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Sample records for colombian pacific coast

  1. Draft Genome Sequences of 13 Colombian Helicobacter pylori Strains Isolated from Pacific Coast and Andean Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, Alvaro; Kodaman, Nuri; Piazuelo, M Blanca; Romero-Gallo, Judith; Sobota, Rafal S; Israel, Dawn A; Bravo, Luis E; Morgan, Douglas R; Wilson, Keith T; Correa, Pelayo; Peek, Richard M; Williams, Scott M; Schneider, Barbara G

    2017-04-13

    We present here the draft genomes of 13 Helicobacter pylori strains isolated from Colombian residents on the Pacific coast (n = 6) and in the Andes mountains (n = 7), locations that differ in gastric cancer risk. These 13 strains were obtained from individuals with diagnosed gastric lesions. Copyright © 2017 Pazos et al.

  2. The world of malaria: a health educational experience in the Colombian Pacific coast

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    Rocío Carvajal

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the design, validation, and implementation of the education material The world of malaria: let´s learn to handle it in the community. Methods: The development of the educational material was carried out in the urban area of Buenaventura (main city in the Colombian Pacific coast in 1995. The design was based on the results of a knowledge, beliefs, and practices study in the city. By using the PRECEDE- PROCEED MODEL strategy, community groups were brought together with the research team to design the materials. Results: The educational materials were designed according to cultural and ethnographic characteristics of the population studied. These materials are table games, comics, videotapes and cassettes, magazines, altogether in a black bag called «The world of malaria: let´s learn to handle it in the community». Conclusions: This innovative educational material shows that interventions in public health should be based on results from scientific projects, because control strategies are based on local realities.

  3. The world of malaria: a health educational experience in the Colombian Pacific coast

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    Gabriel Carrasquilla

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the design, validation, and implementation of the education material The world of malaria: let´s learn to handle it in the community.Methods: The development of the educational material was carried out in the urban area of Buenaventura (main city in the Colombian Pacific coast in 1995. The design was based on the results of a knowledge, beliefs, and practices study in the city. By using the PRECEDE- PROCEED MODEL strategy, community groups were brought together with the research team to design the materials.Results: The educational materials were designed according to cultural and ethnographic characteristics of the population studied. These materials are table games, comics, videotapes and cassettes, magazines, altogether in a black bag called «The world of malaria: let´s learn to handle it in the community».Conclusions: This innovative educational material shows that interventions in public health should be based on results from scientific projects, because control strategies are based on local realities.

  4. Multiple distant origins for green sea turtles aggregating off Gorgona Island in the Colombian eastern Pacific.

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    Diego F Amorocho

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial DNA analyses have been useful for resolving maternal lineages and migratory behavior to foraging grounds (FG in sea turtles. However, little is known about source rookeries and haplotype composition of foraging green turtle aggregations in the southeastern Pacific. We used mitochondrial DNA control region sequences to identify the haplotype composition of 55 green turtles, Chelonia mydas, captured in foraging grounds of Gorgona National Park in the Colombian Pacific. Amplified fragments of the control region (457 bp revealed the presence of seven haplotypes, with haplotype (h and nucleotide (π diversities of h = 0.300±0.080 and π = 0.009±0.005 respectively. The most common haplotype was CMP4 observed in 83% of individuals, followed by CMP22 (5%. The genetic composition of the Gorgona foraging population primarily comprised haplotypes that have been found at eastern Pacific rookeries including Mexico and the Galapagos, as well as haplotypes of unknown stock origin that likely originated from more distant western Pacific rookeries. Mixed stock analysis suggests that the Gorgona FG population is comprised mostly of animals from the Galapagos rookery (80%. Lagrangian drifter data showed that movement of turtles along the eastern Pacific coast and eastward from distant western and central Pacific sites was possible through passive drift. Our results highlight the importance of this protected area for conservation management of green turtles recruited from distant sites along the eastern Pacific Ocean.

  5. Conservation Genetics of the Scalloped Hammerhead Shark in the Pacific Coast of Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintanilla, Sonia; Gómez, Alberto; Mariño-Ramírez, Camila; Sorzano, Carolina; Bessudo, Sandra; Soler, German; Bernal, Jaime E; Caballero, Susana

    2015-01-01

    Previous investigations of the population genetics of the scalloped hammerhead sharks (Sphyrna lewini) in the Eastern Tropical Pacific have lacked information about nursery areas. Such areas are key to promoting conservation initiatives that can protect young sharks from threats such as overfishing. Here, we investigated the genetic diversity, phylogeography, and connectivity of S. lewini found in 3 areas of Colombia's Pacific coast: around Malpelo Island and in 2 National Natural Parks on the Colombian Pacific mainland (Sanquianga and Ensenada de Utría). We analyzed mtDNA control region (CR) sequences and genotyped 15 microsatellite loci in 137 samples of adults and juveniles. The mtDNA analyses showed haplotypes shared between the Colombian Pacific individuals sampled in this investigation and other areas in the Eastern Tropical Pacific, the Indo-Pacific, and with sequences previously reported in Colombia (Buenaventura Port), as well as 4 unique haplotypes. Population assignment and paternity analyses detected 3 parent-offspring pairs between Malpelo and Sanquianga and 1 between Malpelo and Utría. These results indicate high genetic connectivity between Malpelo Island and the Colombian Pacific coast, suggesting that these 2 areas are nurseries for S. lewini. This is, to our knowledge, the first evidence of nursery areas identified for the scalloped hammerhead shark anywhere in the world. Additional conservation planning may be required to protect these nursery habitats of this endangered shark species.

  6. Malaria vectors in ecologically heterogeneous localities of the Colombian Pacific region.

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    Nelson Naranjo-Díaz

    Full Text Available The Colombian Pacific region is second nationally in number of malaria cases reported. This zone presents great ecological heterogeneity and Anopheles species diversity. However, little is known about the current spatial and temporal distribution of vector species. This study, conducted in three ecologically different localities of the Pacific region, aimed to evaluate the composition and distribution of Anopheles species and characterize transmission intensity. A total of 4,016 Anopheles mosquitoes were collected representing seven species. The composition and dominant species differed in each locality. Three species were infected with malaria parasites: Anopheles darlingi and An. calderoni were infected with Plasmodium falciparum and An. nuneztovari with Plasmodium vivax VK210 and VK247. Annual EIRs varied from 3.5-7.2 infective bites per year. These results confirm the importance of the primary vector An. nuneztovari in areas disturbed by human interventions, of An. darlingi in deforested margins of humid tropical rainforest and An. albimanus and the suspected vector An. calderoni in areas impacted by urbanization and large-scale palm oil agriculture close to the coast. This constitutes the first report in the Colombia Pacific region of naturally infected An. darlingi, and in Colombia of naturally infected An. calderoni. Further studies should evaluate the epidemiological importance of An. calderoni in the Pacific region.

  7. Mapping Colombian Caribbean and Pacific bottom seascapes and marine ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Rozo Garzón, Daniel Mauricio; Vides C., Martha P.; Lozano R., Pilar; Reyes, Javier

    2007-01-01

    Colombia is recognized as a mega diverse country on the basis of the number of terrestrial animal and plant species occurring within its boundaries (Williams 1997). However, its privileged coasts position on both Caribbean Sea and Pacific Ocean exhibiting distinct geological, oceanographic, and climatic features could perhaps rank the country within the highest marine biological diversity in South America and among the most biodiverse in the world. An inventory of the full variety of phys...

  8. [Taxonomic composition and distribution of the echinoderms associations in the littoral ecosystems from the Colombian Pacific].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neira, Raúl; Cantera, Jaime R

    2005-12-01

    This paper examines published information and gray literature about taxonomy and ecology of echinoderm species of the Colombian Pacific Coast. Unpublished collection data of specimens kept in the Marine Sciences Museum of the University of Valle are also considered. Sixty-six species are found in coastal ecosystems and shallow bottoms of ten geographical, coastal and insular localities of the Pacific coast of Colombia. Main habitats having echinoderms are: rocky cliffs and shores, coral reefs, sand beaches, mud substrates, mangroves, and shallow bottoms of mud, sand, gravel and rocks. Regular Echinoidea and Asteroidea are the most diverse and abundant groups, mainly in subtidal rocky shallow bottoms and coral reefs. Ophiuroidea are abundant below rocky boulders. Irregular Echinoidea are abundant on sand beaches. The relatively high number of species shows that this geographical area presents a high diversity of echinoderms compared with other tropical shallow and littoral zones of the world. Rocky substrates and coral reefs are the ecosystems with the highest numbers of echinoderm species and individuals. A conservation status assessment is difficult because the lack of periodical sampling and few data about deep zones. In general, the species reported in the last 25 years, have not experimented important changes in their populations, although in some specific places, populations may decrease because human activities in coastal areas increase sedimentation rates change some rocky substrates to mud or sand.

  9. Long term persistence of clonal malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum lineages in the Colombian Pacific region

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    Echeverry Diego F

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Resistance to chloroquine and antifolate drugs has evolved independently in South America, suggesting that genotype - phenotype studies aimed at understanding the genetic basis of resistance to these and other drugs should be conducted in this continent. This research was conducted to better understand the population structure of Colombian Plasmodium falciparum in preparation for such studies. Results A set of 384 SNPs were genotyped in blood spot DNA samples from 447 P. falciparum infected subjects collected over a ten year period from four provinces of the Colombian Pacific coast to evaluate clonality, population structure and linkage disequilibrium (LD. Most infections (81% contained a single predominant clone. These clustered into 136 multilocus genotypes (MLGs, with 32% of MLGs recovered from multiple (2 – 28 independent subjects. We observed extremely low genotypic richness (R = 0.42 and long persistence of MLGs through time (median = 537 days, range = 1 – 2,997 days. There was a high probability (>5% of sampling parasites from the same MLG in different subjects within 28 days, suggesting caution is needed when using genotyping methods to assess treatment success in clinical drug trials. Panmixia was rejected as four well differentiated subpopulations (FST = 0.084 - 0.279 were identified. These occurred sympatrically but varied in frequency within the four provinces. Linkage disequilibrium (LD decayed more rapidly (r2 = 0.17 for markers Conclusions We conclude that Colombian populations have several advantages for association studies, because multiple clone infections are uncommon and LD decays over the scale of one or a few genes. However, the extensive population structure and low genotype richness will need to be accounted for when designing and analyzing association studies.

  10. 78 FR 43125 - Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Commercial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-19

    ... States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Commercial, Limited Entry Pacific Coast... Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (FMP). This action proposes to implement trailing actions for the program... time, the Pacific Fishery Management Council (Council) and NMFS have been addressing...

  11. Common Elements Treatment Approach based on a Cognitive Behavioral Intervention: implementation in the Colombian Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacichana-Quinayáz, Sara Gabriela; Osorio-Cuéllar, Gisel Viviana; Bonilla-Escobar, Francisco Javier; Fandiño-Losada, Andrés; Gutiérrez-Martínez, María Isabel

    2016-06-01

    Due to the limited supply of mental health services for Afro-Colombian victims of violence, a Common Elements Treatment Approach (CETA) intervention has been implemented in the Colombian Pacific. Given the importance of improvement in mental health interventions for this population, it is necessary to characterize this process. This article seeks to describe the implementation of CETA for Afro-Colombian victims of violence in Buenaventura and Quibdó, Colombia through case studieswith individual in-depth interviews with Lay Psychosocial Community Workers (LPCW), supervisors, and coordinators responsible for implementing CETA. From this six core categories were obtained: 1. Effect of armed conflict and poverty 2. Trauma severity 3. Perceived changes with CETA 4. Characteristics and LPCW's performance 5. Afro-Colombian culturalapproach and 6. Strategies to promote users' well-being.Colombian Pacific's scenario implies several factors, such as the active armed conflict, economic crisis, and lack of mental health care resources, affecting the implementation process and the intervention effects. This implies the need to establish and strengthen partnerships between institutions in order to administer necessary mental health care for victims of violence in the Colombian Pacific.

  12. 78 FR 68764 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Commercial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Commercial, Limited Entry Pacific Coast... fixed gear sectors managed under the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (FMP). This action... catcher/processor trawl fleets (whiting only). Since that time, the Pacific Fishery Management...

  13. Common Elements Treatment Approach based on a Cognitive Behavioral Intervention: implementation in the Colombian Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Gabriela Pacichana-Quinayáz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Due to the limited supply of mental health services for Afro-Colombian victims of violence, a Common Elements Treatment Approach (CETA intervention has been implemented in the Colombian Pacific. Given the importance of improvement in mental health interventions for this population, it is necessary to characterize this process. This article seeks to describe the implementation of CETA for Afro-Colombian victims of violence in Buenaventura and Quibdó, Colombia through case studieswith individual in-depth interviews with Lay Psychosocial Community Workers (LPCW, supervisors, and coordinators responsible for implementing CETA. From this six core categories were obtained: 1. Effect of armed conflict and poverty 2. Trauma severity 3. Perceived changes with CETA 4. Characteristics and LPCW’s performance 5. Afro-Colombian culturalapproach and 6. Strategies to promote users’ well-being.Colombian Pacific’s scenario implies several factors, such as the active armed conflict, economic crisis, and lack of mental health care resources, affecting the implementation process and the intervention effects. This implies the need to establish and strengthen partnerships between institutions in order to administer necessary mental health care for victims of violence in the Colombian Pacific.

  14. The first report of a microdiverse anammox bacteria community in waters of Colombian Pacific, a transition area between prominent oxygen minimum zones of the eastern tropical Pacific.

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    Castro-González, M; Molina, V; Rodríguez-Rubio, E; Ulloa, O

    2014-12-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidizers contribute to the removal of fixed nitrogen in oxygen-deficient marine ecosystems such as oxygen minimum zones (OMZ). Here we surveyed for the first time the occurrence and diversity of anammox bacteria in the Colombian Pacific, a transition area between the prominent South and North Pacific OMZs. Anammox bacteria were detected in the coastal and oceanic areas of the Colombian Pacific in low oxygen (Pacific, Arabian Sea and Black Sea. Anammox bacteria-like sequences from the Colombian Pacific were grouped together with sequences retrieved from the distinct OMZ's marine subclusters (Peru, Northern Chile and Arabian Sea) within Candidatus ‘Scalindua spp’. Moreover, some anammox bacteria OTUs shared a low similarity with environmental phylotypes (86–94%). Our results indicated that a microdiverse anammox community inhabits the Colombian Pacific, generating new questions about the ecological and biogeochemical differences influencing its community structure.

  15. 75 FR 60867 - Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Amendments 20...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... catch accounting. Response. Appendix H to the EIS for Amendment 20, the ``Regulatory Impact Review and... Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Amendments 20 and 21; Trawl... Part 902 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-AY68 Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

  16. Energy resources of Pacific Coast of Colombia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bueno Salazar, R.

    1986-07-01

    Despite failure of modest exploration efforts to yield commercial hydrocarbon production in the Choco-Pacific coastal basin of Colombia, recent geophysical, geochemical, and surface geologic investigations indicate a potential for petroleum accumulations, which could be related to fields located on the western basins of Ecuador that in fact constitute an extension of the Colombian Pacific geologic scheme. The Choco-Pacific coastal basin of Colombia covers an area of approximately 70,000 km/sup 2/, of which 14,000 km/sup 2/ lies offshore. The structural style of this area corresponds to a convergent plate basin created over folded oceanic sediments and adjacent to the subduction zone. Such a framework could be conducive to an attractive array of potential hydrocarbon-bearing traps. Geochemical knowledge of potential source rocks of Cretaceous and early Tertiary age confers an added attraction to the area. Most evaluations reveal kerogen-rich, gas-prone organic matter. Nevertheless, the existence of oil seeps from Cretaceous outcrops could indicate sufficient thermal maturity for oil generation. Adequate reservoirs could be found in sandy or calcareous rocks of late Eocene to Oligocene age, predominantly of marine origin with an estimated thickness exceeding 20,000 ft. Colombia has been one of the leading world producers of gold and platinum, mostly derived from the vast alluvial cover of the onshore area of the basin. In rocks cropping out in the Western Cordillera (eastern margin of the basin), deposits of potentially commercial value of porphyry copper and molybdenum, as well as massive sulfur, manganese, and bauxite, have been found.

  17. Changes on the coastline of buenaventura bay (colombian pacific) and its relationship with the climatic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coca-Domínguez, Oswaldo; Ricaurte-Villota, Constanza; Andres Ordoñez, Silvio

    2016-04-01

    Some authors point out that the variability of a coastal system is the response of physical factors (climate, waves, currents, wind, etc.) or combination of some of them, for example long-term variations in the relationship between climate and supply of sedimentary material. For Colombian Pacific coast it has been said that the regimen of meso-tidal is one of the agents that contribute to changes in the morphology of the littoral zone. Between 2012-2015 was conducted a research in the mouth of Buenaventura Bay (Colombia Pacific coast), using two stations: Soldado point (southern point of the bay) and Bazan point (the northern point of the bay), for those stations the digital elevation model (DEM) was performed using a DGPS with technology GNSS the recent evolution of the coastline and changes in volume of sand from beaches for two scalar approaches were determined: annual and intra-annual. The use of ArcGIS 3D Analyst in the DEMs allowed to calculate the cubic area between the raised surfaces each month. Changes in the coastline were made using Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) an ARCGIS extension. We used zonal and meridional components of the wind data near the coast from WindSat, rainfall and sea level anomaly data from the database AVISO (Archiving, Validation and Interpretation of Satellite Oceanographic), and sea level pressure (SLP) from NCEP/NCAR (National Center for Environmental Prediction/ National Center for Atmospheric Research), in collaboration with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Finally, climatic variables were correlated with the rates of coastal erosion and changes in sand volume of the beaches, because wind and precipitation are some of the factors in sediment transport. The study showed erosion rates with negative values in 2014 and 2015 that represent loss of land, the intra-annual variability in September and October were the highest loss of land, this coincides with the values of the highest tides of the

  18. Fishing effects on elasmobranchs from the Pacific Coast of Colombia

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    Andrés Felipe Navia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During 1995, 2001, 2003, 2004 and 2007; we studied the temporal variation in the structure of the elasmobranch assemblage along the Colombian Pacific coast using: the community index of diversity, heterogeneity, equitability, species composition, average catch sizes, and mean trophic levels. A total of 1711 specimens from 19 species (7 sharks and 12 rays were collected during the 90 trawling operations. The number of species captured varied between 7 (1995 and 12 (2007 demonstrating a trend towards an imbalance in the assemblage attributes. In 1995, the mean trophic level (TLm of the assemblage was 3.60, but in 2007 it decreased to 3.55 when the functional level of large predators was absent (TL ≥ 4. These results suggest changes in species composition, structural attributes, and a reduction of the highest functional level. Alterations to the catch proportions were also found: i.e. a greater abundance of rays of lower trophic levels. This study suggests an effect of trawling on the stability of this tropical coastal ecosystem.

  19. Ctenophores from the Oaxaca coast, including a checklist of species from the Pacific coast of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Escobar, Fernando; Valadez-Vargas, Diana K; Oliveira, Otto M P

    2015-03-20

    Ctenophores are poorly known in the tropical eastern Pacific, including the southern coast of Mexico. Previous records of ctenophores along the Pacific coast have been provided mainly from northern waters. For the coast of Oaxaca state, their occurrence has only been mentioned before at phylum level. In this paper, we provide the first three records of ctenophores for the Oaxacan coast, which represent new records of Beroe forskalii and Bolinopsis vitrea as well as the first record of Ocyropsis maculata in the tropical eastern Pacific. Descriptions of these three species, as well as a checklist of the ctenophores from the west coast of Mexico are provided.

  20. Oceanographic data - Integrated acoustic and trawl survey of Pacific hake off the Pacific Coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Integrated acoustic and trawl surveys are used to assess the distribution, biomass, and biology of Pacific hake along the Pacific coasts of the United States and...

  1. Acoustic data - Integrated acoustic and trawl survey of Pacific hake off the Pacific Coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Integrated acoustic and trawl surveys are used to assess the distribution, biomass, and biology of Pacific hake along the Pacific coasts of the United States and...

  2. Biological data - Integrated acoustic and trawl survey of Pacific hake off the Pacific Coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Integrated acoustic and trawl surveys are used to assess the distribution, biomass, and biology of Pacific hake along the Pacific coasts of the United States and...

  3. 78 FR 56641 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Commercial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Commercial Groundfish Fishery Management... Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (FMP) by liberalizing RCA boundaries in order to improve... specifications and management measures in a proposed and final rule, 77 FR 67974, November 14, 2012 and 78 FR...

  4. Agents of coral mortality on reef formations of the Colombian Pacific

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    Raúl Navas-Camacho

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The National Monitoring System for Coral Reefs of Colombia (SIMAC monitors the impact of some of the most important agents of coral tissue loss (bleaching and/or disease in the Colombian Pacific coral formations since 1998. Physiological bleaching is among the main results of stress in the area. Signs of coral diseases resembling bacterial bleaching such as White Plague and White Band, were observed in Malpelo and Gorgona islands. Damage to the Pacific gorgonian Pacifigorgia spp., similar to those produced by Aspergillosis in Caribbean corals, was detected in Utría Bay. The presence of tumors in colonies of massive corals was also recorded. Even though coral diseases are globally widespread, their occurrence in American Pacific reefs has been poorly documented to date. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (Suppl. 1: 133-138. Epub 2010 May 01.

  5. Collective memory and ethnic identities in the Colombian Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffmann, Odile

    2002-01-01

    In the Pacific region of Colombia the new conditions for acceding to land and to territory are arousing a strong drive to redefine identities. Blacks who had never perceived or "categorized" themselves as such in their own milieux, unless as "free agents" or in reference to names of places or rivers in areas where they had lived, without land rights, for more than a century "became" so in order to ensure themselves a degree of land security, in application of a law (N° 70 of 1993). This legis...

  6. Zoogeography of Elasmobranchs in the Colombian Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea

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    Andrés Felipe Navia

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In order to investigate zoogeographical patterns of the marine elasmobranch species of Colombia, species richness of the Pacific and Caribbean and their subareas (Coastal Pacific, Oceanic Pacific, Coastal Caribbean, Oceanic Caribbean was analyzed. The areas shared 10 families, 10 genera and 16 species of sharks, and eight families, three genera and four species of batoids. Carcharhinidae had the highest contribution to shark richness, whereas Rajidae and Urotrygonidae had the greatest contribution to batoid richness in the Caribbean and Pacific, respectively. Most elasmobranchs were associated with benthic and coastal habitats. The similarity analysis allowed the identification of five groups of families, which characterize the elasmobranch richness in both areas. Beta diversity indicated that most species turnover occurred between the Coastal Pacific and the two Caribbean subareas. The difference in species richness and composition between areas may be due to vicariant events such as the emergence of the Isthmus of Panama. It is unlikely that the Colombian elasmobranch diversity originated from a single colonization event. Local diversification/speciation, dispersal from the non-tropical regions of the Americas, a Pacific dispersion and an Atlantic dispersion are origin possibilities without any of them excluding the others.

  7. 50 CFR 660.324 - Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries. 660.324 Section 660.324 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West...

  8. 50 CFR 660.50 - Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries. 660.50 Section 660.50 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West...

  9. Pacific Coast Groundfish Individual Fishing Quota Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — On January 11, 2011, NOAA Fisheries implemented a new fishery management system for the West Coast Groundfish Trawl Catch Share Program as specified in the...

  10. [Reproduction of the fish Brotula clarkae (Pisces: Ophidiidae) in the Colombian Pacific].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Jenny; Angulo, Wilberto; Ramírez, Manuel; Zapata, Luis A

    2007-01-01

    We studied the reproductive ecology of the fish Brotula clarkae based on 754 individuals obtained from the industrial and artisanal fisheries in the Colombian Pacific (March 1994 to December 1996). Histological sections (paraplast embedding and Harris's hematoxylin-eosin stain) were made from 151 females (26-100 cm total length). Additionally, mean diameter and particular features are described for oocyte phases and ovarian development stages. The mean size at initial sexual maturity of females was determined with two methods (graphic and statistic) in 61.3 cm and 62.3 cm respectively. The general sex ratio was 1:1. There are several spawn pulses between May and October. The mean fecundity by spawn pulse was 1,005,657 eggs. We recommend a fishing ban during the reproduction period and a minimal catch size above 62.3 cm.

  11. [Distribution patterns and bioerosion of the sea urchin Centrostephanus coronatus (Diadematoida: Diadematidae), at the reef of Playa Blanca, Colombian Pacific].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro-Farmer, Gerardo; Cantera, Jaime R; Londoño-Cruz, Edgardo; Orozco, Carlos; Neira, Raul

    2004-03-01

    Regular sea-urchins are one of the main bioeroding organisms affecting coral reefs around the world. The abundance, distribution and bioerosion rate of the sea-urchin Centrostephanus coronatus, were determined in different reef zones of Playa Blanca fringing reef (Gorgona Island, Colombian pacific coast) during 1997 and 1998. The erosion rates were determined calcinating the gut content of the sea-urchins to eliminate all organic components and preserve the inorganic portion of calcium carbonate. C. coronatus showed the highest densities towards the central zones of the reef (plain-crest and front) (12.4 ind/m2; range 0-48 ind/m2). The highest mean bioerosion rate was 0.103 kgCaCO3/m2/yr in the reef plain-crest (0-0.69 kgCaCO3/m2/yr). In the other zones, (back reef and reef front) the mean bioerosion rates were 0.071 (range 0-0.39) and 0.052 (range 0-0.31) kgCaCO3/m2/yr respectively. According to the present data, it can be seen that the destruction of coralline skeletons, produced in this reef by sea-urchins is rather low, compared with the abrasion caused by these organisms in other places of the world. However, the combined action of C. coronatus and other bioeroding organisms (borers and grazers). along with some adverse environmental factors to corals, can be causing a negative balance between normal processes of reef accretion-destruction in Gorgona Island reefs.

  12. Agents of coral mortality on reef formations of the Colombian Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Navas-Camacho

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The National Monitoring System for Coral Reefs of Colombia (SIMAC monitors the impact of some of the most important agents of coral tissue loss (bleaching and/or disease in the Colombian Pacific coral formations since 1998. Physiological bleaching is among the main results of stress in the area. Signs of coral diseases resembling bacterial bleaching such as White Plague and White Band, were observed in Malpelo and Gorgona islands. Damage to the Pacific gorgonian Pacifigorgia spp., similar to those produced by Aspergillosis in Caribbean corals, was detected in Utría Bay. The presence of tumors in colonies of massive corals was also recorded. Even though coral diseases are globally widespread, their occurrence in American Pacific reefs has been poorly documented to date. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (Suppl. 1: 133-138. Epub 2010 May 01.A través del Sistema Nacional de Monitoreo de Arrecifes Coralinos en Colombia-SIMAC se han evaluado algunos agentes de mortalidad coralina en el Pacifico Colombiano desde 1998. Uno de los principales factores que han contribuido a la pérdida de cobertura coralina han sido los eventos de blanqueamiento. No obstante, también se han observado signos que sugieren la presencia de enfermedades coralinas como el blanqueamiento bacteriano, la Plaga Blanca, la Banda Blanca, los tumores coralinos y la Aspergilosis en Pacifigorgia spp.. Aunque las enfermedades coralinas están globalmente distribuidas, su ocurrencia en el Pacifico tropical americano ha sido pobremente documentada. Esta nota incluye la ocurrencia de potenciales enfermedades coralinas en el Pacífico Colombiano.

  13. 77 FR 10466 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... Pacific Coast groundfish FMP fisheries on Chinook salmon (Puget Sound, Snake River spring/summer, Snake... (Snake River, Ozette Lake), and steelhead (upper, middle and lower Columbia River, Snake River Basin... non-salmonid listed species (marine mammals, sea birds, and turtles). NMFS will be completing a...

  14. Leadership, entrepreneurship and collective action: A case study from the Colombian Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván D. Lobo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Building upon case-based evidence this paper explores the role of leaders in Ecomanglar, a community-based enterprise in the Black collective territory of La Plata-Bahía Málaga in the Colombian Pacific Basin, whose purpose is to provide eco and ethno-tourism services. This purpose is inextricably bound up with the region’s biophysical and institutional characteristics, both of which make management of common-pool resources a key strategic task for Ecomanglar. We propose an analytical framework to understand the role of these leaders based on the interaction of two dimensions: institutional transfer channels and operational capacity. We further analyse the role of leaders as essential ‘brokers’ to initialise and sustain collective action, a role that brings about entrepreneurial solutions for sustainable development but also creates, or exacerbates, conflicts within the community. Our findings challenge approaches which view collective action as an emergent decentralised group-oriented outcome. The paper contributes to the literature on leadership, entrepreneurship and collective action by identifying missing links and potential points of convergence. It also sheds light on some of the challenges in promoting entrepreneurship as a means to advance sustainable development in rural communities.

  15. Pacific Coast Caspian Terns: Dynamics of an expanding population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Robert E.; Mewaldt, L. Richard

    1983-01-01

    Nesting distribution, age-related seasonal movements, survivorship, and mechanisms of population expansion in Pacific Coast Caspian Terns (Sterna caspia) were examined primarily through analysis of 412 recoveries of birds banded as juveniles between 1935 and 1980. Since the beginning of this century, the population has shifted from nesting in numerous small colonies associated with freshwater marshes in interior California and southern Oregon to nesting primarily in large colonies on human-created habitats along the coast. Colonies at Grays Harbor, Washington and San Francisco and San Diego bays, California account for 77% of the current Pacific Coast population (6,000 pairs), which has breeding and wintering areas separate from those of populations east of the continental divide. There also appears to be some segregation on the wintering grounds by birds from the three major colonies within the Pacific population. Age-related seasonal movements in the Pacific population are characterized by (1) a brief period of northward dispersal by newly fledged birds before migrating to the wintering grounds, (2) a residency on the wintering grounds through their second winter, (3) a return to the breeding grounds the third summer, when most birds are thought to prospect breeding sites and some may breed, and (4) attainment of adulthood the fourth summer, with subsequent annual movements between wintering and breeding grounds.The Pacific population has increased 70% since 1960, apparently all by intrinsic growth. Over half (57%) of the fledglings reach their fourth year, and they have a subsequent annual survival rate of 89% and a mean breeding life expectancy of 8.6 yr. An average annual fledging rate of 0.64 young per pair was calculated as necessary to have provided the observed growth of the population during its recent expansion. Growth of some of the individual colonies, however, particularly those in Washington, could only have resulted from extensive recruitment of

  16. Storms or cold fronts? What is really responsible for the extreme waves regime in the Colombian Caribbean coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, L. J.; Ortiz-Royero, J. C.; Ruiz-Merchan, J. K.; Higgins, A. E.; Henriquez, S. A.

    2015-05-01

    On Friday, 7 March 2009, a 200 m-long section of the tourist pier in Puerto Colombia collapsed under the impact of the waves generated by a cold front in the area. The aim of this study is to determine the contribution and importance of cold fronts and storms on extreme waves in different areas of the Colombian Caribbean to determine the degree of the threat posed by the flood processes to which these coastal populations are exposed and the actions to which coastal engineering constructions should be subject. In the calculation of maritime constructions, the most important parameter is the wave's height; therefore, it is necessary to definitively know the design wave height to which a coastal engineering structure should be resistant. This wave height varies according to the return period considered. Using Gumbel's extreme value methodology, the significant height values for the study area were calculated. The methodology was evaluated using data from the re-analysis of the spectral NOAA Wavewatch III (WW3) model for 15 points along the 1600 km of the Colombia Caribbean coast (continental and insular) of the last 15 years. The results demonstrated that the extreme waves caused by tropical cyclones and cold fronts have different effects along the Colombian Caribbean coast. Storms and hurricanes are of greater importance in the Guajira Peninsula (Alta Guajira). In the central area formed by Baja Guajira, Santa Marta, Barranquilla, and Cartagena, the strong influence of cold fronts on extreme waves is evident. On the other hand, in the southern region of the Colombian Caribbean coast, from the Gulf of Morrosquillo to the Gulf of Urabá, even though extreme waves are lower than in the previous regions, extreme waves are dominated mainly by the passage of cold fronts. Extreme waves in the San Andrés and Providencia insular region present a different dynamic from that in the continental area due to its geographic location. The wave heights in the extreme regime are

  17. Storms or cold fronts? What is really responsible for the extreme waves regime in the Colombian Caribbean coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. J. Otero

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available On Friday, 7 March 2009, a 200 m-long section of the tourist pier in Puerto Colombia collapsed under the impact of the waves generated by a cold front in the area. The aim of this study is to determine the contribution and importance of cold fronts and storms on extreme waves in different areas of the Colombian Caribbean to determine the degree of the threat posed by the flood processes to which these coastal populations are exposed and the actions to which coastal engineering constructions should be subject. In the calculation of maritime constructions, the most important parameter is the wave's height; therefore, it is necessary to definitively know the design wave height to which a coastal engineering structure should be resistant. This wave height varies according to the return period considered. Using Gumbel's extreme value methodology, the significant height values for the study area were calculated. The methodology was evaluated using data from the re-analysis of the spectral NOAA Wavewatch III (WW3 model for 15 points along the 1600 km of the Colombia Caribbean coast (continental and insular of the last 15 years. The results demonstrated that the extreme waves caused by tropical cyclones and cold fronts have different effects along the Colombian Caribbean coast. Storms and hurricanes are of greater importance in the Guajira Peninsula (Alta Guajira. In the central area formed by Baja Guajira, Santa Marta, Barranquilla, and Cartagena, the strong influence of cold fronts on extreme waves is evident. On the other hand, in the southern region of the Colombian Caribbean coast, from the Gulf of Morrosquillo to the Gulf of Urabá, even though extreme waves are lower than in the previous regions, extreme waves are dominated mainly by the passage of cold fronts. Extreme waves in the San Andrés and Providencia insular region present a different dynamic from that in the continental area due to its geographic location. The wave heights in the

  18. Main factors determining bioerosion patterns on rocky cliffs in a drowned valley estuary in the Colombian Pacific (Eastern Tropical Pacific)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobo-Viveros, Alba Marina; Cantera-Kintz, Jaime Ricardo

    2015-10-01

    Bioerosion is an important process that destroys coastal rocks in the tropics. However, the rates at which this process occurs, the organisms involved, and the dynamics of rocky cliffs in tropical latitudes have been less studied than in temperate and subtropical latitudes. To contribute to the knowledge of the bioerosion process in rocky cliffs on the Pacific coast of Colombia (Eastern Tropical Pacific) we compared: 1) boring volume, 2) grain size distribution of the rocks, and 3) rock porosity, across three tidal zones of two cliffs with different wave exposure; these factors were related to the bioeroding community found. We observed that cliffs that were not exposed to wave action (IC, internal cliffs) exhibited high percentages of clays in their grain size composition, and a greater porosity (47.62%) and perforation (15.86%) than exposed cliffs (EC, external cliffs). However, IC also exhibited less diversity and abundance of bioeroding species (22 species and 314 individuals, respectively) compared to the values found in EC (41.11%, 14.34%, 32 and 491, respectively). The most abundant bioeroders were Petrolisthes zacae in IC and Pachygrapsus transversus in EC. Our findings show that the tidal zone is the common factor controlling bioerosion on both cliffs; in addition to the abundance of bioeroders on IC and the number of bioeroding species on EC. The integration of geology, sedimentology, and biology allows us to obtain a more comprehensive view of the patterns and trends in the process of bioerosion.

  19. [Reproductive biology of Lutjanus guttatus (Perciformes: Lutjanidae) in Utria National Park, Colombian Pacific].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-Herrera, Tatiana; Jiménez-Segura, Luz Fernanda

    2013-06-01

    Protected areas are important for natural population conservation since they work as refuge, feeding and breeding areas, where specimens should be exempt from human pressure. The generation of better criteria for management decisions and conservation of fishery resources, is based on the reproductive aspects of species that support fishing activities, since this information is related to the abundance, size and frequency of capture. With this aim, the reproductive biology of the spotted snapper Lutjanus guttatus was studied from April 2008 and February 2009 at the Utría National Park, Colombian Pacific. For this, we analyzed the volume of catch, size structure, sex ratio, fecundity, maturity size, breeding areas and seasons (n = 278), of daily landings of 21 units of artisanal fisheries in ten fishing grounds in the Park. Form all landings, we evaluated a total of 4319 individuals belonging to 84 species. Based on the number of individuals, Lutjanus guttatus ranked third in catches representing 6.4% (278 individuals), and 16th with 1.8% (95.79kg), based on catch biomass. The average weight was 0.34 kg +/- 0.25 kg, while 29 cm +/- 6.4 cm for total length. The total length-weight relationship had the best fit (Kruskal-Wallis, p fish and high condition factors suggested a spawning season in June, September and October in sandy and rocky shores. This species showed an asynchronical gonadal development, with a mean sexual maturity size estimated in 23.5cm total length, and an absolute fecundity of 156 253.11 oocytes (mode of 4 microm diameter). We concluded that L. guttatus medium sizes observed indicated a fishing pressure on small size specimens (the minimum size being 18cm); thus, we recommend the implementation of minimum catch sizes based on the criterion of size at maturity LT100 (25.5 cm) and to apply seasonal fishing closures during the highest reproductive activity (June-October). However, it is necessary to obtain additional biological information with multi

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus licheniformis CG-B52, a Highly Virulent Bacterium of Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), Isolated from a Colombian Caribbean Aquaculture Outbreak.

    OpenAIRE

    Gálvez, Eric J C; Carrillo-Castro, Katerine; Zárate, Lina; Güiza, Linda; Pieper, Dietmar H.; García-Bonilla, Erika; Salazar, Marcela; Junca, Howard

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus licheniformis strain CG-B52 was isolated as the etiological agent producing a self-limited outbreak of high mortalities in commercial Litopenaeus vannamei culture ponds on the Colombian Caribbean coast in 2005. Here, we report its draft genome and three novel extrachromosomal elements that it harbors.

  1. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus licheniformis CG-B52, a Highly Virulent Bacterium of Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), Isolated from a Colombian Caribbean Aquaculture Outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gálvez, Eric J C; Carrillo-Castro, Katerine; Zárate, Lina; Güiza, Linda; Pieper, Dietmar H; García-Bonilla, Erika; Salazar, Marcela; Junca, Howard

    2016-05-12

    Bacillus licheniformis strain CG-B52 was isolated as the etiological agent producing a self-limited outbreak of high mortalities in commercial Litopenaeus vannamei culture ponds on the Colombian Caribbean coast in 2005. Here, we report its draft genome and three novel extrachromosomal elements that it harbors.

  2. 40 CFR 408.250 - Applicability; description of the Pacific Coast hand-shucked oyster processing subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Pacific Coast hand-shucked oyster processing subcategory. 408.250 Section 408.250 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Pacific Coast Hand-Shucked Oyster Processing Subcategory § 408.250 Applicability; description of the Pacific Coast hand-shucked oyster processing subcategory....

  3. Coastal erosion hazard and vulnerability using sig tools. Comparison between "La Barra town, Buenaventura, (Pacific Ocean of Colombia) and Providence - Santa Catalina islands (Colombian Caribbean Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coca-Domínguez, Oswaldo; Ricaurte-Villota, Constanza; Morales-Giraldo, David; Rangel-Buitrago, Nelson

    2014-05-01

    Analysis of hazards and vulnerability associated to coastal erosion along coastlines is a first issue in order to establish plans for adaptation to climate change in coastal areas. La Barra Town, Buenaventura (Pacific ocean of Colombia) and Providence - Santa Catalina Islands (Colombian Caribbean) were selected to develop a detailed analysis of coastal erosion hazard and vulnerability from different perspectives: i) physical (hazard) , ii) social , iii) conservation approach and iv) cultural heritage (Raizal). The analysis was made by a semi quantitative approximation method, applying variables associated with the intrinsic coastal zone properties (i.e. type of beach, exposure of the coast to waves, etc.). Coastal erosion data and associated variables as well land use; conservation and heritage data were used to carry out a further detailed analysis of the human - structural vulnerability and exposure to hazards. The data shows erosion rates close to -17 m yr-1 in La Barra Town (highlighting their critical condition and urgent relocation process), while in some sectors of Providence Island, such as Old Town, erosion rate was -5 m yr-1. The observed erosion process affects directly the land use and the local and regional economy. The differences between indexes and the structural and physical vulnerability as well the use of methodological variables are presented in the context of each region. In this work, all the information was worked using a GIS environment since this allows editing and updating the information continuously. The application of this methodology generates useful information in order to promote risk management as well prevention, mitigation and reduction plans. In both areas the adaptation must be a priority strategy to be considered, including relocation alternatives and sustainable protection with the support of studies of uses and future outlooks in the coast. The methodology is framed into the use of GIS tools and it highlights their benefits

  4. Evolving Shoreline Change Rates Along the US Pacific Northwest Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D. L.; Ruggiero, P.; Allan, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    Coastal change hazards are increasingly affecting economically important areas, including those used for infrastructure, commerce, and public recreation. Quantifying shoreline change rates and understanding the contributing factors is crucial to protect these areas and to assist federal, state, and local agencies in developing long-term management plans. A recent study by the USGS National Assessment of Shoreline Change project analyzed the historical shoreline record along the U.S. Pacific Northwest with emphasis on both century-scale (1800s--2002) and decadal-scale (1960-80s--2002) change rates (Ruggiero, P., Kratzmann, M.A., Himmelstoss, E.G., Reid, D., Allan, J., and Kaminsky, G., 2013: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2012-1007, 55 p.). The study was the first consistent state-wide coastal change assessment for Oregon and revealed a significant increase in erosion hazards in the near-term. The coastal landscape in Oregon is particularly dynamic and includes beaches that are backed by both cliffs and dunes, and range in texture from sand to cobble. The high wave energy in the Pacific Northwest results in a morphology with primarily intermediate to dissipative beaches. Resistant rocky headlands separate the Oregon coast into 18 distinct littoral cells, greatly influencing how the shoreline changes with time. While the century-scale average of all 560 km of Oregon coastline suggests the shore is prograding at 0.4 m/yr, the decadal-scale record indicates that 13 of the 18 littoral cells either are accreting at a slower rate, have changed from accretional to erosional, or are eroding at a faster rate. This apparent increase in erosion-affected coasts may be caused by several factors including sea-level rise, increasing storm wave heights, tectonic uplift, and climatic events (eg., El Niño), but overall it indicates a shifting trend in shoreline change rates. In the present study, we quantify shoreline change rates on a third timescale, seasonal to

  5. [Population dynamics of Donax dentifer (Veneroida: Donacidae) in Bay of Bahía Málaga, Colombian Pacific during the "El Niño" 1997/1998].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riascos, José M; Urban, H

    2002-01-01

    Donax dentifer is a dominant member of the sandy beach communities of the Colombian Pacific coast. A population of this bivalve was monthly sampled in Playa Chucheros at the Bay of Málaga, Colombian Pacific, between August 1997 and July 1998, during the "El Niño 1997/1998" phenomenon. Quantitative samples were taken in perpendicular and parallel to the coastal line transects to determine the population density and a length-frequency distribution. Qualitative samples were taken to study the reproduction and monthly length weight relationship. Sea surface temperature, dissolved oxygen, salinity and pH in the water was monthly registered in the sampling station. Additionally, a tagging-recapture experiment was performed to growth estimations. Results indicate a continuous reproduction cycle with two annual spawning seasons in December and March. The growth parameters of the non-oscillating von Bertalanffy growth function were K = 0.62 yr-1 and L infinity = 29.3 mm. Mortality (Z) was higher (2.65 yr-1) for small individuals (between 2 mm and 5 mm) while a lower Z value (1.71 yr-1) were obtained for larger ones (between 19 mm and 25 mm). An annual mean biomass value of B = 1.229 g ash-free dry weight m-2 and an annual somatic production of Psom = 1.215 g ash-free dry weight m-2 were estimated, which correspond to a Psom/B value of 0.988. Population density increased in November and April, but any population density pattern related with "El Niño" was evident. Low body weight during November-December seems to show a relation between reproductive cycle in D. dentifer and El Niño 97/98 event. The fluctuation in dissolved oxygen show a high correlation with parameters of the reproductive cycle, which could be related to assimilation process and body weight cycle. Growth in D. dentifer in the Colombian Pacific coast was faster than other Donax species, as can be expected for tropical bivalves mollusks in comparison whit high latitude bivalves. The mortality pattern

  6. Populations and productivity of seabirds on the pacific coast of Becharof National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Colonial seabirds (murres, cormorants, gulls, puffins, and kittiwakes) were monitored along the Pacific Coast of the Becharof National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) to...

  7. Eelgrass (Zostera marina) Microsatellite DNA Data; Pacific Coast of North America, 2000-2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set contains genetic information collected from eelgrass (Zostera marina) populations along the Pacific coast of North America from Alaska to Baha...

  8. Genetic variability and heterogeneity of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus vector Ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus (Diptera: Culicidae) populations of the Colombian Atlantic coast, based on microsatellite loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, F; Becerra, V

    2009-09-29

    In Colombia, the mosquito Ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus has been identified as an efficient vector of the epidemic-epizootic Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. We evaluated the genetic variability and heterogeneity of this mosquito in Colombian populations using eight microsatellite DNA loci. Two hundred and ten mosquito specimens collected from seven populations of the Colombian Atlantic coast (San Bernardo del Viento, Coveñas, Cartagena, Barranquilla, Ciénaga, Dibulla, and Riohacha) were analyzed. We found five polymorphic microsatellite loci, with 19 alleles giving 62.5% polymorphism; the mean number of alleles per locus was 3.8. The mean expected heterogeneity ranged from 0.568 to 0.660. Most of the polymorphic microsatellite loci were in Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium, due to both deficit and excess of heterozygotes. The Fst statistic gave a total value of 0.0369, reflecting low genetic differentiation among the populations and, as a consequence, a low degree of structuring among them, while gene flow was high (Nm = 6.52); these findings point to genetic homogeneity among these populations. There was no significant linkage disequilibrium between genotype pairs of the various populations. We concluded that this mosquito is distributed in local populations along the Colombian Atlantic coast; these findings will be useful for developing strategies for controlling this vector.

  9. Coastal dynamics studies for evaluation of hazard and vulnerability for coastal erosion. case study the town La Bocana, Buenaventura, colombian pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coca-Domínguez, Oswaldo; Ricaurte-Villota, Constanza

    2015-04-01

    The analysis of the hazard and vulnerability in coastal areas caused for erosion is based on studies of coastal dynamics since that allows having a better information detail that is useful for decision-making in aspects like prevention, mitigation, disaster reduction and integrated risk management. The Town of La Bocana, located in Buenaventura (Colombian Pacific) was selected to carry out the threat assessment for coastal erosion based on three components: i) magnitude, ii) occurrence and iii) susceptibility. Vulnerability meanwhile, is also composed of three main components for its evaluation: i) exposure ii) fragility and iii) resilience, which in turn are evaluated in 6 dimensions of vulnerability: physical, social, economic, ecological, institutional and cultural. The hazard analysis performed used a semi-quantitative approach, and an index of variables such as type of geomorphological unit, type of beach, exposure of the surfing coast, occurrence, among others. Quantitative data of coastal retreat was measured through the use of DSAS (Digital Shoreline Analysis System) an application of ArcGIS, as well as the development of digital elevation models from the beach and 6 beach profiles strategically located on the coast obtained with GNSS technology. Sediment samples collected from these beaches, medium height and wave direction were used as complementary data. The information was integrated across the coast line into segments of 250 x 250 meters. 4 sectors are part of the coastal area of La Bocana: Pianguita, Vistahermosa, Donwtown and Shangay. 6 vulnerability dimensions units were taken from these population, as well as its density for exposure, wich was analyzed through a multi-array method that include variables such as, land use, population, type of structure, education, basic services, among others, to measure frailty, and their respective indicator of resilience. The hazard analysis results indicate that Vistahermosa is in very high threat, while

  10. Tidepool fish assemblages of Gorgona Island, Colombian Pacific coast: a local and regional comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Adolfo Castellanos-Galindo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A nivel mundial, la ecología de peces de charcos intermareales ha sido ampliamente investigada durante los últimos 40 años, especialmente en zonas templadas. En este trabajo, se documenta la variación espacio-temporal en corta escala de un ensamblaje de peces de charcos intermareales en el Pacífico Oriental Tropical (Isla Gorgona, Colombia, y se comparan nuestros resultados, con los resultados obtenidos durante muestreos realizados en la misma localidad en 1993. Además se realiza la primera comparación latitudinal de estos ensamblajes para la costa oriental del Océano Pacífico (43°N a 36°S. Durante abril a junio de 2006, se realizaron muestreos mensuales en 18 charcos intermareales distribuidos en tres localidades de Isla Gorgona, estableciendo un ensamblaje de peces de charcos intermareales con una alta riqueza de especies (53 especies. Labrisomidae, Gobiidae and Gobiesocidae fueron los componentes residentes dominantes en el ensamblaje, mientras que Pomacentridae, Muraenidae and Labridae fueron los componentes transitorios. Aunque el registro de las mismas especies dominantes en 1993 y 2006 sustenta la idea de una alta persistencia temporal de este ensamblaje, se detectaron diferencias significativas en la abundancia relativa de las especies. Estas diferencias podrían ser el resultado de las diferentes técnicas de captura utilizadas durante 1993 y 2006 (rotenona vs aceite de clavo. Al comparar los estudios sobre peces intermareales realizados en la zona tropical y zona templada de la costa oriental del Océano Pacífico, se identificó un claro patrón latitudinal en la composición de los ensamblajes, que es consecuente con la ampliamente documentada subdivisión biogeográfica de la fauna marina de esta región. Para comprender el funcionamiento de los ecosistemas costeros del Pacífico Oriental tropical, es necesario que futuros esfuerzos de investigación se encaminen a conocer el papel ecológico de los peces intermareales en esta región.

  11. Characterization and effects of cold fronts in the Colombian Caribbean Coast and their relationship to extreme wave events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Ortiz-Royero

    2013-07-01

    passage of cold fronts during the last 16 yr were identified. Although the Colombian Caribbean has been affected by storms and hurricanes in the past, this research allows us to conclude that, there is a strong relationship between cold fronts and the largest waves in the Colombian Caribbean during the last 16 yr, which have caused damage to coastal infrastructure. We verified that the passage of a cold front corresponded to the most significant extreme wave event of the last two decades in the Colombian Caribbean, which caused the structural collapse of the Puerto Colombia pier, located near the city of Barranquilla, between 5 and 10 March 2009. This information is invaluable when evaluating average and extreme wave regimes for the purpose of informing the design of structures in this region of the Caribbean.

  12. Feeding ecology of elasmobranch fishes in coastal waters of the Colombian Eastern Tropical Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    Mejía-Falla Paola A; Navia Andrés F; Giraldo Alan

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Stomach contents of 131 specimens of five elasmobranch species (Mustelus lunulatus, Dasyatis longa, Rhinobatos leucorhynchus, Raja velezi and Zapteryx xyster) caught in the central fishing zone in the Pacific Ocean of Colombia were counted and weighed to describe feeding habits and dietary overlaps. Results Twenty-one prey items belonging to four major groups (stomatopods, decapods, mollusks and fish) were identified. Decapod crustaceans were the most abundant prey found i...

  13. Variability of photosynthetic pigments in the Colombian Pacific Ocean and its relationship with the wind field using ADEOS-I data

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Efrain Rodriguez-Rubio; Jose Stuardo

    2002-09-01

    Variability of the oceanographic conditions in the Colombian Pacific Ocean, a part of the Panama Basin, is subjected to the variability of wind conditions in the equatorial part of the Pacific Ocean. Data of OCTS and NSCAT of ADEOS-I satellite provided as monthly averages for the period November 1996 — June 1997 by NASDA, were processed and manipulated. A meridional (N-S) component and a zonal (E-W) component were run in order to analyse the data variability and correlation. It is concluded that the variability of the oceanic surface chlorophyll and SST in the Colombian Pacific is a seasonal event related to the migration of the ITCZ and the generation of a wind jet at the Isthmus of Panama. Upwelling due to the wind rotor is present throughout the whole period, with variable spatial distribution and a tendency to be located towards the eastern part of the basin. In a similar way, high chlorophyll concentrations observed in March coincide with both the intensification of the vertical velocities during that month, and the maximal rise of the thermocline in the northern part of the Panama Basin. Picture series of surface chlorophyll, SST, wind stress and Ekman pumping are provided for the studied area.

  14. Earthquake studies on Canada’s west coast; Pacific Geoscience Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, G. C.; Riddihough, R.P.

    1979-01-01

    On a global scale, Canada's west coast lies within the zone of a seismicity that stretches around the Pacific Ocean. In plate tectonic terms, it is dominated by the same right-lateral shearing between the Pacific and American plates that is responsible for the seismicity of California. However, in southern British Columbia the interaction is further complicated. Between the San Andreas fault in California and the Queen Charlotte fault off British Columbia, the Pacific and American plates are separated by the small independent Juan de Fuca plate system. This is spreading away from the Pacific plate and converging with the margin of the Pacific Northwest. The resulting Cascade volcanic chain and its extension into southern British Columbia are the topograhic expression of its subduction. 

  15. Changes in tussock architecture of invasive Spartina densiflora (Poaceae) along the Pacific Coast of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is important to link functional trait-based responses of invaders to environmental changes to improve our understanding of mechanisms that promote invasiveness. The invasion of alien Spartina densiflora Brongn. along the Pacific coast of North America provides a natural model system for studying ...

  16. Desmacella austini sp. nov. from sponge reefs off the Pacific coast of Canada

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehnert, H.; Conway, K.W.; Barrie, J. Vaughn; Krautter, M.

    2005-01-01

    A new species of a very thinly encrusting Desmacella (Porifera, Demospongiae, Poecilosclerida, Desmacellidae) is described from Queen Charlotte Basin and Georgia Basin, off the Canadian Pacific coast. It is compared with all known species of the genus, differing in the geometry and size of spicules,

  17. Feeding ecology of elasmobranch fishes in coastal waters of the Colombian Eastern Tropical Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navia, Andrés F; Mejía-Falla, Paola A; Giraldo, Alan

    2007-09-18

    Stomach contents of 131 specimens of five elasmobranch species (Mustelus lunulatus, Dasyatis longa, Rhinobatos leucorhynchus, Raja velezi and Zapteryx xyster) caught in the central fishing zone in the Pacific Ocean of Colombia were counted and weighed to describe feeding habits and dietary overlaps. Twenty-one prey items belonging to four major groups (stomatopods, decapods, mollusks and fish) were identified. Decapod crustaceans were the most abundant prey found in stomachs. The mantis shrimp Squilla panamensis was the main prey item in the diet of M. lunulatus; tiger shrimp Trachypenaeus sp. was the main prey item in the diet of Rhinobatos leucorhynchus and Raja velezi, and Penaeidae shrimp were the main prey items in the diet of Z. xyster. Furthermore, fish were important in the diet of Raja velezi, Z. xyster and D. longa. The greatest diet breadth corresponded to Z. xyster whereas M. lunulatus was the most specialized predator. Finally, four significant diet overlaps between the five species were found, attributable mainly to Squillidae, Penaeidae and Fish. Shrimps (Penaeidae and stomatopods) and benthic fishes were the most important food types in the diet of the elasmobranch species studied. Diet breadth and overlap were relatively low. Determination of food resource partitioning among the batoid species studied was not possible. However, we identified partitions in other niche axes (time of feeding activity and habitat utilization). It is possible to assume that diffuse competition could be exceeding the biunivocal competition among the studied species. Therefore, this assemblage would have a strong tendency to trophic guild formation.

  18. Seagrass Planting Guidelines for the Pacific, Gulf, and Atlantic Coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-04-01

    widgeongrass (Ruppia maritima), shoalgrass ( Halodule wrightii ), and manatee- grass (Sgringodium filiforme). The fifth species, turtlegrass (Thalassia...50 Winter Combination Good ( Halodule wrightii ) or cohesive Southeast and Manateegrass 20-40 11LW to -10 m អ Winter Combination Fair Gulf Coast...W. J., CHEAP, K. M., CURRIN, C. A., AND THAYER, G. W., "A Low-Cost Transplanting Technique for Shoalgrass ( Halodule wrightii ) and Manateegrass

  19. Feeding ecology of elasmobranch fishes in coastal waters of the Colombian Eastern Tropical Pacific

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    Mejía-Falla Paola A

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stomach contents of 131 specimens of five elasmobranch species (Mustelus lunulatus, Dasyatis longa, Rhinobatos leucorhynchus, Raja velezi and Zapteryx xyster caught in the central fishing zone in the Pacific Ocean of Colombia were counted and weighed to describe feeding habits and dietary overlaps. Results Twenty-one prey items belonging to four major groups (stomatopods, decapods, mollusks and fish were identified. Decapod crustaceans were the most abundant prey found in stomachs. The mantis shrimp Squilla panamensis was the main prey item in the diet of M. lunulatus; tiger shrimp Trachypenaeus sp. was the main prey item in the diet of Rhinobatos leucorhynchus and Raja velezi, and Penaeidae shrimp were the main prey items in the diet of Z. xyster. Furthermore, fish were important in the diet of Raja velezi, Z. xyster and D. longa. The greatest diet breadth corresponded to Z. xyster whereas M. lunulatus was the most specialized predator. Finally, four significant diet overlaps between the five species were found, attributable mainly to Squillidae, Penaeidae and Fish. Conclusion Shrimps (Penaeidae and stomatopods and benthic fishes were the most important food types in the diet of the elasmobranch species studied. Diet breadth and overlap were relatively low. Determination of food resource partitioning among the batoid species studied was not possible. However, we identified partitions in other niche axes (time of feeding activity and habitat utilization. It is possible to assume that diffuse competition could be exceeding the biunivocal competition among the studied species. Therefore, this assemblage would have a strong tendency to trophic guild formation.

  20. Characterization and effects of cold fronts in the Colombian Caribbean Coast and their relationship to extreme wave events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Royero, J. C.; Otero, L. J.; Restrepo, J. C.; Ruiz, J.; Cadena, M.

    2013-07-01

    Extreme ocean waves in the Caribbean Sea are commonly related to the effects of storms and hurricanes during the months of June through November. The collapse of 200 m of the Puerto Colombia pier in March 2009 revealed the effects of meteorological phenomena other than storms and hurricanes that may be influencing the extreme wave regime in the Colombian Caribbean. The marked seasonality of these atmospheric fronts was established by analyzing the meteorological-marine reports of Instituto de Hidrología, Meteorología y Estudios Ambientales of Colombia (IDEAM, based on its initials in Spanish) and Centro de Investigación en Oceanografía y Meteorología of Colombia (CIOH, based on its initials in Spanish). The highest occurrences were observed during the months of January, February, and March, with 6 fronts occurring per year. An annual trend was not observed, although the highest number of fronts occurred in 2010 (20 in total). An annual strong relationship between the maximum average wave values and the cold fronts, in the central zone of the Colombian Caribbean during the first three months of the year was established. In addition, the maximum values of the significant height produced by the passage of cold fronts during the last 16 yr were identified. Although the Colombian Caribbean has been affected by storms and hurricanes in the past, this research allows us to conclude that, there is a strong relationship between cold fronts and the largest waves in the Colombian Caribbean during the last 16 yr, which have caused damage to coastal infrastructure. We verified that the passage of a cold front corresponded to the most significant extreme wave event of the last two decades in the Colombian Caribbean, which caused the structural collapse of the Puerto Colombia pier, located near the city of Barranquilla, between 5 and 10 March 2009. This information is invaluable when evaluating average and extreme wave regimes for the purpose of informing the design of

  1. 75 FR 26702 - Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Amendments 20...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... Register's Website at http://www.gpoaccess.gov/fr/index.html . Background information and documents are available at the Pacific Fishery Management Council's website at http://www.pcouncil.org/ . The Magnuson..., create individual economic stability, provide full utilization of the trawl sector allocation,...

  2. PACIFIC - Coastal Vulnerability to Sea-Level Rise: U.S. Pacific Coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The goal of this project is to quantify, at the National scale, the relative susceptibility of the Nation's coast to sea-level rise through the use of a coastal...

  3. PACIFIC - Coastal Vulnerability to Sea-Level Rise: U.S. Pacific Coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The goal of this project is to quantify, at the National scale, the relative susceptibility of the Nation's coast to sea-level rise through the use of a coastal...

  4. Avian influenza virus antibodies in Pacific Coast Red Knots (Calidris canutus rufa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James A.; DeCicco, Lucas H.; Ruthrauff, Daniel R.; Krauss, Scott; Hall, Jeffrey S.

