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Sample records for colombian fertile men

  1. Mixed Methods Research with Internally Displaced Colombian Gay and Bisexual Men and Transwomen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zea, Maria Cecilia; Aguilar-Pardo, Marcela; Betancourt, Fabian; Reisen, Carol A.; Gonzales, Felisa

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the use of mixed methods research to further understanding of displaced Colombian gay and bisexual men and transwomen, a marginalized population at risk. Within the framework of communicative action, which calls for social change through egalitarian dialog, we describe how our multinational, interdisciplinary research team explored the…

  2. Mixed Methods Research with Internally Displaced Colombian Gay and Bisexual Men and Transwomen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zea, Maria Cecilia; Aguilar-Pardo, Marcela; Betancourt, Fabian; Reisen, Carol A.; Gonzales, Felisa

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the use of mixed methods research to further understanding of displaced Colombian gay and bisexual men and transwomen, a marginalized population at risk. Within the framework of communicative action, which calls for social change through egalitarian dialog, we describe how our multinational, interdisciplinary research team explored the…

  3. Female fertility affects men's linguistic choices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline M Coyle

    Full Text Available We examined the influence of female fertility on the likelihood of male participants aligning their choice of syntactic construction with those of female confederates. Men interacted with women throughout their menstrual cycle. On critical trials during the interaction, the confederate described a picture to the participant using particular syntactic constructions. Immediately thereafter, the participant described to the confederate a picture that could be described using either the same construction that was used by the confederate or an alternative form of the construction. Our data show that the likelihood of men choosing the same syntactic structure as the women was inversely related to the women's level of fertility: higher levels of fertility were associated with lower levels of linguistic matching. A follow-up study revealed that female participants do not show this same change in linguistic behavior as a function of changes in their conversation partner's fertility. We interpret these findings in the context of recent data suggesting that non-conforming behavior may be a means of men displaying their fitness as a mate to women.

  4. Assessment of testicular volume: A comparison of fertile and sub-fertile West African men

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    K.H. Tijani

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: Testicular volume on scrotal ultrasound correlates well with severity of oligospermia in men with sub-fertility. While the critical mean testicular volume necessary for adequate spermatogenesis has not been determined, it appears there is an optimal testicular volume of 18–20 ml at which spermatogenesis is at its peak in sub-fertile Nigerian men.

  5. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Sexual and Fertility Changes in Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    N ational C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Sexual and Fertility Changes in Men “I talked with my doctor before treatment. I told him I would like to have children one day. I’m ...

  6. Fertility in the mothers of firstborn homosexual and heterosexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Ray

    2012-06-01

    This study tested the balancing selection hypothesis, that is, genes predisposing men to homosexuality escape elimination from the population because the decreased fertility of men with the heritable form of homosexuality is offset by an increased fertility among biological relatives who carry the same genetic variants. The index subjects (probands) were 40,197 firstborn heterosexual men and 4,784 firstborn homosexual men retrieved from six archival data sets, all of which had previously been used in published research. The measure of familial (specifically, parental) fertility was the proband's number of younger siblings. The results directly contradicted the prediction of the balancing selection hypothesis. In four of the six samples, the homosexual probands had significantly fewer younger siblings; in the other two samples, the means were not significantly different. It is possible that mothers who produce a homosexual son at their first delivery include a biologically distinct subpopulation of mothers of homosexual sons.

  7. SPERMATOZOAL RNA PROFILES OF NORMAL FERTILE MEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Constitutes the Normal Fertile Male?G. Charles Ostermeier1, David J. Dix2, David Miller3, Purvesh Khatri4, and Stephen A. Krawetz1.1Departments of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Center for Molecular Medicine and Genetics, & Institute for Scientific Computing, Wa...

  8. Sexuality and fertility in men with hypospadias; improved outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Örtqvist, L; Fossum, M; Andersson, M; Nordenström, A; Frisén, L; Holmdahl, G; Nordenskjöld, A

    2016-12-19

    The aim of this study was to investigate sexual function and fertility in adult men born with hypospadias. Patients born with hypospadias, age-matched controls, and a group of circumcised men completed a questionnaire constructed to reflect their psychosexual situation and fertility. Core gender identity, sexual orientation, and gender role behavior was also assessed. 167 patients [63% distal, 24% mid shaft and 13% proximal, mean age 34 (19-54) years], 169 controls from the general population [mean age 33 (19-48) years] and 47 controls circumcised because of phimosis (mean age 26 [19-44]) participated and completed the questionnaire. There were no differences in having a partner, reported fertility, age at sexarche (mean age 17.8), number of sex partners or sexual interest between the patients and controls. More patients than controls reported anejaculation. Reported glanular sensitivity was lower in hypospadias patients and circumcised controls compared with non-circumcised controls. The odds of being satisfied with their sexual life increased with a higher penile perception score in patients (OR = 1.54, p = 0.01). There was no association with penile length. Sexual orientation, core gender identity and gender role behavior were sex-typical in both patients and controls. Patients with proximal hypospadias had a lower reported fertility, experienced anejaculation more often, and were less satisfied with their sexual life. Men born with hypospadias have a good long-term outcome concerning sexual function and fertility. Men born with proximal hypospadias have a more impaired outcome concerning both sexual function and fertility. As satisfaction with genital appearance is important for sexual life satisfaction, clinical, and psychological follow-up into adulthood is especially important in boys born with proximal hypospadias.

  9. The Effect of Oxidative Stress and Antioxidants on Men Fertility

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    Abolfazl Akbari

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Various factors affects men fertility and oxidative stress as an important factor which affects fertility has recently got great concern. Oxidative stress refers to conditions of imbalance between productions of reactive oxygen species (ROS and antioxidant defense mechanism. Reactive species of oxygen, free radicals and peroxide are produced in the cell when metabolism of oxygen is incomplete in the mitochondrial respiratory chain.Materials and Methods: In this review we will consider effect of oxidative stress on male fertility and the principal antioxidant defences.Results: Factors such as hypoxia, cytokines, growth factors, chemotherapy, radio frequency waves and UV radiation can increase ROS production. Oxidative stress as one of the strongest physiological factors can lead to damage of sperm and reduction of seminal plasma quality and thereby cause infertility in men. Enzymatic and non-enzymatic defences inhibit oxidant attack. The enzymatic defense include: superoxide dismutases, glutathione peroxidases, and catalase. The non-enzymatic defences include ascorbate (vitamin C and a-tocopherol (vitamin E, beta carotene, and albumin, which neutralize free radicals. Conclusion: Oxidative stress affects male fertility through induction of lipid peroxidation, inactivation of proteins, impair of sperm motility and DNA damage.

  10. Men's knowledge, attitudes and behaviours relating to fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarberg, Karin; Collins, Veronica; Holden, Carol; Young, Kate; McLachlan, Robert

    2017-07-01

    The increasingly common practice in high-income countries to delay childbearing to the fourth and fifth decades of life increases the risk of involuntary childlessness or having fewer children than desired. Older age also increases the risk of age-related infertility, the need for ART to conceive, and obstetric and neonatal complications. Existing research relating to childbearing focusses almost exclusively on women, and in public discourse declining fertility rates are often assumed to be the result of women delaying childbearing to pursue other life goals such as a career and travel. However, evidence suggests that the lack of a partner or a partner willing to commit to parenthood is the main reason for later childbearing. To better understand men's contributions to childbearing decisions and outcomes, the literature pertaining to men's fertility-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviours was reviewed. The electronic databases of Medline, Embase and PsycINFO were searched to identify investigations of men's knowledge, attitudes and behaviours relating to fertility, infertility, reproductive health or childbearing using relevant fertility keyword search terms. Studies were included if they had investigated factors associated with men's fertility-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviours, had been conducted in a high-income country and were published in an English language peer-reviewed journal between January 2005 and August 2016. The search yielded 1349 citations. Of these, 47 papers representing 43 unique studies were included in the review. Where response rate was reported, it ranged between 13 and 94%. Studies varied in terms of research design; inclusion and exclusion criteria; recruitment strategies; adequacy of sample size; recruitment and retention rates and data collection tools. However, findings were consistent and indicate that men almost universally value parenthood, want and expect to become fathers, and aspire to have at least two children. Yet

  11. Exposure to female fertility pheromones influences men's drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Robin; Goldman, Mark S

    2015-06-01

    Research has shown that humans consciously use alcohol to encourage sexual activity. In the current study, we investigated whether decision making about alcohol use and sex can be cued outside of awareness by recently revealed sexual signaling mechanisms. Specifically, we examined if males exposed without their knowledge to pheromones emitted by fertile females would increase their alcohol consumption, presumably via neurobehavioral information pathways that link alcohol to sex and mating. We found that men who smelled a T-shirt worn by a fertile female drank significantly more (nonalcoholic) beer, and exhibited significantly greater approach behavior toward female cues, than those who smelled a T-shirt worn by a nonfertile female. These findings reveal previously unknown influences on human alcohol consumption, augment the research base for pheromone cuing of sexual behavior in humans, and raise the possibility that other, as yet unknown, pathways of behavioral influence may be operating hidden from view.

  12. Regional differences in time to pregnancy among fertile women from five Colombian regions with different use of glyphosate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanin, Luz-Helena; Carrasquilla, Gabriel; Solomon, Keith R; Cole, Donald C; Marshall, E J P

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test whether there was an association between the use of glyphosate when applied by aerial spray for the eradication of illicit crops (cocaine and poppy) and time to pregnancy (TTP) among fertile women. A retrospective cohort study (with an ecological exposure index) of first pregnancies was undertaken in 2592 fertile Colombian women from 5 regions with different uses of glyphosate. Women were interviewed regarding potential reproductive, lifestyle, and work history predictors of TTP, which was measured in months. Fecundability odds ratios (fOR) were estimated using a discrete time analogue of Cox's proportional hazard model. There were differences in TTP between regions. In the final multivariate model, the main predictor was the region adjusted by irregular relationship with partner, maternal age at first pregnancy, and, marginally, coffee consumption and self-perception of water pollution. Boyaca, a region with traditional crops and. recently, illicit crops without glyphosate eradication spraying (manual eradication), displayed minimal risk and was the reference region. Other regions, including Sierra Nevada (control area, organic agriculture), Putumayo and Narino (illicit crops and intensive eradication spray program), and Valle del Cauca, demonstrated greater risk of longer TTP, with the highest risk for Valle del Cauca (fOR 0.15, 95% CI 0.12, 0.18), a sugar-cane region with a history of use of glyphosate and others chemicals for more than 30 yr. The reduced fecundability in some regions was not associated with the use of glyphosate for eradication spraying. The observed ecological differences remain unexplained and may be produced by varying exposures to environmental factors, history of contraceptive programs in the region, or psychological distress. Future studies examining these or other possible causes are needed.

  13. Study of Body Image in Fertile and Infertile Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi; Dadkhah, Asghar; Bagherpour, Ahmad; Ardakani, Zohreh Behjati; Kamali, Kourosh; Binaafar, Sima; Kosari, Haleh; Ghorbani, Behzad

    2011-01-01

    Background Body Image as a multidimensional entity is related to both physical and psychological aspects of the image one has of his or her own body. Lack/absence of an acceptable body image is one of the reasons of mental distress in infertile individuals. Methods In this study, an equal number (No=120) of fertile and infertile men attending Avicenna Infertility Clinic (AIC) were enrolled. The participants were compared in regard to body image variables based on the "Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire (MBSRQ)" consisting of 10 subscales. Data was analyzed by SPSS, version 11.5, using Chi square and independent t-tests. Results Fertile men had a more positive body image as compared to infertile individuals. Significant statistical differences were observed when body image subscales were compared in both groups; in other words appearance evaluation, appearance orientation, Novy, health evaluation, health orientation, illness orientation, body satisfaction, overweight preoccupation and self-classified weight showed differences, while no significant difference was observed in regard to fitness orientation. Conclusion It seems that the ability and efficiency of body image is affected by infertility leading to dissatisfaction of one's body image. PMID:23926517

  14. Men's migration and women's fertility in rural Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agadjanian, Victor; Yabiku, Scott T; Cau, Boaventura

    2011-08-01

    Labor migration profoundly affects households throughout rural Africa. This study looks at how men's labor migration influences marital fertility in a context where such migration has been massive while its economic returns are increasingly uncertain. Using data from a survey of married women in southern Mozambique, we start with an event-history analysis of birth rates among women married to migrants and those married to nonmigrants. The model detects a lower birth rate among migrants' wives, which tends to be partially compensated for by an increased birth rate upon cessation of migration. An analysis of women's lifetime fertility shows that it decreases as the time spent in migration by their husbands accrues. When we compare reproductive intentions stated by respondents with migrant and nonmigrant husbands, we find that migrants' wives are more likely to want another child regardless of the number of living children, but the difference is significant only for women who see migration as economically benefiting their households. Yet, such women are also significantly more likely to use modern contraception than other women. We interpret these results in light of the debate on enhancing versus disrupting effects of labor migration on families and households in contemporary developing settings.

  15. Institutionalizing fertility management/human sexuality training in Colombian nursing schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffikin, L; Prada, E; Santamaria, A; McGrath, J; de Castro Buffington, S

    1995-12-01

    While there is no universally applied definition of the terms, 'institutionalization', 'capacity', 'capability' and 'commitment' have been suggested as subindicators of a self-sustained program. This paper describes efforts to measure these terms in the context of a fertility management/human sexuality (FM/HS) education program for student nurses in Colombia. Interviews with 19 school deans formed the basis of measuring progress towards institutionalization. All the deans supported the idea of having FM/HS instruction, although resource commitment to effectively carry out the instruction varied. Focus groups with professors from participating schools provided insights into the effect of the project on both the students and course teachers. Professors found that students who had taken the course were more effective FM/HS counselors in later practical courses. Responses from interviews with a random sample of students who had or had not attended the course were compared to assess the effect of the course on the nursing students. Although attitudes between the two groups did not differ significantly, knowledge levels about FM/HS were significantly higher among nursing students who had attended the course. In general, the results indicate that the participatory educational approach used in teaching the FM/HS topics was effective in sensitizing both students and teachers to this subject area.

  16. Analysis of the Epididymal Sperm Parameters in Fertile Men

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文任乾; 李世勤; 王春湘; 王庆辉; 李庆琨; 冯焕民; 姜彦嘉; 张信烈

    1994-01-01

    The left and right epididymial fluids from 73 normal fertile men were respectively eollected by eannulating the yes deferens during the operation of vasectomy. The parameters of epididymal spermatozoa were analysed. The results indicated that the sperm motility( % ), normal sperm morphology(%), sperm viability(%) and hypoosmotie swelling test (HOST) ( % ) were within the normal range as compared with those in the ejaculated spermatozoa. However, the sperm concentration in epididymis (6220.6± 5300.8 million per ml) was higher than that in semen. It is of interest that the sperm concentration in the right epidymis was significantly higher than that in the left.It was also demonstrated that the percentage of abnormal Kremer's test in the left epididymal spermatozoa was significantly higher than that in the right. The above phenomenon was discussed. There was no anti-sperm antibody on the surface of spermatozoa from epididymis as determined by the sperm cervical mucus contact test (SCMC) and lmmunobead test (IBT). These data will be usefull for the research of male reproductive physiology3,, male contracecetive and vasectomy.

  17. Relationship between seminal malondialdehyde levels and sperm quality in fertile and infertile men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abasalt Hosseinzadeh Colagar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the level of malondialdehyde in seminal plasma of fertile and infertile men and investigate its relationship with sperm quality. Results showed that the mean of ± S.D. MDA concentration in seminal plasma of infertile men (0.94 ± 0.28 nmol/ml was significantly higher than fertile men (0.65 ± 0.17 nmol/ml (p value< 0.001, and had negative relationship with sperm count, motility and morphology. Therefore it could be concluded that increase in lipid peroxidation was associated with sperm membrane destructed and high level of MDA.

  18. Infertile men's needs and asssessment of fertility care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sylvest, Randi; Fürbringer, Jeanette Krogh; Schmidt, Lone

    2016-01-01

    of the men participated in a follow-up interview after their first ICSI treatment. The data collection took place during November 2014 to May 2015. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Results: Two themes were found: ‘The maze’ and ‘Desire for care’. It felt like an eternity for the men...... from the referral until treatment started. The men did not understand the process, and it was like being in a maze. The men saw fatherhood as something to strive for. They felt that they could not do what a man is supposed to do, and they felt pushed aside and that treatment focused on the women...

  19. Are women and men well informed about fertility? Childbearing intentions, fertility knowledge and information-gathering sources in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida-Santos, Teresa; Melo, Cláudia; Macedo, Ana; Moura-Ramos, Mariana

    2017-08-04

    The postponement of parenthood may increase the number of couples experiencing infertility and prolonged time to pregnancy. Previous research has revealed that childless people are not well informed regarding fertility, which may threat their childbearing intentions. This study aimed to examine fertility knowledge and childbearing intentions held by Portuguese people and their use and perceived usefulness of information sources on fertility. Participants were recruited using a random-route domiciliary approach. A total of 2404 individuals aged 18-45 were asked to complete a structured questionnaire evaluating socio-demographic characteristics, childbearing intentions, fertility knowledge and information-gathering sources regarding fertility. In total, 95.5% of the participants indicated the desire to have children in the future, and 61.7% reported that having children would contribute to life satisfaction. Most of the participants expressed the desire to have two children in the future. The discrepancy between the numbers of planned and desired children was higher in men, in participants with lower education levels, in professionally active participants and in the unemployed participants. Relationship stability seemed to be more important in influencing childbearing decisions than financial stability or family support. Participants' knowledge regarding fertility was poor. Women, the participants who were older than 25, the participants with longer education and the participants with higher income exhibited the greatest levels of knowledge of fertility, although this knowledge was only slightly enhanced in these subgroups. Also, the participants overestimated both the chances of spontaneous pregnancy and the success rates of assisted reproduction techniques. Finally, the results revealed that websites were the main information sources used by the participants and only 18.0% of the participants had previously discussed fertility issues with their doctors. Although

  20. Individual fertility assessment and pro-fertility counselling; should this be offered to women and men of reproductive age?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidman, Helene W; Petersen, Kathrine Birch; Larsen, Elisabeth C;

    2015-01-01

    During the 1970s new contraceptive options developed and legal abortions became accessible. Family planning clinics targeting young women and men provided advice and assistance on contraception. Today, delayed childbearing, low total fertility rates and increasing use of social oocyte freezing...... in women and men from the general population is crucial. The second main concern is that we may turn clients into patients. Screening including reproductive forecasting may induce unnecessary anxiety through false positive predictions and may even result in overtreatment in contrast to the intended...

  1. Reproductive behaviour and determinants of fertility among men in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    attitudes concerning the ideal family size, sex preference of children, ideal ... Results: The median age at first marriage for men was found to be 25 years. While about .... 14 consent . A review of Demographic Health Surveys (DHS) in West.

  2. Perpetual postponers? Women's, men's and couple's fertility intentions and subsequent fertility behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrington, Ann

    2004-01-01

    In this article data from the British Household Panel Study (BHPS) are used to analyse gender differences in fertility intentions, and the correspondence between fertility intentions and subsequent fertility behaviour. By exploiting couple-level data, we examine whether partners have conflicting preferences for future fertility. Focusing on women who remain childless in their thirties we look at socio-demographic factors related to the intention to remain childless, or to start a family later on in life. By following up women over time, the characteristics of women who go on to have a child later on in life are considered. The importance of having a partner and the fertility intention of that partner in predicting whether a birth will occur are also examined.

  3. Use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors reduces fertility in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørr, L; Bennedsen, Birgit; Fedder, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Clinical review of the present data on the effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) on male fertility was the objective of the study. PubMed and Scopus were searched for publications in English or Danish and reviewed. Human trials, animal studies and in vitro studies were included...

  4. Computer-assisted semen analysis parameters as predictors for fertility of men from the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, L; Scheike, Thomas Harder; Jensen, Tina Kold;

    2000-01-01

    The predictive value of sperm motility parameters obtained by computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) was evaluated for the fertility of men from general population. In a prospective study with couples stopping use of contraception in order to try to conceive, CASA was performed on semen samples...

  5. [The treatment of hypogonadism and maintenance of fertility in men].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabijewski, Michał

    2016-03-01

    In past few years we observed the increasing of population of men, who are treated with testosterone due to hypogonadism associated with aging but the most of them have no indications to testosterone replacement therapy. The classical symptoms of hypogonadism including depression, loss of libido, erectile dysfunction, and fatigue may be related to any others diseases. The increase in prevalence of androgenic anabolic steroids specifically among younger athletes is also observed. Exogenous testosterone and anabolic androgenic steroids can inhibit the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis leading to decreasing of endogenous testosterone synthesis and impaired spermatogenesis. In hypogonadal men who are in reproduction age the goal of therapy should be not only replacement therapy but also achiving and/or maintaining of spermatogenesis. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and selective estrogens receptor modulators (SERM) are efficacy in treatment of clinical signs and symptoms of hypoigonadism, has been shown to reverse spermatogenesis disturbances and can to maintain elevated intratesticular testosterone levels necessary to optimal spermatogenesis.

  6. [Testosterone deficit syndrome in fertile or subfertile men].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Navarro, Nicolas

    2013-09-01

    Spermatogenesis is a well defined, complex,long and very orderlyprocess of cellular division and differentiation that is under regulation by endocrine signals (GnRH, LH, Inhibin and FSH ): paracrine signals, derived from the interrelation of the various types of cells in the tubules and interstitium (even in a juxtacrine way), and autocrine signals of self communication of the cell with itself. Testosterone plays an essential role in this process. In the testicular tubules, testosterone reaches concentrations 100 times higher than circulating testosterone in the blood stream. From a reproduction point of view, we can find two completely different scenarios in relation to testosterone deficit syndrome with a similar final clinical result: The difficulties of the male to have children. On one side the presence of hypogonadism, which requires a different management depending of the clinical priority and wishes of parenthood of the patient an his partner. On the other side, the opposite situation, the patient who requires or is already under testosterone therapy. In patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, when patient's clinical priority is fertility, the treatment to restore normal spermatogenesis requires external administration of gonadotropins. Treatment must be prolonged, at least 12-18 months. 95% of the cases will have a favorable response, meaning the finding of spermatozoids in ejaculation sperm as a consequence of spermatogenesis restoration.

  7. Molecular analysis of polymerase gamma gene and mitochondrial polymorphism in fertile and subfertile men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, T P; Gomas, K P; Weir, F; Holyoake, A J; McHugh, P; Wu, M; Sin, Y; Sin, I L; Sin, F Y T

    2006-06-01

    CAG trinucleotide repeat length in the nuclear polymerase gamma gene (POLgamma) has been shown to be associated with men with reduced fertility. The present study investigated the frequency of CAG repeat length genotypes and three exonuclease motifs of the POLgamma in relation to the frequency of mitochondrial nucleotide substitutions. DNA from semen samples of 93 normozoospermic men and 192 non-normozoospermic men was isolated and the specific regions of the genes were amplified by polymerase chain reactions (PCR) and sequenced to identify mutations. The genotypic frequencies of pooled POLgamma CAG repeat lengths, =10/ not equal 10 heterozygotes and not equal 10/ not equal 10 homozygotes, were significantly different between normozoospermic and non-normozoospermic men (p < 0.05), with non-normozoospermic men having a slightly higher frequency of the =10/=10 genotypes. The allelic frequency for =10 is 0.79 and not equal10 is 0.21 for normozoospermic men and 0.85 and 0.15, respectively, for non-normozoospermic men (p < 0.025). There was no mutation detected in the exonuclease motifs in all the samples tested. Eighty normozoospermic and 124 non-normozoospermic semen samples were analysed for nucleotide substitutions in mitochondrial genes by PCR and sequencing. Heteroplasmic mutations were found in one azoospermic man, four asthenozoospermic men and two normozoospermic men. Only one asthenozoospermic man was heterozygous for the POLgamma genotype. Of the 17 men with non-synonymous nucleotide substitutions, 14 were homozygous for the POLgamma genotype. Non-normozoospermic men had twice as many nucleotide substitutions than normozoospermic men. However, there were no significant differences in the frequencies of nucleotide substitution and POLgamma genotypes in the two groups of men.

