 points), resulting in a faster scan time than when a pitch of 0.75 (4 points) was used. This study indicates that MS-CT could provide equivalent image quality at approximately four times the volume coverage speed of SS-CT. (orig.)

  11. The Translation Of Colors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冰

    2012-01-01

    Different nations have different or even opposite perception of color, which results in non-equivalence of color words in mutual translation between Chinese and English. This paper is to discuss non-equivalence of color words between Chinese and English on the two aspects and emphasizes the importance of transmitting cultural message accurately in the mutual translation between Chinese and English. Studying the cultural connotations of the words is of great importance for successful communication.

  12. Compression-based Similarity

    CERN Document Server

    Vitanyi, Paul M B

    2011-01-01

    First we consider pair-wise distances for literal objects consisting of finite binary files. These files are taken to contain all of their meaning, like genomes or books. The distances are based on compression of the objects concerned, normalized, and can be viewed as similarity distances. Second, we consider pair-wise distances between names of objects, like "red" or "christianity." In this case the distances are based on searches of the Internet. Such a search can be performed by any search engine that returns aggregate page counts. We can extract a code length from the numbers returned, use the same formula as before, and derive a similarity or relative semantics between names for objects. The theory is based on Kolmogorov complexity. We test both similarities extensively experimentally.

  13. A Multi-Model Stereo Similarity Function Based on Monogenic Signal Analysis in Poisson Scale Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinjun Li

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A stereo similarity function based on local multi-model monogenic image feature descriptors (LMFD is proposed to match interest points and estimate disparity map for stereo images. Local multi-model monogenic image features include local orientation and instantaneous phase of the gray monogenic signal, local color phase of the color monogenic signal, and local mean colors in the multiscale color monogenic signal framework. The gray monogenic signal, which is the extension of analytic signal to gray level image using Dirac operator and Laplace equation, consists of local amplitude, local orientation, and instantaneous phase of 2D image signal. The color monogenic signal is the extension of monogenic signal to color image based on Clifford algebras. The local color phase can be estimated by computing geometric product between the color monogenic signal and a unit reference vector in RGB color space. Experiment results on the synthetic and natural stereo images show the performance of the proposed approach.

  14. Color sensing under microwaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Debesh

    2013-09-01

    Inspired by recent results of artificial color due to Caulfield, we carry out intuitive experimental investigations on color sensing under microwave illumination. Experiemnts have been carried out using a Gunn diode as the microwave source and a microwave diode as a detector. More precise experimental studies have also been carried out utilizing a vector network analyzer. Preliminary results of the experiments validate the feasibility of sensing and discriminating otherwise visual colors under microwave illumination. Caulfield's presumption possibly paves the way for artificial color perception using microwaves.

  15. Cues and strategies for color constancy: perceptual scission, image junctions and transformational color matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khang, Byung-Geun; Zaidi, Qasim

    2002-01-01

    The identification of objects, illuminants, and transparencies are probably the most important perceptual functions of color. This paper examines the effects of perceptual scission, image junctions, color adaptation, and color correlations on identification. Simulations of natural illuminants, materials, and filters were used in a forced-choice procedure to simultaneously measure thresholds for identifying filters and objects across illuminants, and discrimination thresholds within illuminants. In the vast majority of the cases, if observers could discriminate within illuminants they could identify across illuminants. Since results were similar for identical color distributions, whether transparency cues like X-junctions were present or not, the primary cues for color identification were systematic color shifts across illuminants. These color shifts can be well described by three-parameter affine transformations, and the parameters can be derived from differences and ratios of mean chromaticities. A strategy based on post-transformation color matching predicts generally accurate identification despite perceptible color shifts, and also provides plausible reasons for those few conditions where identification thresholds are significantly higher than discrimination thresholds.

  16. Similarity or difference?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Anders Ryom

    2013-01-01

    While the organizational structures and strategies of public organizations have attracted substantial research attention among public management scholars, little research has explored how these organizational core dimensions are interconnected and influenced by pressures for similarity....... In this paper I address this topic by exploring the relation between expenditure strategy isomorphism and structure isomorphism in Danish municipalities. Different literatures suggest that organizations exist in concurrent pressures for being similar to and different from other organizations in their field......-shaped relation exists between expenditure strategy isomorphism and structure isomorphism in a longitudinal quantitative study of Danish municipalities....

  17. Segmentation Similarity and Agreement

    CERN Document Server

    Fournier, Chris

    2012-01-01

    We propose a new segmentation evaluation metric, called segmentation similarity (S), that quantifies the similarity between two segmentations as the proportion of boundaries that are not transformed when comparing them using edit distance, essentially using edit distance as a penalty function and scaling penalties by segmentation size. We propose several adapted inter-annotator agreement coefficients which use S that are suitable for segmentation. We show that S is configurable enough to suit a wide variety of segmentation evaluations, and is an improvement upon the state of the art. We also propose using inter-annotator agreement coefficients to evaluate automatic segmenters in terms of human performance.

  18. Characterization of masses in digital breast tomosynthesis: Comparison of machine learning in projection views and reconstructed slices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Heang-Ping; Wu Yita; Sahiner, Berkman; Wei, Jun; Helvie, Mark A.; Zhang Yiheng; Moore, Richard H.; Kopans, Daniel B.; Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Way, Ted [Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    slices centered at the central slice were compared. For classification of masses using the PV approach, a feature extraction process similar to that described above for the DBT approach was performed on the ROIs from the individual PVs. Six feature spaces obtained from the central PV alone and by averaging the corresponding features from three to 11 PVs were formed. In each feature space for either the DBT-slice or the PV approach, a linear discriminant analysis classifier with stepwise feature selection was trained and tested using a two-loop leave-one-case-out resampling procedure. Simplex optimization was used to guide feature selection automatically within the training set in each leave-one-case-out cycle. The performance of the classifiers was evaluated by the area (A{sub z}) under the receiver operating characteristic curve. Results: The test A{sub z} values from the DBT-slice approach ranged from 0.87{+-}0.03 to 0.93{+-}0.02, while those from the PV approach ranged from 0.78{+-}0.04 to 0.84{+-}0.04. The highest test A{sub z} of 0.93{+-}0.02 from the nine-DBT-slice feature space was significantly (p=0.006) better than the highest test A{sub z} of 0.84{+-}0.04 from the nine-PV feature space. Conclusion: The features of breast lesions extracted from the DBT slices consistently provided higher classification accuracy than those extracted from the PV images.

  19. Reduction of acrylamide formation in potato slices during frying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedreschi, Franco; Kaack, K.; Granby, Kit

    2004-01-01

    Reduction of acrylamide formation in potato chips was investigated in relation to frying temperature and three treatments before frying. Potato slices (Tivoli variety, diameter: 37 mm, width: 2.2 mm) were fried at 150degreesC, 170degreesC and 190degreesC until reaching moisture contents of simila...

  20. Thin slice impressions : How advertising evaluation depends on exposure duration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, Rik; Elsen, M.; Wedel, M.

    The duration of exposures to advertising is often brief. Then, consumers can only obtain “thin slices” of information from the ads, such as which product and brand are being promoted. This research is the first to examine the influence that such thin slices of information have on ad and brand

  1. Evaluation of fibrosis in precision-cut tissue slices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westra, I. M.; Pham, B. T.; Groothuis, G. M. M.; Olinga, P.

    2013-01-01

    1. In this review, the use of precision-cut tissue slices (PCTS) of the liver, kidney, lung and intestine in fibrosis research are evaluated and future possibilities are discussed. 2. In vivo models or techniques that are applicabless to be investigated in PCTS are discussed. 3. It is concluded that

  2. Slicing Recognition of Aircraft Integral Panel Generalized Pocket

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Fangfang; Du Baorui; Ren Wenjie; Zheng Guolei; Chu Hongzhen

    2008-01-01

    To automatically obtain a machining area in numerical control (NC) programming, a data model of generalized pocket is estab-lished by analyzing aireraft integral panel characteristics, and a feature recognition approach is proposed. First, by reference to the prao- tieal slice-machining process of an aircraft integral panel, both the part and the blank are sliced in the Z-axis direction; hence a feature profile is created acceding to the slicing planes and the contours are formed by the intersection of the slicing planes with the part and its blanK. Second, the auxiliary features of the generalized pocket are also determined based on the face type and the position, to correct the profile of the pocket. Finally, the generalized pocket feature relationship tree is constructed by matching the vertical relationships among the features. Machining feature information produced by using this method can be directly used to calculate the cutter path. The validity and practicability of the method is verified by NC programming for aircraft panels.

  3. The Slice Algorithm For Irreducible Decomposition of Monomial Ideals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roune, Bjarke Hammersholt

    2009-01-01

    Irreducible decomposition of monomial ideals has an increasing number of applications from biology to pure math. This paper presents the Slice Algorithm for computing irreducible decompositions, Alexander duals and socles of monomial ideals. The paper includes experiments showing good performance...... in practice....

  4. Spontaneous calcium waves in granule cells in cerebellar slice cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Apuschkin, Mia; Ougaard, Maria; Rekling, Jens C

    2013-01-01

    and establishment of synaptic transmission. Here, we used calcium imaging in slice cultures of the postnatal cerebellum, and observe spontaneous propagating calcium waves in NeuN-positive granule-like cells. Wave formation was blocked by TTX and the AMPA antagonist NBQX, but persisted after NMDA receptor blockade...

  5. Three-dimensional electrode array for brain slice culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vazquez Rodriguez, Patricia

    Multielektroder arrays (MEA) er rækker af elektroder mest i mikrometer størrelse, som er blevet brugt i stor omfang til at stimulere og måle elektrisk aktivitet fra neuronale netværker. Brug af disse for at analysere hjerne slices (hjerneskiver) kan give indsigt i interaktioner mellem neuroner...

  6. Repair pathways evident in human liver organ slices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vickers, Alison E. M.; Fisher, Robyn; Olinga, Peter; Dial, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    The extension of human liver slice culture viability for several days broadens the potential of this ex vivo model for characterizing pathways of organ injury and repair, and allows for the multiple dosing of compounds. Extended viability is demonstrated by continued synthesis of GSH and ATP, and ma

  7. Blanching, salting and sun drying of different pumpkin fruit slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workneh, T S; Zinash, A; Woldetsadik, K

    2014-11-01

    The study was aimed at assessing the quality of pumpkin (Cucuribita Spp.) slices that were subjected to pre-drying treatments and drying using two drying methods (uncontrolled sun and oven) fruit accessions. Pre-drying had significant (P ≤ 0.05) effect on the quality of dried pumpkin slices. 10 % salt solution dipped pumpkin fruit slices had good chemical quality. The two-way interaction between drying methods and pre-drying treatments had significant (P ≤ 0.05) effect on chemical qualities. Pumpkin subjected to salt solution dipping treatment and oven dried had higher chemical concentrations. Among the pumpkin fruit accessions, pumpkin accession 8007 had the superior TSS, total sugar and sugar to acid ratio after drying. Among the three pre-drying treatment, salt solution dipping treatment had significant (P ≤ 0.05) effect and the most efficient pre-drying treatment to retain the quality of dried pumpkin fruits without significant chemical quality deterioration. Salt dipping treatment combined with low temperature (60 °C) oven air circulation drying is recommended to maintain quality of dried pumpkin slices. However, since direct sun drying needs extended drying time due to fluctuation in temperature, it is recommended to develop or select best successful solar dryer for use in combination with pre-drying salt dipping or blanching treatments.

  8. Incremental Similarity and Turbulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole E.; Hedevang, Emil; Schmiegel, Jürgen

    This paper discusses the mathematical representation of an empirically observed phenomenon, referred to as Incremental Similarity. We discuss this feature from the viewpoint of stochastic processes and present a variety of non-trivial examples, including those that are of relevance for turbulence...

  9. Encyclopedia of color science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of Color Science and Technology provides an authoritative single source for understanding and applying the concepts of color to all fields of science and technology, including artistic and historical aspects of color. Many topics are discussed in this timely reference, including an introduction to the science of color, and entries on the physics, chemistry and perception of color. Color is described as it relates to optical phenomena of color and continues on through colorants and materials used to modulate color and also to human vision of color. The measurement of color is provided as is colorimetry, color spaces, color difference metrics, color appearance models, color order systems and cognitive color. Other topics discussed include industrial color, color imaging, capturing color, displaying color and printing color. Descriptions of color encodings, color management, processing color and applications relating to color synthesis for computer graphics are included in this work. The Encyclo...

  10. Holographic imaging of full-color real-existing three-dimensional objects with computer-generated sequential kinoforms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huadong Zheng; Tao Wang; Linmao Dai; Yingjie Yu

    2011-01-01

    We propose a computational method for generating sequential kinoforms of real-existing full-color threedimensional (3D) objects and realizing high-quality 3D imaging. The depth map and color information are obtained using non-contact full-color 3D measurement system based on binocular vision. The obtained full-color 3D data are decomposed into multiple slices with RGB channels. Sequential kinoforms of each channel are calculated and reconstructed using a Fresnel-diffraction-based algorithm called the dynamicpseudorandom-phase tomographic computer holography (DPP-TCH). Color dispersion introduced by different wavelengths is well compensated by zero-padding operation in the red and green channels of object slices. Numerical reconstruction results show that the speckle noise and color-dispersion are well suppressed and that high-quality full-color holographic 3D imaging is feasible. The method is useful for improving the 3D image quality in holographic displays with pixelated phase-type spatial light modulators (SLMs).%@@ We propose a computational method for generating sequential kinoforms of real-existing full-color three-dimensional (3D) objects and realizing high-quality 3D imaging.The depth map and color information are obtained using non-contact full-color 3D measurement system based on binocular vision.The obtained full-color 3D data are decomposed into multiple slices with RGB channels.Sequential kinoforms of each channel are calculated and reconstructed using a Fresnel-diffraction-based algorithm called the dynamic-pseudorandom-phase tomographic computer holography (DPP-TCH).Color dispersion introduced by dif-ferent wavelengths is well compensated by zero-padding operation in the red and green channels of object slices.Numerical reconstruction results show that the speckle noise and color-dispersion are well suppressed and that high-quality full-color holographic 3D imaging is feasible.The method is useful for improving the 3D image quality in holographic

  11. [Skin slice used as a model for investigating acupuncture effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Na; Schwarz, Wolfgang; Gu, Quan-Bao; Ding, Guang-Hong

    2009-10-01

    To establish an acupoint-connective tissue model for studying the mechanism of acupuncture by using in vitro patch clamp technique in the rat skin slices. The local connective tissue under the corium of "Housanli" (ST 36) area from SD rat was acutely and bluntly separated and fixed in a chamber filled with artificial incubation solution. Mast cells in the prepared connective tissue slice were labeled by toluidine blue (TB) or neutral red (NR). The whole-cell current of mast cells responding to pressure stimulation applied through a patch pipette was recorded in rat slices derived from acupoint ST 36 area by using in vitro patch-clamp technique. 1) After staining with TB and NR, the labeled mast cells were found to distribute in the extracellular matrix of the connective tissue samples, and their degranulation phenomenon could be seen clearly. 2) The whole-cell current of mast cells in response to mechanical stress stimulation was successfully recorded in the connective tissue slices of the rat acupoint ST 36 area. The cellular membrane currents increased evidently when pressure gradients of -30, -60 or -90 cmH2O were applied to the recorded mast cells. The connective tissue slice from the rat ST 36 area may be used as a model for investigating the peripheral mechanism of acupuncture by combining the microtechniques and electrophysiological techniques. The results obtained in this model prove for the first time by electrophysiology that the mast cells in the connective tissue are probably involved in the transduction process of the mechanical signal from acupuncture stimulation. This new model provides a base for investigating the characters of the cells, collagen fibers, proteoglycans, etc. and their interactions in the acupoint connective tissue in the future.

  12. Fan beam image reconstruction with generalized Fourier slice theorem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shuangren; Yang, Kang; Yang, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    For parallel beam geometry the Fourier reconstruction works via the Fourier slice theorem (or central slice theorem, projection slice theorem). For fan beam situation, Fourier slice can be extended to a generalized Fourier slice theorem (GFST) for fan-beam image reconstruction. We have briefly introduced this method in a conference. This paper reintroduces the GFST method for fan beam geometry in details. The GFST method can be described as following: the Fourier plane is filled by adding up the contributions from all fanbeam projections individually; thereby the values in the Fourier plane are directly calculated for Cartesian coordinates such avoiding the interpolation from polar to Cartesian coordinates in the Fourier domain; inverse fast Fourier transform is applied to the image in Fourier plane and leads to a reconstructed image in spacial domain. The reconstructed image is compared between the result of the GFST method and the result from the filtered backprojection (FBP) method. The major differences of the GFST and the FBP methods are: (1) The interpolation process are at different data sets. The interpolation of the GFST method is at projection data. The interpolation of the FBP method is at filtered projection data. (2) The filtering process are done in different places. The filtering process of the GFST is at Fourier domain. The filtering process of the FBP method is the ramp filter which is done at projections. The resolution of ramp filter is variable with different location but the filter in the Fourier domain lead to resolution invariable with location. One advantage of the GFST method over the FBP method is in short scan situation, an exact solution can be obtained with the GFST method, but it can not be obtained with the FBP method. The calculation of both the GFST and the FBP methods are at O(N^3), where N is the number of pixel in one dimension.

  13. Color Parameters of the Chromascop Shade Guide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J. O'Brien

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study are: (1 determine the color of the twenty shades in the Ivoclar’s Chromascop shade guide, (2 determine the color representation of the shade guide described as coverage error (CE, and (3 compare this shade guide with the Vita Classical and Bioform shade guides. The spectral data was collected using Beckman model DU reflectance spectrophotometer equipped with an integrating sphere. Commission International de l’Eclairage (CIE chromaticity coordinates were calculated using CIE illuminant C and 1931 observer data, then converted to CIE L*a*b* and Munsell notation. Each shade was spectrophotometrically compared to the published colors of 335 human teeth. The minimum CIE L*a*b* color difference was calculated for each tooth and the average of these color differences was defined as the CE. The measured colors of the Chromascop guide had a CIE L* range of 79.67 to 65.61, an a* range of -0.71 to 3.85, and a b* range of 14.58 to 27.69. The average CE of the Chromascop shade guide was 3.38. The Chromascop shade guide has similar colors and a CE compared with the Bioform and Vita Classical shade guides, but with some shades of higher red and yellow components.

  14. Perceptual evaluation of colorized nighttime imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toet, Alexander; de Jong, Michael J.; Hogervorst, Maarten A.; Hooge, Ignace T. C.

    2014-02-01

    We recently presented a color transform that produces fused nighttime imagery with a realistic color appearance (Hogervorst and Toet, 2010, Information Fusion, 11-2, 69-77). To assess the practical value of this transform we performed two experiments in which we compared human scene recognition for monochrome intensified (II) and longwave infrared (IR) imagery, and color daylight (REF) and fused multispectral (CF) imagery. First we investigated the amount of detail observers can perceive in a short time span (the gist of the scene). Participants watched brief image presentations and provided a full report of what they had seen. Our results show that REF and CF imagery yielded the highest precision and recall measures, while both II and IR imagery yielded significantly lower values. This suggests that observers have more difficulty extracting information from monochrome than from color imagery. Next, we measured eye fixations of participants who freely explored the images. Although the overall fixation behavior was similar across image modalities, the order in which certain details were fixated varied. Persons and vehicles were typically fixated first in REF, CF and IR imagery, while they were fixated later in II imagery. In some cases, color remapping II imagery and fusion with IR imagery restored the fixation order of these image details. We conclude that color remapping can yield enhanced scene perception compared to conventional monochrome nighttime imagery, and may be deployed to tune multispectral image representation such that the resulting fixation behavior resembles the fixation behavior for daylight color imagery.

  15. The Color of Lobsters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, Arjan van

    2005-01-01

    Synthesis of 13C-enriched carotenoids. Carotenoids are natural colorants, ranging in color from pale yellow to deep purple, with important biological functions. Carotenoids in the human diet have a beneficial health effect, playing a role in the prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer. To ge

  16. List coloring with requests

    OpenAIRE

    Dvořák, Zdeněk; Norin, Sergey; Postle, Luke

    2016-01-01

    Let G be a graph with a list assignment L. Suppose a preferred color is given for some of the vertices; how many of these preferences can be respected when L-coloring G? We explore several natural questions arising in this context, and propose directions for further research.