    2014-01-01

    Prevalence of avian influenza virus (AIV) antibodies in the western Atlantic subspecies of Red Knot (Calidris canutus rufa) is among the highest for any shorebird. To assess whether the frequency of detection of AIV antibodies is high for the species in general or restricted only to C. c. rufa, we sampled the northeastern Pacific Coast subspecies of Red Knot (Calidris canutus roselaari) breeding in northwestern Alaska. Antibodies were detected in 90% of adults and none of the chicks sampled. Viral shedding was not detected in adults or chicks. These results suggest a predisposition of Red Knots to AIV infection. High antibody titers to subtypes H3 and H4 were detected, whereas low to intermediate antibody levels were found for subtypes H10 and H11. These four subtypes have previously been detected in shorebirds at Delaware Bay (at the border of New Jersey and Delaware) and in waterfowl along the Pacific Coast of North America.

  5. Decomposition of plant litter in Pacific coast tidal marshes, 2014-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janousek, Christopher; Buffington, Kevin J.; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.; Thorne, Karen M.; Dugger, Bruce D.; Takekawa, John Y.

    2017-01-01

    Decomposition of plant matter is one of the key processes affecting carbon cycling and storage in tidal wetlands. In this study, we evaluated the effects of factors related to climate change (temperature, inundation) and vegetation composition on rates of litter decay in seven tidal marsh sites along the Pacific coast. In 2014 we conducted manipulative experiments to test inundation effects on litter decay at Siletz Bay, OR and Petaluma marsh, CA. In 2015 we studied decay of litter in high and low elevation marshes at seven Pacific coast sites.These data support the following publication: Janousek, C.N., Buffington, K.J., Guntenspergen, G.R. et al. Ecosystems (2017). doi:10.1007/s10021-017-0111-6. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10021-017-0111-6

  6. Recovery Plan for the Pacific Coast Population of the Western Snowy Plover (Charadrius alexandrinus nivosus) Volume 1: Recovery Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Pacific coast population of the western snowy plover (Charadrius alexandrinus nivosus) (western snowy plover) is federally listed as threatened. The current...

  7. Divergent ecological effects of oceanographic anomalies on terrestrial ecosystems of the Mexican Pacific coast

    OpenAIRE

    Caso, Margarita; González-Abraham, Charlotte; Ezcurra, Exequiel

    2007-01-01

    Precipitation pulses are essential for the regeneration of drylands and have been shown to be related to oceanographic anomalies. However, whereas some studies report increased precipitation in drylands in northern Mexico during El Niño years, others report increased drought in the southern drylands. To elucidate the effect of oceanographic/atmospheric anomalies on moisture pulses along the whole Pacific coast of Mexico, we correlated the average Southern Oscillation Index values with total a...

  8. Marine biodiversity in the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of South America: knowledge and gaps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Miloslavich

    Full Text Available The marine areas of South America (SA include almost 30,000 km of coastline and encompass three different oceanic domains--the Caribbean, the Pacific, and the Atlantic--ranging in latitude from 12∘N to 55∘S. The 10 countries that border these coasts have different research capabilities and taxonomic traditions that affect taxonomic knowledge. This paper analyzes the status of knowledge of marine biodiversity in five subregions along the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of South America (SA: the Tropical East Pacific, the Humboldt Current,the Patagonian Shelf, the Brazilian Shelves, and the Tropical West Atlantic, and it provides a review of ecosystem threats and regional marine conservation strategies. South American marine biodiversity is least well known in the tropical subregions (with the exception of Costa Rica and Panama. Differences in total biodiversity were observed between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans at the same latitude. In the north of the continent, the Tropical East Pacific is richer in species than the Tropical West Atlantic, however, when standardized by coastal length, there is very little difference among them. In the south, the Humboldt Current system is much richer than the Patagonian Shelf. An analysis of endemism shows that 75% of the species are reported within only one of the SA regions, while about 22% of the species of SA are not reported elsewhere in the world. National and regional initiatives focusing on new exploration, especially to unknown areas and ecosystems, as well as collaboration among countries are fundamental to achieving the goal of completing inventories of species diversity and distribution.These inventories will allow accurate interpretation of the biogeography of its two oceanic coasts and latitudinal trends,and will also provide relevant information for science based policies.

  9. Radiostrontium monitoring of bivalves from the Pacific coast of eastern Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karube, Zin'ichi; Inuzuka, Yoko; Tanaka, Atsushi; Kurishima, Katsuaki; Kihou, Nobuharu; Shibata, Yasuyuki

    2016-09-01

    In early April 2011, radiostrontium was accidentally released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant to the Pacific coast of eastern Japan. We developed a simple procedure to analyze radiostrontium levels in marine mussels (Septifer virgatus) and seawater using crown ether (Sr Resin; Eichrom). Then, we used our method to describe the spatial and temporal distribution of radiostrontium in mussels and seawater on the Pacific coast of eastern Japan from 2011 to 2013 and for 2015. Activity of (90)Sr in mussels and seawater decreased with distance from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant and between 2011 and 2013 tended to be higher in areas south of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant than to the north of it. Activity in mussels and seawater also tended to decrease from 2011 to 2013 and by 2015 had reached levels experienced prior to the Fukushima accident. Our results suggest that radiostrontium discharged from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant was dispersed by coastal currents in a southerly direction along the Pacific coast of eastern Japan from 2011 to 2013, following which its activity decreased to background levels by 2015.

  10. INTRASPECIFIC VARIATION OF THE GREEN TURTLE, Chelonia mydas (CHELONIIDAE, IN THE FORAGING AREA OF GORGONA NATURAL NATIONAL PARK (COLOMBIAN PACIFIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Sampson

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The size distribution and body condition of the two morphotypes of green turtle (Chelonia mydas foraging in Gorgona Natural National Park (GNNP in the Colombian Pacific was assessed from 2003 to 2012. Measurements of straight carapace length (SCL, curved carapace length (CCL, weight, and body condition of 1,023 turtles captured on the GNNP reefs were recorded. More black turtles (n = 747 than yellow turtles (n = 276 were captured, all of them juveniles. Black turtles were significantly larger and heavier than yellow turtles. The size of recruitment to the neritic zone was 40.0-49.9 cm SCL for both morphotypes, but there were more yellow than black turtles in this size class, indicating a difference in the recruitment pattern. The body condition index of yellow turtles was significantly higher than that of black turtles, which could indicate differences in resource use. Based on our results, we suggest that GNNP might function as a recruitment area for yellow turtles, which arrive at smaller sizes and as part of a coastal migratory route for black turtles, which arrive at larger sizes and maintain residence at this location for an unknown period of time.Variación intraespecífica de la tortuga verde Chelonia mydas (Cheloniidae en el área de forrajeo del Parque Nacional Natural Gorgona (Pacífico colombianoSe comparó la distribución de tallas y condición corporal de los dos morfotipos conocidos de tortuga verde (Chelonia mydas en el área de forrajeo del Parque Nacional Natural Gorgona (PNNG en el Pacífico colombiano entre 2003 y 2012. Se tomaron medidas de largo recto de caparazón (LRC, largo curvo de caparazón (LCC, peso y condición corporal de 1.023 tortugas capturadas en los arrecifes del PNG. Se capturaron más tortugas negras (n = 747 que amarillas (n = 276, todas juveniles. Las tortugas negras fueron significativamente más grandes y pesadas que las amarillas. El tamaño de reclutamiento a la zona nerítica fue de 40,0–49,9 cm

  11. Morphological differences in Pacific Coast populations of greater white-fronted geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orthmeyer, D.L.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Ely, C.R.; Wege, M.; Newton, W.E.

    1995-01-01

    We examined morphological relationships of three Pacific coast populations of Greater White-fronted Geese (Anser albifrons). Adult geese were captured and measured at three breeding areas in Alaska and two wintering areas in California, 1980-1991. A two-step discriminant function analysis examined morphological differences among the three populations. Stepwise discriminant function procedures created the simplest measurement models. Each sex was analyzed separately since multivariate analysis of variance indicated that males were significantly larger than females for all three populations. Tule Greater White-fronted Geese (A. a. gambelli) were significantly larger than Pacific Greater White-fronted Geese (A. a. frontalis), hereafter Pacific Geese. The first step of discriminant function analysis created models to differentiate Tule Geese from the Pacific Geese. Bivariate stepwise discriminant function models consisting of only two measurements correctly classified 92% of males (bill height, bill width) and 96% of females (bill height, culmen) of these subspecies. The second step of discriminant function analysis compared a small population of Pacific Geese from the Bristol Bay Lowlands (BBL) of southwestern Alaska with the large population of Pacific Geese that breed on the Yukon-Kuskokwim River Delta (YKD) of westcentral Alaska. We developed models with three (culmen, diagonal tarsus, midtoe) and five (culmen, diagonal tarsus, midtoe, total tarsus, bill height) measurements from stepwise discriminant function analyses to correctly classify 72% of males and 74% of females of these populations. Thus, morphology of Tule Geese differed highly significantly from Pacific Geese, as expected but differences between populations from the BBL and YKD areas were also significant. Morphometric analyses as these provided supporting evidence for clinal variation in populations of Greater White-fronted Geese. They also underscore a need for further studies of differences among

  12. Occurrence of energetic extreme oceanic events in the Colombian Caribbean coasts and some approaches to assess their impact on ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, G.; Osorio, A. F.; Urrego, L.; Peláez, D.; Molina, E.; Zea, S.; Montoya, R. D.; Villegas, N.

    2016-12-01

    Above-normal meteorological and oceanographic conditions that generate damage on coastal ecosystems and associated human communities are called extreme oceanic events. Accurate data are needed to predict their occurrence and to understand their effects. We analyzed available data from four localities in the Colombian Caribbean to study the effect of wave-related extreme events (hurricanes, surges) in three coastal ecosystems, i.e., mangroves, beaches, and reefs. Three localities were continental (Portete Bay mangroves at the Guajira Peninsula, Bocagrande Public Beach at Cartagena City, Tayrona Natural Park reefs near Santa Marta City), and one was oceanic (Old Providence Island reefs in the San Andres and Old Providence Archipelago, SW Caribbean). We gathered data on ocean surface winds (1978-2011) for the four locations, then modeled significant wave heights, then identified extreme events, and finally tried to identify effects on the ecosystems, directly or from published literature. Wave-related extreme surges were also compiled from Colombian press news (1970-2008). Modeled wave maximums (> 5 m significant wave height) and press-reported events coincided with hurricanes, extreme dry season, mid-summer drought and northern hemisphere winter cold fronts, with neither a relationship to ENSO events, nor a temporal trend of increase, excepting Portete Bay, with a marked increase after 1995. Changes in Portete Bay mangroves were analyzed from aerial photographs before and after Tropical Storm Cesar (1996). In the 38 years before Cesar there was mangrove inland colonization, with some loss associated to beach erosion, while during the 8 years following the storm there were localized retreats and important changes in vegetation composition related to the falling of large trees and subsequent recolonization by species that are faster colonizers, and changes in soil composition brought about by inundation. Cartagena's Bocagrande Beach was followed between 2009 and 2011

  13. A preliminary spatial assessment of risk: Marine birds and chronic oil pollution on Canada's Pacific coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, C H; O'Hara, P D; Bertazzon, S; Morgan, K; Underwood, F E; Paquet, P C

    2016-12-15

    Chronic oil pollution poses substantial risks to marine birds and other marine wildlife worldwide. On Canada's Pacific coast, the negative ecological consequences to marine birds and marine ecosystems in general remain poorly understood. Using information relating to oil spill probability of occurrence, areas of overall importance to marine birds, and the at-sea distribution and density of 12 marine bird species and seven bird groups, including multiple Species at Risk, we undertook a spatial assessment of risk. Our results identify two main areas important to marine birds potentially at higher risk of exposure to oil. For individual bird species or species groups, those predicted to have elevated bird densities near the mainland and the northeast coast of Vancouver Island were identified as being at higher potential risk of exposure. Our results, however, should be considered preliminary. As with other anthropogenic stressors, in order to better understand and subsequently mitigate the consequences of chronic oil pollution on marine birds, improved information relating to marine birds and the occurrence of oil spills on Canada's Pacific coast is needed.

  14. Perkinsus marinus in pleasure oyster Crassostrea corteziensis from Nayarit, Pacific coast of México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres-Martínez, J; Vásquez-Yeomans, R; Padilla-Lardizábal, G; del Río Portilla, M A

    2008-09-01

    Culture of the pleasure oyster Crassostrea corteziensis is emerging as an alternative to the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) for oyster producers, who face severe mortalities since 1997 in Northwest México. For determining the health status of this species, we conducted a histopathological analysis of cultured populations from two estuaries in the Pacific coast of México. Macroscopical analysis revealed animals with transparent and retracted mantle. Histopathological analysis of these specimens showed tissue alterations and parasitic forms consistent with Perkinsus sp. infection. Stages of the parasite identified included tomont and trophozoites with an eccentric vacuole characteristic of Perkinsus spp. Pieces of tissues of infected oysters were incubated in Fluid Thioglycollate Medium (FTM) resulting in blue-black hypnospores after incubation. The identity of the parasite was confirmed by species specific PCR-based assay in DNA samples from oysters, tissue fractions from FTM cultures, and deparaffined samples with Perkinsus-like parasite detected by histology. Sequencing of positive amplified fragments (307bp) showed a sequence similar to Perkinsus marinus strain TXsc NTS ribosomal RNA gene (100% coverage and 98% identity, GenBank Accession No. AF497479.1) and to P. marinus, Genomic DNA, (100% coverage and 97% identity, GenBank Accession No. S78416.1). The prevalence of P. marinus varied from 1 to 5% in Boca del Camichín and from 1 to 6% in Pozo Chino. In general, the intensity of infection was moderate. The infection was observed in oysters from 31 to 110mm of shell length. This is the first record of P. marinus in oysters from the North America Pacific coast and the first record in C. corteziensis. The origin of this parasite in the area is unknown, but it may be associated to introductions of Crassostrea virginica from the East coast of United States of America or Gulf of México.

  15. Revision of the genus Lolliguncula Steenstrup, 1881 (Cephalopoda: Loliginidae off the Pacific Coast of South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz Cardoso

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper the species from the genus LolligunculaSteentrup, 1881 (Cephalopoda: Loliginidae in Southeastern Pacific Ocean are reviewed. The presence of Lolliguncula (Lolliguncula panamensisBerry, 1911, Lolliguncula (Loliolopsis diomedeae Hoyle, 1911 and Lolliguncula (Lolliguncula argusBrakoniecki and Roper, 1985 are confirmed from Mexican waters to Perú and the species Lolliguncula (Lolliguncula arguscollected during a cruise of the R/V Anton Bruunfrom 1966 off the coast of South America is recorded for the first time in Peruvian waters. A key to identification of Pacific species is given. We report a diagnostic feature with taxonomic remarks of these species. Updated information on the distribution, biology, and fisheries of each species also is discussed.

  16. Frequent non-storm washover of barrier islands, Pacific coast of Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, R.A.; Gonzalez, J.L.; Lopez, G.I.; Correa, I.D.

    2000-01-01

    Barrier islands of the Pacific coast of Colombia repeatedly experience severe washover even when breaking waves in the eastern Pacific are low and onshore winds are calm. On the barrier island of El Choncho, recent non-storm washover events have breached a new inlet, caused rapid beach retreat, destroyed a shoreline protection structure, and flooded a small village of indigenous people so frequently that it had to be relocated. Barrier washover may be augmented by lowered land elevations associated with earthquake-induced subsidence or long-term beach retreat, but temporally it is most closely associated with a 20 to 30 cm regional increase in sea level caused by El Nino. The contradiction of a tranquil tropical island scene simultaneously disturbed by hostile turbulent washover may be unique at present, but it exemplifies how coastal plains throughout the world would be affected if sea level were to rise rapidly as a result of global warming.

  17. Trypanosoma (Herpetosoma) leeuwenhoeki in Choloepus hoffmanni and Didelphis marsupialis of the Pacific Coast of Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travi, B L; Zea, A; D'Alessandro, A

    1989-04-01

    Trypanosoma (Herpetosoma) leeuwenhoeki, originally described in Panamanian sloths, was isolated from Didelphis marsupialis (Marsupialia) and Choloepus hoffmanni (Edentata) inhabiting the Pacific coast of Colombia. Trypanosomes were characterized by their large blood forms (total length 51-53 microns), poor infectivity for mice, and lack of development in Rhodnius prolixus. Isoenzyme studies, with either strains or clones, revealed homogeneous profiles clearly distinct from Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma rangeli reference strains. The present report extends the geographical distribution of T. leeuwenhoeki to South America and broadens its known host range to another order of mammals.

  18. Seasonal Levels of the Vibrio Predator Bacteriovorax in Atlantic, Pacific, and Gulf Coast Seawater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary P. Richards

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriovorax were quantified in US Atlantic, Gulf, and Pacific seawater to determine baseline levels of these predatory bacteria and possible seasonal fluctuations in levels. Surface seawater was analyzed monthly for 1 year from Kailua-Kona, Hawaii; the Gulf Coast of Alabama; and four sites along the Delaware Bay. Screening for Bacteriovorax was performed on lawns of V. parahaemolyticus host cells. Direct testing of 7.5 mL portions of seawater from the Atlantic, Pacific, and Gulf coasts gave mean annual counts ≤12.2 PFU. Spikes in counts were observed at 3 out of 4 sites along the Delaware Bay 1 week after Hurricane Sandy. A comparison of summer versus winter counts showed significantly more Bacteriovorax (P≤0.0001 in the Delaware Bay during the summer and significantly more (P≤0.0001 in the Gulf during the winter, but no significant seasonal differences (P>0.05 for Hawaiian seawater. Bacteriovorax counts only correlated with seawater salinity and temperature at one Delaware site (r=0.79 and r=0.65, resp.. There was a relatively strong negative correlation between temperature and Bacteriovorax levels (r=−0.585 for Gulf seawater. Selected isolates were sequenced and identified by phylogenetic analysis as Bacteriovorax clusters IX, X, XI, and XII.

  19. Parasites of cetaceans stranded on the Pacific coast of Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, J B; Morales, J A; González-Barrientos, R C; Hernández-Gamboa, J; Hernández-Mora, G

    2011-12-15

    Information regarding parasitic fauna of cetaceans from Costa Rica is provided for the first time. A total of 25 stranded dolphins and whales were examined between 2001 and 2009, including striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) (n=19), pantropical spotted dolphin (S. attenuata) (n=2), spinner dolphin (S. longirostris) (n=1), bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) (n=1), dwarf sperm whale (Kogia sima) (n=1) and Cuvier's beaked whale (Ziphius cavirostris) (n=1). Pathological findings associated with the parasites are also presented. In the most representative dolphin species, S. coeruleoalba, the prevalence of parasites was 89.5%; moreover, all examined specimens of S. attenuata, S. longirostris, T. truncatus and Z. cavirostris presented parasites. No parasites were recovered from K. sima. Fourteen helminth taxa were identified, including six species of cestodes (Strobilocephalus triangularis, Tetrabothrius forsteri, Trigonocotyle sp., Phyllobothrium delphini, Monorygma grimaldi, Tetraphyllidea gen. sp. plerocercoid), four digeneans (Nasitrema globicephalae, Brachycladium palliatum, B. pacificum and Oschmarinella albamarina) and four nematodes (Anisakis spp., Halocercus lagenorhynchi, Halocercus sp. and Crassicauda anthonyi). A commensal crustacean, Xenobalanus globicipitis, was also identified. All identified parasites representing new geographic records for the Pacific coast of Central America and new host records are presented. Parasitological information is valuable for conservation of cetaceans in Pacific coast of Costa Rica.

  20. The artisanal elasmobranch fishery of the Pacific coast of Baja California Sur, Mexico, management implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio R. Ramirez-Amaro

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Artisanal fisheries in Mexico account for approximately 40% of the total national catch. In 2009, Baja California Sur (BCS had the second largest catch of elasmobranchs on the Mexican Pacific coast. This paper characterizes and describes the artisanal elasmobranch fishery of Pacific coast of BCS from 2000 to 2010. Sixty artisanal camps were documented, of which 45 targeted elasmobranchs, using primarily gillnets and longlines. We identified 52 elasmobranch species. Gillnetting accounted for 73.5% of the fishing effort and most frequently captured Rhinobatos productus, Mustelus henlei and Myliobatis californica. Longline fishing accounted for 26.5% of effort, most frequently capturing Prionace glauca and Isurus oxyrinchus. The prevalence of juveniles of several species (e.g., Cephaloscyllium ventriosum, Galeorhinus galeus, Isurus oxyrinchus, and Myliobatis californica within landings suggests that fishing effort may be opportunistically directed at breeding or nursery areas. Despite the dominance of species with wide distributions, we observed a significant biogeographic pattern in the abundance of some species relative to Bahia Magdalena. Results of the present study will be useful to detect changes in the structure of commercially exploited elasmobranch populations, and to provide useful indications for management purposes.

  1. The Eco-epidemiology of Pacific Coast Tick Fever in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla, Denise; Eremeeva, Marina E.; Glaser, Carol; Lane, Robert S.; Porse, Charsey Cole; Castro, Martin B.; Messenger, Sharon; Espinosa, Alex; Hacker, Jill; Kjemtrup, Anne; Ryan, Bonnie; Scott, Jamesina J.; Hu, Renjie; Yoshimizu, Melissa Hardstone; Dasch, Gregory A.; Kramer, Vicki

    2016-01-01

    Rickettsia philipii (type strain “Rickettsia 364D”), the etiologic agent of Pacific Coast tick fever (PCTF), is transmitted to people by the Pacific Coast tick, Dermacentor occidentalis. Following the first confirmed human case of PCTF in 2008, 13 additional human cases have been reported in California, more than half of which were pediatric cases. The most common features of PCTF are the presence of at least one necrotic lesion known as an eschar (100%), fever (85%), and headache (79%); four case-patients required hospitalization and four had multiple eschars. Findings presented here implicate the nymphal or larval stages of D. occidentalis as the primary vectors of R. philipii to people. Peak transmission risk from ticks to people occurs in late summer. Rickettsia philipii DNA was detected in D. occidentalis ticks from 15 of 37 California counties. Similarly, non-pathogenic Rickettsia rhipicephali DNA was detected in D. occidentalis in 29 of 38 counties with an average prevalence of 12.0% in adult ticks. In total, 5,601 ticks tested from 2009 through 2015 yielded an overall R. philipii infection prevalence of 2.1% in adults, 0.9% in nymphs and a minimum infection prevalence of 0.4% in larval pools. Although most human cases of PCTF have been reported from northern California, acarological surveillance suggests that R. philipii may occur throughout the distribution range of D. occidentalis. PMID:27706171

  2. Annual abundance of salps and doliolids (Tunicata around Gorgona Island (Colombian Pacific, and their importance as potential food for green sea turtles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Sampson

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Gorgona National Park protects fertile waters that support large vertebrates, including green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas, and for them, gelatinous zooplankton constitute a food resource that can be found year-round in Gorgona Island´s coastal waters. This study was carried out to determine the abundance of salps and doliolids around Gorgona Island over a year, and to determine whether this is a resource that could be used reliably year-round by green turtles and other large plankton-feeding predators. The monthly abundance of salps and doliolids at eight coastal stations around Gorgona Island (Colombian Pacific was determined between September 2005 and August 2006. Oblique tows were carried out from 50m to the surface, total zooplankton biomass was measured and the number of salps and doliolids per tow, and frequency of occurrence per station and month were determined. Superficial and bottom sea temperature, superficial and bottom salinity, and chlorophyll-a concentration were recorded at each station. There were tunicate abundance peaks in September 2005 and March 2006. The high abundances in March were probably due to a cold water intrusion into the study area, which resulted in colder saltier water and a shallower thermocline. Tunicates were probably advected to the area by currents from the southwest and aggregated due to the underwater topography. In September, the influence of continental river discharge as well as inputs from rainfall over the island could have provided increased nutrients and resulted in higher abundances. The large filter-feeding vertebrates that feed on tunicates include green sea turtle juveniles, which use coastal waters of Gorgona Island as feeding grounds, as part of their migration route in the Eastern Tropical Pacific. These turtles could be using tunicates opportunistically, as a sporadic resource that is available at certain times of the year. Rev. Biol. Trop. 62 (Suppl. 1: 149-159. Epub 2014 February 01.

  3. Modulation of atmospheric rivers near Alaska and the U.S. West Coast by northeast Pacific height anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundhenk, Bryan D.; Barnes, Elizabeth A.; Maloney, Eric D.; Nardi, Kyle M.

    2016-11-01

    Atmospheric rivers (ARs) can cause wide-ranging impacts upon landfall at high northern latitudes, but comparatively little is known about the dynamics supporting these ARs in contrast to their midlatitude counterparts. Here ARs near the U.S. West Coast and the Gulf of Alaska during 1979-2015 are compared. ARs are found to occur in both regions with similar frequency, but with different seasonality. Composited atmospheric conditions from the NASA Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications data set reveal that a broad height anomaly over the northeast Pacific is influential to AR activity in both regions. When a positive height anomaly exists over the northeast Pacific, AR activity is often deflected poleward toward Alaska, while the U.S. West Coast experiences a decrease in AR activity. The opposing relationship also applies; that is, AR activity is decreased near Alaska and increased along the U.S. West Coast in the presence of a negative height anomaly. Quantitatively, nearly 79% of Gulf of Alaska ARs are associated with a positive northeast Pacific height anomaly and 86% of U.S. West Coast ARs are associated with a negative anomaly. Results suggest that this relationship applies across a range of time scales, to include subseasonal and interannual, not just with respect to individual transient waves. Both ARs and height anomalies are found to be associated with Rossby wave breaking, thereby dynamically linking AR activity with broader North Pacific dynamics.

  4. Phenotypic plasticity of invasive Spartina densiflora (Poaceae) along a broad latitudinal gradient on the Pacific Coast of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined morphological and physiological leaf traits of Spartina densiflora plants in populations from invaded estuarine sites across broad latitudinal and climate gradients along the Pacific west coast of North America, and in favourable conditions in a common garden experiment. We hypothesized ...

  5. Population genetics of the invasive cryptogenic anemone, Anemonia alicemartinae, along the southeastern Pacific coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canales-Aguirre, C. B.; Quiñones, A.; Hernández, C. E.; Neill, P. E.; Brante, A.

    2015-08-01

    One of the most important issues in biological invasions is understanding the factors and mechanisms determining the invasion success of non-native species. Theoretical and empirical works have shown that genetic diversity is a determinant of invasion success; thus, studying spatial patterns of genetic diversity, and exploring how biological and physical factors shape this population trait, are fundamental for understanding this phenomenon. Coastal marine ecosystems are one of the most susceptible habitats to invasion given the complex network of maritime transport. In this work we study the cryptogenic anemone, Anemonia alicemartinae, which has rapidly increased its geographical range southward during the last 50 years (approx. 2000 km) along the southeastern Pacific coast. Based on COI mtDNA sequences we evaluated three main hypotheses: a) the genetic diversity of A. alicemartinae decreases according to the direction of invasion (from north to south); b) there is biogeographic-phylogeographic concordance at the 30°S biogeographic break; and c) the demographic history is coherent with a recent geographic expansion. A total of 161 individual samples of A. alicemartinae were collected along the southeastern Pacific coast range of distribution, covering more than 2000 km, including samples along the 30°S biogeographical break. Results showed low genetic diversity (Hd = 0.253; π = 0.08) and a lack of geographic population genetic structure (FST = - 0.009, p-value = 0.656). The highest genetic diversity was observed in Peru (Chero and Mesas) and at localities close to the main Chilean seaports. We did not observe concordance between biogeographic and phylogeographic patterns or isolation by distance. Demographic indices (D = - 2.604, p population expansion of this species. Our results, together with historical field observations, support the idea that the current distribution of A. alicemartinae may be explained by an increase in population size from one small

  6. NOAA/WEST COAST AND ALASKA TSUNAMI WARNING CENTER PACIFIC OCEAN RESPONSE CRITERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry Rogers

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available New West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC response criteria for earthquakes occurring in the Pacific basin are presented. Initial warning decisions are based on earthquake location, magnitude, depth, and - dependent on magnitude - either distance from source or pre- computed threat estimates generated from tsunami models. The new criteria will help limit the geographical extent of warnings and advisories to threatened regions, and complement the new operational tsunami product suite.Changes to the previous criteria include: adding hypocentral depth dependence, reducing geographical warning extent for the lower magnitude ranges, setting special criteria for areas not well-connected to the open ocean, basing warning extent on pre-computed threat levels versus tsunami travel time for very large events, including the new advisory product, using the advisory product for far-offshore events in the lower magnitude ranges, and specifying distances from the coast for on-shore events which may be tsunamigenic.This report sets a baseline for response criteria used by the WCATWC considering its processing and observational data capabilities as well as its organizational requirements. Criteria are set for tsunamis generated by earthquakes, which are by far the main cause of tsunami generation (either directly through sea floor displacement or indirectly by triggering of slumps. As further research and development provides better tsunami source definition, observational data streams, and improved analysis tools, the criteria will continue to adjust. Future lines of research and development capable of providing operational tsunami warning centers with better tools are discussed.

  7. The first dinosaur from Washington State and a review of Pacific coast dinosaurs from North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peecook, Brandon R; Sidor, Christian A

    2015-01-01

    We describe the first diagnostic dinosaur fossil from Washington State. The specimen, which consists of a proximal left femur, was recovered from the shallow marine rocks of the Upper Cretaceous (Campanian) Cedar District Formation (Nanaimo Group) and is interpreted as pertaining to a large theropod on the basis of its hollow medullary cavity and proximally placed fourth trochanter. The Washington theropod represents one of the northernmost occurrences of a Mesozoic dinosaur on the west coast of the United States and one of only a handful from the Pacific coast of Laramidia during the Cretaceous. Its isolated nature and preservation in marine rocks suggest that the element was washed in from a nearby fluvial system. If the femur pertains to a tyrannosauroid, which seems likely given its size and the widespread occurrence of the group across Laramidia during Late Cretaceous times, then it would represent an earlier occurrence of large body size than previously recognized (complete femur length estimated at 1.2 meters). Uncertainty surrounding the latitude of deposition of the Nanaimo Group (i.e., the Baja-British Columbia hypothesis) precludes assigning the Washington theropod to either of the putative northern or southern biogeographic provinces of Laramidia.

  8. NOAA/West Coast and Alaska Tsunami Warning Center Pacific Ocean response criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, P.; Benz, H.; Bolton, M.; Crawford, G.; Dengler, L.; Fryer, G.; Goltz, J.; Hansen, R.; Kryzanowski, K.; Malone, S.; Oppenheimer, D.; Petty, E.; Rogers, G.; Wilson, Jim

    2008-01-01

    New West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC) response criteria for earthquakes occurring in the Pacific basin are presented. Initial warning decisions are based on earthquake location, magnitude, depth, and - dependent on magnitude - either distance from source or precomputed threat estimates generated from tsunami models. The new criteria will help limit the geographical extent of warnings and advisories to threatened regions, and complement the new operational tsunami product suite. Changes to the previous criteria include: adding hypocentral depth dependence, reducing geographical warning extent for the lower magnitude ranges, setting special criteria for areas not well-connected to the open ocean, basing warning extent on pre-computed threat levels versus tsunami travel time for very large events, including the new advisory product, using the advisory product for far-offshore events in the lower magnitude ranges, and specifying distances from the coast for on-shore events which may be tsunamigenic. This report sets a baseline for response criteria used by the WCATWC considering its processing and observational data capabilities as well as its organizational requirements. Criteria are set for tsunamis generated by earthquakes, which are by far the main cause of tsunami generation (either directly through sea floor displacement or indirectly by triggering of slumps). As further research and development provides better tsunami source definition, observational data streams, and improved analysis tools, the criteria will continue to adjust. Future lines of research and development capable of providing operational tsunami warning centers with better tools are discussed.

  9. Freedom in the Rainforest. The formation of a black peasantry in Colombia’s Pacific Coast, 1850-1930

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    Claudia María Leal León

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reconstructs the basis on which the black peasantry of the Colombian Pacific was formed after the end of slavery. The descendants of slaves managed to become independent producers, rather than a rural proletariat, through access that had not only the land but also to the forest, water and underground. These peasants were not primarily farmers; extracting gold, ivory palm and rubber to sell it to white traders, who exported. In the context of this extractive economy, freedom meant to achieve control over the territory and work processes. However, yet we need to recognize the contributions that these citizens made the construction of Colombia on the basis of their freedom.

  10. Assessing the Extent and Density of Seagrass Meadows in Pacific Rim National Park Reserve and Clayoquot Sound on the Pacific Coast of Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, A. E.; Postlethwaite, V. R.; Pellatt, M. G.; Kohfeld, K. E.; Robinson, C.; Yakimishyn, J.; Chastain, S. G.

    2016-12-01

    Across the globe seagrass habits are recognized as highly productive systems, and have recently been characterized by their ability to store and sequester substantial amounts of organic carbon, known as `blue carbon.' Unfortunately, seagrasses are among the most rapidly disappearing ecosystems on Earth due to anthropogenic activities and development. Given the paucity of geospatial information on the global abundance of blue carbon environments, the rate of seagrass habitat loss is uncertain. Recent studies indicate that the consequences of coastal ecosystem conversion are larger than predicted, particularly on Canada's Pacific coastline where agricultural, forestry, and commercial developments have destroyed substantial amounts of seagrass habitat. This lack of knowledge hinders coastal habitat and blue carbon conservation planning and inhibits comprehensive policy development regarding coastal carbon management. This research quantitatively assesses various measures of above and below ground biomass and eelgrass shoot density as well as incorporates geospatial data collected from remote sensing technologies from three seagrass meadows on the Pacific coast of British Columbia. Using ArcGIS software, the distribution, extent, and density of seagrass located in the Pacific Rim National Park Reserve and southern Clayoquot Sound will be used to contribute to the first set of continental maps of blue carbon habitats within North America led by the Commission for Environmental Cooperation. Further, these results will be integrated into a geospatial database on the carbon accumulation rates in seagrass meadows on the Pacific coast of North America, providing a baseline for determining the role blue carbon habitats play in carbon mitigation on coastal British Columbia.

  11. Species composition and bathymetric distribution of gorgonians (Anthozoa: Octocorallia on the Southern Mexican Pacific coast

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    Rosalinda Abeytia

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Gorgonians are important components of coastal ecosystems, as they provide niches, natural compounds with medical applications and are used as bioindicators. Species composition and assemblage structure of gorgonians (Anthozoa: Octocorallia were studied along a bathymetric profile in the Southern Mexican Pacific coast. Species composition was based on specimens collected within a depth range of 0-70m in 15 sites. The relative abundance of species was determined in six sites at four depths (5, 10, 20 and 25m using three 10m2 transects at each depth level. Twenty-seven species of gorgonians belonging to six genera and three families were registered. The species composition varied with depth: 11 species were distributed between 0-25m depth, while 17 species were found between 40-70m depth interval. The shallow zone is characterized by a relatively large abundance of gorgonians, dominated by colonies of Leptogorgia cuspidata and L. ena. In contrast, the deepest zone was characterized by relatively low abundance of gorgonians, dominated by L. alba, the only species observed in both depth intervals. The similarity analysis showed differences in the composition and abundance of species by depth and site, suggesting that the main factor in determining the assemblage structure is depth. Results of this study suggest that the highest richness of gorgonian species in the study area may be located at depths of 40-70m, whereas the highest abundances are found between 5 and 10m depth. This study represents a contribution to the poorly known eastern Pacific gorgonian biota.

  12. Species composition and bathymetric distribution of gorgonians (Anthozoa: Octocorallia) on the Southern Mexican Pacific coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeytia, Rosalinda; Guzmán, Hector M; Breedy, Odalisca

    2013-09-01

    Gorgonians are important components of coastal ecosystems, as they provide niches, natural compounds with medical applications and are used as bioindicators. Species composition and assemblage structure of gorgonians (Anthozoa: Octocorallia) were studied along a bathymetric profile in the Southern Mexican Pacific coast. Species composition was based on specimens collected within a depth range of 0-70 m in 15 sites. The relative abundance of species was determined in six sites at four depths (5, 10, 20 and 25 m) using three 10 m2 transects at each depth level. Twenty-seven species of gorgonians belonging to six genera and three families were registered. The species composition varied with depth: 11 species were distributed between 0-25m depth, while 17 species were found between 40-70 m depth interval. The shallow zone is characterized by a relatively large abundance of gorgonians, dominated by colonies of Leptogorgia cuspidata and L. ena. In contrast, the deepest zone was characterized by relatively low abundance of gorgonians, dominated by L. alba, the only species observed in both depth intervals. The similarity analysis showed differences in the composition and abundance of species by depth and site, suggesting that the main factor in determining the assemblage structure is depth. Results of this study suggest that the highest richness of gorgonian species in the study area may be located at depths of 40-70 m, whereas the highest abundances are found between 5 and 10 m depth. This study represents a contribution to the poorly known eastern Pacific gorgonian biota.

  13. Divergent ecological effects of oceanographic anomalies on terrestrial ecosystems of the Mexican Pacific coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caso, Margarita; González-Abraham, Charlotte; Ezcurra, Exequiel

    2007-06-19

    Precipitation pulses are essential for the regeneration of drylands and have been shown to be related to oceanographic anomalies. However, whereas some studies report increased precipitation in drylands in northern Mexico during El Niño years, others report increased drought in the southern drylands. To elucidate the effect of oceanographic/atmospheric anomalies on moisture pulses along the whole Pacific coast of Mexico, we correlated the average Southern Oscillation Index values with total annual precipitation for 117 weather stations. We also analyzed this relationship for three separate rainfall signals: winter-spring, summer monsoon, and fall precipitation. The results showed a distinct but divergent seasonal pattern: El Niño events tend to bring increased rainfall in the Mexican northwest but tend to increase aridity in the ecosystems of the southern tropical Pacific slope. The analysis for the separated rainfall seasons showed that El Niño conditions produce a marked increase in winter rainfall above 22 degrees latitude, whereas La Niña conditions tend to produce an increase in the summer monsoon-type rainfall that predominates in the tropical south. Because these dryland ecosystems are dependent on rainfall pulses for their renewal, understanding the complex effect of ocean conditions may be critical for their management in the future. Restoration ecology, grazing regimes, carrying capacities, fire risks, and continental runoff into the oceans could be predicted from oceanographic conditions. Monitoring the coupled atmosphere-ocean system may prove to be important in managing and mitigating the effects of large-scale climatic change on coastal drylands in the future.

  14. Sightings and behavioral observations of Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphins Sousa chinensis (Osbeck, 1765 along Chennai coast, Bay of Bengal

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    R. Muralidharan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Boat-based surveys were used to investigate the presence of Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphins Sousa chinensis along the coast of Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. Notes were collected on behavior, group size, coloration patterns and group composition on sighting cetaceans during the surveys. Four groups of Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphins were sighted near-shore in the month of February 2011, between 10-25 m depth with an average group size of 20 individuals of which 10 individuals were photo-identifiable. Dominant group behavior was aerial display, feeding and traveling. This study gives a basic idea of presence, threats and habitat use of Humpback Dolphin areas along Chennai coast.

  15. Sightings and behavioral observations of Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphins Sousa chinensis (Osbeck, 1765 along Chennai coast, Bay of Bengal

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    R. Muralidharan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Boat-based surveys were used to investigate the presence of Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphins Sousa chinensis along the coast of Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. Notes were collected on behavior, group size, coloration patterns and group composition on sighting cetaceans during the surveys. Four groups of Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphins were sighted near-shore in the month of February 2011, between 10-25 m depth with an average group size of 20 individuals of which 10 individuals were photo-identifiable. Dominant group behavior was aerial display, feeding and traveling. This study gives a basic idea of presence, threats and habitat use of Humpback Dolphin areas along Chennai coast.

  16. Seabird colony estimates and other observations along the Pacific coast of Alaska Peninsula/Becharof National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska Peninsula, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The enabling legislation for the Becharof NWR specifically names marine bird conservation as one of purposes of this refuge. On the Pacific coast at and near Puale...

  17. NCCOS Assessment: Predictive Mapping of Seabirds, Pinnipeds and Cetaceans off the Pacific Coast of Washington from 1995-07-21 to 2015-12-08 (NCEI Accession 0148762)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data collection comprises seasonal distribution maps and model outputs of selected seabird, pinniped and cetacean species off the Pacific coast of Washington....

  18. NCCOS Assessment: Groundfish biodiversity hotspots off the Pacific Coast of Oregon from 1971-09-05 to 2010-09-20 (NCEI Accession 0156467)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises maps of predicted long-term groundfish biodiversity hotspot probabilities off the Pacific Coast of Oregon. Predicted hotspot probabilities...

  19. Genetic diversity in two introduced biofouling amphipods (Amphipods valida and Jassa marmorata) along the Pacific North American coast: investigation into molecular identification and cryptic diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigated patterns of genetic diversity among invasive populations of A. valida and J. marmorata from the Pacific North American coast to assess the accuracy of morphological identification and determine whether or not cryptic diversity and multiple introductions contribute...

  20. Untangling cultural inheritance: language diversity and long-house architecture on the Pacific northwest coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Peter; O'Neill, Sean

    2010-12-12

    Many recent studies of cultural inheritance have focused on small-scale craft traditions practised by single individuals, which do not require coordinated participation by larger social collectives. In this paper, we address this gap in the cultural transmission literature by investigating diversity in the vernacular architecture of the Pacific northwest coast, where communities of hunter-fisher-gatherers constructed immense wooden long-houses at their main winter villages. Quantitative analyses of long-house styles along the coastline draw on a range of models and methods from the biological sciences and are employed to test hypotheses relating to basic patterns of macro-scale cultural diversification, and the degree to which the transmission of housing traits has been constrained by the region's numerous linguistic boundaries. The results indicate relatively strong branching patterns of cultural inheritance and also close associations between regional language history and housing styles, pointing to the potentially crucial role played by language boundaries in structuring large-scale patterns of cultural diversification, especially in relation to 'collective' cultural traditions like housing that require substantial inputs of coordinated labour.

  1. Hydrology Affects Environmental and Spatial Structuring of Microalgal Metacommunities in Tropical Pacific Coast Wetlands.

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    Carmen Rojo

    Full Text Available The alternating climate between wet and dry periods has important effects on the hydrology and therefore on niche-based processes of water bodies in tropical areas. Additionally, assemblages of microorganism can show spatial patterns, in the form of a distance decay relationship due to their size or life form. We aimed to test spatial and environmental effects, modulated by a seasonal flooding climatic pattern, on the distribution of microalgae in 30 wetlands of a tropical dry forest region: the Pacific coast of Costa Rica and Nicaragua. Three surveys were conducted corresponding to the beginning, the highest peak, and the end of the hydrological year during the wet season, and species abundance and composition of planktonic and benthic microalgae was determined. Variation partitioning analysis (as explained by spatial distance or environmental factors was applied to each seasonal dataset by means of partial redundancy analysis. Our results show that microalgal assemblages were structured by spatial and environmental factors depending on the hydrological period of the year. At the onset of hydroperiod and during flooding, neutral effects dominated community dynamics, but niche-based local effects resulted in more structured algal communities at the final periods of desiccating water bodies. Results suggest that climate-mediated effects on hydrology can influence the relative role of spatial and environmental factors on metacommunities of microalgae. Such variability needs to be accounted in order to describe accurately community dynamics in tropical coastal wetlands.

  2. Untangling cultural inheritance: language diversity and long-house architecture on the Pacific northwest coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Peter; O'Neill, Sean

    2010-01-01

    Many recent studies of cultural inheritance have focused on small-scale craft traditions practised by single individuals, which do not require coordinated participation by larger social collectives. In this paper, we address this gap in the cultural transmission literature by investigating diversity in the vernacular architecture of the Pacific northwest coast, where communities of hunter–fisher–gatherers constructed immense wooden long-houses at their main winter villages. Quantitative analyses of long-house styles along the coastline draw on a range of models and methods from the biological sciences and are employed to test hypotheses relating to basic patterns of macro-scale cultural diversification, and the degree to which the transmission of housing traits has been constrained by the region's numerous linguistic boundaries. The results indicate relatively strong branching patterns of cultural inheritance and also close associations between regional language history and housing styles, pointing to the potentially crucial role played by language boundaries in structuring large-scale patterns of cultural diversification, especially in relation to ‘collective’ cultural traditions like housing that require substantial inputs of coordinated labour. PMID:21041212

  3. Hydrology Affects Environmental and Spatial Structuring of Microalgal Metacommunities in Tropical Pacific Coast Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo, Carmen; Mesquita-Joanes, Francesc; Monrós, Juan S; Armengol, Javier; Sasa, Mahmood; Bonilla, Fabián; Rueda, Ricardo; Benavent-Corai, José; Piculo, Rubén; Segura, M Matilde

    2016-01-01

    The alternating climate between wet and dry periods has important effects on the hydrology and therefore on niche-based processes of water bodies in tropical areas. Additionally, assemblages of microorganism can show spatial patterns, in the form of a distance decay relationship due to their size or life form. We aimed to test spatial and environmental effects, modulated by a seasonal flooding climatic pattern, on the distribution of microalgae in 30 wetlands of a tropical dry forest region: the Pacific coast of Costa Rica and Nicaragua. Three surveys were conducted corresponding to the beginning, the highest peak, and the end of the hydrological year during the wet season, and species abundance and composition of planktonic and benthic microalgae was determined. Variation partitioning analysis (as explained by spatial distance or environmental factors) was applied to each seasonal dataset by means of partial redundancy analysis. Our results show that microalgal assemblages were structured by spatial and environmental factors depending on the hydrological period of the year. At the onset of hydroperiod and during flooding, neutral effects dominated community dynamics, but niche-based local effects resulted in more structured algal communities at the final periods of desiccating water bodies. Results suggest that climate-mediated effects on hydrology can influence the relative role of spatial and environmental factors on metacommunities of microalgae. Such variability needs to be accounted in order to describe accurately community dynamics in tropical coastal wetlands.

  4. Echinometra vanbrunti (ECHINOMETRIDAE COMO HOSPEDERO DE RELACIONES COMENSALISTAS EN EL PACÍFICO COLOMBIANO Echinometra vanbrunti (Echinometridae as a Host of Commensal Relationships in the Colombian Pacific Ocean

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    VANESSA AMAYA VALLEJO

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Entre junio de 2003 y febrero de 2004 se estudió la macrofauna bentónica acompañante de las cavidades de Echinometra vanbrunti en el acantilado Verde de la isla de Palma, bahía MálagaPacífico colombiano, con el fin de detectar las relaciones ecológicas existentes entre el erizo y dicha fauna. Se determinó la abundancia y composición de la misma y sus interacciones con E. vanbrunti. Se registraron 27 especies acompañantes de seis taxones diferentes, siendo Crustacea el taxón más representativo. Solo Clastotoechus gorgonensis y Thais melones fueron clasificadas como acompañantes frecuentes y abundantes dentro de las cavidades. Ninguna especie fue clasificada como acompañante permanente. Se determinó que el tamaño del erizo condiciona la abundancia de fauna presente dentro de las cavidades, y que el tipo de relación establecida entre los acompañantes frecuentes y E. vanbrunti fue de tipo comensalista oportunista, en donde los comensales recibieron protección y refugio, mientras el erizo no recibió beneficio o daño alguno.Between June, 2003 and February, 2004 the accompanying benthic fauna living inside the boreholes of Echinometra vanbrunti in the Green Cliff of the Palma Island, Málaga BayColombian Pacific, was studied in order to detect ecological relationships between it and the urchin. Accompanying fauna composition, abundance and interactions with E. vanbrunti were studied. There were 27 accompanying species registered, from six different taxa, being Crustacea the most representative of them. Only Clastotoechus gorgonensis and Thais melones were classified as frequent and abundant companions inside the boreholes. No species were classified as permanent companions. The urchin’s size conditions the abundance of accompanying fauna, and the kind of relationship established between frequent companions and E. vanbrunti was opportunist commensal like, where companions received protection and shelter, as the urchin didn

  5. Biomass Carbon in the South Mexican Pacific Coast: Exploring Mangrove Potential to REDD+ Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejarano, M.; Amezcua-Torrijos, I.

    2014-12-01

    Mangroves have the highest carbon stocks amongst tropical forests. In Mexico, however, little is known about their potential to mitigate climate change. In this work, we estimated biomass carbon stocks in the Southern Mexican Pacific Coast (~69,000 ha). We quantified above and belowground biomass carbon stocks at (1) the regional scale along two environmental strata (i.e. dry and wet), and (2) at the local scale along three geomorphological types of mangroves (i.e. fringe, estuarine and basin). Regional strata were defined using intensity and influence of rivers and, the mean annual precipitation and evapotranspiration ratio (i.e., wet dry). By lowering the stressing environmental conditions (e.g., low salinity and high sediment accumulation), we expected the highest stocks in mangroves growing in wet and estuarine strata at the regional scale and local scale, respectively. Quantifications were carried out in sixty-six sites chosen through stratified randomized design in which six strata were obtained by a full combination of regional and local strata. In all strata, aboveground carbon represents 64-67% of total carbon. Total biomass carbon was higher in wet than dry stratum (W: 87.3 ± 6.9, D: 47.0 ± 5.0, pmangroves of both wet and dry regions (W: 91.6 ± 7.8, D: 77.6 ± 14.8, pmangroves (110.9 ± 24.2, pmangroves would have the highest emission values. Evidence suggests that these mangroves are the most important strata in which REDD+ mechanisms could be implemented due to (1) their carbon stocks, and (2) their highest deforestation threat in the region as a result of commercial agriculture. Strategies for conservation and enhancement of carbon stocks in these mangroves require strengthened links between carbon and economic benefits that ecosystems provide.

  6. Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis of the Pacific Coast of Mexico: Case Study Based on the 1995 Colima Earthquake Tsunami

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    Nobuhito Mori

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study develops a novel computational framework to carry out probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment for the Pacific coast of Mexico. The new approach enables the consideration of stochastic tsunami source scenarios having variable fault geometry and heterogeneous slip that are constrained by an extensive database of rupture models for historical earthquakes around the world. The assessment focuses upon the 1995 Jalisco–Colima Earthquake Tsunami from a retrospective viewpoint. Numerous source scenarios of large subduction earthquakes are generated to assess the sensitivity and variability of tsunami inundation characteristics of the target region. Analyses of nine slip models along the Mexican Pacific coast are performed, and statistical characteristics of slips (e.g., coherent structures of slip spectra are estimated. The source variability allows exploring a wide range of tsunami scenarios for a moment magnitude (Mw 8 subduction earthquake in the Mexican Pacific region to conduct thorough sensitivity analyses and to quantify the tsunami height variability. The numerical results indicate a strong sensitivity of maximum tsunami height to major slip locations in the source and indicate major uncertainty at the first peak of tsunami waves.

  7. Anthropophilic biting behaviour of Anopheles (Kerteszia neivai Howard, Dyar & Knab associated with Fishermen’s activities in a malaria-endemic area in the Colombian Pacific

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    Jesus Eduardo Escovar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available On the southwest Pacific Coast of Colombia, a field study was initiated to determine the human-vector association between Anopheles (Kerteszia neivai and fishermen, including their nearby houses. Mosquitoes were collected over 24-h periods from mangrove swamps, marshlands and fishing vessels in three locations, as well as in and around the houses of fishermen. A total of 6,382 mosquitoes were collected. An. neivai was most abundant in mangroves and fishing canoes (90.8%, while Anopheles albimanus was found indoors (82% and outdoors (73%. One An. neivai and one An. albimanus collected during fishing activities in canoes were positive for Plasmodium vivax , whereas one female An. neivai collected in a mangrove was positive for P. vivax . In the mangroves and fishing canoes, An. neivai demonstrated biting activity throughout the day, peaking between 06:00 pm-07:00 pm and there were two minor peaks at dusk and dawn. These peaks coincided with fishing activities in the marshlands and mangroves, a situation that places the fishermen at risk of contracting malaria when they are performing their daily activities. It is recommended that protective measures be implemented to reduce the risk that fishermen will contract malaria.

  8. Population assessment of the American crocodile, Crocodylus acutus (Crocodilia: Crocodylidae on the Pacific coast of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie A. Mauger

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The American crocodile, Crocodylus acutus, is widely distributed in the American neotropics. It is endangered throughout most of its range and is listed as vulnerable by the International Union for the Conservation of Natural Fauna and Flora (IUCN and on Appendix I of the Convention for the International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna (CITES. Despite this listing, there are few published reports on population status throughout most of its range. We investigated the status of the C. acutus, at several locations along the Pacific coast of Costa Rica. We carried out spotlight and nesting surveys from 2007-2009 along the Costa Rican Pacific coast in four distinct areas, coastal areas of Las Baulas (N=40 and Santa Rosa (N=9 National Parks and the Osa Conservation Area (N=13, and upriver in Palo Verde National Park (N=11. We recorded crocodile locations and standard environmental data at each observation. Encounter rates, population structure, distribution within each area and data on successful nesting (presence of hatchlings, nests, etc were determined. We attempted to capture all crocodiles to record standard morphometrics. A total of 586 crocodiles were observed along 185.8km of survey route. The majority of animals encountered (54.9% were either hatchlings (<0.5m or juveniles (0.5-1.25m. The average non-hatchling encounter rate per survey for the Pacific coast was 3.1 crocodiles/km, with individual encounter rates ranging from 1.2 crocodiles/km to 4.3 crocodiles/ km in Las Baulas National Park and the Osa Conservation Area respectively. Distribution of size classes within the individual locations did not differ with the exception of Santa Rosa and Las Baulas National Parks, where hatchlings were found in water with lower salinities. These were the first systematic surveys in several of the areas studied and additional work is needed to further characterize the American crocodile population in Costa Rica.

  9. Actinides detection in the Pacific Coast of Mexico; Deteccion de actinidos en el Litoral Pacifico de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ordonez R, E.; Almazan T, M. G.; Cruz C, G. J.; Ramirez S, R., E-mail: eduardo.ordonez@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    In this work is evaluated the activity of the alpha emitters, uranium and plutonium, in sand samples and seawater coming from diverse points of the Mexican Pacific Coast (Baja California, Jalisco, Colima and Guerrero). The used techniques were: radiochemistry separation and alpha spectrometry, with these techniques could be observed that the sand contains natural uranium and trace quantities of {sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu combinations. The biggest activity in Pu was found in Finisterra, Baja California Sur (0.13 Bq/kg) and the minor (0 Bq/kg) in Miramar, Colima. The relationship between the geographical localization and the Pu activity suggests that while there is more interaction of the site with the oceanic currents, more is the content of Pu in the sands of the coast. (Author)

  10. PRECISION OF REAL-TIME ESTIMATION OF LIQUEFACTION POTENCIALS DURING THE 2011 OFF THE PACIFIC COAST OF TOHOKU EARTHQUAKE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Eisuke; Suetomi, Iwao; Tsukamoto, Hiroyuki; Inomata, Wataru; Hamanaka, Ryo; Norito, Yuuki; Yasuda, Susumu

    The coast area in Tokyo-wan which is far from the earthquake fault, were heavily liquefied during the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku earthquake. It is very important to predict the occurence and degree of liquafaction, because the liquafaction affects the safety of underground pipilines and facilities of roads and ports. The real-time disaster prevention system "SUPREME" is established and used by Tokyo Gas supply system in order to secure the safety. The system collected the SI value from 4,000 sensor, calculated the distribution of SI value, liquafaction potencial, damages of pipelines for about 20 minutes after the earthquake. In this paper, it is shown that estimated liquafaction area corresponds actual liquafaction area very well, and the reason is that "SUPREME" uses very dense SPT data and SI sensors and the estimate method of liquafaction considers the effect of duration time of earthqauke groun motion.

  11. A new species of antipatharian coral (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Antipatharia: Schizopathidae) from the Pacific coast of Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Opresko, Dennis M [ORNL; Breedy, Odalisca [University of Costa Rica

    2010-09-01

    A new species of black coral, Aphanipathes colombiana (Cnidaria:Antipatharia) from the Caribbean coast of Colombia is described. The species forms small flabellate colonies with anisomorphic polypar spines. It is morphologically similar to the western Atlantic species A. thyoides (Pourtales) but its hypostomal polypar spines are not reduced in size. The new species also resembles the Indo-Pacific species A. reticulata van Pesch but it has smooth-surfaced polypar spines, whereas in A. reticulata these spines have small tubercles on their surface

  12. National assessment of shoreline change: historical shoreline change along the Pacific Northwest coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggerio, Peter; Kratzmann, Meredith G.; Himmelstoss, Emily A.; Reid, David; Allan, Jonathan; Kaminsky, George

    2013-01-01

    Beach erosion is a chronic problem along most open ocean shores of the United States. As coastal populations continue to increase and infrastructure is threatened by erosion, there is increased demand for accurate information regarding past and present trends and rates of shoreline movement. There is also a need for a comprehensive analysis of shoreline movement that is consistent from one coastal region to another. To meet these national needs, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting an analysis of historical shoreline changes along the open-ocean sandy shores of the conterminous United States and parts of Hawaii, Alaska, and the Great Lakes. One purpose of this work is to develop standard, repeatable methods for mapping and analyzing shoreline movement so that periodic, systematic, and internally consistent updates regarding coastal erosion and land loss can be made nationally. In the case of the analysis of shoreline change in the Pacific Northwest (PNW), the shoreline is the interpreted boundary between the ocean water surface and the sandy beach. This report on the PNW coasts of Oregon and Washington is the seventh in a series of regionally focused reports on historical shoreline change. Previous investigations include analyses and descriptive reports of the U.S. Gulf of Mexico (Morton and others, 2004), the southeastern Atlantic (Morton and Miller, 2005), the sandy shorelines (Hapke and others, 2006) and coastal cliffs (Hapke and Reid, 2007) of California, the New England and mid-Atlantic coasts (Hapke and others, 2011), and parts of the Hawaii coast (Fletcher and others, 2012). Like the earlier reports in this series, this report summarizes the methods of analysis, interprets the results of the analysis, provides explanations regarding long- and short-term trends and rates of shoreline change, and describes how different coastal communities are responding to coastal erosion. This report differs from the early USGS reports in the series in that those

  13. Main periodicities of the minimum extreme temperature of three stations near the Mexican Pacific coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza, B.; Maravilla, D. [Instituto de Geofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: blanca@geofisica.unam.mx; Jauregui, E. [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2006-01-15

    Three minimum extreme temperature series from meteorological stations located in or near the Mexican Pacific coast, Acapulco, Comitan and Manzanillo, are spectrally analyzed. The series cover a period from 1941 to 1981. The spectral analysis indicates that a significant quasiquinquenial periodicity ({approx}5 years) is present in Comitan and Manzanillo, even more, Acapulco also shows a frequency {approx} 5 year if the uncertainties are taken into account. This spectral peak can be considered either as related to solar activity or to strong El Nino events. The remaining periodicities can be associated to meteorological phenomena like El Nino and the quasi-biennial oscillation or to some solar activity phenomena. Furthermore, the behavior deduced from a coherence spectral analysis between the temperature and the Southern Oscillation Index, considered as a proxy of El Nino, and sunspot number, considered as a proxy of solar activity, indicates that the stations closer to the ocean might be more influenced by El Nino than by solar activity, while the station inland has both influences. [Spanish] Se analizan espectralmente tres series de temperatura minima extrema de las estaciones meteorologicas localizadas en o cerca de la costa del Pacifico mexicano: Acapulco, Comitan y Manzanillo. Las series tienen una longitud de 41 anos, abarcando los anos de 1941 a 1981. Del analisis se observa que existe una periodicidad cuasi-quinquenal significativa en los espectros de Comitan y Manzanillo, Acapulco tambien presenta una periodicidad cercana a los 5 anos si se toman en cuenta las incertidumbres. Este pico espectral pudiera estar relacionado con eventos fuertes de El Nino o bien con la actividad solar. Las otras periodicidades encontradas tal vez estan asociadas con fenomenos tales como la oscilacion cuasi-bienal o El Nino, o bien con fenomenos solares. Aunado a esto, los resultados del analisis de coherencia espectral entre la temperatura y la Oscilacion del Sur, considerada un

  14. Degree of trace metal pyritization in sediments from the Pacific coast of Baja California, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nava Lopez, Carmen; Huerta Diaz, Miguel Angel [Instituto de Investigaciones Oceanologicas, Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico)

    2001-06-01

    We analyzed sediments from a core collected on the Pacific coast of Baja California, 45 km off the city of Tijuana and at 1257 m water depth (32 Celsius degrees 9.5N , 117 Celsius degrees 8.3W), for trace metal content in two operationally-defined fractions, HCl and pyrite. Our results indicate transference of Cu>Ni>Zn>>Hg y Ag from the HCl to the pyrite fraction. Sediments have degrees of pyritization (DOP) that average 7.2{+-} 4.9% with a maximum value of 18.5%. Average degrees of trace metal pyritization (DTMP) range from 6.2 {+-}2.1% to 83{+-} 8% for Mn and Hg, respectively, although maximum values for some metals were closed to 100%. This transference is apparently a function of the solubility products of metal sulfides and the relative abundances of metals in the HCl fraction, as suggested by the significant correlation (p<0.001) observed between these two parameters and the DTMP of a number of trace metals. A similar correlation was obtained from published data of two cores collected in the Gulf of Mexico. [Spanish] Se analizaron sedimentos de un nucleo recolectado en la costa del Pacifico de Baja California 45 km de la costa de la ciudad de Tijuana y a 1257 m de profundidad del agua (32 grados Celsius 9.5N, 117 grados Celsius 8.3W), para determinar su contenido de metales traza en dos fracciones operacionales definidas HCl y pirita. Los resultados indican una transferencia de Cu>Ni>Zn>>Hg y Ag de la fraccion de HCl a la fase piritica. Los grados de piritizacion (DOP) en los sedimentos promediaron 7.2{+-} 4.9%, con un valor maximo de 18.5%. Los valores promedio de los grados de piritizacion de metales traza (DTMP) abarcaron el intervalo de 6.2 {+-}2.1% a 83{+-}18% para Mn y Hg, respectivamente, aunque los valores maximos para algunos metales estuvieron cercanos al 100%. Esta transferencia aparentemente es funcion de los productos de solubilidad de los sulfuros metalicos y de la abundancia relativa de metales en la fraccion HCl, como sugiere la correlacion

  15. Genetic characterization of Zostera asiatica on the Pacific Coast of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, S.L.; Wyllie-Echeverria, S.; Ward, D.H.; Rearick, J.R.; Sage, G.K.; Chesney, B.; Phillips, R.C.