  8. Leptin and leptin-receptor polymorphisms in fertile and infertile men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosropour, Saeid; Hamidi, Maryam; Fattahi, Amir; Khodadadi, Iraj; Karami, Manoochehr; Fazilati, Mohammad; Vaisi-Raygani, Asad; Tavilani, Heidar

    2017-02-01

    The association of leptin (LEP) -2548G/A and/or leptin receptor (LEPR) Gln223Arg polymorphisms with male infertility and plasma FSH, LH, and testosterone (T) levels was examined. The genotypes and allele frequency distributions of LEP -2548G/A and LEPR Gln223Arg polymorphisms were investigated in 150 fertile and 150 infertile men by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Also, plasma levels of FSH, LH, and T were measured using commercial ELISA kits. Frequencies of AA, AG and GG genotypes of LEP-2548G/A polymorphism were statistically different in fertile and infertile men (p=0.012). The AG genotype showed a protective effect which could decrease risk of male infertility about 3 fold (p = 0.004). We did not observe any differences in frequencies of LEPR Gln223Arg alleles and genotypes between groups (p > 0.05). Sperm counts from infertile men with the AG and GG genotypes of the LEP polymorphism were significantly higher than AA genotype (p 0.05). Our study suggests that the LEP -2548G/A polymorphism may play a role in male fertility and the AG genotype may have a protective effect through increasing sperm counts. The distribution of genotypes of LEP -2548G/A polymorphism are different in fertile and infertile males and may be a useful tool in evaluation of male infertility. LEP: leptin; LEPR: leptin receptor; T: testosterone; FSH: follicle-stimulating hormone; LH: luteinizing hormone.

  9. How does obesity affect fertility in men - and what are the treatment options?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Victoria J; Anderson, Richard A; George, Jyothis T

    2015-05-01

    Adiposity is associated with reduced fertility in men. The aetiology is multifactorial, with obese men at greater risk of suffering from impaired spermatogenesis, reduced circulating testosterone levels, erectile dysfunction and poor libido. The diagnosis and treatment of reduced fertility observed in obese men therefore requires insight into the underlying pathology, which has hormonal, mechanical and psychosocial aspects. This article summarises the current epidemiological, experimental and clinical trial evidence from the perspective of a practicing clinician. The following conclusions and recommendations can be drawn: Obesity is associated with low serum testosterone concentrations, but treatment with exogenous testosterone is likely to adversely impact on fertility. It is important to discuss this with men prior to initiation of testosterone therapy. Obesity adversely affects sperm concentration and may affect sperm quality. However, whether or not weight loss will correct these factors remain to be established. Oestrogen receptor modulators (and aromatase inhibitors) are unlicensed in the treatment for male hypogonadism and/or infertility. These treatments should hence be considered experimental approach until ongoing clinical trials report their outcomes. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Indices of methylation in sperm DNA from fertile men differ between distinct geographical regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Consales, C; Leter, G; Bonde, J P E

    2014-01-01

    sequences from peripheral blood lymphocyte, can vary with age, gender, alcohol consumption and white blood cell counts. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: A cross-sectional study. Individual data were collected from 269 young healthy men of proven fertility living in three geographical regions: Inuits from...... parameters, sperm chromatin integrity, biomarkers of accessory gland function and the plasma concentration of reproductive hormones were associated with sperm DNA methylation levels in men. Associations were evaluated by analysis of variance and linear regression analyses. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE...

  11. Strangers With Benefits: Attraction to Outgroup Men Increases as Fertility Increases Across the Menstrual Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatore, Joseph F; Meltzer, Andrea L; March, David S; Gaertner, Lowell

    2016-11-20

    Research typically reveals that outgroups are regarded with disinterest at best and hatred and enmity at worst. Working from an evolutionary framework, we identify a unique pattern of outgroup attraction. The small-group lifestyle of pre-human ancestors plausibly limited access to genetically diverse mates. Ancestral females may have solved the inbreeding dilemma while balancing parental investment pressures by mating with outgroup males either via converting to an outgroup or cuckolding the ingroup. A vestige of those mating strategies might manifest in human women as a cyclic pattern of attraction across the menstrual cycle, such that attraction to outgroup men increases as fertility increases across the cycle. Two studies, one using a longitudinal method and the other an experimental method, evidenced the hypothesized linear relationship between attraction to outgroup men and fertility in naturally cycling women.

  12. Longevity of spermatozoa in the post-ejaculatory urine of fertile men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelbertz, Fabian; Korda, Joanna B; Engelmann, Udo; Rothschild, Markus; Banaschak, Sibylle

    2010-01-30

    Many scientists of varying clinical backgrounds have described the phenomenon of spermaturia in animals, adolescents as well as fertile and infertile men. Nevertheless, research for an expert opinion on a law case in the field of forensic medicine revealed a lack of valid information about the longevity of spermatozoa in post-ejaculatory urine (PEU) of fertile men. Our goal was to measure the appearance of vivid sperm in PEU while considering the factor of time in order to predict a realistic interval, in which positive sperm findings might occur. Therefore ten healthy, young men donated their sperm for fertility analysis and a urine sample prior to and after ejaculation. The time intervals between ejaculation and the first micturition were preset ranging between 30 min and maximal 11h. Each ejaculate underwent a semen analysis. The pre- and post-ejaculatory urine samples were screened for the presence of viable and motile spermatozoa. Semen parameters were determined and related to the sperm findings in the precipitate of the urine samples. The amount, the viability and motility status of the detected spermatozoa were recorded after each preset time interval. The results showed that none of the 10 participants had sperm in their urine samples prior to ejaculation. The average sperm concentration was 50.1+/-25.8 million/ml. After a time span of 30 min 59.5% of the first fractions of PEU samples were sperm positive, after 2 and 4h still 70%, and after 5h sperm were no longer detected. The last motile spermatozoa could be found after 4.5h. It seems that remaining sperm in the urethra are washed out with the first micturition in the majority of fertile men, however, the conclusion as to whether sperm findings >5h after ejaculation are improbable needs to be confirmed by further investigations.

  13. Zinc levels in seminal plasma are associated with sperm quality in fertile and infertile men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colagar, Abasalt Hosseinzadeh; Marzony, Eisa Tahmasbpour; Chaichi, Mohammad Javad

    2009-02-01

    Zinc has antioxidative properties and plays an important role in scavenging reactive oxygen species. We hypothesized that in the absence of Zn, the possibility of increased oxidative damage exists that would contribute to poor sperm quality. Therefore, measurement of seminal Zn in the seminal plasma of males with a history of subfertility or idiopathic infertility is necessary and can be helpful in fertility assessment. The primary objective of the present study was to assess the relationship between Zn levels in seminal plasma with sperm quality in fertile and infertile men. Semen samples were provided by fertile (smoker [n = 17], nonsmoker [n = 19]) and infertile men (smoker [n = 15], nonsmoker [n = 21]). After semen analysis, concentrations of Zn, Mg, Ca, Na, and K in the seminal plasma of all groups were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Element concentrations in seminal plasma of all groups were in the order Na > K > Ca > Zn > Mg. Fertile subjects, smoker or not, demonstrated significantly higher seminal Zn levels than any infertile group (P sperm count (P sperm (P sperm and idiopathic male infertility.

  14. The relationship between anogenital distance, fatherhood, and fertility in adult men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L Eisenberg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Anogenital distance (AGD, a sexually dimorphic measure of genital development, is a marker for endocrine disruption in animal studies and may be shorter in infant males with genital anomalies. Given the correlation between anogenital distance and genital development, we sought to determine if anogenital distance varied in fertile compared to infertile adult men. METHODS: A cross sectional study of consecutive men being evaluated for infertility and men with proven fertility was recruited from an andrology clinic. Anogenital distance (the distance from the posterior aspect of the scrotum to the anal verge and penile length (PL were measured using digital calipers. ANOVA and linear regression were used to determine correlations between AGD, fatherhood status, and semen analysis parameters (sperm density, motility, and total motile sperm count. FINDINGS: A total of 117 infertile men (mean age: 35.3±17.4 and 56 fertile men (mean age: 44.8±9.7 were recruited. The infertile men possessed significantly shorter mean AGD and PL compared to the fertile controls (AGD: 31.8 vs 44.6 mm, PL: 107.1 vs 119.5 mm, p<0.01. The difference in AGD persisted even after accounting for ethnic and anthropomorphic differences. In addition to fatherhood, on both unadjusted and adjusted linear regression, AGD was significantly correlated with sperm density and total motile sperm count. After adjusting for demographic and reproductive variables, for each 1 cm increase in a man's AGD, the sperm density increases by 4.3 million sperm per mL (95% CI 0.53, 8.09, p = 0.03 and the total motile sperm count increases by 6.0 million sperm (95% CI 1.34, 10.58, p = 0.01. On adjusted analyses, no correlation was seen between penile length and semen parameters. CONCLUSION: A longer anogenital distance is associated with fatherhood and may predict normal male reproductive potential. Thus, AGD may provide a novel metric to assess reproductive potential in men.

  15. Relationship between apoptotic markers in semen from fertile men and demographic, hormonal and seminal characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O Specht, Ina; Spanò, Marcello; S Hougaard, Karin

    2012-01-01

    and biological correlates of the pro-apoptotic marker Fas and the anti-apoptotic marker Bcl-xL in sperm cells of fertile men. Six hundred and four men from Greenland, Poland and Ukraine were consecutively enrolled during their pregnant wife's antenatal visits. Semen analysis was performed as recommended...... (TUNEL) assay. The percentage of Fas-positive sperm cells was higher in men with high total sperm count (P......Apoptosis in the testis has two putative roles during normal spermatogenesis; limitation of the germ cell population to numbers that can be supported by the Sertoli cells, and, possibly, selective depletion of meiotic and postmeiotic abnormal germ cells. We investigated the demographic...

  16. Fertility Desires among Men and Women Living with HIV/AIDS in Nairobi Slums: A Mixed Methods Study

    OpenAIRE

    Eliud Wekesa; Ernestina Coast

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Fertility desires require new understanding in a context of expanding access to antiretroviral therapy for people living with HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa. This paper studies the fertility desires and their rationales, of slum-dwelling Kenyan men and women living with HIV/AIDS who know their serostatus, but have different antiretroviral therapy treatment statuses. It addresses two research questions: How do people living with HIV/AIDS consider their future fertility? What factors...

  17. The effect of presence of facultative bacteria species on semen and sperm quality of men seeking fertility care

    OpenAIRE

    C.A. Enwuru; B. Iwalokun; V.N. Enwuru; O. Ezechi; A. Oluwadun

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Infections of male urogenital tracts may contribute to male infertility. However, the effects of bacterial presence on sperm quality and fertility are controversial. Objectives: We investigated the occurrence of non-specific bacteria and quality/quantity of semen of infertile and fertile control groups in Nigeria. Subjects and methods: We investigated 162 infertile and 54 fertile men. Spermiogram, culture, bacterial isolation and characterization were conducted. Results...

  18. Differences in the endocannabinoid system of sperm from fertile and infertile men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheena E M Lewis

    Full Text Available Male infertility is a major cause of problems for many couples in conceiving a child. Recently, lifestyle pastimes such as alcohol, tobacco and marijuana have been shown to have further negative effects on male reproduction. The endocannabinoid system (ECS, mainly through the action of anandamide (AEA and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG at cannabinoid (CB(1, CB(2 and vanilloid (TRPV1 receptors, plays a crucial role in controlling functionality of sperm, with a clear impact on male reproductive potential. Here, sperm from fertile and infertile men were used to investigate content (through LC-ESI-MS, mRNA (through quantitative RT-PCR, protein (through Western Blotting and ELISA expression, and functionality (through activity and binding assays of the main metabolic enzymes of AEA and 2-AG (NAPE-PLD and FAAH, for AEA; DAGL and MAGL for 2-AG, as well as of their binding receptors CB(1, CB(2 and TRPV1. Our findings show a marked reduction of AEA and 2-AG content in infertile seminal plasma, paralleled by increased degradation: biosynthesis ratios of both substances in sperm from infertile versus fertile men. In addition, TRPV1 binding was detected in fertile sperm but was undetectable in infertile sperm, whereas that of CB(1 and CB(2 receptors was not statistically different in the two groups. In conclusion, this study identified unprecedented alterations of the ECS in infertile sperm, that might impact on capacitation and acrosome reaction, and hence fertilization outcomes. These alterations might also point to new biomarkers to determine male reproductive defects, and identify distinct ECS elements as novel targets for therapeutic exploitation of ECS-oriented drugs to treat male fertility problems.

  19. Should we be offering fertility preservation by surgical sperm retrieval to men with Klinefelter syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEleny, Kevin; Cheetham, Tim; Quinton, Richard

    2017-04-01

    Advances in surgical sperm retrieval have greatly increased the chances of men with Klinefelter syndrome achieving biological paternity. Despite this, the vast majority of attempts to achieve fertility by using extracted gametes to fertilize eggs in vitro do not result in viable pregnancies. A powerful obstacle to success lies with the natural history of seminiferous tubule and germ cell function in Klinefelter syndrome, which typically peak (and thereafter steeply decline) up to a decade before most individuals would be contemplating paternity. Herein we discuss, in relation to a real clinical case, both the exciting technical advances surgical sperm retrieval and the logistic and ethical factors that, in practice, may act to limit their successful application.

  20. Effect of Vitrification on Sperm Parameters and Apoptosis in Fertile Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Adib

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Today, cryopreservation of the human sperm is a common technique for treating infertility. It has been indicated that cryopreservation by different methods decrease the sperm motility and viability in fertile men, but still effect of freezing of the sperm by vitrification method have not been evaluated on sperm parameters and apoptosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of vitrification of sperm of fertile men on different sperm parameters (motility, morphology, viability and count and apoptosis after thawing. Materials & Methods: In this experimental study which was conducted at Yazd Infertility Research and Clinical Center in 2009, seventeen semen samples were collected by masturbation from people who came to this centre. Semen analysis was performed according to WHO standards. Smear was provided from these samples and fixed for TUNEL staining. Some samples were directly cryopreserved by cryoloope in liquid nitrogen and stored at least for Seven days. After thawing, samples were evaluated for sperm parameters. The collected data was analyzed by the SPSS software using paired T-test and Willcoxon statistical test. Results: The progressive movement of sperm was significantly decreased by vitrification. Also significant decrease in viability and morphology of the sperm and increase in the rate of apoptosis was observed after vitrification. The amount of apoptosis had negatively correlated with normal parameters of spermatozoa (especially progressive motility and viability. Conclusion: These results indicated that vitrification is harmful for sperm parameters and of apoptosis rate in fertile men. However, the apoptosis rate was lower compared to other freezing methods.

  1. Does infertility cause marital benefit? An epidemiological study of 2250 women and men in fertility treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lone; Holstein, Bjørn; Christensen, Ulla

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate (i) marital benefit, e.g., that infertility has strengthen the marriage and brought the partners closer together among people beginning fertility treatment and (ii) communication and coping strategies as predictors of marital benefit 12 months later. METHODS: A prospective...... the infertility as a secret, difficult marital communication, and using active-avoidance coping (e.g., avoid being with pregnant women or children, turning to work to take mind off things) were among men significant predictors for low marital benefit. No significant predictors were identified among women...

  2. Family influence in fertility: A longitudinal analysis of sibling correlations in first birth risk and completed fertility among Swedish men and women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Dahlberg

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The intergenerational transmission of fertility has received much attention in demography. This has been done by estimating the correlation between parents' and offsprings' fertility. An alternative method that provides a more comprehensive account of the role of family background - sibling correlations - has not been used before. OBJECTIVE I estimate the overall importance of family background on entry into parenthood and completed fertility and whether it changed over time. Furthermore, I compare the intergenerational correlation in completed fertility with corresponding sibling correlations. METHODS Brother and sister correlations in first birth hazard and in final family size were estimated using multi-level event-history and multi-level linear regression on Swedish longitudinal register data. RESULTS The overall variation in fertility that can be explained by family of origin is approximately 15Š-25Š for women and 10Š-15Š for men. The overall importance of the family of origin has not changed over the approximately twenty birth cohorts that were studied (1940-63 for women, 1940-58 for men. Parents' completed fertility accounts for only a small share of the total family background effect on completed fertility. CONCLUSIONS This study contributes to the existing understanding of intergenerational transition of fertility, both methodologically, by introducing a new and powerful method to study the overall importance of family of origin, and substantially, by estimating the overall importance of family of origin and ist development over time. A non-negligible proportion of the variation in fertility can be attributed to family of origin and this effect has remained stable over twenty birth cohorts.

  3. Y chromosome gr/gr subdeletion is associated with lower semen quality in young men from the general Japanese population but not in fertile Japanese Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Youichi; Iwamoto, Teruaki; Shinka, Toshikatsu; Nozawa, Shiari; Yoshiike, Miki; Koh, Eitetsue; Kanaya, Jiro; Namiki, Mikio; Matsumiya, Kiyomi; Tsujimura, Akira; Komatsu, Kiyoshi; Itoh, Naoki; Eguchi, Jiro; Yamauchi, Aiko; Nakahori, Yutaka

    2014-06-01

    Several case-control studies have investigated whether Y chromosome haplogroups or deletions are associated with spermatogenic failure. However, the relationships between Y chromosome haplogroups or deletions and semen quality in general population have not been elucidated. In this study, we assessed relationships between Y chromosome haplogroups or deletions and semen parameters in 791 fertile Japanese men and 1221 young men from the general Japanese population. We found that the haplogroup D2 (M55 lineage) was significantly associated with lower semen parameters, especially total motile sperm count (P = 0.00051, beta = -0.097), in men from the general population but not in fertile men. In addition, we found that the gr/gr subdeletion was associated with semen quality and in particular, strongly associated with decreased sperm motility (P = 0.00041, beta = -3.14) and total motile sperm count (P = 0.00031, beta = -0.099) in men from the general population but not in fertile men. The combined analysis of fertile Japanese men and men from the general Japanese population showed that the haplogroup D2 (M55 lineage) and the gr/gr subdeletion were strongly associated with reduced sperm motility (P = 0.00056, beta = -2.71, and P = 7.7 × 10(-5), beta = -3.05, respectively) and that haplogroup O2b1 was strongly associated with elevated sperm motility (P = 0.00089, beta = 2.94). These observations add further support for the view that the gr/gr subdeletion diminishes sperm motility that consequently may result in male infertility.

  4. Summary evidence on the effects of varicocele treatment to improve natural fertility in subfertile men

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    Bruno C Tiseo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this review was to summarize the evidence concerning the benefit of varicocele treatment to improve natural fertility in subfertile males. We also analyzed the effect of varicocele treatment on conventional semen parameters and sperm functional tests. An electronic search to collect the data was performed using the PubMed/MEDLINE databases until July 2015. Data pooled from a variety of study designs indicate that varicocelectomy improves semen parameters in the majority of the treated men with clinical varicocele and abnormal semen parameters regardless of the chosen surgical method. Surgical varicocele repair was beneficial not only for alleviating oxidative stress-associated infertility but also to improve sperm nuclear DNA integrity. However, given the low magnitude of the effect size in sperm DNA integrity, further research is needed to elucidate its clinical significance. Conflicting results on the effect of varicocele treatment on natural fertility seem to be due to heterogeneous study designs and, more importantly, patient selection criteria. When these issues are controlled, current evidence indicates that treatment of subclinical varicocele is not warranted, as it does not seem to improve fertility. On the contrary, fair evidence indicates that varicocele treatment should be offered to infertile patients with palpable varicocele and abnormal semen parameters. This evidence supports the current guidelines issued by the American Urological Association and European Association of Urology, which state that varicocele treatment should be offered to male partners of infertile couples presenting for evaluation with clinical varicocele and semen parameters alterations.

  5. Fertility and sexual life of men after their forties and in older age

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wolf-Bernhard Schill

    2001-01-01

    Owing to the demographic development, the aging male will require more consideration in future. In contrast to a rapid decline of estradiol during menopause in women, the process of aging in the male is retarded and subject to high individual variations. Impairment of spermatogenesis is observed as a continuous process occurring over decades. However, only about 50% of men in their eighties show complete loss of fertility. In principle, spermatogenesis may be retained well into senescence. Of importance for the individual health condition is the fact that the number of Leydig cells declines with advancing age. Thus, altered sex hormone concentrations in aging men result from both functional disturbances and a gradual reduction in Leydig cells. Furthermore, an impaired feed-back mechanism of the pituitary-gonadal axis occurs, with disappearance of the circadian testosterone (T) rhythm. LH and FSH levels are increased, and a reduced bioavailability of sex hormones is observed. Lower total testosterone concentrations in men over 60 years are accompanied by clinical signs of reduced virility, such as decreased muscle mass and strength as well as reduced sexual hair growth and libido. An age-related decline in androgen secretion and plasma testosterone levels therefore suggests the use of androgen supplementation. However, there is a lack of risk-benefit long-term studies. Increased research in the male is mandatory to meet the requirements of the aging population. This should include the availability of precise epidemiological data about the frequency of partial androgen deficiency in aging males (PADAM).

  6. Relationship between apoptotic markers in semen from fertile men and demographic, hormonal and seminal characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ina O Specht; Marcello Spanò; Karin S Hougaard; Gian C Manicardi; Davide Bizzaro; Gunnar Toft; Aleksander Giwercman; Jens-Peter E Bonde

    2012-01-01

    Apoptosis in the testis has two putative roles during normal spermatogenesis; limitation of the germ ceil population to numbers that can be supported by the Sertoli cells,and,possibly,selective depletion of meiotic and postmeiotic abnormal germ cells.We investigated the demographic and biological correlates of the pro-apoptotic marker Fas and the anti-apoptotic marker Bcl-xL in sperm cells of fertile men.Six hundred and four men from Greenland,Poland and Ukraine were consecutively enrolled during their pregnant wife's antenatal visits.Semen analysis was performed as recommended by the World Health Organization.Immunofluorescence coupled to flow cytometry was utilized for detection of apoptotic markers in the sperm cell.DNA damage was assessed by flow cytometry using both the sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA) and the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) assay.The percentage of Fas-positive sperm cells was higher in men with high total sperm count (P<O.01),more motile sperms (P=O.04) and fewer sperm head defects (P=O.05).These associations were consistent within and across study regions.Furthermore,testosterone,follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and sexual hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were significantly negatively correlated with Fas within and across regions as well.The data indicated no association between the anti-apoptotic Bcl-xL marker and semen or personal characteristics.The finding of Fas-positive sperm cells associated with better semen quality in a cohort of spouses of pregnant women seems different from previous data obtained in infertile men and warrants further investigation to clarifv the biological significance of sperm apoptotic markers.