  17. Measurement of Color Texture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoang, M.A.; Geusebroek, J.M.; Deprettere, E.F.; Belloum, A.; Heijnsdijk, J.W.J.; van der Stappen, F.

    2002-01-01

    In computer vision, measurement of image properties such as color or texture is essential. However, existing methods for measuring color and texture in combination are not well-defined neither from a measurement theoretical basis nor from a physical point of view. We propose a solid framework for th

  18. Plasmonic color tuning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byoungho; Yun, Hansik; Lee, Seung-Yeol; Kim, Hwi

    2016-03-01

    In general, color filter is an optical component to permit the transmission of a specific color in cameras, displays, and microscopes. Each filter has its own unchangeable color because it is made by chemical materials such as dyes and pigments. Therefore, in order to express various colorful images in a display, one pixel should have three sub-pixels of red, green, and blue colors. Here, we suggest new plasmonic structure and method to change the color in a single pixel. It is comprised of a cavity and a metal nanoaperture. The optical cavity generally supports standing waves inside it, and various standing waves having different wavelength can be confined together in one cavity. On the other hand, although light cannot transmit sub-wavelength sized aperture, surface plasmons can propagate through the metal nanoaperture with high intensity due to the extraordinary transmission. If we combine the two structures, we can organize the spatial distribution of amplitudes according to wavelength of various standing waves using the cavity, and we can extract a light with specific wavelength and amplitude using the nanoaperture. Therefore, this cavity-aperture structure can simultaneously tune the color and intensity of the transmitted light through the single nanoaperture. We expect that the cavity-apertures have a potential for dynamic color pixels, micro-imaging system, and multiplexed sensors.

  19. The Color of Lobsters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, Arjan van

    2005-01-01

    Synthesis of 13C-enriched carotenoids. Carotenoids are natural colorants, ranging in color from pale yellow to deep purple, with important biological functions. Carotenoids in the human diet have a beneficial health effect, playing a role in the prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer. To ge

  20. 3-D Color Wheels

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBois, Ann

    2010-01-01

    The blending of information from an academic class with projects from art class can do nothing but strengthen the learning power of the student. Creating three-dimensional color wheels provides the perfect opportunity to combine basic geometry knowledge with color theory. In this article, the author describes how her seventh-grade painting…

  1. Quorum Colorings of Graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Heditniemi (Sandra); R.C. Laskar (R.C.); H.M. Mulder (Martyn)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractLet $G = (V,E)$ be a graph. A partition $\\pi = \\{V_1, V_2, \\ldots, V_k \\}$ of the vertices $V$ of $G$ into $k$ {\\it color classes} $V_i$, with $1 \\leq i \\leq k$, is called a {\\it quorum coloring} if for every vertex $v \\in V$, at least half of the vertices in the closed neighborhood

  2. Gauge color codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bombin Palomo, Hector

    2015-01-01

    Color codes are topological stabilizer codes with unusual transversality properties. Here I show that their group of transversal gates is optimal and only depends on the spatial dimension, not the local geometry. I also introduce a generalized, subsystem version of color codes. In 3D they allow...

  3. Dynamic egg color mimicry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Daniel; Šulc, Michal; Brennan, Patricia L R; Hauber, Mark E; Grim, Tomáš; Honza, Marcel

    2016-06-01

    Evolutionary hypotheses regarding the function of eggshell phenotypes, from solar protection through mimicry, have implicitly assumed that eggshell appearance remains static throughout the laying and incubation periods. However, recent research demonstrates that egg coloration changes over relatively short, biologically relevant timescales. Here, we provide the first evidence that such changes impact brood parasite-host eggshell color mimicry during the incubation stage. First, we use long-term data to establish how rapidly the Acrocephalus arundinaceus Linnaeus (great reed warbler) responded to natural parasitic eggs laid by the Cuculus canorus Linnaeus (common cuckoo). Most hosts rejected parasitic eggs just prior to clutch completion, but the host response period extended well into incubation (~10 days after clutch completion). Using reflectance spectrometry and visual modeling, we demonstrate that eggshell coloration in the great reed warbler and its brood parasite, the common cuckoo, changes rapidly, and the extent of eggshell color mimicry shifts dynamically over the host response period. Specifically, 4 days after being laid, the host should notice achromatic color changes to both cuckoo and warbler eggs, while chromatic color changes would be noticeable after 8 days. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the perceived match between host and cuckoo eggshell color worsened over the incubation period. These findings have important implications for parasite-host coevolution dynamics, because host egg discrimination may be aided by disparate temporal color changes in host and parasite eggs.

  4. The Colored Jones Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN You-fa; YAN Xin-ming; LV Li-li

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,we discuss the properties of the colored Jones function of knots.Particularly,we calculate the colored Jones function of some knots(31,41,51,52).Furthermore,one can compute the Kashaev's invariants and study some properties of the Kashaev's conjecture.

  5. 3-D Color Wheels

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBois, Ann

    2010-01-01

    The blending of information from an academic class with projects from art class can do nothing but strengthen the learning power of the student. Creating three-dimensional color wheels provides the perfect opportunity to combine basic geometry knowledge with color theory. In this article, the author describes how her seventh-grade painting…

  6. The color of money

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ásgeirsson, Árni Gunnar; Kristjánsson, Árni; Einarsdóttir, Kristin Vala

    2014-01-01

    of attention are affected by reward, and whether the effect involves general enhancement or is specific to discrete components of attention. Observers viewed brief displays of differentially colored letters and reported their identity. Each color signified a consistent monetary value and we measured...

  7. Image color reduction method for color-defective observers using a color palette composed of 20 particular colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    This study describes a color enhancement method that uses a color palette especially designed for protan and deutan defects, commonly known as red-green color blindness. The proposed color reduction method is based on a simple color mapping. Complicated computation and image processing are not required by using the proposed method, and the method can replace protan and deutan confusion (p/d-confusion) colors with protan and deutan safe (p/d-safe) colors. Color palettes for protan and deutan defects proposed by previous studies are composed of few p/d-safe colors. Thus, the colors contained in these palettes are insufficient for replacing colors in photographs. Recently, Ito et al. proposed a p/dsafe color palette composed of 20 particular colors. The author demonstrated that their p/d-safe color palette could be applied to image color reduction in photographs as a means to replace p/d-confusion colors. This study describes the results of the proposed color reduction in photographs that include typical p/d-confusion colors, which can be replaced. After the reduction process is completed, color-defective observers can distinguish these confusion colors.

  8. 7 CFR 51.1864 - Similar varietal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Fresh Tomatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1864 Similar varietal characteristics. Similar varietal characteristics means that the tomatoes are alike as to firmness of flesh and shade of color (for example, soft-fleshed, early maturing varieties are not mixed with...

  9. Aspects of Color Superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, D K

    2001-01-01

    I discuss some aspects of recent developments in color superconductivity in high density quark matter. I calculate the Cooper pair gap and the critical points at high density, where magnetic gluons are not screened. The ground state of high density QCD with three light flavors is shown to be a color-flavor locking state, which can be mapped into the low-density hadronic phase. The meson mass at the CFL superconductor is also calculated. The CFL color superconductor is bosonized, where the Fermi sea is identified as a $Q$-matter and the gapped quarks as topological excitations, called superqualitons, of mesons. Finally, as an application of color supercoductivity, I discuss the neutrino interactions in the CFL color superconductor.

  10. Color Medical Image Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Schaefer, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Since the early 20th century, medical imaging has been dominated by monochrome imaging modalities such as x-ray, computed tomography, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging. As a result, color information has been overlooked in medical image analysis applications. Recently, various medical imaging modalities that involve color information have been introduced. These include cervicography, dermoscopy, fundus photography, gastrointestinal endoscopy, microscopy, and wound photography. However, in comparison to monochrome images, the analysis of color images is a relatively unexplored area. The multivariate nature of color image data presents new challenges for researchers and practitioners as the numerous methods developed for monochrome images are often not directly applicable to multichannel images. The goal of this volume is to summarize the state-of-the-art in the utilization of color information in medical image analysis.

  11. Color vision and dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasson, W; Schuman, N

    1992-05-01

    Color vision is a critical component of restorative and esthetic dentistry, but dentists, as a group, do not have their color vision tested at any time during their careers. A study was undertaken to ascertain the color-vision status of practicing dental personnel at the University of Tennessee, College of Dentistry. One hundred fifty individuals, 75 men and 75 women, were screened. The results corroborated the existing medical data for the general population. It was found that 9.3% of the men and none of the women exhibited color-vision defect. Since most dentists are male, this study demonstrates an area of potential weakness for some practitioners. Once a color-vision problem is found, it is simple to remedy by employing a team approach to shade matching or mechanical means of matching shades (by the practitioner). No ethnic or racial distinctions were detected, although these have been reported in other studies.

  12. Effect of simultaneous infrared dry-blanching and dehydration on quality characteristics of carrot slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated the effects of various processing parameters on carrot slices exposed to infrared (IR) radiation heating for achieving simultaneous infrared dry-blanching and dehydration (SIRDBD). The investigated parameters were product surface temperature, slice thickness and processing ti...

  13. Investigation on the optical scan condition for imaging of multi-slice spiral CT liver perfusion in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Rong-jie; WANG Jin-e; JIANG Hui-jie; HAO Xue-jia; DONG Xu-peng; HUANG Ya-hua; WEI Lai

    2013-01-01

    Background Multi-slice CT liver perfusion has been widely used in experimental studies of hemodynamic changes in liver lesions,and is usually performed as an adjunct to a conventional CT examination because of its high temporal and spatial resolution,simple protocol,good reproducibility,and ability to measure hemodynamic changes of liver tissues at the capillary level.Experimental rat models,especially those of induced liver cancer,are often used in studies of hemodynamic changes in liver cancer.Carcinogenesis in rats has a similar pathological progression and characteristics resembling those in human liver cancer; as a result,rat models are often used as ideal animal models in the study of human liver cancer.However,liver perfusion imaging in rats is difficult to perform,because rats' livers are so small that different concentrations,flow rates,and dose of contrast agents during the CT perfusion scanning can influence the quality of liver perfusion images in rats.The purpose of this study,therefore,was to investigate the optimal scan protocol for the imaging of hepatic perfusion using a deconvolution mathematical method in rats by comparing the results of rats in different injection conditions of the contrast agent,including concentration,rate and time.Methods Plain CT scan conditions in eighty 2-month-old male Wistar rats were 5.0 mm slice thickness,5.0 mm interval,1.0 pitch,120 kV tube voltage,60 mA tube current,512×512 matrix,and FOV 9.6 cm.Perfusion scanning was carried out with different concentrations of diatrizoate (19%,38%,57%,and 76%),different injection rates (0.3 and 0.5 mi/s),and different injection times (1,2-3,4-5,and 6 seconds).The above conditions were randomly matched and adjusted to determine the best perfusion scan protocol.Thrae-phase contrast-enhanced scanning was performed after CT perfusion.Histological examination of the liver tissues with hematoxylin and eosin stains was done after CT scanning.Results When the concentration of the

  14. BVR Color Survey of the Jovian Irregular Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettig, T. W.; Walsh, K.

    2002-09-01

    BVR colors and magnitudes are presented for four Jovian irregular prograde satellites (Himalia J6, Elara J7, Lysithea J10 and Leda J13) and four irregular retrograde satellites (Pasiphae J8, Sinope J9, Carme J11 and Ananke J12). All eight have generally `solar' colors but the retrograde group has slightly redder and more diverse colors. The strikingly similar colors of the four prograde satellites suggests the parent planetesimal was likely very homogeneous. The four retrograde satellites show diversity in color that suggests a heterogeneous progenitor and thus, variations in pre-capture formation history. The absolute magnitudes and revised diameters are presented. We also report new colors and diameters for two Uranian irregular satellites (Caliban (S/1997 U1) and Sycorax (S/1997 U2)). The Uranian satellite colors are slightly redder than the eight Jovian satellites studied.

  15. Three-dimensional prostate segmentation using level set with shape constraint based on rotational slices for 3D end-firing TRUS guided biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Wu; Yuan, Jing; Ukwatta, Eranga; Tessier, David; Fenster, Aaron

    2013-07-01

    Prostate segmentation is an important step in the planning and treatment of 3D end-firing transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guided prostate biopsy. In order to improve the accuracy and efficiency of prostate segmentation in 3D TRUS images, an improved level set method is incorporated into a rotational-slice-based 3D prostate segmentation to decrease the accumulated segmentation errors produced by the slice-by-slice segmentation method. A 3D image is first resliced into 2D slices in a rotational manner in both the clockwise and counterclockwise directions. All slices intersect approximately along the rotational scanning axis and have an equal angular spacing. Six to eight boundary points are selected to initialize a level set function to extract the prostate contour within the first slice. The segmented contour is then propagated to the adjacent slice and is used as the initial contour for segmentation. This process is repeated until all slices are segmented. A modified distance regularization level set method is used to segment the prostate in all resliced 2D slices. In addition, shape-constraint and local-region-based energies are imposed to discourage the evolved level set function to leak in regions with weak edges or without edges. An anchor point based energy is used to promote the level set function to pass through the initial selected boundary points. The algorithm's performance was evaluated using distance- and volume-based metrics (sensitivity (Se), Dice similarity coefficient (DSC), mean absolute surface distance (MAD), maximum absolute surface distance (MAXD), and volume difference) by comparison with expert delineations. The validation results using thirty 3D patient images showed that the authors' method can obtain a DSC of 93.1% ± 1.6%, a sensitivity of 93.0% ± 2.0%, a MAD of 1.18 ± 0.36 mm, a MAXD of 3.44 ± 0.8 mm, and a volume difference of 2.6 ± 1.9 cm(3) for the entire prostate. A reproducibility experiment demonstrated that the proposed method

  16. On Translation and Comparison of Color Words between Chinese and English Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐艳丽

    2015-01-01

    Color words are frequently used both in Chinese and English.A lot of color words are produced under special historical and geographical background.And the same terms of color in these two languages may have different cultural association.This article focuses on discussing the similarities and differences of color words in different cultural fields to help people to have a better understanding of different colors.

  17. Influence of cardiac hemodynamic parameters on coronary artery opacification with 64-slice computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Husmann, Lars; Alkadhi, Hatem; Boehm, Thomas; Leschka, Sebastian; Desbiolles, Lotus; Marincek, Borut [University Hospital of Zurich, Department of Medical Radiology, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Schepis, Tiziano; Koepfli, Pascal; Wildermuth, Simon [University Hospital of Zurich, Cardiovascular Center, Zurich (Switzerland); Kaufmann, Philipp A. [University Hospital of Zurich, Cardiovascular Center, Zurich (Switzerland); University of Zurich, Center for Integrative Human Physiology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2006-05-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of ejection fraction (EF), stroke volume (SV), heart rate, and cardiac output (CO) on coronary artery opacification with 64-slice computed tomography (CT). Sixty patients underwent, retrospectively, electrocardiography-gated 64-slice CT coronary angiography. Left ventricular EF, SV, and CO were calculated with semi-automated software. Attenuation values were measured and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) were calculated in the proximal right coronary artery (RCA) and left main artery (LMA). Mean EF during scanning was 61.5{+-}12.4%, SV was 63.2{+-}15.6 ml, heart rate was 62.5{+-}11.8 beats per minute (bpm), and CO was 3.88{+-}1.06 l/min. There was no significant correlation between the EF and heart rate and the attenuation and CNR in either coronary artery. A significant negative correlation was found in both arteries between SV and attenuation (RCA r=-0.26, P<0.05; LMA r=-0.34, P<0.01) and between SV and CNR (RCA r=-0.26, P<0.05; LMA r=-0.26, P<0.05). Similarly, a significant negative correlation was found between the CO and attenuation (RCA r=-0.42, P<0.05; LMA r=-0.56, P<0.001) and between the CO and CNR (RCA r=-0.39, P<0.05; LMA r=-0.44, P<0.001). The actual hemodynamic status of the patient influences the coronary artery opacification with 64-slice CT, in that vessel opacification decreases as SV and CO increase. (orig.)

  18. Global Free-tropospheric NO2 Abundances Derived Using a Cloud Slicing Technique from AURA OMI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, S.; Joiner, J.; Choi, Y.; Duncan, B.N.; Vasilkov, A.; Krotkov, N.; Bucsela, E.J.

    2014-01-01

    We derive free-tropospheric NO2 volume mixing ratios (VMRs) by applying a cloud-slicing technique to data from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on the Aura satellite. In the cloud-slicing approach, the slope of the above-cloud NO2 column versus the cloud scene pressure is proportional to the NO2 VMR. In this work, we use a sample of nearby OMI pixel data from a single orbit for the linear fit. The OMI data include cloud scene pressures from the rotational-Raman algorithm and above-cloud NO2 vertical column density (VCD) (defined as the NO2 column from the cloud scene pressure to the top of the atmosphere) from a differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) algorithm. We compare OMI-derived NO2 VMRs with in situ aircraft profiles measured during the NASA Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment Phase B (INTEX-B) campaign in 2006. The agreement is generally within the estimated uncertainties when appropriate data screening is applied. We then derive a global seasonal climatology of free-tropospheric NO2 VMR in cloudy conditions. Enhanced NO2 in the free troposphere commonly appears near polluted urban locations where NO2 produced in the boundary layer may be transported vertically out of the boundary layer and then horizontally away from the source. Signatures of lightning NO2 are also shown throughout low and middle latitude regions in summer months. A profile analysis of our cloud-slicing data indicates signatures of lightning-generated NO2 in the upper troposphere. Comparison of the climatology with simulations from the global modeling initiative (GMI) for cloudy conditions (cloud optical depth less than10) shows similarities in the spatial patterns of continental pollution outflow. However, there are also some differences in the seasonal variation of free-tropospheric NO2 VMRs near highly populated regions and in areas affected by lightning-generated NOx.

  19. More Similar Than Different

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mogens Jin

    2015-01-01

    What role do employee features play into the success of different personnel management practices for serving high performance? Using data from a randomized survey experiment among 5,982 individuals of all ages, this article examines how gender conditions the compliance effects of different...... incentive treatments—each relating to the basic content of distinct types of personnel management practices. The findings show that males and females are more similar than different in terms of the incentive treatments’ effects: Significant average effects are found for three out of five incentive...

  20. Similar dissection of sets

    CERN Document Server

    Akiyama, Shigeki; Okazaki, Ryotaro; Steiner, Wolfgang; Thuswaldner, Jörg

    2010-01-01

    In 1994, Martin Gardner stated a set of questions concerning the dissection of a square or an equilateral triangle in three similar parts. Meanwhile, Gardner's questions have been generalized and some of them are already solved. In the present paper, we solve more of his questions and treat them in a much more general context. Let $D\\subset \\mathbb{R}^d$ be a given set and let $f_1,...,f_k$ be injective continuous mappings. Does there exist a set $X$ such that $D = X \\cup f_1(X) \\cup ... \\cup f_k(X)$ is satisfied with a non-overlapping union? We prove that such a set $X$ exists for certain choices of $D$ and $\\{f_1,...,f_k\\}$. The solutions $X$ often turn out to be attractors of iterated function systems with condensation in the sense of Barnsley. Coming back to Gardner's setting, we use our theory to prove that an equilateral triangle can be dissected in three similar copies whose areas have ratio $1:1:a$ for $a \\ge (3+\\sqrt{5})/2$.