    2006-01-01

    We gathered sequence information from the nuclear 5.8S rDNA gene and associated internal transcribed spacers, ITS-1 and ITS-2 (5.8S rDNA/ITS), and the chloroplast maturase K (matK) gene, from Zostera samples collected from subtidal habitats in Monterey and Santa Barbara (Isla Vista) bays, California, to test the hypothesis that these plants are conspecific with Z. asiatica Miki of Asia. Sequences from approximately 520 base pairs of the nuclear 5.8S rDNA/ITS obtained from the subtidal Monterey and Isla Vista Zostera samples were identical to homologous sequences obtained from Z. marina collected from intertidal habitats in Japan, Alaska, Oregon and California. Similarly, sequences from the matK gene from the subtidal Zostera samples were identical to matK sequences obtained from Z. marina collected from intertidal habitats in Japan, Alaska, Oregon and California, but differed from Z. asiatica sequences accessioned into GenBank. This suggests the subtidal plants are conspecific with Z. marina, not Z. asiatica. However, we found that herbarium samples accessioned into the Kyoto University Herbarium, determined to be Z. asiatica, yielded 5.8S rDNA/ITS sequences consistent with either Z. japonica, in two cases, or Z. marina, in one case. Similar results were observed for the chloroplast matK gene; we found haplotypes that were inconsistent with published matK sequences from Z. asiatica collected from Japan. These results underscore the need for closer examination of the relationship between Z. marina along the Pacific Coast of North America, and Z. asiatica of Asia, for the retention and verification of specimens examined in scientific studies, and for assessment of the usefulness of morphological characters in the determination of taxonomic relationships within Zosteraceae.

  16. Geographic distribution and environmental control of vertebral count in Ammodytes spp. along the northern Pacific coast of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, J; Yoshinaga, T; Tanaka, C; Ishii, K

    2017-03-01

    To examine species composition and population structures in sand lance (Ammodytidae) along the northern Pacific coast of Japan, genetic analysis were carried out for specimens collected in 2014 from Otsuchi Bay, Iwate, Ishinomaki Bay, Miyagi, off Soma, Fukushima and Ise-Mikawa Bays, Aichi. The samples consisted of Ammodytes japonicus and Ammodytes heian, of which the latter is a recently described species. Neither species exhibited significant genetic differences among localities. Only A. japonicus was found in the most southern locality at Aichi, but it decreased northward to <90% in Miyagi and Fukushima and the two species occurred almost evenly in Iwate suggesting a latitudinal cline in their species composition along the northern Pacific coast of Japan, off Tohoku. The vertebral counts differed between A. japonicus and A. heian with modes of 65 and 63, respectively, but this characteristic did not differ significantly within a locality (Iwate). This suggests that the vertebral counts of Ammodytes spp. in Japanese waters are probably strongly determined by the environment than by a species-specific genetic trait.

  17. A study of a population of Nyssomyia trapidoi (Diptera: Psychodidae caught on the Pacific coast of Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Zapata

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic to the Pacific coast of Ecuador, and Nyssomyia trapidoi is considered to be its main vector. Dujardin et al. [1] recorded some differences in body pigmentation and isoenzymatic profiles in sympatric populations of Ny. trapidoi from the Pacific coast of Ecuador and suggested the existence of two cryptic species. Methods Entomological collections were performed in November 2008 and March 2011 in the locality of Paraíso Escondido using CDC miniature light traps and human bait. Morphological, isoenzymatical and molecular (sequencing of cytochome b and cytochrome c oxidase 1 of the mitochondrial DNA analyses, such as detection of Leishmania DNA and phlebovirus RNA in some females, were performed. Results Neighbor-joining trees from mitochondrial sequences grouped all of Ecuadorian Ny. trapidoi (including the two color variants in one cluster, except for two specimens which clustered separately in both genes. Isoenzymatic characterization confirmed that the color variants belong to the same population. Additionally, 11.5% of females were found by PCR to contain Endotrypanum monterogeii kinetoplastid DNA. All pools of Ny. trapidoi were negative for phlebovirus RNA. Conclusion Analysis of mitochondrial gene sequences and isoenzymes was unable to support the existence of two sibling species within Ny. trapidoi, which is a probable vector of Endotrypanum monterogeii.

  18. Determining Intermediate Hosts for Opecoelidae and Microphallidae Species (Platyhelminthes: Trematoda) in the Southeastern Pacific Coast, Using Molecular Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva, Natalia Verónica; López, Zambra; González, María Teresa; Muñoz, Gabriela

    2017-02-01

    Metacercarial stages of digeneans were collected from decapod crustaceans inhabiting intertidal rocky zones in central Chile. The digeneans were identified through a molecular analysis based on the V4 region of the 18S ribosomal RNA gene. We analyzed 356 crustaceans belonging to 10 species, 115 intertidal fish belonging to 6 species, and 4 specimens of 1 coastal bird species. In total, 74.1% of crustaceans were parasitized with metacercariae. We found 1 species of Opecoelidae. This species showed low genetic divergence (0% and 0.1%) with adult digeneans found in intertidal fish and with the species Helicometrina labrisomi infesting a subtidal fish from northern Chile (Labrisomus philippii). Additionally, we found 2 species of Microphallidae, 1 closely related to Maritrema (1.3% genetic distance) and the other related to Microphallus (5% genetic distance). Therefore, our findings showed that the decapod crustaceans are relevant hosts in food webs from the southeastern Pacific coast. Furthermore, we found 5 species of crustaceans as second intermediate hosts for H. labrisomi and 2 species as secondary intermediate hosts for 2 Microphallidae, which contribute to elucidate parts of their life cycles through molecular markers and extended the host distribution of H. labrisomi in the southeastern Pacific coast.

  19. Outer Continental Shelf Submerged Lands Act Boundary - Pacific Region - West Coast NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains the Submerged Lands Act (SLA)boundary line (also known as the State Seaward Boundary (SSB) and Fed State Boundary) for the BOEM Pacific Region...

  20. Outer Continental Shelf Lease Blocks - Pacific Region - West Coast NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains Outer Continental Shelf block outlines in ArcGIS shape file format for the BOEM Pacific Region. OCS blocks are used to define small geographic...

  1. Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagrams - Pacific Region - West Coast NAD 83

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains Official Protraction Diagram (OPD) outlines in ESRI Arc/Info export and Arc/View shape file formats for the BOEM Pacific Region. The use of...

  2. The deepwater fishery along the Pacific coast of Costa Rica, Central America

    OpenAIRE

    Ingo S Wehrtmann; Nielsen Muñoz, Vanessa

    2009-01-01

    artículo (arbitrado) -- Universidad de Costa Rica. Centro de Investigación en Ciencias del Mar y Limonología (CIMAR), 2009 Global catches of marine fishery resources declined during the last decades; however, there has been a trend of increasing exploitation of deepwater resources that are especially vulnerable to depletion. Such a tendency was noticeable in Pacific Latin America, too.In Costa Rica, the vast majority of the commercial fishing activities are concentrated on the Pacific coas...

  3. Population structure of clinical and environmental Vibrio parahaemolyticus from the Pacific Northwest coast of the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey W Turner

    Full Text Available Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a common marine bacterium and a leading cause of seafood-borne bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Although this bacterium has been the subject of much research, the population structure of cold-water populations remains largely undescribed. We present a broad phylogenetic analysis of clinical and environmental V. parahaemolyticus originating largely from the Pacific Northwest coast of the United States. Repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR (REP-PCR separated 167 isolates into 39 groups and subsequent multilocus sequence typing (MLST separated a subset of 77 isolates into 24 sequence types. The Pacific Northwest population exhibited a semi-clonal structure attributed to an environmental clade (ST3, N = 17 isolates clonally related to the pandemic O3:K6 complex and a clinical clade (ST36, N = 20 isolates genetically related to a regionally endemic O4:K12 complex. Further, the identification of at least five additional clinical sequence types (i.e., ST43, 50, 65, 135 and 417 demonstrates that V. parahaemolyticus gastroenteritis in the Pacific Northwest is polyphyletic in nature. Recombination was evident as a significant source of genetic diversity and in particular, the recA and dtdS alleles showed strong support for frequent recombination. Although pandemic-related illnesses were not documented during the study, the environmental occurrence of the pandemic clone may present a significant threat to human health and warrants continued monitoring. It is evident that V. parahaemolyticus population structure in the Pacific Northwest is semi-clonal and it would appear that multiple sequence types are contributing to the burden of disease in this region.

  4. OCSLA Sec. 8(g) Revenue Zone Boundary - Pacific Region - West Coast NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains the Limit of 8(g) Zone line in ESRI Arc/Info export and Arc/View shape file formats for the BOEM Pacific Region. The 8(g) Zone lies between...

  5. A new species of Peltidium Philippi, 1839 (Crustacea, Copepoda, Harpacticoida) from the Pacific coast of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Morales, Eduardo; Jarquín-González, Jani

    2013-01-01

    During the analysis of phytal meiobenthic samples collected from a rocky-sandy beach in the state of Nayarit, in the Mexican Pacific, several specimens of harpacticoid copepods were obtained and taxonomically examined. These specimens were found to represent an undescribed species of the peltidiid genus Peltidium Philippi, 1839. The new species, Peltidium nayarit sp. n. is described herein. It resembles Peltidium nichollsi Geddes and Peltidium lerneri Geddes from Bahamas but also the widespread Peltidium speciosum Thompson & Scott and Peltidium purpureum Philippi. The new species from the Mexican Pacific differs from its known congeners by its possession of a unique combination of characters, including a modified pectinate seta on the antennary exopod, three terminal setae on the second endopodal segment of leg 1, third exopodal segment of leg 1 with three elements, inner terminal claw twice as long as outer claw, female fifth leg with 5 exopodal setae, exopodal setae I-III stout, spinulose and seta IV being as long as seta V. This is the second species of the family known to be distributed in the Eastern Tropical Pacific and in Mexico. Pending additional data, the distribution of this species appears to be restricted to this area of the Mexican Pacific.

  6. A new species of Peltidium Philippi, 1839 (Crustacea, Copepoda, Harpacticoida) from the Pacific coast of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Morales, Eduardo; Jarquín-González, Jani

    2013-01-01

    Abstract During the analysis of phytal meiobenthic samples collected from a rocky-sandy beach in the state of Nayarit, in the Mexican Pacific, several specimens of harpacticoid copepods were obtained and taxonomically examined. These specimens were found to represent an undescribed species of the peltidiid genus Peltidium Philippi, 1839. The new species, Peltidium nayarit sp. n. is described herein. It resembles Peltidium nichollsi Geddes and Peltidium lerneri Geddes from Bahamas but also the widespread Peltidium speciosum Thompson & Scott and Peltidium purpureum Philippi. The new species from the Mexican Pacific differs from its known congeners by its possession of a unique combination of characters, including a modified pectinate seta on the antennary exopod, three terminal setae on the second endopodal segment of leg 1, third exopodal segment of leg 1 with three elements, inner terminal claw twice as long as outer claw, female fifth leg with 5 exopodal setae, exopodal setae I-III stout, spinulose and seta IV being as long as seta V. This is the second species of the family known to be distributed in the Eastern Tropical Pacific and in Mexico. Pending additional data, the distribution of this species appears to be restricted to this area of the Mexican Pacific. PMID:24003319

  7. Microcanuella bisetosa gen. n., sp. n., a new taxon of Canuellidae (Crustacea, Copepoda) from the Costa Rican Pacific coast, with remarks on Galapacanuella beckeri

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mielke, Wolfgang

    1994-01-01

    A new canuellid, Microcanuella bisetosa gen. n., sp. n., was collected on the Pacific coast (Gulf of Nicoya) of Costa Rica. Though the male is still unknown, a new genus is established, mainly because of the reduced armature of P1, P4, and P5. The small-sized M. bisetosa sp. n. is a mesopsammic spec

  8. Three Cultures: The Hopi Indians of the Southwest Desert, the Indians of the Northwest Pacific Coast, and the People of Midwest U.S.A. An Anthropological Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marksberry, Mary Lee

    Intended to acquaint fifth-, sixth-, and seventh-grade children with the concept of culture, this anthropology unit focuses on two groups of Indians who lived in prehistoric times and present-day non-Indian families living in the Midwest. Objectives are to help students understand the behavior of the Northwest Pacific Coast Indians, the Hopi…

  9. Alpheus saxidomus new species, a rock boring snapping shrimp from the Pacific coast of, Costa Rica, with notes on Alpheus simus Guérin-Méneville, 1856

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holthuis, L.B.

    1980-01-01

    Recently, Professor Dr. Rudolf Fischer, Institut für Geologie und Paläontologie, Philipps-Universität, Marburg, F. R. Germany, submitted for identification some material of an Alpheid shrimp, which was found to be responsible for a considerable erosion of part of a rocky shore on the Pacific coast o

  10. Study of the diversity of culturable actinomycetes in the North Pacific and Caribbean coasts of Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano, Godofredo; Rojas-Jiménez, Keilor; Jaspars, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    In this study, 137 actinomycetes were isolated from subtidal marine sediments in the North Pacific and Caribbean coasts of Costa Rica. Bioinformatics analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences assigned the isolates to 15 families and 21 genera. Streptomyces was the dominant genus while the remaining 20 genera were poorly represented. Nearly 70% of the phylotypes presented a coastal-restricted distribution whereas the other 30% were common inhabitants of both shores. The coastal tropical waters of Costa Rica showed a high diversity of actinomycetes, both in terms of the number of species and phylogenetic composition, although significant differences were observed between and within shores. The observed pattern of species distribution might be the result of several factors including the characteristics of the ecosystems, presence of endemic species and the influence of terrestrial runoff. PMID:19365710

  11. 210Pb-derived ages for the reconstruction of terrestrial contaminant history into the Mexican Pacific coast: potential and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Fernández, A C; Hillaire-Marcel, C

    2009-01-01

    (210)Pb is widely used for dating recent sediments in the aquatic environment; however, our experiences working in shallow coastal environments in the Pacific coast of Mexico have demonstrated that the potential of (210)Pb for reliable historical reconstructions might be limited by the low (210)Pb atmospheric fallout, sediment mixing, abundance of coarse sediments and the lack of (137)Cs signal for (210)Pb corroboration. This work discusses the difficulties in obtaining adequate sedimentary records for geochronological reconstruction in such active and complex settings, including examples of (210)Pb geochronologies based on sediment profiles collected in two contrasting areas coastal areas (mudflats associated to coastal lagoons of Sinaloa State and the continental shelf of the Gulf of Tehuantepec), in which geochemical data was used to support the temporal frame established and the changes in sediment supply recorded in the sediment cores which were related to the development of land-based activities during the last century.

  12. Temporal variation of cesium isotope concentrations and atom ratios in zooplankton in the Pacific off the east coast of Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikenoue, Takahito; Takata, Hyoe; Kusakabe, Masashi; Kudo, Natsumi; Hasegawa, Kazuyuki; Ishimaru, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in March 2011, concentrations of cesium isotopes (133Cs, 134Cs, and 137Cs) were measured in zooplankton collected in the Pacific off the east coast of Japan from May 2012 to February 2015. The time series of the data exhibited sporadic 137Cs concentration peaks in zooplankton. In addition, the atom ratio of 137Cs/133Cs in zooplankton was consistently high compared to that in ambient seawater throughout the sampling period. These phenomena cannot be explained fully by the bioaccumulation of 137Cs in zooplankton via ambient seawater intake, the inclusion of resuspended sediment in the plankton sample, or the taxonomic composition of the plankton. Autoradiography revealed highly radioactive particles within zooplankton samples, which could be the main factor underlying the sporadic appearance of high 137Cs concentrations in zooplankton as well as the higher ratio of 137Cs/133Cs in zooplankton than in seawater.

  13. 76 FR 16045 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revised Critical Habitat for the Pacific Coast...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ... birds on the mainland coast, peninsulas, offshore islands, adjacent bays, estuaries and coastal rivers...; Tuttle et al. 1997, p. 174). This habitat is variable because of unconsolidated soils, high winds, storms...) regulatory protections afforded by the requirement in section 7(a)(2) of the Act for Federal agencies...

  14. Impact and Recovery Pattern of a Spring Fire on a Pacific Coast Marsh - Observations and Implications for Endangered Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, L. N.; Willis, K. S.; Ambrose, R. F.; MacDonald, G. M.

    2015-12-01

    The flammability of California coastal marsh vegetation is highest in winter and spring when dominant high marsh plants such as Sarcocornia pacifica are dormant. With climate change the number of cool-season fires are increasing in the state, and marsh systems are becoming more vulnerable to fire disturbance. Very little information exists in peer-reviewed or grey literature on the presence of fire in Pacific Coast tidal marshes. In 1993, the Green Meadows fire in Ventura County, California burned a small portion of tidally influenced Sarcocornia­-dominated marsh at Point Mugu. After the May 2013 Springs Fire burned a similar portion of the salt marsh vegetation, we conducted a two-year vegetation recovery survey using transects of surface vegetation plots and MODIS derived NDVI remote sensing monitoring. Recovery during the first year was limited. Sixteen months into the recovery period, percent plant coverage reached an average of approximately 60% for all plots in the burned area, as opposed to an average of 100% in control plots, and remained at that level for the duration of the study. NDVI did not approach near pre-fire conditions until 19 months after the fire. While recovery may have been influenced by California's current extreme drought conditions, the recurrence of fire and rate of recovery raise many important questions as to the role of fire in Pacific coast tidal marshes. For example, the lack of Salicornia cover over more than an entire breeding season would be detrimental to protected species such as Rallus obsoletus. Fire adds new vulnerabilities on critical tidal marsh habitat already taxed by the threat of sea-level rise, coastal squeeze and invasive species.

  15. Composition, Abundance and Distribution of Chaetognaths Along the Pacific Coast and Adjacent Internal Waters of the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Mar Noblezada

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Chaetognath species composition, distribution and relative abundance along the Pacific Coast and the internal waters of the Philippines are presented based on the analysis of 12 samples collected from two oceanographic cruises in April-May 2001. The occurrence of species in relation to water masses is noted and results are analyzed with regards to the main hydrologic features of the surveyed area.Nineteen species of chaetognaths belonging to 3 genera were identified from the samples. In order of relative abundance, these include: Sagitta enflata, S.bipunctata, S. bedoti, S. neglecta, S. robusta, S. ferox, S. pacifica, S. hexaptera, S. serratodentata, S. decipiens, S. regularis, S. macrocephala, S. minima, S. oceanica, S. pulchra, Pterosagitta draco, Krohnitta subtilis, S. nagae, and S. johorensis. The overall mean density of all arrow worms was 4.85 ind.·m-3 (range 0.90-30.89. Sagitta enflata was the most abundant and frequent species in all stations analyzed and comprised 49.7%. Based on their respective distributions reported in the literature, the results indicate a strong influx of oceanic water from the Pacific Ocean into the Visayan Sea.

  16. Hydrological and geomorphological controls on a mangrove forest maintenance during the dry season in the Pacific Coast of Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon, Heyddy; Weeda, Ruben; Uhlenbrook, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    Hydrological and geomorphological processes are key to mangrove forest growth and development. However, very few studies have been carried out in Central American mangroves to understand their hydrological functioning. Here, a small mangrove forest (0.2 km2) in the South Pacific coast of Nicaragua was investigated to determine sources of freshwater inputs and fluxes of water and nutrients to the sea during the dry season. The general groundwater flow direction is from NE to SW towards the sea. The aquifer is composed of clay and alluvial deposits overlying a fractured shale unit. Shallow groundwater is influenced by a nearby town through infiltration of grey water and pit latrines. Groundwater from the mangrove showed Mn2+ and Fe2+ presence indicating occurrence of denitrification and the role of the mangrove as a nutrient sink. Also, refreshening and salinization processes were identified near the river, indicated by different water facies. Freshwater inputs from precipitation and groundwater discharge maintain adequate salt gradients. The water balance showed an increase of around 619 m3 d-1 in storage during a 22 study period during the dry season, which is reflected by increased hydraulic heads and river stage. Water storage is fostered by low conductivity soil materials and beach ridges parallel to the coast line, whereby the latter occassionally breach due to overtopping of surface water. These conditions favor forest subsistence during the dry season, allowing the mangrove to continue to provide ecological and economic benefits in terms of protection against flooding, habitat for numerous species and tourist attraction.

  17. The Pacific Coast Fog Project: A Multi-disciplinary Effort to Provide Web-based Climate Products for Ecologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torregrosa, A.; Combs, C.; Ellrod, G. P.; Faloona, I. C.; Gultepe, I.

    2012-12-01

    The Pacific Coast Fog Project is an effort to pool the expertise from multiple science disciplines to provide regional and local climate information on the frequency and character of fog for effective management of coastal California natural resources. Marine stratocumulus (fog) is a major modifier of the climatic condition along the Pacific coast and has significant effects on the hydrologic cycle and thermodynamic balance in coastal ecological, biological, and economic systems. For example fog is the major source of moisture during summer months for redwood forests, a treasured natural resource. Fog also modulates shallow stream temperatures to reduce the mortality rate of young salmon during their freshwater life stages and adults returning from the ocean to spawn. Fog induced cooling reduces summer energy costs along the Pacific Coast and reduces sun burn on crops such as grapes that are important to the local economy. Furthermore, disruptions in fog distribution or frequency resulting from future climate change would change evapotranspiration rates impacting California water supply and use. Coastal fog is a complex phenomenon with many measurable parameters including extent, frequency, and duration of cloud cover; cloud deck thickness, liquid water content, base height above land, density, heterogeneity, and thermal properties. Variations in fog are a result of processes acting at multiple scales across ocean-land-atmosphere boundaries. Factors that drive the occurrence, duration, and type of fog events along the coast include dynamics of atmospheric summertime inversions, synoptic weather patterns, ocean upwelling, topography, aerosol-cloud dynamics, and differences in temperature between inland valleys and the littoral ocean areas. Estimating the distribution, frequency and characteristics of coastal fog and stratus and evaluating the resulting ecosystem responses require a diverse array of measurements and models that link processes at multiple scales. The

  18. PCB concentrations in sediments from the Gulf of Nicoya estuary, Pacific coast of Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Spongberg, Alison L.

    2016-01-01

    Thirty-one sediment samples collected from 1996-2003 from the Gulf of Nicoya estuary on the northwestern coast of Costa Rica, have been obtained for PCB analyses. This is part of the first study to evaluate the PCB contamination in coastal Costa Rica.Overall, the concentrations are low, especially when compared to sediments from more temperate climates and/or sediments from more heavily industrialized areas. Values average less than 3 ng/g dw sediment, however, a few samples contained up to 7...

  19. Coastal Deformation Patterns Along the Nicoya Seismic Gap, Pacific Coast, Costa Rica, Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, J. S.; Khaw, F.; Parra, J. G.; Annis, L. K.; Protti, M.

    2004-12-01

    The Nicoya Peninsula, Costa Rica provides a unique setting for the study of upper plate deformation along the Middle America convergent margin. Located 60-70 km inboard of the trench axis, this outer fore arc peninsula sits directly above the seismogenic zone. A sequence of emergent marine terraces along the Nicoya coast records the net pattern of late Quaternary uplift associated with the subduction cycle. The last major earthquake centered beneath the peninsula (Mw=7.7, 1950) produced widespread damage and generated 0.5-1.0 m of coseismic uplift along the peninsula's coast. With a large slip deficit since 1950, the Nicoya Peninsula is recognized as a high-potential seismic gap. Ongoing field study of uplifted Quaternary shorelines provides an excellent opportunity to evaluate local deformation patterns and large earthquake repeat times. Recent mapping of late Pleistocene marine terraces along the peninsula's northern coast allows for comparison with those previously mapped along the peninsula's southern tip. The "Iguanazul surface" on the northern coast between Tamarindo and Nosara encompasses at least three separate wave-cut treads that preserve paleo-shorelines at 10-12 m, 18-22 m, and 26-32 m elevation. Preliminary correlations with late Pleistocene sea level high stands at 80-330 ka (OIS 5-9) indicate net uplift rates of 0.1 - 0.3 m/k.y. Holocene beach rock horizons along the active beach yield calibrated radiocarbon ages of 1610 and 760 ybp (Playa Negra and Playa Lagarto), consistent with net Holocene uplift at less than 0.5 m/k.y. In contrast, the "Cobano surface" at the peninsula's southern tip (Cabo Blanco) includes at least five distinct Pleistocene terrace treads separated by well-defined risers at 30-220 m elevation. Holocene uplift rates here range from 1.0 - 6.0 m/k.y. along an emergent Holocene terrace (Cabuya surface). The order-of-magnitude difference in Quaternary uplift rates between the northern and southern Nicoya Peninsula may be linked to

  20. [Community structure of zooxanthellate corals (Anthozoa: Scleractinia) in Carrizales coral reef, Pacific coast, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Bonilla, Hector; Escobosa-González, Laura Elena; Cupul-Magaña, Amilcar L; Medina-Rosas, Pedro; Calderón-Aguilera, Luis E

    2013-06-01

    Coral reefs in the Mexican Pacific and notably those of the continental coastline of Colima state are still poorly studied. Fortunately, recent efforts have been carried out by researchers from different Mexican institutions to fill up these information gaps. The aim of this study was to determine the ecological structure of the rich and undisturbed coral building communities of Carrizales by using the point transect interception method (25m-long). For this, three survey expeditions were conducted between June and October 2005 and September 2006; and for comparison purposes, the reef was subdivided according to its position in the bay, and depth (0 to 5 m, and 6 to 10 m). Thirteen coral species were observed in the area, with Pocillopora verrucosa as the most abundant, contributing up to 32.8% of total cover, followed by Porites panamensis and Pocillopora capitata with 11% and 7%, respectively. Other species, Pocillopora damicornis, Pavona gigantea, Pocillopora eydouxi and Pocillopora inflata accounted for 1.5% to 2% of coral cover whereas the remaining five species had cover of less than 1%. Seven of the observed species represented new records for Colima state coastline: Pocillopora eydouxi, P inflata, P meandrina, Pavona duerdeni, P varians, Psammocora stellata and P contigua. This last species is a relevant record, because it has never been observed before in the Eastern Pacific. Although there was no significant difference (ANOVA, p = 0.478) neither in the abundance between the sides of the bay, nor between the depths considered, and the shallow zone observed the higher coral cover. Live coral cover was up to 61%, one of the highest ever reported for the Mexican Pacific, including the Gulf of California. The observed values of diversity (H' = 0.44 +/- 0.02), uniformity (J' = 0.76 +/- 0.02), and taxonomic distinctness index (delta* = 45.87 +/- 3.16), showed that currently this is the most important coral reef of Colima coastline. Currently, this region does not

  1. Inundation, vegetation, and sediment effects on litter decomposition in Pacific Coast tidal marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janousek, Christopher; Buffington, Kevin J.; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.; Thorne, Karen M.; Dugger, Bruce D.; Takekawa, John Y.

    2017-01-01

    The cycling and sequestration of carbon are important ecosystem functions of estuarine wetlands that may be affected by climate change. We conducted experiments across a latitudinal and climate gradient of tidal marshes in the northeast Pacific to evaluate the effects of climate- and vegetation-related factors on litter decomposition. We manipulated tidal exposure and litter type in experimental mesocosms at two sites and used variation across marsh landscapes at seven sites to test for relationships between decomposition and marsh elevation, soil temperature, vegetation composition, litter quality, and sediment organic content. A greater than tenfold increase in manipulated tidal inundation resulted in small increases in decomposition of roots and rhizomes of two species, but no significant change in decay rates of shoots of three other species. In contrast, across the latitudinal gradient, decomposition rates of Salicornia pacifica litter were greater in high marsh than in low marsh. Rates were not correlated with sediment temperature or organic content, but were associated with plant assemblage structure including above-ground cover, species composition, and species richness. Decomposition rates also varied by litter type; at two sites in the Pacific Northwest, the grasses Deschampsia cespitosa and Distichlis spicata decomposed more slowly than the forb S. pacifica. Our data suggest that elevation gradients and vegetation structure in tidal marshes both affect rates of litter decay, potentially leading to complex spatial patterns in sediment carbon dynamics. Climate change may thus have direct effects on rates of decomposition through increased inundation from sea-level rise and indirect effects through changing plant community composition.

  2. Chlorinated hydrocarbons in coastal lagoons of the pacific coast of Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, F P; Montenegro-Guillen, S; Villeneuve, J; Cattini, C; Bartocci, J; Lacayo, M; Cruz, A

    1999-02-01

    A screening for persistent chlorinated hydrocarbons was carried out in December 1995 in the main coastal lagoons on the Pacific side of Nicaragua, where most of the country's agriculture and pesticide use has been taking place for decades. Results for a wide range of organochlorine pesticides in lagoon sediments show levels that generally were very low in Estero Real, Estero Padre Ramos, and estuary of San Juan del Sur. For example, total DDTs in these lagoons averaged 4.5 +/- 3.4 ng g-1 dry weight, which may be considered a baseline level for the region. Other compounds such as HCHs, BHC, endosulfan, heptachlor, endrin, toxaphene, and aroclors were present in concentrations even lower, generally below 1 ng g-1 dry weight. However, sediments of the Esteros Naranjo-Paso Caballos system at Chinandega district contained pesticide residues in much higher levels, attaining maximum values of 1,420 ng g-1 and 270 ng g-1 dry weight, respectively, for toxaphene and total DDTs. Other compounds such as aroclors, chlordane, endosulfan, and dieldrin were also present in the sediments of this lagoon system, but in lower concentrations. The very high concentrations of toxaphene and DDTs in this lagoon are a result of the intensive use of these pesticides in cotton growing in the district of Chinandega. Due to the long environmental half-lives of these compounds (t(1/2) > 10 years in temperate soils), their concentrations in lagoon sediments will likely remain high for years to come. Based on these results, the development of the new shrimp farming activities in the Pacific coastal lagoons should be restricted to selected areas.

  3. Historic and ancient tsunamis uncovered on the Jalisco-Colima Pacific coast, the Mexican subduction zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Herrera, María Teresa; Bógalo, María Felicidad; Černý, Jan; Goguitchaichvili, Avto; Corona, Néstor; Machain, María Luisa; Edwards, Arturo Carranza; Sosa, Susana

    2016-04-01

    Research on extreme wave events such as tsunamis using the geological record in areas of infrequent and or small magnitude earthquakes can aid in extending the long-term history and recurrence intervals of large events. This information is valuable for risk management and community preparedness in coastal areas. Here we investigate tsunami deposits on the Jalisco coast of Mexico that overlies the subducting Rivera Plate under the North American plate, an area due for a large thrust earthquake and potential tsunami. Here, we apply a full battery of rock-magnetic analyses that also include a detailed AMS study and other typically applied proxies in tsunami deposits research. We present evidence to demonstrate that anomalous sand units with sharp basal contacts at La Manzanilla, Tenacatita Bay, and El Tecuán shore sites on the Jalisco coast may be the products of tsunamis generated by known historical (Ms 8.2 earthquake of 3 June 1932) and other earlier tsunamigenic earthquakes. A sandy unit with a sharp basal contact, flame structures at the base, rip-up clasts at La Manzanilla, and four sand units with sharp basal contact overlying buried soils at El Tecuán, together with other proxies, such as magnetic properties and others, suggest tsunami deposits. 210Pb dating of sediments slightly above the upper sand layer indicate an age A.D. 1935 ± 11 at El Tecuán. Historical accounts of tsunami inundation at both sites provide further evidence that this is most probably the result of the 3 June 1932 tsunami. Hence this study may provide the first evidence of a tsunami triggered by this earthquake and also of three probable predecessors. Further evidence of at least three earlier tsunamis that occurred since the fifteenth century is also evident in the stratigraphy. These events may correspond to events listed in historical archives, namely the 1563, 1816, and/or the 1818 events.

  4. Wind wave spectra and other data from moored buoy in the East/West Coast of United States, South Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, and Great Lakes from 01 March 2000 to 31 March 2000 (NODC Accession 0000150)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wind wave spectra and other data were collected using moored buoy in the East/West Coast of United States, South Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, and Great Lakes. Data...

  5. Wind wave spectra and other data from moored buoy in the East/West Coast of United States, South Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, and Great Lakes from 01 April 2000 to 30 April 2000 (NODC Accession 0000156)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wind wave spectra and other data were collected using moored buoy in the East/West Coast of United States, South Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, and Great Lakes. Data...

  6. Wind Wave Spectra and meteorological data from moored buoys from the East/West coasts of US, South Pacific, Gulf of Mexico, and the Great Lakes from 01 March 2001 to 31 March 2001 (NODC Accession 0000437)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wind wave spectra and meteorological data were collected from the East/West coasts of US, South Pacific, Gulf of Mexico, and the Great Lakes. Data were collected...

  7. Wind Wave Spectra and other data from buoy casts in the East/West Coast US, South Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, and Great Lakes from 01 October 2000 to 31 October 2000 (NODC Accession 0000348)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wind wave spectra and other data were collected at fixed platforms in Gulf of Mexico, East/West Coast US, South Pacific Ocean, and Great Lakes from October 1, 2000...

  8. Wind wave spectra and other data from moored buoy in the East/West Coast of United States, South Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, and Great Lakes from 01 February 2000 to 29 February 2000 (NODC Accession 0000140)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wind wave spectra and other data were collected using moored buoy in the East/West Coast of United States, South Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, and Great Lakes. Data...

  9. A Case for National Security: Using the Might Tuna to Frame U.S. Coast Guard’s Role in the Strategic Shift to the Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    followed by Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean , North America and Europe.”202 “The United States is the fifth largest fishing nation in the world...food security .” The DOS strategic and performance goals focus on two major objectives: “regional stability and social and environmental partnerships...A CASE FOR NATIONAL SECURITY : USING THE MIGHT TUNA TO FRAME U.S. COAST GUARD’S ROLE IN THE STRATEGIC SHIFT TO THE PACIFIC A

  10. Aphelochaeta (Polychaeta: Cirratulidae) from the Pacific coast of Costa Rica, with a description of five new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Harlan K; Blake, James A

    2016-04-12

    Five new species of bitentaculate Cirratulidae belonging to the genus Aphelochaeta are herein described from the Pacific coast of Costa Rica, all from shallow subtidal depths. Aphelochaeta antelonga sp. nov. is characterized by a long biannulate peristomium and fibrillated capillary setae and is from 11-18 m in the Gulf of Nicoya. Aphelochaeta guimondi sp. nov., with a wide dorsal trough in the thorax and hirsute capillaries (visible using SEM), is described from 11-26 m in the Gulf of Nicoya. Aphelochaeta praeacuta sp. nov., with its first peristomial annulation extending as a dorsal crest over the second annulation and first setiger, was collected from 11-28 m in Bahia Culebra. Aphelochaeta striata sp. nov., collected from 11-28 m in the Gulf of Nicoya, is recognized by its narrow body and the transverse blue stripes across the venter of setigers 5-8 produced with methyl green stain. Aphelochaeta zebra sp. nov., collected from a coral reef in Golfo Dulce, is characterized by its expanded posterior end and the darkly staining intersegmental regions using methyl green stain. Additionally, A. glandaria Blake, 1996, a species reportedly with a widespread geographic distribution (Blake, 1996), was also encountered subtidally from the Gulf of Nicoya and Golfo Dulce.

  11. Do early growth dynamics explain recruitment success in Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus off the Pacific coast of northern Japan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Masakane; Robert, Dominique; Kurita, Yutaka; Yoneda, Michio; Tominaga, Osamu; Tomiyama, Takeshi; Yamashita, Yoh; Uehara, Shinji

    2010-07-01

    We examined the relative importance of growth-related processes operating during the larval and early juvenile stage in explaining variability in year class success of Japanese flounder off the Pacific coast of northern Japan. Early growth trajectory of larvae and juveniles sampled in 2005 (strong year class) and in 2006 (weak year class) was estimated from the analysis of the lapillar otolith. The larval pelagic stage was characterized by lower growth and developmental rates, as well as high selection for fast growth in the metamorphosis/settlement period, during the strong recruitment event of 2005 relative to 2006. Growth appeared higher in 2005 only after settlement despite high density in the nursery, which likely reflected superior productivity during that year combined with an increased probability of cannibalism from early settlers on late settlers. This implies that larval growth dynamics did not play an important role in determining recruitment strength in the two years considered. The decreasing distance from the nursery areas of pelagic larvae through ontogeny in 2005, combined with low age at settlement, suggest that larvae benefited from positive transport conditions during the dominant year class. To the contrary, unfavorable hydrographic conditions likely prevailed in 2006 as distance from the nurseries increased with ontogeny and settlement occurred later than in 2005 despite faster growth potential and developmental rate. We conclude that transport conditions to the nursery grounds, rather than larval growth potential, represented the most important determinant of year class success in the two years considered.

  12. Epizootiology of Perkinsus marinus, parasite of the pleasure oyster Crassostrea corteziensis, in the Pacific coast of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres-Martínez, Jorge; Madero-López, Luis Humberto; Padilla-Lardizábal, Gloria; Vásquez-Yeomans, Rebeca

    2016-09-01

    The protozoan parasite Perkinsus marinus is the etiological agent of "dermo disease". This pathogen is considered by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) as reportable due to the high mortalities that it produces in the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica in the US. In 2006, this parasite was detected in the pleasure oyster Crassostrea corteziensis in Nayarit on the Pacific coast of Mexico, indicating a new host and an extension of its known distribution. Epizootiological data of P. marinus in the pleasure oyster are unknown. With the objective of determining the prevalence and intensity in relation with temperature and salinity throughout time, as well as for studying interactions of host size and sex with the parasite, a monthly sampling was carried out in two aquaculture sites of Nayarit from 2007 to 2014. A total of 7700 oysters were analyzed. In both localities, prevalence was low in winter (<6%) when temperature and salinity fluctuated around 24°C and 33, respectively; and the highest prevalence values occurred during summer (37%) when temperature and salinity were around 30°C and 20, respectively. Infection intensity increased in summer, but severe cases remained on average <10%. Larger oysters showed the highest prevalence and intensity, and higher prevalence were generally observed in females. No unusual mortalities directly related with P. marinus were observed.

  13. Dynamic population trends observed in the deep-living Pacific flatnose, Antimora microlepis, on the U.S. West Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Peter H.; Keller, Aimee A.; Simon, Victor

    2017-04-01

    As fisheries managers attempt to incorporate ecosystem-based considerations into decision making, it is important to understand the role that non-target species play in the ecosystems that support commercial fisheries. For some deep-water groundfishes, basic information on biology and population dynamics is extremely limited. This study presents findings on the spatial distribution, growth trends, and relative abundance of the Pacific flatnose, Antimora microlepis, using data collected from 2003 to 2015 by the Northwest Fisheries Science Center's West Coast Groundfish Bottom Trawl Survey (WCGBTS). We observed a 67% increase in mean fork-length over the study period reflecting the advancement of strong year-classes from the early 2000s that currently dominate the population as a whole. Catch-weighted depth increased significantly as these cohorts migrated to deeper waters of the continental slope. Although catch per unit effort remained relatively constant, this demographic shift suggests that episodic recruitment may affect the resilience of this stock to fishing mortality over time. A notable decrease in the percentage of females observed after 2012 seemed to indicate the movement of large, older females to depths beyond the 1280 m limit of the survey. Otolith weight provided a useful proxy for age in growth models for this species.

  14. PCB concentrations in sediments from the Gulf of Nicoya estuary, Pacific coast of Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spongberg, Alison L

    2004-12-01

    Thirty-one sediment samples collected from 1996-2003 from the Gulf of Nicoya estuary on the northwestern coast of Costa Rica, have been obtained for PCB analyses. This is part of the first study to evaluate the PCB contamination in coastal Costa Rica. Overall, the concentrations are low, especially when compared to sediments from more temperate climates and/or sediments from more heavily industrialized areas. Values average less than 3 ng/g dw sediment, however, a few samples contained up to 7 ng/g dw sediment. Sediments with the highest concentrations were located in the Punta Morales area, where muds were sampled from among mangrove roots. The Puntarenas samples had surprisingly low PCB concentrations, likely due to their sandy lithology. The congener distribution within the majority of the samples showed signs of either recent sources or lack of degradation. However, a few sites, specifically some of the inter-gulf islands and more remote samples had congener distributions indicative of airborne contaminants and/or degradation. Considering the presence of airborne PCBs in the Gulf of Papagayo to the north, the lack of airborne PCBs and more varied congener distribution in the Gulf of Nicoya estuary was surprising.

  15. AMS analyses of I-129 from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident in the Pacific Ocean waters of the Coast La Jolla--San Diego, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan-Sion, C; Enachescu, M; Petre, A R

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental study we performed by using the Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) method with iodine 129 (T1/2 = 15.7 My), to determine the increase of the radionuclide content in the USA West Pacific Coast waters, two years after the March 2011 Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident. The collection of the water samples took place between April and July 2013 at regular intervals of time, from the Pacific Ocean, at the cove of La Jolla, San Diego, USA. The results of the experiments showed a significant increase of the radionuclide concentration during the late spring of 2013. Compared to the isotopic ratio (129)I/(127)I, measured at a 40 km distance, offshore of Fukushima and immediately after the accident, our results show an increase on the USA West Coast that was more than a 2.5 factor higher. Also, compared with the pre-Fukushima background values, our results show an isotopic ratio of about two orders of magnitude higher. A distinct feature of the reconstructed radioactive plume was that it traveled with a speed of 12 cm s(-1), which we estimated and is consistent with the zonal speed in the Pacific. We coupled our (129)I results with the measurements from the June 2011 KOK cruise and we derived the levels of activity for (3)H and (137)Cs. On the USA West Coast, they did not exceed the international regulatory limits.

  16. Predicted radionuclide release from reactor-related unenclosed solid objects dumped in the Sea of Japan and the Pacific Ocean, east coast of Kamchatka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mount, M.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Lynn, N.M.; Warden, J.M. [Royal Naval Coll., Greenwich (United Kingdom)

    1996-06-01

    Between 1978 and 1991 reactor-related solid radioactive waste was dumped by the former Soviet Union as unenclosed objects in the Pacific Ocean, east coast of Kamchatka, and the Sea of Japan. This paper presented estimates for the current (1994) inventory of activation and corrosion products contained in the reactor-related unenclosed solid objects. In addition, simple models derived for prediction of radionuclide release from marine reactors dumped in the Kara Sea are applied to certain of the dumped objects to provide estimates of radionuclide release to the Pacific Ocean, east coast of Kamchatka, and Sea of Japan environments. For the Pacific Ocean, east coast of Kamchatka, total release rates start below 0.01 GBq yr{sup -1} and over 1,000 years, fall to 100 Bq yr{sup -1}. In the Sea of Japan, the total release rate starts just above 1 GBq yr{sup - 1}, dropping off to a level less than 0.1 GBq yr{sup -1}, extending past the year 4,000.

  17. The Colombia Current: An Eastern Tropical Pacific Coastal Current, Early Oceanographic Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Rubio, E.

    2007-05-01

    Newly gathered hydrographic data from the Colombia Pacific Ocean is combined with remote sensing data to reassess the properties of the costal current named Colombian Current by Wooster (1959). The Colombian Pacific Ocean is located between 84°-76°W and 1°30'-5°N (oceanic zone), 1°30'- 7°N (coastal zone): This area is well-known also like Panama Bight. New hydrographic data were occupied along the Colombian Pacific coast during March of 2006, making 41 stations with measurements of CTD until a maximum depth of 1200 m, depending on the depth of the marine bottom. On the other hand, sea surface temperatures (SST) were obtained from the MODIS-AQUA satellite and sea surface wind speed and wind direction stem from QuickScat, both averaged for March 2006. Hydrographic grid layers necessary to obtain dynamic topography variable were made with objective mapping calculating is not total dynamic height, but the dynamic height between consecutive levels or "thickness". The purpose of this methodology is that in very coastal campaigns it can have a substantial number of stations that do not arrive at the reference level. Finally geostrophic velocity was computed for the Colombian Current area at several layers. The coast was characterized by low salinities due to river runoff in the North zone. The sea surface temperature during the month of March of 2006 was especially low in the oceanic zone, reaching temperatures between 19°C and 24°C.The dynamic topography indicated the presence of a surface coastal current flowing towards the north and a crosscurrent to 400 m of depth never before described. The wind corresponded to the pattern of the wind jet of Panama. During March the ITCZ moves south, drawing the Panama jet across the Isthmus and over the Pacific. Upwelling curl associated with the left (southeast) flank of this jet generates a cyclonic eddy in the Panama Bight and SST cooling in its center. In the Panama Bight, the curl dipole produces a cyclonic circulation

  18. Historical ecology and the conservation of large, hermaphroditic fishes in Pacific Coast kelp forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braje, Todd J.; Rick, Torben C.; Szpak, Paul; Newsome, Seth D.; McCain, Joseph M.; Elliott Smith, Emma A.; Glassow, Michael; Hamilton, Scott L.

    2017-01-01

    The intensive commercial exploitation of California sheephead (Semicossyphus pulcher) has become a complex, multimillion-dollar industry. The fishery is of concern because of high harvest levels and potential indirect impacts of sheephead removals on the structure and function of kelp forest ecosystems. California sheephead are protogynous hermaphrodites that, as predators of sea urchins and other invertebrates, are critical components of kelp forest ecosystems in the northeast Pacific. Overfishing can trigger trophic cascades and widespread ecological dysfunction when other urchin predators are also lost from the system. Little is known about the ecology and abundance of sheephead before commercial exploitation. Lack of a historical perspective creates a gap for evaluating fisheries management measures and marine reserves that seek to rebuild sheephead populations to historical baseline conditions. We use population abundance and size structure data from the zooarchaeological record, in concert with isotopic data, to evaluate the long-term health and viability of sheephead fisheries in southern California. Our results indicate that the importance of sheephead to the diet of native Chumash people varied spatially across the Channel Islands, reflecting modern biogeographic patterns. Comparing ancient (~10,000 calibrated years before the present to 1825 CE) and modern samples, we observed variability and significant declines in the relative abundance of sheephead, reductions in size frequency distributions, and shifts in the dietary niche between ancient and modern collections. These results highlight how size-selective fishing can alter the ecological role of key predators and how zooarchaeological data can inform fisheries management by establishing historical baselines that aid future conservation. PMID:28164155

  19. Synoptic View of a Swell Field in the Pacific: from Spaceborne SAR Measurements to Seismic Noise on the Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husson, R.; Collard, F.; Ardhuin, F.; Stutzmann, E.; Balanche, A.

    2010-12-01

    . Hereby, our approach confirms that the observed micro-seismic activity in the Pacific has a strong contribution from swell, probably due to the reflection to the coast. This result emphasizes the possibility to use the energy of the swell signal measured by the seismic noise to validate the energy dynamic of the synthetic swell field, taking advantage of numerous seismic stations. Additionally, the estimation of transfer functions from the seismic noise to the swell energy would be a unique opportunity to revisit world-wide swell energy of the last 60 years given the historical seismic data available.

  20. Are coastal managers ready for climate change? A case study from estuaries along the Pacific coast of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Karen M.; Elliott-Fisk, Deborah L.; Freeman, Chase; Bui, Thuy-Vy D.; Powelson, Katherine; Janousek, Christopher; Buffington, Kevin J.; Takekawa, John Y.

    2017-01-01

    A key challenge for coastal resource managers is to plan and implement climate change adaptation strategies inlight of uncertainties and competing management priorities. In 2014, we held six workshops across estuaries along the Pacific coast of North America with over 150 participants to evaluate resource managers' perceived level of understanding of climate change science, where they obtain information, how they use this knowledge, and their preparedness for incorporating climate change into their management decisions. We found that most resource managers understood the types of climate change impacts likely to occur in their estuaries, but often lacked the scientific information to make decisions and plan effectively. Managers stated that time, money, and staff resources were the largest obstacles in their efforts. Managers identified that they learned most of their information from peers, scientific journals, and the Internet and indicated that sea-level rise was their greatest concern. There was, however, variation in managers' levels of readiness and perceived knowledge within and among workshop locations. The workshops revealed that some regions don't have the information they need or the planning capacity to effectively integrate climate change into their management, with eight out of fifteen site comparisons showing a significant difference between their level of preparedness (F5,26 = 6.852; p = 0.0003), and their willingness to formally plan (F5,26 = 12.84; p = 0.000002). We found that Urban estuaries were significantly different from Mixed Use and Rural estuaries, in having access to information and feeling more prepared to conduct climate change planning and implementation (F2,29 = 17.34; p = 0.00001). To facilitate climate change preparedness more comprehensive integration of science into management decisions is essential.

  1. Trophic structure and flows of energy in the Huizache-Caimanero lagoon complex on the Pacific coast of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zetina-Rejón, Manuel J.; Arreguín-Sánchez, Francisco; Chávez, Ernesto A.

    2003-08-01

    The Huizache-Caimanero coastal lagoon complex on the Pacific coast of Mexico supports an important shrimp fishery and is one of the most productive systems in catch per unit area of this resource. Four other less important fish groups are also exploited. In this study, we integrated the available information of the system into a mass-balance trophic model to describe the ecosystem structure and flows of energy using the E COPATH approach. The model includes 26 functional groups consisting of 15 fish groups, seven invertebrate groups, macrophytes, phytoplankton, and a detritus group. The resulting model was consistent as indicated by the output parameters. According to the overall pedigree index (0.75), which measures the quality of the input data on a scale from 0 to 1, it is a high quality model. Results indicate that zooplankton, microcrustaceans, and polychaetes are the principal link between trophic level (TL) one (primary producers and detritus) and consumers of higher TLs. Most production from macrophytes flows to detritus, and phytoplankton production is incorporated into the food web by zooplankton. Half of the flow from TL one to the next level come from detritus, which is an important energy source not only for several groups in the ecosystem but also for fisheries, as shown by mixed trophic impacts. The Huizache-Caimanero complex has the typical structure of tropical coastal lagoons and estuaries. The TL of consumers ranges from 2.0 to 3.6 because most groups are composed of juveniles, which use the lagoons as a nursery or protection area. Most energy flows were found in the lower part of the trophic web.

  2. Endosymbiont interference and microbial diversity of the Pacific coast tick, Dermacentor occidentalis, in San Diego County, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurfield, Nikos; Grewal, Saran; Cua, Lynnie S; Torres, Pedro J; Kelley, Scott T

    2017-01-01

    The Pacific coast tick, Dermacentor occidentalis Marx, is found throughout California and can harbor agents that cause human diseases such as anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis, tularemia, Rocky Mountain spotted fever and rickettsiosis 364D. Previous studies have demonstrated that nonpathogenic endosymbiotic bacteria can interfere with Rickettsia co-infections in other tick species. We hypothesized that within D. occidentalis ticks, interference may exist between different nonpathogenic endosymbiotic or nonendosymbiotic bacteria and Spotted Fever group Rickettsia (SFGR). Using PCR amplification and sequencing of the rompA gene and intergenic region we identified a cohort of SFGR-infected and non-infected D. occidentalis ticks collected from San Diego County. We then amplified a partial segment of the 16S rRNA gene and used next-generation sequencing to elucidate the microbiomes and levels of co-infection in the ticks. The SFGR R. philipii str. 364D and R. rhipicephali were detected in 2.3% and 8.2% of the ticks, respectively, via rompA sequencing. Interestingly, next generation sequencing revealed an inverse relationship between the number of Francisella-like endosymbiont (FLE) 16S rRNA sequences and Rickettsia 16S rRNA sequences within individual ticks that is consistent with partial interference between FLE and SFGR infecting ticks. After excluding the Rickettsia and FLE endosymbionts from the analysis, there was a small but significant difference in microbial community diversity and a pattern of geographic isolation by distance between collection locales. In addition, male ticks had a greater diversity of bacteria than female ticks and ticks that weren't infected with SFGR had similar microbiomes to canine skin microbiomes. Although experimental studies are required for confirmation, our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that FLEs and, to a lesser extent, other bacteria, interfere with the ability of D. occidentalis to be infected with certain SFGR. The

  3. Molecular and histological identification of Marteilioides infection in Suminoe Oyster Crassostrea ariakensis, Manila Clam Ruditapes philippinarum and Pacific Oyster Crassostrea gigas on the south coast of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limpanont, Yanin; Yanin, Limpanont; Kang, Hyun-Sil; Hong, Hyun-Ki; Jeung, Hee-Do; Kim, Bong-Kyu; Le, Thanh Cuong; Kim, Young-Ok; Choi, Kwang-Sik

    2013-11-01

    The oyster ovarian parasite Marteilioides chungmuensis has been reported from Korea and Japan, damaging the oyster industries. Recently, Marteilioides-like organisms have been identified in other commercially important marine bivalves. In this study, we surveyed Marteilioides infection in the Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum, Suminoe oyster Crassostrea ariakensis, and Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas, using histology and Marteilioides-specific small subunit (SSU) rDNA PCR. The SSU rDNA sequence of M. chungmuensis (1716 bp) isolated from C. gigas in Tongyoung bay was 99.9% similar to that of M. chungmuensis reported in Japan. Inclusions of multi-nucleated bodies in the oocytes, typical of Marteilioides infection, were identified for the first time in Suminoe oysters. The SSU rDNA sequence of a Marteilioides-like organism isolated from Suminoe oysters was 99.9% similar to that of M. chungmuensis. Marteilioides sp. was also observed from 7 Manila clams of 1840 individuals examined, and the DNA sequences of which were 98.2% similar to the known sequence of M. chungmuensis. Unlike Marteilioides infection of Pacific oysters, no remarkable pathological symptoms, such as large multiple lumps on the mantle, were observed in infected Suminoe oysters or Manila clams. Distribution of the infected Manila clams, Suminoe oysters and Pacific oysters was limited to small bays on the south coast, suggesting that the southern coast is the enzootic area of Marteilioides infection.

  4. Isopods of the genus Ligia as potential biomonitors of trace metals from the gulf of California and pacific coast of the Baja California peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Hernández, Jaqueline; Hurtado, Luis A; Leyva-García, Germán; Güido-Moreno, Adrián; Aguilera-Márquez, Daniela; Mazzei, Veronica; Ferrante, Margherita

    2015-02-01

    Supralittoral and high intertidal coastal zones are exposed to pollution from both marine and terrestrial sources and undergo higher deposition rates than the subtidal zone. It is therefore important to identify organisms for this section of the coastal area that can be tolerant to contaminants. The aim of this study was to determine if supralittoral isopods of the genus Ligia can be used as biomonitors, since they are abundant and widely distributed. For this purpose, concentrations of trace elements were determined in Ligia isopods in toto from 26 locations across the Gulf of California and Pacific coast of the Baja California peninsula, which were collected during the summers of 2009 and 2010. The concentrations of trace elements followed the order of; Zn≥Cu>As>Cd>Pb>Hg. Elevated concentrations of copper (up to 1010 μg/g) were detected in Ligia from Santa Rosalía (SRo), a locality where industrial mining of copper has historically occurred. Industrial and municipal sewage discharges appear to have contributed to the high concentrations of zinc (326 μg/g) and lead (144 μg/g) found in organisms from Guaymas location. The high mercury concentration in organisms from Mazatlán (M) (2.01 μg/g) was associated with a thermoelectric plant. Natural sources of metals were also detected; coastal upwelling appears to be associated with high cadmium concentrations in Ligia from Punta Baja (PB) (256 μg/g) in the Pacific coast, whereas hydrothermal vents may have contributed to high concentrations of arsenic at Ensenada (E) (61 μg/g). Our results suggest that Ligia isopods reflect the natural and anthropogenic inputs of trace metals in the environment and could potentially be used as biomonitor organisms of the intertidal rocky shores of the Gulf of California and Pacific coast. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Continuous GPS observations in Tohoku University and recovery effort after the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demachi, T.; Miura, S.; Ohta, Y.; Tachibana, K.; Ueki, S.; Sato, T.; Ohzono, M.; Umino, N.

    2012-04-01

    The nation-wide GPS observation network which is named GPS Earth Observation Network System (GEONET) has been established by the Geospatial Information Authority of Japan (GSI) (Miyazaki et al., 1997). The network composed more than 1,200 stations with baseline length is about 20-25 km. Tohoku University has also conducted continuous GPS observations since 1987 in the Tohoku district, Northeastern Japan (Miura et al., 1993). Recently, to investigate short-length crustal deformations such as volcanic deformation, co- and post-seismic deformation of M6-7 class earthquakes and inter-seismic deformations, we have deployed continuous GPS observation stations to complement the location of GEONET stations (Miura et al. 2000, 2002, and 2004). We installed GPS receiver, PC for data logging (ALIX series, PC Engines GmbH) and re-booter (e.g., WATCH BOOT nino, Meikyo Electric Co., Ltd.) in each station. We have secure and stable online access to each station from our university (Sendai city, Japan) using IP-VPN over fixed telephone lines (FLET'S Office service, Nippon Telegraph and Telephone East Corp.). Through this network, the data are transferred to our university and we can restart the devices if the devices hang up. Since 2010, we have tried to use on-line system through internet by prepaid mobile data-communication (b-mobile3G and b-mobileSIM U300, Japan Communications Inc.) in eight observation stations. Compared with the FLET'S Office service, we can conveniently and inexpensively establish wherever the mobile phone service is provided. The two stations are located in volcanoes, we activate the network system for an hour in every day using motor time switch, because of these devices are operated by limited DC power supplies through solar cell. In other six stations, we can use commercial AC power supplies, so that data connections are always available. On March 11, 2011, the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake (Mw 9.0) occurred and a huge tsunami caused

  6. Multiple Paternity and Preliminary Population Genetics of Giant Pacific Octopuses, Enteroctopus dofleini, in Oregon, Washington and the Southeast Coast of Vancouver Island, BC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn Larson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of 77 giant Pacific octopus, Enteroctopus dofleini, tissue samples were collected from the Oregon Coast (OR, Neah Bay Washington (NB, Puget Sound Washington (PS and the southeast coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada (BC for genetic analyses. A suite of eight variable microsatellite markers developed from giant Pacific octopuses were amplified in these samples to determine population diversity, structure, relatedness and paternity. The majority of loci met Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium expectations within each population. We found moderate genetic diversity (average observed heterozygosity = 0.445, range = 0.307–0.515 and average expected heterozygosity = 0.567, range = 0.506–0.696 and moderate population structuring with distinct separation of groups (FST values ranged from 0.101 between BC and PS to 0.237 between BC and NB. Several egg strings from the BC population were collected from three female octopus dens for relatedness and paternity analyses. Results suggest strong support for multiple paternity within one egg clutch with progeny sired by between two to four males.