  7. Self-reported mobile phone use and semen parameters among men from a fertility clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ryan C; Mínguez-Alarcón, Lidia; Meeker, John D; Williams, Paige L; Mezei, Gabor; Ford, Jennifer B; Hauser, Russ

    2017-01-01

    There is increasing concern that use of mobile phones, a source of low-level radio-frequency electromagnetic fields, may be associated with poor semen quality, but the epidemiologic evidence is limited and conflicting. The relationship between mobile phone use patterns and markers of semen quality was explored in a longitudinal cohort study of 153 men that attended an academic fertility clinic in Boston, Massachusetts. Information on mobile phone use duration, headset or earpiece use, and the body location in which the mobile phone was carried was ascertained via nurse-administered questionnaire. Semen samples (n=350) were collected and analyzed onsite. To account for multiple semen samples per man, linear mixed models with random intercepts were used to investigate the association between mobile phone use and semen parameters. Overall, there was no evidence for a relationship between mobile phone use and semen quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Men regret anabolic steroid use due to a lack of comprehension regarding the consequences on future fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovac, J R; Scovell, J; Ramasamy, R; Rajanahally, S; Coward, R M; Smith, R P; Lipshultz, L I

    2015-10-01

    We examined whether men with anabolic-steroid-induced hypogonadism (ASIH) seeking testosterone supplementation therapy (TST) regretted their decision to use anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) and what their reasons were for this regret. An anonymous, prospective survey was distributed to 382 men seeking follow-up treatment for hypogonadism. Prior AAS use was confirmed by self-report, and men were categorised based upon whether they regretted (R) or did not regret (NR) their use of AAS. The average patient age was 40 ± 0.9 years (n = 79) and 15.2% expressed regret over AAS use. No demographic differences were identified between those who regretted AAS use (n = 12) and those who did not (n = 67). Regret was not related to ASIH diagnosis or to AAS-related side effects like increased aggression, mood disorders, erectile dysfunction, acne, fluid retention or dyslipidemia. Those who regretted AAS use were significantly more likely to have not comprehended the negative impact on future fertility (P < 0.030). Actual fertility issues were comparable in men who regretted AAS use (16.7%) and those who did not (13%). A total of 15.2% of men regretted using AAS. A lack of awareness regarding the negative long-term effects on fertility was the primary factor related to regret of AAS use in men with ASIH.

  9. The reference values for semen parameters of 1213 fertile men in Guangdong Province in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Ge Tang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Semen samples were collected from 1213 fertile men whose partners had a time-to-pregnancy (TTP ≤12 months in Guangdong Province in Southern China, and semen parameters including semen volume, sperm concentration, total counts, motility, and morphology were evaluated according to the World Health Organization (WHO 2010 guideline. All semen parameters analyzed were normal in ~62.2% of the total samples, whereas ~37.8% showed at least one of the semen parameters below normal threshold values. The fifth centiles (with 95% confidence intervals were 1.3 (1.2-1.5 ml for semen volume, 20 × 10 6 (18×10 6 -20×10 6 ml−1 for sperm concentration, 40 × 10 6 (38×10 6 -44×10 6 per ejaculate for total sperm counts, 48% (47%-53% for vitality, 39% (36%-43% for total motility, 25% (23%-27% for sperm progressive motility, 5.0% (4%-5% for normal morphology. The pH values ranged from 7.2 to 8.0 with the mean ± standard deviation at 7.32 ± 0.17. No effects of age and body mass index were found on semen parameters. Occupation, smoking and alcohol abuse, varicocele appeared to decrease semen quality. Sperm concentration, but not sperm morphology, is positively correlated with TTP, whereas vitality is negatively correlated with TTP. Our study provides the latest reference values for the semen parameters of Chinese fertile men in Guangdong Province, which are close to those described in the new WHO guidelines (5 th Edition.

  10. Fertility desires among men and women living with HIV/AIDS in Nairobi slums: a mixed methods study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliud Wekesa

    Full Text Available Fertility desires require new understanding in a context of expanding access to antiretroviral therapy for people living with HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa. This paper studies the fertility desires and their rationales, of slum-dwelling Kenyan men and women living with HIV/AIDS who know their serostatus, but have different antiretroviral therapy treatment statuses. It addresses two research questions: How do people living with HIV/AIDS consider their future fertility? What factors contribute to an explanation of fertility desires among people living with HIV/AIDS.A mixed methods study (survey [n = 513] and in-depth interviews [n = 41] with adults living with HIV/AIDS living in Nairobi slums was conducted in 2010. Regression analyses assess independent relationships between fertility desires and socio-demographic factors. Analyses of in-depth interviews are used to interpret the statistical analyses of fertility desires.Our analyses show that fertility desires are complex and ambivalent, reflecting tensions between familial and societal pressures to have children versus pressures for HIV (re-infection prevention. More than a third (34% of men and women living with HIV expressed future fertility desires; however, this is significantly lower than in the general population. Factors independently associated with desiring a child among people living with HIV/AIDS were age, sex, number of surviving children, social support and household wealth of the respondent.Increasing access to ART is changing the context of future childbearing for people living with HIV/AIDS. Prevailing values mean that, for many people living with HIV/AIDS, having children is seen as necessary for a "normal" and healthy adult life. However, the social rewards of childbearing conflict with moral imperatives of HIV prevention, presenting dilemmas about the "proper" reproductive behaviour of people living with HIV/AIDS. The health policy and service delivery implications of

  11. Fertility desires among men and women living with HIV/AIDS in Nairobi slums: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wekesa, Eliud; Coast, Ernestina

    2014-01-01

    Fertility desires require new understanding in a context of expanding access to antiretroviral therapy for people living with HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa. This paper studies the fertility desires and their rationales, of slum-dwelling Kenyan men and women living with HIV/AIDS who know their serostatus, but have different antiretroviral therapy treatment statuses. It addresses two research questions: How do people living with HIV/AIDS consider their future fertility? What factors contribute to an explanation of fertility desires among people living with HIV/AIDS. A mixed methods study (survey [n = 513] and in-depth interviews [n = 41]) with adults living with HIV/AIDS living in Nairobi slums was conducted in 2010. Regression analyses assess independent relationships between fertility desires and socio-demographic factors. Analyses of in-depth interviews are used to interpret the statistical analyses of fertility desires. Our analyses show that fertility desires are complex and ambivalent, reflecting tensions between familial and societal pressures to have children versus pressures for HIV (re-)infection prevention. More than a third (34%) of men and women living with HIV expressed future fertility desires; however, this is significantly lower than in the general population. Factors independently associated with desiring a child among people living with HIV/AIDS were age, sex, number of surviving children, social support and household wealth of the respondent. Increasing access to ART is changing the context of future childbearing for people living with HIV/AIDS. Prevailing values mean that, for many people living with HIV/AIDS, having children is seen as necessary for a "normal" and healthy adult life. However, the social rewards of childbearing conflict with moral imperatives of HIV prevention, presenting dilemmas about the "proper" reproductive behaviour of people living with HIV/AIDS. The health policy and service delivery implications of these

  12. The impact of social relations among men and women in fertility treatment on the decision to terminate treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vassard, Ditte; Lund, Rikke; Pinborg, Anja;

    2012-01-01

    clinics during their initial visit and follow-up data were collected after 1 year. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: The study group (n = 777; 427 women, 350 men) consisted of patients who did not achieve a live birth or an ongoing pregnancy during follow-up. Social support and strain from......STUDY QUESTION: Do social support and social strain from social relations have an impact on the decision to terminate fertility treatment among men and women after 1 year of unsuccessful treatment? SUMMARY ANSWER: Several functional aspects of social relations show an impact on the probability...... to terminate treatment; social support from family significantly decreases the probability to terminate and experience of conflicts or problematic communication with the partner significantly increases the probability to terminate treatment. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Fertility patients can experience...

  13. A population-based survey on family intentions and fertility awareness in women and men in the United Kingdom and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vassard, Ditte; Lallemant, Camille; Nyboe Andersen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Across several European countries family formation is increasingly postponed. The aims of the study were to investigate the desire for family building and fertility awareness in the UK and Denmark. METHODS: A population-based internet survey was used among women (n = 1,000) and men (n...... = 237) from the UK (40%) and Denmark (60%). Data covered socio-demographics, family formation, and awareness of female age-related fertility. Data analysis used descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis for studying associations between low fertility awareness and desired family formation....... RESULTS: The majority of all participants desired two or three children. Two-thirds of the childless participants desired a first child at 30+ years, and one-fifth of the women and one-third of the men desired a last child at age 40. Overall, 83% of women and 73% of men were aware that female fertility...

  14. A population-based survey on family intentions and fertility awareness in women and men in the United Kingdom and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vassard, Ditte; Lallemant, Camille; Nyboe Andersen, Anders;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Across several European countries family formation is increasingly postponed. The aims of the study were to investigate the desire for family building and fertility awareness in the UK and Denmark. METHODS: A population-based internet survey was used among women (n = 1,000) and men (n....... RESULTS: The majority of all participants desired two or three children. Two-thirds of the childless participants desired a first child at 30+ years, and one-fifth of the women and one-third of the men desired a last child at age 40. Overall, 83% of women and 73% of men were aware that female fertility......-related decrease in female fertility, most desired having children at an age when female fertility has declined. Women who were not sufficiently aware of the impact of advanced age were significantly more likely to have their first child at a higher age. There is a need for developing educational programs...

  15. Semen quality, reproductive hormones and fertility of men operated for hypospadias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asklund, C; Jensen, Tina Kold; Main, K M;

    2010-01-01

    The testicular function of men previously operated for hypospadias has been sparsely investigated. Therefore, we investigated semen quality and reproductive hormones of 92 men with isolated hypospadias (IH) and 20 with hypospadias and additional genital disorders (HAGD) and compared with similar...... a slight increase in follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone levels, whereas men with HAGD had more pronounced disturbances. 24.0% of the 1083 men operated for hypospadias were registered as fathers to at least one child, whereas the corresponding number in the general age-matched population...... was 29.4% (p hormone levels indicated a subtle impairment of testicular function also in men with IH. An observed lower number of fathers among men with hypospadias...

  16. Processed meat intake is unfavorably and fish intake favorably associated with semen quality indicators among men attending a fertility clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afeiche, Myriam C; Gaskins, Audrey J; Williams, Paige L; Toth, Thomas L; Wright, Diane L; Tanrikut, Cigdem; Hauser, Russ; Chavarro, Jorge E

    2014-07-01

    Emerging literature suggests that men's diets may affect spermatogenesis as reflected in semen quality indicators, but literature on the relation between meat intake and semen quality is limited. Our objective was to prospectively examine the relation between meat intake and indicators of semen quality. Men in subfertile couples presenting for evaluation at the Massachusetts General Hospital Fertility Center were invited to participate in an ongoing study of environmental factors and fertility. A total of 155 men completed a validated food-frequency questionnaire and subsequently provided 338 semen samples over an 18-mo period from 2007-2012. We used linear mixed regression models to examine the relation between meat intake and semen quality indicators (total sperm count, sperm concentration, progressive motility, morphology, and semen volume) while adjusting for potential confounders and accounting for within-person variability across repeat semen samples. Among the 155 men (median age: 36.1 y; 83% white, non-Hispanic), processed meat intake was inversely related to sperm morphology. Men in the highest quartile of processed meat intake had, on average, 1.7 percentage units (95% CI: -3.3, -0.04) fewer morphologically normal sperm than men in the lowest quartile of intake (P-trend = 0.02). Fish intake was related to higher sperm count and percentage of morphologically normal sperm. The adjusted mean total sperm count increased from 102 million (95% CI: 80, 131) in the lowest quartile to 168 million (95% CI: 136, 207) sperm in the highest quartile of fish intake (P-trend = 0.005). Similarly, the adjusted mean percentages of morphologically normal sperm for men in increasing quartiles of fish intake were 5.9 (95% CI: 5.0, 6.8), 5.3 (95% CI: 4.4, 6.3), 6.3 (95% CI: 5.2, 7.4), and 7.5 (95% CI: 6.5, 8.5) (P-trend = 0.01). Consuming fish may have a positive impact on sperm counts and morphology, particularly when consumed instead of processed red meats.

  17. Comparison of serum vitamin D between fertile and infertile men in a vitamin D deficient endemic area: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhavizadegan, Hamed; Karbakhsh, Mojgan

    2017-06-26

    The aim of this study was to compare serum vitamin D between fertile and infertile men in endemic area of vitamin D deficiency. The role of vitamin D in all aspects of human health has attracted a great interest. Vitamin D effect on female fertility and to a lesser extent in men is under investigation. Previous researchers have found meaningful positive relationship between semen quality and serum vitamin D level. However, in endemic area of vitamin D deficiency, this effect is under question. Serum 25-OH-Vitamin D was compared between infertile male patients and fertile control group.Infertile cases were from patients of our infertility clinic and fertile controls from healthy cases with at least one child below 5 years of age.SPSS version 19 was used for statistical analysis (Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and Mann-Whitney test). Between 116 fertile and 114 infertile men who entered the study, serum level of 20 was a critical point, which patients with upper serum level had significantly better spermogram. In addition to it, even in vitamin D deficient patients and controls, fertile controls had higher serum vitamin D. There is a positive correlation between serum level of vitamin D and spermogram quality, even in vitamin D deficient areas. Fertile people have a higher level of serum vitamin D in comparison to infertile patient in aforementioned areas.

  18. Semen quality, reproductive hormones and fertility of men operated for hypospadias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asklund, C; Jensen, Tina Kold; Main, K M;

    2010-01-01

    The testicular function of men previously operated for hypospadias has been sparsely investigated. Therefore, we investigated semen quality and reproductive hormones of 92 men with isolated hypospadias (IH) and 20 with hypospadias and additional genital disorders (HAGD) and compared with similar...... was 29.4% (p reproductive hormone levels indicated a subtle impairment of testicular function also in men with IH. An observed lower number of fathers among men with hypospadias...... may be because of psychosocial aspects, sexual dysfunction or reduced semen quality or a combination of these factors. Our results should be reassuring for patients with mild forms of IH and their relatives. They can be informed that hypospadias in such cases is not generally associated with poor...

  19. The CFTR Met 470 allele is associated with lower birth rates in fertile men from a population isolate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülüm Kosova

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Although little is known about the role of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR gene in reproductive physiology, numerous variants in this gene have been implicated in etiology of male infertility due to congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens (CBAVD. Here, we studied the fertility effects of three CBAVD-associated CFTR polymorphisms, the (TGm and polyT repeat polymorphisms in intron 8 and Met470Val in exon 10, in healthy men of European descent. Homozygosity for the Met470 allele was associated with lower birth rates, defined as the number of births per year of marriage (P = 0.0029. The Met470Val locus explained 4.36% of the phenotypic variance in birth rate, and men homozygous for the Met470 allele had 0.56 fewer children on average compared to Val470 carrier men. The derived Val470 allele occurs at high frequencies in non-African populations (allele frequency = 0.51 in HapMap CEU, whereas it is very rare in African population (Fst = 0.43 between HapMap CEU and YRI. In addition, haplotypes bearing Val470 show a lack of genetic diversity and are thus longer than haplotypes bearing Met470 (measured by an integrated haplotype score [iHS] of -1.93 in HapMap CEU. The fraction of SNPs in the HapMap Phase2 data set with more extreme Fst and iHS measures is 0.003, consistent with a selective sweep outside of Africa. The fertility advantage conferred by Val470 relative to Met470 may provide a selective mechanism for these population genetic observations.

  20. Occupational risk for male infertility: a case-control study of 218 infertile and 227 fertile men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, S E; Tay, S K

    2001-11-01

    The aim of the study was to determine if certain occupations pose an increased risk for infertility (of no known cause) among a group of infertile men compared with a group of fertile men. A total of 640 consecutive men whose spouses were unable to conceive were recruited from an infertility clinic. Of these, 218 men (cases) were found to have no known cause for their infertility. A total of 227 men whose spouses were pregnant at the time of the study were recruited as controls. The Singapore Standard Occupational Classification was used to code the subjects' occupations. Semen parameters (density, total sperm counts, motility, viability, and normal morphology) in all of the cases were significantly poorer than those in the controls. The risk for infertility is associated with smoking adjusted odds ratio (OR) 2.85 and 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.91 to 4.24. Work, independently, is not a risk factor for infertility. Engineering technicians (adjusted OR, 2.75; 95% CI, 1.36 to 5.54), finance analysts (adjusted OR, 4.66; 95% CI, 1.90 to 11.40), corporate and computing managers (adjusted OR, 2.49; 95% CI, 1.04 to 5.98), and teachers (adjusted OR, 7.72; 95% CI, 1.86 to 32.10) were at a greater risk of infertility compared with "services and clerical workers." Using services and clerical workers as a reference group, certain occupations are at a higher risk for infertility. Higher work demands and possible electromagnetic field exposure could be contributory factors for infertility.

  1. Terminal Mannose Residues in Seminal Plasma Glycoproteins of Infertile Men Compared to Fertile Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Olejnik

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The impact of seminal plasma components on the fertilization outcomes in humans is still under question. The increasing number of couples facing problems with conception raises the need for predictive biomarkers. Detailed understanding of the molecular mechanisms accompanying fertilization remains another challenge. Carbohydrate–protein recognition may be of key importance in this complex field. In this study, we analyzed the unique glycosylation pattern of seminal plasma proteins, the display of high-mannose and hybrid-type oligosaccharides, by means of their reactivity with mannose-specific Galanthus nivalis lectin. Normozoospermic infertile subjects presented decreased amounts of lectin-reactive glycoepitopes compared to fertile donors and infertile patients with abnormal semen parameters. Glycoproteins containing unveiled mannose were isolated in affinity chromatography, and 17 glycoproteins were identified in liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization. The N-glycome of the isolated glycoproteins was examined in matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry. Eleven out of 27 identified oligosaccharides expressed terminal mannose residues, responsible for lectin binding. We suggest that lowered content of high-mannose and hybrid type glycans in normozoospermic infertile patients may be associated with impaired sperm protection from preterm capacitation and should be considered in the search for new infertility markers.

  2. Terminal Mannose Residues in Seminal Plasma Glycoproteins of Infertile Men Compared to Fertile Donors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olejnik, Beata; Jarząb, Anna; Kratz, Ewa M.; Zimmer, Mariusz; Gamian, Andrzej; Ferens-Sieczkowska, Mirosława

    2015-01-01

    The impact of seminal plasma components on the fertilization outcomes in humans is still under question. The increasing number of couples facing problems with conception raises the need for predictive biomarkers. Detailed understanding of the molecular mechanisms accompanying fertilization remains another challenge. Carbohydrate–protein recognition may be of key importance in this complex field. In this study, we analyzed the unique glycosylation pattern of seminal plasma proteins, the display of high-mannose and hybrid-type oligosaccharides, by means of their reactivity with mannose-specific Galanthus nivalis lectin. Normozoospermic infertile subjects presented decreased amounts of lectin-reactive glycoepitopes compared to fertile donors and infertile patients with abnormal semen parameters. Glycoproteins containing unveiled mannose were isolated in affinity chromatography, and 17 glycoproteins were identified in liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization. The N-glycome of the isolated glycoproteins was examined in matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry. Eleven out of 27 identified oligosaccharides expressed terminal mannose residues, responsible for lectin binding. We suggest that lowered content of high-mannose and hybrid type glycans in normozoospermic infertile patients may be associated with impaired sperm protection from preterm capacitation and should be considered in the search for new infertility markers. PMID:26147424

  3. Progress in research into new methods of fertility regulation for men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Research results by the UNDP/UNFPA/WHO/World Bank Special Program in Human Reproduction published in 1990 showed that hormones can be used to reduce men's sperm levels to virtual infertility. Weekly injections of testosterone enanthate (TE) produced azoospermia in most men. A multicenter study was also completed in 1994 involving a total 399 men in nine countries who were given regular injections of TE. High contraceptive effectiveness resulted among those men whose sperm concentrations were reduced to 3 million or less per ml (oligozoospermia). The failure rate was 1.4 pregnancies per 100 person-years, similar to that of oral contraceptives. It took an average of 68 days to reach oligozoospermic and 100 days to reach azoospermic sperm counts after the 1st injection. To return to normal levels after the last injection took 112 days and 203 days, respectively, in oligozoospermic and azoospermic men. Testing of testosterone buciclate (TB) was also carried out in Germany to assess the effect of longer-acting androgen esters suppressing gonadotrophin secretion. Azoospermia was achieved in some men by giving a single dose of 1200 mg of TB, but at half that dose oligozoospermia was not reached. Research is also continuing into the male contraceptive effect of progestogen-androgen combinations. Progestogen prevents the production of sperm at much lower doses than androgen. Androgen is given to replace testosterone that is inhibited as a result of the suppression of gonadotrophin, but it is needed less frequently. The combination seems to suppress sperm production more quickly than the androgen alone. In China, India, and Indonesia, plans are prepared for efficacy studies with such combinations. The drawback for large-scale use is that the components have to be injected at different intervals. This may be overcome by combining TB with a progestogen with the same duration of action and giving both at the same time.

  4. Population and the Colombian economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, T G

    1983-01-01

    Colombia is the only one of the 6 most populous Latin American countries that is currently free of major economic crisis requiring an agreement with the International Monetary Fund. The difference in the economic performances of these countries is relative, since the rate of growth in the Colombian economy was only 1.5% in 1982. Yet, Colombia seems to have weathered the international recession better than most. The crisis atmosphere in the rest of Latin America, triggered by overall economic decline, high rates of inflation, and an indebtedness that soaks up much of export earnings to service it, is lacking in Colombia or present in lesser degree. If Colombia can strengthen its political performance and tighten national unity, it could move through the 1980s with considerable confidence and success in economic development. Colombia differs little from other major Latin American countries with regard to traditionalism and modernization. Most Colombians are secularized. Colombia is far ahead of most comparable Latin American countries in fertility control. The lower rate of population increase defines the extent to which the economy must provide education, health, food, and jobs. 2 other factors are essential for understanding the current situation in Colombia and its prospects for the 1980s. Government policy in the 1970s opted for an austerity program while the other countries were growing rapidly, in large part through borrowed resources. A 2nd factor is the prospect of attaining autonomy in energy production. These special characteristics--population, public policy, and energy--are discussed. Since the mid 1960s Colombia has functioned with 3 family planning programs. Their existence makes contraception easily available to the population generally. In 1960 Colombia had a higher total fertility rate (TFR) 7.0, than either Venezuela (6.6) or Brazil (5.3), but by 1976 its TFR was down to 4.1, while Venezuela's (4.8) and Brazil's (4.3) were now higher. On balance

  5. PRESENTED AT TRIANGLE CONSORTIUM FOR REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY MEETING IN CHAPEL HILL, NC ON 2/11/2006: SPERM COUNT DISTRIBUTIONS IN FERTILE MEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperm concentration and count are often used as indicators of environmental impacts on male reproductive health. Existing clinical databases may be biased towards sub-fertile men with low sperm counts and less is known about expected sperm count distributions in cohorts of ferti...

  6. Analysis of Change in Sperm Quality of Chinese Fertile Men druing 1981-1996

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张树成; 王弘毅; 王介东

    1999-01-01

    By literature search,114 papers for fertile male sperm quality including 256 set data were collected from 9292 persons and 11 726 assays involving 39 cities and counties.Results of analysis showed a decrease in mean concentration of sperm from 103.02×106/ml(1983)to 83. 84×106/ml(1996),sperm motility was decreasedfrom 75.11%(1982)to 67.27%(1996)and percentage of sperm with normal morphology was reduced from 85.02%(1983)to 77.89%(1996),thus showing the definite negative correlation and being statistically significant(P0.05).It is interesting to note that although Chinese sperm quality is better,it declines significantly faster than that of western countries at the same period.It is possible that the decline of sperm quality is due to problem of environmental quality.The authors suggest the emphasis of basic research in relevant fields.

  7. A Fertility Assessment of Infertile Men with Varicocele by Means of Doppler Ultrasound

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王益鑫; 薄隽杰; 黄旭元; 钱宪明; 冷静; 韩银发

    1997-01-01

    The diameters of spermatic veins and blood reflux in sixty-two male patients with infertility caused by varicocele were assessed with Doppler ultrasound in this study. Scrotal thermograph, testes volume and semen analysis were also applied to analysis of these patients. Among sixty two patients, thirty-one received high ligation of internal spermatic vein. The results showed: 1. The diameter of spermatic veins was negatively correlated with fertility index and positively correlated with Doppler grading of blood reflux. 2. In operative patients, the effect of surgery was better in patients with blood reflux than in those without blood reflux. It was suggested the diameter of spermatie veins probably reflects the duration and serious degree of blood reflux in spermatic vein, and may be used for assessment of severi1ty of male infertility in combination with semen analysis.