  1. Quantitative transfer of Salmonella Typhimurium LT2 during mechanical slicing of tomatoes as impacted by multiple processing variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haiqiang; Ryser, Elliot T

    2016-10-03

    Slicing of fresh produce can readily lead to pathogen cross-contamination with pre-sliced tomatoes having been linked to multistate outbreaks of salmonellosis in the United States. This study aimed to assess the impact of multiple processing variables on quantitative transfer of Salmonella during simulated commercial slicing of tomatoes. One red round tomato was inoculated with Salmonella Typhimurium LT2 at ~5logCFU/g and sliced using a manual or electric slicer, followed by 20 uninoculated tomatoes. Thereafter, the distribution of Salmonella on inoculated and uninoculated tomato slices was evaluated along with the transfer of Salmonella from different parts of the slicer. The impact of multiple processing variables including post-contamination hold time (0 and 30min), tomato wetness (dry and wet), processing room temperature (23, 10 and 4°C), slice thickness (0.48, 0.64, and 0.95cm), tomato variety (Torero, Rebelski, and Bigdena) and pre-wash treatment (no wash, tap water, and chlorine) was also investigated. The data were fitted to a two-parameter exponential decay model (Y=A⋅exp(BX)) with the percentage of Salmonella transferred to 20 uninoculated tomatoes then calculated. Salmonella populations on nine inoculated tomato slices ranged from 4.6±0.2 to 5.5±0.3logCFU/g, with higher populations on slices from the blossom and stem scar ends. However, Salmonella transfer to the previously uninoculated slices was similar (P>0.05), ranging from 2.1±0.2 to 3.4±0.2logCFU/g. Significantly fewer salmonellae transferred from the blade (3.4±0.4 log CFU, P≤0.05) than from the back and bottom plates (4.7±0.3 log CFU) or the whole manual slicer (5.2±0.2 log CFU) to the 20 uninoculated tomatoes. However, the blade was the primary contributor to Salmonella transfer for the electric slicer. Post-contamination hold time, processing temperature and tomato slice thickness did not significantly impact (P>0.05) the Salmonella transfer rate (parameter B) or the overall

  2. Stool Color: When to Worry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stool color: When to worry Yesterday, my stool color was bright green. Should I be concerned? Answers from Michael ... M.D. Stool comes in a range of colors. All shades of brown and even green are ...

  3. Protective Effects of Chlorogenic Acid and its Metabolites on Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Alterations in Rat Brain Slices: A Comparative Study with Resveratrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, Zulfiye; Demircan, Celaleddin; Bagdas, Deniz; Buyukuysal, Rifat Levent

    2016-08-01

    The effectiveness of chlorogenic acid and its main metabolites, caffeic and quinic acids, against oxidative stress was investigated. Resveratrol, another natural phenolic compound, was also tested for comparison. Rat cortical slices were incubated with 200 μM H2O2 for 1 h, and alterations in oxidative stress parameters, such as 2, 3, 5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining and the production of both malondialdehyde (MDA) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), were assayed in the absence or presence of phenolic compounds. Additionally, the effectiveness of chlorogenic acid and other compounds on H2O2-induced increases in fluorescence intensities were also compared in slice-free incubation medium. Although quinic acid failed, chlorogenic and caffeic acids significantly ameliorated the H2O2-induced decline in TTC staining intensities. Although resveratrol also caused an increase in staining intensity, its effect was not dose-dependent; the high concentrations of resveratrol tested in the present study (10 and 100 μM) further lessened the staining of the slices. Additionally, all phenolic compounds significantly attenuated the H2O2-induced increases in MDA and ROS levels in cortical slices. When the IC50 values were compared to H2O2-induced alterations, chlorogenic acid was more potent than either its metabolites or resveratrol for all parameters studied under these experimental conditions. In slice-free experimental conditions, on the other hand, chlorogenic and caffeic acids significantly attenuated the fluorescence emission enhanced by H2O2 with a similar order of potency to that obtained in slice-containing physiological medium. These results indicate that chlorogenic acid is a more potent phenolic compound than resveratrol and its main metabolites caffeic and quinic acids against H2O2-induced alterations in oxidative stress parameters in rat cortical slices.

  4. An in vivo and in vitro comparison of CYP induction in rat liver and intestine using slices and quantitative RT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martignoni, Marcella; de Kanter, Ruben; Grossi, Pietro; Mahnke, Axel; Saturno, Grazia; Monshouwer, Mario

    2004-12-30

    Xenobiotics, including drugs, can influence cytochrome P450 (CYP) activity by upregulating the transcription of CYP genes. To minimize potential drug interactions, it is important to ascertain whether a compound will be an inducer of CYP enzymes early in the development of new therapeutic agents. In vivo and in vitro studies are reported that demonstrate the use of liver and intestinal slices as an in vitro model to predict potential CYP induction in vivo. Rat liver slices and intestinal slices were incubated, for 24 h and 6 h, respectively, with beta-naphthoflavone (betaNF), phenobarbital (PB) or dexamethasone (DEX). In an in vivo study, rats were treated with the same compounds for 3 days. In vivo and in vitro CYP mRNA levels were measured by using real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In addition, CYP enzyme activities were determined in rat liver slices after 48 h incubation. In both rat liver and intestinal slices, betaNF significantly induced CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP2B1 mRNA levels. PB significantly induced CYP2B1. In liver slices a minor induction of CYP1A1 and CYP3A1 by PB was observed, whereas DEX significantly induced CYP3A1, CYP2B1 and CYP1A2 mRNA levels. The induction profiles (qualitative and quantitative) observed in vivo and in vitro are quite similar. All together, these data demonstrate that liver and intestinal slices are a useful and predictive tool to study CYP induction.

  5. Research on Colorant Systems Whose Characteristics May Be Reversed

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-06-01

    electrochromic display devices . Other similar c:ompounds have also been used for slmilar usege, and Jince they are of different. colors according to the...problem was not a profitable one. In view of the successful operation of other devices described in this report, the pursuance of the... viologen dibromide that gives a purple color. Since the dark blue color deposits on the electrode, the viologen derivatives can be used either as

  6. Variability and systematic differences in normal, protan, and deutan color naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Balázs V; Németh, Zoltán; Samu, Krisztián; Ábrahám, György

    2014-01-01

    The congenital color vision deficient (CVD) generally demonstrates difficulties in color naming tasks. In our study we investigated color naming properties and uncertainties of a relatively large group of red-green CVDs using quasi monochromatic stimuli and seven basic color terms. The results show a large variability in color naming for the CVD when contrasted to normal color vision and similar alterations when comparing protans to deutans. Statistically significant differences were found in specific wavelength ranges between the tested groups. In general, protans and deutans have shown better color naming ability than expected, which suggests the use of non-chromatic visual cues.

  7. Theoretical aspects of color vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolbarsht, M. L.

    1972-01-01

    The three color receptors of Young-Helmholtz and the opponent colors type of information processing postulated by Hering are both present in the human visual system. This mixture accounts for both the phenomena of color matching or hue discrimination and such perceptual qualities of color as the division of the spectrum into color bands. The functioning of the cells in the visual system, especially within the retina, and the relation of this function to color perception are discussed.

  8. Similarity transformed semiclassical dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Voorhis, Troy; Heller, Eric J.

    2003-12-01

    In this article, we employ a recently discovered criterion for selecting important contributions to the semiclassical coherent state propagator [T. Van Voorhis and E. J. Heller, Phys. Rev. A 66, 050501 (2002)] to study the dynamics of many dimensional problems. We show that the dynamics are governed by a similarity transformed version of the standard classical Hamiltonian. In this light, our selection criterion amounts to using trajectories generated with the untransformed Hamiltonian as approximate initial conditions for the transformed boundary value problem. We apply the new selection scheme to some multidimensional Henon-Heiles problems and compare our results to those obtained with the more sophisticated Herman-Kluk approach. We find that the present technique gives near-quantitative agreement with the the standard results, but that the amount of computational effort is less than Herman-Kluk requires even when sophisticated integral smoothing techniques are employed in the latter.

  9. Long-term GnRH-induced gonadotropin secretion in a novel hypothalamo-pituitary slice culture from tilapia brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Corinne L; Kedar, Noa; Golan, Matan; Gutnick, Michael J; Fleidervish, Ilya A; Levavi-Sivan, Berta

    2014-10-01

    Organotypic cultures, prepared from hypothalamo-pituitary slices of tilapia, were developed to enable long-term study of secretory cells in the pituitary of a teleost. Values of membrane potential at rest were similar to those recorded from acute slices, and cells presented similar spontaneous spikes and spikelets. Some cells also exhibited slow spontaneous oscillations in membrane potential, which may be network-driven. Long-term (6days) continuous exposure to GnRH induced increases in LH and FSH secretion. FSH levels reached the highest levels after 24h of exposure to GnRH, and the highest secretion of LH was observed in days 4 and 5 of the experiment. Since slices were viable for several weeks in culture, maintaining the original cytoarchitecture, electrical membrane properties and the ability to secrete hormones in response to exogenous GnRH, this technique is ideal for studying the mechanisms regulating cell-to-cell communication under conditions resembling the in vivo tissue organization.

  10. Perceptual Dominant Color Extraction by Multidimensional Particle Swarm Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiranyaz, Serkan; Uhlmann (Eurasip Member), Stefan; Ince, Turker; Gabbouj, Moncef

    2010-12-01

    Color is the major source of information widely used in image analysis and content-based retrieval. Extracting dominant colors that are prominent in a visual scenery is of utmost importance since the human visual system primarily uses them for perception and similarity judgment. In this paper, we address dominant color extraction as a dynamic clustering problem and use techniques based on Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) for finding optimal (number of) dominant colors in a given color space, distance metric and a proper validity index function. The first technique, so-called Multidimensional (MD) PSO can seek both positional and dimensional optima. Nevertheless, MD PSO is still susceptible to premature convergence due to lack of divergence. To address this problem we then apply Fractional Global Best Formation (FGBF) technique. In order to extract perceptually important colors and to further improve the discrimination factor for a better clustering performance, an efficient color distance metric, which uses a fuzzy model for computing color (dis-) similarities over HSV (or HSL) color space is proposed. The comparative evaluations against MPEG-7 dominant color descriptor show the superiority of the proposed technique.

  11. Perceptual Dominant Color Extraction by Multidimensional Particle Swarm Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moncef Gabbouj

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Color is the major source of information widely used in image analysis and content-based retrieval. Extracting dominant colors that are prominent in a visual scenery is of utmost importance since the human visual system primarily uses them for perception and similarity judgment. In this paper, we address dominant color extraction as a dynamic clustering problem and use techniques based on Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO for finding optimal (number of dominant colors in a given color space, distance metric and a proper validity index function. The first technique, so-called Multidimensional (MD PSO can seek both positional and dimensional optima. Nevertheless, MD PSO is still susceptible to premature convergence due to lack of divergence. To address this problem we then apply Fractional Global Best Formation (FGBF technique. In order to extract perceptually important colors and to further improve the discrimination factor for a better clustering performance, an efficient color distance metric, which uses a fuzzy model for computing color (dis- similarities over HSV (or HSL color space is proposed. The comparative evaluations against MPEG-7 dominant color descriptor show the superiority of the proposed technique.

  12. Statistics of natural scenes and the cortical representation of color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchi, G. A.; Rao, A. R.; Xiao, Y.; Kaplan, E.

    2008-02-01

    In this paper we investigate the spatial correlational structure of orientation and color information in natural images. We compare these with the spatial correlation structure of optical recordings of macaque monkey primary visual cortex, in response to oriented and color stimuli. We show that the correlation of orientation falls off rapidly over increasing distance. By using a color metric based on the a-b coordinates in the CIE-Lab color space, we show that color information, on the other hand, is more highly correlated over larger distances. We also show that orientation and color information are statistically independent in natural images. We perform a similar spatial correlation analysis of the cortical responses to orientation and color. We observe a similar behavior to that of natural images, in that the correlation of orientation-specific responses falls off; more rapidly than the correlation of color-specific responses. Our findings suggest that: (a) orientation and color information should be processed in separate channels, and (b) the organization of cortical color responses at a lower spatial frequency compared to orientation is a reflection of the statistical structure of visual world.

  13. Colors and contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonamonte, Domenico; Foti, Caterina; Romita, Paolo; Vestita, Michelangelo; Angelini, Gianni

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of skin diseases relies on several clinical signs, among which color is of paramount importance. In this review, we consider certain clinical presentations of both eczematous and noneczematous contact dermatitis in which color plays a peculiar role orientating toward the right diagnosis. The conditions that will be discussed include specific clinical-morphologic subtypes of eczematous contact dermatitis, primary melanocytic, and nonmelanocytic contact hyperchromia, black dermographism, contact chemical leukoderma, and others. Based on the physical, chemical, and biologic factors underlying a healthy skin color, the various skin shades drawing a disease picture are thoroughly debated, stressing their etiopathogenic origins and histopathologic aspects.

  14. Automated assessment of the quality of diffusion tensor imaging data using color cast of color-encoded fractional anisotropy images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaofu; Liu, Wei; Li, Xuzhou; Li, Qingli; Liu, Feng; Rauh, Virginia A; Yin, Dazhi; Bansal, Ravi; Duan, Yunsuo; Kangarlu, Alayar; Peterson, Bradley S; Xu, Dongrong

    2014-06-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data often suffer from artifacts caused by motion. These artifacts are especially severe in DTI data from infants, and implementing tight quality controls is therefore imperative for DTI studies of infants. Currently, routine procedures for quality assurance of DTI data involve the slice-wise visual inspection of color-encoded, fractional anisotropy (CFA) images. Such procedures often yield inconsistent results across different data sets, across different operators who are examining those data sets, and sometimes even across time when the same operator inspects the same data set on two different occasions. We propose a more consistent, reliable, and effective method to evaluate the quality of CFA images automatically using their color cast, which is calculated on the distribution statistics of the 2D histogram in the color space as defined by the International Commission on Illumination (CIE) on lightness and a and b (LAB) for the color-opponent dimensions (also known as the CIELAB color space) of the images. Experimental results using DTI data acquired from neonates verified that this proposed method is rapid and accurate. The method thus provides a new tool for real-time quality assurance for DTI data.

  15. "Cloud Slicing" : A New Technique to Derive Tropospheric Ozone Profile Information from Satellite Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemke, J. R.; Chandra, S.; Bhartia, P. K.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A new technique denoted cloud slicing has been developed for estimating tropospheric ozone profile information. All previous methods using satellite data were only capable of estimating the total column of ozone in the troposphere. Cloud slicing takes advantage of the opaque property of water vapor clouds to ultraviolet wavelength radiation. Measurements of above-cloud column ozone from the Nimbus 7 total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) instrument are combined together with Nimbus 7 temperature humidity and infrared radiometer (THIR) cloud-top pressure data to derive ozone column amounts in the upper troposphere. In this study tropical TOMS and THIR data for the period 1979-1984 are analyzed. By combining total tropospheric column ozone (denoted TCO) measurements from the convective cloud differential (CCD) method with 100-400 hPa upper tropospheric column ozone amounts from cloud slicing, it is possible to estimate 400-1000 hPa lower tropospheric column ozone and evaluate its spatial and temporal variability. Results for both the upper and lower tropical troposphere show a year-round zonal wavenumber 1 pattern in column ozone with largest amounts in the Atlantic region (up to approx. 15 DU in the 100-400 hPa pressure band and approx. 25-30 DU in the 400-1000 hPa pressure band). Upper tropospheric ozone derived from cloud slicing shows maximum column amounts in the Atlantic region in the June-August and September-November seasons which is similar to the seasonal variability of CCD derived TCO in the region. For the lower troposphere, largest column amounts occur in the September-November season over Brazil in South America and also southern Africa. Localized increases in the tropics in lower tropospheric ozone are found over the northern region of South America around August and off the west coast of equatorial Africa in the March-May season. Time series analysis for several regions in South America and Africa show an anomalous increase in ozone in the lower

  16. Monadically slicing programs with procedures%含过程程序的单子切片

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张迎周; 张卫丰

    2008-01-01

    A two-phase monadic approach is presented formonadically slicing programs with procedures. In the monadicslice algorithm for interprocedural programs, phase 1 initializesthe slice table of formal parameters in a procedure with the givenlabels, and then captures the callees' influence on callers whenanalyzing call statements. Phase 2 captures the callees'dependence on callers by replacing all given labels appearing inthe corresponding sets of formal parameters. By the introductionof given labels, this slice method can obtain similar summaryinformation in system-dependence-graph(SDG)-based algorithmsfor addressing the calling-context problem. With the use of theslice monad transformer, this monadic slicing approach achieves ahigh level of modularity and flexibility. It shows that the monadicinterprocedural algorithm has less complexity and it is not lessprecise than SDG algorithms.%为解决含过程程序的单子切片问题,提出基于回填待定标号的两阶段单子切片算法.算法第1阶段用给定标号初始化子过程的形参切片表,并通过分析调用语句捕获被调者对调用者的影响.算法第2阶段主要是通过回填切片表中相应的待定标号来捕获施调者对被调者的影响.待定标号的引入使得所提切片算法可捕获类似基于系统依赖图(SDG)切片算法中的概要信息,且也可避免上下文调用问题.借助于切片单子转换器,所提单子切片算法将具有较高的模块性和适应性,且其复杂度不劣于基于SDG的切片算法.

  17. Comparison of excitotoxic profiles of ATPA, AMPA, KA and NMDA in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, B W; Noraberg, J; Zimmer, J

    2001-10-26

    The excitotoxic profiles of (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-tert-butylisoxazol-4-yl)propionic acid (ATPA), (RS)-2-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA), kainic acid (KA) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) were evaluated using cellular uptake of propidium iodide (PI) as a measure for induced, concentration-dependent neuronal damage in hippocampal slice cultures. ATPA is in low concentrations a new selective agonist of the glutamate receptor subunit GluR5 confined to KA receptors and also in high concentrations an AMPA receptor agonist. The following rank order of estimated EC(50) values was found after 2 days of exposure: AMPA (3.7 mM)>NMDA (11 mM)=KA (13 mM)>ATPA (33 mM). Exposed to 30 microM ATPA, 3 microM AMPA and 10 microM NMDA, CA1 was the most susceptible subfield followed by fascia dentata and CA3. Using 8 microM KA, CA3 was the most susceptible subfield, followed by fascia dentata and CA1. In 100 microM concentrations, all four agonists induced the same, maximal PI uptake in all hippocampal subfields, corresponding to total neuronal degeneration. Using glutamate receptor antagonists, like GYKI 52466, NBQX and MK-801, inhibition data revealed that AMPA excitotoxicity was mediated primarily via AMPA receptors. Similar results were found for a high concentration of ATPA (30 microM). In low GluR5 selective concentrations (0.3-3 microM), ATPA did not induce an increase in PI uptake or a reduction in glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) activity of hippocampal interneurons. For KA, the excitotoxicity appeared to be mediated via both KA and AMPA receptors. NMDA receptors were not involved in AMPA-, ATPA- and KA-induced excitotoxicity, nor did NMDA-induced excitotoxicity require activation of AMPA and KA receptors. We conclude that hippocampal slice cultures constitute a feasible test system for evaluation of excitotoxic effects and mechanisms of new (ATPA) and classic (AMPA, KA and NMDA) glutamate receptor agonists. Comparison of concentration

  18. Color associations for days and letters across different languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romke eRouw

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available While colors are commonplace in everyday metaphors, relatively little is known about implicit color associations to linguistic or semantic concepts in a general population. In this study, we test color associations for ordered linguistic concepts (letters and days. The culture and language specificity of these effects was examined in a large group (457 of Dutch-speaking participants, 92 English-speaking participants, and 49 Hindi-speaking participants. Non-random distributions of color choices were revealed; consistencies were found across the three language groups in color preferences for both days and letters. Interestingly, while the Hindi-speaking participants were presented with letter stimuli matched on phonology, their pattern of letter-to-color preferences still showed similarities with Dutch- and English-speaking participants. Furthermore, we found that that the color preferences corresponded between participants indicating to have conscious color experiences with letters or days (putative synesthetes and participants who do not (non-synesthetes. We also explored possible mechanisms underlying the color preferences. There were a few specific associations, including red for A, red for Monday, and white for Sunday. We also explored more general mechanisms, such as overall color preferences shown by Simner et al (2005. While certainly not all variation can be explained or predicted, the results show that regularities are present in color-to-letter or color-to-day preferences in both putative synesthetes and non-synesthetes across languages. Both letter-to-color and day-to-color preferences were influenced by multiple factors. The findings support a notion of abstract concepts (such as days and letters that are not represented in isolation, but are connected to perceptual representational systems. Interestingly, at least some of these connections to color representations are shared across different language/cultural groups.

