WorldWideScience

Sample records for colonic transit study

  1. Scintigraphic colonic transit study in children with chronic constipation

    Yano, Tsunehiro; Uemura, Sadashige; Nakaoka, Tatsuo; Nakagawa, Yoshikiyo; Tanimoto, Terutaka; Sone, Teruki

    2008-01-01

    Chronic constipation can be caused either by slow colonic transit or by functional fecal retention. The treatment strategy for chronic constipation should be based on its etiology. Scintigraphic colonic transit study (SCTS) is useful for dividing the cause of the constipation into slow colonic transit and functional fecal retention. SCTS is also useful for judging the therapeutic effect and postoperative intestinal motility of Hirschsprung's disease, anorectal molformation, and others. As SCTS is a safe, simple, and painless examination, it is one of the most important examinations in evaluating chronic constipation. (author)

  2. A study of the colonic transit function by dual radionuclide colon scintigraphy

    Yang Weidong; Sun Buzhou; Song Changyi; Lu Jinyan; Wang Shejiao; Zheng Xianghong; Huang Lin; Lei Yamei

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To establish a new, simple and noninvasive method which can quantitatively analyze the colonic transit function by dual radionuclide colon scintigraphy. Methods: 24 patients with constipation and 32 normal controls were studied. Na 131 I was sealed into capsule made by polyvinylchloride which can not be digested and absorbed in gastrointestinal tract. Patients and normal volunteers swallow 131 I capsules and drink 99 Tc m labelled sulfur colloid solution at the same time. The static image was acquired at the regular time, then calculate the Geometric Center values (GC). Results: 1) The capsules can be clearly located through the colonic contour shown by 99 Tc m labeled sulfur colloid when it reached the large bowel. 2) The transiting time from mouth to cecum, through colon and through whole gastrointestinal in normal people were (6.61 +- 1.94), (36.61 +- 10.51) and (42.72 +- 10.02) h, respectively, in constipation group were (8.03 +- 3.63), (65.50 +- 28.40) and (74.05 +- 28.17) h, respectively. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in two groups compared with each other. But the transiting time through colon and whole gastrointestinal in constipation was slower than that in normal people, with significant difference (P < 0.01). 3) Through examination the colonic transit abnormality can be divided into three patterns: whole colon transit delay, right-colon transit delay and left-colon transit delay. Conclusions: This method is a simple, physiologic and quantitative in evaluating the colonic transit, it can also stage the colonic dyskinesia of the patients

  3. Gallium colonic transit study patterns in obstructive defecation

    Bartholomeusz, F.D.L.; Sun, W.M.; Gaffney, R.; Ganesananthan, S.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Idiopathic constipation may be due to delayed colonic transit or ano-rectal dysfunction and obstructive defecation. The aim of this study was to relate patterns of colonic transit to results of ano-rectal manometry. Sixteen patients (4 males, 12 females, age 20-58 years) were studied. All underwent ano-rectal manometric studies and colonic transit studies. The transit studies were performed following the oral ingestion of 4 MBq 67 Gacitrate with images performed at 6, 24, 48 and 72 h. Computed data on half clearance times (T 1/2 ), mean activity positions (MAP) and segmental tracer retention were obtained. Five patients had normal ano-rectal manometry, 7 decreased rectal sensation and 4 absent or paradoxical ano-rectal reflex (anismus). The T 1/2 for subjects with normal manometry was 78.5 ± 11.9 h, decreased rectal sensation 73 ± 4.9 h and the anismus group 52 ± 12.1 h (P < 0.05). Total retention at 72 h was less at 56 ± 3.73 h in the anismus group compared to normal manometry (74.7 ± 12.2) and decreased rectal sensation (90.7 ± 12.1), with higher MAP and less tracer in the right colon at 48 h in the anismus group (P < 0.05). The results indicate that colonic transit studies in constipated patients with anismus have different patterns to those with normal anorectal manometry or decreased rectal sensation

  4. Assessment of colonic transit time using MRI: a feasibility study

    Buhmann, Sonja; Reiser, Maximilian F.; Lienemann, Andreas [Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Department of Clinical Radiology, Campus Grosshadern, Munich (Germany); Kirchhoff, Chlodwig; Ladurner, Roland; Mussack, Thomas [Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Department of Surgery and Traumatology, Campus Innenstadt, Munich (Germany)

    2007-03-15

    The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate a new, non-invasive examination method using MRI for the quantification of the colonic transit time after oral administration of gadolinium-saline solution filled capsules. Healthy volunteers without previous or acute symptoms of gastrointestinal disorders were enrolled. After a 3-day diet for the standardization of gastrocolonic content the volunteers swallowed five Gd-DTPA/saline 0.9%-filledcapsules. Seven different concentrations of Gd-DTPA/saline 0.9% solution between 1:0 and 0:1 were tested in a dilution series. Following ingestion of capsules, coronal Flash T1 and True Fisp sequences using a 1.5 Tesla system were obtained at 0 h, 3 h, 6 h, 12 h, 24 h, 36 h and 60 h. Sequences were analyzed by two independent experts for locating the capsules. Overall colonic transit time was separately analyzed for both genders. Fifteen healthy volunteers (7 females, 8 males; mean age 34{+-}13 years) were enrolled. The phantom study provided the best contrast in both the T1-and T2-weighted sequences defining a ratio of 1:10 for Gd-DTPA/saline 0.9% solution. The mean transit time accounted for 41{+-}9 h in women and for 31{+-}10 h in men. MRI is an adequate method for the assessment of colonic transit time offering the advantages of no exposure to radiation, short examination time, possible dynamic evaluation of the transit and the practicability in terms of a future adoption to clinical routine. (orig.)

  5. Assessment of colonic transit time using MRI: a feasibility study

    Buhmann, Sonja; Reiser, Maximilian F.; Lienemann, Andreas; Kirchhoff, Chlodwig; Ladurner, Roland; Mussack, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate a new, non-invasive examination method using MRI for the quantification of the colonic transit time after oral administration of gadolinium-saline solution filled capsules. Healthy volunteers without previous or acute symptoms of gastrointestinal disorders were enrolled. After a 3-day diet for the standardization of gastrocolonic content the volunteers swallowed five Gd-DTPA/saline 0.9%-filledcapsules. Seven different concentrations of Gd-DTPA/saline 0.9% solution between 1:0 and 0:1 were tested in a dilution series. Following ingestion of capsules, coronal Flash T1 and True Fisp sequences using a 1.5 Tesla system were obtained at 0 h, 3 h, 6 h, 12 h, 24 h, 36 h and 60 h. Sequences were analyzed by two independent experts for locating the capsules. Overall colonic transit time was separately analyzed for both genders. Fifteen healthy volunteers (7 females, 8 males; mean age 34±13 years) were enrolled. The phantom study provided the best contrast in both the T1-and T2-weighted sequences defining a ratio of 1:10 for Gd-DTPA/saline 0.9% solution. The mean transit time accounted for 41±9 h in women and for 31±10 h in men. MRI is an adequate method for the assessment of colonic transit time offering the advantages of no exposure to radiation, short examination time, possible dynamic evaluation of the transit and the practicability in terms of a future adoption to clinical routine. (orig.)

  6. A simple method for preparing radioactive capsules in colon transit study

    Wang Shyhjen; Lin Wanyu; Tsai Shihchuan; Chen Granhun

    2000-01-01

    Colon transit study is currently performed by delivering technetium-99m or indium-111 labelled activated charcoal to the colon in a methacrylate-coated capsule (coated capsule). However, the coating procedure is complicated and methacrylate has not been approved by the Food and Drug Administration. Therefore, a simpler method is needed for the clinical routine use of colon transit study. In this study, we used a commercial empty enteric capsule and a coated capsule for the measurement of colon transit time. We compared the in vitro stability and in vivo scintigraphy of 99m Tc-labelled activated charcoal in the coated capsule and the enteric capsule to evaluate the possibility of clinical usage of the enteric capsule for colon transit time study. Activated charcoal powder was mixed with 99m Tc-diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid (DTPA) and vaporized to dryness. The dry 99m Tc-DTPA activated charcoal was loaded into the coated capsule and the enteric capsule. In vitro stability study was performed by immersing these capsules in a colourless buffer of variable pH which mimicked the conditions in the stomach and the small bowel. Capsule disruption was determined. Colon transit scintigraphy with 99m Tc-DTPA charcoal was performed in five normal volunteers using these two capsules. The in vitro stability of these two types of capsule was similar and the colon transit scintigraphy findings were almost identical. Most capsules dissolved in the ascending colon and very few in the terminal ileum. It is concluded that enteric capsule is a suitable alternative to coated capsule for measurement of colon transit. (orig.)

  7. Gallium-67 activated charcoal: a new method for preparation of radioactive capsules for colonic transit study

    Cheng, Kai-Yuan; Tsai, Shih-Chuan; Lin, Wan-Yu.

    2003-01-01

    Indium-111 is currently the radionuclide of choice for colonic transit study. However, it is expensive and not available in many hospitals. Technetium-99m has been proposed for colonic transit study but the short half-life has limited its use. Gallium-67 citrate is inexpensive and available in most countries. Most importantly, it has a suitable half-life for colonic transit study. Attempts have been made in some studies to use 67 Ga citrate to label activated charcoal, but the results have not been good because of poor stability. In this study, we successfully labelled activated charcoal with 67 Ga citrate by adding alcohol and 5% glucose solution. To evaluate the in vitro stability, the 67 Ga-activated charcoal was incubated in a milieu mimicking the intestinal content, containing lipase, trypsin and glycochenodeoxycholate at different pH values (6.0, 7.0, 7.4 and 8.0) and for different durations (0 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h and 96 h). For the in vivo study, the 67 Ga-activated charcoal was loaded into a commercial empty enteric capsule. Colonic transit scintigraphy was performed in five volunteers, including three healthy people and two constipated patients, after intake of the radioactive capsule. Images were obtained at 2 h, 4 h, 6 h, 8 h, 24h, 48 h, 72 h etc. until no radioactivity was detected in the bowel. Our data show that the in vitro stability of 67 Ga-activated charcoal was good. The labelling efficiency still exceeded 91% at 96 h at pH values of 6.0, 7.0 and 7.4. In the group with a pH value of 8.0, the labelling efficiency gradually fell during the 4-day incubation but was still higher than 88% at the end of the fourth day. In the in vivo study, most capsules disintegrated in the caecum/colon region, and the 67 Ga-activated charcoal mixed very well with bowel content. In addition, the radioactive charcoal could be detected clearly on the 72-h image, which is very important for the evaluation of colonic transit time in patients with constipation. In

  8. Gallium-67 activated charcoal: a new method for preparation of radioactive capsules for colonic transit study

    Cheng, Kai-Yuan [Department of Radiological Technology, ChungTai Institute of Health Sciences and Technology, Taichung (Taiwan); Tsai, Shih-Chuan [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Show Chwan Memorial Hospital, Changhua (Taiwan); Lin, Wan-Yu. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, 160 Taichung Harbor Road, Section 3, 40705, Taichung (Taiwan)

    2003-06-01

    Indium-111 is currently the radionuclide of choice for colonic transit study. However, it is expensive and not available in many hospitals. Technetium-99m has been proposed for colonic transit study but the short half-life has limited its use. Gallium-67 citrate is inexpensive and available in most countries. Most importantly, it has a suitable half-life for colonic transit study. Attempts have been made in some studies to use {sup 67}Ga citrate to label activated charcoal, but the results have not been good because of poor stability. In this study, we successfully labelled activated charcoal with {sup 67}Ga citrate by adding alcohol and 5% glucose solution. To evaluate the in vitro stability, the {sup 67}Ga-activated charcoal was incubated in a milieu mimicking the intestinal content, containing lipase, trypsin and glycochenodeoxycholate at different pH values (6.0, 7.0, 7.4 and 8.0) and for different durations (0 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h and 96 h). For the in vivo study, the {sup 67}Ga-activated charcoal was loaded into a commercial empty enteric capsule. Colonic transit scintigraphy was performed in five volunteers, including three healthy people and two constipated patients, after intake of the radioactive capsule. Images were obtained at 2 h, 4 h, 6 h, 8 h, 24h, 48 h, 72 h etc. until no radioactivity was detected in the bowel. Our data show that the in vitro stability of {sup 67}Ga-activated charcoal was good. The labelling efficiency still exceeded 91% at 96 h at pH values of 6.0, 7.0 and 7.4. In the group with a pH value of 8.0, the labelling efficiency gradually fell during the 4-day incubation but was still higher than 88% at the end of the fourth day. In the in vivo study, most capsules disintegrated in the caecum/colon region, and the {sup 67}Ga-activated charcoal mixed very well with bowel content. In addition, the radioactive charcoal could be detected clearly on the 72-h image, which is very important for the evaluation of colonic transit time in patients

  9. DA-9701 improves colonic transit time and symptoms in patients with functional constipation: A prospective study.

    Kim, Su Young; Woo, Hyun Sun; Kim, Kyoung Oh; Choi, Sung Han; Kwon, Kwang An; Chung, Jun-Won; Kim, Yoon Jae; Kim, Jung Ho; Kim, Su Ji; Park, Dong Kyun

    2017-12-01

    DA-9701, a newly developed prokinetic agent formulated with Pharbitis Semen and Corydalis Tuber, has been shown to effectively treat functional dyspepsia. Recently, it has also been suspected to improve gastrointestinal motor function. The aims of this study were to assess the effect of DA-9701 on colonic transit time (CTT) and symptoms of functional constipation. Thirty-three patients with functional constipation based on the Rome III criteria were prospectively enrolled. The patients received 30-mg DA-9701 three times a day for 24 days. CTT was estimated initially and at the end of treatment. Symptoms such as spontaneous bowel movements, straining, stool form, feeling of incomplete emptying and anorectal blockage, abdominal discomfort and pain, overall defecation satisfaction, and incidence of adverse events were also analyzed. Twenty-seven patients completed the study. DA-9701 was associated with a significantly reduced CTT from 34.9 ± 17.6 to 23.7 ± 19.1 h (P = 0.001). Segmental CTT also significantly decreased after treatment (right CTT: from 16.8 [0.0-28.8] to 6.0 [0.0-25.2] hours, P DA-9701 accelerates colonic transit and safely improves symptoms in patients with functional constipation. Therefore, we suggest that this novel agent could help to treat patients with this condition. © 2017 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  10. A single-center, prospective, double-blind, sham-controlled, randomized study of the effect of a vibrating capsule on colonic transit in patients with chronic constipation.

    Nelson, A D; Camilleri, M; Acosta, A; Boldingh, A; Busciglio, I; Burton, D; Ryks, M; Zinsmeister, A R

    2017-07-01

    In an open-label study of 26 patients with IBS-C and chronic constipation, treatment with a vibrating (VIBRANT) capsule twice a week for 7.5 weeks resulted in 88.5% responders. Effects on colonic transit are unclear. We aimed to compare effects of VIBRANT and sham capsule treatment on colonic transit in patients with functional constipation. Patients with functional constipation (Rome III criteria) were randomized to VIBRANT or sham capsule treatment for 8 weeks and underwent scintigraphic colonic transit measurements during week 8. We estimated the overall rate of colonic transit from the slope of progression of colonic geometric center over 48 hours. The capsule was activated 8 hours after ingestion, and the vibration sequence included 240 cycles. There were no significant group differences in overall colonic transit [GC48, 2.76 (IQR 2.42-4.03) for sham group and 3.46 (2.55-4.61) for active treatment group (P=.13)]. Additionally, the progression of the isotope through the colon was numerically faster, though not significantly different (slope, P=.14) in the VIBRANT capsule group compared to the sham group. Three participants in the VIBRANT capsule group had accelerated colonic transit at 32 hours and faster colonic transit slope compared to the 95th percentile of the sham group. Although there were no group differences between VIBRANT and sham capsule treatment on colonic transit, at least one (and possibly three) of 12 patients receiving the VIBRANT capsule had faster colonic transit. The vibration parameters to accelerate colonic transit in patients with functional constipation require further optimization. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Influence of the particle size of activated charcoal on labeling efficiency with 67Ga-citrate for colonic transit study

    Wan-Yu Lin; Shih-Chuan Tsai; Kai-Yuan Cheng; Bor-Tsung Hsieh

    2008-01-01

    Indium-111 and 99m Tc have been proposed for colonic transit study, but 111 In is expensive and the half-life of 99m Tc is too short for the study. Gallium-67 citrate is inexpensive and has a suitable half-life. In our previous study, we successfully labeled 67 Ga-citrate activated charcoal, and the labeling efficiency exceeded 91% after a 96 hour incubation period. In this work, we evaluated the influence of the size of activated charcoal particles on the labeling efficiency with 67 Ga-citrate. The data showed that the influence of particle size on the labeling efficiency of activated charcoal with 67 Ga was insignificant. Both sizes of activated charcoal particles can be used for labeling with 67 Ga in colonic transit study. (author)

  12. Luteolin inhibits the colon cancer HT-29 cell proliferation, migration and epithelial-mesenchymal transition: an experimental study

    Xin Meng

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the regulating effect of luteolin on colon cancer HT-29 cell proliferation, migration and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Methods: Colon cancer HT-29 cells were cultured and randomly divided into two groups, control group were treated with serum-free medium without drugs and LUT group were treated with serum-free medium containing luteolin. After 24 h of treatment, cells were collected to extract RNA, and then fluorescent quantitative PCR method was used to determine the mRNA expression of proliferation genes, migration genes and epithelial-mesenchymal transition genes. Results: After 24 h of luteolin treatment, Lrig1, TSPYL5, Bim, SOX15 and DLC1 mRNA expression in LUT group were significantly higher than those in control group while RPS15a, Bad, TRPV5, TRPV6, PLD2, IBP, SphK1, FAK, Vimentin and N-cadherin mRNA expression were significantly lower than those in control group. Conclusion: Luteolin has inhibiting effect on colon cancer HT-29 cell proliferation, migration and epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

  13. Colon transit scintigraphy by 67 Ga citrate for idiopathic constitution

    Neshandar Asll, I.; Ehsani, M.J.; Javadi, H.

    2005-01-01

    Background/objective: segmental colonic transit studies are important in patients with severe constipation. This study is the first Iranian preliminary survey of colonic transit scintigraphy using 67 Ga -citrate as a new method in constipated patients with normal radiographic and colonoscopic evaluations. Patients and methods: thirteen patients with idiopathic constipation underwent colon transit scintigraphy. After oral administration of 6-7 MBq Ga-citrates, serial abdominal images were taken up to 72 hours. Pattern classification wa s performed visually according to the distribution of radioactivity, Scintigraphic parameters such as geometric mean center of seq mental retention of tracer, as well as mean ac activity profiles and colonic tracer half-clearance time were calculated Results: Three patterns of colonic transit scintigraphy were recognized. Nine patients had the normal pattern, i.e. excellent propagation of ac activity. Three patients had the colonic inertia pattern with marked retention of activity in the transverse colon and splenic flexure at 48 hours, One patient had significant retention of activity in the recto sigmoid at 72 hours, defined as functional recto sigmoid obstruction . No significant difference was seen in GMC24h between the normal pattern and colonic inertia (P4.053), but GMC48h and GMC72h markedly differed between the two groups (P50.0 16 and 0.025 respectively). 'The mean half clearance time of the two groups was di different (P4.017). Our results are well compatible with scintigraphic diagnostic criteria in different patterns of colonic transit defined by other studies with different radiotracer. Conclusion: oral 67 Ga -citrate colon transit scintigraphy is a feasible method to evaluate idiopathic constipation and seems to be a suitable surrogate for radio-opaque markers. Keywords: oral 67 Ga -citrate, colonic transit study, idiopathic constipation, scintigraphy

  14. Pathophysiology of chronic childhood constipation: functional and morphological evaluation by anorectal manometry and endosonography and colonic transit study.

    Keshtgar, Alireza S; Ward, Harry C; Clayden, Graham S

    2013-04-01

    Chronic idiopathic constipation (IC) is a common problem in children. We hypothesised that hypertonicity and overactivity of the internal anal sphincter (IAS) contributed to childhood IC. This was a prospective study of children who were admitted for investigation and treatment of chronic constipation at the gastrointestinal motility clinic in Guy's and St. Thomas' Hospital, NHS Foundation Trust, London. All children had a colonic transit marker study followed by anorectal manometry and anal endosonography under ketamine anesthesia. We used a validated symptom severity (SS) score questionnaire for assessment of constipation and fecal incontinence on admission to hospital and during follow-up for 12months. The SS score of 0 was the best and 65 the worst. Of 92 children, 57 were male and median (range) age was 8.46years (3.35-14.97). Duration of symptoms was 4.7years (0.3-13). Soiling was present in 88 (96%) patients, delay in defecation of once every 2 to 3days or less frequently in 86 (93%) and a palpable fecaloma (megarectum) on abdominal examination in 76 (83%). 42 children had 'fecal impaction' requiring disimpaction of stool from the rectum under general anesthesia and 50 had 'no impaction'. The median IAS resting pressure was within the normal range measuring 55mm Hg (25-107) and median amplitude and frequency of the IAS contractions were 10mm Hg (2.0-58) and 17cycles per min (5.0-34), respectively. The median IAS thickness was 0.93mm (0.5-2.0). There was no correlation between amplitude and frequency of anorectal contractions and anal sphincter resting pressure. The mean right colonic transit time was 8.55 (standard deviation ±13.22) h, left colonic transit time was 11.51h (±13.21), rectosigmoid transit time was 25.91h (±18.89) and total colonic transit time was 45.97h (±17.69). The anal sphincter resting pressure is normal in children with chronic IC. Increased frequency and amplitude of IAS contractions seen in these patients do not cause raised anal

  15. Colonic transit time is related to bacterial metabolism and mucosal turnover in the human gut

    Roager, Henrik Munch; Hansen, Lea Benedicte Skov; Bahl, Martin Iain

    Little is known about how colonic transit time relates to human colonic metabolism, and its importance for host health, although stool consistency, a proxy for colonic transit time, has recently been negatively associated with gut microbial richness. To address the relationships between colonic t...... imply a healthy gut microbial ecosystem and points at colonic transit time as a highly important factor to consider in microbiome and metabolomics studies.......Little is known about how colonic transit time relates to human colonic metabolism, and its importance for host health, although stool consistency, a proxy for colonic transit time, has recently been negatively associated with gut microbial richness. To address the relationships between colonic...... transit time and the gut microbial composition and metabolism, we assessed the colonic transit time of 98 subjects using radiopaque markers, and profiled their gut microbiota by16S rRNA gene sequencing and their urine metabolome by ultra performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Based...

  16. Constipation and Colonic Transit Times in Children With Morbid Obesity

    van der Baan-Slootweg, Olga H.; Liem, Olivia; Bekkali, Noor; van Aalderen, Wim M. C.; Rijcken, Tammo H. Pels; Di Lorenzo, Carlo; Benninga, Marc A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the study was to determine the frequency of functional constipation according to the Rome III criteria in children with morbid obesity and to evaluate by measuring colonic transit times (CTTs) whether decreased colonic motility is present in these children. Patients and

  17. Effects of liquid versus solid diet on colonic transit in humans. Evaluation by standard colonic transit scintigraphy

    Kaufman, P.N.; Richter, J.E.; Chilton, H.M.; Kerr, R.M.; Cowan, R.C.; Gelfand, D.W.; Ott, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of liquid versus solid diet on human colonic transit were investigated, and transit following cecal instillation of tracer was compared with transit following instillation in the proximal jejunum. In a randomized cross-over, single-blind fashion, 6 normal volunteers ingesting either normal solid foods or a liquid diet were studied using colonic transit scintigraphy. 111In-DTPA was instilled either into the cecum via a long intestinal tube or into the proximal jejunum via a feeding tube. Compared with the liquid diet, the solid diet slowed transit in the cecum and ascending colon (p less than 0.025) and delayed progression of the geometric center (p less than 0.05) during the first 4 h of the study. Transit from 18 to 48 h was similar on the 2 diets. On the solid diet, transit was similar whether 111In-DTPA was instilled into the proximal jejunum or into the cecum. Transit from the terminal ileum to the cecum was assessed in an additional 5 volunteers following jejunal instillation of 99mTc-DTPA. Cecal filling was rapid (T1/2 = 0.49 h) and complete in all subjects before the onset of cecal emptying. These results suggest that colonic transit is slower on a solid than a liquid diet and that jejunal instillation of radiopharmaceuticals should be suitable for colonic transit studies in most subjects

  18. Effects of morphine and naloxone on feline colonic transit

    Krevsky, B.; Libster, B.; Maurer, A.H.; Chase, B.J.; Fisher, R.S.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of endogenous and exogenous opioid substances on feline colonic transit were evaluated using colonic transit scintigraphy. Naloxone accelerated emptying of the cecum and ascending colon, and filling of the transverse colon. Endogenous opioid peptides thus appear to play a significant role in the regulation of colonic transit. At a moderate dose of morphine cecum and ascending colon transit was accelerated, while at a larger dose morphine had no effect. Since naloxone, a relatively nonspecific opioid antagonist, and morphine, a principally mu opioid receptor agonist, both accelerate proximal colonic transit, a decelerating role for at least one of the other opioid receptors is inferred

  19. Effects of morphine and naloxone on feline colonic transit

    Krevsky, B.; Libster, B.; Maurer, A.H.; Chase, B.J.; Fisher, R.S.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of endogenous and exogenous opioid substances on feline colonic transit were evaluated using colonic transit scintigraphy. Naloxone accelerated emptying of the cecum and ascending colon, and filling of the transverse colon. Endogenous opioid peptides thus appear to play a significant role in the regulation of colonic transit. At a moderate dose of morphine cecum and ascending colon transit was accelerated, while at a larger dose morphine had no effect. Since naloxone, a relatively nonspecific opioid antagonist, and morphine, a principally mu opioid receptor agonist, both accelerate proximal colonic transit, a decelerating role for at least one of the other opioid receptors is inferred.

  20. Recovery of colonic transit following extrinsic nerve damage in rats.

    Ridolfi, Timothy J; Tong, Wei Dong; Kosinski, Lauren; Takahashi, Toku; Ludwig, Kirk A

    2011-06-01

    Injury to pelvic sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves from surgical and obstetrical trauma has long been cited as a cause for abnormal colorectal motility in humans. Using a rat model, acute transaction of these extrinsic nerves has been shown to effect colorectal motility. The aim of this study is to determine in a rat model how transection of these extrinsic nerves affects colonic transit over time. Eighty-two Sprague-Dawley rats underwent placement of a tunneled catheter into the proximal colon. Bilateral hypogastric, pelvic nerves (HGN and PN) or both were transected in 66 rats. The remaining 16 rats received a sham operation. Colonic transit was evaluated at postoperative days (PODs) 1, 3, and 7 by injecting and calculating the geometric center (GC) of the distribution of (51)Cr after 3 h of propagation. At POD 1, transection of PNs significantly delayed colonic transit (GC = 4.9, p < 0.05), while transection of HGNs (GC = 8.5, p < 0.05) or transection of both nerves (GC = 7.8, p < 0.05) significantly accelerated colonic transit, when compared with sham operation (GC = 6.0). A significant trend toward recovery was noted in both the HGN and PN transection groups at POD 7. Damage to the extrinsic sympathetic and/or parasympathetic PNs affects colonic transit acutely. These changes in large bowel motor function normalize over time implicating a compensatory mechanism within the bowel itself.

  1. Gastrointestinal Motility, Part 2: Small-Bowel and Colon Transit.

    Maurer, Alan H

    2016-03-01

    Because of the difficulty often encountered in deciding whether a patient's symptoms originate in the upper or lower gastrointestinal tract, gastrointestinal transit scintigraphy is a uniquely suited noninvasive, quantitative, and physiologic method of determining whether there is a motility disorder affecting the stomach, small bowel, or colon. Small-bowel and colon transit studies can be performed alone or together with gastric emptying studies after oral administration of an appropriately radiolabeled meal. It is hoped that newly published standards for performing these studies and the anticipated arrival of new Current Procedural Terminology codes in the United States for small-bowel and colon transit studies will increase their availability and use. © 2016 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  2. How many segments are necessary to characterize delayed colonic transit time?

    Bouchoucha, Michel; Devroede, Ghislain; Bon, Cyriaque; Raynaud, Jean-Jacques; Bejou, Bakhtiar; Benamouzig, Robert

    2015-10-01

    Measuring colonic transit time with radiopaque markers is simple, inexpensive, and very useful in constipated patients. Yet, the algorithm used to identify colonic segments is subjective, rather than founded on prior experimentation. The aim of the present study is to describe a rational way to determine the colonic partition in the measurement of colonic transit time. Colonic transit time was measured in seven segments: ascending colon, hepatic flexure, right and left transverse colon, splenic flexure, descending colon, and rectosigmoid in 852 patients with functional bowel and anorectal disorders. An unsupervised algorithm for modeling Gaussian mixtures served to estimate the number of subgroups from this oversegmented colonic transit time. After that, we performed a k-means clustering that separated the observations into homogenous groups of patients according to their oversegmented colonic transit time. The Gaussian mixture followed by the k-means clustering defined 4 populations of patients: "normal and fast transit" (n = 548) and three groups of patients with delayed colonic transit time "right delay" (n = 82) in which transit is delayed in the right part of the colon, "left delay" (n = 87) with transit delayed in the left part of colon and "outlet constipation" (n = 135) for patients with transit delayed in the terminal intestine. Only 3.7 % of patients were "erroneously" classified in the 4 groups recognized by clustering. This unsupervised analysis of segmental colonic transit time shows that the classical division of the colon and the rectum into three segments is sufficient to characterize delayed segmental colonic transit time.

  3. A comparison of methods of assessment of scintigraphic colon transit.

    Freedman, Patricia Noel; Goldberg, Paul A; Fataar, Abdul Basier; Mann, Michael M

    2006-06-01

    There is no standard method of analysis of scintigraphic colonic transit investigation. This study was designed to compare 4 techniques. Sixteen subjects (median age, 37.5 y; range, 21-61 y), who had sustained a spinal cord injury more than a year before the study, were given a pancake labeled with 10-18 MBq of (111)In bound to resin beads to eat. Anterior and posterior images were acquired with a gamma-camera 3 h after the meal and then 3 times a day for the next 4 d. Seven regions of interest, outlining the ascending colon, hepatic flexure, transverse colon, splenic flexure, descending colon, rectosigmoid, and total abdominal activity at each time point, were drawn on the anterior and posterior images. The counts were decay corrected and the geometric mean (GM), for each region, at each time point calculated. The GM was used to calculate the percentage of the initial total abdominal activity in each region, at each time point. Colonic transit was assessed in 4 ways: (a) Three independent nuclear medicine physicians visually assessed transit on the analog images and classified subjects into 5 categories of colonic transit (rapid, intermediate, generalized delay, right-sided delay, or left-sided delay). (b) Parametric images were constructed from the percentage activity in each region at each time point. (c) The arrival and clearance times of the activity in the right and left colon were plotted as time-activity curves. (d) The geometric center of the distribution of the activity was calculated and plotted on a graph versus time. The results of these 4 methods were compared using an agreement matrix. Though simple to perform, the visual assessment was unreliable. The best agreement occurred between the parametric images and the arrival and clearance times of the activity in the right and left colon. The different methods of assessment do not produce uniform results. The best option for evaluating colonic transit appears to be a combination of the analog images

  4. Scintigraphic measurement of colonic transit in patients with idiopathic constipation

    Yoon, K. H.; Kim, C. K.

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate usefulness of scintigraphic measurement of total and regional colonic transit in patients with idiopathic constipation. 25 patients who were complained chronic constipation underwent scintigraphic measurement of the total and regional colon transit. Of them 10 patients were diagnosed as idiopathic constipation, none of whom had evidence of abnormal function of the pelvic floor. Ten healthy volunteers were also studied. 67 Gallium-labelled Amberlite resin particles were ingested in a coated capsule with methacrylate that dispersed in the ileocecal region. Images were obtained using a gamma camera at regular intervals for the 2, 4, 8, 24, and 48 hours after the initial counting of the radioactivity in the cecum. We determined the geometric center in four regions of interest in the colon (ascending, transverse, descending, and rectosigmoid). Ten patients with colonic inertia showed significant retention of solid residue in the ascending and transverse colon over a 48-hour period. The median values for the healthy subjects at 2, 4, 8, and 24, and 48 hours were 1.44±0.2 (midway through ascending), 1.71±0.45 (midway through transverse), 2.64±0.95 (midway through descending), 3.94±0.89 (midway through rectosigmoid), and 4.52±0.76 (midway through the stool compartment). On the contrary, the values of ten patients with colonic inertia were 1.0±0.0 (midway through ascending), 1.0±0.0 (midway through ascending). 1.02 ±0.06 (midway through ascending), 1.70±0.36 (midway through transverse), and 2.33±0.31(midway through descending) at the same time (p<0.001). In patients with idiopathic constipation is characterized by exaggerated reservoir factions of the ascending and transverse colons. Scintigraphy using 67 Gallium-labelled pellets seems to be a useful tool to demonstrate the delayed colonic transit in patients with colonic inertia

  5. Scintigraphic measurement of colonic transit in patients with idiopathic constipation

    Yoon, K. H.; Kim, C. K. [College of Medicine, Wonkwang Univ., Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-07-01

    To evaluate usefulness of scintigraphic measurement of total and regional colonic transit in patients with idiopathic constipation. 25 patients who were complained chronic constipation underwent scintigraphic measurement of the total and regional colon transit. Of them 10 patients were diagnosed as idiopathic constipation, none of whom had evidence of abnormal function of the pelvic floor. Ten healthy volunteers were also studied. 67 Gallium-labelled Amberlite resin particles were ingested in a coated capsule with methacrylate that dispersed in the ileocecal region. Images were obtained using a gamma camera at regular intervals for the 2, 4, 8, 24, and 48 hours after the initial counting of the radioactivity in the cecum. We determined the geometric center in four regions of interest in the colon (ascending, transverse, descending, and rectosigmoid). Ten patients with colonic inertia showed significant retention of solid residue in the ascending and transverse colon over a 48-hour period. The median values for the healthy subjects at 2, 4, 8, and 24, and 48 hours were 1.44{+-}0.2 (midway through ascending), 1.71{+-}0.45 (midway through transverse), 2.64{+-}0.95 (midway through descending), 3.94{+-}0.89 (midway through rectosigmoid), and 4.52{+-}0.76 (midway through the stool compartment). On the contrary, the values of ten patients with colonic inertia were 1.0{+-}0.0 (midway through ascending), 1.0{+-}0.0 (midway through ascending). 1.02 {+-}0.06 (midway through ascending), 1.70{+-}0.36 (midway through transverse), and 2.33{+-}0.31(midway through descending) at the same time (p<0.001). In patients with idiopathic constipation is characterized by exaggerated reservoir factions of the ascending and transverse colons. Scintigraphy using 67 Gallium-labelled pellets seems to be a useful tool to demonstrate the delayed colonic transit in patients with colonic inertia.

  6. Correlation of bowel symptoms with colonic transit, length, and faecal load in functional faecal retention

    Raahave, Dennis; Christensen, Elsebeth; Loud, Franck B.

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Abdominal pain, bloating, and defecation disturbances are common complaints in gastrointestinal functional disorders. This study explores whether bowel symptoms are correlated to colon transit time (CTT), faecal loading (coprostasis), and colon length; and whether prokinetic interve...

  7. Colonic transit time in patient with slow-transit constipation: Comparison of radiopaque markers and barium suspension method

    Xu Huimin [Department of General Surgery, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Capital Medical University, No. 8 Gongtina Lu, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100020 (China); Department of General Surgery, Weifang People' s Hospital, ShanDong Province 261041 (China); Han Jiagang [Department of General Surgery, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Capital Medical University, No. 8 Gongtina Lu, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100020 (China); Na Ying [Department of Medical Imaging, Weifang People' s Hospital, ShanDong Province 261041 (China); Zhao Bo; Ma Huachong [Department of General Surgery, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Capital Medical University, No. 8 Gongtina Lu, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100020 (China); Wang Zhenjun, E-mail: wang3zj@sohu.com [Department of General Surgery, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Capital Medical University, No. 8 Gongtina Lu, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100020 (China)

    2011-08-15

    Background: Colonic transit study provides valuable information before surgical treatment is considered for patient with constipation. The radiopaque markers method is the most common way for evaluating colon transit time. The aim of this study is to compare the barium suspension with the radiopaque makers to assess the colonic mobility in patient with constipation. Methods: Colonic transit time was measured in 11 female patients with slow-transit constipation using both radiopaque markers and barium suspension method. In radiopaque markers method, the patient ingested 20 markers on the first day, and an abdominal radiograph was performed every 24 h until 80% markers were excreted. In barium suspension method, the patient swallowed up to 50 ml of 200% (w/v) barium meal. The abdominal radiographs were taken at the same time point as the former. Results: The total or segmental colonic transit time were obviously prolonged in all patients. Segmental transits time spent in the right colon, left colon and rectosigmoid for radiopaque markers and barium suspension method was, respectively, 30 {+-} 6 h and 34 {+-} 7 h; 38 {+-} 9 h and 32 {+-} 6 h; 40 {+-} 8 h and 38 {+-} 10 h. In the radiopaque markers method, total colonic transit time was 108 {+-} 14 h and it was 103 {+-} 13 h in the barium suspension method (P > 0.05). Conclusion: The barium suspension and radiopaque markers gave the similar results for colonic transit time. The barium suspension was a simple and cheap method for evaluating the colonic mobility.

  8. Colonic transit time in patient with slow-transit constipation: Comparison of radiopaque markers and barium suspension method

    Xu Huimin; Han Jiagang; Na Ying; Zhao Bo; Ma Huachong; Wang Zhenjun

    2011-01-01

    Background: Colonic transit study provides valuable information before surgical treatment is considered for patient with constipation. The radiopaque markers method is the most common way for evaluating colon transit time. The aim of this study is to compare the barium suspension with the radiopaque makers to assess the colonic mobility in patient with constipation. Methods: Colonic transit time was measured in 11 female patients with slow-transit constipation using both radiopaque markers and barium suspension method. In radiopaque markers method, the patient ingested 20 markers on the first day, and an abdominal radiograph was performed every 24 h until 80% markers were excreted. In barium suspension method, the patient swallowed up to 50 ml of 200% (w/v) barium meal. The abdominal radiographs were taken at the same time point as the former. Results: The total or segmental colonic transit time were obviously prolonged in all patients. Segmental transits time spent in the right colon, left colon and rectosigmoid for radiopaque markers and barium suspension method was, respectively, 30 ± 6 h and 34 ± 7 h; 38 ± 9 h and 32 ± 6 h; 40 ± 8 h and 38 ± 10 h. In the radiopaque markers method, total colonic transit time was 108 ± 14 h and it was 103 ± 13 h in the barium suspension method (P > 0.05). Conclusion: The barium suspension and radiopaque markers gave the similar results for colonic transit time. The barium suspension was a simple and cheap method for evaluating the colonic mobility.

  9. Colonic transit time is related to bacterial metabolism and mucosal turnover in the gut

    Roager, Henrik Munch; Hansen, Lea Benedicte Skov; Bahl, Martin Iain

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about how colonic transit time relates to human colonic metabolism and its importance for host health, although a firm stool consistency, a proxy for a long colonic transit time, has recently been positively associated with gut microbial richness. Here, we show that colonic transi...... does not per se imply a healthy gut microbial ecosystem and points at colonic transit time as a highly important factor to consider in microbiome and metabolomics studies.......Little is known about how colonic transit time relates to human colonic metabolism and its importance for host health, although a firm stool consistency, a proxy for a long colonic transit time, has recently been positively associated with gut microbial richness. Here, we show that colonic transit...... time in humans, assessed using radio-opaque markers, is associated with overall gut microbial composition, diversity and metabolism. We find that a long colonic transit time associates with high microbial richness and is accompanied by a shift in colonic metabolism from carbohydrate fermentation...

  10. Number of retained radiopaque markers on a colonic transit study does not correlate with symptom severity or quality of life in chronic constipation.

    Staller, K; Barshop, K; Ananthakrishnan, A N; Kuo, B

    2018-05-01

    Ingestion of radiopaque markers (ROM) is frequently used to determine colonic transit in chronic constipation. Although ≥20% of retained markers at 5 days defines slow-transit constipation, some clinicians use the number of retained markers to determine disease severity. We assembled a cross-sectional cohort of patients presenting for evaluation of chronic constipation who underwent transit testing by ROM and completed validated symptom severity and quality-of-life (QOL) measures. We performed a correlation analysis to determine whether there was an association between number of retained markers and symptom severity and QOL. Among 159 patients undergoing evaluation for chronic constipation, there was poor correlation between the number of retained markers and symptom severity (R = .09, P = .25) and QOL. Among the 55 patients with slow-transit constipation defined by ≥5 retained markers retained on day 5, there were similarly poor correlations between symptom severity (R = .17, P = .21) and QOL (R = .07, P = .60). Excluding patients with irritable bowel syndrome and outlet obstruction by balloon expulsion testing did not materially alter our results, nor did a multivariable analysis controlling for demographic and psychiatric confounders. Among patients with chronic constipation, number of retained markers on a ROM colonic transit study does not correlate with measures of symptom severity or QOL. Clinicians should be cautious about overinterpreting ROM transit testing. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Relationship between functional elongated colonic transit time and constipation

    Xie Yuchang; Qian Xuequn; Zhang Genfu

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To retrospectively analyze the role of colonic transit test in diagnosis and aetiology of constipation. Methods: 87 cases of constipation diagnosed under Agachan scoring system and having completed transit test at least once were enrolled. All cases were divided into two groups: group A have normal colonic transit time, group B have extended colonic transit time. A comparison of the ratio of rectosigmoid transit by total colon (RRT) between group A and B. Result: 32 cases were enrolled in group A and 55 in group B. Low value of RRT was presented in 10 cases out of 32 in group A (31.3%), while in group B the abnormality was observed in 9 cases out of 55 (16.4%). A statistical difference between the two group was revealed by x 2 test (P < 0.01). Conclusion: Colonic transit test helps the confirming the aetiology of constipation, and the evaluation of rectosigmoid transit function is especially valuable

  12. Microbial Mineral Colonization Across a Subsurface Redox Transition Zone

    Brandon eConverse

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study employed 16S rRNA gene amplicon pyrosequencing to examine the hypothesis that chemolithotrophic Fe(II-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB would preferentially colonize the Fe(II-bearing mineral biotite compared to quartz sand when the minerals were incubated in situ within a subsurface redox transition zone (RTZ at the Hanford 300 Area site in Richland, WA, USA. The work was motivated by the recently documented presence of neutral-pH chemolithotrophic FeOB capable of oxidizing structural Fe(II in primary silicate and secondary phyllosilicate minerals in 300 Area sediments and groundwater (Benzine et al., 2013. Sterilized portions of sand+biotite or sand alone were incubated in situ for five months within a multilevel sampling (MLS apparatus that spanned a ca. 2-m interval across the RTZ in two separate groundwater wells. Parallel MLS measurements of aqueous geochemical species were performed prior to deployment of the minerals. Contrary to expectations, the 16S rRNA gene libraries showed no significant difference in microbial communities that colonized the sand+biotite versus sand-only deployments. Both mineral-associated and groundwater communities were dominated by heterotrophic taxa, with organisms from the Pseudomonaceae accounting for up to 70% of all reads from the colonized minerals. These results are consistent with previous results indicating the capacity for heterotrophic metabolism (including anaerobic metabolism below the RTZ as well as the predominance of heterotrophic taxa within 300 Area sediments and groundwater. Although heterotrophic organisms clearly dominated the colonized minerals, several putative lithotrophic (NH4+, H2, Fe(II, and HS- oxidizing taxa were detected in significant abundance above and within the RTZ. Such organisms may play a role in the coupling of anaerobic microbial metabolism to oxidative pathways with attendant impacts on elemental cycling and redox-sensitive contaminant behavior in the vicinity of the

  13. Assessment of chronic constipation: colon transit time versus defecography

    Prokesch, R.W.; Breitenseher, M.J.; Kettenbach, J.; Herbst, F.; Maier, A.; Lechner, G.; Mahieu, P.

    1999-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the value of radiological colon transit time (CTT) measurements in relation to defecography (DFG) in chronically constipated patients. Materials and methods: In 30 patients with chronic constipation, total and segmental CTT was determined using radiopaque markers. In all of these patients defecography (DFG) was obtained. The patients were divided into three groups: In group I, 11 patients were classified with idiopathic constipation based on low stool frequency, normal DFG, or absence of symptoms of abnormal defecation. In group II, ten patients with rectal intussusception were diagnosed by DFG. In group III, there were nine patients with rectal prolapse or spastic pelvic floor syndrome, based on results of DFG. Results: Group I, idiopathic constipation (n=11), showed increased total CTT (mean, 93 h) and segmental CTT (right colon, 33 h (36%), left colon, 31 h (33%), rectosigmoid, 29 h (31%)). In group II, intussusception (n=10), patients had normal mean total CTT (54 h) and a relative decrease in rectosigmoid CTT (mean, 13 h (24%)). In group III (n=9), rectal prolapse (n=5) or spastic pelvic floor syndrome (n=4), patients showed elevated total (mean, 167 h) and rectosigmoidal CTT (mean, 95 h (57%)). Mean total CTT was significantly different between groups I and II and between groups II and III, and mean rectosigmoidal CTT was significantly different between all three groups (P<0.05). Conclusion: The use of total and rectosigmoidal CTT helps to identify the underlying pathophysiology of chronic constipation. Furthermore CTT helps to identify patients, who may benefit from DFG

  14. Assessment of chronic constipation: colon transit time versus defecography

    Prokesch, R.W. E-mail: rupert.prokesch@univie.ac.at; Breitenseher, M.J.; Kettenbach, J.; Herbst, F.; Maier, A.; Lechner, G.; Mahieu, P

    1999-12-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the value of radiological colon transit time (CTT) measurements in relation to defecography (DFG) in chronically constipated patients. Materials and methods: In 30 patients with chronic constipation, total and segmental CTT was determined using radiopaque markers. In all of these patients defecography (DFG) was obtained. The patients were divided into three groups: In group I, 11 patients were classified with idiopathic constipation based on low stool frequency, normal DFG, or absence of symptoms of abnormal defecation. In group II, ten patients with rectal intussusception were diagnosed by DFG. In group III, there were nine patients with rectal prolapse or spastic pelvic floor syndrome, based on results of DFG. Results: Group I, idiopathic constipation (n=11), showed increased total CTT (mean, 93 h) and segmental CTT (right colon, 33 h (36%), left colon, 31 h (33%), rectosigmoid, 29 h (31%)). In group II, intussusception (n=10), patients had normal mean total CTT (54 h) and a relative decrease in rectosigmoid CTT (mean, 13 h (24%)). In group III (n=9), rectal prolapse (n=5) or spastic pelvic floor syndrome (n=4), patients showed elevated total (mean, 167 h) and rectosigmoidal CTT (mean, 95 h (57%)). Mean total CTT was significantly different between groups I and II and between groups II and III, and mean rectosigmoidal CTT was significantly different between all three groups (P<0.05). Conclusion: The use of total and rectosigmoidal CTT helps to identify the underlying pathophysiology of chronic constipation. Furthermore CTT helps to identify patients, who may benefit from DFG.

  15. Colonic transit in rats: effect of ovariectomy, sex steroid hormones, and pregnancy

    Ryan, J.P.; Bhojwani, A.

    1986-01-01

    In vitro studies suggest that the female sex steroid hormones [estrogen (E) and progesterone (P)] can affect the myoelectric and mechanical activity of colonic smooth muscle. The present study was designed to examine the influence of the hormones on colonic transit in vivo. Transit was assessed by quantifying the distribution within the colon of a radiolabeled marker (0.5 μCi Na 2 51 CrO 4 ), using the geometric center method of analysis. Studies were performed with adult male rats and the following groups of female rats: nonpregnant, ovariectomized, ovariectomy plus hormone pretreatment, and pregnant (day 18). Hormone-pretreated animals were studied 24 h following the fourth injection. The data can be summarized as follows. 1) Colonic transit was affected by the timing of the estrus cycle. 2) Ovariectomy eliminated the biphasic transit pattern observed in estruscycling females and resulted in a geometric center value comparable with that of the metestrus-diestrus animals. 3) E + P pretreatment of ovariectomized rats resulted in a significant decrease in the geometric center compared with the untreated ovariectomized rats. 4) The geometric center value in pregnant anials and hormone-pretreated animals. 5) Adult male rats had a geometric center value of 4.12 +/- 0.29. The results suggest that a relation exists between colonic transit and the circulating levels of the steroid hormones

  16. [Determination of total and segmental colonic transit time in constipated children].

    Zhang, Shu-cheng; Wang, Wei-lin; Bai, Yu-zuo; Yuan, Zheng-wei; Wang, Wei

    2003-03-01

    To determine the total and segmental colonic transit time of normal Chinese children and to explore its value in constipation in children. The subjects involved in this study were divided into 2 groups. One group was control, which had 33 healthy children (21 males and 12 females) aged 2 - 13 years (mean 5 years). The other was constipation group, which had 25 patients (15 males and 10 females) aged 3 - 14 years (mean 7 years) with constipation according to Benninga's criteria. Written informed consent was obtained from the parents of each subject. In this study the simplified method of radio opaque markers was used to determine the total gastrointestinal transit time and segmental colonic transit time of the normal and constipated children, and in part of these patients X-ray defecography was also used. The total gastrointestinal transit time (TGITT), right colonic transit time (RCTT), left colonic transit time (LCTT) and rectosigmoid colonic transit time (RSTT) of the normal children were 28.7 +/- 7.7 h, 7.5 +/- 3.2 h, 6.5 +/- 3.8 h and 13.4 +/- 5.6 h, respectively. In the constipated children, the TGITT, LCTT and RSTT were significantly longer than those in controls (92.2 +/- 55.5 h vs 28.7 +/- 7.7 h, P < 0.001; 16.9 +/- 12.6 h vs 6.5 +/- 3.8 h, P < 0.01; 61.5 +/- 29.0 h vs 13.4 +/- 5.6 h, P < 0.001), while the RCTT had no significant difference. X-ray defecography demonstrated one rectocele, one perineal descent syndrome and one puborectal muscle syndrome, respectively. The TGITT, RCTT, LCTT and RSTT of the normal children were 28.7 +/- 7.7 h, 7.5 +/- 3.2 h, 6.5 +/- 3.8 h and 13.4 +/- 5.6 h, respectively. With the segmental colonic transit time, constipation can be divided into four types: slow-transit constipation, outlet obstruction, mixed type and normal transit constipation. X-ray defecography can demonstrate the anatomical or dynamic abnormalities within the anorectal area, with which constipation can be further divided into different subtypes, and

  17. Prognosis of constipation: clinical factors and colonic transit time

    de Lorijn, F; van Wijk, M P; Reitsma, J; van Ginkel, R; Taminiau, J; Benninga, M

    2004-01-01

    Background: Measurement of colonic transit time (CTT) is sometimes used in the evaluation of patients with chronic constipation. Aim: To investigate the relation between symptoms and CTT, and to assess the importance of symptoms and CTT in predicting outcome. Methods: Between 1995 and 2000, 169 consecutive patients (median age 8.4 years, 65% boys) fulfilling the criteria for constipation were enrolled. During the intervention and follow up period, all kept a diary to record symptoms. CTT was measured at entry to the study. Results: At entry, defecation frequency was lower in girls than in boys, while the frequency of encopresis episodes was higher in boys. CTT values were significantly higher in those with a low defecation frequency (⩽1/week) and a high frequency of encopresis (⩾2/day). However, 50% had CTT values within the normal range. Successful outcome occurred more often in those with a rectal impaction. CTT results 100 hours were less likely to have had a successful outcome. Conclusion: The presence of a rectal impaction at presentation is associated with a better outcome at one year. A CTT >100 hours is associated with a poor outcome at one year. PMID:15269069

  18. ZEB1 Promotes Oxaliplatin Resistance through the Induction of Epithelial - Mesenchymal Transition in Colon Cancer Cells.

    Guo, Cao; Ma, Junli; Deng, Ganlu; Qu, Yanlin; Yin, Ling; Li, Yiyi; Han, Ying; Cai, Changjing; Shen, Hong; Zeng, Shan

    2017-01-01

    Background: Oxaliplatin (OXA) chemotherapy is widely used in the clinical treatment of colon cancer. However, chemo-resistance is still a barrier to effective chemotherapy in cases of colon cancer. Accumulated evidence suggests that the epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) may be a critical factor in chemo-sensitivity. The present study investigated the effects of Zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 1 (ZEB1) on OXA-sensitivity in colon cancer cells. Method: ZEB1expression and its correlation with clinicopathological characteristics were analyzed using tumor tissue from an independent cohort consisting of 118 colon cancer (CC) patients who receiving OXA-based chemotherapy. ZEB1 modulation of OXA-sensitivity in colon cancer cells was investigated in a OXA-resistant subline of HCT116/OXA cells and the parental colon cancer cell line: HCT116. A CCK8 assay was carried out to determine OXA-sensitivity. qRT-PCR, Western blot, Scratch wound healing and transwell assays were used to determine EMT phenotype of colon cells. ZEB1 knockdown using small interfering RNA (siRNA) was used to determine the ZEB1 contribution to OXA-sensitivity in vitro and in vivo (in a nude mice xenograft model). Result: ZEB1 expression was significantly increased in colon tumor tissue, and was correlated with lymph node metastasis and the depth of invasion. Compared with the parental colon cancer cells (HCT116), HCT116/OXA cells exhibited an EMT phenotype characterized by up-regulated expression of ZEB1, Vimentin, MMP2 and MMP9, but down-regulated expression of E-cadherin. Transfection of Si-ZEB1 into HCT116/OXA cells significantly reversed the EMT phenotype and enhanced OXA-sensitivity in vitro and in vivo . Conclusion: HCT116/OXA cells acquired an EMT phenotype. ZEB1 knockdown effectively restored OXA-sensitivity by reversing EMT. ZEB1 is a potential therapeutic target for the prevention of OXA-resistance in colon cancer.

  19. Colonic transit time and pressure based on Bernoulli's principle.

    Uno, Yoshiharu

    2018-01-01

    Variations in the caliber of human large intestinal tract causes changes in pressure and the velocity of its contents, depending on flow volume, gravity, and density, which are all variables of Bernoulli's principle. Therefore, it was hypothesized that constipation and diarrhea can occur due to changes in the colonic transit time (CTT), according to Bernoulli's principle. In addition, it was hypothesized that high amplitude peristaltic contractions (HAPC), which are considered to be involved in defecation in healthy subjects, occur because of cecum pressure based on Bernoulli's principle. A virtual healthy model (VHM), a virtual constipation model and a virtual diarrhea model were set up. For each model, the CTT was decided according to the length of each part of the colon, and then calculating the velocity due to the cecum inflow volume. In the VHM, the pressure change was calculated, then its consistency with HAPC was verified. The CTT changed according to the difference between the cecum inflow volume and the caliber of the intestinal tract, and was inversely proportional to the cecum inflow volume. Compared with VHM, the CTT was prolonged in the virtual constipation model, and shortened in the virtual diarrhea model. The calculated pressure of the VHM and the gradient of the interlocked graph were similar to that of HAPC. The CTT and HAPC can be explained by Bernoulli's principle, and constipation and diarrhea may be fundamentally influenced by flow dynamics.

  20. A Study Of Fungal Colonization In Newborn

    S Rashid Husain

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Research Problem: What are the factors responsible for fungal colonization in newborns? Objective: To study the pattern of and predisposing fac­tors for the development of superficial candidiasis and fungal colonization in the newborns. Study Design: Prospective study. Setting: Neonatology unitof the Paediatrics department of a teaching hospital. Participants: Randomly selected pregnant mothers admit­ted to the maternity ward and the newborns delivered to them. Sample Size: 120 pregnant mothers and the newborns delivered. Study Variables: Candida, Site of colonization. Statistical Analysis: By tests of significance Results: Candida was isolated from 23 (19.16% infants on the first day increasing to 52 (43.33% infants on the sixth day. The most common site of colonization was oral cavity. Candida colonization was more common in prema­ture infants (p<0.05. Oral thrush was seen in 29 (24.17% infants during the study and a significant number of these infants showed colonization from the first day of life. Conclusions: Fungal colonization of the newborns due to Candida species is quite common, and in the first week of life predominantly occurred in the ora I cavity. Superficial clinical candidiasis, especially oral thrush is more common in those colonized on the first day of life.

  1. Total and segmental colon transit time in constipated children assessed by scintigraphy with 111In-DTPA given orally.

    Vattimo, A; Burroni, L; Bertelli, P; Messina, M; Meucci, D; Tota, G

    1993-12-01

    Serial colon scintigraphy using 111In-DTPA (2 MBq) given orally was performed in 39 children referred for constipation, and the total and segmental colon transit times were measured. The bowel movements during the study were recorded and the intervals between defecations (ID) were calculated. This method proved able to identify children with normal colon morphology (no. = 32) and those with dolichocolon (no. = 7). Normal children were not included for ethical reasons and we used the normal range determined by others using x-ray methods (29 +/- 4 hours). Total and segmental colon transit times were found to be prolonged in all children with dolichocolon (TC: 113.55 +/- 41.20 hours; RC: 39.85 +/- 26.39 hours; LC: 43.05 +/- 18.30 hours; RS: 30.66 +/- 26.89 hours). In the group of children with a normal colon shape, 13 presented total and segmental colon transit times within the referred normal value (TC: 27.79 +/- 4.10 hours; RC: 9.11 +/- 2.53 hours; LC: 9.80 +/- 3.50 hours; RS: 8.88 +/- 4.09 hours) and normal bowel function (ID: 23.37 +/- 5.93 hours). In the remaining children, 5 presented prolonged retention in the rectum (RS: 53.36 +/- 29.66 hours), and 14 a prolonged transit time in all segments. A good correlation was found between the transit time and bowel function. From the point of view of radiation dosimetry, the most heavily irradiated organs were the lower large intestine and the ovaries, and the level of radiation burden depended on the colon transit time. We can conclude that the described method results safe, accurate and fully diagnostic.

  2. Assessing the colonic microbiome, hydrogenogenic and hydrogenotrophic genes, transit and breath methane in constipation.

    Wolf, P G; Parthasarathy, G; Chen, J; O'Connor, H M; Chia, N; Bharucha, A E; Gaskins, H R

    2017-10-01

    Differences in the gut microbiota and breath methane production have been observed in chronic constipation, but the relationship between colonic microbiota, transit, and breath tests remains unclear. In 25 healthy and 25 constipated females we evaluated the sigmoid colonic mucosal and fecal microbiota using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, abundance of hydrogenogenic FeFe (FeFe-hydA) and hydrogenotrophic (methyl coenzyme M reductase A [mrcA] and dissimilatory sulfite reductase A [dsrA]) genes with real-time qPCR assays, breath hydrogen and methane levels after oral lactulose, and colonic transit with scintigraphy. Breath hydrogen and methane were not correlated with constipation, slow colon transit, or with abundance of corresponding genes. After adjusting for colonic transit, the abundance of FeFehydA, dsrA, and mcrA were greater (Ptransit, and overall microbiome composition. In the colonic mucosa and feces, the abundance of hydrogenogenic and hydrogenotrophic genes were positively correlated (Ptransit. Corroborating our earlier findings with 16S rRNA genes, colonic mucosal but not fecal hydrogenogenic and hydrogenotrophic genes were more abundant in constipated vs. healthy subjects independent of colonic transit. Breath gases do not directly reflect the abundance of target genes contributing to their production. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Fecal pellet output does not always correlate with colonic transit in response to restraint stress and corticotropin-releasing factor in rats

    Nakade, Yukiomi; Mantyh, C.; Pappas, T.N.; Takahashi, Toku

    2007-01-01

    Fecal pellet output has been assessed as a colonic motor activity because of its simplicity. However, it remains unclear whether an acceleration of colonic transit correlates well with an increase in fecal pellet output. We examined the causal relationship between colonic transit and fecal pellet output stimulated by the central application of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and restraint stress. Immediately after intracisternal injection of CRF, 51 Cr was injected via a catheter positioned in the proximal colon. Ninety minutes after 51 Cr injection, the total number of excreted feces was counted, and then the rats were killed. The radioactivity of each colonic segment was evaluated, and the geometric center (GC) of the distribution of 51 Cr was calculated. For the restraint stress study, after administration of 51 Cr into the proximal colon, rats were submitted to wrapping restraint stress for 90 min. Then they were killed, and GC was calculated. Both restraint stress and CRF significantly accelerated colonic transit. There was a positive correlation observed between fecal pellet output and GC of colonic transit in response to restraint stress, but not CRF, when the number of excreted feces was more than three. In contrast, there was no significant correlation observed between the two in stress and CRF when the number of excreted feces was less than two. The acceleration of colonic transit in response to restraint stress and central administration of CRF does not always correlate with an increase in fecal pellet output. (author)

  4. Colonic transit time relates to bacterial metabolism and mucosal turnover in the human gut

    Roager, Henrik Munch; Hansen, Lea Benedicte Skov; Bahl, Martin Iain

    catabolism as reflected by microbial metabolites in urine. This results in a number of potentially deleterious protein-derived metabolites. Additionally, longer colonic transit time correlates with metabolites likely reflecting reduced renewal of the colonic mucosa. Together, this suggests that a high gut...

  5. Value of Abdominal Radiography, Colonic Transit Time, and Rectal Ultrasound Scanning in the Diagnosis of Idiopathic Constipation in Children : A Systematic Review

    Berger, Marjolein Y.; Tabbers, Merit M.; Kurver, Miranda J.; Boluyt, Nicole; Benninga, Marc A.

    Objective To perform a systematic review evaluating the value of abdominal radiography, colonic transit time (CTT), and rectal ultrasound scanning in the diagnosis of idiopathic constipation in children. Study design Eligible studies were those assessing diagnostic accuracy of abdominal radiography,

  6. Interpretation of Overall Colonic Transit in Defecation Disorders in Males and Females

    Shin, Andrea; Camilleri, Michael; Nadeau, Ashley; Nullens, Sara; Rhee, Jong Chul; Jeong, In Du; Burton, Duane D.

    2013-01-01

    Background There is little information regarding gender-specific measurements of colonic transit and anorectal function in patients with defecation disorders (DD). Aim To compare overall colonic transit by gender in DD. Methods In 407 patients with constipation due to DD diagnosed by a single gastroenterologist (1994– 2012), DD was characterized by anorectal manometry, balloon expulsion test, and colonic transit by scintigraphy. The primary endpoint was overall colonic transit (geometric center, GC) at 24hours (GC24). Effects of gender in DD on colonic transit, and comparison with transit in 208 healthy controls were assessed by Mann-Whitney rank sum test. Secondary endpoints were maximum anal resting (ARP) and squeeze (ASP) pressures. We also tested association of the physiological endpoints among DD females by pregnancy history and among DD patients by colectomy history. Results The DD patients were 67 males (M) and 340 females (F). Significant differences by gender in DD patients were observed in GC24 (median: M: 2.2; F: 1.8; p=0.01), ARP (median: M: 87.8mmHg; F: 82.4mmHg; p=0.04), and ASP (median: M: 182.4mmHg; F: 128.7mmHg; p<0.001). GC24 was slower in DD compared to same gender healthy controls. GC24 did not differ among DD females by pregnancy history. Anorectal functions and upper GI transit did not differ among DD patients by colectomy history. Conclusions Patients with DD have slower colonic transit compared to gender-matched controls. Among DD patients, males have higher ARP and ASP, and females have slower colonic transit. Although the clinical significance of these differences may be unclear, findings suggest that interpretation of these tests in suspected DD should be based on same gender control data. PMID:23406422

  7. Colon transit scintiraphy in health and constipation using oral iodine-131-cellulose

    McLean, R.G.; Smart, R.C.; Gaston-Parry, D.; Barbagallo, S.; Baker, J.; Lyons, N.R.; Bruck, C.E.; King, D.W.; Lubowski, D.Z.; Talley, N.A.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess if a new scintigraphic method for noninvasive assessment of colonic transit could differentiate between subjects with normal bowel transit and those with constipation. Eleven normal subjects and 29 constipated patients were given 4 MBq iodine-131-cellulose ( 131 I-cellulose) orally and sequential abdominal scans were performed at 6, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hr from which total and segmental percent retentions were calculated. There were clear differences between the normal subjects and the constipated patients for the total percent retention at all time intervals, on a segmental basis in the right colon at 24 hr, and in all segments at 48 and 72 hr. Three-day urinary excretion of radioiodine was minimal; 2.4% +/- 1.2% (mean +/- s.d.) in constipated patients and 3.1% +/- 0.8% in normals, with approximately 75% occurring in the first day. The use of oral radiotracers in the investigation of constipation appears promising

  8. The Effect of Peripheral CRF Peptide and Water Avoidance Stress on Colonic and Gastric Transit in Guinea Pigs.

    Hussain, Zahid; Kim, Hae Won; Huh, Cheal Wung; Lee, Young Ju; Park, Hyojin

    2017-07-01

    Functional dyspepsia (FD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are common gastrointestinal (GI) diseases; however, there is frequent overlap between FD and IBS patients. Emerging evidence links the activation of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) receptors with stress-related alterations of gastric and colonic motor function. Therefore, we investigated the effect of peripheral CRF peptide and water avoidance stress (WAS) on upper and lower GI transit in guinea pigs. Dosages 1, 3, and 10 μg/kg of CRF were injected intraperitoneally (IP) in fasted guinea pigs 30 minutes prior to the intragastric administration of charcoal mix to measure upper GI transit. Colonic transits in non-fasted guinea pigs were assessed by fecal pellet output assay after above IP CRF doses. Blockade of CRF receptors by Astressin, and its effect on GI transit was also analyzed. Guinea pigs were subjected to WAS to measure gastrocolonic transit in different sets of experiments. Dose 10 μg/kg of CRF significantly inhibited upper GI transit. In contrast, there was dose dependent acceleration of the colonic transit. Remarkably, pretreatment of astressin significantly reverses the effect of CRF peptide on GI transit. WAS significantly increase colonic transit, but failed to accelerate upper GI transit. Peripheral CRF peptide significantly suppressed upper GI transit and accelerated colon transit, while central CRF involved WAS stimulated only colonic transit. Therefore, peripheral CRF could be utilized to establish the animal model of overlap syndrome. © Copyright: Yonsei University College of Medicine 2017.

  9. Colon Transit Time Test in Korean Children with Chronic Functional Constipation

    Yoo, Ha Yeong; Kim, Mock Ryeon; Park, Hye Won; Son, Jae Sung

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Each ethnic group has a unique life style, including diets. Life style affects bowel movement. The aim of this study is to describe the results of colon transit time (CTT) tests in Korean children who had chronic functional constipation based on highly refined data. Methods One hundred ninety (86 males) out of 415 children who performed a CTT test under the diagnosis of chronic constipation according to Rome III criteria at Konkuk University Medical Center from January 2006 through March 2015 were enrolled in this study. Two hundreds twenty-five children were excluded on the basis of CTT test result, defecation diary, and clinical setting. Shapiro-Wilk and Mann-Whitney U, and chi-square tests were used for statistical analysis. Results The median value and interquartile range (IQR) of CTT was 54 (37.5) hours in Encopresis group, and those in non-encopresis group was 40.2 (27.9) hours (pencopresis group and encopresis was statistically significant (p=0.002). The non-encopresis group (n=154, 81.1%) was divided into normal transit subgroup (n=84, 54.5%; median value and IQR of CTT=26.4 [9.6] hours), outlet obstruction subgroup (n=18, 11.7%; 62.4 [15.6] hours), and slow transit subgroup (n=52, 33.8%; 54.6 [21.0] hours]. The encopresis group (n=36, 18.9%) was divided into normal transit subgroup (n=8, 22.2%; median value and IQR of CTT=32.4 [9.9] hours), outlet obstruction subgroup (n=8, 22.2%; 67.8 [34.8] hours), and slow transit subgroup (n=20, 55.6%; 59.4 [62.7]hours). Conclusion This study provided the basic pattern and value of the CTT test in Korean children with chronic constipation. PMID:27064388

  10. Irritable bowel syndrome-diarrhea: characterization of genotype by exome sequencing, and phenotypes of bile acid synthesis and colonic transit

    Klee, Eric W.; Shin, Andrea; Carlson, Paula; Li, Ying; Grover, Madhusudan; Zinsmeister, Alan R.

    2013-01-01

    The study objectives were: to mine the complete exome to identify putative rare single nucleotide variants (SNVs) associated with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)-diarrhea (IBS-D) phenotype, to assess genes that regulate bile acids in IBS-D, and to explore univariate associations of SNVs with symptom phenotype and quantitative traits in an independent IBS cohort. Using principal components analysis, we identified two groups of IBS-D (n = 16) with increased fecal bile acids: rapid colonic transit or high bile acids synthesis. DNA was sequenced in depth, analyzing SNVs in bile acid genes (ASBT, FXR, OSTα/β, FGF19, FGFR4, KLB, SHP, CYP7A1, LRH-1, and FABP6). Exome findings were compared with those of 50 similar ethnicity controls. We assessed univariate associations of each SNV with quantitative traits and a principal components analysis and associations between SNVs in KLB and FGFR4 and symptom phenotype in 405 IBS, 228 controls and colonic transit in 70 IBS-D, 71 IBS-constipation. Mining the complete exome did not reveal significant associations with IBS-D over controls. There were 54 SNVs in 10 of 11 bile acid-regulating genes, with no SNVs in FGF19; 15 nonsynonymous SNVs were identified in similar proportions of IBS-D and controls. Variations in KLB (rs1015450, downstream) and FGFR4 [rs434434 (intronic), rs1966265, and rs351855 (nonsynonymous)] were associated with colonic transit (rs1966265; P = 0.043), fecal bile acids (rs1015450; P = 0.064), and principal components analysis groups (all 3 FGFR4 SNVs; P transit (P = 0.066). Thus exome sequencing identified additional variants in KLB and FGFR4 associated with bile acids or colonic transit in IBS-D. PMID:24200957

  11. Usefulness of colon transit time and defecography in patients with chronic constipation

    Park, Kyoung Seuk; Chung, Jae Joon; Kim, Myung Hyun; Park, Su Mi; Yang, Hee Chul

    2006-01-01

    We wanted to evaluate whether both the colonic transit time (CTT) and defecography are necessary for diagnosing constipated patients, and we also wanted to assess the defecographic findings of patients with outlet obstruction on CTT. Over the recent 3 years, 26 patients (21 women and 5 men, mean age: 59 years) underwent both CTT and defecography because of their chronic constipations or defecation difficulty. The mean interval between the 2 studies was 48 days. Colonoscopy, barium enema and manometry were performed in 22, 8 and all the patients, respectively. On CTT, 13 patients (50.0%) were normal and 13 patients (50.0%) were abnormal; the abnormal results were composed of outlet obstruction (n = 8, 30.8%), outlet obstruction and colon inertia (n = 2, 7.7%), colon inertia (n = 2, 7.7%), and outlet obstruction and hindgut dysfunction (n = 1, 3.8%). On defecography, 6 patients (23.1%) were normal and 20 patients (76.9%) were abnormal; the results were composed of rectocele (n = 8, 30.7%), rectocele and perineal descent syndrome (PDS; n = 4, 15.4%), PDS and rectal intussusception (n = 3, 11.5%), spastic pelvic floor syndrome (SPFS; n = 3, 11.5%), rectocele and SPFS (n = 1, 3.8%), and rectal intussusception (n = 1, 3.8%). Of the 11 patients with outlet obstruction on CTT, rectocele (n = 4, 36.4%), SPFS (n = 1, 9.1%), rectocele and PDS (n = 1, 9.1%), and PDS and rectal intussusception (n = 1, 9.1%) were demonstrated on defecography, except for the 4 normal cases. Both CTT and defecography were necessary for diagnosing the patients with chronic constipation in compensation, and 63.6% of the patients with pelvic outlet obstruction showed an abnormal pelvic defecation function

  12. Usefulness of colon transit time and defecography in patients with chronic constipation

    Park, Kyoung Seuk; Chung, Jae Joon; Kim, Myung Hyun; Park, Su Mi; Yang, Hee Chul [NHIC Ilsan Hospital, Ilsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-05-15

    We wanted to evaluate whether both the colonic transit time (CTT) and defecography are necessary for diagnosing constipated patients, and we also wanted to assess the defecographic findings of patients with outlet obstruction on CTT. Over the recent 3 years, 26 patients (21 women and 5 men, mean age: 59 years) underwent both CTT and defecography because of their chronic constipations or defecation difficulty. The mean interval between the 2 studies was 48 days. Colonoscopy, barium enema and manometry were performed in 22, 8 and all the patients, respectively. On CTT, 13 patients (50.0%) were normal and 13 patients (50.0%) were abnormal; the abnormal results were composed of outlet obstruction (n = 8, 30.8%), outlet obstruction and colon inertia (n = 2, 7.7%), colon inertia (n = 2, 7.7%), and outlet obstruction and hindgut dysfunction (n = 1, 3.8%). On defecography, 6 patients (23.1%) were normal and 20 patients (76.9%) were abnormal; the results were composed of rectocele (n = 8, 30.7%), rectocele and perineal descent syndrome (PDS; n = 4, 15.4%), PDS and rectal intussusception (n = 3, 11.5%), spastic pelvic floor syndrome (SPFS; n = 3, 11.5%), rectocele and SPFS (n = 1, 3.8%), and rectal intussusception (n = 1, 3.8%). Of the 11 patients with outlet obstruction on CTT, rectocele (n = 4, 36.4%), SPFS (n = 1, 9.1%), rectocele and PDS (n = 1, 9.1%), and PDS and rectal intussusception (n = 1, 9.1%) were demonstrated on defecography, except for the 4 normal cases. Both CTT and defecography were necessary for diagnosing the patients with chronic constipation in compensation, and 63.6% of the patients with pelvic outlet obstruction showed an abnormal pelvic defecation function.