  8. Semen quality in sub-fertile range for a significant proportion of young men from the general German population: a co-ordinated, controlled study of 791 men from Hamburg and Leipzig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paasch, Uwe; Salzbrunn, Andrea; Glander, Hans Juergen; Plambeck, Kai; Salzbrunn, Harald; Grunewald, Sonja; Stucke, Julia; Vierula, Matti; Skakkebaek, Niels E; Jørgensen, Niels

    2008-04-01

    Population studies have shown that a high proportion of Nordic men may have so poor semen quality that they can be classified as sub-fertile according to international standards. A question is whether the Nordic data are specific for the Nordic countries or they should be seen as an expression of a general trend in Europe. We therefore carried out a prospective study of semen quality of young men raised in the former East Germany (Leipzig) and West Germany (Hamburg). To enable inter-regional comparisons, we utilized a common European research protocol previously used in studies in the Nordic-Baltic region. Three hundred and thirty-four young men representative of the general population from Hamburg, and 457 from Leipzig delivered semen samples, underwent physical examinations and provided information on life-style and reproductive health parameters. The study period in Hamburg was February 2003--July 2004, and in Leipzig July 2003--April 2005. No significant differences were observed in sperm concentration (median 46, 42, and 44 million/mL for men from Hamburg, Leipzig and the combined Hamburg-Leipzig group respectively) or total sperm count (154,141 and 149 million), whereas the differences for morphologically normal spermatozoa (9.4 and 8.4%) and motile spermatozoa (67 and 81%) were significantly different. Previously published studies have shown reduced fertility with decreasing sperm concentrations below 40-55 millions/mL and normal sperm morphology below 9-19%. Thus, a large fraction of young German men seem to have impaired semen quality that may reduce their natural fertility. However, it remains to be investigated to what extent poor semen quality contributes to the low German fertility rates.

  9. Studies on apoptosis of spermatogenic cells in normal fertile men treated with supraphysiological doses of testosterone undecanoate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-FengGE; Yu-FengHUANG; Gui-YuaaZHANG; Xinghaiwang; jianpingxu

    1999-01-01

    Aim: To study the anli-spermatogenic mechanism of supra-physiological doses of testosterone undecanoate (TU).Methods: Twenty fertile adult men received four intranmscular injections of TU at monthly intervals, 1000 nag uponadmission and 500 mg for the subsequent injections. The apoptotic germ cells in the semen were studied under light mi-croscope with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) and Wright-Giem-sa staining methods. Results: After treatment, the sperm density and the number of spenmtogenic cells in the semenwere significantly decreased ( P <0.01), while the apoptotic ratios of spemaatccytes and spextmtids increased significantly(P<0.01) as compared with the pretreatment levels. Apoptosis was found to be augmented in the whole series of castoffspenmatogenic cells. Conclusion: Besides its suppressive effect on spextmtogenesis through a negative feed-bookn mechmaism, TU enhances apoptosis of spenmtogenic cells, which may be an additional mechanism of its anti-spenmto-genic activity.

  10. Comparison of anti-oxidant enzymes activity and levels of zinc and selenium in sperm and seminal plasma between fertile and idiopathic infertile men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Kharazi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reactive oxygen species (ROS-induced lipidperoxidation can lead to dysfunction of sperm and thereby, infertility may be occurred. So, always there is a balance between amount of ROS and anti-oxidant molecules in semen. Anti-oxidant enzymes of sperm; superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPX, catalse and zinc and selenium can protect it from destructive effects of ROS. Hence, the present study was designed to compare the activities of these enzymes and trace elements between fertile and idiopathic infertile men.Methods: Semen specimens were collected from 30 infertile men with proven infertility by an urologist, and 30 fertile men as control donors, with age range between 20-40 years old. Semen analysis was conducted by CASA method. Atomic absorption method was used for measuring of zinc and selenium concentration. Activity assays of SOD and GPX were performed by Randox Kits. Aebi method also was applied for evaluation of catalase activity.Results: There was no difference between the activities of enzymes in fertile men and infertile ones. Also, it wasn't seen any difference in the selenium and zinc levels of seminal plasma. There was no relationship between evaluated items with sperm parameters. Only, in asthenoteratospermic individuals negative correlations were found between GPX and sperm motility, selenium and sperm morphology. Also, in these individuals ,there was a positive correlation between SOD and catalse activity.Conclusion: Measuring activities of SOD, GPx, and catalase and the contents of zinc and selenium of seminal plasma do not appear to be suitable tools for determining the fertility potential of sperm.

  11. Family influence in fertility: a longitudinal analysis of sibling correlations in first birth risk and completed fertility among Swedish men and women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dahlberg, Johan

    2013-01-01

    .... This has been done by estimating the correlation between parents' and offsprings' fertility. An alternative method that provides a more comprehensive account of the role of family background--sibling correlations--has not been used before...

  12. Colombian coal focus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warden-Fernandez, J.; Rodriguez, L.E. [University of Dundee, Dundee (United Kingdom)

    2003-03-01

    The paper reviews the development of Colombia's coal industry over recent years. Colombia has recently modernised its mining code, Law 685 of 2001 concerning mineral rights and including the concept of sustainable development. The article discusses the legislation, analyses trends in Columbia's income from the coal and mineral industries (nickel, gold, emerald), and briefly discusses coal reserves, mining projects, coal exports and markets for Colombian coal. 7 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Semen quality in sub-fertile range for a significant proportion of young men from the general German population: a co-ordinated, controlled study of 791 men from Hamburg and Leipzig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paasch, U.; Salzbrunn, A.; Glander, H.J.

    2008-01-01

    Population studies have shown that a high proportion of Nordic men may have so poor semen quality that they can be classified as sub-fertile according to international standards. A question is whether the Nordic data are specific for the Nordic countries or they should be seen as an expression...... of a general trend in Europe. We therefore carried out a prospective study of semen quality of young men raised in the former East Germany (Leipzig) and West Germany (Hamburg). To enable inter-regional comparisons, we utilized a common European research protocol previously used in studies in the Nordic......--July 2004, and in Leipzig July 2003--April 2005. No significant differences were observed in sperm concentration (median 46, 42, and 44 million/mL for men from Hamburg, Leipzig and the combined Hamburg-Leipzig group respectively) or total sperm count (154,141 and 149 million), whereas the differences...

  14. An Approach to Developing a Prediction Model of Fertility Intent Among HIV-Positive Women and Men in Cape Town, South Africa: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Dan; Leu, Cheng-Shiun; Mantell, Joanne E; Exner, Theresa M; Cooper, Diane; Hoffman, Susie; Kelvin, Elizabeth A; Myer, Landon; Constant, Debbie; Moodley, Jennifer

    2017-02-01

    As a 'case-study' to demonstrate an approach to establishing a fertility-intent prediction model, we used data collected from recently diagnosed HIV-positive women (N = 69) and men (N = 55) who reported inconsistent condom use and were enrolled in a sexual and reproductive health intervention in public sector HIV care clinics in Cape Town, South Africa. Three theoretically-driven prediction models showed reasonable sensitivity (0.70-1.00), specificity (0.66-0.94), and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (0.79-0.89) for predicting fertility intent at the 6-month visit. A k-fold cross-validation approach was employed to reduce bias due to over-fitting of data in estimating sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve. We discuss how the methods presented might be used in future studies to develop a clinical screening tool to identify HIV-positive individuals likely to have future fertility intent and who could therefore benefit from sexual and reproductive health counseling around fertility options.

  15. Non-linear association between androgen receptor CAG and GGN repeat lengths and reproductive parameters in fertile European and Inuit men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brokken, L J S; Rylander, L; Jönsson, B A; Spanò, M; Pedersen, H S; Ludwicki, J K; Zviezdai, V; Bizzaro, D; Manicardi, G C; Toft, G; Bonde, J P; Giwercman, A; Lundberg Giwercman, Y

    2013-05-06

    Recently the dogma that there is an inverse linear association between androgen receptor (AR) CAG and GGN polymorphisms and receptor activity has been challenged. We analysed the pattern of association between 21 male reproductive phenotypes and AR CAG/GGN repeat lengths in 557 proven-fertile men. A linear association was only found between sperm DNA fragmentation index (DFI) and CAG length, and between inhibin B and GGN length. Men with longer CAG then the reference (22-24), had higher oestradiol levels, whereas men with shorter CAG stretches had a higher DFI and a higher proportion of Fas-positive germ cells. Subjects with either short or long CAG had increased seminal levels of prostate-specific antigen and neutral α-glucosidase activity. Compared to men with the median GGN length of 23, those with shorter GGN repeats had higher levels of inhibin B, higher proportions of normal and progressive sperm, and a higher fraction of Fas-positive sperm, while men with longer GGN had higher oestradiol levels. These data indicate that at least for some markers of male reproductive function the association with CAG or GGN repeat length is curvilinear.

  16. Are men carrying the apolipoprotein epsilon 4- or epsilon 2 allele less fertile than epsilon 3 epsilon 3 genotypes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerdes, Lars Ulrik; Gerdes, C; Hansen, P S;

    1996-01-01

    The epsilon 3 allele in the human gene coding for apolipoprotein E (apoE) is the most common worldwide, but epsilon 4 is probably the ancestral allele. Since apoE is involved in many important biological processes, selection forces could have favoured epsilon 3. We hypothesized that apoE genotypes...... may affect reproductive efficiency, and we therefore compared the distributions of 40-year-old married men with known genotypes by the numbers of their biological children. The distributions were statistically significantly different (P = 0.0026). On average, men with the epsilon 3 epsilon 3 genotype...... (n = 212) had 1.93 children, men with the epsilon 3 epsilon 4 or epsilon 4 epsilon 4 genotype (n = 105) had 1.50, and men with the epsilon 3 epsilon 2 or epsilon 2 epsilon 2 genotypes (n = 53) had 1.66 children. Of the men in the three groups, 6%, 26% and 19%, respectively, reported being childless...

  17. Effect of Lepidium meyenii (Maca), a root with aphrodisiac and fertility-enhancing properties, on serum reproductive hormone levels in adult healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, G F; Córdova, A; Vega, K; Chung, A; Villena, A; Góñez, C

    2003-01-01

    Lepidium meyenii (Maca) is a Peruvian hypocotyl that grows exclusively between 4000 and 4500 m in the central Andes. Maca is traditionally employed in the Andean region for its supposed aphrodisiac and/or fertility-enhancing properties. This study was a 12-week double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, parallel trial in which active treatment with different doses of Maca Gelatinizada was compared with a placebo. The study aimed to test the hypothesis that Maca has no effect on serum reproductive hormone levels in apparently healthy men when administered in doses used for aphrodisiac and/or fertility-enhancing properties. Men aged between 21 and 56 Years received 1500 mg or 3000 mg Maca. Serum levels of luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, prolactin, 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone, testosterone and 17-beta estradiol were measured before and at 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks of treatment with placebo or Maca (1.5 g or 3.0 g per day). Data showed that compared with placebo Maca had no effect on any of the hormones studied nor did the hormones show any changes over time. Multiple regression analysis showed that serum testosterone levels were not affected by treatment with Maca at any of the times studied (P, not significant). In conclusion, treatment with Maca does not affect serum reproductive hormone levels.

  18. Depolarization of sperm membrane potential is a common feature of men with subfertility and is associated with low fertilization rate at IVF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sean G.; Publicover, Stephen J.; Mansell, Steven A.; Lishko, Polina V.; Williams, Hannah L.; Ramalingam, Mythili; Wilson, Stuart M.; Barratt, Christopher L.R.; Sutton, Keith A.; Da Silva, Sarah Martins

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Are significant abnormalities in outward (K+) conductance and resting membrane potential (Vm) present in the spermatozoa of patients undertaking IVF and ICSI and if so, what is their functional effect on fertilization success? SUMMARY ANSWER Negligible outward conductance (≈5% of patients) or an enhanced inward conductance (≈4% of patients), both of which caused depolarization of Vm, were associated with a low rate of fertilization following IVF. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Sperm-specific potassium channel knockout mice are infertile with defects in sperm function, suggesting that these channels are essential for fertility. These observations suggest that malfunction of K+ channels in human spermatozoa might contribute significantly to the occurrence of subfertility in men. However, remarkably little is known of the nature of K+ channels in human spermatozoa or the incidence and functional consequences of K+ channel defects. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE AND DURATION Spermatozoa were obtained from healthy volunteer research donors and subfertile IVF and ICSI patients attending a hospital assisted reproductive techniques clinic between May 2013 and December 2015. In total, 40 IVF patients, 41 ICSI patients and 26 normozoospermic donors took part in the study. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Samples were examined using electrophysiology (whole-cell patch clamping). Where abnormal electrophysiological characteristics were identified, spermatozoa were further examined for Ca2+ influx induced by progesterone and penetration into viscous media if sufficient sample was available. Full exome sequencing was performed to specifically evaluate potassium calcium-activated channel subfamily M α 1 (KCNMA1), potassium calcium-activated channel subfamily U member 1 (KCNU1) and leucine-rich repeat containing 52 (LRRC52) genes and others associated with K+ signalling. In IVF patients, comparison with fertilization rates was done to assess the functional significance of

  19. Colombian ADRs: Why so few?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano González

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We address the question of why Colombian companies have had such a limited presence in the American Depositary Receipts (ADRs market. Traditional explanations state that weak investor protection and the degree of economic and financial development in Colombia increase the cost of entry in the ADR market. However, in the case of Colombia these explanations do not suffice because in these respects Colombia is no different from other Latin American countries. Using a theoretical model, we show that additional factors such as drug trafficking and armed conflict better explain why Colombian firms have moved away from the ADRs market

  20. Microdissection Testicular Sperm Extraction (micro-TESE as a Sperm Acquisition Method for Men with Nonobstructive Azoospermia Seeking Fertility: Operative and Laboratory Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro C. Esteves

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Rare foci of sperm production may be found in up to 60% of men with nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA. Sperm production, if present, is minimal for sperm appearance in the ejaculate. Given that there are no treatment options to restore fertility, sperm retrieval is the only alternative to find testicular sperm than then can be used for in vitro fertilization (IVF. Among sperm acquisition methods, micro-TESE has higher success rates at obtaining sperm compared with testicular sperm extraction and testicular sperm aspiration. Materials and Methods This video describes the operative aspects of micro-TESE, performed on an outpatient basis, in a man with NOA and history of cryptorchidism in whom orchidopexy was performed at age 6. The concept of micro-TESE is to identify areas of sperm production within the testes with the aid of optical magnification (15-25X and based on the size and appearance of the seminiferous tubules (ST. Conclusion Micro-TESE allowed the identification and extraction of sperm-containing STs with minimum tissue excision and marked reduction in time processing of testicular specimens for sperm injection.

  1. Psychological aspects of male fertility treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Alice Toft; Madsen, Svend Aage; Humaidan, Peter

    2013-01-01

    To explore and to identify the possible need for psychological communicative support in men undergoing fertility treatment.......To explore and to identify the possible need for psychological communicative support in men undergoing fertility treatment....

  2. Exposure to Endocrine Disruptors and Nuclear Receptors Gene Expression in Infertile and Fertile Men from Italian Areas with Different Environmental Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia La Rocca

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Internal levels of selected endocrine disruptors (EDs (i.e., perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, di-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate (DEHP, mono-(2-ethylhexyl-phthalate (MEHP, and bisphenol A (BPA were analyzed in blood/serum of infertile and fertile men from metropolitan, urban and rural Italian areas. PFOS and PFOA levels were also evaluated in seminal plasma. In peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs of same subjects, gene expression levels of a panel of nuclear receptors (NRs, namely estrogen receptor α (ERα estrogen receptor β (ERβ, androgen receptor (AR, aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ and pregnane X receptor (PXR were also assessed. Infertile men from the metropolitan area had significantly higher levels of BPA and gene expression of all NRs, except PPARγ, compared to subjects from other areas. Subjects from urban areas had significantly higher levels of MEHP, whereas subjects from rural area had higher levels of PFOA in both blood and seminal plasma. Interestingly, ERα, ERβ, AR, PXR and AhR expression is directly correlated with BPA and inversely correlated with PFOA serum levels. Our study indicates the relevance of the living environment when investigating the exposure to specific EDs. Moreover, the NRs panel in PBMCs demonstrated to be a potential biomarker of effect to assess the EDs impact on reproductive health.

  3. Does childbirth after fertility treatment influence sense of coherence? A longitudinal study of 1,934 men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habroe, Maria; Schmidt, Lone; Holstein, Bjørn Evald

    2007-01-01

    study, we focused on 2 research questions: (i) Does childbirth after assisted reproductive technology (ART) result in high SOC? (ii) Does the level of SOC at baseline influence the association between childbirth after ART and SOC at 1-year follow-up? Methods. The study included a consecutive sample...... of patients in ART from a prospective, longitudinal survey in Denmark; baseline response rate 80.0%, 1-year follow-up 87.7% (n=1,934). The dependent variable was SOC at 1-year follow-up measured by Setterlind's 9-item scale. The independent variable was having achieved childbirth after ART. Data were analysed...... by logistic regression analysis adjusted for baseline SOC. Results. Having achieved childbirth after ART was associated with higher SOC at 1-year follow-up (women OR=1.81, 95% CI: 1.20-2.74; men OR=1.27, 95% CI: 0.88-1.86). Unexpectedly, the association between achieving childbirth after ART and high SOC at 1...

  4. Fate of iPSCs Derived from Azoospermic and Fertile Men following Xenotransplantation to Murine Seminiferous Tubules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril Ramathal

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Historically, spontaneous deletions and insertions have provided means to probe germline developmental genetics in Drosophila, mouse and other species. Here, induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC lines were derived from infertile men with deletions that encompass three Y chromosome azoospermia factor (AZF regions and are associated with production of few or no sperm but normal somatic development. AZF-deleted iPSC lines were compromised in germ cell development in vitro. Undifferentiated iPSCs transplanted directly into murine seminiferous tubules differentiated extensively to germ-cell-like cells (GCLCs that localized near the basement membrane, demonstrated morphology indistinguishable from fetal germ cells, and expressed germ-cell-specific proteins diagnostic of primordial germ cells. Alternatively, all iPSCs that exited tubules formed primitive tumors. iPSCs with AZF deletions produced significantly fewer GCLCs in vivo with distinct defects in gene expression. Findings indicate that xenotransplantation of human iPSCs directs germ cell differentiation in a manner dependent on donor genetic status.

  5. Colombian and Venezuelan coal: where to now?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-04-01

    The US market has been accounting for 25% of Colombian exports and 30% from Venezuela, which is one third of their coal exports into the US. So for South American producers, US imports are now a major influence. The article reviews the production plans of the major Colombian and Venezuelan mines and assesses the market outlook for the rest of 2002. 3 figs.

  6. [Transformations of the rural Colombian family].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordonez Gomez, M

    1991-06-01

    This work analyzes sociodemographic changes affecting rural Colombian families in the past 15-20 years. The most recent sources of data on Colombia's rural population are the 1985 census, the 1988 Rural Household Survey, and the 1990 Survey of Contraceptive Prevalence, Demography, and Health. Among the most significant changes observed since the preceding census, in 1973, were declines in illiteracy and increases in educational status, increased economic participation of women, declines in fertility and infant mortality, and declining participation in agriculture and diversification in other rural activities. The absolute size of Colombia's rural population has not changed since 1973 but its relative weight has declined from 39% to 32% in 1985. Due to the fertility decline the proportion of the population under 15 has declined from 48% in 1973 too 39% in 1990. The rural total fertility rate was estimated at 3.8 children per woman in 1987-90 and the crude birth rate at 27/1000. The total fertility rate is much higher in some regions and among some groups of women. The most important determinant of rural fertility decline has been family planning. Between 1969-90, the proportion of rural women using contraception has increased from 10 to 60%. 47% of women in union do not desire more children, with poorly educated mothers of 3 or more children least likely to want more children. A 1990 estimate of infant mortality based on the contraceptive prevalence survey was 36/1000 in rural and 28/1000 in urban areas. Although the overall infant mortality rate has declined by 37% in 25 years, significant regional and socioeconomic differentials persist. Acute diarrheal disease is still the single most important cause of death in children under 5, followed by acute respiratory infections. The main cause of death for adults aged 15-44 is homicide. Among fertile-aged women the most important causes of illness and death are nutritional deficiencies and poor attention in deliveries

  7. [Personality Traits Screening in a Colombian Adult Population Sample - Colombian National Survey of Mental Health-2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviedo, Gabriel Fernando; Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; Rondón, Martín; Borda Bohigas, Juan Pablo; Tamayo Martínez, Nathalie

    2016-12-01

    Personality refers to the individual style in characteristic patterns of thinking, feeling and behaving. Traits may configure a personality disorder when there is a long-lasting rigid pattern of inner experience that deviates from the expectations of the individual's culture, are inflexible and form maladaptative schemes in different interpersonal scenarios. Given the pervasiveness of this structure, they cause impairment of functioning in the affected person. To establish the prevalence of personality traits in all selected adults, using the module-structured interview WHO WHM-CIDI-CAPI for clusters A, B and C of personality traits. Colombian National Survey on Mental Health with persons older than 18 years of age. Personality traits that are the most frequently described: Cluster A 46% (95%CI, 45.2-48.1) of people believe they are convinced that there are conspiracies behind many things in the world. Regarding the features of cluster B, 35.6% (95%CI, 34.2-37.0) of the population reports that generally they do not feel bad when offending or upsetting someone and 35.4% (95%CI, 33.9-36.8) refer to show feelings to anyone. The highest proportion of traits were found to the probable borderline personality disorder, as 4.6% (95%CI, 4.1-5.2) of the Colombian population aged 18 and older has 6 or more features of this type, and is the widely reported as an individual entity with similar rates in men and women. The high prevalence of disruptive personality traits requires more research. The high prevalence reported for borderline personality traits suggests the need to implement measures to improve and integrate a collaborative model of care for people afflicted with a possible borderline personality disorder. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  8. For men only.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    In 1985 the Colombian Family Planning Association PROFAMILIA realized that men did not want to come to its family planning centers simply because they felt intimidated by the feminine atmosphere there. Nor did they dare disclose their problems and sexual questions even to a female professional. The solution was to establish a family planning center, La Clinica del Hombre (Men's Clinic), providing services exclusively for men and staffed with men to provide the necessary privacy. Latin American men's attitudes are changing. In 1985 in Bogota, the majority of men were convinced that a vasectomy was equivalent to castration. In 1993, 300 vasectomies were performed in the clinic each month. The Colombian Family Planning Association is not only providing contraception, but also information on sexual and reproductive education to avoid misunderstanding of the available methods. PROFAMILIA has incorporated a sexuality consultation into its services, so they can deal with husbands and wives separately, without spoiling the couple's relationship. PROFAMILIA now has 7 family planning clinics for men and 48 for women, thanks to the contribution of international donors. The Challenge Grant for Men's Programs, given by an anonymous donor from the United States, helped with the fund-raising to open 3 clinics in the Atlantic Coast Region where needs were vital. The Clinica del Hombre will incorporate a program to treat infertility, in addition to the department of urology, general medicine, ambulatory surgery, and treatment of sexually transmitted diseases. In January, 1994, they will begin offering dental and plastic surgery services because, owing to the violence that exists in the country, there are many men whose faces are disfigured and who need to have corrective plastic surgery.

  9. Understanding the Colombian security situation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ossa, C.

    1997-05-05

    Colombia is notorious for its violence. Lack of security can be related to: irregular war, social decay and a weak state. High poverty levels lead to a lack of respect for the law. Thus, drug dealing and kidnapping have become prominent in Colombian society with little hope of redress. State weakness means that crime remains uncontrolled, and Maxist guerillas have been unopposed by state forces. This has given rise to vigilantism in the form of paramilitaries, who simply add to the lawlessness. So far the international coal industry has been selectively protected by government troops and policies but the general chaos in society is increasingly likely to penetrate even these heavily defended enclaves, as the fundamental problems in Colombian society are as present in the coal areas as in society at large. Presidential elections are in process. The new government will either have to tackle lawlessness throughout the country or the coal industry may have to withdraw as paramilitaries escalate violence in the coal districts. 1 tab.