  19. Ethanol induces MAP2 changes in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noraberg, J; Zimmer, J

    1998-01-01

    Microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) and neuron-specific protein (NeuN) immunostains were used to demonstrate neurotoxic effects in mature hippocampal slice cultures exposed to ethanol (50, 100, 200 mM) for 4 weeks. At the low dose the density of MAP2 immunostaining in the dentate molecular...... layer was 118% of the control cultures, with no detectable changes in CA1 and CA3. At 100 mM no changes were detected, while 200 mM ethanol significantly reduced the MAP2 density in both dentate (19%) and hippocampal dendritic fields (CA3, 52%; CA1, 55%). At this dose NeuN staining showed considerable...... loss of CA3 pyramidal cells and moderate loss of dentate granule cells, as seen in vivo. The results indicate that brain slice cultures combined with immunostaining for cytoskeleton and neuronal markers can be used for studies of ethanol and organic solvent neurotoxicity....

  20. Colchicine induces apoptosis in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Bjarne W; Noer, Helle; Gramsbergen, Jan Bert

    2003-01-01

    The microtubule-disrupting agent colchicine is known to be particular toxic for certain types of neurons, including the granule cells of the dentate gyrus. In this study we investigated whether colchicine could induce such neuron-specific degeneration in developing (1 week in vitro) and mature (3...... weeks in vitro) organotypic hippocampal slice cultures and whether the induced cell death was apoptotic and/or necrotic. When applied to 1-week-old cultures for 48 h, colchicine induced primarily apoptotic, but also a minor degree of necrotic cell death in the dentate granule cells, as investigated...... the formation of active caspase 3 protein and apoptotic nuclei induced by colchicine, but the formation of necrotic nuclei increased correspondingly and the PI uptake was unaffected. We conclude that colchicine induces caspase 3-dependent apoptotic cell death of dentate granule cells in hippocampal brain slice...

  1. Trimethyltin (TMT) neurotoxicity in organotypic rat hippocampal slice cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noraberg, J; Gramsbergen, J B; Fonnum, F

    1998-01-01

    The neurotoxic effects of trimethyltin (TMT) on the hippocampus have been extensively studied in vivo. In this study, we examined whether the toxicity of TMT to hippocampal neurons could be reproduced in organotypic brain slice cultures in order to test the potential of this model for neurotoxico......The neurotoxic effects of trimethyltin (TMT) on the hippocampus have been extensively studied in vivo. In this study, we examined whether the toxicity of TMT to hippocampal neurons could be reproduced in organotypic brain slice cultures in order to test the potential of this model...... for neurotoxicological studies, including further studies of neurotoxic mechanisms of TMT. Four-week-old cultures, derived from 7-day-old donor rats and grown in serum-free medium, were exposed to TMT (0.5-100 microM) for 24 h followed by 24 h in normal medium. TMT-induced neurodegeneration was then monitored by (a...... of TMT neurotoxicity....

  2. Ethanol induces MAP2 changes in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noraberg, J; Zimmer, J

    1998-01-01

    loss of CA3 pyramidal cells and moderate loss of dentate granule cells, as seen in vivo. The results indicate that brain slice cultures combined with immunostaining for cytoskeleton and neuronal markers can be used for studies of ethanol and organic solvent neurotoxicity.......Microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) and neuron-specific protein (NeuN) immunostains were used to demonstrate neurotoxic effects in mature hippocampal slice cultures exposed to ethanol (50, 100, 200 mM) for 4 weeks. At the low dose the density of MAP2 immunostaining in the dentate molecular...... layer was 118% of the control cultures, with no detectable changes in CA1 and CA3. At 100 mM no changes were detected, while 200 mM ethanol significantly reduced the MAP2 density in both dentate (19%) and hippocampal dendritic fields (CA3, 52%; CA1, 55%). At this dose NeuN staining showed considerable...

  3. Effect of Blanching on Structural Quality of Dried Potato Slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maté; Quartaert; Meerdink; van't Riet K

    1998-02-16

    Mechanical properties of potato slices were monitored during blanching, as indicators of structural changes. As expected, blanching resulted in weakening of potato structure. Gelatinization, which occurred during the first 2 min, did not promote an immediate weakening of the potato tissue. More than 80% of the changes in mechanical properties occurred during the first 30 min of blanching. Potato slices blanched for 2 and 30 min as well as unblanched ones were dried in a convective air drier at 48 degrees C. Bulk and true density, porosity, and shrinkage were monitored with time. Blanched potatoes resulted in a significantly more compact, less porous product with lower effective water diffusivity than unblanched potatoes. The results indicated that changes that occurred during the first 2 min of blanching had a much greater influence on structural quality of dried potatoes than changes that occurred from 2 to 30 min of blanching.

  4. Microbiological quality of sliced and block mozzarella cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Fontanetti Marinheiro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to verify the microbiological quality of mozzarella cheese sold in retail markets of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Forty samples of mozzarella cheese were analyzed, comprising 20 samples of block cheese and 20 of sliced cheese. The cheese samples were analyzed for thermotolerant coliform counts and coagulase positive staphylococci counts, and presence of Salmonella spp and Listeria monocytogenes. The percentage of 12,5% and 5% of the sliced and block cheese samples analyzed, respectively, exceeded the microbiological standards accepted by Brazilian legislation. These results indicate the need for a better product monitoring and more concern with hygiene and sanitary practices during industrial process.

  5. A new method for colors characterization of colored stainless steel using CIE and Munsell color systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Keming; Xue, Yongqiang; Cui, Zixiang

    2015-09-01

    It is important to establish an accurate and comprehensive method of characterizing colors of colored stainless steel and understand the changing mechanism and the regularity of colors for the research, production and application of colored stainless steel. In this work, the method which combines reflectance-wavelength with both CIE and Munsell color systems is studied, the changing regularity of hue, brightness and saturation with increasing coloring potential differences is investigated, and the mechanism of color changing is discussed. The results show that by using this method the colors of colored stainless steel can be accurately and comprehensively characterized; with coloring potential differences and colored film thickness increasing, the peaks and troughs of the reflectance curves in visible region move toward long wave, causing the cyclically changing of hue and brightness; the amplitude of reflectance curves increases, resulting in growing of the saturation; the CIE 1931 coordinate curve of colors counterclockwise and cyclically changes around the equal energy light spot.

  6. Comparison between powder and slices diffraction methods in teeth samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colaco, Marcos V.; Barroso, Regina C. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (IF/UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Dept. de Fisica Aplicada; Porto, Isabel M. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FOP/UNICAMP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Odontologia. Dept. de Morfologia; Gerlach, Raquel F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FORP/USP), Rieirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Odontologia. Dept. de Morfologia, Estomatologia e Fisiologia; Costa, Fanny N. [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (LIN/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear

    2011-07-01

    Propose different methods to obtain crystallographic information about biological materials are important since powder method is a nondestructive method. Slices are an approximation of what would be an in vivo analysis. Effects of samples preparation cause differences in scattering profiles compared with powder method. The main inorganic component of bones and teeth is a calcium phosphate mineral whose structure closely resembles hydroxyapatite (HAp). The hexagonal symmetry, however, seems to work well with the powder diffraction data, and the crystal structure of HAp is usually described in space group P63/m. Were analyzed ten third molar teeth. Five teeth were separated in enamel, detin and circumpulpal detin powder and five in slices. All the scattering profile measurements were carried out at the X-ray diffraction beamline (XRD1) at the National Synchrotron Light Laboratory - LNLS, Campinas, Brazil. The LNLS synchrotron light source is composed of a 1.37 GeV electron storage ring, delivering approximately 4x10{sup -1}0 photons/s at 8 keV. A double-crystal Si(111) pre-monochromator, upstream of the beamline, was used to select a small energy bandwidth at 11 keV . Scattering signatures were obtained at intervals of 0.04 deg for angles from 24 deg to 52 deg. The human enamel experimental crystallite size obtained in this work were 30(3)nm (112 reflection) and 30(3)nm (300 reflection). These values were obtained from measurements of powdered enamel. When comparing the slice obtained 58(8)nm (112 reflection) and 37(7)nm (300 reflection) enamel diffraction patterns with those generated by the powder specimens, a few differences emerge. This work shows differences between powder and slices methods, separating characteristics of sample of the method's influence. (author)

  7. Chemical and Microbiological Analysis of Sliced, Precooked, Canned Bacon

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-09-01

    salt, protein , fat, ash, pressure and water activity) and microbiological tests (aerobic plate count, yeast and mold, and coagulase positive...SnOV80d SnCUIYY CLASIFICATION OF THIS PAGC(U&M Dm e M w*Q vas any reason to believe that the bacon was acceptable for its intended purpose The results...Laboratory. 70 - 71 7 CHEMICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF SLICED, PRECOOKED, CANNED BACON INTRODUCTION Legris traces the history of canned bacon

  8. Whole brain CT perfusion on a 320-slice CT scanner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jai Jai Shiva Shankar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Computed tomography perfusion (CTP has been criticized for limited brain coverage. This may result in inadequate coverage of the lesion, inadequate arterial input function, or omission of the lesion within the target perfusion volume. The availability of 320-slice CT scanners offers whole brain coverage. This minimizes the chances of misregistration of lesions regardless of location, and makes the selection of the arterial input function easy. We present different clinical scenarios in which whole brain CTP is especially useful.

  9. Slice Energy in Higher Order Gravity Theories and Conformal Transformations

    CERN Document Server

    Cotsakis, S

    2004-01-01

    We show that there is a generic transport of energy between the scalar field generated by the conformal transformation of higher order gravity theories and the matter component. We give precise relations of this exchange and show that, unless we are in a stationary spacetime, slice energy is not generically conserved. These results translate into statements about the relative behaviour of ordinary matter, dark matter and dark energy in the context of higher order gravity.

  10. Slicepedia: Content-agnostic slicing resource production for adaptive hypermedia

    OpenAIRE

    Wade, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    PUBLISHED he production of resources supporting the needs of Adaptive Hypermedia Systems (AHSs) is labor-intensive. As a result, content production is focused upon meeting the needs of resources with higher demand, which limits the extent to which numerous and diverse content requirements of AHSs can be met. Open Corpus Slicing attempts to convert the wealth of information available on the web, into customisable information objects. This approach could provide the basis of an open corpus s...

  11. On the concordance genus of topologically slice knots

    OpenAIRE

    Hom, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The concordance genus of a knot K is the minimum Seifert genus of all knots smoothly concordant to K. Concordance genus is bounded below by the 4-ball genus and above by the Seifert genus. We give a lower bound for the concordance genus of K coming from the knot Floer complex of K. As an application, we prove that there are topologically slice knots with 4-ball genus equal to one and arbitrarily large concordance genus.

  12. Microelectrode array recordings of excitability of low Mg2+-induced acute hippocampal slices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Yang; Xinwei Gong; Haiqing Gong; Puming Zhang; Peiji Liang; Qinchi LU

    2010-01-01

    Neuronal connections can be detected by neuronal network discharges in hippocampal neurons cultured on multi-electrodes.However,the multi-electrode-array(MEA)has not been widely used in hippocampal slice culture studies focused on epilepsy.The present study induced spontaneous synchronous epileptiform activity using low Mg2+artificial cerebrospinal fluid on acute hippocampal slices to record hippocampal discharges with MEA.Results showed that burst duration and average number of spikes in a burst were significantly greater in the CA3 compared with dentate gyrus and CA1 areas.In Schaffer cut-off group,CA1 area discharges disappeared,but synchronous discharges remained in the CA3 area.Moreover,synchronous discharge frequency in the Schaffer cut-off group was similar to control.However,burst duration and average number of spikes in a burst were significantly decreased compared with control(P < 0.05).Results demonstrated that highest neuronal excitability occurred in the CA3 area,and synchronous discharges induced by low Mg2+originated from the CA3 region.

  13. Modeling of heat transfer and energy analysis of potato slices and cylinders during solar drying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathy, P.P. [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110 016 (India); Kumar, Subodh [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110 016 (India)], E-mail: subodh@ces.iitd.ernet.in

    2009-04-15

    In the present work, a method based on energy balance considering the effects of heat capacity of the food product, radiative heat transfer from food product to the drying chamber and solar radiation absorbed in the product during drying is proposed for determination of convective heat transfer coefficient, h{sub c}. A natural convection mixed-mode solar dryer is used for performing the experiments on potato cylinders and slices of same thickness of 0.01 m with respective length and diameter of 0.05 m. The present investigation indicates that the cylindrical samples exhibit higher values of h{sub c} and faster drying rate compared to those of slices, as expected. The h{sub c} values for each sample shape are correlated by an equation of the form Nu = C(Ra){sup n}. Laplace transform is applied to solve the proposed heat transfer diffusion model considering the effect of moisture transfer rate to predict the transient sample temperature. The model is validated through a close agreement between calculated and experimental results of transient sample temperature. Results of energy analysis reveal that for both the sample geometries, decreasing product moisture content during drying resulted in significant reduction in specific energy consumption. For almost similar drying conditions, a considerable amount of reduction in specific energy consumption is achieved for cylinders, as expected.

  14. Warping, Extra Dimensions and a Slice of AdS_d

    CERN Document Server

    McDonald, Kristian L

    2009-01-01

    Inspired by the Randall-Sundrum (RS) framework we consider a number of phenomenologically relevant model building questions on a slice of compactified AdS_d for d >5. Such spaces are interesting as they enable one to realize the weak scale via warping. We perform the Kaluza-Klein (KK) reduction for gravitons and bulk vectors in these spaces and for the case of AdS_6 consider the KK spectrum of gauge-scalars. We further obtain the KK towers for bulk fermions on a slice of AdS_7 and AdS_9 and show that the RS approach to flavor generalizes to these spaces with the localization of chiral zero mode fermions controlled by their bulk Dirac mass parameters. However for the phenomenologically interesting case where the transverse radius is R^{-1}\\sim TeV we show that bulk Standard Model fields are not viable due to a resulting volume suppression of the gauge coupling constants. A similar suppression occurs for the case of UV localization. Thus it seems that the Standard Model fields should be confined to the infrared...

  15. The interaction of synesthetic and print color and its relation to visual imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Bryan D; Robertson, Lynn C

    2013-11-01

    Synesthetic color induced by graphemes is well understood to be an automatic perceptual phenomenon paralleling print color in some ways, but also differing in others. We addressed this juxtaposition by asking how synesthetes are affected by synesthetic and print colors that are the same. We tested two groups of grapheme-color synesthetes using a basic color-priming method in which a grapheme prime was presented, followed by a color patch (probe), the color of which was to be named as quickly and accurately as possible. The primes induced either no color, print color only, synesthetic color only, or both forms of color (e.g., a letter "A" printed in red that also triggered synesthetic red). As expected, responses to name the probe color were faster if it was congruent with the prime color than if it was incongruent. The new finding (Exp. 1) was that a prime that induced the same print and synesthetic colors led to substantially larger priming effects than did either type of color individually, an effect that could not be attributed to semantic priming (Exp. 2). In addition, the synesthesia effects correlated with a standard measure of visual imagery. These findings are discussed as being consistent with the hypothesis that print and synesthetic color converge on similar color mechanisms.

  16. Naturally Colored Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    履之

    1994-01-01

    Instead of using dye to color cotton, an Arizona cotton breeder is letting nature do the work. Through crossbreeding, Sally Fox of Natural Cotton Colours in Wickenberg is creating plants that yield fiber in an array

  17. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... about the members of the eye-care team . Consumer warning about the improper use of colored contact ... About the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of ...

  18. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to my eye like a suction cup." Halloween is a popular time for people to use colored ... at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland. "This is far from the truth." Real People, Real Problems ...

  19. Chemistry, Color, and Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orna, Mary Virginia

    2001-01-01

    Describes pigments and artists' colors from a chronological perspective. Explains how chemical analysis can be used to distinguish the differences between artists' palettes, identify the evolution of art, and lead to restoration of an art work. (Contains 13 references.) (YDS)

  20. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 000 per violation. "Many of the lenses found online or in beauty salons, novelty shops or in ... de contacto de color Find an Ophthalmologist Advanced Search Ask an Ophthalmologist Browse Answers Free Newsletter Get ...

  1. Colors of the Sky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohren, Craig F.; Fraser, Alistair B.

    1985-01-01

    Explains the physical principles which result in various colors of the sky. Topics addressed include: blueness, mystical properties of water vapor, ozone, fluctuation theory of scattering, variation of purity and brightness, and red sunsets and sunrises. (DH)

  2. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... shop, but 10 hours after she first put in a pair of colored contact lenses, Laura Butler of Parkersburg, W.Va., had "extreme pain in both eyes," she said. "Because I had not ...

  3. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Contact Lenses Without a Prescription Sep. 26, 2013 It started as an impulsive buy from a souvenir ... Can Ruin Vision Eye Makeup Safety In fact, it is illegal to sell colored contact lenses without ...

  4. Facts About Color Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... perception of its employees, such as graphic design, photography, and food quality inspection. The Farnsworth Lantern Test ... a green chalkboard when yellow chalk is used. Art classes, which require selecting appropriate colors of paint ...

  5. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... like a suction cup." Halloween is a popular time for people to use colored contact lenses to ... wear costume contact lenses for Halloween or any time of year, follow these guidelines: Get an eye ...

  6. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative Contact Lenses Without a Prescription Leer en Español: Peligros asociados con los ... contacto de color Sep. 26, 2013 It started as an impulsive buy from a souvenir shop, but ...

  7. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... lentes de contacto de color Find an ... Link your website to EyeSmart Embed EyeSmart videos on your website Promotional materials for eye health observances EyeSmart resources are also ...

  8. Food Coloring and Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    1994-01-01

    The association between the ingestion of tartrazine synthetic food coloring and behavioral change in children referred for assessment of hyperactivity was investigated at the Royal Children’s Hospital, University of Melbourne, Australia.

  9. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... popping touch. But colored contact lenses are popular year-round, not just at Halloween. But few know ... contact lenses for Halloween or any time of year, follow these guidelines: Get an eye exam from ...

  10. A Colorful Equatorial Wonderland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Papua New Guinea (PNG) is one of the least visited countries in the world... a last frontier for international travelers. PNG is a colorful equatorial wonderland as well as a living example of human's culture 1000 years ago.

  11. Relighting multiple color textures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DIAO Chang-yu; LU Dong-ming; LIU Gang

    2005-01-01

    With the development of digital library technology, library books made of paper can be digital released and read, and Endangered Cultural Heritages can be preserved. Traditional library's contents and functions can be greatly enhanced by digital technologies. For these new library objects, the primary key problem is precisely reconstructing their 3D models. When constructing complete 3D models, multiple color texture maps are often necessary. A commonly encountered problem uncounted during fusing of textures from multiple color images is color distortion. Each texture of a single 3D model may be obtained under possibly different lighting conditions and color response of the camera. To remove any visible seam and improve color consistency between the textures while avoiding color distortion, we propose a new efficient algorithm to relight all the texture images globally,spread residual light difference, and recolor each image by homogeneous transformation. A relative illumination model was adopted to obtain the relighting function. We choose lαβ color space with minimal correlation between channels for many natural scenes, for calculating the relighting result. Looking into two overlapped images A and B, we can pairwise relight B into A's luminosity condition in two steps. We first scale B's l channel by the lA/lB ratio of the overlapped region. We can assume A and B are in a same color plane now. Then a homogeneous transformation is applied to B's α and β channels which moves B into A's hue and saturation condition. For multiple overlapped color textures, a patch based weighted global relighting method was proposed to minimize the total color difference. The pairwise relighting method was used between each two overlapped images, and the difference in every overlapped region after relighting was weighted and summed up to construct an energy value. We used Nelder-Mead method to find a minimal energy value and the relighting parameters for every image. After

  12. Direct Slicing Based on Material Performance and Process Parameters for Selective Laser Sintering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Direct slicing from CAD models to generate sectional contours of thepart to be sintered for Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) may overcome inherent disadvantages of using a Stereo Lithography ( STL ) format. In this paper, a direct slicing procedure is proposed for Selective Laser Sintering based on material performance and process parameters. Slicing thickness depends on the 3 D geometric model,material performance and process parameters. The relationship among material performance, process parameters and the largest slicing thickness is established using analysis of a sintering temperature field. A dynamic linked library is developed to realize direct slicing from a CAD model.