  7. Effects of the 1991-92 El Niño on scleractinian corals of the Costa Rican central Pacific coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, C; Cortés, J

    2001-12-01

    Coral communities on the central Pacific coast of Costa Rica were affected during the 1991-92 El Niño warming event. More than 57% of all observed colonies at three localities (Parque Nacional Manuel Antonio, Punta Cambutal, and Parque Marino Ballena) were bleached. Mortality during this El Niño was much lower (approximately 9%) than in previous events. Psammocora spp. accounted for approximately 66% of dead corals, while massive (Porites lobota, Pavona spp.) and branching (Pocillopora spp.) for approximately 34%. Our results suggest that the observed bleaching in P. lobata was related to zooxanthellar densities and not to changes in pigment concentrations: only chlorophyll a varied between normally pigmented and bleached colonies at one locality (Ballena). Site differences in zooxanthellar densities or their pigment concentrations, may not be the result of the bleaching event itself, because a percentage of dead corals and zooxanthellar densities of bleached colonies seems to follow a trend with the exposure to tidal regimes and currents at each site. Local oceanographic conditions can be influencing the zooxanthellar densities and their response to the warming, together with intrinsic differences between colonies as well. The impact of this event can be considered serious given the short period of time that elapsed between El Niño related mortalities and the slow reefs recovery, the mode of reproduction of reef building species, and the anthropogenic-originated disturbances which affect the coral communities and reefs of the Costa Rican central Pacific coast.

  8. Radioactive zinc ( sup 65 Zn), zinc, cadmium and mercury in the Pacific Hake Merluccius productus (AYRES), off the West Coast of the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naidu, J.R.; Cutshall, N.H.

    1974-08-01

    This report presents the results of analyses of several hundred Pacific Hake, Merluccius productus, for zinc (Zn), zinc-65 ({sup 65}Zn), cadmium (Cd), and mercury (Hg). The fish were collected off the coast of the western United States in 1969--1972. In addition, some data from mercury analyses of fresh and seawater samples collected in 1970--1973 are presented. The contents of this report were used in the author's doctoral thesis. A majority (80%) of the hake samples were collected during July and August 1969, from 32{degrees}N to 48{degrees}N along the western coast of the United States. Most of the samples of Pacific Hake, Merluccius productus, were collected by Russian scientists on board PROFESSOR DERYUGIN, in collaboration with the US Bureau of Commercial Fisheries (now, National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS)) in July and August 1969. Additional samples were collected by NMFS vessels, JOHN N. COBB, BARON AND COMMANDO, and by the Oregon State University of Oceanography CAYUSE and YAQUINA in 1969--1972. Location of sampling stations and a summary of data collected are presented. 5 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Determining bathymetric distributions of the eelgrass Zostera marina L. in three turbid estuaries of the eastern North Pacific coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Improved methods for determining bathymetric distributions of dominant intertidal plants throughout their estuarine range are needed. Zostera marina is a seagrass native to estuaries of the northeastern Pacific and many other sectors of the world ocean. The technique described ...

  10. Effects of salinity on growth and survival in five Artemia franciscana (Anostraca: Artemiidae populations from Mexico Pacific Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Castro-Mejía

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is an important factor influencing growth and survival of aquatic organisms such as Artemia, a valuable aquaculture species. This study evaluated the effects of salinity on A. franciscana populations from different water bodies in Mexico’s Pacific Coast. With this purpose, five autochthonous bisexual Artemia populations were tested to assess their survival and growth values against salinities of 40, 60, 80, 100 and 120g/l, under laboratory conditions (25±2ºC; pH 8-10; constant light and aeration. The organisms were fed with 100mL of rice bran and 2L of Tetraselmis suecica (500 000cel/ml. The culture experiments were made in 200L plastic tanks, and survival and growth final values were obtained after 21 culture days. Survival and growth curves were determined by a regression analysis (R². The significant differences between salinities were determined by ANOVA test (pLa salinidad es el factor más importante que modifica el crecimiento y la sobrevivencia de las poblaciones mexicanas de Artemia en el mundo. El efecto de este factor en las poblaciones costeras del Pacífico Mexicano ha sido poco estudiado. Cinco poblaciones bisexuales de Artemia provenientes de cuerpos de aguas costeras del Pacífico Mexicano, se estudiaron para determinar el efecto que tiene la salinidad de 40, 60, 80, 100 y 120g/l sobre la sobrevivencia y el crecimiento, en condiciones de laboratorio (25±2ºC, pH 8-10; luz y aireación continua. Los experimentos de cultivo fueron realizados en tanques de plástico de 200l. Los valores finales de sobrevivencia y crecimiento fueron determinados después de 21 días de cultivo. Los organismos fueron alimentados con 100ml de salvado de arroz y 2l de Tetraselmis suecica (500cel/ml. Las curvas de sobrevivencia y crecimiento fueron determinadas usando un análisis de regresión (R². Las diferencias significativas entre los valores promedio a las distintas salinidades fueron determinadas por una prueba de ANDEVA (p<0

  11. The deepwater fishery along the Pacific coast of Costa Rica, Central America Pesca en aguas profundas a lo largo de la costa Pacífica de Costa Rica, América Central

    OpenAIRE

    Ingo S Wehrtmann; Vanessa Nielsen-Muñoz

    2009-01-01

    Global catches of marine fishery resources declined during the last decades; however, there has been a trend of increasing exploitation of deepwater resources that are especially vulnerable to depletion. Such a tendency was noticeable in Pacific Latin América, too. In Costa Rica, the vast majority of the commercial fishing activities are concentrated on the Pacific coast. The target species for the deepwater fishery in Costa Rica are the two pandalids Heterocarpus affinis and H. vicarius as w...

  12. Florecimientos de dinoflagelados nocivos en la costa Pacífica de Costa Rica Harmful blooms by noxious dinoflagellates in the Pacific coast of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribelle Vargas Montero

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Desde 1979 se han reportado florecimientos de especies de microalgas nocivas (FAN en la costa Pacífica de Costa Rica, reconociéndose hasta el 2005 al menos 13 taxa de dinoflagelados. En años recientes estos fenómenos se han intensificado tanto espacial como temporalmente, produciéndose discoloraciones casi ininterrumpidas que se extienden por toda la costa produciendo mortalidad de peces y fetidez en el agua. Tales FAN masivos se iniciaron con Pyrodinium bahamense en el 2000, quien perduró por más de un año y en el cual se observaron morfotipos correspondientes a las dos variedades de la especie, coexistiendo junto a Gymnodinium catenatum y ocasionando serios casos de Intoxicación Paralizante por Consumo de Mariscos (IPM. Posteriormente, de septiembre del 2003 hasta junio del 2004, Cochlodinium cf. polykrikoides produjo discoloraciones en toda la costa Pacífica, seguidas por manchas extensas de Akasiwo sanguinea y Gymnodinium instriatum. El evento más reciente se observó en junio del 2005 cuando Alexandrium monilatum produjo extensas discoloraciones con cadenas formadas por más de 100 células. Los FAN de dinoflagelados ahora son comunes en las costas de Costa Rica, posiblemente como resultado de las condiciones ambientales actuales que favorecen la proliferación masiva de especies invasivas (agresivas, las cuales incluso pueden afectar otros sitios del Pacífico americano como es el caso de P. bahamense var. compressum que puede desplazarse hasta México, a lo largo de la costa del Pacífico centroamericano a través de la Corriente Costera de Costa Rica y la Corriente Occidental Mexicana.Since 1979 has been reported harmful microalgae blooms (HAB on the Pacific coast of Costa Rica, it was identified until 2005 at least 13 taxa of dinoflagellates. In recent years these phenomena have intensified both spatially and temporarily, discolorations occur almost uninterrupted; they are distributed for months and which extend along the

  13. Recent advances in understanding Colombian mangroves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanía, J.; Urrego, L. E.; Agudelo, C. M.

    2015-02-01

    Throughout the last 15 years, researchers at the National University of Colombia at Medellin have studied Colombian mangroves. Remote sensing, pollen analysis of superficial and deep sediments, Holocene coastal vegetation dynamics, sediment dating using 14C and 210Pb, sampling in temporary plots, sampling in temporary and permanent plots, and other techniques have been applied to elucidate long- and short-term mangrove community dynamics. The studied root fouling community is structured by several regulatory mechanisms; habitat heterogeneity increases species richness and abundance. Fringe mangroves were related to Ca concentration in the soil and the increased dominance of Laguncularia racemosa and other nonmangrove tree species, while the riverine mangroves were associated with Mg concentration and the dominance of Rhizophora mangle. The seedling and mangrove tree distributions are determined by a complex gradient of natural and anthropogenic disturbances. Mangrove pollen from surface sediments and the existing vegetation and geomorphology are close interrelated. Plant pollen of mangrove and salt marsh reflects environmental and disturbance conditions, and also reveals forest types. Forest dynamics in both coasts and their sensitivity of to anthropogenic processes are well documented in the Late Quaternary fossil record. Our studies of short and long term allow us to predict the dynamics of mangroves under different scenarios of climate change and anthropogenic stress factors that are operating in Colombian coasts. Future research arises from these results on mangrove forests dynamics, sea-level rise at a fine scale using palynology, conservation biology, and carbon dynamics.

  14. Biología de la raya guitarra Rhinobatos leucorhynchus (Günther, 1867 (Rajiformes: Rhinobatidae en el Pacífico colombiano Biology of the guitar ray Rhinobatos leucorhynchus (Günther, 1867 (Rajiformes: Rhinobatidae in the Colombian Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Payán

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available La raya guitarra Rhinobatos leucorhynchus es comúnmente capturada como fauna acompañante en la pesca del camarón de aguas someras del Pacífico colombiano, tanto a nivel industrial como artesanal. A partir de 286 ejemplares capturados incidentalmente entre 2001 y 2007, se estudiaron diferentes aspectos biológicos de esta especie. Las hembras fueron proporcionalmente más grandes que los machos, aunque el crecimiento fue similar en ambos sexos (alométrico. Los embriones no presentaron diferencias sexuales significativas ni en talla ni en peso. La proporción sexual en adultos fue 2,4:1 (hembras-machos, mientras que en embriones esta proporción fue de 1:1. El 51,5% de machos presentó claspers desarrollados y calcificados y el 56,5% de las hembras estaban grávidas, presentando fecundidades entre 1 y 6 embriones, con tallas entre 3 y 19,5 cm, sugiriendo una talla de nacimiento entre 19 y 19,5 cm LT. La talla mediana de madurez de las hembras fue menor que la de machos (48,48 cm y 51,18 cm LT, respectivamente, y las hembras presentaron crías a partir de 44 cm LT. Los hábitos alimentarios de esta especie mostraron 30 ítems presa, con camarones de la familia Penaeidae, y especialmente Trachypenaeus sp. como alimento principal. La raya guitarra presentó diferencias significativas en la dieta de machos y hembras, y la amplitud de nicho indicó que es especialista en su dieta. Los resultados de este estudio aportan información útil para plantear medidas de manejo de R. leucorhynchus, especie que requiere atención, dado sus características biológicas y su importancia comercial y de consumo.The guitar ray Rhinobatos leucorhynchus is commonly caught as by-catch of industrial and artisanal shrimp trawling in the shallow waters of the Colombian Pacific. The biological aspects of this species were studied using 286 animals caught as by-catch between 2001 and 2007. The females were proportionally larger than males, although growth was similar

  15. Colombian coal focus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warden-Fernandez, J.; Rodriguez, L.E. [University of Dundee, Dundee (United Kingdom)

    2003-03-01

    The paper reviews the development of Colombia's coal industry over recent years. Colombia has recently modernised its mining code, Law 685 of 2001 concerning mineral rights and including the concept of sustainable development. The article discusses the legislation, analyses trends in Columbia's income from the coal and mineral industries (nickel, gold, emerald), and briefly discusses coal reserves, mining projects, coal exports and markets for Colombian coal. 7 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Neothalassius, a new genus of Parathalassiinae (Diptera: Dolichopodidae s.lat.) from the Pacific coast of South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Scott E; Cumming, Jeffrey M

    2016-01-15

    A new genus, Neothalassius gen. nov., and two new species, Neothalassius triton sp. nov. and Neothalassius villosus sp. nov., are described from rocky shorelines along the Pacific seacoast of South America. The phylogenetic placement of Neothalassius within the subfamily Parathalassiinae is discussed.

  17. 78 FR 77413 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Change to Start of Pacific...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... will remain as specified in the FMP; as would the current quota roll-over provisions. The purpose of... Microsoft Word, Excel, or Adobe PDF file formats only. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Joshua Lindsay... timing of stock assessments. The process for setting the annual Pacific sardine quotas begins with...

  18. Radiation Measurements at the Campus of Fukushima Medical University through the 2011 off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake and Subsequent Nuclear Power Plant crisis

    CERN Document Server

    Kobayashi, Tsuneo

    2011-01-01

    An earthquake, Tohoku region Pacific Coast earthquake, occurred on the 11th of March, 2011, and subsequent Fukushima nuclear power plant accidents have been stirring natural radiation around the author's office in Fukushima Medical University (FMU). FMU is located in Fukushima city, and is 57 km (35 miles) away from northwest of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. This paper presents three types of radiation survey undertaken through the unprecedented accidents at the campus and the hospital of FMU. First, a group of interested people immediately began radiation surveillance; the group members were assembled from the faculty members of "Life Sciences and Social Medicine" and "Human and Natural Sciences". Second, the present author, regardless of the earthquake, had serially observed natural radiations such as gamma radiation in air with NaI scintillation counter, atmospheric radon with Lucas cell, and second cosmic rays with NaI scintillation. Gamma radiation indicated most drastic change, i.e., peak v...

  19. Renewing "That Which Was Almost Lost or Forgotten": The Implications of Old Ethnologies for Present-Day Traditional Ecological Knowledge Among Canada's Pacific Coast Peoples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianne C. Newell

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The pressure on traditional ecological knowledge (TEK to solve socio-economic issues globally begs the question: What is the state of TEK today, given the economic, social, and cultural ruptures it has endured during the past 200 years? The author traces how historical collaborative work between ethnographic pairings of “insiders” and “outsiders” created partnerships between some prominent anthropologists and local Indigenous research collaborators. Indeed, most of the ground-breaking anthropological work of Franz Boas and others concerning Canada’s Pacific Northwest coast culture area depended on collaborations with George Hunt and other trained Indigenous field workers. Much of their long-standing fieldwork data collection and writings involved their female relatives and anonymous women’s collaboration, lending an accumulated, but unacknowledged, thoroughness to present-day TEK. Future policy concerning collaboration between non-Indigenous academics and Indigenous communities should take into account the lessons to be learned from these historical practices.

  20. First record of the polychaete Ficopomatus uschakovi (Pillai, 1960 (Annelida, Serpulidae in the Colombian Caribbean, South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Arteaga-Florez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Ficopomatus (Serpulidae consists of sessile, tubicolous polychaete annelid worms that may colonize a diversity of substrata, and tolerate considerable variations in salinity. Thus, members of this genus, including Ficopomatus uschakovi, in some cases are exotic and maybe invasive. The purpose of our research was to collect and identify marine organisms associated with the submerged roots of mangrove trees in the Gulf of Urabá, Colombian Caribbean, South America. Within the Gulf, there is a well-developed forest of the Red Mangrove, Rhizophora mangle, along the margins of El Uno Bay. We sampled the roots of R. mangle from five stations of the bay, and we identified specimens of F. uschakovi from each of those stations. Ficopomatus uschakovi was found to be more abundant in regions of the bay that exhibit the lowest salinity. Based on a morphological comparison of the present specimens with the original species description, revised descriptions, and other records from the Indo-West Pacific, Mexican Pacific, and Venezuelan and Brazilian Caribbean, we suggest that F. uschakovi has a broader geographical distribution. Furthermore, because of this broad distribution, and the observed tolerance for low salinity in our study, we also suggest that F. uschakovi is a euryhaline species. It is also likely that F. uschakovi will be found in other localities in the Gulf of Urabá, and in other regions of the Colombian Caribbean. Thus, this record extends the distribution of the species to the Colombian Caribbean, giving the species a continuous distribution across the northern coast of South America.

  1. Hydroids of the genus Sertularella (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa: Sertulariidae) from the Pacific coast of Canada in the collection of the Royal Ontario Museum, with descriptions of four new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choong, Henry H C

    2015-03-02

    Examination of the hydroid fauna of the Canadian Pacific coast in the collections of the Royal Ontario Museum collected between 1934 and 1985 indicates that the genus Sertularella Gray, 1848 from the infralittoral zone in the region remains poorly enumerated. The present study shows that several European or northeast Atlantic hydroid species, Sertularella conica Allman, 1877, Sertularella rugosa (Linnaeus, 1758), Sertularella tenella Alder, 1856, Sertularella polyzonias (Linnaeus, 1758), and Sertularella fusiformis (Hincks, 1861) have been incorrectly reported from the west coast of North America and suggests that assumptions of cosmopolitanism of some species require verification by continuing refinement of regional species-level taxonomy. Four new species, Sertularella cervicula, S. coronata, S. sacciformis, and S. pacifica are recognized and described in this paper. Sertularella gigantea Hincks, 1874 is recognized for the first time from the Pacific coast of North America.

  2. Anisakis Dujardin, 1845 infection (Nematoda: Anisakidae) in Pygmy Sperm Whale Kogia breviceps Blainville, 1838 from west Pacific region off the coast of Philippine archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiazon, Karl Marx A

    2016-09-01

    Cetaceans are definitive hosts of anisakid nematodes known to cause human anisakidosis. Despite the reported strandings of different cetaceans in the Philippines, studies on anisakids from these definitive hosts are limited. Here, the morphologically and molecularly identified anisakid species, specifically those of the genus Anisakis Dujardin, 1845 in stranded Pygmy Sperm Whale Kogia breviceps Blainville, 1838 in the west Pacific region off Philippine waters are presented. Morphological data using SEM and LM revealed multi-infections with different Anisakis species belonging to Anisakis type I and type II groups. Molecularly, PCR-RFLP on the ITS rDNA and sequence data analyses of both ITS rDNA and mtDNA cox2 regions identified those from Anisakis type I group as A. typica (Diesing, 1860), whereas those from type II group as A. brevispiculata Dollfus, 1968, and A. paggiae Mattiucci et al. (Syst Parasitol 61:157-171, 2005). This is the first record of Anisakis infection from this host stranded in the west Pacific region off the coast of Philippine waters and new geographical record for A. paggiae.

  3. Characterization of rock samples localized in some sites of the Mexican Pacific coast; Caracterizacion de muestras de rocas localizadas en algunos sitios de la costa del Pacifico Mexicano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, P.; Torre, J. de la; Falcon, T.; Segovia, N. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Azorin, J. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa C.P. 09340 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    Geophysical studies in zones of high seismicity have showed differences in the content of radioactive material that is used in the study of the geochemical behavior of the subsoil. In an emanometric mapping of radon in soil realized in the Mexican Pacific coast were finding distinct levels in zones with different lithology. With the finality to know the mineralization types in two zones of study which are localized in the Guerrero coast and they belonging to terrains named Guerrero and Xolapa it was determined the mineralogic characteristics in two types of rocks. The identification of the rocks was realized by X-ray diffraction and was determined the elemental chemical composition using a scanning electron microscope. It was indicated in the results obtained that in the two types of rocks were found minerals such as: quartz, albite, microcline anortite, ferroactinolite and biotite. However, it was found differences between them by the presence of their mineralogic compounds because in the rock belonging to Xolapa terrain were presented whereas in the rock localized in the Guerrero terrain were presented sodic and potassic feldspars. The analysis by the Elemental Chemical Composition technique (Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy) corroborated the results obtained by the X-ray diffraction technique. (Author)

  4. Health risk assessment from mercury levels in bycatch fish species from the coasts of Guerrero, Mexico (Eastern Pacific).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanopoulos-Zarco, P; Ruelas-Inzunza, J; Meza-Montenegro, M; Osuna-Sánchez, K; Amezcua-Martínez, F

    2014-09-01

    With the aim of determining Hg distribution in muscle and liver of bycatch fish from Guerrero state in the Eastern Pacific Ocean and assess the potential risk to consumer, Hg was quantified in 14 species of bycatch fish. For the majority of fish the order of Hg levels was liver > muscle. The highest concentration corresponded to the liver of Isopisthus remifer (2.05 µg g(-1)) and the lowest (0.02 µg g(-1)) was detected in muscle of Prionotus sp. The highest hazard quotient (0.75) was found in the Mexican milkfish Micropogonias ectenes; considering all the individuals, mean hazard quotient was 0.336.

  5. Establishment and development of Tabebuia rosea (Bignoniaceae) seedlings in a semideciduous tropical forest under management, Pacific coast of Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Mora Santacruz, Antonio; Valdez Hernández, Juan Ignacio; Ángeles Pérez, Gregorio; Musálem Santiago, Miguel Ángel; Vaquera Huerta, Humberto

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of soil “scarification” and vegetation clearing treatments on the natural regeneration and initial development of Tabebuia rosea (Bertold) DC. seedlings in a moderate sized semideciduous tropical forest subjected to wood harvesting on the coast of Jalisco, Mexico. The treatments were applied under “seed” trees, and the number of germinated seedlings and their development were evaluated for nine months. Soil “scarification” promoted seed germination and initial seedling...

  6. Engineered feature used to enhance gardening at a 3800-year-old site on the Pacific Northwest Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Tanja; Lyons, Natasha; Miller, Debbie; Diaz, Alejandra; Homan, Amy; Huddlestan, Stephanie; Leon, Roma

    2016-12-01

    Humans use a variety of deliberate means to modify biologically rich environs in pursuit of resource stability and predictability. Empirical evidence suggests that ancient hunter-gatherer populations engineered ecological niches to enhance the productivity and availability of economically significant resources. An archaeological excavation of a 3800-year-old wetland garden in British Columbia, Canada, provides the first direct evidence of an engineered feature designed to facilitate wild plant food production among mid-to-late Holocene era complex fisher-hunter-gatherers of the Northwest Coast. This finding provides an example of environmental, economic, and sociopolitical coevolutionary relationships that are triggered when humans manipulate niche environs.

  7. The Structure of Genetic Diversity in Eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) along the North Pacific and Bering Sea Coasts of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Sandra; Sage, Kevin; Rearick, Jolene; Fowler, Megan C.; Muñiz-Salazar, Raquel; Baibak, Bethany; Wyllie-Echeverria, Sandy; Cabello-Pasini, Alehandro; Ward, David H.

    2016-01-01

    Eelgrass (Zostera marina) populations occupying coastal waters of Alaska are separated by a peninsula and island archipelago into two Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs). From populations in both LMEs, we characterize genetic diversity, population structure, and polarity in gene flow using nuclear microsatellite fragment and chloroplast and nuclear sequence data. An inverse relationship between genetic diversity and latitude was observed (heterozygosity: R2 = 0.738, P < 0.001; allelic richness: R2 = 0.327, P = 0.047), as was significant genetic partitioning across most sampling sites (θ = 0.302, P < 0.0001). Variance in allele frequency was significantly partitioned by region only in cases when a population geographically in the Gulf of Alaska LME (Kinzarof Lagoon) was instead included with populations in the Eastern Bering Sea LME (θp = 0.128–0.172; P < 0.003), suggesting gene flow between the two LMEs in this region. Gene flow among locales was rarely symmetrical, with notable exceptions generally following net coastal ocean current direction. Genetic data failed to support recent proposals that multiple Zostera species (i.e. Z. japonica and Z. angustifolia) are codistributed with Z. marina in Alaska. Comparative analyses also failed to support the hypothesis that eelgrass populations in the North Atlantic derived from eelgrass retained in northeastern Pacific Last Glacial Maximum refugia. These data suggest northeastern Pacific populations are derived from populations expanding northward from temperate populations following climate amelioration at the terminus of the last Pleistocene glaciation.

  8. Outlining the Ancestry Landscape of Colombian Admixed Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossa, Humberto; Aquino, Juliana; Pereira, Rui; Ibarra, Adriana; Ossa, Rafael H; Pérez, Luz Adriana; Granda, Juan David; Lattig, Maria Claudia; Groot, Helena; Fagundes de Carvalho, Elizeu; Gusmão, Leonor

    2016-01-01

    The ancestry of the Colombian population comprises a large number of well differentiated Native communities belonging to diverse linguistic groups. In the late fifteenth century, a process of admixture was initiated with the arrival of the Europeans, and several years later, Africans also became part of the Colombian population. Therefore, the genepool of the current Colombian population results from the admixture of Native Americans, Europeans and Africans. This admixture occurred differently in each region of the country, producing a clearly stratified population. Considering the importance of population substructure in both clinical and forensic genetics, we sought to investigate and compare patterns of genetic ancestry in Colombia by studying samples from Native and non-Native populations living in its 5 continental regions: the Andes, Caribe, Amazonia, Orinoquía, and Pacific regions. For this purpose, 46 AIM-Indels were genotyped in 761 non-related individuals from current populations. Previously published genotype data from 214 Colombian Natives from five communities were used for population comparisons. Significant differences were observed between Native and non-Native populations, among non-Native populations from different regions and among Native populations from different ethnic groups. The Pacific was the region with the highest African ancestry, Amazonia harboured the highest Native ancestry and the Andean and Orinoquían regions showed the highest proportion of European ancestry. The Andean region was further sub-divided into 6 sub-regions: North East, Central West, Central East, West, South West and South East. Among these regions, the South West region showed a significantly lower European admixture than the other regions. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and variance values of ancestry among individuals within populations showed a potential stratification of the Pacific population. PMID:27736937

  9. Biología reproductiva de Lutjanus guttatus (Perciformes: Lutjanidae en el Parque Nacional Natural Utría, Pacífico colombiano Reproductive biology of Lutjanus guttatus (Perciformes: Lutjanidae in Utría National Park, Colombian Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Correa-Herrera

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Las áreas protegidas son importantes para la conservación de las poblaciones naturales ya que funcionan como zonas de refugio, alimentación y reproducción en la que los organismos deberían estar eximidos de la presión antrópica, pero en aquellas áreas donde se permite la pesca, es elemental conocer los aspectos reproductivos de las especies que soportan la presión pesquera, ya que ésta información relacionada con las abundancias, tallas y frecuencias de captura pueden ofrecer mejores criterios para tomar decisiones de manejo y conservación de los recursos pequeros. La biología reproductiva del pargo lunarejo Lutjanus guttatus se estudió entre abril 2008 y febrero 2009 en el Parque Nacional Utría, Pacífico colombiano. Se analizaron los volúmenes de captura, estructura por tallas, proporción de sexos, fecundidad, talla media de madurez, áreas y épocas de reproducción (n=278. La longitud total osciló entre 18 y 56cm con una media y desviación estándar de 29±6.4cm. La talla media de madurez fue estimada en 23.5cm de longitud total, la fecundidad absoluta fue 156 253.11 ovocitos, con una moda de 4μm de diámetro y un desarrollo gonadal asincrónico. La presencia de individuos maduros y de un alto factor de condición sugieren épocas de desove en junio, septiembre y octubre en litorales rocosos y arenosos.Protected areas are important for natural population conservation since they work as refuge, feeding and breeding areas, where specimens should be exempt from human pressure. The generation of better criteria for management decisions and conservation of fishery resources, is based on the reproductive aspects of species that support fishing activities, since this information is related to the abundance, size and frequency of capture. With this aim, the reproductive biology of the spotted snapper Lutjanus guttatus was studied from April 2008 and February 2009 at the Utría National Park, Colombian Pacific. For this, we

  10. Effect of temperature on growth and paralytic toxin profiles in isolates of Gymnodinium catenatum (Dinophyceae) from the Pacific coast of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Band-Schmidt, Christine J; Bustillos-Guzmán, José J; Hernández-Sandoval, Francisco E; Núñez-Vázquez, Erick J; López-Cortés, David J

    2014-11-01

    The effects of temperature on growth, cell toxicity, toxin content, and profile of paralytic shellfish toxins was determined in eight isolates of Gymnodinium catenatum from several localities along the Pacific Coast of Mexico. The isolates were cultivated in modified f/2 media with Se (10(-8) M), and a reduced concentration of Cu (10(-8) M), under a 12 h:12 h day-night cycle with an irradiance of 150 μE m(-2) s(-1). Isolates were progressively adapted for three generations to each of the temperatures (16, 19, 22, 24, 27, 30, and 33 °C). The cultures were grown in 125 mL Erlenmeyer flasks with 60 mL of media and harvested by filtration in late exponential growth. Toxins were analyzed by HPLC with a post-column oxidation and fluorescent detection (FLD). G. catenatum isolates tolerate temperatures between 16 and 33 °C, with maximum growth rates of 0.32 and 0.39 div day(-1) at 21 °C and 24 °C, respectively; maximum cell densities of 4700 and 5500 cells mL(-1) were obtained at 27 and 21 °C, respectively. No effect of toxicity per cell with temperature was observed, varying between 10.10 and 28.19 pgSXTeq cell(-1). Ten saxitoxin analogues were detected in all isolates, observing changes in the toxin profile with temperature. C1/2 toxins decreased from 80% mol at 16 °C to 20% mol at 33 °C, B1/2 toxins increased from 19% mol at 16 °C to 42% mol at 33 °C, and decarbamoyl toxins were more abundant at 21 °C. These results show that G. catenatum isolates from different regions of the Pacific coast of Mexico have a similar response to temperature and that this parameter can modify growth rate, cell density, and toxin profile of the species, particularly the decarbamoyl and sulfocarbamoyl toxins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. El Niño 1997-1998 impact on the plankton dynamics in the Gulf of Nicoya, Pacific coast of Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Ramírez, A; Brugnoli-Olivera, E

    2001-12-01

    The impact of the El Niño 1997-1998 phenomenom on plankton dynamics was studied during 1997 at the Punta Morales estuary, Gulf of Nicoya, Pacific coast of Costa Rica. The study covered dry season/transition and the rainy season. Phytoplankton (microphytoplankton > 30 microm and nanophytoplankton) were collected at two depths (50 and 10% light incidence) using a 5 L Niskin bottle, and samples taken to determine chlorophyll a. Temperature, salinity, oxygen, and Secchi depth were measured. Horizontal sub-surface zooplankton hauls were conducted with a conic zooplankton net of 0.49 m diameter and 280 microm mesh width, supplied with a flowmeter. Surface sea water temperature average was 29.9 +/- 0.9 degrees C, with a maximum of 31.5 degrees C in April and a minimun of 28 degrees C in March and October. Chlorophyll a concentration (phytoplankton net) averaged 3.1 +/- 1.7 mg/m3, with higher values during the rainy season and lower values during the transition. Nanophytoplankton chlorophyll a concentration averaged 2.5 +/- 1.2 mg/m3, with a maximum during the transition season. For both fractions there were significant differences between transition and rainy seasons, and for nanophytoplankton between dry and transition seasons (p < 0.05). In the last case, differences were explained by temperature. Herbivorous copepods dominated the abundance and biomass of zooplankton, with a biomass maximun of 167.3 in October and a minimun of 7.1 mg DW/m3 in December. These values are higher than those found some years ago in the same zone and those reported for some places in the Caribbean. The El Niño 1997-1998 phenomenon in the plankton dynamics appears to have produced a change in the phytoplankton structure. This is the first attempt to evaluate the possible impact of El Niño on the plankton dynamics of the Pacific coast of Central America.

  12. Molecular identification of Anisakis and Hysterothylacium larvae in marine fishes from the East China Sea and the Pacific coast of central Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Qingming; Fan, Lanfen; Zhang, Junhe; Akao, Nobuaki; Dong, Kewei; Lou, Di; Ding, Jianzu; Tong, Qunbo; Zheng, Bin; Chen, Rui; Ohta, Nobuo; Lu, Shaohong

    2015-04-16

    Anisakiasis is a human disease caused by the accidental ingestion of larvae belonging to the family Anisakidae. Three fish species, the small yellow croaker Pseudosciaena polyactis, the mackerel Pneumatophorus japonicus and the hairtail Trichiurus haumela are important source for food products in the East China Sea. The prevalence and the identification of Anisakidae larvae in these fishes will benefit the prevention and control of anisakiasis. In this study, fish samples were obtained from fish markers in the East China Sea and the Pacific coast of central Japan during April 2011 and July 2013. For species identification, the PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of the entire ITS region (ITS1, 5.8 S and ITS2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) was performed. In total, 2004 larvae were collected from 80 hairtail fish, 20 small yellow croaker, and 27 mackerel from the East China Sea and the Pacific coast of central Japan. High prevalence of Anisakidae larvae infection (116/122, 95.1%) was detected in the East China Sea. Seven species were identified belonging to the genera Anisakis (Nematoda: Anisakidae) and Hysterothylacium (Nematoda: Anisakidae). Anisakis pegreffii was the predominant species accounting for 84.8% of all larvae examined in East China Sea, while all Anisakidae larvae isolated from Japan were identified as Anisakis simplex sensu stricto (s.s.). In the East China Sea, A. simplex s.s. and Anisakis typica were 0.6% (4/619) and 1.5% (9/619) of the identified nematodes, respectively. Interestingly, one larva was identified as a recombinant genotype of A. simplex s.s. and A. pegreffii. In addition, four species of the genus Hysterothylacium, namely, Hysterothylacium amoyense (31/619, 5.0%), Hysterothylacium aduncum (10/619, 1.6%), Hysterothylacium fabri (21/619, 3.4%) and Hysterothylacium spp. (18/619, 2.9%) were also identified in the present study. This is a comprehensive epidemiological dataset for the family Anisakidae in

  13. A pandemic Vibrio parahaemolyticus O3:K6 clone causing most associated diarrhea cases in the Pacific Northwest coast of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio De Jesus Hernández-Díaz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Between September and October of 2004, more than 1230 cases of gastroenteritis due to pandemic O3:K6 strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus (V. parahaemolyticus were reported in the relatively small geographical area of Southern Sinaloa, a state located in Northwest Mexico. Since then, V. parahaemolyticus-associated gastroenteritis cases have gradually increased in prevalence spreading from south to north. The present study conducted an epidemiological surveillance of V. parahaemolyticus strains in both environmental and clinical samples along the Pacific coast of Sinaloa from 2011 to 2013. The genetic relatedness, serotype dominance and antibiotic resistance of isolates were investigated. A total of 46 strains were isolated from environmental samples (e.g., sediment, seawater and shrimp, whereas 249 strains were obtained from stools of patients with gastroenteritis. Nine different O serogroups and 16 serovars were identified. Serovars O3:K6 and O6:K46 were identified in both environmental and clinical strains. Whereas most environmental isolates carried the tdh gene (71.74%, 33/46, only three (6.52% belonged to pandemic clones (O3:K6, O3:KUT and OUT:KUT. In contrast, 81.1% (202/249 of clinical isolates belonged to pandemic serotypes, with O3:K6 (tdh, toxRS/new, and/or orf8 representing the predominant serovar (97%, 196/202. This prevalence of pathogenic (tdh and/or trh positive and O3:K6 pandemic V. parahaemolyticus isolates in this study were similar to those found from 2004-2010. As investigated by REP-PCR, genetic lineages of selected O3:K6 strains isolated in this study and some isolated earlier were nearly identical. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed that most strains (93.8% were resistant to ampicillin but sensitive to chloramphenicol (98.8%. Multidrug resistance significantly increased from 8.6% (2004-2010 to 22.93% (2011-2013 (p< 0.05. Our data indicate that pandemic O3:K6 clone has endemically established in the Pacific Coast of

  14. A pandemic Vibrio parahaemolyticus O3:K6 clone causing most associated diarrhea cases in the Pacific Northwest coast of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jesús Hernández-Díaz, Lucio; Leon-Sicairos, Nidia; Velazquez-Roman, Jorge; Flores-Villaseñor, Héctor; Guadron-Llanos, Alma M; Martinez-Garcia, J Javier; Vidal, Jorge E; Canizalez-Roman, Adrián

    2015-01-01

    Between September and October of 2004, more than 1230 cases of gastroenteritis due to pandemic O3:K6 strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus (V. parahaemolyticus) were reported in the relatively small geographical area of Southern Sinaloa, a state located in Northwest Mexico. Since then, V. parahaemolyticus-associated gastroenteritis cases have gradually increased in prevalence spreading from south to north. The present study conducted an epidemiological surveillance of V. parahaemolyticus strains in both environmental and clinical samples along the Pacific coast of Sinaloa from 2011 to 2013. The genetic relatedness, serotype dominance and antibiotic resistance of isolates were investigated. A total of 46 strains were isolated from environmental samples (e.g., sediment, seawater and shrimp), whereas 249 strains were obtained from stools of patients with gastroenteritis. Nine different O serogroups and 16 serovars were identified. Serovars O3:K6 and O6:K46 were identified in both environmental and clinical strains. Whereas most environmental isolates carried the tdh gene (71.74%, 33/46), only three (6.52%) belonged to pandemic clones (O3:K6, O3:KUT and OUT:KUT). In contrast, 81.1% (202/249) of clinical isolates belonged to pandemic serotypes, with O3:K6 (tdh, toxRS/new, and/or orf8) representing the predominant serovar (97%, 196/202). This prevalence of pathogenic (tdh and/or trh positive) and O3:K6 pandemic V. parahaemolyticus isolates in this study were similar to those found from 2004 to 2010. As investigated by REP-PCR, genetic lineages of selected O3:K6 strains isolated in this study and some isolated earlier were nearly identical. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed that most strains (93.8%) were resistant to ampicillin but sensitive to chloramphenicol (98.8%). Multidrug resistance significantly increased from 8.6% (2004-2010) to 22.93% (2011-2013; p < 0.05). Our data indicate that pandemic O3:K6 clone has endemically established in the Pacific Coast of

  15. [Establishment and development of Tabebuia rosea (Bignoniaceae) seedlings in a semideciduous tropical forest under management, Pacific coast of Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santacruz, Antonio Mora; Valdez Herández, Juan Ignacio; Angeles Pérez, Gregorio; Musálem Santiago, Miguel Angel; Vaquera Huerta, Humberto

    2006-12-01

    We evaluated the effect of soil "scarification" and vegetation clearing treatments on the natural regeneration and initial development of Tabebuia rosea (Bertold) DC. seedlings in a moderate sized semideciduous tropical forest subjected to wood harvesting on the coast of Jalisco, Mexico. The treatments were applied under "seed" trees, and the number of germinated seedlings and their development were evaluated for nine months. Soil "scarification" promoted seed germination and initial seedling development, while the control of the competing vegetation increased the seedling growth and reduced their mortality. These results should be taken into account for the natural regeneration of this species, after clearing, to improve wood production, and should be incorporated into the silvicultural techniques currently developed in the region.

  16. He and N isotopes in thermal springs of the Mexican Pacific coast: subducting slab, continental crust and mantle contributions to fluids of a forearc zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taran, Yuri; Inguaggiato, Salvatore; Varley, Nicholas; Ramirez Guzman, Alejandro

    2010-05-01

    Two oceanic plates are subducting beneath the continent along the Mexican Pacific coast: Cocos Plate south of Colima graben (~19°N) and a young Rivera Plate to the north of Colima graben. The trench is situated ~ 70 km from the shore line which is very close comparing with other continental margins. There are 26 groups of thermal springs between 16°N and 21°N, in a 30 km-wide zone along the coast. The temperature and salinity ranges are 40-90°C and 100-20,000 ppm, respectively. The springs are mainly of a low salinity ( 400, δ15N = +4.6‰, almost no CH4 ( 300, δ15N = +5‰ and 3He/4He = 0.4Ra. A number of hot and warm springs associated with Puerto Vallarta graben are characterized by high 3He/4He up to 4.5Ra, elevated N2/Ar and δ15N. The last group, Punta Mita hot springs (20° 46'N), are submarine vents, 10 m deep. Their gas has elevated CH4 content, high N2/Ar and 3He/4He = 0.4Ra. The results are discussed in several aspects: (1) Why this low heat flow zone is characterized by so high hydrothermal activity? (2) Does the elevated 3He/4He within Michoacan-Colima profile relate to the slab detachment associated with the contact between Cocos and Rivera plates? (3) Do high N2/Ar and δ15N above the Rivera Plate subduction indicate the forearc degassing of the accreted organic-rich oceanic sediments? (4) How to estimate the total flux of volatiles released in a forearc zone from the subducting slab?

  17. Reassessment of {sup 90}Sr in the Pacific Ocean and the coast off Japan derived from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castrillejo, M.; Masque, P. [Departament de Fisica i Institut de Ciencia i Tecnologia Ambientals, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Casacuberta, N. [Laboratory of Ion Beam Physics, HPK G26, Schafmattstrasse 20, ETH-Zuerich, CH-8093 Zuerich (Switzerland); Breier, C.; Pike, S.; Buesseler, K. [Department of Marine Chemistry and Geochemistry, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, MA02540 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    On 11 March 2011 the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant was badly damaged as a consequence of the Tohoku earthquake and subsequent tsunami, causing a large release of artificial radionuclides to the marine environment. Thereinafter, water was used to cool down the reactors, some of which directly entered the ocean via groundwater or leaks from the buildings. Large volumes of contaminated cooling water are generated each day, due to the influx of more than 300 tons of groundwater into the power plants. These contaminated waters are stored on site in large storage tanks, after having been treated using zeolite sorption for the removal of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs, and therefore are enriched in {sup 90}Sr compared to {sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs. Leakages from tanks led to {sup 90}Sr concentrations as high as 1000 Bq.L{sup -1} in waters sampled near the leaking tanks. Contaminated water from the trenches and tanks may reach the ocean, leading to further releases of {sup 90}Sr to the Pacific Ocean, and adding to the initial ca. 10{sup 2}-10{sup 3} TBq estimated until June 2011 (Casacuberta et al., 2013). Here we present an overview of the fate and distribution of Fukushima derived {sup 90}Sr in seawater in the Pacific Ocean from June 2011 to September 2013, resulting from samples collected during several research cruises covering transects between North America and Japan, as well as vertical profiles and groundwater near the coast of Fukushima (< 1 km from the power plants). We emphasize our study on the coastal region off Japan, where uptake in to the food web may pose a potential human health hazard due to the accumulation of {sup 90}Sr in seafood. Moreover, changes in the {sup 90}Sr/{sup 137}Cs ratio will be also investigated, as an indicator that might be a useful tool for tracking Fukushima contaminated waters in the Pacific Ocean. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  18. Wind wave spectra and meteorological data from FIXED PLATFORMS from the East/West coasts of US, North Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, Gulf of Alaska, Great Lakes, and other locations from 2002-08-01 to 2002-08-31 (NCEI Accession 0000785)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wind wave spectra and meteorological data were collected from FIXED PLATFORMS in the East/West coasts of US, North Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, Gulf of Alaska,...

  19. Wind wave spectra and meteorological data from FIXED PLATFORMS from the East/West coasts of US, North Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, Gulf of Alaska, Great Lakes, and other locations from 2002-03-01 to 2002-03-31 (NCEI Accession 0000716)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wind wave spectra and meteorological data were collected from FIXED PLATFORMS in the East/West coasts of US, North Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, Gulf of Alaska,...

  20. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from time series observations using Bubble type equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from the MOORINGS in the North Pacific Ocean and Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary from 2010-07-16 to 2013-01-18 (NODC Accession 0100072)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0100072 includes chemical, physical and time series data collected from MOORINGS in the North Pacific Ocean and Olympic Coast National Marine...

  1. Wind wave spectra and meteorological data from FIXED PLATFORMS from the East/West coasts of US, North Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, Gulf of Alaska, Great Lakes, and other locations from 01 September 2002 to 31 September 2002 (NODC Accession 0000799)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wind wave spectra and meteorological data were collected from FIXED PLATFORMS in the East/West coasts of US, North Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, Gulf of Alaska,...

  2. Wind wave spectra and meteorological data from FIXED PLATFORMS from the East/West coasts of US, North Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, Gulf of Alaska, Great Lakes, and other locations from 2002-06-01 to 2002-06-30 (NCEI Accession 0000771)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wind wave spectra and meteorological data were collected from FIXED PLATFORMS in the East/West coasts of US, North Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, Gulf of Alaska,...

  3. Wind wave spectra and meteorological data from FIXED PLATFORMS from the East/West coasts of US, North Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, Gulf of Alaska, Great Lakes, and other locations from 2002-07-01 to 2002-07-31 (NCEI Accession 0000773)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wind wave spectra and meteorological data were collected from FIXED PLATFORMS in the East/West coasts of US, North Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, Gulf of Alaska,...

  4. Wind wave spectra and meteorological data from FIXED PLATFORMS from the East/West coasts of US, North Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, Gulf of Alaska, Great Lakes, and other locations from 01 November 2002 to 31 November 2002 (NCEI Accession 0000835)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wind wave spectra and meteorological data were collected from FIXED PLATFORMS in the East/West coasts of US, North Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, Gulf of Alaska,...

  5. NOAA marine environmental buoy data from moored buoys from the US East/West coasts, South Pacific, Gulf of Mexico, and the Great Lakes of US and other locations from 2001-07-01 to 2001-07-31 (NODC Accession 0000587)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wind wave spectra and meteorological data were collected from the US East/West coasts, South Pacific, Gulf of Mexico, Great Lakes and other locations. Data were...

  6. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from time series observations using Bubble type equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from MOORINGS in the North Pacific Ocean and Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary from 2006-06-23 to 2013-09-05 (NODC Accession 0115322)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0115322 includes time series data collected from MOORINGS in the North Pacific Ocean and Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary from 2006-06-23 to...

  7. Wind wave spectra and meteorological data from FIXED PLATFORMS from the East/West coasts of US, North Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, Gulf of Alaska, Great Lakes, and other locations from 2002-04-01 to 2002-04-30 (NCEI Accession 0000726)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wind wave spectra and meteorological data were collected from FIXED PLATFORMS from the East/West coasts of US, North Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, Gulf of Alaska,...

  8. Wind wave spectra and meteorological data from FIXED PLATFORMS from the East/West coasts of US, North Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, Gulf of Alaska, Great Lakes, and other locations from 2002-05-01 to 2002-05-31 (NODC Accession 0000752)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wind wave spectra and meteorological data were collected from FIXED PLATFORMS in the East/West coasts of US, North Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, Gulf of Alaska,...

  9. Piscine Reovirus: Genomic and Molecular Phylogenetic Analysis from Farmed and Wild Salmonids Collected on the Canada/US Pacific Coast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Siah

    Full Text Available Piscine reovirus (PRV is a double stranded non-enveloped RNA virus detected in farmed and wild salmonids. This study examined the phylogenetic relationships among different PRV sequence types present in samples from salmonids in Western Canada and the US, including Alaska (US, British Columbia (Canada and Washington State (US. Tissues testing positive for PRV were partially sequenced for segment S1, producing 71 sequences that grouped into 10 unique sequence types. Sequence analysis revealed no identifiable geographical or temporal variation among the sequence types. Identical sequence types were found in fish sampled in 2001, 2005 and 2014. In addition, PRV positive samples from fish derived from Alaska, British Columbia and Washington State share identical sequence types. Comparative analysis of the phylogenetic tree indicated that Canada/US Pacific Northwest sequences formed a subgroup with some Norwegian sequence types (group II, distinct from other Norwegian and Chilean sequences (groups I, III and IV. Representative PRV positive samples from farmed and wild fish in British Columbia and Washington State were subjected to genome sequencing using next generation sequencing methods. Individual analysis of each of the 10 partial segments indicated that the Canadian and US PRV sequence types clustered separately from available whole genome sequences of some Norwegian and Chilean sequences for all segments except the segment S4. In summary, PRV was genetically homogenous over a large geographic distance (Alaska to Washington State, and the sequence types were relatively stable over a 13 year period.

  10. Population Subdivision of Japanese Flounder Paralichthys olivaceus in the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Japan Detected by Means of Mitochondrial Phylogenetic Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuya Shigenobu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with mitochondrial phylogenetic information of Japanese flounder in the Pacific coast of Tohoku Japan to estimate the genetic population subdivision that was undetectable by conventional population statistics. We determined complete sequences of mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit-2 (ND2 and subunit-5 (ND5 genes for 151 individuals from northern (Aomori and Iwate prefectures, 40–41°N and southern (Miyagi and Fukushima prefectures, 37–38°N waters. Samples from both waters showed high genetic diversity, including 126 haplotypes. These haplotypes were located at mixed and nested positions on an inferred phylogenetic tree, and traditional F-statistics indicated no significant population divergence (φST = −0.00335, p > 0.05, corroborating our previous study. Three variable sites, however, showed significant base composition heterogeneity between samples from the northern and southern waters (Fisher’s exact-test, p < 0.01. Nucleotide substitutions at the three sites converged on an apical clade, which consisted of the five southern individuals, whereas its sister clade consisted only of the three northern individuals. This phylogenetic information corroborates previous ecological studies indicating the presence of separate stocks in the northern and southern waters.

  11. Geomagnetic Diurnal Variations - Analysis in Space and Time Associated with the 2011 off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake (Mw9.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Katsumi; Han, Peng

    2017-04-01

    Recent studies have reported unusual behaviors of geomagnetic diurnal variation (GDV) in the vertical component prior to the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku earthquake (Mw 9.0). To make a better understanding of this phenomenon, time-spatial analysis of GDV has been applied in this study. Geomagnetic data of long term observations at 17 stations in Japan have been analyzed using the same method in Han et al. 2015. Ratios of diurnal variation range between the target station and the reference station KAK have been computed. After removing seasonal variations revealed by wavelet transform analysis, the 15-day mean values of the ratios in the vertical component shows a clear anomaly exceeding the statistical threshold about 2 months before the mega event in both ESA and MIZ stations in the Tohoku Region. Similar results could not be found in other regions of Japan. Spatial distributions of the ratios show a good agreement between the location of the anomalies and the epicenter of Mw 9.0 earthquake. These time-spatial results seem to be consistent with independent results obtained from other observations such as radon density, seismicity, and GPS displacements, which suggest the geomagnetic data might be useful in earthquake monitoring and disaster mitigation.

  12. Reproductive traits of the symbiotic pea crab Austinotheres angelicus (Crustacea, Pinnotheridae) living in Saccostrea palmula (Bivalvia, Ostreidae), Pacific coast of Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Moya, Carolina; Mena, Sebastián; Wehrtmann, Ingo S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Pea crabs of the family Pinnotheridae exhibit a symbiotic life style and live associated with a variety of different marine organisms, especially bivalves. Despite the fact that pea crabs can cause serious problems in bivalve aquaculture, the available information about the ecology of these crabs from Central America is extremely limited. Therefore, the present study aimed to describe different reproductive features of the pinnotherid crab Austinotheres angelicus associated with the oyster Saccostrea palmula in the Golfo de Nicoya, Pacific coast of Costa Rica. Monthly sampling was conducted from April to December 2012. Average carapace width (CW) of the 47 analyzed ovigerous females was 7.62 mm. The species produced on average 2677 ± 1754 recently -extruded embryos with an average volume of 0.020 ± 0.003 mm3; embryo volume increased during embryogenesis by 21%, but did not vary significantly between developmental stages. Brood mass volume varied greatly (between 11.7 and 236.7 mm3), and increased significantly with female CW. Females invested on average 76.7% (minimum: 21.7%; maximum: 162.8%) of their body weight in brood production, which confirms a substantially higher energy allocation for embryo production in pinnotherid crabs compared to free-living decapods. PMID:25561840

  13. Ecosystem Services of Tropical Dry Forests: Insights from Long-term Ecological and Social Research on the Pacific Coast of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Manuel Maass

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In the search for an integrated understanding of the relationships among productive activities, human well-being, and ecosystem functioning, we evaluated the services delivered by a tropical dry forest (TDF ecosystem in the Chamela Region, on the Pacific Coast of Mexico. We synthesized information gathered for the past two decades as part of a long-term ecosystem research study and included social data collected in the past four years using the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA conceptual framework as a guide. Here we identify the four nested spatial scales at which information has been obtained and emphasize one of them through a basin conceptual model. We then articulate the biophysical and socio-economic constraints and drivers determining the delivery of ecosystem services in the Region. We describe the nine most important services, the stakeholders who benefit from those services, and their degree of awareness of such services. We characterize spatial and temporal patterns of the services' delivery as well as trade-offs among services and stakeholders. Finally, we contrast three alternative future scenarios on the delivery of ecosystem services and human well-being. Biophysical and socioeconomic features of the study site strongly influence humanâˆ'ecosystem interactions, the ecosystem services delivered, the possible future trajectories of the ecosystem, and the effect on human well-being. We discuss future research approaches that will set the basis for an integrated understanding of humanâˆ'ecosystem interactions and for constructing sustainable management strategies for the TDF.

  14. Reproductive traits of the symbiotic pea crab Austinotheres angelicus (Crustacea, Pinnotheridae living in Saccostrea palmula (Bivalvia, Ostreidae, Pacific coast of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Salas-Moya

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Pea crabs of the family Pinnotheridae exhibit a symbiotic life style and live associated with a variety of different marine organisms, especially bivalves. Despite the fact that pea crabs can cause serious problems in bivalve aquaculture, the available information about the ecology of these crabs from Central America is extremely limited. Therefore, the present study aimed to describe different reproductive features of the pinnotherid crab Austinotheres angelicus associated with the oyster Saccostrea palmula in the Golfo de Nicoya, Pacific coast of Costa Rica. Monthly sampling was conducted from April to December 2012. Average carapace width (CW of the 47 analyzed ovigerous females was 7.62 mm. The species produced on average 2677 ± 1754 recently -extruded embryos with an average volume of 0.020 ± 0.003 mm3; embryo volume increased during embryogenesis by 21%, but did not vary significantly between developmental stages. Brood mass volume varied greatly (between 11.7 and 236.7 mm3, and increased significantly with female CW. Females invested on average 76.7% (minimum: 21.7%; maximum: 162.8% of their body weight in brood production, which confirms a substantially higher energy allocation for embryo production in pinnotherid crabs compared to free-living decapods.

  15. Hemocyte parameters of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas a year after the Hebei Spirit oil spill off the west coast of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaghy, Ludovic; Hong, Hyun-Ki; Lee, Hee-Jung; Jun, Je-Cheon; Park, Young-Je; Choi, Kwang-Sik

    2010-12-01

    In marine bivalves, hemocytes support various physiological functions, including immune defense, nutrient transport, shell repair, and homeostatic maintenance. Although the effects of marine contaminants on the immunological functions of bivalves have been extensively investigated, the impacts of oil spills are not well understood. Therefore, we investigated hemocyte parameters in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas 13 months after the Hebei Spirit oil spill (December 2007) off the west coast of Korea. The parameters studied included hemocyte concentration and mortality, relative proportion of hemocyte populations, and immunological functions such as phagocytosis and oxidative activity using flow cytometry. These immune-related parameters in oysters damaged by the oil spill were also compared to control oysters that were collected from an area unaffected by the spill. The flow cytometry study indicated that granulocyte population, phagocytic capacity, and reactive oxygen species production in oysters exposed to crude oil 13 months prior were depressed compared to the unexposed control oysters. Our data suggest that immunocompetence in oysters affected by the oil spill had not fully recovered 1 year after the accident, although more detailed studies on the physiology and disease resistance should be performed.

  16. Re-Evaluating the Geological Evidence for Late Holocene Marine Incursion Events along the Guerrero Seismic Gap on the Pacific Coast of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchette, Thomas A; McCloskey, Terrence A; Liu, Kam-Biu

    2016-01-01

    Despite the large number of tsunamis that impact Mexico's Pacific coast, stratigraphic studies focusing on geological impacts are scanty, making it difficult to assess the long-term risks for this vulnerable region. Surface samples and six cores were taken from Laguna Mitla near Acapulco to examine sedimentological and geochemical evidence for marine incursion events. Sediment cores collected from behind the beach barrier are dominated by intercalated layers of peat and inorganic sediments, mostly silt and clay, with little or no sand. Sand- and shell-rich clastic layers with high levels of sulfur, calcium, and strontium only occur adjacent to the relict beach ridge remnants near the center of the lagoon. With the exception of one thin fine sand layer, the absence of sand in the near-shore cores and the predominance of the terrigenous element titanium in the inorganic layers, evidently eroded from the surrounding hillslopes, suggests that these large-grained intervals do not represent episodic marine incursions, but rather were likely formed by the erosion and redeposition of older marine deposits derived from the beach ridge remnants when water levels were high. These results do not support the occurrence of a large tsunami event at Laguna Mitla during the Late Holocene.

  17. The phylogeny and life cycle of two species of Profilicollis (Acanthocephala: Polymorphidae) in marine hosts off the Pacific coast of Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, S M; D'Elía, G; Valdivia, N

    2017-09-01

    Resolving complex life cycles of parasites is a major goal of parasitological research. The aim of this study was to analyse the life cycle of two species of the genus Profilicollis, the taxonomy of which is still unstable and life cycles unclear. We extracted individuals of Profilicollis from two species of crustaceans (intermediate hosts) and four species of seagulls (definitive hosts) from sandy-shore and estuarine habitats along the south-east Pacific coast of Chile. Mitochondrial DNA analyses showed that two species of Profilicollis infected intermediate hosts from segregated habitats: while P. altmani larvae infected exclusively molecrabs of the genus Emerita from fully marine habitats, P. antarcticus larvae infected the crab Hemigrapsus crenulatus from estuarine habitats. Moreover, P. altmani completed its life cycle in four seagulls, Chroicocephalus maculipennis, Leucopheus pipixcan, Larus modestus and L. dominicanus, while P. antarcticus, on the other hand, completed its life cycle in the kelp gull L. dominicanus. Accordingly, our results show that two congeneric parasites use different and spatially segregated species as intermediate hosts, and both are capable of infecting one species of definitive hosts. As such, our analyses allow us to shed light on a complex interaction network.

  18. Re-Evaluating the Geological Evidence for Late Holocene Marine Incursion Events along the Guerrero Seismic Gap on the Pacific Coast of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchette, Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the large number of tsunamis that impact Mexico’s Pacific coast, stratigraphic studies focusing on geological impacts are scanty, making it difficult to assess the long-term risks for this vulnerable region. Surface samples and six cores were taken from Laguna Mitla near Acapulco to examine sedimentological and geochemical evidence for marine incursion events. Sediment cores collected from behind the beach barrier are dominated by intercalated layers of peat and inorganic sediments, mostly silt and clay, with little or no sand. Sand- and shell-rich clastic layers with high levels of sulfur, calcium, and strontium only occur adjacent to the relict beach ridge remnants near the center of the lagoon. With the exception of one thin fine sand layer, the absence of sand in the near-shore cores and the predominance of the terrigenous element titanium in the inorganic layers, evidently eroded from the surrounding hillslopes, suggests that these large-grained intervals do not represent episodic marine incursions, but rather were likely formed by the erosion and redeposition of older marine deposits derived from the beach ridge remnants when water levels were high. These results do not support the occurrence of a large tsunami event at Laguna Mitla during the Late Holocene. PMID:27571270

  19. Digitization characteristics of geothermal information and structural analysis of 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Ms9.0 earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Yajun; Chen Gangyi; Wei Ming; Ouyang Shoucheng

    2012-01-01

    Earthquake is one of the difficult problems that can not be solved as of this writing since the time when mod- em science was initiated over 300 years ago, and irregular events cannot be dealt with by using quantities examples before and followed by a view of the number of analysis systems in modem science ; meanwhile, it covers the problem that how to use changeable information. Structural analysis method is developed particularly for the study of evolutionary transitional processes of the changing events by employing irregular information, and emphasizes the primitiveness of changes in events. Based on the data of sounding observation every 08 o' clock and 20 o' clock per day from China Meteorological Administration, in this paper, we employ the digital structural analysis method to analyze the process of the special, structural characteristics of 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Ms9.0 earthquake. The result shows that the method can reflect the process of geothermal structures before and after earthquake; it can reflect the congruity between geothermal "heat level" and the level of earthquake energy. When the structure before the earthquake is "the counter clockwise rolling current and the unstable structures" with "dry in lower levels and wet in upper levels", we should be worry about the problem of earthquake. In a word, geothermal information could reveal that earthquakes really would be "heralded".