  10. [Colombians in Venezuela: myth and reality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidegain Greising, G; Freitez Landaeta, A

    1988-08-01

    Figures of Colombian immigrants in Venezuela in the period 1981-1986 as well as the development of their socio-demographic profile and their integration into the labor market are analyzed by means of ad hoc tables drawn from a Sample Home Survey by the Oficina Central de Estadisticas e Informatica and information from the civil record office. It is estimated that in 1987 there are only half a million Colombians in Venezuela and, contrary to what is generally assumed, not only has the afflux decreased (3/4 of the Colombians entered before 1981), but also a return migration can be observed. Colombian immigration is not homogeneous, but is made up of different groups as far as their professional skills and occupations are concerned. The number of Colombians engaged in household service and those living in rural areas has decreased, but not the number of active farm workers. A greater proportion of Colombians engaged in trade and sales activities is observed, but artisans and skilled labor are still the majority.

  11. Colombians in the United States: A Study of Their Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cándida Madrigal

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the extent to which four factors—acculturation, ethnic identity, self-esteem, and resilience—can explain the well-being of Colombian immigrants in the United States across three waves of immigration (wave 1, from 1945–1964; wave 2, from 1965–1989; and wave 3, from 1990–2008. The results indicate that of the four factors, self-esteem most correlated with and was a predictor of well-being. Participants exhibited high levels of well-being as their level of self-esteem increased. Ethnic identity negatively predicted well-being, especially for men who entered during wave 3; as the extent of their ethnic identity increased, their well-being decreased. Correspondingly, Colombians who entered as political refugees reported a lower level of well-being. This research was groundbreaking in assessing factors contributing to the well-being of Colombian immigrants and assisting in the search for appropriate scales to study this population. Although its results have to be considered with caution, the study opens doors to future research, policies, and programs regarding the mental health assessment and treatment of Colombians in the United States.

  12. Colombian Creole horse breeds: same origin but different diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Mercedes Jimenez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand the genetic ancestry and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA diversity of current Colombian horse breeds we sequenced a 364-bp fragment of the mitocondrial DNA D-loop in 116 animals belonging to five Spanish horse breeds and the Colombian Paso Fino and Colombian Creole cattle horse breeds. Among Colombian horse breeds, haplogroup D had the highest frequency (53%, followed by haplogroups A (19%, C (8% and F (6%. The higher frequency of haplogroup D in Colombian horse breeds supports the theory of an ancestral Iberian origin for these breeds. These results also indicate that different selective pressures among the Colombian breeds could explain the relatively higher genetic diversity found in the Colombian Creole cattle horse when compared with the Colombian Paso Fino.

  13. Colombian Creole horse breeds: Same origin but different diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Ligia Mercedes; Mendez, Susy; Dunner, Susana; Cañón, Javier; Cortés, Oscar

    2012-12-01

    In order to understand the genetic ancestry and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diversity of current Colombian horse breeds we sequenced a 364-bp fragment of the mitocondrial DNA D-loop in 116 animals belonging to five Spanish horse breeds and the Colombian Paso Fino and Colombian Creole cattle horse breeds. Among Colombian horse breeds, haplogroup D had the highest frequency (53%), followed by haplogroups A (19%), C (8%) and F (6%). The higher frequency of haplogroup D in Colombian horse breeds supports the theory of an ancestral Iberian origin for these breeds. These results also indicate that different selective pressures among the Colombian breeds could explain the relatively higher genetic diversity found in the Colombian Creole cattle horse when compared with the Colombian Paso Fino.

  14. Latino Gay and Bisexual Men’s Relationships with Non-Gay-Identified Men Who Have Sex With Men

    OpenAIRE

    Reisen, Carol A.; Zea, Maria Cecilia; Bianchi, Fernanda T.; Poppen, Paul J.; Shedlin, Michele G.; Penha, Marcelo Montes

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated relationships between Latino gay-identified men in metropolitan New York City and their non-gay-identified male partners. Phase 1 consisted of in-depth interviews (N = 33), and Phase 2 consisted of quantitative surveys (N = 120) with Brazilian, Colombian, and Dominican men who have sex with men (MSM). A majority of participants reported having had sex with heterosexually identified men, and in many cases, the relationship was sustained over time. We found mixed results...

  15. Non-linear association between androgen receptor CAG and GGN repeat lengths and reproductive parameters in fertile European and Inuit men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brokken, L J S; Rylander, L; Jönsson, B A

    2013-01-01

    . A linear association was only found between sperm DNA fragmentation index (DFI) and CAG length, and between inhibin B and GGN length. Men with longer CAG then the reference (22-24), had higher oestradiol levels, whereas men with shorter CAG stretches had a higher DFI and a higher proportion of Fas...

  16. Updated Colombian Seismic Hazard Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eraso, J.; Arcila, M.; Romero, J.; Dimate, C.; Bermúdez, M. L.; Alvarado, C.

    2013-05-01

    The Colombian seismic hazard map used by the National Building Code (NSR-98) in effect until 2009 was developed in 1996. Since then, the National Seismological Network of Colombia has improved in both coverage and technology providing fifteen years of additional seismic records. These improvements have allowed a better understanding of the regional geology and tectonics which in addition to the seismic activity in Colombia with destructive effects has motivated the interest and the need to develop a new seismic hazard assessment in this country. Taking advantage of new instrumental information sources such as new broad band stations of the National Seismological Network, new historical seismicity data, standardized global databases availability, and in general, of advances in models and techniques, a new Colombian seismic hazard map was developed. A PSHA model was applied. The use of the PSHA model is because it incorporates the effects of all seismic sources that may affect a particular site solving the uncertainties caused by the parameters and assumptions defined in this kind of studies. First, the seismic sources geometry and a complete and homogeneous seismic catalog were defined; the parameters of seismic rate of each one of the seismic sources occurrence were calculated establishing a national seismotectonic model. Several of attenuation-distance relationships were selected depending on the type of seismicity considered. The seismic hazard was estimated using the CRISIS2007 software created by the Engineering Institute of the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México -UNAM (National Autonomous University of Mexico). A uniformly spaced grid each 0.1° was used to calculate the peak ground acceleration (PGA) and response spectral values at 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5 and 3.0 seconds with return periods of 75, 225, 475, 975 and 2475 years. For each site, a uniform hazard spectrum and exceedance rate curves were calculated. With the results, it is

  17. Attitudes toward fertility and childbearing scale: an assessment of a new instrument for women who are not yet mothers in Sweden

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Söderberg, Malin; Lundgren, Ingela; Christensson, Kyllike; Hildingsson, Ingegerd

    2013-01-01

    .... Attitudes among men and women about fertility and childbearing have been studied in different phases of fertile life, but instruments that assess attitudes toward fertility and childbearing among...

  18. Fertility Desire and Reproductive Health

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Understanding fertility desire and reproductive health care needs of HIV positive men and women in the era ... and related consequences. ... inform national policy decisions on PMTCT, HIV ... The study population was included proportional to.

  19. Assessment of seminal plasma laminin in fertile and infertile men%正常生育和不育男性的精浆中层粘连蛋白的评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.R.El-Dakhly; G.A.Tawadrous; T.Mostafa; M.M.F.Roaia; A.R.M.El-Nashar; S.A.Shedeed; I.I.Kamel; A.A.Aziz; Y.El-Mohtaseb

    2007-01-01

    Aim:To assess laminin levels in the seminal plasma of infertile and fertile men, and to analyze the correlation of laminin levels with sperm count, age, sperm motility and semen volume. Methods: One hundred and twenty-five recruited men were equally divided into five groups according to their sperm concentration and clinical examination: fertile normozoospermia, oligoasthenozoospermia, non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA), obstructive azoospermia (OA) and congenital bilateral absent vas deferens (CBAVD). The patients' medical history was investigated and patients underwent clinical examination, conventional semen analysis and estimation of seminal plasma laminin by radioimmunoassay. Results: Seminal plasma laminin levels of successive groups were: 2.82 ± 0.62, 2.49 ± 0.44,1.77 ± 0.56, 1.72 ± 0.76, 1.35 ± 0.63 U/mL, respectively. The fertile normozoospermic group showed the highest concentration compared to all infertile groups with significant differences compared to azoospermic groups (P<0.05). Testicular contribution was estimated to be approximately one-third of the seminal laminin. Seminal plasma laminin demonstrated significant correlation with sperm concentration (r = 0.460, P < 0.001) and nonsignificant correlation with age (r = 0.021, P = 0.940), sperm motility percentage (r = 0.142, P = 0.615) and semen volume (r = 0.035, P = 0.087). Conclusion: Seminal plasma laminin is derived mostly from prostatic and testicular portions and minimally from the seminal vesicle and vas deferens. Estimating seminal laminin alone is not conclusive in diagnosing different cases of male infertility.

  20. Colombian Creole horse breeds: Same origin but different diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Ligia Mercedes Jimenez; Susy Mendez; Susana Dunner; Javier Cañón; Óscar Cortés

    2012-01-01

    In order to understand the genetic ancestry and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diversity of current Colombian horse breeds we sequenced a 364-bp fragment of the mitocondrial DNA D-loop in 116 animals belonging to five Spanish horse breeds and the Colombian Paso Fino and Colombian Creole cattle horse breeds. Among Colombian horse breeds, haplogroup D had the highest frequency (53%), followed by haplogroups A (19%), C (8%) and F (6%). The higher frequency of haplogroup D in Colombian horse breeds su...

  1. Low HLA polymorphism in Colombian mestizos

    OpenAIRE

    Ávila-Portillo, Luz Mabel; Instituto de Referencia Andino S.A.; Hospital Militar Central; Carmona, Alejandra; Universidad Católica de Manizales; Franco, Leidy; Instituto de Referencia Andino S.A.; Briceño, Ignacio; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana; Casas, María Consuelo; Instituto de Referencia Andino S.A.; Gómez, Alverto; Instituto de Referencia Andino S.A.; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This paper aims to describe the allele frequency and haplotype of HLA class I and II molecules in a Colombian mestizo population.Methodology: HLA class I and II molecules on 197 unrelated Colombian individuals and 157 unrelated individuals making up 53 families fromdifferent regions of the country were studied at the Immunology Laboratory at the Military Hospital Central of Bogotá and at the Instituto de ReferenciaAndino by the PCR-SSP method.Results: The haplotype HLA-A * 24 B*35 ...

  2. Genetic make up and structure of Colombian populations by means of uniparental and biparental DNA markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Winston; Parra, María Victoria; Campo, Omer; Caro, María Antonieta; Lopera, Juan Guillermo; Arias, William; Duque, Constanza; Naranjo, Andrés; García, Jharley; Vergara, Candelaria; Lopera, Jaime; Hernandez, Erick; Valencia, Ana; Caicedo, Yuri; Cuartas, Mauricio; Gutiérrez, Javier; López, Sergio; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés; Bedoya, Gabriel

    2010-09-01

    Colombia is a country with great geographic heterogeneity and marked regional differences in pre-Columbian native population density and in the extent of past African and European immigration. As a result, Colombia has one of the most diverse populations in Latin America. Here we evaluated ancestry in over 1,700 individuals from 24 Colombian populations using biparental (autosomal and X-Chromosome), maternal (mtDNA), and paternal (Y-chromosome) markers. Autosomal ancestry varies markedly both within and between regions, confirming the great genetic diversity of the Colombian population. The X-chromosome, mtDNA, and Y-chromosome data indicate that there is a pattern across regions indicative of admixture involving predominantly Native American women and European and African men.

  3. Effective Support for Colombian Security and Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Z39.18 ii iii ABSTRACT AUTHOR: JEFFOREY A. SMITH, LTC, U.S. ARMY TITLE: Effective Support for Colombian Security and Stability FORMAT : Strategy...of Fighting, Can a Fragile Peace Process Succeed?” February 2000. ________., "The New Masters of Barranca : A Report from CIP’s trip to

  4. The "Developing" Achievement Gap: Colombian Voucher Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Jonathan M. B.

    2014-01-01

    The achievement gap in many developing countries is defined in terms of rich/poor and public/private. The prevailing explanation for the "developing" achievement gap is an underfunded, inefficient, and/or inadequately supplied public school sector. Via an analysis of a Colombian voucher experiment, this article examines the extent to…

  5. Transparency and Its Determinants at Colombian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flórez-Parra, Jesús Mauricio; López-Pérez, María Victoria; López-Hernández, Antonio Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Over the past decade, one of the demands upon public institutions, among which we find universities, has been for transparency and improvement of accountability. In this context, Colombian universities are introducing different methods of management and governance aimed at addressing the demands of society generally in relation to transparency and…

  6. Decrease in fertilization and cleavage rates, but not in clinical outcomes for infertile men with AZF microdeletion of the Y chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yuan-Chang; Wu, Tong-Hua; Li, Guan-Gui; Yin, Biao; Liu, Hong-Jie; Song, Cheng; Mo, Mei-Lan; Zeng, Yong

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to explore whether the presence of a Y chromosome azoospermia factor (AZF) microdeletion confers any adverse effect on embryonic development and clinical outcomes after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatment. Fifty-seven patients with AZF microdeletion were included in the present study and 114 oligozoospermia and azoospermia patients without AZF microdeletion were recruited as controls. Both AZF and control groups were further divided into subgroups based upon the methods of semen collection: the AZF-testicular sperm extraction subgroup (AZF-TESE, n = 14), the AZF-ejaculation subgroup (AZF-EJA, n = 43), the control-TESE subgroup (n = 28) and the control-EJA subgroup (n = 86). Clinical data were analyzed in the two groups and four subgroups respectively. A retrospective case-control study was performed. A significantly lower fertilization rate (69.27 versus 75.70%, P = 0.000) and cleavage rate (89.55 versus 94.39%, P = 0.000) was found in AZF group compared with the control group. Furthermore, in AZF-TESE subgroup, the fertilization rate (67.54 versus 74.25%, P = 0.037) and cleavage rate (88.96 versus 94.79%, P = 0.022) were significantly lower than in the control-TESE subgroup; similarly, the fertilization rate (69.85 versus 75.85%, P = 0.004) and cleavage rate (89.36 versus 94.26%, P = 0.002) in AZF-EJA subgroup were significantly lower than in the control-EJA subgroup; however, the fertilization rate and cleavage rate in AZF-TESE (control-TESE) subgroup was similar to that in the AZF-EJA (control-EJA) subgroup. The other clinical outcomes were comparable between four subgroups (P > 0.05). Therefore, sperm from patients with AZF microdeletion, obtained either by ejaculation or TESE, may have lower fertilization and cleavage rates, but seem to have comparable clinical outcomes to those from patients without AZF microdeletion.

  7. Colombian-German entrepreneurial and scientific cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oettel, Eberhard [Foerdergesellschaft Erneuerbare Energien e.V. (FEE), Berlin (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    German and Colombian strategic objectives, strengths and needs suit for a long-lasting cooperation ot mutual advantage in the fields of renewable energy resources (RES), energy efficiency biodiversity, biofuels: Colombia as a country rich of fossil primary energy carriers strives to substitute them by its abundant RES for the supply of electricity, heat (cold) and fuels, set them free for exporting to gain financial revenues for a self-determined technological development. Despite of its for a developing country relatively high technological level an indigenous industry of renewable energy hardly does not exist. Favourable interfaces in many regard prevail too in the energy related science, among others in biotechnology and the brand-new branch of urban agriculture. German middle-class enterprises and scientific institutes dispose of exactly suitable necessary technologies, engineering kow-how of their application and are increasingly obliged to look for foreign markets just in this segment. Joint research, development and implementation, including adapting high technologies to Colombian conditions is welcome to develop advanced knowledge and new applications. By growing cooperation of Latin American countries the chances for joint venturing with Colombian partners in the this market increase. FEE Foerdergesellschaft Erneuerbare Energien e.V. (Society for the Promotion of Renewable Energy) as a national network for innovations of enterprises, research institutes and experts has established a strong plexus to market relevant partners in Colombia since 2005, ready for manifold use by German partners in the branches of RES, energy efficiency and biofuels. FEE had been integrated into two Centres of Excellence recognized by the Colombian Research Council COLCIENCIAS. Powerful enterprises and associations signed official Letters of Interest. In first joint projects confidence was created, expertise proved and a reliable basement founded for entrepreneural business

  8. Objective Voice Parameters in Colombian School Workers with Healthy Voices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lady Catherine Cantor Cutiva

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To characterize the objective voice parameters among school workers, and to identi­fy associated factors of three objective voice parameters, namely fundamental frequency, sound pressure level and maximum phonation time. Materials and methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study among 116 Colombian teachers and 20 Colombian non-teachers. After signing the informed consent form, participants filled out a questionnaire. Then, a voice sample was recorded and evaluated perceptually by a speech therapist and by objective voice analysis with praat software. Short-term environmental measurements of sound level, temperature, humi­dity, and reverberation time were conducted during visits at the workplaces, such as classrooms and offices. Linear regression analysis was used to determine associations between individual and work-related factors and objective voice parameters. Results: Compared with men, women had higher fundamental frequency (201 Hz for teachers and 209 for non-teachers vs. 120 Hz for teachers and 127 for non-teachers and sound pressure level (82 dB vs. 80 dB, and shorter maximum phonation time (around 14 seconds vs. around 16 seconds. Female teachers younger than 50 years of age evidenced a significant tendency to speak with lower fundamental frequen­cy and shorter mpt compared with female teachers older than 50 years of age. Female teachers had significantly higher fundamental frequency (66 Hz, higher sound pressure level (2 dB and short phonation time (2 seconds than male teachers. Conclusion: Female teachers younger than 50 years of age had significantly lower F0 and shorter mpt compared with those older than 50 years of age. The multivariate analysis showed that gender was a much more important determinant of variations in F0, spl and mpt than age and teaching occupation. Objectively measured temperature also contributed to the changes on spl among school workers.

  9. Social Well-Being Among Colombian and Peruvian Immigrants in Northern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urzúa Morales, Alfonso; Delgado-Valencia, Eric; Rojas-Ballesteros, Mariela; Caqueo-Urízar, Alejandra

    2016-04-02

    In recent years, northern Chile has received a large number of immigrants attracted mainly by mining and related services. The last population census revealed that 70.5 % of foreigners in Chile came from South America, and were mainly Peruvians (30.5 %), Argentines (16.8 %), and Colombians (8.1 %). The aim of this cross-sectional study is to describe the social well-being levels reported by Colombian and Peruvian immigrants in northern Chile, as well as their connection to socio-demographic and relational factors. The Spanish version of the Scale of Social Well-being (Keyes in Soc Psychol Q 61:121-140, 1998) was administered to 431 men and women over 18 years old, with a minimum residence of 6 months in the city of Antofagasta. The highest-rated aspect was Social Contribution, and the lowest-rated aspect was Social Acceptance. The relational variables that show statistically significant differences in both populations relate to who the subject lives with, the degree of contact that the subject has with people from Chile, and the subject's relationship status. There are no differences that indicate a higher level of social well-being in one population more than the other; however, it appears that the Peruvian population has a greater perception of Social Coherence, while Colombians show a greater perception of Social Contribution.

  10. Procedure to validate sexual stimuli: reliability and validity of a set of sexual stimuli in a sample of young colombian heterosexual males

    OpenAIRE

    Pablo Vallejo-Medina; Franklin Soler; Mayra, Gomez-Lugo; Alejandro, Saavedra-Roa; Laurent, Marchal-Bertrand

    2017-01-01

    Penile plethysmography – or phallometric assessment – is a very relevant evaluation for sexual health. The objective of this research is to suggest a guideline to validate sexual stimuli and validate a set of sexual stimuli to assess “normative” sexual behavior in Colombian young heterosexual men. Six videos of 3:15 minute-long were used. A total of 24 men were assessed. Objective sexual arousal, the International Index of Erectile Function-5, Self-Assessment Manikin, Multidimensi...

  11. The Colombian side of the colombian-brazilian border. An approach using the category of lawless area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Trejos Rosero

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study uses the category of lawless areas as an approach to the complex security situation resulting from increasing ties between localized criminality and transnational organized crime networks on the Colombian side of the Colombian-Brazilian border. The permanent presence of illegal armed actors in this border area is largely caused by the absence and weak presence of the Colombian State at its margins. The methodology used is both bibliographic and descriptive.

  12. Fertility Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I Help Someone Who's Being Bullied? Volunteering Fertility Awareness KidsHealth > For Teens > Fertility Awareness Print A A A What's in this article? ... español Monitoreo de fertilidad What Is It? Fertility awareness is a way to prevent pregnancy by not ...

  13. First Colombian Solar Radio Interferometer: current stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara Gómez, J. C.; Martínez Oliveros, J. C.; Calvo-Mozo, B.

    2017-10-01

    Solar radio astronomy is a fast developing research field in Colombia. Here, we present the scientific goals, specifications and current state of the First Colombian Solar Radio Interferometer consisting of two log-periodic antennas covering a frequency bandwidth op to 800 MHz. We describe the importance and benefits of its development to the radioastronomy in Latin America and its impact on the scientific community and general public.

  14. Consumer Protection in Colombian Housing Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Villalba Cuéllar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to highline the fundamental aspects of the legal framework of protection to consumers according to the traditional rules of private law. The context is the Colombian housing industry. To fulfill its objective, the author will review the regulation in order to identify the main features of this area of protection as duty of information, misleading advertising, the warranty liability, unfair terms and product liability.

  15. Translating landscape: the Colombian Chorographic Commission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Uribe Hanabergh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1850 the Colombian government developed a project to survey the young country´s landscape. Scientists, writers, and artists were invited to make part of the project led by the Italian military, geographer and cartographer, Agustin Codazzi. After nine years and three different artists, the Commission had many watercolor drawings that portrayed a landscape, not only in its physical traits, but also in its social, economic and agricultural development. Through the lens of these artists, the drawings that concluded the survey showed a landscape that was truly original but that was also seen through the lens of a certain romantic eye inherited by a firm European legacy. As a result, these watercolors show the different regions, people, and means of transportation, crops and trades. The Colombian Chorographic Commission was an important project in the construction of the Colombian modern nation, a country that was constantly divided by federalist and centralist politics, liberal and conservative parties. An interesting union between science, politics and art, these drawings represent the process of the modernization of nineteenth-century Colombia.

  16. [Basic standards for Colombian paternity testing laboratories, 2005].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo, Alejandro; Bermúdez, Antonio; Jiménez, Magda; Lizarazo, Rocio

    2006-01-01

    The Commission for Accreditation and Surveillance of Laboratories Practicing DNA Paternity Tests (created by the Colombian Law 721/2001) set up sub-commission to review the current basic Colombian standards required for paternity testing laboratories and make specific recommendations re the pertinent technical aspects in Colombia, taking ISO 17025 as current reference. This document contains such recommendations for Colombia.

  17. The Historical-Comparative Classification of Colombian Inga (Quechua).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Roger

    1990-01-01

    Colombian Inga is of particular interest to the Quechuanist because it is the northernmost member of the Quechuan language family spoken in modern times. In the present work, the relationship of Colombian Inga to other varieties of Quechua is examined. The affiliation of Inga with the Ecuadorian group of Parker's (1969a) Quechua A branch of the…

  18. Latino gay and bisexual men's relationships with non-gay-identified men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisen, Carol A; Zea, Maria Cecilia; Bianchi, Fernanda T; Poppen, Paul J; Shedlin, Michele G; Penha, Marcelo Montes

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated relationships between Latino gay-identified men in metropolitan New York City and their non-gay-identified male partners. Phase 1 consisted of in-depth interviews (N = 33), and Phase 2 consisted of quantitative surveys (N = 120) with Brazilian, Colombian, and Dominican men who have sex with men (MSM). A majority of participants reported having had sex with heterosexually identified men, and in many cases, the relationship was sustained over time. We found mixed results concerning an attitude sometimes attributed to Latinos that sexual orientation is defined by sexual role, with receptive MSM seen as gay and insertive MSM seen as straight. Although there were no significant associations between partner sexual orientation and unprotected anal intercourse, gay men were less likely to take the insertive role in oral or anal sex with straight-identified male partners than with gay partners.