  13. Color Laser Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awamura, D.; Ode, T.; Yonezawa, M.

    1987-04-01

    A color laser microscope utilizing a new color laser imaging system has been developed for the visual inspection of semiconductors. The light source, produced by three lasers (Red; He-Ne, Green; Ar, Blue; He-Cd), is deflected horizontally by an AOD (Acoustic Optical Deflector) and vertically by a vibration mirror. The laser beam is focused in a small spot which is scanned over the sample at high speed. The light reflected back from the sample is reformed to contain linear information by returning to the original vibration mirror. The linear light is guided to the CCD image sensor where it is converted into a video signal. Individual CCD image sensors are used for each of the three R, G, or B color image signals. The confocal optical system with its laser light source yields a color TV monitor image with no flaring and a much sharper resolution than that of the conventional optical microscope. The AOD makes possible a high speed laser scan and a NTSC or PAL TV video signal is produced in real time without any video memory. Since the light source is composed of R, G, and B laser beams, color separation superior to that of white light illumination is achieved. Because of the photometric linearity of the image detector, the R, G, and B outputs of the system are most suitably used for hue analysis. The CCD linear image sensors in the optical system produce no geometrical distortion, and good color registration is available principally. The output signal can be used for high accuracy line width measuring. The many features of the color laser microscope make it ideally suited for the visual inspection of semiconductor processing. A number of these systems have already been installed in such a capacity. The Color Laser Microscope can also be a very useful tool for the fields of material engineering and biotechnology.

  14. Color Blind Affirmative Action

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a conceptual framework for understanding the consequences of the widespread adoption of race-neutral alternatives' to conventional racial affirmative action policies in college admissions. A simple model of applicant competition with endogenous effort is utilized to show that, in comparison to color-conscious affirmative action, these color-blind alternatives can significantly lower the efficiency of the student selection process in equilibrium. We examine data on matricul...

  15. The Computation of Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-01

    patches of random colors, named Mondrians after the twentieth-century Dutch painter Piet Mondrian . In one demon- stration, Land illuminates a Mondrian with...Hsien-Che Lee, for his meticulous reading of thesis drafts, insights into color science, and inspiring collaboration on the " Mondrian -sphere" ex...Heinrich for his es- sential contributions to the " Mondrian -spheres" experiments. Special thanks to Nikos for the hours and hours he spent helping me

  16. Perceptual evaluation of color transformed multispectral imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toet, Alexander; de Jong, Michael J.; Hogervorst, Maarten A.; Hooge, Ignace T. C.

    2014-04-01

    Color remapping can give multispectral imagery a realistic appearance. We assessed the practical value of this technique in two observer experiments using monochrome intensified (II) and long-wave infrared (IR) imagery, and color daylight (REF) and fused multispectral (CF) imagery. First, we investigated the amount of detail observers perceive in a short timespan. REF and CF imagery yielded the highest precision and recall measures, while II and IR imagery yielded significantly lower values. This suggests that observers have more difficulty in extracting information from monochrome than from color imagery. Next, we measured eye fixations during free image exploration. Although the overall fixation behavior was similar across image modalities, the order in which certain details were fixated varied. Persons and vehicles were typically fixated first in REF, CF, and IR imagery, while they were fixated later in II imagery. In some cases, color remapping II imagery and fusion with IR imagery restored the fixation order of these image details. We conclude that color remapping can yield enhanced scene perception compared to conventional monochrome nighttime imagery, and may be deployed to tune multispectral image representations such that the resulting fixation behavior resembles the fixation behavior corresponding to daylight color imagery.

  17. Static Filtered Sky Color Constancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Alkhalifah

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In Computer Vision, the sky color is used for lighting correction, image color enhancement, horizon alignment, image indexing, and outdoor image classification and in many other applications. In this article, for robust color based sky segmentation and detection, usage of lighting correction for sky color detection is investigated. As such, the impact of color constancy on sky color detection algorithms is evaluated and investigated. The color correction (constancy algorithms used includes Gray-Edge (GE, Gray-World (GW, Max-RGB (MRGB and Shades-of-Gray (SG. The algorithms GE, GW, MRGB, and SG, are tested on the static filtered sky modeling. The static filter is developed in the LAB color space. This evaluation and analysis is essential for detection scenarios, especially, color based object detection in outdoor scenes. From the results, it is concluded that the color constancy before sky color detection using LAB static filters has the potential of improving sky color detection performance. However, the application of the color constancy can impart adverse effects on the detection results. For images, the color constancy algorithms depict a compact and stable representative of the sky chroma loci, however, the sky color locus might have a shifting and deviation in a particular color representation. Since the sky static filters are using the static chromatic values, different results can be obtained by applying color constancy algorithms on various datasets.

  18. Novikov Color Algebra and Tortken Color Algebra%Novikov Color 代数与 Tortken Color 代数

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高秀娟; 徐丽媛

    2016-01-01

    Three concepts of Novikov color algebra,Tortken color algebra and Jordan color algebra were defined,then the relations among three algebras were discussed.We gave the basic properties of Novikov color algebra and Tortken color algebra.Then we proved a Tortken color algebra with an identity element is both associative and color commutative.We also showed how to use Novikov color algebra to construct a Tortken color algebra.%给出 Novikov color 代数、Tortken color 和 Jordan color 代数的定义,并讨论它们之间的关系,证明了有单位元的 Tortken color 代数是结合的,也是 color 交换的。给出 Novikov color 代数和 Tortken color 代数的基本性质以及利用 Novikov color 代数构造 Tortken color代数的方法。

  19. A quantitative evaluation of brain computerized tomography in children using color image analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamatani, Miwa; Naganuma, Yoshihiro; Hongoh, Kazuhisa; Murakami, Miyako; Konishi, Tohru; Okada, Toshio (Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutifal Univ. (Japan))

    1989-11-01

    We attempted the quantitative analysis of brain computerized tomographic (CT) scans in children using color image analyzer. A consecutive series of 167 CT scans were reviewed. Areas of subarachnoid space, cavum, ventricle and cerebellum were measured on three slices: A slice is at the level of head of caudate nucleus, anterior horn of lateral ventricle and third ventricle. B slice is at the level of body of lateral ventricle. B slice is at the level of body of lateral ventricle. C slice is at the level of sella turcica and pons. We investigated these values compared with Evans ratio, Cella Media Index, cerebellar atrophy score and visual evaluation. Serial brain CT scans of 8 patients with infantile spasm were evaluated for the assessment of the brain shrinkage after ACTH therapy. The ratios of subarachnoid space/intracranial area on A and B slices (SAS A%, SAS B%) were significantly higher in the patients with severe brain atrophy. There were linear relationships between Evans ratio and SAS A%(r=0.405, p<0.001), Cella Media Index and the ratio of the lateral ventricle/intracranial area on B slice (r=-0.501, p<0.001), and the cerebellar atrophy score by Une and SAS C% (r=0.369, p<0.001). In the normal patients, the values of SAS A% and SAS B% were much greater in less than 1.5 years old children. These results suggest that the trend of CT findings related to age may reflect physiological changes of the space between the skull and the brain with age. Brain shrinkage after ACTH therapy was more pronounced in the subarachnoid space than the ventricle. The prognosis of infantile spasm concerning convulsive attacks was relatively good in patients with severely brain shrinkage after ACTH therapy. Quantitative analysis of brain CT scans seemed to be available to clinical and objective evaluations. (author).

  20. Color planner for designers based on color emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ka-Man; Xin, John H.; Taylor, Gail

    2002-06-01

    During the color perception process, an associated feeling or emotion is induced in our brains, and this kind of emotion is termed as 'color emotion.' The researchers in the field of color emotions have put many efforts in quantifying color emotions with the standard color specifications and evaluating the influence of hue, lightness and chroma to the color emotions of human beings. In this study, a color planner was derived according to these findings so that the correlation of color emotions and standard color specifications was clearly indicated. Since people of different nationalities usually have different color emotions as different cultural and traditional backgrounds, the subjects in this study were all native Hong Kong Chinese and the color emotion words were all written in Chinese language in the visual assessments. Through the color planner, the designers from different areas, no matter fashion, graphic, interior or web site etc., can select suitable colors for inducing target color emotions to the customers or product-users since different colors convey different meanings to them. In addition, the designers can enhance the functionality and increase the attractiveness of their designed products by selecting suitable colors.

  1. Luminance contours can gate afterimage colors and 'real' colors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anstis, S.; Vergeer, M.L.T.; Lier, R.J. van

    2012-01-01

    It has long been known that colored images may elicit afterimages in complementary colors. We have already shown (Van Lier, Vergeer, & Anstis, 2009) that one and the same adapting image may result in different afterimage colors, depending on the test contours presented after the colored image. The c

  2. Color measurement and discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandell, B. A.

    1985-01-01

    Theories of color measurement attempt to provide a quantative means for predicting whether two lights will be discriminable to an average observer. All color measurement theories can be characterized as follows: suppose lights a and b evoke responses from three color channels characterized as vectors, v(a) and v(b); the vector difference v(a) - v(b) corresponds to a set of channel responses that would be generated by some real light, call it *. According to theory a and b will be discriminable when * is detectable. A detailed development and test of the classic color measurement approach are reported. In the absence of a luminance component in the test stimuli, a and b, the theory holds well. In the presence of a luminance component, the theory is clearly false. When a luminance component is present discrimination judgements depend largely on whether the lights being discriminated fall in separate, categorical regions of color space. The results suggest that sensory estimation of surface color uses different methods, and the choice of method depends upon properties of the image. When there is significant luminance variation a categorical method is used, while in the absence of significant luminance variation judgments are continuous and consistant with the measurement approach.

  3. Disordered Eating in Women of Color: Some Counseling Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talleyrand, Regine M.

    2012-01-01

    There is little attention devoted to studying eating disorder symptoms in racially and ethnically diverse groups despite the fact that the prevalence rates among women of color for eating disorder symptoms are similar to those of European American women. This article reviews research related to eating disorders in women of color, including a…

  4. Disordered Eating in Women of Color: Some Counseling Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talleyrand, Regine M.

    2012-01-01

    There is little attention devoted to studying eating disorder symptoms in racially and ethnically diverse groups despite the fact that the prevalence rates among women of color for eating disorder symptoms are similar to those of European American women. This article reviews research related to eating disorders in women of color, including a…

  5. Profile analysis of hepatic porcine and murine brain tissue slices obtained with a vibratome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattei, G; Cristiani, I; Magliaro, C; Ahluwalia, A

    2015-01-01

    This study is aimed at characterizing soft tissue slices using a vibratome. In particular, the effect of two sectioning parameters (i.e., step size and sectioning speed) on resultant slice thickness was investigated for fresh porcine liver as well as for paraformaldehyde-fixed (PFA-fixed) and fresh murine brain. A simple framework for embedding, sectioning and imaging the slices was established to derive their thickness, which was evaluated through a purposely developed graphical user interface. Sectioning speed and step size had little effect on the thickness of fresh liver slices. Conversely, the thickness of PFA-fixed murine brain slices was found to be dependent on the step size, but not on the sectioning speed. In view of these results, fresh brain tissue was sliced varying the step size only, which was found to have a significant effect on resultant slice thickness. Although precision-cut slices (i.e., with regular thickness) were obtained for all the tissues, slice accuracy (defined as the match between the nominal step size chosen and the actual slice thickness obtained) was found to increase with tissue stiffness from fresh liver to PFA-fixed brain. This quantitative investigation can be very helpful for establishing the most suitable slicing setup for a given tissue.

  6. The topology of large-scale structure. VI - Slices of the universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Changbom; Gott, J. R., III; Melott, Adrian L.; Karachentsev, I. D.

    1992-01-01

    Results of an investigation of the topology of large-scale structure in two observed slices of the universe are presented. Both slices pass through the Coma cluster and their depths are 100 and 230/h Mpc. The present topology study shows that the largest void in the CfA slice is divided into two smaller voids by a statistically significant line of galaxies. The topology of toy models like the white noise and bubble models is shown to be inconsistent with that of the observed slices. A large N-body simulation was made of the biased cloud dark matter model and the slices are simulated by matching them in selection functions and boundary conditions. The genus curves for these simulated slices are spongelike and have a small shift in the direction of a meatball topology like those of observed slices.

  7. A Comparison on Hyponymy and Cultural Symbolism of Six Color Words between Chinese Language and Bahasa Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Indah Setyo Rahayu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Color words originate from natural world. In general different languages have similar patterns of color hypernymy. Nevertheless, when it comes to color hyponymy, it is not the case. Specific color hyponyms have emerged because different countries have different cultures. Besides, color words are also rich in cultural symbolism. In other words, same colors in different countries have different cultural symbolisms. This paper analyzed six color words (red, white, yellow, blue, green, and black between Chinese language and bahasa Indonesia to find similarities and differences both in hyponymy and in culture symbolism.

  8. Effect of enamel margin configuration on color change of resin composite restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aida, Asami; Nakajima, Masatoshi; Seki, Naoko; Kano, Yukinori; Foxton, Richard M; Tagami, Junji

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of enamel margin configuration on color change of resin composite restoration. Enamel disks of 1.0 mm-thick were sliced from sixty bovine anterior teeth and divided into three groups by margin configuration (non-bevel, 45-degree bevel and 45-degree reverse-bevel). The color measurements (L*C*h* values) at the restored bovine enamel disk with resin composite (Estelite Asteria, Estelite Pro, Kalore, Clearfil Majesty) were performed using a digital camera with CIE XYZ color gamut (RC500). All the resin composite restorations with non-beveled and beveled cavities significantly increased L* values compared with the control composite disks (presin composite restoration and color adjustment of the border.

  9. Effects of different packaging techniques on the microbiological and physicochemical properties of coated pumpkin slices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz AKSU

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study the effects of zein film coating along with benzoic acid on the quality of sliced pumpkin samples, which were packaged with different techniques were investigated. The samples were allocated into different groups and were treated with different processes. Following processing, the samples were stored at +4 °C for twenty days. Physicochemical and microbiological analyses were carried out on the samples once every five days during the storage period. According to color analysis, the L* value was observed to have significantly decreased in the processed and packaged samples in comparison with the control group. Besides, a* and b* values increased in all groups. It was determined that zein film alone did not exhibit the expected effectiveness against moisture loss in the samples. According to the results of microbiological analysis, a final decrease at approximately 1.00 log level was determined in total count of mesophilic aerobic bacteria (TMAB in the group which was vacuum packaged in PVDC with zein coating when compared with the initial TMAB. Furthermore, no molding occurred in zein-coated group on the last day of the storage period, while massive mold growth was noted in the group which was packaged without any pretreatment procedure.

  10. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-10-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step in understanding mathematical representations of RGB color. Finally, color addition and subtraction are presented for the X11 colors from web design to illustrate yet another real-life application of color mixing.

  11. Clustering document fragments using background color and texture information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanda, Sukalpa; Franke, Katrin; Pal, Umapada

    2012-01-01

    Forensic analysis of questioned documents sometimes can be extensively data intensive. A forensic expert might need to analyze a heap of document fragments and in such cases to ensure reliability he/she should focus only on relevant evidences hidden in those document fragments. Relevant document retrieval needs finding of similar document fragments. One notion of obtaining such similar documents could be by using document fragment's physical characteristics like color, texture, etc. In this article we propose an automatic scheme to retrieve similar document fragments based on visual appearance of document paper and texture. Multispectral color characteristics using biologically inspired color differentiation techniques are implemented here. This is done by projecting document color characteristics to Lab color space. Gabor filter-based texture analysis is used to identify document texture. It is desired that document fragments from same source will have similar color and texture. For clustering similar document fragments of our test dataset we use a Self Organizing Map (SOM) of dimension 5×5, where the document color and texture information are used as features. We obtained an encouraging accuracy of 97.17% from 1063 test images.

  12. Mysterious coloring: structural origin of color mixing for two breeds of Papilio butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Ying-Ying; Liu, Xiang-Yang

    2011-05-09

    The structural origin of the coloration mechanisms and related extraordinary optical properties of the wing scales of two breeds of Papilio butterflies, namely, Papilio ulysses and Papilio blumei, are explored. The precise ordered biophotonic nanostructures of the wing scales are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Despite their structural similarities, the two breeds of Papilio butterflies do not exhibit any analogy in their optical performances. When illuminated with UV-Vis light, P. ulysses gives rise to two reflection peaks: one is from concavities, and the other is from ridges. These two spectral peaks shift their positions under different illumination angles (normal and 45° incident light). In contrast, the spectra for the green scales of P. blumei give one broad reflection peak, and the peak remains the same under normal and 45° incident light. The optical microscopy images indicate that the cap-shaped concavities on P. blumei's wing scales generate an abnormal bicolor reflection with a strong polarization effect. Both of these two breeds of butterflies take advantage of color mixing strategy: the blue color of P. ulysses is mixed by the colors reflected from concavities and ridges; the green color of P. blumei is produced by the biocolor reflection from concavities. The differences of their coloration mixing mechanisms and optical performances are due to the variations of their nanostructures. The investigation of the color mixing mechanisms of these biologically photonic nanostructures may offer a convenient way for fabricating optical devices based on biomimicry. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  13. Noise Estimation for Single-Slice Sinogram of Low-Dose X-Ray Computed Tomography Using Homogenous Patch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwu Liao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a new method to estimate noise for a single-slice sinogram of low-dose CT based on the homogenous patches centered at a special pixel, called center point, which has the smallest variance among all sinogram pixels. The homogenous patch, composed by homogenous points, is formed by the points similar to the center point using similarity sorting, similarity decreasing searching, and variance analysis in a very large neighborhood (VLN to avoid manual selection of parameter for similarity measures.Homogenous pixels in the VLN allow us find the largest number of samples, who have the highest similarities to the center point, for noise estimation, and the noise level can be estimated according to unbiased estimation.Experimental results show that for the simulated noisy sinograms, the method proposed in this paper can obtain satisfied noise estimation results, especially for sinograms with relatively serious noises.

  14. Artificial color perception using microwaves

    CERN Document Server

    Choudhury, Debesh

    2013-01-01

    We report the feasibility of artificial color perception under microwave illumination using a standard microwave source and an antenna. We have sensed transmitted microwave power through color objects and have distinguished the colors by analyzing the sensed transmitted power. Experiments are carried out using a Gunn diode as the microwave source, some colored liquids as the objects and a microwave diode as the detector. Results are presented which open up an unusual but new way of perceiving colors using microwaves.

  15. A BVR Colors of Eight Jovian Irregular Satellites -- Evolutionary Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettig, T. W.; Walsh, K.

    2001-11-01

    We present BVR colors and magnitudes for four Jovian irregular prograde satellites (Himalia J6, Elara J7, Lysithea J10 and Leda J13) and four irregular retrograde satellites (Pasiphae J8, Sinope J9, Carme J11 and Ananke J12). All eight have generally `solar' colors but the retrograde group has slightly redder and more diverse colors. The strikingly similar colors of the four prograde satellites suggests the parent planetesimal was likely very homogeneous. The four retrograde satellites show diversity in color that suggests a heterogeneous progenitor and thus, variations in pre-capture formation history. The absolute magnitudes and revised diameters are presented. We also report new colors and diameters for two Uranian irregular satellites (Caliban (S/1997 U1) and Sycorax (S/1997 U2)) that are slightly redder than any of these Jovian satellites.