  13. Defaecation disorders in children, colonic transit time versus the Barr-score

    Benninga, M. A.; Büller, H. A.; Staalman, C. R.; Gubler, F. M.; Bossuyt, P. M.; van der Plas, R. N.; Taminiau, J. A.

    1995-01-01

    It is still unclear how to evaluate the existence of faecal retention or impaction in children with defaecation disorders. To objectivate the presence and degree of constipation we measured segmental and total colonic transit times (CTT) using radio-opaque markers in 211 constipated children. On

  14. Transit of solids through the human colon: Regional quantification in the unprepared bowel

    Proano, M.; Camilleri, M.; Phillips, S.F.; Brown, M.L.; Thomforde, G.M.

    1990-01-01

    We used a noninvasive method to label the solid phase of contents in the unprepared human colon. 111 In-labeled Amberlite pellets (0.5-1.8 mm diam) were placed in a gelatin capsule that was then coated with a pH-sensitive polymer (methacrylate). In vitro, the capsules disintegrated in simulated small bowel contents within 1-2 h; when ingested by healthy subjects, capsules released radiolabel in the distal ileum or proximal colon in 13 of 15 subjects. Transit of 111 In-pellets through the unprepared colon could then be quantitated radioscintigraphically. Segmental transit was defined in the ascending (AC), transverse (TC), descending (DC), and rectosigmoid (RS) colon. Radioactivity was also quantitated in stools. At 12 h, radioactivity was most obvious in the AC (59 +/- 11%, mean +/- SE) and the TC (21 +/- 6%); at 24 h, counts were distributed equally between AC, TC, and stools (P greater than 0.05); by 48 h, 56 +/- 11% counts had been excreted, although 30 +/- 10% remained in the TC. At 24 and 48 h, the amount in DC or RS was lower (P less than 0.05) than in the TC or in stools. Emptying of the AC was characterized by an initial lag period, when no counts emptied into the TC, followed by a period of emptying that was approximately linear. Thus this simple approach is able to label contents in the healthy human colon. The ascending and transverse colon appear to be sites of storage of solid residue, whereas the left colon and rectosigmoid function mainly as conduits

  15. Effects of cisapride on colonic transit in patients with progressive systemic sclerosis

    Wang, S.J.; Lin, W.Y.; Lan, J.L.; Chen, D.Y.; Chen, Y.H.; Hsieh, T.Y.

    2002-01-01

    Progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS) may involve any portion of the gastrointestinal tract including the colon. Constipation is common in patients with PSS. Cisapride, a benzamide derivative, is a potentially useful agent in the treatment if chronic idiopathic constipation. The effect of cisapride on colonic transit was evaluated in 16 PSS patients by radionuclide colonic transit method. Static images were acquired at regular times, then the geometric center (GC) values were calculated. Each patient received cisapride orally three times a day for a week. The median GC at 4 hours was 0.351 in patients before treatment and 0.775 after treatment. The difference is significant with a p value of 0.026. The median GC at 24 hours was 1.957 in patients before treatment and significantly increased to 2.509 after treatment. The p value was 0.038. Clinically, twelve patients had symptoms of constipation and 8 of them showed improvement of the symptoms after administration of cisapride. The result showed acceleration in colonic transit in response to cisapride. We conclude that cisapride is effective in the treatment of constipation in patients with PSS

  16. Comparison of oral iodine-131-cellulose and indium-111-DTPA as tracers for colon transit scintigraphy: Analysis by colon activity profiles

    Smart, R.C.; McLean, R.G.; Gaston-Parry, D.; Barbagallo, S.; Bruck, C.E.; King, D.W.; Lubowski, D.Z.; Talley, N.A.

    1991-01-01

    In 11 normal subjects and 11 patients with a clinical diagnosis of constipation, oral 131I-cellulose and 111In-DTPA were compared simultaneously as tracers for radionuclide colon transit scintigraphy. Visual assessment of the images revealed no differences between tracers. Quantitation was performed using total and segmental percent retention and the derived value of clearance half-time. In addition, profiles of the activity distribution along the length of the colon were generated and the mean position of the activity in the colon calculated. For all indices, the results were similar in both normal subjects and constipated patients when comparing tracers, although marked differences were present between normal subjects and constipated patients for each tracer. Indium-111-DTPA was easy to administer and dosimetry was more acceptable than for 131I-cellulose, especially in constipated patients. It is concluded that 111In-DTPA is the preferred tracer for oral colon transit scintigraphy

  17. A Study of Clinicopathological Differences Between Right-sided and Left-sided Colon Cancers

    芳賀, 駿介; 遠藤, 俊吾; 加藤, 博之; 高橋, 直樹; 吉松, 和彦; 橋本, 雅彦; 石橋, 敬一郎; 梅原, 有弘; 横溝, 肇; 梶原, 哲郎; Shunsuke, HAGA; Shungo, ENDO; Hiroyuki, KATO; Naoki, TAKAHASHI; Kazuhiko, YOSHIMATSU

    1996-01-01

    The present study was aimed to determine the clinicopathological features of cancers of the right-sided colon (cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon) and left-sided colon (descending colon, sigmoid colon) in order to help improve the efficacy of their treatment. Excluding multiple cancer cases, 364 patients with primary colon cancer underwent surgey at our department between 1974 and 1994; they comprised 171 individuals with right-sided colon cancer and 193 with left-sided colon cancer. A ...

  18. Peroxiredoxin 5 promotes the epithelial-mesenchymal transition in colon cancer

    Ahn, Hye-Mi; Yoo, Jin-Woo; Lee, Seunghoon; Lee, Hong Jun; Lee, Hyun-Shik; Lee, Dong-Seok

    2017-01-01

    Globally, colorectal cancer (CRC) is common cause of cancer-related deaths. The high mortality rate of patients with colon cancer is due to cancer cell invasion and metastasis. Initiation of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is essential for the tumorigenesis. Peroxiredoinxs (PRX1-6) have been reported to be overexpressed in various tumor tissues, and involved to be responsible for tumor progression. However, the exact role of PRX5 in colon cancer remains to be investigated enhancing proliferation and promoting EMT properties. In this study, we constructed stably overexpressing PRX5 and suppressed PRX5 expression in CRC cells. Our results revealed that PRX5 overexpression significantly enhanced CRC cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. On the other hand, PRX5 suppression markedly inhibited these EMT properties. PRX5 was also demonstrated to regulate the expression of two hallmark EMT proteins, E-cadherin and Vimentin, and the EMT-inducing transcription factors, Snail and Slug. Moreover, in the xenograft mouse model, showed that PRX5 overexpression enhances tumor growth of CRC cells. Thus, our findings first provide evidence in CRC that PRX5 promotes EMT properties by inducing the expression of EMT-inducing transcription factors. Therefore, PRX5 can be used as a predictive biomarker and serves as a putative therapeutic target for the development of clinical treatments for human CRC. - Highlights: • PRX5 promoted colorectal cancer cell proliferation. • PRX5 enhanced EMT properties in colorectal cancer. • PRX5 mediated the EMT by inducing the expression of Snail and Slug. • PRX5 promoted tumor growth of colorectal cancer cells.

  19. A link between lipid metabolism and epithelial-mesenchymal transition provides a target for colon cancer therapy

    Sánchez-Martínez, Ruth; Cruz-Gil, Silvia; Gómez de Cedrón, Marta

    2015-01-01

    an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) program that promotes migration and invasion of colon cancer cells. The mesenchymal phenotype produced upon overexpression of these enzymes is reverted through reactivation of AMPK signaling. Furthermore, this network expression correlates with poorer clinical outcome...... of stage-II colon cancer patients. Finally, combined treatment with chemical inhibitors of ACSL/SCD selectively decreases cancer cell viability without reducing normal cells viability. Thus, ACSL/SCD network stimulates colon cancer progression through conferring increased energetic capacity and invasive...... and migratory properties to cancer cells, and might represent a new therapeutic opportunity for colon cancer treatment....

  20. Central neuropeptide Y receptors are involved in 3rd ventricular ghrelin induced alteration of colonic transit time in conscious fed rats

    Ritter Michael

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Feeding related peptides have been shown to be additionally involved in the central autonomic control of gastrointestinal functions. Recent studies have shown that ghrelin, a stomach-derived orexigenic peptide, is involved in the autonomic regulation of GI function besides feeding behavior. Pharmacological evidence indicates that ghrelin effects on food intake are mediated by neuropeptide Y in the central nervous system. Methods In the present study we examine the role of ghrelin in the central autonomic control of GI motility using intracerobroventricular and IP microinjections in a freely moving conscious rat model. Further the hypothesis that a functional relationship between NPY and ghrelin within the CNS exists was addressed. Results ICV injections of ghrelin (0.03 nmol, 0.3 nmol and 3.0 nmol/5 μl and saline controls decreased the colonic transit time up to 43%. IP injections of ghrelin (0.3 nmol – 3.0 nmol kg-1 BW and saline controls decreased colonic transit time dose related. Central administration of the NPY1 receptor antagonist, BIBP-3226, prior to centrally or peripherally administration of ghrelin antagonized the ghrelin induced stimulation of colonic transit. On the contrary ICV-pretreatment with the NPY2 receptor antagonist, BIIE-0246, failed to modulate the ghrelin induced stimulation of colonic motility. Conclusion The results suggest that ghrelin acts in the central nervous system to modulate gastrointestinal motor function utilizing NPY1 receptor dependent mechanisms.

  1. Dietary fibre, transit-time, faecal bacteria, steroids, and colon cancer in two Scandinavian populations. Report from the International Agency for Research on Cancer Intestinal Microecology Group.

    Maclennan, R; Jensen, O M

    1977-07-30

    A comparison of dietary intake and faecal characteristics in population samples from two areas of Denmark and Finland with 4-fold variation in colon-cancer incidence suggests that the aetiology of colon cancer may be multifactorial and is not associated in a simple manner with dietary fat, neutral steroids, acid steroids, or their bacterial metabolites. However, meat consumption was greater in the high-incidence areas. Higher intakes of dietary fibre and milk in the low-incidence area suggest a possible protective effect, unrelated to mouth-anus transit-time. Further careful dietary and metabolic studies are needed to clarify the relationships between possible carcinogenic and protective effects of diet.

  2. A prospective, controlled study of prophylactic drainage after colonic anastomoses

    Hoffmann, J.; Shokouh-Amiri, M H; Damm, P

    1987-01-01

    A prospective, randomized, controlled trial was designed to study the influence of a corrugated latex drain on anastomotic integrity, wound infection, and respiratory complications after elective colonic resections above the pelvic peritoneum. Sixty patients entered the trial; 28 were drained...

  3. Studies on mycoflora colonizing raw keratin wastes in arable soil

    Teresa Korniłłowicz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present studies showed that feathers placed in soil demonstrated the succesion of physiologically differentiated communities of micromycetes. The first colonizers were sugar fungi. The second phase of feather colonization showed the prevalence of nutritively undeveloped polyphages and "root" celulolytic fungi. The final phase of colonization was dominated by keratinophilic fungi together with microflora that involved the forms known mainly for their strong proteolytic abilities. It was found that both the Chemical structure of substrate and soil properties with its pH determined the qualitative composition of fungal flora.

  4. miR-136 targets MIEN1 and involves the metastasis of colon cancer by suppressing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition

    Ren H

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Haipeng Ren,1 Yuanling Qi,1 Xiaoyan Yin,2 Jianfeng Gao1 1Department of Internal Medicine of Oncology, People’s Hospital of Weifang, Weifang, 2Health and Family Planning Bureau of Weifang, Shouguang, People’s Republic of China Abstract: MIEN1 is a novel oncogene, and it involves tumor progression in various cancer types, including colon cancer. However, the definite molecular mechanisms of MIEN1 in colon cancer progression remain to be completely elucidated. In the present study, bioinformatics prediction showed that miR-136 could be an upstream regulator of MIEN1; a luciferase assay and Western blot assay revealed that miR-136 negatively regulates MIEN1 expression via directly targeting its 3'-untranslated region sequence. Moreover, a functional assay using wound healing and transwell invasion showed that overexpressed miR-136 inhibited cell migration and invasion, and overexpression of MIEN1 partly rescued the above-mentioned effects of miR-136 in colon cancer cells. Additionally, a clinical sample assay showed that miR-136 expression was generally downregulated in colon cancer tissue, which was inversely correlated with MIEN1 expression. Furthermore, we found that miR-136 suppressed the Akt/NF-κB signaling pathway and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in colon cancer. These results suggest that miR-136, as a tumor suppressor, acts in tumor metastasis by suppressing MIEN1 expression in colon cancer, providing a novel target for the treatment of colon cancer. Keywords: colon cancer, miR-136, MIEN1, migration, invasion

  5. Colonic transit time and pressure based on Bernoulli’s principle

    Uno, Yoshiharu

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Variations in the caliber of human large intestinal tract causes changes in pressure and the velocity of its contents, depending on flow volume, gravity, and density, which are all variables of Bernoulli’s principle. Therefore, it was hypothesized that constipation and diarrhea can occur due to changes in the colonic transit time (CTT), according to Bernoulli’s principle. In addition, it was hypothesized that high amplitude peristaltic contractions (HAPC), which are considered to be involved in defecation in healthy subjects, occur because of cecum pressure based on Bernoulli’s principle. Methods A virtual healthy model (VHM), a virtual constipation model and a virtual diarrhea model were set up. For each model, the CTT was decided according to the length of each part of the colon, and then calculating the velocity due to the cecum inflow volume. In the VHM, the pressure change was calculated, then its consistency with HAPC was verified. Results The CTT changed according to the difference between the cecum inflow volume and the caliber of the intestinal tract, and was inversely proportional to the cecum inflow volume. Compared with VHM, the CTT was prolonged in the virtual constipation model, and shortened in the virtual diarrhea model. The calculated pressure of the VHM and the gradient of the interlocked graph were similar to that of HAPC. Conclusion The CTT and HAPC can be explained by Bernoulli’s principle, and constipation and diarrhea may be fundamentally influenced by flow dynamics. PMID:29670388

  6. Acquisition of 5-fluorouracil resistance induces epithelial-mesenchymal transitions through the Hedgehog signaling pathway in HCT-8 colon cancer cells.

    Liu, Yanjun; DU, Fangfang; Zhao, Qiannan; Jin, Jian; Ma, Xin; Li, Huazhong

    2015-06-01

    Colon cancer has a high incidence in individuals >60-years-old. The commonly used chemotherapeutic agent, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), has gradually lost its potency in treating colorectal cancer following the acquisition of resistance. Drug resistance is usually associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transitions (EMTs) in cancer cells. In the present study, the EMT phenotypes of two colon cancer cell lines, wild-type (HCT-8/WT) and 5-FU-resistant (HCT-8/5-FU), were characterized following the analysis of cellular migration, proliferation, morphology and molecular changes. In order to further clarify the mechanism of EMT in HCT-8/5-FU cells, the effect of EMT pathway inhibitors upon drug sensitivity was investigated. The results revealed that the Hedgehog signaling pathway inhibitor, GDC0449, reversed drug resistance. Therefore, inhibition of the Hedgehog pathway may provide a novel chemotherapeutic strategy for the treatment of patients with 5-FU-resistant colon cancer.

  7. Dietary Patterns and Colon Cancer Risk in Whites and African Americans in the North Carolina Colon Cancer Study

    Satia, Jessie A.; Tseng, Marilyn; Galanko, Joseph A.; Martin, Christopher; Sandler, Robert S.

    2009-01-01

    We examined associations of dietary patterns with colon cancer risk in African Americans and Whites from a case-control study in North Carolina. Incident colon cancer cases, 40 to 80 yr (n = 636), and matched controls (n = 1,042) were interviewed in person to elicit information on potential colon cancer risk factors. A validated food frequency questionnaire adapted to include regional foods captured diet over the year prior to diagnosis (cases) or interview date (controls). Three meaningful i...

  8. Standardisation of tracer and type of meal in the evaluation of gastric emptying and colon transit rates in normal Beagle dogs

    Dormehl, I.C.; Jordaan, J.H.; Jacobs, D.J.; Plessis, M. du; Pilloy, W.

    1984-01-01

    The transit of 111 In-labelled polymer beads of different particle sizes in the stomach and colon of five healthy Beagle dogs was monitored after intake of different kinds of meal by a gamma camera and data processor system. The various meals studied were a solid balanced type of dog food mixed with molk, pure milk, and finally a metal of raw meat. The polymer beads carried triethylenetetramine type functions which efficiently chelated 111 In +3 from an aqueous solution of InCl 3 . These labelled beads were well mixed into the food before being offered to the dogs. Gastric emptying curves from which half-times of emptying (Tsub(1/2)) could be obtained are presented and statistically compared. Good quality images with quantification of the colon transit rate also became possible. It appeared that standardisation of the tracer and of the metal is compulsory for relevant and reproducible results. (orig.)

  9. Standardisation of tracer and type of meal in the evaluation of gastric emptying and colon transit rates in normal Beagle dogs

    Dormehl, I.C.; Jordaan, J.H.; Jacobs, D.J.; Plessis, M. du; Pilloy, W.

    1984-01-01

    The transit of /sup 111/In-labelled polymer beads of different particle sizes in the stomach and colon of five healthy Beagle dogs was monitored after intake of different kinds of meal by a gamma camera and data processor system. The various meals studied were a solid balanced type of dog food mixed with molk, pure milk, and finally a meal of raw meat. The polymer beads carried triethylenetetramine type functions which efficiently chelated /sup 111/In/sup +3/ from an aqueous solution of InCl/sub 3/. These labelled beads were well mixed into the food before being offered to the dogs. Gastric emptying curves from which half-times of emptying (Tsub(1/2)) could be obtained are presented and statistically compared. Good quality images with quantification of the colon transit rate also became possible. It appeared that standardisation of the tracer and of the metal is compulsory for relevant and reproducible results.

  10. Inflammasome-independent NLRP3 is required for epithelial-mesenchymal transition in colon cancer cells.

    Wang, Hong; Wang, Yajing; Du, Qianming; Lu, Ping; Fan, Huimin; Lu, Jinrong; Hu, Rong

    2016-03-15

    Inflammasome NLRP3 plays a crucial role in the process of colitis and colitis--associated colon cancer. Even though much is known regarding the NLRP3 inflammasome that regulates pro-inflammatory cytokine release in innate immune cells, the role of NLRP3 in non-immune cells is still unclear. In this study, we showed that NLRP3 was highly expressed in mesenchymal-like colon cancer cells (SW620), and was upregulated by tumor necrosis factors-α (TNF-α) and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) respectively, during EMT in colon cancer epithelial cells HCT116 and HT29. Knockdown of NLRP3 retained epithelial spindle-like morphology of HCT116 and HT29 cells and reversed the mesenchymal characteristic of SW620 cells, indicated by the decreased expression of vimentin and MMP9 and increased expression of E-cadherin. In addition, knockdown of NLRP3 in colorectal carcinoma cells displayed diminished cell migration and invasion. Interestingly, during the EMT process induced by TNF-α or TGF-β1, the cleaved caspase-1 and ASC speck were not detected, indicating that NLRP3 functions in an inflammasome-independent way. Further studies demonstrated that NLRP3 protein expression was regulated by NF-κB signaling in TNF-α or TGF-β1-induced EMT, as verified by the NF-κB inhibitor Bay 11-7082. Moreover, NLRP3 knockdown reduced the expression of Snail1, indicating that NLRP3 may promote EMT through regulating Snail1. In summary, our results showed that the NLRP3 expression, not the inflammasome activation, was required for EMT in colorectal cancer cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A scintigraphic analysis of colonic movement in patients with colostomy: changes of colonic transit time after acquaintance with irrigation.

    Yasuda, S; Fujii, H; Yamamoto, K; Nakagawa, M; Watanabe, I; Nakano, H

    1992-01-01

    For the purpose of making a functional assessment of colostomy irrigation, eight patients were examined. Group A was composed of four patients whose experience of irrigation was less than one year. Group B was composed of four patients who had undergone irrigation for more than two years. The capacity of the remnant colon was determined by a barium enema. Next, 74 MBq of milking technetium 99 diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid (99mTc-DTPA) was instilled with a predetermined amount of water (37 degrees C). A dynamic scan was performed for 45 min. The mean evacuation time of Groups A and B were 6 min 56 s +/- 2 min 33 s and 13 min 27 s +/- 10 min 50 s, respectively. The mean half emptying time of Groups A and B were 142.5 s +/- 7.9 s and 309.0 s +/- 181.9 s. The results suggest that the remnant colon may be habituated with irrigation. Colostomy irrigation which uses a single instillation of a measured volume of tepid water is recommended.

  12. Phytophthora ramorum tissue colonization studied with fluorescense microscopy

    M. Riedel; S. Wagner; M. Gotz; L. Belbahri; F. Lefort; S. Werres

    2009-01-01

    The proceeding worldwide spread and the expanding host spectrum of P. ramorum has become a serious threat to natural plant communities. To encounter this threat detailed knowledge about infection pathways and tissue colonization is essential. To analyze these issues, histological studies of infected tissue with epifluorescence microscopy have been...

  13. Host Physiologic Changes Induced by Influenza A Virus Lead to Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm Dispersion and Transition from Asymptomatic Colonization to Invasive Disease

    Ryan M. Reddinger

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a ubiquitous opportunistic human pathogen and a major health concern worldwide, causing a wide variety of diseases from mild skin infections to systemic disease. S. aureus is a major source of severe secondary bacterial pneumonia after influenza A virus infection, which causes widespread morbidity and mortality. While the phenomenon of secondary bacterial pneumonia is well established, the mechanisms behind the transition from asymptomatic colonization to invasive staphylococcal disease following viral infection remains unknown. In this report, we have shown that S. aureus biofilms, grown on an upper respiratory epithelial substratum, disperse in response to host physiologic changes related to viral infection, such as febrile range temperatures, exogenous ATP, norepinephrine, and increased glucose. Mice that were colonized with S. aureus and subsequently exposed to these physiologic stimuli or influenza A virus coinfection developed pronounced pneumonia. This study provides novel insight into the transition from colonization to invasive disease, providing a better understanding of the events involved in the pathogenesis of secondary staphylococcal pneumonia.

  14. Dietary patterns and colon cancer risk in Whites and African Americans in the North Carolina Colon Cancer Study.

    Satia, Jessie A; Tseng, Marilyn; Galanko, Joseph A; Martin, Christopher; Sandler, Robert S

    2009-01-01

    We examined associations of dietary patterns with colon cancer risk in African Americans and Whites from a case-control study in North Carolina. Incident colon cancer cases, 40 to 80 yr (n = 636), and matched controls (n = 1,042) were interviewed in person to elicit information on potential colon cancer risk factors. A validated food frequency questionnaire adapted to include regional foods captured diet over the year prior to diagnosis (cases) or interview date (controls). Three meaningful intake patterns were identified in both Whites and African Americans: "Western-Southern," "fruit-vegetable," and "metropolitan." Compared to the Western-Southern pattern, the fruit-vegetable and metropolitan patterns were associated with more healthful dietary behaviors (e.g., higher vegetable intake and lower red meat consumption), and demographic/lifestyle characteristics typically correlated with low colon cancer risk, for example, lower BMI, higher education, and higher NSAID use. The fruit-vegetable pattern was significantly inversely associated with colon cancer risk in Whites (OR = 0.4, 95% CI = 0.3-0.6) and the metropolitan pattern with a nonsignificant 30% risk reduction in both Whites and African Americans after adjustment for education. The Western-Southern pattern was not associated with colon cancer risk. These findings may explain some of the racial differences in colon cancer incidence and underscore the importance of examining diet-cancer associations in different population subgroups.

  15. Reference values for the geometric centre analysis of colonic transit measurements with 111indium-labelled diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid

    Madsen, Jan Lysgård; Fuglsang, Stefan; Graff, Jesper

    2003-01-01

    after oral administration of 111In-DTPA. Overall, the men had a higher geometric centre value than women after both 24 and 48 h indicating a faster progress of colonic contents in men at these time points. At each time point the geometric centre value was higher in both the young and middle......The geometric centre analysis is often used for evaluating colonic transit data obtained by scintigraphy after oral intake of 111indium-labelled diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid (111In-DTPA). The purpose of this study was to establish reference values for the geometric centre analysis in adult......-aged subjects than in the elderly subjects, whereas we did not find any difference between young and middle-aged subjects. Furthermore, the smokers had a higher geometric centre value than non-smokers at each time point. The geometric centre value was not influenced by body mass index at any time point....

  16. American Studies in Transition

    Nye, David

    Papers first given at a conference the previous year in Fåborg, Denmark, with a dual focus on 20th century America and new methods in American Studies.......Papers first given at a conference the previous year in Fåborg, Denmark, with a dual focus on 20th century America and new methods in American Studies....

  17. A nationwide study on anastomotic leakage after colonic cancer surgery

    Krarup, Peter-Martin; Jorgensen, L N; Andreasen, A H

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Anastomotic leakage (AL) is a major challenge in colorectal cancer surgery due to increased morbidity and mortality. Possible risk factors should be investigated differentially, distinguishing between rectal and colonic surgery in large-scale studies to avoid selection bias and confounding....... Method: The incidence and risk factors associated with AL were analysed in an unselected nation-wide prospective cohort of patient subjected to curative colonic cancer surgery with primary anastomosis and entered into The Danish Colorectal Cancer Group database between May 2001 and December 2008. Results......: AL occurred in 593 (6.4%) of 9333 patients. Laparoscopic surgery (odds ratio [OR], 1.34; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-1.70; P = 0.03); left hemicolectomy (OR, 2.02; 95% CI, 1.50-2.72) or sigmoid colectomy (OR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.32-2.17; P = 0.01); intraoperative blood loss (OR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1...

  18. Primary repair of colon injuries: clinical study of nonselective approach.

    Lazovic, Ranko G; Barisic, Goran I; Krivokapic, Zoran V

    2010-12-02

    This study was designed to determine the role of primary repair and to investigate the possibility of expanding indications for primary repair of colon injuries using nonselective approach. Two groups of patients were analyzed. Retrospective (RS) group included 30 patients managed by primary repair or two stage surgical procedure according to criteria published by Stone (S/F) and Flint (Fl). In this group 18 patients were managed by primary repair. Prospective (PR) group included 33 patients with primary repair as a first choice procedure. In this group, primary repair was performed in 30 cases. Groups were comparable regarding age, sex, and indexes of trauma severity. Time between injury and surgery was shorter in PR group, (1.3 vs. 3.1 hours). Stab wounds were more frequent in PR group (9:2), and iatrogenic lesions in RS group (6:2). Associated injuries were similar, as well as segmental distribution of colon injuries. S/F criteria and Flint grading were similar.In RS group 15 primary repairs were successful, while in two cases relaparotomy and colostomy was performed due to anastomotic leakage. One patient died. In PR group, 25 primary repairs were successful, with 2 immediate and 3 postoperative (7-10 days) deaths, with no evidence of anastomotic leakage. Results of this study justify more liberal use of primary repair in early management of colon injuries. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN94682396.

  19. Primary repair of colon injuries: clinical study of nonselective approach

    Krivokapic Zoran V

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was designed to determine the role of primary repair and to investigate the possibility of expanding indications for primary repair of colon injuries using nonselective approach. Methods Two groups of patients were analyzed. Retrospective (RS group included 30 patients managed by primary repair or two stage surgical procedure according to criteria published by Stone (S/F and Flint (Fl. In this group 18 patients were managed by primary repair. Prospective (PR group included 33 patients with primary repair as a first choice procedure. In this group, primary repair was performed in 30 cases. Results Groups were comparable regarding age, sex, and indexes of trauma severity. Time between injury and surgery was shorter in PR group, (1.3 vs. 3.1 hours. Stab wounds were more frequent in PR group (9:2, and iatrogenic lesions in RS group (6:2. Associated injuries were similar, as well as segmental distribution of colon injuries. S/F criteria and Flint grading were similar. In RS group 15 primary repairs were successful, while in two cases relaparotomy and colostomy was performed due to anastomotic leakage. One patient died. In PR group, 25 primary repairs were successful, with 2 immediate and 3 postoperative (7-10 days deaths, with no evidence of anastomotic leakage. Conclusions Results of this study justify more liberal use of primary repair in early management of colon injuries. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN94682396

  20. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Induce Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition in Colon Cancer Cells through Direct Cell-to-Cell Contact

    Hidehiko Takigawa

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We previously reported that in an orthotopic nude mouse model of human colon cancer, bone marrow–derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs migrated to the tumor stroma and promoted tumor growth and metastasis. Here, we evaluated the proliferation and migration ability of cancer cells cocultured with MSCs to elucidate the mechanism of interaction between cancer cells and MSCs. Proliferation and migration of cancer cells increased following direct coculture with MSCs but not following indirect coculture. Thus, we hypothesized that direct contact between cancer cells and MSCs was important. We performed a microarray analysis of gene expression in KM12SM colon cancer cells directly cocultured with MSCs. Expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT–related genes such as fibronectin (FN, SPARC, and galectin 1 was increased by direct coculture with MSCs. We also confirmed the upregulation of these genes with real-time polymerase chain reaction. Gene expression was not elevated in cancer cells indirectly cocultured with MSCs. Among the EMT-related genes upregulated by direct coculture with MSCs, we examined the immune localization of FN, a well-known EMT marker. In coculture assay in chamber slides, expression of FN was seen only at the edges of cancer clusters where cancer cells directly contacted MSCs. FN expression in cancer cells increased at the tumor periphery and invasive edge in orthotopic nude mouse tumors and human colon cancer tissues. These results suggest that MSCs induce EMT in colon cancer cells via direct cell-to-cell contact and may play an important role in colon cancer metastasis.

  1. Gastrointestinal transit and reflux studies

    Greenspan, R.L.; Kochan, J.

    1988-01-01

    Current imaging modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography provide anatomic resolution far beyond that achievable with the current methods of scintigraphic imaging. Consequently, the strength of nuclear medicine has shifted and now lies in its ability to provide physiologic data noninvasively and simply. This ability is well illustrated by the scintigraphic techniques developed for evaluation of the alimentary tract. Studies of esophageal transit, gastroesophageal reflux, and gastric emptying are now widely available. Evaluation of small and large intestinal transit have also been investigated. These techniques are discussed in the present chapter

  2. Scintigraphic measurement of regional gut transit in idiopathic constipation

    Stivland, T.; Camilleri, M.; Vassallo, M.; Proano, M.; Rath, D.; Brown, M.; Thomforde, G.; Pemberton, J.; Phillips, S.

    1991-01-01

    In this study, total gut transit and regional colonic transit in patients with idiopathic constipation were measured scintigraphically. Eight patients with severe constipation were studied, none of whom had evidence of abnormal function of the pelvic floor. 99mTc-radiolabeled Amberlite resin particles with a mixed meal were used to assess gastric emptying and small bowel transit; similar particles labeled with 111In were ingested in a coated capsule that dispersed in the ileocecal region. These were used to quantify colonic transit. Five healthy volunteers were also studied. Two patients showed delayed gastric emptying and two had slow small bowel transit. Seven of the eight patients had slow colonic transit. In five, delay affected the whole colon (pancolonic inertia); in two, transit in the ascending and transverse colon was normal, but solids moved through the left colon slowly. Mean colonic transit was also measured using radiopaque markers; this technique identified the patients with slow transit, as shown by measurements of overall colonic transit by simultaneous scintigraphy. However, estimated transit through the ascending and transverse colons was considerably shorter by the radiopaque marker technique. In conclusion, idiopathic constipation is characterized by either exaggerated reservoir functions of the ascending and transverse colons and/or impairment of propulsive function in the descending colon. Particle size may influence the result of regional colonic transit tests. Transit delays in other parts of the gut suggest that, in some patients, the condition may be a more generalized motor dysfunction

  3. Scintigraphic measurement of regional gut transit in idiopathic constipation

    Stivland, T.; Camilleri, M.; Vassallo, M.; Proano, M.; Rath, D.; Brown, M.; Thomforde, G.; Pemberton, J.; Phillips, S. (Gastroenterology Research Unit, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (USA))

    1991-07-01

    In this study, total gut transit and regional colonic transit in patients with idiopathic constipation were measured scintigraphically. Eight patients with severe constipation were studied, none of whom had evidence of abnormal function of the pelvic floor. 99mTc-radiolabeled Amberlite resin particles with a mixed meal were used to assess gastric emptying and small bowel transit; similar particles labeled with 111In were ingested in a coated capsule that dispersed in the ileocecal region. These were used to quantify colonic transit. Five healthy volunteers were also studied. Two patients showed delayed gastric emptying and two had slow small bowel transit. Seven of the eight patients had slow colonic transit. In five, delay affected the whole colon (pancolonic inertia); in two, transit in the ascending and transverse colon was normal, but solids moved through the left colon slowly. Mean colonic transit was also measured using radiopaque markers; this technique identified the patients with slow transit, as shown by measurements of overall colonic transit by simultaneous scintigraphy. However, estimated transit through the ascending and transverse colons was considerably shorter by the radiopaque marker technique. In conclusion, idiopathic constipation is characterized by either exaggerated reservoir functions of the ascending and transverse colons and/or impairment of propulsive function in the descending colon. Particle size may influence the result of regional colonic transit tests. Transit delays in other parts of the gut suggest that, in some patients, the condition may be a more generalized motor dysfunction.

  4. Diverticular disease and the risk of colon cancer - a population-based case-control study.

    Granlund, J; Svensson, T; Granath, F; Hjern, F; Ekbom, A; Blomqvist, P; Schmidt, P T

    2011-09-01

    Colon cancer and diverticular disease are most common in the Western world and their incidences tend to increase with advancing age. The association between the diseases remains unclear. To analyse the risk of colon cancer after hospitalisation for diverticular disease. Nationwide case-control study. A total of 41,037 patients with colon cancer during 1992-2006, identified from the Swedish Cancer Register were included. Each case was matched with two control subjects. From the Swedish Inpatient Register, cases and control subjects hospitalised for diverticular disease were identified. Odds ratios (OR) and confidence intervals for receiving a diagnosis of colon cancer after hospital discharge for diverticular disease were calculated. Colon cancer mortality was compared between patients with or without diverticular disease. Within 6months after an admission due to diverticular disease, OR of having a colon cancer diagnosis were up to 31.49 (19.00-52.21). After 12 months, there was no increased risk. The number of discharges for diverticular disease did not affect the risk. Colon cancer mortality did not differ between patients with and without diverticular disease. Diverticular disease does not increase the risk of colon cancer in the long term, and a history of diverticular disease does not affect colon cancer mortality. The increased risk of colon cancer within the first 12months after diagnosing diverticular disease is most likely due to surveillance and misclassification. Examination of the colon should be recommended after a primary episode of symptomatic diverticular disease. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Histochemical and radioautographic studies of normal human fetal colon

    Lev, R.; Orlic, D.; New York Medical Coll., N.Y.

    1974-01-01

    Twenty fetal and infant colons ranging from 10 weeks in utero to 20 months postpartum, and 12 adult human colons were examined using histochemical techniques in conjunction with in vitro radioautography using Na 2 35 SO 4 as a sulfomucin precursor. Only the sulfated components of mucus in fetal goblet cells was found to differ significantly from adult colonic mucins. In the fetus sulfomucin staining was much weaker than in the adult, and was more intense in the left colon which is the reverse of the adult pattern. Sulfomucin was concentrated in the crypts throughout the fetal colon whereas in the adult right colon it predominated in the surface cells. As in the adult, saponification liberated carboxyl groups, possibly belonging to sialic acid, and vicinal hydroxyl groups from fetal mucins suggesting that this procedure hydrolyses an ester linkage between these 2 reactive groups. During the middle trimester of fetal life the colon possesses villi whose constituent cells display alkaline phosphatase in their surface coat. These and other morphological and histochemical similarities to fetal small intestine suggest that the fetal colon may have a limited capacity to absorb materials contained within swallowed amniotic fluid during this period. (orig.) [de

  6. A randomised clinical trial (RCT) of a symbiotic mixture in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS): effects on symptoms, colonic transit and quality of life.

    Cappello, Carmelina; Tremolaterra, Fabrizio; Pascariello, Annalisa; Ciacci, Carolina; Iovino, Paola

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study is to test in a double-blinded, randomised placebo-controlled study the effects of a commercially available multi-strain symbiotic mixture on symptoms, colonic transit and quality of life in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients who meet Rome III criteria. There is only one other double-blinded RCT on a single-strain symbiotic mixture in IBS. This is a double-blinded, randomised placebo-controlled study of a symbiotic mixture (Probinul, 5 g bid) over 4 weeks after 2 weeks of run-in. The primary endpoints were global satisfactory relief of abdominal flatulence and bloating. Responders were patients who reported at least 50 % of the weeks of treatment with global satisfactory relief. The secondary endpoints were change in abdominal bloating, flatulence, pain and urgency by a 100-mm visual analog scale, stool frequency and bowel functions on validated adjectival scales (Bristol Scale and sense of incomplete evacuation). Pre- and post-treatment colonic transit time (Metcalf) and quality of life (SF-36) were assessed. Sixty-four IBS patients (symbiotic n = 32, 64 % females, mean age 38.7 ± 12.6 years) were studied. This symbiotic mixture reduced flatulence over a 4-week period of treatment (repeated-measures analysis of covariance, p symbiotic group. This symbiotic mixture has shown a beneficial effect in decreasing the severity of flatulence in IBS patients, a lack of adverse events and a good side-effect profile; however, it failed to achieve an improvement in global satisfactory relief of abdominal flatulence and bloating. Further studies are warranted.

  7. Correlation between Colon Transit Time Test Value and Initial Maintenance Dose of Laxative in Children with Chronic Functional Constipation

    Kim, Mock Ryeon; Park, Hye Won; Son, Jae Sung; Lee, Ran

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the correlation between colon transit time (CTT) test value and initial maintenance dose of polyethylene glycol (PEG) 4000 or lactulose. Methods Of 415 children with chronic functional constipation, 190 were enrolled based on exclusion criteria using the CTT test, defecation diary, and clinical chart. The CTT test was performed with prior disimpaction. The laxative dose for maintenance was determined on the basis of the defecation diary and clinical chart. The Shapiro-Wilk test and Pearson's and Spearman's correlations were used for statistical analysis. Results The overall group median value and interquartile range of the CTT test was 43.8 (31.8) hours. The average PEG 4000 dose for maintenance in the overall group was 0.68±0.18 g/kg/d; according to age, the dose was 0.73±0.16 g/kg/d (encopresis, abnormal CTT test subtype) for either laxative. Even in the largest group (overall, n=109, younger than 8 years and on PEG 4000), the correlation was weak (Pearson's correlation coefficient [R]=0.268, p=0.005). Within the abnormal transit group, subgroup (n=73, younger than 8 years and on PEG 4000) correlation was weak (R=0.267, p=0.022). Conclusion CTT test value cannot predict the initial maintenance dose of PEG 4000 or lactulose with linear correlation. PMID:27738600

  8. A controlled, randomized, double-blind trial to evaluate the effect of a supplement of cocoa husk that is rich in dietary fiber on colonic transit in constipated pediatric patients.

    Castillejo, Gemma; Bulló, Mònica; Anguera, Anna; Escribano, Joaquin; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2006-09-01

    Although a diet that is rich in fiber is widely recommended for preventing and treating constipation, the efficacy of fiber supplements have not been tested sufficiently in children. Our aim with this pilot study was to evaluate if fiber supplementation is beneficial for the treatment of children with idiopathic chronic constipation. Using a parallel, randomized, double-blind, controlled trial, we conducted an interventional study to evaluate the efficacy of a supplement of cocoa husk rich in dietary fiber on intestinal transit time and other indices of constipation in children with constipation. After screening, the patients were randomly allocated to receive, for a period of 4 weeks, either a cocoa husk supplement or placebo plus standardized toilet training procedures. Before and after 4 weeks of treatment, we (1) performed anthropometry, a physical examination, and routine laboratory measurements, (2) determined total and segmental colonic transit time, (3) evaluated bowel movement habits and stool consistency using a diary, and (4) received a subjective evaluation from the parents regarding the efficacy of the treatment. The main variable for verifying the efficacy of the treatment was the total colonic transit time. Fifty-six chronically constipated children were randomly assigned into the study, but only 48 children completed it. These children, who were aged between 3 and 10 years, had a diagnosis of chronic idiopathic constipation. With respect to total, partial colon, and rectum transit time, there seemed to be a trend, although statistically nonsignificant, toward faster transit times in the cocoa husk group than in the placebo group. When we analyzed the evolution of the intestinal transit time throughout the study of children whose total basal intestinal transit time was > 50th percentile, significant differences were observed between the groups. The total transit time decreased by 45.4 +/- 38.4 hours in the cocoa husk group and by 8.7 +/- 28.9 hours

  9. Acromegaly is associated with an increased prevalence of colonic diverticula: a case-control study

    Wassenaar, M. J. E.; Cazemier, M.; Biermasz, N. R.; Pereira, A. M.; Roelfsema, F.; Smit, J. W. A.; Hommes, D. W.; Felt-Bersma, R. J. F.; Romijn, J. A.

    2010-01-01

    In acromegaly, overproduction of GH and IGF-I causes abnormal extracellular matrix regulation. We hypothesized that this may predispose to the development of colonic diverticula. Because the relation between acromegaly and colonic diverticula is unknown, the study aim was to assess the prevalence of

  10. Mild colonic diverticulitis can be treated without antibiotics. a case-control study

    de Korte, N.; Kuyvenhoven, J.P.; van der Peet, D.L.; Felt-Bersma, R.J.F.; Cuesta, M.A.; Stockmann, H.B.A.C.

    2012-01-01

    Aim Conservative treatment of mild colonic diverticulitis usually consists of observation, restriction of oral intake, intravenous fluids and antibiotics. The beneficiary effect of antibiotics remains unclear. The aim of this study is to evaluate the need for antibiotics in mild colonic

  11. Colon cancer

    Colorectal cancer; Cancer - colon; Rectal cancer; Cancer - rectum; Adenocarcinoma - colon; Colon - adenocarcinoma; Colon carcinoma ... eat may play a role in getting colon cancer. Colon cancer may be linked to a high-fat, ...

  12. Isolated colonic inertia is not usually the cause of chronic constipation.

    Ragg, J; McDonald, R; Hompes, R; Jones, O M; Cunningham, C; Lindsey, I

    2011-11-01

    Chronic constipation is classified as outlet obstruction, colonic inertia or both. We aimed to determine the incidence of isolated colonic inertia in chronic constipation and to study symptom pattern in those with prolonged colonic transit time. Chronic constipation patients were classified radiologically by surgeon-reported defaecating proctography and transit study into four groups: isolated outlet obstruction, isolated colonic inertia, outlet obstruction plus colonic inertia, or normal. Symptom patterns were defined as stool infrequency (twice weekly or less) or frequent unsuccessful evacuations (more than twice weekly). Of 541 patients with chronic constipation, 289 (53%) were classified as isolated outlet obstruction, 26 (5%) as isolated colonic inertia, 159 (29%) as outlet obstruction plus colonic inertia and 67 (12%) as normal. Of 448 patients (83%) with outlet obstruction, 35% had additional colonic inertia. Only 14% of those with prolonged colonic transit time had isolated colonic inertia. Frequent unsuccessful evacuations rather than stool infrequency was the commonest symptom pattern in all three disease groups (isolated outlet obstruction 86%, isolated colonic inertia 54% and outlet obstruction plus colonic inertia 63%). Isolated colonic inertia is an unusual cause of chronic constipation. Most patients with colonic inertia have associated outlet obstruction. These data question the clinical significance of isolated colonic inertia. © 2011 The Authors. Colorectal Disease © 2011 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  13. Imaging of total colonic Hirschsprung disease

    Stranzinger, Enno; DiPietro, Michael A.; Strouse, Peter J.; Teitelbaum, Daniel H.

    2008-01-01

    Hirschsprung disease (HD) is a functional obstruction of the bowel caused by the absence of intrinsic enteric ganglion cells. The diagnosis of total colonic HD (TCHD) based on contrast enemas is difficult in newborns because radiological findings vary. To evaluate the radiographic and contrast enema findings in patients with pathologically proven TCHD. From 1966 to 2007, 17 records from a total of 31 patients with TCHD were retrospectively evaluated for diameter and shape of the colon, diameter of the small bowel, bowel wall contour, ileal reflux, abdominal calcifications, pneumoperitoneum, filling defects, transitional zones and rectosigmoid index. Three colonic patterns of TCHD were found: microcolon, question-mark-shape colon and normal caliber colon. Additional findings included spasmodic colon, ileal reflux, delayed evacuation and abdominal calcifications. Colonic transitional zones were found in eight patients with TCHD. The diagnosis of TCHD is difficult to establish by contrast enema studies. The length of the aganglionic small bowel and the age of the patient can influence the radiological findings in TCHD. The transitional zone and the rectosigmoid index can be false-positive in TCHD. The colon can appear normal. Consider TCHD if the contrast enema study is normal but the patient remains symptomatic and other causes of distal bowel obstruction have been excluded. (orig.)

  14. Group B streptococcus colonization and HIV in pregnancy: A cohort study in Nigeria.

    Biobaku Oluwafunmilola, R; Olaleye Atinuke, O; Adefusi Olorunwa, F; Adeyemi Babalola, A; Onipede Anthony, O; Loto Olabisi, M; Imaralu John, O

    2017-01-01

    Group B streptococcus (GBS) is a leading cause of maternal and neonatal infectious morbidity. HIV is prevalent among pregnant women in Nigeria. To determine the rates of anogenital GBS colonization in our institution and compare GBS colonization rates between HIV positive and negative pregnant women. A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted over 6 months. Patients were separated according to their HIV status: positive and negative. GBS colonization was assessed by vaginal and anal swabs collected at 35-37 weeks of gestation and cultured in Todd-Hewitt broth, followed by a confirmatory test. Socio-demographic characteristics and CD4 count were extracted from patient medical records. Secondary outcomes were identification of risk factors for GBS colonization, antibiotic sensitivity, and any association between CD4 count and GBS colonization. Appropriate statistical analysis was done. A total of 200 patients attended the clinic; 67 HIV positive and 133 negative. Analyzed samples were 198; the overall prevalence of GBS was 18.2%. No significant difference in GBS colonization was noted between HIV positive (19.4% [13]) and negative patients (17.6% [23/131]). Most GBS isolates were susceptible to ampicillin (87%) and penicillin (81%). A high body mass index (BMI) was independently associated with GBS colonization (OR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.04-1.51). No association was observed between CD4 counts and GBS colonization. A high prevalence of GBS colonization was observed in our institution. Colonization rates were independent of the HIV status but associated with a high BMI in HIV positive women.

  15. Rapid change of fecal microbiome and disappearance of Clostridium difficile in a colonized infant after transition from breast milk to cow milk.

    Davis, Manli Y; Zhang, Husen; Brannan, Lera E; Carman, Robert J; Boone, James H

    2016-10-07

    Clostridium difficile is the most common known cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Upon the disturbance of gut microbiota by antibiotics, C. difficile establishes growth and releases toxins A and B, which cause tissue damage in the host. The symptoms of C. difficile infection disease range from mild diarrhea to pseudomembranous colitis and toxic megacolon. Interestingly, 10-50 % of infants are asymptomatic carriers of C. difficile. This longitudinal study of the C. difficile colonization in an infant revealed the dynamics of C. difficile presence in gut microbiota. Fifty fecal samples, collected weekly between 5.5 and 17 months of age from a female infant who was an asymptomatic carrier of C. difficile, were analyzed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Colonization switching between toxigenic and non-toxigenic C. difficile strains as well as more than 100,000-fold fluctuations of C. difficile counts were observed. C. difficile toxins were detected during the testing period in some infant stool samples, but the infant never had diarrhea. Although fecal microbiota was stable during breast feeding, a dramatic and permanent change of microbiota composition was observed within 5 days of the transition from human milk to cow milk. A rapid decline and eventual disappearance of C. difficile coincided with weaning at 12.5 months. An increase in the relative abundance of Bacteroides spp., Blautia spp., Parabacteroides spp., Coprococcus spp., Ruminococcus spp., and Oscillospira spp. and a decrease of Bifidobacterium spp., Lactobacillus spp., Escherichia spp., and Clostridium spp. were observed during weaning. The change in microbiome composition was accompanied by a gradual increase of fecal pH from 5.5 to 7. The bacterial groups that are less abundant in early infancy, and that increase in relative abundance after weaning, likely are responsible for the expulsion of C. difficile.

  16. Immunohistochemical study of p53 overexpression in radiation-induced colon cancers

    Minami, Kazunori; Hayashi, Nobuyuki; Mokarim, A.; Matsuzaki, Sumihiro; Ito, Masahiro; Sekine, Ichiro.

    1998-01-01

    The expressions of p53 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were studied immunohistochemically from paraffin sections of 7 cases (9 lesions) of radiation-induced colon cancer and 42 cases of spontaneous colon cancer. Age distribution of radiation-induced and spontaneous colon cancer were 68.1 years (range, 56 to 77 years) and 67.4 years (range, 31 to 85 years), respectively. Among the radiation-induced colon cancers, there were 3 lesions of mucinous carcinoma (33%), a much higher than found for spontaneous mucinous cancer. Immunohistochemically, p53 protein expression was detected in 7/9 (78%) of radiation-induced cancers and in 23/42 (55%) of spontaneous colon cancers. χ 2 analysis found no significant differences between radiation-induced and spontaneous colon cancers in age distribution or p53-positive staining for frequency, histopathology, or Dukes'' classification. In radiation colitis around the cancers including aberrant crypts, spotted p53 staining and abnormal and scattered PCNA-positive staining were observed. In histologically normal cells, p53 staining was almost absent and PCNA-positive staining was regularly observed in the lower half of the crypt. In radiation colitis including aberrant glands, cellular proliferation increased and spotted p53 expression was observed. This study suggests that radiation colitis and aberrant glands might possess malignant potential and deeply associate with carcinogenesis of radiation-induced colon cancer. (author)

  17. Colon Necrosis Due to Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate with and without Sorbitol: An Experimental Study in Rats.

    Ayoub, Isabelle; Oh, Man S; Gupta, Raavi; McFarlane, Michael; Babinska, Anna; Salifu, Moro O

    2015-01-01

    Based on a single rat study by Lillemoe et al, the consensus has been formed to implicate sorbitol rather than sodium polystyrene sulfonate (SPS) as the culprit for colon necrosis in humans treated with SPS and sorbitol. We tested the hypothesis that colon necrosis by sorbitol in the experiment was due to the high osmolality and volume of sorbitol rather than its chemical nature. 26 rats underwent 5/6 nephrectomy. They were divided into 6 groups and given enema solutions under anesthesia (normal saline, 33% sorbitol, 33% mannitol, SPS in 33% sorbitol, SPS in normal saline, and SPS in distilled water). They were sacrificed after 48 hours of enema administration or earlier if they were very sick. The gross appearance of the colon was visually inspected, and then sliced colon tissues were examined under light microscopy. 1 rat from the sorbitol and 1 from the mannitol group had foci of ischemic colonic changes. The rats receiving SPS enema, in sorbitol, normal saline, distilled water, had crystal deposition with colonic necrosis and mucosal erosion. All the rats not given SPS survived until sacrificed at 48 h whereas 11 of 13 rats that received SPS in sorbitol, normal saline or distilled water died or were clearly dying and sacrificed sooner. There was no difference between sorbitol and mannitol when given without SPS. In a surgical uremic rat model, SPS enema given alone or with sorbitol or mannitol seemed to cause colon necrosis and high mortality rate, whereas 33% sorbitol without SPS did not.

  18. Improved survival for rectal cancer compared to colon cancer: the four cohort study.

    Buchwald, Pamela; Hall, Claire; Davidson, Callum; Dixon, Liane; Dobbs, Bruce; Robinson, Bridget; Frizelle, Frank

    2018-03-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer worldwide. This study was undertaken to evaluate survival outcomes and changes of disease outcomes of CRC patients over the last decades. A retrospective analysis of CRC patients in Christchurch was performed in four patient cohorts at 5 yearly intervals; 1993-94, 1998-99, 2004-05 and 2009. Data on cancer location, stage, surgical and oncological treatment and survival were collected. Univariate, multivariate and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis were performed. There were 1391 patients (355, 317, 419 and 300 per cohort), 1037 colon and 354 rectal cancers, respectively. For colon cancer, right-sided cancers appeared more common in later cohorts (P = 0.01). There was a significant decrease in the number of permanent stomas for colon cancer patients (P = 0.001). There was an analogous trend for rectal cancers (P = 0.075). More CRC patients with stage IV disease were treated surgically (P = 0.001) and colon cancer stages I and II tended to have increased survival if operated by a colorectal surgeon (P = 0.06). Oncology referrals have increased remarkably (P = 0.001). Overall 56% of patients were alive at 5 years however rectal cancer patients had significantly better 5-year survival than those with colon cancer (P rectal cancer patients have a better 5-year survival than colon cancer patients. The improved survival with early stage colon cancers operated on by specialist colorectal surgeons needs further exploration. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  19. Changing incidence of diverticular disease of the colon in the Koreans: a radiological study

    Chung, Soo Kyo; Sohn, Hyung Sun; Lee, Soon Kyu; Bahk, Young Whee

    1979-01-01

    Diverticular disease of the colon is the commonest pathological process in the large bowel in the aged caucasians, but this is rare in oriental races.In Korea, diverticular disease of the colon was known to be rare as reported by Kim in 1964. Since then, however, we have had an impression that the diverticular disease of the colon is not so rare as was reported by Kim previously from our department. The present study has been undertaken to substantiate our impression. We received 1,143 consecutive cases of double-contrast barium performed at the Department of radiology, St. Mary's Hospital, Catholic Medical College during the past 7 years to analyzed diverticular disease patterns of the colon in the Koreans. 1. The present study revealed 29 patients of diverticular disease of the colon, an incidence of 2.5%. The age distribution was shown in Table 1. 2. The mean number of diverticular were 9 and the mean size as follows: the cecum, 6.4 mm; the proximal 1/3 of the ascending colon, 5.6 mm, The mid 1/3 of ascending colon, 4.9 mm; and the distal 1/3 of the ascending colon, 4.4 mm. 3. The average age of patients with diverticular disease of the colon was 49.5 years. Chief complaints were change of bowel habit (31.6%), abdominal pain (28.9%) and indigestion (18.4%). 4. The associated radiological findings of diverticular disease of the colon were: (1) spasm in 16 cases (46%); (2) a marginal irregularity in 16 cases (25%); and (3) asymmetrical haustra in 16 cases (30%). In 13 cases no associated signs seen. We have found that incidence of the diverticular disease of the colon in the present series is very significantly higher than that of the previous report from our department (Kim, 1964). We postulate that the possible factors operational in such increase in the incidence of the clonic diverticular disease in the last decade are: (1) changing dietary pattern characterized by high-protein and high refined-sugar consumption, and (2) routine use of the double contrast

  20. Changing incidence of diverticular disease of the colon in the Koreans: a radiological study

    Chung, Soo Kyo; Sohn, Hyung Sun; Lee, Soon Kyu; Bahk, Young Whee [St. Mary' s Hospital., Catholic Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1979-06-15

    Diverticular disease of the colon is the commonest pathological process in the large bowel in the aged caucasians, but this is rare in oriental races.In Korea, diverticular disease of the colon was known to be rare as reported by Kim in 1964. Since then, however, we have had an impression that the diverticular disease of the colon is not so rare as was reported by Kim previously from our department. The present study has been undertaken to substantiate our impression. We received 1,143 consecutive cases of double-contrast barium performed at the Department of radiology, St. Mary's Hospital, Catholic Medical College during the past 7 years to analyzed diverticular disease patterns of the colon in the Koreans. 1. The present study revealed 29 patients of diverticular disease of the colon, an incidence of 2.5%. The age distribution was shown in Table 1. 2. The mean number of diverticular were 9 and the mean size as follows: the cecum, 6.4 mm; the proximal 1/3 of the ascending colon, 5.6 mm, The mid 1/3 of ascending colon, 4.9 mm; and the distal 1/3 of the ascending colon, 4.4 mm. 3. The average age of patients with diverticular disease of the colon was 49.5 years. Chief complaints were change of bowel habit (31.6%), abdominal pain (28.9%) and indigestion (18.4%). 4. The associated radiological findings of diverticular disease of the colon were: (1) spasm in 16 cases (46%); (2) a marginal irregularity in 16 cases (25%); and (3) asymmetrical haustra in 16 cases (30%). In 13 cases no associated signs seen. We have found that incidence of the diverticular disease of the colon in the present series is very significantly higher than that of the previous report from our department (Kim, 1964). We postulate that the possible factors operational in such increase in the incidence of the clonic diverticular disease in the last decade are: (1) changing dietary pattern characterized by high-protein and high refined-sugar consumption, and (2) routine use of the double contrast

  1. PUREX transition project case study

    Jasen, W.G.

    1996-01-01

    In December 1992, the US Department of Energy (DOE) directed that the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant be shut down and deactivated because it was no longer needed to support the nation's production of weapons-grade plutonium. The PUREX/UO 2 Deactivation Project will establish a safe and environmentally secure configuration for the facility and preserve that configuration for 10 years. The 10-year span is used to predict future maintenance requirements and represents the estimated time needed to define, authorize, and initiate the follow-on decontamination and decommissioning activities. Accomplishing the deactivation project involves many activities. Removing major hazards, such as excess chemicals, spent fuel, and residual plutonium are major goals of the project. The scope of the PUREX Transition Project is described within

  2. The Carolina Autism Transition Study (CATS)

    2017-07-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0093 TITLE: The Carolina Autism Transition Study (CATS) PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Laura Carpenter, MD RECIPIENT...Carolina Autism Transition Study (CATS) 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0093 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Laura Carpenter...provides a description of the Year 2 progress made and plans for Year 3 for the project entitled “The Carolina Autism Transition Study (CATS).” The goal of

  3. Morphology of Sigmoid Colon in South Indian Population: A Cadaveric Study.

    Michael, Stelin Agnes; Rabi, Suganthy

    2015-08-01

    Sigmoid volvulus is a common etiological factor in acute large bowel obstruction. The increased length of sigmoid colon is attributed as one of the causes of sigmoid volvulus. The aim of this study was to find the morphology of sigmoid colon in South Indian population using cadavers. The present study was performed with 31 cadavers used for teaching purpose. The sigmoid colon was classified into classical, long-narrow and long- broad types by their disposition in the abdominal cavity. The sigmoid loop's relation to pelvic brim was also observed and grouped as pelvic and suprapelvic in position. The length of sigmoid colon along the mesenteric and antimesenteric border, height and width of sigmoid mesocolon in relation to the pelvic brim and the root of mesentery were measured in the study. The study showed that the majority of the sigmoid colons fell into the classical type (47.6%). The sigmoid colon in pelvic position was significantly more prevalent. The mean length of sigmoid colon was 15.2 ± 4.4cm and 19.2 ± 6cm considering the pelvic brim and root of mesentery as reference points of measurement respectively. The mean length along antimesenteric border was 22.3 ± 7.9cm and 25 ± 8.7cm along the same reference points. The mean length of mesocolon height was 6.5 ± 3cm with reference to pelvic brim and 7.3 ± 3cm with reference to root of Sigmoid mesocolon respectively. The mean width of mesocolon was 7.4 ± 3cm (pelvic brim) and 8 ± 2cm (root of Sigmoid mesocolon) There was a positive correlation of sigmoid colon length with the height of the mesocolon. The gender analysis showed that males had statistically significant longer sigmoid colon and mesocolon. This study documents that the South Indian population has a more classical type of sigmoid colon and that the anatomical dimensions of sigmoid colon and its mesocolon is significantly longer in males.

  4. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA): a new marker to study human colonic cell proliferation.

    Kubben, F J; Peeters-Haesevoets, A; Engels, L G; Baeten, C G; Schutte, B; Arends, J W; Stockbrügger, R W; Blijham, G H

    1994-01-01

    Immunohistochemistry of the S phase related proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was studied as an alternative to ex-vivo bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) immunohistochemistry for assessment of human colonic cell proliferation. From 16 subjects without colonic disease biopsy specimens were collected from five different sites along the colorectum and processed for BrdU and PCNA immunohistochemistry. The mean proliferation index of PCNA was significantly higher at 133% of the value obtained with B...

  5. Changing incidence of diverticular disease of the colon in Korea : a serial radiologic study (report III)

    Kwoen, Young Teck; Han, Sung Il; Chung, Soo Kyo; Bahk, Yong Whee [Catholic University Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1988-10-15

    Diverticular disease of the colon (DDC), the most common affliction in developed countries, increases in incidence. It is an acquired disease where overactivity of smooth muscle of the colon causes mucosa and sub mucosa to herniate through the muscle layer of the bowel. Starting from 1964, we have periodically carried out radiologic survey to acertain the tendency of DDC to gradually increase in the Koreans. Initially Kim reported the incidence to be 0.2% in 1964 but the incidence in 1979 increased to 2.5% as reported by Chung et al. As the third survey on the series of the study on DDC, we have recently reviewed 1,859 consecutive new cases of double contrast barium enemas performed at the department of radiology, Kangnam St. Mary's Hospital, Catholic University Medical College during the 5 year's period from Feb. 1983 to May 1987. The results were as follows. 1. The present study revealed an incidence 6.0% of DDC, 7.2% in male and 5.0% in female. 2. The distribution of diverticular was 37.0% in cecum, 39.0% in ascending colon, 13.6% in transverse colon, 6.2% in descending colon, 3.7% in sigmoid colon. 3. The mean number of diverticular was 5. 4. The average age of patients with DDC was 50.5 years. From the present study, it has emerged that the diverticular disease of the colon in the Koreans is definitely on gradual increase with a significant change in the site of predominant involvement from the right to the left colon.

  6. Changing incidence of diverticular disease of the colon in Korea : a serial radiologic study (report III)

    Kwoen, Young Teck; Han, Sung Il; Chung, Soo Kyo; Bahk, Yong Whee

    1988-01-01

    Diverticular disease of the colon (DDC), the most common affliction in developed countries, increases in incidence. It is an acquired disease where overactivity of smooth muscle of the colon causes mucosa and sub mucosa to herniate through the muscle layer of the bowel. Starting from 1964, we have periodically carried out radiologic survey to acertain the tendency of DDC to gradually increase in the Koreans. Initially Kim reported the incidence to be 0.2% in 1964 but the incidence in 1979 increased to 2.5% as reported by Chung et al. As the third survey on the series of the study on DDC, we have recently reviewed 1,859 consecutive new cases of double contrast barium enemas performed at the department of radiology, Kangnam St. Mary's Hospital, Catholic University Medical College during the 5 year's period from Feb. 1983 to May 1987. The results were as follows. 1. The present study revealed an incidence 6.0% of DDC, 7.2% in male and 5.0% in female. 2. The distribution of diverticular was 37.0% in cecum, 39.0% in ascending colon, 13.6% in transverse colon, 6.2% in descending colon, 3.7% in sigmoid colon. 3. The mean number of diverticular was 5. 4. The average age of patients with DDC was 50.5 years. From the present study, it has emerged that the diverticular disease of the colon in the Koreans is definitely on gradual increase with a significant change in the site of predominant involvement from the right to the left colon.

  7. A ten-year study of penetrating injuries of the colon.

    Adesanya, Adedoyin A; Ekanem, Ekanem E

    2004-12-01

    Colon injury has been associated with a high risk of septic complications and mortality. We prospectively studied the pattern, management, outcome, and prognostic factors in patients who sustained penetrating colon injuries. Sixty patients who presented to our hospital with penetrating colon injuries over a ten-year period (1992 to 2001) were studied. Colon wounds were caused by gunshots in 55 (91.7 percent) patients and knife stabs in 5 (8.3 percent). There was a delay of more than 12 hours before laparotomy in 30 (50 percent) patients. Moderate or major fecal contamination of the peritoneal cavity occurred in 58 (96.7 percent) patients. The average penetrating abdominal trauma index score was 25.9 and 20 (33.3 percent) patients sustained Flint Grade 3 colon injury. Associated intra-abdominal injuries occurred in the small bowel (73.3 percent), liver (25 percent), stomach (23.3 percent), and mesentery (16.7 percent). Right colon wounds (35) were managed by primary repair in 24 (68.6 percent) patients and proximal diverting colostomy in 11 (31.4 percent), whereas left colon wounds (25) were managed by diverting colostomy in 22 (88.0 percent) patients and primary repair in 3 (12.0 percent) patients. Common complications included wound infection (56.7 percent), septicemia (31.7 percent), and enterocutaneous fistula (16.7 percent). The overall mortality rate was 33.3 percent and colon injury-related mortality was 21.7 percent. Presence of destructive colon injury was associated with a greater than fourfold increased incidence of death. Other significant risk factors included shock on admission, major fecal contamination, duration of operation more than four hours, penetrating abdominal trauma index score >25, and more than two postoperative complications. There was no difference in outcome between patients who had primary repair and those undergoing diverting colostomy. Colostomy closure-related morbidity was 21 percent and mortality was 5.3 percent. A more liberal

  8. Colon cancer controls versus population controls in case-control studies of occupational risk factors

    Kaerlev, Linda; Lynge, Elsebeth; Sabroe, Svend

    2004-01-01

    are interchangeable with the experience for population controls. Patient controls may even be preferable from population controls under certain conditions. In this study we examine if colon cancer patients can serve as surrogates for proper population controls in case-control studies of occupational risk factors...... about occupational, medical and life style conditions. RESULTS: No statistical significant difference for educational level, medical history or smoking status was seen between the two control groups. There was evidence of a higher alcohol intake, less frequent work as a farmer and less exposure...... to pesticides among colon cancer controls. CONCLUSIONS: Use of colon cancer controls may provide valid exposure estimates in studies of many occupational risk factors for cancer, but not for studies on exposure related to farming....

  9. Association of sedentary behaviour with colon and rectal cancer: a meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Cong, Y J; Gan, Y; Sun, H L; Deng, J; Cao, S Y; Xu, X; Lu, Z X

    2014-02-04

    Sedentary behaviour is ubiquitous in modern society. Emerging studies have focused on the health consequences of sedentary behaviour, including colorectal cancer, but whether sedentary behaviour is associated with the risks of colon and rectal cancer remains unclear. No systematic reviews have applied quantitative techniques to independently compute summary risk estimates. We aimed to conduct a meta-analysis to investigate this issue. We searched PubMed, Embase, and Google Scholar databases up to May 2013 to identify cohort and case-control studies that evaluated the association between sedentary behaviour and colon or rectal cancer. A random-effect model was used to pool the results of included studies. Publication bias was assessed by using Begg's funnel plot. Twenty-three studies with 63 reports were included in our meta-analysis. These groups included 4,324,462 participants (27,231 colon cancer cases and 13,813 rectal cancer cases). Sedentary behaviour was significantly associated with colon cancer (relative risk (RR): 1.30, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.22-1.39) but did not have a statistically significant association with rectal cancer (RR 1.05, 95% CI, 0.98-1.13). Subgroup analyses suggested that the odds ratio (OR) of colon cancer was 1.46 (95% CI: 1.22-1.68) in the case-control studies, and the RR was 1.27 (95% CI: 1.18-1.36) in the cohort studies, the OR of rectal cancer was 1.06 (95% CI: 0.85-1.33) in the case-control studies, and the RR was 1.06 (95% CI, 1.01-1.12) in the cohort studies. Sedentary behaviour is associated with an increased risk of colon cancer. Subgroup analyses suggest a positive association between sedentary behaviour and risk of rectal cancer in cohort studies. Reducing sedentary behaviour is potentially important for the prevention of colorectal cancer.

  10. Dietary risk factors for colon and rectal cancers: a comparative case-control study.

    Wakai, Kenji; Hirose, Kaoru; Matsuo, Keitaro; Ito, Hidemi; Kuriki, Kiyonori; Suzuki, Takeshi; Kato, Tomoyuki; Hirai, Takashi; Kanemitsu, Yukihide; Tajima, Kazuo

    2006-05-01

    In Japan, the incidence rate of colon cancer has more rapidly increased than that of rectal cancer. The differential secular trends may be due to different dietary factors in the development of colon and rectal cancers. To compare dietary risk factors between colon and rectal cancers, we undertook a case-control study at Aichi Cancer Center Hospital, Japan. Subjects were 507 patients with newly diagnosed colon (n = 265) and rectal (n = 242) cancers, and 2,535 cancer-free outpatients (controls). Intakes of nutrients and food groups were assessed with a food frequency questionnaire, and multivariate-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were estimated using unconditional logistic models. We found a decreasing risk of colon cancer with increasing intakes of calcium and insoluble dietary fiber; the multivariate ORs across quartiles of intake were 1.00, 0.90, 0.80, and 0.67 (trend p = 0.040), and 1.00, 0.69, 0.64, and 0.65 (trend p = 0.027), respectively. For rectal cancer, a higher consumption of carotene and meat was associated with a reduced risk; the corresponding ORs were 1.00, 1.10, 0.71, and 0.70 for carotene (trend p = 0.028), and 1.00, 0.99, 0.68, and 0.72 for meat (trend p = 0.036). Carbohydrate intake was positively correlated with the risk of rectal cancer (ORs over quartiles: 1.00, 1.14, 1.42, and 1.54; trend p = 0.048). This association was stronger in women, while fat consumption was inversely correlated with the risk of female colon and rectal cancers. Dietary risk factors appear to considerably differ between colon and rectal cancers.

  11. On film quality in barium-air double contrast colon study

    Rhu, Sang Hyung; Rhee, Jae Ho; Kim, Hai Sung; Cheung, Hwan

    1984-01-01

    The colon double contrast study provides valuable diagnostic information by means of appropriate control of Kvp and mAa when making double contrast image by injecting air into the colon after coating the colon wall by appropriately diluted Barium solution. The following experiments were performed the results of which allowed to improve the quality of film in barium-air double contrast colon study: (1) Do the pictures have uniform density when measured with a densitometer from three measuring points established in the picture by changing Kvp and mAs depending on the thickness of the patient? (2) Is the quality of the picture improved by being compensated from the adjacent area when using a wedge filter in routine check lateral decubitus and erect view? (3) What is the optimum dilution of barium solution which gives the best result for colon wall coating? The above experiments revealed that as the patient's thickness increased, it should be considered to increase mAs as well as Kvp and a wedge filter could give diagnostically very informative pictures in routine-check lateral decubitus and erect view. And 70-80% solution of Barium-water mixture provided the best quality of double contrast image

  12. Colon injury after blunt abdominal trauma: results of the EAST Multi-Institutional Hollow Viscus Injury Study.

    Williams, Michael D; Watts, Dorraine; Fakhry, Samir

    2003-11-01

    Blunt injury to the colon is rare. Few studies of adequate size and design exist to allow clinically useful conclusions. The Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma Multi-institutional Hollow Viscus Injury (HVI) Study presents a unique opportunity to definitively study these injuries. Patients with blunt HVI were identified from the registries of 95 trauma centers over 2 years (1998-1999). Patients with colon injuries (cases) were compared with blunt trauma patient undergoing a negative laparotomy (controls). Data were abstracted by chart review. Of the 227,972 patients represented, 2,632 (1.0%) had an HVI and 798 had a colonic/rectal injury (0.3%). Of patients diagnosed with HVI, 30.2% had a colon injury. No physical findings or imaging modalities were able to discriminate colonic injury. Logistic regression modeling yielded no clinically useful combination of findings that would reliably predict colonic injury. In patients undergoing laparotomy, presence of colon injury was associated with a higher risk of some complications but not mortality. Colon injury was associated with increased hospital (17.4 vs. 13.1, p colon patients (92.0%) underwent laparotomy within 24 hours of injury. Colonic injury after blunt trauma is rare and difficult to diagnose. No diagnostic test or combination of findings reliably excluded blunt colonic injury. Despite the inadequacy of current diagnostic tests, almost all patients with colonic injury were taken to the operating room within 24 hours. Even with relatively prompt surgery, patients with colon injury were at significantly higher risk for serious complications and increased length of stay. In contrast to small bowel perforation, delay in operative intervention appears to be less common but is still associated with serious morbidity.