  19. Colombian Safe Guide S.A.S

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Colombian Safe Guide S.A.S. es una compañía de servicios de asesoramiento y acompañamiento a los visitantes extranjeros que vienen a la ciudad de Bogotá. Funciona a través de una página web, que facilitan a sus clientes la obtención de todos los servicios necesarios durante su estadía, en un solo lugar. El principal objetivo es proporcionar nuevas alternativas de servicios de asesoramiento, capitalizando la compañía bajo el cumplimiento del objetivo y cuota del mercado propuesta por la compañ...

  20. Concise Review: Fertility Preservation: An Update

    OpenAIRE

    González, Clara; Boada, Montserrat; Devesa, Marta; Veiga, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Fertility preservation is an emerging field in medicine that enables men, women, and children to maintain reproductive health when it is threatened by gonadotoxic treatment or nononcologic malignancies that can impair spermatogenesis and ovogenesis. Established methods include sperm cryopreservation or experimental testicular tissue cryopreservation for males, and oocyte cryopreservation or ovarian tissue cryopreservation for females. Fertility preservation treatments must be addressed throug...

  1. Recent advances in understanding Colombian mangroves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanía, J.; Urrego, L. E.; Agudelo, C. M.

    2015-02-01

    Throughout the last 15 years, researchers at the National University of Colombia at Medellin have studied Colombian mangroves. Remote sensing, pollen analysis of superficial and deep sediments, Holocene coastal vegetation dynamics, sediment dating using 14C and 210Pb, sampling in temporary plots, sampling in temporary and permanent plots, and other techniques have been applied to elucidate long- and short-term mangrove community dynamics. The studied root fouling community is structured by several regulatory mechanisms; habitat heterogeneity increases species richness and abundance. Fringe mangroves were related to Ca concentration in the soil and the increased dominance of Laguncularia racemosa and other nonmangrove tree species, while the riverine mangroves were associated with Mg concentration and the dominance of Rhizophora mangle. The seedling and mangrove tree distributions are determined by a complex gradient of natural and anthropogenic disturbances. Mangrove pollen from surface sediments and the existing vegetation and geomorphology are close interrelated. Plant pollen of mangrove and salt marsh reflects environmental and disturbance conditions, and also reveals forest types. Forest dynamics in both coasts and their sensitivity of to anthropogenic processes are well documented in the Late Quaternary fossil record. Our studies of short and long term allow us to predict the dynamics of mangroves under different scenarios of climate change and anthropogenic stress factors that are operating in Colombian coasts. Future research arises from these results on mangrove forests dynamics, sea-level rise at a fine scale using palynology, conservation biology, and carbon dynamics.

  2. Acrylamide levels in selected Colombian foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacetti, Deborah; Gil, Elizabeth; Frega, Natale G; Álvarez, Lina; Dueñas, Pilar; Garzón, Angélica; Lucci, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Acrylamide (AA) levels in conventional (n = 112) and traditional (n = 43) Colombian foods were analysed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) detection. Samples included: infant powdered formula, coffee and chocolate powders, corn snacks, bakery products and tuber-, meat- and vegetable-based foods. There was a wide variability in AA levels among different foods and within different brands of the same food, especially for coffee powder, breakfast cereals biscuits and French fries samples. Among the conventional foods tested, the highest mean AA value was found in bakery products, such as biscuit (1104 µg kg(-1)) and wafer (1449 µg kg(-1)), followed by potato chips (916 µg kg(-1)). On the other hand, among the traditional foods, higher AA amounts were detected in fried platano (2813 µg kg(-1)) and yuca (3755 µg kg(-1)) compared to other products. Interestingly, the arepa, a traditional Colombian bakery product made with corn flour, showed a lower AA content (< 75 µg kg(-1)) when compared with similar bakery products tested, such as soft bread (102-594 µg kg(-1)), which is a made with wheat flour.

  3. Colombian exports rise as prices rocket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howland, J.

    2001-04-01

    The Colombian coal industry is in the throes of a boom period, fuelled primarily by a huge US appetite that is sucking in virtually all the available spot coal at prices now edging over 40 dollars for a standard product. With the US moving towards its summer, a period of high power demand, US domestic supplies are still tight and power station stocks have not been replenished from the winter, indicating that this US hunger will be maintained. With so much demand, a McCloskey's Coal Report survey predicts that export levels could increase by 4.5 mt this year on 2000 levels of 34.3. mt. This looks like it could be easily realised, with all the country's export producers eager to take advantage of the high prices. The article discusses the state of business of Carbocol, the former state owned coal mining company, Drummond, the owner and operator of Colombia's second largest coal mining operation, the La Loma mine, and of other minor producers. It gives a table of destinations of Colombian coal exports in the year 2000. 2 refs., 1 tab., 1 photo.

  4. Transport costs and market cause fall in Colombian exports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    It does not look good for Colombian coal exports in 1999. Although the wrangling over port access is settled, other aspects have clouded the picture - beyond infrastructure upgrading - to stop Colombian coal living up to expectations. The Colombian peso has not been devalued to the same extent as the Australian Dollar or South African Rand, and productivity improvements have also been lost because of increased transport costs. Access fee arrangements at ports remain unresolved, and negotiations continue. Although rail charges are falling, until the port issue is resolved, little will improve in the industry. 2 photos.

  5. Evaluating the War on Drugs: US and Colombian Interdiction Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-01

    wholesale price. --- -- ~---- -~- ~~-~--- - -- -- - ----- -- -------------- ca Arrieta, Carlos, G., Orjuela , Luis j., et. al. , Narcotrafico en... Narcotrafico en Colombia: Dimensiones Politicas. Economicas, Juridicas e lnternacionales, Universidad de los Andes, 1993. Bagley, Bruce, The Colombian

  6. Bolivar or Escobar: The Nature of Colombian Guerrillas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Pablo Escobar , was killed in a police shootout marking the decline of the large cartels.76 Unfortunately, the demand for narcotics had not been...Approved for Public Release; Distribution is Unlimited Bolivar or Escobar : The Nature of Colombian Guerrillas A Monograph by MAJ William R. Ward...or Escobar : The Nature of Colombian Guerrillas Unclassified 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Ward

  7. Incorporation of ITC into Colombian businesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César A. Ortega Ruiz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This review sought to provide general guidelines on how technologies have been incorporated into the information and communications business in Colombia. It presents a brief description of the stages through which the communications media has passed and its relationship with companies from its beginnings to the present day. The main statistics associated with the levels of adoption of ICT by the Colombian company are presented, showing the existence of a strong digital divide, especially by domestic micro-companies, which still have low adoption levels. However, this situation can be seen as an opportunity for the implementation of enterprises associated with this sector of the economy that has become one of the fastest growing in Colombia and in the world in recent years.

  8. [Migrations forced by violence: the Colombian case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Builes, Gloria Marcela Gómez; Arias, Gilberto Mauricio Astaiza; Minayo, Maria Cecília de Souza

    2008-01-01

    The human migrations have been one of the motors in the history of humanity. During the twentieth century, internal forced displacement has been an important component of the migration processes in the world. Colombia, a paradigm for this phenomenon, is a country with more than three and a half million people displaced over the last 25 years by force of the violence resulting from an internal armed conflict. Besides the socio-demographic effects in the reconfiguration of the cities, this problem affects the human condition of the victims deteriorating their health and quality of life. This article aims to show the general panorama of migrations forced by violence in the world and to analyze the peculiarities of this phenomenon in the Colombian case. We conclude that forced displacement is a serious violation of human rights producing a human drama by exposing the affected individuals and communities to vulnerability and a deep deterioration of their quality of life and health.

  9. [The Spanish influence in Colombian nursing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velandia, A L

    1993-06-01

    Four statements inferenced from: religious traditions, gender or woman status, military heritage and ethnic inheritance, and their influence in nursing, are presented in this article. The ethnic inheritance analyses the issue based upon the cultural influences of the native-indigenous groups and the spanish and mediterranean attributes in nursing development. The religious tradition began with Pedro Claver's J.C. presence between 1610 and 1617. His presence is followed by the "Hermanos Hospitalarios de San Juan de Dios" in 1768, and further with the presence of the sisters of Charity in 1873. Lastly, the article compares the Barcelona's Santa Cruz hospital organization, where at that time, seems to appear a new type of nursing arrangement; with present functions and charges, currently utilized in colombian hospitals (administrator of patient rooms, "servidor", women in charge of female patients and sick children, "ecónoma", chief in charge, and senior male nurse).

  10. Exploring gender norms, agency and intimate partner violence among displaced Colombian women: A qualitative assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynes, Michelle E; Sterk, Claire E; Hennink, Monique; Patel, Shilpa; DePadilla, Lara; Yount, Kathryn M

    2016-01-01

    Women displaced by conflict are often exposed to many factors associated with a risk of intimate partner violence (IPV) such as high levels of community violence and the breakdown of social support systems. Previous research found that Colombian women perceived IPV to increase after displacement. This study explored how the experience of displacement altered gendered roles in ways that influenced the risk of IPV. Thirty-three qualitative interviews were conducted with displaced partnered Colombian women. Women disclosed that couples often held patriarchal gender norms; however, the roles of each partner necessitated by conditions of displacement were often in conflict with these norms. Men's underemployment and women's employment outside the home were viewed as gender transgressive within some partnerships and increased relationship conflict. Economic resources intended to empower displaced women, notably women's earnings and home ownership, had unintended negative consequences for women's agency. These consequences included a corresponding decrease in partner financial contributions and reduced mobility. Women's ability to obtain support or leave violent relationships was hindered by interpersonal, social and structural barriers. For women to have agency to leave violent relationships, power relationships at all levels from the interpersonal to societal must be recognised and addressed.

  11. Men's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... men need to pay more attention to their health. Compared to women, men are more likely to ... regular checkups and medical care There are also health conditions that only affect men, such as prostate ...

  12. Looking at the Colombian infantile dramaturgy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Avendaño Peña

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is the synthesis of research results Aproximación a un diagnóstico sintáctico del texto teatral dirigido al público infantil en Colombia en el periodo 1995-2005 (Approach to a syntactic diagnosis of the theatrical text aimed at children in Colombia during the period 1995-2005 developed by the authors of the present paper. The main interest is to conduct a study on Colombian infantile dramaturgy, through the analysis of some structural features of dramatic composition of this type of theatre. This qualitative research was exploratory-descriptive level, initially located and identified the children’s plays produced during the study period. After recognizing some their features, proceeded to identify whether the judgments and concepts that are generally used around the children's theatre within the theatre industry are adequate or not, to generate an assessment about the state of the theatrical text, not from a single judgement without foundation, but compared with studies and theoretical reflections on drama and theatrical semiology.

  13. Water and Poverty in Two Colombian Watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Johnson

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Watersheds, especially in the developing world, are increasingly being managed for both environmental conservation and poverty alleviation. How complementary are these objectives? In the context of a watershed, the actual and potential linkages between land and water management and poverty are complex and likely to be very site specific and scale dependent. This study analyses the importance of watershed resources in the livelihoods of the poor in two watersheds in the Colombian Andes. Results of the participatory poverty assessment reveal significant decreases in poverty in both watersheds over the past 25 years, which was largely achieved by the diversification of livelihoods outside of agriculture. Water is an important resource for household welfare. However, opportunities for reducing poverty by increasing the quantity or quality of water available to the poor may be limited. While improved watershed management may have limited direct benefits in terms of poverty alleviation, there are important indirect linkages between watershed management and poverty, mainly through labour and service markets. The results suggest that at the level of the watershed the interests of the rich and the poor are not always in conflict over water. Sectoral as well as socio-economic differences define stakeholder groups in watershed management. The findings have implications for policymakers, planners and practitioners in various sectors involved in the implementation of integrated water resources management (IWRM.

  14. Invisible gold in Colombian auriferous soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustos Rodriguez, H., E-mail: hbustos@ut.edu.co; Oyola Lozano, D.; Rojas Martinez, Y. A. [Universidad del Tolima, Departamento de Fisica (Colombia); Perez Alcazar, G. A. [Universidad del Valle, Departamento de Fisica (Colombia); Balogh, A. G. [Darmstadt University of Technology, Institute of Materials Science (Germany)

    2005-11-15

    Optic microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Moessbauer spectroscopy (MS), Electron microprobe analysis (EPMA) and secondary ions mass spectroscopy (SIMS) were used to study Colombian auriferous soils. The auriferous samples, collected from El Diamante mine, located in Guachavez-Narino (Colombia), were prepared by means of polished thin sections and polished sections for EPMA and SIMS. Petrography analysis was made using an optical microscope with a vision camera, registering the presence, in different percentages, of the following phases: pyrite, quartz, arsenopyrite, sphalerite, chalcopyrite and galena. By XRD analysis, the same phases were detected and their respective cell parameters calculated. By MS, the presence of two types of pyrite was detected and the hyperfine parameters are: {delta}{sub 1} = 0.280 {+-} 0.01 mm/s and {Delta}Q{sub 1} = 0.642 {+-} 0.01 mm/s, {delta}{sub 2} = 0.379 {+-} 0.01 mm/s and {Delta}Q{sub 2} = 0.613 {+-} 0.01 mm/s. For two of the samples MS detected also the arsenopyrite and chalcopyrite presence. The mean composition of the detected gold regions, established by EPMA, indicated 73% Au and 27% Ag (electrum type). Multiple regions of approximately 200 x 200 {mu}m of area in each mineral sample were analyzed by SIMS registering the presence of 'invisible gold' associated mainly with the pyrite and occasionally with the arsenopyrite.

  15. Invisible gold in Colombian auriferous soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustos Rodriguez, H.; Oyola Lozano, D.; Rojas Martínez, Y. A.; Pérez Alcázar, G. A.; Balogh, A. G.

    2005-11-01

    Optic microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Mössbauer spectroscopy (MS), Electron microprobe analysis (EPMA) and secondary ions mass spectroscopy (SIMS) were used to study Colombian auriferous soils. The auriferous samples, collected from El Diamante mine, located in Guachavez-Nariño (Colombia), were prepared by means of polished thin sections and polished sections for EPMA and SIMS. Petrography analysis was made using an optical microscope with a vision camera, registering the presence, in different percentages, of the following phases: pyrite, quartz, arsenopyrite, sphalerite, chalcopyrite and galena. By XRD analysis, the same phases were detected and their respective cell parameters calculated. By MS, the presence of two types of pyrite was detected and the hyperfine parameters are: δ 1 = 0.280 ± 0.01 mm/s and Δ Q 1 = 0.642 ± 0.01 mm/s, δ 2 = 0.379 ± 0.01 mm/s and Δ Q 2 = 0.613 ± 0.01 mm/s. For two of the samples MS detected also the arsenopyrite and chalcopyrite presence. The mean composition of the detected gold regions, established by EPMA, indicated 73% Au and 27% Ag (electrum type). Multiple regions of approximately 200 × 200 μm of area in each mineral sample were analyzed by SIMS registering the presence of “invisible gold” associated mainly with the pyrite and occasionally with the arsenopyrite.

  16. Chronic Disease Cost not Transferable: Colombian Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Gallardo Solarte

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim is to reflect on the social and economic costs of chronic non-communicable disease (NCD in Colombia to display a charging indicator of these pathologies. Material and methods: In a review of 50 studies, 27 were selected since these met the inclusion criteria, like chronical disease, studies conducted between 2002 and 2011 related to costs, chronic disease, and being Colombian. Results: This is a review study of chronic diseases vs. their costs, being here cardiovascular diseases part of the group of high cost and higher incidence diseases, thus repre­senting a great risk to the financial stability of healthcare companies. There are few studies that address the costs generated by the treatment of ncds patients that show the economic impact experienced by public and private institutions providing and promoting health services. Most of them forget the economic, family and social costs the affected population must suffer. Conclu­sions: ncds represent a burden to the health service system for their very high costs, untimely intervention and reduced significant benefit for this population and their families.

  17. NGOs Efficiency and Transparency Policy: The Colombian Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Mar Gálvez Rodríguez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the influence of Colombian non-governmental organizations (NGOs in diverse social sectors of the country has increased. However, the legitimacy of this sector has been undermined by corruption. This distrust has questioned the efficiency of NGOs as social tools. Transparency as a mechanism against corruption and one of the tools that improves the functioning of an organization is considered. There is no doubt that Internet is an essential element in disseminating information to the different stakeholders of the organization. This paper sets out three main objectives: i the analysis of information disclosure through the Internet of Colombian NGOs, ii the analysis of the efficiency of these entities in reaching their social goals and, iii the analysis of the online transparency effect in a greater efficiency of the Colombian NGOs.

  18. Fertility preservation in young patients with cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virender Suhag

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Infertility can arise as a consequence of treatment of oncological conditions. The parallel and continued improvement in both the management of oncology and fertility cases in recent times has brought to the forefront the potential for fertility preservation in patients being treated for cancer. Many survivors will maintain their reproductive potential after the successful completion of treatment for cancer. However total body irradiation, radiation to the gonads, and certain high dose chemotherapy regimens can place women at risk for acute ovarian failure or premature menopause and men at risk for temporary or permanent azoospermia. Providing information about risk of infertility and possible interventions to maintain reproductive potential are critical for the adolescent and young adult population at the time of diagnosis. There are established means of preserving fertility before cancer treatment; specifically, sperm cryopreservation for men and in vitro fertilization and embryo cryopreservation for women. Several innovative techniques are being actively investigated, including oocyte and ovarian follicle cryopreservation, ovarian tissue transplantation, and in vitro follicle maturation, which may expand the number of fertility preservation choices for young cancer patients. Fertility preservation may also require some modification of cancer therapy; thus, patients' wishes regarding future fertility and available fertility preservation alternatives should be discussed before initiation of therapy.

  19. Incidence of hip fracture in Barranquilla, Colombia, and the development of a Colombian FRAX model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaller-Raad, J J; Jaller-Char, J J; Lechuga-Ortiz, J A; Navarro-Lechuga, E; Johansson, H; Kanis, J A

    2013-07-01

    A FRAX model for Colombia was released June 30, 2010. This article describes the data used to develop the Colombian FRAX model and illustrates its features compared to other countries. Hip fracture cases aged 50 years or more who were referred to all hospitals serving the city of Barranquilla were identified prospectively over a 3-year period (2004-2006). Age- and sex-stratified hip fracture incidence rates were computed using the 2005 census. Present and future numbers of hip fracture cases in Colombia were calculated from the age- and sex-specific incidence and the national population demography. Mortality rates for 1999 were extracted from nationwide databases and used to estimate hip fracture probabilities. For other major fractures (clinical vertebral, forearm, and humerus), incidence rates were imputed, using Swedish ratios for hip to other major osteoporotic fracture, and used to construct the FRAX model. Incidence of hip fracture increased with age, more markedly in women than in men. Over all ages, the female to male ratio was 1.7. By extrapolation, there were estimated to be 7,902 new hip fracture cases (2,673 men, 5,229 women) in Colombia in 2010, which was predicted to increase to 22,720 cases (7,568 men, 15,152 women) in 2035. The 10-year probability of hip or major fracture was increased in patients with a clinical risk factor, lower BMI, female gender, a higher age, and a decreased BMD T score. The remaining lifetime probability of hip fracture at the age of 50 years was 2.5 and 4.7 % in men and women, respectively, which were lower than rates in a Mexican population (3.8 and 8.5 %, respectively) and comparable with estimates for Venezuela (2.4 and 7.5 %, respectively). The FRAX tool is the first country-specific fracture-prediction model available in Colombia. It is based on the original FRAX methodology, which has been externally validated in several independent cohorts. Despite some limitations, the strengths make the Colombian FRAX tool a good

  20. Gallbladder microbiota variability in Colombian gallstones patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteta, Ariel Antonio; Carvajal-Restrepo, Hernan; Sánchez-Jiménez, Miryan Margot; Diaz-Rodriguez, Sergio; Cardona-Castro, Nora

    2017-03-31

    Gallbladder stones are a very frequently occurring condition. Despite bile bactericidal activity, many bacteria have been detected inside the gallbladder, and gallstones facilitate their presence. Between 3% and 5% of the patients with Salmonella spp. infection develop the carrier stage, with the bacteria persisting inside the gallbladder, shedding bacteria in their feces without signs of infection. The aim of this study was to isolate bacteria from Colombian patients with gallstones, using standard culturing methods, and to identify Salmonella spp. carriers by molecular techniques. A total of 149 patients (120 female and 29 male) diagnosed with gallstones who underwent cholecystectomy and who did not have symptoms of acute inflammation were included. Gallbladder tissue and bile were cultured and used for DNA extraction and Salmonella spp. hilA gene detection. Of the 149 patients 28 (19%) had positive cultures. Twenty-one (75%) patients with positive cultures were from Medellin's metropolitan area. In this geographical location, the most frequent isolations were Pseudomonas spp. (38%), Klebsiella spp. (23%), and Proteus spp. (9%) in addition to unique cases of other bacteria. In Apartado, the isolates found were Enterobacter cloacae (50%), Raoultella terrigena (32%), and both Enterobacter cloacae and Raoultella terrigena were isolated in one (18%) male patient. Five (3.3%) of the 149 patients had positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results for the hilA gene of Salmonella spp., all of whom were female and residents of the Medellín metropolitan area. The gallbladder microbiota variability found could be related to geographical, ethnic, and environmental conditions.

  1. Fertility awareness online: the efficacy of a fertility education website in increasing knowledge and changing fertility beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniluk, J C; Koert, E

    2015-02-01

    How effective is online education in increasing knowledge of fertility and assisted reproductive technologies (ART), and changing beliefs about the timing of parenthood? Exposure to an online educational intervention resulted in immediate changes in participants' beliefs about the ideal timing of parenthood, and a significant increase in their knowledge of fertility and ART treatments and options; most of these changes were not sustained over time, particularly for men. Research has identified significant gaps in men's and women's knowledge of fertility and ART, contributing to the trend to delay childbearing. Effective educational programs need to be developed, to support informed fertility and child-timing decisions. Pre-post intervention study of 199 currently childless men and women, and a 6-month follow-up of 110 of these participants. One hundred and ninety-nine childless participants between the ages of 18 and 35 were asked to complete 4 beliefs and 22 knowledge questions prior to, and immediately after, reading 10 online posts related to: fertility testing and preservation, fertility history and lifespan, the effects of health and fitness on fertility, and assisted reproduction. Six months later, 110 of the original sample repeated the 26-item survey. Participants' fertility and ART knowledge scores increased significantly immediately after the intervention, as did their confidence in their fertility and ART knowledge. Participants' beliefs about the ideal and latest age a woman or man should consider producing a child decreased. However, 6 months later, participants' beliefs and knowledge levels largely returned to their pre-intervention levels, particularly for the men in the study. The sample size and the recruitment methods may limit the generalizability of these findings. Previous studies have demonstrated the short-term efficacy of online educational approaches to increase fertility knowledge and support informed family planning decisions. Web

  2. Impaired Leydig cell function in infertile men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, A-M; Jørgensen, N; Frydelund-Larsen, L

    2004-01-01

    To investigate whether an impaired Leydig cell function is present in severely oligospermic men, serum testosterone (T), LH, estradiol (E(2)), and SHBG levels in 357 idiopathic infertile men were compared with levels in 318 proven fertile men. In addition, the T/LH ratio, E(2)/T ratio...... of the fertile levels.Thus, the group of infertile men showed significant signs of impaired Leydig cell function in parallel to their impaired spermatogenesis. The association of decreased spermatogenesis and impaired Leydig cell function might reflect a disturbed paracrine communication between the seminiferous......, and calculated free T index (cFT) were compared between the two groups.A shift toward lower serum T levels, cFT, and T/LH ratio and higher serum LH, E(2), and E(2)/T levels was observed in the group of infertile men. On average, the infertile men had 18, 26, and 34% lower serum T, cFT, and T/LH levels...