  16. Music-color associations are mediated by emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Stephen E; Schloss, Karen B; Xu, Zoe; Prado-León, Lilia R

    2013-05-28

    Experimental evidence demonstrates robust cross-modal matches between music and colors that are mediated by emotional associations. US and Mexican participants chose colors that were most/least consistent with 18 selections of classical orchestral music by Bach, Mozart, and Brahms. In both cultures, faster music in the major mode produced color choices that were more saturated, lighter, and yellower whereas slower, minor music produced the opposite pattern (choices that were desaturated, darker, and bluer). There were strong correlations (0.89 emotional associations of the music and those of the colors chosen to go with the music, supporting an emotional mediation hypothesis in both cultures. Additional experiments showed similarly robust cross-modal matches from emotionally expressive faces to colors and from music to emotionally expressive faces. These results provide further support that music-to-color associations are mediated by common emotional associations.

  17. Crossed-beam DC slice imaging of fluorine atom reactions with linear alkanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Yuanyuan; Kamasah, Alexander; Joalland, Baptiste; Suits, Arthur G., E-mail: asuits@chem.wayne.edu [Department of Chemistry, Wayne State University, 5101 Cass Avenue, Detroit, Michigan 48202 (United States)

    2015-05-14

    We report the reaction dynamics of F atom with selected alkanes studied by crossed beam scattering with DC slice ion imaging. The target alkanes are propane, n-butane, and n-pentane. The product alkyl radicals are probed by 157 nm single photon ionization following reaction at a collision energy of ∼10 kcal mol{sup −1}. The analyzed data are compared with the corresponding theoretical studies. Reduced translational energy distributions for each system show similar trends with little of the reaction exoergicity appearing in translation. However, the pentane reaction shows a somewhat smaller fraction of available energy in translation than the other two, suggesting greater energy channeled into pentyl internal degrees of freedom. The center-of-mass angular distributions all show backscattering as well as sharp forward scattering that decreases in relative intensity with the size of the molecule. Possible reasons for these trends are discussed.

  18. Prevalence and characteristics of cavum septum pellucidum in schizophrenia: A 16 slice computed tomography study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sourav Khanra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Several significant midline abnormalities including cavum septum pellucidum (CSP have been reported in schizophrenia. However, not all studies were able to replicate similar findings. Furthermore, very few of them were conducted with large samples. Methods: CSP was identified and graded with 16 slice computed tomography (CT machine in 138 patients of schizophrenia and 64 controls. Results: We found 21.0% of patients in schizophrenia group had abnormal CSP compared to only 9.4% in control group (P = 0.047. Grade III was most frequent type (19.6% in schizophrenia group. Conclusions: Our study adds to the existing literature suggesting abnormal CSP may reflect neurodevelopmental process in schizophrenia. The strength of our study was larger sample size. Limitations were use of CT, male predominance in schizophrenia group, the inclusion of nonpsychiatric patients in control group.

  19. Precision of Synesthetic Color Matching Resembles That for Recollected Colors Rather than Physical Colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Derek H.; Wegener, Signy V.; Brown, Francesca; Mattingley, Jason B.

    2012-01-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia is an atypical condition in which individuals experience sensations of color when reading printed graphemes such as letters and digits. For some grapheme-color synesthetes, seeing a printed grapheme triggers a sensation of color, but "hearing" the name of a grapheme does not. This dissociation allowed us to…

  20. Precision of Synesthetic Color Matching Resembles That for Recollected Colors Rather than Physical Colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Derek H.; Wegener, Signy V.; Brown, Francesca; Mattingley, Jason B.

    2012-01-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia is an atypical condition in which individuals experience sensations of color when reading printed graphemes such as letters and digits. For some grapheme-color synesthetes, seeing a printed grapheme triggers a sensation of color, but "hearing" the name of a grapheme does not. This dissociation allowed us to…

  1. Color Memory of University Students: Influence of Color Experience and Color Characteristic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bynum, Carlisle; Epps, Helen H.; Kaya, Naz

    2006-01-01

    The ability to select a previously viewed color specimen from an array of specimens that differ in hue, value, or chroma varies among individuals, and may be related to one's basic color discrimination ability or to prior experience with color. This study investigated short-term color memory of 40 college students, 20 of whom were interior design…

  2. Comparative metabolism, covalent binding and toxicity of BHT congeners in rat liver slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, M; Fujiwara, H; Thompson, D C

    2001-11-28

    The metabolism, covalent binding and hepatotoxicity of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT, 4-methyl-2,6-di-t-butylphenol) and two congeners (E-BHT, 4-ethyl-2,6-di-t-butylphenol; I-BHT, 4-isopropyl-2,6-di-t-butylphenol) were compared using precision-cut liver slices prepared from phenobarbital (PB)-treated male Sprague-Dawley rats. At equimolar concentrations (1 mM) BHT was the most toxic of the three compounds, causing an 80% decrease in cell viability over a 6 h incubation period. E-BHT was intermediate in toxicity while the isopropyl derivative was relatively nontoxic. Intracellular glutathione levels decreased prior to the onset of cytotoxicity. The cytochrome P450 inhibitor metyrapone completely inhibited the toxicity of all three compounds. The rates of metabolism of the three compounds to glutathione conjugates were compared in both PB-treated microsomes and PB-induced liver slices. In both models, the rate of formation was greatest for BHT, followed by E-BHT and I-BHT. Synthetic quinone methides (QMs) were prepared from each parent phenol and the rates of reactivity with three nucleophiles (water, methanol and glutathione) were compared. With each nucleophile, BHTQM was the most reactive, while I-BHTQM was the least reactive. Finally, covalent binding to protein was assessed in two ways. First, alkylation of an isolated model protein (bovine insulin) was measured in a microsomal enzyme activation system by mass spectrometry. Incubations with BHT produced the greatest extent of protein alkylation, followed by E-BHT, while no alkylation was observed with I-BHT. In the second system, covalent binding to cellular protein was assessed in rat liver PB microsomes and tissue slices by Western blotting using an antibody specific for the tert-butylphenol portion of the compounds. Binding was greatest for BHT, intermediate for E-BHT and could not be detected for I-BHT. The alkylation pattern for E-BHT was strikingly similar to that of BHT, suggesting that both compounds

  3. The color "fruit": object memories defined by color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, David E; Pearson, Joel; Khuu, Sieu K

    2013-01-01

    Most fruits and other highly color-diagnostic objects have color as a central aspect of their identity, which can facilitate detection and visual recognition. It has been theorized that there may be a large amount of overlap between the neural representations of these objects and processing involved in color perception. In accordance with this theory we sought to determine if the recognition of highly color diagnostic fruit objects could be facilitated by the visual presentation of their known color associates. In two experiments we show that color associate priming is possible, but contingent upon multiple factors. Color priming was found to be maximally effective for the most highly color diagnostic fruits, when low spatial-frequency information was present in the image, and when determination of the object's specific identity, not merely its category, was required. These data illustrate the importance of color for determining the identity of certain objects, and support the theory that object knowledge involves sensory specific systems.

  4. Color control of the multi-color printing device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-hua; XIU Xiao-jie; ZHU Wen-hua; TANG Hong-jun

    2006-01-01

    Conventional color-printing systems often use inks of three hues, such as CMY, CMYK and CMYKLcLm, but in order to obtain more realistic color reproductions, the ink set of more than three hues has been adopted by some color-printing systems. It is difficult, however, to model the composed color with the multiple inks when the number of the output ink hues exceeds three due to the none-unique mapping between the color spaces of the CIE Lab and the multi-color printing device. In this paper, we propose a fine color-printing method for multi-color printing device with the ink set of more than three hues. The proposed approach has good color expression ability and provides fine control of the printed color. By dividing the output color space into several subspaces, our method allows one-to-one mapping between the standard color space and the multi-color output color space. It has been proved effective when applied to the digital inkjet printer-Mutoh8000.

  5. New method to visualize neurons with DAT in slices of rat VTA using fluorescent substrate for DAT, ASP+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inyushin, Mikhail U; Arencibia-Albite, Francisco; de la Cruz, Angel; Vázquez-Torres, Rafael; Colon, Katiria; Sanabria, Priscila; Jiménez-Rivera, Carlos A

    2013-04-01

    The ventral tegmental area (VTA), and in particular dopamine (DA) neurons in this region of midbrain, has been shown to play an important role in motivation (goal-directed behavior), reward, and drug addiction. Most evidence that implicates VTA DA neurons in these functions are based on widely accepted but indirect electrophysiological characterization, including the hyperpolarization activated non-specific cation current (Ih), spike frequency, and inhibition by D2 receptor agonists. In this study, we used a known neuronal dopamine transporter (DAT) fluorescent substrate [4-(4- (dimethylamino) styryl)-N-methylpyridinium iodide] (ASP+) to visualize DAT-containing cell bodies of DA neurons in VTA region in rat brain slices. Uptake of 100 nM of ASP+ in brain slices of rat VTA region marked 38% of visible neurons, while other neurons from this region and 100% neurons from hippocampus slices were not fluorescent. Using patch-clamp techniques, we have found that pronounced Ih current was present in all fluorescent neurons from VTA area, also spike frequency was similar to the widely accepted values for DA neurons. Furthermore, additional study has shown that there are 84% coincidence of ASP+ fluorescence in neuronal cell bodies and Falck-Hillarp labeling of DA cells. Electrophysiological recordings during ASP+ application have confirmed that low concentrations (100 nM) of ASP+ have no visible effect on neuronal activity during 1-2 hours after staining. Thus, uptake of fluorescent monoamine analog ASP+ by DAT can be an additional criterion for identification of DAT-containing neurons in slices.

  6. Single slice US-MRI registration for neurosurgical MRI-guided US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardasani, Utsav; Baxter, John S. H.; Peters, Terry M.; Khan, Ali R.

    2016-03-01

    Image-based ultrasound to magnetic resonance image (US-MRI) registration can be an invaluable tool in image-guided neuronavigation systems. State-of-the-art commercial and research systems utilize image-based registration to assist in functions such as brain-shift correction, image fusion, and probe calibration. Since traditional US-MRI registration techniques use reconstructed US volumes or a series of tracked US slices, the functionality of this approach can be compromised by the limitations of optical or magnetic tracking systems in the neurosurgical operating room. These drawbacks include ergonomic issues, line-of-sight/magnetic interference, and maintenance of the sterile field. For those seeking a US vendor-agnostic system, these issues are compounded with the challenge of instrumenting the probe without permanent modification and calibrating the probe face to the tracking tool. To address these challenges, this paper explores the feasibility of a real-time US-MRI volume registration in a small virtual craniotomy site using a single slice. We employ the Linear Correlation of Linear Combination (LC2) similarity metric in its patch-based form on data from MNI's Brain Images for Tumour Evaluation (BITE) dataset as a PyCUDA enabled Python module in Slicer. By retaining the original orientation information, we are able to improve on the poses using this approach. To further assist the challenge of US-MRI registration, we also present the BOXLC2 metric which demonstrates a speed improvement to LC2, while retaining a similar accuracy in this context.

  7. Tropospheric Ozone Profile Information Derived From "Cloud Slicing"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemke, Jerald R.; Chandra, S.; Bhartia, P. K.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This study introduces a new approach to obtain ozone vertical profile information given coincident satellite measurements of both cloud-top pressure and above-cloud column ozone. This method is denoted "cloud slicing". In this study information of cloud-top pressure is derived from Geostationary Orbital Earth Satellite (GOES) infrared data, while above-cloud column ozone is obtained from the Earth Probe total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) instrument. Several case examples are presented showing the feasibility of this technique as well as providing new geophysical results. Because the TOMS instrument measures backscattered UV radiation, it does detect ozone lying below dense water vapor clouds. This opaque property of TOMS can be used directly in conjunction with co-located cloud-top pressure data to derive ozone profile information in the troposphere. The cloud slicing method is an extension of the "Convective Cloud Differential" (CCD) method. In the CCD method, tropospheric column ozone (i.e., the total vertical column of ozone lying in the troposphere) is computed by taking total column ozone with low reflectivity (R less than 0.2) and subtracting from this a nearby measurement of above-cloud column ozone amount under conditions of high reflectivity (R greater than 0.9). (High reflectivity away from snow/ice conditions coincides with strong convection and tropopause-level clouds). The key element in determining tropospheric ozone profile information from the cloud slicing method is to have simultaneous and co-located measurements of both above-cloud column ozone and cloud-top pressure.

  8. Altered regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor protein in hippocampus following slice preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danzer, S C; Pan, E; Nef, S; Parada, L F; McNamara, J O

    2004-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its cognate receptor tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) play important roles in regulating survival, structure, and function of CNS neurons. One method of studying the functions of these molecules has utilized in vitro hippocampal slice preparations. An important caveat to using slices, however, is that slice preparation itself might alter the expression of BDNF, thereby confounding experimental results. To address this concern, BDNF immunoreactivity was examined in rodent slices using two different methods of slice preparation. Rapid and anatomically selective regulation of BDNF content followed slice preparation using both methodologies; however, different patterns of altered BDNF immunoreactivity were observed. First, in cultured slices, BDNF content decreased in the dentate molecular layer and increased in the CA3 pyramidal cell layer and the mossy fiber pathway of the hippocampus after 30 min. Furthermore, an initially "punctate" pattern of BDNF labeling observed in the mossy fiber pathway of control sections changed to homogenous labeling of the pathway in vitro. In contrast to these findings, slices prepared as for acute slice physiology exhibited no change in BDNF content in the molecular layer and mossy fiber pathway 30 min after slicing, but exhibited significant increases in the dentate granule and CA3 pyramidal cell layers. These findings demonstrate that BDNF protein content is altered following slice preparation, that different methods of slice preparation produce different patterns of BDNF regulation, and raise the possibility that BDNF release and TrkB activation may also be regulated. These consequences of hippocampal slice preparation may confound analyses of exogenous or endogenous BDNF on hippocampal neuronal structure or function.

  9. The biology of color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuthill, Innes C; Allen, William L; Arbuckle, Kevin; Caspers, Barbara; Chaplin, George; Hauber, Mark E; Hill, Geoffrey E; Jablonski, Nina G; Jiggins, Chris D; Kelber, Almut; Mappes, Johanna; Marshall, Justin; Merrill, Richard; Osorio, Daniel; Prum, Richard; Roberts, Nicholas W; Roulin, Alexandre; Rowland, Hannah M; Sherratt, Thomas N; Skelhorn, John; Speed, Michael P; Stevens, Martin; Stoddard, Mary Caswell; Stuart-Fox, Devi; Talas, Laszlo; Tibbetts, Elizabeth; Caro, Tim

    2017-08-04

    Coloration mediates the relationship between an organism and its environment in important ways, including social signaling, antipredator defenses, parasitic exploitation, thermoregulation, and protection from ultraviolet light, microbes, and abrasion. Methodological breakthroughs are accelerating knowledge of the processes underlying both the production of animal coloration and its perception, experiments are advancing understanding of mechanism and function, and measurements of color collected noninvasively and at a global scale are opening windows to evolutionary dynamics more generally. Here we provide a roadmap of these advances and identify hitherto unrecognized challenges for this multi- and interdisciplinary field. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  10. Web Search Results Summarization Using Similarity Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawant V.V.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Now day’s internet has become part of our life, the WWW is most important service of internet because it allows presenting information such as document, imaging etc. The WWW grows rapidly and caters to a diversified levels and categories of users. For user specified results web search results are extracted. Millions of information pouring online, users has no time to surf the contents completely .Moreover the information available is repeated or duplicated in nature. This issue has created the necessity to restructure the search results that could yield results summarized. The proposed approach comprises of different feature extraction of web pages. Web page visual similarity assessment has been employed to address the problems in different fields including phishing, web archiving, web search engine etc. In this approach, initially by enters user query the number of search results get stored. The Earth Mover's Distance is used to assessment of web page visual similarity, in this technique take the web page as a low resolution image, create signature of that web page image with color and co-ordinate features .Calculate the distance between web pages by applying EMD method. Compute the Layout Similarity value by using tag comparison algorithm and template comparison algorithm. Textual similarity is computed by using cosine similarity, and hyperlink analysis is performed to compute outward links. The final similarity value is calculated by fusion of layout, text, hyperlink and EMD value. Once the similarity matrix is found clustering is employed with the help of connected component. Finally group of similar web pages i.e. summarized results get displayed to user. Experiment conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of four methods to generate summarized result on different web pages and user queries also.

  11. Maximal slicings in spherical symmetry: local existence and construction

    CERN Document Server

    Cordero-Carrión, Isabel; Morales-Lladosa, Juan Antonio; 10.1063/1.3658864

    2011-01-01

    We show that any spherically symmetric spacetime locally admits a maximal spacelike slicing and we give a procedure allowing its construction. The construction procedure that we have designed is based on purely geometrical arguments and, in practice, leads to solve a decoupled system of first order quasi-linear partial differential equations. We have explicitly built up maximal foliations in Minkowski and Friedmann spacetimes. Our approach admits further generalizations and efficient computational implementation. As by product, we suggest some applications of our work in the task of calibrating Numerical Relativity complex codes, usually written in Cartesian coordinates.

  12. SYNCHROTRON RADIATION XRF MICROPROBE STUDY OF HUMAN BONE TUMOR SLICE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The experimental apparatus of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) microprobe analysis at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF) is described Using the bovine liver as the standard reference.the minimum detection limit(MDL) of trace element was measured to determine the capability of biological sample analysis by synchrotron radiation XRF microprobe.The relative change of the content of the major or trace element in the normal and tumor part of human bone tissue slice was investigated The experimental result relation to the clinical medicine was also discussed.

  13. Rational-slice Knots via Strongly Negative-amphicheiral Knots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KAWAUCHI AKIO

    2009-01-01

    We show that certain satellite knots of every strongly negative-amphicheiral rational knot are rational-slice knots. This proof also shows that the 0-surgery man-ifold of a certain strongly negative amphicheiral knot such as the figure-eight knot bounds a compact oriented smooth 4-manifold homotopy equivalent to the 2-sphere such that a second homology class of the 4-manifold is represented by a smoothly embedded 2-sphere if and only if the modulo two reduction of it is zero.

  14. Plate Full of Color

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-08-04

    The Eagle Books are a series of four books that are brought to life by wise animal characters - Mr. Eagle, Miss Rabbit, and Coyote - who engage Rain That Dances and his young friends in the joy of physical activity, eating healthy foods, and learning from their elders about health and diabetes prevention. Plate Full of Color teaches the value of eating a variety of colorful and healthy foods.  Created: 8/4/2008 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 8/5/2008.

  15. Future of color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladson, Jack A.; Turner, Laraine B.; Green-Armytage, Paul; Hunt, Robert W. G.

    2002-06-01

    We live in a world in which styles and technologies are nearly the same from place to place, but change daily. This changing global culture is unprecedented, and reinforced by emerging new technologies that affect us all. The Future of Color, examines new technologies, how they will affect the selection and promulgation of color in the near future, and their impact upon us. We examine this topic from many perspectives - technological, business and commercial. Most importantly, as we understand how our world is emerging, we can position ourselves strategically for tomorrow.