  13. Studying the Differences of Bacterial Metabolome and Microbiome in the Colon between Landrace and Meihua Piglets

    Shijuan Yan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to compare the microbiome and metabolome differences in the colon lumen from two pig breeds with different genetic backgrounds. Fourteen weaned piglets at 30 days of age, including seven Landrace piglets (a lean-type pig breed with a fast growth rate and seven Meihua piglets (a fatty-type Chinese local pig breed with a slow growth rate, were fed the same diets for 35 days. Untargeted metabolomics analyses showed that a total of 401 metabolites differed between Landrace and Meihua. Seventy of these 401 metabolites were conclusively identified. Landrace accumulated more short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs and secondary bile acids in the colon lumen. Moreover, expression of the SCFAs transporter (solute carrier family 5 member 8, SLC5A8 and receptor (G protein-coupled receptor 41, GPR41 in the colon mucosa was higher, while the bile acids receptor (farnesoid X receptor, FXR had lower expression in Landrace compared to Meihua. The relative abundances of 8 genera and 16 species of bacteria differed significantly between Landrace and Meihua, and were closely related to the colonic concentrations of bile acids or SCFAs based on Pearson's correlation analysis. Collectively, our results demonstrate for the first time that there were differences in the colonic microbiome and metabolome between Meihua and Landrace piglets, with the most profound disparity in production of SCFAs and secondary bile acids.

  14. Phase Transitions, Diffraction Studies and Marginal Dimensionality

    Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage

    1985-01-01

    Continuous phase transitions and the associated critical phenomena have been one of the most active areas of research in condensed matter physics for several decades. This short review is only one cut through this huge subject and the author has chosen to emphasize diffraction studies as a basic ...

  15. Post-discharge symptoms following fast-track colonic cancer surgery: a phenomenological hermeneutic study

    Krogsgaard, Marianne; Dreyer, Pia; Egerod, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To obtain knowledge of patients' experiences of postoperative symptoms during the initial two weeks following fast-track colonic cancer surgery. METHOD: Semi-structured in-depth interviews with seven colonic cancer patients two weeks post hospital discharge. Analysis was performed using...... a phenomenological hermeneutical approach. RESULTS: During the first two weeks after discharge the patients experienced unfamiliar symptoms that affected their everyday lives. Despite distressing symptoms, they applied a "wait-and-see" strategy, and only reacted when symptoms became intolerable. The patients failed...... to shorter hospitalisation and improved physical performance, post-colonic surgery patients experience various symptoms after discharge. Healthcare professionals need to address symptoms that might have immediate and long-term consequences on patients' everyday life. Follow-up studies are encouraged...

  16. An increased rectal maximum tolerable volume and long anal canal are associated with poor short-term response to biofeedback therapy for patients with anismus with decreased bowel frequency and normal colonic transit time.

    Rhee, P L; Choi, M S; Kim, Y H; Son, H J; Kim, J J; Koh, K C; Paik, S W; Rhee, J C; Choi, K W

    2000-10-01

    Biofeedback is an effective therapy for a majority of patients with anismus. However, a significant proportion of patients still failed to respond to biofeedback, and little has been known about the factors that predict response to biofeedback. We evaluated the factors associated with poor response to biofeedback. Biofeedback therapy was offered to 45 patients with anismus with decreased bowel frequency (less than three times per week) and normal colonic transit time. Any differences in demographics, symptoms, and parameters of anorectal physiologic tests were sought between responders (in whom bowel frequency increased up to three times or more per week after biofeedback) and nonresponders (in whom bowel frequency remained less than three times per week). Thirty-one patients (68.9 percent) responded to biofeedback and 14 patients (31.1 percent) did not. Anal canal length was longer in nonresponders than in responders (4.53 +/- 0.5 vs. 4.08 +/- 0.56 cm; P = 0.02), and rectal maximum tolerable volume was larger in nonresponders than in responders. (361 +/- 87 vs. 302 +/- 69 ml; P = 0.02). Anal canal length and rectal maximum tolerable volume showed significant differences between responders and nonresponders on multivariate analysis (P = 0.027 and P = 0.034, respectively). This study showed that a long anal canal and increased rectal maximum tolerable volume are associated with poor short-term response to biofeedback for patients with anismus with decreased bowel frequency and normal colonic transit time.

  17. Experimental studies of colon carcinoma imaging with 99Tcm labeled neurotension peptide

    Zhang Kaijun; Zhang Yongxue; An Rui; Gao Zairong

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To prepare neurotension (NT) peptide labeled with 99 Tc m for the early diagnosis of colon carcinoma and to evaluate the advantages of the tracer. Methods: Biodistribution studies were performed at 3 and 12 h, respectively after injection of 99 Tc m -NT, and tissue distribution analysis after receptor-blocking was performed at 3 h in nude mice bearing colon carcinoma. Imaging with 99 Tc m -NT was performed at different time points in nude mice bearing colon carcinoma, and imaging after receptor-blocking was also performed at 3 h. The affinity of 99 Tc m -NT binding to the cell of colon carcinoma was studied in vitro. Results: The affinity constant of 99 Tc m -NT binding to the cells of colon carcinoma was obtained (Kd=0.91 nmol/L). The labeling yield of 99 Tc m -NT was more than 94% and the complex was stable in vitro and in vivo. Biodistribution analysis in nude mice bearing colon carcinoma showed that 99 Tc m -NT was excreted chiefly from the kidney, the ratios of tumor to muscle at 3 and 12 h were 3.25 ± 1.02 and 4.15 ± 1.46, respectively. In mice pretreated with unlabeled NT, the uptake of 99 Tc m -NT decreased in the tumor, the ratio of tumor to muscle at 3 h (1.21 ± 0.62) was significantly different from that of the mice without unlabeled NT treatment. Tumor lesion was detected with 99 Tc m -NT earlier (the lesion image showed up at 0.5 h postinjection), the ratio of tumor to contralateral limb at 3 h postinjection was 2.68 ± 0.44 obtained by technique of region of interest (ROI) . The ratio at 3 h was 1.14 ± 0.36 and that was significantly different from the ratio at 3 h postinjection in mice pretreated with unlabeled NT. Conclusion: The results of all studies in vitro and in vivo indicate that this labeling procedure of 99 Tc m -NT is simple and its specific binding to the cells of colon carcinoma is high, and it is a promising method for diagnosis of colon carcinoma

  18. Study of Endothelin-1 and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Patients with Cancer Colon

    ABDEL-GAWAD, I.A.; HASSANEIN, H.M.R.; BAHGAT, N.A.; ABDEL SATTAR, M.A.; EL-SISSY, A.H.; ALTAWEEL, M.A.; HELAL, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The levels of endothelin-1 and VEGF were evaluated in the sera of newly diagnosed patients with cancer colon and were compared with the routinely used tumor markers; CEA and CA19.9. Their relations with some prognostic factors of cancer colon were also investigated. Subjects and Methods: The study included 48 patients with cancer colon and 20 apparently healthy volunteers as a control group. Patients were 23 males and 25 females with age range from 18 to 71 years (mean = 47±1.8). Both serum and plasma samples were obtained from patients and controls. Results: Six percent of patients had grade 1 tumors, 77% had grade 2 and 17% had grade 3 disease. As regard to the stage, 52% of patients were stage II, 35.5% were stage III, while 12.5% were stage IV. Liver metastasis was present in 12.5%, while 35% showed lymph node metastasis. The VEGF, endothelin-1, CA 19.9 and CEA were significantly higher in the cancer colon patients than in control groups (p-value <0.001, 0.006, <0.001 and <0.001; respectively). Plasma level of endothelin-1 and serum level of VEGF showed significantly higher levels in advanced stages of the disease (p value <0 .001) and in presence of liver metastasis (p value <0.001 and 0.002 respectively), while VEGF showed significant result when compared with the grade (p value=0.032). In this study, when comparing the levels of plasma endothelin-1 and serum VEGF between the metastatic, non-metastatic liver patients of the cancer colon group and the control group, the comparison was statistically significant for both markers (p<0.001). Endothelin-1 and VEGF showed significant positive correlation (r=0.77 and p-value <0.0001). Serum VEGF and CA 19.9 showed good sensitivities which were not different (97.9% and 87.5%; respectively), while there was no significant difference between VEGF, CA 19.9 and CEA with respect to specificities (100%, 90% and 100% respectively). Conclusion: Both endothelin-1 and VEGF may be used for early detection of liver

  19. Reference values for the geometric centre analysis of colonic transit measurements with 111indium-labelled diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid

    Madsen, Jan Lysgård; Fuglsang, Stefan; Graff, Jesper

    2003-01-01

    humans. Forty-eight healthy volunteers (24 women, 24 men) who were equally distributed among three age groups (young, middle-aged, elderly) were studied. In all subjects the geometric centre of radioactivity in the colon was calculated from abdominal gamma camera images acquired 24, 48, 72, and 96 h...

  20. Study on Dendrobium officinale O-Acetyl-glucomannan (Dendronan). 7. Improving Effects on Colonic Health of Mice.

    Zhang, Guan-ya; Nie, Shao-ping; Huang, Xiao-jun; Hu, Jie-lun; Cui, Steve W; Xie, Ming-yong; Phillips, Glyn O

    2016-03-30

    This research was aimed to study the effect of Dendrobium officinale polysaccharide (Dendronan) on colonic health. Mice were fed Dendronan at doses of 40, 80, and 160 mg/kg body weight for 0, 10, 20, and 30 days, respectively. Results showed that Dendronan, which has a special structure formed by mannose and glucose, rich in O-acetyl groups, exhibited improving effects on colonic and fecal parameters of Balb/c mice. After Dendronan feeding, the content of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), colon length and index, and fecal moisture were increased, whereas colonic pH was decreased and defecation time was shortened. All of these changes were significantly different between polysaccharide-treated groups and the control group (p < 0.05). These findings suggested that an adequate intake of Dendronan is beneficial to the process of fermentation and regulation of colonic microenvironment, thus playing a role in the maintenance of colonic health.

  1. Colonic stenting as bridge to surgery versus emergency surgery for management of acute left-sided malignant colonic obstruction: a multicenter randomized trial (Stent-in 2 study

    Scholten Pieter

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute left-sided colonic obstruction is most often caused by malignancy and the surgical treatment is associated with a high mortality and morbidity rate. Moreover, these operated patients end up with a temporary or permanent stoma. Initial insertion of an enteral stent to decompress the obstructed colon, allowing for surgery to be performed electively, is gaining popularity. In uncontrolled studies stent placement before elective surgery has been suggested to decrease mortality, morbidity and number of colostomies. However stent perforation can lead to peritoneal tumor spill, changing a potentially curable disease in an incurable one. Therefore it is of paramount importance to compare the outcomes of colonic stenting followed by elective surgery with emergency surgery for the management of acute left-sided malignant colonic obstruction in a randomized multicenter fashion. Methods/design Patients with acute left-sided malignant colonic obstruction eligible for this study will be randomized to either emergency surgery (current standard treatment or colonic stenting as bridge to elective surgery. Outcome measurements are effectiveness and costs of both strategies. Effectiveness will be evaluated in terms of quality of life, morbidity and mortality. Quality of life will be measured with standardized questionnaires (EORTC QLQ-C30, EORTC QLQ-CR38, EQ-5D and EQ-VAS. Morbidity is defined as every event leading to hospital admission or prolonging hospital stay. Mortality will be analyzed as total mortality as well as procedure-related mortality. The total costs of treatment will be evaluated by counting volumes and calculating unit prices. Including 120 patients on a 1:1 basis will have 80% power to detect an effect size of 0.5 on the EORTC QLQ-C30 global health scale, using a two group t-test with a 0.05 two-sided significance level. Differences in quality of life and morbidity will be analyzed using mixed-models repeated measures

  2. Increasing fish consumption does not affect genotoxicity markers in the colon in an intervention study

    Pot, G.K.; Habermann, N.; Majsak-Newman, G.; Harvey, L.J.; Geelen, A.; Przybylska-Philips, P.; Nagengast, F.M.; Witteman, B.J.M.; van de Meeberg, P.C.; Hart, A.R.; Schaafsma, G.; Hooiveld, G.; Glei, M.; Lund, E.K.; Pool-Zobel, B.; Kampman, E.

    2010-01-01

    Observational studies suggest that fish consumption is associated with a decreased colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. A possible mechanism by which fish could reduce CRC risk is by decreasing colonic genotoxicity. However, concerns have also been raised over the levels of toxic compounds found in mainly

  3. Increasing fish consumption does not affect genotozicity markers in the colon in an intervention study

    Pot, G.K.; Habermann, N.; Majsak-Newman, G.; Harvey, L.J.; Geelen, A.; Witteman, B.J.M.; Meeberg, van de P.C.; Hart, A.R.; Schaafsma, G.; Hooiveld, G.J.E.J.; Glei, M.; Lund, E.K.; Pool-Zobel, B.L.; Kampman, E.

    2010-01-01

    Observational studies suggest that fish consumption is associated with a decreased colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. A possible mechanism by which fish could reduce CRC risk is by decreasing colonic genotoxicity. However, concerns have also been raised over the levels of toxic compounds found in mainly

  4. Tissue sulfomucin and sialomucin content in colon mucosa without intestinal transit subjected to intervention with Curcuma longa (curcumin).

    Alves, Antonio José Tiburcio; Pereira, José Aires; Pansani, Adrieli Heloísa Campardo; Magro, Daniela Oliveira; Coy, Cláudio Saddy Rodrigues; Martinez, Carlos Augusto Real

    2017-03-01

    To measure the tissue sulfomucin and sialomucin content of the colon mucosa without fecal flow, subjected to intervention with curcumin, and the influence of the concentration used and the intervention time. Thirty-six rats were subjected to proximal right colostomy and distal mucous fistula. They were divided into two groups according to whether sacrifice was performed two or four weeks after the intervention. Each group was divided into three subgroups according to the enema applied daily: saline alone; curcumin at 50 mg/kg/day or curcumin at 200 mg/kg/day. Acid mucins were diagnosed using the Alcian blue technique. The mucin content was quantified by means of computer-assisted image analysis. The significance level of 5% was used throughout (p curcumin, both after two weeks (p Curcumin enemas increase the quantity of acid mucins in the intestinal flow in the excluded colon, with dose and time dependency.

  5. Probiotics in diverticular disease of the colon: an open label study.

    Lamiki, Pepu; Tsuchiya, Junji; Pathak, Surajit; Okura, Ruichi; Solimene, Umberto; Jain, Shalini; Kawakita, Shichiro; Marotta, Francesco

    2010-03-01

    To investigate the effectiveness and safety of a symbiotic mixture in preventing recurrence of constipation-related abdominal pain in patients with uncomplicated diverticular disease of the colon. Forty-six consecutive patients (10 men, 36 women, mean age 62.5 years, range 49 to 77 years), previously affected by symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease of the colon, were enrolled in a 6-month follow-up study in a prospective, randomized, open-label study. The following symptoms were assessed at entry and through follow-up by using a quantitative scale: constipation, diarrhoea and abdominal pain. After recruitment, the patients were assigned to the following treatment: SCM-III symbiotic mixture, 10 ml three times a day. The colonization of ingested Lactobacillus acidophilus 145 and Bifidobacterium spp. 420 was assessed by species-specific PCR. Forty-five patients completed the study (97%). Thirty-one patients (68%) were still symptom free after the 6th month of treatment. Treatment with SCM-III was regarded as "effective" or "very effective" in more than 78% of the patients altogether (pdiverticular disease of the colon, especially in those patients with constipation-predominant features.

  6. Dietary folate intake and K-ras mutations in sporadic colon and rectal cancer in the Netherlands Cohort Study

    Brink, M.; Weijenberg, M.P.; Goeij, A.F.P.M. de; Roemen, G.M.J.M.; Lentjes, M.H.F.M.; Bruïne, A.P. de; Engeland, M. van; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2005-01-01

    We studied the association between dietary folate and specific K-ras mutations in colon and rectal cancer in The Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer. After 7.3 years of follow-up, 448 colon and 160 rectal cancer patients and 3,048 sub-cohort members (55-69 years at baseline) were available

  7. Detroit regional transit study : a study of factors that enable and inhibit effective regional transit.

    2014-03-01

    An interdisciplinary team of six faculty members and six students at the University of Detroit Mercy (UDM) conducted a : comprehensive study of the factors enabling or inhibiting development of effective regional transit. Focusing on Metro Detroit an...

  8. Oral Yeast Colonization and Fungal Infections in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients: A Pilot Study

    Liliana Simões-Silva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Peritonitis and exit-site infections are important complications in peritoneal dialysis (PD patients that are occasionally caused by opportunistic fungi inhabiting distant body sites. In this study, the oral yeast colonization of PD patients and the antifungal susceptibility profile of the isolated yeasts were accessed and correlated with fungal infection episodes in the following 4 years. Saliva yeast colonization was accessed in 21 PD patients and 27 healthy controls by growth in CHROMagar-Candida® and 18S rRNA/ITS sequencing. PD patients presented a lower oral yeast prevalence when compared to controls, namely, Candida albicans. Other species were also isolated, Candida glabrata and Candida carpophila. The antifungal susceptibility profiles of these isolates revealed resistance to itraconazole, variable susceptibility to caspofungin, and higher MIC values of posaconazole compared to previous reports. The 4-year longitudinal evaluation of these patients revealed Candida parapsilosis and Candida zeylanoides as PD-related exit-site infectious agents, but no correlation was found with oral yeast colonization. This pilot study suggests that oral yeast colonization may represent a limited risk for fungal infection development in PD patients. Oral yeast isolates presented a variable antifungal susceptibility profile, which may suggest resistance to some second-line drugs, highlighting the importance of antifungal susceptibility assessment in the clinical practice.

  9. Comparative study of oncologic outcomes for laparoscopic vs. open surgery in transverse colon cancer.

    Kim, Woo Ram; Baek, Se Jin; Kim, Chang Woo; Jang, Hyun A; Cho, Min Soo; Bae, Sung Uk; Hur, Hyuk; Min, Byung Soh; Baik, Seung Hyuk; Lee, Kang Young; Kim, Nam Kyu; Sohn, Seung Kuk

    2014-01-01

    Laparoscopic resection for transverse colon cancer is a technically challenging procedure that has been excluded from various large randomized controlled trials of which the long-term outcomes still need to be verified. The purpose of this study was to evaluate long-term oncologic outcomes for transverse colon cancer patients undergoing laparoscopic colectomy (LAC) or open colectomy (OC). This retrospective review included patients with transverse colon cancer who received a colectomy between January 2006 and December 2010. Short-term and five-year oncologic outcomes were compared between these groups. A total of 131 patients were analyzed in the final study (LAC, 84 patients; OC, 47 patients). There were no significant differences in age, gender, body mass index, tumor location, operative procedure, or blood loss between groups, but the mean operative time in LAC was significantly longer (LAC, 246.8 minutes vs. OC, 213.8 minutes; P = 0.03). Hospital stay was much shorter for LAC than OC (9.1 days vs. 14.5 days, P transverse colon cancer is feasible and safe with comparable short- and long-term outcomes.

  10. Gastrointestinal mean transit times in young and middle-aged healthy subjects

    Graff, J; Brinch, K; Madsen, Jan Lysgård

    2001-01-01

    To investigate the effects of age and gender on gastric, small intestinal and colonic mean transit times, a study was conducted in 32 healthy volunteers: eight young women (22-30 years), eight young men (20-28 years), eight middle-aged women (43-51 years) and eight middle-aged men (38-53 years......, small intestinal and colonic mean transit times were calculated. The gastric, small intestinal and colonic mean transit times were significantly longer in women. Ageing was shown to accelerate the gastric and small intestinal transit significantly. In the group of men the colonic mean transit time...... was unaffected by age, but middle-aged women had a significantly slower colonic transit than young women. We therefore conclude that both age and gender have to be considered when reference values for gastric, small intestinal and colonic mean transit times have to be established....

  11. Transcription factor Runx2 knockdown regulates colon cancer transplantation tumor growth in vitro: an experimental study

    Bin Xu1

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of transcription factor Runx2 knockdown on colon cancer transplantation tumor growth in vitro. Methods: Colon cancer cell lines HT29 were cultured and transfected with negative control (NC - shRNA plasmids and Runx2-shRNA plasmids respectively, the colon cancer cells transfected with shRNA were subcutaneously injected into C57 nude mice, and they were included in NC group and Runx2 knockdown group respectively. 1 week, 2 weeks and 3 weeks after model establishment, serum was collected to determine the contents of tumor markers, and tumor lesions were collected to determine proliferation and apoptosis gene expression. Results: CCSA-2, CEA and CA19-9 levels in serum as well as Rac1, Wnt3a, PLD2 and FAM96B protein expression in transplantation tumor lesions of Runx2 knockdown group were significantly lower than those of NC group while MS4A12, ASPP2 and Fas protein expression in transplantation tumor lesions of Runx2 knockdown group were significantly higher than those of NC group. Conclusion: Transcription factor Runx2 knockdown could inhibit the colon cancer transplantation tumor growth in vitro.

  12. Fruits, vegetables and hMLH1 protein-deficient and-proficient colon cancer: the Netherlands Cohort Study

    Wark, P.A.; Weijenberg, M.P.; Veer, van 't P.; Wijhe, van G.; Luchtenborg, M.; Muijen, van G.N.P.; Goeij, de A.F.P.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, van den P.A.

    2005-01-01

    Clinical and pathologic differences exist between colon carcinomas deficient and proficient in the mismatch repair protein hMLH1. Animal and in vitro studies suggest that fruits, vegetables, folate, and antioxidants are associated with colonic expression of mismatch repair genes.METHODS:

  13. Colon cancer risk and different HRT formulations: a case-control study

    Thai Do

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most studies have found no increased risk of colon cancer associated with hormone replacement therapy (HRT, or even a decreased risk. But information about the effects of different HRT preparations is lacking. Methods A case-control study was performed within Germany in collaboration with regional cancer registries and tumor centers. Up to 5 controls were matched to each case of colon cancer. Conditional logistic regression analysis was applied to estimate crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI. Stratified analyses were performed to get an impression of the risk associated with different estrogens and progestins. Results A total of 354 cases of colon cancer were compared with 1422 matched controls. The adjusted overall risk estimate for colon cancer (ColC associated with ever-use of HRT was 0.97 (0.71 – 1.32. No clinically relevant trends for ColC risk were observed with increasing duration of HRT use, or increasing time since first or last HRT use in aggregate. Whereas the overall risk estimates were stable, the numbers in many of the sub-analyses of HRT preparation groups (estrogens and progestins were too small for conclusions. Nevertheless, if the ColC risk estimates are taken at face value, most seemed to be reduced compared with never-use of HRT, but did not vary much across HRT formulation subgroups. In particular, no substantial difference in ColC risk was observed between HRT-containing conjugated equine estrogens (CEE or medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA and other formulations more common in Europe. Conclusion Ever-use of HRT was not associated with an increased risk of colon cancer. In contrary, most risk estimates pointed non-significantly toward a lower ColC risk in HRT ever user. They did not vary markedly among different HRT formulations (estrogens, progestins. However, the small numbers and the overlapping nature of the subgroups suggest cautious interpretation.

  14. Measurement of small bowel transit time by 99Tcm-SC imaging: preliminary clinical study

    Zhang Shaohua; Xu Jingying; Bei Lian; Zhu Chaohui; Ba Jiantao

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To develop a method of measuring small bowel transit time (SBTT) by 99 Tc m -sulfur collide (SC) imaging and to compare with the method of added lactose in the test meal. Methods: 20 healthy volunteers and 26 patients with gastrointestinal disorders were studied. In fasting state, the subjects were asked to ingest the 99 Tc m -SC labelled solid meal within 5 minutes, then the image acquisition was immediately started with SPECT. The images were acquired every 15 min during the first hour, at 30 min intervals during 2∼4 hours and hourly thereafter until 80% radioactivity had entered the colon. One week later, the same procedure of imaging with 15 g lactulose added in the test meal was performed. The regions of interest (ROIs) were taken at stomach and colon, and the SBTT was calculated by deconvolution or by subtraction of the 50% time of gastric emptying from the 50% time of colon filling. Results: 1) The mean SBTT of 20 healthy volunteers was (4.2 +- 0.5) h, oral-caecum transit time (OCTT) was (4.3 +- 0.6) h; lactulose shortened the SBTT by (1.8 +- 0.6) h; 2) 26 patients showed different results of SBTT due to their different gastrointestinal disorders bases. Conclusions: 99 Tc m -SC imaging was a noninvasive and useful method to measure SBTT. The added lactulose can shorten the examination time and help to identify the time of food to the ileocecal region

  15. [Effects of low anterior resection on colonic motor activity and defecation. An experimental study].

    Iikura, M

    1995-06-01

    The functional disorder of defecation after low anterior resection (LAR) was studied from the aspect of colonic motility in an experiment with dogs using a strain gage transducer, and the following results were obtained: 1) In early phase after LAR, the frequency of the colonic contractile waves increased at the proximal and distal sites of the anastomosis in both subgroups of dogs denervated and innervated of hypogastric and pelvic nerves. The increase was more remarkable at the distal site of the anastomosis. Also, the contractile waves were not propagated across the anastomosis. 2) After LAR, strong colonic contractions occurred during defecation only at the distal anastomosis. Various patterns of contraction time required for defecation were demonstrated as compared to a single pattern in control dogs. 3) The frequency of the occurrence of colonic contractile waves and the propagation of the contraction tended to be normalized with time after LAR both in denervated and innervated groups, though the recovery was faster in the latter subgroup. 4) The frequency of defecation increased after LAR both in denervated and innervated groups compared to be in the control dogs, though more remarkable in the denervated groups. Although tended to be gradually normalized with time after LAR, the colectomized dogs required a long time for normalization of the frequency of defecation. These results suggested the significant effect of reduction in reservoir space and disturbed continuity of intramural plexus caused by colectomy. Less severity, however, of functional disorder of defecation and earlier recovery from colonic motility disorder in the subgroup of the dogs innervated of autonomic nerves indicated usefulness of retaining autonomic nerves in colectomy.

  16. 1,25(OH)2D3 attenuates TGF-β1/β2-induced increased migration and invasion via inhibiting epithelial–mesenchymal transition in colon cancer cells

    Chen, Shanwen; Zhu, Jing; Zuo, Shuai; Ma, Ju; Zhang, Junling; Chen, Guowei; Wang, Xin; Pan, Yisheng; Liu, Yucun; Wang, Pengyuan, E-mail: wangpengyuan2014@126.com

    2015-12-04

    1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) has been reported to inhibit proliferation and migration of multiple types of cancer cells. However, the mechanism underlying its anti-metastasis effect is not fully illustrated. In this study, the effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 on TGF-β1/β2-induced epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) is tested in colon cancer cells. The results suggest that 1,25(OH)2D3 inhibited TGF-β1/β2-induced increased invasion and migration of in SW-480 and HT-29 cells. 1,25(OH)2D3 also inhibited the cadherin switch in SW-480 and HT-29 cells. TGF-β1/β2-induced increased expression of EMT-related transcription factors was also inhibited by 1,25(OH)2D3. 1,25(OH)2D3 also inhibited the secretion of MMP-2 and MMP-9 and increased expression of F-actin induced by TGF-β1/β2 in SW-480 cells. Taken together, this study suggests that the suppression of EMT might be one of the mechanisms underlying the anti-metastasis effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 in colon cancer cells. - Highlights: • TGF-β1/β2-induced model of EMT was used in this study to test the effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 on EMT in colon cancer cells. • 1,25(OH)2D3 inhibited TGF-β1/β2-induced increased migration and invasion. • 1,25(OH)2D3 inhibited TGF-β1/β2-induced increased level of EMT-related transcription factors. • 1,25(OH)2D3 inhibited TGF-β1/β2-induced increased expression of F-actin in SW-480 cells.

  17. Faster recovery of gastrointestinal transit after laparoscopy and fast-track care in patients undergoing colonic surgery

    van Bree, Sjoerd; Vlug, Malaika; Bemelman, Willem; Hollmann, Markus; Ubbink, Dirk; Zwinderman, Koos; de Jonge, Wouter; Snoek, Susanne; Bolhuis, Karen; van der Zanden, Esmerij; The, Frans; Bennink, Roel; Boeckxstaens, Guy

    2011-01-01

    Postoperative ileus is characterized by delayed gastrointestinal (GI) transit and is a major determinant of recovery after colorectal surgery. Both laparoscopic surgery and fast-track multimodal perioperative care have been reported to improve clinical recovery. However, objective measures

  18. Studies of tissue colonization in Rhododendron by Phytophthora ramorum

    Marko Riedel; Stefan Wagner; Monika Götz; Lassaad Belbahri; Francois Lefort; Sabine Werres

    2008-01-01

    The knowledge on latency is of great importance to prevent the spread of Phytophthora ramorum with healthy looking plant material. To learn more about the tissue colonisation in Rhododendron, histological studies with epifluorescence microscopy have been started. Epifluorescence images showing P. ramorum structures in different...

  19. 1,25(OH)2D3 attenuates TGF-β1/β2-induced increased migration and invasion via inhibiting epithelial-mesenchymal transition in colon cancer cells.

    Chen, Shanwen; Zhu, Jing; Zuo, Shuai; Ma, Ju; Zhang, Junling; Chen, Guowei; Wang, Xin; Pan, Yisheng; Liu, Yucun; Wang, Pengyuan

    1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) has been reported to inhibit proliferation and migration of multiple types of cancer cells. However, the mechanism underlying its anti-metastasis effect is not fully illustrated. In this study, the effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 on TGF-β1/β2-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is tested in colon cancer cells. The results suggest that 1,25(OH)2D3 inhibited TGF-β1/β2-induced increased invasion and migration of in SW-480 and HT-29 cells. 1,25(OH)2D3 also inhibited the cadherin switch in SW-480 and HT-29 cells. TGF-β1/β2-induced increased expression of EMT-related transcription factors was also inhibited by 1,25(OH)2D3. 1,25(OH)2D3 also inhibited the secretion of MMP-2 and MMP-9 and increased expression of F-actin induced by TGF-β1/β2 in SW-480 cells. Taken together, this study suggests that the suppression of EMT might be one of the mechanisms underlying the anti-metastasis effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 in colon cancer cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Short- and long-term outcomes of laparoscopic surgery vs open surgery for transverse colon cancer: a retrospective multicenter study.

    Kim, Jong Wan; Kim, Jeong Yeon; Kang, Byung Mo; Lee, Bong Hwa; Kim, Byung Chun; Park, Jun Ho

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the perioperative and oncologic outcomes between laparoscopic surgery and open surgery for transverse colon cancer. We conducted a retrospective review of patients who underwent surgery for transverse colon cancer at six Hallym University-affiliated hospitals between January 2005 and June 2015. The perioperative outcomes and oncologic outcomes were compared between laparoscopic and open surgery. Of 226 patients with transverse colon cancer, 103 underwent laparoscopic surgery and 123 underwent open surgery. There were no differences in the patient characteristics between the two groups. Regarding perioperative outcomes, the operation time was significantly longer in the laparoscopic group than in the open group (267.3 vs 172.7 minutes, Pstudy showed that laparoscopic surgery is associated with several perioperative benefits and similar oncologic outcomes to open surgery for the resection of transverse colon cancer. Therefore, laparoscopic surgery offers a safe alternative to open surgery in patients with transverse colon cancer.

  1. Management of Colonic Volvulus

    Gingold, Daniel; Murrell, Zuri

    2012-01-01

    Colonic volvulus is a common cause of large bowel obstruction worldwide. It can affect all parts of the colon, but most commonly occurs in the sigmoid and cecal areas. This disease has been described for centuries, and was studied by Hippocrates himself. Currently, colonic volvulus is the third most common cause of large bowel obstruction worldwide, and is responsible for ∼15% of large bowel obstructions in the United States. This article will discuss the history of colonic volvulus, and the predisposing factors that lead to this disease. Moreover, the epidemiology and diagnosis of each type of colonic volvulus, along with the various treatment options will be reviewed. PMID:24294126

  2. Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy in the Study of Colonic Mucosa in IBD Patients: A Review

    Francesca Salvatori

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE is one of several novel methods that provide real-time, high-resolution imaging at a micronscale via endoscopes. CLE and related technologies are often termed “virtual biopsy” as they simulate the images seen in traditional histology. Recently, the use of CLE was reported in the study of colonic mucosa in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases and in particular in patients affected by ulcerative colitis. CLE has the potential to have an important role in management of IBD patients as it can be used to assess the grading of colitis and in detection of microscopic colitis in endoscopically silent segments. Moreover, CLE can be used in surveillance programs especially in high-risk patients. This report aims to evaluate the current data on the application of confocal endomicroscopy in clinical gastroenterology and particularly in the study of colonic mucosa in UC patients.

  3. Simplified scintigraphic methods for measuring gastrointestinal transit times

    Graff, J; Brinch, K; Madsen, Jan Lysgård

    2000-01-01

    To investigate whether simple transit measurements based on scintigraphy performed only 0, 2, 4 and 24 h after intake of a radiolabelled meal can be used to predict the mean transit time values for the stomach, the small intestine, and the colon, a study was conducted in 16 healthy volunteers....... After ingestion of a meal containing 111indium-labelled water and 99mtechnetium-labelled omelette, imaging was performed at intervals of 30 min until all radioactivity was located in the colon and henceforth at intervals of 24 h until all radioactivity had cleared from the colon. Gastric, small...... intestinal and colonic mean transit times were calculated for both markers and compared with fractional gastric emptying at 2 h, fractional colonic filling at 4 h, and geometric centre of colonic content at 24 h, respectively. Highly significant correlations were found between gastric mean transit time...

  4. Immunohistochemical study of β-catenin in experimental colon carcinoma of rat

    Y Doustar

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal adenocarcinoma is one of the most prevalent and treatable malignancies of the gastrointestinal tract. Recent studies on colorectal neoplasia indicates β-catenin gene mutation and its intranuclear accumulation inside hyperplastic cells. Therefore, β-catenin may be an important prognosis and diagnostic index of this disease. The aim of this study is to evaluate the nuclear beta-catenin expression in hyperplastic cells of colon following treatment with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine. In this study, 56 wistar male rats with the age of 12 weeks and body weight of 200-300g were selected and randomly allocated into two equal treatment and control groups. In the treatment group, two subcutaneous injections of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine every week at a dose rate of 40 mg/kg were used for 4 weeks to induce colon carcinoma. The control group was given normal saline solution similarly. After 8 weeks, tissues samples of distal colon were collected from both groups for preparation of tissue sections and immunohistochemistry. Immunohistopathological study of samples revealed that nuclear β-catenin expression in the treatment group was significantly higher than the control group (p

  5. NMR study of the 1-13C glucose colon bacterial metabolism

    Briet, F.; Flourie, B.; Pochart, P.; Rambaud, J.C.; Desjeux, J.F.; Dallery, L.; Grivet, J.P.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of the study is to examine in-vitro and by nuclear magnetic resonance the biological pathways for the fermentation of the 1- 13 C labelled glucose (99 atoms percent) by human colon bacteria. The preparation of the bacterial suspension and the glucose degradation kinetics are presented; the NMR analysis sensitivity and quantification features are discussed and results are presented. 2 figs., 1 ref

  6. Comparative Study of Carcinoembryonic Antigen Tumor Marker in Stomach and Colon Cancer Patients in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.

    Ahmad, Bashir; Gul, Bushra; Ali, Sajid; Bashir, Shumaila; Mahmood, Nourin; Ahmad, Jamshed; Nawaz, Seema

    2015-01-01

    Due to the increase in morbidity and mortality rate, cancer has become an alarming threat to the human population worldwide. Since cancer is a progressive disorder, timely diagnosis would be helpful to prevent/stop cancer from progressing to severe stage. In Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, most of the time, tumors are diagnosed with endoscopy and biopsy; therefore rare studies exist regarding the diagnosis of gastrointestinal (GIT) carcinomas based on tumor markers, especially CEA. This study made a comparative analysis of CEA in admitted hospitalized stomach and colon cancer patients diagnosed as GIT with biopsy. In this study, a total of 66 cases were included. The level of CEA was determined in the blood of these patients using ELISA technique. Out of 66 patients, the level of CEA was high in 59.1% of the total, 60.7% in colon cancer patients and 57.9 % in stomach cancer patients. Moreover, the incidence of colorectal and stomach cancer was greater in males as compared to females. Patients were more of the age group of 40- 60 and the level of CEA was comparatively higher in patients (51.5%) with histology which was moderately differentiated, than patients with well differentiated and poorly differentiated tumor histology. CEA level was high in more than 50% of the total patients. Moreover, CEA exhibited higher sensitivity for colon than stomach cancer.

  7. A New Model to Study the Role of Arachidonic Acid in Colon Cancer Pathophysiology.

    Fan, Yang-Yi; Callaway, Evelyn; M Monk, Jennifer; S Goldsby, Jennifer; Yang, Peiying; Vincent, Logan; S Chapkin, Robert

    2016-09-01

    A significant increase in cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) gene expression has been shown to promote cylcooxygenase-dependent colon cancer development. Controversy associated with the role of COX2 inhibitors indicates that additional work is needed to elucidate the effects of arachidonic acid (AA)-derived (cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase) eicosanoids in cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis. We have recently developed a novel Fads1 knockout mouse model that allows for the investigation of AA-dependent eicosanoid deficiency without the complication of essential fatty acid deficiency. Interestingly, the survival rate of Fads1-null mice is severely compromised after 2 months on a semi-purified AA-free diet, which precludes long-term chemoprevention studies. Therefore, in this study, dietary AA levels were titrated to determine the minimal level required for survival, while maintaining a distinct AA-deficient phenotype. Null mice supplemented with AA (0.1%, 0.4%, 0.6%, 2.0%, w/w) in the diet exhibited a dose-dependent increase (P sibling littermate control mice. These data indicate that (i) basal/minimal dietary AA supplementation (0.6%) expands the utility of the Fads1-null mouse model for long-term cancer prevention studies and (ii) that AA content in the colonic epithelium modulates colon cancer risk. Cancer Prev Res; 9(9); 750-7. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  8. A new model to study the role of arachidonic acid in colon cancer pathophysiology

    Fan, Yang-Yi; Callaway, Evelyn; Monk, Jennifer M.; Goldsby, Jennifer S.; Yang, Peiying; Vincent, Logan; Chapkin, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    A significant increase in cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) gene expression has been shown to promote cylcooxygenase-dependent colon cancer development. Controversy associated with the role of COX2 inhibitors indicates that additional work is needed to elucidate the effects of arachidonic acid (AA) derived (cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase) eicosanoids in cancer initiation, progression and metastasis. We have recently developed a novel Fads1 knockout mouse model, which allows for the investigation of AA-dependent eicosanoid deficiency without the complication of essential fatty acid deficiency. Interestingly, the survival rate of Fads1 null mice is severely compromised after 2 months on a semi-purified AA-free diet, which precludes long-term chemoprevention studies. Therefore, in this study, dietary AA levels were titrated to determine the minimal level required for survival, while maintaining a distinct AA-deficient phenotype. Null mice supplemented with AA (0.1, 0.4, 0.6, 2.0%, w/w) in the diet exhibited a dose-dependent increase (P diet were injected with a colon-specific carcinogen (azoxymethane) in order to assess cancer susceptibility. Null mice exhibited significantly (P < 0.05) reduced levels/multiplicity of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) as compared to wild type sibling littermate control mice. These data indicate that (i) basal/minimal dietary AA supplementation (0.6%) expands the utility of the Fads1 Null mouse model for long-term cancer prevention studies, and (ii) that AA content in the colonic epithelium modulates colon cancer risk. PMID:27339171

  9. Studies on the visualization of the fine relief of the colon

    Persigehl, M.; Niemann, G.; Klose, K.C.

    1983-01-01

    The possibility of visualizing the fine relief of the colon was examined by studying human intestinal segments removed post mortem. The visualization depends, among other things, on the extent of expansion of the colon wall. The visualization of the fine relief structure becomes progressively poorer, the greater the extension of the wall. This might indicate that fold formation of the mucosa through a state of contraction of the tunica mucosa is done of the responsible factors for the visualization of the fine relief structures. The article discusses, apart from this factor, the course of the vessels as an anatomical basic pattern determining the manifestation of the fine relief structure; for this purpose, the course of the vessels in the intestine of the dog was visualized by intra-arterial contrast medium injection and then compared with the human fine relief. (orig.) [de

  10. In Vitro Study on the Adhesion and Colonization of Candida Albicans on Metal and Acrylic Piercings

    Stamenov N.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Oral/perioral piercing may provide an ideal environment for adhesion and colonization of microorganisms. The aim of this study is to perform an “in vitro” research on the capabilities of adhesion of Candida albicans on oral piercings made of plastic and metal. Acrylic and metal piercings were incubated with Candida albicans and then were observed using scanning electron microscopy under different magnifications. A lot of irregularities and roughness were observed on the surface of the plastic piercing unlike the surface of the metal one, which is not so rough. Nevertheless, the number of Candida albicans colonies was considerably larger on the scanned metal surface in comparison to the plastic surface. In vitro the metal surface of the piercing creates better environment for the adhesion and colonization of microorganisms than the acrylic. This could be attributed to the electrostatic forces that most likely attract Candida albicans to the metal piercing in the early stages of biofilm formation.

  11. A Metabolic Study on Colon Cancer Using 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    Zahra Zamani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Colorectal carcinoma is the third cause of cancer deaths in the world. For diagnosis, invasive methods like colonoscopy and sigmoidoscopy are used, and noninvasive screening tests are not very accurate. We decided to study the potential of 1HNMR spectroscopy with metabolomics and chemometrics as a preliminary noninvasive test. We obtained a distinguishing pattern of metabolites and metabolic pathways between colon cancer patient and normal. Methods. Sera were obtained from confirmed colon cancer patients and the same number of healthy controls. Samples were sent for 1HNMR spectroscopy and analysis was carried out Chenomex and MATLAB software. Metabolites were identified using Human Metabolic Data Base (HDMB and the main metabolic cycles were identified using Metaboanalyst software. Results. 15 metabolites were identified such as pyridoxine, orotidine, and taurocholic acid. Main metabolic cycles involved were the bile acid biosynthesis, vitamin B6 metabolism, methane metabolism, and glutathione metabolism. Discussion. The main detected metabolic cycles were also reported earlier in different cancers. Our observations corroborated earlier studies that suggest the importance of lowering serum LCA/DCA and increasing vitamin B6 intake to help prevent colon cancer. This work can be looked upon as a preliminary step in using 1HNMR analysis as a screening test before invasive procedures.

  12. Solo-Surgeon Single-Port Laparoscopic Anterior Resection for Sigmoid Colon Cancer: Comparative Study.

    Choi, Byung Jo; Jeong, Won Jun; Kim, Say-June; Lee, Sang Chul

    2018-03-01

    To report our experience with solo-surgeon, single-port laparoscopic anterior resection (solo SPAR) for sigmoid colon cancer. Data from sigmoid colon cancer patients who underwent anterior resections (ARs) using the single-port, solo surgery technique (n = 31) or the conventional single-port laparoscopic technique (n = 45), between January 2011 and July 2016, were retrospectively analyzed. In the solo surgeries, making the transumbilical incision into the peritoneal cavity was facilitated through the use of a self-retaining retractor system. After establishing a single port through the umbilicus, an adjustable mechanical camera holder replaced the human scope assistant. Patient and tumor characteristics and operative, pathologic, and postoperative outcomes were compared. The operative times and estimated blood losses were similar for the patients in both treatment groups. In addition, most of the postoperative variables were comparable between the two groups, including postoperative complications and hospital stays. In the solo SPAR group, comparable lymph nodes were attained, and sufficient proximal and distal cut margins were obtained. The difference in the proximal cut margin significantly favored the solo SPAR, compared with the conventional AR group (P = .000). This study shows that solo SPAR, using a passive camera system, is safe and feasible for use in sigmoid colon cancer surgery, if performed by an experienced laparoscopic surgeon. In addition to reducing the need for a surgical assistant, the oncologic requirements, including adequate margins and sufficient lymph node harvesting, could be fulfilled. Further evaluations, including prospective randomized studies, are warranted.

  13. Oral and endotracheal tubes colonization by periodontal bacteria: a case-control ICU study.

    Porto, A N; Cortelli, S C; Borges, A H; Matos, F Z; Aquino, D R; Miranda, T B; Oliveira Costa, F; Aranha, A F; Cortelli, J R

    2016-03-01

    Periodontal infection is a possible risk factor for respiratory disorders; however, no studies have assessed the colonization of periodontal pathogens in endotracheal tubes (ET). This case-control study analyzed whether periodontal pathogens are able to colonize ET of dentate and edentulous patients in intensive care units (ICU) and whether oral and ET periodontal pathogen profiles have any correlation between these patients. We selected 18 dentate and 18 edentulous patients from 78 eligible ICU patients. Oral clinical examination including probing depth, clinical attachment level, gingival index , and plaque index was performed by a single examiner, followed by oral and ET sampling and processing by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (total bacterial load, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Tannerella forsythia). Data were statistically analyzed by Mann-Whitney U, two-way analysis of variance (p Periodontal pathogens can colonize ET and the oral cavity of ICU patients. Periodontal pathogen profiles tend to be similar between dentate and edentulous ICU patients. In ICU patients, oral cavity represents a source of ET contamination. Although accompanied by higher oral bacterial levels, teeth do not seem to influence ET bacterial profiles.

  14. Analysis of Risk Factors for Colonic Diverticular Bleeding: A Matched Case-Control Study.

    Sugihara, Yuusaku; Kudo, Shin-ei; Miyachi, Hideyuki; Misawa, Masashi; Okoshi, Shogo; Okada, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Kazuhide

    2016-03-01

    Diverticular bleeding can occasionally cause massive bleeding that requires urgent colonoscopy (CS) and treatment. The aim of this study was to identify significant risk factors for colonic diverticular hemorrhage. Between January 2009 and December 2012, 26,602 patients underwent CS at our institution. One hundred twenty-three patients underwent an urgent CS due to acute lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Seventy-two patients were diagnosed with colonic diverticular hemorrhage. One hundred forty-nine age- and sex-matched controls were selected from the patients with nonbleeding diverticula who underwent CS during the same period. The relationship of risk factors to diverticular bleeding was compared between the cases and controls. Uni- and multivariate conditional logistic regression analyses demonstrated that the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (odds ratio [OR], 14.70; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.89 to 55.80; pdisease (OR, 8.66; 95% CI, 2.33 to 32.10; p=0.00126), and hyperuricemia (OR, 15.5; 95% CI, 1.74 to 138.00; p=0.014) remained statistically significant predictors of diverticular bleeding. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, cerebrovascular disease and hyperuricemia were significant risks for colonic diverticular hemorrhage. The knowledge obtained from this study may provide some insight into the diagnostic process for patients with lower gastrointestinal bleeding.

  15. Comparative study of collagen deposition in the colon wall of patients operated for sigmoid diverticular disease.

    Pantaroto, Mário; Lopes Filho, Gaspar de Jesus; Pinto, Clovis Antonio Lopes; Antico Filho, Armando

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the deposition of collagen in the colon wall of patients with sigmoid diverticulitis. Samples of sigmoid tissue from 15 patients (disease group), seven men and eight women aged 37-77 years who underwent surgery for the treatment of diverticulitis, were selected. For the control group, specimens from five patients, three men and two women aged 19-58 years undergoing emergency surgery for sigmoid trauma were selected. These subjects had no associated diseases. The histological study of the surgical specimens was performed by staining with hematoxylin-eosin and picrosirius and using a histochemical method for collagen quantification. Collagen deposition in the colon wall in terms of area (F), glandular epithelium (E) and total area was significantly higher in the disease group compared to control (p=0.003, p=0.026 and p=0.010, respectively). The collagen volume fraction (F fraction) and muscle tissue (M fraction) were also significantly higher compared to control (p=0.044 and p=0.026, respectively). The muscle (M area) and volume fraction of glandular epithelium (E fraction) did not differ significantly between the two groups, (p=0.074 and p=1.000, respectively). In this study, collagen deposition in the colon wall of the patients operated for sigmoid diverticulitis was higher compared to patients without the disease.

  16. Water evaporation: a transition path sampling study.

    Varilly, Patrick; Chandler, David

    2013-02-07

    We use transition path sampling to study evaporation in the SPC/E model of liquid water. On the basis of thousands of evaporation trajectories, we characterize the members of the transition state ensemble (TSE), which exhibit a liquid-vapor interface with predominantly negative mean curvature at the site of evaporation. We also find that after evaporation is complete, the distributions of translational and angular momenta of the evaporated water are Maxwellian with a temperature equal to that of the liquid. To characterize the evaporation trajectories in their entirety, we find that it suffices to project them onto just two coordinates: the distance of the evaporating molecule to the instantaneous liquid-vapor interface and the velocity of the water along the average interface normal. In this projected space, we find that the TSE is well-captured by a simple model of ballistic escape from a deep potential well, with no additional barrier to evaporation beyond the cohesive strength of the liquid. Equivalently, they are consistent with a near-unity probability for a water molecule impinging upon a liquid droplet to condense. These results agree with previous simulations and with some, but not all, recent experiments.

  17. Diagnostic accuracy of the Barr and Blethyn radiological scoring systems for childhood constipation assessed using colonic transit time as the gold standard

    Jackson, Claire R.; Wylie, Anna B.Z.; Adams, Charlotte [Royal Victoria Infirmary, Department of Paediatric Surgery, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom); Lee, Richard E. [Royal Victoria Infirmary, Department of Radiology, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom); Jaffray, Bruce [University of Newcastle upon Tyne, School of Clinical Medical Sciences (Child Health), Sir James Spence Institute, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-15

    Constipation is a common childhood symptom and abdominal radiography is advocated in diagnosis and management. To assess the reproducibility and diagnostic accuracy of the Barr and Blethyn systems for quantifying constipation on abdominal radiographs in children. Radiographs were scored by three observers of increasing radiological experience (student, junior doctor, consultant). Abdominal radiographs produced during measurement of colonic transit time (CTT) were classified as constipated or normal based on the value of the transit time, and were scored using both systems by observers blinded to the CTT. Abdominal radiographs obtained in children for reasons other than constipation were classed as normal and similarly scored. Reproducibility was measured using the kappa statistic. Diagnostic accuracy was measured using the area under the curve (AUC) for the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve. Using either system, scores were higher for constipated children (P<0.01). The consultant produced higher scores than the other observers (P<0.01). Interobserver reproducibility was moderate with the best kappa value only 0.48. The best correlation between score and CTT was 0.51 (junior doctor scores). Diagnostic accuracy of the scores was only moderate, with the largest AUC for a ROC curve of 0.84 for the consultant using the Barr score. Scoring of abdominal radiographs in the assessment of childhood constipation should be abandoned because it is dependent on the experience of the observer, is poorly reproducible, and does not accurately discriminate between constipated children and children without constipation. (orig.)

  18. Diagnostic accuracy of the Barr and Blethyn radiological scoring systems for childhood constipation assessed using colonic transit time as the gold standard

    Jackson, Claire R.; Wylie, Anna B.Z.; Adams, Charlotte; Lee, Richard E.; Jaffray, Bruce

    2009-01-01

    Constipation is a common childhood symptom and abdominal radiography is advocated in diagnosis and management. To assess the reproducibility and diagnostic accuracy of the Barr and Blethyn systems for quantifying constipation on abdominal radiographs in children. Radiographs were scored by three observers of increasing radiological experience (student, junior doctor, consultant). Abdominal radiographs produced during measurement of colonic transit time (CTT) were classified as constipated or normal based on the value of the transit time, and were scored using both systems by observers blinded to the CTT. Abdominal radiographs obtained in children for reasons other than constipation were classed as normal and similarly scored. Reproducibility was measured using the kappa statistic. Diagnostic accuracy was measured using the area under the curve (AUC) for the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve. Using either system, scores were higher for constipated children (P<0.01). The consultant produced higher scores than the other observers (P<0.01). Interobserver reproducibility was moderate with the best kappa value only 0.48. The best correlation between score and CTT was 0.51 (junior doctor scores). Diagnostic accuracy of the scores was only moderate, with the largest AUC for a ROC curve of 0.84 for the consultant using the Barr score. Scoring of abdominal radiographs in the assessment of childhood constipation should be abandoned because it is dependent on the experience of the observer, is poorly reproducible, and does not accurately discriminate between constipated children and children without constipation. (orig.)

  19. Study of the phase transition dynamics of the L to H transition

    Moyer, R.A.; Rhodes, T.L.; Rettig, C.L.

    1997-12-01

    A highly radiating zone (MARFE) just above the divertor X-point has been used to access the marginal transition regime P sep ∼ P thres to study the existence of a critical point for the L to H transition. Phase transition models predict that at the critical point, the transition duration increases and the plasma parameters vary continuously between L-mode and H-mode. In these experiments, the L to H transition duration increased 50--100 times over fast transitions. However, the evolution of E r shear, edge density gradient, H-mode pedestal, and fluctuations is essentially unchanged from that in fast transitions. The only difference is in the speed with which and the degree to which the fluctuation amplitudes are transiently reduced. This difference is understandable in terms of the time scales for fluctuation amplitude reduction (≤ 100 micros) and edge pressure gradient increase (several ms), provided the edge fluctuations are pressure-gradient driven

  20. Antegrade Colonic Lavage in Acute Colonic Obstruction

    Foster, Michael E.; Johnson, Colin D.

    1986-01-01

    Conventional management of acute left sided colonic obstruction employs some form of proximal colostomy. Intraoperative antegrade colonic irrigation relieves proximal faecal loading and may permit safer primary resection and anastomosis. The results of a pilot study are presented, and are shown to be favourable.

  1. Transit value capture coordination : case studies, best practices, and recommendations.

    2015-02-17

    This study is based on the hypothesis that coordination between transit capital planners, municipal taxation authorities, and private developers and stakeholders can be a benefit to transit capital projects that choose to use value capture as a fundi...

  2. A study of the variation of colonic positioning in the pararenal space as shown by computed tomography

    Prassopoulos, P.; Gourtsoyiannis, N.; Cavouras, D.; Pantelidis, N.

    1990-01-01

    In a review of 1708 consecutive CT examinations of the abdomen the position of the ascending and descending colon in relation to the posterial and lateral edge of the kidney was studied. It was found that part of the colon was positioned posterior or posterolateral to the kidney's edge in percentages that varied between 14.2% and 0.9% in the different sex groups at the levels of upper, mid- and lower poles of the right and left kidney. It is concluded that this anatomical variation should be known if colon perforation is to be avoided during percutaneous nephrostomy of biopsy. (author). 15 refs.; 4 figs.; 2 tabs

  3. Gifted Students in Transition: A Grounded Theory Study

    Meadows, Jodi J.

    2017-01-01

    Gifted students in transition to college may be at risk for underachievement, difficult transition, or even attrition. Giftedness by itself is not always sufficient for academic success in college. The purpose of this grounded theory study was to construct a theory regarding the process of transition to college for high-achieving gifted high…

  4. Colonic fermentation may play a role in lactose intolerance in humans

    He, T; Priebe, MG; Harmsen, HJM; Stellaard, F; Sun, XH; Welling, GW; Vonk, RJ

    The results of our previous study suggested that in addition to the small intestinal lactase activity and transit time, colonic processing of lactose may play a role in lactose intolerance. We investigated whether colonic fermentation of lactose is correlated with lactose intolerance. After 28

  5. Study on therapy of 188Re labelled stannic sulfur suspension in nude mice bearing human colon tumor

    Li Huiyuan; Wu Yuanfang; Dong Mo

    2003-01-01

    The effect of therapy, tissue distribution and stability are studied in nude mice bearing human colon tumor after injections of 188 Re labelled stannic sulfur suspension. The tissues are observed with electric microscope. The results show that 188 Re labelled stannic sulfur suspension is stabilized in the tumor and its inhibitive effects on human colon tumor cells are obvious. 188 Re labelled stannic sulfur suspension is a potential radiopharmaceuticals for therapy of human tumor

  6. In vitro studies on guar gum based formulation for the colon targeted delivery of Sennosides.

    Momin, Munira; Pundarikakshudu, K

    2004-09-24

    The objective of the present study is to develop colon targeted drug delivery systems for sennosides using guar gum as a carrier. Matrix tablets containing various proportions of guar gum were prepared by wet granulation technique using starch paste as a binder. The tablets were evaluated for content uniformity and in vitro drug release study as per BP method. T(50) % value from the dissolution studies was taken for selecting the best formulation. Guar gum matrix tablets released 4-18% sennosides in the physiological environment of gastrointestinal tract depending on the proportion of the guar gum used in the formulation. The matrix tablets containing 50% of guar gum were found to be suitable for targeting of sennosides for local action in the colon. Compared to tablets having 30% and 40% of guar gum, those with 50% guar gum gave better T(50)% (11.7 h) le and fewer amounts (5-8%) of drug release in upper GIT. These tablets with 50% guar gum released 43% and 96% sennosides with and without rat caecal fluids. This suggests the susceptibility of matrix to the colonic micro flora. The similarity factor (f2 value) for drug release with and without rat caecal fluids was found to be less than 30. When hydroxy propyl methylcellulose phthalate (10%) was used as a coat material on the matrix tablets, the initial loss of 5-8% sennosides in stomach could be completely averted. These tablets showed no change in physical appearance, content and dissolution profile upon storage at 45 degrees C / 75% relative humidity for 3 months. The results of our study indicates that matrix tablets containing 50% guar gum and coated with 10% hydroxy propyl methylcellulose phthalate are most suitable for drugs like sennosides which are mainly active in the lower GIT.

  7. CT in colon cancer

    Fujita, Nobuyuki; Hasegawa, Takashi; Kubo, Kozo; Ogawa, Hajime; Sato, Yukihiko; Tomita, Masayoshi; Hanawa, Makoto; Matsuzawa, Tohru; Nishioka, Ken

    1990-01-01

    CT pictures from 59 lesions of advanced colon cancer including rectal cancer were reviewed to evaluate a role of CT in preoperative staging diagnosis. CT findings were recorded following general rules for clinical and pathological studies on cancer of colon rectum and anus, proposed by Japanese society for cancer of colon and rectum. Tumors were detected in 90% of advanced colon cancers. Sensitivity in local extension (S factor) was 58.0%. Sensitivity in lymphonode involvement (N factor) was 50.0%. Sensitivity in final staging diagnosis, dividing colon cancer into two groups below st II and above st III, was 63.3%. Further study should be necessitated to provide useful information for preoperative staging diagnosis of colon cancer. (author)

  8. Gastrointestinal mean transit times in young and middle-aged healthy subjects

    Graff, J; Brinch, K; Madsen, Jan Lysgård

    2001-01-01

    To investigate the effects of age and gender on gastric, small intestinal and colonic mean transit times, a study was conducted in 32 healthy volunteers: eight young women (22-30 years), eight young men (20-28 years), eight middle-aged women (43-51 years) and eight middle-aged men (38-53 years......). After ingestion of a meal containing 111Indium-labelled water and 99mTechnetium-labelled omelette imaging of the abdomen was performed at intervals of 30 min until all radioactivity was located in the colon and henceforth at intervals of 24 h until all radioactivity had cleared from the colon. Gastric......, small intestinal and colonic mean transit times were calculated. The gastric, small intestinal and colonic mean transit times were significantly longer in women. Ageing was shown to accelerate the gastric and small intestinal transit significantly. In the group of men the colonic mean transit time...

  9. To Humbly Go: Guarding Against Perpetuating Models of Colonization in the 100-Year Starship Study

    Kramer, W. R.

    Past patterns of exploration, colonization and exploitation on Earth continue to provide the predominant paradigms that guide many space programs. Any project of crewed space exploration, especially of the magnitude envisioned by the 100-Year Starship Study, must guard against the hubris that may emerge among planners, crew, and others associated with the project, including those industries and bureaucracies that will emerge from the effort. Maintaining a non-exploitative approach may be difficult in consideration of the century of preparatory research and development and the likely multigenerational nature of the voyage itself. Starting now with mission dreamers and planners, the purpose of the voyage must be cast as one of respectful learning and humble discovery, not of conquest (either actual or metaphorical) or other inappropriate models, including military. At a minimum, the Study must actively build non-violence into the voyaging culture it is beginning to create today. References to exploitive colonization, conquest, destiny and other terms from especially American frontier mythology, while tempting in their propagandizing power, should be avoided as they limit creative thinking about alternative possible futures. Future voyagers must strive to adapt to new environments wherever possible and be assimilated by new worlds both biologically and behaviorally rather than to rely on attempts to recreate the Earth they have left. Adaptation should be strongly considered over terraforming. This paper provides an overview of previous work linking the language of colonization to space programs and challenges the extension of the myth of the American frontier to the Starship Study. It argues that such metaphors would be counter-productive at best and have the potential to doom long-term success and survival by planting seeds of social decay and self-destruction. Cautions and recommendations are suggested.

  10. Outcomes and complications of self-expanding metal stent placement for malignant colonic obstruction in a single-center study.

    Stankiewicz, Rafał; Kozieł, Sławomir; Pertkiewicz, Jan; Zieniewicz, Krzysztof

    2018-03-01

    Approximately 20% of cases of colorectal cancer are accompanied by acute colonic obstruction. While emergency colonic surgery is associated with high mortality and morbidity rates, placement of a self-expanding metal stent (SEMS) has been suggested as an alternative method. The SEMS placement can serve as either a definitive treatment in palliative cases or a bridge to surgery. To summarize the experience of our center in the treatment of malignant colonic obstruction using SEMS placement. A retrospective review was conducted of all patients who underwent a SEMS placement for colorectal stricture in the study period. The procedures were performed under fluoroscopic guidance with colonoscopic assistance, and uncovered stents were used in all patients. The study population consisted of 28 patients treated with SEMS placement due to malignant colonic obstruction. The majority of procedures were performed with palliative intent. The overall technical success rate was 96.5%, and clinical success was achieved in all of the successfully placed SEMSs. One fatal complication due to colonic perforation occurred. In the bridge-to-surgery group, all patients experienced tumor resection with no stoma creation. The SEMS placement is an optimal treatment in the vast majority of acute colonic obstruction cases. Due to the possibility of potentially fatal complications, SEMS procedures should be performed by proficient endoscopists.

  11. Prolonged progesterone administration is associated with less frequent cervicovaginal colonization by Ureaplasma urealyticum during pregnancy - Results of a pilot study.

    Koucký, Michal; Malíčková, Karin; Cindrová-Davies, Tereza; Smíšek, Jan; Vráblíková, Hana; Černý, Andrej; Šimják, Patrik; Slováčková, Miroslava; Pařízek, Antonín; Zima, Tomáš

    2016-08-01

    Preterm birth is a leading cause of perinatal mortality and morbidity. Heavy cervicovaginal Ureaplasma colonization is thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of preterm birth. The administration of vaginal progesterone has been shown to reduce the incidence of preterm birth in women with short cervical length. Steroid hormones seem to modulate the presence of microorganisms in the vagina. The aim of this study was to assess whether the treatment with vaginal progesterone could reduce the incidence of preterm birth and cervicovaginal colonization by Ureaplasma urealyticum in a cohort of pregnant women with threatened preterm labor. A cohort of 63 females who presented with regular contractions and/or short cervical length between 24-32 weeks of gestation were recruited into a prospective study. 70% of patients had been treated with vaginal progesterone prior to recruitment and these patients continued with the treatment until birth. All patients were tested for the presence of cervicovaginal Ureaplasma urealyticum colonization at admission. The primary endpoint was preterm birth before 37 weeks. The incidence of preterm delivery was significantly increased in patients who tested positive for Ureaplasma urealyticum. Prolonged vaginal progesterone administration was associated with less frequent cervicovaginal colonization by U. urealyticum. Cervicovaginal colonization by U. urealyticum and absence of progesterone treatment were identified as two independent risk factors for preterm delivery. Our results demonstrate the beneficial effects of progesterone administration in reducing the incidence of cervicovaginal colonization by Ureaplasma urealyticum. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A cross sectional study of animal and human colonization with Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA in an Aboriginal community

    Peter Daley

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA infections are common among humans in Aboriginal communities in Canada, for unknown reasons. Methods Cross sectional study of humans and dogs in an Aboriginal community of approximately 1200 persons. Our objectives were to measure community-based prevalence of nasal MRSA colonization among humans, use multivariable logistic regression to analyze risk factors for MRSA colonization, and perform molecular typing of Staphylococci isolated to investigate interspecies transmission. Results 461 humans were approached for consent and 442 provided complete data. 109/442 (24.7 %, 95 % C.I. = 20.7–28.7 % of humans were colonized with MRSA. 169/442 (38.2 % of humans had received antibiotics in the last 12 months. Only number of rooms in the house (OR 0.86, p = 0.023 and recreational dog use (OR 7.7, p = 0.002 were significant risk factors for MRSA colonization. 95/109 (87.1 % of MRSA strains from humans were of the same spa type (CMRSA10/USA300. 8/157 (5.1 %, 95 % C.I. = 1.7–8.5 % of dogs were colonized with methicillin-susceptible S. aureus, and no dogs were colonized with MRSA. Conclusions Human MRSA colonization in this community is very common, and a single clone is predominant, suggesting local transmission. Antibiotic use is also very common. Crowding may partially explain high colonization, but most considered risk factors including animal exposure were not predictive. Very few dogs carried human Staphylococcal strains.

  13. Effects of bromopride on expression of metalloproteinases and interleukins in left colonic anastomoses: an experimental study

    Silva, S.M.; Jerônimo, M.S.; Silva-Pereira, I.; Bocca, A.L.; Sousa, J.B.

    2014-01-01

    Anastomotic dehiscence is the most severe complication of colorectal surgery. Metalloproteinases (MMPs) and interleukins (ILs) can be used to analyze the healing process of anastomosis. To evaluate the effects of bromopride on MMP and cytokine gene expression in left colonic anastomoses in rats with or without induced abdominal sepsis, 80 rats were divided into two groups for euthanasia on the third or seventh postoperative day (POD). They were then divided into subgroups of 20 rats for sepsis induction or not, and then into subgroups of 10 rats for administration of bromopride or saline. Left colonic anastomosis was performed and abdominal sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture. A colonic segment containing the anastomosis was removed for analysis of gene expression of MMP-1α, MMP-8, MMP-13, IL-β, IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interferon-γ (IFN-γ). On the third POD, bromopride was associated with increased MMP-1α, MMP-13, IL-6, IFN-γ, and IL-10 gene expression. On the seventh POD, all MMP transcripts became negatively modulated and all IL transcripts became positively modulated. In the presence of sepsis, bromopride administration increased MMP-8 and IFN-γ gene expression and decreased MMP-1, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10 gene expression on the third POD. On the seventh POD, we observed increased expression of MMP-13 and all cytokines, except for TNF-α. In conclusion, bromopride interferes with MMP and IL gene expression during anastomotic healing. Further studies are needed to correlate these changes with the healing process

  14. Effects of bromopride on expression of metalloproteinases and interleukins in left colonic anastomoses: an experimental study

    Silva, S.M. [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Médicas, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil); Jerônimo, M.S. [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Patologia Molecular, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil); Silva-Pereira, I.; Bocca, A.L. [Departamento de Biologia Celular, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil); Sousa, J.B. [Departamento de Clínica Cirúrgica, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    Anastomotic dehiscence is the most severe complication of colorectal surgery. Metalloproteinases (MMPs) and interleukins (ILs) can be used to analyze the healing process of anastomosis. To evaluate the effects of bromopride on MMP and cytokine gene expression in left colonic anastomoses in rats with or without induced abdominal sepsis, 80 rats were divided into two groups for euthanasia on the third or seventh postoperative day (POD). They were then divided into subgroups of 20 rats for sepsis induction or not, and then into subgroups of 10 rats for administration of bromopride or saline. Left colonic anastomosis was performed and abdominal sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture. A colonic segment containing the anastomosis was removed for analysis of gene expression of MMP-1α, MMP-8, MMP-13, IL-β, IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interferon-γ (IFN-γ). On the third POD, bromopride was associated with increased MMP-1α, MMP-13, IL-6, IFN-γ, and IL-10 gene expression. On the seventh POD, all MMP transcripts became negatively modulated and all IL transcripts became positively modulated. In the presence of sepsis, bromopride administration increased MMP-8 and IFN-γ gene expression and decreased MMP-1, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10 gene expression on the third POD. On the seventh POD, we observed increased expression of MMP-13 and all cytokines, except for TNF-α. In conclusion, bromopride interferes with MMP and IL gene expression during anastomotic healing. Further studies are needed to correlate these changes with the healing process.

  15. Numerical Study of Transition of an Annular Lift Fan Aircraft

    Yun Jiang; Bo Zhang

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed at studying the transition of annular lift fan aircraft through computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. The oscillations of lift and drag, the optimization for the figure of merit, and the characteristics of drag, yawing, rolling and pitching moments in transition are studied. The results show that a two-stage upper and lower fan lift system can generate oscillations of lift and drag in transition, while a single-stage inner and outer fan lift system can elimin...

  16. Gastrointestinal transit after transverse colostomy: study of solid radiopaque markers progression and others clinical and radiological events - analysis of 20 cases

    Deutsch, Claudio Roberto

    1988-01-01

    The gastrointestinal transit was studied in 20 patients with loop transverse colostomies and previously normal colons. This analysis was performed through radiological observation of progression of 20 radiopaque pellets and measurements of its transit time in the various segments of the digestive tract. An evaluation of other related clinical and radiological events was carried out sentimentality's. In order to better understand the influence of the surgical procedure, the study was performed under similar dietary and supportive care conditions and standard radiological studies before and after the re-establishment of transit, thus enabling a comparison with the same individual. (author)

  17. Colon and rectal cancer

    Saldombide, L.; Cordoba, A.

    2010-01-01

    This study is about the diagnosis, therapy and monitoring of colon cancer. The techniques used are the endoscopy with biopsy in the pre and post operative colon surgery, abdominal ultrasound, chest X-ray studies of hemogram as well as liver and renal function

  18. The Transit/Admission Lounge study.

    Gilligan, P

    2009-01-01

    In response to persistent overcrowding of Emergency Departments in Ireland, the Department of Health and Health Service Executive provided funding for "Transit Lounge" areas to be built. These lounges were to provide a location for patients to wait in beds pending the availability of a ward bed. This research was performed to assess the impact of such a lounge on the overcrowding of the Emergency Department and on patient outcomes. The time period from the opening of the Transit Lounge was compared with the same period a year earlier. The Transit Lounge delivers a comfortable place for patients to wait. It does not reduce Emergency Department overcrowding and has been associated with an increased time waiting for a ward bed. The solution to overcrowding is the creation of real capacity in the system so that ward beds are available in acute hospitals for the "unscheduled unwell".

  19. A study of neonatal body weight and colonization of Ureaplasma Urealiticum on the new borns

    Ghazi Saidi K

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Ureaplasma urealyticum is an important cause in habital abortion, perinatal, death chorioamnionitis and low birth weight. In this study, 163 specimens obtained from neonates who have borned in the two university hospital of Tehran. 240 new born infant had the weight less than or equal 2500 g (low birth weight and others had more than 2500 g (from the total in 37 cases, ureaplasma urealyticum colonized and 126 cases were responded negative. From these positive cases 9 were L.B.W (two birth weight and 28 were normal weight and from the negative cases. 15 had L.B.W and 111 had normal weight. Finally with the 5% probability of error byK square (K² test. Two factors, colonization and weight of new born infant show the correlation. Sampling location, the age of mothers, and the position of chorioamnions are three factors that were studied. Two factors of the above do not display correlation about normal infant and L.B.W.