  3. Transgender Reproductive Choice and Fertility Preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitu, Khadija

    2016-11-01

    Increasing numbers of young transgender people are now using medical technologies to achieve a physical gender transition. However, the procedures of physical gender transition might cause temporary or permanent sterility. Thus many transgender people are now using fertility preservation technologies. Nonetheless, they can experience dilemmas in making reproductive and family-building decisions and face challenges in gaining access to and utilizing fertility preservation services. Based on qualitative research conducted with transgender men and women who used reproductive technologies for preserving their fertility before or during their physical transition, this paper contributes to the discourse of reproductive choice by the inclusion of transgender people's experience.

  4. Factors Affecting Fertility Desires in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa C. David

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Factors affecting fertility desires in the Philippines were examined using data from a national survey and from individual and group qualitative interviews involving 143 respondents. Fertility goals usually range from two to three children, but evidence suggests that they are dynamic and may change over a person’s lifetime. Qualitative interviews reveal that when negotiating about family size, it is the partner who wants more children that will be followed. A strong demand for gender balance among offspring creates a willingness to have more children than originally desired. Fertility goals increase over time among women. While those who start childbirth at a very young age successfully space their children, they tend to want larger families than those who start late. Initial fertility goals among women are generally low but may increase because of higher fertility desires among men, a demand for gender balance in children, and the desire for babies once their children have grown.

  5. Macro-Prudential Assessment of Colombian Financial Institutions’ Systemic Importance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    León, C.; Machado, C.; Murcia, A.

    2014-01-01

    Three metrics are designed to assess Colombian financial institutions’ size, connectedness and non-­substitutability as the main drivers of systemic importance: (i) centrality as net borrower in the money market network; (ii) centrality as payments originator in the large-value payment system networ

  6. Macro-Prudential Assessment of Colombian Financial Institutions’ Systemic Importance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    León, C.; Machado, C.; Murcia, A.

    2014-01-01

    Three metrics are designed to assess Colombian financial institutions’ size, connectedness and non-­substitutability as the main drivers of systemic importance: (i) centrality as net borrower in the money market network; (ii) centrality as payments originator in the large-value payment system

  7. Resilience amongst Older Colombians Living in Poverty: an Ecological Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Kate M; Reyes-Rodriguez, Maria F; Altamar, Paula; Soulsby, Laura K

    2016-12-01

    Older Colombians face significant adversities: poverty, violence and displacement. However, there is evidence that Latinos are often resilient. We examine resilience in older Colombians living in poverty using an ecological framework that identifies three levels: individual; community; and societal. In this paper we examine data from 16 semi-structured interviews with older Colombians that explore resilience within the context of poverty. We analyze our data using three stages: (1) modified grounded theory; (2) assignment of resilience status; (3) identification of components of the ecological framework which contribute to resilience in these participants. The most striking feature is that some participants are able to adapt to their situation, demonstrating resilience, whilst others are not. Individual characteristics such as psychological and material resources contribute to resilience. At the community level, family, social support, participation and cohesion promote resilience. Finally, at the societal level, social and welfare services, finance, religion and social policy, are important factors. These different levels of resilience are co-dependent, and we illustrate how this is so. We suggest that older Colombians living in poverty often demonstrate resilience, but that more can be done to enhance their lives. This includes interventions at the individual and community levels alongside changes in social policy.

  8. Colombian Emigration: A Research Note on Its Probable Quantitative Extent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Briquets, Sergio; Frederick, Melinda J.

    1984-01-01

    Provides a brief overview of quantitative estimates of Colombian emigration including a discussion of how estimates were prepared. Concludes that estimates of international migration from Colombia are inflated and that such migration is not as significant as some observers claim. (CMG)

  9. Potential predictability of a Colombian river flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdoba-Machado, Samir; Palomino-Lemus, Reiner; Quishpe-Vásquez, César; García-Valdecasas-Ojeda, Matilde; Raquel Gámiz-Fortis, Sonia; Castro-Díez, Yolanda; Jesús Esteban-Parra, María

    2017-04-01

    In this study the predictability of an important Colombian river (Cauca) has been analysed based on the use of climatic variables as potential predictors. Cauca River is considered one of the most important rivers of Colombia because its basin supports important productive activities related with the agriculture, such as the production of coffee or sugar. Potential relationships between the Cauca River seasonal streamflow anomalies and different climatic variables such as sea surface temperature (SST), precipitation (Pt), temperature over land (Tm) and soil water (Sw) have been analysed for the period 1949-2009. For this end, moving correlation analysis of 30 years have been carried out for lags from one to four seasons for the global SST, and from one to two seasons for South America Pt, Tm and Sw. Also, the stability of the significant correlations have been also studied, identifying the regions used as potential predictors of streamflow. Finally, in order to establish a prediction scheme based on the previous stable correlations, a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) applied on the potential predictor regions has been carried out in order to obtain a representative time series for each predictor field. Significant and stable correlations between the seasonal streamflow and the tropical Pacific SST (El Niño region) are found for lags from one to four (one-year) season. Additionally, some regions in the Indian and Atlantic Oceans also show significant and stable correlations at different lags, highlighting the importance that exerts the Atlantic SST on the hydrology of Colombia. Also significant and stable correlations are found with the Pt, Tm and Sw for some regions over South America, at lags of one and two seasons. The prediction of Cauca seasonal streamflow based on this scheme shows an acceptable skill and represents a relative improvement compared with the predictability obtained using the teleconnection indices associated with El Niño. Keywords

  10. Studies on Colombian cryptogams. V. Taxonomy, distribution and ecology of macrolichens of the Colombian Paramos: 1. Cladonia subgenus Cladina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sipman, H.J.M.; Cleef, A.M.

    1979-01-01

    Morphology, chemistry, distribution and ecology of 6 species of Cladonia subgenus Cladina (Lichenes) from the Colombian paramos are described: C. arcuata Ahti, C. boliviano Ahti, C. confusa Sant., C. polia Sant., C. rangiferina (L.) Wigg. var. abbayesii Ahti, and C. colombiana spec. Nov. C. bicolor

  11. Father’s Perceptions of their Role and Involvement in the Family: A Qualitative Study in a Colombian Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Carrillo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore fathers’ perceptions about their role in the family, and the characteristics of their involvement in their children’s lives in the Colombian context. The sample consisted of 12 Colombian fathers. The study used a qualitative methodology, one-hour in depth interviews were conducted with the participants. Results indicated important changes in the role of fathers and mothers in Colombian families. Fathers’ perceptions departed to some extent from the traditional pattern attributed to nuclear families, where men are considered as the only economic provider and authority figure in the family. This departure places fathers in a category we would call “in transition”, which includes perceptions of more equitable parental roles within the family and a combination of features from other typologies of fatherhood proposed in the literature. Fathers also reported a desire to participate more at home and to be more involved in their children’s lives; they also emphasized the importance of expressing love and affection to their children. Work-family conflict and the impact of the quality of the father-child relationship emerged as important categories in the fathers’ perceptions of their role and involvement in the family. In Colombia research on fathers is scarce and family policies mainly focus on mothers as the principal caregiver. A better understanding of fathers’ roles and involvement in the family and with children will contribute to the development of programs and policies oriented toward all family members and family relationship systems.

  12. Serum Levels of Melatonin and Oxidative Stress Markers and Correlation between Them in Infertile Men

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Soleimani Rad; Shamsi Abbasalizadeh; Amir Ghorbani Haghjo

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Infertility is the problem of 15% of young couples in different societies. One of the factors that could affect fertility is oxidative stress. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to investigate the level of Melatonin, a free radical scavenger, and its correlation with oxidative biomarkers in infertile men. Methods:For this purpose, fertile and infertile men in 2 groups, 30 people in each group, were studied. The fertile men were selected from husbands of patients admitted...

  13. Serum Levels of Melatonin and Oxidative Stress Markers and Correlation between Them in Infertile Men

    OpenAIRE

    Soleimani Rad, Sara; Abbasalizadeh, Shamsi; Ghorbani Haghjo, Amir; Sadagheyani, Mehzad; Montaseri, Azadeh; Soleimani Rad, Jafar

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Infertility is the problem of 15% of young couples in different societies. One of the factors that could affect fertility is oxidative stress. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to investigate the level of Melatonin, a free radical scavenger, and its correlation with oxidative biomarkers in infertile men. Methods: For this purpose, fertile and infertile men in 2 groups, 30 people in each group, were studied. The fertile men were selected from husbands o...

  14. Heroes of our time. The figure of the drug-trafficker in Colombian narcotelenovelas

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Palaversich

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the representation of drug traffickers in Colombian narcotelenovelas. While the Colombian official discourse treats these characters as the embodiment of evil and cruelty, narcotelenovelas treat them as models of social mobility in countries characterized by social injustice. The figure of drug trafficker (narcotraficante) represented in Colombian TV series is constructed at the intersection of two myths: the ancient myth of the social bandit, a brave macho man who steals ...

  15. A low self-perception of lifestyle is associated with adiposity and alterations in the nutritional status among Colombian University students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson Ramírez-Vélez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the relationship between self - perception of lifestyle (LS, abdominal adiposity and nutritional status in a sample of colombian university students. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study in 5,921 subjects, between 18 and 30 years of age (58 % women from three cities in Colombia. Lifestyle (LS by self-report was evaluated with the Colombian version of the questionnaire «Fantastic». Waist circumference (WC was measured as an indicator of adiposity and body mass index (BMI was calculated as a marker of nutritional status. Results: The prevalence of abdominal adiposity by increase in WC was 10.4 % with differences by sex (7.3% men vs. 12.6 % women, p<0.01, while changes in BMI were 6.5% underweight, 18.0% overweight and 3.3% obesity. Regarding LS, the highest proportion was found in score “Good LS" with 57.4 % in women and 58.5 % men, followed by “Excellent LS" with 14.0 % and 19.3 % (p<0.001 for women and men respectively. In both sexes, participants who reported “Regular and bad LS" presented significantly higher prevalence of abnormal BMI (underweight and overweight and abdominal obesity increased WC (p < 0.01. Conclusion: colombian university students´ deterioration in the self- perception of the LS is related to abdominal fat distribution and nutritional disorders. These results may be used as a reference for taking actions to promote healthy LS in the evaluated population.

  16. Violence, Oppression, and Double Standards in Three Colombian Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa R. Meade

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This article compares three Colombian films that tell distinct stories of violence, personal and political oppression, and double standards. The films Confesión a Laura (Confessing to Laura, Jaime Osorio, 1991, La Primera Noche (The First Night, Luis Alberto Restrepo, 2003 and El Rey (The King, José Antonio Dorado, 2004 each highlight the characters’ struggles in the Colombian socio-political landscape. Each  film’s content and themes do not merely offer representations of national culture, but also provide a way in which to discuss the political and social struggles of Colombia. The directors explore these stories of violence and socio-political struggle through the use of mis-en-scène, cinematography, sound, and editing.

  17. New Colombian gas line overcomes desert, marshland, hilly terrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-02-28

    Wind-swept deserts, rock hills, and tricky swamps are some of the main obstacles being faced in the construction of a major Colombian pipeline for Promigas, a Colombian gas-marketing firm. The 236-mile (380-km), 20 and 12-in. transmission system will link the onshore and offshore Guajira Peninsula fields with the industrial cities of Barranquilla and Cartagena as part of an ambitious gas-utilization program aimed at substituting imported fuel oil in industrial operations at these cities and creating a sizable gas-processing and liquefaction complex at Palomino. Scheduled for completion in October 1977, the $60 million gas line will deliver up to 900 million cf/day of untreated, 98 mol % methane gas without the use of compressor stations because of the 1400-psi reservoir pressure. The estimated potential of the field is expected to support this production rate for at least 15 years.

  18. Techno-economic analysis for a sugarcane biorefinery: Colombian case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncada, Jonathan; El-Halwagi, Mahmoud M; Cardona, Carlos A

    2013-05-01

    In this paper a techno-economic analysis for a sugarcane biorefinery is presented for the Colombian case. It is shown two scenarios for different conversion pathways as function of feedstock distribution and technologies for sugar, fuel ethanol, PHB, anthocyanins and electricity production. These scenarios are compared with the Colombian base case which simultaneously produce sugar, fuel ethanol and electricity. A simulation procedure was used in order to evaluate biorefinery schemes for all the scenarios, using Aspen Plus software, that include productivity analysis, energy calculations and economic evaluation for each process configuration. The results showed that the configuration with the best economic, environmental and social performance is the one that considers fuel ethanol and PHB production from combined cane bagasse and molasses. This result served as the basis to draw recommendations on technological and economic feasibility as well as social aspects for the implementation of such type of biorefinery in Colombia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Colombian Soldiers in Nazi Germany, 1934-1937

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo Bosemberg

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to narrate the visit the Colombian militaries paid to the Nazi Germany. It is based on the idea that this presence was not only part of the relations between the two countries but, instead, it contributed to the formation of networks in interrelated spaces. These soldiers got into the German military world which, in turn, managed to infiltrate Colombia as well. The article inquires into what the parties involved wanted, who participated, what attitudes Colombians had towards that country, if those soldiers were nazis. It is concluded that three missions were sent and they do not only visited Germany, but they were also in other countries. Their reports are full of admiration for the host country and the journey raised their criticism, which is evidenced in the constant compasions between the two countries. However, knowledge transfer did not have much effect because American influence grew and WWII broke out shortly after.

  20. Validation of new psychosocial factors questionnaires: a Colombian national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos, Gloria H; Vargas, Angélica M; Rondón, Martin A; Felknor, Sarah A

    2013-01-01

    The study of workers' health problems possibly associated with stressful conditions requires valid and reliable tools for monitoring risk factors. The present study validates two questionnaires to assess psychosocial risk factors for stress-related illnesses within a sample of Colombian workers. The validation process was based on a representative sample survey of 2,360 Colombian employees, aged 18-70 years. Worker response rate was 90%; 46% of the responders were women. Internal consistency was calculated, construct validity was tested with factor analysis and concurrent validity was tested with Spearman correlations. The questionnaires demonstrated adequate reliability (0.88-0.95). Factor analysis confirmed the dimensions proposed in the measurement model. Concurrent validity resulted in significant correlations with stress and health symptoms. "Work and Non-work Psychosocial Factors Questionnaires" were found to be valid and reliable for the assessment of workers' psychosocial factors, and they provide information for research and intervention. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Colombian approaches to psychology in the 19th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviedo, Gilberto Leonardo

    2012-11-01

    Colombian intellectuals of the 19th century widely consulted scientific psychology in regard to their political, religious, and educational interests. Colombian independence from Spain (1810) introduced the necessity of transforming the former subjects into illustrious citizens and members of a modern state. After independence, political liberals embraced Bentham's thesis of utilitarianism and the theories of sensibility, with a teaching style based in induction. Conservatives defended the Catholic tradition about the divine origin of the soul and used scholasticism as a model of teaching. A bipartisan coalition, the Regeneration, incorporated the ideas of modern psychology based on the principles of Thomistic thought (Neo-Thomism). The Neo-Thomists considered psychology as a science of the soul and debated physiological explanations of the mind. The conceptual advances of the period have been trivialized in historical accounts of psychology in Colombia, due to the emphasis on the institutionalization processes of the discipline in 1947. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Coauthorship Ties in the Colombian Congress, 2002-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Alemán

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines policy connections between Colombian legislators (representatives and senators during Álvaro Uribe’s first presidential term (2002-2006. The analysis draws on information regarding the coauthorship of legislation. The joint sponsorship of a bill by a pair of legislators demonstrates their mutual intent to change the status quo in a specific direction. This cooperative effort to push bills forward reveals the similarities that exist between political actors. Examining the connectedness between different groups and the density within group connections can convey important information about parties and their members’ policy preferences. This article investigates these aspects of the network of coauthorship ties developed in the Colombian lower and upper chambers. In addition to shedding light on the cohesiveness and alignment of legislative parties, the article finds that coauthorship ties appear to be influenced by regional and institutional forces.

  3. Barriers to Managing Fertility: Findings From the Understanding Fertility Management in Contemporary Australia Facebook Discussion Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holton, Sara; Rowe, Heather; Kirkman, Maggie; Jordan, Lynne; McNamee, Kathleen; Bayly, Christine; McBain, John; Sinnott, Vikki; Fisher, Jane

    2016-02-15

    As part of research investigating the complexities of managing fertility in Australia, public opinions about how Australians manage their fertility were sought from women and men. To identify public opinion about sexual and reproductive health in Australia. To ensure access to a diverse group of people throughout Australia, an online group was advertised and convened on Facebook from October through December 2013. In a closed-group moderated discussion, participants responded to questions about how people in Australia attempt to manage three aspects of fertility: avoiding pregnancy, achieving pregnancy, and difficulties conceiving. Nonidentifiable demographic information was sought; no personal accounts of fertility management were requested. The discussion transcript was analyzed thematically. There were 61 female and 2 male Facebook users aged 18 to 50 years living in Australia participating in the study. Four main themes about fertility management were identified: access, geographical location, knowledge, and cost. Participants reported that young people and people from rural areas face barriers accessing contraception and fertility services. Limited knowledge about sex and reproduction and the cost of fertility services and contraception were also said to impede effective fertility management. Reasons for inequalities in effective fertility management that are amenable to change were identified. Facebook is an effective method for gaining insights into public opinion about sexual and reproductive health.

  4. Barriers to Managing Fertility: Findings From the Understanding Fertility Management in Contemporary Australia Facebook Discussion Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Background As part of research investigating the complexities of managing fertility in Australia, public opinions about how Australians manage their fertility were sought from women and men. Objective To identify public opinion about sexual and reproductive health in Australia. Methods To ensure access to a diverse group of people throughout Australia, an online group was advertised and convened on Facebook from October through December 2013. In a closed-group moderated discussion, participants responded to questions about how people in Australia attempt to manage three aspects of fertility: avoiding pregnancy, achieving pregnancy, and difficulties conceiving. Nonidentifiable demographic information was sought; no personal accounts of fertility management were requested. The discussion transcript was analyzed thematically. Results There were 61 female and 2 male Facebook users aged 18 to 50 years living in Australia participating in the study. Four main themes about fertility management were identified: access, geographical location, knowledge, and cost. Participants reported that young people and people from rural areas face barriers accessing contraception and fertility services. Limited knowledge about sex and reproduction and the cost of fertility services and contraception were also said to impede effective fertility management. Conclusions Reasons for inequalities in effective fertility management that are amenable to change were identified. Facebook is an effective method for gaining insights into public opinion about sexual and reproductive health. PMID:26878865

  5. Single Mothers, Single Fathers: Gender Differences in Fertility after a Nonmarital Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzo, Karen Benjamin; Hayford, Sarah R.

    2010-01-01

    Research on nonmarital fertility has focused almost exclusively on unmarried mothers, due in part to a lack of fertility information for men. Cycle 6 of the National Survey of Family Growth allows exploration of nonmarital fertility for both genders.The authors compare the characteristics of unmarried first-time mothers (n = 2,455) and fathers (n…

  6. Single Mothers, Single Fathers: Gender Differences in Fertility after a Nonmarital Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzo, Karen Benjamin; Hayford, Sarah R.

    2010-01-01

    Research on nonmarital fertility has focused almost exclusively on unmarried mothers, due in part to a lack of fertility information for men. Cycle 6 of the National Survey of Family Growth allows exploration of nonmarital fertility for both genders.The authors compare the characteristics of unmarried first-time mothers (n = 2,455) and fathers (n…

  7. Scientometric analysis of Colombian research on bio-inoculants for agricultural production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Corina Zambrano-Moreno

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The excessive use of synthetic chemical inputs in agricultural production has led to the disruption of biogeochemical cycles. One of the alternatives that arose within the systems of sustainable agriculture was the partial or total replacement of chemicals by biological substances. The analysis of relevant scientific literature has become a tool for assessing the quality of knowledge generation and its impact on the environment. A scientometric analysis was conducted of Colombian research on bio-inoculants from 2009 through 2014 in journals added to the Web of SciencesTM in order to identify the characteristics of the main target crops, the microorganisms used, and the beneficial effects on agriculture. In this work, 34 articles were identified: 24 (71 % were research on bio-fertilizer development and 10 (29 % on bio-pesticides. Articles mainly focused on the study of Gram-negative bacilli affecting the area (77 %, while others focused on issues and topics surrounding vegetables (30 %.The analysis of co-occurrence of keywords identified: i several genera of microorganisms (e.g. Azotobacter sp., Bradyrhizobium sp. and sustainable agriculture as issues that have a leading role in this scientific field, ii plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR as an emerging issue, iii biological nitrogen fixation (BNF as a subject which has risen in a complementary manner and iv endophytic bacteria and biodiversity as issues in growth. This study showed that research in Colombia could be targeted on issues such as endophytic bacteria, diversity and productivity.

  8. Fertilization in northern forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedwall, Per Ola; Gong, Peichen; Ingerslev, Morten

    2014-01-01

    resources into food, health and industrial products and energy. Fertilization in Sweden and Finland is currently practiced by extensive fertilization regimens where nitrogen fertilizers are applied once, or up to three times, during a rotation period, mainly in mature forest. This type of fertilization...

  9. Palm diversity and abundance in the Colombian Amazon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Henrik; Copete, Juan Carlos; Pedersen, Dennis

    2017-01-01

    We studied diversity and abundance of palms in the eastern Colombian Amazon in 71 transects, 61 measuring 5×500 m and 10 transects measuring 4×500 m, innventoring a total of 17.25 hectares. We found a total of 74 species in 21 genera. In terra firme we found 68 species in 20 genera and an average...... found in this study (Euterpe precatoria, Oenocarpus bataua, Attalea butyracea, Iriartella setigera) coincide with dominant species in other Amazonian palm communities....

  10. Tracing the Cold War in Colombian architecture: a disregarded legacy

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez Beltran, M. D. P.

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on a social and cultural analysis of the architecture designed and built by the state during the Colombian military dictatorship of the 1950s, and based on original sources, including historical archives, declassified official reports, oral history, and raw blueprints, this PhD research project traces relationships between architecture, and the national and international politics of that time. In doing so, this research analyses the relation between the built environment and power, qu...

  11. Leadership and Solidarity Business Structure in Colombian Artisanal Fishing

    OpenAIRE

    Luque Berkowitz, Jorge Iván; Rua, Sohely

    2014-01-01

    This study presents an overview of the leadership at Colombian artisanal fishing solidarity organizations, along with the problems they face in their social and entrepreneurial strengthening. The qualitative approach analysis is based on semi-structured interviews with leaders from diverse organizations and associative forms of artisanal fishing in particular. The findings indicate that solidarity leaderships face an ethical and operative dilemma with respect to the democratic management form...