  16. Hyperexcitability in combined entorhinal/hippocampal slices of adult rat after exposure to brain-derived neurotrophic factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharfman, H E

    1997-08-01

    Effects of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in area CA3, the dentate gyrus, and medial entorhinal cortex were examined electrophysiologically by bath application of BDNF in slices containing the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex. Bath application of 25-100 ng/ml BDNF for 30-90 min increased responses to single afferent stimuli in selective pathways in the majority of slices. In area CA3, responses to mossy fiber stimulation increased in 73% of slices and entorhinal cortex responses to white matter stimulation increased in 64% of slices. After exposure to BDNF, these areas also demonstrated evidence of hyperexcitability, because responses to repetitive stimulation (1-Hz paired pulses for several s) produced multiple population spikes in response to mossy fiber stimulation in CA3 or multiple field potentials in response to white matter stimulation in the entorhinal cortex. Repetitive field potentials persisted after repetitive stimulation ended and usually were followed by spreading depression. Enhancement of responses to single stimuli and hyperexcitability were never evoked in untreated slices or after bath application of boiled BDNF or cytochrome C. The tyrosine kinase antagonist K252a (2 microM) blocked the effects of BDNF. In area CA3, both the potentiation of responses to single stimuli and hyperexcitability showed afferent specificity, because responses to mossy fiber stimulation were affected but responses to fimbria or Schaffer collateral stimulation were not. In addition, regional specificity was demonstrated in that the dentate gyrus was much less affected. The effects of BDNF in area CA3 were similar to those produced by bath application of low doses of kainic acid, which is thought to modulate glutamate release from mossy fiber terminals by a presynaptic action. These results suggest that BDNF has acute effects on excitability in different areas of the hippocampal-entorhinal circuit. These effects appear to be greatest in areas that are highly

  17. Can grapheme-color synesthesia be induced by hypnosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Hazel P; Seth, Anil K; Dienes, Zoltan; Ward, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia is a perceptual experience where graphemes, letters or words evoke a specific color, which are experienced either as spatially coincident with the grapheme inducer (projector sub-type) or elsewhere, perhaps without a definite spatial location (associator sub-type). Here, we address the question of whether synesthesia can be rapidly produced using a hypnotic color suggestion to examine the possibility of "hypnotic synesthesia", i.e., subjectively experienced color hallucinations similar to those experienced by projector synesthetes. We assess the efficacy of this intervention using an "embedded figures" test, in which participants are required to detect a shape (e.g., a square) composed of local graphemic elements. For grapheme-color synesthetes, better performance on the task has been linked to a higher proportion of graphemes perceived as colored. We found no performance benefits on this test when using a hypnotic suggestion, as compared to a no-suggestion control condition. The same result was found when participants were separated according to the degree to which they were susceptible to the suggestion (number of colored trials perceived). However, we found a relationship between accuracy and subjective reports of color in those participants who reported a large proportion of colored trials: trials in which the embedded figure was accurately recognized (relative to trials in which it was not) were associated with reports of more intense colors occupying a greater spatial extent. Collectively, this implies that hypnotic color was only perceived after shape detection rather than aiding in shape detection via color-based perceptual grouping. The results suggest that hypnotically induced colors are not directly comparable to synesthetic ones.

  18. Can multi-slice or navigator-gated R2* MRI replace single-slice breath-hold acquisition for hepatic iron quantification?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loeffler, Ralf B.; McCarville, M.B.; Song, Ruitian; Hillenbrand, Claudia M. [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Diagnostic Imaging, Memphis, TN (United States); Wagstaff, Anne W. [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Diagnostic Imaging, Memphis, TN (United States); Rhodes College, Memphis, TN (United States); University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Medicine, Birmingham, AL (United States); Smeltzer, Matthew P. [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Biostatistics, Memphis, TN (United States); University of Memphis, Division of Epidemiology, Biostatistics, and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Memphis, TN (United States); Krafft, Axel J. [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Diagnostic Imaging, Memphis, TN (United States); University Hospital Center Freiburg, Department of Radiology, Freiburg (Germany); Hankins, Jane S. [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Hematology, Memphis, TN (United States)

    2017-01-15

    Liver R2* values calculated from multi-gradient echo (mGRE) magnetic resonance images (MRI) are strongly correlated with hepatic iron concentration (HIC) as shown in several independently derived biopsy calibration studies. These calibrations were established for axial single-slice breath-hold imaging at the location of the portal vein. Scanning in multi-slice mode makes the exam more efficient, since whole-liver coverage can be achieved with two breath-holds and the optimal slice can be selected afterward. Navigator echoes remove the need for breath-holds and allow use in sedated patients. To evaluate if the existing biopsy calibrations can be applied to multi-slice and navigator-controlled mGRE imaging in children with hepatic iron overload, by testing if there is a bias-free correlation between single-slice R2* and multi-slice or multi-slice navigator controlled R2*. This study included MRI data from 71 patients with transfusional iron overload, who received an MRI exam to estimate HIC using gradient echo sequences. Patient scans contained 2 or 3 of the following imaging methods used for analysis: single-slice images (n = 71), multi-slice images (n = 69) and navigator-controlled images (n = 17). Small and large blood corrected region of interests were selected on axial images of the liver to obtain R2* values for all data sets. Bland-Altman and linear regression analysis were used to compare R2* values from single-slice images to those of multi-slice images and navigator-controlled images. Bland-Altman analysis showed that all imaging method comparisons were strongly associated with each other and had high correlation coefficients (0.98 ≤ r ≤ 1.00) with P-values ≤0.0001. Linear regression yielded slopes that were close to 1. We found that navigator-gated or breath-held multi-slice R2* MRI for HIC determination measures R2* values comparable to the biopsy-validated single-slice, single breath-hold scan. We conclude that these three R2* methods can be

  19. Visualization of semantic indexing similarity over MeSH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Haixia; Yoo, Terry S

    2007-10-11

    We present an interactive visualization system for the evaluation of indexing results of the MEDLINE data-base over the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) structure in a graphical radial-tree layout. It displays indexing similarity measurements with 2D color coding and a 3D height field permitting the evaluation of the automatic Medical Text Indexer (MTI), compared with human indexers.

  20. Estimating similarity of XML Schemas using path similarity measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veena Trivedi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an attempt has been made to develop an algorithm which estimates the similarity for XML Schemas using multiple similarity measures. For performing the task, the XML Schema element information has been represented in the form of string and four different similarity measure approaches have been employed. To further improve the similarity measure, an overall similarity measure has also been calculated. The approach used in this paper is a distinguished one, as it calculates the similarity between two XML schemas using four approaches and gives an integrated values for the similarity measure. Keywords-componen

  1. Multi-slice CT for visualization of acute pulmonary embolism: single breath-hold subtraction technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wildberger, J.E.; Mahnken, A.H.; Spuentrup, E.; Guenther, R.W. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Univ. of Technology, Aachen (Germany); Klotz, E.; Ditt, H. [Siemens Medical Solutions, Computed Tomography, Forchheim (Germany)

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: the purpose of our preliminary animal study was to evaluate the feasibility of a new subtraction technique for visualization of perfusion defects within the lung parenchyma in segmental and subsegmental pulmonary embolism (PE). Materials and methods: in three healthy pigs, PE were artificially induced by fresh human clot material. Within a single breath-hold, CT angiography (CTA) was performed on a 16-slice multi-slice CT scanner (SOMATOM Sensation 16; Siemens, Forchheim, Germany) before and after intravenous application of 80 mL of contrast-medium, followed by a saline chaser. Scan parameters were 120 kV and 100 mAs{sub eff.}, using a collimation of 16 x 1.5 mm and a table speed/rot. of 36 mm (pitch: 1.5; rotation time: 0.5 s). A new 3D subtraction technique was developed, which is based on automated segmentation, non-linear spatial filtering and non-rigid registration. Data were analysed using a color-encoded ''compound view'' of parenchymal enhancement and CTA information displayed in axial, coronal and sagittal orientation. Results: subtraction was technically feasible in all three data sets. The mean scan time for each series was 4.7 s, interscan delay was 14.7 s, respectively. Therefore, an average breath-hold of approximately 24 s was required for the overall scanning procedure. Downstream of occluded segmental and subsegmental arteries, perfusion defects were clearly assessable, showing lower or missing enhancement compared to normally perfused lung parenchyma. In all pigs, additional peripheral areas with triangular shaped perfusion defects were delineated, considered typical for PE. Conclusions: our initial results from the animal model studied slow that perfusion imaging of PE is feasible within a single breath-hold. It allows a comprehensive assessment of perfusion deficits as the direct proof of a pulmonary embolus, can be combined with an indirect visual quantification of the density changes in the adjacent lung tissue

  2. Locally identifying coloring of graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Esperet, Louis; Montassier, Mickael; Ochem, Pascal; Parreau, Aline

    2010-01-01

    A vertex-coloring of a graph G is said to be locally identifying if for any pair (u,v) of adjacent vertices of G, with distinct closed neighborhood, the set of colors that appears in the closed neighborhoods of u and v are distinct. In this paper, we give several bounds on the minimum number of colors needed in such a coloring for different families of graphs (planar graphs, some subclasses of perfect graphs, graphs with bounded maximum degree) and prove that deciding whether a subcubic bipartite graph with large girth has a locally identifying coloring with 3 colors is an NP-complete problem.

  3. Cultivar affects browning susceptibility of freshly cut star fruit slices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teixeira Gustavo Henrique de Almeida

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of freshly-cut horticultural products has increased in the last few years. The principal restraint to using freshly-cut carambola is its susceptibility to tissue-browning, due to polyphenol oxidase-mediated oxidation of phenolic compounds present in the tissue. The current study investigated the susceptibility to browning of star fruit slices (Averrhoa carambola L. of seven genotypes (Hart, Golden Star, Taen-ma, Nota-10, Malásia, Arkin, and Fwang Tung. Cultivar susceptibility to browning as measured by luminosity (L* varied significantly among genotypes. Without catechol 0.05 M, little changes occurred on cut surface of any cultivars during 6 hour at 25degreesC, 67% RH. Addition of catechol led to rapid browning, which was more intense in cvs. Taen-ma, Fwang Tung, and Golden Star, with reduction in L* value of 28.60%, 27.68%, and 23.29%, respectively. Browning was more intense in the center of the slices, particularly when treated with catechol, indicating highest polyphenol oxidase (PPO concentration. Epidermal browning, even in absence of catechol, is a limitation to visual acceptability and indicates a necessity for its control during carambola processing. Care must be given to appropriate selection of cultivars for fresh-cut processing, since cultivar varied in browning susceptibility in the presence of catechol.

  4. Delivery of recombinant alphavirus into hippocampal slice tissue culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundstrom, Kenneth

    2012-08-01

    The alphaviruses Semliki Forest virus (SFV) and Sindbis virus (SIN) have been used frequently as expression vectors in vitro and in vivo. Usually, these systems consist of replication-deficient vectors that require a helper vector for packaging of recombinant particles. Replication-proficient vectors have also been engineered. Alphaviral vectors can be used as nucleic-acid-based vectors (DNA and RNA) or infectious particles. High-titer viral production is achieved in alphaviruses facilitates studies in mammalian and nonmammalian cell lines, primary cells in culture, and in vivo. The strong preference for expression in neuronal cells has made alphaviruses particularly useful in neurobiological studies. Unfortunately, their strong cytotoxic effect on host cells, relatively short-term transient expression patterns, and the reasonably high cost of viral production remain drawbacks. However, novel mutant alphaviruses have shown reduced cytotoxicity and prolonged expression. This protocol describes gene delivery of recombinant alphavirus to hippocampal slice cultures. Organotypic slices are covered by a layer of glial cells that impedes the penetration of viral particles to the neurons. Thus, viral particles should be injected manually into the extracellular space of the tissue.

  5. Detecting anomalous traders using multi-slice network analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Qian; Shen, Hua-Wei; Cheng, Xue-Qi; Zhang, Yuqing

    2017-05-01

    Manipulation is an important issue for both developed and emerging stock markets. Many efforts have been made to detect manipulation in stock market. However, it is still an open problem to identify the fraudulent traders, especially when they collude with each other. In this paper, we focus on the problem of identifying anomalous traders using the transaction data of 8 manipulated stocks and 42 non-manipulated stocks during a one-year period. For each stock, we construct a multi-slice trading network to characterize the daily trading behavior and the cross-day participation of each trader. Comparing the multi-slice trading network of manipulated stocks and non-manipulated stocks with their randomized version, we find that manipulated stocks exhibit high number of trader pairs that trade with each other in multiple days and high deviation from randomized network at correlation between trading frequency and trading activity. These findings are effective at distinguishing manipulated stocks from non-manipulated ones and at identifying anomalous traders.

  6. Characteristics of grouping colors for figure segregation on a multicolored background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Takehiro; Uchikawa, Keiji

    2008-11-01

    A figure is segregated from its background when the colored elements belonging to the figure are grouped together. We investigated the range of color distribution conditions in which a figure could be segregated from its background using the color distribution differences. The stimulus was a multicolored texture composed of randomly shaped pieces. It was divided into two regions: a test region and a background region. The pieces in these two regions had different color distributions in the OSA Uniform Color Space. In our experiments, the subject segregated the figure of the test region using two different procedures. Since the Euclidean distance in the OSA Uniform Color Space corresponds to perceived color difference, if segregation thresholds are determined by only color difference, the thresholds should be independent of position and direction in the color space. In the results, however, the thresholds did depend on position and direction in the OSA Uniform Color Space. This suggests that color difference is not the only factor in figure segregation by color. Moreover, the threshold dependence on position and direction is influenced by the distances in the cone-opponent space whose axes are normalized by discrimination thresholds, suggesting that figure segregation threshold is determined by similar factors in the cone-opponent space for color discrimination. The analysis of the results by categorical color naming suggests that categorical color perception may affect figure segregation only slightly.

  7. Dinosaurs' True Colors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG YUANKAI

    2010-01-01

    @@ On March 10,the Beijing Museum of Natural History(BMNH)announced scientists from China and abroad had decoded the full-body color patterns of a dinosaur,a small theropod named as anchiomis huxleyi,for the first time.

  8. Color appearance in stereoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadia, Davide; Rizzi, Alessandro; Bonanomi, Cristian; Marini, Daniele; Galmonte, Alessandra; Agostini, Tiziano

    2011-03-01

    The relationship between color and lightness appearance and the perception of depth has been studied since a while in the field of perceptual psychology and psycho-physiology. It has been found that depth perception affects the final object color and lightness appearance. In the stereoscopy research field, many studies have been proposed on human physiological effects, considering e.g. geometry, motion sickness, etc., but few has been done considering lightness and color information. Goal of this paper is to realize some preliminar experiments in Virtual Reality in order to determine the effects of depth perception on object color and lightness appearance. We have created a virtual test scene with a simple 3D simultaneous contrast configuration. We have created three different versions of this scene, each with different choices of relative positions and apparent size of the objects. We have collected the perceptual responses of several users after the observation of the test scene in the Virtual Theater of the University of Milan, a VR immersive installation characterized by a semi-cylindrical screen that covers 120° of horizontal field of view from an observation distance of 3.5 m. We present a description of the experiments setup and procedure, and we discuss the obtained results.

  9. "Color-Blind" Racism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Leslie G.

    Examining race relations in the United States from a historical perspective, this book explains how the constitution is racist and how color blindness is actually a racist ideology. It is argued that Justice Harlan, in his dissenting opinion in Plessy v. Ferguson, meant that the constitution and the law must remain blind to the existence of race…

  10. Transparency and imaginary colors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richards, W.; Koenderink, J.J.; Van Doorn, A.

    2009-01-01

    Unlike the Metelli monochrome transparencies, when overlays and their backgrounds have chromatic content, the inferred surface colors may not always be physically realizable, and are in some sense “imaginary.” In these cases, the inferred chromatic transmittance or reflectance of the overlay lies ou

  11. Local Color Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Gabriel Gomila Salas

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a local algorithm for contrast enhancement developed by N. Moroney at Hewlett-Packard Laboratories and presented at the IS&T/SID Eight Color Imaging Conference, in 2000. The algorithm uses a non-linear masking, is fast and does not require any manual parameter adjustments.

  12. "Color-Blind" Racism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Leslie G.

    Examining race relations in the United States from a historical perspective, this book explains how the constitution is racist and how color blindness is actually a racist ideology. It is argued that Justice Harlan, in his dissenting opinion in Plessy v. Ferguson, meant that the constitution and the law must remain blind to the existence of race…

  13. Color discrimination data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, M.A.; Walraven, P.L.

    1972-01-01

    The sense of sight provides us with information on how the radiance of the environment is distributed in time and space. Such information pertains to both the energy and the spectral distribution of the radiance. Researchers in the field of color vision generally assume that, as attributes of visual

  14. Colorful Kindergarten Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobick, Bryna; Wheeler, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Developing kindergarten lessons can be very challenging, especially at the beginning of the school year when many students are just learning to cut paper and hold crayons. The author's favorite beginning unit of the year is "mice paintings," a practical introduction to drawing, color theory, and painting. This unit also incorporates children's…

  15. Color Wheel Windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a painting and drawing lesson which was inspired by the beautiful circular windows found in cathedrals and churches (also known as "rose windows"). This two-week lesson would reinforce both the concept of symmetry and students' understanding of the color wheel. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  16. Social Property of Colors and Translation of Color Words

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾慧彬

    2013-01-01

    The paper is about the social property of colors andtranslationofcolorwords.Colorsareveryimportantinour sociallife,accordingtothispaperwecanknowsomerelations aboutsocialandcolor.EspeciallyaboutthedifferencesofChinese and English color words. Through the differences, three basic translatingmethodsaregeneralized.

  17. Using Single Colors and Color Pairs to Communicate Basic Tastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy T. Woods

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently, it has been demonstrated that people associate each of the basic tastes (e.g., sweet, sour, bitter, and salty with specific colors (e.g., red, green, black, and white. In the present study, we investigated whether pairs of colors (both associated with a particular taste or taste word would give rise to stronger associations relative to pairs of colors that were associated with different tastes. We replicate the findings of previous studies highlighting the existence of a robust crossmodal correspondence between individual colors and basic tastes. However, while there was evidence that pairs of colors could indeed communicate taste information more consistently than single colors, our participants took more than twice as long to match the color pairs with tastes than the single colors. Possible reasons for these results are discussed.

  18. A novel carbon fiber bundle microelectrode and modified brain slice chamber for recording long-term multiunit activity from brain slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tcheng, T K; Gillette, M U

    1996-11-01

    The fabrication and characteristics of a novel multiunit recording electrode and modified brain slice chamber suitable for long-term recording from brain slices are described. The electrode consisted of an electrolyte-filled glass micropipette with a 20-50 microns thick wax-coated bundle of 5-micron diameter carbon fibers extending 2.5 cm from the tapered end and an AgCl-coated silver wire inserted into the open end and connected to a preamplifier. Both ends of the electrode were sealed with wax to prevent evaporation of the electrolyte. The brain slice was maintained over this extended period in an interface-type brain slice chamber modified to completely surround the slice with medium. Using this electrode, regular 24-h oscillations of spontaneous multiunit activity were recorded for 3 days from a single location in a 500 microns thick rat suprachiasmatic nucleus brain slice. Preliminary data suggest that this novel carbon fiber bundle electrode will be a favorable alternative to traditional metal electrodes for long-term recording of multiunit activity from brain slices.

  19. Unified Mathematical Framework for Slicing and Symmetry Reduction over Event Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Xinyan Gao; Yingcai Ding; Wenbo Liu; Kaidi Zheng; Siyu Huang; Ning Zhou; Dakui Li

    2014-01-01

    Nonclassical slicing and symmetry reduction can act as efficient structural abstract methods for pruning state space when dealing with verification problems. In this paper, we mainly address theoretical and algorithmic aspects for nonclassical slicing and symmetry reduction over prime event structures. We propose sliced and symmetric quotient reduction models of event structures and present their corresponding algorithms. To construct the underlying foundation of the proposed methodologies, w...

  20. How bees distinguish colors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horridge A

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Adrian Horridge Biological Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia Abstract: Behind each facet of the compound eye, bees have photoreceptors for ultraviolet, green, and blue wavelengths that are excited by sunlight reflected from the surrounding panorama. In experiments that excluded ultraviolet, bees learned to distinguish between black, gray, white, and various colors. To distinguish two targets of differing color, bees detected, learned, and later recognized the strongest preferred inputs, irrespective of which target displayed them. First preference was the position and measure of blue reflected from white or colored areas. They also learned the positions and a measure of the green receptor modulation at vertical edges that displayed the strongest green contrast. Modulation is the receptor response to contrast and was summed over the length of a contrasting vertical edge. This also gave them a measure of angular width between outer vertical edges. Third preference was position and a measure of blue modulation. When they returned for more reward, bees recognized the familiar coincidence of these inputs at that place. They cared nothing for colors, layout of patterns, or direction of contrast, even at black/white edges. The mechanism is a new kind of color vision in which a large-field tonic blue input must coincide in time with small-field phasic modulations caused by scanning vertical edges displaying green or blue contrast. This is the kind of system to expect in medium-lowly vision, as found in insects; the next steps are fresh looks at old observations and quantitative models. Keywords: vision, honey bee, visual processing, optimum system, picture sorting

  1. Human preference for individual colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Stephen E.; Schloss, Karen B.

    2010-02-01

    Color preference is an important aspect of human behavior, but little is known about why people like some colors more than others. Recent results from the Berkeley Color Project (BCP) provide detailed measurements of preferences among 32 chromatic colors as well as other relevant aspects of color perception. We describe the fit of several color preference models, including ones based on cone outputs, color-emotion associations, and Palmer and Schloss's ecological valence theory. The ecological valence theory postulates that color serves an adaptive "steering' function, analogous to taste preferences, biasing organisms to approach advantageous objects and avoid disadvantageous ones. It predicts that people will tend to like colors to the extent that they like the objects that are characteristically that color, averaged over all such objects. The ecological valence theory predicts 80% of the variance in average color preference ratings from the Weighted Affective Valence Estimates (WAVEs) of correspondingly colored objects, much more variance than any of the other models. We also describe how hue preferences for single colors differ as a function of gender, expertise, culture, social institutions, and perceptual experience.