  20. A randomized phase II dose-response exercise trial among colon cancer survivors: Purpose, study design, methods, and recruitment results.

    Brown, Justin C; Troxel, Andrea B; Ky, Bonnie; Damjanov, Nevena; Zemel, Babette S; Rickels, Michael R; Rhim, Andrew D; Rustgi, Anil K; Courneya, Kerry S; Schmitz, Kathryn H

    2016-03-01

    Observational studies indicate that higher volumes of physical activity are associated with improved disease outcomes among colon cancer survivors. The aim of this report is to describe the purpose, study design, methods, and recruitment results of the courage trial, a National Cancer Institute (NCI) sponsored, phase II, randomized, dose-response exercise trial among colon cancer survivors. The primary objective of the courage trial is to quantify the feasibility, safety, and physiologic effects of low-dose (150 min·week(-1)) and high-dose (300 min·week(-1)) moderate-intensity aerobic exercise compared to usual-care control group over six months. The exercise groups are provided with in-home treadmills and heart rate monitors. Between January and July 2015, 1433 letters were mailed using a population-based state cancer registry; 126 colon cancer survivors inquired about participation, and 39 were randomized onto the study protocol. Age was associated with inquiry about study participation (Pclinical, or geographic characteristics were associated with study inquiry or randomization. The final trial participant was randomized in August 2015. Six month endpoint data collection was completed in February 2016. The recruitment of colon cancer survivors into an exercise trial is feasible. The findings from this trial will inform key design aspects for future phase 2 and phase 3 randomized controlled trials to examine the efficacy of exercise to improve clinical outcomes among colon cancer survivors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of intraoperative PEEP application on colonic anastomoses healing: An experimental animal study.

    Turkoglu, Mehmet; Bostancı, Erdal Birol; Bilgili, Hasan; Türkoğlu, Yıldız; Karadeniz, Ümit; Aydoğ, Gülden; Erçin, Uğur; Bilgihan, Ayşe; Özer, İlter; Akoğlu, Musa

    2015-07-27

    This study aimed to assess the effect of intraoperative PEEP intervention on the healing of colonic anastomoses in rabbits. Thirty-two New Zealand type male rabbits were divided into two groups of sixteen animals each. Following ventilation with tracheostomy, colonic resection and anastomosis were performed in both groups. While 10 cm H2O PEEP level was applied in Group I (PEEP), Group II (ZEEP) was ventilated without PEEP throughout the surgery. Half of the both PEEP and ZEEP group animals were killed on the third postoperative day, while the remaining half on the seventh. Anastomotic bursting pressures, the tissue concentrations in hydroxyproline, and histological assessments were performed. Besides, intraoperative oxygen saturation and postoperative arterial blood gas parameters were also compared. On the first postoperative day, both arterial oxygen tension (PO2) and oxygen saturation (SO2) in the PEEP group were significantly higher than in the ZEEP group. On the seventh postoperative day, the bursting pressures of the anastomoses were significantly higher in the PEEP group, however the hydroxyproline content was significantly lower in the PEEP group than that in the ZEEP group. At day 7, PEEP group was significantly associated with increased neoangiogenesis compared with the ZEEP group. The anastomotic healing process is positively influenced by the intraoperative PEEP application.

  2. New methods of X-ray study of the rectum and colon in patients with constipation

    Zarodnyuk, I.V.; Tikhonov, A.A.; Sinyaeva, L.M.

    1998-01-01

    Rectal and colonic X-ray findings of 100 patients with constipation are presented. Modified irrigoscopic procedure using barium enema was used. This made it possible not only to determine the shape, dimensions, and position of the rectum and colon, but to reveal a number of anatomic and functional changes in the rectum and pelvic floor, which was helpful in choosing a treatment policy for patients with colonic evacuator dysfunction

  3. A pilot study about the oncologic safety of colonic self-expandable metal stents (SEMS) in obstructive colon cancer: is occlusion always better than "silent" perforation?

    Zanghì, A; Piccolo, G; Cavallaro, A; Pulvirenti, E; Lo Menzo, E; Cardì, F; Di Vita, M; Cappellani, A

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the oncologic safety of colonic self-expandable metal stents (SEMS) in obstructive colon cancer. We retrospectively reviewed all the patients who were treated with endoscopic placement of a self-expandable metallic stent (SEMS) at our institution. A total of 26 patients were identified during the study period, of which 24 patients (92.30%) were treated with SEMS as a bridge-to-surgery and 2 (7.69%) as palliation. In 22 cases (80.76%), the stenosis was localized to the left side. Clinical success with resolution of bowel obstructions was achieved in 22 (84.61%) patients within a short period of time. Among patients treated successfully with SEMS insertion as bridge to surgery (n = 22), 20 (90.9%) underwent one-stage surgery with primary anastomosis while 2 patients (9.09%) underwent colostomy due to intraoperative evidence of a covered perforation by cancer tissue in the pelvis. Patients with subclinical perforation developed an early peritoneal carcinomatosis, 10 patients treated with curative intent subsequently developed liver metastasis after 24 months. We reported an overall poor outcome among patients treated with the insertion of SEMS. This led us to think that, in some cases, occlusion may be better than a "silent" perforation.

  4. New numerical method to study phase transitions and its applications

    Lee, Jooyoung; Kosterlitz, J.M.

    1991-11-01

    We present a powerful method of identifying the nature of transitions by numerical simulation of finite systems. By studying the finite size scaling properties of free energy barrier between competing states, we can identify unambiguously a weak first order transition even when accessible system sizes are L/ξ < 0.05 as in the five state Potts model in two dimensions. When studying a continuous phase transition we obtain quite accurate estimates of critical exponents by treating it as a field driven first order transition. The method has been successfully applied to various systems

  5. Endoscopic biopsies in Ussing chambers evaluated for studies of macromolecular permeability in the human colon.

    Wallon, Conny; Braaf, Ylva; Wolving, Mats; Olaison, Gunnar; Söderholm, Johan D

    2005-05-01

    Studies of mucosal permeability to protein antigens in humans are limited to in vitro techniques. The use of surgical specimens for such studies has major shortcomings. Endoscopic biopsies in Ussing chambers have been introduced as a means of studying secretion and transepithelial permeability, but have not been evaluated for studies of protein antigen uptake in human intestine. Standard forceps biopsies from the sigmoid colon of 24 healthy volunteers were mounted in Ussing chambers with an exposed tissue area of 1.76 mm2. 51Cr-EDTA (paracellular probe) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP; 45 kDa protein antigen) were used as permeability markers. Mucosal permeability, electrophysiology, histology and energy contents of the biopsies were studied over time. To evaluate the ability of the technique to detect permeability changes, the mucosa was modulated with capric acid, a medium-chain fatty acid, known to affect tight junctions. In the Ussing chamber the mucosal biopsies were viable for 160 min with stable levels of ATP and lactate, and only minor changes in morphology. Steady-state permeability with low variability was seen for both markers during the 30-90 min period. Exposure to capric acid induced a rapid decrease in short-circuit current (Isc) and a slower reversible decrease in transepithelial resistance (TER), as well as an increased permeability to 51Cr-EDTA and HRP. Endoscopic biopsies of human colon are viable in Ussing chambers and are reliable tools for studies of mucosal permeability to protein antigens. The technique offers a broad potential for studies of mucosal function in the pathophysiology of human gastrointestinal diseases.

  6. Colon interposition

    Isolauri, J.; Tampere Univ. Central Hospital; Paakkala, T.; Arajaervi, P.; Markkula, H.

    1987-01-01

    Colon interposition was carried out in 12 patients with oesophageal carcinoma and on 38 patients with benign oesophageal disease an average of 71 months before the radiographic examination. Various ischaemic changes including 'jejunization', loss of haustration and stricture formation were observed in 15 cases. In 12 patients one or several diverticula were seen in the colon graft. Reflux was observed in 17 cases in supine position. Double contrast technique in the examination of interposed colon is recommended. (orig.)

  7. Predisposing factors for colonic torsion/volvulus in dogs: a retrospective study of six cases (1992-2010).

    Gagnon, Dominique; Brisson, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this retrospective study were to review cases of colonic torsion/volvulus between July 1992 and August 2010 and to determine if any predisposing factors exist for the development of this condition. Six dogs were diagnosed with colonic torsion/volvulus during the study period. Four dogs had a history of previous gastric dilation-volvulus (GDV) with prophylactic gastropexy. Three of six dogs diagnosed with colonic torsion/volvulus had large intestinal entrapment and strangulation around the gastropexy site at the time of surgery. The history, clinical signs, physical examination, and radiologic findings were not specific for colonic torsion/volvulus in any dog. Early exploratory laparotomy was indicated to confirm the diagnosis and perform surgical correction of the affected bowel segments. Three of five dogs that underwent surgery had a left abdominal wall colopexy performed. All five dogs that underwent surgery in this study survived postoperatively. One patient was euthanized without surgical intervention. Results suggest that colonic torsion/volvulus should be considered in any large-breed dog with nonspecific gastrointestinal clinical signs and a history of previous gastropexy. Early recognition and prompt treatment of this condition may result in a good outcome.

  8. THE PREVALENCE OF COLONIC POLYPS IN PATIENTS WITH ACROMEGALY: A CASE-CONTROL, NESTED IN A COHORT COLONOSCOPIC STUDY.

    Gonzalez, Baldomero; Vargas, Guadalupe; Mendoza, Victoria; Nava, Mariana; Rojas, Moisés; Mercado, Moisés

    2017-05-01

    Acromegaly is associated with an increased risk of colonic polyps. The magnitude of such risk is controversial, and the characteristics that distinguish patients who develop polyps from those who do not are not well established. This study was performed to determine the prevalence of colonic polyps upon the diagnosis of acromegaly and to compare the clinical and biochemical features of patients with and without polyps. Out of 165 patients who underwent a full colonoscopy upon diagnosis of acromegaly, 53 were found to harbor colonic lesions (cases), whereas the remaining 112 were used as controls. Demographic, clinical, and biochemical characteristics were compared between the 2 groups. The prevalence of colonic polyps was 32%, with an estimated relative risk of 6.21 (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.08-9.48). Adenomatous and nonadenomatous polyps were found in 22 and 31 patients, respectively. The most common location was the descending colon. Compared to patients without polyps, subjects with polyps were somewhat older and had significantly higher insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels and a higher prevalence of diabetes. Upon multivariate analysis, only IGF-1 level at diagnosis remained significantly associated with colonic polyps in general and with hyperplastic polyps in particular. Acromegaly is associated with an elevated risk of developing colonic polyps, particularly, distally located hyperplastic lesions. Except for a higher IGF-1 level at diagnosis, no distinctive clinical or biochemical features can be found among those who develop polyps compared to those who do not. CI = confidence interval GH = growth hormone IGF-1 = insulin-like growth factor 1 IQR = inter-quartile range RR = relative risk ULN = upper limit of normal.

  9. Application of an amine functionalized biopolymer in the colonic delivery of glycyrrhizin: a design and in vivo efficacy study.

    Kumar De, Amit; Datta, Sriparna; Mukherjee, Arup

    2013-01-01

    In our current study, a newer amine functionalized guar gum derivative was studied for its efficacy in colonic drug delivery. Glycyrrhizic acid mono-ammonium salt was used as the model drug. Drug-loaded microparticles were formulated by ionic crosslinking using sodium tripolyphosphate. The Scanning Electron Microscopic study revealed spherical particles of sizes from 4.9 ± 3.8 μm to 6.9 ± 3.9 μm. The FT-IR studies presented a possible interaction between the drug and the polymer. The drug was encapsulated in amorphous form as observed from the powder X-Ray Diffraction studies. A cumulative drug release study was carried out in simulated gastric, intestinal, and colonic fluids. The cumulative drug release studies presented a burst release followed by a sustained release of the drug in simulated colonic fluid containing rat cecal contents. The drug-polymer ratio was optimised using a 3(2) factorial design by taking the amounts of glycyrrhizic acid (X1) and guar gum alkyl amine (X2) as the independant variables. The percent cumulative drug release at 240 mins (Q240), 720 mins (Q720), and at 1,440 mins (Q1440) were considered as the dependant variables. The efficacy of the optimized formulation was studied in a 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced rat colitis model. The tissue's nitric oxide, malondialdehyde, and myeloperoxidase activities were found to be much lower in the microparticle-treated group compared to free drug-treated group. The histology of the colonic tissue from the treated group of animals revealed almost no infiltration of inflammatory cells in the tissue for the microparticle-treated group of animals. The synthesized amine derivative of guar gum was found to be better in vitro with a better in vivo efficacy in the colonic delivery of glycyrrhizic acid monoammonium salt and can be considered as a newer modified biopolymer for colonic drug delivery.

  10. Study of transition probabilities in 192Pt

    Roulet, C.; Sergolle, H.; Hubert, P.P.; Lindblad, T.

    1978-01-01

    The nucleus 192 Pt is Coulomb excited with 370 MeV 84 Kr projectiles. Levels up to spin 8 + (10 + ) in the ground band and up to 6 + in the γ-band are observed. The B(E2) values implied by the observed yields are compared with predictions of different nuclear models. Particular attention is paid to the ground band transition rates and the rotation-alignment model

  11. Circulating levels of vitamin D and colon and rectal cancer: the Physicians' Health Study and a meta-analysis of prospective studies.

    Lee, Jung Eun; Li, Haojie; Chan, Andrew T; Hollis, Bruce W; Lee, I-Min; Stampfer, Meir J; Wu, Kana; Giovannucci, Edward; Ma, Jing

    2011-05-01

    It remains unknown whether increased risk with low levels of vitamin D is present for colon and/or rectal cancer. To investigate the association between circulating vitamin D levels and colon and rectal cancer, we examined the associations between plasma levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D] and colon and rectal cancer in the Physicians' Health Study and then conducted a meta-analysis of eight prospective studies of circulating levels of 25(OH)D and colon and rectal cancers, including the Physicians' Health Study. Study-specific ORs and 95% CIs were pooled by using a random-effects model. A total of 1,822 colon and 868 rectal cancers were included in the meta-analysis. We observed a significant inverse association for colorectal cancer (OR = 0.66; 95% CI, 0.54-0.81), comparing top versus bottom quantiles of circulating 25(OH)D levels. The inverse association was stronger for rectal cancer (OR = 0.50 for top versus bottom quantiles; 95% CI, 0.28-0.88) than colon cancer (OR = 0.77; 95% CI, 0.56-1.07; P value for difference between colon and rectal cancer = 0.20). These data suggest an inverse association between circulating 25(OH)D levels and colorectal cancer, with a stronger association for rectal cancer.

  12. [Study on the quantitative and qualitative composition of moulds colonizing sunflower seeds (Helianthus annus L.)].

    Janda, Katarzyna; Wolska, Jolanta; Debia, Kamila

    2015-01-01

    The aim of study was to estimate the qualitative and quantitative composition of moulds colonizing sunflower seeds on RBCA, YpSs, DG18 media at 25, 37, and 45°C. Twenty samples of sunflower seeds (not roasted and not salted) were used for the analysis. The highest number of moulds were xerophilic species isolated on DG18 at 25°C (33), followed by mesophilic species (29) on RBCA medium at 25°C, and mesophilic (22) and thermophilic species (10) on YpSs medium at 37, and 45°C, respectively. Eurotium herbariorum was isolated from all samples. A total of 287 strains belonging to 52 mould species were isolated from sunflower seeds. The study revealed new species not previously isolated from sunflower seeds mycobiota.

  13. Testing the competition-colonization trade-off with a 32-year study of a saxicolous lichen community.

    Pastore, A I; Prather, C M; Gornish, E S; Ryan, W H; Ellis, R D; Milleri, T E

    2014-02-01

    Competition-colonization trade-offs are theorized to be a mechanism of coexistence in communities structured by environmental fluctuations. But many studies that have tested for the trade-off have failed to detect it, likely because a spatiotemporally structured environment and many species assemblages are needed to adequately test for a competition-colonization trade-off. Here, we present a unique 32-year study of rock-dwelling lichens in New Mexico, USA, in which photographs were used to quantify lichen life history traits and interactions through time. These data allowed us to determine whether there were any trade-offs between traits associated with colonization and competition, as well as the relationship between diversity and disturbance in the community. We did not find evidence for a trade-off between competitive ability and colonization rate or any related life history traits. Interestingly, we did find a peak in all measures of species diversity at intermediate levels of disturbance, consistent with the intermediate disturbance hypothesis pattern. We suggest that the coexistence of the dominant species in this system is regulated by differences in persistence and growth rate mediating overgrowth competition rather than a competition-colonization trade-off.

  14. Early adaptive developments of Pseudomonas aeruginosa after the transition from life in the environment to persistent colonization in the airways of human cystic fibrosis hosts

    Rau, Martin Holm; Hansen, Susse Kirkelund; Johansen, H. K.

    2010-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen ubiquitous to the natural environment but with the capability of moving to the host environment. Long-term infection of the airways of cystic fibrosis patients is associated with extensive genetic adaptation of P. aeruginosa, and we have studied...... cases of the initial stages of infection in order to characterize the early adaptive processes in the colonizing bacteria. A combination of global gene expression analysis and phenotypic characterization of longitudinal isolates from cystic fibrosis patients revealed well-known characteristics...... such as conversion to a mucoid phenotype by mucA mutation and increased antibiotic resistance by nfxB mutation. Additionally, upregulation of the atu operon leading to enhanced growth on leucine provides a possible example of metabolic optimization. A detailed investigation of the mucoid phenotype uncovered profound...

  15. TRANSIT

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. TRANSIT. SYSTEM: DETERMINE 2D-POSITION GLOBALLY BUT INTERMITTENT (POST-FACTO). IMPROVED ACCURACY. PRINCIPLE: POLAR SATELLITES WITH INNOVATIONS OF: GRAVITY-GRADIENT ATTITUDE CONTROL; DRAG COMPENSATION. WORKS ...

  16. Study shows colon and rectal tumors constitute a single type of cancer

    The pattern of genomic alterations in colon and rectal tissues is the same regardless of anatomic location or origin within the colon or the rectum, leading researchers to conclude that these two cancer types can be grouped as one, according to The Cancer

  17. Comparative Study of Histopathologic Characterization of Azoxymethane-induced Colon Tumors in Three Inbred Rat Strains

    Kobæk Larsen, Morten; Fenger, Claus; Hansen, Ket

    2002-01-01

    To obtain controlled genetic variation, colon cancer was chemically induced by use of four subcutaneous injections of azoxymethane (15 mg/kg of body weight/wk) to rats of 3 inbred strains (BDIX/OrlIco, F344/NHsd, WAG/Rij). The selection was based on the availability of established colon cancer cell...

  18. Improving staging accuracy in colon and rectal cancer by sentinel lymph node mapping: A comparative study

    van der Zaag, E. S.; Buskens, C. J.; Kooij, N.; Akol, H.; Peters, H. M.; Bouma, W. H.; Bemelman, W. A.

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To compare the predictive value of sentinel lymph node (SN) mapping between patients with colon and rectal cancer. Patients and methods: An ex vivo SN procedure was performed in 100 patients with colon and 32 patients with rectal cancer. If the sentinel node was negative, immunohistochemical

  19. Transition from oxcarbazepine to eslicarbazepine acetate: A single center study.

    Mäkinen, Jussi; Rainesalo, Sirpa; Peltola, Jukka

    2017-03-01

    There is limited clinical evidence for comparison between oxcarbazepine (OXC) and eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) in terms of tolerability, or how to execute the change from OXC to ESL. We report the process of transitioning patients with focal epilepsy from previous OXC treatment to ESL due to tolerability problems. The rationale for change from OXC is reported, and the outcome with respective to this rationale is analyzed in terms of tolerability and efficacy. The subjects were transitioned overnight from OXC to ESL in a hospital inpatient setting. An evaluation of the effects of the transition was made after 1 and 3 months. All adverse events (AEs) were recorded following the transition period. Subjects were classified by outcome in terms of AEs. Twenty-three subjects were transitioned from OXC to ESL. Fifteen patients OXC-related AEs reduced significantly after transition. Particularly, most of (93%) the AEs presented in the morning resolved after transition to ESL. No patient had an increase in seizure frequency following the transition. The incidence of ESL-related AEs was 39% at 1 month and 13% at 3 month follow-up; however, all patients continued ESL throughout the study period. This study demonstrates that patients suffering from OXC-related AEs improve in terms of tolerability after a switch to ESL with maintaining seizure control. This improvement is more pronounced if the OXC-related AEs are most evident following morning dosing of OXC. Transition can be safely executed in an outpatient setting.

  20. Primary double contrast study of the colon with citrate-sorbitol-barium suspension in the diagnosis of chronic colitis

    Sidorov, V.S.

    1991-01-01

    X-ray investigation of the colon was conducted in 292 patients with clinically diagnosed chronic colitis: standard 3-phase irrigoscopy-in 189 patients and a primary double contrast study of the colon with citrate-sorbitol-barium suspenzion - in 103. Basing on X-ray and morphological findings, the diagnosis was confirmed in 128 patients of the 1st group (68.2 %) and in 89 patients of the 2nd group (86 %). The primary double contrast study of the colon was found more effective as it permitted the detection of elements of the mucosal microcontours: transversal strips, not coinciding with haustration, focal granularity, diffuse granularity, small barium suspension depots or niches, nodular granularity. It permitted the recommendation of the method for a wide clinical use

  1. Preliminary studies for the colonization of Anastrepha obliqua and Anastrepha serpentina (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Celedonio H, H.; Enkerlin H, W.; Bruzzone, D.

    1999-01-01

    A series of trials were carried out with the aim of collecting preliminary data for the colonization of Anastrepha obliqua and Anastrepha serpentina. Trials were focused on evaluating adequate oviposition media as well as their effect on fly demographic parameters; the effect of cage population densities on demographic parameters was also considered; for A. serpentina, egg disinfection treatments by organic acids was assayed, and a screening study was carried out for suitable pupation media. Nylon-made egging mesh resulted in the most efficient oviposition medium, while low insect densities provided the best conditions for increased rates of fly fertility. Organic acids (methyl-p-hydroxy-benzoic) were found to hamper egg hatch, while a variety of pupation media provided improved fly emergence rates vs. the naked pupation method. (author)

  2. Theoretical studies of transition metal complexes with nitriles and isocyanides

    Kuznetsov, Maksim L

    2002-01-01

    Theoretical studies of transition metal complexes with nitriles and isocyanides are reviewed. The electronic structures and the nature of coordination bonds in these complexes are discussed. The correlation between the electronic structures of transition metal complexes with nitriles and isocyanides and their structural properties, spectroscopic characteristics, and reactivities are considered. The bibliography includes 121 references.

  3. Colonic lipoma

    Siddiqui, M.S.; Khatri, A.R.; Quraishy, M.S.; Fatima, L.; Muzaffar, S.

    2003-01-01

    Lipoma of the colon is rare and may lead to intestinal obstruct. We have presented two cases of colonic lipoma. Both were elderly females, one presented with diarrhea and the other with sub-acute intestinal obstruction. After colonoscopy surgical removal was done. Histopathology revealed lipoma. (author)

  4. Colonic angiodysplasia

    Vallee, C.; Legmann, P.; Garnier, T.; Levesque, M.

    1984-01-01

    The main clinical, endoscopic and radiographic findings in thirty documented cases of colonic angiodysplasia or vacular ectasia are described. We emphasise the association with colonic diverticulosis and cardiovascular pathology, describe the histological changes, summarize the present physiopathological hypothesis, and consider the various therapeutic approaches. (orig.)

  5. Colonic locomotion

    Dodou, D.

    2006-01-01

    The most effective screening method for colonic cancer is colonoscopy. However, colonoscopy cannot be easily embraced by the population because of the related pain intensity. Robotic devices that pull themselves forward through the colon are a possible alternative. The main challenge for such

  6. External coating of colonic anastomoses

    Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Achiam, Michael Patrick; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Colon anastomotic leakage remains both a frequent and serious complication in gastrointestinal surgery. External coating of colonic anastomoses has been proposed as a means to lower the rate of this complication. The aim of this review was to evaluate existing studies on external coating of colonic...

  7. Effect of alosetron on left colonic motility in non-constipated patients with irritable bowel syndrome and healthy volunteers

    Clemens, C. H. M.; Samsom, M.; van Berge Henegouwen, G. P.; Fabri, M.; Smout, A. J. P. M.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alosetron is a 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 receptor antagonist reducing symptoms in female patients with diarrhoea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome, and is known to increase the colonic transit time. AIM: To study the effect of alosetron on left colonic phasic motility in ambulant

  8. Older Persons’ Transitions in Care (OPTIC: a study protocol

    Cummings Greta G

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Changes in health status, triggered by events such as infections, falls, and geriatric syndromes, are common among nursing home (NH residents and necessitate transitions between NHs and Emergency Departments (EDs. During transitions, residents frequently experience care that is delayed, unnecessary, not evidence-based, potentially unsafe, and fragmented. Furthermore, a high proportion of residents and their family caregivers report substantial unmet needs during transitions. This study is part of a program of research whose overall aim is to improve quality of care for frail older adults who reside in NHs. The purpose of this study is to identify successful transitions from multiple perspectives and to identify organizational and individual factors related to transition success, in order to inform improvements in care for frail elderly NH residents during transitions to and from acute care. Specific objectives are to: 1. define successful and unsuccessful elements of transitions from multiple perspectives; 2. develop and test a practical tool to assess transition success; 3. assess transition processes in a discrete set of transfers in two study sites over a one year period; 4. assess the influence of organizational factors in key practice locations, e.g., NHs, emergency medical services (EMS, and EDs, on transition success; and 5. identify opportunities for evidence-informed management and quality improvement decisions related to the management of NH – ED transitions. Methods/Design This is a mixed-methods observational study incorporating an integrated knowledge translation (IKT approach. It uses data from multiple levels (facility, care unit, individual and sources (healthcare providers, residents, health records, and administrative databases. Discussion Key to study success is operationalizing the IKT approach by using a partnership model in which the OPTIC governance structure provides for team decision-makers and

  9. [Benefit of adjuvant 5-fluorouracil based chemotherapy for colon cancer: a retrospective cohort study].

    Mondaca, Sebastián; Villalón, Constanza; Leal, José Luis; Zúñiga, Álvaro; Bellolio, Felipe; Padilla, Oslando; Palma, Silvia; Garrido, Marcelo; Nervi, Bruno

    2016-02-01

    Multiple clinical trials have demonstrated the benefits of adjuvant 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy for patients with resectable colon cancer (CC), especially in stage III. To describe the clinical characteristics of a cohort of CC patients treated at a single university hospital in Chile since 2002, and to investigate if chemotherapy had an effect on survival rates. Review of a tumor registry of the hospital. Medical records of patients with CC treated between 2002 and 2012 were reviewed. Death certificates from the National Identification Service were used to determine mortality. Overall survival was described using the Kaplan-Meier method. A multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression model was also used. A total of 370 patients were treated during the study period (202 in stage II and 168 in stage III). Adjuvant chemotherapy was administered to 22 and 70% of patients in stage II and III respectively. The median follow-up period was 4.6 years. The 5-year survival rate for stage II patients was 79% and there was no benefit observed with adjuvant chemotherapy. For stage III patients, the 5-year survival rate was 81% for patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy, compared to 56% for those who did not receive chemotherapy (hazard ratio (HR): 0.29; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.15-0.56). The benefit of chemotherapy was found to persist after adjustment for other prognostic variables (HR: 0.47; 95% CI: 0.23-0.94). Patients with colon cancer in stage III who received adjuvant chemotherapy had a better overall survival.

  10. Preadmission glucocorticoid use and anastomotic leakage after colon and rectal cancer resections: a Danish cohort study

    Ostenfeld, Eva Bjerre; Erichsen, Rune; Baron, John A; Thorlacius-Ussing, Ole; Iversen, Lene Hjerrild; Riis, Anders H; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine whether preadmission glucocorticoid use increases the risk of anastomotic leakage after colon and rectal cancer resections. Design A population-based cohort study. Setting Denmark (2001–2011). Participants We identified patients who had undergone a primary anastomosis after a colorectal cancer resection by linking medical registries. Participants who filled their most recent glucocorticoid prescription ≤90, 91–365 and >365 days before their surgery date were categorised as current, recent and former users, respectively. Main outcome measures We calculated 30-day absolute risk of anastomotic leakage and computed ORs using logistic regression models with adjustment for potential confounders. Results Of the 18 190 patients with colon cancer, anastomotic leakage occurred in 1184 (6.5%). Glucocorticoid use overall was not associated with an increased risk of leakage (6.4% vs 6.9% among never-users; OR 1.05; 95% CI 0.89 to 1.23). Categories of oral, inhaled or intestinal-acting glucocorticoids did not greatly affect risk of leakage. Anastomotic leakage occurred in 695 (13.2%) of 5284 patients with rectal cancer. Glucocorticoid use overall slightly increased risk of leakage (14.6% vs 12.8% among never-users; OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.72). Results did not differ significantly within glucocorticoid categories. Conclusions Preadmission glucocorticoids modestly increased the risk of anastomotic leakage mainly after rectal cancer resection. However, absolute risk differences were small and the clinical impact of glucocorticoid use may therefore be limited. PMID:26408282

  11. Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae colonization (CRE) and subsequent risk of infection and 90-day mortality in critically ill patients, an observational study.

    McConville, Thomas Howe; Sullivan, Sean Berger; Gomez-Simmonds, Angela; Whittier, Susan; Uhlemann, Anne-Catrin

    2017-01-01

    Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) have emerged as an urgent public health threat. Intestinal colonization with CRE has been identified as a risk factor for the development of systemic CRE infection, but has not been compared to colonization with third and/or fourth generation cephalosporin-resistant (Ceph-R) Enterobacteriaceae. Moreover, the risk conferred by colonization on adverse outcomes is less clear, particularly in critically ill patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). We carried out a cohort study of consecutive adult patients screened for rectal colonization with CRE or Ceph-R upon ICU entry between April and July 2013. We identified clinical variables and assessed the relationship between CRE or Ceph-R colonization and subsequent systemic CRE infection within 30 days (primary outcome) and all-cause mortality within 90 days (secondary outcome). Among 338 ICU patients, 94 (28%) were colonized with either Ceph-R or CRE. 26 patients developed CRE infection within 30 days of swab collection; 47% (N = 17/36) of CRE-colonized and 3% (N = 2/58) of Ceph-R colonized patients. 36% (N = 13/36) of CRE-colonized patients died within 90 days compared to 31% (N = 18/58) of Ceph-R-colonized and 15% (N = 37/244) of non-colonized patients. In a multivariable analysis, CRE colonization independently predicted development of a systemic CRE infection at 30 days (aOR 10.8, 95% CI2.8-41.9, p = 0.0006); Ceph-R colonization did not (aOR 0.5, 95% CI0.1-3.3, p = 0.5). CRE colonization was associated with increased 90-day mortality in a univariable analysis (p-value 0.001), in a multivariable model, previous hospitalization and medical ICU admission were independent predictors of 90-day mortality whereas CRE colonization approached significance (aOR 2.3, 95% CI1.0-5.3, p = 0.056). Our study highlights the increased risk of CRE infection and mortality in patients with CRE colonization at the time of ICU admission. Future studies are needed to assess how CRE

  12. Chemopreventive potential of β-Sitosterol in experimental colon cancer model - an In vitro and In vivo study

    Paulraj Gabriel M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asclepias curassavica Linn. is a traditional medicinal plant used by tribal people in the western ghats, India, to treat piles, gonorrhoea, roundworm infestation and abdominal tumours. We have determined the protective effect of β-sitosterol isolated from A. curassavica in colon cancer, using in vitro and in vivo models. Methods The active molecule was isolated, based upon bioassay guided fractionation, and identified as β-sitosterol on spectral evidence. The ability to induce apoptosis was determined by its in vitro antiradical activity, cytotoxic studies using human colon adenocarcinoma and normal monkey kidney cell lines, and the expression of β-catenin and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA in human colon cancer cell lines (COLO 320 DM. The chemopreventive potential of β-sitosterol in colon carcinogenesis was assessed by injecting 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH, 20 mg/kg b.w. into male Wistar rats and supplementing this with β-sitosterol throughout the experimental period of 16 weeks at 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg b.w. Results β-sitosterol induced significant dose-dependent growth inhibition of COLO 320 DM cells (IC50 266.2 μM, induced apoptosis by scavenging reactive oxygen species, and suppressed the expression of β-catenin and PCNA antigens in human colon cancer cells. β-sitosterol supplementation reduced the number of aberrant crypt and crypt multiplicity in DMH-initiated rats in a dose-dependent manner with no toxic effects. Conclusion We found doses of 10-20 mg/kg b.w. β-sitosterol to be effective for future in vivo studies. β-sitosterol had chemopreventive potential by virtue of its radical quenching ability in vitro, with minimal toxicity to normal cells. It also attenuated β-catenin and PCNA expression, making it a potential anticancer drug for colon carcinogenesis.

  13. Chemopreventive potential of β-Sitosterol in experimental colon cancer model - an In vitro and In vivo study

    2010-01-01

    Background Asclepias curassavica Linn. is a traditional medicinal plant used by tribal people in the western ghats, India, to treat piles, gonorrhoea, roundworm infestation and abdominal tumours. We have determined the protective effect of β-sitosterol isolated from A. curassavica in colon cancer, using in vitro and in vivo models. Methods The active molecule was isolated, based upon bioassay guided fractionation, and identified as β-sitosterol on spectral evidence. The ability to induce apoptosis was determined by its in vitro antiradical activity, cytotoxic studies using human colon adenocarcinoma and normal monkey kidney cell lines, and the expression of β-catenin and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in human colon cancer cell lines (COLO 320 DM). The chemopreventive potential of β-sitosterol in colon carcinogenesis was assessed by injecting 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH, 20 mg/kg b.w.) into male Wistar rats and supplementing this with β-sitosterol throughout the experimental period of 16 weeks at 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg b.w. Results β-sitosterol induced significant dose-dependent growth inhibition of COLO 320 DM cells (IC50 266.2 μM), induced apoptosis by scavenging reactive oxygen species, and suppressed the expression of β-catenin and PCNA antigens in human colon cancer cells. β-sitosterol supplementation reduced the number of aberrant crypt and crypt multiplicity in DMH-initiated rats in a dose-dependent manner with no toxic effects. Conclusion We found doses of 10-20 mg/kg b.w. β-sitosterol to be effective for future in vivo studies. β-sitosterol had chemopreventive potential by virtue of its radical quenching ability in vitro, with minimal toxicity to normal cells. It also attenuated β-catenin and PCNA expression, making it a potential anticancer drug for colon carcinogenesis. PMID:20525330

  14. Uptake and outcomes of laparoscopically assisted resection for colon and rectal cancer in Australia: a population-based study.

    Dobbins, Timothy A; Young, Jane M; Solomon, Michael J

    2014-04-01

    Meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials support the use of laparoscopically assisted resection for colon cancer. The evidence supporting its use in rectal cancer is weak. The purpose of this work was to investigate the uptake of laparoscopically assisted resection for colon and rectal cancer and to compare short- and long-term outcomes using population data. This was a retrospective cohort study using linked administrative health data. The study encompassed all of the public and private hospitals in New South Wales, Australia, between 2000 and 2008. A total of 27,947 patients with colon or rectal cancer undergoing surgery with curative intent were included in the study. We summarized the proportion of resections performed laparoscopically. Short-term outcomes were extended stay, 28-day readmission, 28-day emergency readmission, 30- and 90-day mortality, and 90-day readmission with pulmonary embolism or deep-vein thrombosis. Long-term outcomes were all-cause and cancer-specific death and admission with obstruction or incisional hernia repair. Laparoscopic procedures increased between 2000 and 2008 for colon (1.5%-20.7%) and rectal cancer (0.6%-15.5%). Laparoscopic procedures reduced rates of extended stay (OR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.49-0.72) and 28-day readmission (OR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.74-0.99) for colon cancer. For rectal cancer, laparoscopic procedures had lower rates of 28-day readmission (OR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.42-0.78) and 28-day emergency readmission (OR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.34-0.85). Laparoscopic procedures improved cancer-specific survival for rectal cancer (HR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.51-1.00). Survival benefits were observed for laparoscopically assisted colon resection in higher-caseload hospitals but not lower-caseload hospitals. It was not possible to identify laparoscopically assisted resections converted to open procedures because of the claims-based nature of the data. Despite increases in laparoscopically assisted resections for colon and rectal cancer, the majority

  15. Colonic healing: the effect of irradiation and chemotherapy - an experimental study, resembling adjuvant therapy for colorectal carcinoma

    Weiber, S.

    1993-08-01

    Adjuvant treatment of colon and rectal carcinoma is of major interest. Irradiation and chemotherapy are modalities used widely. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of preoperative irradiation and postoperative intraperitoneal 5-fluorouracil treatment on colonic healing. In rats preoperative irradiation of the lower abdominal region by 10 + 10 Gy four days apart caused inflammatory reaction in the colon as evaluated by histology and determination of myeloperoxidase activity. The inflammatory reaction reached its peek within a week of the second irradiation. When standard used colonic resections and anastomes were performed within the irradiate part of the colon the anastomotic healing was not affected during the first week after operation as judged by complications and breaking strength. A lower breaking strength and an increase in myeloperoxidase activity two months after operation may indicate late changes within the intestinal wall. Intraperitoneal 5-fluorouracil in rat given immediately after colonic resection and repeated as daily injections caused a weight loss and marked reduction in breaking strength of the anastomosis as well as in the abdominal skin wound. A reduction in 5-fluorouracil concentration did not alter the negative wound healing effect of the chemotherapy. In a group of rats subjected to nutritional depletion, mimicking the weight curve of 5-fluorouracil treated animals, anastomotic breaking strength was not compromised to the same extent as when 5-fluorouracil was given. This indicated a direct toxic effect rather than an effect of reduced food intake caused by 5-FU treatment. Collagen synthesis and the formation of new tissue in the wound gap was reduced in 5-fluorouracil treated animals compared to controls as judged by in vivo incorporation of {sup 3}H-proline in the anastomotic segment and determination of anastomotic breaking strength after removal of sutures. 108 refs.

  16. Colonic healing: the effect of irradiation and chemotherapy - an experimental study, resembling adjuvant therapy for colorectal carcinoma

    Weiber, S.

    1993-08-01

    Adjuvant treatment of colon and rectal carcinoma is of major interest. Irradiation and chemotherapy are modalities used widely. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of preoperative irradiation and postoperative intraperitoneal 5-fluorouracil treatment on colonic healing. In rats preoperative irradiation of the lower abdominal region by 10 + 10 Gy four days apart caused inflammatory reaction in the colon as evaluated by histology and determination of myeloperoxidase activity. The inflammatory reaction reached its peek within a week of the second irradiation. When standard used colonic resections and anastomes were performed within the irradiate part of the colon the anastomotic healing was not affected during the first week after operation as judged by complications and breaking strength. A lower breaking strength and an increase in myeloperoxidase activity two months after operation may indicate late changes within the intestinal wall. Intraperitoneal 5-fluorouracil in rat given immediately after colonic resection and repeated as daily injections caused a weight loss and marked reduction in breaking strength of the anastomosis as well as in the abdominal skin wound. A reduction in 5-fluorouracil concentration did not alter the negative wound healing effect of the chemotherapy. In a group of rats subjected to nutritional depletion, mimicking the weight curve of 5-fluorouracil treated animals, anastomotic breaking strength was not compromised to the same extent as when 5-fluorouracil was given. This indicated a direct toxic effect rather than an effect of reduced food intake caused by 5-FU treatment. Collagen synthesis and the formation of new tissue in the wound gap was reduced in 5-fluorouracil treated animals compared to controls as judged by in vivo incorporation of 3 H-proline in the anastomotic segment and determination of anastomotic breaking strength after removal of sutures. 108 refs

  17. Lifestyle changes and reduction of colon cancer incidence in Europe : A scenario study of physical activity promotion and weight reduction

    de Vries, E.; Soerjomataram, I.; Lemmens, V. E. P. P.; Coebergh, J. W. W.; Barendregt, J. J.; Oenema, A.; Moller, H.; Brenner, H.; Renehan, Andrew G.

    Background: Across Europe, there are over 300,000 new cases of colorectal cancer annually. Major risk factors include excess body weight (usually expressed by a high body mass index, BMI) and physical inactivity (PA). In this study we modelled the potential long-term effects on colon cancer

  18. Plasma enterolactone and risk of colon and rectal cancer in a case-cohort study of Danish men and women

    Johnsen, Nina; Olsen, Anja; Thomsen, Birthe Lykke

    2010-01-01

    This case-cohort study examined the association between plasma enterolactone concentration and incidence of colon and rectal cancer in the Diet, Cancer and Health cohort, which enrolled 57,053 participants aged 50-64. Information about diet and lifestyle was obtained by questionnaire, and data on...

  19. Meat consumption and K-ras mutations in sporadic colon and rectal cancer in The Netherlands Cohort Study

    Brink, M.; Weijenberg, M.P.; Goeij, A.F.P.M. de; Roemen, G.M.J.M.; Lentjes, M.H.F.M.; Bruïne, A.P. de; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2005-01-01

    Case-cohort analyses were performed on meat and fish consumption in relation to K-ras mutations in 448 colon and 160 rectal cancers that occurred during 7.3 years of follow-up, excluding the first 2.3 years, and 2948 subcohort members of The Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer. Adjusted

  20. A nationwide Danish cohort study challenging the categorisation into right-sided and left-sided colon cancer

    Jess, Per; Hansen, Iben Onsberg; Gamborg, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The categorisation of colon cancer (CC) into right-sided (RCC) and left-sided (LCC) disease may not capture more subtle variances in aetiology and prognosis. In a nationwide study, we investigated differences in clinical characteristics and survival of RCC versus LCC and of the complete range of CC...

  1. Energy Transition in the Nebular City: Connecting Transition Thinking, Metabolism Studies, and Urban Design

    Griet Juwet

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Transforming urban infrastructures is an essential part of creating more sustainable urban regions. But rethinking these complex systems requires a better understanding of their spatial dimensions and their relation with urban morphology and spatial structure. This paper addresses that gap by examining different conceptualizations of technical infrastructure and space in science, technology and society studies (STS, transition thinking, urban metabolism studies, and urban political ecology, and draws connections with the spatial perspective of urban planning and design. It illustrates and tests these concepts through the case of energy transition in the Flemish region of Belgium. Transport and supply networks have played a crucial role in facilitating, structuring, and reproducing the region’s characteristic dispersed and energy-intensive urban landscape. Bringing different disciplinary perspectives together, the research broadens the conceptualization of the spatial dimension in transition thinking, and identifies useful concepts and design parameters for urban design to engage with the technical and socio-political complexity of transforming urban infrastructure. It reveals the energy transition as an inherently spatial project, and explores the spatially and socio-politically transformative potential of the transition towards a new energy system.

  2. Numerical Study of Transition of an Annular Lift Fan Aircraft

    Yun Jiang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at studying the transition of annular lift fan aircraft through computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulations. The oscillations of lift and drag, the optimization for the figure of merit, and the characteristics of drag, yawing, rolling and pitching moments in transition are studied. The results show that a two-stage upper and lower fan lift system can generate oscillations of lift and drag in transition, while a single-stage inner and outer fan lift system can eliminate the oscillations. The characteristics of momentum drag of the single-stage fans in transition are similar to that of the two-stage fans, but with the peak of drag lowered from 0.63 to 0.4 of the aircraft weight. The strategy to start transition from a negative angle of attack −21° further reduces the peak of drag to 0.29 of the weight. The strategy also reduces the peak of pitching torque, which needs upward extra thrusts of 0.39 of the weight to eliminate. The peak of rolling moment in transition needs differential upward thrusts of 0.04 of the weight to eliminate. The requirements for extra thrusts in transition lead to a total thrust–weight ratio of 0.7, which makes the aircraft more efficient for high speed cruise flight (higher than 0.7 Ma.

  3. Radionuclide Esophageal Transit Study in the Esophageal Motility Disorders

    Choi, Jae Gol; Lee, Min Jae; Song, Chi Wook [Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-07-15

    Esophageal motility was evaluated from the analysis of 10 consecutive swallows using liquid bolus containing 0.5 mCi of {sup 99m}Tc tin colloid. We have reviewed our experience of esophageal transit study in the 20 normal volunteers and 55 patients with dysphagia that was not related to mechanical obstruction. The purpose of this study is to measure the esophageal transit in normal subjects and in patients with various esophageal motility disorders. The overall sensitivity and specificity of radionuclide esophageal transit study in detecting esophageal motor abnormality were compared with manometric results as a gold standard, which were 80% and 100% respectively. Radionuclide transit study is a safe, rapid, noninvasive test and suitable as a screening test for esophageal motor disorders.

  4. Radionuclide Esophageal Transit Study in the Esophageal Motility Disorders

    Choi, Jae Gol; Lee, Min Jae; Song, Chi Wook

    1993-01-01

    Esophageal motility was evaluated from the analysis of 10 consecutive swallows using liquid bolus containing 0.5 mCi of 99m Tc tin colloid. We have reviewed our experience of esophageal transit study in the 20 normal volunteers and 55 patients with dysphagia that was not related to mechanical obstruction. The purpose of this study is to measure the esophageal transit in normal subjects and in patients with various esophageal motility disorders. The overall sensitivity and specificity of radionuclide esophageal transit study in detecting esophageal motor abnormality were compared with manometric results as a gold standard, which were 80% and 100% respectively. Radionuclide transit study is a safe, rapid, noninvasive test and suitable as a screening test for esophageal motor disorders.

  5. IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL STUDY OF MSH2, MSH6, PMS2, MLH1 IN EVALUATION OF DIFFERENTIATION GRADE OF COLON ADENOCARCINOMA

    G. A. Raskin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Microsatellite instability is associated with dysfunction of the MSH2, MLH1, PMS2 and MSH6 genes, which participate in the repair of unpaired nucleotides of DNA. It is known that microsatellite instability is an independent prognostic factor in determining the differentiation grade of colon cancer. The use of immunohistochemistry to study the repair system of unpaired nucleotides has its own characteristics and limitations. Materials and methods. The study included 39 patients with colon adenocarcinoma. Moderately-differentiated colon adenocarcinoma was the most common histological type (72 %. There were 8 % of well-differentiated and 12 % poorly-differentiated carcinomas. Immunohistochemical analysis of SH2, MSH6, PMS2 and MLH1 proteins was done according to the standard protocol. Results. Out of 39 cases, 6 (15 % had loss of expression of at least one of the studied proteins. Out of these 6 cases with indirect signs of MSI-H, 3 were poorlydifferentiated, 1 was mucinous and 2 were moderately differentiated adenocarcinomas. Conclusion. Thus, immunohistochemical analysis of DNA repair genes can be used to determine the histological differentiation of colon adenocarcinoma.

  6. Oncological outcome following laparoscopic versus open surgery for cancer in the transverse colon: a nationwide cohort study.

    Nordholm-Carstensen, Andreas; Jensen, Kristian Kiim; Krarup, Peter-Martin

    2018-03-30

    The literature on transverse colonic cancer resection is sparse. The optimal surgical approach for this disease is thus unknown. This study aimed to examine laparoscopic versus open surgery for transverse colonic cancer. This study was a nationwide, retrospective cohort study of all patients registered with a transverse colonic cancer in Denmark between 2010 and 2013. Data were obtained from the Danish Colorectal Cancer Group, the Danish Pathology Registry, Danish National Patient Registry, and patients' records. Main outcome measures were surgical resection plane, lymph node yield, and long-term cancer recurrence and survival. In total, 357 patients were included. Non-mesocolic resection was more frequent with laparoscopic compared with open resection (adjusted odds ratio 2.44, 95% CI 1.29-4.60, P = 0.006). Median number of harvested lymph nodes was higher after open compared with laparoscopic resection (22 versus 19, P = 0.03). Non-mesocolic resection (adjusted hazard ratio 2.45, 95% CI 1.25-4.79, P = 0.01) and increasing tumor stage (P transverse colonic cancers led to similar long-term results compared with open resection.

  7. Meat and fish consumption, APC gene mutations and hMLH1 expression in colon and rectal cancer: a prospective cohort study (the Netherlands)

    Luchtenborg, M.; Weijenberg, M.P.; Goeij, de A.F.P.M.; Wark, P.A.; Brink, M.; Roemen, G.M.J.M.; Lentjes, M.H.F.M.; Bruine, de A.P.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Veer, van 't P.; Brandt, van den P.A.

    2005-01-01

    Objective:The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between meat and fish consumption and APC mutation status and hMLH1 expression in colon and rectal cancer. Methods:The associations were investigated in the Netherlands Cohort Study, and included 434 colon and 154 rectal cancer

  8. Colon neoplasm

    Kimura F, K.

    1991-01-01

    The main aspects of colon neoplasms are described, including several factors that predispose the disease, the occurrence, the main biomedical radiography and the evaluation after the surgery. (C.G.C.)

  9. Upregulated expression of human neutrophil peptides 1, 2 and 3 (HNP 1-3) in colon cancer serum and tumours: a biomarker study

    Albrethsen, Jakob; Bøgebo, Rikke; Gammeltoft, Steen; Olsen, Jesper; Winther, Benny; Raskov, Hans

    2005-01-01

    Molecular markers for localized colon tumours and for prognosis following therapy are needed. Proteomics research is currently producing numerous biomarker studies with clinical potential. We investigate the protein composition of plasma and of tumour extracts with the aim of identifying biomarkers for colon cancer. By Surface Enhanced Laser Desorption/Ionisation – Time Of Flight / Mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF/MS) we compare the protein profiles of colon cancer serum with serum from healthy individuals and the protein profiles of colon tumours with normal colon tissue. By size exclusion chromatography, we investigate the binding of HNP 1-3 to high mass plasma proteins. By microflow we investigate the effect of HNP 1-3 on mammalian cells. Human Neutrophil Peptides -1, -2 and -3 (HNP 1-3), also known as alfa-defensin-1, -2 and -3, are present in elevated concentrations in serum from colon cancer patients and in protein extracts from colon tumours. A fraction of HNP 1-3 in serum is bound to unidentified high mass plasma proteins. HNP 1-3 purified from colon tumours are lethal to mammalian cells. HNP 1-3 may serve as blood markers for colon cancer in combination with other diagnostic tools. We propose that HNP 1-3 are carried into the bloodstream by attaching to high mass plasma proteins in the tumour microenvironment. We discuss the effect of HNP 1-3 on tumour progression

  10. BRAF and RAS oncogenes regulate Rho GTPase pathways to mediate migration and invasion properties in human colon cancer cells: a comparative study

    Shirasawa Senji

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colorectal cancer is a common disease that involves genetic alterations, such as inactivation of tumour suppressor genes and activation of oncogenes. Among them are RAS and BRAF mutations, which rarely coexist in the same tumour. Individual members of the Rho (Ras homology GTPases contribute with distinct roles in tumour cell morphology, invasion and metastasis. The aim of this study is to dissect cell migration and invasion pathways that are utilised by BRAFV600E as compared to KRASG12V and HRASG12V oncoproteins. In particular, the role of RhoA (Ras homolog gene family, member A, Rac1 (Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 and Cdc42 (cell division cycle 42 in cancer progression induced by each of the three oncogenes is described. Methods Colon adenocarcinoma cells with endogenous as well as ectopically expressed or silenced oncogenic mutations of BRAFV600E, KRASG12V and HRASG12V were employed. Signalling pathways and Rho GTPases were inhibited with specific kinase inhibitors and siRNAs. Cell motility and invasion properties were correlated with cytoskeletal properties and Rho GTPase activities. Results Evidence presented here indicate that BRAFV600E significantly induces cell migration and invasion properties in vitro in colon cancer cells, at least in part through activation of RhoA GTPase. The relationship established between BRAFV600E and RhoA activation is mediated by the MEK-ERK pathway. In parallel, KRASG12V enhances the ability of colon adenocarcinoma cells Caco-2 to migrate and invade through filopodia formation and PI3K-dependent Cdc42 activation. Ultimately increased cell migration and invasion, mediated by Rac1, along with the mesenchymal morphology obtained through the Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT were the main characteristics rendered by HRASG12V in Caco-2 cells. Moreover, BRAF and KRAS oncogenes are shown to cooperate with the TGFβ-1 pathway to provide cells with additional transforming

  11. Altered expression pattern of molecular factors involved in colonic smooth muscle functions: an immunohistochemical study in patients with diverticular disease.

    Mattii, Letizia; Ippolito, Chiara; Segnani, Cristina; Battolla, Barbara; Colucci, Rocchina; Dolfi, Amelio; Bassotti, Gabrio; Blandizzi, Corrado; Bernardini, Nunzia

    2013-01-01

    The pathogenesis of diverticular disease (DD) is thought to result from complex interactions among dietary habits, genetic factors and coexistence of other bowel abnormalities. These conditions lead to alterations in colonic pressure and motility, facilitating the formation of diverticula. Although electrophysiological studies on smooth muscle cells (SMCs) have investigated colonic motor dysfunctions, scarce attention has been paid to their molecular abnormalities, and data on SMCs in DD are lacking. Accordingly, the main purpose of this study was to evaluate the expression patterns of molecular factors involved in the contractile functions of SMCs in the tunica muscularis of colonic specimens from patients with DD. By means of immunohistochemistry and image analysis, we examined the expression of Cx26 and Cx43, which are prominent components of gap junctions in human colonic SMCs, as well as pS368-Cx43, PKCps, RhoA and αSMA, all known to regulate the functions of gap junctions and the contractile activity of SMCs. The immunohistochemical analysis revealed significant abnormalities in DD samples, concerning both the expression and distribution patterns of most of the investigated molecular factors. This study demonstrates, for the first time, that an altered pattern of factors involved in SMC contractility is present at level of the tunica muscularis of DD patients. Moreover, considering that our analysis was conducted on colonic tissues not directly affected by diverticular lesions or inflammatory reactions, it is conceivable that these molecular alterations may precede and predispose to the formation of diverticula, rather than being mere consequences of the disease.

  12. In vitro study of acetylcholine and histamine induced contractions in colon and rectum of adult and neonate rats.

    Singh, Shuchita; Mandal, Maloy B

    2013-01-01

    Contractile mechanisms of different parts of the gut in adult and neonate may not be identical due to developmental processes. The present study was undertaken to investigate acetylcholine (ACh) and histamine induced contractile responses of colon and rectum in adult and neonatal albino rats. Contractile responses were recorded from isolated in vitro preparations. The dose-response curve for ACh (0.001-100 microM) revealed dose dependent increase in contractile responses. A significantly (P pheniramine (100 microM) in adult rectum. This potentiating response of pheniramine was absent in neonate rectum. Such effect was also not seen in colon of both adult and neonate. The present investigation indicates that the contractile responses induced by ACh are similar in both adult and neonate, excepting that the blocking effect of atropine in colon was more pronounced in adult as compared to neonate. Further, the results also indicated different mechanism of histamine action in adults and neonates as evidenced by the significant enhancement of contractions by pheniramine only in adult rectum. Therefore, the present results indicate the existence of a different cholinergic and histaminergic activity in adult and neonate as well as in rectal and colonic tissue.

  13. Short- and long-term outcomes of laparoscopic surgery vs open surgery for transverse colon cancer: a retrospective multicenter study

    Kim JW

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Jong Wan Kim,1 Jeong Yeon Kim,1 Byung Mo Kang,2 Bong Hwa Lee,3 Byung Chun Kim,4 Jun Ho Park5 1Department of Surgery, Dongtan Sacred Heart Hospital, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Hwaseong Si, 2Department of Surgery, Chuncheon Sacred Heart Hospital, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chuncheon Si, 3Department of Surgery, Hallym Sacred Heart Hospital, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Anyang Si, 4Department of Surgery, Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Seoul, 5Department of Surgery, Kangdong Sacred Heart Hospital, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Seoul, Republic of Korea Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to compare the perioperative and oncologic outcomes between laparoscopic surgery and open surgery for transverse colon cancer.Patients and methods: We conducted a retrospective review of patients who underwent surgery for transverse colon cancer at six Hallym University-affiliated hospitals between January 2005 and June 2015. The perioperative outcomes and oncologic outcomes were compared between laparoscopic and open surgery.Results: Of 226 patients with transverse colon cancer, 103 underwent laparoscopic surgery and 123 underwent open surgery. There were no differences in the patient characteristics between the two groups. Regarding perioperative outcomes, the operation time was significantly longer in the laparoscopic group than in the open group (267.3 vs 172.7 minutes, P<0.001, but the time to soft food intake (6.0 vs 6.6 days, P=0.036 and the postoperative hospital stay (13.7 vs 15.7 days, P=0.018 were shorter in the laparoscopic group. The number of harvested lymph nodes was lower in the laparoscopic group than in the open group (20.3 vs 24.3, P<0.001. The 5-year overall survival (90.8% vs 88.6%, P=0.540 and disease-free survival (86.1% vs 78.9%, P=0.201 rates were similar in both groups.Conclusion: The present study showed that laparoscopic surgery is associated

  14. Study of the Transition Flow Regime using Monte Carlo Methods

    Hassan, H. A.

    1999-01-01

    This NASA Cooperative Agreement presents a study of the Transition Flow Regime Using Monte Carlo Methods. The topics included in this final report are: 1) New Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) procedures; 2) The DS3W and DS2A Programs; 3) Papers presented; 4) Miscellaneous Applications and Program Modifications; 5) Solution of Transitional Wake Flows at Mach 10; and 6) Turbulence Modeling of Shock-Dominated Fows with a k-Enstrophy Formulation.

  15. Soluble curcumin amalgamated chitosan microspheres augmented drug delivery and cytotoxicity in colon cancer cells: In vitro and in vivo study.

    Jyoti, Kiran; Bhatia, Richa Kaur; Martis, Elvis A F; Coutinho, Evans C; Jain, Upendra Kumar; Chandra, Ramesh; Madan, Jitender

    2016-12-01

    In present investigation, initially curcumin was complexed with 2-HP-β-CD (curcumin-2-HP-β-CD-complex) in 1:1 ratio and later amalgamated with chitosan microspheres (curcumin-2-HP-β-CD-CMs) for selective delivery in colon only through oral route of administration. Various analytical, spectral and in-silico docking techniques revealed that the curcumin was deeply inserted in the 2-HP-β-CD cavity with apparent stability constant of 3.35×10 -3 M. Furthermore, the mean particle size of 6.8±2.6μm and +39.2±4.1mV surface charge of curcumin-2-HP-β-CD-complex-CMs in addition to encapsulation efficiency of about 79.8±6.3% exhibited that the tailored microspheres were optimum for colon delivery of curcumin. This was also demonstrated in dissolution testing and standard cell proliferation assay in which curcumin-2-HP-β-CD-complex-CMs exhibited maximum release in simulated colonic fluid (SCF, pH ∼7.0-8.0, almond emulsion-β-glucosidase) with improved therapeutic index in HT-29 cells. Consistently, curcumin-2-HP-β-CD-complex-CMs successively enhanced the colonic bio-distribution of curcumin by ∼8.36 folds as compared to curcumin suspension in preclinical pharmacokinetic studies. In conclusion, curcumin-2-HP-β-CD-complex-CMs warrant further in vivo tumor regression study to establish its therapeutic efficacy in experimental colon cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Differentiation between benign and malignant colon tumors using fast dynamic gadolinium-enhanced MR colonography; a feasibility study

    Achiam, M.P., E-mail: achiam1@dadlnet.d [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Copenhagen University Hospital Herlev, Herlev Ringvej, DK-2730 Herlev (Denmark); Department of Surgical Gastroenterology D, Copenhagen University Hospital Herlev, Herlev Ringvej, DK-2730 Herlev (Denmark); Department of Diagnostic Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 3C, DK-2200 Copenhagen (Denmark); Andersen, L.P.H.; Klein, M. [Department of Surgical Gastroenterology D, Copenhagen University Hospital Herlev, Herlev Ringvej, DK-2730 Herlev (Denmark); Department of Diagnostic Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 3C, DK-2200 Copenhagen (Denmark); Logager, V.; Chabanova, E.; Thomsen, H.S. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Copenhagen University Hospital Herlev, Herlev Ringvej, DK-2730 Herlev (Denmark); Department of Diagnostic Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 3C, DK-2200 Copenhagen (Denmark); Rosenberg, J. [Department of Surgical Gastroenterology D, Copenhagen University Hospital Herlev, Herlev Ringvej, DK-2730 Herlev (Denmark); Department of Diagnostic Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 3C, DK-2200 Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2010-06-15

    Background: Colorectal cancer will present itself as a bowel obstruction in 16-23% of all cases. However, not all obstructing tumors are malignant and the differentiation between a benign and a malignant tumor can be difficult. The purpose of our study was to determine whether fast dynamic gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging combined with MR colonography could be used to differentiate a benign from a malignant obstructing colon tumor. Methods: Patients with benign colon tumor stenosis, based on diverticulitis, were asked to participate in the study. The same number of patients with verified colorectal cancer was included. Both groups had to be scheduled for surgery to be included. Two blinded observers analyzed the tumors on MR by placing a region of interest in the tumor and a series of parameters were evaluated, e.g. wash-in, wash-out and time-to-peak. Results: 14 patients were included. The wash-in and wash-out rates were significantly different between the benign and malignant tumors, and a clear distinction between benign and malignant disease was therefore possible by looking only at the MR data. Furthermore, MR colography evaluating the rest of the colon past the stenosis was possible with all patients. Conclusion: The results showed the feasibility of using fast dynamic gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging to differentiate between benign and malignant colonic tumors. With a high intra-class correlation and significant differences found on independent segments of the tumor, the method appears to be reproducible. Furthermore, the potential is big in performing a full preoperative colon evaluation even in patients with obstructing cancer. Trial number: (NCT00114829).

  17. Differentiation between benign and malignant colon tumors using fast dynamic gadolinium-enhanced MR colonography; a feasibility study

    Achiam, M.P.; Andersen, L.P.H.; Klein, M.; Logager, V.; Chabanova, E.; Thomsen, H.S.; Rosenberg, J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Colorectal cancer will present itself as a bowel obstruction in 16-23% of all cases. However, not all obstructing tumors are malignant and the differentiation between a benign and a malignant tumor can be difficult. The purpose of our study was to determine whether fast dynamic gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging combined with MR colonography could be used to differentiate a benign from a malignant obstructing colon tumor. Methods: Patients with benign colon tumor stenosis, based on diverticulitis, were asked to participate in the study. The same number of patients with verified colorectal cancer was included. Both groups had to be scheduled for surgery to be included. Two blinded observers analyzed the tumors on MR by placing a region of interest in the tumor and a series of parameters were evaluated, e.g. wash-in, wash-out and time-to-peak. Results: 14 patients were included. The wash-in and wash-out rates were significantly different between the benign and malignant tumors, and a clear distinction between benign and malignant disease was therefore possible by looking only at the MR data. Furthermore, MR colography evaluating the rest of the colon past the stenosis was possible with all patients. Conclusion: The results showed the feasibility of using fast dynamic gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging to differentiate between benign and malignant colonic tumors. With a high intra-class correlation and significant differences found on independent segments of the tumor, the method appears to be reproducible. Furthermore, the potential is big in performing a full preoperative colon evaluation even in patients with obstructing cancer. Trial number: (NCT00114829).

  18. Ex Vivo and In Vivo Mice Models to Study Blastocystis spp. Adhesion, Colonization and Pathology: Closer to Proving Koch's Postulates.

    Sitara S R Ajjampur

    Full Text Available Blastocystis spp. are widely prevalent extra cellular, non-motile anerobic protists that inhabit the gastrointestinal tract. Although Blastocystis spp. have been associated with gastrointestinal symptoms, irritable bowel syndrome and urticaria, their clinical significance has remained controversial. We established an ex vivo mouse explant model to characterize adhesion in the context of tissue architecture and presence of the mucin layer. Using confocal microscopy with tissue whole mounts and two axenic isolates of Blastocystis spp., subtype 7 with notable differences in adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells (IEC, isolate B (ST7-B and isolate H (more adhesive, ST7-H, we showed that adhesion is both isolate dependent and tissue trophic. The more adhesive isolate, ST7-H was found to bind preferentially to the colon tissue than caecum and terminal ileum. Both isolates were also found to have mucinolytic effects. We then adapted a DSS colitis mouse model as a susceptible model to study colonization and acute infection by intra-caecal inoculation of trophic Blastocystis spp.cells. We found that the more adhesive isolate ST7-H was also a better colonizer with more mice shedding parasites and for a longer duration than ST7-B. Adhesion and colonization was also associated with increased virulence as ST7-H infected mice showed greater tissue damage than ST7-B. Both the ex vivo and in vivo models used in this study showed that Blastocystis spp. remain luminal and predominantly associated with mucin. This was further confirmed using colonic loop experiments. We were also successfully able to re-infect a second batch of mice with ST7-H isolates obtained from fecal cultures and demonstrated similar histopathological findings and tissue damage thereby coming closer to proving Koch's postulates for this parasite.

  19. Differential Impact of Anastomotic Leak in Patients With Stage IV Colonic or Rectal Cancer: A Nationwide Cohort Study.

    Nordholm-Carstensen, Andreas; Rolff, Hans Christian; Krarup, Peter-Martin

    2017-05-01

    Anastomotic leak has a negative impact on the prognosis of patients who undergo colorectal cancer resection. However, data on anastomotic leak are limited for stage IV colorectal cancers. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of anastomotic leak on survival and the decision to administer chemotherapy and/or metastasectomy after elective surgery for stage IV colorectal cancer. This was a nationwide, retrospective cohort study. Data were obtained from the Danish Colorectal Cancer Group, the Danish Pathology Registry, and the National Patient Registry. Patients who were diagnosed with stage IV colorectal cancer between 2009 and 2013 and underwent elective resection of their primary tumors were included. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality depending on the occurrence of anastomotic leak. Secondary outcomes were the administration of and time to adjuvant chemotherapy, metastasectomy rate, and risk factors for leak. Of the 774 patients with stage IV colorectal cancer who were included, 71 (9.2%) developed anastomotic leaks. Anastomotic leak had a significant impact on the long-term survival of patients with colon cancer (p = 0.04) but not on those with rectal cancer (p = 0.91). Anastomotic leak was followed by the decreased administration of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with colon cancer (p = 0.007) but not in patients with rectal cancer (p = 0.47). Finally, anastomotic leak had a detrimental impact on metastasectomy rates after colon cancer but not on resection rates of rectal cancer. Retrospective data on the selection criteria for primary tumor resection and metastatic tumor load were unavailable. The impact of anastomotic leak on patients differed between stage IV colon and rectal cancers. Survival and eligibility to receive chemotherapy and metastasectomy differed between patients with colon and rectal cancers. When planning for primary tumor resection, these factors should be considered.

  20. Experimental Evaluation of Ileal Patch in Delayed Primary Repair of Penetrating Colon Injuries: An Animal Study

    Hamid Reza Abbasi

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Primary repair of traumatic colonic perforation is progressively gaining acceptance as the best method of management. However, when delayed, the risk of infection-related complications may increase. Here, we present a new method of repairing colon perforation in the presence of peritonitis. Acute colon injury was simulated in 22 German shepherd dogs. The dogs were randomly divided into two groups of 11 and after 24 hours they were operated on. The perforations were repaired by subserosal suture technique. In the first group (group A, ileal patch was used. In the other group (group B, the colon was closed by debridement and anastomosis. After 6 weeks, the repairs were assessed on the basis of survival, gross and histological assessments. Nine (82% dogs in group A and six (56% in group B survived. Ileal patch utilization significantly decreased the mortality rate (p < 0.05. The cause of death in two group A dogs and five group B dogs was peritonitis and intra-abdominal abscess formation. None of the surviving dogs showed evidence of anastomotic leakage or breakdown. Small bowel patch used in primary repair of colon injury in the presence of peritonitis may decrease the risk of postoperative infection-related complications and the mortality rate.

  1. Single incision vs conventional laparoscopic anterior resection for sigmoid colon cancer: a case-matched study.

    Kwag, Seung-Jin; Kim, Jun-Gi; Oh, Seong-Taek; Kang, Won-Kyung

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the safety and effects of single-incision laparoscopic anterior resection (SILAR) for sigmoid colon cancer by comparing it with conventional laparoscopic anterior resection (CLAR). Twenty-four patients who underwent SILAR between April 2010 and July 2011 were case matched 1:2 with patients who underwent CLAR, with respect to age, sex, body mass index, tumor location, and history of abdominal surgery. Two patients in the SILAR group and 1 patient in the CLAR group experienced anastomotic leakage. The operative time was longer in the SILAR group than in the CLAR group (251 ± 50 vs 237 ± 49 minutes; P = .253). The number of harvested lymph nodes (19.6 ± 10.7 vs 20.8 ± 7.7; P = .630) was not different. The postoperative hospital stay was shorter in the SILAR group (7.1 ± 3.4 days) than in the CLAR group (8.1 ± 3.5 days) (P = .234). On the basis of the early outcomes, we conclude that SILAR is feasible and safe. Moreover, the adequate lymph node harvest and free margins support the use of this procedure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Selective use of the biphasic-contrast barium enema study for evaluation of colonic lesions: Results of a prospective study

    De Lange, E.E.; Shaffer, H.A. Jr.; Riddervold, H.O.

    1987-01-01

    The authors performed a prospective study to determine the value of selective use of the biphasic contrast technique for a variety of indications. In a series of 571 double-contrast barium enema examinations, the examination was immediately followed by a single-contrast study in 85 cases. The biphasic procedure was performed to reexamine a colonic segment that was poorly evaluated initially because of diverticulosis (eta = 35), incomplete filling (eta = 28), or poor mucosal coating (eta = 26); or to verify or exclude a possible lesion identified during the double-contrast examination (eta = 22). The single-contrast study confirmed five polyps and excluded lesions in 17 cases with suspected polyps (eta = 5), strictures (eta = 4), and spasm (eta = 8). Six polyps not visualized on the double-contrast examination were detected with the single-contrast procedure

  3. Social inequalities in stage at diagnosis of rectal but not in colonic cancer: a nationwide study

    Frederiksen, B L; Osler, M; Harling, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    We investigated stage at diagnosis in relation to socioeconomic status (SES) among 15 274 patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma diagnosed in 1996-2004 nationwide in Denmark. The effect of SES on the risk of being diagnosed with distant metastasis was analysed using logistic regression models....... A reduction in the risk of being diagnosed with distant metastasis was seen in elderly rectal cancer patients with high income, living in owner-occupied housing and living with a partner. Among younger rectal cancer patients, a reduced risk was seen in those having long education. No social gradient was found...... among colon cancer patients. The social gradient found in rectal cancer patients was significantly different from the lack of association found among colon cancer patients. There are socioeconomic inequalities in the risk of being diagnosed with distant metastasis of a rectal, but not a colonic, cancer...

  4. Inuit Health in Transition: the Nuka study

    Bjerregaard, Peter

    biological samples. The studies in Nunavik and Greenland are not identical but share protocols on diabetes, heart disease, diet, smoking, social capital, self rated health, gambling and many other topics. The study is being geographically expanded to cover also Nunavut, Labrador and East Greenland......, and comparable studies have yielded data from Alaska Natives and Norwegian Sami. A number of researchers will present results from the study at this meeting and we shall hear a lot about the link between diet and health. I will take one step back and look at the social determinants of dietary patterns...... in Greenland in a life course perspective. First different ways to determine dietary patterns will be examined; then the association of parents' background, childhood conditions, education, place of residence, job and wealth with diet will be analysed. Finally, the association of diet with other determinants...

  5. Study abroad: perspectives on transitions to adulthood

    Nielsen, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    The Irish immrama literary style seems the most appropriate way to represent student narratives based on their study abroad experiences in Ireland. The chapters containing the\\ud immrama of students are an ethnographic experiment in which the reflexivity students demonstrated through the interview process is presented in narrative form. This writing style provides the context for the examination of issues related to academic aspirations, professional, and personal wandering, and how study abr...