  20. Magnetic properties of surficial sediments in Lake Ogawara on the Pacific coast of northeastern Japan: spatial variability and correlation with brackish water stratification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashida, Akira; Nakano, Ryoma; Nagashima, Aya; Seto, Koji; Yamada, Kazuyoshi; Yonenobu, Hitoshi

    2015-10-01

    To examine limnological conditions in Lake Ogawara on the Pacific coast of northwestern Japan, we investigated the magnetic properties of dredged bottom sediment originally collected from the lake in the summer of 2011. We used non-destructive methods to measure the low-field magnetic susceptibility shortly after sampling, and anhysteretic remanent magnetization (ARM) was assessed in 2012 and 2015. The ARM acquisition and demagnetization curves from littoral sites showed several patterns that reflect the provenance of the sediments. At water depths below 10 m, the magnetic susceptibility and ARM of greenish black mud with high organic content decreased considerably with the increase in water depth, but ARM increased slightly at water depths greater than 16 m. We also found that the magnetic concentrations of mud samples were reduced markedly during a period of storage for about 3 years. We attributed these reductions to diagenetic loss of magnetic minerals, which had been enhanced at deeper sites. It is possible that the ARM carriers in deeper areas were derived from authigenic formation of iron sulfide or from deposition of suspended matter in the hypolimnion water. We propose that the magnetic properties of surficial sediments are controlled by limnological stratification of the brackish lake water, thus possibly providing an analog for down-core variations of magnetic parameters associated with the modification of magnetic minerals during reductive diagenesis.

  1. Highly Connected Populations and Temporal Stability in Allelic Frequencies of a Harvested Crab from the Southern Pacific Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Hernandez, Noemi; Veliz, David; Riveros, Marcela P; Fuentes, Juan P.; Pardo, Luis M.

    2016-01-01

    For marine invertebrates with a benthic adult form and a planktonic larva phase, the connectivity among populations is mainly based on larval dispersal. While an extended larval phase will promote gene flow, other factors such as an intensive fishery and geographical barriers could lead to changes in genetic variability. In this study, the population genetic structure of the commercial crab Metacarcinus edwardsii was analyzed along 700 km of the Chilean coast. The analysis, based on eight microsatellite loci genotyped from megalopae and adult crabs, considered temporal and spatial patterns of genetic variation. The results showed no evidence of spatial patterns in genetic structure, suggesting high connectivity among the sampling sites. The temporal analysis showed no evidence of changes in allele frequencies and no evidence of a recent bottleneck. The lack of spatial structure and allele variation over time could be explained by the interaction of factors such as i) low reproductive variance due to the capability of females to store sperm in the seminal receptacle, which can be used for successive broods, ii) high larval dispersal and iii) high individual reproductive output. Using our data as priors, a genetic modelling approach coincided, predicting this temporal and spatial stability. The same analysis showed that a reduction in population size leads to the loss of genetic variability in populations, as well as of the genetic cohesiveness between populations, pointing out the importance management for species under exploitation, such as M. edwardsii. PMID:27814382

  2. Environmental and spatial controls of macroinvertebrate functional assemblages in seagrass ecosystems along the Pacific coast of northern Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsumasa Yamada

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The relative contributions of environmental and spatial processes in macroinvertebrate community structure (i.e.,  β-diversity for three functional groups classified on the basis of dispersal ability and microhabitat selection (seagrass-associated [SA], drift-faunal [DF], and benthic-faunal [BF] groups were examined in a seagrass ecosystem along the Sanriku coast of Japan. Variation partitioning was conducted to explain the environmental heterogeneity and spatial arrangement of local communities (i.e., degree of variation in the community for each functional group. Processes determining community structure and metacommunity type differed among the functional groups. The SA group was under greater influence of environmental control, whereas the fractions of β-diversity in the DF and BF groups were explained by only spatial predictors. Thus, even if macroinvertebrate communities live in the same ecosystem, different mechanisms may determine the functional community structure, which depends on ecological traits such as dispersal ability and microhabitat. Ecological processes underlying community assembly differ among functional groups, indicating that the existence and/or dynamics of seagrass patches may affect the variation of faunal functions in an ecosystem.

  3. Regional monitoring programs in the United States: Synthesis of four case studies from Pacific, Atlantic, and Gulf Coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tango, Peter J.; Schiff, K.; Trowbridge, P.R.; Sherwood, E.T.; Batiuk, R.A.

    2016-01-01

    Water quality monitoring is a cornerstone of environmental protection and ambient monitoring provides managers with the critical data they need to take informed action. Unlike site-specific monitoring that is at the heart of regulatory permit compliance, regional monitoring can provide an integrated, holistic view of the environment, allowing managers to obtain a more complete picture of natural variability and cumulative impacts, and more effectively prioritize management actions. By reviewing four long-standing regional monitoring programs that cover portions of all three coasts in the United States – Chesapeake Bay, Tampa Bay, Southern California Bight, and San Francisco Bay – important insights can be gleaned about the benefits that regional monitoring provides to managers. These insights include the underlying reasons that make regional monitoring programs successful, the challenges to maintain relevance and viability in the face of ever-changing technology, competing demands and shifting management priorities. The lessons learned can help other managers achieve similar successes as they seek to establish and reinvigorate their own monitoring programs.

  4. Checklist of copepods from Gulf of Nicoya, Coronado Bay and Golfo Dulce, Pacific coast of Costa Rica, with comments on their distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Ramírez, A

    1996-12-01

    A list of 54 copepod species (Crustacea) in 23 families is presented for the Pacific coast of Costa Rica. Identifications are from zooplankton samples of the Victor Hensen Expedition during December 1993 and February 1994. Samples were taken with a Bongo net (0.60 m net opening, 2.50 m net length) with 200 microns mesh size. Oblique hauls were done from the surface to the ground at a towing speed of aprox. 1 knot. 37 species (68.5%) were found in the Gulf of Nicoya, 36 in Golfo Dulce (66.6%) and 17 (31.4%) species were common to both gulfs, while only twelve species (22.2%) were found in Coronado Bay. Four species (7.4%) were distributed along the coast and were common to the three regions: Paracalanus parvus, Euchaeta sp., Oithona plumifera and O. similis. Eleven species of calanoids found normally in the Costa Rica Dome show the influence of typical oceanic waters principally at the mouth of Gulf of Nicoya. Differences were observed in the composition and presence of the copepod species when the inner and outer (upper and lower) parts of both gulfs were compared. Gulf of Nicoya was dominated in its upper part by typical neritic estuarine species like Acartia lilljenborgii, Paracalanus parvus and, Hemyciclops thalassius as well as species of Pseudodiaptomus. On the other hand a more oceanic composition of copepods was observed in the lower part of the gulf. Both small species, like Oncaea venusta, as well as larger species, such as Pleuromamma robusta, Eucalanus attenuatus, E. elongatus and Rhincalanus nasutus, were typical of these waters. Oithona plumifera and O. similis were found in the lower part too; and both species are typical from oceanic water. Coronado Bay was characterized by the presence of typical oceanic species like Neocalanus gracilis, Euchaeta longicornis, Eucalanus attenuatus and Haloptilus ornatus with more transitional species like Clausocalanus pergens and C. furcatus near the coast. In the Golfo Dulce differences in copepod composition were

  5. Plutonium isotopes concentration in seawater and bottom sediment off the Pacific coast of Aomori sea area during 1991-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikawa, Shinji; Watabe, Teruhisa; Inatomi, Naohiko; Isoyama, Naohiko; Misonoo, Jun; Suzuki, Chiyoshi; Nakahara, Motokazu; Nakamura, Ryoichi; Morizono, Shigemitsu; Fujii, Seiji; Hara, Takeya; Kido, Katsutoshi

    2011-03-01

    A radioactivity survey was launched in 1991 to determine the background levels of ²³⁹+²⁴⁰Pu in the marine environment off a commercial spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plant before full operation of the facility. Particular attention was focused on the ²⁴⁰Pu/²³⁹Pu atom ratio in seawater and bottom sediment to identify the origins of Pu isotopes. The concentration of ²³⁹+²⁴⁰Pu was almost uniform in surface water, decreasing slowly over time. Conversely, the ²³⁹+²⁴⁰Pu concentration varied markedly in the bottom water and was dependent upon the sampling point, with higher concentrations of ²³⁹+²⁴⁰Pu observed in the bottom water sample at sampling points having greater depth. The ²⁴⁰Pu/²³⁹Pu atom ratio in the seawater and sediment samples was higher than that of global fallout Pu, and comparable with the data in the other sea area around Japan which has likely been affected by close-in fallout Pu originating from the Pacific Proving Grounds. The ²⁴⁰Pu/²³⁹Pu atom ratio in bottom sediment samples decreased with sea depth. The land-originated Pu is not considered as the reason of the increasing ²³⁹+²⁴⁰Pu concentration and also decreasing the ²⁴⁰Pu/²³⁹Pu atom ratio with sea depth, and further study is required to clarify it.

  6. Ictioplancton en la zona costera del Pacífico colombiano durante la fase terminal de El Niño 2006-2007 Ichthyoplankton from the colombian Pacific coastal zone during the terminal phase of El Niño 2006-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulia Isabel Martínez-Aguilar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se utilizó una combinación de índices univariados, análisis gráficos y técnicas multivariadas para analizar cualitativa y cuantitativamente la composición taxonómica, estructura comunitaria y patrón de distribución espacial del ictioplancton en la región costera del Pacífico colombiano (zona de influencia de la Corriente de Colombia, considerando simultáneamente el grado de relación con los factores ambientales de temperatura, salinidad y clorofila-a durante la fase terminal del período cálido ENOS 2006-2007. En total se colectaron 543 larvas de peces, pertenecientes a 87 especies de 37 familias, destacándose por su abundancia la familia Myctophidae (26% y Bregmacerotidae (17%. La variabilidad espacial de la abundancia y de las variables abióticas analizadas sugieren una alta homogeneidad biótica (ictioplancton y abiótica en la zona de estudio. Sin embargo, al comparar los resultados obtenidos durante esta investigación con trabajos previos, se estableció que El Niño 2006-2007 afectó drásticamente la estructura y abundancia del ictioplancton en la zona costera del Pacífico colombiano, confirmando además que la Corriente Colombia es el principal agente modulador de la distribución espacial de ictioplancton en esta región.In this research a combination of univariate index, descriptive analysis and multivariate techniques were carried out in order to describe the icthyoplankton taxonomic composition, community structure, spatial pattern of distribution in the coastal region of Colombia Pacific (Influence zone of the Colombian Current, considering simultaneously the grade with the environmental factors temperature, salinity and chlorophyll-a during the terminal phase of ENSO 2006-2007. 543 fish larvae were collected, belonging to 87 species of 37 families. The most abundant families were Myctophidae (26% and Bregmacerotidae (17%. The spatial distribution of icthyoplankton and abiotic parameter demonstrate a high biotic

  7. Geochemistry of soils along a transect from Central Mexico to the Pacific Coast: a pilot study for continental-scale geochemical mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiprés, J.A.; de la Calleja,; Tellez, J.I.; Jiménez, F.; Cruz, Carlos; Guerrero, E.G.; Castro, J.; Monroy, M.G.; Salinas, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    The Mexican Geological Survey (SGM), the National Institute of Statistics, Geography and Informatics (INEGI) and the Autonomous University of San Luis Potosi (UASLP) have established a multidisciplinary team with the objective of creating a national program of geochemical mapping of soils in Mexico. This is being done as part of the North American Soil Geochemical Landscapes Project in partnership with the US Geological Survey and the Geological Survey of Canada. As the first step, a pilot study was conducted over a transect that extends from the Mexico–US border near Ciudad Juarez in the north to the Pacific Ocean in the south. This pilot transect was conducted in two phases, and this paper presents results from the first phase, which sampled soils at about a 40-km spacing along a 730-km transect beginning in Central Mexico and ending at the Pacific Coast. Samples were collected from the A and C horizons at each site and 60 elements were analyzed. This pilot study demonstrates that geochemical mapping based on a 40-km spacing is adequate to identify broad-scale geochemical patterns. Geologic influence (i.e., soil parent material) was the most important factor influencing the distribution of elements along the transect, followed by the influence of regional mineralization. The study also showed that influence by human activities over the transect is minimal except possibly in large mining districts. A comparison of element abundance in the A horizon with the environmental soil guidelines in Mexico showed that the natural concentrations of the studied soils were lower than the established threshold for soil restoration with the exception of V and As. The former had a median value (75 mg/kg) approximately equal to the value established in Mexico for soil restoration in agricultural and residential lands (78 mg/kg), and the latter had three values higher than the 22 mg/kg threshold for soil restoration in agricultural and residential lands. These cases demonstrate

  8. Dynamics in benthic community composition and influencing factors in an upwelling-exposed coral reef on the Pacific coast of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Stuhldreier

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal upwelling at the northern Pacific coast of Costa Rica offers the opportunity to investigate the effects of pronounced changes in key water parameters on fine-scale dynamics of local coral reef communities. This study monitored benthic community composition at Matapalo reef (10.539°N, 85.766°W by weekly observations of permanent benthic quadrats from April 2013 to April 2014. Monitoring was accompanied by surveys of herbivore abundance and biomass and measurements of water temperature and inorganic nutrient concentrations. Findings revealed that the reef-building corals Pocillopora spp. exhibited an exceptional rapid increase from 22 to 51% relative benthic cover. By contrast, turf algae cover decreased from 63 to 24%, resulting in a corresponding increase in crustose coralline algae cover. The macroalga Caulerpa sertularioides covered up to 15% of the reef in April 2013, disappeared after synchronized gamete release in May, and subsequently exhibited slow regrowth. Parallel monitoring of influencing factors suggest that C. sertularioides cover was mainly regulated by their reproductive cycle, while that of turf algae was likely controlled by high abundances of herbivores. Upwelling events in February and March 2014 decreased mean daily seawater temperatures by up to 7 °C and increased nutrient concentrations up to 5- (phosphate and 16-fold (nitrate compared to mean values during the rest of the year. Changes in benthic community composition did not appear to correspond to the strong environmental changes, but rather shifted from turf algae to hard coral dominance over the entire year of observation. The exceptional high dynamic over the annual observation period encourages further research on the adaptation potential of coral reefs to environmental variability.

  9. Upwelling increases net primary production of corals and reef-wide gross primary production along the Pacific coast of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines eStuhldreier

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthetic production is a key ecosystem service provided by tropical coral reefs, but knowledge about the contribution of corals and other reef-associated organisms and the controlling environmental factors is scarce. Locations with occurrence of upwelling events can serve as in-situ laboratories to investigate the impact of environmental variability on production rates of reef-associated organisms. This study investigated individual and reef-wide net (Pn and gross primary production (Pg for the dominant autotrophic benthic organisms (hard corals Pocillopora spp., crustose coralline algae (CCA, turf algae, and the macroalga Caulerpa sertularioides associated with a coral reef along the Pacific coast of Costa Rica. Oxygen fluxes by these organisms were measured at a weekly to monthly resolution over one year (May 2013 - April 2014 via in-situ chamber incubations. The influence of simultaneously measured environmental parameters (temperature, light, inorganic nutrient concentrations, dissolved and particulate organic matter concentrations on Pn of the different taxa were tested via linear model fitting. Turf algae showed highest individual Pn and Pg rates per organism surface area (35 and 49 mmol O2 m-² h-1, followed by Pocillopora spp. (16 and 25 mmol O2 m-² h-1, CCA (9 and 15 mmol O2 m-² h-1 and C. sertularioides (8 and 11 mmol O2 m-² h-1. Under upwelling conditions (February – April 2014, Pn rates of all algal taxa remained relatively uniform despite high nutrient availability, Pn of corals increased by 70 %. On an ecosystem level, corals on average contributed 60 % of total Pn and Pg per reef area (73 and 98 mmol O2 m-² h-1, respectively due to high benthic coverage, followed by turf algae (25 %. Under upwelling conditions, reef-wide Pg increased by >40 %, indicating acclimatization of local reef communities to upwelling conditions.

  10. Radioactive zinc ( sup 65 Zn), zinc, cadmium, and mercury in the Pacific Hake, Merluccius productus (Ayres), off the West Coast of the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naidu, J.R.

    1974-06-01

    The Pacific Hake, Merluccius productus (Ayers) was used to monitor the waters off Puget Sound and the West Coast of the US for zinc(Zn), cadmium(Cd), mercury(Hg) and {sup 65}Zn. The Columbia River is not the source of Zn, Cd or Hg contamination, but is the source of {sup 65}Zn, with the concentration in the Hake reflecting the position of the Columbia River plume. Zn and Cd accumulation in the Hake were fit to the equation Y=B{sub 1}+B{sub 2}e{sup B}{sub 3}X where Y is the concentration of the element and X is the length or weight of the fish. Biological attributes were assigned to the other parameters as follows: B{sub 1} is the asymptotic value for Zn or Cd at chemical maturity; B{sub 2} is the location of the curve with respect to the length or weight of the fish; and B{sub 3} is a constant pertaining to the rate of change of Zn or Cd. Although Zn, Cd and Hg are all Group 2B elements, only the concentrations of Zn and Cd were correlated for all locations; Hg concentrations varied as a function of location. Zn and Cd concentrations increase with fish size and approach an asymptotic value at maturity, while Hg concentrations were linear and the slope is a function of sampling location. Zn and Cd levels are regulated in the adult, while Hg continues to increase with age. It may be significant that the age distribution of fish caught commercially coincides with the maximum concentration of Zn and Cd. 195 refs., 30 figs., 10 tabs. (MHB)

  11. Monitoring of the Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of the Floods in the Guayas Watershed (Ecuadorian Pacific Coast Using Global Monitoring ENVISAT ASAR Images and Rainfall Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Frappart

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The floods are an annual phenomenon on the Pacific Coast of Ecuador and can become devastating during El Niño years, especially in the Guayas watershed (32,300 km2, the largest drainage basin of the South American western side of the Andes. As limited information on flood extent in this basin is available, this study presents a monitoring of the spatio-temporal dynamics of floods in the Guayas Basin, between 2005 and 2008, using a change detection method applied to ENVISAT ASAR Global Monitoring SAR images acquired at a spatial resolution of 1 km. The method is composed of three steps. First, a supervised classification was performed to identify pixels of open water present in the Guayas Basin. Then, the separability of their radar signature from signatures of other classes was determined during the four dry seasons from 2005 to 2008. In the end, standardized anomalies of backscattering coefficient were computed during the four wet seasons of the study period to detect changes between dry and wet seasons. Different thresholds were tested to identify the flooded areas in the watershed using external information from the Dartmouth Flood Observatory. A value of −2.30 ± 0.05 was found suitable to estimate the number of inundated pixels and limit the number of false detection (below 10%. Using this threshold, monthly maps of inundation were estimated during the wet season (December to May from 2004 to 2008. The most frequently inundated areas were found to be located along the Babahoyo River, a tributary in the east of the basin. Large interannual variability in the flood extent is observed at the flood peak (from 50 to 580 km2, consistent with the rainfall in the Guayas watershed during the study period.

  12. Dynamics in benthic community composition and influencing factors in an upwelling-exposed coral reef on the Pacific coast of Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuhldreier, Ines; Sánchez-Noguera, Celeste; Roth, Florian; Jiménez, Carlos; Rixen, Tim; Cortés, Jorge; Wild, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Seasonal upwelling at the northern Pacific coast of Costa Rica offers the opportunity to investigate the effects of pronounced changes in key water parameters on fine-scale dynamics of local coral reef communities. This study monitored benthic community composition at Matapalo reef (10.539°N, 85.766°W) by weekly observations of permanent benthic quadrats from April 2013 to April 2014. Monitoring was accompanied by surveys of herbivore abundance and biomass and measurements of water temperature and inorganic nutrient concentrations. Findings revealed that the reef-building corals Pocillopora spp. exhibited an exceptional rapid increase from 22 to 51% relative benthic cover. By contrast, turf algae cover decreased from 63 to 24%, resulting in a corresponding increase in crustose coralline algae cover. The macroalga Caulerpa sertularioides covered up to 15% of the reef in April 2013, disappeared after synchronized gamete release in May, and subsequently exhibited slow regrowth. Parallel monitoring of influencing factors suggest that C. sertularioides cover was mainly regulated by their reproductive cycle, while that of turf algae was likely controlled by high abundances of herbivores. Upwelling events in February and March 2014 decreased mean daily seawater temperatures by up to 7 °C and increased nutrient concentrations up to 5- (phosphate) and 16-fold (nitrate) compared to mean values during the rest of the year. Changes in benthic community composition did not appear to correspond to the strong environmental changes, but rather shifted from turf algae to hard coral dominance over the entire year of observation. The exceptional high dynamic over the annual observation period encourages further research on the adaptation potential of coral reefs to environmental variability.

  13. Colombian ADRs: Why so few?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano González

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We address the question of why Colombian companies have had such a limited presence in the American Depositary Receipts (ADRs market. Traditional explanations state that weak investor protection and the degree of economic and financial development in Colombia increase the cost of entry in the ADR market. However, in the case of Colombia these explanations do not suffice because in these respects Colombia is no different from other Latin American countries. Using a theoretical model, we show that additional factors such as drug trafficking and armed conflict better explain why Colombian firms have moved away from the ADRs market

  14. Composición y análisis taxonómico de la íctiofauna del golfo de Tribugá, Pacífico norte de Colombia Composition and taxonomic analysis of the fish fauna in the Gulf of Tribugá, northern Colombian Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Tobón-López

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó el análisis taxonómico y estructural de la comunidad íctica del golfo Tribugá zona norte del Pacífico colombiano, a partir de información recopilada mediante diferentes artes de pesca (volantín, espinel, trasmallo, barco arrastrero, arpón, atarraya e identificación visual con equipo de buceo autónomo. Se registraron 191 especies agrupadas en 21 órdenes y 68 familias. Los artes de pesca utilizados de manera sistemática y consecutiva durante el período de muestreo fueron la línea de mano y el espinel, capturando 71 y 47 especies respectivamente. Los análisis de las capturas se basaron solamente en los registros con estos dos artes de pesca. Se estableció que la familia Carangidae fue la mejor representada con el 8,9% del total de especies, seguida por Serranidae con 6,3% y Lutjanidae con el 4,2%. Estas familias junto con la Scombridae y Ophidiidae son las de mayor aporte numérico, biomasa, importancia comercial, y valor alimentario para las comunidades humanas asentadas en la zona de estudio. Las diez especies más capturadas durante el muestreo fueron la patiseca (Euthynnus lineatus, sierra (Scomberomorus sierra, chema (Epinephelus acanthistius, merluza (Brotula clarkae, pargo lunarejo (Lutjanus guttatus, pargo amarillo (Lutjanus argentiventris, bravo (Serióla rivoliana, jurel (Caranx caninus, burique (Caranx caballus, y ojote (Selar crumenophthalmus. Se reporta por primera vez para el Pacífico norte colombiano Schedophilus haedrichi (familia Centrolophidae.A taxonomical and structural analysis of the fish community in the Gulf of Tribugá, northern Colombian Pacific, was done based on information from different artisanal fishing techniques (hand lines, long lines, gillnets, trawl nets, harpoons, throw nets and visual identification by scuba diving. As many as 191 species were registered, belonging to 21 orders and 68 families. Hand lines (71 species and long lines (41 species were used systematically and

  15. West Coast Regional Office Permits

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Fisheries implemented a license limitation program for the trawl and fixed gear sectors of Pacific Coast commercial groundfish fishery on January 1, 1993. The...

  16. Estudio sociológico y del conocimiento de los factores de riesgo de las enfermedades cardiovasculares en la Costa Caribe Colombiana (Estudio Caribe Sociological study for detection of risk factors of cardiovascular diseases in the Colombian Caribbean Coast population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzur Fernando

    2005-09-01

    de los factores de riesgo para las enfermedades cardiovasculares correlacionándolas con la edad, lo cual permite empezar a adoptar y modificar el estilo de vida para disminuir los riesgos de las enfermedades cardiovasculares.Introduction and objectives: the objective of this study was to evaluate the knowledge that the population has about the risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and to study the prevalence percentages of these factors in the colombian Caribbean population. Methodology: we took a randomized representative sample of 2023 patients through a systematic test in the city of Cartagena and nearby towns, totalizing an approximate population of 1’200.000 people who were reported and correlated to the following items: age, sex, educational level, cigarette smoking, arterial pressure, diabetes, cholesterol, triglycerides (dyslipidemia, alcoholism, stress (anxiety-depression, obesity, electrocardiogram, myocardial infarction, sedentary life, cardiovascular disease inheritance, patients under cardiovascular treatment, angina and heart failure. Results: as a result of a total of 2.023 surveys, the mean age was of 47 years. 59,7% were women and 40,3% men. According to the educational level, 32% had primary education, 19,9% were professionals, and 20,6% technicians. 25,1% had dyslipidemia (elevated cholesterol and/or triglycerides. 11,8% had diabetes. 21% were obese and 10,1% had had an anginous episode. Only 7% had heart failure and 1,4% had had myocardial infarction. 15,4% were cigarette smokers; 5,1% had ECG abnormalities; 24,2% had stress episodes and an elevated percentage, 37,4% had a sedentary life. Conclusion: the prevalence of risk factors in this study is similar to the reported in other studies in occidental countries. We found a significant difference in the sedentary life according to educational levels. We noticed an increment of the risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in correlation to age; this allows us to adopt measures in order to

  17. Recovery of wild Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas in terms of reproduction and gametogenesis two-years after the Hebei Spirit Oil Spill Accident off the West Coast of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondol, Mostafizur Rahman; Keshavmurthy, Shashank; Lee, Hee-Jung; Hong, Hyun-Ki; Park, Heung-Sik; Park, Sang-Rul; Kang, Chang-Keun; Choi, Kwang-Sik

    2015-12-01

    The Hebei Spirit oil spill in December 2007 at Taean off the west coast of Korea was the largest oil tanker accident in Korea. However, the impact of the spill on physiology of benthic animals remains largely unknown. Two-years after the accident, we compared reproductive effort and annual gametogenesis of the wild Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas, residing at oil spill site with a control oyster population in Incheon Bay, North-West coast of Korea. Results showed that the oyster sampled from the oil spill site showed a significantly higher (279.0 mg standard animal-1, Panimal-1, Panimal-1, Panimal-1, Panimal-1, Panimal-1, Pphysiological status to normal level after two years of the oil spill accident.

  18. From Coast to Coast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Asia-Pacific economic integration seems destined to take on new dimensions.On March 15,officials from eight nations began talks in Melbourne,Australia,on the expansion of a trans-Pacific free trade agreement.The United States,Australia,Peru and Viet Nam are seeking to join the Trans-Pacific Partnership(TPP),which already includes Chile,Singapore,New Zealand and Brunei.

  19. Comparative biomass spectra and species composition of the zooplankton communities in Golfo Dulce and Golfo de Nicoya, Pacific coast of Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Wangelin, M; Wolff, M

    1996-12-01

    This study is based on a subset of plankton samples obtained during an expedition of the German RV Victor Hensen to the Pacific coast of Costa Rica in 1993/94. It aims at the identification of the main plankton taxa for a general description and comparison of the plankton communities of the gulf systems Golfo de Nicoya (GN) and Golfo Dulce (GD) and the analysis of biomass spectra at inshore and offshore stations at the end of the rainy season and during the dry season. Inshore plankton biomass was significantly higher in GN than GD and exceeded offshore biomass several times, while in the GD area the reverse was found. In the rainy season, inshore biomass spectra of GN and GD were discontinuous with biomass concentrations at small sizes (around 0.06 mg) suggesting little developed communities, with highest production and energy use occurring in the small organisms. From the rainy to the dry season inshore species richness increased in both gulf systems and a shift was observed towards the larger size groups resulting in more continuous biomass spectra. In GN, bivalve larvae, foraminifers, ostracods, mysids and nauplii increase heavily in abundance and some gelatinous specimens occur. In GD, gelatinous zooplankton appears in enormous abundance and dominate the community biomass, followed by large chaetognaths and ostracods. In GD, inshore plankton has neritic and oceanic elements and differs less from the offshore plankton, whereas in GN, inshore plankton in largely neritic. The high abundance of fish eggs and invertebrate larvae suggest that this area is an important spawning ground. While in the rainy season inshore biomass was about 15 times higher in GN compared to GD, this difference was reduced to 3-4 times in the dry season due to the appearance of the large predators mentioned above. The changes from the rainy to the dry season at the offshore stations of both gulf systems are less pronounced in terms of total biomass, shape of the biomass spectra and

  20. A Comparative Analysis of Genetic Ancestry and Admixture in the Colombian Populations of Chocó and Medellín.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Andrew B; Rishishwar, Lavanya; Norris, Emily T; Valderrama-Aguirre, Augusto; Mariño-Ramírez, Leonardo; Medina-Rivas, Miguel A; Jordan, I King

    2017-09-06

    At least twenty percent of Colombians identify as having African ancestry, yielding the second largest population of Afro-descendants in Latin America. To date, there have been relatively few studies focused on the genetic ancestry of Afro-Latino populations. We report a comparative analysis of the genetic ancestry of Chocó, a state located on Colombia's Pacific coast with a population that is >80% Afro-Colombian. We compared genome-wide patterns of genetic ancestry and admixture for Chocó to six other admixed American populations, with an emphasis on a Mestizo population from the nearby Colombian city of Medellín. One hundred sample donors from Chocó were genotyped across 610,545 genomic sites and compared to 94 publicly available whole genome sequences from Medellín. At the continental level, Chocó shows mostly African genetic ancestry (76%) with a nearly even split between European (13%) and Native American (11%) fractions, whereas Medellín has primarily European ancestry (75%), followed by Native American (18%) and African (7%). Sample donors from Chocó self-identify as having more African ancestry, and conversely less European and Native American ancestry, than can be genetically inferred, as opposed to what we previously found for Medellín, where individuals tend to over-estimate levels of European ancestry. We developed a novel approach for subcontinental ancestry assignment, which allowed us to characterize subcontinental source populations for each of the three distinct continental ancestry fractions separately. Despite the clear differences between Chocó and Medellín at the level of continental ancestry, the two populations show overall patterns of subcontinental ancestry that are highly similar. Their African subcontinental ancestries are only slightly different, with Chocó showing more exclusive shared ancestry with the modern Yoruba (Nigerian) population and Medellín having relatively more shared ancestry with West African populations in

  1. From Coast to Coast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Asia-Pacific economic integration seems destined to take on new dimensions. On March 15, officials from eight nations began talks in Melbourne, Australia, on the expansion of a trans-Pacific free trade agreement. The United States, Australia, Peru and Viet Nam are

  2. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from Marcus G. Langseth in the North Pacific Ocean, Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary and South China Sea from 2012-05-13 to 2012-08-26 (NCEI Accession 0144304)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144304 includes Surface underway data collected from Marcus G. Langseth in the North Pacific Ocean, Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary and South...

  3. Demersal crustacean assemblages along the Pacific coast of Costa Rica: a quantitative and multivariate assessment based on the Victor Hensen Costa Rica expedition (1993/1994).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesse, S

    1996-12-01

    During the first cruise leg with the RV Victor Hensen to the Pacific coast of Costa Rica in December 1993 (end of the rainy season) the crustacean fauna found in the demersal collections revealed an unexpected species richness and biomass. The Crustacea collections were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively during the fourth leg (February 1994, dry season) in the three study areas Golfo Dulce (GD), Bahía Coronado in the Sierpe-Térraba-estuary (ST) and Golfo de Nicoya (GN). Qualitative data were available for comparison from the first leg in december 1993. A total of 24 beamtrawl and ten ottertrawl sample collections were done on an area of 860.000 m2 yielding a total of 119 species with a biomass of 37.8 kg (10275 specimens). Despite the smaller area covered by the beamtrawl, it collected a higher number of species and more biomass than the ottertrawl due to the smaller mesh size (0.8 cm). Judging from the shape of the species -per-area-curves, the crustacean fauna appeared as representatively sampled for the study area. As compared with the GN (biomass 0.36 g +/- 0.26, SR = 97) and the ST (0.41 g +/- 0.27, SR = 59) and according to the results of the log-series-plots constructed from the abundance data, the GD seems to be a depauperated area with significantly lower biomass (0.05 g +/- 0.07) and species richness (45 sp.). No crustaceans were found in the center of the deep basin of the GD put parts of the interior gulf with adjacent mangrove areas seem to be important as nursery area for some commercially important penaeid shrimp species. The ST-estuary revealed the highest mean species number per station in the whole study area, but the GN had the highest total number of species. Biomass seems to be regularly distributed and not depth-depending within the GN, while species abundance varies clearly, confirming previous results. In contrast, abundance and biomass correlated well in the ST. Based on the results of the multivariate analysis, seven station

  4. Seismic activities of earthquake clusters and small repeating earthquakes in Japan before and after the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, T.

    2011-12-01

    The 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku earthquake (M9.0) had a great effect on seismic activities over vast areas. In this study, we investigated spatio-temporal changes of seismic activities of earthquake clusters and small repeating earthquakes before and after the main shock. We have already reported many small repeating earthquakes occur at the upper boundary of the subducting plates in Japan. From these sequences, we can estimate the space-time characteristics of the inter-plate slip. In the 21st century, the resultant slip-rates correspond to relative plate motion in the Ryukyu-arc. In contrast, the shallow part and the southern part of the northeastern Japan arc indicated slip deficits. There were few after-slips following the 2005 off Miyagi earthquake (M7.2), which located near the hypocenter of the 2011 main shock. On the other hand, slip deficits of the southern shallow part were slightly decreased by after-slips following the 2003 and 2008 M7 class earthquakes. We also identified quasi-static slips associated with foreshocks off Miyagi that started from February 2011. After the main shock, we detect many small repeating earthquakes in the aftershocks. The distributions suggest after-slips near the trench of the southeastern part as well as in the deep part of the source region estimated by GPS data analysis. However, some of them are burst-type repeating sequences which occurred only after the main shock. Many continual-type repeating sequences are distributed in the southern part of the source region, and it is difficult to estimate slip-rates in the northern part at present. This uneven distribution may have been caused because observed seismograms are distorted by the multiplicity of the waves to come from various locations, the seismic velocity changes at the propagation path or site, or changes of physical properties at the plate interface. Furthermore, we automatically extracted earthquake clusters by using the unified JMA hypocenter catalogue

  5. Water column (CTD) profiles taken off the Oregon coast during the 2007 International Pacific Halibut Commission (IPHC) setline survey (NODC Accession 0042046)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. West Coast has experienced a hypoxic event every year since 2002. This low dissolved oxygen condition clearly impacts the organisms living there, but it is...

  6. Colombian and Venezuelan coal: where to now?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-04-01

    The US market has been accounting for 25% of Colombian exports and 30% from Venezuela, which is one third of their coal exports into the US. So for South American producers, US imports are now a major influence. The article reviews the production plans of the major Colombian and Venezuelan mines and assesses the market outlook for the rest of 2002. 3 figs.

  7. Pacific Hake - Growth and natal origin of Pacific hake from the Georgia Basin DPS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Pacific hake (Merluccius productus) is an abundant species residing along the Pacific coast from the Gulf of California to the Strait of Georgia. It is the most...

  8. Satellite sea surface temperatures along the West Coast of the United States during the 2014-2016 northeast Pacific marine heat wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentemann, Chelle L.; Fewings, Melanie R.; García-Reyes, Marisol

    2017-01-01

    From January 2014 to August 2016, sea surface temperatures (SSTs) along the Washington, Oregon, and California coasts were significantly warmer than usual, reaching a maximum SST anomaly of 6.2°C off Southern California. This marine heat wave occurred alongside the Gulf of Alaska marine heat wave and resulted in major disturbances in the California Current ecosystem and massive economic impacts. Here we use satellite and blended reanalysis products to report the magnitude, extent, duration, and evolution of SSTs and wind stress anomalies along the West Coast of the continental United States during this event. Nearshore SST anomalies along the entire coast were persistent during the marine heat wave, and only abated seasonally, during spring upwelling-favorable wind stress. The coastal marine heat wave weakened in July 2016 and disappeared by September 2016.

  9. 76 FR 33641 - Safety Zone; The Pacific Grove Feast of Lanterns, Fireworks Display, Pacific Grove, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-09

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; The Pacific Grove Feast of Lanterns... Lovers Point, in Pacific Grove, California in support of the Pacific Grove Feast of Lanterns Fireworks... regulations must be in effect during the event. Basis and Purpose Pacific Grove Feast of Lanterns will...

  10. PAC_CLC: Calculated seabed data for the continental margin of the U.S. Pacific Coast (California, Oregon, Washington) from usSEABED (pac_clc.txt)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data layer (PAC_CLC.txt) is one of five point coverages of known sediment samples, inspections, and probes from the usSEABED data collection for the U.S Pacific...

  11. PAC_CLC: Calculated seabed data for the continental margin of the U.S. Pacific Coast (California, Oregon, Washington) from usSEABED (pac_clc.txt)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data layer (PAC_CLC.txt) is one of five point coverages of known sediment samples, inspections, and probes from the usSEABED data collection for the U.S Pacific...

  12. Understanding the Colombian security situation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ossa, C.

    1997-05-05

    Colombia is notorious for its violence. Lack of security can be related to: irregular war, social decay and a weak state. High poverty levels lead to a lack of respect for the law. Thus, drug dealing and kidnapping have become prominent in Colombian society with little hope of redress. State weakness means that crime remains uncontrolled, and Maxist guerillas have been unopposed by state forces. This has given rise to vigilantism in the form of paramilitaries, who simply add to the lawlessness. So far the international coal industry has been selectively protected by government troops and policies but the general chaos in society is increasingly likely to penetrate even these heavily defended enclaves, as the fundamental problems in Colombian society are as present in the coal areas as in society at large. Presidential elections are in process. The new government will either have to tackle lawlessness throughout the country or the coal industry may have to withdraw as paramilitaries escalate violence in the coal districts. 1 tab.

  13. New specimens and records of chondrichthyan fishes (Vertebrata: Chondrichthyes off the Mexican Pacific coast Nuevos ejemplares y nuevos registros de peces cartilaginosos (Vertebrata: Chondrichthyes de la costa del Pacífico mexicano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorgonio Ruiz-Campos

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available New specimens and new records of occurrence for 10 species of chondrichthyan (elasmobranch and chimaeroid fishes previously unknown or little documented for the continental shelf of the Mexican Pacific are reported. This contribution provides the first record of Centroscyllium nigrum, Isurus paucus, and Bathyraja trachura for the Mexican Pacific, as well as new specimens of Hydrolagus colliei, Hexanchus griseus, Echinorhinus cookei, Pseudocarcharias kamoharai, and Raja velezi for the western coast of the Baja California Peninsula, including the intermediate record within the known distribution range for Apristurus kampae, and the southernmost record for Raja inornata.Se reportan nuevos ejemplares y nuevos registros de concurrencia para 10 especies de elasmobranquios previamente desconocidos o con muy poca documentación en aguas del Pacífico mexicano. Esta contribución ofrece el primer registro de Centroscyllium nigrum, Isurus paucus, y Bathyraja trachura en el Pacífico mexicano; así como nuevos ejemplares de Hydrolagus colliei, Hexanchus griseus, Echinorhinus cookei, Pseudocarcharias kamoharai y Raja velezi en la costa occidental de la península de Baja California, con la inclusión del registro intermedio en el ámbito de distribución conocida para Apristurus kampae, y el registro más meridional para Raja inornata.

  14. Crustacean fauna (Stomatopoda: Decapoda) associated with the deepwater fishery of Heterocarpus vicarius (Decapoda: Pandalidae) along the Pacific coast of Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    S. Wehrtmann - Silvia Echeverría-Sáenz, Ingo

    2005-01-01

    Commercial bottom trawling is a successful and commonly used method to catch marine shrimps. However, the shrimp fishing gears are poorly selective, and in addition to the target species they catch and retain large quantities of non-target species (bycatch). This study presents data concerning species composition and depth distribution of the crustacean fauna (stomatopods and decapods) associated with Heterocarpus vicarius catches from Pacific Costa Rica. A total of 74 samples (three to five ...

  15. Population and the Colombian economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, T G

    1983-01-01

    Colombia is the only one of the 6 most populous Latin American countries that is currently free of major economic crisis requiring an agreement with the International Monetary Fund. The difference in the economic performances of these countries is relative, since the rate of growth in the Colombian economy was only 1.5% in 1982. Yet, Colombia seems to have weathered the international recession better than most. The crisis atmosphere in the rest of Latin America, triggered by overall economic decline, high rates of inflation, and an indebtedness that soaks up much of export earnings to service it, is lacking in Colombia or present in lesser degree. If Colombia can strengthen its political performance and tighten national unity, it could move through the 1980s with considerable confidence and success in economic development. Colombia differs little from other major Latin American countries with regard to traditionalism and modernization. Most Colombians are secularized. Colombia is far ahead of most comparable Latin American countries in fertility control. The lower rate of population increase defines the extent to which the economy must provide education, health, food, and jobs. 2 other factors are essential for understanding the current situation in Colombia and its prospects for the 1980s. Government policy in the 1970s opted for an austerity program while the other countries were growing rapidly, in large part through borrowed resources. A 2nd factor is the prospect of attaining autonomy in energy production. These special characteristics--population, public policy, and energy--are discussed. Since the mid 1960s Colombia has functioned with 3 family planning programs. Their existence makes contraception easily available to the population generally. In 1960 Colombia had a higher total fertility rate (TFR) 7.0, than either Venezuela (6.6) or Brazil (5.3), but by 1976 its TFR was down to 4.1, while Venezuela's (4.8) and Brazil's (4.3) were now higher. On balance

  16. Hydrochemical aspects of major Pacific and caribbean rivers of colombia hydrochemical aspects of major Pacific and caribbean rivers of colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, J. D.

    2003-04-01

    Although the South American continent includes three of the largest river basins of the world, the Amazon, the Orinoco, and the Paraná, with some of the highest discharges and sediment loads, a number of comparatively smaller systems in Colombia carry a significant share of sediment and dissolved loads from the continent. Fifteen rivers west of the Cordilleras in South America discharge a combined 254 km3 yr-1 or 8020 m3 s-1 of water into the Pacific. The San Juan River has the highest water discharge (2550 m3 s-1), sediment load (16 x 106 t yr-1), and basin-wide sediment yield (1150 t km-2 yr-1) on the entire west coast of South America. The best estimate of total sediment load into the Pacific Ocean from both gauged and ungauged rivers is 96 x 106 t yr-1. These results in a sediment yield estimate of 1,260 t km-2 yr-1. Analysis of 22 rivers draining into the Caribbean Sea indicate that the combined water discharge and sediment load are 338 km3 yr-1 and 168 x 106 t yr-1, respectively, corresponding to a sediment yield for the Colombia Caribbean drainage basins of 541 t km-2 yr-1, or approximately half of the yield for the Pacific basins of Colombia. The Magdalena River, the largest river system in Colombia, has an annual discharge of 7,232 m3 s-1. Load measurements during the 21 year period yielded an annual sediment load of 144 x 106 t yr-1. The Magdalena has the highest sediment yield (559 t km-2 yr-1) of any medium-sized or large river along the entire east coast of South America and contributes 9% of the total sediment load discharged into the Atlantic Ocean from eastern South America. The concentrations of major dissolved constituents and mass transport rates for major Colombian rivers were based on averages calculated from monthly samples from 1990-1993. Ca2+ and Mg2+ are the dominant ions, indicating that the water corresponds to the rock-dominated type. Dissolved inorganic carbon, present mostly as bicarbonate ions, constitutes almost 50% of the total

  17. [Colombians in Venezuela: myth and reality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidegain Greising, G; Freitez Landaeta, A

    1988-08-01

    Figures of Colombian immigrants in Venezuela in the period 1981-1986 as well as the development of their socio-demographic profile and their integration into the labor market are analyzed by means of ad hoc tables drawn from a Sample Home Survey by the Oficina Central de Estadisticas e Informatica and information from the civil record office. It is estimated that in 1987 there are only half a million Colombians in Venezuela and, contrary to what is generally assumed, not only has the afflux decreased (3/4 of the Colombians entered before 1981), but also a return migration can be observed. Colombian immigration is not homogeneous, but is made up of different groups as far as their professional skills and occupations are concerned. The number of Colombians engaged in household service and those living in rural areas has decreased, but not the number of active farm workers. A greater proportion of Colombians engaged in trade and sales activities is observed, but artisans and skilled labor are still the majority.

  18. Resource inventory of marine and estuarine fishes of the West Coast and Alaska: A checklist of North Pacific and Arctic Ocean species from Baja California to the Alaska - Yukon border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Milton S.; Mecklenburg, Catherine W.; Mecklenburg, T. Anthony; Thorsteinson, Lyman K.

    2005-01-01

    This is a comprehensive inventory of the fish species recorded in marine and estuarine waters between the Alaska–Yukon Territory border in the Beaufort Sea and Cabo San Lucas at the southern end of Baja California and out about 300 miles from shore. Our westernmost range includes the eastern Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands. In addition, we have also included our best impressions of the species that might reasonably be expected to be members of the West Coast ichthyofauna but have not yet been captured or reported within our study area. These species are marked with an asterisk (*) and have been reported (1) in the western Bering Sea; (2) off Canada’s Yukon Territory and adjacent portions of the Northwest Territories; (3) along the southern-eastern tip (non-Pacific side) of Baja California; and (4) in waters somewhat beyond 300 miles from shore. Although the term West Coast usually refers to the coast of the continuous western states, our usage herein means the entire study area. The West Coast inventory within this range encompasses fish fauna from 44 orders, 232 families, and a minimum of 1,450 species. Please note that introduced and invasive fish species are marked by double asterisks (**) and that their scientific names are highlighted in gray. We have compiled this document because the most geographically inclusive previous inventories (Jordan and Evermann 1896a, Jordan et al. 1930) are largely of historical interest and are out of date. More recent lists and compilations have either focused on relatively narrow taxonomic groups (e. g., Kramer et al. 1995, Love et al. 2002), are regional in scope (e. g., Hart 1973, Hubbs et al. 1979, Mecklenburg et al. 2002), or focus on commonly observed species (e. g., Miller and Lea 1972, Eschmeyer and Herald 1983). With the explosion of coastal research and environmental assessments, beginning in the 1970s, and more recently, renewed scientific interest in biodiversity (e.g., effects of global climate change), our own

  19. Organchlorine content and shell thickness in brown booby (Sula leucogaster) eggs in the Gulf of California and the southern Pacific coast of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellink, Eric, E-mail: emellink@cicese.m [Departamento de Biologia de la Conservacion, Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y de Educacion Superior de Ensenada, B.C. Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada Km. 107, 22860 Ensenada, B.C. (Mexico); Riojas-Lopez, Monica E., E-mail: meriojas@cucba.udg.m [Departamento de Ecologia, Centro Universitario de Ciencias Biologicas y Agropecuarias, Universidad de Guadalajara, Km. 15.5 Carretera a Nogales, 45100 Zapopan, Jalisco (Mexico); Luevano-Esparza, Jaime, E-mail: jluevano@cicese.m [Departamento de Biologia de la Conservacion, Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y de Educacion Superior de Ensenada, B.C. Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada Km. 107, 22860 Ensenada, B.C. (Mexico)

    2009-07-15

    We determined egg concentrations of organochlorines and thickness of eggshells from brown boobies at eight colonies ranging from the northern Gulf of California to southern Mexico. The only common residue was that of DDE, which was found in almost all eggs. DDE content apparently reflected pre-1990 DDT use in nearby agricultural areas and, at one site, intensive mosquito control for high-end tourism development. There were no inter-colony differences in eggshell thickness, and variation in this variable likely reflected individual bird characteristics and/or individual feeding source. This variable was not a good proxy to DDE exposure of brown boobies, under current DDE levels in the brown booby trophic chain. In the northern Gulf of California, eggshell thickness has recovered to pre-DDT conditions. Our data indicate that the Gulf of California and southwestern coast of Mexico have a healthy near-shore marine environment, as far as organochlorines are concerned. - Wide-range, current picture of organochlorine presence in the environment along the western coast of Mexico.

  20. The land crab Johngarthiaplanata (Stimpson, 1860) (Crustacea, Brachyura, Gecarcinidae) colonizes human-dominated ecosystems in the continental mainland coast of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perger, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The land crab Johngarthiaplanata (Stimpson, 1860) has been reported from the Baja California Peninsula and several oceanic islands in the Eastern Pacific as well as inshore islands of the Mexican, Costa Rican and Colombian coast. However, the species has not been observed on the continental mainland, as it is likely that the high diversity of terrestrial predators/competitors make the establishment of mainland populations nearly impossible. In this contribution, several new records of this species that have been observed in urban areas along the continental Pacific coast of Mexico are reported. These records demonstrate that the presence of humans does not necessarily have a negative impact on land crab species. Indeed, the presence of humans may actually discourage the presence of native crab predators/competitors and hence increase the likelihood of a successful mainland settlement of land crab species that are otherwise island and peninsula restricted. The presence of Johngarthiaplanata is ecologically relevant for coastal forests because gecarcinid crabs significantly influence plant recruitment and Johngarthiaplanata is considerably larger than the mainland species Gecarcinusquadratus.

  1. The land crab Johngarthia planata (Stimpson, 1860 (Crustacea, Brachyura, Gecarcinidae colonizes human-dominated ecosystems in the continental mainland coast of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Perger

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The land crab Johngarthia planata (Stimpson, 1860 has been reported from the Baja California Peninsula and several oceanic islands in the Eastern Pacific as well as inshore islands of the Mexican, Costa Rican and Colombian coast. However, the species has not been observed on the continental mainland, as it is likely that the high diversity of terrestrial predators/competitors make the establishment of mainland populations nearly impossible. In this contribution, several new records of this species that have been observed in urban areas along the continental Pacific coast of Mexico are reported. These records demonstrate that the presence of humans does not necessarily have a negative impact on land crab species. Indeed, the presence of humans may actually discourage the presence of native crab predators/competitors and hence increase the likelihood of a successful mainland settlement of land crab species that are otherwise island and peninsula restricted. The presence of J. planata is ecologically relevant for coastal forests because gecarcinid crabs significantly influence plant recruitment and J. planata is considerably larger than the mainland species Gecarcinus quadratus.

  2. Colombian Creole horse breeds: same origin but different diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Mercedes Jimenez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand the genetic ancestry and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA diversity of current Colombian horse breeds we sequenced a 364-bp fragment of the mitocondrial DNA D-loop in 116 animals belonging to five Spanish horse breeds and the Colombian Paso Fino and Colombian Creole cattle horse breeds. Among Colombian horse breeds, haplogroup D had the highest frequency (53%, followed by haplogroups A (19%, C (8% and F (6%. The higher frequency of haplogroup D in Colombian horse breeds supports the theory of an ancestral Iberian origin for these breeds. These results also indicate that different selective pressures among the Colombian breeds could explain the relatively higher genetic diversity found in the Colombian Creole cattle horse when compared with the Colombian Paso Fino.

  3. Colombian Creole horse breeds: Same origin but different diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Ligia Mercedes; Mendez, Susy; Dunner, Susana; Cañón, Javier; Cortés, Oscar

    2012-12-01

    In order to understand the genetic ancestry and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diversity of current Colombian horse breeds we sequenced a 364-bp fragment of the mitocondrial DNA D-loop in 116 animals belonging to five Spanish horse breeds and the Colombian Paso Fino and Colombian Creole cattle horse breeds. Among Colombian horse breeds, haplogroup D had the highest frequency (53%), followed by haplogroups A (19%), C (8%) and F (6%). The higher frequency of haplogroup D in Colombian horse breeds supports the theory of an ancestral Iberian origin for these breeds. These results also indicate that different selective pressures among the Colombian breeds could explain the relatively higher genetic diversity found in the Colombian Creole cattle horse when compared with the Colombian Paso Fino.

  4. Updated Colombian Seismic Hazard Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eraso, J.; Arcila, M.; Romero, J.; Dimate, C.; Bermúdez, M. L.; Alvarado, C.

    2013-05-01

    The Colombian seismic hazard map used by the National Building Code (NSR-98) in effect until 2009 was developed in 1996. Since then, the National Seismological Network of Colombia has improved in both coverage and technology providing fifteen years of additional seismic records. These improvements have allowed a better understanding of the regional geology and tectonics which in addition to the seismic activity in Colombia with destructive effects has motivated the interest and the need to develop a new seismic hazard assessment in this country. Taking advantage of new instrumental information sources such as new broad band stations of the National Seismological Network, new historical seismicity data, standardized global databases availability, and in general, of advances in models and techniques, a new Colombian seismic hazard map was developed. A PSHA model was applied. The use of the PSHA model is because it incorporates the effects of all seismic sources that may affect a particular site solving the uncertainties caused by the parameters and assumptions defined in this kind of studies. First, the seismic sources geometry and a complete and homogeneous seismic catalog were defined; the parameters of seismic rate of each one of the seismic sources occurrence were calculated establishing a national seismotectonic model. Several of attenuation-distance relationships were selected depending on the type of seismicity considered. The seismic hazard was estimated using the CRISIS2007 software created by the Engineering Institute of the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México -UNAM (National Autonomous University of Mexico). A uniformly spaced grid each 0.1° was used to calculate the peak ground acceleration (PGA) and response spectral values at 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5 and 3.0 seconds with return periods of 75, 225, 475, 975 and 2475 years. For each site, a uniform hazard spectrum and exceedance rate curves were calculated. With the results, it is

  5. Oxidative stress indicators and trace elements in the blue shark (Prionace glauca) off the east coast of the Mexican Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera-García, Angélica; O'Hara, Todd; Galván-Magaña, Felipe; Méndez-Rodríguez, Lía C; Castellini, J Margaret; Zenteno-Savín, Tania

    2012-08-01

    Trace element concentrations and oxidative stress indicators (including production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), antioxidant enzyme activities and oxidative damage) were measured in muscle of blue sharks collected along the west coast of Baja California Sur to determine potential differences by sex and maturity cohorts. Mercury (Hg) concentration in muscle samples from larger sharks (>200 cm LT) exceeded the permissible limit (>1 ppm wet weight) for human consumption set by numerous international agencies. Significant differences were found in Hg concentrations (mature>immature; males>females), and in protein carbonyl concentrations (male>female); however, except for carbonyl protein levels, no significant differences by sex or maturity stage were found in the oxidative stress indicators. Differences between sexes and maturity stages in trace element concentration and carbonyl protein levels in blue shark muscle may be related to variations in diet within different cohorts.

  6. Organchlorine content and shell thickness in brown booby (Sula leucogaster) eggs in the Gulf of California and the southern Pacific coast of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellink, Eric; Riojas-López, Mónica E; Luévano-Esparza, Jaime

    2009-07-01

    We determined egg concentrations of organochlorines and thickness of eggshells from brown boobies at eight colonies ranging from the northern Gulf of California to southern Mexico. The only common residue was that of DDE, which was found in almost all eggs. DDE content apparently reflected pre-1990 DDT use in nearby agricultural areas and, at one site, intensive mosquito control for high-end tourism development. There were no inter-colony differences in eggshell thickness, and variation in this variable likely reflected individual bird characteristics and/or individual feeding source. This variable was not a good proxy to DDE exposure of brown boobies, under current DDE levels in the brown booby trophic chain. In the northern Gulf of California, eggshell thickness has recovered to pre-DDT conditions. Our data indicate that the Gulf of California and southwestern coast of Mexico have a healthy near-shore marine environment, as far as organochlorines are concerned.

  7. A multi-proxy approach to tsunami deposit characterization: searching wetlands and lagoons at the Mexican Pacific coast for a record of tsunami inundations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Herrera, M.; Cundy, A.; Kostoglodov, V.; Carranza-Edwards, A.; Morales, E.; Metcalfe, S.

    2007-05-01

    It is extremely important to integrate historic accounts with geologic evidence of past tsunamis to fully understand hazards to the highly populated Mexican coast. We aim to complete a record of tsunami events using a multi- proxy approach to identify tsunami deposits recovered from marsh lagoonal sediments on the Guerrero coast of Mexico. Core samples from nine study sites on tropical wetlands show distinct stratigraphic changes with depth, indicating clear rapid change in depositional environments over time. Core sequences recovered include evidence of land level changes and three probable tsunamis based on stratigraphic, granulometric, geochemical, and microfossil analysis (diatoms and pollen) of marsh sediments. Radiocarbon data indicate that the sediment units cored are up to ca. 6161+/- 53 yr BP. A probable tsunami event and coseismic subsidence dates back at 3800 yr BP. Discrete sand units fining up show sharp erosional contacts at the base, medium to poor sorting, fine to coarse sand, with clay/mud rip-up clasts. However, traces of these apparent tsunami deposits are not extensive over a large area and we could not correlate them from one site to another. We hypothesize that the distribution and preservation of tsunami deposits in these tropical lagoonal marshes and wetlands might be controlled by mangrove vegetation fringing coastal lagoons and estuaries. Recent observations after the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami showed that mangroves may dissipate tsunami energy and result in flumed-shape sediment deposition. If this is the case, finding tsunami deposits over extensive areas in mangrove marshes and wetlands would prove very challenging.

  8. 33 CFR 3.04-3 - Pacific Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....04-3 Pacific Area. (a) The Area Office is in Alameda, CA. (b) The Pacific Area is comprised of the.... longitude to the North American land mass; thence along the west coast of the North, Central, and...

  9. Potential predictability of a Colombian river flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdoba-Machado, Samir; Palomino-Lemus, Reiner; Quishpe-Vásquez, César; García-Valdecasas-Ojeda, Matilde; Raquel Gámiz-Fortis, Sonia; Castro-Díez, Yolanda; Jesús Esteban-Parra, María

    2017-04-01

    In this study the predictability of an important Colombian river (Cauca) has been analysed based on the use of climatic variables as potential predictors. Cauca River is considered one of the most important rivers of Colombia because its basin supports important productive activities related with the agriculture, such as the production of coffee or sugar. Potential relationships between the Cauca River seasonal streamflow anomalies and different climatic variables such as sea surface temperature (SST), precipitation (Pt), temperature over land (Tm) and soil water (Sw) have been analysed for the period 1949-2009. For this end, moving correlation analysis of 30 years have been carried out for lags from one to four seasons for the global SST, and from one to two seasons for South America Pt, Tm and Sw. Also, the stability of the significant correlations have been also studied, identifying the regions used as potential predictors of streamflow. Finally, in order to establish a prediction scheme based on the previous stable correlations, a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) applied on the potential predictor regions has been carried out in order to obtain a representative time series for each predictor field. Significant and stable correlations between the seasonal streamflow and the tropical Pacific SST (El Niño region) are found for lags from one to four (one-year) season. Additionally, some regions in the Indian and Atlantic Oceans also show significant and stable correlations at different lags, highlighting the importance that exerts the Atlantic SST on the hydrology of Colombia. Also significant and stable correlations are found with the Pt, Tm and Sw for some regions over South America, at lags of one and two seasons. The prediction of Cauca seasonal streamflow based on this scheme shows an acceptable skill and represents a relative improvement compared with the predictability obtained using the teleconnection indices associated with El Niño. Keywords

  10. California coast sablefish - Reproductive Life History Analysis of Sablefish Populations off the Washington and California Coasts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria) have a wide distribution along the Pacific coast, extending from Baja California to Alaska, the Bering Sea and through to the eastern...

  11. Washington coast sablefish - Reproductive Life History Analysis of Sablefish Populations off the Washington and California Coasts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria) have a wide distribution along the Pacific coast, extending from Baja California to Alaska, the Bering Sea and through to the eastern...

  12. A systematic health assessment of indian ocean bottlenose (Tursiops aduncus and indo-pacific humpback (Sousa plumbea dolphins incidentally caught in shark nets off the KwaZulu-Natal Coast, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily P Lane

    Full Text Available Coastal dolphins are regarded as indicators of changes in coastal marine ecosystem health that could impact humans utilizing the marine environment for food or recreation. Necropsy and histology examinations were performed on 35 Indian Ocean bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus and five Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa plumbea incidentally caught in shark nets off the KwaZulu-Natal coast, South Africa, between 2010 and 2012. Parasitic lesions included pneumonia (85%, abdominal and thoracic serositis (75%, gastroenteritis (70%, hepatitis (62%, and endometritis (42%. Parasitic species identified were Halocercus sp. (lung, Crassicauda sp. (skeletal muscle and Xenobalanus globicipitis (skin. Additional findings included bronchiolar epithelial mineralisation (83%, splenic filamentous tags (45%, non-suppurative meningoencephalitis (39%, and myocardial fibrosis (26%. No immunohistochemically positive reaction was present in lesions suggestive of dolphin morbillivirus, Toxoplasma gondii and Brucella spp. The first confirmed cases of lobomycosis and sarcocystosis in South African dolphins were documented. Most lesions were mild, and all animals were considered to be in good nutritional condition, based on blubber thickness and muscle mass. Apparent temporal changes in parasitic disease prevalence may indicate a change in the host/parasite interface. This study provided valuable baseline information on conditions affecting coastal dolphin populations in South Africa and, to our knowledge, constitutes the first reported systematic health assessment in incidentally caught dolphins in the Southern Hemisphere. Further research on temporal disease trends as well as disease pathophysiology and anthropogenic factors affecting these populations is needed.