  2. COLOR FEATURE EXTRACTION FOR CBIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. H.B.KEKRE

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Content Based Image Retrieval is the application of computer vision techniques to the image retrieval problem of searching for digital images in large databases. The method of CBIR discussed in this paper can filter images based their content and would provide a better indexing and return more accurate results. In this paper we wouldbe discussing: Feature vector generation using color averaging technique, Similarity measures and Performance evaluation using randomly selected 5 query images per class out of which result of one class is discussed. Precision –Recall cross over plot is used as the performance evaluation measure to check the algorithm. As thesystem developed is generic, database consists of images from different classes. The effect due to the size of database and number of different classes is seen on the number of relevancy of the retrievals.

  3. Color impact in visual attention deployment considering emotional images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamaret, C.

    2012-03-01

    Color is a predominant factor in the human visual attention system. Even if it cannot be sufficient to the global or complete understanding of a scene, it may impact the visual attention deployment. We propose to study the color impact as well as the emotion aspect of pictures regarding the visual attention deployment. An eye-tracking campaign has been conducted involving twenty people watching half pictures of database in full color and the other half of database in grey color. The eye fixations of color and black and white images were highly correlated leading to the question of the integration of such cues in the design of visual attention model. Indeed, the prediction of two state-of-the-art computational models shows similar results for the two color categories. Similarly, the study of saccade amplitude and fixation duration versus time viewing did not bring any significant differences between the two mentioned categories. In addition, spatial coordinates of eye fixations reveal an interesting indicator for investigating the differences of visual attention deployment over time and fixation number. The second factor related to emotion categories shows evidences of emotional inter-categories differences between color and grey eye fixations for passive and positive emotion. The particular aspect associated to this category induces a specific behavior, rather based on high frequencies, where the color components influence the visual attention deployment.

  4. Color-detection thresholds in rhesus macaque monkeys and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagin, Galina; Bohon, Kaitlin S; Butensky, Adam; Gates, Monica A; Hu, Jiun-Yiing; Lafer-Sousa, Rosa; Pulumo, Reitumetse L; Qu, Jane; Stoughton, Cleo M; Swanbeck, Sonja N; Conway, Bevil R

    2014-07-15

    Macaque monkeys are a model of human color vision. To facilitate linking physiology in monkeys with psychophysics in humans, we directly compared color-detection thresholds in humans and rhesus monkeys. Colors were defined by an equiluminant plane of cone-opponent color space. All subjects were tested on an identical apparatus with a four-alternative forced-choice task. Targets were 2° square, centered 2° from fixation, embedded in luminance noise. Across all subjects, the change in detection thresholds from initial testing to plateau performance (“learning”) was similar for +L − M (red) colors and +M − L (bluish-green) colors. But the extent of learning was higher for +S (lavender) than for −S (yellow-lime); moreover, at plateau performance, the cone contrast at the detection threshold was higher for +S than for −S. These asymmetries may reflect differences in retinal circuitry for S-ON and S-OFF. At plateau performance, the two species also had similar detection thresholds for all colors, although monkeys had shorter reaction times than humans and slightly lower thresholds for colors that modulated L/M cones. We discuss whether these observations, together with previous work showing that monkeys have lower spatial acuity than humans, could be accounted for by selective pressures driving higher chromatic sensitivity at the cost of spatial acuity amongst monkeys, specifically for the more recently evolved L − M mechanism.

  5. Natural-color maps via coloring of bivariate grid data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbyshire, Jane E.; Jenny, Bernhard

    2017-09-01

    Natural ground color is useful for maps where a representation of the Earth's surface matters. Natural color schemes are less likely to be misinterpreted, as opposed to hypsometric color schemes, and are generally preferred by map readers. The creation of natural-color maps was once limited to manual cartographic techniques, but they can now be created digitally with the aid of raster graphics editing software. However, the creation of natural-color maps still requires many steps, a significant time investment, and fairly detailed digital land cover information, which makes this technique impossible to apply to global web maps at medium and large scales. A particular challenge for natural-color map creation is adjusting colors with location to create smoothly blending transitions. Adjustments with location are required to show land cover transitions between climate zones with a natural appearance. This study takes the first step in automating the process in order to facilitate the creation of medium- and large-scale natural-color maps covering large areas. A coloring method based on two grid inputs is presented. Here, we introduce an algorithmic method and prototype software for creating maps with this technique. The prototype software allows the map author to interactively assign colors to design the appearance of the map. This software can generate web map tiles at a global level for medium and large scales. Example natural-color web maps created with this coloring technique are provided.

  6. An innovative color LCD using three color bank scrolling backlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia-Chang; Lin, Jui-Lung

    2009-02-01

    In order to improve the approach of the conventional LCD colored image display that has been using color filter, this research is to lead a unique innovative design by using three colors bank scrolling backlight. The backlight scrolling uses Light-Emitting-Diodes (LEDs) to replace the conventional cold cathode fluorescent lamp for fleetly light alternating between Red, Green, and Blue. Images with bank segments can be displayed in terms of RGB colors in time series. According to the human persistence of vision effect, a colorful image can be demonstrated. The advantages of this three color bank scrolling can provide a cost saving because there is no color-filter of the display, resolution tripling with RGB on the same pixel, and abundant in color saturation for the selection of dedicating wavelength LEDs color mixture. Practically, this research contents the experiments of three color bank scrolling, a building up of the prototype for backlight system, optics adjustment for a proper color mixture. The results of this research show the system not only could displace the color filter but also triple the resolution. Consequently, the system is practicable and can be proposed as a new innovation to LCD industry.

  7. A color management system for multi-colored LED lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakrabarti, Maumita; Thorseth, Anders; Jepsen, Jørgen;

    2015-01-01

    A new color control system is described and implemented for a five–color LED light engine, covering a wide white gamut. The system combines a new way of using pre-calibrated look-up tables and a rule-based optimization of chromaticity distance from the Planckian locus with a calibrated color sens...

  8. [A quantitative evaluation of brain computerized tomography in children using color image analyzer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamatani, M; Naganuma, Y; Hongoh, K; Murakami, M; Konishi, T; Okada, T

    1989-11-01

    We attempted the quantitative analysis of brain computerized tomographic scans in children using Color Image Analyzer. A consecutive series of 167 computerized tomographic scans were reviewed. Areas of subarachnoid spaces, cavums, ventricles and cerebellums were measured on three slices: A slice is at the level of head of caudate nucleus, anterior horn of lateral ventricle and third ventricle. B slice is at the level of body of lateral ventricle. C slice is at the level of sella turcica and pons. We investigated these values compared with Evans ratio, Cella Media Index, cerebellar atrophy score and visually evaluations. Serial brain CT scans of eight patient with infantile spasms were also evaluated for the assessment of the brain shrinkage after ACTH therapy. 1) The ratios of the subarachnoid space/the intracranial area on A and B slices (SAS A%, SAS B%) were significantly higher in the patients of severe brain atrophy. 2) There were linear relationship between Evans ratio and SAS A% (r = 0.405, p less than 0.001), Cella Media Index and the ratio of the lateral ventricles/the intracranial areas on B slice (r = -0.501, p less than 0.001), and the cerebellar atrophy score by Une and SAS C% (r = 0.369, p less than 0.001). 3) In the normal patients, the values of SAS A% and SAS B% were much greater in less than 1.5 years old children. These results suggest that the trend of CT findings related to age may reflect physiological changes of the space between the skull and the brain with age. 4) Brain shrinkage after ACTH therapy was more pronounced in the subarachnoid space than the ventricle.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Erythropoietin improves synaptic transmission during and following ischemia in rat hippocampal slice cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Astrid; Maier, Rolf F; Hoffmann, Ulrike; Grips, Martin; Hoppenz, Marc; Aktas, Ayse G; Heinemann, Uwe; Obladen, Michael; Schuchmann, Sebastian

    2002-12-27

    Erythropoietin (EPO) prevents neuronal damage following ischemic, metabolic, and excitotoxic stress. In this study evoked extracellular field potentials (FP) were used to investigate the effect of EPO on synaptic transmission in hippocampal slice cultures. EPO treated cultured slices (40 units/ml for 48 h) showed significantly increased FP during and following oxygen and glucose deprivation compared with untreated control slices. The addition of the Jak2 inhibitor AG490 (50 microM for 48 h) blocked the EPO effect. These data suggest that EPO improves synaptic transmission during and following ischemia in hippocampal slice cultures.

  10. Optimized Protocol of Methanol Treatment for Immunofluorescent Staining in Fixed Brain Slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Feng; Cohen, Noam A.; Cohen, Akiva S.

    2017-01-01

    We optimized methanol treatment in paraformaldehyde-fixed slices for immunofluorescent staining of ependymal basal bodies in brain ventricles. As 100% methanol induced severe deformations to the slices (including rolling and folding over), we tried to decrease methanol concentration. We found that 33.3% to 75% methanol could result in ideal immunostaining of basal bodies without inducing obvious deformations. Instead of treating slices at −20°C (without proper cryoprotection measurements) as suggested in previous studies, we carried out methanol treatment at room temperature. Our modified protocol can not only raise immunostaining efficiency in tissue slices, it may also prevent potential freezing damages to the samples. PMID:26509907

  11. Asymptotic expansions of the Cotton-York tensor on slices of stationary spacetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroon, Juan Antonio Valiente [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Wien, Boltzmanngasse 5, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2004-07-07

    We discuss expansions for the Cotton-York tensor near infinity for arbitrary slices of stationary spacetimes. From these expansions, it follows directly that a necessary condition for the existence of conformally flat slices in stationary solutions is the vanishing of a certain quantity of quadrupolar nature (obstruction). The obstruction is non-zero for the Kerr solution. Thus, the Kerr metric admits no conformally flat slices. An analysis of the next order terms in the expansions in the case of solutions such that the obstruction vanishes, suggests that the only stationary solutions admitting conformally flat slices are the Schwarzschild family of solutions.

  12. A comparative risk assessment for Listeria monocytogenes in prepackaged versus retail-sliced deli meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endrikat, Sarah; Gallagher, Daniel; Pouillot, Régis; Hicks Quesenberry, Heather; Labarre, David; Schroeder, Carl M; Kause, Janell

    2010-04-01

    Deli meat was ranked as the highest-risk ready-to-eat food vehicle of Listeria monocytogenes within the 2003 U.S. Food and Drug Administration and U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service risk assessment. The comparative risk of L. monocytogenes in retail-sliced versus prepackaged deli meats was evaluated with a modified version of this model. Other research has found that retail-sliced deli meats have both higher prevalence and levels of L. monocytogenes than have product sliced and packaged at the manufacturer level. The updated risk assessment model considered slicing location as well as the use of growth inhibitors. The per annum comparative risk ratio for the number of deaths from retail-sliced versus prepackaged deli meats was found to be 4.89, and the per-serving comparative risk ratio was 4.27. There was a significant interaction between the use of growth inhibitors and slicing location. Almost 70% of the estimated deaths occurred from retail-sliced product that did not possess a growth inhibitor. A sensitivity analysis, assessing the effect of the model's consumer storage time and shelf life assumptions, found that even if retail-sliced deli meats were stored for a quarter of the time prepackaged deli meats were stored, retail-sliced product is 1.7 times more likely to result in death from listeriosis. Sensitivity analysis also showed that the shelf life assumption had little effect on the comparative risk ratio.

  13. The clinical efficacy of 1 mm-slice CT of the middle ear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noda, Kazuhiro; Noiri, Teruhisa [Kawanishi Municipal Hospital, Hyogo (Japan); Doi, Katsumi; Koizuka, Izumi; Tanaka, Hisashi; Mishiro, Yasuo; Okumura, Shin-ichi; Kubo, Takeshi

    2000-02-01

    The efficacy of the preoperative 1 mm-slice CT for evaluating the condition of the ossicular chain and the facial canal was assessed. CT findings were compared with the operative findings of middle ears in 120 cases of chronic otitis media or cholesteatoma that underwent tympanoplasty. The reliability of 1 mm-slice CT in detecting any defect of the ossicular chain was much superior to those of 2 mm-slice CT previously reported, and the difference between them is essential for preoperative information. On the other hand, thinner slice than 1 mm may be unnecessary, especially in routine use. (author)

  14. Orthogonal Array Optimization of Manufacturing Processes for Pasteurized Sliced Ham%正交试验优化蒸煮切片火腿工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李贺; 徐幸莲; 李春保; 周光宏

    2012-01-01

    The present study was carried out to discover the effect of various manufacturing parameters on color formation in pasteurized sliced ham.One-factor-at-a-time and orthogonal array design methods were employed to investigate the effects of amount of sodium nitrite added in pasteurized sliced ham,total amount of mixed phosphates(sodium tripolyphosphate,sodium pyrophosphate and sodium hexametaphosphate at a mass ratio of 2:2:1),cooking temperature and rolling time+curing time on the redness and nitrosylhemochromogen content of pasteurized sliced ham.The changes in color parameters,non-heme iron content,sodium nitrite content and pH of 9 orthogonal array runs were measured during 28 d of storage.The results indicated that the optimal manufacturing parameters were determined as follows: sodium nitrite amount 0.05 g/kg,total amount of mixed phosphates 5 g/kg,16 h of rolling followed by 8 h of curing,and cooking temperature 70 ℃.No interactive effects were found among various manufacturing parameters.The addition of more sodium nitrite in pasteurized sliced ham resulted in increased residue levels.There was no significant correlation between non-heme iron content and color parameters.%研究加工工艺对低温肉制品颜色形成的影响。以蒸煮切片火腿为原料,通过单因素试验和正交试验考察亚硝酸钠添加量、混合磷酸盐添加量、蒸煮温度和滚揉/腌制时间比4种因素对产品红度值和亚硝基血红素质量分数的影响,并通过为期28d的贮藏实验,考察各正交处理组的色泽指标及非血红素铁、亚硝酸盐、pH值在贮藏中的变化情况。结果表明:最优工艺为亚硝酸钠添加量0.05g/kg、混合磷酸盐添加量5g/kg、滚揉16h后腌制8h、蒸煮温度70℃;各影响因素间无交互作用;添加亚硝酸钠越多,残留量越大,非血红素铁与色泽指标无显著相关性。

  15. 8种园林彩叶植物叶片显色部位分析%Coloration tissue analysis of leaf color in eight garden colored-leaf plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱东萍; 赵云

    2012-01-01

    [Objective]The purpose of this experiment was to study leaf structure and coloration tissue location of he-liophyte including Hibiscus rosa-sinensis var. variegata, Codiaeum variegatum var. pictum, Brassica oleracea var. acephala and Loropetalum chinense Olive var. rubrum Yieh.and shade plants including Syngonium podophyllum cv. ' White Butterfly' , Rhoeo discolor Hance, Stromanthe sanguinea Sond and Excoecaria cochinchinensis Lou. [ Method ] After fixed with FAA, the fresh leaves were made into temporary slices to observe under microscope and photographed. [ Result ]The coloration tissue of Excoecaria cochinchinensis Lour, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis var. variegata, Brassica oleracea var. acephala, Rhoeo discolor Hance and Stromanthe sanguinea Sond existed in leaf epidermis, and Codiaeum variegatum var. pictum, Loropetalum chinense Olive var. rubrum Yieh, and Syngonium podophyllum cv. 'White Butter-fly' existed in palisade tissue or spongy tissue of mesophyll. [Conclusion]In summary, heliophyte and shade plants had similar coloration tissue with pigment in leaf epidermis or mesophyll tissue. Ecological characteristics were not the sole indicator for color expression in the color-leafed plants.%[目的]研究阳生植物羽衣甘蓝、花叶扶桑、红花檵木、细叶变叶木及阴生植物紫背万年青、紫背竹芋、红背桂和白蝶合果芋共8种彩叶植物的叶片结构及其显色部位,为探索园林彩叶植物的显色特性和呈色机理提供理论依据.[方法]取上述8种植物的新鲜叶片作为材料,用FAA固定后制作叶片结构的临时切片,显微观察摄影并分析.[结果]红背桂、花叶扶桑、羽衣甘蓝、紫背万年青、紫背竹芋这5种植物的显色部位在叶表皮中;细叶变叶木、红花檵木和白蝶合果芋这3种植物的显色部位在叶肉的栅栏组织或海绵组织中.[结论]阴生植物和阳生植物的显色部位类似,色素存在于叶表皮或叶肉组织中,因此不能以生态

  16. Hoopoes color their eggs with antimicrobial uropygial secretions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Juan J.; Martín-Vivaldi, M.; Peralta-Sánchez, J. M.; Arco, L.; Juárez-García-Pelayo, N.

    2014-09-01

    Uropygial gland secretions are used as cosmetics by some species of birds to color and enhance properties of feathers and teguments, which may signal individual quality. Uropygial secretions also reach eggshells during incubation and, therefore, may influence the coloration of birds' eggs, a trait that has attracted the attention of evolutionary biologists for more than one century. The color of hoopoe eggs typically changes along incubation, from bluish-gray to greenish-brown. Here, we test experimentally the hypothesis that dark uropygial secretion of females is responsible for such drastic color change. Moreover, since uropygial secretion of hoopoes has antimicrobial properties, we also explore the association between color and antimicrobial activity of the uropygial secretion of females. We found that eggs stayed bluish-gray in nests where female access to the uropygial secretion was experimentally blocked. Furthermore, experimental eggs that were maintained in incubators and manually smeared with uropygial secretion experienced similar color changes that naturally incubated eggs did, while control eggs that were not in contact with the secretions did not experience such color changes. All these results strongly support the hypothesis that female hoopoes use their uropygial gland secretion to color the eggs. Moreover, saturation of the uropygial secretion was associated with antimicrobial activity against Bacillus licheniformis. Given the known antimicrobial potential of uropygial secretions of birds, this finding opens the possibility that in scenarios of sexual selection, hoopoes in particular and birds in general signal antimicrobial properties of their uropygial secretion by mean of changes in egg coloration along incubation.

  17. Personalized 2D color maps

    KAUST Repository

    Waldin, Nicholas

    2016-06-24

    2D color maps are often used to visually encode complex data characteristics such as heat or height. The comprehension of color maps in visualization is affected by the display (e.g., a monitor) and the perceptual abilities of the viewer. In this paper we present a novel method to measure a user\\'s ability to distinguish colors of a two-dimensional color map on a given monitor. We show how to adapt the color map to the user and display to optimally compensate for the measured deficiencies. Furthermore, we improve user acceptance of the calibration procedure by transforming the calibration into a game. The user has to sort colors along a line in a 3D color space in a competitive fashion. The errors the user makes in sorting these lines are used to adapt the color map to his perceptual capabilities.

  18. Color and appearance metrology facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The NIST Physical Measurement Laboratory has established the color and appearance metrology facility to support calibration services for 0°/45° colored samples, 20°,...

  19. Testing Children for Color Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stories Español Eye Health / News Testing Children for Color Blindness Written By: Shirley Dang Apr. 03, 2014 New study shows that kids can be tested for color blindness as soon as age 4, finds Caucasian boys ...

  20. Color Changes Mark Polymer Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, James H.

    1980-01-01

    Describes how polydiacetylenes can be used as educational aids. These polymers have conjugated backbones, which cause changes in color when the polydiacetylenes undergo various chemical and physical processes. Diagrams summarize all chemical reactions and their associated color changes. (CS)