  6. Intestinal colonization of broiler chickens by Campylobacter spp. in an experimental infection study

    Bahrndorff, Simon; Garcia Clavero, Ana Belén; Vigre, Håkan

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of poultry meat is considered as one of the main sources of human campylobacteriosis, and there is clearly a need for new surveillance and control measures based on quantitative data on Campylobacter spp. colonization dynamics in broiler chickens. We conducted four experimental...... infection trials, using four isolators during each infection trial to evaluate colonization of individual broiler chickens by Campylobacter jejuni over time. Individual and pooled faecal samples were obtained at days 4, 7 and 12 post-inoculation (p.i.) and caecal samples at day 12 p.i. There were large...

  7. Post surgical radiotherapy in colon neoplasm: preliminary results of the study in phase II

    Torres Lopez, M.; Garcia, S.; Tasende, B.

    1993-01-01

    Radiotherapy was not used profusely in the the cancer of the colon treatment be it in the therapy form or administration. In the actual moment for a better understandings in its history natural and the knowledge of the factors presage recurrence, the radiotherapy have precise indications about the surgery. It analyze the population of the patients with cancer of the colon to determine the value of the radiant proceeding in the regional control and it tolerance. Finally, is emphasized in the necessity of the integration of the other procedures, being a therapeutic method that diminishes the-regional results with a permissible toxicity (AU) [es

  8. Development of a new method for small bowel transit study

    Hung, Guang-Uei; Tsai, Chien-Chung; Lin, Wan-Yu

    2006-01-01

    Currently, most studies combine the small bowel transit examination with gastric emptying time examination. There are significant drawbacks to this method. The radiotracer does not enter the small intestine in a bolus and the starting time for transit in the duodenum is difficult to define. This makes the result unreliable. In this study, we used a commercial enteric capsule containing radioactive charcoal to solve these problems. Activated charcoal powder was mixed with Tc-99m pertechnetate and loaded to the enteric capsule which can resist gastric acid and dissolve only in the small intestine, in-vitro stability experiment was performed by immersing these capsules in a colorless phosphate buffer of variable pH which mimicked the condition in stomach and small intestine. In addition, ten healthy Chinese volunteers were included for in-vivo experiment. Anterior and posterior views of abdomen were obtained at regular 30-minute intervals until the eighth hour after administration of the radioactive enteric capsule. Small bowel transit time was calculated. The enteric capsule remained intact for at least 480 minutes in the solution mimicking gastric content (pH=3.0) and disrupted at a mean duration of 227.2 minutes at a pH of 6.8 and at a mean duration of 212.4 minutes at a pH of 7.4 in the solution mimicking pancreaticobiliary secretions. In nine of ten volunteers, the small bowel transit time was between 30 to 270 minutes with a mean transit time of 140 min. In one volunteer, we failed to detect the exact time of small bowel transit because the capsule remained in the stomach throughout the study for up to 8 hours. We consider activated charcoal labeled with Tc-99m pertechnetate using an enteric capsule as the carrier to be a potential radioactive marker for small bowel transit study. (author)

  9. Reduced colon cancer incidence and mortality in postmenopausal women treated with an oral bisphosphonate-Danish National Register Based Cohort Study

    Pazianas, M; Abrahamsen, B; Eiken, Pia Agnete

    2012-01-01

    whether alendronate acts as chemopreventive. INTRODUCTION: When bisphosphonates are given by mouth, around 99% remains non-absorbed in the intestine. Based on their biochemical actions, we predicted that oral bisphosphonates might prevent colon cancers. METHODS: This is a Danish national register...... incidence and post-diagnosis survival in patients taking oral alendronate for osteoporosis. RESULTS: Cox proportional hazards analysis of death due to colon cancer showed lower risk in alendronate users, crude hazard ratio (HR) 0.69 (95% CI 0.59-0.81) with an adjusted HR of 0.62 (95% CI 0......In this Danish national register-based cohort study, we examined the effects of alendronate on the development of colon cancers and survival. The incidence of colon cancer and mortality rate, once colon cancer had been diagnosed, were lower in patients treated with alendronate, posing the question...

  10. Fluorescence Imaging Study of Transition in Underexpanded Free Jets

    Wilkes, Jennifer A.; Danehy, Paul M.; Nowak, Robert J.

    2005-01-01

    Planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) is demonstrated to be a valuable tool for studying the onset of transition to turbulence. For this study, we have used PLIF of nitric oxide (NO) to image underexpanded axisymmetric free jets issuing into a low-pressure chamber through a smooth converging nozzle with a sonic orifice. Flows were studied over a range of Reynolds numbers and nozzle-exit-to-ambient pressure ratios with the aim of empirically determining criteria governing the onset of turbulence. We have developed an image processing technique, involving calculation of the standard deviation of the intensity in PLIF images, in order to aid in the identification of turbulence. We have used the resulting images to identify laminar, transitional and turbulent flow regimes. Jet scaling parameters were used to define a rescaled Reynolds number that incorporates the influence of a varying pressure ratio. An empirical correlation was found between transition length and this rescaled Reynolds number for highly underexpanded jets.

  11. The effect of erythropoietin on healing of obstructive vs nonobstructive left colonic anastomosis: an experimental study

    Renda Nurten

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anastomotic leakage is an important problem following primary resection in the left colon and is even more prominent when obstruction is present. We aimed to evaluate the possible effects of erythropoietin on the healing of anastomosis under both obstructive and non-obstructive states. Methods Forty male Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups. In group I, two cm left colonic resection and primary anastomosis were done. In group II, left colon were completely ligated and 24 hours later animals were re-operated for segmental resection. The same procedures were performed for rats in group III and IV in respect to group I and II and, 500 IU/kg a day erythropoietin were given in the latter two groups for seven days. For the quantative description of anastomotic healing mechanical, biochemical and histopathological parameters were employed on the seventh day and the animals were sacrificied. Results Although erythropoietin had positive effects on bursting pressure in group IV when compared to group II, it has no effect in group III. Despite the increased tissue hydroxyproline levels in group IV, erythropoietin failed to show any effects in group III. Erythropoietin had positive effects on neovascularization, fibroblast proliferiation and storage of collagen in group IV. Conclusion We failed to find any direct and evident effects of erythropoietin on healing of left colonic anastomosis. On the other hand, erythropoietin might prevent negative effects of obstruction on healing.

  12. Descriptive characteristics of colon and rectal cancer recurrence in a Danish population-based study.

    Holmes, Ashley C; Riis, Anders H; Erichsen, Rune; Fedirko, Veronika; Ostenfeld, Eva Bjerre; Vyberg, Mogens; Thorlacius-Ussing, Ole; Lash, Timothy L

    2017-08-01

    Recurrence is a common outcome among patients that have undergone an intended curative resection for colorectal cancer. However, data on factors that influence colorectal cancer recurrence are sparse. We report descriptive characteristics of both colon and rectal cancer recurrence in an unselected population. We identified 21,152 patients with colorectal cancer diagnosed between May 2001 and December 2011 and registered with the Danish Colorectal Cancer Group. Recurrences were identified in 3198 colon and 1838 rectal cancer patients during follow-up. We calculated the frequency, proportion, and incidence rates of colon and rectal cancer recurrence within descriptive categories, and the cumulative five- and ten-year incidences of recurrence, treating death as a competing risk. We used a Cox proportional hazard model to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Recurrence risk was highest in the first three years of follow-up. Patients colon: 7.2 per 100 person-years; 95% CI: 6.5-7.9; rectum: 8.1 per 100 person-years; 95% CI: 7.2-9.0) and patients diagnosed with stage III cancer (colon HR: 5.70; 95% CI: 4.61-7.06; rectal HR: 7.02; 95% CI: 5.58-8.82) had increased risk of recurrence. Patients diagnosed with stage III cancer from 2009 to 2011 had a lower incidence of recurrence than those diagnosed with stage III cancer in the years before. Cumulative incidences of colon and rectal cancer recurrence were similar for both cancer types among each descriptive category. In this population, increases in colorectal cancer recurrence risk were associated with younger age and increasing stage at diagnosis. Cumulative incidence of recurrence did not differ by cancer type. Descriptive characteristics of colon and rectal cancer recurrence may help to inform patient-physician decision-making, and could be used to determine adjuvant therapies or tailor surveillance strategies so that recurrence may be identified early, particularly within the first 3 years of

  13. A Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Adjustment Following Family Transitions

    Ruschena, Eda; Prior, Margot; Sanson, Ann; Smart, Diana

    2005-01-01

    Background: This study examined the impact of family transitions, that is, parental separation, divorce, remarriage and death, upon the lives of Australian children and adolescents in a longitudinal study of temperament and development. Methods: Using longitudinal and concurrent questionnaire data, outcomes for young people experiencing…

  14. Transition to Postgraduate Study: Postgraduate Ecological Systems and Identity

    Tobbell, Jane; O'Donnell, Victoria L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores and examines the distal and proximal systems which construct social science postgraduate study in the UK and analyses the emergent identities of postgraduate students as they negotiate the multiple and interacting practices in their transition to study. The data represent part of a one-year research project, funded by the…

  15. Experimental studies on the influence of irradiation (60Co) on wound healing of colonic suture

    Shoji, Munehiro

    1980-01-01

    Effects of preoperative 60 Co irradiation on wound healing of colonic suture in adult dogs of mixed breed were discussed. Wound healing 7 days after colonic suture was compared among dogs which received colonic suture immediately, or 3 days, or 7 days after the 60 Co irradiation. As a result, there was not a big difference in their wound healing among these dogs, and disorders of wound healing were not found. Bursting pressure at sutured sites was always lower in irradiated dogs than controls. Recovery of the bursting pressure was 2 days slower in irradiated dogs than non-irradiated dogs for 7 days after the suture. Bursting pressure was the lowest on the 3rd day after the suture in both groups. As to fine changes in irradiated dogs, appearance of recommunicating phenomena in blood vessels, delay of a decrease in avascular regions, delay of granulation, and hypertrophy of vascular walls seemed to be influenced by 60 Co irradiation, but there was not a big difference in these results between irradiated and non-irradiated dogs. An increase in postoperative concentration of hydroproline tended to be little lower in irradiated dogs than controls, which seemed to be influenced by the 60 Co irradiation. This result was also suggested from delay of granulation and remaining inflammations. Effects of 60 Co irradiation on wound healing of colonic suture seemed to be slight generally, because ruptured suture scarecely occurred in the irradiated dogs. When doses used in this experiment were calculated roughly by Ellis's method, irradiation of 60 Co seemed not to influence seriously wound healing if the total of 2,000 to 2,500 rad was irradiated in 8 to 10 doses to human colon. (Tsunoda, M.)

  16. Assessment of an electronic learning system for colon capsule endoscopy: a pilot study.

    Watabe, Hirotsugu; Nakamura, Tetsuya; Yamada, Atsuo; Kakugawa, Yasuo; Nouda, Sadaharu; Terano, Akira

    2016-06-01

    Training for colon capsule endoscopy (CCE) procedures is currently performed as a lecture and hands-on seminar. The aims of this pilot study were to assess the utility of an electronic learning system for CCE (ELCCE) designed for the Japanese Association for Capsule Endoscopy using an objective scoring engine, and to evaluate the efficacy of ELCCE on the acquisition of CCE reading competence. ELCCE is an Internet-based learning system with the following steps: step 1, introduction; step 2, CCE reading competence assessment test (CCAT), which evaluates the competence of CCE reading prior to training; step 3, learning reading theory; step 4, training with guidance; step 5, training without guidance; step 6, final assessment; and step 7, the same as step 2. The CCAT, step 5 and step 6 were scored automatically according to: lesion detection, diagnosis (location, size, shape of lesion), management recommendations, and quality of view. Ten trainee endoscopists were initially recruited (cohort 1), followed by a validating cohort of 11 trainee endoscopists (cohort 2). All but one participant finished ELCCE training within 7 weeks. In step 6, accuracy ranged from 53 to 98 % and was not impacted by step 2 pretest scores. The average CCAT scores significantly increased between step 2 pretest and step 7 in both cohorts, from 42 ± 18 % to 79 ± 15 % in cohort 1 (p = 0.0004), and from 52 ± 15 % to 79 ± 14 % in cohort 2 (p = 0.0003). ELCCE is useful and effective for improving CCE reading competence.

  17. Evaluation of the Efficacy of Different Mixing Techniques and Disinfection on Microbial Colonization of Polyether Impression Materials: A Comparative Study.

    Singla, Youginder; Pachar, Renu B; Poriya, Sangeeta; Mishra, Aalok; Sharma, Rajni; Garg, Anshu

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to determine the role of mixing techniques of polyether impression materials and efficacy of disinfection on microbial colonization of these impression materials. Polyether impression material was mixed using two methods: First by hand mixing (group I) and second using an automixer (group II) with a total of 100 samples. Four microbial strains were studied, which included Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans. After incubation, the bacterial colonies were counted, and then, disinfectant solution was applied. The effect of disinfection solution was evaluated for each specimen. The surface of polyether impression materials mixed with an automixer has less number of voids and overall a smoother surface as compared with the hand-mixed ones. On comparing the disinfection procedures, i.e., specimens without any disinfection and specimens after disinfection, statistically highly significant difference was seen between all the groups. We can conclude that impression mixing procedures are important in determining the surface characteristics of the impression and ultimately the colonization of bacteria and also determine the importance of disinfection on microbial colonization. This study emphasises the deleterious role of nosocomial infections and specific measures that should be taken regarding the prevention of such diseases. Dental impressions are proved to be a source of such infections and may lead to transmission of such diseases. Thus, proper measures should be taken right from the first step of impression taking to minimizing and preventing such kind of contaminations in clinical practice.

  18. The prognostic importance of miR-21 in stage II colon cancer: a population-based study

    Kjaer-Frifeldt, S.; Hansen, T. F.; Nielsen, B. S.

    2012-01-01

    that increasing miR-21 expression levels were significantly correlated to decreasing RF-CSS. Further investigations of the clinical importance of miR-21 in the selection of high-risk stage II colon cancer patients are merited. British Journal of Cancer (2012) 107, 1169-1174. doi:10.1038/bjc.2012.365 www......BACKGROUND: Despite several years of research and attempts to develop prognostic models a considerable fraction of stage II colon cancer patients will experience relapse within few years from their operation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prognostic importance of miRNA-21 (mi......-free cancer-specific survival (RF-CSS): HR = 1.26; 95% CI: 1.15-1.60; P importance and was found to be significantly related to poor RF-CSS: HR 1.41; 95% CI: 1.19-1.67; P

  19. A study of the usefulness of CT in diagnosis of diverticulitis of the right colon and acute appendicitis

    Watanabe, Jota; Watanabe, Hideo; Tohyama, Taiji; Kushihata, Fumiki; Kobayashi, Nobuaki

    2003-01-01

    It is difficult to differentiate between diverticulitis of the right colon and acute appendicitis based on pathological and hematological findings. This study was designed to investigate the usefulness of CT in differentiation between the both diseases and indications of operation. Eight cases of right colon diverticulitis and 39 cases of acute appendicitis undergone abdominal plain CT scan before surgery were enrolled in the study. As for diverticulitis cases, diverticulum was visualized on abdominal CT scan in seven (87.5%) out of the eight cases. Of 39 cases of acute appendicitis, the appendix vermiformis was able to be visualized on abdominal CT scan in 26 (66.7%) cases. Some correlations between CT findings and postoperative pathological diagnosis of appendicitis were observed. A comparison was made on acute appendicitis cases by dividing them into two groups; namely, the non-surgery group comprising of cases pathologically diagnosed as non-inflammatory and catarrhal' and the surgery group comprising of cases diagnosed as 'phlegmonous and gangrenous' after surgery. Statistically significant difference was noted between both groups in two factors, whole-circumferential thickening of the appendiceal wall and fading panniculus adiposus around the appendix. It is concluded that abdominal CT scan is useful for differential diagnosis between right colon diverticulitis and acute appendicitis, and further that CT diagnosis of acute appendicitis well reflects the severity of the disease and contribute to decide indication of operation. (author)

  20. A lymph node ratio of 10% is predictive of survival in stage III colon cancer: a French regional study.

    Sabbagh, Charles; Mauvais, François; Cosse, Cyril; Rebibo, Lionel; Joly, Jean-Paul; Dromer, Didier; Aubert, Christine; Carton, Sophie; Dron, Bernard; Dadamessi, Innocenti; Maes, Bernard; Perrier, Guillaume; Manaouil, David; Fontaine, Jean-François; Gozy, Michel; Panis, Xavier; Foncelle, Pierre Henri; de Fresnoy, Hugues; Leroux, Fabien; Vaneslander, Pierre; Ghighi, Caroline; Regimbeau, Jean-Marc

    2014-01-01

    Lymph node ratio (LNR) (positive lymph nodes/sampled lymph nodes) is predictive of survival in colon cancer. The aim of the present study was to validate the LNR as a prognostic factor and to determine the optimum LNR cutoff for distinguishing between "good prognosis" and "poor prognosis" colon cancer patients. From January 2003 to December 2007, patients with TNM stage III colon cancer operated on with at least of 3 years of follow-up and not lost to follow-up were included in this retrospective study. The two primary endpoints were 3-year overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) as a function of the LNR groups and the cutoff. One hundred seventy-eight patients were included. There was no correlation between the LNR group and 3-year OS (P=0.06) and a significant correlation between the LNR group and 3-year DFS (P=0.03). The optimal LNR cutoff of 10% was significantly correlated with 3-year OS (P=0.02) and DFS (P=0.02). The LNR was not an accurate prognostic factor when fewer than 12 lymph nodes were sampled. Clarification and simplification of the LNR classification are prerequisites for use of this system in randomized control trials. An LNR of 10% appears to be the optimal cutoff.

  1. Individual risk factors associated with nasopharyngeal colonization with Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae: a Japanese birth cohort study.

    Otsuka, Taketo; Chang, Bin; Shirai, Takatoshi; Iwaya, Atsushi; Wada, Akihito; Yamanaka, Noboru; Okazaki, Minoru

    2013-07-01

    The first step in a bacterial disease is the establishment of nasopharyngeal carriage. We conducted a birth cohort study to identify factors associated with colonization in healthy children and evaluate the serotype distributions and resistances of Streptococcus pneumoniae/Haemophilus influenzae. Nasopharyngeal cultures were obtained from 349 subjects at 5 time points coinciding with health checkups (4, 7, 10, 18 and 36 months). A total of 551 S. pneumoniae (penicillin resistance rate: 46.3%) and 301 H. influenzae (ampicillin resistance rate: 44.5%) isolates were obtained from 1654 samples. In this study, 47.5% and 60.9% of S. pneumoniae isolates were included in the serotypes of 7- and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines, respectively. Analyzing by Cox proportional hazards models, cohabiting older sibling(s) attending day-care (hazard ratios: 2.064-3.518, P rates. This data indicated that introduction of appropriate antimicrobial usage in areas of overuse of antimicrobials could contribute to lower colonization of S. pneumoniae/H. influenzae, resulting in a decrease in the absolute number of resistant isolates. Strategies to control transmission at day-care centers or from older sibling(s) as well as appropriate use of antimicrobials are essential for reducing colonization and the absolute number of resistant isolates.

  2. The effect of comorbidity on the use of adjuvant chemotherapy and survival from colon cancer: a retrospective cohort study

    Purdie Gordon

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comorbidity has a well documented detrimental effect on cancer survival. However it is difficult to disentangle the direct effects of comorbidity on survival from indirect effects via the influence of comorbidity on treatment choice. This study aimed to assess the impact of comorbidity on colon cancer patient survival, the effect of comorbidity on treatment choices for these patients, and the impact of this on survival among those with comorbidity. Methods This retrospective cohort study reviewed 589 New Zealanders diagnosed with colon cancer in 1996–2003, followed until the end of 2005. Clinical and outcome data were obtained from clinical records and the national mortality database. Cox proportional hazards and logistic regression models were used to assess the impact of comorbidity on cancer specific and all-cause survival, the effect of comorbidity on chemotherapy recommendations for stage III patients, and the impact of this on survival among those with comorbidity. Results After adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, area deprivation, smoking, stage, grade and site of disease, higher Charlson comorbidity score was associated with poorer all-cause survival (HR = 2.63 95%CI:1.82–3.81 for Charlson score ≥ 3 compared with 0. Comorbidity count and several individual conditions were significantly related to poorer all-cause survival. A similar, but less marked effect was seen for cancer specific survival. Among patients with stage III colon cancer, those with a Charlson score ≥ 3 compared with 0 were less likely to be offered chemotherapy (19% compared with 84% despite such therapy being associated with around a 60% reduction in excess mortality for both all-cause and cancer specific survival in these patients. Conclusion Comorbidity impacts on colon cancer survival thorough both physiological burden of disease and its impact on treatment choices. Some patients with comorbidity may forego chemotherapy unnecessarily

  3. A comparative study on the short-term clinicopathologic outcomes of laparoscopic surgery versus conventional open surgery for transverse colon cancer.

    Kim, H J; Lee, I K; Lee, Y S; Kang, W K; Park, J K; Oh, S T; Kim, J G; Kim, Y H

    2009-08-01

    The long-term oncologic stability of laparoscopic surgery for colon cancer was established, and laparoscopic surgery was accepted as an alternative to conventional open surgery for colon cancer. However, transverse colon cancer was excluded from the majority of the previous prospective studies. As a result, debate on laparoscopic surgery for transverse colon cancer continues. This study aimed to compare the clinicopathologic outcome of laparoscopic surgery with that of conventional open surgery for transverse colon cancer. From August 2004 to December 2007, 106 cases of transverse colon cancer were managed by resection at our institution, and 89 of these cases were included in this study. Age, sex, body mass index (BMI), operation time, blood loss, time to first flatus, time to start of diet, hospital stay, complications, tumor size, distal resection margin, proximal resection margin, and number of nodes harvested were compared between the two groups. No significant differences were found between the laparoscopic and conventional groups in terms of age, sex, BMI, operation time, or hospital stay. The mean blood loss during the operations was significantly less in the laparoscopic group (113.8 +/- 128.9 ml) than in the conventional group (278.8 +/- 268.7 ml; p transverse colon cancer, and the oncologic quality of laparoscopic surgery was found to be acceptable compared with conventional open surgery.

  4. Strategies and opportunities to STOP colon cancer in priority populations: pragmatic pilot study design and outcomes

    Coronado, Gloria D; Turner, Ann; Sanchez, Jennifer; Retecki, Sally; Nelson, Christine; Green, Beverly; Vollmer, William M; Petrik, Amanda; Aguirre, Josue; Kapka, Tanya; DeVoe, Jennifer; Puro, Jon; Miers, Tran; Lembach, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal-cancer is a leading cause of cancer death in the United States, and Latinos have particularly low rates of screening. Strategies and Opportunities to STOP Colon Cancer in Priority Populations (STOP CRC) is a partnership among two research institutions and a network of safety net clinics to promote colorectal cancer screening among populations served by these clinics. This paper reports on results of a pilot study conducted in a safety net organization that serves primarily Latinos. The study assessed two clinic-based approaches to raise rates of colorectal-cancer screening among selected age-eligible patients not up-to-date with colorectal-cancer screening guidelines. One clinic each was assigned to: (1) an automated data-driven Electronic Health Record (EHR)-embedded program for mailing Fecal Immunochemical Test (FIT) kits (Auto Intervention); or (2) a higher-intensity program consisting of a mailed FIT kit plus linguistically and culturally tailored interventions delivered at the clinic level (Auto Plus Intervention). A third clinic within the safety-net organization was selected to serve as a passive control (Usual Care). Two simple measurements of feasibility were: 1) ability to use real-time EHR data to identify patients eligible for each intervention step, and 2) ability to offer affordable testing and follow-up care for uninsured patients. The study was successful at both measurements of feasibility. A total of 112 patients in the Auto clinic and 101 in the Auto Plus clinic met study inclusion criteria and were mailed an introductory letter. Reach was high for the mailed component (92.5% of kits were successfully mailed), and moderate for the telephone component (53% of calls were successful completed). After exclusions for invalid address and other factors, 206 (109 in the Auto clinic and 97 in the Auto Plus clinic) were mailed a FIT kit. At 6 months, fecal test completion rates were higher in the Auto (39.3%) and Auto Plus (36.6%) clinics

  5. Regional gastrointestinal transit and pH studied in 215 healthy volunteers using the wireless motility capsule: influence of age, gender, study country and testing protocol.

    Wang, Y T; Mohammed, S D; Farmer, A D; Wang, D; Zarate, N; Hobson, A R; Hellström, P M; Semler, J R; Kuo, B; Rao, S S; Hasler, W L; Camilleri, M; Scott, S M

    2015-09-01

    The wireless motility capsule (WMC) offers the ability to investigate luminal gastrointestinal (GI) physiology in a minimally invasive manner. To investigate the effect of testing protocol, gender, age and study country on regional GI transit times and associated pH values using the WMC. Regional GI transit times and pH values were determined in 215 healthy volunteers from USA and Sweden studied using the WMC over a 6.5-year period. The effects of test protocol, gender, age and study country were examined. For GI transit times, testing protocol was associated with differences in gastric emptying time (GET; shorter with protocol 2 (motility capsule ingested immediately after meal) vs. protocol 1 (motility capsule immediately before): median difference: 52 min, P = 0.0063) and colonic transit time (CTT; longer with protocol 2: median 140 min, P = 0.0189), but had no overall effect on whole gut transit time. Females had longer GET (by median 17 min, P = 0.0307), and also longer CTT by (104 min, P = 0.0285) and whole gut transit time by (263 min, P = 0.0077). Increasing age was associated with shorter small bowel transit time (P = 0.002), and study country also influenced small bowel and CTTs. Whole gut and CTTs showed clustering of data at values separated by 24 h, suggesting that describing these measures as continuous variables is invalid. Testing protocol, gender and study country also significantly influenced pH values. Regional GI transit times and pH values, delineated using the wireless motility capsule (WMC), vary based on testing protocol, gender, age and country. Standardisation of testing is crucial for cross-referencing in clinical practice and future research. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Pyrolysis in Groningen, Netherlands. Feasibility study on a transition coalition

    Siemons, R.V.

    2005-01-01

    Results of a study on the technical, economical and financial feasibility of a pyrolysis factory for the processing and energetic application of biomass wastes in the Dutch province Groningen are presented and discussed. Also, attention is paid to the implementation of the planned pyrolysis factory in one or more transition programmes. [nl

  7. Application of Kissinger analysis to glass transition and study of ...

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 35; Issue 4. Application of Kissinger analysis to glass transition and study of thermal degradation kinetics of phenolic–acrylic IPNs ... Author Affiliations. S Goswami1 K Kiran1. Department of Polymer Engineering, Birla Institute of Technology, Ranchi 835 215, India ...

  8. Veterans' Transitions to Community College: A Case Study

    Wheeler, Holly A.

    2012-01-01

    Veterans on college campuses are not new; however, the recent influx of veterans returning home from war-time service present challenges to the colleges they attend. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to examine the transition process experienced by veterans leaving military service and attending community college for the first time.…

  9. Secondary Analysis of National Longitudinal Transition Study 2 Data

    Hicks, Tyler A.; Knollman, Greg A.

    2015-01-01

    This review examines published secondary analyses of National Longitudinal Transition Study 2 (NLTS2) data, with a primary focus upon statistical objectives, paradigms, inferences, and methods. Its primary purpose was to determine which statistical techniques have been common in secondary analyses of NLTS2 data. The review begins with an…

  10. The effect of laparoscopic surgery in stage II and III right-sided colon cancer: a retrospective study

    Kye Bong-Hyeon

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This retrospective study compared the clinicopathological results among three groups divided by time sequence to evaluate the impact of introducing laparoscopic surgery on long-term oncological outcomes for right-sided colon cancer. Methods From April 1986 to December 2006, 200 patients who underwent elective surgery with stage II and III right-sided colon cancer were analyzed. The period for group I referred back to the time when laparoscopic approach had not yet been introduced. The period for group II was designated as the time when first laparoscopic approach for right colectomy was carried out until we overcame its learning curve. The period for group III was the period after overcoming this learning curve. Results When groups I and II, and groups II and III were compared, overall survival (OS did not differ significantly whereas disease-free survival (DFS in groups I and III were statistically higher than in group II (P = 0.042 and P = 0.050. In group III, laparoscopic surgery had a tendency to provide better long-term OS ( P = 0.2036 and DFS ( P = 0.2356 than open surgery. Also, the incidence of local recurrence in group III (2.6% was significantly lower than that in groups II (7.4% and I (12.1% ( P = 0.013. Conclusions Institutions should standardize their techniques and then provide fellowship training for newcomers of laparoscopic colon cancer surgery. This technique once mastered will become the gold standard approach to colon surgery as it is both safe and feasible considering the oncological and technical aspects.

  11. From the Skin to the Brain: Pathophysiology of Colonization and Infection of External Ventricular Drain, a Prospective Observational Study.

    Roman Mounier

    Full Text Available Ventriculostomy-related infection (VRI is a serious complication of external ventricular drain (EVD but its natural history is poorly studied. We prospectively tracked the bacteria pathways from skin towards ventricles to identify the infectious process resulting in ventriculostomy-related colonization (VRC, and VRI. We systematically sampled cerebrospinal fluid (CSF on a daily basis and collected swabs from both the skin and stopcock every 3.0 days for microbiological analysis including in 101 neurosurgical patient. Risk factors for positive event defined as either VRC or VRI were recorded and related to our microbiological findings. A total of 1261 CSF samples, 473 skin swabs, and 450 stopcock swabs were collected. Skin site was more frequently colonized than stopcock (70 (60% vs 34 (29%, p = 0.023, and earlier (14 ±1.4 vs 24 ±1.5 days, p<0.0001. Sixty-one (52% and 32 (27% skin and stopcock sites were colonized with commensal bacteria, 1 (1% and 1 (1% with pathogens, 8 (7% and 1 (1% with combined pathogens and commensal bacteria, respectively. Sixteen positive events were diagnosed; a cutaneous origin was identified in 69% of cases. The presence of a pathogen at skin site (6/16 vs 4/85, OR: 11.8, [2.5-56.8], p = 0.002 and CSF leakage (7/16 vs 6/85, OR 10 [2.4-41.2], p = 0.001 were the two independent significant risk factors statistically linked to positive events occurrence. Our results suggest that VRC and VRI mainly results from an extra-luminal progression of pathogens initially colonizing the skin site where CSF leaks.

  12. Gut barrier function and systemic endotoxemia after laparotomy or laparoscopic resection for colon cancer: A prospective randomized study

    Mario Schietroma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The gut barrier is altered in certain pathologic conditions (shock, trauma, or surgical stress, resulting in bacterial and/or endotoxin translocation from the gut lumen into the systemic circulation. In this prospective randomized study, we investigated the effect of surgery on intestinal permeability (IP and endotoxemia in patients undergoing elective colectomy for colon cancer by comparing the laparoscopic with the open approach. Patients and Methods: A hundred twenty-three consecutive patients underwent colectomy for colon cancer: 61 cases were open resection (OR and 62 cases were laparoscopic resection (LR. IP was measured preoperatively and at days 1 and 3 after surgery. Serial venous blood sample were taken at 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 180 min, and at 12, 24, and 48 h after surgery for endotoxin measurement. Results: IP was significantly increased in the open and closed group at day 1 compared with the preoperative level (P < 0.05, but no difference was found between laparoscopic and open surgery group. The concentration endotoxin systemic increased significantly in the both groups during the course of surgery and returned to baseline levels at the second day. No difference was found between laparoscopic and open surgery. A significant correlation was observed between the maximum systemic endotoxin concentration and IP measured at day 1 in the open group and in the laparoscopic group. Conclusion: An increase in IP, and systemic endotoxemia were observed during the open and laparoscopic resection for colon cancer, without significant statistically difference between the two groups.

  13. Polyethylene Glycol Electrolyte Lavage Solution versus Colonic Hydrotherapy for Bowel Preparation before Colonoscopy: A Single Center, Randomized, and Controlled Study

    Yan Cao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This single center, randomized, and controlled study aimed to compare the effectiveness and safety of polyethylene glycol electrolyte lavage (PEG-EL solution and colonic hydrotherapy (CHT for bowel preparation before colonoscopy. A total of 196 eligible outpatients scheduled for diagnostic colonoscopy were randomly assigned to the PEG-EL (n=102 or CHT (n=94 groups. Primary outcome measures included colonic cleanliness and adverse effects. Secondary outcome measures were patient satisfaction and preference, colonoscopic findings, ileocecal arrival rate, examiner satisfaction, and cecal intubation time. The results show that PEG-EL group was associated with significantly better colonic cleanliness than CHT group, fewer adverse effects, and increased examiner satisfaction. However, the CHT group had higher patient satisfaction and higher diverticulosis detection rates. Moreover, the results showed the same ileocecal arrival rate and patient preference between the two groups (P>0.05. These findings indicate that PEG-EL is the preferred option in patients who followed the preparation instructions completely.

  14. A study of three polymorphic sites of ADA gene in colon cancer.

    Spina, C; Saccucci, P; Cozzoli, E; Bottini, E; Gloria-Bottini, F

    2010-12-01

    Adenosine inhibits the immune response in tumors. Adenosine deaminase (ADA) controls adenosine level and as ecto-enzyme acts as costimulatory molecule of adenosine receptors and/or CD26. We examined ADA₁, ADA₂, ADA₆ polymorphic sites of ADA gene in 109 subjects with colon cancer from Rome's population and in 246 blood donors as controls from the same population. In colon cancer ADA₁*2/ADA₂*1 haplotype is more represented, while ADA₁*2/ADA₂*2 is less represented than in controls. ADA₂*2/ADA₆*2 is less represented in patients than in controls. Polymorphic sites of ADA might influence cell-mediated anti-tumor immune responses controlling adenosine level and extraenzymatic protein functions.

  15. A new model to study the role of arachidonic acid in colon cancer pathophysiology

    Fan, Yang-Yi; Callaway, Evelyn; Monk, Jennifer M.; Goldsby, Jennifer S.; Yang, Peiying; Vincent, Logan; Chapkin, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    A significant increase in cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) gene expression has been shown to promote cylcooxygenase-dependent colon cancer development. Controversy associated with the role of COX2 inhibitors indicates that additional work is needed to elucidate the effects of arachidonic acid (AA) derived (cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase) eicosanoids in cancer initiation, progression and metastasis. We have recently developed a novel Fads1 knockout mouse model, which allows for the investigation of AA...

  16. Ocurrence and diversity of endophytic colonization of taraxacum officinale by botrytis species: a preliminary study

    Yánez Navarrete, Zoila Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The genus Botrytis (sexual form Botryotinia Whetzel) contains renowned plant pathogenic species with a necrotrophic lifestyle in which kill and feed on its hosts. Recent reports of symptomless endophytic colonization by Botrytis cinerea in cultivated plants of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and Botrytis spp. in the wild plants dandelion (Taraxacum agg) and spotted knapweed (Centaura stoebe) reveal a different “side” of Botrytis spp. These findings, expose additional strategies of Botrytis species t...

  17. A longitudinal study of Staphylococcus hyicus colonization of vagina of gilts and transmission to piglets

    Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Skov Jensen, E.W.

    1992-01-01

    High Staphylococcus hyicus colonization rates were found in vaginal samples of healthy breeding sows and in skin samples of their offspring. Twenty-two different phage types were identified among the 720 isolates of S. hyicus examined. Two to 13 different phage types were isolated per herd. Phage...... 24 h after birth were identical to strains isolated 3 weeks after birth from the same litter, indicating that the vaginal strains became part of a stable skin flora....

  18. Experimental studies on the late change of preoperative irradiation ( 60Co) following colonic anastomosis

    Ieda, Katsuyuki; Katsumi, Masaharu; Matsumoto, Kohichi

    1982-01-01

    We irradiated single dose of 1000 rad (equivalent to fractioned dose of 2000 - 2500 rad for the human) to the lower abdomen of four mongrel dogs. One week after irradiation, we operated on them and performed colonic transection using an auto-suture instrument. We investigated whether the preoperative irradiation would disturb the colonic anastomosis or not, in a long-term observation. All the dogs appeared to be suffered from slight radiation proctitis after irradiation. But their symptoms gradually subsided. Two of them lost an appetite gradually and died on the fifth and sixth month after operation. We examined them macroscopically and microscopically on the third, fifth, sixth and eighth month after operation, respectively. We could not find any gross radiation injuries on the anastomoses and the other organs. The mucosa and submucosa proved microsopically well healed. Muscle layers did not adhered layer to layer because of auto-suture stapler. We could not find inflammatory cell infiltration nor excessive fibrosis. Therefore, we speculate that preoperative irradiation of single dose of 1000 rad does not affect the wound healingF of the colonic anastomoses, neither bring about the late change. (author)

  19. The fate of suboptimal anastomosis after colon resection: An experimental study.

    Yıldız, Mehmet Kamil; Okan, İsmail; Nazik, Hasan; Bas, Gurhan; Alimoglu, Orhan; İlktac, Mehmet; Daldal, Emin; Sahin, Mustafa; Kuvat, Nuray; Ongen, Betugul

    2014-11-01

    The fate of suboptimal anastomosis is unknown and early detection of anastomotic leakage after colon resection is crucial for the proper management of patients. Twenty-six rats were assigned to "Control", "Leakage" and "Suboptimal anastomosis" groups where they underwent either sham laparotomy, cecal ligation, and puncture or anastomosis with four sutures following colon resection, respectively. At the fifth hour and on the third and ninth days; peripheral blood and peritoneal washing samples through relaparotomy were obtained. The abdomen was inspected macroscopically for anastomotic healing. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with 16s rRNA and E.coli-specific primers were run on all samples along with aerobic and anaerobic cultures. The sensitivity and specificity of PCR on different bodily fluids with 16s rRNA and E.coli-specific primers were 100% and 78%, respectively. All samples of peritoneal washing fluids on the third and ninth days showed presence of bacteria in both PCR and culture. The inspection of the abdomen revealed signs of anastomotic leakage in eight rats (80%), whereas mortality related with anastomosis was detected in two (20%). Anastomotic leakage with suboptimal anastomosis after colon resection is high and the early detection is possible by running PCR on peritoneal samples as early as 72 hours.

  20. Prognostic and predictive potential molecular biomarkers in colon cancer.

    Nastase, A; Pâslaru, L; Niculescu, A M; Ionescu, M; Dumitraşcu, T; Herlea, V; Dima, S; Gheorghe, C; Lazar, V; Popescu, I

    2011-01-01

    An important objective in nowadays research is the discovery of new biomarkers that can detect colon tumours in early stages and indicate with accuracy the status of the disease. The aim of our study was to identify potential biomarkers for colon cancer onset and progression. We assessed gene expression profiles of a list of 10 candidate genes (MMP-1, MMP-3, MMP-7, DEFA 1, DEFA-5, DEFA-6, IL-8, CXCL-1, SPP-1, CTHRC-1) by quantitative real time PCR in triplets of colonic mucosa (normal, adenoma, tumoral tissue) collected from the same patient during surgery for a group of 20 patients. Additionally we performed immunohistochemistry for DEFA1-3 and SPP1. We remarked that DEFA5 and DEFA6 are key factors in adenoma formation (p<0.05). MMP7 is important in the transition from a benign to a malignant status (p <0.01) and further in metastasis being a prognostic indicator for tumor transformation and for the metastatic potential of cancer cells. IL8, irrespective of tumor stage, has a high mRNA level in adenocarcinoma (p< 0.05). The level of expression for SPP1 is correlated with tumor level. We suggest that high levels of DEFAS, DEFA6 (key elements in adenoma formation), MMP7 (marker of colon cancer onset and progression to metastasis), SPP1 (marker of progression) and IL8 could be used to diagnose an early stage colon cancer and to evaluate the prognostic of progression for colon tumors. Further, if DEFA5 and DEFA6 level of expression are low but MMP7, SPP1 and IL8 level are high we could point out that the transition from adenoma to adenocarcinoma had already occurred. Thus, DEFA5, DEFA6, MMP7, IL8 and SPP1 consist in a valuable panel of biomarkers, whose detection can be used in early detection and progressive disease and also in prognostic of colon cancer.

  1. Tissue resonance interaction accurately detects colon lesions: A double-blind pilot study.

    Dore, Maria P; Tufano, Marcello O; Pes, Giovanni M; Cuccu, Marianna; Farina, Valentina; Manca, Alessandra; Graham, David Y

    2015-07-07

    To investigated the performance of the tissue resonance interaction method (TRIM) for the non-invasive detection of colon lesions. We performed a prospective single-center blinded pilot study of consecutive adults undergoing colonoscopy at the University Hospital in Sassari, Italy. Before patients underwent colonoscopy, they were examined by the TRIMprobe which detects differences in electromagnetic properties between pathological and normal tissues. All patients had completed the polyethylene glycol-containing bowel prep for the colonoscopy procedure before being screened. During the procedure the subjects remained fully dressed. A hand-held probe was moved over the abdomen and variations in electromagnetic signals were recorded for 3 spectral lines (462-465 MHz, 930 MHz, and 1395 MHz). A single investigator, blind to any clinical information, performed the test using the TRIMprob system. Abnormal signals were identified and recorded as malignant or benign (adenoma or hyperplastic polyps). Findings were compared with those from colonoscopy with histologic confirmation. Statistical analysis was performed by χ(2) test. A total of 305 consecutive patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria were enrolled over a period of 12 months. The most frequent indication for colonoscopy was abdominal pain (33%). The TRIMprob was well accepted by all patients; none spontaneously complained about the procedure, and no adverse effects were observed. TRIM proved inaccurate for polyp detection in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and they were excluded leaving 281 subjects (mean age 59 ± 13 years; 107 males). The TRIM detected and accurately characterized all 12 adenocarcinomas and 135/137 polyps (98.5%) including 64 adenomatous (100%) found. The method identified cancers and polyps with 98.7% sensitivity, 96.2% specificity, and 97.5% diagnostic accuracy, compared to colonoscopy and histology analyses. The positive predictive value was 96.7% and the negative predictive

  2. An ultrastructural study of the effect of neomycin on the colon in the human subject and in the conventional and the germ-free mouse.

    Aluwihare, A P

    1971-05-01

    An electron microscopic study of the colon of normal mice and human subjects and those treated with neomycin is reported; there is a close resemblance between the mouse and human colons. After rapid disinfection of the colon, there is epithelial cell damage due to a toxic effect of the drug, a reduction in epithelial turnover accompanying the change in flora, and an important reduction in the cellularity of the lamina propria mainly due to a reduction in inflammatory cells. The changes in the lamina propria probably represent changes in the antipathogenetic defences of the host.

  3. Carotenoids and colon cancer.

    Slattery, M L; Benson, J; Curtin, K; Ma, K N; Schaeffer, D; Potter, J D

    2000-02-01

    Carotenoids have numerous biological properties that may underpin a role for them as chemopreventive agents. However, except for beta-carotene, little is known about how dietary carotenoids are associated with common cancers, including colon cancer. The objective of this study was to evaluate associations between dietary alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, lycopene, lutein, zeaxanthin, and beta-cryptoxanthin and the risk of colon cancer. Data were collected from 1993 case subjects with first primary incident adenocarcinoma of the colon and from 2410 population-based control subjects. Dietary data were collected from a detailed diet-history questionnaire and nutrient values for dietary carotenoids were obtained from the US Department of Agriculture-Nutrition Coordinating Center carotenoid database (1998 updated version). Lutein was inversely associated with colon cancer in both men and women [odds ratio (OR) for upper quintile of intake relative to lowest quintile of intake: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.66, 1.04; P = 0.04 for linear trend]. The greatest inverse association was observed among subjects in whom colon cancer was diagnosed when they were young (OR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.48, 0.92; P = 0.02 for linear trend) and among those with tumors located in the proximal segment of the colon (OR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.51, 0.91; P lettuce, tomatoes, oranges and orange juice, carrots, celery, and greens. These data suggest that incorporating these foods into the diet may help reduce the risk of developing colon cancer.

  4. Blinded comparison of faecal loading on plain radiography versus radio-opaque marker transit studies in the assessment of constipation

    Cowlam, S.; Vinayagam, R.; Khan, U.; Marsden, S.; Minty, I.; Moncur, P.; Bain, I.; Yiannakou, Y.J.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To compare faecal loading on plain radiography versus radio-opaque marker transit studies in the assessment of constipation. Methods: The study group was a convenience sample of patients attending the Durham Constipation Clinic. All patients underwent transit studies according to an established protocol, and severity of constipation was assessed contemporaneously using a validated questionnaire (PAC-SYM). Transit studies were performed using radio-opaque markers that were ingested over 3 consecutive days, with a radiograph taken on the fourth day. Digital images of the radiograph were digitally altered to remove all traces of the transit markers without affecting the underlying pattern of faecal loading. Four observers assessed faecal loading independently; two clinicians (C1 and C2) and two radiologists (R1 and R2). C1 and R1 used a previously described formal scoring method of assessing faecal loading, whereas C2 and R2 assessed the images as if they were in a clinic or reporting session, grading the faecal loading as mild, moderate, or severe. Results: One hundred patients were recruited out of 186 presenting in a 2-year period. All patients completed assessments. The correlation between observers was only fair to moderate (r ranging from 0.34-0.51). There were some surprisingly marked disagreements in 10-18% of assessments. The correlation between faecal loading and transit was weak for all observers (r ranging from 0.261-0.311). Symptom severity did not correlate with faecal loading. Conclusion: These results suggest that there is considerable inter-observer variation in the radiological assessment of faecal loading, irrespective of the training or method used by the observer, and that there is very poor correlation with colonic transit. The diagnosis of constipation, and the assessment of severity, is best performed clinically

  5. Blinded comparison of faecal loading on plain radiography versus radio-opaque marker transit studies in the assessment of constipation

    Cowlam, S. [Sunderland Royal Hospital, Sunderland (United Kingdom); Vinayagam, R.; Khan, U.; Marsden, S.; Minty, I.; Moncur, P.; Bain, I. [University Hospital of North Durham, Durham (United Kingdom); Yiannakou, Y.J. [University Hospital of North Durham, Durham (United Kingdom)], E-mail: yan.yiannakou@cddft.nhs.uk

    2008-12-15

    Aim: To compare faecal loading on plain radiography versus radio-opaque marker transit studies in the assessment of constipation. Methods: The study group was a convenience sample of patients attending the Durham Constipation Clinic. All patients underwent transit studies according to an established protocol, and severity of constipation was assessed contemporaneously using a validated questionnaire (PAC-SYM). Transit studies were performed using radio-opaque markers that were ingested over 3 consecutive days, with a radiograph taken on the fourth day. Digital images of the radiograph were digitally altered to remove all traces of the transit markers without affecting the underlying pattern of faecal loading. Four observers assessed faecal loading independently; two clinicians (C1 and C2) and two radiologists (R1 and R2). C1 and R1 used a previously described formal scoring method of assessing faecal loading, whereas C2 and R2 assessed the images as if they were in a clinic or reporting session, grading the faecal loading as mild, moderate, or severe. Results: One hundred patients were recruited out of 186 presenting in a 2-year period. All patients completed assessments. The correlation between observers was only fair to moderate (r ranging from 0.34-0.51). There were some surprisingly marked disagreements in 10-18% of assessments. The correlation between faecal loading and transit was weak for all observers (r ranging from 0.261-0.311). Symptom severity did not correlate with faecal loading. Conclusion: These results suggest that there is considerable inter-observer variation in the radiological assessment of faecal loading, irrespective of the training or method used by the observer, and that there is very poor correlation with colonic transit. The diagnosis of constipation, and the assessment of severity, is best performed clinically.

  6. Case-mix study of single incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) vs. Conventional laparoscopic surgery in colonic cancer resections

    Mynster, Tommie; Wille-Jørgensen, Peer

    2013-01-01

    of administrations or amount of opioids were seen. Conclusion. With reservation of a small study group we find SILS is like worthy to CLS in colorectal cancer surgery and a benefit in postoperative recovery and pain is possible, but has to be investigated in larger randomised studies.......Single incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) may be even less invasive to a patient than conventional laparoscopic surgery (CLS). Aim of the study of the applicability of the procedure, the first 1½ year of experiences and comparison with CLS for colonic cancer resections Material and methods. Since...

  7. Stool consistency and stool frequency are excellent clinical markers for adequate colon preparation after polyethylene glycol 3350 cleansing protocol: a prospective clinical study in children.

    Safder, Shaista; Demintieva, Yulia; Rewalt, Mary; Elitsur, Yoram

    2008-12-01

    Colon preparation for a colonoscopy in children is a difficult task because of the unpalatable taste and large volume of cleansing solution that needs to be consumed to ensure a clean colon. Consequently, an unprepared colon frequently occurs in routine practices, which causes early termination and a repeated procedure. (1) To assess the effectiveness of polyethylene glycol solution (PEG 3350) in preparing the colon of children scheduled for a colonoscopy and (2) to investigate clinical markers associated with an adequate colon preparation before a colonoscopy. A total of 167 children scheduled for a colonoscopy. In a prospective study, children scheduled for a colonoscopy were given PEG 3350 solution (1.5 g/kg per day, up to 100 g/d) over a 4-day preparation period. Each day, a simple questionnaire that documents the amount of liquid consumed, adverse effects, and the number and consistency of stool was completed by the parents. After a colonoscopy procedure, the colon preparation was assigned a number grade. The data were later assessed and were compared to determine the association between the grade of cleansing and the frequency and/or consistency of stool during preparation. Colon preparation was completed in 149 children, 133 of whom were adequately prepared. Inadequate preparation was found in 16 children; the procedure was terminated prematurely in 2 of these patients because of unacceptable conditions. No significant adverse effects were noted. A number of >or=5 stools/d, and liquid stool consistency in the last 2 days of preparation were associated with adequate colon preparation. PEG 3350 solution is safe, efficacious, and tolerable for children. Stool frequency and consistency in the last 2 days of preparation were excellent markers (positive predictive value 91%-95%), which predict an adequately clean colon before a colonoscopy in children.

  8. Laparoscopic Complete Mesocolic Excision versus Open Complete Mesocolic Excision for Transverse Colon Cancer: Long-Term Survival Results of a Prospective Single Centre Non-Randomized Study.

    Storli, Kristian Eeg; Eide, Geir Egil

    2016-01-01

    Laparoscopic complete mesocolic excision (CME) used in the treatment of transverse colon cancer has been questioned on the basis of the technical challenges. The aim of this study was to evaluate the medium- and long-term clinical and survival outcomes after laparoscopic and open CME for transverse colon cancer and to compare the 2 approaches. This study was a retrospective non-randomized study of patients with prospectively registered data on open and laparoscopic CME for transverse colon cancer tumour-node-metastasis stages I-III operated on between 2007 and 2014. This was a single-centre study in a community teaching hospital. A total of 56 patients with transverse colon cancer were included, excluding those with tumours in the colonic flexures. The outcome aims were 4-year time to recurrence (TTR) and cancer-specific survival (CSS). Morbidity was also measured. The 4-year TTR was 93.9% in the laparoscopic group and 91.3% in the open group (p = 0.71). The 4-year CSS was 97.0% in the laparoscopic group and 91.3% in the open group (p = 0.42). This was a prospective single-institution study with a small sample size. Results of the study suggest that the laparoscopic CME approach might be the preferred approach for transverse colon cancer, especially regarding its benefits in terms of short-term morbidity, length of stay and oncological outcome. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Use of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with stage III colon cancer in Puerto Rico: A population-based study

    Tortolero-Luna, Guillermo; Ríos-Motta, Ruth; Veintidós-Feliú, Alejandro; Hunter-Mellado, Robert; Torres-Cintrón, Carlos R.; Suárez-Ramos, Tonatiuh; Magno, Priscilla

    2018-01-01

    Objective This study aims to examine factors associated with the use of adjuvant chemotherapy and the use of oxaliplatin after curative resection in stage III colon cancer patients and assesses the effect of their use in three-year survival. Methods This retrospective cohort study was conducted using Puerto Rico Central Cancer Registry-Health Insurance Linkage Database. The study cohort consisted of stage III colon cancer patients with a curative surgery in the period 2008–2012. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios. Kaplan-Meier methods and Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the association between adjuvant chemotherapy and oxaliplatin use and overall survival and risk of death, respectively. Results Overall, 75% of the study population received adjuvant chemotherapy during the study period. Factors statistically associated with receiving adjuvant chemotherapy within four months after resection included being married (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.64; 95% CI 1.18–2.28; p = 0.003), and being enrolled in Medicare (AOR 1.68; 95% CI: 1.03–2.75; p = 0.039) or Medicaid and Medicare dual eligible (AOR 1.66; 95% CI: 1.06–2.60; p = 0.028). However, patients aged ≥70 years were less likely to receive adjuvant chemotherapy (AOR 0.22; 95%CI 0.14–0.36; p<0.001). Discussion We observed a significant reduction in mortality in adjuvant chemotherapy treated patients. Similarly, patients <70 years treated with oxaliplatin had significantly lower risk of death than those who did not, although for patients ≥70 years no statistical significance was achieved. Future studies should assess effective interventions to reduce barriers to access guideline-based recommended colon cancer treatment. PMID:29584752

  10. The use of Chinese herbal medicine as an adjuvant therapy to reduce incidence of chronic hepatitis in colon cancer patients: A Taiwanese population-based cohort study.

    Lin, Tsai-Hui; Yen, Hung-Rong; Chiang, Jen-Huai; Sun, Mao-Feng; Chang, Hen-Hong; Huang, Sheng-Teng

    2017-04-18

    There is a decided lack of in-depth studies to evaluate the effectiveness of Chinese Herbal Medicine (CHM) as an adjuvant therapy on the incidence of chronic hepatitis in patients with colon cancer. The aim of this study is to assess whether CHM treatment decreased the incidence of chronic hepatitis in colon cancer patients who received conventional Western medical treatment. A Taiwanese nationwide population-based study of colon cancer patients receiving Western medicine treatment in conjunction with CHM treatment, using data provided by the National Health Insurance (NHI) Research Database, was conducted. A total of 61676 patients were diagnosed with colon cancer in Taiwan within the defined study period, from 1997 to 2010. After randomly equal matching for age, sex, excluding patients younger than 18 years of age, chronic hepatitis before colon cancer diagnosis date, receiving acupuncture and/or moxibustion and taking CHM for less than 30 days, data from 155 patients were analyzed. Hazard ratios of incidence rate of chronic hepatitis were used to determine the influence of CHM and the therapeutic potential of herbal products in treating patients with colon cancer. CHM used for patients with colon cancer exhibited significantly decreased incidence rates of chronic hepatitis [hazard ratio (HR)=0.53; 95% confidence interval (CI):0.38-0.74], with multivariate adjustment, compared to those without CHM use. The protective effect of CHM treatment with statistical significance across the stratification of age, gender, co-morbidity and treatment modality was noted. The cumulative incidence of chronic hepatitis was also reduced in patients with colon cancer receiving CHM treatment during a five-year period. In this study, we provide the ten most used single herbs and herbal formulas that were prescribed for patients with colon cancer; moreover, we identify the eight single herbs and five formulas used in CHM treatment which significantly decreased incidence of chronic

  11. Dietary factors and the occurence of truncating APC mutations in sporadic colon carcinomas: a Dutch population-based study

    Diergaarde, B.; Geloof, van W.L.; Muijen, van G.N.P.; Kok, F.J.; Kampman, E.

    2003-01-01

    The interactions between environmental factors and the genetic and epigenetic changes that drive colon carcinogenesis are not clear. Dietary factors reported previously to be associated with colon cancer risk may well influence the occurrence of specific somatic alterations in colon tumors. To

  12. Dietary factors and the occurrence of truncating APC mutations in sporadic colon carcinomas: a Dutch population-based study.

    Diergaarde, B.; Geloof, W. van; Muijen, G.N.P. van; Kok, F.J.; Kampman, E.

    2003-01-01

    The interactions between environmental factors and the genetic and epigenetic changes that drive colon carcinogenesis are not clear. Dietary factors reported previously to be associated with colon cancer risk may well influence the occurrence of specific somatic alterations in colon tumors. To

  13. Influenza A virus alters pneumococcal nasal colonization and middle ear infection independently of phase variation.

    Wren, John T; Blevins, Lance K; Pang, Bing; King, Lauren B; Perez, Antonia C; Murrah, Kyle A; Reimche, Jennifer L; Alexander-Miller, Martha A; Swords, W Edward

    2014-11-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is both a widespread nasal colonizer and a leading cause of otitis media, one of the most common diseases of childhood. Pneumococcal phase variation influences both colonization and disease and thus has been linked to the bacteria's transition from colonizer to otopathogen. Further contributing to this transition, coinfection with influenza A virus has been strongly associated epidemiologically with the dissemination of pneumococci from the nasopharynx to the middle ear. Using a mouse infection model, we demonstrated that coinfection with influenza virus and pneumococci enhanced both colonization and inflammatory responses within the nasopharynx and middle ear chamber. Coinfection studies were also performed using pneumococcal populations enriched for opaque or transparent phase variants. As shown previously, opaque variants were less able to colonize the nasopharynx. In vitro, this phase also demonstrated diminished biofilm viability and epithelial adherence. However, coinfection with influenza virus ameliorated this colonization defect in vivo. Further, viral coinfection ultimately induced a similar magnitude of middle ear infection by both phase variants. These data indicate that despite inherent differences in colonization, the influenza A virus exacerbation of experimental middle ear infection is independent of the pneumococcal phase. These findings provide new insights into the synergistic link between pneumococcus and influenza virus in the context of otitis media. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  14. A comparative study on adhesion and recovery of potential probiotic strains of Lactobacillus spp. by in vitro assay and analysis of human colon biopsies

    Larsen, Nadejda Nikolajevna; Michaelsen, Kim F.; Pærregaard, Anders

    2009-01-01

    Adhesion of the new Lactobacillus isolates, L. casei D12, L. casei Q85, L. casei Z11 and L. plantarum Q47, to the porcine intestinal cell line IPEC-J2 was investigated and compared to the recovery of the same bacterial strains from colon biopsies and faeces obtained from human intervention studies....... Probiotic bacteria L. rhamnosus 19070, L. reuteri 12246 and L. casei F19 were used as reference strains. The new isolates exhibited low to moderate adhesion to IPEC-J2 cells in the range of 7-26%. A large variation in the recovery of strains was observed between the persons, suggesting host specificity...... of intestinal colonization. High correlation was shown between recovery from the different sections of the colon of the same subject, indicating consistency of bacterial colonization of the epithelium. The recovery of L. casei Z11 and L. casei Q85 was highest and comparable to the reference strains of L...

  15. Preliminary study of the uranium potential of the Triassic Sanford basin and Colon cross structure, North Carolina

    Lee, C.H.

    1978-01-01

    A preliminary geologic investigation was conducted to determine if Triassic sedimentary rocks of the Sanford basin and Colon cross structure in North Carolina are favorable hosts for uranium deposits. Rocks of adjacent Carolina slate belt were also examined as a potential source of uranium. On the basis of favorability criteria for sandstone-type uranium deposits, and geologic and geophysical investigations of the study area, the most favorable sites for further investigation are (1) at the contacts between the Pekin and Cumnock and between the Pekin and Sanford Formations near the Colon cross structure and (2) at the base of the Jonesboro fault, which lies below the Sanford Formation, northwest of Sanford. The highly weathered granites southeast of the Jonesboro fault were a source of the detritus deposited on the cross structure and may have been a primary source of uranium. Uranium leached from the coarse sediment (Pekin Formation) of the cross structure may have been transported downdip and may have been precipitated by the carbonaceous shales of the Cumnock Formation on the western side of the cross structure or at the Pekin-Sanford contact to the east. The Jonesboro fault may provide an impermeable barrier to ground-water migration in the metamorphosed basement rocks below the Triassic sediments. Such a barrier would constitute a favorable site for the precipitation and retention of uranium. Scintillometer surveys and laboratory analyses indicate no anomalous surface radioactivity in the study area. However, deep surface weathering may have caused the uranium to be leached from the exposed rocks and redeposited at depth. Geologic investigations show that conditions which have proven favorable for deposition of uranium in other areas are present in the Triassic rocks of the Sanford basin and Colon cross structure. However, because of deep surface weathering, further subsurface studies are necessary to confirm the favorability of the rocks as hosts for uranium

  16. Studies of electron transitions using solid He pressure techniques

    Schirber, J.E.

    1977-01-01

    Changes in the topology of the Fermi surfaces of metals occur with variation of temperature or stoichiometry in a number of metallic systems of current interest. Pressure generated by a variety of techniques has proven to be the most useful experimental variable in the study of these transitions, but in most cases only solid He techniques yield sufficiently hydrostatic conditions to permit direct measurements of the Fermi surface as a function of pressure

  17. Study on specificity of colon carcinoma-associated serum markers and establishment of SVM prediction model

    Lu Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to evaluate the specificity of 12 tumor markers related to colon carcinoma and identify the most sensitive index. Logistic regression and Bhattacharyya distance were used to evaluate the index. Then, different index combinations were used to establish a support vector machine (SVM diagnosis model of malignant colon carcinoma. The accuracy of the model was checked. High accuracy was assumed to indicate the high specificity of the index. Through Logistic regression, three indexes, CEA, HSP60 and CA199, were screened out. Using Bhattacharyya distance, four indexes with the largest Bhattacharyya distance were screened out, including CEA, NSE, AFP, and CA724. The specificity of the combination of the above six indexes was higher than that of other combinations, so did the accuracy of the established SVM identification model. Using Logistic regression and Bhattacharyya distance for detection and establishing an SVM model based on different serum marker combinations can increase diagnostic accuracy, providing a theoretical basis for application of mathematical models in cancer diagnosis.

  18. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Papua New Guinea: a community nasal colonization prevalence study.

    Laman, Moses; Greenhill, Andrew; Coombs, Geoffrey W; Robinson, Owen; Pearson, Julie; Davis, Timothy M E; Manning, Laurens

    2017-08-01

    There are few epidemiological data available to inform a national response to community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Papua New Guinea (PNG). We performed a cross-sectional survey to determine the pattern of MRSA nasal colonization and the diversity of circulating MRSA clones among adults and adolescents in Madang Province, PNG. S. aureus nasal colonization was confirmed in 44 (17.1%) of 257 participants. Four (9.1%) isolates were methicillin resistant. Resistance to other antimicrobial agents was uncommon. Detailed molecular typing of three MRSA isolates demonstrated multiple MRSA clones in this community, of which two carried the Panton-Valentin leukocidin-associated virulence genes. MRSA is likely to account for a clinically important proportion of staphylococcal disease in PNG. There are multiple MRSA clones in PNG. Ongoing surveillance of community and invasive isolates is a critical component of an effective response to the challenge of community-acquired MRSA in this and many other resource-limited contexts. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Glass transition near the free surface studied by synchrotron radiation

    Sikorski, M.

    2008-06-01

    A comprehensive picture of the glass transition near the liquid/vapor interface of the model organic glass former dibutyl phthalate is presented in this work. Several surface-sensitive techniques using x-ray synchrotron radiation were applied to investigate the static and dynamic aspects of the formation of the glassy state from the supercooled liquid. The amorphous nature of dibutyl phthalate close to the free surface was confirmed by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction studies. Results from X-ray reflectivity measurements indicate a uniform electron density distribution close to the interface excluding the possibility of surface freezing down to 175 K. Dynamics on sub-μm length-scales at the surface was studied with coherent synchrotron radiation via x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy. From the analysis of the dispersion relation of the surface modes, viscoelastic properties of the dibutyl phthalate are deduced. The Kelvin-Voigt model of viscoelastic media was found to describe well the properties of the liquid/vapor interface below room temperature. The data show that the viscosity at the interface matches the values reported for bulk dibutyl phthalate. The scaled relaxation rate at the surface agrees with the bulk data above 210 K. Upon approaching the glass transition temperature the free surface was observed to relax considerably faster close to the liquid/vapor interface than in bulk. The concept of higher relaxation rate at the free surface is also supported by the results of the quasielastic nuclear forward scattering experiment, during which dynamics on molecular length scales around the calorimetric glass transition temperature is studied. The data were analyzed using mode-coupling theory of the glass transition and the model of the liquid(glass)/vapor interface, predicting inhomogeneous dynamics near the surface. The quasielastic nuclear forward scattering data can be explained when the molecular mobility is assumed to decrease with the increasing

  20. Glass transition near the free surface studied by synchrotron radiation

    Sikorski, M.

    2008-06-15

    A comprehensive picture of the glass transition near the liquid/vapor interface of the model organic glass former dibutyl phthalate is presented in this work. Several surface-sensitive techniques using x-ray synchrotron radiation were applied to investigate the static and dynamic aspects of the formation of the glassy state from the supercooled liquid. The amorphous nature of dibutyl phthalate close to the free surface was confirmed by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction studies. Results from X-ray reflectivity measurements indicate a uniform electron density distribution close to the interface excluding the possibility of surface freezing down to 175 K. Dynamics on sub-{mu}m length-scales at the surface was studied with coherent synchrotron radiation via x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy. From the analysis of the dispersion relation of the surface modes, viscoelastic properties of the dibutyl phthalate are deduced. The Kelvin-Voigt model of viscoelastic media was found to describe well the properties of the liquid/vapor interface below room temperature. The data show that the viscosity at the interface matches the values reported for bulk dibutyl phthalate. The scaled relaxation rate at the surface agrees with the bulk data above 210 K. Upon approaching the glass transition temperature the free surface was observed to relax considerably faster close to the liquid/vapor interface than in bulk. The concept of higher relaxation rate at the free surface is also supported by the results of the quasielastic nuclear forward scattering experiment, during which dynamics on molecular length scales around the calorimetric glass transition temperature is studied. The data were analyzed using mode-coupling theory of the glass transition and the model of the liquid(glass)/vapor interface, predicting inhomogeneous dynamics near the surface. The quasielastic nuclear forward scattering data can be explained when the molecular mobility is assumed to decrease with the increasing

  1. Study of transition metal oxides by photoelectron spectroscopy

    Rao, C.N.R.; Sarma, D.D.; Vasudevan, S.; Hegde, M.S.

    1979-01-01

    Systematics in the X-ray photoelectron spectra (X.p.e.s.) of Ti, V, Cr, Mn and Nb oxides with the metal ion in different oxidation states as well as of related series of mono-, sesqui- and di-oxides of the first row of transition metals have been investigated in detail. Core level binding energies, spin-orbit splittings and exchange splittings are found to exhibit interesting variations with the oxidation state of the metal or the nuclear charge. The 3d binding energies of the monoxides show a proportionality to Goodenough's (R - RC). Other aspects of interest in the study are the satellite structure and final state effects in the X.p.e.s. of the oxides, and identification of different valence states in oxides of the general formulae Mn02n-1 and M304. The nature of changes in the 3d bands of oxides undergoing metal-insulator transitions is also indicated. (author)

  2. Peri-operative blood transfusion for resected colon cancer: Practice patterns and outcomes in a population-based study.

    Patel, Sunil V; Brennan, Kelly E; Nanji, Sulaiman; Karim, Safiya; Merchant, Shaila; Booth, Christopher M

    2017-12-01

    Literature suggests that peri-operative blood transfusion among patients with resected colon cancer may be associated with inferior long-term survival. The study objective was to characterize this association in our population. This is a retrospective cohort study using the population-based Ontario Cancer Registry (2002-2008). Pathology reports were obtained for a 25% random sample of all cases and constituted the study population. Log binomial regression was used to identify factors associated with transfusion. Cox proportional hazards model explored the association between transfusion and cancer specific survival (CSS) and overall survival (OS). The study population included 7198 patients: 18% stage I, 36% stage II, 40% stage III, and 6% stage IV. Twenty-eight percent of patients were transfused. Factors independently associated with transfusion included advanced age (pTransfusion was associated with inferior CSS (HR 1.51, 95% CI 1.38-1.65) and OS (HR 1.52, 95% CI 1.41-1.63), after adjusting for important confounders. Peri-operative transfusion rates among patients with colon cancer have decreased over time. Transfusion is associated with inferior long-term CSS and OS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Social Media, Delinguistification and Colonization of Lifeworld

    Rob Heyman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article critically investigates, from an interdisciplinary perspective, how the current evolution of social media—like social network sites—interferes with the balance between private, commercial, and public space. We build on the concepts of lifeworld and systems, developed in Habermas’ theory of communicative action. The discussion is supported and enriched by the work of Feenberg and van Dijck, integrating insights from Science and Technology Studies and media studies. Technology philosopher and critical Science and Technology Studies scholar Feenberg introduces technology as a steering “medium” that delinguistifies and possibly colonizes the lifeworld by reinterpreting media sociological perspectives of Habermas, Marcuse, Latour, and Callon. In a similar way, media scholar van Dijck analyses the transition from human connectedness to automated connectivity in the context of social media. We then illustrate the delinguistification and the colonization of lifeworld with a systematic analysis of the contingent evolution of Facebook as one particular case in social media. We focus on three specific artifacts in Facebook, framed as obligatory passage points: EdgeRank, Sponsored Stories, and Gatekeeper. Each of them gives an idea how the private space is subsumed under the commercial space and how the colonization reconfigures the public space in social media like Facebook. In this sense, we complement the political economy analysis of prosumer commodity with the action-theoretical autonomist approach of immaterial labor, highlighting new potential threats of the current social media development.

  4. Evaluation by computerized morphometry of histopathological alterations of the colon wall in segments with and without intestinal transit in rats Avaliação por morfometria computadorizada das alterações histopatológicas da parede cólica em segmentos com e sem trânsito intestinal em ratos

    Marcos Vieira de Sousa

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate histopathological alterations of the colon wall in segments with and without intestinal transit, by computer-assisted imaging, and to correlate these with the length of time diversion. METHODS: Thirty male Wistar rats were subjected to intestinal transit diversion by a proximal colostomy and distal mucosa fistula. The animals were divided into three experimental groups according to how long after the initial surgical procedure they were sacrificed: six, twelve and eighteen weeks. Colon segments with and without transit were subjected to histopathological study. The variables colon crypt length, mucosal ulceration, muscle layer thickness of the muscularis mucosa, submucosa and muscularis propria, vascular congestion, number of caliciform cells, inflammatory grade and degree of inflammation, comparing the two colon segments in the different experimental groups were studied. Intestinal crypt length, muscle layer thickness of the mucosa, submucosa and muscularis propria and caliciform cells were measured by computer-assisted imaging method. Mean equality, variance analysis and correlation tests were used in the statistical analysis, and the significance level was set at 5%. RESULTS: Comparison between segments with and without transit showed that the latter presented reduced length of colon crypts and increased muscle layer thickness of the muscularis mucosa, submucosa and muscularis propria. There were greater quantities of ulceration of the mucosal and greater degree of inflammation with increasing time without transit. Mucosal ulceration, submucosal vascular congestion, increased thickness of the submucosal and muscularis propria layers, presence of caliciform cells, inflammatory infiltrate and inflammatory grade correlated significantly with the length of time without transit. CONCLUSIONS: Histological alterations occurred in all layers of the colon wall, in the segments without intestinal transit. Ulcerations in the

  5. The nonfermentable dietary fiber lignin alters putative colon cancer risk factors but does not protect against DMH-induced colon cancer in rats.

    Cameron, I L; Hardman, W E; Heitman, D W

    1997-01-01

    The effect of supplementation of the diet with autohydrolyzed lignin on 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced colon carcinogenesis was studied using 112 male Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats received eight weekly injections of DMH (9.5 mg/kg s.c.) or the saline vehicle solution and then were maintained on a basal AIN-76 fiber-free diet or the basal fiber-free diet plus 5% or 10% (wt/wt) lignin for 24 weeks. Rats were killed 32 weeks after the start of the experiment. Colon tumor incidence, location, and multiplicity were determined. Body weight, caloric intake, fecal dry weight, gut transit time, pH of cecal contents, and total fecal bile acid excretion were measured. Supplementation of the diet with 5% or 10% lignin resulted in increased fecal dry weight and total fecal bile acid excretion and in decreased gut transit time, colon pH, and fecal bile acid concentration. Dietary lignin did not significantly affect colon tumor incidence or multiplicity compared with the fiber-free diet. Thus dietary supplementation with autohydrolyzed lignin, a food fiber with good bulking characteristics, had a significant effect on several factors that have previously been linked to reduction of colon cancer risk, but the consumption of high levels of lignin did not decrease the risk for colon cancer.