  13. Colombian Creole horse breeds: Same origin but different diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Ligia Mercedes Jimenez; Susy Mendez; Susana Dunner; Javier Cañón; Óscar Cortés

    2012-01-01

    In order to understand the genetic ancestry and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diversity of current Colombian horse breeds we sequenced a 364-bp fragment of the mitocondrial DNA D-loop in 116 animals belonging to five Spanish horse breeds and the Colombian Paso Fino and Colombian Creole cattle horse breeds. Among Colombian horse breeds, haplogroup D had the highest frequency (53%), followed by haplogroups A (19%), C (8%) and F (6%). The higher frequency of haplogroup D in Colombian horse breeds su...

  14. Notes on the Quality of Life of Artisanal Small-Scale Fishermen along the Pacific Coast of Jalisco, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrna Leticia Bravo-Olivas

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable fishing includes the socioeconomic status of fishers. We combined empirical quality of life (QOL and subjective lived experiences methods to explore the social sustainability of artisanal fishers in five fishery collectives along the coast of Jalisco, Mexico, where the average daily income is slightly above the poverty level. The QOL scores were also related to annual catch and incomes within each collective. A QOL index is used in this study that combines importance and achievement ratings scores; the results are indicative of an acceptable QOL for fishermen. The concept of lived experiences, incorporating aspects of life relating to Mind, Body, Work and People was explored through interviews with 12 fishers. The QOL data revealed that family and friends are important indicators related to positive QOL reported by the sample, while economic indicators were not important. Although four of the five collectives perceived that the future looks worse than the present and past, there was limited correlation between catch or income and QOL. However, while the lived experiences exercise in part supported the QOL findings, in that People was the most important dimension for almost all of the fishers interviewed, negative economic gaps related to poor catches and incomes were prevalent in the Mind and Work dimensions. The findings suggest that to understand the socioeconomic component of sustainable fisheries, both of these approaches should be considered, as they can illuminate different aspects of fishers’ lives that need to be considered during the development of fisheries’ management policies.

  15. A 14,000 year vegetation history of a hypermaritime island on the outer Pacific coast of Canada based on fossil pollen, spores and conifer stomata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacourse, Terri; Delepine, J. Michelle; Hoffman, Elizabeth H.; Mathewes, Rolf W.

    2012-11-01

    Pollen and conifer stomata analyses of lake sediments from Hippa Island on the north coast of British Columbia were used to reconstruct the vegetation history of this small hypermaritime island. Between 14,000 and 13,230 cal yr BP, the island supported diverse herb-shrub communities dominated by Cyperaceae, Artemisia and Salix. Pinus contorta and Picea sitchensis stomata indicate that these conifers were present among the herb-shrub communities, likely as scattered individuals. Transition to open P. contorta woodland by 13,000 cal yr BP was followed by increases in Alnus viridis, Alnus rubra and P. sitchensis. After 12,000 cal yr BP, Pinus-dominated communities were replaced by dense P. sitchensis and Tsuga heterophylla forest with Lysichiton americanus and fern understory. Thuja plicata stomata indicate that this species was present by 8700 cal yr BP, but the pollen record suggests that its populations did not expand to dominate regional rainforests, along with Tsuga and Picea, until after 6600 cal yr BP. Conifer stomata indicate that species may be locally present for hundreds to thousands of years before pollen exceed thresholds routinely used to infer local species arrival. When combined, pollen and conifer stomata can provide a more accurate record of paleovegetation than either when used alone.

  16. Amberstripe scad Decapterus muroadsi (Carangidae) fish ingest blue microplastics resembling their copepod prey along the coast of Rapa Nui (Easter Island) in the South Pacific subtropical gyre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ory, Nicolas Christian; Sobral, Paula; Ferreira, Joana Lia; Thiel, Martin

    2017-05-15

    An increasing number of studies have described the presence of microplastics (≤5mm) in many different fish species, raising ecological concerns. The factors influencing the ingestion of microplastics by fish remain unclear despite their importance to a better understanding of the routes of microplastics through marine food webs. Here, we compare microplastics and planktonic organisms in surface waters and as food items of 20 Amberstripe scads (Decapterus muroadsi) captured along the coast of Rapa Nui (Easter Island) to assess the hypothesis that fish ingest microplastics resembling their natural prey. Sixteen (80%) of the scad had ingested one to five microplastics, mainly blue polyethylene fragments that were similar in colour and size to blue copepod species consumed by the same fish. These results suggest that planktivorous fish, as a consequence of their feeding behaviour as visual predators, are directly exposed to floating microplastics. This threat may be exacerbated in the clear oceanic waters of the subtropical gyres, where anthropogenic litter accumulates in great quantity. Our study highlights the menace of microplastic contamination on the integrity of fragile remote ecosystems and the urgent need for efficient plastic waste management.

  17. The deepwater fishery along the Pacific coast of Costa Rica, Central America Pesca en aguas profundas a lo largo de la costa Pacífica de Costa Rica, América Central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingo S Wehrtmann

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Global catches of marine fishery resources declined during the last decades; however, there has been a trend of increasing exploitation of deepwater resources that are especially vulnerable to depletion. Such a tendency was noticeable in Pacific Latin América, too. In Costa Rica, the vast majority of the commercial fishing activities are concentrated on the Pacific coast. The target species for the deepwater fishery in Costa Rica are the two pandalids Heterocarpus affinis and H. vicarius as well as Solenocera agassizii, the latter one being the most important in terms of annual landings. Here we compile the information available from Costa Rica about each of the three target species. Furthermore, we describe research activities related to the Costa Rican deepwater resources and present available data about by-catch and discards in this fishery. Finally, the current situation of the administration and management of these resources in Costa Rica is described. Strengthening collaboration between governmental agencies, the fishery sector, non-governmental organizations, and the academic sector is recommended to avoid an uncontrolled overfishing of these valuable deepwater resources along the Pacific coast of Costa Rica.Las capturas globales de los recursos marinos pesqueros disminuyeron durante las últimas décadas. Sin embargo, se ha observado una tendencia de aumento en la explotación de los recursos de aguas profundas, los cuales son especialmente vulnerables a la extracción. Esta tendencia ha sido notable también en la pesca a lo largo del Pacífico de Latino América. En Costa Rica, la mayoría de las actividades pesqueras comerciales se concentran en la costa del Pacífico. Las especies objetivo de la pesca de aguas profundas en Costa Rica son los dos pandálidos Heterocarpus affinis y H vicarius así como Solenocera agassizii, siendo esta última la más importante respecto a las capturas anuales. Se compila la información disponible

  18. Low HLA polymorphism in Colombian mestizos

    OpenAIRE

    Ávila-Portillo, Luz Mabel; Instituto de Referencia Andino S.A.; Hospital Militar Central; Carmona, Alejandra; Universidad Católica de Manizales; Franco, Leidy; Instituto de Referencia Andino S.A.; Briceño, Ignacio; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana; Casas, María Consuelo; Instituto de Referencia Andino S.A.; Gómez, Alverto; Instituto de Referencia Andino S.A.; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This paper aims to describe the allele frequency and haplotype of HLA class I and II molecules in a Colombian mestizo population.Methodology: HLA class I and II molecules on 197 unrelated Colombian individuals and 157 unrelated individuals making up 53 families fromdifferent regions of the country were studied at the Immunology Laboratory at the Military Hospital Central of Bogotá and at the Instituto de ReferenciaAndino by the PCR-SSP method.Results: The haplotype HLA-A * 24 B*35 ...

  19. Status of (137)Cs contamination in marine biota along the Pacific coast of eastern Japan derived from a dynamic biological model two years simulation following the Fukushima accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateda, Yutaka; Tsumune, Daisuke; Tsubono, Takaki; Misumi, Kazuhiro; Yamada, Masatoshi; Kanda, Jota; Ishimaru, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Radiocesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) released into the Fukushima coastal environment was transferred to marine biota inhabiting the Pacific Ocean coastal waters of eastern Japan. Though the levels in most of the edible marine species decreased overtime, radiocesium concentrations in some fishes were still remained higher than the Japanese regulatory limit for seafood products. In this study, a dynamic food chain transfer model was applied to reconstruct (137)Cs levels in olive flounder by adopting the radiocesium concentrations in small demersal fish which constitute an important fraction of the diet of the olive flounder particularly inhabiting area near Fukushima. In addition, (137)Cs levels in slime flounder were also simulated using reported radiocesium concentrations in some prey organisms. The simulated results from Onahama on the southern border of the Fukushima coastline, and at Choshi the southernmost point where the contaminated water mass was transported by the Oyashio current, were assessed in order to identify what can be explained from present information, and what remains to be clarified three years after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (1FNPP) accident. As a result, the observed (137)Cs concentrations in planktivorous fish and their predator fish could be explained by the theoretically-derived simulated levels. On the other hand, the slow (137)Cs depuration in slime flounder can be attributed to uptake from unknown sources for which the uptake fluxes were of a similar magnitude as the excretion fluxes. Since the reported (137)Cs concentrations in benthic invertebrates off Onahama were higher than the simulated values, radiocesium transfer from these benthic detritivorous invertebrates to slime flounder via ingestion was suggested as a cause for the observed slow depuration of (137)Cs in demersal fish off southern Fukushima. Furthermore, the slower depuration in the demersal fish likely required an additional source of (137)Cs, i

  20. The amphibians and reptiles of the colombian caribbean islands san andrés and providencia

    OpenAIRE

    Dunn, Emmett Reid

    2012-01-01

    In connection with a study of Central America I have examined specimens from many of the islands off the coast, and I here set down a list of those I have seen from two Colombian islands which rise from deep water about 200 km. east of Nicaragua. They are about 100 km. apart. Both represent old volcanic peaks, and it is unlikely that they were ever connected to each other or to the mainland, although they may have been much larger during a lower glacial sealevel. The herpetological fauna of S...

  1. Distribution of the Fukushima-derived radionuclides in seawater in the Pacific off the coast of Miyagi, Fukushima, and Ibaraki Prefectures, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Oikawa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The activities of artificial radionuclides in seawater samples collected off the coast of Miyagi, Fukushima, and Ibaraki Prefectures were measured as part of a monitoring program initiated by the Japanese Ministry of Education, Sports, Science and Technology immediately after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. The spatial and temporal distributions of those activities are summarized herein. The activities of strontium-90, iodine-131, cesium-134 and -137 (i.e. 90Sr, 131I, 134Cs, and 137Cs derived from the accident were detected in seawater samples taken from areas of the coastal ocean adjacent to the power plant. No 131I was detected in surface waters (≤ 5 m depth or in intermediate and bottom waters after 30 April 2011. Strontium-90 was found in surface waters collected from a few sampling stations in mid-August 2011 to mid-December 2011. Temporal changes of 90Sr activity in surface waters were evident, although the 90Sr activity at a given time varied widely between sampling stations. The activity of 90Sr in surface waters decreased slowly over time, and by the end of December 2011 had reached background levels recorded before the accident. Radiocesium, 134Cs and 137Cs, was found in seawater samples immediately after the accident. There was a remarkable change in radiocesium activities in surface waters during the first 7 months (March through September 2011 after the accident; the activity reached a maximum in the middle of April and thereafter decreased exponentially with time. Qualitatively, the distribution patterns in surface waters suggested that in early May radiocesium-polluted water was advected northward; some of the water then detached and was transported to the south. Two water cores with high 137Cs activity persisted at least until July 2011. In subsurface waters radiocesium activity was first detected in the beginning of April 2011, and the water masses were characterized by σt (an indicator of density values

  2. Effective Support for Colombian Security and Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Z39.18 ii iii ABSTRACT AUTHOR: JEFFOREY A. SMITH, LTC, U.S. ARMY TITLE: Effective Support for Colombian Security and Stability FORMAT : Strategy...of Fighting, Can a Fragile Peace Process Succeed?” February 2000. ________., "The New Masters of Barranca : A Report from CIP’s trip to

  3. The "Developing" Achievement Gap: Colombian Voucher Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Jonathan M. B.

    2014-01-01

    The achievement gap in many developing countries is defined in terms of rich/poor and public/private. The prevailing explanation for the "developing" achievement gap is an underfunded, inefficient, and/or inadequately supplied public school sector. Via an analysis of a Colombian voucher experiment, this article examines the extent to…

  4. Transparency and Its Determinants at Colombian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flórez-Parra, Jesús Mauricio; López-Pérez, María Victoria; López-Hernández, Antonio Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Over the past decade, one of the demands upon public institutions, among which we find universities, has been for transparency and improvement of accountability. In this context, Colombian universities are introducing different methods of management and governance aimed at addressing the demands of society generally in relation to transparency and…

  5. Activities of radionuclides in the Pacific coastal area of Fukushima since the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident - Activities of radionuclides in the coast area off Fukushima after TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aono, Tatsuo; Fukuda, Miho; Yoshida, Satoshi [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 263-8555, Chiba (Japan); Sohtome, Tadahiro; Mizuno, Takuji [Fukushima Prefecture Fisheries Experimental Station, 970-0316, Fukushima (Japan); Igarashi, Satoshi [Fukushima Prefecture Fisheries Experimental Station, 970-0316, Fukushima (Japan); Fukushima Prefecture Sea-Farming Association, 970-8044, Fukushima (Japan); Ito, Yukari; Kanda, Jota; Ishimaru, Takashi [Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, 108-0075, Tokyo (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    The accident of TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS) has caused the release of the huge quantities of radionuclide by the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami, and then the serious problems gave rise to pollution in marine environment widely in the coast area off Fukushima. Monitoring of radioactivity in seawater and biota are important for understanding the dispersion of radionuclides and the effects of radioecology in the marine environment around the coast of Fukushima and the Pacific. The activities of Cs-134 and Cs-137 in seawater decreased exponentially and then were almost same levels before the accident around off Fukushima after about three years from the accident. However, the high activities of radio caesium (Cs) have been monitored in marine biota off Fukushima. The aims of the present study were to examine the temporal changes in radioactivity and to clarify the variation factor and the effect of radioecology in marine biota. Cs-134 and Cs-137, and Ag-110m, were released by this accident, determined in biota sample such as the plankton, fish and benthos, although it is well-known that molluscs and crustaceans concentrate silver in visceral parts. However, Sr-90 was not detected and the activities of plutonium were almost same level before this accident in the marine biota around off Fukushima. Concentration ratios of Cs (CR-Cs) in marine organism were from 2.6 E+1 in the muscle part of squid to 1.0 E+4 in the viscera of clam. The large differences in CR-Cs by the parts of marine organism were not observed. It is suggested that rapid change in the activities of radio Cs and silver in seawater, resuspension of particles from sediments and food chain effects led to high radionuclide activities in marine biota after this accident. CR-Cs in plankton was also calculated with the activities in seawater, which were collected around sampling area during this monitoring period. These resulting values ranged from 5.8 E+1 to 7.8 E+2

  6. Colombian-German entrepreneurial and scientific cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oettel, Eberhard [Foerdergesellschaft Erneuerbare Energien e.V. (FEE), Berlin (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    German and Colombian strategic objectives, strengths and needs suit for a long-lasting cooperation ot mutual advantage in the fields of renewable energy resources (RES), energy efficiency biodiversity, biofuels: Colombia as a country rich of fossil primary energy carriers strives to substitute them by its abundant RES for the supply of electricity, heat (cold) and fuels, set them free for exporting to gain financial revenues for a self-determined technological development. Despite of its for a developing country relatively high technological level an indigenous industry of renewable energy hardly does not exist. Favourable interfaces in many regard prevail too in the energy related science, among others in biotechnology and the brand-new branch of urban agriculture. German middle-class enterprises and scientific institutes dispose of exactly suitable necessary technologies, engineering kow-how of their application and are increasingly obliged to look for foreign markets just in this segment. Joint research, development and implementation, including adapting high technologies to Colombian conditions is welcome to develop advanced knowledge and new applications. By growing cooperation of Latin American countries the chances for joint venturing with Colombian partners in the this market increase. FEE Foerdergesellschaft Erneuerbare Energien e.V. (Society for the Promotion of Renewable Energy) as a national network for innovations of enterprises, research institutes and experts has established a strong plexus to market relevant partners in Colombia since 2005, ready for manifold use by German partners in the branches of RES, energy efficiency and biofuels. FEE had been integrated into two Centres of Excellence recognized by the Colombian Research Council COLCIENCIAS. Powerful enterprises and associations signed official Letters of Interest. In first joint projects confidence was created, expertise proved and a reliable basement founded for entrepreneural business

  7. PODs cruise - Pacific Orcinus Distrbution Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Orcinus spp. occur in the Pacific Ocean throughout the West Coast of North America. Data concerning their precise locations and abundance are critical to...

  8. Estructura comunitaria de corales zooxantelados (Anthozoa: Scleractinia en el arrecife coralino de Carrizales, Pacífico Mexicano Community structure of zooxanthellate corals (Anthozoa: Scleractinia in Carrizales coral reef, Pacific coast, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Reyes-Bonilla

    2013-06-01

    area, with Pocillopora verrucosa as the most abundant, contributing up to 32.8% of total cover, followed by Porites panamensis and Pocillopora capitata with 11% and 7%, respectively. Other species, Pocillopora damicornis, Pavona gigantea, Pocillopora eydouxi and Pocillopora inflata accounted for 1.5% to 2% of coral cover whereas the remaining five species had cover of less than 1%. Seven of the observed species represented new records for Colima state coast- line: Pocillopora eydouxi, P. inflata, P. meandrina, Pavona duerdeni, P. varians, Psammocora stellata and P. contigua. This last species is a relevant record, because it has never been observed before in the Eastern Pacific. Although there was no significant difference (ANOVA, p=0.478 neither in the abundance between the sides of the bay, nor between the depths considered, and the shallow zone observed the higher coral cover. Live coral cover was up to 61%, one of the highest ever reported for the Mexican Pacific, including the Gulf of California. The observed values of diversity (H´=0.44±0.02, uniformity (J´=0.76±0.02, and taxonomic distinctness index (Δ*=45.87±3.16, showed that currently this is the most important coral reef of Colima coastline. Currently, this region does not show any disturbance effects, but the increasing economic development of Manzanillo, as one of the main commercial ports of Mexico, its proximity to the reef, and the burgeoning number of tourists, may have some ecosystem impacts, for which management and conservation plans for Colima coastline are highly recommended.

  9. The entry of Colombian-sourced heroin into the US market: the relationship between competition, price, and purity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, Daniel; Unick, George Jay; Ciccarone, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    There have been large structural changes in the US heroin market over the past 20 years. Colombian-sourced heroin entered the market in the mid-1990s, followed by a large fall in the price per pure gram and the exit of Asian heroin. By the 2000s, Colombian-sourced heroin had become a monopoly on the east coast and Mexican-sourced heroin a monopoly on the west coast with competition between the two in the middle. We estimate the relationship between these changes in competitive market structure on retail-level heroin price and purity. We find that the entry of Colombian-sourced heroin is associated with less competition and a lower price per pure gram of heroin at the national level. However, there is wide variation in changes in market concentration across the US. Controlling for the national fall in the heroin price, more competition in a region or city is associated with a lower price per pure gram.

  10. Colombian/Venezuelan prospects post-Americas coal conference `98

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    The 1998 Americas Coal Conference took place in Cartagena, Colombia in late April. This article presents some highlights from the conference. Ivan Daza, President of Carbocol, gave an overview of the role of Colombian coal in the world, an outlook for supply and demand, a review of the status of carbocol`s privatisation, expansion and third party access to El Cerrejon`s infrastructure. Eric Ford presented a paper on the historical developmental of Carbonnes del Cerrejon and of the potential future of the company. Mike Tracey, President of Drummond Colombia, gave an update on Mina Pribbenow and mentioned the acquisition of two new reserves El Descanso and Guamaral and the reconstruction of the railway between Mina Pribbenow and the port. Maria Cecilla Ruiseco presented the viewpoint of Carbones del Carcibe and the future of coal exports from the Cesar Deposit. A paper by Dr. Lujan of Ferrovias outlined plans to privatise the railway system, concentrating on the section linking central Colombia to the West Atlantic coast. Marcel van den Berg talked on the present and future outlook for Venezuelan coal exports. 1 fig., 2 photos.

  11. The Colombian side of the colombian-brazilian border. An approach using the category of lawless area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Trejos Rosero

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study uses the category of lawless areas as an approach to the complex security situation resulting from increasing ties between localized criminality and transnational organized crime networks on the Colombian side of the Colombian-Brazilian border. The permanent presence of illegal armed actors in this border area is largely caused by the absence and weak presence of the Colombian State at its margins. The methodology used is both bibliographic and descriptive.

  12. 33 CFR 165.2030 - Pacific Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Area. 165.2030 Section 165.2030 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... Vessels § 165.2030 Pacific Area. (a) This section applies to any vessel or person in the navigable waters...

  13. First Colombian Solar Radio Interferometer: current stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara Gómez, J. C.; Martínez Oliveros, J. C.; Calvo-Mozo, B.

    2017-10-01

    Solar radio astronomy is a fast developing research field in Colombia. Here, we present the scientific goals, specifications and current state of the First Colombian Solar Radio Interferometer consisting of two log-periodic antennas covering a frequency bandwidth op to 800 MHz. We describe the importance and benefits of its development to the radioastronomy in Latin America and its impact on the scientific community and general public.

  14. Consumer Protection in Colombian Housing Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Villalba Cuéllar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to highline the fundamental aspects of the legal framework of protection to consumers according to the traditional rules of private law. The context is the Colombian housing industry. To fulfill its objective, the author will review the regulation in order to identify the main features of this area of protection as duty of information, misleading advertising, the warranty liability, unfair terms and product liability.

  15. The distribution of littoral caprellids (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Caprellidea along the Pacific coast of continental Chile La distribución de caprélidos litorales (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Caprellidea en la costa del Pacífico de Chile continental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARTIN THIEL

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Many littoral caprellid species have a very ample distribution, some having been reported from all over the world. The cosmopolitan distribution of many littoral caprellid species might be facilitated by the fact that they are often associated with fouling communities on floating objects, which have a high potential of far-range dispersal. This dispersal potential may also have implications for the distribution of caprellids on local and regional scales. Herein we examined the distribution of littoral caprellid species on two spatial scales, local (tens of kilometers and regional (hundreds of kilometers along the Pacific coast of continental Chile. On the local scale, we studied the caprellid fauna in different habitats (intertidal boulders, subtidal algal and seagrass beds, fouling community on buoys and ropes; on the regional scale we focused only on caprellids associated with the fouling community on buoys and ropes. We found a total of six caprellid species, some of which were very abundant both on the local as well as on the regional scale. On the local scale we found a difference between the three studied habitat types with respect to the assemblage of caprellid species, some of which were found in more than one habitat. The highest species richness and abundance of caprellids was found in the fouling community associated with anchored buoys and ropes. On the regional scale we found very high numbers of caprellids in the fouling community of the northern region (n of 30°S, and decreasing abundances and species richness in the central region (30-37° S. No caprellids were found in the southern region of the study area (37-42° S. This pattern coincides with the global distribution of littoral caprellid species, which are most abundant and diverse at low latitudes but occur in low abundances and low diversity at high latitudes. Detached buoys that were found a few km off the coast harbored similar caprellid assemblages (including ovigerous

  16. Traditional West Coast Native Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Deagle, George

    1988-01-01

    An important part of the complex culture of the Native people of Canada's Pacific coast is the traditional system of medicine each culture has developed. Population loss from epidemics and the influence of dominant European cultures has resulted in loss of many aspects of traditional medicine. Although some Native practices are potentially hazardous, continuation of traditional approaches to illness remains an important part of health care for many Native people. The use of “devil's club” pla...

  17. Translating landscape: the Colombian Chorographic Commission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Uribe Hanabergh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1850 the Colombian government developed a project to survey the young country´s landscape. Scientists, writers, and artists were invited to make part of the project led by the Italian military, geographer and cartographer, Agustin Codazzi. After nine years and three different artists, the Commission had many watercolor drawings that portrayed a landscape, not only in its physical traits, but also in its social, economic and agricultural development. Through the lens of these artists, the drawings that concluded the survey showed a landscape that was truly original but that was also seen through the lens of a certain romantic eye inherited by a firm European legacy. As a result, these watercolors show the different regions, people, and means of transportation, crops and trades. The Colombian Chorographic Commission was an important project in the construction of the Colombian modern nation, a country that was constantly divided by federalist and centralist politics, liberal and conservative parties. An interesting union between science, politics and art, these drawings represent the process of the modernization of nineteenth-century Colombia.

  18. 西北太平洋海岸带大弹涂鱼复合体的隐存种与进化历史%CRYPTIC SPECIES AND EVOLUTIONARY HISTORY OFBOLEOPHTHALMUS PECTINIROSTRIS COMPLEX ALONG THE NORTHWESTERN PACIFIC COAST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈卉; Gianluca Polgar; 殷维; 傅萃长

    2014-01-01

    大弹涂鱼Boleophthalmus pectinirostris间断分布于西太平洋海岸带东亚与马来西亚马六甲海峡,但马来西亚种群的分类地位尚存争议。研究使用线粒体ND5基因序列(718 bp)与核位点Rag1基因序列(1395 bp)对西北太平洋海岸带11个地点的45尾大弹涂鱼属鱼类进行系统发育关系重建,结果表明大弹涂鱼包括东亚与马来西亚两个单系群,两者形成姊妹群关系。GMYC分析、*BEAST物种树支持大弹涂鱼东亚谱系和马来西亚谱系是不同种。分子测定年龄分析表明大弹涂鱼东亚谱系与马来西亚谱系之间的分化时间为2.73百万年。因此,西北太平洋海岸带大弹涂鱼是复合体,包括两个物种:东亚种群是大弹涂鱼Boleophthalmus pectinirostris sensu stricto,而马来西亚种群是隐存种Boleophthalmus sp.。大弹涂鱼与隐存种之间的物种分化可能是晚上新世冰期海平面下降产生的地理隔离以及间冰期洋流对基因交流的阻碍两方面相互作用的结果。%The species range ofBoleophthalmus pectinirostrissensu lato includes two disjunctive areas, i.e., East Asia and Strait of Malacca in Malaysia along the northwestern Pacific coast. However, the species status of Malaysian populations remains disputed. MitochondrialND5 gene (718 bp) and nuclearRag1 gene (1395 bp) were used to reconstruct phyloge-netic relationships among Boleophthalmus pectinirostris fishes by sampling 45 specimens from 11 locations in the north-western Pacific. The results showed thatBoleophthalmus pectinirostrisfishes could be divided into two major mono-phyletic groups, i.e., East Asian lineage and Malaysian lineage, and which together formed the sister-group relationship. Species delineation using the analyses of GMYC and *Beast species tree supports that East Asian lineage and Malasian lineage ofBoleophthalmus pectinirostrissensu lato should be placed into two different species. Molecular dating revealed that the divergence

  19. An integrated malaria control program with community participation on the Pacific Coast of Colombia Un programa de control integrado de malaria con participación comunitaria en la Costa Pacífica de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Rojas

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The study focuses on integrated malaria control in 23 communities on the Pacific Coast of Colombia, with several elements of an ecosystem approach to human health, including malaria-related sociopolitical, ecological, and economic factors. The program fostered community participation. The program presented here had 2 components: implementation and research. The first was conducted in 23 communities, 21 of which lacked adequate health services in terms of education, community participation, prompt diagnosis and complete treatment, and vector control. Research focused on specific vector control measures and the current national health services decentralization process. The project: 1 created a malaria prevention culture in the community; 2 avoided deaths from malaria (no fatal cases in the 3-year period, compared to 5-8 deaths a year previously; 3 avoided cases of cerebral malaria (no cases, as compared to 90-110 per year previously; 4 reduced malaria incidence by 45.36%; 5 decreased length of sick leave from 7.52 to 3.7 days; 6 established a permanent network of microscope technicians and 2-way radio communications; 7 integrated work by local, regional, and outside institutions; 8 demonstrated efficacy of insecticide-impregnated bednets to reduce malaria transmission.Se presentan los resultados de un programa de Control Integrado de Malaria con participación comunitaria en 23 comunidades de la parte norte de la Costa Pacífica de Colombia, en 21 de las cuales la atención médica es prestada únicamente por una auxiliar de enfermería. Participaron 11.468 habitantes bajo la coordinación de la Corporación para Investigaciones Biológicas (CIB, del Centro Internacional de Educación y Desarrollo Humano (CINDE y del Instituto Colombiano de Medicina Tropical (ICMT. Se emplearon 3 estrategias: educación, diagnóstico oportuno y tratamiento adecuado y control de vectores. Los resultados fueron muy satisfactorios. La incidencia disminuyó en un 45

  20. [Basic standards for Colombian paternity testing laboratories, 2005].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo, Alejandro; Bermúdez, Antonio; Jiménez, Magda; Lizarazo, Rocio

    2006-01-01

    The Commission for Accreditation and Surveillance of Laboratories Practicing DNA Paternity Tests (created by the Colombian Law 721/2001) set up sub-commission to review the current basic Colombian standards required for paternity testing laboratories and make specific recommendations re the pertinent technical aspects in Colombia, taking ISO 17025 as current reference. This document contains such recommendations for Colombia.

  1. The Historical-Comparative Classification of Colombian Inga (Quechua).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Roger

    1990-01-01

    Colombian Inga is of particular interest to the Quechuanist because it is the northernmost member of the Quechuan language family spoken in modern times. In the present work, the relationship of Colombian Inga to other varieties of Quechua is examined. The affiliation of Inga with the Ecuadorian group of Parker's (1969a) Quechua A branch of the…

  2. GENETIC STATUS, SOURCE AND ESTABLISHMENT RISK OF THE GIANT TIGER SHRIMP (PENAEIDAE: Penaeus monodon, AN INVASIVE SPECIES IN COLOMBIAN CARIBBEAN WATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. AGUIRRE-PABÓN

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon is an Indo-Pacific species. Its global production between 1970 and 1980 exceeded all other shrimp species, which favored its introduction and cultivation outside its natural range in several countries of Africa, Europe, USA and South America. It is currently found in the coast of the Atlantic Ocean (Mexico, United States, Puerto Rico, Brazil, Guyana, Venezuela and Colombia. Despite the risk involved, no studies have been conducted to evaluate their impact as a possible invasive species and their genetic condition. This study evaluated the genetic status and population origin of P. monodon in the northernmost Colombian Caribbean, analyzing the mitochondrial DNA control region (mtDNA-CR. 16 individuals were randomly collected from Golfo de Salamanca and 342 original Indo-Pacific sequences were obtained from GenBank. Parameters of genetic diversity and genetic relationships were analyzed. There were a total of 358 sequences compared and 303 haplotypes identified. Three haplotypes were identified in the Colombian population. This results showed lower genetic diversity compared with Indo-Pacific populations. These haplotypes were closely related to those found in samples from the Philippines and Taiwan. We discuss the need to create a regional network to characterize the established populations in the Great Caribbean, with the purpose of inferring colonization processes and the establishment of management measures.Estado genético, origen y riesgo de establecimiento del camarón tigre gigante (Penaeidae: Penaeus monodon, una especie inavasora en aguas del Caribe colombianoEl camarón tigre (Penaeus monodon es una especie del Indo-Pacífico. Su producción mundial entre 1970 y 1980 superó todas las otras especies de camarón, lo que favoreció su introducción y cultivo fuera del área de distribución natural en varios países de África, Europa, EE.UU. y América del Sur. Actualmente se encuentra en la costa del

  3. Benthic Macrofauna Associated with Submerged Bottoms of a Tectonic Estuary in Tropical Eastern Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E. Guevara-Fletcher

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The composition and distribution of the main associations of submerged macrobenthos of Bahía Málaga (Colombian pacific coast, were studied in relation to the distribution of hard and soft substrates and some abiotic factors. Eight localities were sampled during six months: three in the external border of the estuary and five in the inner part. In total, 728 organisms were registered, belonging to 207 species, 132 genera, 86 families, and 14 orders of six invertebrate groups (Porifera, Cnidaria, Polychaeta, Mollusca, Crustacea, and Echinodermata. The submerged bottoms presented soft and hard substrates, with rocks and thick sand in five sites, soft bottoms with fine sand in one, and soft bottoms with slime and clay in two. The temperature and salinity values were higher in the external localities, while dissolved oxygen and pH were higher in the internal localities. The localities with hard substrates presented the highest richness of species while the soft substrates, were characterized by a paucity of species and individuals. The similarity classification analyses showed two groups: one characterized by having 61 species in common and high richness with 113 exclusive species. The other group with low diversity and richness values, 37 species in common and 23 exclusive species.

  4. 78 FR 72586 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries off West Coast States; Biennial Specifications and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-03

    ... specifications and management measures for most species of the Pacific Coast groundfish ] fishery (77 FR 67974... species of the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery was published on January 3, 2013 (78 FR 580). The Council... Sablefish Daily Trip Limit (DTL) Fishery Management Measures Limited Entry Fixed Gear and Open...

  5. 78 FR 49190 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Biennial Specifications and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-13

    ... specifications and management measures for most species of the Pacific Coast groundfish fishery (77 FR 67974... species of the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery was published on January 3, 2013 (78 FR 580). The Council... Entry Fixed Gear (LEFG) and Open Access (OA) Sablefish Daily Trip Limit (DTL) Fisheries North of 36...

  6. Colombian Safe Guide S.A.S

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Colombian Safe Guide S.A.S. es una compañía de servicios de asesoramiento y acompañamiento a los visitantes extranjeros que vienen a la ciudad de Bogotá. Funciona a través de una página web, que facilitan a sus clientes la obtención de todos los servicios necesarios durante su estadía, en un solo lugar. El principal objetivo es proporcionar nuevas alternativas de servicios de asesoramiento, capitalizando la compañía bajo el cumplimiento del objetivo y cuota del mercado propuesta por la compañ...

  7. Temperature and salinity profile data collected by NOAA Ship Rainier and its survey launches in the NE Pacific and Alaska coast, 2006-03 to 2006-06 (NCEI Accession 0002816)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using CTD casts from NOAA Ship RAINIER in the Northeast Pacific Ocean and Coastal Waters of Southeast Alaska/British Columbia...

  8. Acrylamide levels in selected Colombian foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacetti, Deborah; Gil, Elizabeth; Frega, Natale G; Álvarez, Lina; Dueñas, Pilar; Garzón, Angélica; Lucci, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Acrylamide (AA) levels in conventional (n = 112) and traditional (n = 43) Colombian foods were analysed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) detection. Samples included: infant powdered formula, coffee and chocolate powders, corn snacks, bakery products and tuber-, meat- and vegetable-based foods. There was a wide variability in AA levels among different foods and within different brands of the same food, especially for coffee powder, breakfast cereals biscuits and French fries samples. Among the conventional foods tested, the highest mean AA value was found in bakery products, such as biscuit (1104 µg kg(-1)) and wafer (1449 µg kg(-1)), followed by potato chips (916 µg kg(-1)). On the other hand, among the traditional foods, higher AA amounts were detected in fried platano (2813 µg kg(-1)) and yuca (3755 µg kg(-1)) compared to other products. Interestingly, the arepa, a traditional Colombian bakery product made with corn flour, showed a lower AA content (< 75 µg kg(-1)) when compared with similar bakery products tested, such as soft bread (102-594 µg kg(-1)), which is a made with wheat flour.

  9. Colombian exports rise as prices rocket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howland, J.

    2001-04-01

    The Colombian coal industry is in the throes of a boom period, fuelled primarily by a huge US appetite that is sucking in virtually all the available spot coal at prices now edging over 40 dollars for a standard product. With the US moving towards its summer, a period of high power demand, US domestic supplies are still tight and power station stocks have not been replenished from the winter, indicating that this US hunger will be maintained. With so much demand, a McCloskey's Coal Report survey predicts that export levels could increase by 4.5 mt this year on 2000 levels of 34.3. mt. This looks like it could be easily realised, with all the country's export producers eager to take advantage of the high prices. The article discusses the state of business of Carbocol, the former state owned coal mining company, Drummond, the owner and operator of Colombia's second largest coal mining operation, the La Loma mine, and of other minor producers. It gives a table of destinations of Colombian coal exports in the year 2000. 2 refs., 1 tab., 1 photo.

  10. Oceanographic data collected during the Sanctuary Quest: Investigating Marine Sanctuaries 2002 on NOAA Ship McArthur in North Pacific Ocean, California coast from 2002-04-24 to 2002-06-20 (NCEI Accession 0072307)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. coast from southern California to Washington state features vast areas of submerged mountain ranges, canyons, plateaus, volcanoes, basins, rocky outcrops,...

  11. Transport costs and market cause fall in Colombian exports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    It does not look good for Colombian coal exports in 1999. Although the wrangling over port access is settled, other aspects have clouded the picture - beyond infrastructure upgrading - to stop Colombian coal living up to expectations. The Colombian peso has not been devalued to the same extent as the Australian Dollar or South African Rand, and productivity improvements have also been lost because of increased transport costs. Access fee arrangements at ports remain unresolved, and negotiations continue. Although rail charges are falling, until the port issue is resolved, little will improve in the industry. 2 photos.

  12. Ivory Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-07-01

    Since the Ivory Coast's independence (1960), the population has increased from 3.7 million to 9.7 million, representing a growth rate of up to 4.2%. The country's 5th 5-Year Plan (1981-85) has 4 priorities: 1) agricultural modernization, 2) traditional industry and crafts modernization, 3) human resources enhancement, and 4) continued economic growth. Population objectives include 1) increasing peasant aid, 2) making education more development oriented, 3) making health care more accessible, and 4) finding solutions to employment and unemployment problems. The government wants to increase population size because it needs labor for economic development. Programs 1) develop areas with high out-migration, 2) reduce maternal and child mortality, and 3) support family planning only to benefit family well being. Although the Ivory Coast's population will reach 15 million by the year 2000, and population density has tripled since 1950, the country is still thinly populated. The current population policy strives to 1) reduce infant mortality, 2) maintain fertility, and 3) diminish immigration and emigration. Life expectancy is 47 years, infant mortality is 122/1000, and most rural people have no health services. The government considers the total fertility rate of 6.7 satisfactory. Abortion for contraceptive purposes and sterilization are illegal; access to contraception is limited. The Ivory Coast, because of rapid economic growth, attracts immigrants from neighboring countries; at present 1/3 of the population is foreign-born. The government is trying to integrate natives more fully into the labor force. There is little emigration, but internal migration involves almost half of the population. The government attempts to 1) slow down and redirect rural to urban migration to small and medium sized towns and 2) slow rural to rural migration from the savannah to the forest zone.

  13. Evaluating the War on Drugs: US and Colombian Interdiction Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-01

    wholesale price. --- -- ~---- -~- ~~-~--- - -- -- - ----- -- -------------- ca Arrieta, Carlos, G., Orjuela , Luis j., et. al. , Narcotrafico en... Narcotrafico en Colombia: Dimensiones Politicas. Economicas, Juridicas e lnternacionales, Universidad de los Andes, 1993. Bagley, Bruce, The Colombian

  14. Bolivar or Escobar: The Nature of Colombian Guerrillas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Pablo Escobar , was killed in a police shootout marking the decline of the large cartels.76 Unfortunately, the demand for narcotics had not been...Approved for Public Release; Distribution is Unlimited Bolivar or Escobar : The Nature of Colombian Guerrillas A Monograph by MAJ William R. Ward...or Escobar : The Nature of Colombian Guerrillas Unclassified 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Ward

  15. Incorporation of ITC into Colombian businesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César A. Ortega Ruiz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This review sought to provide general guidelines on how technologies have been incorporated into the information and communications business in Colombia. It presents a brief description of the stages through which the communications media has passed and its relationship with companies from its beginnings to the present day. The main statistics associated with the levels of adoption of ICT by the Colombian company are presented, showing the existence of a strong digital divide, especially by domestic micro-companies, which still have low adoption levels. However, this situation can be seen as an opportunity for the implementation of enterprises associated with this sector of the economy that has become one of the fastest growing in Colombia and in the world in recent years.

  16. [Migrations forced by violence: the Colombian case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Builes, Gloria Marcela Gómez; Arias, Gilberto Mauricio Astaiza; Minayo, Maria Cecília de Souza

    2008-01-01

    The human migrations have been one of the motors in the history of humanity. During the twentieth century, internal forced displacement has been an important component of the migration processes in the world. Colombia, a paradigm for this phenomenon, is a country with more than three and a half million people displaced over the last 25 years by force of the violence resulting from an internal armed conflict. Besides the socio-demographic effects in the reconfiguration of the cities, this problem affects the human condition of the victims deteriorating their health and quality of life. This article aims to show the general panorama of migrations forced by violence in the world and to analyze the peculiarities of this phenomenon in the Colombian case. We conclude that forced displacement is a serious violation of human rights producing a human drama by exposing the affected individuals and communities to vulnerability and a deep deterioration of their quality of life and health.

  17. [The Spanish influence in Colombian nursing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velandia, A L

    1993-06-01

    Four statements inferenced from: religious traditions, gender or woman status, military heritage and ethnic inheritance, and their influence in nursing, are presented in this article. The ethnic inheritance analyses the issue based upon the cultural influences of the native-indigenous groups and the spanish and mediterranean attributes in nursing development. The religious tradition began with Pedro Claver's J.C. presence between 1610 and 1617. His presence is followed by the "Hermanos Hospitalarios de San Juan de Dios" in 1768, and further with the presence of the sisters of Charity in 1873. Lastly, the article compares the Barcelona's Santa Cruz hospital organization, where at that time, seems to appear a new type of nursing arrangement; with present functions and charges, currently utilized in colombian hospitals (administrator of patient rooms, "servidor", women in charge of female patients and sick children, "ecónoma", chief in charge, and senior male nurse).

  18. 75 FR 42069 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-20

    ... meeting to develop a draft assessment of the factors triggering an overfishing concern for SRFC. The... consecutive years, an overfishing concern is triggered according to the terms of the Pacific Coast Salmon...

  19. Deep-water Holothuroidea (Echinodermata collected during the TALUD cruises off the Pacific coast of Mexico, with the description of two new species Holothuroidea (Echinodermata de mar profundo recolectadas durante las campañas TALUD frente a la costa del Pacífico mexicano, con la descripción de dos especies nuevas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Massin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Research cruises aboard the R/V "El Puma" were organized to collect deep-water benthic and pelagic specimens off the Pacific coast of Mexico. Seventy four specimens of Holothuroidea were collected off the Pacific coast of Mexico in depths of 377-2 200 m. The collection includes representatives of 5 of the 6 orders of Holothuroidea, 3 Dendrochirotida, 2 Dactylochirotida, 2 Aspidochirotida, 4 Elasipodida and 2 Molpadiida. Apodida were not represented. Of the 13 species recognized, 11 were identified to species level and 2, belonging to the genera Ypsilocucumis Panning, 1949, and Mitsukuriella Heding and Panning, 1954, are new to science. Five species represent new geographic or depth records. A list of Mexican localities previously and newly reported for each species are plotted on distribution maps. Environmental data, i.e., depth, temperature, and dissolved oxygen measured at the bottom level during the survey are provided. When compared with other areas of the world, the reduced number of specimens collected during this survey could be linked to the limiting effect of the Pacific Mexico Oxygen Minimum Zone. An updated checklist of species of Holothuroidea recorded below 350 m depth along the Pacific coast of Mexico is also provided totaling 31 species: 13 of these occur in the California Current area, 20 in the Gulf of California, and 15 (16 along the SW coast of Mexico.Una serie de campañas oceanográficas fue organizada a bordo del B/O "El Puma", frente a las costas del Pacífico mexicano con el propósito de recolectar ejemplares de la fauna bentónica y pelágica de aguas profundas. La recolección incluyó representantes de 5 de los 6 órdenes de Holothuroidea, i.e., 3 Dendrochirotida, 2 Dactylochirotida, 2 Aspidochirotida, 4 Elasipodida y 2 Molpadiida. Los Apodida no están representados. De las 13 especies capturadas por debajo de los 350 m de profundidad (377-2 200 m, 11 fueron identificadas hasta especie y 2 pertenecientes a los g

  20. Phenology and alginates of two Sargassum species from the Caribbean coast of Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Camacho, O.; Hernández Carmona, Gustavo

    2012-01-01

    The genus Sargassum (Phaeophyceae) forms large beds on rocky shores of the Colombian Caribbean, showing large seasonal fluctuations in biomass that are related to upwelling events in the area. This study describes the phenology of two benthic species of Sargassum from the Caribbean coast of Colombia, and presents a preliminary assessment of the alginate concentration and properties of viscosity and gel strength to determine their potential as an exploitable resource. Samples were collected du...

  1. Mid-term coral-algal dynamics and conservation status of a Gorgona Island (Tropical Eastern Pacific coral reef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando A Zapata

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Colombian coral reefs, as other reefs worldwide, have deteriorated significantly during the last few decades due to both natural and anthropogenic disturbances. The National Monitoring System for Coral Reefs in Colombia (SIMAC was established in 1998 to provide long-term data bases to assess the changes of Colombian coral reefs against perturbations and to identify the factors responsible for their decline or recovery. On the Pacific coast, data on coral and algal cover have been collected yearly during seven consecutive years (1998-2004 from 20 permanent transects in two sites at La Azufrada reef, Gorgona Island. Overall, coral cover was high (55.1%-65.7% and algal cover low (28.8%-37.5% and both exhibited significant changes among years, most notably on shallow areas. Differences between sites in both coral and algal cover were present since the study began and may be explained by differences in sedimentation stress derived from soil runoff. Differences between depths most likely stem from the effects of low tidal sub-aerial exposures. Particularly intense sub-aerial exposures occurred repeatedly during January-March, 2001 and accounted for a decrease in coral and an increase in algal cover on shallow depths observed later that year. Additionally, the shallow area on the Northern site seems to be negatively affected by the combined effect of sedimentation and low tidal exposure. However, a decrease in coral cover and an increase of algal cover since 2001 on deep areas at both sites remain unexplained. Comparisons with previous studies suggest that the reef at La Azufrada has been more resilient than other reefs in the Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP, recovering pre-disturbance (1979 levels of coral cover within a 10 year period after the 1982-83 El Niño, which caused 85% mortality. Furthermore, the effects of the 1997-98 El Niño, indicated by the difference in overall live coral cover between 1998 and 1999, were minor (<6% reduction. Despite

  2. Mid-term coral-algal dynamics and conservation status of a Gorgona Island (Tropical Eastern Pacific) coral reef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Fernando A; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Alberto; Caro-Zambrano, Carlos; Garzón-Ferreira, Jaime

    2010-05-01

    Colombian coral reefs, as other reefs worldwide, have deteriorated significantly during the last few decades due to both natural and anthropogenic disturbances. The National Monitoring System for Coral Reefs in Colombia (SIMAC) was established in 1998 to provide long-term data bases to assess the changes of Colombian coral reefs against perturbations and to identify the factors responsible for their decline or recovery. On the Pacific coast, data on coral and algal cover have been collected yearly during seven consecutive years (1998-2004) from 20 permanent transects in two sites at La Azufrada reef, Gorgona Island. Overall, coral cover was high (55.1%-65.7%) and algal cover low (28.8%-37.5%) and both exhibited significant changes among years, most notably on shallow areas. Differences between sites in both coral and algal cover were present since the study began and may be explained by differences in sedimentation stress derived from soil runoff. Differences between depths most likely stem from the effects of low tidal sub-aerial exposures. Particularly intense sub-aerial exposures occurred repeatedly during January-March, 2001 and accounted for a decrease in coral and an increase in algal cover on shallow depths observed later that year. Additionally, the shallow area on the Northern site seems to be negatively affected by the combined effect of sedimentation and low tidal exposure. However, a decrease in coral cover and an increase of algal cover since 2001 on deep areas at both sites remain unexplained. Comparisons with previous studies suggest that the reef at La Azufrada has been more resilient than other reefs in the Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP), recovering pre-disturbance (1979) levels of coral cover within a 10 year period after the 1982-83 El Niño, which caused 85% mortality. Furthermore, the effects of the 1997-98 El Niño, indicated by the difference in overall live coral cover between 1998 and 1999, were minor (coral cover in 2004 was as high as

  3. Morphodynamics of the Pacific and Caribbean deltas of Colombia, South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, Juan D.; López, Sergio A.

    2008-02-01

    This paper analyzes the physical factors controlling the recent morphology of major deltas along the Pacific and Caribbean coasts of Colombia. The study considers the fluvial, coastal, and oceanographic contributions to changes in delta morphology and uses different approaches, including (1) remote sensing techniques; (2) time series analysis of river discharge, sea level, wave climate and tidal variability; (3) analysis of the relationship between monthly mean sea level anomalies near the deltas related to the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO); (4) development of a database of key physical variables; (5) series of correlation calculations to examine which environmental factors control delta morphology; (6) analysis of shoreline changes for the 1986-2000 yr-period; and (7) classification of each delta system based on the relationship between water and sediment discharges and wave and tidal energies. Overall, Colombian deltas are built under destructive physical conditions. The Pacific deltas, San Juan, Mira, and Patía, are tide-influenced deltas although they exhibit definite characteristics of wave-dominated systems such as the presence of barriers and beach ridges. Also, these deltas exhibit the highest marine energy conditions of all Colombian deltas (marine power values between 9.1 and 11.6) due to the interplay of (1) moderate wave conditions as a result of the effect of swells from the SW with a significant height varying from 1.7 in the San Juan delta to 3.0 m and 3.1 m in the Mira and Patía deltas, respectively; (2) meso-tidal ranges; (3) steep subaqueous profiles; (4) low attenuation indexes of deep-water waves; and (5) strong oceanographic manifestations associated with the ENSO, causing regional sea level rises of 20-44 cm during El Niño events. The Caribbean deltas, Magdalena, Sinú and to a lesser extent, the Atrato, are wave-influenced deltas. The Magdalena, with deep and nearshore wave power values of 45 × 10 6 erg s -1 and 35 × 10 6 erg s -1

  4. Storms or cold fronts: what is really responsible for the extreme waves regime in the Colombian Caribbean coastal region?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, L. J.; Ortiz-Royero, J. C.; Ruiz-Merchan, J. K.; Higgins, A. E.; Henriquez, S. A.

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the contribution and importance of cold fronts and storms to extreme waves in different areas of the Colombian Caribbean in an attempt to determine the extent of the threat posed by the flood processes to which these coastal populations are exposed. Furthermore, the study wishes to establish the actions to which coastal engineering constructions should be subject. In the calculation of maritime constructions, the most important parameter is the height of the wave. For this reason, it is necessary to establish the design wave height to which a coastal engineering structure should be resistant. This wave height varies according to the return period considered. The significant height values for the areas focused on in the study were calculated in accordance with Gumbel's extreme value methodology. The methodology was evaluated using data from the reanalysis of the spectral National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) WAVEWATCH III® (WW3) model for 15 points along the 1600 km of the Colombian Caribbean coastline (continental and insular) between the years 1979 and 2009. The results demonstrated that the extreme waves caused by tropical cyclones and those caused by cold fronts have different effects along the Colombian Caribbean coast. Storms and hurricanes are of greater importance in the Guajira Peninsula (Alta Guajira). In the central area (consisting of Baja Guajira, and the cities of Santa Marta, Barranquilla, and Cartagena), the strong impact of cold fronts on extreme waves is evident. However, in the southern region of the Colombian Caribbean coast (ranging from the Gulf of Morrosquillo to the Gulf of Urabá), the extreme values of wave heights are lower than in the previously mentioned regions, despite being dominated mainly by the passage of cold fronts. Extreme waves in the San Andrés and Providencia insular region present a different dynamic from that in the continental area due to their geographic location

  5. Final Environmental Impact Statement for Development of Facilities to Support Basing US Pacific Fleet F/A-18E/F Aircraft on the West Coast of the United States; Volume 2: Technical Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-01

    support nearby target practice exercises. There are three weapons ranges in the vicinity of NAF El Centro: Chocolate Mountains Gunnery Range, Target...prehistorically by the Tipai. Tipai territory included the coast shore from San Diego to Ensenada, Mexico and east as far as the Chocolate Mountains...The Bishop and Caliente Resource Areas are in the Bakersfield District, California, and cover the west portion. There are lands in the R-2508

  6. Pacific Standard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The United States pushes for greater economic integration of the Asia-Pacific region Barack Obama has been an active free trade promoter in recent months. The U.S. president signed free trade agreements with South Korea,

  7. 76 FR 61950 - Security Zones, 2011 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Conference, Oahu, HI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-06

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zones, 2011 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation... will be in place to provide the necessary security measures required for the Asia-Pacific Economic... temporary Sec. 165.T14-0800 to read as follows: Sec. 165.T14-0800 Security Zones; 2011 Asia-Pacific...

  8. Looking at the Colombian infantile dramaturgy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Avendaño Peña

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is the synthesis of research results Aproximación a un diagnóstico sintáctico del texto teatral dirigido al público infantil en Colombia en el periodo 1995-2005 (Approach to a syntactic diagnosis of the theatrical text aimed at children in Colombia during the period 1995-2005 developed by the authors of the present paper. The main interest is to conduct a study on Colombian infantile dramaturgy, through the analysis of some structural features of dramatic composition of this type of theatre. This qualitative research was exploratory-descriptive level, initially located and identified the children’s plays produced during the study period. After recognizing some their features, proceeded to identify whether the judgments and concepts that are generally used around the children's theatre within the theatre industry are adequate or not, to generate an assessment about the state of the theatrical text, not from a single judgement without foundation, but compared with studies and theoretical reflections on drama and theatrical semiology.

  9. Water and Poverty in Two Colombian Watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Johnson

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Watersheds, especially in the developing world, are increasingly being managed for both environmental conservation and poverty alleviation. How complementary are these objectives? In the context of a watershed, the actual and potential linkages between land and water management and poverty are complex and likely to be very site specific and scale dependent. This study analyses the importance of watershed resources in the livelihoods of the poor in two watersheds in the Colombian Andes. Results of the participatory poverty assessment reveal significant decreases in poverty in both watersheds over the past 25 years, which was largely achieved by the diversification of livelihoods outside of agriculture. Water is an important resource for household welfare. However, opportunities for reducing poverty by increasing the quantity or quality of water available to the poor may be limited. While improved watershed management may have limited direct benefits in terms of poverty alleviation, there are important indirect linkages between watershed management and poverty, mainly through labour and service markets. The results suggest that at the level of the watershed the interests of the rich and the poor are not always in conflict over water. Sectoral as well as socio-economic differences define stakeholder groups in watershed management. The findings have implications for policymakers, planners and practitioners in various sectors involved in the implementation of integrated water resources management (IWRM.

  10. Invisible gold in Colombian auriferous soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustos Rodriguez, H., E-mail: hbustos@ut.edu.co; Oyola Lozano, D.; Rojas Martinez, Y. A. [Universidad del Tolima, Departamento de Fisica (Colombia); Perez Alcazar, G. A. [Universidad del Valle, Departamento de Fisica (Colombia); Balogh, A. G. [Darmstadt University of Technology, Institute of Materials Science (Germany)

    2005-11-15

    Optic microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Moessbauer spectroscopy (MS), Electron microprobe analysis (EPMA) and secondary ions mass spectroscopy (SIMS) were used to study Colombian auriferous soils. The auriferous samples, collected from El Diamante mine, located in Guachavez-Narino (Colombia), were prepared by means of polished thin sections and polished sections for EPMA and SIMS. Petrography analysis was made using an optical microscope with a vision camera, registering the presence, in different percentages, of the following phases: pyrite, quartz, arsenopyrite, sphalerite, chalcopyrite and galena. By XRD analysis, the same phases were detected and their respective cell parameters calculated. By MS, the presence of two types of pyrite was detected and the hyperfine parameters are: {delta}{sub 1} = 0.280 {+-} 0.01 mm/s and {Delta}Q{sub 1} = 0.642 {+-} 0.01 mm/s, {delta}{sub 2} = 0.379 {+-} 0.01 mm/s and {Delta}Q{sub 2} = 0.613 {+-} 0.01 mm/s. For two of the samples MS detected also the arsenopyrite and chalcopyrite presence. The mean composition of the detected gold regions, established by EPMA, indicated 73% Au and 27% Ag (electrum type). Multiple regions of approximately 200 x 200 {mu}m of area in each mineral sample were analyzed by SIMS registering the presence of 'invisible gold' associated mainly with the pyrite and occasionally with the arsenopyrite.

  11. Invisible gold in Colombian auriferous soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustos Rodriguez, H.; Oyola Lozano, D.; Rojas Martínez, Y. A.; Pérez Alcázar, G. A.; Balogh, A. G.

    2005-11-01

    Optic microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Mössbauer spectroscopy (MS), Electron microprobe analysis (EPMA) and secondary ions mass spectroscopy (SIMS) were used to study Colombian auriferous soils. The auriferous samples, collected from El Diamante mine, located in Guachavez-Nariño (Colombia), were prepared by means of polished thin sections and polished sections for EPMA and SIMS. Petrography analysis was made using an optical microscope with a vision camera, registering the presence, in different percentages, of the following phases: pyrite, quartz, arsenopyrite, sphalerite, chalcopyrite and galena. By XRD analysis, the same phases were detected and their respective cell parameters calculated. By MS, the presence of two types of pyrite was detected and the hyperfine parameters are: δ 1 = 0.280 ± 0.01 mm/s and Δ Q 1 = 0.642 ± 0.01 mm/s, δ 2 = 0.379 ± 0.01 mm/s and Δ Q 2 = 0.613 ± 0.01 mm/s. For two of the samples MS detected also the arsenopyrite and chalcopyrite presence. The mean composition of the detected gold regions, established by EPMA, indicated 73% Au and 27% Ag (electrum type). Multiple regions of approximately 200 × 200 μm of area in each mineral sample were analyzed by SIMS registering the presence of “invisible gold” associated mainly with the pyrite and occasionally with the arsenopyrite.

  12. Chronic Disease Cost not Transferable: Colombian Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Gallardo Solarte

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim is to reflect on the social and economic costs of chronic non-communicable disease (NCD in Colombia to display a charging indicator of these pathologies. Material and methods: In a review of 50 studies, 27 were selected since these met the inclusion criteria, like chronical disease, studies conducted between 2002 and 2011 related to costs, chronic disease, and being Colombian. Results: This is a review study of chronic diseases vs. their costs, being here cardiovascular diseases part of the group of high cost and higher incidence diseases, thus repre­senting a great risk to the financial stability of healthcare companies. There are few studies that address the costs generated by the treatment of ncds patients that show the economic impact experienced by public and private institutions providing and promoting health services. Most of them forget the economic, family and social costs the affected population must suffer. Conclu­sions: ncds represent a burden to the health service system for their very high costs, untimely intervention and reduced significant benefit for this population and their families.

  13. NGOs Efficiency and Transparency Policy: The Colombian Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Mar Gálvez Rodríguez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the influence of Colombian non-governmental organizations (NGOs in diverse social sectors of the country has increased. However, the legitimacy of this sector has been undermined by corruption. This distrust has questioned the efficiency of NGOs as social tools. Transparency as a mechanism against corruption and one of the tools that improves the functioning of an organization is considered. There is no doubt that Internet is an essential element in disseminating information to the different stakeholders of the organization. This paper sets out three main objectives: i the analysis of information disclosure through the Internet of Colombian NGOs, ii the analysis of the efficiency of these entities in reaching their social goals and, iii the analysis of the online transparency effect in a greater efficiency of the Colombian NGOs.

  14. A physical view of La Guajira Upwelling System, Colombian Basin, Caribbean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, G.; Beier, E.; Barton, E. D.; Ruiz-Ochoa, M.; Correa, J. G.