  6. Initial experience of robotic versus laparoscopic colectomy for transverse colon cancer: a matched case-control study.

    de'Angelis, Nicola; Alghamdi, Salah; Renda, Andrea; Azoulay, Daniel; Brunetti, Francesco

    2015-10-09

    Robotic surgery for transverse colon cancer has rarely been described. This study reports our initial experience in robotic resection for transverse colon cancer, by comparing robotic transverse colectomy (RC) to laparoscopic transverse colectomy (LC) in terms of safety, feasibility, short-term outcomes, and the surgeon's psychological stress and physical pain. The study population included the first 22 consecutive patients who underwent RC between March 2013 and December 2014 for histologically confirmed transverse colon adenocarcinoma. These patients were compared with 22 matched patients undergoing LC between December 2010 and February 2013. Patients were matched based on age, gender, body mass index (BMI), American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA) score, American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) tumor stage, and tumor location (ratio 1:1). Mortality, morbidity, operative, and short-term oncologic outcomes were compared between groups. The operating surgeon's stress and pain were assessed before and after surgery on a 0-100-mm visual analog scale. The demographic and preoperative characteristics were comparable between RC and LC patients. No group difference was observed for intraoperative complications, blood loss, postoperative pain, time to flatus, time to regular diet, and hospital stay. RC was associated with longer operative time than LC (260 min vs. 225 min; p = 0.014), but the overall operative and robotic time in the RC group decreased over time reflecting the increasing experience in performing this procedure. No conversion to laparotomy was observed in the RC group, while two LC patients were converted due to uncontrolled bleeding and technically difficult middle colic pedicle dissection. Postoperative complications (Dindo-Clavien grade I or II) occurred in 11.3 % of patients with no group difference. Mortality was nil. All resections were R0, with >12 lymph nodes harvested in 90.9 % of RC and 95.5 % of LC patients. The surgeon's stress was

  7. Colonization, mouse-style

    Searle Jeremy B

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Several recent papers, including one in BMC Evolutionary Biology, examine the colonization history of house mice. As well as background for the analysis of mouse adaptation, such studies offer a perspective on the history of movements of the humans that accidentally transported the mice. See research article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/10/325

  8. Colon Trauma: Evidence-Based Practices.

    Yamamoto, Ryo; Logue, Alicia J; Muir, Mark T

    2018-01-01

    Colon injury is not uncommon and occurs in about a half of patients with penetrating hollow viscus injuries. Despite major advances in the operative management of penetrating colon wounds, there remains discussion regarding the appropriate treatment of destructive colon injuries, with a significant amount of scientific evidence supporting segmental resection with primary anastomosis in most patients without comorbidities or large transfusion requirement. Although literature is sparse concerning the management of blunt colon injuries, some studies have shown operative decision based on an algorithm originally defined for penetrating wounds should be considered in blunt colon injuries. The optimal management of colonic injuries in patients requiring damage control surgery (DCS) also remains controversial. Studies have recently reported that there is no increased risk compared with patients treated without DCS if fascial closure is completed on the first reoperation, or that a management algorithm for penetrating colon wounds is probably efficacious for colon injuries in the setting of DCS as well.

  9. The COLON study: Colorectal cancer: Longitudinal, Observational study on Nutritional and lifestyle factors that may influence colorectal tumour recurrence, survival and quality of life

    Winkels, R.M.; Heine-Bröring, R.C.; Zutphen, van, M.; Harten-Gerritsen, van, A.S.; Kok, D.E.G.; Duijnhoven, van, F.J.B.; Kampman, E.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is clear evidence that nutrition and lifestyle can modify colorectal cancer risk. However, it is not clear if those factors can affect colorectal cancer treatment, recurrence, survival and quality of life. This paper describes the background and design of the "COlorectal cancer: Longitudinal, Observational study on Nutritional and lifestyle factors that may influence colorectal tumour recurrence, survival and quality of life" - COLON - study. The main aim of this study is to...

  10. An Analysis of Public Transit Connectivity Index in Tehran. The Case Study: Tehran Multi-Modal Transit Network

    Amir Reza Mamdoohi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Public transit is a major priority in modern management of large cities and metropolitan areas in particular. Public transit systems in such cities consist of a large number of nodes and lines which are represented by a complex network. A station for public transit is a bridge between the people and public transit network, based on which, the concept of input and output power for each station can be defined. The objective of this study is the application of the transit connectivity indices to the multimodal transit network in the city of Tehran. The public transit network data employed in this study is taken from Tehran Traffic Control Company, and Tehran Urban and Suburban Railway Operation Company. The methodology for measuring transit connectivity consists of three measures: Node connectivity, Line connectivity and Regional connectivity, where activity density is applied to these measures. The results of node connectivity analysis shows that most of the node connectivity in concentrated in the city center with many nodes in the center along routes going north and south. The line connectivity analysis shows that there is a concentration of highly connected lines that are near Tehran municipality region 12 and 16. Finally, we find that areas with more metro and bus facilities with respect to the other areas, have a better regional connectivity. One of these areas includes Sadeghiyeh Metro Station which is the junction of Tehran Metro Line 2 and Tehran Metro Line 5 which have a high connectivity power. Results of this study can be used to suggest some ideas on how future investments in rail and bus should be prioritized. Particularly in Transit Oriented Development (TOD and sustainble development projects, urban planners can design transit stations with high performance to access the crucial services in poor areas.

  11. FXR silencing in human colon cancer by DNA methylation and KRAS signaling.

    Bailey, Ann M; Zhan, Le; Maru, Dipen; Shureiqi, Imad; Pickering, Curtis R; Kiriakova, Galina; Izzo, Julie; He, Nan; Wei, Caimiao; Baladandayuthapani, Veerabhadran; Liang, Han; Kopetz, Scott; Powis, Garth; Guo, Grace L

    2014-01-01

    Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a bile acid nuclear receptor described through mouse knockout studies as a tumor suppressor for the development of colon adenocarcinomas. This study investigates the regulation of FXR in the development of human colon cancer. We used immunohistochemistry of FXR in normal tissue (n = 238), polyps (n = 32), and adenocarcinomas, staged I-IV (n = 43, 39, 68, and 9), of the colon; RT-quantitative PCR, reverse-phase protein array, and Western blot analysis in 15 colon cancer cell lines; NR1H4 promoter methylation and mRNA expression in colon cancer samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas; DNA methyltransferase inhibition; methyl-DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP); bisulfite sequencing; and V-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) knockdown assessment to investigate FXR regulation in colon cancer development. Immunohistochemistry and quantitative RT-PCR revealed that expression and function of FXR was reduced in precancerous lesions and silenced in a majority of stage I-IV tumors. FXR expression negatively correlated with phosphatidylinositol-4, 5-bisphosphate 3 kinase signaling and the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. The NR1H4 promoter is methylated in ~12% colon cancer The Cancer Genome Atlas samples, and methylation patterns segregate with tumor subtypes. Inhibition of DNA methylation and KRAS silencing both increased FXR expression. FXR expression is decreased early in human colon cancer progression, and both DNA methylation and KRAS signaling may be contributing factors to FXR silencing. FXR potentially suppresses epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and other oncogenic signaling cascades, and restoration of FXR activity, by blocking silencing mechanisms or increasing residual FXR activity, represents promising therapeutic options for the treatment of colon cancer.

  12. Unique properties associated with normal martensitic transition and strain glass transition – A simulation study

    Wang, Dong; Ni, Yan; Gao, Jinghui; Zhang, Zhen; Ren, Xiaobing; Wang, Yunzhi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We model the unique properties of strain glass which is different from that of normal martensite. ► We describe the importance of point defects in the formation of strain glass and related properties. ► The role of point defect can be attributed to global transition temperature effect (GTTE) and local field effect (LFE). -- Abstract: The transition behavior and unique properties associated with normal martensitic transition and strain glass transition are investigated by computer simulations using the phase field method. The simulations are based on a physical model that assumes that point defects alter the thermodynamic stability of martensite and create local lattice distortion. The simulation results show that strain glass transition exhibits different properties from those found in normal martensitic transformations. These unique properties include diffuse scattering pattern, “smear” elastic modulus peak, disappearance of heat flow peak and non-ergodicity. These simulation predictions agree well with the experimental observations

  13. CALCIUM AND THE PREVENTION OF COLON CANCER

    WELBERG, JWM; KLEIBEUKER, JH; VANDERMEER, R; MULDER, NH; DEVRIES, EGE

    1991-01-01

    Diet is a major determinant of colon cancer risk. Calcium may protect against colon cancer, presumably by binding cytotoxic bile acids and fatty acids. Numerous studies support this proposition. In subjects at risk for colon cancer oral calcium supplementation has been shown to reduce rectal

  14. A Promising Approach to Provide Appropriate Colon Target Drug Delivery Systems of Vancomycin HCL: Pharmaceutical and Microbiological Studies

    Kadria A. Elkhodairy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vancomycin HCl was prepared as orally administered colon target drug delivery tablets for systemic therapy. Tablet matrices containing 10–60% of tablet weight of guar gum (F1–F6 were prepared by direct compression and subjected to in vitro release studies to explore their sustained release in the colon. Various synthetic and natural polymers were incorporated to F6 to modify the drug release rate. Different 15 matrix tablet formulations (F6–F20 were enteric coated with hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose phthalate. F6, F13 and F20 showed promising sustained release results having median dissolution time (MDT values: 8.25, 7.97, and 7.64, respectively. Microbiological assay was performed to test the efficacy of F6, F13, and F20 to inhibit clinical Staphylococcus aureus (SA isolates. Bactericidal activity of F6 was reached after 2, 4, and 24 hours of incubation against MSSA 18, MRSA 29, and MRSA 11 strains, respectively, while it was reached within 6–8 hours in case of F13, and F20 against all strains tested. F13 enhanced log microbial reduction by 1.74, 0.65 and 2.4 CFU/mL compared to F6 while it was 1, 2.57 and 1.57 compared to F20 against MSSA18, MRSA11 and MRSA29, respectively. Vancomycin HCl tablets displayed a promising sustained release in vitro and microbiological inhibitory action on all isolates tested.

  15. Helicobacter pylori colonization and diarrhoeal illness: Results of a population-based cross-sectional study in adults

    Bode, Guenter; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Brenner, Hermann

    2001-01-01

    It has been suggested that Helicobacter pylori colonization may protect against diarrhoeagenic gastrointestinal infections. The aim of this analysis was to investigate the association between H. pylori infection and the frequency of diarrhoeal episodes among adults. Helicobacter pylori infection status was determined by 13 C-urea breath test. Overall, 784 adults (mean age: 48.7 ± 17.7; range 18-85 years) who participated in two epidemiological studies were included in the analysis. Overall H. pylori prevalence was 25.5%. Episodes of diarrhoea within prior 3 months were less often reported for H. pylori infected subjects compared with H. pylori negative subjects (40.2 vs. 51.6%, p = 0.016). Compared to H. pylori negative subjects the odds ratio (OR) for the occurrence of diarrhoea within the prior 3 months was 0.63 (95% CI: 0.45-0.87) for H. pylori infected subjects. After adjustment for covariates the OR was 0.67 (95% CI: 0.47-0.95). These results support the hypothesis that colonization with H. pylori may protect from gastrointestinal infections that cause diarrhoea

  16. A promising approach to provide appropriate colon target drug delivery systems of vancomycin HCL: pharmaceutical and microbiological studies.

    Elkhodairy, Kadria A; Afifi, Samar A; Zakaria, Azza S

    2014-01-01

    Vancomycin HCl was prepared as orally administered colon target drug delivery tablets for systemic therapy. Tablet matrices containing 10-60% of tablet weight of guar gum (F1-F6) were prepared by direct compression and subjected to in vitro release studies to explore their sustained release in the colon. Various synthetic and natural polymers were incorporated to F6 to modify the drug release rate. Different 15 matrix tablet formulations (F6-F20) were enteric coated with hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose phthalate. F6, F13 and F20 showed promising sustained release results having median dissolution time (MDT) values: 8.25, 7.97, and 7.64, respectively. Microbiological assay was performed to test the efficacy of F6, F13, and F20 to inhibit clinical Staphylococcus aureus (SA) isolates. Bactericidal activity of F6 was reached after 2, 4, and 24 hours of incubation against MSSA 18, MRSA 29, and MRSA 11 strains, respectively, while it was reached within 6-8 hours in case of F13, and F20 against all strains tested. F13 enhanced log microbial reduction by 1.74, 0.65 and 2.4 CFU/mL compared to F6 while it was 1, 2.57 and 1.57 compared to F20 against MSSA18, MRSA11 and MRSA29, respectively. Vancomycin HCl tablets displayed a promising sustained release in vitro and microbiological inhibitory action on all isolates tested.

  17. A Histological Study of Aspergillus flavus Colonization of Wound Inoculated Maize Kernels of Resistant and Susceptible Maize Hybrids in the Field

    Gary L. Windham

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus flavus colonization in developing kernels of maize single-cross hybrids resistant (Mp313E × Mp717 and susceptible (GA209 × T173 to aflatoxin accumulation was determined in the field over three growing seasons (2012–2014. Plants were hand pollinated, and individual kernels were inoculated with a needle dipped in a suspension of A. flavus conidia 21 days after pollination. Kernels were harvested at 1- to 2-day intervals from 1 to 21 days after inoculation (DAI. Kernels were placed in FAA fixative, dehydrated, embedded in paraffin, sectioned, and stained with toluidine blue. Kernels were also collected additional kernels for aflatoxin analyses in 2013 and 2014. At 2 DAI, A. flavus hyphae were observed among endosperm cells in the susceptible hybrid, but colonization of the endosperm in the resistant hybrid was limited to the wound site of the resistant hybrid. Sections of the scutellum of the susceptible hybrid were colonized by A. flavus by 5 DAI. Fungal growth was slower in the resistant hybrid compared to the susceptible hybrid. By 10 DAI, A. flavus had colonized a large section of the embryo in the susceptible hybrid; whereas in the resistant hybrid, approximately half of the endosperm had been colonized and very few cells in the embryo were colonized. Fungal colonization in some of the kernels of the resistant hybrid was slowed in the aleurone layer or at the endosperm-scutellum interface. In wounded kernels with intact aleurone layers, the fungus spread around the kernel between the pericarp and aleurone layer with minimal colonization of the endosperm. Aflatoxin B1 was first detected in susceptible kernel tissues 8 DAI in 2013 (14 μg/kg and 2014 (18 μg/kg. The resistant hybrid had significantly lower levels of aflatoxin accumulation compared to the susceptible hybrid at harvests 10, 21, and 28 DAI in 2013, and 20 and 24 DAI in 2014. Our study found differential A. flavus colonization of susceptible and resistant kernel

  18. Streptococcus pneumoniae biofilm formation and dispersion during colonization and disease

    Chao, Yashuan; Marks, Laura R.; Pettigrew, Melinda M.; Hakansson, Anders P.

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) is a common colonizer of the human nasopharynx. Despite a low rate of invasive disease, the high prevalence of colonization results in millions of infections and over one million deaths per year, mostly in individuals under the age of 5 and the elderly. Colonizing pneumococci form well-organized biofilm communities in the nasopharyngeal environment, but the specific role of biofilms and their interaction with the host during colonization and disease is not yet clear. Pneumococci in biofilms are highly resistant to antimicrobial agents and this phenotype can be recapitulated when pneumococci are grown on respiratory epithelial cells under conditions found in the nasopharyngeal environment. Pneumococcal biofilms display lower levels of virulence in vivo and provide an optimal environment for increased genetic exchange both in vitro and in vivo, with increased natural transformation seen during co-colonization with multiple strains. Biofilms have also been detected on mucosal surfaces during pneumonia and middle ear infection, although the role of these biofilms in the disease process is debated. Recent studies have shown that changes in the nasopharyngeal environment caused by concomitant virus infection, changes in the microflora, inflammation, or other host assaults trigger active release of pneumococci from biofilms. These dispersed bacteria have distinct phenotypic properties and transcriptional profiles different from both biofilm and broth-grown, planktonic bacteria, resulting in a significantly increased virulence in vivo. In this review we discuss the properties of pneumococcal biofilms, the role of biofilm formation during pneumococcal colonization, including their propensity for increased ability to exchange genetic material, as well as mechanisms involved in transition from asymptomatic biofilm colonization to dissemination and disease of otherwise sterile sites. Greater understanding of pneumococcal biofilm

  19. Risk factors associated with the community-acquired colonization of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) positive Escherichia Coli. an exploratory case-control study.

    Leistner, Rasmus; Meyer, Elisabeth; Gastmeier, Petra; Pfeifer, Yvonne; Eller, Christoph; Dem, Petra; Schwab, Frank

    2013-01-01

    The number of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) positive (+) Escherichia coli is increasing worldwide. In contrast with many other multidrug-resistant bacteria, it is suspected that they predominantly spread within the community. The objective of this study was to assess factors associated with community-acquired colonization of ESBL (+) E. coli. We performed a matched case-control study at the Charité University Hospital Berlin between May 2011 and January 2012. Cases were defined as patients colonized with community-acquired ESBL (+) E. coli identified language most commonly spoken at home (mother tongue). An additional rectal swab was obtained together with the questionnaire to verify colonization status. Genotypes of ESBL (+) E. coli strains were determined by PCR and sequencing. Risk factors associated with ESBL (+) E. coli colonization were analyzed by a multivariable conditional logistic regression analysis. We analyzed 85 cases and 170 controls, respectively. In the multivariable analysis, speaking an Asian language most commonly at home (OR = 13.4, CI 95% 3.3-53.8; p<0.001) and frequently eating pork (≥ 3 meals per week) showed to be independently associated with ESBL colonization (OR = 3.5, CI 95% 1.8-6.6; p<0.001). The most common ESBL genotypes were CTX-M-1 with 44% (n = 37), CTX-M-15 with 28% (n = 24) and CTX-M-14 with 13% (n = 11). An Asian mother tongue and frequently consuming certain types of meat like pork can be independently associated with the colonization of ESBL-positive bacteria. We found neither frequent consumption of poultry nor previous use of antibiotics to be associated with ESBL colonization.

  20. Laparoscopic colectomy for transverse colon carcinoma.

    Zmora, O; Bar-Dayan, A; Khaikin, M; Lebeydev, A; Shabtai, M; Ayalon, A; Rosin, D

    2010-03-01

    Laparoscopic resection of transverse colon carcinoma is technically demanding and was excluded from most of the large trials of laparoscopic colectomy. The aim of this study was to assess the safety, feasibility, and outcome of laparoscopic resection of carcinoma of the transverse colon. A retrospective review was performed to identify patients who underwent laparoscopic resection of transverse colon carcinoma. These patients were compared to patients who had laparoscopic resection for right and sigmoid colon carcinoma. In addition, they were compared to a historical series of patients who underwent open resection for transverse colon cancer. A total of 22 patients underwent laparoscopic resection for transverse colon carcinoma. Sixty-eight patients operated for right colon cancer and 64 operated for sigmoid colon cancer served as comparison groups. Twenty-four patients were identified for the historical open group. Intraoperative complications occurred in 4.5% of patients with transverse colon cancer compared to 5.9% (P = 1.0) and 7.8% (P = 1.0) of patients with right and sigmoid colon cancer, respectively. The early postoperative complication rate was 45, 50 (P = 1.0), and 37.5% (P = 0.22) in the three groups, respectively. Conversion was required in 1 (5%) patient in the laparoscopic transverse colon group. The conversion rate and late complications were not significantly different in the three groups. There was no significant difference in the number of lymph nodes harvested in the laparoscopic and open groups. Operative time was significantly longer in the laparoscopic transverse colectomy group when compared to all other groups (P = 0.001, 0.008, and transverse colectomy, respectively). The results of laparoscopic colon resection for transverse colon carcinoma are comparable to the results of laparoscopic resection of right or sigmoid colon cancer and open resection of transverse colon carcinoma. These results suggest that laparoscopic resection of transverse

  1. Dose-dependent transitions in mechanisms of toxicity: case studies

    Slikker, William; Andersen, Melvin E.; Bogdanffy, Matthew S.; Bus, James S.; Cohen, Steven D.; Conolly, Rory B.; David, Raymond M.; Doerrer, Nancy G.; Dorman, David C.; Gaylor, David W.; Hattis, Dale; Rogers, John M.; Setzer, R. Woodrow; Swenberg, James A.; Wallace, Kendall

    2004-01-01

    Experience with dose response and mechanisms of toxicity has shown that multiple mechanisms may exist for a single agent along the continuum of the full dose-response curve. It is highly likely that critical, limiting steps in any given mechanistic pathway may become overwhelmed with increasing exposures, signaling the emergence of new modalities of toxic tissue injury at these higher doses. Therefore, dose-dependent transitions in principal mechanisms of toxicity may occur, and could have significant impact on the interpretation of reference data sets for risk assessment. To illustrate the existence of dose-dependent transitions in mechanisms of toxicity, a group of academic, government, and industry scientists, formed under the leadership of the ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI), developed a series of case studies. These case studies included acetaminophen, butadiene, ethylene glycol, formaldehyde, manganese, methylene chloride, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), progesterone/hydroxyflutamide, propylene oxide, vinyl acetate, vinyl chloride, vinylidene chloride, and zinc. The case studies formed the basis for technical discourse at two scientific workshops in 2003

  2. Association of prescription of oral sodium polystyrene sulfonate with sorbitol in an inpatient setting with colonic necrosis: a retrospective cohort study.

    Watson, Maura A; Baker, Thomas P; Nguyen, Annie; Sebastianelli, Mary E; Stewart, Heather L; Oliver, David K; Abbott, Kevin C; Yuan, Christina M

    2012-09-01

    Colonic necrosis has been reported after sodium polystyrene sulfonate (SPS)/sorbitol use, but the incidence and relative risk (RR) are not established. Retrospective cohort study. 123,391 adult inpatients at a tertiary medical center. Receipt of SPS prescriptions (exposed) or a prescription other than SPS (unexposed internal comparison group) between September 1, 2001, and October 31, 2010. The main outcome measure was tissue-confirmed diagnosis of colonic necrosis, considered SPS-associated if SPS was prescribed 30 or fewer days before tissue accession date. Demographics, serum chemistry test results, hospital location, and International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision diagnostic codes. SPS was prescribed to 2,194 inpatients. 82 inpatient colonic necrosis cases were identified. 3 received oral SPS (1 gram per 4 milliliters of 33% sorbitol) 30 or fewer days before the colonic necrosis accession date (3.7% of inpatient colonic necrosis cases). The data were linked with 123,391 individuals who received inpatient prescriptions between the same dates. Colonic necrosis incidence was 0.14% (95% CI, 0.03%-0.40%) in those prescribed SPS versus 0.07% (95% CI, 0.05-0.08%) in those not prescribed SPS (RR, 2.10; 95% CI, 0.68-6.48; P = 0.2). The number needed to harm was 1,395 (95% CI, 298-5,100). Subgroup analysis (age >65 years; estimated glomerular filtration rate, sorbitol prescription was not associated significantly with an increased RR of colonic necrosis in this retrospective cohort analysis. Multivariate analysis would require retrospective clinical cohorts from larger or more than one hospital system(s). Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Cytoreductive surgery and HIPEC offers similar outcomes in patients with rectal peritoneal metastases compared to colon cancer patients: a matched case control study.

    Simkens, Geert A; van Oudheusden, Thijs R; Braam, Hidde J; Wiezer, Marinus J; Nienhuijs, Simon W; Rutten, Harm J; van Ramshorst, Bert; de Hingh, Ignace H

    2016-04-01

    The effect of cytoreduction and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) in patients with rectal peritoneal metastases (PM) is unclear. This case-control study aims to assess the results of cytoreduction and HIPEC in patients with rectal PM compared to colon PM patients. Colorectal PM patients treated with complete macroscopic cytoreduction and HIPEC were included. Two colon cancer patients were case-matched for each rectal cancer patient, based on prognostic factors (T stage, N stage, histology type, and extent of PM). Short- and long-term outcomes were compared between both groups. From 317 patients treated with complete macroscopic cytoreduction and HIPEC, 29 patients (9.1%) had rectal PM. Fifty-eight colon cases were selected as control patients. Baseline characteristics were similar between groups. Major morbidity was 27.6% and 34.5% in the rectal and colon group, respectively (P = 0.516). Median disease-free survival was 13.5 months in the rectal group and 13.6 months in the colon group (P = 0.621). Two- and five-year overall survival rates were 54%/32% in rectal cancer patients, and 61%/24% in colon cancer patients (P = 0.987). Cytoreduction and HIPEC in selected patients with rectal PM is feasible and provides similar outcomes as in colon cancer patients. Rectal PM should not be regarded a contra-indication for cytoreduction and HIPEC in selected patients. J. Surg. Oncol. 2016;113:548-553. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. The role of mechanical bowel preparation for colonic resection and anastomosis: an experimental study.

    Feres, O; Monteiro dos Santos, J C; Andrade, J I

    2001-11-01

    To evaluate the effect of mechanical bowel preparation (MBP) on colonic resection and anastomosis. Mongrel dogs were divided into two groups of 20 animals each. During the preoperative period (24 h) group A was not subjected to MBP, and group B was fasted and ingested 20 ml magnesium hydroxide plus 15 ml/kg 10% mannitol orally. All animals underwent segmental colectomy followed by end-to-end anastomosis. The survivors of both groups were reoperated upon on the 7th postoperative day. Mortality before reoperation was significantly higher in group A (45%) than in group B (10%; P0.05). Aerobic and anaerobic bacterial cultures showed similar growth in the two groups. We conclude that the omission of MBP increased the mortality due to early anastomotic leakage with peritonitis; MBP did not change the rate of localized anastomotic leakage, leakage with peritonitis, or intact anastomoses on the 7th day; no quantitative or qualitative differences were observed in the bacteria isolated from the two groups.

  5. SU-E-T-668: Radiosensitizing Effect of Bosutinib On Prostate and Colon Cancers: A Pilot in Vitro Study

    Wang, B; Cvetkovic, D; Chen, L; Ma, C [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Wang, C [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan (China)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Recently it has been reported that Bosutinib, a clinical kinase inhibitor, can enhance the tumor cell chemosensitivity by overriding DNA damage checkpoints. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is no report on its effect on cell radiosensitivity in the literature. The objective of the present study is to determine whether Bosutinib has the potential to be used as a radiosensitizer for various cancer cell lines. Methods: In this study, we tested 4 cell lines derived from human prostate (LNCaP, PC-3, DU-145) and colon (HT-29) cancers. The cells were seeded into 12-well plates 24 hours prior to the radiation treatments. For each cell line, we designed 4 study groups, namely, the control, Bosutinib, radiotherapy, and radiotherapy+Bosutinib groups. We used 6 MV photon beams from a Siemens Artiste accelerator to deliver 2 Gy dose in one fraction to the cells in the radiotherapy and radiotherapy+Bosutinib groups. Immediately after irradiation, the cells in the radiotherapy+Bosutinib group were treated with Bosutinib (1µM) for 3 hours. The cell survival was evaluated through clonogenic assays. Results: The cell survival rates of the LNCaP, PC-3, DU-145, and HT-29 cells were found to be 21%, 92%, 76%, and 93% for the radiotherapy group; 21%, 69%, 67%, and 81% for the radiotherapy+Bosutinib group; and 103%, 107%, 86%, and 102% for the Bosutinib group, respectively. Although synergetic cell killing was not seen for the LNCaP and DU-145 cell lines in this study, the cell survival data from the clonogenic assay indicated that Bosutinib could enhance the sensitivity of PC-3 and HT-29 cells to radiation treatment. Conclusion: Our preliminary results demonstrated the possibility of Bosutinib as a radiosensitizer for certain prostate and colon cancers, which are resistant to radiotherapy. Further studies are warranted to quantify the radiosensitizing effect of Bosutinib.

  6. SU-E-T-668: Radiosensitizing Effect of Bosutinib On Prostate and Colon Cancers: A Pilot in Vitro Study

    Wang, B; Cvetkovic, D; Chen, L; Ma, C; Wang, C

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Recently it has been reported that Bosutinib, a clinical kinase inhibitor, can enhance the tumor cell chemosensitivity by overriding DNA damage checkpoints. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is no report on its effect on cell radiosensitivity in the literature. The objective of the present study is to determine whether Bosutinib has the potential to be used as a radiosensitizer for various cancer cell lines. Methods: In this study, we tested 4 cell lines derived from human prostate (LNCaP, PC-3, DU-145) and colon (HT-29) cancers. The cells were seeded into 12-well plates 24 hours prior to the radiation treatments. For each cell line, we designed 4 study groups, namely, the control, Bosutinib, radiotherapy, and radiotherapy+Bosutinib groups. We used 6 MV photon beams from a Siemens Artiste accelerator to deliver 2 Gy dose in one fraction to the cells in the radiotherapy and radiotherapy+Bosutinib groups. Immediately after irradiation, the cells in the radiotherapy+Bosutinib group were treated with Bosutinib (1µM) for 3 hours. The cell survival was evaluated through clonogenic assays. Results: The cell survival rates of the LNCaP, PC-3, DU-145, and HT-29 cells were found to be 21%, 92%, 76%, and 93% for the radiotherapy group; 21%, 69%, 67%, and 81% for the radiotherapy+Bosutinib group; and 103%, 107%, 86%, and 102% for the Bosutinib group, respectively. Although synergetic cell killing was not seen for the LNCaP and DU-145 cell lines in this study, the cell survival data from the clonogenic assay indicated that Bosutinib could enhance the sensitivity of PC-3 and HT-29 cells to radiation treatment. Conclusion: Our preliminary results demonstrated the possibility of Bosutinib as a radiosensitizer for certain prostate and colon cancers, which are resistant to radiotherapy. Further studies are warranted to quantify the radiosensitizing effect of Bosutinib

  7. Slow-transit Constipation.

    Bharucha, Adil E.; Philips, Sidney F.

    2001-08-01

    Idiopathic slow-transit constipation is a clinical syndrome predominantly affecting women, characterized by intractable constipation and delayed colonic transit. This syndrome is attributed to disordered colonic motor function. The disorder spans a spectrum of variable severity, ranging from patients who have relatively mild delays in transit but are otherwise indistinguishable from irritable bowel syndrome to patients with colonic inertia or chronic megacolon. The diagnosis is made after excluding colonic obstruction, metabolic disorders (hypothyroidism, hypercalcemia), drug-induced constipation, and pelvic floor dysfunction (as discussed by Wald ). Most patients are treated with one or more pharmacologic agents, including dietary fiber supplementation, saline laxatives (milk of magnesia), osmotic agents (lactulose, sorbitol, and polyethylene glycol 3350), and stimulant laxatives (bisacodyl and glycerol). A subtotal colectomy is effective and occasionally is indicated for patients with medically refractory, severe slow-transit constipation, provided pelvic floor dysfunction has been excluded or treated.

  8. The prevalence of high dysplastic colonic adenomatous polyps in a 3 year endoscopic retrospective study from a single clinical center

    Alexandru C. Septimiu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Many colon neoplastic tumors come from the malignancy of adenomatous polyps (70%-90% that were not timely diagnosed in order to be resected. Materials and Methods: We conducted a retrospective study regarding the incidence of adenomatous polyps during 1.000 consecutive colonoscopies performed in our Upper and Lower Digestive Endoscopy Laboratory during a three-year period. Results: During these colonoscopies, some targeted polyps were biopsied or completely removed and the samples had been sent to a complete anatomopathological examination. Taking into consideration the results, the polyps were classified after the histological type and the form of dysplasia, in order to determine the polyp forms that present a high risk of malignancy. Conclusion: Given the rather high frequency of malignant polyps discovered during our study, we highly recommend colonoscopy as a method of choice for routine monitoring of selected cases.

  9. Longitudinal study of Staphylococcus aureus colonization and infection in a cohort of swine veterinarians in the United States

    Jisun Sun

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People working with pigs are at elevated risk of harboring methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA in their nose, which is attributable to occupational exposure to animals harboring livestock adapted S. aureus. To obtain insight into the biological nature of occupationally related nasal culture positivity, we conducted a longitudinal study of 66 swine veterinarians in the USA. Methods The study cohort resided in 15 US states and worked predominantly with swine. Monthly for 18 months, participants self-collected nasal swabs and completed a survey to report recent exposure to pigs and other animals; the occurrence of work related injuries; and any relevant health events such as skin and soft tissue infections or confirmed staphylococcal infections. Nasal swabs were cultured using selective methods to determine the presence of MRSA and methicillin susceptible S. aureus (MSSA, and isolates were characterized by spa typing and MLST. Results Prevalences of S. aureus (64%, monthly range from 58 to 82% and MRSA (9.5%; monthly range from 6 to15% were higher than reported for the US population (30% and 1.5% respectively. Predominant spa types were t034 (ST398, 37%, t002 (ST5, 17% and t337 (ST9/ST398 13%, a distribution similar to that found in a concurrent study in pigs in the USA. Veterinarians were classified into three groups: Persistent carriers (PC, 52%, Intermittent carriers (IC, 47% and Non-carriers (NC, 1%. Persistent carriage of a single spa type was observed in 14 (21% of participants, and paired (first and last isolates from PC subjects had minor genetic differences. Swabs from PC veterinarians carried higher numbers of S. aureus. Among IC veterinarians, culture positivity was significantly associated with recent contact with pigs. Conclusions Exposure to pigs did not lead to prolonged colonization in most subjects, and the higher numbers of S. aureus in PC subjects suggests that unknown host factors may determine the

  10. Smart nanocomposite hydrogels based on azo crosslinked graphene oxide for oral colon-specific drug delivery

    Hou, Lin; Shi, Yuyang; Jiang, Guixiang; Liu, Wei; Han, Huili; Feng, Qianhua; Ren, Junxiao; Yuan, Yujie; Wang, Yongchao; Shi, Jinjin; Zhang, Zhenzhong

    2016-08-01

    A safe and efficient nanocomposite hydrogel for colon cancer drug delivery was synthesized using pH-sensitive and biocompatible graphene oxide (GO) containing azoaromatic crosslinks as well as poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) (GO-N=N-GO/PVA composite hydrogels). Curcumin (CUR), an anti-cancer drug, was encapsulated successfully into the hydrogel through a freezing and thawing process. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy were performed to confirm the formation and morphological properties of the nanocomposite hydrogel. The hydrogels exhibited good swelling properties in a pH-sensitive manner. Drug release studies under conditions mimicking stomach to colon transit have shown that the drug was protected from being released completely into the physiological environment of the stomach and small intestine. In vivo imaging analysis, pharmacokinetics and a distribution of the gastrointestinal tract experiment were systematically studied and evaluated as colon-specific drug delivery systems. All the results demonstrated that GO-N=N-GO/PVA composite hydrogels could protect CUR well while passing through the stomach and small intestine to the proximal colon, and enhance the colon-targeting ability and residence time in the colon site. Therefore, CUR loaded GO-N=N-GO/PVA composite hydrogels might potentially provide a theoretical basis for the treatment of colon cancer with high efficiency and low toxicity.

  11. Risk of colon cancer and coffee, tea, and sugar-sweetened soft drink intake: Pooled analysis of prospective cohort studies

    Zhang, X.; Albanes, D.; Beeson, W.L.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Buring, J.E.; Flood, A.; Freudenheim, J.L.; Giovannucci, E.L.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Jaceldo-Siegl, K.; Jacobs, E.J.; Krogh, V.; Larsson, S.C.; Marshall, J.R.; McCullough, M.L.; Miller, A.B.; Robien, K.; Rohan, T.E.; Schatzkin, A.; Sieri, S.; Spiegelman, D.; Virtamo, J.; Wolk, A.; Willett, W.C.; Zhang, S.M.; Smith-Warner, S.A.

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundThe relationships between coffee, tea, and sugar-sweetened carbonated soft drink consumption and colon cancer risk remain unresolved. MethodsWe investigated prospectively the association between coffee, tea, and sugar-sweetened carbonated soft drink consumption and colon cancer risk in a

  12. Adiposity, mediating biomarkers and risk of colon cancer in the european prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition study

    Aleksandrova, K.; Drogan, D.; Boeing, H.; Jenab, M.; Bueno de Mesquita, H.B.; Duijnhoven, van F.J.B.

    2014-01-01

    Adiposity is a risk factor for colon cancer, but underlying mechanisms are not well understood. We evaluated the extent to which 11 biomarkers with inflammatory and metabolic actions mediate the association of adiposity measures, waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI), with colon cancer

  13. Tabletted guar gum microspheres of piroxicam for targeted adjuvant therapy for colonic adenocarcinomas.

    Vats, Anima; Pathak, Kamla

    2012-11-01

    In recent years, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have been found to be cogent as an adjuvant therapeutic agent in mitigating colorectal cancer. Thus, this present investigation was aimed to formulate an oral, targeted tablet of piroxicam microspheres for sustained and targeted adjuvant therapy for colonic adenocarcinomas. Crosslinked guar gum microspheres of piroxicam were directly compressed into matrix tablet and coated with Eudragit S100. The optimized tablet that displayed 0% release in simulated gastric fluid, 15% in simulated intestinal fluid and 97.1% in simulated colonic fluid underwent roentgenographic study in rabbits to check its safe transit to the colon. x-ray images revealed intactness of the tablet until it reached the colon where the tablet matrix eroded. The designed, conceptual formulation emerged as potential carrier for targeted adjuvant therapy of piroxicam.

  14. First-principles study of doping effect on the phase transition of zinc oxide with transition metal doped

    Wu, Liang; Hou, Tingjun; Wang, Yi; Zhao, Yanfei; Guo, Zhenyu; Li, Youyong; Lee, Shuit-Tong

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We study the doping effect on B4, B1 structures and phase transition of ZnO. ► We calculate the phase transition barrier and phase transition path of doped ZnO. ► The transition metal doping decreases the bulk modulus and phase transition pressure. ► The magnetic properties are influenced by the phase transition process. - Abstract: Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a promising material for its wide application in solid-state devices. With the pressure raised from an ambient condition, ZnO transforms from fourfold wurtzite (B4) to sixfold coordinated rocksalt (B1) structure. Doping is an efficient approach to improve the structures and properties of materials. Here we use density-functional theory (DFT) to study doped ZnO and find that the transition pressure from B4 phase to B1 phase of ZnO always decreases with different types of transition metal (V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, or Ni) doped, but the phase transition path is not affected by doping. This is consistent with the available experimental results for Mn-doped ZnO and Co-doped ZnO. Doping in ZnO causes the lattice distortion, which leads to the decrease of the bulk modulus and accelerates the phase transition. Mn-doped ZnO shows the strongest magnetic moment due to its half filled d orbital. For V-doped ZnO and Cr-doped ZnO, the magnetism is enhanced by phase transition from B4 to B1. But for Mn-doped ZnO, Fe-doped ZnO, Co-doped ZnO, and Ni-doped ZnO, B1 phase shows weaker magnetic moment than B4 phase. These results can be explained by the amount of charge transferred from the doped atom to O atom. Our results provide a theoretical basis for the doping approach to change the structures and properties of ZnO.

  15. Transverse loop colostomy and colonic motility.

    Pucciani, F; Ringressi, M N; Maltinti, G; Bechi, P

    2014-11-01

    The motility of the defunctionalized colon, distal to transverse loop colostomy, has never been studied "in vivo." The aim of our study was to evaluate the influence of transverse loop colostomy on colonic motility. Thirteen patients were examined before stoma closure by means of clinical evaluation and colonic manometry; we studied both the right and distal colon in both fasting and fed patients in order to detect motor activity. Quantitative and qualitative manometric analyses showed that the diverted colon had motor activity even if no regular colonic motor pattern was observed. The spreading of aboral propagated contractions (PCs) was sometimes recorded from the right colon to the distal colon. The response of the proximal and distal colon to a standard meal, when compared to fasting values, increased more than 40 and 35 %, respectively. Stool and gas ejections from the colostomy were never related to a particular type of colonic motility: Motor quiescence such as PCs was chaotically related to stool escape. In conclusion, motility of the defunctionalized colon is preserved in patients with transverse loop colostomy.

  16. Preoperative irradiation for carcinoma of the rectum and rectosigmoid colon: report of a national veterans adminstration randomized study

    Roswit, B.; Higgins, G.A.; Keehn, R.J.

    1975-01-01

    In 1964 the Veterans Administration Surgical Adjuvant Group (VASAG) initiated a large-scale, controlled, randomized protocol to study the role of low-dose preoperative irradiation (2000 to 2500 rads/10 fractions/12 days) in patients with operable adenocarcinoma of the sigmoid colon and rectum. This report analyzes the data in 700 patients, all at 5-year risk. There appears to be a definite benefit to irradiated patients who undergo abdominoperineal resections, when compared with the controls. This advantage is reflected in improvement of 5-year survival, and reductions in lymph node invasion, local recurrence, and distant metastases. A second protocol has been initiated in 30 VA hospitals employing a higher dose (3150 rads) to extended portals (to L2) to male patients who require abdominoperineal resections. (U.S.)

  17. Study protocol of the B-CAST study: a multicenter, prospective cohort study investigating the tumor biomarkers in adjuvant chemotherapy for stage III colon cancer

    Ishiguro, Megumi; Mori, Masaki; Kakeji, Yoshihiro; Kanazawa, Akiyoshi; Kobayashi, Michiya; Okajima, Masazumi; Hyodo, Ichinosuke; Miyakoda, Keiko; Sugihara, Kenichi; Kotake, Kenjiro; Nishimura, Genichi; Tomita, Naohiro; Ichikawa, Wataru; Takahashi, Keiichi; Watanabe, Toshiaki; Furuhata, Tomohisa; Kondo, Ken

    2013-01-01

    Adjuvant chemotherapy for stage III colon cancer is internationally accepted as standard treatment with established efficacy. Several oral fluorouracil (5-FU) derivatives with different properties are available in Japan, but which drug is the most appropriate for each patient has not been established. Although efficacy prediction of 5-FU derivatives using expression of 5-FU activation/metabolism enzymes in tumors has been studied, it has not been clinically applied. The B-CAST study is a multicenter, prospective cohort study aimed to identify the patients who benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy with each 5-FU regimen, through evaluating the relationship between tumor biomarker expression and treatment outcome. The frozen tumor specimens of patients with stage III colon cancer who receives postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy are examined. Protein expression of thymidine phosphorylase (TP), dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). mRNA expression of TP, DPD, thymidylate synthase (TS) and orotate phosphoribosyl transferase (OPRT) are evaluated using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The patients’ clinical data reviewed are as follow: demographic and pathological characteristics, regimen, drug doses and treatment duration of adjuvant therapy, types and severity of adverse events, disease free survival, relapse free survival and overall survival. Then, relationships among the protein/mRNA expression, clinicopathological characteristics and the treatment outcomes are analyzed for each 5-FU derivative. A total of 2,128 patients from the 217 institutions were enrolled between April 2009 and March 2012. The B-CAST study demonstrated that large-scale, multicenter translational research using frozen samples was feasible when the sample shipment and Web-based data collection were well organized. The results

  18. Phytoestrogens/insoluble fibers and colonic estrogen receptor β: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    Principi, Mariabeatrice; Di Leo, Alfredo; Pricci, Maria; Scavo, Maria Principia; Guido, Raffaella; Tanzi, Sabina; Piscitelli, Domenico; Pisani, Antonio; Ierardi, Enzo; Comelli, Maria Cristina; Barone, Michele

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To assess the safety and effect of the supplementation of a patented blend of dietary phytoestrogens and insoluble fibers on estrogen receptor (ER)-β and biological parameters in sporadic colonic adenomas. METHODS: A randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial was performed. Patients scheduled to undergo surveillance colonoscopy for previous sporadic colonic adenomas were identified, and 60 eligible patients were randomized to placebo or active dietary intervention (ADI) twice a day, for 60 d before surveillance colonoscopy. ADI was a mixture of 175 mg milk thistle extract, 20 mg secoisolariciresinol and 750 mg oat fiber extract. ER-β and ER-α expression, apoptosis and proliferation (Ki-67 LI) were assessed in colon samples. RESULTS: No adverse event related to ADI was recorded. ADI administration showed a significant increases in ER-β protein (0.822 ± 0.08 vs 0.768 ± 0.10, P = 0.04) and a general trend to an increase in ER-β LI (39.222 ± 2.69 vs 37.708 ± 5.31, P = 0.06), ER-β/ER-α LI ratio (6.564 ± 10.04 vs 2.437 ± 1.53, P = 0.06), terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (35.592 ± 14.97 vs 31.541 ± 11.54, P = 0.07) and Ki-67 (53.923 ± 20.91 vs 44.833 ± 10.38, P = 0.07) approximating statistical significance. A significant increase of ER-β protein (0.805 ± 0.13 vs 0.773 ± 0.13, P = 0.04), mRNA (2.278 ± 1.19 vs 1.105 ± 1.07, P < 0.02) and LI (47.533 ± 15.47 vs 34.875 ± 16.67, P < 0.05) and a decrease of ER-α protein (0.423 ± 0.06 vs 0.532 ± 0.11, P < 0.02) as well as a trend to increase of ER-β/ER-α protein in ADI vs placebo group were observed in patients without polyps (1.734 ± 0.20 vs 1.571 ± 0.42, P = 0.07). CONCLUSION: The role of ER-β on the control of apoptosis, and its amenability to dietary intervention, are supported in our study. PMID:23885143

  19. Cancer risk awareness and screening uptake in individuals at higher risk for colon cancer: a cross-sectional study.

    Salimzadeh, Hamideh; Bishehsari, Faraz; Delavari, Alireza; Barzin, Gilda; Amani, Mohammad; Majidi, Azam; Sadjadi, Alireza; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2016-12-20

    We aimed to measure cancer knowledge and feasibility of a screening colonoscopy among a cohort of individuals at higher risk of colon cancer. This study was conducted as part of an ongoing screening cohort, in which first degree relatives (FDRs) of patients with colon cancer are invited to participate in a free of charge screening colonoscopy. We enrolled 1017 FDRs in the study between 2013 and 2014 measuring their data on demographics, cancer knowledge and colonoscopy uptake. A p value of aware of their increased risk for cancer, near 35.0% had ever heard about colonoscopy with 22% aware of the correct age to start screening. Comparing cancer knowledge of FDRs at high risk versus those at moderate risk, we recorded non-significant differences (p>0.05). Almost two-thirds of FDRs expressed willingness to undergo a colonoscopy and 49.2% completed the procedure, of which 12.8% had advanced neoplasm. Our data indicated that remarkable numbers of FDRs were not still informed of their cancer risk or never received a physician recommendation for screening. The desirable uptake at first invitation, which would be higher over successive invitations, supports the feasibility of a family-based recruitment approach for early screening. This has promising implications to introduce targeted screening colonoscopy into the healthcare system in Iran and other developing nations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  20. Transitions in Structure in Oil-in-Water Emulsions As Studied by Diffusing Wave Spectroscopy

    Ruis, H.G.M.; Gruijthuijsen, van K.; Venema, P.; Linden, van der E.

    2007-01-01

    Transitions in structure of sodium caseinate stabilized emulsions were studied using conventional rheometry as well as diffusing wave spectroscopy (DWS). Structural differences were induced by different amounts of stabilizer, and transitions in structure were induced by acidification. Special

  1. System Operations Studies for Automated Guideway Transit Systems : Discrete Event Simulation Model Programmer's Manual

    1982-07-01

    In order to examine specific automated guideway transit (AGT) developments and concepts, UMTA undertook a program of studies and technology investigations called Automated Guideway Transit Technology (AGTT) Program. The objectives of one segment of t...

  2. Comparative study of the synthesis of layered transition metal molybdates

    Mitchell, S.; Gomez-Aviles, A.; Gardner, C.; Jones, W.

    2010-01-01

    Mixed metal oxides (MMOs) prepared by the mild thermal decomposition of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) differ in their reactivity on exposure to aqueous molybdate containing solutions. In this study, we investigate the reactivity of some T-Al containing MMOs (T=Co, Ni, Cu or Zn) towards the formation of layered transition metal molybdates (LTMs) possessing the general formula AT 2 (OH)(MoO 4 ) 2 .H 2 O, where A=NH 4 + , Na + or K + . The phase selectivity of the reaction was studied with respect to the source of molybdate, the ratio of T to Mo and the reaction pH. LTMs were obtained on reaction of Cu-Al and Zn-Al containing MMOs with aqueous solutions of ammonium heptamolybdate. Rehydration of these oxides in the presence of sodium or potassium molybdate yielded a rehydrated LDH phase as the only crystalline product. The LTM products obtained by the rehydration of MMO precursors were compared with LTMs prepared by direct precipitation from the metal salts in order to study the influence of preparative route on their chemical and physical properties. Differences were noted in the composition, morphology and thermal properties of the resulting products. - Graphical abstract: Mixed metal oxides (MMOs) derived from layered double hydroxide precursors differ in their reactivity on exposure to aqueous molybdate containing solutions. We investigate the influence of the molybdate source, the rehydration pH and the ratio of T/Mo on the reactivity of some T-Al containing MMOs (T=Co, Ni, Cu or Zn) towards the formation of layered transition metal molybdates of general formula AT 2 (OH)(MoO 4 ) 2 .H 2 O (where A + =NH 4 + , K + or Na + ).

  3. Energy restriction early in life and colon carcinoma risk: Results of The Netherlands Cohort Study after 7.3 years of follow-up

    Dirx, M.J.M.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Goldbohm, R.A.; Lumey, L.H.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND. This study evaluated the effects of severe undernutrition during adolescence and subsequent colon carcinoma risk. METHODS. The authors evaluated The Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer (NLCS) among 62,573 women and 58,279 men aged 55-69 years at baseline. Information on diet and

  4. Transition radiation electron beam diagnostic study at ATF

    Qiu, X.Z.; Wang, X.J.; Batchelor, K.; Ben-Zvi, I.

    1995-01-01

    Recently we have started a program to develop transition radiation based electron beam diagnostics at the Accelerator Test Facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory. In this paper, we will discuss a technique to estimate the lower limit in electron beam divergence measurement with single foil transition radiation and two-foil transition radiation interferometer. Preliminary experimental data from 4.5 MeV electron beam will be presented

  5. Chemical synthesis, docking studies and biological effects of functionalized 1,3-diaryl-2-propen-1-ones on human colon cancer cells

    Guo-Min Zhu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A series of 1, 3-diaryl-2-propen-1-ones was synthesised in order to obtain a new type of anticancer drug, designed with hybrid features to inhibit colon cancer activated receptor. Based on computational modelling and docking studies, potential inhibitors were synthesised and their biological activity evaluated. The structures of newly synthesized compounds were confirmed by 1HNMR, 13CNMR and Mass spectrometry. All analogues were evaluated for in vitro cytotoxicity against human colon (caco-2 cancer cell lines. Compounds 1b, 1f-1h, and 2i showed significant cytotoxicity. Chalcones 1b, 1f and 1g were identified as the most potent and selective anticancer agents with IC50 values <1 µg/mL and 1.5 µg/mL, against caco-2 cell line, respectively. In conclusion, this finding confirms the suitability of indolyl chalcone analogues as candidates for further investigation towards the management of colon cancer related diseases.

  6. Transition and Students with Mild Intellectual Disability: Findings From the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2

    Bouck, Emily C.; Joshi, Gauri S.

    2016-01-01

    Students with intellectual disability historically struggle with post-school outcomes. However, much of the research on students with intellectual disability relative to post-school outcomes and transition services is aggregated for students with mild, moderate, and severe intellectual disability. This secondary analysis of the National…

  7. Pancreatoduodenectomy with colon resection for cancer: A nationwide retrospective analysis

    Marsman, E. Madelief; de Rooij, Thijs; van Eijck, Casper H.; Boerma, Djamila; Bonsing, Bert A.; van Dam, Ronald M.; van Dieren, Susan; Erdmann, Joris I.; Gerhards, Michael F.; de Hingh, Ignace H.; Kazemier, Geert; Klaase, Joost; Molenaar, I. Quintus; Patijn, Gijs A.; Scheepers, Joris J.; Tanis, Pieter J.; Busch, Olivier R.; Besselink, Marc G.

    2016-01-01

    Microscopically radical (R0) resection of pancreatic, periampullary, or colon cancer may occasionally require a pancreatoduodenectomy with colon resection (PD-colon), but the benefits of this procedure have been disputed, and multicenter studies on morbidity and oncologic outcomes after PD-colon are

  8. Surgical protocol and outcome for sigmoidovesical fistula secondary to diverticular disease of the left colon: A retrospective cohort study.

    El-Haddad, Hany M; Kassem, Mohamed I; Sabry, Ahmed A; Abouelfotouh, Ahmed

    2018-06-11

    Diverticular disease of sigmoid colon can rarely be complicated by a connective track to urinary bladder. Pneumaturia and fecaluria are the pathognomonic symptoms. Resection surgery is the preferred treatment to overcome the renal sequellae of the disease. The purpose of this study is to propose a guiding classification to help general surgeons during surgical management of diverticular disease complicated by sigmoidovesical fistula (SVF). The data of 40 cases with colovesical fistula due to diverticular disease of sigmoid colon were retrospectively analyzed. Clinicopathological variables, imaging reports, types of treatment and patient outcome were evaluated. There were 36 men (90%) and four women (10%) in which the ages ranged from 32 to 79 with a mean of 58.1 years. Pneumaturia was the most common presenting symptom in 38 cases (95%) followed by urinary symptoms in 35 cases (87.5%) then fecaluria in 33 cases (82.5%). 37 patients underwent surgical resection while three patients were in poor general condition to withstand major resection. 16 patients underwent one stage resection and anastomosis, 16 patients were managed by two stage procedure and the remaining 5 patients were treated by three stages operation. Adequately performed CT followed by colonoscopy is the mainstay for diagnosis. Type 1 SVF should be treated in a single stage by complete resection and immediate anastomosis without a stoma. Type 2 cases are best managed in two stages while those with type 3 SVF are emergently managed by three stage procedure. Treatment of type 4 should be individualized. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Density functional theory studies of transition metal nanoparticles in catalysis

    Greeley, Jeffrey Philip; Rankin, Rees; Zeng, Zhenhua

    2013-01-01

    Periodic Density Functional Theory calculations are capable of providing powerful insights into the structural, energetics, and electronic phenomena that underlie heterogeneous catalysis on transition metal nanoparticles. Such calculations are now routinely applied to single crystal metal surfaces...... and to subnanometer metal clusters. Descriptions of catalysis on truly nanosized structures, however, are generally not as well developed. In this talk, I will illustrate different approaches to analyzing nanocatalytic phenomena with DFT calculations. I will describe case studies from heterogeneous catalysis...... and electrocatalysis, in which single crystal models are combined with Wulff construction-based ideas to produce descriptions of average nanocatalyst behavior. Then, I will proceed to describe explicitly DFT-based descriptions of catalysis on truly nanosized particles (

  10. Aging studies for the ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT)

    Åkesson, T; Bondarenko, V; Capéans-Garrido, M; Catinaccio, A; Cwetanski, Peter; Danielsson, H; Dittus, F; Dolgoshein, B A; Dressnandt, N; Ebenstein, W L; Eerola, Paule Anna Mari; Farthouat, Philippe; Fedin, O; Froidevaux, D; Gavrilenko, I; Grichkevitch, Y; Gagnon, P; Hajduk, Z; Keener, P T; Kekelidze, G D; Konovalov, S; Kowalski, T; Kramarenko, V A; Laritchev, A; Lichard, P; Lundberg, B; Luehring, F C; Markina, I; Manara, A; McFarlane, K; Mitsou, V; Muraviev, S; Newcomer, F M; Ogren, H; Oh, S H; Olszowska, J; Peshekhonov, V D; Rembser, C; Romaniouk, A; Rhone, O; Rust, D R; Shchegelskii, V; Shmeleva, A; Smirnov, S; Smirnova, L N; Sosnovtsev, V V; Sutchkov, S; Tartarelli, F; Tikhomirov, V; Van Berg, R; Vassilieva, L; Wang, C; Williams, H H

    2003-01-01

    A summary of the aging and material validation studies carried out for the ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) is presented. Particular emphasis is put on the different phenomena observed in straw tubes operating with the chosen Xe/CF//4/CO//2 mixture. The most serious effects observed are silicon deposition on the anode wire and damage of the anode wire gold plating. Etching phenomena and active radical effects are also discussed. With a careful choice of all materials and components, and with good control of the water contamination in the active gas, the ATLAS TRT will operate reliably for 10 years at the LHC design luminosity. To demonstrate this fully, more work is still needed on the gas system purification elements, in particular to understand their interplay with the active species containing fluorine created in the avalanche process under irradiation.

  11. A Study of Radiative Bottomonium Transitions using Converted Photons

    Lees, J.P.

    2011-01-01

    The authors use (111 ± 1) million Υ(3S) and (89 ± 1) million Υ(2S) events recorded by the BABAR detector at the PEP-II B-factory at SLAC to perform a study of radiative transitions betwen bottomonium states using photons that have been converted to e + e - pairs by the detector material. They observe Υ(3S) → γχ b0,2 (1P) decay, make precise measurements of the branching fractions for χ b1,2 (1P, 2P) → γΥ(1S) and χ b1,2 (2P) → γΥ(2S) decays, and search for radiative decay to the η b (1S) and η b (2S) states.

  12. Estimating the adjuvant chemotherapy effect in elderly stage II and III colon cancer patients in an observational study.

    Kim, Ki-Yeol; Cha, In-Ho; Ahn, Joong Bae; Kim, Nam Kyu; Rha, Sun Young; Chung, Hyun Cheol; Roh, Jae Kyung; Shin, Sang Joon

    2013-05-01

    Adjuvant chemotherapy has been known as a standard treatment for patients with resected colon cancer. However, in elderly colon cancer patients, the characteristics of patients are heterogeneous with regard to life expectancy and comorbidities. Thus, with regard to the effectiveness of adjuvant chemotherapy for colon cancer, it is difficult to extrapolate data of clinical trials from the younger into the older general population. Data for 382 elderly colon cancer patients were analyzed: 217 in Stage II and 165 in Stage III. The efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy was evaluated in elderly colon cancer patients after a match by the propensity score method. For matched patients with Stage II colon cancer, there was no significant efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy in the risk of death during all follow-up periods (P-value, 0.06-0.37). Though there was a tendency that the adjuvant chemotherapy reduces the death rate during the follow-up periods, it was not statistically significant. In the case of Stage III, the adjuvant chemotherapy was significantly effective in matched patients for 5-year (hazard ratio [HR], 0.69; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.30-0.90) and overall survival (HR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.34-0.94). Adjuvant chemotherapy for elderly patients with Stage II colon cancer is not effective, whereas elderly patients with Stage III with adjuvant chemotherapy appear to have a better survival rate in the general population. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Synthesis, spectroscopic properties, molecular docking, anti-colon cancer and anti-microbial studies of some novel metal complexes for 2-amino-4-phenylthiazole derivative

    Al-Harbi, Sami A.; Bashandy, Mahmoud S.; Al-Saidi, Hammed M.; Emara, Adel A. A.; Mousa, Tarek A. A.

    2015-06-01

    This article describes the synthesis of novel bidentate Schiff base (H2L) from condensation of 2-amino-4-phenylthiazole (APT) with 4,6-diacetylresorcinol (DAR) in the molar ratio 2:1. We studied interaction of ligand (H2L) with transition metal ions such as Cr(III), Fe(III), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II). The ligand (H2L) has two bidentate sets of (N-O) units which can coordinate with two metal ions to afford novel binuclear metal complexes. The directions of coordinate bonds are from nitrogen atoms of azomethine groups and oxygen atoms of the phenolic groups. Structures of the newly synthesized complexes were confirmed by elemental analysis, IR, UV, 1H NMR, ESR, TGA and mass spectral data. All of the newly synthesized complexes were evaluated for their antibacterial and anti-fungal activities. They were also evaluated for their in vitro anticancer activity against human colon carcinoma cells (HCT-116) and mammalian cells of African green monkey kidney (VERO). The Cu(II) complex with selectivity index (S.I.) = 21.26 exhibited better activity than methotrexate (MTX) as a reference drug with S.I. value = 13.30, while Zn(II) complex with S.I. value = 10.24 was found to be nearly as active as MTX. Molecular docking studies further helped in understanding the mode of action of the compounds through their various interactions with active sites of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) enzyme. The observed activity of Fe(III) and Cu(II) complexes gave rise to the conclusion that they might exert their action through inhibition of the DHFR enzyme.

  14. Effect of itopride hydrochloride on the ileal and colonic motility in guinea pig in vitro.

    Lim, Hyun Chul; Kim, Young Gyun; Lim, Jung Hyun; Kim, Hee Sun; Park, Hyojin

    2008-06-30

    Itopride hydrochloride (itopride) inhibits acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and antagonizes dopamine D(2) receptor, and has been used as a gastroprokinetic agent. However, its prokinetic effect on the small bowel or colon has not yet been thoroughly investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of itopride on motor functions of the ileum and colon in guinea pigs. The distal ileum was excised and the activity of peristaltic contraction was determined by measuring the amplitude and propagation velocity of peristaltic contraction. The distal colon was removed and connected to the chamber containing Krebs-Henseleit solution (K-H solution). Artificial fecal matter was inserted into the oral side of the lumen, and moved toward the anal side by intraluminal perfusion via peristaltic pump. Colonic transit times were measured by the time required for the artificial feces to move a total length of 10 cm with 2-cm intervals. In the ileum, itopride accelerated peristaltic velocity at higher dosage (10(-10)-10(-6) M) whereas neostigmine accelerated it only with a lower dosage (10(-10)-10(-9) M). Dopamine (10(-8) M) decelerated the velocity that was recovered by itopride infusion. Itopride and neostigmine significantly shortened colonic transit at a higher dosage (10(-10)-10(-6) M). Dopamine (10(-8) M) delayed colonic transit time that was also recovered after infusion of itopride. Itopride has prokinetic effects on both the ileum and colon, which are regulated through inhibitory effects on AChE and antagonistic effects on dopamine D(2) receptor.

  15. Colonic lymphoid follicles associated with colonic neoplasms

    Glick, S.N.; Teplick, S.K.; Ross, W.M.

    1986-01-01

    The authors prospectively evaluated 62 patients over 40 years old in whom lymphoid follicles were demonstrated on double-contrast enema examinations. Eighteen patients (29%) had no current radiographic evidence of, or history of, colonic neoplasms. Forty-four patients (71%) had an associated neoplasm. Fourteen patients had associated colonic carcinoma, and ten patients had a history of a previously resected colon cancer. One patient had previously undergone resection for ''polyps.'' Twenty-two patients had an associated ''polyp.'' There were no clinical or radiographic features that could reliably distinguish the neoplastic from the nonneoplastic groups. However, lymphoid follicles in the left colon or diffusely involving the colon were more likely to be associated with a colonic neoplasm. Lymphoid follicles were almost always identified near a malignant lesion

  16. Some neutron scattering studies on magnetic and molecular phase transitions

    Bevaart, L.

    1978-01-01

    In this thesis neutron-scattering investigations on two different systems are described. The first study is concerned with the magnetic ordering phenomena in pseudo two-dimensional (d = 2), two-component antiferromagnets K 2 Mnsub(1-x)Msub(x)F 4 (M = Fe, Co), as a function of the composition x and temperature T. For one of the samples in this series, K 2 Musub(0.978)Fesub(0.022)F 4 , the influence of an external magnetic field on the ordering characteristics was studied in addition. The second study deals with the rotational motions of the NH 4 + groups in NH 4 ZnF 3 in relation with the structural phase transition at Tsub(c) = 115.1 K. The experimental techniques were chosen according to the requirements of each of these two subjects. The former study was carried out by observing the elastic magnetic neutron scattering with a double-axis diffractometer, whereas for the latter study time-of-flight (TOF) techniques were applied to observe the inelastic and quasi-elastic incoherent neutron scattering by the protons of the rotating NH 4 + groups. (Auth.)

  17. Stable isotopes of transition and post-transition metals as tracers in environmental studies

    Bullen, Tomas D.; Baskaran, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The transition and post-transition metals, which include the elements in Groups 3–12 of the Periodic Table, have a broad range of geological and biological roles as well as industrial applications and thus are widespread in the environment. Interdisciplinary research over the past decade has resulted in a broad understanding of the isotope systematics of this important group of elements and revealed largely unexpected variability in isotope composition for natural materials. Significant kinetic and equilibrium isotope fractionation has been observed for redox sensitive metals such as iron, chromium, copper, molybdenum and mercury, and for metals that are not redox sensitive in nature such as cadmium and zinc. In the environmental sciences, the isotopes are increasingly being used to understand important issues such as tracing of metal contaminant sources and fates, unraveling metal redox cycles, deciphering metal nutrient pathways and cycles, and developing isotope biosignatures that can indicate the role of biological activity in ancient and modern planetary systems.

  18. A study protocol to investigate the relationship between dietary fibre intake and fermentation, colon cell turnover, global protein acetylation and early carcinogenesis: the FACT study

    Corfe, Bernard M; Williams, Elizabeth A; Bury, Jonathan P; Riley, Stuart A; Croucher, Lisa J; Lai, Daphne YL; Evans, Caroline A

    2009-01-01

    A number of studies, notably EPIC, have shown a descrease in colorectal cancer risk associated with increased fibre consumption. Whilst the underlying mechanisms are likely to be multifactorial, production of the short-chain fatty-acid butyrate fro butyratye is frequently cited as a major potential contributor to the effect. Butyrate inhibits histone deacetylases, which work on a wide range of proteins over and above histones. We therefore hypothesized that alterations in the acetylated proteome may be associated with a cancer risk phenotype in the colorectal mucosa, and that such alterations are candidate biomarkers for effectiveness of fibre interventions in cancer prevention. There are two principal arms to this study: (i) a cross-sectional study (FACT OBS) of 90 subjects recruited from gastroenterology clinics and; (ii) an intervention trial in 40 subjects with an 8 week high fibre intervention. In both studies the principal goal is to investigate a link between fibre intake, SCFA production and global protein acetylation. The primary measure is level of faecal butyrate, which it is hoped will be elevated by moving subjects to a high fibre diet. Fibre intakes will be estimated in the cross-sectional group using the EPIC Food Frequency Questionnaire. Subsidiary measures of the effect of butyrate on colon mucosal function and pre-cancerous phenotype will include measures of apoptosis, apoptotic regulators cell cycle and cell division. This study will provide a new level of mechanistic data on alterations in the functional proteome in response to the colon microenvironment which may underwrite the observed cancer preventive effect of fibre. The study may yield novel candidate biomarkers of fibre fermentation and colon mucosal function. Trial Registration Number: ISRCTN90852168

  19. A study protocol to investigate the relationship between dietary fibre intake and fermentation, colon cell turnover, global protein acetylation and early carcinogenesis: the FACT study

    Croucher Lisa J

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of studies, notably EPIC, have shown a descrease in colorectal cancer risk associated with increased fibre consumption. Whilst the underlying mechanisms are likely to be multifactorial, production of the short-chain fatty-acid butyrate fro butyratye is frequently cited as a major potential contributor to the effect. Butyrate inhibits histone deacetylases, which work on a wide range of proteins over and above histones. We therefore hypothesized that alterations in the acetylated proteome may be associated with a cancer risk phenotype in the colorectal mucosa, and that such alterations are candidate biomarkers for effectiveness of fibre interventions in cancer prevention. Methods an design There are two principal arms to this study: (i a cross-sectional study (FACT OBS of 90 subjects recruited from gastroenterology clinics and; (ii an intervention trial in 40 subjects with an 8 week high fibre intervention. In both studies the principal goal is to investigate a link between fibre intake, SCFA production and global protein acetylation. The primary measure is level of faecal butyrate, which it is hoped will be elevated by moving subjects to a high fibre diet. Fibre intakes will be estimated in the cross-sectional group using the EPIC Food Frequency Questionnaire. Subsidiary measures of the effect of butyrate on colon mucosal function and pre-cancerous phenotype will include measures of apoptosis, apoptotic regulators cell cycle and cell division. Discussion This study will provide a new level of mechanistic data on alterations in the functional proteome in response to the colon microenvironment which may underwrite the observed cancer preventive effect of fibre. The study may yield novel candidate biomarkers of fibre fermentation and colon mucosal function. Trial Registration Trial Registration Number: ISRCTN90852168

  20. University Transitions and Gender: From Choice of Studies to Academic Career Development

    Villar, Alícia; Hernàndez, Francesc Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Based on the results of the authors' research using a case study of a Spanish university, the sociological component of gender is an important factor in building transitions at university. When the authors refer to university transitions they are talking about two periods. Firstly, they refer to the transition of undergraduate students from upper…

  1. Metabolic fate of 13C-labelled polydextrose and impact on the gut microbiome: A triple-phase study in a colon simulator

    Lamichhane, Santosh; Yde, Christian C.; Max Jensen, Henrik

    2018-01-01

    The present study introduces a novel triple-phase (liquids, solids and gases) approach, which employed uniformly labelled [U-13C] polydextrose (PDX) for the selective profiling of metabolites generated from dietary fiber fermentation in an in vitro colon simulator using human fecal inocula. Emplo...

  2. E. coli-Produced BMP-2 as a Chemopreventive Strategy for Colon Cancer : A Proof-of-Concept Study

    Yuvaraj, Saravanan; Al-Lahham, Sa'ad H.; Somasundaram, Rajesh; Figaroa, Patrick A.; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.; Bos, Nicolaas A.

    2012-01-01

    Colon cancer is a serious health problem, and novel preventive and therapeutical avenues are urgently called for. Delivery of proteins with anticancer activity through genetically modified bacteria provides an interesting, potentially specific, economic and effective approach here. Interestingly,

  3. Glued versus stapled anastomosis of the colon: An experimental study to determine comparative resistance to intraluminal pressure

    Jiri Paral

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: Healing with absorbable synthetic glue was as good as with staples. Glued anastomoses resisted pressures that were statistically significantly higher than physiological intraluminal colon pressures but lower than stapled ones.

  4. Commonly used bowel preparations have significant and different effects upon cell proliferation in the colon: a pilot study

    Riley Stuart A

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Markers of crypt cell proliferation are frequently employed in studies of the impact of genetic and exogenous factors on human colonic physiology. Human studies often rely on the assessment of tissue acquired at endoscopy. Modulation of cell proliferation by bowel preparation with oral laxatives may confound the findings of such studies, but there is little data on the impact of commonly used bowel preparations on markers of cell proliferation. Methods Crypt length, crypt cellularity and crypt cell proliferation were assessed in biopsies acquired after preparation with either Klean-Prep or Picolax. Crypt cell proliferation was assessed by whole-mount mitotic figure count, and by two different immunohistochemical (IHC labelling methods (Ki-67 and pHH3. Subsequent biopsies were obtained from the same patients without bowel preparation and similarly assessed. Parameters were compared between groups using analysis of variance and paired t-tests. Results There were significant differences in labelling indices (LI between biopsies taken after Klean-prep and those taken after Picolax preparation, for both Ki67 (p = 0.019 and pHH3 (p = 0.017. A similar trend was seen for whole-mount mitotic figure counts. Suppression or elevation of proliferation parameters by bowel preparation may mask any effect due to an intervention or disease. Conclusion Commonly used bowel preparations may have significant and different effects on crypt cell proliferation. This should be taken into account when designing studies and when considering the findings of existing studies.

  5. Linked color imaging reduces the miss rate of neoplastic lesions in the right colon: a randomized tandem colonoscopy study.

    Paggi, Silvia; Mogavero, Giuseppe; Amato, Arnaldo; Rondonotti, Emanuele; Andrealli, Alida; Imperiali, Gianni; Lenoci, Nicoletta; Mandelli, Giovanna; Terreni, Natalia; Conforti, Francesco Simone; Conte, Dario; Spinzi, Giancarlo; Radaelli, Franco

    2018-04-01

     Linked color imaging (LCI) is a newly developed image-enhancing endoscopy technology that provides bright endoscopic images and increases color contrast. We investigated whether LCI improves the detection of neoplastic lesions in the right colon when compared with high definition white-light imaging (WLI).  Consecutive patients undergoing colonoscopy were randomized (1:1) after cecal intubation into right colon inspection at first pass by LCI or by WLI. At the hepatic flexure, the scope was reintroduced to the cecum under LCI and a second right colon inspection was performed under WLI in previously LCI-scoped patients (LCI-WLI group) and vice versa (WLI-LCI group). Lesions detected on first- and second-pass examinations were used to calculate detection and miss rates, respectively. The primary outcome was the right colon adenoma miss rate.  Of the 600 patients enrolled, 142 had at least one adenoma in the right colon, with similar right colon adenoma detection rates (r-ADR) in the two groups (22.7 % in LCI-WLI and 24.7 % in WLI-LCI). At per-polyp analysis, double inspection of the right colon in the LCI-WLI and WLI-LCI groups resulted in an 11.8 % and 30.6 % adenoma miss rate, respectively ( P  one adenoma was identified in the second pass only (incremental ADR) in 2 of 300 patients (0.7 %) in the LCI - WLI group and in 13 of 300 patients (4.3 %) in the WLI - LCI group ( P  = 0.01).  LCI could reduce the miss rate of neoplastic lesions in the right colon. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. The small intestine and colon: Scintigraphic quantitation of motility in health and disease

    Kamm, M.A. (Saint Mark' s Hospital, London (United Kingdom). Medical Physiology Unit)

    1992-10-01

    Radioisotopes allow accurate quantitation of the pattern and effectiveness of the transit of chyme through the small and large intestines. Abnormalities of small bowel transit can be demonstrated in patients with the irritable bowel syndrome, and patients with chronic idiopathic intestinal pseudo-obstruction due to either a visceral myopathy or neuropathy. In the colon, radioisotopic studies of transit have demonstrated the site of delayed transit in some severely constipated patients. In patients with these disorders of transit, functional studies may influence the choice of medical or surgical therapy although there are few prospective studies which have established their worth in this context. Radioisotope studies can also be utilised to study the effectiveness of delivery of drugs to the small and large bowel, and to study the adequacy of rectal evacuation in patients with a defaecatory disturbance. The low radiation dose and possibility of frequent observations make radioisotope studies valuable for clinical and research studies in functional gastrointestinal disorders. (orig.).

  7. The small intestine and colon: Scintigraphic quantitation of motility in health and disease

    Kamm, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    Radioisotopes allow accurate quantitation of the pattern and effectiveness of the transit of chyme through the small and large intestines. Abnormalities of small bowel transit can be demonstrated in patients with the irritable bowel syndrome, and patients with chronic idiopathic intestinal pseudo-obstruction due to either a visceral myopathy or neuropathy. In the colon, radioisotopic studies of transit have demonstrated the site of delayed transit in some severely constipated patients. In patients with these disorders of transit, functional studies may influence the choice of medical or surgical therapy although there are few prospective studies which have established their worth in this context. Radioisotope studies can also be utilised to study the effectiveness of delivery of drugs to the small and large bowel, and to study the adequacy of rectal evacuation in patients with a defaecatory disturbance. The low radiation dose and possibility of frequent observations make radioisotope studies valuable for clinical and research studies in functional gastrointestinal disorders. (orig.)

  8. Comparative study of the synthesis of layered transition metal molybdates

    Mitchell, S.; Gómez-Avilés, A.; Gardner, C.; Jones, W.

    2010-01-01

    Mixed metal oxides (MMOs) prepared by the mild thermal decomposition of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) differ in their reactivity on exposure to aqueous molybdate containing solutions. In this study, we investigate the reactivity of some T-Al containing MMOs ( T=Co, Ni, Cu or Zn) towards the formation of layered transition metal molybdates (LTMs) possessing the general formula AT2(OH)(MoO 4) 2·H 2O, where A=NH 4+, Na + or K +. The phase selectivity of the reaction was studied with respect to the source of molybdate, the ratio of T to Mo and the reaction pH. LTMs were obtained on reaction of Cu-Al and Zn-Al containing MMOs with aqueous solutions of ammonium heptamolybdate. Rehydration of these oxides in the presence of sodium or potassium molybdate yielded a rehydrated LDH phase as the only crystalline product. The LTM products obtained by the rehydration of MMO precursors were compared with LTMs prepared by direct precipitation from the metal salts in order to study the influence of preparative route on their chemical and physical properties. Differences were noted in the composition, morphology and thermal properties of the resulting products.

  9. The COLON study: Colorectal cancer: Longitudinal, Observational study on Nutritional and lifestyle factors that may influence colorectal tumour recurrence, survival and quality of life.

    Winkels, Renate M; Heine-Bröring, Renate C; van Zutphen, Moniek; van Harten-Gerritsen, Suzanne; Kok, Dieuwertje E G; van Duijnhoven, Fränzel J B; Kampman, Ellen

    2014-05-27

    There is clear evidence that nutrition and lifestyle can modify colorectal cancer risk. However, it is not clear if those factors can affect colorectal cancer treatment, recurrence, survival and quality of life. This paper describes the background and design of the "COlorectal cancer: Longitudinal, Observational study on Nutritional and lifestyle factors that may influence colorectal tumour recurrence, survival and quality of life" - COLON - study. The main aim of this study is to assess associations of diet and other lifestyle factors, with colorectal cancer recurrence, survival and quality of life. We extensively investigate diet and lifestyle of colorectal cancer patients at diagnosis and during the following years; this design paper focusses on the initial exposures of interest: diet and dietary supplement use, body composition, nutrient status (e.g. vitamin D), and composition of the gut microbiota. The COLON study is a multi-centre prospective cohort study among at least 1,000 incident colorectal cancer patients recruited from 11 hospitals in the Netherlands. Patients with colorectal cancer are invited upon diagnosis. Upon recruitment, after 6 months, 2 years and 5 years, patients fill out food-frequency questionnaires; questionnaires about dietary supplement use, physical activity, weight, height, and quality of life; and donate blood samples. Diagnostic CT-scans are collected to assess cross-sectional areas of skeletal muscle, subcutaneous fat, visceral fat and intermuscular fat, and to assess muscle attenuation. Blood samples are biobanked to facilitate future analyse of biomarkers, nutrients, DNA etc. Analysis of serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels, and analysis of metabolomic profiles are scheduled. A subgroup of patients with colon cancer is asked to provide faecal samples before and at several time points after colon resection to study changes in gut microbiota during treatment. For all patients, information on vital status is retrieved by linkage with

  10. Light-scattering study of the glass transition in lubricants

    Alsaad, M. A.; Winer, W. O.; Medina, F. D.; Oshea, D. C.

    1977-01-01

    The sound velocity of four lubricants has been measured as a function of temperature and pressure using Brillouin scattering. A change in slope of the velocity as a function of temperature or pressure allowed the determination of the glass transition temperature and pressure. The glass transition data were used to construct a phase diagram for each lubricant. The data indicate that the glass transition temperature increased with pressure at a rate which ranged from 120 to 200 C/GPa. The maximum pressure attained was 0.69 GPa and the temperature range was from 25 to 100 C.

  11. Antioxidative Effects of Phenolic Compounds of Mushroom Mycelia in Simulated Regions of the Human Colon, In Vitro Study

    Vamanu Emanuel

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Many compounds in mushrooms are biologically active; however, the in vivo actions of their metabolites are poorly understood. An in vitro system, GIS1, was used to simulate the fermentation action of microbiota in each colon region. We used MycoPo, a natural product obtained from the lyophilized mycelia of different Pleurotus ostreatus species to determine the biological effects in human-colon regions. Controls (Lentinula edodes mycelia; dried basidia of Agaricus brunnescens were chosen to confirm the biological activity of P. ostreatus mycelia in vitro. We measured total antioxidant capacity and ferric ion-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP in simulated colon regions to identify antioxidant compounds, and undertook in vitro gastrointestinal simulation and microbiological analyses. The highest FRAP was found for the ascending colon, and the antioxidant effect was higher when MycoPo was administered. A. brunnescens consumption resulted in low total antioxidant capacity. Polyphenol content was correlated with the antioxidant status and microbial composition of microbiota. Total polyphenolic content was higher after A. brunnescens consumption, and four types of polyphenols were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography. Major phenolic acids were gentisic acid, homogentisic acid, and small amounts of caffeic acid. The Enterobacteriaceae species populations varied greatly across the three parts of the colon. We noted a significant (p0.85. These data suggest a direct relationship between favorable bacterial strains and availability of bioactive compounds, with specificity for each colon region.

  12. Gendered transitions to adulthood by college field of study in the United States

    Siqi Han; Dmitry Tumin; Zhenchao Qian

    2016-01-01

    Background: Field of study may influence the timing of transitions to the labor market, marriage, and parenthood among college graduates. Research to date has yet to study how field of study is associated with the interweaving of these transitions in the USA. Objective: The current study examines gendered influences of college field of study on transitions to a series of adult roles, including full-time work, marriage, and parenthood. Methods: We use Cox proportional hazards models and ...

  13. Primary closure in colon trauma.

    Salinas-Aragón, Luis Enrique; Guevara-Torres, Lorenzo; Vaca-Pérez, Enrique; Belmares-Taboada, Jaime Arístides; Ortiz-Castillo, Fátima de Guadalupe; Sánchez-Aguilar, Martín

    2009-01-01

    Primary repair of colon injuries is an accepted therapeutic option; however, controversy persists regarding its safety. Our objective was to report the evolution and presence of complications in patients with colon injury who underwent primary closure and to determine if the time interval (>6 h), degree of injury, contamination, anatomic site injured, PATI (Penetrating Abdominal Trauma Index) >25, and the presence of other injuries in colon trauma are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. This was a prospective, observational, longitudinal and descriptive study conducted at the Central Hospital "Dr. Ignacio Morones Prieto," San Luis Potosí, Mexico, from January 1, 2003 to December 31, 2007. We included patients with abdominal trauma with colon injury subjected to surgical treatment. chi(2) was used for basic statistical analysis. There were 481 patients with abdominal trauma who underwent surgery; 77(16.1%) had colon injury. Ninety percent (n = 69) were treated in the first 6 h; 91% (n = 70) were due to penetrating injuries, and gunshot wound accounted for 48% (n = 37). Transverse colon was the most frequently injured (38%) (n = 29). Grade I and II injuries accounted for 75.3% (n = 58). Procedures included primary repair (76.66 %) (n = 46); resection with anastomosis (8.3%) (n = 5); and colostomy (15%) (n = 9). Associated injuries were present in 76.6% (n = 59). There was some degree of contamination in 85.7% (n = 66); 82.8% (58) had PATI colon injury. Primary repair is a safe procedure for treatment of colon injuries. Patients with primary repair had lower morbidity (p <0.009). Surgery during the first 6 h (p <0.006) and in hemodynamically stable patients (p <0.014) had a lower risk of complications.

  14. Recent aging studies for the ATLAS transition radiation tracker

    Capéans-Garrido, M; Anghinolfi, F; Arik, E; Baker, O K; Baron, S; Benjamin, D; Bertelsen, H; Bondarenko, V; Bychkov, V; Callahan, J; Cardiel-Sas, L; Catinaccio, A; Cetin, S A; Cwetanski, Peter; Dam, M; Danielsson, H; Dittus, F; Dologshein, B; Dressnandt, N; Driouichi, C; Ebenstein, W L; Eerola, Paule Anna Mari; Farthouat, Philippe; Fedin, O; Froidevaux, D; Gagnon, P; Grichkevitch, Y; Grigalashvili, N S; Hajduk, Z; Hansen, P; Kayumov, F; Keener, P T; Kekelidze, G D; Khristatchev, A; Konovalov, S; Koudine, L; Kovalenko, S; Kowalski, T; Kramarenko, V A; Krüger, K; Laritchev, A; Lichard, P; Luehring, F C; Lundberg, B; Maleev, V; Markina, I; McFarlane, K W; Mialkovski, V; Mindur, B; Mitsou, V A; Morozov, S; Munar, A; Muraviev, S; Nadtochy, A; Newcorner, F M; Ogren, H; Oh, S H; Olszowska, J; Passmore, S; Patritchev, S; Peshekhonov, V D; Petti, R; Price, M; Rembser, C; Rohne, O; Romaniouk, A; Rust, D R; Ryabov, Yu; Ryzhov, V; Shchegelskii, V; Seliverstov, D M; Shin, T; Shmeleva, A; Smirnov, S; Sosnovtsev, V V; Soutchkov, V; Spiridenkov, E; Szczygiel, R; Tikhomirov, V; Van Berg, R; Vassilakopoulos, V I; Vassilieva, L; Wang, C; Williams, H H; Zalite, A

    2004-01-01

    The transition radiation tracker (TRT) is one of the three subsystems of the inner detector of the ATLAS experiment. It is designed to operate for 10 yr at the LHC, with integrated charges of similar to 10 C/cm of wire and radiation doses of about 10 Mrad and 2 multiplied by 10**1**4 neutrons/cm**2. These doses translate into unprecedented ionization currents and integrated charges for a large-scale gaseous detector. This paper describes studies leading to the adoption of a new ionization gas regime for the ATLAS TRT. In this new regime, the primary gas mixture is 70%Xe-27%CO**2-3%O**2. It is planned to occasionally flush and operate the TRT detector with an Ar-based ternary mixture, containing a small percentage of CF**4, to remove, if needed, silicon pollution from the anode wires. This procedure has been validated in realistic conditions and would require a few days of dedicated operation. This paper covers both performance and aging studies with the new TRT gas mixture. 12 Refs.

  15. Comparison of short-term outcomes between laparoscopically-assisted vs. transverse-incision open right hemicolectomy for right-sided colon cancer: a retrospective study

    Akaraviputh Thawatchai

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Laparoscopically-assisted right hemicolectomy (LRH is an acceptable alternative to open surgery for right-sided colon cancer which offers patients less pain and faster recovery. However, special equipment and substantial surgical experience are required. The aim of the study is to compare the short-term surgical outcomes of LRH and open right hemicolectomy through right transverse skin crease incision (ORHT for right-sided colon cancer. Patients and methods This retrospective study included 33 patients with right-sided colon cancer who underwent elective right hemicolectomy by laparoscopic or open approaches through right transverse skin crease incision between March 2004 and September 2006 at the Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital. Operative details, postoperative requirement of narcotics, recovery of bowel function, and oncological parameters were analyzed. Results Thirteen patients underwent LRH and 20 patients underwent ORHT. Both approaches achieved adequate oncological resection of the tumor. The laparoscopic group were characterized by shorter average incision lengths (7.7 vs 10.3 cm; p Conclusion LRH and ORHT for right-sided colon cancer resulted in the same short-term surgical outcomes including postoperative bowel function, narcotics consumption and length of hospital stay. However, LRH required a significantly longer operating time.

  16. Moessbauer study of phase transitions under high hydrostatic pressures. 1

    Kapitanov, E.V.; Yakovlev, E.N.

    1979-01-01

    Experimental results of the hydrostatic pressure influence on Moessbauer spectrum parameters are obtained over the pressure range including the area of structural phase transition. A linear increase of the Moessbauer effect probability (recoilless fraction) is accompanied by a linear decrease of the electron density at tin nuclei within the pressure range foregoing the phase transition. The electric resistance and the recoilless fraction of the new phase of Mg 2 Sn are lower, but the electron density at tin nuclei is greater than the initial phase ones. Hydrostatic conditions allow to fix clearly the diphasic transition area and to determine the influence of the pressure on the Moessbauer line position and on the recoilless fraction of the high pressure phase. The phase transition heat Q = 415 cal mol -1 is calculated using recoilless fractions of the high and low pressure phases at 25 kbar. The present results are qualitatively and quantitatively different from the results, obtained at nonhydrostatic conditions. (author)

  17. Colonic Stents for Colorectal Cancer Are Seldom Used and Mainly for Palliation of Obstruction: A Population-Based Study

    Anna M. Borowiec

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-expandable stents for obstructing colorectal cancer (CRC offer an alternative to operative management. The objective of the study was to determine stent utilization for CRC obstruction in the province of Ontario between April 1, 2000, and March 30, 2009. Colonic stent utilization characteristics, poststent insertion health outcomes, and health care encounters were recorded. 225 patients were identified over the study period. Median age was 69 years, 2/3 were male, and 2/3 had metastatic disease. Stent use for CRC increased over the study period and gastroenterologists inserted most stents. The median survival after stent insertion was 199 (IQR, 69–834 days. 37% of patients required an additional procedure. Patients with metastatic disease were less likely to go on to surgery (HR 0.14, 95% CI 0.06–0.32, p<0.0001. There were 2.4/person-year emergency department visits (95% CI 2.2–2.7 and 2.3 hospital admissions/person-year (95% CI 2.1–2.5 following stent insertion. Most admissions were cancer or procedure related or for palliation. Factors associated with hospital admissions were presence of metastatic disease, lack of chemotherapy treatment, and stoma surgery. Overall the use of stents for CRC obstruction remains low. Stents are predominantly used for palliation with low rates of postinsertion health care encounters.

  18. Colonic diverticulosis is not a risk factor for colonic adenoma.

    Hong, Wandong; Dong, Lemei; Zippi, Maddalena; Stock, Simon; Geng, Wujun; Xu, Chunfang; Zhou, Mengtao

    2018-01-01

    Colonic diverticulosis may represent a risk factor for colonic adenomas by virtue of the fact that evolving data suggest that these 2 conditions may share common risk factors such as Western dietary pattern and physical inactivity. This study aims to investigate the association between colonic diverticulosis and colonic adenomas in mainland China. We conducted a cross-sectional study on patients who underwent colonoscopic examination between October 2013 and December 2014 in a university hospital in mainland China. Age, gender, colonic adenomas, advanced adenomas, and distribution of diverticulosis were recorded during the procedures. Multivariate logistic regression and stratified analysis were used to evaluate the associations between the prevalence of diverticulosis and age, sex, and presence of colonic adenomas and advanced adenomas. A total of 17,456 subjects were enrolled. The prevalence of colonic diverticulosis and adenoma was 2.4% and 13.2%, respectively. With regard to distribution of diverticula, most (365/424, 86.1%) were right-sided. Multiple logistic regression analysis suggested that age and male gender were independent risk factors for adenoma and advanced adenoma. There was no relationship between diverticulosis or location of diverticulosis and presence of adenoma and advanced adenoma adjusting by age and gender. In a stratified analysis according to age and gender, similar results were also noted. There was no statistical relationship between diverticulosis and the risk of adenoma and advanced adenoma. Our results may not be generalized to the Western population due to the fact that left-sided diverticular cases were very small in our study.

  19. Phase transition in lead titanate thin films: a Brillouin study

    Kuzel, P; Dugautier, C; Moch, P; Marrec, F Le; Karkut, M G

    2002-01-01

    The elastic properties of both polycrystalline and epitaxial PbTiO 3 (PTO) thin films are studied using Brillouin scattering spectroscopy. The epitaxial PTO films were prepared by pulsed laser ablation on (1) a [0 0 1] single crystal of SrTiO 3 (STO) doped with Nb and (2) a [0 0 1] STO buffered with a layer of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 . The polycrystalline PTO films were prepared by sol-gel on a Si substrate buffered with TiO 2 and Pt layers. The data analysis takes into account the ripple and the elasto-optic contributions. The latter significantly affects the measured spectra since it gives rise to a Love mode in the p-s scattering geometry. At room temperature, the spectra of the epitaxially grown samples are interpreted using previously published elastic constants of PTO single crystals. Sol-gel samples exhibit appreciable softening of the effective elastic properties compared to PTO single crystals: this result is explained by taking into account the random orientation of the microscopic PTO grains. For both the polycrystalline and the epitaxial films we have determined that the piezoelectric terms do not contribute to the spectra. The temperature dependence of the spectra shows strong anomalies of the elastic properties near the ferroelectric phase transition. Compared to the bulk, T C is higher in the sol-gel films, while in the epitaxial films the sign of the T C shift depends on the underlying material

  20. Study of Electric Monopole Transitions in $^{76,78}$Kr

    2002-01-01

    In the run at ISOLDE performed last August we completed the study of the decay properties of the $ 0 ^{+} _{2} $ level in $ ^{76, 78, 80}$Kr by measuring the lifetime of the $ 0 ^{+} _{2} $ level in $^{76}$Kr. This was done by applying the $\\beta \\gamma\\gamma$ (t) fast timing method to the $\\beta^{+} $-decay of $^{76}$Rb. For the first time the method was applied to proton-rich nuclei at ISOLDE. This required some special modifications of the experimental set-up previously used for the case of $\\beta^{-}$-decay due to the presence of intense annihilation radiation. The experiment has been successful and enough data have been collected for the determination of the lifetime. The analysis is in progress. From a very preliminary estimate it would appear that the lifetime value falls in the range 20-60 ps. Combining this value with the previously measured ratio \\[\\frac{B(E0; 0^{+}_{2} \\rightarrow 0^{+}_{1})}{B(E2; 0^{+}_{2} \\rightarrow 2^{+}_{1})}\\] It is possible to extract an estimate of the monopole transition...

  1. Randomised clinical study: inulin short-chain fatty acid esters for targeted delivery of short-chain fatty acids to the human colon.

    Polyviou, T; MacDougall, K; Chambers, E S; Viardot, A; Psichas, A; Jawaid, S; Harris, H C; Edwards, C A; Simpson, L; Murphy, K G; Zac-Varghese, S E K; Blundell, J E; Dhillo, W S; Bloom, S R; Frost, G S; Preston, T; Tedford, M C; Morrison, D J

    2016-10-01

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) produced through fermentation of nondigestible carbohydrates by the gut microbiota are associated with positive metabolic effects. However, well-controlled trials are limited in humans. To develop a methodology to deliver SCFA directly to the colon, and to optimise colonic propionate delivery in humans, to determine its role in appetite regulation and food intake. Inulin SCFA esters were developed and tested as site-specific delivery vehicles for SCFA to the proximal colon. Inulin propionate esters containing 0-61 wt% (IPE-0-IPE-61) propionate were assessed in vitro using batch faecal fermentations. In a randomised, controlled, crossover study, with inulin as control, ad libitum food intake (kcal) was compared after 7 days on IPE-27 or IPE-54 (10 g/day all treatments). Propionate release was determined using (13) C-labelled IPE variants. In vitro, IPE-27-IPE-54 wt% propionate resulted in a sevenfold increase in propionate production compared with inulin (P inulin (439.5 vs. 703.9 kcal, P = 0.025) and IPE-54 (439.5 vs. 659.3 kcal, P = 0.025), whereas IPE-54 was not significantly different from inulin control. IPE-27 significantly reduced food intake suggesting colonic propionate plays a role in appetite regulation. Inulin short-chain fatty acid esters provide a novel tool for probing the diet-gut microbiome-host metabolism axis in humans. © 2016 The Authors. Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Electrical stimulation induces propagated colonic contractions in an experimental model.

    Aellen, S; Wiesel, P H; Gardaz, J-P; Schlageter, V; Bertschi, M; Virag, N; Givel, J-C

    2009-02-01

    Direct colonic electrical stimulation may prove to be a treatment option for specific motility disorders such as chronic constipation. The aim of this study was to provoke colonic contractions using electrical stimulation delivered from a battery-operated device. Electrodes were inserted into the caecal seromuscular layer of eight anaesthetized pigs. Contractions were induced by a neurostimulator (Medtronic 3625). Caecal motility was measured simultaneously by video image analysis, manometry and a technique assessing colonic transit. Caecal contractions were generated using 8-10 V amplitude, 1000 micros pulse width, 120 Hz frequency for 10-30 s, with an intensity of 7-15 mA. The maximal contraction strength was observed after 20-25 s. Electrical stimulation was followed by a relaxation phase of 1.5-2 min during which contractions propagated orally and aborally over at least 10 cm. Spontaneous and stimulated caecal motility values were significantly different for both intraluminal pressure (mean(s.d.) 332(124) and 463(187) mmHg respectively; P < 0.001, 42 experiments) and movement of contents (1.6(0.9) and 3.9(2.8) mm; P < 0.001, 40 experiments). Electrical stimulation modulated caecal motility, and provoked localized and propagated colonic contractions.

  3. Antifouling Coatings Influence both Abundance and Community Structure of Colonizing Biofilms: a Case Study in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea

    Camps, Mercedes; Barani, Aude; Gregori, Gérald; Bouchez, Agnès; Le Berre, Brigitte; Bressy, Christine; Blache, Yves

    2014-01-01

    When immersed in seawater, substrates are rapidly colonized by both micro- and macroorganisms. This process is responsible for important economic and ecological prejudices, particularly when related to ship hulls or aquaculture nets. Commercial antifouling coatings are supposed to reduce biofouling, i.e., micro- and macrofoulers. In this study, biofilms that primarily settled on seven different coatings (polyvinyl chloride [PVC], a fouling release coating [FRC], and five self-polishing copolymer coatings [SPC], including four commercial ones) were quantitatively studied, after 1 month of immersion in summer in the Toulon Bay (Northwestern Mediterranean Sea, France), by using flow cytometry (FCM), microscopy, and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. FCM was used after a pretreatment to separate cells from the biofilm matrix, in order to determine densities of heterotrophic bacteria, picocyanobacteria, and pico- and nanoeukaryotes on these coatings. Among diatoms, the only microphytobenthic class identified by microscopy, Licmophora, Navicula, and Nitzschia were determined to be the dominant taxa. Overall, biocide-free coatings showed higher densities than all other coatings, except for one biocidal coating, whatever the group of microorganisms. Heterotrophic bacteria always showed the highest densities, and diatoms showed the lowest, but the relative abundances of these groups varied depending on the coating. In particular, the copper-free SPC failed to prevent diatom settlement, whereas the pyrithione-free SPC exhibited high picocyanobacterial density. These results highlight the interest in FCM for antifouling coating assessment as well as specific selection among microbial communities by antifouling coatings. PMID:24907329

  4. Risk factors associated with the community-acquired colonization of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL positive Escherichia Coli. an exploratory case-control study.

    Rasmus Leistner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The number of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL positive (+ Escherichia coli is increasing worldwide. In contrast with many other multidrug-resistant bacteria, it is suspected that they predominantly spread within the community. The objective of this study was to assess factors associated with community-acquired colonization of ESBL (+ E. coli. METHODS: We performed a matched case-control study at the Charité University Hospital Berlin between May 2011 and January 2012. Cases were defined as patients colonized with community-acquired ESBL (+ E. coli identified <72 h after hospital admission. Controls were patients that carried no ESBL-positive bacteria but an ESBL-negative E.coli identified <72 h after hospital admission. Two controls per case were chosen from potential controls according to admission date. Case and control patients completed a questionnaire assessing nutritional habits, travel habits, household situation and language most commonly spoken at home (mother tongue. An additional rectal swab was obtained together with the questionnaire to verify colonization status. Genotypes of ESBL (+ E. coli strains were determined by PCR and sequencing. Risk factors associated with ESBL (+ E. coli colonization were analyzed by a multivariable conditional logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: We analyzed 85 cases and 170 controls, respectively. In the multivariable analysis, speaking an Asian language most commonly at home (OR = 13.4, CI 95% 3.3-53.8; p<0.001 and frequently eating pork (≥ 3 meals per week showed to be independently associated with ESBL colonization (OR = 3.5, CI 95% 1.8-6.6; p<0.001. The most common ESBL genotypes were CTX-M-1 with 44% (n = 37, CTX-M-15 with 28% (n = 24 and CTX-M-14 with 13% (n = 11. CONCLUSION: An Asian mother tongue and frequently consuming certain types of meat like pork can be independently associated with the colonization of ESBL-positive bacteria. We found neither frequent consumption

  5. Biosynthesis of human colonic mucin: Muc2 is the prominent secretory mucin

    Tytgat, K. M.; Büller, H. A.; Opdam, F. J.; Kim, Y. S.; Einerhand, A. W.; Dekker, J.

    1994-01-01

    Human colonic epithelium produces large amounts of mucin. The aim of this study was to examine mucin biosynthesis in the human colon. Human colonic mucin was isolated using CsCl density gradients, and polyclonal antiserum was raised. Biosynthesis of colonic mucins was studied by labeling colonic

  6. Adolescent body mass index and risk of colon and rectal cancer in a cohort of 1.79 million Israeli men and women: A population-based study.

    Levi, Zohar; Kark, Jeremy D; Katz, Lior H; Twig, Gilad; Derazne, Estela; Tzur, Dorit; Leibovici Weissman, Yaara; Leiba, Adi; Lipshiez, Irena; Keinan Boker, Lital; Afek, Arnon

    2017-10-15

    This study examined the association between the body mass index (BMI) in late adolescence and the risk of colon and rectal cancer. This study analyzed a cohort of 1,087,358 Jewish men and 707,212 Jewish women who underwent health examinations at the ages of 16 to 19 years between 1967 and 2002 and were followed by linkage to the national cancer registry up to 2012. Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for cancer according to age- and sex-adjusted BMI percentiles from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (overweight, 85th percentile to cancer, including 1977 among men (1403 in the colon and 574 in the rectum) and 990 among women (764 in the colon and 226 in the rectum), were identified. Overweight and obesity were associated with the risk for colon cancer among both men (HR for overweight, 1.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.28-1.84; HR for obesity, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.15-2.06; statistically significant from a BMI of 23.4 kg/m 2 [spline analysis]) and women (HR for overweight, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.22-1.93; HR for obesity, 1.51; 95% CI, 0.89-2.57; significant from a BMI of 23.6 kg/m 2 ). Obesity, but not overweight, was associated with a risk for rectal cancer among men (HR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.11-2.65; significant from a BMI of 29.6 kg/m 2 ) and women (HR, 2.03; 95% CI, 0.90-4.58; significant from a BMI of 30.6 kg/m 2 ). Being overweight or obese in adolescence was associated with an increased risk of subsequent colon cancers in men and women, whereas obesity was associated with rectal cancer. Cancer 2017;123:4022-30. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  7. The transition radiation. 2. experimental study of the optical transition radiation

    Couillaud, Ch.; Haouat, G.; Seguin, S.; Striby, S.

    1999-01-01

    Optical-transition-radiation-based diagnostics have been widely used for many years on electron accelerators in order to measure beam energy and transverse and longitudinal emittances. These diagnostics are very attractive for high brightness electron beams used as drivers for radiation sources. Such diagnostics have been performed on the ELSA facility (18 MeV electron energy, 100 A peak current) using both a single interface and an OTR-Wartski interferometer. We present the accelerator, the experimental set-up and the method for analyzing the OTR angular distribution. Then, the experimental results are described and compared with those from the three gradient method. In addition, we present a beam energy measurement using OTR interferogram analysis. (author)

  8. THE HOMOGENEOUS STUDY OF TRANSITING SYSTEMS (HoSTS). I. THE PILOT STUDY OF WASP-13

    Gomez Maqueo Chew, Yilen; Cargile, Phillip; Hebb, Leslie; Stassun, Keivan G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Faedi, Francesca; Pollacco, Don [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Doyle, Amanda P.; Smalley, Barry [Astrophysics Group, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Ghezzi, Luan; Cunha, Katia; Smith, Verne V. [Observatorio Nacional, Rua Gal. Jose Cristino 77, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20921-400 (Brazil); Sousa, Sergio; Santos, Nuno C. [Centro de Astrofisica, Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal); Barros, Susana C. C. [LAM (Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, Aix Marseille Universite, CNRS, F-13388 Marseille (France); Schuler, Simon C. [Stewart Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Collier Cameron, Andrew, E-mail: yilen.gomez@vanderbilt.edu [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom)

    2013-05-01

    We present the fundamental stellar and planetary properties of the transiting planetary system WASP-13 within the framework of the Homogeneous Study of Transiting Systems (HoSTS). HoSTS aims to derive the fundamental stellar (T{sub eff}, [Fe/H], M{sub *}, R{sub *}) and planetary (M{sub pl}, R{sub pl}, T{sub eq}) physical properties of known transiting planets using a consistent methodology and homogeneous high-quality data set. Four spectral analysis techniques are independently applied to a Keck+HIRES spectrum of WASP-13 considering two distinct cases: unconstrained parameters and constrained log g from transit light curves. We check the derived stellar temperature against that from a different temperature diagnostic based on an INT+IDS H{alpha} spectrum. The four unconstrained analyses render results that are in good agreement, and provide an improvement of 50% in the precision of T{sub eff}, and of 85% in [Fe/H] with respect to the WASP-13 discovery paper. The planetary parameters are then derived via the Monte Carlo Markov Chain modeling of the radial velocity and light curves, in iteration with stellar evolutionary models to derive realistic uncertainties. WASP-13 (1.187 {+-} 0.065 M{sub Sun }; 1.574 {+-} 0.048 R{sub Sun }) hosts a Saturn-mass, transiting planet (0.500 {+-} 0.037 M{sub Jup}; 1.407 {+-} 0.052 R{sub Jup}), and is at the end of its main-sequence lifetime (4-5.5 Gyr). Our analysis of WASP-13 showcases that both a detailed stellar characterization and transit modeling are necessary to well determine the fundamental properties of planetary systems, which are paramount in identifying and determining empirical relationships between transiting planets and their hosts.

  9. TOPEM DSC study of glass transition region of polyurethane cationomers

    Pielichowska, Kinga; Król, Piotr; Król, Bożena; Pagacz, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► TOPEM DSC method was employed to investigate the glass transition (T g ) region of fluorinated polyurethane cationomers. ► Introduction of fluorine compounds significantly changes thermal behaviour of cationomers in the T g region of hard segments. ► Introduction of fluorine compound leads to changes of the slope in activation diagram of glass transition. - Abstract: In this paper TOPEM DSC method was employed to investigate the glass transition region of fluorinated polyurethane cationomers. Fluorinated polyurethane cationomers have been synthesised in the reaction of MDI with poly(ethylene glycol) (600) and butane1,4-diol or N-methyl- or N-butyldiethanolamine and 2,2,3,3-tetrafluoro-1,4-butanediol. Better rigidity was found for generally amorphous cationomer coats. It was found that introduction of fluorine compound changes thermal behaviour of polyurethane cationomers as well as leads to changes in the slope in activation diagram profiles of glass transition in comparison to polyuretahene cationomer without fluorine compound. Application of TOPEM DSC allows to obtain more information concerning frequency dependence of glass transition region and thermodynamical stability of polyurethane structures.

  10. Gastrointestinal transit after transverse colostomy: study of solid radiopaque markers progression and others clinical and radiological events - analysis of 20 cases; Transito gastrintestinal apos fechamento de transversostomia: estudo atraves da progressao de marcadores solidos radiopacos e de outros eventos clinicos e radiologicos - analise de 20 casos

    Deutsch, Claudio Roberto

    1988-07-01

    The gastrointestinal transit was studied in 20 patients with loop transverse colostomies and previously normal colons. This analysis was performed through radiological observation of progression of 20 radiopaque pellets and measurements of its transit time in the various segments of the digestive tract. An evaluation of other related clinical and radiological events was carried out sentimentality's. In order to better understand the influence of the surgical procedure, the study was performed under similar dietary and supportive care conditions and standard radiological studies before and after the re-establishment of transit, thus enabling a comparison with the same individual. (author)

  11. Anti-stress effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on colonic motility in rats.

    Yoshimoto, Sazu; Babygirija, Reji; Dobner, Anthony; Ludwig, Kirk; Takahashi, Toku

    2012-05-01

    Disorders of colonic motility may contribute to symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and stress is widely believed to play a major role in developing IBS. Stress increases corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) of the hypothalamus, resulting in acceleration of colonic transit in rodents. In contrast, hypothalamic oxytocin (OXT) has an anti-stress effect via inhibiting CRF expression and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. Although transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) and acupuncture have been shown to have anti-stress effects, the mechanism of the beneficial effects remains unknown. We tested the hypothesis that TENS upregulates hypothalamic OXT expression resulting in reduced CRF expression and restoration of colonic dysmotility in response to chronic stress. Male SD rats received different types of stressors for seven consecutive days (chronic heterotypic stress). TENS was applied to the bilateral hind limbs every other day before stress loading. Another group of rats did not receive TENS treatment. TENS significantly attenuated accelerated colonic transit induced by chronic heterotypic stress, which was antagonized by a central injection of an OXT antagonist. Immunohistochemical study showed that TENS increased OXT expression and decreased CRF expression at the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) following chronic heterotypic stress. It is suggested that TENS upregulates hypothalamic OXT expression which acts as an anti-stressor agent and mediates restored colonic dysmotility following chronic stress. TENS may be useful to treat gastrointestinal symptoms associated with stress.

  12. Colon and rectal cancer survival by tumor location and microsatellite instability: the Colon Cancer Family Registry.

    Phipps, Amanda I; Lindor, Noralane M; Jenkins, Mark A; Baron, John A; Win, Aung Ko; Gallinger, Steven; Gryfe, Robert; Newcomb, Polly A

    2013-08-01

    Cancers in the proximal colon, distal colon, and rectum are frequently studied together; however, there are biological differences in cancers across these sites, particularly in the prevalence of microsatellite instability. We assessed the differences in survival by colon or rectal cancer site, considering the contribution of microsatellite instability to such differences. This is a population-based prospective cohort study for cancer survival. This study was conducted within the Colon Cancer Family Registry, an international consortium. Participants were identified from population-based cancer registries in the United States, Canada, and Australia. Information on tumor site, microsatellite instability, and survival after diagnosis was available for 3284 men and women diagnosed with incident invasive colon or rectal cancer between 1997 and 2002, with ages at diagnosis ranging from 18 to 74. Cox regression was used to calculate hazard ratios for the association between all-cause mortality and tumor location, overall and by microsatellite instability status. Distal colon (HR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.49-0.71) and rectal cancers (HR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.57-0.81) were associated with lower mortality than proximal colon cancer overall. Compared specifically with patients with proximal colon cancer exhibiting no/low microsatellite instability, patients with distal colon and rectal cancers experienced lower mortality, regardless of microsatellite instability status; patients with proximal colon cancer exhibiting high microsatellite instability had the lowest mortality. Study limitations include the absence of stage at diagnosis and cause-of-death information for all but a subset of study participants. Some patient groups defined jointly by tumor site and microsatellite instability status are subject to small numbers. Proximal colon cancer survival differs from survival for distal colon and rectal cancer in a manner apparently dependent on microsatellite instability status. These

  13. Value of liver scan in the follow-up study of patients with adenocarcinoma of the colon and rectum

    Cedermark, B.J.; Schultz, S.S.; Bakshi, S.; Parthasarathy, K.L.; Mittelman, A.; Evans, J.T.

    1977-01-01

    Seventy consecutive patients with adenocarcinoma of the colon and rectum had a liver scan followed by surgical exploration of the liver. Preoperatively, blood chemistry studies were done in addition to palpation of the abdomen. Surgical findings were correlated to results of the liver scans, function tests and palpation of the liver. The overall concordance of liver scans with surgical findings was 78 percent. Thirty percent had false-positive results and 15 percent, false-negative results. The correlation of the liver scan with surgical findings was improved with increasing extent of metastases. When less than 25 percent of the liver was replaced by tumor, there was a random correlation of scan to surgical findings. By combining liver scans and liver function tests, metastases could be predicted with increased reliability only in patients who had severe metastatic disease of the liver. It is strongly recommended that patients with liver scans suggestive of metastatic disease and with most liver function tests within normal limits undergo exploration to establish the diagnosis. Exploratory laparotomy seems to be the only way to avoid chemotherapeutic treatment of patients with false-positive scans and still allow detection and treatment of metastases to the liver to occur at earlier stages

  14. Whether partial colectomy is oncologically safe for patients with transverse colon cancer: a large population-based study.

    Guan, Xu; Zhao, Zhixun; Yang, Ming; Chen, Haipeng; Chen, Wei; Liu, Zheng; Jiang, Zheng; Chen, Yinggang; Wang, Guiyu; Wang, Xishan

    2017-11-03

    Due to special tumor location and technical difficulty of transverse colon cancer (TCC), partial colectomy (PC) is being widely applied in selected TCC patients, instead of extended hemicolectomy (HC). However, the oncological safety of this less aggressive surgical approach is not well studied. Here, we identified 10344 TCC patients from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End-Results (SEER) database. The surgical treatment for those patients included PC and HC. Firstly, we compared lymph nodes evaluations between patients treated with HC and PC, including median number of nodes, the rate of nodes ≥ 12 and the rate of node positivity. Then, 5-year cancer specific survival (CSS) was obtained. Kaplan-Meier methods and Cox regression models were performed to assess the correlations between prognostic factors and long-term survival. Despite of less node examined by PC, the rate of node positivity was equal between PC and HC, suggesting node retrieval under PC was adequate to tumor stage. In addition, the 5-year CSS for patients who underwent PC were 67.5%, which was similar to patients who received HC (66.5%). The result after propensity score matching also confirmed the equivalent survival outcome between HC and PC. However, subgroup analyses showed that patients with tumor size ≥ 5 cm could not obtain survival benefit from PC. Furthermore, surgical approach was not considered as independent prognostic factor for TCC patients. Therefore, although PC is a less aggressive surgical approach, it should be a safe and feasible option for selected TCC patients.

  15. A novel multiplex-protein array for serum diagnostics of colon cancer: a case–control study

    Bünger, Stefanie; Gemoll, Timo; Laubert, Tilman; Büning, Jürgen; Fellermann, Klaus; Bruch, Hans-Peter; Roblick, Uwe J; Brenner, Hermann; Eggeling, Ferdinand von; Habermann, Jens K; Haug, Ulrike; Kelly, Maria; Posorski, Nicole; Klempt-Giessing, Katja; Cartwright, Andrew; Fitzgerald, Stephen P; Toner, Vicki; McAleer, Damien

    2012-01-01

    More than 1.2 million new cases of colorectal cancer are reported each year worldwide. Despite actual screening programs, about 50% of the patients are diagnosed at advanced tumor stages presenting poor prognosis. Innovative screening tools could aid the detection at early stages and allow curative treatment interventions. A nine target multiplex serum protein biochip was generated and evaluated using a training- and validation-set of 317 highly standardized, liquid nitrogen preserved serum samples comprising controls, adenomas, and colon cancers. Serum levels of CEA, IL-8, VEGF, S100A11, MCSF, C3adesArg, CD26, and CRP showed significant differences between cases and controls. The largest areas under the receiver operating characteristics curve were observed for CEA, IL-8, and CRP. At threshold levels yielding 90% specificity, sensitivities for CEA, IL-8 and CRP were 26%, 22%, and 17%, respectively. The most promising marker combinations were CEA + IL-8 reaching 37% sensitivity at 83% specificity and CEA + CRP with 35% sensitivity at 81% specificity. In an independent validation set CEA + IL-8 reached 47% sensitivity at 86% specificity while CEA + CRP obtained 39% sensitivity at 86% specificity. Early carcinomas were detected with 33% sensitivity for CEA + IL-8 and 28% for CEA + CRP. Apart from CEA, IL-8, and CRP, the screening value of additional blood markers and the potential advantage of combining serum biochip testing with fecal occult blood testing needs to be studied. Multiplex biochip array technology utilizing serum samples offers an innovative approach to colorectal cancer screening

  16. Ursodeoxycholic acid inhibits the proliferation of colon cancer cells by regulating oxidative stress and cancer stem-like cell growth

    Kim, EuiJoo

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The regulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) exists as a therapeutic target for cancer treatments. Previous studies have shown that ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) suppresses the proliferation of colon cancer cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of UDCA upon the proliferation of colon cancer cells as a direct result of the regulation of ROS. Method Colon cancer cell lines (HT29 and HCT116) were treated with UDCA. The total number of cells and the number of dead cells were determined using cell counters. A fluorescein isothiocyanate-bromodeoxyuridine flow kit was used to analyze cell cycle variations. Upon exposure to UDCA, the protein levels of p27, p21, CDK2, CDK4 and CDK6 were determined using western blotting, and qRT-PCR was used to determine levels of mRNA. We preformed dichlorofluorescindiacetate (DCF-DA) staining to detect alteration of intracellular ROS using fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS). Colon cancer stem-like cell lines were generated by tumorsphere culture and treated with UDCA for seven days. The total number of tumorspheres was determined using microscopy. Results We found that UDCA reduced the total number of colon cancer cells, but did not increase the number of dead cells. UDCA inhibited the G1/S and G2/M transition phases in colon cancer cells. UDCA induced expression of cell cycle inhibitors such as p27 and p21. However, it was determined that UDCA suppressed levels of CDK2, CDK4, and CDK6. UDCA regulated intracellular ROS generation in colon cancer cells, and induced activation of Erk1/2. Finally, UDCA inhibited formation of colon cancer stem-like cells. Conclusion Our results indicate that UDCA suppresses proliferation through regulation of oxidative stress in colon cancer cells, as well as colon cancer stem-like cells. PMID:28708871

  17. Q-values of mirror transitions for fundamental interaction studies

    The $Ft$ values for the $0^{+} \\rightarrow 0^{+}$ superallowed $\\beta$-transitions currently provide the best test of the CVC hypothesis, and the most precise determination of the V$_{ud}$ element of the CKM matrix. Recent experimental advances, including direct mass measurements with Penning traps, have led to the precision in the corrected $Ft$ values being dominated by the theoretical corrections rather than experiment. An alternative route are the isospin $T$=1/2 mirror transitions where experimental uncertainties dominate over the theoretical inputs and which can provide an independent test of CVC, and ultimately an independent evaluation of V$_{ud}$. We propose mass measurements of 4 different mirror transitions aiming for a precision of better than 100eV on the ${Q}$-values.

  18. The transition radiation. 2. experimental study of the optical transition radiation; Le rayonnement de transition: 2. etude experimentale du rayonnement de transition optique

    Couillaud, Ch.; Haouat, G.; Seguin, S.; Striby, S

    1999-07-01

    Optical-transition-radiation-based diagnostics have been widely used for many years on electron accelerators in order to measure beam energy and transverse and longitudinal emittances. These diagnostics are very attractive for high brightness electron beams used as drivers for radiation sources. Such diagnostics have been performed on the ELSA facility (18 MeV electron energy, 100 A peak current) using both a single interface and an OTR-Wartski interferometer. We present the accelerator, the experimental set-up and the method for analyzing the OTR angular distribution. Then, the experimental results are described and compared with those from the three gradient method. In addition, we present a beam energy measurement using OTR interferogram analysis. (author)

  19. Calorimetric study of water's two glass transitions in the presence of LiCl

    Ruiz, Guadalupe N.; Amann-Winkel, Katrin; Bove, Livia E.; Corti, Horacio R.

    2018-01-01

    A DSC study of dilute glassy LiCl aqueous solutions in the water-dominated regime provides direct evidence of a glass-to-liquid transition in expanded high density amorphous (eHDA)-type solutions. Similarly, low density amorphous ice (LDA) exhibits a glass transition prior to crystallization to ice Ic. Both glass transition temperatures are independent of the salt concentration, whereas the magnitude of the heat capacity increase differs. By contrast to pure water, the glass transition endpoint for LDA can be accessed in LiCl aqueous solutions above 0.01 mole fraction. Furthermore, we also reveal the endpoint for HDA's glass transition, solving the question on the width of both glass transitions. This suggests that both equilibrated HDL and LDL can be accessed in dilute LiCl solutions, supporting the liquid–liquid transition scenario to understand water's anomalies. PMID:29442107

  20. Studies of the phase transitions in UAs with neutron scattering

    Sinha, S.K.; Lander, G.H.; Shapiro, S.M.; Vogt, O.

    1980-01-01

    Uranium arsenide is known to order with the type-I antiferromagnetic (AF) structure at approx. 126 K, and exhibit a first-order transition to the type-IA AF structure at T/sub N//2. We have now reexamined these transitions with a single crystal. Above T/sub N/ UAs exhibits critical scattering suggesting a tendency to order with an incommensurate wavevector, but then suddenly orders with the AF-I structure. The analysis of the data shows the need to consider anisotropic exchange interactions of cubic symmetry between U moments

  1. Identification of interstitial cells of Cajal. Significance for studies of human small intestine and colon

    Rumessen, J J

    1994-01-01

    Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) were described a century ago by Ramón y Cajal a.o. as primitive neurons in the intestines. In the period 1900-1960 a large number of light microscopical studies of ICC were published, in which ICC were identified by heir characteristic morphology. After 1960...... electron microscopical studies emphasized similarities between ICC and fibroblasts. In our early studies of ICC in the external musculature of mouse small intestine, we identified ICC by their characteristic morphology and topography, and we analyzed the relation between ICC, autonomic nerves and smooth...... muscle. These studies strongly suggested that ICC were fundamental regulators of external muscle function. These hypotheses have since been supported by independent morphological and electrophysiological evidence, strongly suggesting a pacemaker role of some ICC populations as well as other regulatory...

  2. E. coli-Produced BMP-2 as a Chemopreventive Strategy for Colon Cancer: A Proof-of-Concept Study

    Saravanan Yuvaraj

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Colon cancer is a serious health problem, and novel preventive and therapeutical avenues are urgently called for. Delivery of proteins with anticancer activity through genetically modified bacteria provides an interesting, potentially specific, economic and effective approach here. Interestingly, bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2 is an important and powerful tumour suppressor in the colon and is thus an attractive candidate protein for delivery through genetically modified bacteria. It has not been shown, however, that BMP production in the bacterial context is effective on colon cancer cells. Here we demonstrate that transforming E. coli with a cDNA encoding an ileal-derived mature human BMP-2 induces effective apoptosis in an in vitro model system for colorectal cancer, whereas the maternal organism was not effective in this respect. Furthermore, these effects were sensitive to cotreatment with the BMP inhibitor Noggin. We propose that prevention and treatment of colorectal cancer using transgenic bacteria is feasible.

  3. Image diagnostic of colonic diseases - controversial questions

    Pomakov, P.; Rizov, A.; Stancheva, I.

    2013-01-01

    In the system of colonic diseases' diagnostic algorithm, fibrocolonoscopy (FCS) is defined as 'Golden Standard'. By this reason some X-ray diagnostic methods - irrigography, etc. are currently not being used in a number of health institutions. The aim of this study is a comparative analysis of FCS and irrigography diagnostic efficacy in various colonic diseases. For 10-years period, in cooperation with a gastroenterologist-gastroscopist, 2151 patients with various colonic diseases were evaluated by FCS and irrigography with pharmaco-diagnostics/when necessary. Advantage of FCS was established in diagnosing diseases with patho-morfologic changes on the inner surface of the colon - benign and malignant neoplastic processes, chronic inflammatory diseases, etc. At the same time functional changes - irritated colon syndrome, changes in defecation act, etc., are not an object of diagnosis through FCS. Correction in colonic diseases diagnostic algorithm is necessary. FCS should be mandatory. If result is negative - irrigography with pharmaco-diagnostics should be done. (authors)

  4. Experimental study of virtual colonoscopy of simulated mass lesions in pig colon: comparison of CT and MR techniques

    Yang Xiujun; He Zhiyan; Tao Yonghao; Miao Jingtao; Chen Yuanjiong; Hu Yuansheng; Wang Linchuan

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To probe into the technique and diagnostic value of MR virtual colonoscopy (MRVC) compared with CT virtual colonoscopy (CTVC) and colonoscopy. Methods: Two approximately 25-cm-long-sections of fresh pit colon in vitro had 20 mass lesions created ranging from 3 mm to 12 mm in diameter. MR scanning, as well as CT scanning of the water- or air-insufflated colon was performed, and CT data were obtained with collimation of 3 mm at a pitch of 1.0 and reconstruction intervals of 1.5 mm. MRI data were acquired with the same matrix and reformatting slab, and with heavily T 2 -weighted fast spin-echo pulse sequences. Post processed image sets were performed by the same experienced doctor on a workstation using navigator software based on CT or MRI source imaging data. One section was also underwent electron colonoscopy. Results: MRVC and CTVC displayed colon morphology in a manner similar to colonoscopy. The sensitivity of MRVC and CTVC were all 100%, and the accuracy was 71.4% for MRVC and 100% for CTVC. With the combined analysis of the four-in-one multi-view images, they accurately demonstrated the site and size of lesions and distinguished the lesions from the artifacts such as small air bubbles, and the accuracy of MRVC was improved up to 100%. CTVC was better than MRVC (P<0.05), but both were inferior to colonoscopy in depicting mucosal details of the colon and lesions (P < 0.025). Conclusion: Virtual colonoscopy (CTVC or MRVC, the former appears better) provided noninvasive endoscope-like display of the colon, and permitted identification of colonic mass lesions as small as 3 mm in diameter, the diagnostic accuracy could be improved by combining with source images and other reformations

  5. Vegetable and fruit consumption and risks of colon and rectal cancer in a prospective cohort study

    Voorrips, L.E.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Poppel, G. van; Sturmans, F.; Hermus, R.J.J.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2000-01-01

    The relation between vegetable and fruit consumption and colorectal cancer risk was comprehensively assessed in the Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer using a validated 150-item food frequency questionnaire. After 6.3 years of follow-up (1986-1992), over 1,000 incident cases of colorectal

  6. Colonization of the Tongue Surface in Japanese Independent Elders: A Preliminary Study

    Tomohisa Ohno

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Oral care is important to decrease oral bacteria, especially in the dependent elders. There have been some reports on oral microflora in the dependent elders. However, investigations involving healthy independent elders are limited. The purpose of this study was to obtain more information on the microflora in Japanese independent elders. One hundred Japanese independent elders aged 65 years or older participated in this study. Eighty-one independent elders (male: 44, female: 37, mean age: 72.7 ± 5.8 participated in this study. Their mean Barthel Index was 99.1 ± 3.1, and mean score of MMSE was 28.0 ± 2.3. The tongue bacterial flora was examinved to identify microorganisms by the culture method. The predominant aerobic organisms were Streptococcus spp. (detection rate: 100%, Neisseria spp. (96%, and Corynebacterium spp. (56%. Candida spp. was also isolated (32%. In this study, the oral microflora of the tongue in Japanese independent elders was clarified. The results of this investigation may contribute to research on oral bacteria in elder persons in the future.

  7. Iron overload of human colon adenocarcinoma cells studied by synchrotron-based X-ray techniques

    Mihucz, Victor G.; Meirer, Florian; Polgári, Zsófia; Réti, Andrea; Pepponi, Giancarlo; Ingerle, Dieter; Szoboszlai, Norbert; Streli, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Fast- and slow-proliferating human adenocarcinoma colorectal cells, HT-29 and HCA-7, respectively, overloaded with transferrin (Tf), Fe(III) citrate, Fe(III) chloride and Fe(II) sulfate were studied by synchrotron radiation total-reflection X-ray spectrometry (TXRF), TXRF-X-ray absorption near edge

  8. Pressure induced phase transitions in transition metal nitrides: Ab initio study

    Srivastava, Anurag; Chauhan, Mamta [Advanced Material Research Lab, Indian Institute of Information Technology and Management, Gwalior 474010 (India); Singh, R.K. [Department of Physics, ITM University, Gurgaon 122017 (India)

    2011-12-15

    We have analyzed the stability of transition metal nitrides (TMNs) XN (X = Ti, Zr, Hf, V, Nb, Ta) in their original rocksalt (B1) and hypothetical CsCl (B2) type phases under high compression. The ground state total energy calculation approach of the system has been used through the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) with the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) type parameterization as exchange correlation functional. In the whole series of nitrides taken into consideration, tantalum nitride is found to be the most stable. We have observed that under compression the original B1-type phase of these nitrides transforms to a B2-type phase. We have also discussed the computation of ground state properties, like the lattice constant (a), bulk modulus (B{sub 0}) and first order pressure derivative of the bulk modulus (B'{sub 0}) of the TMNs and their host elements. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Coordination to transition metal surfaces : a theoretical study

    Santen, van R.A.

    1985-01-01

    A theoretical framework is developed that describes the chemisorption of CO to transition metal surfaces analogous to the HOMO-LUMO concept of MO theory. An explanation is given for the exptl. observation that CO adsorbs on top at the (111), face of Pt, but bridge at the (111) face of Ni. One is due

  10. A prognostic analysis of 895 cases of stage III colon cancer in different colon subsites.

    Zhang, Yan; Ma, Junli; Zhang, Sai; Deng, Ganlu; Wu, Xiaoling; He, Jingxuan; Pei, Haiping; Shen, Hong; Zeng, Shan

    2015-09-01

    Stage III colon cancer is currently treated as an entity with a unified therapeutic principle. The aim of the retrospective study is to explore the clinicopathological characteristics and outcomes of site-specific stage III colon cancers and the influences of tumor location on prognosis. Eight hundred ninety-five patients with stage III colon cancer treated with radical operation and subsequent adjuvant chemotherapy (5-fluorouracil/oxaliplatin) were divided into seven groups according to colon segment (cecum, ascending colon, hepatic flexure, transverse colon, splenic flexure, descending colon, and sigmoid colon). Expression of excision repair cross-complementing group 1 (ERCC1) and thymidylate synthase (TS) was examined by immunohistochemistry. We assessed if differences exist in patient characteristics and clinic outcomes between the seven groups. There were significant differences in tumor differentiation (P Cancer (AJCC) tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage (P colon. Cox regression analyses identified that tumor location was an independent prognostic factor for RFS and OS. Stage III colon cancer located proximally carried a poorer survival than that located distally. Different efficacies of FOLFOX adjuvant chemotherapy may be an important factor affecting survival of site-specific stage III colon cancers.

  11. Primary colectomy in patients with stage IV colon cancer and unresectable distant metastases improves overall survival: results of a multicentric study.

    Karoui, Mehdi; Roudot-Thoraval, Françoise; Mesli, Farida; Mitry, Emmanuel; Aparicio, Thomas; Des Guetz, Gaetan; DesGuetz, Gaetan; Louvet, Christophe; Landi, Bruno; Tiret, Emmanuel; Sobhani, Iradj

    2011-08-01

    Whether patients with stage IV colon cancer and unresectable distant metastases should be managed by primary colectomy followed by chemotherapy or immediate chemotherapy without resection of the primary tumor is still controversial. This study aimed to evaluate predictive factors associated with survival in patients with stage IV colon cancer and unresectable distant metastases. This large retrospective multicentric study included 6 academic hospitals. This study was conducted at 6 Paris University Hospitals (Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris; Saint Antoine, Henri Mondor, Ambroise Paré, Hôpital Europeen Gorges Pompidou, Bichat, and Avicenne). Between 1998 and 2007, 208 patients with good performance status and stage IV colon cancer with unresectable distant metastases received chemotherapy, either as initial management or after primary tumor resection. Survival was estimated by use of the Kaplan-Meier method. Factors associated with survival were tested by means of a log-rank test. Results were expressed as median values with 95% confidence intervals. Factors independently related to survival were tested using a Cox regression model adjusted for a propensity score. Of the 208 patients, 85 underwent colectomy before chemotherapy, whereas 123 were treated with use of primary chemotherapy with or without biotherapy. At univariate analysis, the following factors were significantly associated with survival: primary colectomy (P = .031), secondary curative surgery (P < .001), well-differentiated primary tumor (P < .001), exclusive liver metastases (P < .027), absence of need for colonic stent (P = .009), and addition of antiangiogenic (P = .001) or anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (P = .013) drugs to chemotherapy. After Cox multivariate analysis and after adjusting for the propensity score, all of these factors, with the exception of two, colonic stent and anti-epidermal growth factor receptor drug, were found to be independently associated with overall

  12. The effects of daikenchuto (DKT) on propulsive motility in the colon.

    Wood, Michael J; Hyman, Neil H; Mawe, Gary M

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the use of daikenchuto (DKT), a traditional Japanese medicine, as a potential treatment for opiate-induced slowing of intestinal transit in an isolated guinea pig colon model of motility. Isolated segments of distal guinea pig colon were mounted in a perfusion chamber and imaged with a digital video camera interfaced with a computer. Fecal pellets were inserted into the oral end of the colonic segment and the rates of propulsive motility over a 3 to 4 cm segment of colon were determined in the presence and absence of test compounds. In addition, intracellular recordings were obtained from intact circular muscle, and the responsiveness of inhibitory and excitatory junction potentials to DKT was evaluated. The addition of D-Ala2, N-Me-Phe4, Gly-ol5 (DAMGO), a selective μ-receptor agonist, caused a concentration dependent decrease in colon motility. Naloxone did not affect basal activity, but partially restored motility in the DAMGO treated preparations. DKT (1 × 10(-4)-3 × 10(-4)g/mL) also reversed the inhibitory effect of DAMGO treated colon in a concentration dependent manner. At higher concentrations (1 × 10(-3)-3 × 10(-3)g/mL), however, this effect was lost. Motility slowed even further when naloxone and DKT were combined with noticeable disruptions in spatiotemporal patterns. Interestingly, when added alone, DKT resulted in reverse peristalsis of the pellet. In electrophysiologic studies DKT inhibited both excitatory and inhibitory junction potentials. DKT appears to be as effective as naloxone in restoring motility in DAMGO treated colon. These two agents, however, do not appear to have an additive effect. When used on untreated colon segments, DKT appears to cause disruptions in the intrinsic reflex circuit of the gut resulting in a disruption of neuromuscular communication. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Advanced Glycation End Products Impair Ca2+ Mobilization and Sensitization in Colonic Smooth Muscle Cells via the CAMP/PKA Pathway

    Ting Yu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Excessive production of advanced glycation end products (AGEs has been implicated in diabetes-related complications. This study aimed to investigate the mechanism by which AGEs potentially contribute to diabetes-associated colonic dysmotility. Methods: Control and streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic groups were treated with aminoguanidine (AG. The colonic transit time and contractility of circular muscle strips was measured. ELISA, immunohistochemistry and western blotting were used to measure Nε-carboxymethyl-lysine (CML levels. Primary cultured colonic smooth muscle cells (SMCs were used in complementary in vitro studies. Results: Diabetic rats showed prolonged colonic transit time, weak contractility of colonic smooth muscle strips, and elevated levels of AGEs in the serum and colon tissues. cAMP levels, protein kinase-A (PKA activities, and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 3 (IP3R3 phosphorylation were increased in the colon muscle tissues of diabetic rats, whereas RhoA/Rho kinase activity and myosin phosphatase target subunit 1 (MYPT1 phosphorylation were reduced. The inhibition of the production of AGEs (AG treatment reduced these effects. In cultured colonic SMCs, AGE-BSA treatment increased IP3R3 phosphorylation and reduced intracellular Ca2+ concentration, myosin light chain (MLC phosphorylation, RhoA/Rho kinase activity, and MYPT1 phosphorylation. The PKA inhibitor H-89 and anti-RAGE antibody inhibited the AGE-BSA–induced impairment of Ca2+ signaling and cAMP/PKA activation. Conclusion: AGEs/RAGE participate in diabetes-associated colonic dysmotility by interfering with Ca2+ signaling in colonic SMCs through targeting IP3R3-mediated Ca2+ mobilization and RhoA/Rho kinase-mediated Ca2+ sensitization via the cAMP/PKA pathway.

  14. Clinical Comparative Study of the Effects of Helicobacter Pylori Colonization on Oral Health in Children.

    Dane, Asim; Gurbuz, Taskin

    2016-01-01

    To isolate Helicobacter pylori (HP) from the dental plaque of a selected group of children and to compare the oral and salivary findings of patients with those of a healthy control group. A total of 70 children aged 5-15 years were included in this study. An intraoral examination was performed for each patient, and dental plaque and saliva specimens were collected for analysis. Oral health conditions, nutritional habits, tooth brushing frequency, saliva pH levels, flow velocity, and buffering capacities were noted. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used for comparison of the DMFT and dft index. The significance level was set at p=0.05. The prevalence of HP in dental plaque was higher in study group than controls (p0.05). Meanwhile, the buffering capacity of saliva was lower in HP gastritis patients (pdental plaque; thus, the oral cavity may be an important reservoir for HP. Good oral hygiene could be a positive contributor to the treatment of gastritis.

  15. The influence of micrometastases on prognosis and survival in stage I-II colon cancer patients: the Enroute⊕ Study

    Pruijt Hans FM

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The presence of lymph node metastases remains the most reliable prognostic predictor and the gold indicator for adjuvant treatment in colon cancer (CC. In spite of a potentially curative resection, 20 to 30% of CC patients testing negative for lymph node metastases (i.e. pN0 will subsequently develop locoregional and/or systemic metastases within 5 years. The presence of occult nodal isolated tumor cells (ITCs and/or micrometastases (MMs at the time of resection predisposes CC patients to high risk for disease recurrence. These pN0micro+ patients harbouring occult micrometastases may benefit from adjuvant treatment. The purpose of the present study is to delineate the subset of pN0 patients with micrometastases (pN0micro+ and evaluate the benefits from adjuvant chemotherapy in pN0micro+ CC patients. Methods/design EnRoute+ is an open label, multicenter, randomized controlled clinical trial. All CC patients (age above 18 years without synchronous locoregional lymph node and/or systemic metastases (clinical stage I-II disease and operated upon with curative intent are eligible for inclusion. All resected specimens of patients are subject to an ex vivo sentinel lymph node mapping procedure (SLNM following curative resection. The investigation for micrometastases in pN0 patients is done by extended serial sectioning and immunohistochemistry for pan-cytokeratin in sentinel lymph nodes which are tumour negative upon standard pathological examination. Patients with ITC/MM-positive sentinel lymph nodes (pN0micro+ are randomized for adjuvant chemotherapy following the CAPOX treatment scheme or observation. The primary endpoint is 3-year disease free survival (DFS. Discussion The EnRoute+ study is designed to improve prognosis in high-risk stage I/II pN0 micro+ CC patients by reducing disease recurrence by adjuvant chemotherapy. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01097265

  16. Prospective Study of Infection, Colonization and Carriage of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus in an Outbreak Affecting 990 Patients

    R. Coello; J. Jimenez (Jose); M. Garcia (Melissa); P. Arroyo; D. Minguez; C. Fernandez; F. Cruzet; C. Gaspar

    1994-01-01

    textabstractIn the three years between November 1989 and October 1992, an outbreak of methicillin-resistantStaphylococcus aureus (MRSA) affected 990 patients at a university hospital. The distribution of patients with carriage, colonization or infection was investigated prospectively. Nosocomial

  17. Early urban and colonized regions of central and south Italy : A case study in comparative landscape archaeology

    Attema, P; Darvill, T; Gojda, M

    2001-01-01

    Systematic field surveys and topographical research undertaken to date in various Italian regions south of Rome shou, that responses to early urbanization in central and south Italy, and the interplay of early urbanization with Greek and Roman colonization, differed widely between regions. In this

  18. Percutaneous drainage of colonic diverticular abscess: is colon resection necessary?

    Gaertner, Wolfgang B; Willis, David J; Madoff, Robert D; Rothenberger, David A; Kwaan, Mary R; Belzer, George E; Melton, Genevieve B

    2013-05-01

    Recurrent diverticulitis has been reported in up to 30% to 40% of patients who recover from an episode of colonic diverticular abscess, so elective interval resection is traditionally recommended. The aim of this study was to review the outcomes of patients who underwent percutaneous drainage of colonic diverticular abscess without subsequent operative intervention. This was an observational study. This investigation was conducted at a tertiary care academic medical center and a single-hospital health system. Patients treated for symptomatic colonic diverticular abscess from 2002 through 2007 were included. The primary outcomes measured were complications, recurrence, and colectomy-free survival. Two hundred eighteen patients underwent percutaneous drainage of colonic diverticular abscesses. Thirty-two patients (15%) did not undergo subsequent colonic resection. Abscess location was pelvic (n = 9) and paracolic (n = 23), the mean abscess size was 4.2 cm, and the median duration of percutaneous drainage was 20 days. The comorbidities of this group of patients included severe cardiac disease (n = 16), immunodeficiency (n = 7), and severe pulmonary disease (n = 6). Freedom from recurrence at 7.4 years was 0.58 (95% CI 0.42-0.73). All recurrences were managed nonoperatively. Recurrence was significantly associated with an abscess size larger than 5 cm. Colectomy-free survival at 7.4 years was 0.17 (95% CI 0.13-0.21). This study was limited by its retrospective, nonexperimental design and short follow-up. In selected patients, observation after percutaneous drainage of colonic diverticular abscess appears to be a safe and low-risk management option.

  19. MiR-34a inhibits colon cancer proliferation and metastasis by inhibiting platelet-derived growth factor receptor α.

    Li, Chunyan; Wang, Yulin; Lu, Shuming; Zhang, Zhuqing; Meng, Hua; Liang, Lina; Zhang, Yan; Song, Bo

    2015-11-01

    The microRNA (miRNA), miR‑34a is significant in colon cancer progression. In the present study, the role of miR‑34a in colon cancer cell proliferation and metastasis was investigated. It was found that the expression of miR‑34a in colon cancer tissues and cell lines was lower when compared with that of normal tissues and cells. Further research demonstrated that miR‑34a inhibited cell proliferation, induced G1 phase arrest, and suppressed metastasis and epithelial mesenchymal transition in colon cancer cells. Bioinformatic prediction indicated that platelet‑derived growth factor receptor α (PDGFRA) was a potential target gene of miR‑34a and a luciferase assay identified that PDGFRA was a novel direct target gene of miR‑34a. In addition, assays of western blot analyses and quantitative reverse‑transcription polymerase chain reaction confirmed that miR‑34a decreased PDGFRA mRNA expression and protein levels in colon cancer cells. Assessment of cellular function indicated that miR‑34a inhibited colon cancer progression via PDGFRA. These findings demonstrate that miR‑34a may act as a negative regulator in colon cancer by targeting PDGFRA.

  20. Metachronous colon polyps in younger versus older adults: a case-control study.

    Nagpal, Sajan Jiv Singh; Mukhija, Dhruvika; Sanaka, Madhusudhan; Lopez, Rocio; Burke, Carol A

    2018-03-01

    currently recommended by national guidelines. Confirmation in larger studies is warranted. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Studies of the Superconducting Transition in the Mo/Au-Bilayer Thin Films

    Sadleir, John; Smith, Stephen; Iyomoto, naoko; Bandler, Simon; Chervenak, Jay; Brown, Ari; Brekowsky, Regis; Kilbourne, Caroline; Robinson, Ian

    2007-01-01

    At NASA Goddard, microcalorimeter arrays using superconducting transition edge sensor thermometers (TESs) are under development for high energy resolution X-ray astrophysics applications. We report on our studies of the superconducting transition in our Mo/Au-bilayer TES films including: low current measurements of the superconducting bilayer's resistance transition versus temperature on pixels with different normal metal absorber attachment designs and measured temperature scaling of the critical current and critical magnetic field.

  2. Coca-colonization and hybridization of diets among the Tz'utujil Maya.

    Nagata, Jason M; Barg, Frances K; Valeggia, Claudia R; Bream, Kent D W

    2011-01-01

    Biomedical health professionals express increasing concern that rising consumption of soft drinks and processed foods in Mayan and Latin American eating patterns may lead to detrimental nutritional and health consequences. Scholars debate whether the pervading presence of Coca-Cola and Pepsi in developing countries represents "Coca-Colonization," synonymous with cultural imperialism, or cultural hybridization. Using mixed qualitative and quantitative research methods, including participant observation and semi-structured interviews, this study explores the development of Coca-Colonization and cultural hybridization among the Tz'utujil Maya of Santiago Atitlán, Guatemala. By specifically examining biomedical perspectives, cycles of conquest, the political economy, religion, celebrations, and the physical environment through the lens of soft drinks, this study finds that Coca-Colonization and cultural hybridization are complementary rather than mutually exclusive processes that contribute to dietary transitions, economic development, and differential health beliefs related to soft drink consumption.

  3. Home Away from Home?: A Case Study of Student Transitions to an International Branch Campus

    Cicchetti, Kaitlin Oyler

    2017-01-01

    This study explored the transition experience of home-campus students attending an international branch campus. The studied was informed by a diverse range of literature, including the internationalization of higher education and student affairs, development of international branch campuses, students in transition, the development of student…

  4. Value of radionuclide oesophageal transit in studies of functional dysphagia

    Llamas-Elvira, J.M.; Martinez-Parades, M.; Velasco-Lajo, T.

    1986-01-01

    Radionuclide oesophageal transit time was evaluated in 70 individuals, divided into three groups: normal individuals, patients with non-organic dysphagia and patients with primary oesophageal motility disorders treated with per-endoscopic forced pneumatic dilatation. In all of them the oesophageal transit time of a bolus of water with 18.5 MBq (500 μCi) of 99 Tcsup(m) sulphur colloid was assessed, as was the percentage of residual activity of the bolus in the oesophagus. There was a significant difference in these parameters between the control group and the group with non-organic dysphagia, the diagnostic capacity of this test being 93% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 100% positive predictive value and 90% negative predictive value, which suggests its inclusion in diagnostic protocols of dysphagias. In patients with primary oesophageal motility disorders, a significant decrease in values of residual activity has been observed after treatment with per-endoscopic forced pneumatic dilation. (author)

  5. Transitional circuitry for studying the properties of DNA

    Trubochkina, N.

    2018-01-01

    The article is devoted to a new view of the structure of DNA as an intellectual scheme possessing the properties of logic and memory. The theory of transient circuitry, developed by the author for optimal computer circuits, revealed an amazing structural similarity between mathematical models of transition silicon elements and logic and memory circuits of solid state transient circuitry and atomic models of parts of DNA.