    2013-05-01

    La Guajira Peninsula lies within a large upwelling system along the South Caribbean Coast, created by the NE trade winds. In this location, sea surface temperature (SST) exhibits the lowest mean value and the highest variability in the whole Colombian Basin. The seasonal variation of SST explains up to 75 % of the total variability. La Guajira coastal zone also experiences the highest values of wind stress and wind stress curl, with the greatest annual and semiannual variability in the Colombian Basin. It has been shown that wind stress curl enhances the upwelling over the region. Near 90% of the variability of SST in La Guajira can be explained by the seasonality plus the first three EOFs interannual modes: the first, synchronous throughout the Basin, is dominant, and consists of a uniform interannual variation in phase with the North Tropical Atlantic Index; the second co-varies strongly with the second mode of wind stress curl; and the third reflects the role of the vertical atmospheric circulation cell associated with the Caribbean Low Level Jet off Central America. The inclusion of wind stress curl with its maximum offshore of La Guajira explains in part the extension of cool coastal water into the Colombian Basin, with advection in filaments, eddies and meanders. In order to complement the physical knowledge of La Guajira upwelling system, an analysis of water masses, sea surface height, Ekman suction, Ekman transport and coastal upwelling index (CUI) was performed. Hydrographic data was obtained from gridded climatologies from the National Oceanographic Data Center (WOD01); sea surface height anomalies from the Archiving, Validation, and Interpretation of Satellite Oceanography (AVISO) data; and wind data from the Cross-Calibrated Multi-Platform Ocean Surface Wind Velocity Product for Meteorological and Oceanographic Applications (CCMP). The upwelling forms a local water mass, La Guajira surface water (LGSW), with the mixing of subtropical underwater and

  15. Present status in {sup 137}Cs contamination in the marine biota along the Pacific coast of eastern Japan derived from a dynamic biological model simulation following the Fukushima accident - A state and problem in {sup 137}Cs contamination in the marine biota along the Pacific coast of eastern Japan derived from the dynamic biological model simulation after the Fukushima accident - A state and problem in {sup 137}Cs contamination in the marine biota along the Pacific coast of eastern Japan derived from the dynamic biological model simulation after the Fukushima accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tateda, Y.; Tsumune, D.; Tsubono, K.; Misumi, K. [Environmental Science Research Laboratory, CRIEPI, 1646, Abiko, Chiba, 270-1194 (Japan); Yamada, M. [Institute of radiation Emergency Medicine, Hirosaki University, 66-1 Hon-cho, Bunkyo, Hirosaki, Aomori, 036-8564 (Japan); Kanda, J.; Ishimaru, T. [Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, 4-5-7, Konan, Minato, Tokyo, 108-8477 (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    To understand the radioactive matter contamination of coastal biota in case of accidental release to the environment, the {sup 137}Cs levels in coastal biota around the Fukushima were reconstructed by dynamic model simulating non-equilibrated radioactive Cs transfer between seawater and organisms. Since, there is a disagreement between simulated radioactive Cs levels and observed concentrations in benthic organisms, being possibly attributable to the additional contamination source from sediment environment (Tateda et al. 2013), the {sup 137}Cs levels in organisms habituated not close to the sediment are calculated. Using the reconstructed {sup 137}Cs levels in seawater including atmospheric input and direct leakage after 1/March/2011 till 31/December/2012, {sup 137}Cs levels in sedentary organisms such as macro algae, bivalve and surface swimming plankton feeding fish e.g. as white bait were calculated along the Pacific Ocean coastal area of the Eastern Japan. The simulated temporal space distribution of the {sup 137}Cs levels in macro algae, algae feeding invertebrates, coastal bivalves, were generally agreed in the observed temporal profiles corresponding to the same food habitat organisms collected, while the magnitude of the {sup 137}Cs levels were several times lower than observed concentrations. Since the simulated reconstructed seawater levels are only verified by measured values after direct leakage, thus initial levels before the liquid release may be expected to be higher reconstructed level by simulation. The organisms are continuously exposed to initial contaminated seawater, reflecting actual seawater level increase in seawater, thus there may be possible deficit of initial source estimation in coastal surface water e.g. contribution from fine debris deposition to seaward from hydrogen explosion. In other word as shown in overall pushing up measured level compared to reconstructed level in organism, it also suggests the re-distributed {sup 137}Cs

  16. A comparison of visual and collection-based methods for assessing community structure of coral reef fishes in the Tropical Eastern Pacific

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alzate, Adriana; Zapata, Fernando A.; Giraldo, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Gorgona Island, the major insular area in the Colombian Pacific Ocean, is characterized by a remarkably high biological and ecosystem diversity for this area of the world. Coral reefs are well developed and their fish communities have been described using conventional visual surveys. These methods,

  17. Primer registro de Harriota raleighiana (Chondrichthyes: Holocephali: Rhinochimaeridae en la costa del Pacífico central de México First record of Harriota raleighiana (Chondrichthyes: Holocephali: Rhinochimaeridae in the central Pacific coast of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Castro-Aguirre

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este es el primer registro de la quimera narizona, Harriota raleighiana Goode y Bean 1895, en el litoral del Pacífico central de México, con base en una hembra moribunda, recolectada en la superficie del océano sobre agua muy profunda cerca de Manzanillo, Colima. También constituye el segundo registro de su existencia en el océano Pacífico oriental, lo que podría comprobar su patrón distribucional que la calificaría como cosmopolita. Se proporcionan sus medidas y algunos datos biológicos.This is the first record in Mexican central Pacific of the "longnosed chimaera" Harriota raleighiana Goode and Bean 1895, based on a nearly dead female specimen collected at sea surface over very deep water of Manzanillo, Colima. Also, it is the second published report on the occurrence of this species in the eastern Pacific ocean, and seems to support its geographical distribution pattern, which has been classified as cosmopolitan-like type. Morphometric and some biological data are also offered.

  18. Area West of the 700 fathom Depth Contour for Pacific Fishery Management Council's June 2005 Preferred Alternative, Groundfish EFH Final EIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — These data depict area within the West Coast Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) that is west of the 700 fathom isobath. This area was designated by the Pacific Fishery...

  19. West Coast Estuaries for Groundfish Essential Fish Habitat (EFH) Environmental Impact Statement

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — These data depict the boundaries of estuaries along the West Coast of the United States. The estuary boundaries are delineated according to the U.S. Fish and...

  20. Public Seagrass Compilation for West Coast Essential Fish Habitat (EFH) Environmental Impact Statement

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — These data are a compilation of currently available seagrass GIS data sets for the west coast of the United States. These data have been compiled from seventeen...

  1. Gallbladder microbiota variability in Colombian gallstones patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteta, Ariel Antonio; Carvajal-Restrepo, Hernan; Sánchez-Jiménez, Miryan Margot; Diaz-Rodriguez, Sergio; Cardona-Castro, Nora

    2017-03-31

    Gallbladder stones are a very frequently occurring condition. Despite bile bactericidal activity, many bacteria have been detected inside the gallbladder, and gallstones facilitate their presence. Between 3% and 5% of the patients with Salmonella spp. infection develop the carrier stage, with the bacteria persisting inside the gallbladder, shedding bacteria in their feces without signs of infection. The aim of this study was to isolate bacteria from Colombian patients with gallstones, using standard culturing methods, and to identify Salmonella spp. carriers by molecular techniques. A total of 149 patients (120 female and 29 male) diagnosed with gallstones who underwent cholecystectomy and who did not have symptoms of acute inflammation were included. Gallbladder tissue and bile were cultured and used for DNA extraction and Salmonella spp. hilA gene detection. Of the 149 patients 28 (19%) had positive cultures. Twenty-one (75%) patients with positive cultures were from Medellin's metropolitan area. In this geographical location, the most frequent isolations were Pseudomonas spp. (38%), Klebsiella spp. (23%), and Proteus spp. (9%) in addition to unique cases of other bacteria. In Apartado, the isolates found were Enterobacter cloacae (50%), Raoultella terrigena (32%), and both Enterobacter cloacae and Raoultella terrigena were isolated in one (18%) male patient. Five (3.3%) of the 149 patients had positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results for the hilA gene of Salmonella spp., all of whom were female and residents of the Medellín metropolitan area. The gallbladder microbiota variability found could be related to geographical, ethnic, and environmental conditions.

  2. Requiem for an eastern Pacific seagrass bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, J

    2001-12-01

    Few papers concerning seagrasses of the eastern Pacific have been published. This paper presents the first ecological data on the seagrass, Ruppia maritima, from a non-lagoonal setting in the eastern Pacific. A 5000 m2 patch formed by R. maritima, at Playa Iguanita, Bahía Culebra, Pacific coast of Costa Rica was studied. Plant density and leaf length of R. maritima were determined along two transects on different dates. Above and below ground biomass were calculated along one transect. Plant density ranged from 1590 to 8630 individuals m(-2) along the two transects, with means of 5990 +/- 1636 and 6100 +/- 1876 plants m(-2) for transect 1 and 2, respectively. Longest leaf length per plant varied between 0.5 and 23.0 cm. Leaf biomass (LB) ranged from 10 to 97 gm(-2), and root-rhizome biomass (RB) from 31 to 411 gm(-2), resulting in RB:LB ratios of 3.07 to 15.27. Total biomass at Bahía Culebra was lower than at tropical lagoons on the Pacific coast of Mexico, but higher than in the Gulf of Mexico. The below ground: above ground biomass ratio was much higher at Bahía Culebra than at other sites on the Pacific coast of Mexico and the Gulf of Mexico. Another seagrass present at Bahía Culebra was Halophila baillonii, with low densities on the deepest section of the patch. At least 44 invertebrate species associated with the seagrass bed have also been identified. The patch at Playa Iguanita and other sites within Bahía Culebra, as well as their associated organisms, disappeared after a severe storm in June 1996. No seagrasses have been found in the area or in any other location on the Pacific coast of Costa Rica since then.

  3. LA VEJEZ EN EL ARTE DE LAS POBLACIONES PREHISPáNICAS TUMACO-LA TOLITA DE LA COSTA PACÍFICA COLOMBO-ECUATORIANA Old age in the art of the pre-Hispanic Tumaco-La Tolita populations from the Pacific Colombian-Ecuadorian Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Pachajoa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes. El envejecimiento es un proceso natural, que ocurre en todos los seres vivos y se caracteriza por ser irreversible, progresivo, heterogéneo, deletéreo y multifactorial. Este proceso ha sido representado en el arte como parte de la expresión de las diferentes culturas. Objetivos. Describir las evidencias de los procesos de envejecimiento y vejez en la cerámica de la cultura Tumaco-La Tolita de la colección del Museo Arqueológico “Julio César Cubillos” de la Universidad del Valle de Cali, y del Museo Universitario de la Universidad de Antioquia en Medellín Colombia desde una mirada de las ciencias sociales y médicas. Material y métodos. Se evaluaron cerca de 2000 piezas de cerámica de la cultura Tumaco-La Tolita de colecciones de diferentes museos de Colombia, evaluando representaciones artísticas que evidenciaran procesos de envejecimiento y vejez. Resultados. Se encontraron cerca de 50 piezas de cerámica que representaban cambios fisicos compatibles con procesos de envejecimiento. Conclusión. La representación permanente de los ancianos en el arte Tumaco-La Tolita podría indicarnos una concepción del ser humano muy diferente a la cultura occidental moderna, así como en las comunidades indígenas actuales, los ancianos fueron respetados por la comunidad y fueron un símbolo importante en dicha sociedad.Background. Aging is a natural process which happens to all living beings and is characterised by being irreversible, progressive, heterogeneous, deleterious and multifactorial. This process has been represented in art as being part of the esthetic expression of ancient cultures around the world. Objective. Describing evidence of aging and old age found in Colombia on several ceramic pieces from the Tumaco- La Tolita culture in collections housed in the Universidad del Valle’s Julio César Cubillos Archaeological Museum in Cali, the Universidad de Antioquia’s University Museum in Medellin and the Banco de la Republica’s Gold Museum in Bogotá. Materials and methods. Around 2,000 ceramic pieces from the Tumaco-La Tolita culture from collections housed in different museums in Colombia were analysed, evaluating artistic representations demonstrating aging and old age. Result. Nearly 50 ceramic pieces represented physical changes compatible with aging processes. Result. There were near 50 pieces of ceramics that were representing physical Changes compatible with processes of aging. Conclusions. The constant representation of elders in Tumaco-La Tolita art might indicate a concept of human beings which is very different from that of modern western culture (and in Indian communities today where the elders were respected by the community and were a symbol of knowledge and wisdom.

  4. [Personality Traits Screening in a Colombian Adult Population Sample - Colombian National Survey of Mental Health-2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviedo, Gabriel Fernando; Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; Rondón, Martín; Borda Bohigas, Juan Pablo; Tamayo Martínez, Nathalie

    2016-12-01

    Personality refers to the individual style in characteristic patterns of thinking, feeling and behaving. Traits may configure a personality disorder when there is a long-lasting rigid pattern of inner experience that deviates from the expectations of the individual's culture, are inflexible and form maladaptative schemes in different interpersonal scenarios. Given the pervasiveness of this structure, they cause impairment of functioning in the affected person. To establish the prevalence of personality traits in all selected adults, using the module-structured interview WHO WHM-CIDI-CAPI for clusters A, B and C of personality traits. Colombian National Survey on Mental Health with persons older than 18 years of age. Personality traits that are the most frequently described: Cluster A 46% (95%CI, 45.2-48.1) of people believe they are convinced that there are conspiracies behind many things in the world. Regarding the features of cluster B, 35.6% (95%CI, 34.2-37.0) of the population reports that generally they do not feel bad when offending or upsetting someone and 35.4% (95%CI, 33.9-36.8) refer to show feelings to anyone. The highest proportion of traits were found to the probable borderline personality disorder, as 4.6% (95%CI, 4.1-5.2) of the Colombian population aged 18 and older has 6 or more features of this type, and is the widely reported as an individual entity with similar rates in men and women. The high prevalence of disruptive personality traits requires more research. The high prevalence reported for borderline personality traits suggests the need to implement measures to improve and integrate a collaborative model of care for people afflicted with a possible borderline personality disorder. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  5. Macro-Prudential Assessment of Colombian Financial Institutions’ Systemic Importance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    León, C.; Machado, C.; Murcia, A.

    2014-01-01

    Three metrics are designed to assess Colombian financial institutions’ size, connectedness and non-­substitutability as the main drivers of systemic importance: (i) centrality as net borrower in the money market network; (ii) centrality as payments originator in the large-value payment system networ

  6. Macro-Prudential Assessment of Colombian Financial Institutions’ Systemic Importance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    León, C.; Machado, C.; Murcia, A.

    2014-01-01

    Three metrics are designed to assess Colombian financial institutions’ size, connectedness and non-­substitutability as the main drivers of systemic importance: (i) centrality as net borrower in the money market network; (ii) centrality as payments originator in the large-value payment system

  7. Resilience amongst Older Colombians Living in Poverty: an Ecological Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Kate M; Reyes-Rodriguez, Maria F; Altamar, Paula; Soulsby, Laura K

    2016-12-01

    Older Colombians face significant adversities: poverty, violence and displacement. However, there is evidence that Latinos are often resilient. We examine resilience in older Colombians living in poverty using an ecological framework that identifies three levels: individual; community; and societal. In this paper we examine data from 16 semi-structured interviews with older Colombians that explore resilience within the context of poverty. We analyze our data using three stages: (1) modified grounded theory; (2) assignment of resilience status; (3) identification of components of the ecological framework which contribute to resilience in these participants. The most striking feature is that some participants are able to adapt to their situation, demonstrating resilience, whilst others are not. Individual characteristics such as psychological and material resources contribute to resilience. At the community level, family, social support, participation and cohesion promote resilience. Finally, at the societal level, social and welfare services, finance, religion and social policy, are important factors. These different levels of resilience are co-dependent, and we illustrate how this is so. We suggest that older Colombians living in poverty often demonstrate resilience, but that more can be done to enhance their lives. This includes interventions at the individual and community levels alongside changes in social policy.

  8. Colombian Emigration: A Research Note on Its Probable Quantitative Extent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Briquets, Sergio; Frederick, Melinda J.

    1984-01-01

    Provides a brief overview of quantitative estimates of Colombian emigration including a discussion of how estimates were prepared. Concludes that estimates of international migration from Colombia are inflated and that such migration is not as significant as some observers claim. (CMG)

  9. Studies on Colombian cryptogams. V. Taxonomy, distribution and ecology of macrolichens of the Colombian Paramos: 1. Cladonia subgenus Cladina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sipman, H.J.M.; Cleef, A.M.

    1979-01-01

    Morphology, chemistry, distribution and ecology of 6 species of Cladonia subgenus Cladina (Lichenes) from the Colombian paramos are described: C. arcuata Ahti, C. boliviano Ahti, C. confusa Sant., C. polia Sant., C. rangiferina (L.) Wigg. var. abbayesii Ahti, and C. colombiana spec. Nov. C. bicolor

  10. Morphological and molecular evidence on the existence of a single estuarine and rocky intertidal acanthocephalan species of Profilicollis Meyer, 1931 (Acanthocephala: Polymorphidae) along the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of southern South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Sara M; Diaz, Julia I; D'Elía, Guillermo

    2017-05-01

    Profilicollis chasmagnathi Holcman-Spector, Mañé-Garzón & Dei-Cas, 1977 (Acanthocephala: Polymorphidae) has been reported to parasitise different grapsid species as intermediate hosts along the South Atlantic shores, i.e. Cyrtograpsus angulatus (Dana) and Neohelice granulata (Dana) in Uruguay and Cyrtograpsus altimanus (Rathbun) in Argentina. Larvae of a similar acanthocephalan described as Profilicollis antarcticus Zdzitowiecki, 1985 were recorded in the crab Hemigrapsus crenulatus (Milne-Edwards) from an estuarine habitat on the Southeast Pacific shore in Chile. Earlier studies have questioned the specific assignation of the Chilean estuarine populations of Profilicollis Meyer, 1931. The aim of this study was to re-examine the identification of these acanthocephalans by means of morphological and molecular analyses of cystacanths of Profilicollis spp. gathered from C. angulatus, N. granulata, C. altimanus and H. crenulatus. Our analyses showed that a single species of Profilicollis, P. chasmagnathi, parasitises these four crab species. The assessment of specimens from the South Shetlands Islands, the type-locality of P. antarcticus, is needed before formally proposing that P. antarcticus is a junior subjective synonym of P. chasmagnathi.

  11. Morfología y distribución de Porphyra hollenbergii (Bangiaceae, Rhodophyta en la costa del Pacífico de México Morphology and distribution of Porphyra hollenbergii (Bangiaceae, Rhodophyta in the Pacific coast of México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Aguilar-Rosas

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Se registra la presencia y estacionalidad de Porphyra hollenbergii (Bangiaceae, Rhodophyta para la costa del Pacífico de México, con base en material recolectado durante el periodo de enero a mayo del 2003 y un análisis de ejemplares depositados en herbarios nacionales y extranjeros. Se describen en forma detallada los caracteres morfológicos y reproductores de los talos, así como su hábitat y distribución geográfica en el área de estudio. La estacionalidad de la fase macroscópica de P. hollenbergii comprende de febrero a mayo (invierno-primavera.Occurrence and seasonality of Porphyra hollenbergii (Bangiaceae, Rhodophyta is reported for the Pacific coast of Mexico, based on sampling conducted in 2003 and those deposited in national and foreign herbarium. We describe details of morphology and reproductive characters of the thallus, as well as its habitat and geographic distribution. We determined that P. hollenbergii is a seasonal species in its macroscopic phase from February to May (winter - spring.

  12. Heroes of our time. The figure of the drug-trafficker in Colombian narcotelenovelas

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Palaversich

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the representation of drug traffickers in Colombian narcotelenovelas. While the Colombian official discourse treats these characters as the embodiment of evil and cruelty, narcotelenovelas treat them as models of social mobility in countries characterized by social injustice. The figure of drug trafficker (narcotraficante) represented in Colombian TV series is constructed at the intersection of two myths: the ancient myth of the social bandit, a brave macho man who steals ...

  13. Comparison of aliphatic hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenylethers, and organochlorine pesticides in Pacific sanddab (Citharichthys sordidus) from offshore oil platforms and natural reefs along the California coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Robert W.; Tanner, Michael J.; Love, Milton S.; Nishimoto, Mary M.; Schroeder, Donna M.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the relative exposure of Pacific sanddab (Citharichthys sordidus) to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at oil-production platforms was reported, indicating negligible exposure to PAHs and no discernible differences between exposures at platforms and nearby natural areas sites. In this report, the potential for chronic PAH exposure in fish is reported, by measurement of recalcitrant, higher molecular weight PAHs in tissues of fish previously investigated for PAH metabolites in bile. A total of 34 PAHs (20 PAHs, 11 alkylated PAHs, and 3 polycyclic aromatic thiophenes) were targeted. In addition, legacy contaminants—polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs),—and current contaminants, polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) linked to endocrine disruption, were measured by gas chromatography with electron-capture or mass spectrometric detection, to form a more complete picture of the contaminant-related status of fishes at oil production platforms in the Southern California Bight. No hydrocarbon profiles or unresolved complex hydrocarbon background were found in fish from platforms and from natural areas, and concentrations of aliphatics were low less than 100 nanograms per gram (ng/g) per component]. Total-PAH concentrations in fish ranged from 15 to 37 ng/g at natural areas and from 8.7 to 22 ng/g at platforms. Profiles of PAHs were similar at all natural and platform sites, consisting mainly of naphthalene and methylnaphthalenes, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, and pyrene. Total-PCB concentrations (excluding non-ortho-chloro-substituted congeners) in fish were low, ranging from 7 to 22 ng/g at natural areas and from 10 to 35 ng/g at platforms. About 50 percent of the total-PCBs at all sites consisted of 11 congeners: 153 > 138/163/164 > 110 > 118 > 15 > 99 > 187 > 149 > 180. Most OCPs, except dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT)-related compounds, were not detectable or were at concentrations of less than 1 ng/g in fish. p

  14. A Production Calendar Based on Water Temperature, Spat Size, and Husbandry Practices Reduce OsHV-1 μvar Impact on Cultured Pacific Oyster Crassostrea gigas in the Ebro Delta (Catalonia), Mediterranean Coast of Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Noèlia; Gairin, Ignasi; Pérez, Josu; Andree, Karl B.; Roque, Ana; Fernández-Tejedor, Margarita; Rodgers, Chris J.; Aguilera, Cristobal; Furones, M. Dolors

    2017-01-01

    Since 2006, the production of Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas in the Ebro Delta area has dramatically declined from around 800 metric tons (MT) per year to 138 MT in 2011. This decline in production has had a significant socio-economic impact in a region where the shellfish sector is a traditional economic activity for many families. The identified agent responsible for this reduction in C. gigas production was Ostreid Herpesvirus microvar (OsHV-1 μvar), which has been associated with C. gigas spat mortalities in France, and in many other countries. In Spain the episodes of mortality became critical for the regional shellfish production between 2008 until 2014, with mortality percentage up to 100%. In this study, local hatchery C. gigas spat was used as sentinel animals for epidemiological studies and management tests carried out with the aim of reducing oyster mortality in the Ebro Delta area. A production calendar mainly based on water temperature dynamics was designed around an optimal schedule for spat immersion. The immersion calendar included two optimal periods for spat immersion, in summer when temperatures are ≥25°C and at the end of autumn and beginning of winter when they are ≤13°C. Such production planning has reduced mortalities from 80% (in 2014 and previous years) to 2–7.5% in 2015 in cemented oysters. Furthermore, other recommendations related to spat immersion size, culture density and methodology, and cementing calendar, which helped to achieve the results presented, were also recorded and transferred to local producers. This work presents a successfully tested management strategy reducing OsHV-1 μvar impact by designing new field management practices mainly focused on the handling and timing of spat immersion. This approach could be used as a management model in areas presenting similar production practices and environmental characteristics.

  15. [Transformations of the rural Colombian family].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordonez Gomez, M

    1991-06-01

    This work analyzes sociodemographic changes affecting rural Colombian families in the past 15-20 years. The most recent sources of data on Colombia's rural population are the 1985 census, the 1988 Rural Household Survey, and the 1990 Survey of Contraceptive Prevalence, Demography, and Health. Among the most significant changes observed since the preceding census, in 1973, were declines in illiteracy and increases in educational status, increased economic participation of women, declines in fertility and infant mortality, and declining participation in agriculture and diversification in other rural activities. The absolute size of Colombia's rural population has not changed since 1973 but its relative weight has declined from 39% to 32% in 1985. Due to the fertility decline the proportion of the population under 15 has declined from 48% in 1973 too 39% in 1990. The rural total fertility rate was estimated at 3.8 children per woman in 1987-90 and the crude birth rate at 27/1000. The total fertility rate is much higher in some regions and among some groups of women. The most important determinant of rural fertility decline has been family planning. Between 1969-90, the proportion of rural women using contraception has increased from 10 to 60%. 47% of women in union do not desire more children, with poorly educated mothers of 3 or more children least likely to want more children. A 1990 estimate of infant mortality based on the contraceptive prevalence survey was 36/1000 in rural and 28/1000 in urban areas. Although the overall infant mortality rate has declined by 37% in 25 years, significant regional and socioeconomic differentials persist. Acute diarrheal disease is still the single most important cause of death in children under 5, followed by acute respiratory infections. The main cause of death for adults aged 15-44 is homicide. Among fertile-aged women the most important causes of illness and death are nutritional deficiencies and poor attention in deliveries

  16. Assessing the effect of sea-level change and human activities on a major delta on the Pacific coast of northern South America: The Patía River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo A, Juan D.

    2012-05-01

    This paper presents the main physical and human-induced stresses that have shaped the recent evolution of the Patía River delta, the largest and best-developed delta on the western margin of South America. During the Holocene, the Patía Delta moved southward and the northern part became an estuarine system characterized by large extensions of mangrove ecosystems. However, a major human-induced water diversion, starting in 1972, diverted the Patía flow to the Sanguianga River, and shifted the active delta plain back to its former Holocene location. This discharge diversion has led to sediment starvation of the southern delta lobe and changed the northern estuarine system into an active delta plain. In addition, coastal areas of the Patía delta subsided as a result of a devastating tsunami in 1979. Morphological changes along the delta coast are evidenced by: (1) coastal retreat along the whole delta front during the period 1986-2001; (2) coastal retreat along the abandoned delta lobe for the period 2001-2008; 56% of the southern delta shoreline is retreating and only 4% of the coast shows signs of accretion; (3) progradation of the northern delta region during the period 2001-2008; the discharge diversion of the Patía River to the Sanquianga has apparently balanced the observed trends in coastal erosion and sea-level rise (5.1 mm yr- 1 for the period 1984-2006, after the 1979 tsunami); (4) formation of transgressive barrier islands with exposed peat soils in the surf zone; and (5) abandonment of former active distributaries in the southern delta plain with associated inlet closure. In the northern delta lobe, major geomorphic changes include: (1) distributary channel accretion by morphological processes such as sedimentation (also in crevasses), overbank flow, increasing width of levees, inter-distributary channel fill, and colonization of pioneer mangrove; (2) freshening conditions in the Sanguianga distributary channel, a hydrologic change that has shifted

  17. Evaluating the X chromosome-specific diversity of Colombian populations using insertion/deletion polymorphisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Ibarra

    Full Text Available The European and African contribution to the pre-existing Native American background has influenced the complex genetic pool of Colombia. Because colonisation was not homogeneous in this country, current populations are, therefore, expected to have different proportions of Native American, European and African ancestral contributions. The aim of this work was to examine 11 urban admixed populations and a Native American group, called Pastos, for 32 X chromosome indel markers to expand the current knowledge concerning the genetic background of Colombia. The results revealed a highly diverse genetic background comprising all admixed populations, harbouring important X chromosome contributions from all continental source populations. In addition, Colombia is genetically sub-structured, with different proportions of European and African influxes depending on the regions. The samples from the North Pacific and Caribbean coasts have a high African ancestry, showing the highest levels of diversity. The sample from the South Andean region showed the lowest diversity and significantly higher proportion of Native American ancestry than the other samples from the North Pacific and Caribbean coasts, Central-West and Central-East Andean regions, and the Orinoquian region. The results of admixture analysis using X-chromosomal markers suggest that the high proportion of African ancestry in the North Pacific coast was primarily male driven. These men have joined to females with higher Native American and European ancestry (likely resulting from a classic colonial asymmetric mating type: European male x Amerindian female. This high proportion of male-mediated African contributions is atypical of colonial settings, suggesting that the admixture occurred during a period when African people were no longer enslaved. In the remaining regions, the African contribution was primarily female-mediated, whereas the European counterpart was primarily male driven and the

  18. Violence, Oppression, and Double Standards in Three Colombian Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa R. Meade

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This article compares three Colombian films that tell distinct stories of violence, personal and political oppression, and double standards. The films Confesión a Laura (Confessing to Laura, Jaime Osorio, 1991, La Primera Noche (The First Night, Luis Alberto Restrepo, 2003 and El Rey (The King, José Antonio Dorado, 2004 each highlight the characters’ struggles in the Colombian socio-political landscape. Each  film’s content and themes do not merely offer representations of national culture, but also provide a way in which to discuss the political and social struggles of Colombia. The directors explore these stories of violence and socio-political struggle through the use of mis-en-scène, cinematography, sound, and editing.

  19. New Colombian gas line overcomes desert, marshland, hilly terrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-02-28

    Wind-swept deserts, rock hills, and tricky swamps are some of the main obstacles being faced in the construction of a major Colombian pipeline for Promigas, a Colombian gas-marketing firm. The 236-mile (380-km), 20 and 12-in. transmission system will link the onshore and offshore Guajira Peninsula fields with the industrial cities of Barranquilla and Cartagena as part of an ambitious gas-utilization program aimed at substituting imported fuel oil in industrial operations at these cities and creating a sizable gas-processing and liquefaction complex at Palomino. Scheduled for completion in October 1977, the $60 million gas line will deliver up to 900 million cf/day of untreated, 98 mol % methane gas without the use of compressor stations because of the 1400-psi reservoir pressure. The estimated potential of the field is expected to support this production rate for at least 15 years.

  20. Techno-economic analysis for a sugarcane biorefinery: Colombian case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncada, Jonathan; El-Halwagi, Mahmoud M; Cardona, Carlos A

    2013-05-01

    In this paper a techno-economic analysis for a sugarcane biorefinery is presented for the Colombian case. It is shown two scenarios for different conversion pathways as function of feedstock distribution and technologies for sugar, fuel ethanol, PHB, anthocyanins and electricity production. These scenarios are compared with the Colombian base case which simultaneously produce sugar, fuel ethanol and electricity. A simulation procedure was used in order to evaluate biorefinery schemes for all the scenarios, using Aspen Plus software, that include productivity analysis, energy calculations and economic evaluation for each process configuration. The results showed that the configuration with the best economic, environmental and social performance is the one that considers fuel ethanol and PHB production from combined cane bagasse and molasses. This result served as the basis to draw recommendations on technological and economic feasibility as well as social aspects for the implementation of such type of biorefinery in Colombia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Colombian Soldiers in Nazi Germany, 1934-1937

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo Bosemberg

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to narrate the visit the Colombian militaries paid to the Nazi Germany. It is based on the idea that this presence was not only part of the relations between the two countries but, instead, it contributed to the formation of networks in interrelated spaces. These soldiers got into the German military world which, in turn, managed to infiltrate Colombia as well. The article inquires into what the parties involved wanted, who participated, what attitudes Colombians had towards that country, if those soldiers were nazis. It is concluded that three missions were sent and they do not only visited Germany, but they were also in other countries. Their reports are full of admiration for the host country and the journey raised their criticism, which is evidenced in the constant compasions between the two countries. However, knowledge transfer did not have much effect because American influence grew and WWII broke out shortly after.

  2. Validation of new psychosocial factors questionnaires: a Colombian national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos, Gloria H; Vargas, Angélica M; Rondón, Martin A; Felknor, Sarah A

    2013-01-01

    The study of workers' health problems possibly associated with stressful conditions requires valid and reliable tools for monitoring risk factors. The present study validates two questionnaires to assess psychosocial risk factors for stress-related illnesses within a sample of Colombian workers. The validation process was based on a representative sample survey of 2,360 Colombian employees, aged 18-70 years. Worker response rate was 90%; 46% of the responders were women. Internal consistency was calculated, construct validity was tested with factor analysis and concurrent validity was tested with Spearman correlations. The questionnaires demonstrated adequate reliability (0.88-0.95). Factor analysis confirmed the dimensions proposed in the measurement model. Concurrent validity resulted in significant correlations with stress and health symptoms. "Work and Non-work Psychosocial Factors Questionnaires" were found to be valid and reliable for the assessment of workers' psychosocial factors, and they provide information for research and intervention. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Colombian approaches to psychology in the 19th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviedo, Gilberto Leonardo

    2012-11-01

    Colombian intellectuals of the 19th century widely consulted scientific psychology in regard to their political, religious, and educational interests. Colombian independence from Spain (1810) introduced the necessity of transforming the former subjects into illustrious citizens and members of a modern state. After independence, political liberals embraced Bentham's thesis of utilitarianism and the theories of sensibility, with a teaching style based in induction. Conservatives defended the Catholic tradition about the divine origin of the soul and used scholasticism as a model of teaching. A bipartisan coalition, the Regeneration, incorporated the ideas of modern psychology based on the principles of Thomistic thought (Neo-Thomism). The Neo-Thomists considered psychology as a science of the soul and debated physiological explanations of the mind. The conceptual advances of the period have been trivialized in historical accounts of psychology in Colombia, due to the emphasis on the institutionalization processes of the discipline in 1947. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Coauthorship Ties in the Colombian Congress, 2002-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Alemán

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines policy connections between Colombian legislators (representatives and senators during Álvaro Uribe’s first presidential term (2002-2006. The analysis draws on information regarding the coauthorship of legislation. The joint sponsorship of a bill by a pair of legislators demonstrates their mutual intent to change the status quo in a specific direction. This cooperative effort to push bills forward reveals the similarities that exist between political actors. Examining the connectedness between different groups and the density within group connections can convey important information about parties and their members’ policy preferences. This article investigates these aspects of the network of coauthorship ties developed in the Colombian lower and upper chambers. In addition to shedding light on the cohesiveness and alignment of legislative parties, the article finds that coauthorship ties appear to be influenced by regional and institutional forces.

  5. Palm diversity and abundance in the Colombian Amazon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Henrik; Copete, Juan Carlos; Pedersen, Dennis

    2017-01-01

    We studied diversity and abundance of palms in the eastern Colombian Amazon in 71 transects, 61 measuring 5×500 m and 10 transects measuring 4×500 m, innventoring a total of 17.25 hectares. We found a total of 74 species in 21 genera. In terra firme we found 68 species in 20 genera and an average...... found in this study (Euterpe precatoria, Oenocarpus bataua, Attalea butyracea, Iriartella setigera) coincide with dominant species in other Amazonian palm communities....

  6. Tracing the Cold War in Colombian architecture: a disregarded legacy

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez Beltran, M. D. P.

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on a social and cultural analysis of the architecture designed and built by the state during the Colombian military dictatorship of the 1950s, and based on original sources, including historical archives, declassified official reports, oral history, and raw blueprints, this PhD research project traces relationships between architecture, and the national and international politics of that time. In doing so, this research analyses the relation between the built environment and power, qu...

  7. Leadership and Solidarity Business Structure in Colombian Artisanal Fishing

    OpenAIRE

    Luque Berkowitz, Jorge Iván; Rua, Sohely

    2014-01-01

    This study presents an overview of the leadership at Colombian artisanal fishing solidarity organizations, along with the problems they face in their social and entrepreneurial strengthening. The qualitative approach analysis is based on semi-structured interviews with leaders from diverse organizations and associative forms of artisanal fishing in particular. The findings indicate that solidarity leaderships face an ethical and operative dilemma with respect to the democratic management form...

  8. The Effects of the Colombian Trade Liberalization on Urban Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    We examine whether the Colombian trade reform can explain any of Colombia's decline in urban poverty between 1984 and 1995. Our approach focuses on short- and medium- run channels through which trade reform could affect poverty. Despite the chronological coincidence of the poverty reduction with the trade reforms over this period, we do not observe any evidence of a link between poverty and tariff reductions operating through the labor income channel. Our descriptive analysis suggests that al...

  9. Breastfeeding versus artificial feeding in the colombian context

    OpenAIRE

    Izzedin-Bouquet de Durán, Romina; Pachajoa Londoño, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    At first, the article describes the nutritional and immunological benefits of breastfeeding for then to report on its status in the international and Colombian context by comparing it with his major competitor milk formula. Finally, the article shows the strategies that promote breastfeeding aiming to raise awarness about the commitment that we have as individuals and society with regard to maternal and child health. En un primer momento, el artículo describe las propiedades nutritivas y l...

  10. Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Natural Gas Wells - Pacific OCS Region NAD 83

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains surface locations for oil and gas wells located in the Pacific Coast federal waters. Note: Wells are being added or modified continuously;...

  11. Coastal Upwelling Activity on the Pacific Shelf of the Baja California Peninsula

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zaytsev, Oleg; Cervantes-Duarte, Rafael; Montante, Orzo; Gallegos-Garcia, Artemio

    2003-01-01

    High primary productivity on the Pacific coast of the Baja California Peninsula is usually related to coastal upwelling activity that injects nutrients into the euphotic zone in response to prevailing longshore winds...

  12. Coastal Vulnerability Index (CVI) dataset for War in the Pacific National Historical Park (wapa_shore)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A coastal vulnerability index (CVI) was used to map the relative vulnerability of the coast to future sea-level rise within War in the Pacific National Historical...

  13. Profile chemical, physical, and nutrient data collected from CTD and bottle casts aboard the R/V Wecoma off the western coast of North and Central America during the 2007 NACP West Coast Cruise (NODC Accession 0083685)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0083685 includes chemical, discrete bottle, physical, profile data collected aboard the WECOMA in North Pacific Ocean, Olympic Coast National Marine...

  14. A manual for the identification of marine birds and mammals of the North American West Coast: Preliminary draft

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Dichotomous keys for birds and mammals that might be found in Alaska or along the pacific coast. Includes, birds, whales, porpoise, and pinnipeds.

  15. 1971 : left coast removed from oil hunt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2008-06-15

    In 1971, oil and gas exploration efforts were focused on the Far North and on the east coast offshore. Concerns of ecological damage closed the west coast offshore to exploration efforts. A ban on offshore oil operations was imposed in the Straits of Juan de Fuca, between Vancouver and Victoria. The move prompted Gulf Oil and Canadian Pacific Oil and Gas to give back to Ottawa federal oil and gas permits covering 675,000 acres. The following year, the federal government imposed a moratorium on all exploration activity for the west coast offshore. The provincial government imposed its own 5-year moratorium in 1989. In 2007, the province recommitted itself to offshore exploration and requested that the federal moratorium be lifted. However, to date, the federal moratorium remains in place. 1971 also marked the drilling of the first Sable Island natural gas well by Mobil Oil Canada. The well tested at 14 million cubic feet per day and offered an optimistic future for east coast offshore activities. In 1971, the Energy Resources Conservation Board recommended approval of Syncrude Canada's 125,000 barrel per day oilsands project. 1 tab., 1 fig.

  16. Comparison of Plasmodium falciparum infections in Panamanian and Colombian owl monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossan, R N; Harper, J S; Davidson, D E; Escajadillo, A; Christensen, H A

    1985-11-01

    Parameters of blood-induced infections of the Vietnam Oak Knoll, Vietnam Smith, and Uganda Palo Alto strains of Plasmodium falciparum studied in 395 Panamanian owl monkeys in this laboratory between 1976-1984 were compared with those reported from another laboratory for 665 Colombian owl monkeys, studied between 1968-1975, and, at the time, designated Aotus trivirgatus griseimembra. The virulence of these strains was less in Panamanian than in Colombian owl monkeys, as indicated by lower mortality rates of the Panamanian monkeys during the first 30 days of patency. Maximum parasitemias of the Vietnam Smith and Uganda Palo Alto strain, in Panamanian owl monkeys dying during the first 15 days of patent infection, were significantly higher than in Colombian owl monkeys. Panamanian owl monkeys that survived the primary attack had significantly higher maximum parasitemias than the surviving Colombian owl monkeys. Peak parasitemias were attained significantly earlier after patency in Panamanian than in Colombian owl monkeys, irrespective of the strain of P. falciparum. More Panamanian than Colombian owl monkeys evidenced self-limited infection after the primary attack of either the Vietnam Smith or Uganda Palo Alto strain. The duration of the primary attacks and recrudescences were significantly shorter in Panamanian than in Colombian owl monkeys. Mean peak parasitemias during recrudescence were usually higher in Panamanian owl monkeys than in Colombian monkeys. Differences of infection parameters were probably attributable, in part, to geographical origin of the two monkey hosts and parasite strains.

  17. The Colombian Community in Metropolitan New York; Who Are We and Where Are We Going?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofman, Amparo; Escala, Zuleynan

    1999-01-01

    Describes the Colombian immigrant community in New York as revealed through a survey conducted in May 1997. Study findings show that most of the Colombian immigrants were attracted to the United States because of better material and economic conditions. Once established, most succeed in becoming part of the workforce. (SLD)

  18. The Arrullo from the Colombian Pacific shores: A cultural, spiritual, musical and social phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Alberto Córdoba Gutiérrez

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Colombia es un país diverso, pero muchas manifestaciones culturales no se conocen, en parte por la poca difusión de las mismas y de otro lado, por su aislamiento. Este es el caso de la cultura del Pacífico colombiano y de una de sus expresiones, el ";Arrullo";, el cual, gracias al Sincretismo Religioso, se convierte en un fenómeno social donde la música es su eje central y a través de ella se puede ver todo un sistema de vida, donde el habitante del Pacífico, refleja el resultado de la influencia del choque cultural entre la cultura Europea y la Africana. Es tan importante estas prácticas culturales, que el ";Arrullo"; más que tratarse de un género musical o una experiencia familiar, se convierte en un motivo, por el cual, las personas que participan de ello se encuentran en una conexión mística. Mostrando la celebración de vida, el valor más importante de la humanidad.

  19. Rediscovery of the holotype of Characidium sanctjohanni Dahl 1960 (Characiformes: Crenuchidae from the Colombian Pacific slope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry D. Agudelo-Zamora

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the rediscovery of the holotype of Characidium sanctjohanni Dahl, previously considered as lost in the ICN collections. We present counts, measurements and photographs, also offering a comparison between the holotype and the original description.

  20. SIMULATION OF NEAR-SURFACE LAYER OF THE COLOMBIAN PACIFIC OCEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlin Lev

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo muestra los resultados obtenidos en el estudio de la estructura fina termohalina de la capa sub-superficial realizado en la Cuenca del Pacífico colombiano. Se formularon modelos matemáticos para diferentes regímenes de capas sub-superficiales. Basado en tres estaciones se realizó un análisis horario de información meteorológica, variación de espesor, temperatura y salinidad de la capa fina. Las leyes de formación de la estructura fina termohalina para la capa sub-superficial en la Cuenca del Pacífico colombiano están relacionadas con convección nocturna, mezcla viento-ondas, absorción de energía radiante y precipitación.

  1. [Population dynamics of the palm Euterpe oleracea (Arecaceae) from flooded forests in Choco, Colombian Pacific].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arango, Diego A; Duque, Alvaro J; Muñoz, Edinson

    2010-03-01

    The palm Euterpe oleracea is a dominant and promising species in flood plains of the Atrato river, Choco region of Colombia. We assessed the population dynamics of this species through growth rates, mortality and recruitment patterns for a period of two and a half years. Dynamic rates were compared among mixed and pure flood plain palm forests. These forests types were associated to different flooding regimes. Trees and palms were thinned in a portion for each forest type, the rest was left undisturbed. We used projection matrices to follow population trends. Thinning increased the transition probability of smaller individuals, but decreased it for larger individuals, as is typical of light demanding species. Thinning also increased mortality rates in almost all size classes, but did not affect recruitment rates. Under natural conditions, the E. oleracea populations are in equilibrium in pure and mixed forests. Thinning increased population growth in both forest types, suggesting the role played by density-dependent processes on the population size of this species.

  2. Simulation of near-surface layer of the colombian pacific ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Karlin Lev; Villegas Nancy

    2011-01-01

    Este artículo muestra los resultados obtenidos en el estudio de la estructura fina termohalina de la capa sub-superficial realizado en la Cuenca del Pacífico colombiano. Se formularon modelos matemáticos para diferentes regímenes de capas sub-superficiales. Basado en tres estaciones se realizó un análisis horario de información meteorológica, variación de espesor, temperatura y salinidad de la capa fina. Las leyes de formación de la estructura fina termohalina para la capa sub-superficial en ...

  3. New records of sabellids and serpulids (Polychaeta: Sabellidae, Serpulidae) from the Tropical Eastern Pacific

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolando Bastida-Zavala, J.; Rodriguez Buelna, Alondra Sofia; Angel De Leon-Gonzalez, Jesus

    2016-01-01

    in the large expanse of the central and southern Mexican Pacific. Thus, sabellids and serpulids were collected from several shallow water habitats along the coast of Mexican Pacific, such as coastal lagoons, coral reefs, rocky shores and from man-made structures as marinas, piers and ships of several harbors...

  4. Active Subduction on Both Coasts of Costa Rica Does not Represent an Important Tsunami Hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protti, M.; Gonzalez, V.

    2007-05-01

    Costa Rica, on the southern terminus of the Middle American Trench is being affected by active subduction on both, along the Pacific coast as well as on its Caribbean coast. Three main subduction segments can be recognized along the Pacific coast: 1) under northwestern Costa Rica, off Papagayo Gulf and Nicoya peninsula, the Cocos plate is subducting under the Caribbean plate; 2) under southern Costa Rica (Osa and Burica peninsulas) the Cocos plate subducts under the Panama Block and 3) in the central Pacific coast (between Nicoya and Osa peninsulas) the Cocos plate subducts under a shear zone that marks the transition between the Caribbean and the Cocos plate. Along the Caribbean coast, south of Puerto Limon, the Caribbean plate subducts under the Panama block. Large subduction earthquakes occur under the Nicoya peninsula, Osa peninsula and south of Limon. Most of the rupture area of these large events lies below land so the deformation of the ocean floor is minimal and therefore the tsunamis they generate are small. No large subduction earthquakes occur under the central Pacific coast of Costa Rica due to the subduction of small sea mounts that act as small asperities without potential to accumulate large amounts of slip. For this reason the region between Nicoya and Osa peninsulas is not an important tsunamigenic zone.

  5. Foramgeographical affinities of the west and east coasts of India: An approach through cluster analysis and comparison of taxonomical, environmental and ecological parameters of Recent foraminiferal thanatotopes

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Katha, P.K.; Bhalla, S.N.; Nigam, R.

    -Pacific province, and have been widely reported from Malaysia, Indonesia, Taiwan, Japan and other countries. Similarly Spiroloculina communis and Quinqueloculina tropicalis of the east coast occur rarely at one or two places along the West Coast of India... and east coasts of India shows that there are two distinct faunal provinces? the western covering the major part of the Arabian Sea and the eastern covering the Bay of Bengal and the coast along Thailand, Malaysia and Sumatra. Also that the major part...

  6. Pacific Lamprey Research and Restoration Project : Annual Report 2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Close, David A.

    2002-11-01

    Pacific lamprey (Lampetra tridentata) has significantly declined along the Oregon coast and in the Columbia River Basin (Downey et al. 1993; Close and Jackson 2001). Declines in adults can be partially attributed to hydroelectric dams, which have impeded passage of adult Pacific lamprey in the Columbia and Snake rivers, thus effecting larval recruitment in the basin. Adult pacific lamprey also declined in numbers in the Umatilla River, a tributary of the Columbia River. In addition to hydro power dams in the Columbia River, habitat alterations and chemical treatments have been involved in the collapse of Pacific lamprey populations in the Umatilla River. To initiate the restoration effort, CTUIR began developing a restoration plan in 1998. The goal of the lamprey research and restoration project is to restore natural production of Pacific lampreys in the Umatilla River to self-sustaining and harvestable level. This report is summarizing the studies and restoration efforts concluded in 2001.

  7. Pacific Lamprey Research and Restoration Project : Annual Report 2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Close, David A.

    2002-11-01

    Pacific lamprey (Lampetra tridentata) has significantly declined along the Oregon coast and in the Columbia River Basin (Downey et al. 1993; Close and Jackson 2001). Declines in adults can be partially attributed to hydroelectric dams, which have impeded passage of adult Pacific lamprey in the Columbia and Snake rivers, thus effecting larval recruitment in the basin. Adult pacific lamprey also declined in numbers in the Umatilla River, a tributary of the Columbia River. In addition to hydro power dams in the Columbia River, habitat alterations and chemical treatments have been involved in the collapse of Pacific lamprey populations in the Umatilla River. To initiate the restoration effort, CTUIR began developing a restoration plan in 1998. The goal of the lamprey research and restoration project is to restore natural production of Pacific lampreys in the Umatilla River to self-sustaining and harvestable level. This report is summarizing the studies and restoration efforts concluded in 2001.

  8. Feminicide: Reality or Myth in Colombian Public Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Correa Corredor, Marien Yolanda; Mendoza-Pérez, Noris; Rincón-Guauque, Clara Milena; Arenas-Rueda, Yenny Marcela; Aguilar-Noriega, Erick Johann; Villamizar-Mendoza, José Eliecer

    2014-01-01

    This academic exercise is based on the state of the art on feminicide in six Latin Americancountries, including Colombia, over the past two decades to show the need to propose adefiition of feminicide, not as an aggravating aspect of homicide but as a separate offnseunder Colombian law. It was written based on the theory of feminicide of Diana MarcelaRussell and Lagard, in line with public policy to protect women victims and was the result oftwo completed research papers. Th conclusion is tha...

  9. Flotation kinetic constants of two Colombian coals’ vitrinite maceral

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Vitrinite maceral flotation kinetic constants are important in designing flotation columns to be used in separating this maceral group. This work shows the effect of pH, air speed and froth concentration on vitrinite maceral flotation kinetic constants by using two Colombian bituminous coals: El Cerrejón (Guajira) and La Jagua (Cesar). A 5 m high pilot-scale flotation column was used in all runs. The samples were processed using 4-10 pH, 0.7-2.1 cm/s air speed and 2-6 ml/kg of coal fro...

  10. Presence of Ruvettus pretiosus (Gempylidae in the Colombian continental Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Camila Gómez-Cubillos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The first record of Ruvettus pretiosus Cocco, 1833 for the Colombian continental Caribbean is presented. The specimen was collected at Los Cocos, department of Magdalena (11°16’33, 84’’ N 73°53’33, 01’’ W, using a demersal longline gear placed at 100 m depth. Biometrics, diagnosis and comments regarding its distribution, ecology and biology are included in the description. This new record expands the distribution of the species in the Caribbean Sea and increases the reported number of gempylids for Colombia to five.

  11. COGNITIVE-BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTION FOR PTSD IN COLOMBIAN COMBAT VETERANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAROLINA BOTERO GARCÍA

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The results of cognitive-behavioral group interventions applied from 2002 to 2004 to 42 colombian combat veteranswith Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD are presented. The goal of the study was to stablish the effectiveness ofthe group interventions based in Prolonged Exposition and Stress Inoculation treatment processes. Differencesbetween pre-in-post symptomatology scores of PTSD were measured by Foa Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale(PDS and the Beck Depression Inventory. The statistical analysis was made by t test for paired samples, with alpha of0.05. Results show significant decrease in symptomatology and severity level after the intervention both in depressionand PTSD symptoms.

  12. Methylmercury concentrations in six fish species from two Colombian rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Santiago; Jessick, Ashley M; Palacio, Jaime A; Kolok, Alan S

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether fish collected from the La Miel or Nechí Rivers (Colombia) differed in muscle methyl mercury (meHg) concentration. Two fish from six different species were collected from markets adjacent to each river. Overall, fish collected from the market adjacent to the Nechí River contained higher levels of meHg. This result however is being driven by very high meHg concentrations in four individual fish, three of which are Pimelodid, long-whiskered catfish. These catfish may represent ideal sentinel organism for the detection of meHg contamination in Colombian rivers.

  13. Cervical cancer detection by electrical impedance in a Colombian setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, David A.; Corzo, Sandra P.; González Correa, C. A.

    2013-04-01

    Electrical properties of normal and neoplastic cervical tissues in a heterogeneous group of 56 Colombian women were studied by electrical impedance spectroscopy and a model based on the Generalized Effective-Medium Theory of Induced Polarization (GEMTIP). Differences between the electrical bioimpedance spectra were correlated with cellular and tissue parameters. The analysis performed by the proposed model suggest that the number of different types of cellular layers that form the biological tissue, the intracellular and extracellular conductivity could be used to explain the differences between electrical bioimpedance spectra in normal and neoplastic tissues.

  14. Antifungal activity against postharvest fungi by extracts from Colombian propolis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meneses, Erick A.; Durango, Diego L.; Garcia, Carlos M. [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Medellin (Colombia). Facultad de Ciencias. Escuela de Quimica], e-mail: cmgarcia@unal.edu.co

    2009-07-01

    The aims of the present study were to evaluate the antifungal properties of Colombian propolis extracts against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Botryodiplodia theobromae, and to isolate and identify the main constituents from the active extracts. Therefore, propolis samples were thoroughly extracted with n-hexane/methanol (EPEM), dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and methanol. Experimental results indicated that mycelial growth of all selected microorganisms was reduced in culture media containing EPEM and dichloromethane fractions. Furthermore, through antifungal bioassay-guided fractionation, three known labdane-type diterpenes: isocupressic acid (1), (+)-agathadiol (2) and epi-13-torulosol (3) were isolated as the main constituents from the active fractions. (author)

  15. Antifungal activity against postharvest fungi by extracts from Colombian propolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick A. Meneses

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the present study were to evaluate the antifungal properties of Colombian propolis extracts against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Botryodiplodia theobromae, and to isolate and identify the main constituents from the active extracts. Therefore, propolis samples were thoroughly extracted with n-hexane/methanol (EPEM, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and methanol. Experimental results indicated that mycelial growth of all selected microorganisms was reduced in culture media containing EPEM and dichloromethane fractions. Furthermore, through antifungal bioassay-guided fractionation, three known labdane-type diterpenes: isocupressic acid (1, (+-agathadiol (2 and epi-13-torulosol (3 were isolated as the main constituents from the active fractions.

  16. Phytoalexin Accumulation in Colombian Bean Varieties and Aminosugars as Elicitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Echeverri

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available The accumulation of isoflavonoid phytoalexins was studied in several Colombian bean cultivars resistant and susceptible to Colletotrichum lindemuthianum fungus, the causal agent of anthrachnose disease. A time-course accumulation analysis on seedlings treated with CuCl2 showed that phaseollin production was higher in resistant cultivars than in susceptible ones. Also, a defensive role of phytoalexins was demostrated when extracts containing this pterocarpan exhibited antifungal activity against C. lindemuthianum. In addition, the elicitor activity of some aminosugars was also established.

  17. Groundwater quality in the Northern Coast Ranges Basins, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    The Northern Coast Ranges (NOCO) study unit is 633 square miles and consists of 35 groundwater basins and subbasins (California Department of Water Resources, 2003; Mathany and Belitz, 2015). These basins and subbasins were grouped into two study areas based primarily on locality. The groundwater basins and subbasins located inland, not adjacent to the Pacific Ocean, were aggregated into the Interior Basins (NOCO-IN) study area. The groundwater basins and subbasins adjacent to the Pacific Ocean were aggregated into the Coastal Basins (NOCO-CO) study area (Mathany and others, 2011).

  18. US west coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aerial surveys are conducted along the US west coast to determine distribution and abundance of endangered leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea), loggerhead...

  19. Incidences and Analyses of Green Marketing Strategy in Colombian Exports Incidences and Analyses of Green Marketing Strategy in Colombian Exports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Marie Zwerg-Villegas

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available As environmental awareness plays a more prominent role in purchasing decisions, as consumers demand improved corporate responsibility, and as national governments implement regulation of not just the immediate firm’s environmental impact, but instead on the impact throughout the value chain; those corporations which participate in green marketing strategies will be positioned for marketplace competitive advantage. This paper takes the reader through a literature review to define green marketing and applies the term to Colombian exporting firms recognized for their environmental practices or products. A survey of seventy-five small and medium sized Colombian exporters determines usage and perceptions of green marketing practices. Research indicates that Colombian small and medium sized firms do not yet feel market pressures to adopt green marketing strategies, but do so based on corporate level ethics.Mientras la conciencia ambiental juega un papel más importante en las decisiones decompra, los consumidores demandan mejoras en la responsabilidad corporativa y losgobiernos nacionales implementan legislación para reglamentar no solo el impactoambiental de la empresa inmediata sino también de la cadena de valor entera; lascorporaciones que participan en estrategias de mercadeo verde se posicionarán parala ventaja competitiva en el mercado. Esta obra lleva al lector por un recuento literariopara definir al mercadeo verde y después aplica el término a empresas colombianas exportadoras reconocidas por sus prácticas o productos ambientales. La encuestade setenticinco pequeñas y medianas empresas exportadoras determina el uso ypercepciones de las prácticas de mercadeo verde. La investigación demuestra queempresas pequeñas y medianas colombianas no sienten presiones del mercado poradoptar estrategias verdes sino se hace por ética corporativa.

  20. 75 FR 28564 - Fisheries of the Northeast Region; Pacific Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notification of determination of overfishing or an overfished condition... windowpane and Northwestern Atlantic Coast witch flounder are subject to overfishing and are in an overfished... overfishing and Georges Bank winter flounder is in an overfished condition. In addition, in the Pacific...

  1. 78 FR 47675 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... (Pacific Council) Ad Hoc Groundfish Electronic Monitoring Committee and Ad Hoc Trawl Groundfish Electronic... for electronic monitoring (EM) for vessels participating in the West Coast groundfish trawl catch...

  2. [SOCIODEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS AND ADEQUACY OF PRENATAL CARE ASSOCIATED PERINATAL MORTALITY IN COLOMBIAN PREGNANT WOMEN].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores Navarro-Pérez, Carmen; González-Jiménez, Emilio; Schmidt-RioValle, Jacqueline; Meneses-Echávez, José Francisco; Martínez-Torres, Javier; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson

    2015-09-01

    an adequate monitoring and the compliance of the nutritional requirements are essential for fetal development and successful control of pregnancy outcomes. This study aimed to determine the association between sociodemographic factors and the pre-birth monitoring associated with perinatal mortality in pregnant women from Colombia. this was a cross-sectional analysis from the 2010 Colombian Demographic and Health Survey and the National Nutritional Survey that included 14 754 pregnant women between 13 and 44 years old. Sociodemographic factors included: new born sex, geographic region, socioeconomic status (SISBEN), pre-birth monitoring (weight control, uterus height, blood pressure, fetal cardiac activity, biochemistry essays, urine analysis) and the supplementation of iron, calcium and folic acid, were collected by structured questionnaire. Associations were established through multivariable and binary regression models. sociodemographic factors such as living in high-density cities, pacific and western regions and low socioeconomic status (SISBEN I) showed a highest perinatal mortality with rates of 1.7%, 1.5%, 1.4% and 1.4%, respectively. After adjustment by new born sex, geographic region and SISBEN score, an adequate monitoring of weight control (OR = 5.12), blood pressure (OR = 5.18), biochemistry essays (OR = 2.19), supplementation of iron (OR = 2.09), calcium (OR=1.73) and folic acid (OR = 2.73) were associated as facilitators of perinatal mortality. perinatal mortality is determined by the sociodemographic factors and pre-birth follow-up included in this study. Government and decision makers can take these results to garbage actions aiming to improve pregnancy monitoring. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  3. EPR and Fluorescence Spectroscopy in the Photodegradation Study of Arabian and Colombian Crude Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen L. B. Guedes

    2006-01-01

    W/m2. The reduction in the linewidth of the free radical of 9.8% in Arabian oil and 18.5% in Colombian oil, as well as the decrease in radical numbers, indicated photochemical degradation, especially in Colombian oil. The linewidth narrowing corresponding to free radicals in the irradiated oils occurred due to the rearrangement among radicals and aromatic carbon consumption. The irradiated oils showed a reduction in the relative intensity of fluorescence of the aromatics with high molecular mass, polar aromatics, and asphaltene. The fluorescent fraction was reduced by 61% in Arabian oil and 72% in Colombian oil, corresponding to photochemical degradation of crude oil aromatic compounds.

  4. Heroes of our time. The figure of the drug-trafficker in Colombian narcotelenovelas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Palaversich

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the representation of drug traffickers in Colombian narcotelenovelas. While the Colombian official discourse treats these characters as the embodiment of evil and cruelty, narcotelenovelas treat them as models of social mobility in countries characterized by social injustice. The figure of drug trafficker (narcotraficante represented in Colombian TV series is constructed at the intersection of two myths: the ancient myth of the social bandit, a brave macho man who steals from the rich and gives to the poor, and the contemporary myth about the capitalist entrepreneur (a self-made man who rises from poverty and marginality to a position of power and wealth.