  6. Histological study of the left colon of rats after extra-mucosal seromyotomy (continent valves: evaluation of colonic emptying Estudo histológico do cólon esquerdo de ratos após a confecção de seromiotomias extra-mucosas (válvulas continentes: avaliação do grau de esvaziamento do conteúdo colônico

    Beatriz Deoti

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To elaborate an animal model with the objective of studying the continence of the biological valves surgically performed in the left colon of rats. METHODS: Thirty four rats were operated on and divided into three groups (G. G1 (sham animals which underwent laparotomy only; G2 (perineal amputation without valves: animals which underwent amputation of the anal sphincter complex combined with a perineal colostomy; G3 (abdominoperineal amputation combined with valves: animals which underwent abdominoperineal amputation combined with three, equidistant and circumferential (360(0, extra-mucosal seromyotomies, of the descending colon, which were sutured to create biological valves combined with perineal colostomy. Animals were euthanized in the late postoperative period and surgical valves were saved for histopathological study. RESULTS: Surgical procedure provoked intestinal dilation, as well as segmented chambers along the descending colon. Retained fecalomas between the valves and proximal to them were also noted. Six rats died of intestinal obstruction due to fecal impaction at the surgical site. The sequence of events was: stasis, obstruction, distention, perforation, peritonitis and death. Histopathology showed inflammation due to foreign body type reaction around the sutured colon causing partial concentric stenosis, capable of interfering normal mechanical activity of the distal colon. This process resulted in retardation of the intestinal transit. CONCLUSION: Extra-mucosal seromyotomies, with seromuscular suture, can be used as an operative procedure capable of causing retardation in the intestinal transit of rats.OBJETIVO: Modelo de experimentação, com confecção de válvulas biológicas no cólon esquerdo de ratos com o objetivo de estudar o grau de continência dessas válvulas. MÉTODOS: Trinta e quatro ratos foram operados e distribuidos em três grupos: G1 (grupo simulado submetido apenas à laparotomia, G2 (grupo amputado

  7. [Single-layer colonic anastomoses using polyglyconate (Maxon) vs. two-layer anastomoses using chromic catgut and silk. Experimental study].

    García-Osogobio, Sandra Minerva; Takahashi-Monroy, Takeshi; Velasco, Liliana; Gaxiola, Miguel; Sotres-Vega, Avelina; Santillán-Doherty, Patricio

    2006-01-01

    The safety of an intestinal anastomosis is usually measured by its complication rate, especially the incidence of anastomotic leakage. A wide variety of methods have been described to reestablish intestinal continuity including single-layer continuous or two-layer interrupted anastomosis. To evaluate if the single-layer continuous anastomosis using polygluconate is safer and reliable than two-layer interrupted anastomosis with chromic catgut and silk. A prospective, experimental, randomized and comparative analysis was conducted in 20 dogs. They were divided in two groups; group 1 underwent two-layer interrupted anastomosis and group 2 underwent sigle-layer continuous technique. Anastomoses were timed. Both groups were under observation. Anastomotic leakage, and other complications were evaluated. The animals were sacrified and the anastomosis was taken out together with 10 cm of colon on both sides of the anastomosis. Breaking strength, histologic evaluation and hydroxyproline determination were performed. Ten two-layer anastomosis and ten single-layer anastomosis were performed. A median of 25 minutes (range: 20-30 minutes) was required to construct the anastomoses in group 1 versus 20 minutes (range: 12-25 minutes) in group 2. All animals survived and no leakage was observed. Wound infection ocurred in four dogs (20%). Median breaking strength was 230 mm Hg in group 1 and 210 mm Hg in group 2. Hydroxyproline concentration was 8.94 mg/g in group 1 (range: 5.33-16.71) and 9.94 mg/g in group 2 (range: 2.96-21.87). There was no difference among groups about the inflammatory response evaluated by pathology. There was no statistical significance in any variable evaluated. CONCLUIONS: This study demonstrates that a single-layer continuous is similar in terms of safety to the two-layer technique, but because of its facility to perform, the single-layer technique could be superior.

  8. Synchrotron X-ray topographic studies of para-ferroelectric transition in ammonium sulphate crystal

    Bhat, H.L.; Roberts, K.J.

    1993-01-01

    Ammonium sulphate undergoes a para-ferroelectric transition at 223 K. The transition is presumably first order in nature. White radiation topographic studies of this transition are presented here. The existence of pre-transition effects due to lattice deformation leading to severe strain is noticed. This sometimes resulted in dislocation generation. The well defined phase boundary observed in this crystal confirms the first order nature of this transition. The zigzag nature of the phase boundary with preferably oriented segments has been attributed to the specific properties of the strain tensors of the transition. Ferroelectric domains have also been detected by faint dynamical x-ray contrast of their images. (author). 7 refs., 1 fig

  9. Effect of the laxative magnesium oxide on gastrointestinal functional recovery in fast-track colonic resection: a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized study

    Andersen, J; Christensen, H; Pachler, J H

    2012-01-01

    Aim: A double-blind randomised controlled study was conducted to compare the effect of magnesium oxide (1 g 12-hourly) with placebo given within an evidence-based multimodal rehabilitation programme on gastrointestinal recovery, pain, mobilisation and hospital stay after open colonic resection....... Method: Of sixty two potentially eligible patients, thirteen were excluded leaving 22 in the magnesium oxide group and 27 in the placebo group. The main outcome measure was time to normalization of bowel function. Secondary outcome measures included post operative nausea, vomiting, pain, fatigue...... were similar in the groups (p>0.3). The median postoperative hospital stay was three days in both groups (p>0.65). Conclusion: Magnesium oxide does not enhance the recovery of gastrointestinal function within the context of an evidence-based multimodal rehabilitation programme after open colonic...

  10. Dimensionally similar studies of confinement and H-mode transition in ASDEX Upgrade and JET

    Ryter, F.; Stober, J.; Suttrop, W.

    2001-01-01

    Joint experiments on confinement and L-H transition were performed in ASDEX Upgrade and JET. The confinement experiments suggest that the invariance principle is not always fulfilled at high density. For the L-H transition studies, the dimensionless variables taken at the plasma edge can be in general only made identical per pair, due to the condition imposed by the L-H transition. This new approach to investigate the L-H physics suggests a weak dependence of the L-H transition mechanism on collisionality. (author)

  11. Dimensionally similar studies of confinement and H-mode transition in ASDEX Upgrade and JET

    Ryter, F.; Stober, J.; Suttrop, W.

    1999-01-01

    Joint experiments on confinement and L-H transition were performed in ASDEX Upgrade and JET. The confinement experiments suggest that the invariance principle is not always fulfilled at high density. For the L-H transition studies, the dimensionless variables taken at the plasma edge can be in general only made identical per pair, due to the condition imposed by the L-H transition. This new approach to investigate the L-H physics suggests a weak dependence of the L-H transition mechanism on collisionality. (author)

  12. Health and wellbeing during transition to adulthood for young people with intellectual disabilities: A qualitative study.

    Young-Southward, Genevieve; Cooper, Sally-Ann; Philo, Christopher

    2017-11-01

    Transition to adulthood may have negative consequences for health and wellbeing in individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID), but this aspect of transition has received little investigation. This qualitative study aimed to explore the transition experiences of individuals with ID from their own perspectives, and from that of their parents, in order to identify health or wellbeing implications of transition. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 17 young people with mild, moderate and severe ID aged 16-27 years and with 23 parents of young people with mild, moderate, severe and profound ID aged 16-26 years. Interviews were analysed using thematic analysis, deploying both emic and etic coding categories. This study provides direct insights into the issues on health and wellbeing that young people with ID and their parents find important during transition. The primary health implication of transition centred on mental health and wellbeing; young people experienced heightened anxiety during transition, and themes identified as contributing to anxiety included: a lack of meaningful activity following school exit; inadequate support during transition; and difficulties associated with 'growing up'. Problem behaviours and obesity were also implicated. The transition from school needs to be better supported in order to ease anxiety for young people during this difficult period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Studies on the metabolism of five model drugs by fungi colonizing cadavers using LC-ESI-MS/MS and GC-MS analysis.

    Martínez-Ramírez, Jorge A; Voigt, Kerstin; Peters, Frank T

    2012-09-01

    It is well-known that cadavers may be colonized by microorganisms, but there is limited information if or to what extent these microbes are capable of metabolizing drugs or poisons, changing the concentrations and metabolic pattern of such compounds in postmortem samples. The aim of the present study was to develop a fungal biotransformation system as an in vitro model to investigate potential postmortem metabolism by fungi. Five model drugs (amitriptyline, metoprolol, mirtazapine, promethazine, and zolpidem) were each incubated with five model fungi known to colonize cadavers (Absidia repens, Aspergillus repens, Aspergillus terreus, Gliocladium viride, and Mortierella polycephala) and with Cunninghamella elegans (positive control). Incubations were performed in Sabouraud medium at 25 °C for 5 days. After centrifugation, a part of the supernatants was analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with product ion scanning. Another part was analyzed by full scan gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after extraction and derivatization. All model drugs were metabolized by the control fungus resulting in two (metoprolol) to ten (amitriptyline) metabolites. Of the model fungi, only Abs. repens and M. polycephala metabolized the model drugs: amitriptyline was metabolized to six and five, metoprolol to two and two, mirtazapine to five and three, promethazine to six and nine, and zolpidem to three and four metabolites, respectively. The main metabolic reactions were demethylation, oxidation, and hydroxylation. The presented in vitro model is applicable to studying drug metabolism by fungi colonizing cadavers.

  14. A novel, ring-connected stent versus conventional GI stents: comparative study of physical properties and migration rates in a canine colon obstruction model.

    Park, Hong Suk; Choo, In Wook; Seo, Soowon; Hyun, Dongho; Lim, Sooyoun; Kim, Jae J; Hong, Saet-Byul; Min, Byung-Hoon; Do, Young Soo; Choo, Sung Wook; Shin, Sung Wook; Park, Kwang Bo; Cho, Sung Ki

    2015-01-01

    Migration of stents is one of the most common adverse events in covered stent placement in GI tract obstruction. To compare physical property and migration rates in a canine colon obstruction model among a novel stent and conventional stents. Comparative physical test and animal study. Medical device testing laboratory and animal laboratory. Mongrel dogs (N=26). Surgical colon obstruction followed by placement of a novel (n=13) or conventional (n=13) stent. Physical properties, migration, and adverse events. The novel stent showed better flexibility, as in a physical test of longitudinal compressibility and axial force, than did conventional stents, and it withstood the fatigue test for 10 days. In terms of radial force and tensile strength, the novel stent showed the same or better results than conventional stents. In a canine colon obstruction model, the migration rate of a novel stent was significantly lower than that of a conventional stent (2/13, 15.4% vs 8/13, 61.5%; P=.008). Animal study of limited size. The novel, ring-connected stent is more flexible and more resistant to migration than the conventional stents. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Potential of public transit as a transportation control measure: Case studies

    Sillings, M.

    1998-07-01

    This report is the final product of the Clean Air Project of the National Association of Regional Councils/NARC. It documents a nationwide study of transit projects and programs initiated in the wake of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments/CAAA and the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991/ISTEA. The study purpose was to assess the experience, limitations, and value of public transit as a potential transportation control measure/TCM, i.e., generates significant air quality benefits by eliminating or reducing emissions from motor vehicles. Four in-depth case studies and six additional projects featured as innovations in transportation are offered as examples investigating the potential of transit as a TCM. These case studies and innovations highlight the efforts of ten metropolitan areas and transit agencies which have succeed in developing and implementing innovative transit strategies.

  16. Validation study of a quantitative multigene reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay for assessment of recurrence risk in patients with stage II colon cancer.

    Gray, Richard G; Quirke, Philip; Handley, Kelly; Lopatin, Margarita; Magill, Laura; Baehner, Frederick L; Beaumont, Claire; Clark-Langone, Kim M; Yoshizawa, Carl N; Lee, Mark; Watson, Drew; Shak, Steven; Kerr, David J

    2011-12-10

    We developed quantitative gene expression assays to assess recurrence risk and benefits from chemotherapy in patients with stage II colon cancer. We sought validation by using RNA extracted from fixed paraffin-embedded primary colon tumor blocks from 1,436 patients with stage II colon cancer in the QUASAR (Quick and Simple and Reliable) study of adjuvant fluoropyrimidine chemotherapy versus surgery alone. A recurrence score (RS) and a treatment score (TS) were calculated from gene expression levels of 13 cancer-related genes (n = 7 recurrence genes and n = 6 treatment benefit genes) and from five reference genes with prespecified algorithms. Cox proportional hazards regression models and log-rank methods were used to analyze the relationship between the RS and risk of recurrence in patients treated with surgery alone and between TS and benefits of chemotherapy. Risk of recurrence was significantly associated with RS (hazard ratio [HR] per interquartile range, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.11 to 1.74; P = .004). Recurrence risks at 3 years were 12%, 18%, and 22% for predefined low, intermediate, and high recurrence risk groups, respectively. T stage (HR, 1.94; P < .001) and mismatch repair (MMR) status (HR, 0.31; P < .001) were the strongest histopathologic prognostic factors. The continuous RS was associated with risk of recurrence (P = .006) beyond these and other covariates. There was no trend for increased benefit from chemotherapy at higher TS (P = .95). The continuous 12-gene RS has been validated in a prospective study for assessment of recurrence risk in patients with stage II colon cancer after surgery and provides prognostic value that complements T stage and MMR. The TS was not predictive of chemotherapy benefit.

  17. Study of the low energy gamma transitions of molybdenum 99; Etude des transitions gamma de basse energie du molybdene 99

    Ravier, J.

    1959-07-01

    The study of the decay scheme of Mo{sup 99} has been performed on the magnetic iron-less and double focalization spectrograph of the Institute of Nuclear Physics of Lyon. Methods of internal and external conversion have been used. The intensities of the Mo{sup 99} sources used were not strong enough to determine the characteristics of the internal conversion accurately but were sufficient to precise the decay scheme at low energy. We have determined the internal conversion ratio for the transition of 180 KeV, we have got: 0.13 ± 0.03 which is not in agreement with the value given by a previous experiment based on γ-γ coincidence. Our method seems to be more reliable. We confirm the E2 feature of this transition and its 5/2+ spin. We have determined another important parameter for the 180 KeV de-excitation: the percentage of transitions that do not pass by the isomeric level but by the 140 KeV level is (6 ± 2)%, the isomeric level being at 142 KeV. The gamma spectra at low energy has been studied through the photoelectric effect in a lead converter [French] L'etude du schema de desintegration du Mo{sup 99} deja faite par differents auteurs a ete reprise par des methodes de conversion interne et externe, an moyen du spectrographe magnetique sans fer et a double focalisation de l'Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon. Apres avoir cherche les possibilites d'obtention de sources de haute activite specifique par separation isotopique Szilard-Chalmers sur des molybdates alcalins, le spectre de conversion interne a basse energie a ete mesure. Ainsi se trouverent etre determines les coefficients partiaux de conversion interne. Le spectre γ a basse energie a ete etudier au moyen de l'effet photoelectrique sur un convertisseur de plomb. Les coefficients de conversion interne et les intensites relatives des differentes transitions ont ete calcules moyennant certaines hypotheses. La comparaison entre les valeurs donnees par la theorie et l'experience des differentes

  18. The Economics of Colon Cancer.

    Orangio, Guy R

    2018-04-01

    The economic burden of cancer on the national health expenditure is billions of dollars. The economic cost is measured on direct and indirect medical costs, which vary depending on stage at diagnosis, patient age, type of medical services, and site of service. Costs vary by region, physician behavior, and patient preferences. When analyzing the economic burden of survivors of colon cancer, we cannot forget the societal burden. Post-acute care and readmissions are major economic burdens. People with colon cancer have to be followed for their lifetime. Economic models are being studied to give cost-effective solutions to this problem. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Magneto-optical study of the Verwey transition in magnetite

    Neal, J.R.; Behan, A.J.; Mokhtari, A.; Ahmed, M.R.; Blythe, H.J.; Fox, A.M.; Gehring, G.A.

    2007-01-01

    We have made the first detailed Faraday measurements on thin films of Fe 3 O 4 for 10 xy , which is analysed for the changes in the energy, oscillator strength, and width of the transitions. A significant anomaly is seen in these optical parameters within about 10 K of the Verwey temperature. However, there are also some differences between the optical parameters above and below T v over a wider temperature range. The results are interpreted to give valuable information on the orbital ordering

  20. Design of the study on transitions in employment, ability and motivation (STREAM)

    Geuskens, G.A.; Ybema, J.F.; Heuvel, S.G. van den; Wind, A. de; Leijten, M.S.; Joling, C.I.; Blatter, B.M. van; Burdorf, A.; Beek, A.J. van der; Bongers, P.M.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the Study on Transitions in Employment, Ability and Motivation (STREAM) is to acquire knowledge on determinants of healthy and productive work participation among persons aged 45–64 years. A research framework was developed with main outcomes of productivity and transitions in

  1. Saudi Deaf Students Post-Secondary Transitioning Experience: A Grounded Theory Study

    Almotiri, Abdullah

    2017-01-01

    Understanding how deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) international students transition to post-secondary institutions is important for ensuring their academic and personal success. In this grounded theory study, five Saudi Arabian students who are DHH and enrolled at Gallaudet University were interviewed about their transition experience. Participants…

  2. Incidence of retrorenal colon during percutaneous nephrolithotomy

    Mehmet Balasar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective The aim of this study was to investigate retrorenal colon incidence in percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL interventions made in our clinic. Materials and Methods Clinical data of 804 PNL patients, accumulated over a 7 year period (2006-2012, was surveyed. The patient files were reviewed retrospectively, and only those who had abdominal computed tomography (CT images before PNL intervention were included in the study. In the CT images, the position of both the ascending and descending colon in relation to the right and left kidneys were evaluated. Results According to our hospital reports, 394 patients with CT images were included in the present study 27 patients (6.9% had retrorenal colon, of which 18 (4.6% were on the left side, 4 (1.0% on the right side and 5 (1.3% had bilateral retrorenal colons. Colonic perforation complication was seen only in two patients and the colonic perforation rate was 0.3%. These two cases had no CT images. Conclusions PNL, in the process of becoming the standard treatment modality, is a safe and reliable technique for renal stone treatment. Colonic injury should be taken into consideration during PNL interventions of the lower pole of the kidney (especially on the left side due to the location of retrorenal colon.

  3. An Act of Colonization

    Rasmussen, Anders Bo

    When Gideon Welles, U.S. Secretary of the Navy, sat down to write his diary entry on September 26, 1862, his thoughts turned once more to colonization. President Lincoln was an ardent proponent of colonization, “the government-promoted settlement of black Americans in Africa or some other location....... Croix. Thus, when the Lincoln administration seriously considered colonization plans in 1862, Danish Charge d’Affaires Waldemar Raasløff offered free transport for freedmen to the Caribbean island, where there was a “distinct lack of laborers.” As a small first step towards colonization, Denmark...

  4. Colon cancer screening

    Screening for colon cancer; Colonoscopy - screening; Sigmoidoscopy - screening; Virtual colonoscopy - screening; Fecal immunochemical test; Stool DNA test; sDNA test; Colorectal cancer - screening; Rectal ...

  5. The retrorenal colon in the supine and prone patient

    Hopper, K.D.; Sherman, J.L.; Luethke, J.M.; Ghaed, N.

    1986-01-01

    Ninety patients underwent CT in both supine and prone positions so that the orientation of the retroperitoneal colon about the kidneys could be determined. Particular attention was given to bowel found posterior to the kidneys, the so-called retrorenal colon. The frequency of retrorenal colon increased from 1.9% on supine studies to 10.7% on prone studies. Since most invasive renal procedures performed with the patient prone would miss retrorenal colon located behind the lateral one third of the kidney, the data were reevaluated, excluding these patients. The resulting frequency of significant retrorenal colon found on prone studies was 4.7%. Significant retrorenal colon was found exclusively at the level of the lower renal poles, and the involved colon in these patients was extensively distended with gas. Particular attention should be given, under fluoroscopic guidance, to detecting this unusual posteriorly positioned, air-filled colon before one undertakes any invasive renal procedure

  6. Formulation, development and evaluation of colon-specific ketorolac ...

    The major intention to formulate and develop colon targeted tablets is to improve the therapeutic efficacy by increasing therapeutic drug concentrations in colon. The present study was aimed to develop guar gum compression coated tablets ketorolac tromethamine to achieve the colon-specific drug release. In this study ...

  7. Cost-effectiveness analysis of an 18-week exercise programme for patients with breast and colon cancer undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy: the randomised PACT study.

    May, Anne M; Bosch, Marcel J C; Velthuis, Miranda J; van der Wall, Elsken; Steins Bisschop, Charlotte N; Los, Maartje; Erdkamp, Frans; Bloemendal, Haiko J; de Roos, Marnix A J; Verhaar, Marlies; Ten Bokkel Huinink, Daan; Peeters, Petra H M; de Wit, G Ardine

    2017-03-06

    Meta-analyses show that exercise interventions during cancer treatment reduce cancer-related fatigue. However, little is known about the cost-effectiveness of such interventions. Here we aim to assess the cost-effectiveness of the 18-week physical activity during cancer treatment (PACT) intervention for patients with breast and colon cancer. The PACT trial showed beneficial effects for fatigue and physical fitness. Cost-effectiveness analyses with a 9-month time horizon (18 weeks of intervention and 18 weeks of follow-up) within the randomised controlled multicentre PACT study. Outpatient clinics of 7 hospitals in the Netherlands (1 academic and 6 general hospitals) PARTICIPANTS: 204 patients with breast cancer and 33 with colon cancer undergoing adjuvant treatment including chemotherapy. Supervised 1-hour aerobic and resistance exercise (twice per week for 18 weeks) or usual care. Costs, quality-adjusted life years (QALY) and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio. For colon cancer, the cost-effectiveness analysis showed beneficial effects of the exercise intervention with incremental costs savings of €4321 and QALY improvements of 0.03. 100% of bootstrap simulations indicated that the intervention is dominant (ie, cheaper and more effective). For breast cancer, the results did not indicate that the exercise intervention was cost-effective. Incremental costs were €2912, and the incremental effect was 0.01 QALY. At a Dutch threshold value of €20 000 per QALY, the probability that the intervention is cost-effective was 2%. Our results suggest that the 18-week exercise programme was cost-effective for colon cancer, but not for breast cancer. ISRCTN43801571. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. Targeted adsorption of molecules in the colon with the novel adsorbent-based medicinal product, DAV132: A proof of concept study in healthy subjects.

    de Gunzburg, Jean; Ducher, Annie; Modess, Christiane; Wegner, Danilo; Oswald, Stefan; Dressman, Jennifer; Augustin, Violaine; Feger, Céline; Andremont, Antoine; Weitschies, Werner; Siegmund, Werner

    2015-01-01

    During antibiotic treatments, active residuals reaching the colon profoundly affect the bacterial flora resulting in the emergence of resistance. To prevent these effects, we developed an enteric-coated formulated activated-charcoal based product, DAV132, meant to deliver its adsorbent to the ileum and neutralize antibiotic residues in the proximal colon. In a randomized, control, crossover study, the plasma pharmacokinetics of the probe drugs amoxicillin (500 mg) absorbed in the proximal intestine, and sulfapyridine (25 mg) metabolized from sulfasalazine in the cecum and rapidly absorbed, were compared after a single administration in 18 healthy subjects who had received DAV132, uncoated formulated activated charcoal (FAC) or water 16 and 8 hours before, concomitantly with the probe drugs, and 8 hours thereafter. The AUC0-96 h of amoxicillin was reduced by more than 70% when it was taken with FAC, but bioequivalent when it was taken with water or DAV132. By contrast, the AUC0-96 h of sulfapyridine was reduced by more than 90% when administered with either FAC or DAV132 in comparison with water. The results show that DAV132 can selectively adsorb drug compounds in the proximal colon, without interfering with drug absorption in the proximal small intestine, thereby constituting a proof of concept that DAV132 actually functions in humans. © 2014, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  9. Use of the mCherry Fluorescent Protein To Study Intestinal Colonization by Enterococcus mundtii ST4SA and Lactobacillus plantarum 423 in Mice

    van Zyl, Winschau F.; Deane, Shelly M.

    2015-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are natural inhabitants of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of humans and animals, and some LAB species receive considerable attention due to their health benefits. Although many papers have been published on probiotic LAB, only a few reports have been published on the migration and colonization of the cells in the GIT. This is due mostly to the lack of efficient reporter systems. In this study, we report on the application of the fluorescent mCherry protein in the in vivo tagging of the probiotic strains Enterococcus mundtii ST4SA and Lactobacillus plantarum 423. The mCherry gene, encoding a red fluorescent protein (RFP), was integrated into a nonfunctional region on the genome of L. plantarum 423 by homologous recombination. In the case of E. mundtii ST4SA, the mCherry gene was cloned into the pGKV223D LAB/Escherichia coli expression vector. Expression of the mCherry gene did not alter the growth rate of the two strains and had no effect on bacteriocin production. Both strains colonized the cecum and colon of mice. PMID:26116681

  10. Registration of central paths and colonic polyps between supine and prone scans in computed tomography colonography: Pilot study

    Li Ping; Napel, Sandy; Acar, Burak; Paik, David S.; Jeffrey, R. Brooke Jr.; Beaulieu, Christopher F.

    2004-01-01

    Computed tomography colonography (CTC) is a minimally invasive method that allows the evaluation of the colon wall from CT sections of the abdomen/pelvis. The primary goal of CTC is to detect colonic polyps, precursors to colorectal cancer. Because imperfect cleansing and distension can cause portions of the colon wall to be collapsed, covered with water, and/or covered with retained stool, patients are scanned in both prone and supine positions. We believe that both reading efficiency and computer aided detection (CAD) of CTC images can be improved by accurate registration of data from the supine and prone positions. We developed a two-stage approach that first registers the colonic central paths using a heuristic and automated algorithm and then matches polyps or polyp candidates (CAD hits) by a statistical approach. We evaluated the registration algorithm on 24 patient cases. After path registration, the mean misalignment distance between prone and supine identical anatomic landmarks was reduced from 47.08 to 12.66 mm, a 73% improvement. The polyp registration algorithm was specifically evaluated using eight patient cases for which radiologists identified polyps separately for both supine and prone data sets, and then manually registered corresponding pairs. The algorithm correctly matched 78% of these pairs without user input. The algorithm was also applied to the 30 highest-scoring CAD hits in the prone and supine scans and showed a success rate of 50% in automatically registering corresponding polyp pairs. Finally, we computed the average number of CAD hits that need to be manually compared in order to find the correct matches among the top 30 CAD hits. With polyp registration, the average number of comparisons was 1.78 per polyp, as opposed to 4.28 comparisons without polyp registration

  11. Studies on colon cancer prone rats. Spontaneous small intestinal carcinomas and tumor induction of small intestine by x-irradiation

    Maeura, Y [Osaka Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1979-12-01

    Histological investigation was carried out for Wister-Furth (WF) rats, prone to cancers of the colon and small intestine. Gastric cancer was observed in about 1/4 of the rats with the cancers of the colon and the small intestine, indicating that these rats could be the model animals of the cancer family syndrome with multi-cancers in the gastrointestinal tracts. The small intestine of WF and SD (Sprague-Dowley) rats as exposed to 1000, 2 x 1000, 1500, and 2000 R of x-rays at a dose rate of 157 R/min. In each group the stomach, small intestine, cecum, and colon were histologically investigated, immediately and 15, 25, and 35 weeks after irradiation. The rates of cancer occurrence in 15, 25, and 35 weeks were 5/17, 9/19, and 9/14 for WF strain and 1/8, 2/7, and 2/8 for SD strain, respectively. The rate increased with the increment of the days after irradiation. It was suggested that the atypical epithelium of the gastrointestinal tracts induced the cancer in high rates when some trigger was added.

  12. Laparoscopic versus open resection for transverse and descending colon cancer: Short-term and long-term outcomes of a multicenter retrospective study of 1830 patients.

    Yamaguchi, Shigeki; Tashiro, Jo; Araki, Ryuichiro; Okuda, Junji; Hanai, Tsunekazu; Otsuka, Koki; Saito, Shuji; Watanabe, Masahiko; Sugihara, Kenichi

    2017-08-01

    Previous randomized controlled trials demonstrated similar oncological outcomes between laparoscopic and open colectomies, except for cases involving transverse colon and splenic flexure colon cancer. The objective of this study was to confirm the oncological safety and advantages of the short-term results of laparoscopic surgery for transverse and descending colon cancer in comparison with open surgery. The study data were retrospectively collected from the databases of 45 hospitals. Patients with transverse or descending colon cancer who underwent laparoscopic or open R0 resection were registered. The primary end-points were the 3-year overall survival and relapse-free survival rates according to pathological stage. The secondary end-points were the short-term results, including blood loss, operative time, diet intake, hospital stay, and postoperative complications. Of the 1830 eligible patients, 872 underwent open colectomy and 958 underwent laparoscopic colectomy. The median follow-up period was 38.4 months. The conversion rate to open resection was 4.5%. The 3-year overall survival rate of the laparoscopic group was significantly higher than that of the open group for stage I patients (96.2% vs 99.2%; P = 0.04); it was also higher for stage II (94.0% vs 95.5%) and stage III (87.4% vs 90.2%) patients, but there were no significant differences. The 3-year relapse-free survival rate of the laparoscopic group was significantly higher than that of the open group for stage I patients; there were no differences between the open and laparoscopic groups among the stage II and III patients. In the multivariate analyses, laparoscopic resection was a significant factor in relapse-free survival. Laparoscopic patients had significantly lower blood loss and a significantly longer operative time than the open groups. Also, postoperative hospital stay was significantly shorter and postoperative morbidity was significantly lower in the laparoscopic group. Although this

  13. Gendered transitions to adulthood by college field of study in the United States

    Siqi Han

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Field of study may influence the timing of transitions to the labor market, marriage, and parenthood among college graduates. Research to date has yet to study how field of study is associated with the interweaving of these transitions in the USA. Objective: The current study examines gendered influences of college field of study on transitions to a series of adult roles, including full-time work, marriage, and parenthood. Methods: We use Cox proportional hazards models and multinomial logistic regression to examine gendered associations between field of study and the three transitions among college graduates of the NLSY97 (National Longitudinal Survey of Youth cohort. Results: Men majoring in STEM achieve early transitions to full-time work, marriage, and parenthood; women majoring in STEM show no significant advantage in finding full-time work and delayed marriage and childbearing; women in business have earlier transitions to full-time work and marriage than women in other fields, demonstrating an advantage similar to that of men in STEM. Conclusions: The contrast between men and women in STEM shows that transition to adulthood remains gendered; the contrast between women in STEM and women in business illustrates that a prestigious career may not necessarily delay family formation. Contribution: The paper shows how stratification by field of study creates gendered demographic outcomes for college graduates. It also demonstrates that women's decisions regarding marriage and parenthood do not uniformly respond to the economic prospect of their work.

  14. The multi-level perspective analysis: Indonesia geothermal energy transition study

    Wisaksono, A.; Murphy, J.; Sharp, J. H.; Younger, P. L.

    2018-01-01

    The study adopts a multi-level perspective in technology transition to analyse how the transition process in the development of geothermal energy in Indonesia is able to compete against the incumbent fossil-fuelled energy sources. Three levels of multi-level perspective are socio-technical landscape (ST-landscape), socio-technical regime (ST-regime) and niche innovations in Indonesia geothermal development. The identification, mapping and analysis of the dynamic relationship between each level are the important pillars of the multi-level perspective framework. The analysis considers the set of rules, actors and controversies that may arise in the technological transition process. The identified geothermal resource risks are the basis of the emerging geothermal technological innovations in Indonesian geothermal. The analysis of this study reveals the transition pathway, which yields a forecast for the Indonesian geothermal technology transition in the form of scenarios and probable impacts.

  15. Ab initio molecular dynamics study of pressure-induced phase transition in ZnS

    Martinez, Israel; Durandurdu, Murat

    2006-01-01

    The pressure-induced phase transition in zinc sulfide is studied using a constant-pressure ab initio technique. The reversible phase transition from the zinc-blende structure to a rock-salt structure is successfully reproduced through the simulations. The transformation mechanism at the atomistic level is characterized and found to be due to a monoclinic modification of the simulation cell, similar to that obtained in SiC. This observation supports the universal transition state of high-pressure zinc-blende to rock-salt transition in semiconductor compounds. We also study the role of stress deviations on the transformation mechanism and find that the system follows the same transition pathway under nonhydrostatic compressions as well

  16. Technology Transition and Adoption: A Study in Search of Metrics for Evaluating Transition

    2010-12-01

    develops a technology on time, within budget, and performs as advertised meets all conventional standards for success. However, if the technology gets...Model-Based Integration of Embedded Software ( MoBIES ) 0 USAF 1 0 0 0 0 76 Project Mobius: A Study on the Feasibility of Learning by Reading 0 0 0 1 0...Engine Generator (MSEG) Program 50 1 0 1,203 0 0 1 75 Model-Based Integration of Embedded Software ( MoBIES ) 45 1 0 1,659 0 0 1 76 Project Mobius: A

  17. Gendered transitions to adulthood by college field of study in the United States.

    Han, Siqi; Tumin, Dmitry; Qian, Zhenchao

    2016-01-01

    Field of study may influence the timing of transitions to the labor market, marriage, and parenthood among college graduates. Research to date has yet to study how field of study is associated with the interweaving of these transitions in the USA. The current study examines gendered influences of college field of study on transitions to a series of adult roles, including full-time work, marriage, and parenthood. We use Cox proportional hazards models and multinomial logistic regression to examine gendered associations between field of study and the three transitions among college graduates of the NLSY97 (National Longitudinal Survey of Youth) cohort. Men majoring in STEM achieve early transitions to full-time work, marriage, and parenthood; women majoring in STEM show no significant advantage in finding full-time work and delayed marriage and childbearing; women in business have earlier transitions to full-time work and marriage than women in other fields, demonstrating an advantage similar to that of men in STEM. The contrast between men and women in STEM shows that transition to adulthood remains gendered; the contrast between women in STEM and women in business illustrates that a prestigious career may not necessarily delay family formation.

  18. Gendered transitions to adulthood by college field of study in the United States

    Han, Siqi; Tumin, Dmitry; Qian, Zhenchao

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Field of study may influence the timing of transitions to the labor market, marriage, and parenthood among college graduates. Research to date has yet to study how field of study is associated with the interweaving of these transitions in the USA. OBJECTIVE The current study examines gendered influences of college field of study on transitions to a series of adult roles, including full-time work, marriage, and parenthood. METHODS We use Cox proportional hazards models and multinomial logistic regression to examine gendered associations between field of study and the three transitions among college graduates of the NLSY97 (National Longitudinal Survey of Youth) cohort. RESULTS Men majoring in STEM achieve early transitions to full-time work, marriage, and parenthood; women majoring in STEM show no significant advantage in finding full-time work and delayed marriage and childbearing; women in business have earlier transitions to full-time work and marriage than women in other fields, demonstrating an advantage similar to that of men in STEM. CONCLUSIONS The contrast between men and women in STEM shows that transition to adulthood remains gendered; the contrast between women in STEM and women in business illustrates that a prestigious career may not necessarily delay family formation. PMID:29075146

  19. Effectiveness of screening colonoscopy in reducing the risk of death from right and left colon cancer: a large community-based study.

    Doubeni, Chyke A; Corley, Douglas A; Quinn, Virginia P; Jensen, Christopher D; Zauber, Ann G; Goodman, Michael; Johnson, Jill R; Mehta, Shivan J; Becerra, Tracy A; Zhao, Wei K; Schottinger, Joanne; Doria-Rose, V Paul; Levin, Theodore R; Weiss, Noel S; Fletcher, Robert H

    2018-02-01

    Screening colonoscopy's effectiveness in reducing colorectal cancer mortality risk in community populations is unclear, particularly for right-colon cancers, leading to recommendations against its use for screening in some countries. This study aimed to determine whether, among average-risk people, receipt of screening colonoscopy reduces the risk of dying from both right-colon and left-colon/rectal cancers. We conducted a nested case-control study with incidence-density matching in screening-eligible Kaiser Permanente members. Patients who were 55-90 years old on their colorectal cancer death date during 2006-2012 were matched on diagnosis (reference) date to controls on age, sex, health plan enrolment duration and geographical region. We excluded patients at increased colorectal cancer risk, or with prior colorectal cancer diagnosis or colectomy. The association between screening colonoscopy receipt in the 10-year period before the reference date and colorectal cancer death risk was evaluated while accounting for other screening exposures. We analysed 1747 patients who died from colorectal cancer and 3460 colorectal cancer-free controls. Compared with no endoscopic screening, receipt of a screening colonoscopy was associated with a 67% reduction in the risk of death from any colorectal cancer (adjusted OR (aOR)=0.33, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.52). By cancer location, screening colonoscopy was associated with a 65% reduction in risk of death for right-colon cancers (aOR=0.35, CI 0.18 to 0.65) and a 75% reduction for left-colon/rectal cancers (aOR=0.25, CI 0.12 to 0.53). Screening colonoscopy was associated with a substantial and comparably decreased mortality risk for both right-sided and left-sided cancers within a large community-based population. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  20. High Precision Renormalization Group Study of the Roughening Transition

    Hasenbusch, M; Pinn, K

    1994-01-01

    We confirm the Kosterlitz-Thouless scenario of the roughening transition for three different Solid-On-Solid models: the Discrete Gaussian model, the Absolute-Value-Solid-On-Solid model and the dual transform of the XY model with standard (cosine) action. The method is based on a matching of the renormalization group flow of the candidate models with the flow of a bona fide KT model, the exactly solvable BCSOS model. The Monte Carlo simulations are performed using efficient cluster algorithms. We obtain high precision estimates for the critical couplings and other non-universal quantities. For the XY model with cosine action our critical coupling estimate is $\\beta_R^{XY}=1.1197(5)$. For the roughening coupling of the Discrete Gaussian and the Absolute-Value-Solid-On-Solid model we find $K_R^{DG}=0.6645(6)$ and $K_R^{ASOS}=0.8061(3)$, respectively.

  1. Magneto-optical study of the Verwey transition in magnetite

    Neal, J.R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Behan, A.J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Mokhtari, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Ahmed, M.R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Blythe, H.J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Fox, A.M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Gehring, G.A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: G.A.Gehring@Sheffield.ac.uk

    2007-03-15

    We have made the first detailed Faraday measurements on thin films of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} for 10transitions. A significant anomaly is seen in these optical parameters within about 10 K of the Verwey temperature. However, there are also some differences between the optical parameters above and below T {sub v} over a wider temperature range. The results are interpreted to give valuable information on the orbital ordering.

  2. Transitional lumbosacral vertebral anomaly in the dog: a radiographic study

    Morgan, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    Transitional lumbosacral vertebral anomalies have for some time been suggested as a possible cause of cauda equina syndrome (especially in the German shepherd dog [GSD]), a condition recently thought to be inherited. The frequency of this condition within a large clinical population and the radiographic features used in its detection are reported. In a group of 143 patients, the sexes were similarly represented and the GSD was greatly over represented. The anomaly is characterised by separation of the first sacral segment that was identified on the lateral view by the presence of a radiolucent disc space between what are normally the first and second sacral segments. On the ventrodorsal view, the anomaly was characterised by separation of the spinous processes between what are normally the first and second sacral segments. In the presence of the transitional segment, the nature of the sacroiliac joint at the level of the anomalous segment varies from a strong ilial attachment, with the presence of a wing-like lateral process, to a weakened ilial attachment because of the presence of a lateral process, shaped as that seen on a lumbar segment. These patterns were present unilaterally or bilaterally and result in symmetrical or asymmetrical patterns. The effect of the weakening of the sacroiliac attachment was thought to result in premature disc degeneration, which, together with spinal canal stenosis, resulted in potential compression of the overlying spinal nerves and creation of a cauda equina syndrome. The condition is thought to have clinical significance and should be selected against in breeding, especially in the GSD

  3. Role of neutral ceramidase in colon cancer.

    García-Barros, Mónica; Coant, Nicolas; Kawamori, Toshihiko; Wada, Masayuki; Snider, Ashley J; Truman, Jean-Philip; Wu, Bill X; Furuya, Hideki; Clarke, Christopher J; Bialkowska, Agnieszka B; Ghaleb, Amr; Yang, Vincent W; Obeid, Lina M; Hannun, Yusuf A

    2016-12-01

    Alterations in sphingolipid metabolism, especially ceramide and sphingosine 1-phosphate, have been linked to colon cancer, suggesting that enzymes of sphingolipid metabolism may emerge as novel regulators and targets in colon cancer. Neutral ceramidase (nCDase), a key enzyme in sphingolipid metabolism that hydrolyzes ceramide into sphingosine, is highly expressed in the intestine; however, its role in colon cancer has not been defined. Here we show that molecular and pharmacological inhibition of nCDase in colon cancer cells increases ceramide, and this is accompanied by decreased cell survival and increased apoptosis and autophagy, with minimal effects on noncancerous cells. Inhibition of nCDase resulted in loss of β-catenin and inhibition of ERK, components of pathways relevant for colon cancer development. Furthermore, inhibition of nCDase in a xenograft model delayed tumor growth and increased ceramide while decreasing proliferation. It is noteworthy that mice lacking nCDase treated with azoxymethane were protected from tumor formation. Taken together, these studies show that nCDase is pivotal for regulating initiation and development of colon cancer, and these data suggest that this enzyme is a suitable and novel target for colon cancer therapy.-García-Barros, M., Coant, N., Kawamori, T., Wada, M., Snider, A. J., Truman, J.-P., Wu, B. X., Furuya, H., Clarke, C. J., Bialkowska, A. B., Ghaleb, A., Yang, V. W., Obeid, L. M., Hannun, Y. A. Role of neutral ceramidase in colon cancer. © FASEB.

  4. CT Findings of Colonic Complications Associated with Colon Cancer

    Kim, Sang Won; Shin, Hyeong Cheol; Kim, Il Young; Kim, Young Tong; Kim, Chang Jin

    2010-01-01

    A broad spectrum of colonic complications can occur in patients with colon cancer. Clinically, some of these complications can obscure the presence of underlying malignancies in the colon and these complications may require emergency surgical management. The complications of the colon that can be associated with colon cancer include obstruction, perforation, abscess formation, acute appendicitis, ischemic colitis and intussusception. Although the majority of these complications only rarely occur, familiarity with the various manifestations of colon cancer complications will facilitate making an accurate diagnosis and administering prompt management in these situations. The purpose of this pictorial essay is to review the CT appearance of the colonic complications associated with colon cancer

  5. CT Findings of Colonic Complications Associated with Colon Cancer

    Kim, Sang Won; Shin, Hyeong Cheol; Kim, Il Young; Kim, Young Tong; Kim, Chang Jin [Cheonan Hospital, Soonchunhyang University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    A broad spectrum of colonic complications can occur in patients with colon cancer. Clinically, some of these complications can obscure the presence of underlying malignancies in the colon and these complications may require emergency surgical management. The complications of the colon that can be associated with colon cancer include obstruction, perforation, abscess formation, acute appendicitis, ischemic colitis and intussusception. Although the majority of these complications only rarely occur, familiarity with the various manifestations of colon cancer complications will facilitate making an accurate diagnosis and administering prompt management in these situations. The purpose of this pictorial essay is to review the CT appearance of the colonic complications associated with colon cancer.

  6. Laparoscopic colonic surgery in Denmark 2004-2007

    Schulze, S.; Iversen, M.G.; Bendixen, A.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Laparoscopic colonic surgery was introduced about 15 years ago and has together with the evidence-based 'fast-track' methodology improved early postoperative outcome. The purpose of this study was to asses the organization and early outcome after laparoscopic colonic surgery in Denmark...... of laparoscopic colonic surgery but probably performed in too many low volume departments. Laparoscopic colonic surgery should be monitored and further advances secured by adjustment of perioperative care to fast-track care Udgivelsesdato: 2008/11...

  7. Association between colonic polyps and diverticular disease

    Tetsuo Hirata; Yuko Kawakami; Nagisa Kinjo; Susumu Arakald; Tetsu Arakaki; Akira Hokama; Fukunori Kinjo; Jim Fujita

    2008-01-01

    AIM: TO evaluate the association between colonic polyps and diverticular disease in Japan.METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 672 consecutive patients who underwent total colonoscopy between August 2006 and April 2007 at Nishinjo Hospital, Okinawa, Japan. Patients with ahistory of any of the following were excluded from the study: previous polypectomy, colonic resection, and inflammatory bowel diseases. The association between colonic polyps and diverticular disease was analyzed by logistic regression analysis, adjusted for age and sex.RESULTS: Prevalence of colonic polyps in all patients with diverticular disease was significantly higher than that in those without diverticular disease (adjusted odds ratio 1.7).CONCLUSION: Our data showed that patients with diverticular disease have a higher risk of colonic polyps compared to those without.

  8. Association between colonic polyps and diverticular disease

    Hirata, Tetsuo; Kawakami, Yuko; Kinjo, Nagisa; Arakaki, Susumu; Arakaki, Tetsu; Hokama, Akira; Kinjo, Fukunori; Fujita, Jiro

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the association between colonic polyps and diverticular disease in Japan. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 672 consecutive patients who underwent total colonoscopy between August 2006 and April 2007 at Nishinjo Hospital, Okinawa, Japan. Patients with a history of any of the following were excluded from the study: previous polypectomy, colonic resection, and inflammatory bowel diseases. The association between colonic polyps and diverticular disease was analyzed by logistic regression analysis, adjusted for age and sex. RESULTS: Prevalence of colonic polyps in all patients with diverticular disease was significantly higher than that in those without diverticular disease (adjusted odds ratio 1.7). CONCLUSION: Our data showed that patients with diverticular disease have a higher risk of colonic polyps compared to those without. PMID:18416471

  9. Colon of the rat

    Lindstroem, C.G.; Rosengren, J.-E.; Fork, F.-T.

    1979-01-01

    The anatomy and radiologic appearance of the colon in rats are described on the basis of 300 animals treated with carcinogenic agents and 40 normal rats. The macroscopic and microscopic appearance of the mucosa varies in the different parts of the colon. Lymphoid plaques are normal structures. The results justify a new anatomic nomenclature. (Auth.)

  10. Multiple and multidimensional transitions from trainee to trained doctor: a qualitative longitudinal study in the UK.

    Gordon, Lisi; Jindal-Snape, Divya; Morrison, Jill; Muldoon, Janine; Needham, Gillian; Siebert, Sabina; Rees, Charlotte

    2017-12-01

    To explore trainee doctors' experiences of the transition to trained doctor, we answer three questions: (1) What multiple and multidimensional transitions (MMTs) are experienced as participants move from trainee to trained doctor? (2) What facilitates and hinders doctors' successful transition experiences? (3) What is the impact of MMTs on trained doctors? A qualitative longitudinal study underpinned by MMT theory. Four training areas (health boards) in the UK. 20 doctors, 19 higher-stage trainees within 6 months of completing their postgraduate training and 1 staff grade, associate specialist or specialty doctor, were recruited to the 9-month longitudinal audio-diary (LAD) study. All completed an entrance interview, 18 completed LADs and 18 completed exit interviews. Data were analysed cross-sectionally and longitudinally using thematic Framework Analysis. Participants experienced a multiplicity of expected and unexpected, positive and negative work-related transitions (eg, new roles) and home-related transitions (eg, moving home) during their trainee-trained doctor transition. Factors facilitating or inhibiting successful transitions were identified at various levels: individual (eg, living arrangements), interpersonal (eg, presence of supportive relationships), systemic (eg, mentoring opportunities) and macro (eg, the curriculum provided by Medical Royal Colleges). Various impacts of transitions were also identified at each of these four levels: individual (eg, stress), interpersonal (eg, trainees' children spending more time in childcare), systemic (eg, spending less time with patients) and macro (eg, delayed start in trainees' new roles). Priority should be given to developing supportive relationships (both formal and informal) to help trainees transition into their trained doctor roles, as well as providing more opportunities for learning. Further longitudinal qualitative research is now needed with a longer study duration to explore transition journeys for

  11. Energy transitions in France: lessons learned from prospective studies. Contribution to the National Debate on Energy Transition

    Bibas, Ruben; Hourcade, Jean-Charles

    2013-01-01

    After having outlined that the debates on energy transition in France focus on three main issues (management of greenhouse gas emissions, future of nuclear within the French energy mix, energy security), the authors report the use of the Imaclim-R France model (a multi-sector recursive hybrid model) which is adapted to sensitivity studies for the whole set of hypotheses. As energy parameters, they use data provided by ENCILOWCARB scenarios from a European project (Engaging civil society in low carbon scenarios). After having examined that they are not sufficient to conduct a transition strategy leading to a F4 pathway of reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and/or a progressive phasing out nuclear, they consider the policies which are necessary to mobilise potentials of energy saving and emission reduction. Several scenarios are studied in terms of energy and environmental performances and in terms of economic and social performances: scenarios based on policies and measures with or without additional component (carbon tax, social negotiation, carbon finance)

  12. Red meat and colon cancer : a possible role for heme

    Sesink, Aloysius Lambertus Antonia

    2000-01-01

    Sporadic colon cancer is a multifactorial aging disease affected by long-term exposure to environmental risk factors. Epidemiological studies have shown that risk for colon cancer is associated with diets high in red meat and/or animal fat. The mechanisms by which colonic tumors arise are, however,

  13. A study of the static to kinetic friction transition of polymers

    Lee, Edward Chungjen

    1995-01-01

    This study investigates the transition from static to kinetic friction for structural polymers and continues previous research conducted by Dr. N. S. Eiss, B. McCann, and R. Molique. A new test apparatus which simultaneously measures friction, normal load, and relative velocity was developed to study this transition. The polymers used in this study were nylon, ABS, polycarbonate, and fiberglass filled and unfilled polypropylene. Creep effects of polymers on the static coefficie...

  14. A computational study of pressure-induced structural transition in ThSb

    Trinadh, Ch.U.M.; Rajagopalan, M.; Natarajan, S.

    1997-01-01

    The pressure induced phase transition from NaCl-type to CsCl-type structure in ThSb was studied using total energy calculations by tight-binding linear muffin tin orbital (TBLMTO) method within atomic sphere approximation (ASA). The density of states (DOS) at ambient pressure was compared with resonant photoemission studies (PES). The variation in interatomic distances during the transition was found to be in agreement with high pressure x-ray diffraction (HPXRD) studies. (author)

  15. Study and Understanding Behavior of Alginate-Inulin Synbiotics Beads for Protection and Delivery of Antimicrobial-Producing Probiotics in Colonic Simulated Conditions.

    Atia, Abdelbasset; Gomaa, Ahmed; Fernandez, Benoit; Subirade, Muriel; Fliss, Ismail

    2018-06-01

    According to the World Health Organization (WHO), using antibiotics as growth promoters for livestock-particularly swine-is the principal cause of antibiotic resistance. It is therefore clear that finding an alternative to antibiotics becomes an emergency. Hundreds of recent studies have appointed probiotics as potential candidates to replace or to be used in combination with antibiotics. However, bringing probiotics alive to the colon-their site of action-remains a big challenge because of different physiological barriers encountered in proximal gastrointestinal tract (GIT) such as acidic pH and bile salts that may affect the viability of probiotic cultures. To overcome this problem, in previous studies, we developed and characterize a synbiotic formula consisting of beads of a mixture of alginate and inulin. Three potential probiotics strains namely Pediococcus acidilactici UL5 (UL5), Lactobacillus reuteri (LR), and Lactobacillus salivarius (LS) were encapsulated to study their release and the behavior of this synbiotic formula throughout the GIT using in vitro models. The survival and the release of bacteria from beads were studied by specific PMA-qPCR counting. The microscopic aspects of the beads were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Moreover, the microbial dynamics inside beads were studied by fluorescence microscopy using the live/dead test. Our results have shown that the beads containing 5% inulin were the most stable in the stomach and throughout the small intestine. However, beads were completely degraded in approximately 3 h of incubation in the fermented medium that mimic the colon. These results were confirmed by SEM and fluorescence microscopy images. Therefore, it can be stated that the AI5 formulation well protected the bacteria in the upper part of the digestive tract and allowed their controlled release in the colon.

  16. The impact of L5 dorsal root ganglion degeneration and Adamkiewicz artery vasospasm on descending colon dilatation following spinal subarachnoid hemorrhage: An experimental study; first report

    Ozturk, Cengiz; Kanat, Ayhan; Aydin, Mehmet Dumlu; Yolas, Coskun; Kabalar, Mehmet Esref; Gundogdu, Betul; Duman, Aslihan; Kanat, Ilyas Ferit; Gundogdu, Cemal

    2015-01-01

    Context: Somato-sensitive innervation of bowels are maintained by lower segments of spinal cord and the blood supply of the lower spinal cord is heavily dependent on Adamkiewicz artery. Although bowel problems are sometimes seen in subarachnoid hemorrhage neither Adamkiewicz artery spasm nor spinal cord ischemia has not been elucidated as a cause of bowel dilatation so far. Aims: The goal of this study was to study the effects Adamkiewicz artery (AKA) vasospasm in lumbar subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) on bowel dilatation severity. Settings and Design: An experimental rabbit study. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 25 rabbits, which were randomly divided into three groups: Spinal SAH (N = 13), serum saline (SS) (SS; N = 7) and control (N = 5) groups. Experimental spinal SAH was performed. After 21 days, volume values of descending parts of large bowels and degenerated neuron density of L5DRG were analyzed. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was performed using the PASW Statistics 18.0 for Windows (SPSS Inc., Chicago, Illinois). Two-tailed t-test and Mann-Whitney U-tests were used. The statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: The mean volume of imaginary descending colons was estimated as 93 ± 12 cm3 in the control group and 121 ± 26 cm3 in the SS group and 176 ± 49 cm3 in SAH group. Volume augmentations of the descending colons and degenerated neuron density L5DRG were significantly different between the SAH and other two groups (P < 0.05). Conclusion: An inverse relationship between the living neuronal density of the L5DRG and the volume of imaginary descending colon values was occurred. Our findings will aid in the planning of future experimental studies and determining the clinical relevance on such studies. PMID:25972712

  17. The impact of L5 dorsal root ganglion degeneration and Adamkiewicz artery vasospasm on descending colon dilatation following spinal subarachnoid hemorrhage: An experimental study; first report

    Cengiz Ozturk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Somato-sensitive innervation of bowels are maintained by lower segments of spinal cord and the blood supply of the lower spinal cord is heavily dependent on Adamkiewicz artery. Although bowel problems are sometimes seen in subarachnoid hemorrhage neither Adamkiewicz artery spasm nor spinal cord ischemia has not been elucidated as a cause of bowel dilatation so far. Aims: The goal of this study was to study the effects Adamkiewicz artery (AKA vasospasm in lumbar subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH on bowel dilatation severity. Settings and Design: An experimental rabbit study. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 25 rabbits, which were randomly divided into three groups: Spinal SAH (N = 13, serum saline (SS (SS; N = 7 and control (N = 5 groups. Experimental spinal SAH was performed. After 21 days, volume values of descending parts of large bowels and degenerated neuron density of L5DRG were analyzed. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was performed using the PASW Statistics 18.0 for Windows (SPSS Inc., Chicago, Illinois. Two-tailed t-test and Mann-Whitney U-tests were used. The statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: The mean volume of imaginary descending colons was estimated as 93 ± 12 cm 3 in the control group and 121 ± 26 cm 3 in the SS group and 176 ± 49 cm 3 in SAH group. Volume augmentations of the descending colons and degenerated neuron density L5DRG were significantly different between the SAH and other two groups (P < 0.05. Conclusion: An inverse relationship between the living neuronal density of the L5DRG and the volume of imaginary descending colon values was occurred. Our findings will aid in the planning of future experimental studies and determining the clinical relevance on such studies.

  18. The impact of L5 dorsal root ganglion degeneration and Adamkiewicz artery vasospasm on descending colon dilatation following spinal subarachnoid hemorrhage: An experimental study; first report.

    Ozturk, Cengiz; Kanat, Ayhan; Aydin, Mehmet Dumlu; Yolas, Coskun; Kabalar, Mehmet Esref; Gundogdu, Betul; Duman, Aslihan; Kanat, Ilyas Ferit; Gundogdu, Cemal

    2015-01-01

    Somato-sensitive innervation of bowels are maintained by lower segments of spinal cord and the blood supply of the lower spinal cord is heavily dependent on Adamkiewicz artery. Although bowel problems are sometimes seen in subarachnoid hemorrhage neither Adamkiewicz artery spasm nor spinal cord ischemia has not been elucidated as a cause of bowel dilatation so far. The goal of this study was to study the effects Adamkiewicz artery (AKA) vasospasm in lumbar subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) on bowel dilatation severity. An experimental rabbit study. The study was conducted on 25 rabbits, which were randomly divided into three groups: Spinal SAH (N = 13), serum saline (SS) (SS; N = 7) and control (N = 5) groups. Experimental spinal SAH was performed. After 21 days, volume values of descending parts of large bowels and degenerated neuron density of L5DRG were analyzed. Statistical analysis was performed using the PASW Statistics 18.0 for Windows (SPSS Inc., Chicago, Illinois). Two-tailed t-test and Mann-Whitney U-tests were used. The statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. The mean volume of imaginary descending colons was estimated as 93 ± 12 cm(3) in the control group and 121 ± 26 cm(3) in the SS group and 176 ± 49 cm(3) in SAH group. Volume augmentations of the descending colons and degenerated neuron density L5DRG were significantly different between the SAH and other two groups (P < 0.05). An inverse relationship between the living neuronal density of the L5DRG and the volume of imaginary descending colon values was occurred. Our findings will aid in the planning of future experimental studies and determining the clinical relevance on such studies.

  19. Transition conductivity study of high temperature superconductor compounds: the role of fluctuations

    Pagnon, V.

    1991-04-01

    This memory subject is the transition conductivity study of high temperature superconductors in corelation with their anisotropy. Systematic conductivity measurements were made on YBaCuO and BaSrCaCuO in relation with temperature from 4.2 K to 1200 K, and with a magnetic field up to 8 T in several directions. Oxygen order has an effect on the characteristics at YBaCuO transition conductivity. The activation energy for oxygen absorption is about 0.5eV. One method of analysis of the conductivity fluctuations about the transition temperature is proposed. Two separate rates are noticeable in YBaCuO compound. The 3 D fluctuations rate in the immediate neighbourghood of the transition lets place to the 2 D fluctuations rate at high temperature. Transitions temperatures governing each rate are different, that's incompatible with the formula proposed by Lawrence and Doniach. On the other hand, the analogy with quasi-2 D magnetic systems seems more relevant. A magnetic field application or a lowering of oxygen concentration removes the 3 D fluctuations rate. Non ohmic effects observed at the transition conductivity foot are analysis as a non-linear 2 D excitation manifestation of the supraconductive phase. Finally, by measurements on strontium doped YBaCuO crystals, we confirm a metal-insulator transition along the C-Axe when oxygen concentration reduces. This is connected with the specific heat jump. All these results uplighten the fundamental bidimensional character of high transition temperature superconductivity [fr

  20. Study of the coefficients of internal conversion for transition energies approaching the threshold

    Farani Coursol, Nelcy.

    1979-01-01

    Internal conversion coefficients were determined experimentally with great accuracy for areas of transition energies, which constitute tests for the theories (energies at the most ten kEv above the threshold of K shell), then the results obtained were compared with the values calculated (or to be calculated) from theoretical models. Owing to the difficulties raised by the precise determination of the internal conversion coefficients (ICC), in the first stage we selected radionuclides with a relatively simple decay pattern, the transitions: 30 keV of sup(93m)Nb, 35 keV of sup(125m)Te, 14 keV of 57 Fe and 39 keV of sup(129m)Xe. It was observed that 'problems' exist with respect to the ICC's of the great multipolarity transitions, so the transitions of this kind were examined in a systematic manner. The possibility of penetration effects occurring for the transitions studied experimentally was examined. The considerations are presented which 'authorized' us to disregard the dynamic part of the ICC for the transitions approaching the threshold (L selection rules and life of nuclear levels in relation to Weisskopf-Moszkowski estimations). The Kurie straight line was determined experimentally for the β - transition and the Qsub(β) was evaluated with an important accuracy gain compared with the values available at present. Finally, a certain number of ICC's of transitions already determined with good precision were recalculated, in order to extend our analysis and detect any possible systematic errors [fr

  1. Exploring the need for Transition Readiness Scales within cystic fibrosis services: A qualitative descriptive study.

    Bourke, Mary; Houghton, Catherine

    2018-07-01

    To explore healthcare professionals' and patients' perceptions of the potential use of a Transition Readiness Scale in cystic fibrosis care. This included an examination of barriers and facilitators to its implementation along with the identification of key items to include in a Transition Readiness Scale. Due to increasing life expectancy and improved quality of life, more adolescents with cystic fibrosis are transitioning from paediatric to adult health care. To assess and correctly manage this transition, a more structured approach to transition is advocated. This can be achieved using a Transition Readiness Scale to potentially identify or target areas of care in which the adolescent may have poor knowledge. These key items include education, developmental readiness taking into account relationships, reproduction, future plans and self-management skills. Existing tools to gauge readiness concentrate mainly on education and self-care needs assessment as their key items. Currently, there is no specific cystic fibrosis Transition Readiness Scale in use in Ireland or internationally. The study used a descriptive qualitative design. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews (n = 8) and analysed using a thematic approach. The findings identified the potential benefits of this tool and second the resources which need to be in place before its development and implementation into cystic fibrosis services. Transition Readiness Scales have substantial relevance with cystic fibrosis services emphasising the importance of establishing the necessary resources prior to its implementation. These were identified as more staff, a dedicated private space and staff training and education. Significant resources are needed to fully integrate Transition Readiness Scales in practice. The study findings suggest multidisciplinary collaborations, and patient engagement is pivotal in planning and easing the transition process for adolescents with cystic fibrosis. © 2018 The

  2. Study of Confinement/Deconfinement Transition in AdS/QCD with Generalized Warp Factors

    Shobhit Sachan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We study analytical solutions of charged black holes and thermally charged AdS with generalized warped factors in Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton system. We calculate Euclidean action for charged AdS and thermally charged AdS. The actions in both backgrounds are regularized by the method of background subtraction. The study of phase transition between charged black hole and thermally charged AdS gives an insight into the confinement/deconfinement transition. The plots of grand potential versus temperature and chemical potential versus transition temperature are obtained.

  3. Human gastric emptying and colonic filling of solids characterized by a new method

    Camilleri, M.; Colemont, L.J.; Phillips, S.F.; Brown, M.L.; Thomforde, G.M.; Chapman, N.; Zinsmeister, A.R. (Mayo Clinic and Foundation, Rochester, MN (USA))

    1989-08-01

    Our first aim was to compare {sup 111}In-labeled Amberlite IR-12OP resin pellets and {sup 131}I-labeled fiber in the assessment of gastric and small bowel transit and colonic filling in healthy humans. Both radiolabels were highly stable for 3 h in an in vitro stomach model and remained predominantly bound to solid phase of stools collected over 5 days (90.5 +/- 2.1 (SE)% for {sup 131}I and 87.4 +/- 1.4% for {sup 111}In). The lag phase of gastric emptying was shorter for {sup 111}In-pellets (30 +/- 11 min compared with 58 +/- 12 min for {sup 131}I-fiber, P less than 0.05). However, the slope of the postlag phase of gastric emptying and the half time of small bowel transit were not significantly different for {sup 111}In-pellets and {sup 131}I-fiber. Filling of the colon was characterized by bolus movements of the radiolabel (10-80% range, 26% mean) followed by plateaus (periods of no movement of isotope into colon lasting 15-120 min, range; 51 min, mean). Half of the bolus movements occurred within 1 h of the intake of a second meal. Thus {sup 111}In-labeled Amberlite pellets provide an excellent marker for the study of gastric and small bowel transit and colonic filling in humans. The ileum acts as a reservoir and transfers boluses of variable sizes into the colon, often soon after the intake of a subsequent meal.

  4. Systems Operations Studies for Automated Guideway Transit Systems : Discrete Event Simulation Model User's Manual.

    1982-06-01

    In order to examine specific Automated Guideway Transit (AGT) developments and concepts, and to build a better knowledge base for future decision-making, the Urban Mass Transportation Administration (UMTA) undertook a new program of studies and techn...

  5. A Conceptual Framework for Studying the Safety of Transitions in Emergency Care

    Behara, Ravi; Wears, Robert L; Perry, Shawna J; Eisenberg, Eric; Murphy, Lexa; Vanderhoef, Mary; Shapiro, Marc; Beach, Christopher; Croskerry, Pat; Cosby, Karen

    2005-01-01

    .... We observed transitions of care in five hospital emergency departments as part of a larger study on safety in emergency care and found that in addition to many other differences in work patterns...

  6. DNS Studies of Transitional Hypersonic Reacting Flows Over 3-D Hypersonic Vehicles

    Zhong, Xiaolin

    2003-01-01

    The objectives of this research project are to develop CFD techniques and to conduct DNS studies of fundamental flow physics leading to boundary-layer instability and transition in hypersonic flows...

  7. NPS Transit System Passenger Boardings Study: Converting Ticket Sales to Passenger Boardings.

    2016-01-01

    This report examines the reporting of passenger boardings (unlinked passenger trips) by NPS transit systems that use a ticket sales conversion methodology. By studying and validating the park units' passenger boarding methodology from converting tick...

  8. Reliability centered maintenance : a case study of railway transit maintenance to achieve optimal performance.

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study was to identify the types of obstacles and patterns experienced by a single heavy rail transit agency located in North America that embedded a Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) Process. The outcome of t...

  9. Assessing transition trajectories towards a sustainable energy system: A case study on the Dutch transition to climate-neutral transport fuel chains

    Suurs, R.A.A.; Hekkert, M.P.; Meeus, M.T.H.; Nieuwlaar, E.

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes a method for the ex ante evaluation of technological trajectories. As a case we study the Dutch transport energy system and its transition to climate neutrality. Two technological trajectories are proposed: (i) a sequence of transition steps based on radical infrastructural

  10. The study of structural phase transitions and static properties using transition metal model pseudopotential (TMMP) for Ca and Sr

    Rakhecha, Shalu, E-mail: shalurakhecha@yahoo.com; Vyas, P. R.; Gohel, V. B. [Department of Physics, School of Sciences, Gujarat University, Ahmedabad - 380009, Gujarat (India); Bhatt, N. K. [Department of Physics, Sardar Patel University, Vallabh Vidyanagar - 388120, Gujarat (India)

    2016-05-06

    In the present communication, we have computed static and dynamic properties (binding energy-E, bulk modulus-B and second moment- <ω{sup 2}>) as well as first order pressure induced phase transition (FCC-BCC) using local form of pseudopotential for Calcium and Strontium. The form of pseudopotential used for the computation is directly extracted from Generalized Pseudopotential Theory (GPT) which contains three parameters (r{sub c}, r{sub d} and β). We have suggested a simple method using which pseudopotential is determined by single parameter (β). Our computed results for binding energy and bulk modulii are in excellent agreement with experimental findings and are better than other theoretical results. The present study confirms that s-d hybridization is accounted properly in the presently used pseudopotential and can be extended for the study of lattice mechanical properties of these metals.

  11. Generation of an inducible colon-specific Cre enzyme mouse line for colon cancer research.

    Tetteh, Paul W; Kretzschmar, Kai; Begthel, Harry; van den Born, Maaike; Korving, Jeroen; Morsink, Folkert; Farin, Henner; van Es, Johan H; Offerhaus, G Johan A; Clevers, Hans

    2016-10-18

    Current mouse models for colorectal cancer often differ significantly from human colon cancer, being largely restricted to the small intestine. Here, we aim to develop a colon-specific inducible mouse model that can faithfully recapitulate human colon cancer initiation and progression. Carbonic anhydrase I (Car1) is a gene expressed uniquely in colonic epithelial cells. We generated a colon-specific inducible Car1 CreER knock-in (KI) mouse with broad Cre activity in epithelial cells of the proximal colon and cecum. Deletion of the tumor suppressor gene Apc using the Car1 CreER KI caused tumor formation in the cecum but did not yield adenomas in the proximal colon. Mutation of both Apc and Kras yielded microadenomas in both the cecum and the proximal colon, which progressed to macroadenomas with significant morbidity. Aggressive carcinomas with some invasion into lymph nodes developed upon combined induction of oncogenic mutations of Apc, Kras, p53, and Smad4 Importantly, no adenomas were observed in the small intestine. Additionally, we observed tumors from differentiated Car1-expressing cells with Apc/Kras mutations, suggesting that a top-down model of intestinal tumorigenesis can occur with multiple mutations. Our results establish the Car1 CreER KI as a valuable mouse model to study colon-specific tumorigenesis and metastasis as well as cancer-cell-of-origin questions.

  12. Neutron and x-ray scattering studies of ferroelectric phase transitions

    Dolling, G.

    1982-08-01

    The subject of ferroelectric type phase transitions is introduced by means of examples of two main classes (a) displacive transitions, e.g. KNbO 3 , and (b) order-disorder transitions, e.g. NaNO 2 . The significance of crystal structure and crystal dynamics (i.e. the phonon dispersion relations) for ferroelectric behaviour is emphasized. The chief methods for structure determination are x-ray and neutron diffraction, while the most powerful of all techniques for studying phonon properties is that of coherent inelastic neutron scattering. The most useful type of neutron spectrometer for phase transition studies, the triple axis crystal spectrometer, is discussed in detail. The history of the soft mode theory of displacive phase transitions, and its application to the antiferroelectric and 'almost ferroelectric' transitions in SrTiO 3 , provides an introduction to more recent developments in this area, including over-damped soft modes, central peaks and critical scattering, incommensurate phase transitions (e.g. K 2 SeO 4 ), amplitudons, phasons and finally solitions. The treatment throughout is descriptive and introductory, designed for graduate students

  13. Non-Conventional Techniques for the Study of Phase Transitions in NiTi-Based Alloys

    Nespoli, Adelaide; Villa, Elena; Passaretti, Francesca; Albertini, Franca; Cabassi, Riccardo; Pasquale, Massimo; Sasso, Carlo Paolo; Coïsson, Marco

    2014-07-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry and electrical resistance measurements are the two most common techniques for the study of the phase transition path and temperatures of shape memory alloys (SMA) in stress-free condition. Besides, it is well known that internal friction measurements are also useful for this purpose. There are indeed some further techniques which are seldom used for the basic characterization of SMA transition: dilatometric analysis, magnetic measurements, and Seebeck coefficient study. In this work, we discuss the attitude of these techniques for the study of NiTi-based phase transition. Measurements were conducted on several fully annealed Ni50- x Ti50Cu x samples ranging from 3 to 10 at.% in Cu content, fully annealed at 850 °C for 1 h in vacuum and quenched in water at room temperature. Results show that all these techniques are sensitive to phase transition, and they provide significant information about the existence of intermediate phases.

  14. Work organization, health, and obesity in urban transit operators: A qualitative study.

    Dobson, Marnie; Choi, BongKyoo; Schnall, Peter L

    2017-11-01

    Urban transit operators have high rates of obesity, hypertension, and other cardiovascular risk-factors compared to other occupations. There have been few qualitative studies exploring the interrelationships between the organization of transit work, stress, and health including obesity, from the perspective of operators. Five focus groups were conducted at five Divisions in a transit authority in Southern California and included 65 bus and rail operators. Operators reported a great deal of stress related to their work, including 1) time pressures and lack of recovery time; 2) long work shifts and overtime; 3) feeling unsafe when dealing with the public; 4) lack of respect from supervisors and management. Operators believed stressful working conditions negatively impacted their health and weight. This qualitative study yielded new as well as confirmatory data about stress and transit work organization, health, and weight in operators. This study will add to future survey research and interventions in this population. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. A prospective cohort study to investigate cost-minimisation, of Traditional open, open fAst track recovery and laParoscopic fASt track multimodal management, for surgical patients with colon carcinomas (TAPAS study).

    Reurings, J.C.; Spanjersberg, W.R.; Oostvogel, H.J.M.; Buskens, E.; Maring, J.; Kruijt, F.; Rosman, C.; Duivendijk, P. van; Dejong, C.H.; Laarhoven, C.J.H.M. van

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The present developments in colon surgery are characterized by two innovations: the introduction of the laparoscopic operation technique and fast recovery