  5. Recent increase in the distribution of the snail kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis along the central Pacific Coast of México Incrementos de la distribución del gavilán caracolero (Rostrhamus sociabilis en la costa del Pacífico central de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Hernández-Vázquez

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available New records of the snail kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis are presented for the central Pacific Coast of Mexico. From April 2010 to August 2011, weekly or biweekly surveys were made through several wetlands of coastal Jalisco and Colima. We recorded 32 snail kites from October 2010 to August 2011. The recordings were in 8 wetlands. In all wetlands there was only 1 individual, except in the lagoons El Aguacate (June 2010 and El Tule (August 2012, where we recorded 3 and 5 individuals, respectively. Although we did not find any nests, we believe reproduction of snail kites is currently occurring because of the observed adult behavior (carrying small branches in its feet and the records of juveniles during the month of February to July, a time corresponding to the breeding season of the species in Florida. Our records expand the distribution of the snail kite in Mexico as much as 900 km northwest of the previously published distribution of the species.Presentamos nuevas observaciones del gavilán caracolero (Rostrhamus sociabilis para la costa del Pacífico central mexicano. De abril de 2010 a agosto de 2011 se realizaron visitas semanales o quincenales a varios humedales costeros de Jalisco y Colima. Se observaron 32 individuos entre octubre del 2010 y agosto del 2011 en 8 humedales. En todos los humedales se registró sólo 1 individuo, excepto en las lagunas El Aguacate (junio de 2011 y El Tule (agosto de 2012, donde se observaron 3 y 5 individuos, respectivamente. Aunque no se han registraron nidos, consideramos que es probable que la reproducción del gavilán caracolero está ocurriendo actualmente en la región debido a la conducta observada de algunos adultos (p. ej. llevando ramas pequeñas en sus patas y a la presencia de los juveniles durante los meses de febrero a julio, tiempo en el que ocurre la anidación de la especie en Florida. Nuestras observaciones incrementan la distribución del gavilán caracolero en México a cerca de 900 km al

  6. Les résidences secondaires sur la côte Pacifique Sud du Nicaragua: une stratégie de développement et ses conséquences Second homes on the South Pacific Coast of Nicaragua : a development strategy and its consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Matteucci

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available La prolifération récente des résidences secondaires, observée récemment sur la côte Pacifique Sud du Nicaragua, s’inscrit dans une perspective de développement ayant trait à l’hébergement touristique. Or, le caractère immobilier prédominant de ce type d’hébergement, ainsi que les modes de consommation de ces résidents temporaires nous mettent en garde quant aux risques socioéconomiques et environnementaux encourus par les communautés autochtones. Parmi ces risques, notons les problèmes découlant de l’amplitude des variations saisonnières, de privatisation et de destruction des espaces naturels, ainsi que les perspectives de pérennisation des retombées économiques à moyen et long terme. Les auteurs de cet article remettent donc en question les prouesses attribuées à ce secteur d’activité et invitent à considérer des alternatives de développement durable du tourisme plus respectueuses des territoires d’accueil.   In recent years, there has been a proliferation of second home developments on attractive coastal regions of Central and South America. Based on the assumed benefits of second home tourism to regional economies, public authorities - accompanied by private investors – have capitalised on this sector as part of their tourism development strategies. This paper first examines the nature of recent second home tourism developments and then presents the socio-economic and environmental impacts of this phenomenon as experienced by local communities on the South Pacific Coast of Nicaragua. The main impacts include conflicts with local and indigenous communities over land use and ownership, seasonal and low-income employment generation, an increased burden on municipal budget to provide public infrastructure, and environmental degradation. It is argued that the second home tourism sector, strongly driven by private real estate investors, fails to generate tourism activities which are expected to sustain

  7. Nonindigenous near-coastal and estuarine species in the North Pacific: Similarities and disparities in species invasion patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonindigenous species (NIS) are a pervasive problem throughout the world. To help address this threat, the EPA and USGS developed a hierarchical database known as the Pacific Coast Ecological Information System (PCEIS) that synthesizes existing biogeographic, life history, and i...

  8. 700 fathom Depth Contour for Pacific Fishery Management Council's June 2005 Preferred Alternative, Groundfish EFH Final EIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — These data depict the primary 700 fathom isobath within the West Coast Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). The area to the west of this depth contour was designated by...

  9. 75 FR 11515 - Fisheries Off West Coast States and in the Western Pacific; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    ... recommended a preferred alternative for implementation of a trawl rationalization program under Amendment 20... catch monitors. Catch monitors are third-party employees, paid for by industry, and trained to NMFS...

  10. South Oregon Coast Reinforcement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1998-05-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration is proposing to build a transmission line to reinforce electrical service to the southern coast of Oregon. This FYI outlines the proposal, tells how one can learn more, and how one can share ideas and opinions. The project will reinforce Oregon`s south coast area and provide the necessary transmission for Nucor Corporation to build a new steel mill in the Coos Bay/North Bend area. The proposed plant, which would use mostly recycled scrap metal, would produce rolled steel products. The plant would require a large amount of electrical power to run the furnace used in its steel-making process. In addition to the potential steel mill, electrical loads in the south Oregon coast area are expected to continue to grow.

  11. Scolelepis (Polychaeta: Spionidae from the Brazilian coast with a diagnosis of the genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Borges Rocha

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Five species of Scolelepis have been reported for the Brazilian coast. This study raises this number, with two new records: S. acuta Treadwell, 1914, originally from Eastern Pacific, and Scolelepis andradei Delgado-Blas, Díaz & Liñero-Arana, 2009, from the Caribbean Sea. Furthermore, two species were found to have an expanded geographic range along the Brazilian coast: Scolelepis lighti Delgado-Blas, 2006 and Scolelepis goodbodyi Jones, 1962.

  12. The Strengthening of the Colombian Air Force: An Effective Strategy on the Road to Negotiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janiel Melamed Visbal

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses how the strengthening of the Colombian Air Force since the beginning of the new millennium, resulted in the military weakening of the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC-EP. These circumstances, along with the overall strengthening of the national security forces allowed to develop the proper conditions to initiate a set of peace talks between the most remarkable insurgent organization and the Colombian State, in very different conditions from previous experiences.

  13. Strategies in the Colombian Telecommunication Market – Seen Through the Perspective of Porter

    OpenAIRE

    Arbin, Bodil; Jönsson, Lars Holmberg and Caroline

    2006-01-01

    The most important conclusion we can draw from our research is that Porter´s three generic strategies, mainly the differentiation strategy, still are frequently used in the Colombian telecommunication market. Another conclusion is that a high-speed changing environment, such as the Colombian market, demands that the operators combine and integrate their strategy with other secondary strategies to become succesful. They can not, as Porter says, only depend on one strategy

  14. Evaluating Colombian SMEs’ technological innovation: Part 1: conceptual basis, evaluation methodology and characterisation of innovative companies

    OpenAIRE

    Óscar Fernando Castellanos Domínguez; Luz Marina Torres; Aida Mayerly Fúquene Montañez

    2010-01-01

    Innovative processes currently constitute one of the most important alternatives for increasing organisations’ levels of competitiveness and productivity. The Colombian state (being conscious of this) has generated mechanisms aimed at encouraging technological and innovative development activities in SMEs, as was the case with the Colombian Prize for Entrepreneurial Technological Innovation for SME (Innova) 2006. The experience acquired through the technical evaluation of such prize was a ...

  15. Reliability of Health-Related Physical Fitness Tests among Colombian Children and Adolescents: The FUPRECOL Study

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson Ramírez-Vélez; Diogo Rodrigues-Bezerra; Jorge Enrique Correa-Bautista; Mikel Izquierdo; Felipe Lobelo

    2015-01-01

    Substantial evidence indicates that youth physical fitness levels are an important marker of lifestyle and cardio-metabolic health profiles and predict future risk of chronic diseases. The reliability physical fitness tests have not been explored in Latino-American youth population. This study's aim was to examine the reliability of health-related physical fitness tests that were used in the Colombian health promotion "Fuprecol study". Participants were 229 Colombian youth (boys n = 124 and g...

  16. The Cost of Collateralized Borrowing in the Colombian Money Market: Does Connectedness Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Constanza Martínez; Carlos León

    2014-01-01

    Under the view that the market is a weighted and directed network (Barabási, 2003), this document is a first attempt to model the Colombian money market within a spatial econometrics framework. By estimating two standard spatial econometric models, we study the cost of collateralized borrowing (i.e. sell/buy backs) among Colombian financial institutions, and its relationship with the effects induced by traditional variables (leverage, size and borrowing levels), and by spatial variables resul...

  17. Extensive Listening in a Colombian University: Process, Product, and Perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Mayora

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The current paper reports an experience implementing a small-scale narrow listening scheme (one of the varieties of extensive listening with intermediate learners of English as a foreign language in a Colombian university. The paper presents (a how the scheme was designed and implemented, including materials and procedures (the process; (b how the students performed in the different activities with an emphasis on time spent watching/listening and their perceptions of video difficulty and self-rated comprehension (the product; and (c how the students felt and viewed the experience (perception. Product and perceptions showed that the pedagogical implementation was positive which leads to a discussion of a number of implications for this context and similar ones.

  18. 2nd Colombian Congress on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics

    CERN Document Server

    Cristancho, Marco; Isaza, Gustavo; Pinzón, Andrés; Rodríguez, Juan

    2014-01-01

    This volume compiles accepted contributions for the 2nd Edition of the Colombian Computational Biology and Bioinformatics Congress CCBCOL, after a rigorous review process in which 54 papers were accepted for publication from 119 submitted contributions. Bioinformatics and Computational Biology are areas of knowledge that have emerged due to advances that have taken place in the Biological Sciences and its integration with Information Sciences. The expansion of projects involving the study of genomes has led the way in the production of vast amounts of sequence data which needs to be organized, analyzed and stored to understand phenomena associated with living organisms related to their evolution, behavior in different ecosystems, and the development of applications that can be derived from this analysis.  .

  19. Business Cycle and Risk Premium in the Colombian Stock Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Mauricio Gómez Sánchez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Through the Hodrick-Prescott methodology this paper presents a review about the relationship between the ex post risk premium of the stock market and business cycles observed in Colombia. Through quarterly information from the fourth quarter of 2001 to the third quarter of 2012, statistical evidence shows that the increase and decrease of ex post risk premium follow a countercyclical behavior in tune with existing research conducted about the United States and emerging economies, although with non-contemporary relationships with private consumption. In addition, it is found that in the last decade the Colombian risk premium follows a process of Auto Regressive Moving Average Models (ARMA, showing that there is no variation in at least two consecutive quarters and whose behavior is generated in part by external events at the domestic economic activity level experienced in near past periods.

  20. Curriculum, human development and integral formation within the colombian caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Rodríguez Akle

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the reality of the colombian Caribbean from the perspective of human development integral to start to understand that problematic situations are opportunities to enhance the transformations that allow to retrieve the subject social and collective. So the reconstruction of regional identity from the contributions of educational communities that build-oriented curriculum to become full, proactive, people with leadership and management capacity for sustainable development in a changing world. The article proposes some strategies to address alternatives to a society in which the quality of life and human dignity are the sense of the daily work in the context of the caribbean colombianidad and globalism in practice.  

  1. Dismemberment: cause of death in the Colombian armed conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morcillo-Méndez, Maria Dolores; Campos, Isla Yolima

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to illustrate major findings in the recovery and analysis of victims, where dismemberment is the cause of death, but also a manner of torture within the context of the armed conflict in Colombia. It is intended to provide useful analytical information and to contribute to the correct interpretation of forensic analyses in cases of dismemberment and/or in the examination of human remains within the context of the Colombian armed conflict. The importance of including dismemberment as an opinion in the forensic report by correlating the findings on the body, the grave and context of the information available, and the accounts on the facts is encouraged. Otherwise these cases will be recorded as undetermined cause of death, which does not reflect the brutality of the war.

  2. Antiprotozoal and cytotoxic activities in vitro of Colombian Annonaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, Edison; Arango, Gabriel Jaime; Jiménez, Nora; Alzate, Fernando; Ruiz, Grace; Gutiérrez, David; Paco, Marco Antonio; Giménez, Alberto; Robledo, Sara

    2007-05-22

    Ethnobotanical and chemotaxonomical studies for antiparasitic activity of Colombian Annonaceae were carried out. In vitro antiprotozoal activity of 36 extracts obtained from six different species was determined against promastigotes of three Leishmania species, epimastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi and both chloroquine sensitive (F32) and resistant (W2) Plasmodium falciparum. Cytotoxic activity was evaluated in U-937 cells. Active extracts were selected according their selectivity index (SI). Extracts from Annona muricata, Rollinia exsucca, Rollinia pittieri and Xylopia aromatica were active against Leishmania spp. and Trypanosoma cruzi showing IC50 values lower than 25 microg/ml. Hexane extract from Rollinia pittieri leaves was the most selective against Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania spp. (IS=10 and 16, respectively). The extracts from Desmopsis panamensis, Pseudomalmea boyacana, Rollinia exsucca and Rollinia pittieri showed good antiplasmodial activity (IC50 Annonaceae extracts. Results presented here also demonstrate which plants and/or plant parts could be useful in the treatment of leishmaniasis, Chagas' disease and malaria.

  3. Antioxidant activity of twenty five plants from Colombian biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquera, Oscar M; Correa, Yaned M; Buitrago, Diana C; Niño, Jaime

    2007-08-01

    The antioxidant activity of the crude n-hexane, dichloromethane, and methanol extracts from 25 species belonging to the Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae, Rubiaceae, and Solanaceae families collected at natural reserves from the Eje Cafetero Ecorregión Colombia, were evaluated by using the spectrophotometric 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical-scavenging method. The strongest antioxidant activities were showed by the methanol and dichloromethane extracts from the Euphorbiaceae, Alchornea coelophylla (IC50 41.14 mg/l) and Acalypha platyphilla (IC50 111.99 mg/l), respectively. These two species had stronger DPPH radical scavenging activities than hydroquinone (IC50 151.19 mg/l), the positive control. The potential use of Colombian flora for their antioxidant activities is discussed.

  4. Objective Voice Parameters in Colombian School Workers with Healthy Voices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lady Catherine Cantor Cutiva

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To characterize the objective voice parameters among school workers, and to identi­fy associated factors of three objective voice parameters, namely fundamental frequency, sound pressure level and maximum phonation time. Materials and methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study among 116 Colombian teachers and 20 Colombian non-teachers. After signing the informed consent form, participants filled out a questionnaire. Then, a voice sample was recorded and evaluated perceptually by a speech therapist and by objective voice analysis with praat software. Short-term environmental measurements of sound level, temperature, humi­dity, and reverberation time were conducted during visits at the workplaces, such as classrooms and offices. Linear regression analysis was used to determine associations between individual and work-related factors and objective voice parameters. Results: Compared with men, women had higher fundamental frequency (201 Hz for teachers and 209 for non-teachers vs. 120 Hz for teachers and 127 for non-teachers and sound pressure level (82 dB vs. 80 dB, and shorter maximum phonation time (around 14 seconds vs. around 16 seconds. Female teachers younger than 50 years of age evidenced a significant tendency to speak with lower fundamental frequen­cy and shorter mpt compared with female teachers older than 50 years of age. Female teachers had significantly higher fundamental frequency (66 Hz, higher sound pressure level (2 dB and short phonation time (2 seconds than male teachers. Conclusion: Female teachers younger than 50 years of age had significantly lower F0 and shorter mpt compared with those older than 50 years of age. The multivariate analysis showed that gender was a much more important determinant of variations in F0, spl and mpt than age and teaching occupation. Objectively measured temperature also contributed to the changes on spl among school workers.

  5. Northwest Coast Indian Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Thomas; Knecht, Elizabeth

    The visual art forms of the Northwest Coast Indian Tribes of Alaska (Haida, Tlingit, and Tsimshian) share common distinctive design elements (formline, ovoid, U-form, and curvilinear shapes) which are referred to as the "Northern Style." Designs represent events or characters taken from the oral tradition of song and legend.…

  6. Manado: A Developing Coast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tenthof van Noorden, C.; Vermeij, D.; Van Zuijlen, J.; Zeelenberg, W.

    2013-01-01

    Manado, the capital city of North Sulawesi in Indonesia, is rapidly developing. The last years Manado has been extending into the sea, which changed the hydraulics and morphology of Manado Bay. This had negative effects on the currents, inducing erosion along the coast. Also Manado has problems with

  7. Spatial and temporal distribution of the invasive lionfish Pterois volitans in coral reefs of Tayrona National Natural Park, Colombian Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Bayraktarov

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The lionfish Pterois volitans is an invasive species throughout the Western Atlantic that disturbs functioning of local ecosystems such as coral reefs via fast and intense consumption of small fish and invertebrates. In 2009, lionfish populated the bays of Tayrona National Natural Park (TNNP, a biodiversity hotspot in the Colombian Caribbean that is strongly influenced by changing environmental conditions due to a rainy and dry season. So far, the spatial and temporal distribution of P. volitans in the bays of TNNP is unknown. Therefore, this study assessed the abundance and body lengths of P. volitans during monthly surveys throughout the year 2012 in four bays (thereof two bays where lionfish removals were undertaken of TNNP at 10 m water depth in coral reefs using transect tools. Findings revealed lionfish abundances of 2.9 ± 0.9 individuals ha−1 with lengths of 20–25 cm for TNNP, hinting to an established, mostly adult local population. Actual TNNP lionfish abundances are thereby very similar to those at Indo–Pacific reef locations where the invasive lionfish formerly originated from. Significant spatial differences for lionfish abundances and body lengths between different bays in TNNP suggest habitat preferences of P. volitans depending on age. Lionfish abundances were highly variable over time, but without significant differences between seasons. Removals could not reduce lionfish abundances significantly during the period of study. This study therefore recommends improved management actions in order to control the already established invasive lionfish population in TNNP.

  8. 75 FR 78343 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Amendments 20...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-15

    ... allocations of quota under the new program do not differ significantly from status quo allocations made... group or groups. An allocation need not preserve the status quo in the fishery to qualify as fair and... consequences with those of alternative allocation schemes, including the status quo.'' Thus, the Councils...

  9. 77 FR 67973 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-14

    ... steepness, natural mortality rate, survey catchability, recent year-class strength, weights on conflicting... uncertainty in key parameters such as natural mortality, growth, and survey catchability....

  10. 75 FR 53379 - Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Amendments 20...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ... Confidential Business Information or otherwise sensitive or protected information. NMFS will accept anonymous... recognized that each observer's roles and responsibilities would differ between each fishery and may change... support, deployment limitations and logistics and communication in this rule. The requirements are...

  11. 77 FR 28497 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    ...), which provides stakeholder input to the JMC (The Agreement, Art. II-IV; 16 U.S.C. 7001-7005). The... for 2012. Although the stock assessment and review was carried out with very little controversy,...

  12. 77 FR 55153 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-07

    .... 660.15 Equipment requirements. * * * * * (d) * * * (1) * * * (v) Operating system: Microsoft Windows XP with Service Pack (SP) 2, Windows Server 2003 with SP1, or later operating system such as Windows... fish tickets. Current regulations erroneously state that an operating system such as ``Windows 2007...

  13. 76 FR 28897 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ...). These specifications include the overfishing level (OFL), catch limits, and allocations for the non... 393,751 mt. The final Overfishing Level (OFL) and ACL values recommended by the Council for 2011 are..., preventing overfishing while achieving optimum yield, and taking into account the importance of...

  14. 76 FR 74725 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Trawl...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    ... seasonally to slow bycatch in the whiting fishery. In addition to closed areas to protect habitat from trawl... it will strive to the best of its ability to conduct site inspections in a timely fashion, not...

  15. 76 FR 54887 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Trawl...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-02

    ... hardware and software requirements for e- tickets to reflect more current computer operating systems and... procedures for the initial issuance of permits, endorsements, quota share, and catch history assignments... history assignment from one limited entry trawl endorsed permit to another. These trailing actions are...

  16. 78 FR 18879 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Trawl Rationalization Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... control date, investment and dependence, disruption, efficiency, employment, current and historic...' dependence and investments, reducing future quota leasing or acquisition costs, reducing quota to recent non... accounting for processor investments that took place prior to the announcement of the control date but...

  17. 78 FR 14259 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ....gov without change. All personal identifying information (e.g., name, address, etc.), confidential... the Makah, Quileute, and Quinault tribes to discuss these matters. Due to the detailed nature of the... total harvests of about 160,000 mt. Note that the use of ex-vessel values does not take into account the...

  18. 75 FR 11829 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... mothership for at-sea processing. The processing facilities that the tribes use also process fish harvested... Chinook salmon (Puget Sound, Snake River spring/summer, Snake River fall, upper Columbia River spring... salmon (Hood Canal summer, Columbia River), sockeye salmon (Snake River, Ozette Lake), and steelhead...

  19. 76 FR 18709 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... fisheries, where tribal fisheries will deliver shoreside for processing or to a mothership for at-sea... groundfish FMP fisheries on Chinook salmon (Puget Sound, Snake River spring/summer, Snake River fall, upper... California coastal), chum salmon (Hood Canal summer, Columbia River), sockeye salmon (Snake River, Ozette...

  20. 78 FR 75268 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Trawl Rationalization Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ... available, the MS pricing for the first year of cost recovery is based on the average price per pound of... pricing from PacFIN, or may use values derived from those reported on the MS Coop Program cost recovery... how and where to pay cost recovery fees, in addition to the applicable fee percentages and MS pricing...

  1. 78 FR 7371 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Trawl Rationalization Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ... accepted in Microsoft Word, Excel, or Adobe PDF file formats only. Written comments regarding the burden... either participate in or are familiar with requirements for Alaska fisheries, so use of this formula... formula: (DPC/V) x 100, where V is the total ex-vessel value of all groundfish species from the...

  2. 76 FR 59634 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; 2012 Specifications and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-27

    ... required fields if you wish to remain anonymous). Attachments to electronic comments will be accepted in... published in August 2010 that analyzed the effects of Amendment 16-5 and the 2011-2012 groundfish harvest... the NMFS preferred alternative in terms of ex-vessel revenues and recreational trips. The...

  3. 75 FR 8820 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... changes to trip limits implemented for sablefish during 2009 and analysis of the effects that changes to... sensitive or protected information. NMFS will accept anonymous comments (enter N/A in the required fields..., recommend inseason adjustments to commercial fisheries to liberalize trip limits in order to allow...

  4. 76 FR 11381 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... will remain in effect for the start of the 2011 fisheries (e.g., January-February 2010 trip limits... information. NMFS will accept anonymous comments (enter N/A in the required fields, if you wish to remain... are in effect at the end of the previous biennial fishing period will remain in effect until they...

  5. 77 FR 29955 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Trawl...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... industry sectors in the US, including fish harvesting and fish processing businesses. Under these criteria... wholesale business servicing the fishing industry is a small entity if it employs 100 or fewer persons on a...); Southern Resident killer whales (Orcinus orca); Guadalupe fur seals (Arctocephalus townsendi); Green...

  6. 78 FR 26526 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    ... established size criteria for all major industry sectors in the United States, including fish harvesting and... operations. A wholesale business servicing the fishing industry is a small business if it employs 100 or... fur seals, or the critical habitat for Steller sea lions. As Steller sea lions and humpback whales...

  7. 75 FR 67809 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-03

    .... The first goal mirrors Magnuson-Stevens Act National Standard 1 and the requirements for rebuilding...: Shortbelly rockfish, longspine thornyhead south of 34 27' north latitude, black rockfish (Washington-Oregon... conflicting CPUE series, etc.) and are intended to be a means of expressing uncertainty within the model...

  8. 76 FR 27507 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ... is an adequate FEIS drafted ] consistent with the guidance contained within NAO 216-6 (Environmental... species such as copper, China and quillback. The minor ] slope subcomplexes contain OFL/ABC buffers...

  9. 75 FR 67032 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Amendments 20...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    ... INFORMATION: Background On October 1, 2010, NMFS published a final rule (75 FR 32994, 100212086-0354-04) that..., 2010, initial issuance final rule (75 FR 32994). The correction to the trip limit tables in the limited... commercial fisheries off Washington, Oregon, and California, and reductions to daily trip limits (DTL)...

  10. 75 FR 51684 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-23

    ... Washington, Oregon, and California and a change to the lingcod retention regulations for salmon troll..., the Council considered a change to the lingcod retention regulations for fishermen in the salmon troll..., salmon troll fishermen were not allowed to retain any groundfish, except yellowtail rockfish, if...

  11. 76 FR 53833 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... (91 m) isobath), Harris Point, Richardson Rock, Scorpion, Painted Cave, Anacapa Island, Carrington..., President Jackson Seamount, Cordell Bank (50 fm (91 m) isobath), Harris Point, Richardson Rock, Scorpion..., Richardson Rock, Scorpion, Painted Cave, Anacapa Island, Carrington Point, Judith Rock, Skunk...

  12. 75 FR 32993 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Amendments 20...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-10

    ... quality product for the consumer. 8. Increase safety in the fishery. Because OY on healthy stocks is... ability and result in changes to fishing behavior, which include a reduction in the bycatch rate of...; freezing, cooking, smoking, or drying groundfish; packaging that groundfish for resale into 100 pound units...

  13. 77 FR 45508 - Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Trawl...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ... administrative determination for any 2013 MS coop permit application, NMFS will notify the coop manager of any... revised reallocation, NMFS likely will issue an initial administrative determination (IAD), but not an... of small entities which will be subject to the requirement and the type of professional skills...

  14. 76 FR 77415 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; 2012 Specifications and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... greater amount of fuel and removing the flexibility to avoid adverse weather since they would be... MSA, consisted of a thorough review by the Council and its advisory bodies of the FMP amendment and... entry permit data, available employment data provided by processors, information on the charterboat...

  15. Coast guard STD calibration procedures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Freeman, R.H; Krug, W.S

    1973-01-01

    This manual describes the procedures used by the Coast Guard Oceanographic UNIT (CGOU) to calibrate several Model 9040 STD systems, manufactured by Plessey Environmental Systems, currently in use within the Coast Guard...

  16. USGS "iCoast - Did the Coast Change?" Project: Crowd-Tagging Aerial Photographs to Improve Coastal Change Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S. B.; Poore, B. S.; Plant, N. G.; Stockdon, H. F.; Morgan, K.; Snell, R.

    2014-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been acquiring oblique aerial photographs of the coast before and after major storms since 1995 and has amassed a database of over 140,000 photographs of the Gulf, Atlantic, and Pacific coasts. USGS coastal scientists use these photographs to document and characterize coastal change caused by storms. The images can also be used to evaluate the accuracy of predictive models of coastal erosion. However, the USGS does not have the personnel to manually analyze all of the photographs taken after a storm. Also, computers cannot yet automatically identify damages and geomorphic changes to the coast from the oblique aerial photographs. There is a high public interest in accessing the limited number of pre- and post-storm photographic pairs the USGS is currently able to share. Recent federal policies that encourage open data and open innovation initiatives have resulted in many federal agencies developing new ways of using citizen science and crowdsourcing techniques to share data and collaborate with the public to accomplish large tasks. The USGS launched a crowdsourcing application in June 2014 called "iCoast - Did the Coast Change?" (http://coastal.er.usgs.gov/icoast) to allow citizens to help USGS scientists identify changes to the coast by comparing USGS aerial photographs taken before and after storms, and then selecting pre-defined tags like "dune scarp" and "sand on road." The tags are accompanied by text definitions and pictorial examples of these coastal morphology terms and serve to informally and passively educate users about coastal hazards. The iCoast application facilitates greater citizen awareness of coastal change and is an educational resource for teachers and students interested in learning about coastal vulnerability. We expect that the citizen observations from iCoast will assist with probabilistic model development to produce more accurate predictions of coastal vulnerability.

  17. Pacific Flyway management plan for Pacific brant

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Pacific Flyway brant (Branta bernicla) population (PFBP) is made up of brant breeding in Alaska, the western Canadian arctic, and the eastern Russian arctic, and...

  18. Geographic distribution and description of four pelagic barnacles along the south east Pacific coast of Chile - a zoogeographical approximation Distribución geográfica y descripción de cuatro especies de cirripedios pelágicos a lo largo de la costa chilena del Pacífico sur este - una aproximación zoogeográfica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IVÁN HINOJOSA

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The majority of zoogeographic studies along the Chilean Pacific coast have focused on benthic organisms and oceanographic conditions are considered the main factors influencing their distributions. Herein we examined the geographic distribution of pelagic barnacles of the family Lepadidae collected from floating macroalgae at seven sampling areas between 23 and 50° S. Four species were encountered and they are briefly described herein. The most abundant northern species was Lepas anatifera, and it diminished in abundance towards the south (33° S. Moreover, this species was not found in waters with a sea surface temperature (SST of less than ~18 °C. Lepas australis, primarily a circumpolar West Wind Drift species, diminished in abundance towards the north (33° S. This species was restricted to waters of La mayoría de los estudios de zoogeografía a lo largo de la costa chilena del Pacífico sur este se han enfocado en organismos bentónicos y las condiciones oceanográficas se sugieren como factores principales que modulan su distribución. Aquí examinamos la distribución geográfica de especies de cirripedios pelágicos de la familia Lepadidae, asociadas a macroalgas flotando a la deriva, en siete áreas de muestreo entre los 23 y 50° S. Se encontraron cuatro especies de cirripedios lepádidos y cada una se describe brevemente. La especie del norte más abundantes fue Lepas anatifera y disminuye su abundancia hacia el sur (33° S. Además, esta especie no se encontró en temperatura superficial del mar (SST inferior a ~18 °C. Lepas australis, que posee una distribución circumpolar, atenúa su abundancia hacia el norte (33° S. Esta especie se restringe a SST < 18 °C. La tercera especie, L. pectinata se extiende en la mayor parte del área de estudio, pero posee su mayor abundancia relativa en el área central, entre 29 y 33° S. La cuarta especie, Dosima fascicularis, solo se encontró en dos lugares de muestreo, en 27 y 33° S, y es

  19. Insight into the Pacific Sea Surface Temperature- North American Hydroclimate Connection from an Eastern Tropical North Pacific Coral Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, S. C.; Charles, C. D.; Carriquiry, J. D.

    2015-12-01

    The last few years of record-breaking climate anomalies across North America--a resilient atmospheric ridge and extreme drought over the West Coast, and severe winters across the Midwest and East Coast regions--have been linked to anomalous Pacific sea surface temperatures (Seager et al. 2014, Wang et al. 2014, Hartmann 2015). The synoptic associations prompt important questions on the relation between these unusual phenomena and extreme expressions of known Pacific decadal modes, such as the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO). These questions motivate our pursuit to document multiple realizations of decadal variability in the Pacific-North American region through periods of varied radiative forcing. Here we introduce a 178 year, seasonally resolved Porites coral record from Clarion Island (18N, 115W), the westernmost island of the Revillagigedo Archipelago, a region both highly influenced by NPGO SST and SSS variability and critical for NPGO tropical-extratropical communication via the Seasonal Footprinting Mechanism (Vimont et al. 2003). When coupled with tree ring records from the western United States (Griffin and Anchukaitis 2014, MacDonald and Case 2005) and coral records from the central tropical Pacific (Cobb et al. 2001), the δ18O signal from the Clarion coral offers an extended framework of coherent continental hydroclimate and oceanic variability across the Pacific basin beyond the instrumental record. Over the last 200 years, we find clear commonality in the timing, magnitude and spatial expression of variability (illustrated through the NADA Atlas, Cook et al. 2004) amongst the proxy records. The strong relationship between Northeastern Pacific Clarion and the Central Pacific Palmyra record with the North American hydroclimate records can be viewed within the mechanistic framework of the NPGO; this framework is then explored over the last millennium across intervals of varied radiative forcing.

  20. Maine coast winds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avery, Richard

    2000-01-28

    The Maine Coast Winds Project was proposed for four possible turbine locations. Significant progress has been made at the prime location, with a lease-power purchase contract for ten years for the installation of turbine equipment having been obtained. Most of the site planning and permitting have been completed. It is expect that the turbine will be installed in early May. The other three locations are less suitable for the project, and new locations are being considered.

  1. Coast Guard SOF

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-02-01

    fire as they approached the coast of Vietnam.” 45 The first elements of Task Force 115, Operation Market Time, had arrived for combat duty. Task...inter- diction missions of Operation Market Time—and were generally the only maritime interdiction forces underway offshore in monsoon sea- son—these...Embassy. ITD members serve as advisers to the Panamanian Servicio Maritima Nacional (National Maritime Service), an agency modeled after the US

  2. Geographic signatures of North American West Coast estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmett, Robert; Llansó, Roberto; Newton, Jan; Thom, Ron; Hornberger, Michelle; Morgan, Cheryl; Levings, Colin; Copping, Andrea; Fishman, Paul

    2000-01-01

    West Coast estuaries are geologically young and composed of a variety of geomorphological types. These estuaries range from large fjords to shallow lagoons; from large to low freshwater flows. Natural hazards include E1 Niños, strong Pacific storms, and active tectonic activity. West Coast estuaries support a wide range of living resources: five salmon species, harvestable shellfish, waterfowl and marine birds, marine mammals, and a variety of algae and plants. Although populations of many of these living resources have declined (salmonids), others have increased (marine mammals). West Coast estuaries are also centers of commerce and increasingly large shipping traffic. The West Coast human population is rising faster than most other areas of the U.S. and Canada, and is distributed heavily in southern California, the San Francisco Bay area, around Puget Sound, and the Fraser River estuary. While water pollution is a problem in many of the urbanized estuaries, most estuaries do not suffer from poor water quality. Primary estuarine problems include habitat alterations, degradation, and loss; diverted freshwater flows; marine sediment contamination; and exotic species introductions. The growing West Coast economy and population are in part related to the quality of life, which is dependent on the use and enjoyment of abundant coastal natural resources.

  3. Building Salt Marshes Along the Coasts of the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-05-01

    shoreline which is periodically flooded by sact or brackish water. A number of species in the grass family (gramineae), sedge family ( cyperaceae ), and...47 d. North Pacific Coast ..... ................. ... 47 (1) Pickleweed ........ ................... 50 (2) Sedge ...64 (2) Plants ....... ..................... .64 d. Black Needle Rush ...... .................. ... 66 e. Sedge

  4. 77 FR 73005 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Annual Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-07

    ... current estimate of stock biomass. The harvest control rule in the CPS FMP is HG = [(Biomass-Cutoff... control rules in the FMP. The specific harvest control rule is applied to the current stock biomass... to conserve and manage the Pacific mackerel stock off the U.S. West Coast. DATES: Comments must be...

  5. 75 FR 42610 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-XX54 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... live bait fishery or incidental to other fisheries; the incidental harvest of Pacific sardine...

  6. 76 FR 58720 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-22

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-XA709 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... bait fishery or incidental to other fisheries; the incidental harvest of Pacific sardine is limited...

  7. 76 FR 40836 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-12

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-XA554 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... live bait fishery or incidental to other fisheries; the incidental harvest of Pacific sardine...

  8. 75 FR 59156 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-27

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-XY79 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... bait fishery or incidental to other fisheries; the incidental harvest of Pacific sardine is limited...

  9. 77 FR 50952 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-23

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-XC166 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... live bait fishery or incidental to other fisheries; the incidental harvest of Pacific sardine...

  10. 78 FR 51097 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-XC783 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... live bait fishery or incidental to other fisheries; the incidental harvest of Pacific sardine...

  11. First record of Aequorea globosa Eschscholtz, 1829 (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa in the coast of Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. MAMISH

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Indo-Pacific jellyfish Aequorea globosa Eschscholtz, 1829 was reported last year for the first time in the Mediterranean Sea from Iskenderun Bay (S. Turkey. This jellyfish was observed in the coast of Syria, on 8 January 2012, during a regular monthly sampling program.

  12. First record of Aequorea globosa Eschscholtz, 1829 (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa in the coast of Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. MAMISH

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Indo-Pacific jellyfish Aequorea globosa Eschscholtz, 1829 was reported last year for the first time in the Mediterranean Sea from Iskenderun Bay (S. Turkey. This jellyfish was observed in the coast of Syria, on 8 January 2012, during a regular monthly sampling program.

  13. The invasive snowflake coral (Carijoa riisei in the Tropical Eastern Pacific, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Armando Sánchez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Carijoa riisei (Octocorallia: Cnidaria, a western Atlantic species, has been reported in the Pacific as an invasive species for nearly forty years. C. riisei has been recently observed overgrowing native octocorals at several rocky-coral littorals in the Colombian Tropical Eastern Pacific-(TEP. C. riisei has inhabited these reefs for at least 15 years but the aggressive overgrowth on other octocorals have been noted until recently. Here, we surveyed for the first time the distribution and inter-specific aggression by C. riisei in both coastal and oceanic areas colonized in the Colombian TEP (Malpelo, Gorgona and Cabo Corrientes, including preliminary multiyear surveys during 2007-2013. We observed community-wide octocoral mortalities (including local extinction of some Muricea spp. and a steady occurrence of competing and overgrowing Pacifigorgia seafans and Leptogorgia seawhips. In Gorgona Island, at two different sites, over 87% (n=77 tagged colonies of octocorals (Pacifigorgia spp. and Leptogorgia alba died as a result of C. riisei interaction and/or overgrowth between 2011 and 2013. C. riisei overgrows octocorals with an estimate at linear growth rate of about 1cm m-1. The aggressive overgrowth of this species in TEP deserves more attention and regular monitoring programs. Rev. Biol. Trop. 62 (Suppl. 1: 199-207. Epub 2014 February 01.

  14. [Hermit crabs (Anomura: Paguroidea) distribution patterns in the Colombian Caribbean Sea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Campos, Bibian; Hernando Campos, Néstor; Bermúdez Tobón, Adriana

    2012-03-01

    Hermit crabs represent the marine life in the Colombian Caribbean, and are important for the dynamic equilibrium maintenance in ecosystems, the ecological interactions and their impact on food web stability. Generally, in order to come up with some conservation strategies, strong bio-geographical information is needed for poll cies definition. With this aim, this study analyzed the distribution patterns of hermit crabs in the Colombian Caribbean Sea. through classification and spatial ordination multivariate analyses, using historical records from years 1916 to 2006. Besides, the world distribution of Colombian species and their geographic affinity in the Caribbean and Western Atlantic were identified. The results show deep differences between coastal and continental slope faunas, and latitudinal differences in the assemblages, with the identification of three groups: Northeast. Center and Southwest. The differences in faunal composition that support these three groups were determined. Based on maps of the Colombian marine ecosystems, it was found that the main factors affecting the distribution of hermit crabs were the Caribaná slope (depth), water-mass temperature, Guajira sea-grass beds, and particular conditions of "Coralline Archipelagos" and "Darién" eco-regions. Colombian hermit crab fauna is more related to the North Atlantic and the Antilles, than to the South Atlantic and the Gulf of Mexico. Additionally, geographical sub-provinces in which Colombia is included, these were found as transition zones among Northern and Austral subprovinces of the Greater Caribbean.

  15. Establishing demographic parameters for loggerhead turtles in the northeastern Pacific Ocean: growth rates, age determination, annual habitat use, and population connectivity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Loggerhead turtles nesting in Japan (i.e. the source rookery for individuals along the U.S. West coast and Pacific Mexico) have recently been declared a Distinct...

  16. Temperature profiles from MBT casts from the MATAGORDA in the North Pacific Ocean from 19 September 1967 to 21 September 1967 (NODC Accession 6700436)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathythermograph data were collected from the MATAGORDA in the North Pacific Ocean. Data were collected by the United States Coast Guard from 19 September 1967 to 21...

  17. Preliminary survey of a nemertean crab egg predator, Carcinonemertes, on its host crab, Callinectes arcuatus (Decapoda, Portunidae) from Golfo de Nicoya, Pacific Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Robert K.; Wehrtmann, Ingo S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The possible presence of egg predators in brood masses of portunid crabs from Pacific Central America has not been studied yet. This survey reports the finding of a nemertean crab egg predator on the portunid crab, Callinectes arcuatus, from the Golfo de Nicoya, Pacific Costa Rica. Nemerteans were found in the egg masses of 26 out of the 74 crabs for a prevalence of 35%. The intensity (mean number of worms/ infected crab) was estimated to be 18 with a variance of 1–123 worms/infected crab. No nemerteans were observed either in the 19 Callinectes arcuatus from Golfo Dulce (southern Pacific coast) and the 10 Portunus asper from Herradura-Jaco (central Pacific coast). This nemertean is a member of the genus Carcinonemertes, which has been reported from the Caribbean coast of Panama. However, the encountered Carcinonemertes sp. is the first published finding and report from Costa Rica and Pacific Central America. PMID:25561848

  18. Clonal population structure of Colombian sylvatic Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez, E; Arcos-Burgos, M; Triana, O; Moreno, J; Jaramillo, N

    1998-12-01

    Isoenzyme variability and evidence of genetic exchange were evaluated in 75 wild stocks of Trypanosoma cruzi obtained from different hosts from 5 geographical regions within the endemic area in Colombia. Cluster analysis of genetic variability was attempted. Thirty-three multilocus enzyme genotypes (clonets) were identified from 75 stocks, 27 of which clustered with zymodeme Z1 and 6 with zymodeme Z3. Two stocks isolated from human infections showed the potential risk to rural communities in Colombia. The stocks exhibited departures from Hardy-Weinberg expectations, including both fixed heterozygote and fixed homozygote demes, where both segregation and recombination were absent. To inspect for population subdivision that might falsely imply clonality in these stocks, Wright's F statistics were calculated. Theta values (Fst) were significantly different from 0 when 33 clonets, 27 Z1-like clonets, and 5 geographical subpopulations were compared; thus, a significant amount of divergence has occurred between and within them. In addition, linkage disequilibrium was detected for most possible pairwise comparisons of loci. In conclusion, the above results all support a scenario of long-term clonal evolution in Colombian sylvatic T. cruzi populations.

  19. [Leptospiral antibodies in a Colombian zoo's neotropical primates and workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Marlyn H; Astudillo, Miryam; Sánchez, Jorge A; González, Lina M; Varela, Néstor

    2011-10-01

    Detecting antibodies against Leptospira spp. in Neotropical primates and workers in a Colombian Zoo and identifying the risk factors associated with the disease. A cross-sectional study was performed regarding 65 Neotropical primates and 20 zookeepers. The samples were processed by microagglutination test (MAT) using a reference strain collection consisting of 21 Leptospira serovars. The people being evaluated were given a structured survey to identify risk factors. There was 25 % (5/20) Leptospira spp. infection seroprevalence in the staff and 23.07 % (15/65) in Neotropical monkeys. The most frequently occurring serovars in workers were bataviae, gryppotyphosa and ranarum; icterohaemorrhagiae, pomona and ranarum were the predominant serovars in non-human primates. The black spider monkey (Ateles fusciceps), white-fronted capuchin (Cebus albifrons) and white-footed tamarin (Saguinus leucopus) showed the highest reactivity. Most of the personnel were using protective clothing. The contact between primates and zookeepers involving different Leptospira sp. serovars was evident. Zoo personnel using protective clothing and their length of experience were considered to be protective factors for the disease. There may be a risk of Leptospira transmission between zoo animals and staff, and it is therefore important to strengthen active surveillance and implement promotion and prevention programs.

  20. Leaching of oxadyxil and tebuconazole in Colombian soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldana, M; De Prado, R; Martínez, M J

    2011-01-01

    Lake Tota (Boyaca, Colombia) supplies water for human consumption, agriculture and industry for more than 500.000 people. Oxadixyl and Tebuconazole are fungicides used in onion crops in the lake catchment area. The mobility of pesticides in soil, bioavailability and transfer to other environmental compartments depend on sorption and desorption kinetics and mechanisms. An understanding of these processes is essential for transport modeling and the rational design of corrective measures against pollution. A displacement study was performed on a hand packed soil column in laboratory conditions. A pulse of 0,01 M CaCl2 solution, containing a tracer (Bromide) and the fungicides Oxadixyl y Tebuconazole, was injected. Column experiment was performed at 0.078 cmh(-1) flow rate under unsaturated conditions. Eluates were collected in flasks at constant intervals and the volumes of eluate were recorded. After rainfall simulation, the soil from the column was sliced into six successive sections (5 cm). Methanol extraction was used to determine the fungicide in each soil section. Samples were measured by HPLC. Only Oxadixyl was recovered in leachates. Unlike bromide breakthrough curve, Oxadixyl was asymmetrical, with early breakthrough and increased tailing. The percentage eluted was 96.7% after ten pore volumes. Tebuconazole showed the highest retention in the first five cm of soil layer. The results suggest that oxadyxil presents highs risk to leachate through the soil profile and that Tebuconazole is strongly absorbed in Colombian soil.

  1. Antibacterial Activity of Aluminum in Clay from the Colombian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londono, S Carolina; Hartnett, Hilairy E; Williams, Lynda B

    2017-02-21

    The problems of antibiotic overuse compel us to seek alternative antibacterial agents. Some clays have been shown to kill antibiotic-resistant human pathogens and may provide an alternative to known antibiotics. Here we show that Al toxicity plays a central role in the antibacterial action of a kaolin-rich clay from the Colombian Amazon (AMZ). Antibacterial susceptibility testing shows minimum inhibitory concentrations of 80 mg/mL against a model Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922). The clay buffered the media pH to ∼4.6 and Eh values to +360 mV. Chemical analysis of AMZ and bacteria showed that Al, P, and transition metals (Fe, Cu, Mn, and Zn) were exchanged during incubation at 37 °C. Only Al derived from the clay exceeded the minimum inhibitory concentrations for E. coli under acidic conditions. Ion imaging showed elevated Al levels in the bacterial membrane, and high intracellular Fe levels, relative to those of untreated controls. Phosphorus depletion in E. coli after reaction with AMZ, together with evidence of membrane permeabilization, suggests that Al reacts with membrane phospholipids, enhancing intracellular transport of metals. These results highlight the importance of dissolved Al for amplifying the toxicity of transition metals to human pathogens.

  2. The prevalence of Microfilaria spp. in primates of colombian zoos

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    Rosmery Ladino De La Hortúa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of Microfilaria spp in 266 human and non human primates of Colombian zoos located between 5 and 2850 meters over sea level (mosl was of 6.39% (17/266. Most of them were adult males Saguinus leucopus, Saguinus oedipus, Saimiri sciureus and Aotus sp; corresponding to Matecaña, Santa Fe and Santacruz zoos, located between 1.001-2.000 mosl. The microfilarias species observed in this study are morphologically compatible with Dipetalonema perstans and Microfilaria bolivarensis, using direct drop technique, Woo, extended of central blood and capillary dyed with Giemsa and Knott, The most sensible technique was extended of central blood dyed with Giemsa. The statistical program used was Epi info 6.1, to determinate prevalence by sex, age, species, zoo, technique and altitude, with a significance level of (P = 0.05. The Saguinus leucopus showed high quantities of microfilaremias with sickness signs, so they were considered reservoirs and / or porter of the microfilarias.

  3. Microstructural and Mechanical Properties of Alkali Activated Colombian Raw Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Criado

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Microstructural and mechanical properties of alkali activated binders based on blends of Colombian granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS and fly ash (FA were investigated. The synthesis of alkali activated binders was conducted at 85 °C for 24 h with different slag/fly ash ratios (100:0, 80:20, 60:40, 40:60, 20:80, and 0:100. Mineralogical and microstructural characterization was carried out by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX and Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR. Mechanical properties were evaluated through the compressive strength, modulus of elasticity and Poisson’s ratio. The results show that two different reaction products were detected in the slag/fly ash mixtures, a calcium silicate hydrate with Al in its structure (C-A-S-H gel and a sodium aluminosilicate hydrate (N-A-S-H gel with higher number of polymerized species and low content in Ca. It was found that with the increase of the amount of added slag, the amount of C-A-S-H gel increased and the amount of N-A-S-H gel decreased. The matrix was more dense and compact with almost absence of pores. The predominance of slag affected positively the compressive strength, Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio, with 80% slag and 20% fly ash concrete being the best mechanical performance blend.

  4. Applying life cycle management of colombian cocoa production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Orlando Ortiz-R

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The present research aims to evaluate the usefulness of the application of Life Cycle Management in the agricultural sector focusing on the environmental and socio-economic aspects of decision making in the Colombian cocoa production. Such appraisal is based on the application of two methodological tools: Life Cycle Assessment, which considers environmental impacts throughout the life cycle of the cocoa production system, and Taguchi Loss Function, which measures the economic impact of a process' deviation from production targets. Results show that appropriate improvements in farming practices and supply consumption can enhance decision-making in the agricultural cocoa sector towards sustainability. In terms of agri-business purposes, such qualitative shift allows not only meeting consumer demands for environmentally friendly products, but also increasing the productivity and competitiveness of cocoa production, all of which has helped Life Cycle Management gain global acceptance. Since farmers have an important role in improving social and economic indicators at the national level, more attention should be paid to the upgrading of their cropping practices. Finally, one fundamental aspect of national cocoa production is the institutional and governmental support available for farmers in face of socio-economic or technological needs.

  5. Scopic regimes, discipline, and subjects. arts education in Colombian school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Alexander Sosa Gutiérrez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the conditions in which Arts education emerges in the Colombian school system at the end of 18th century and the beginning of 19thcentury as a process of taking ownership of Enlightenment discourses belonging to Modernity. Based on that, it describes scopic regimes -understood as points of view that become a production way of the visual thing mobilized by school, since it is a cross-cutting find in this search which showed four stages in the process of introducing Arts education in Colombia: 1. Pedro Rodríguez de Campomanes’ Enlightenment discourse on popular education in Arts aimed at transforming craft guilds, 2. The creation of a relationship between Arts and science during the Botanical Expedition and the establishment of drawing workshops, 3. The creation of the Republican public instruction system with the promotion of Lancasterian system with utilitarian purposes. 4. The circulation of geometrical drawing manuals and the introduction of objective teaching (Pestalozzian methods.

  6. Problematic Internet use in a sample of Colombian university students

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    Diana Ximena Puerta-Cortés

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Internet is a tool that facilitates the development of academic and social activities, business and entertainment. However, particular bevavior may arise in relation with its overuse. This research aims to identify sociodemographic characteristics and type of Internet use in a sample of Colombian university students and relate it to the possible use problematic. The sample consisted of 595 students from the University of Ibagué of 16-34 years of age who completed all three sections of the questionnaire: (1 socio-demographic data, (2 Internet usage information and (3 an adapted version of the Internet Addiction Test - IAT- (Young, 1998a. The results showed two groups, one with controlled use of the internet (88% and one with problematic use (12 %, only one case showed addictive use. Problematic Internet use was related to the number of hours  pent on social networks, chat, sites with adult content and movies. The use of these Internet applications generated interference in daily activities.

  7. THE EPIPHYTIC BRYOPHYTE FLORA OF THE COLOMBIAN AMAZON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAURA V. CAMPOS

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available An inventory of 384 plots on 64 trees, in four localities across the Colombian Amazon region (Amazonas, Caquetá, Putumayo, Vaupés, yielded 160 species of epiphytic bryophytes (116 of liverworts, 44 of mosses, in 64 genera and 26 families. Sampling was carried out in four non-seasonally flooded forests (Terra Firme, where bryophytes where collected from the base to the outer canopy, of 16 trees per locality. The flora is characterized by dominance of liverworts, especially Lejeuneaceae. The families with the highest number of records were Lejeuneaceae (55%, Calymperaceae (10%, Lepidoziaceae (8%, Octoblepharaceae (6% and Sematophyllaceae (5%. The most common genera in number of records were Cheilolejeunea (11%, Pycnolejeunea (8%, Archilejeunea (8% Ceratolejeunea (8% and Syrrhopodon (7%.Syrropodon and Lejeunea were the most species-rich genera, followed by Ceratolejeunea and Cheilolejeunea. In average, the localities had 102 species in sixteen phorophytes. In terms of species richness and composition there were no significant differences between the four localities.

  8. Colombian experience in applying rules concerning agricultural biosecurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Silva C.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Genetic engineering has made possible the creation of Genetic Modified Organisms (GMOs, or transgenic crops. The growth around the world of transgenic crops areas for commercial purposes, such as soybean, maize, canola and cotton is being amazing: from 1.7 million hectares in 1996 to 52.6 million in 2001. Historically, not many technologies have reached, in such a short period of time, such a higher adoption. The use of these technologies, nevertheless their well-known benefits, has brought some worries related with biosafety. In Colombia the Colombian Institute for Agriculture and Cattle (ICA, its Spanish acronym in order to introduce GMOs to the country and prevent or minimize the potential risk for agriculture generated by this kind of organisms, has established two instruments: the Agreement 013/98, creating the National Technical Biosafety Committee (CTN, its Spanish acronym, intersectorial adviser organism; and the Resolution 3492/98, establishing procedures for introduction, production, reléase and marketing of GMOs for agricultural purposes. Under this regulations, ICA has approved five different requests involving eight events with GMOs: carnation for commercial multiplicación purposes; cotton and rice for evaluation genotype in field at a small scale; cassava, brachiaria, stylozantes, coffee and sugar cane for research in genetic improvement throughout genetic engineering techniques in confined handling. Based on the accomplished experience, the future will make improve the legal and institutional instruments, as well as technical and scientific capacity of the country in biosafety. 

  9. PACIFIC NORTHWEST CYBER SUMMIT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesperance, Ann M.; Matlock, Gordon W.; Becker-Dippmann, Angela S.; Smith, Karen S.

    2013-08-07

    On March 26, 2013, the Snohomish County Public Utility District (PUD) and the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) jointly hosted the Pacific Northwest Cyber Summit with the DOE’s Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, the White House, Washington State congressional delegation, Washington State National Guard, and regional energy companies.

  10. Possible Ballast Water Transfer of Lionfish to the Eastern Pacific Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    MacIsaac, Hugh J.; De Roy, Emma M.; Leung, Brian; Grgicak-Mannion, Alice; Ruiz, Gregory M.

    2016-01-01

    The Indo-Pacific Red Lionfish was first reported off the Florida coast in 1985, following which it has spread across much of the SE USA, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean Sea. Lionfish negatively impact fish and invertebrate assemblages and abundances, thus further spread is cause for concern. To date, the fish has not been reported on the Pacific coast of North or Central America. Here we examine the possibility of ballast water transfer of lionfish from colonized areas in the Atlantic Ocean to ...

  11. Possible Ballast Water Transfer of Lionfish to the Eastern Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIsaac, Hugh J; De Roy, Emma M; Leung, Brian; Grgicak-Mannion, Alice; Ruiz, Gregory M

    2016-01-01

    The Indo-Pacific Red Lionfish was first reported off the Florida coast in 1985, following which it has spread across much of the SE USA, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean Sea. Lionfish negatively impact fish and invertebrate assemblages and abundances, thus further spread is cause for concern. To date, the fish has not been reported on the Pacific coast of North or Central America. Here we examine the possibility of ballast water transfer of lionfish from colonized areas in the Atlantic Ocean to USA ports on the Pacific coast. Over an eight-year period, we documented 27 commercial vessel-trips in which ballast water was loaded in colonized sites and later discharged untreated into Pacific coast ports in the USA. California had the highest number of discharges including San Francisco Bay and Los Angeles-Long Beach. A species distribution model suggests that the probability of lionfish establishment is low for the western USA, Colombia and Panama, low to medium for Costa Rica, Nicaragua, El Salvador and Guatemala, medium to high for mainland Ecuador, and very high for western Mexico, Peru and the Galapagos Islands. Given the species' intolerance of freshwater conditions, we propose that ballast water exchange be conducted in Gatún Lake, Panama for western-bound vessels carrying 'risky' ballast water to prevent invasion of the eastern Pacific Ocean.

  12. The Orbiniidae (Annelida: Polychaeta) of Pacific Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Harlan K; Blake, James A

    2015-05-08

    Seven species of Orbiniidae are described from the Pacific coast of Costa Rica including two new species. Leodamas hamatus n. sp., a commonly occurring species on the coast of Pacific Costa Rica, is described from 11‒18 m in the Gulf of Nicoya and Bahia Culebra. This species is unusual in that the neuropodial uncini differ morphologically from anterior to posterior in the thorax. Scoloplos cryptospinigerus n. sp. is described from 18-22 m in the Gulf of Nicoya and has only a few short, toothed spines amidst numerous capillary setae in most of the thoracic neuropodia. This arrangement of thoracic neurosetae is unusual and has been seen only in one other described species of Scoloplos from Australia.

  13. Notes for a Genealogy of Dress Codes and Aestheticizing Technologies in the Colombian School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexánder Aldana Bautista

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This article shows an analysis of the schoolchild’s construction from a series of aestheticizing technologies that constitute a child’s body in which the aesthetic utopia of modern school is inscribed. The paper, derived from an archaeological–genealogical research about school uniform and dress codes in the Colombian school during the late twentieth century and the early twenty– first century revolves around the following questions: What enabled the emergence of some discourses about school bodies, appropriate appearance and attire in the Colombian school? How did the school subject became a properly uniformed, seemly, neat, respectful and beauty person?

  14. New species of Lachesilla Westwood in the pedicularia group (Psocodea: 'Psocoptera': Lachesillidae) from the Colombian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchola, Oscar Fernando Saenz; Aldrete, Alfonso Neri García; Obando, Ranulfo González

    2015-02-05

    Two species of Lachesilla, in the pedicularia species group, from the Colombian Amazonia, are here described and illustrated. Also, a record of L. asymmetriproctus García Aldrete, for the Colombian Department of Putumayo is provided. An identification key to Lachesilla species in the pedicularia group with a single male clunial apophysis is presented, together with a diagnosis of this assemblage of species. A table is included indicating the distribution of Lachesilla species with one and two male clunial apophyses. The species treated in this paper constitute the first lachesillids known from the Department of Putumayo, Colombia. 

  15. Global Warming Attenuates the Tropical Atlantic-Pacific Teleconnection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Fan; Wu, Lixin; Gan, Bolan; Cai, Wenju

    2016-02-03

    Changes in global sea surface temperature (SST) since the end of last century display a pattern of widespread warming intercepted by cooling in the eastern equatorial Pacific and western coasts of the American continent. Studies have suggested that the cooling in the eastern equatorial Pacific may be partly induced by warming in the North Atlantic. However, it remains unknown how stable this inter-tropical teleconnection will be under global warming. Here we show that the inter-tropical teleconnection from the tropical Atlantic to Pacific weakens substantially as the CO2 concentration increases. This reduced impact is related to the El Niño-like warming of the tropical Pacific mean state, which leads to limited seasonal migration of the Pacific inter-tropical convergence zone (ITCZ) and weakened ocean heat transport. A fast decay of the tropical Atlantic SST anomalies in a warmer climate also contributes to the weakened teleconnection. Our study suggests that as greenhouse warming continues, the trend in the tropical Pacific as well as the development of ENSO will be less frequently interrupted by the Atlantic because of this attenuation. The weakened teleconnection is also supported by CMIP5 models, although only a few of these models can capture this inter-tropical teleconnection.

  16. Wind wave spectra and meteorological data from moored buoys from the East/West coasts of US and other locations from 01 February 2001 to 28 February 2001 (NODC Accession 0000415)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wind wave spectra and meteorological data were collected from the East/West coast of US, South Pacific, Gulf of Mexico, and the Great Lakes. Data were collected from...

  17. Wind wave spectra and meteorological data from moored buoys from the East/West coasts of US and other locations from 01 December 2001 to 31 December 2001 (NODC Accession 0000685)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wind wave spectra and meteorological data were collected from the East/West coasts of US, South Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, and the Great Lakes. Data were...

  18. Wind wave spectra and meteorological data from moored buoys from the East/West coasts of US and other locations from 01 October 2001 to 31 October 2001 (NODC Accession 0000682)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wind wave spectra and meteorological data were collected from the East/West coasts of US, South Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, and the Great Lakes. Data were...

  19. Wind wave spectra and meteorological data from moored buoys from the East/West coasts of US and other locations from 01 April 2001 to 30 April 2001 (NODC Accession 0000460)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wind wave spectra and meteorological data were collected from the East/West coast of US, South Pacific, Gulf of Mexico, Great Lakes and other locations. Data were...

  20. Wind wave spectra and meteorological data from moored buoys from East/West coasts of US and other locations from 01 January 2002 to 31 January 2002 (NODC Accession 0000686)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wind wave spectra and meteorological data were collected from the East/West coasts of US, South Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, and the Great Lakes. Data were...