  12. Outlining the Ancestry Landscape of Colombian Admixed Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossa, Humberto; Aquino, Juliana; Pereira, Rui; Ibarra, Adriana; Ossa, Rafael H; Pérez, Luz Adriana; Granda, Juan David; Lattig, Maria Claudia; Groot, Helena; Fagundes de Carvalho, Elizeu; Gusmão, Leonor

    2016-01-01

    The ancestry of the Colombian population comprises a large number of well differentiated Native communities belonging to diverse linguistic groups. In the late fifteenth century, a process of admixture was initiated with the arrival of the Europeans, and several years later, Africans also became part of the Colombian population. Therefore, the genepool of the current Colombian population results from the admixture of Native Americans, Europeans and Africans. This admixture occurred differently in each region of the country, producing a clearly stratified population. Considering the importance of population substructure in both clinical and forensic genetics, we sought to investigate and compare patterns of genetic ancestry in Colombia by studying samples from Native and non-Native populations living in its 5 continental regions: the Andes, Caribe, Amazonia, Orinoquía, and Pacific regions. For this purpose, 46 AIM-Indels were genotyped in 761 non-related individuals from current populations. Previously published genotype data from 214 Colombian Natives from five communities were used for population comparisons. Significant differences were observed between Native and non-Native populations, among non-Native populations from different regions and among Native populations from different ethnic groups. The Pacific was the region with the highest African ancestry, Amazonia harboured the highest Native ancestry and the Andean and Orinoquían regions showed the highest proportion of European ancestry. The Andean region was further sub-divided into 6 sub-regions: North East, Central West, Central East, West, South West and South East. Among these regions, the South West region showed a significantly lower European admixture than the other regions. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and variance values of ancestry among individuals within populations showed a potential stratification of the Pacific population. PMID:27736937

  13. The Effects of the Colombian Trade Liberalization on Urban Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    We examine whether the Colombian trade reform can explain any of Colombia's decline in urban poverty between 1984 and 1995. Our approach focuses on short- and medium- run channels through which trade reform could affect poverty. Despite the chronological coincidence of the poverty reduction with the trade reforms over this period, we do not observe any evidence of a link between poverty and tariff reductions operating through the labor income channel. Our descriptive analysis suggests that al...

  14. Breastfeeding versus artificial feeding in the colombian context

    OpenAIRE

    Izzedin-Bouquet de Durán, Romina; Pachajoa Londoño, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    At first, the article describes the nutritional and immunological benefits of breastfeeding for then to report on its status in the international and Colombian context by comparing it with his major competitor milk formula. Finally, the article shows the strategies that promote breastfeeding aiming to raise awarness about the commitment that we have as individuals and society with regard to maternal and child health. En un primer momento, el artículo describe las propiedades nutritivas y l...

  15. Fertility treatment and reproductive health of male offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Kold; Jørgensen, Niels; Asklund, Camilla

    2007-01-01

    Little is known the about the reproductive health of offspring after fertility treatment. In 2001-2005, the authors approached young Danish men attending a compulsory physical examination to determine their fitness for military service. A total of 1,925 men volunteered, delivered a semen sample...

  16. Infertility in men with inflammatory bowel disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Takeshi; Okada, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) predominantly affects young adults. Fertility-related issues are therefore important in the management of patients with IBD. However, relatively modest attention has been paid to reproductive issues faced by men with IBD. To investigate the effects of IBD and its treatment on male fertility, we reviewed the current literature using a systematic search for published studies. A PubMed search were performed using the main search terms “IBD AND male infertility”, “Crohn’s disease AND male infertility”, “ulcerative colitis AND male infertility”. References in review articles were used if relevant. We noted that active inflammation, poor nutrition, alcohol use, smoking, medications, and surgery may cause infertility in men with IBD. In surgery such as proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis, rectal incision seems to be associated with sexual dysfunction. Of the medications used for IBD, sulfasalazine reversibly reduces male fertility. No other medications appear to affect male fertility significantly, although small studies suggested some adverse effects. There are limited data on the effects of drugs for IBD on male fertility and pregnancy outcomes; however, patients should be informed of the possible effects of paternal drug exposure. This review provides information on fertility-related issues in men with IBD and discusses treatment options. PMID:27602237

  17. Mad Men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Thomas Ærvold

    2015-01-01

    Artiklen omhandler den amerikanske tv-serie Mad Men. Fokus er på hvordan Koreakrigens indflydelse på ændrede manderoller har haft betydning for hovedpersonen Don Drapers performative maskulinitet.......Artiklen omhandler den amerikanske tv-serie Mad Men. Fokus er på hvordan Koreakrigens indflydelse på ændrede manderoller har haft betydning for hovedpersonen Don Drapers performative maskulinitet....

  18. Comparison of Plasmodium falciparum infections in Panamanian and Colombian owl monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossan, R N; Harper, J S; Davidson, D E; Escajadillo, A; Christensen, H A

    1985-11-01

    Parameters of blood-induced infections of the Vietnam Oak Knoll, Vietnam Smith, and Uganda Palo Alto strains of Plasmodium falciparum studied in 395 Panamanian owl monkeys in this laboratory between 1976-1984 were compared with those reported from another laboratory for 665 Colombian owl monkeys, studied between 1968-1975, and, at the time, designated Aotus trivirgatus griseimembra. The virulence of these strains was less in Panamanian than in Colombian owl monkeys, as indicated by lower mortality rates of the Panamanian monkeys during the first 30 days of patency. Maximum parasitemias of the Vietnam Smith and Uganda Palo Alto strain, in Panamanian owl monkeys dying during the first 15 days of patent infection, were significantly higher than in Colombian owl monkeys. Panamanian owl monkeys that survived the primary attack had significantly higher maximum parasitemias than the surviving Colombian owl monkeys. Peak parasitemias were attained significantly earlier after patency in Panamanian than in Colombian owl monkeys, irrespective of the strain of P. falciparum. More Panamanian than Colombian owl monkeys evidenced self-limited infection after the primary attack of either the Vietnam Smith or Uganda Palo Alto strain. The duration of the primary attacks and recrudescences were significantly shorter in Panamanian than in Colombian owl monkeys. Mean peak parasitemias during recrudescence were usually higher in Panamanian owl monkeys than in Colombian monkeys. Differences of infection parameters were probably attributable, in part, to geographical origin of the two monkey hosts and parasite strains.

  19. The Colombian Community in Metropolitan New York; Who Are We and Where Are We Going?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofman, Amparo; Escala, Zuleynan

    1999-01-01

    Describes the Colombian immigrant community in New York as revealed through a survey conducted in May 1997. Study findings show that most of the Colombian immigrants were attracted to the United States because of better material and economic conditions. Once established, most succeed in becoming part of the workforce. (SLD)

  20. Forgiveness and reconciliation in the context of the Colombian armed conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángela Cortés

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Forgiveness and reconciliation are important in the transformation of cultural practices within peace processes. This study aimed to find ideas and beliefs that Colombians have about forgiveness and reconciliation. It is a qualitative study that used Grounded Theory and was performed with a sample of 45 men and women aged 18-65 from low, middle and high layers of society. Data was collected by means of a semi-structured interview. We analysed the narratives of participants and found the following emerging analytical categories: definitions of forgiveness, facilitating factors for forgiveness, definitions of reconciliation, conditions for reconciliation, and citizen skills involved in forgiveness and reconciliation.Main findings included definitions of forgiveness as a process of replacing negative emotions felt towards an aggressor with positive emotions and forgetting the aggression. In several cases, there seemed to be no significant differences between forgiveness and reconciliation. Participants highlighted dialogue as an important need for both forgiveness and reconciliation, and they also identified a commitment to not repeat the aggression and the need for the aggressors to experience consequences for their offenses as key factors.

  1. Cancer and fertility : strategies to preserve fertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diedrich, K.; Fauser, B. C. J. M.; Devroey, P.

    2011-01-01

    Fertility preservation is a key component of cancer management in young people. The Fourth Evian Annual Reproduction Workshop Meeting was held in April 2009 to discuss cancer and fertility in young adults. Specialists in oncology, assisted reproduction, embryology and clinical genetics presented pub

  2. Cancer and fertility : strategies to preserve fertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diedrich, K.; Fauser, B. C. J. M.; Devroey, P.

    Fertility preservation is a key component of cancer management in young people. The Fourth Evian Annual Reproduction Workshop Meeting was held in April 2009 to discuss cancer and fertility in young adults. Specialists in oncology, assisted reproduction, embryology and clinical genetics presented

  3. Fatherhood in Tall Men Treated with High-Dose Sex Steroids during Adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, A. E. J.; Boellaard, W. P. A.; van Casteren, N. J.; Romijn, J. C.; de Jong, F. H.; Boot, A. M.; Drop, S. L. S.

    2010-01-01

    Background/Objective: Sex steroid treatment to reduce final height of tall boys has been available since the 1950s. In women, it has been shown to interfere with fertility. In men, no such data are available. We therefore evaluated fertility and gonadal function in tall men who did or did not receiv

  4. Fatherhood in Tall Men Treated with High-Dose Sex Steroids during Adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, A. E. J.; Boellaard, W. P. A.; van Casteren, N. J.; Romijn, J. C.; de Jong, F. H.; Boot, A. M.; Drop, S. L. S.

    2010-01-01

    Background/Objective: Sex steroid treatment to reduce final height of tall boys has been available since the 1950s. In women, it has been shown to interfere with fertility. In men, no such data are available. We therefore evaluated fertility and gonadal function in tall men who did or did not

  5. Age and Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... method of assisted reproduction that involves combining an egg with sperm in a laboratory dish. If the egg fertilizes ... produced by the testes that fertilize a woman’s egg. The sperm head carries genetic material (chromosomes), the midpiece produces ...

  6. Plant fertilizer poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant fertilizers and household plant foods are used to improve plant growth. Poisoning can occur if someone swallows these products. Plant fertilizers are mildly poisonous if small amounts are swallowed. ...

  7. Fertility Clinic Success Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Autism 2013 Assisted Reproductive Technology Fertility Clinic Success Rates Report Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir 2013 ART Fertility Clinic Success Rates Report [PDF - 1MB] Bookmarks and thumbnails are ...

  8. In vitro fertilization (IVF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007279.htm In vitro fertilization (IVF) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. In vitro fertilization (IVF) is the joining of a woman's egg ...

  9. Evaluation of the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score to predict type 2 diabetes mellitus in a Colombian population: A longitudinal observational study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Diego; Gomez-Arbelaez; Laura; Alvarado-Jurado; Miguel; Ayala-Castillo; Leonardo; Forero-Naranjo; Paul; Anthony; Camacho; Patricio; Lopez-Jaramillo

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To assess the performance of the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score(FINDRISC) questionnaire for detecting and predicting type 2 diabetes mellitus(DM2) in a Colombian population.METHODS: This is a longitudinal observational study conducted in Floridablanca, Colombia. Adult subjects(age ≥ 35 years) without known diabetes, were included. A modified version of FINDRISC was completed, and the glycemia values from all the subjects were collected from the hospital’s database. Firstly, a cross-sectional analysis was performed and then, the subsample of prediabetic participants was followed for diabetes incidence. RESULTS: A total of 772 subjects were suitable for the study. The overall prevalence of undiagnosed DM2 was 2.59%, and the incidence of DM2 among the prediabetic participants was 7.5 per 100 person-years after a total of 265257 person-years follow-up. The FINDRISC at baseline was significantly associated with undiagnosed and incident DM2. The area under receiver operating characteristics curve of the FINDRISC score for detecting undiagnosed DM2 in both men and women was 0.7477 and 0.7175, respectively; and for predicting the incidence of DM2 among prediabetics was 71.99% in men and 67.74% in women. CONCLUSION: The FINDRISC questionnaire is a useful screening tool to identify cross-sectionally unknown DM2 and to predict the incidence of DM2 among prediabetics in the Colombian population.

  10. Procedure to validate sexual stimuli: reliability and validity of a set of sexual stimuli in a sample of young colombian heterosexual males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Vallejo-Medina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Penile plethysmography – or phallometric assessment – is a very relevant evaluation for sexual health. The objective of this research is to suggest a guideline to validate sexual stimuli and validate a set of sexual stimuli to assess “normative” sexual behavior in Colombian young heterosexual men. Six videos of 3:15 minute-long were used. A total of 24 men were assessed. Objective sexual arousal, the International Index of Erectile Function-5, Self-Assessment Manikin, Multidimensional Scale to Assess Subjective Sexual Arousal and socio-psycho-sexual questions were used. The results showed three sexual excerpts which were clearly superior to the others – something discordant with the subjective opinion of researchers. These three sexual excerpts generated internally consistent measurements; moreover, good indicators of external validity have been observed with statistically significant differences as expected. Furthermore, with a small healthy Colombian young population, it has been shown that the three stimuli produce objective sexual arousal if used together.

  11. 男性体外受精-胚胎移植男性患者抑郁状况及影响因素分析%Analysis of the Influencing Factors and Depression Status of Men Underwent In Vitro Fertiliza-tion and Embryo Transfer Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丹; 何瑛; 李健; 刘花艳; 蒋玲; 张静平

    2016-01-01

    目的:了解男性体外受精-胚胎移植(in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer,IVF-ET)男性患者的抑郁症状发生情况及其影响因素.方法2013年2-9月在中南大学湘雅二医院不孕生殖中心便利抽取202例接受 IVF-ET 治疗的男性患者,于治疗周期的第1天进行问卷调查,包括一般情况问卷、抑郁自评量表、社会支持评定量表、Olson 婚姻质量问卷(包括婚姻满意度、夫妻交流及性生活).结果男性 IVF-ET 患者的抑郁发生率为49%;单因素分析显示,抑郁组男性 IVF-ET 患者的社会支持总分、客观支持及主观支持得分均低于无抑郁组,婚姻质量3个分量表总分和性生活得分低于无抑郁组,差异均有统计学意义(P <0.01),且不同文化程度、住房面积、月收入、相关治疗费用、父母及自己对治疗的态度、舆论压力及是否有孩子者的抑郁发生率差异均有统计学意义(均 P <0.01);多因素 Logistic 回归分析显示,父母对治疗的态度、相关治疗费用及月收入是男性 IVF-ET 患者出现抑郁症状的重要影响因素(均 P <0.01).结论接受 IVF-ET 治疗的男性患者有较高的抑郁发生率,且受多种因素影响,不孕生殖中心医务人员对该类人群应给予必要的心理支持和帮助.%Objective To explore the prevalence of depression of men who underwent in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET)and its influencing factors.Methods Totally 202 men who visited the Infertility reproductive centers in the second xiangya hospital of central south university for IVF treat-ments were invited to join this study by randomize sampling method.All men completed Self-Designed Questionnaire,Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS),Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS)and Olson Marital Inventory (marital satisfaction level,spouse communication and sexual activity)at first day of IVF treat-ment cycle.Results The overall prevalence of depression was 49% for men

  12. The effect of human sperm hypoosmotic swelling patterns on sprem motility and men fertile capacity%低渗肿胀精子类型对精子活动率及男性生育能力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱跃; 朱杰

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨低渗肿胀精子类型对精子活动率及男性不育的影响.方法收集2009年8月至2010年12月就诊不育男性和正常已育男性精液标本各100份,常规精液分析后,按精子活动率分正常组(A≥25%或A+B ≥50%)、低活动率组(0<A+B<50%且A <25%)和无活动率组(A+B+C=0%),行精子低渗膨胀实验(HOST),根据精子尾部肿胀类型分为b~g6型结果正常组和低活动率组的精子总肿胀率分别显著高于无活动率组(P <0.0167),且正常组和低活动率组所有肿胀类型率分高于无活动率组(P< 0.0167).正常组与低活动率组之间差异不显著(P>0.0167).在正常男性以及不育男性间,低渗肿胀精率类型无显著差异(P>0.05).结论精子肿胀类型的差异可能与活动率有关,然而排除活动率的因素,精子的肿胀率与精子的胀类型并不能有效判断男性生育能力.%Objective To investigate the effect of hypoosmotic swelling patterns on sprem motility and male infertility. Methods From August 2009 to December 2010, semen specimens from 100 fertile males and 100 infertile males were conllected. After routine semen analysis, patients were divided into three groups by sperm motility, including normal sperm motility (A ≥25% or A + B≥50% ), lower sperm motility (0% 0.0167). Conclusion Sprem swelling patterns may related with motility ratio, however exclusive the factor of motility ratio, sperm swelling ratio and swelling patterns cant effectively judgment males fertility.

  13. Antioxidative effects of cerium dioxide nanoparticles ameliorate age-related male infertility: optimistic results in rats and the review of clinical clues for integrative concept of men health and fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobyliak, Nazarii M; Falalyeyeva, Tetyana M; Kuryk, Olena G; Beregova, Tetyana V; Bodnar, Petro M; Zholobak, Nadiya M; Shcherbakov, Oleksandr B; Bubnov, Rostyslav V; Spivak, Mykola Ya

    2015-01-01

    Male infertility has largely idiopathic, multifactorial origin. Oxidative stress is a major factor that affects spermatogenesis, in particular in aging. Cerium dioxide nanoparticles (CNPs) due to their antioxidative properties are promising to impact on the development of male infertility. The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of CNPs on fertility parameters in 24-month male rats and to overview relevant literature in the field of personalized treatments, predictive diagnosis, and preventive measures for male health and fertility. We included 30 24-month-old male rats. After a week of adaptation to the standard diet, the rats were randomly divided into three groups with ten rats in each. Group 1 (controls) received only a standard diet. The rats of group 2 and 3 in adjunct to the standard diet during 10 days received intragastrically 10 % sodium citrate and citrate-coated CNPs in dose 1 mg/kg, respectively. We assessed sex hormones, epididymal sperm parameters and spermatogenesis, ultrasound, and morphological data of rat reproductive organs. After a 10-day administration of CNPs, we revealed significant decrease of lipid peroxidation product levels in serum and increase of catalase and SOD activity, associated with increase of sperm count (p < 0.001) and improvement in quantitative sperm parameters (motility, viability, and percentage of spermatozoa). We found no significant changes between sperm quantitative parameters in citrate-treated rats and controls and observed age-related decrease of activated Leydig cell number and focal atrophy of the seminiferous tubules. In CNP group, we observed regeneration of seminiferous tubules, increase number and activation of Leydig cells, and 2.5-fold significant increase of serum testosterone. Ultrasound data showed the slight increase of linear measurement and volume of rat testes in CNP group. Review highlights the benefits for predictive diagnosis, preventive measures, and personalized approaches to

  14. Feminicide: Reality or Myth in Colombian Public Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Correa Corredor, Marien Yolanda; Mendoza-Pérez, Noris; Rincón-Guauque, Clara Milena; Arenas-Rueda, Yenny Marcela; Aguilar-Noriega, Erick Johann; Villamizar-Mendoza, José Eliecer

    2014-01-01

    This academic exercise is based on the state of the art on feminicide in six Latin Americancountries, including Colombia, over the past two decades to show the need to propose adefiition of feminicide, not as an aggravating aspect of homicide but as a separate offnseunder Colombian law. It was written based on the theory of feminicide of Diana MarcelaRussell and Lagard, in line with public policy to protect women victims and was the result oftwo completed research papers. Th conclusion is tha...

  15. Flotation kinetic constants of two Colombian coals’ vitrinite maceral

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Vitrinite maceral flotation kinetic constants are important in designing flotation columns to be used in separating this maceral group. This work shows the effect of pH, air speed and froth concentration on vitrinite maceral flotation kinetic constants by using two Colombian bituminous coals: El Cerrejón (Guajira) and La Jagua (Cesar). A 5 m high pilot-scale flotation column was used in all runs. The samples were processed using 4-10 pH, 0.7-2.1 cm/s air speed and 2-6 ml/kg of coal fro...

  16. Presence of Ruvettus pretiosus (Gempylidae in the Colombian continental Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Camila Gómez-Cubillos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The first record of Ruvettus pretiosus Cocco, 1833 for the Colombian continental Caribbean is presented. The specimen was collected at Los Cocos, department of Magdalena (11°16’33, 84’’ N 73°53’33, 01’’ W, using a demersal longline gear placed at 100 m depth. Biometrics, diagnosis and comments regarding its distribution, ecology and biology are included in the description. This new record expands the distribution of the species in the Caribbean Sea and increases the reported number of gempylids for Colombia to five.

  17. COGNITIVE-BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTION FOR PTSD IN COLOMBIAN COMBAT VETERANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAROLINA BOTERO GARCÍA

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The results of cognitive-behavioral group interventions applied from 2002 to 2004 to 42 colombian combat veteranswith Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD are presented. The goal of the study was to stablish the effectiveness ofthe group interventions based in Prolonged Exposition and Stress Inoculation treatment processes. Differencesbetween pre-in-post symptomatology scores of PTSD were measured by Foa Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale(PDS and the Beck Depression Inventory. The statistical analysis was made by t test for paired samples, with alpha of0.05. Results show significant decrease in symptomatology and severity level after the intervention both in depressionand PTSD symptoms.

  18. Methylmercury concentrations in six fish species from two Colombian rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Santiago; Jessick, Ashley M; Palacio, Jaime A; Kolok, Alan S

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether fish collected from the La Miel or Nechí Rivers (Colombia) differed in muscle methyl mercury (meHg) concentration. Two fish from six different species were collected from markets adjacent to each river. Overall, fish collected from the market adjacent to the Nechí River contained higher levels of meHg. This result however is being driven by very high meHg concentrations in four individual fish, three of which are Pimelodid, long-whiskered catfish. These catfish may represent ideal sentinel organism for the detection of meHg contamination in Colombian rivers.

  19. Cervical cancer detection by electrical impedance in a Colombian setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, David A.; Corzo, Sandra P.; González Correa, C. A.

    2013-04-01

    Electrical properties of normal and neoplastic cervical tissues in a heterogeneous group of 56 Colombian women were studied by electrical impedance spectroscopy and a model based on the Generalized Effective-Medium Theory of Induced Polarization (GEMTIP). Differences between the electrical bioimpedance spectra were correlated with cellular and tissue parameters. The analysis performed by the proposed model suggest that the number of different types of cellular layers that form the biological tissue, the intracellular and extracellular conductivity could be used to explain the differences between electrical bioimpedance spectra in normal and neoplastic tissues.

  20. Antifungal activity against postharvest fungi by extracts from Colombian propolis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meneses, Erick A.; Durango, Diego L.; Garcia, Carlos M. [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Medellin (Colombia). Facultad de Ciencias. Escuela de Quimica], e-mail: cmgarcia@unal.edu.co

    2009-07-01

    The aims of the present study were to evaluate the antifungal properties of Colombian propolis extracts against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Botryodiplodia theobromae, and to isolate and identify the main constituents from the active extracts. Therefore, propolis samples were thoroughly extracted with n-hexane/methanol (EPEM), dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and methanol. Experimental results indicated that mycelial growth of all selected microorganisms was reduced in culture media containing EPEM and dichloromethane fractions. Furthermore, through antifungal bioassay-guided fractionation, three known labdane-type diterpenes: isocupressic acid (1), (+)-agathadiol (2) and epi-13-torulosol (3) were isolated as the main constituents from the active fractions. (author)

  1. Antifungal activity against postharvest fungi by extracts from Colombian propolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick A. Meneses

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the present study were to evaluate the antifungal properties of Colombian propolis extracts against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Botryodiplodia theobromae, and to isolate and identify the main constituents from the active extracts. Therefore, propolis samples were thoroughly extracted with n-hexane/methanol (EPEM, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and methanol. Experimental results indicated that mycelial growth of all selected microorganisms was reduced in culture media containing EPEM and dichloromethane fractions. Furthermore, through antifungal bioassay-guided fractionation, three known labdane-type diterpenes: isocupressic acid (1, (+-agathadiol (2 and epi-13-torulosol (3 were isolated as the main constituents from the active fractions.

  2. Phytoalexin Accumulation in Colombian Bean Varieties and Aminosugars as Elicitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Echeverri

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available The accumulation of isoflavonoid phytoalexins was studied in several Colombian bean cultivars resistant and susceptible to Colletotrichum lindemuthianum fungus, the causal agent of anthrachnose disease. A time-course accumulation analysis on seedlings treated with CuCl2 showed that phaseollin production was higher in resistant cultivars than in susceptible ones. Also, a defensive role of phytoalexins was demostrated when extracts containing this pterocarpan exhibited antifungal activity against C. lindemuthianum. In addition, the elicitor activity of some aminosugars was also established.

  3. Cancer and fertility: strategies to preserve fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrich, K; Fauser, B C J M; Devroey, P

    2011-03-01

    Fertility preservation is a key component of cancer management in young people. The Fourth Evian Annual Reproduction Workshop Meeting was held in April 2009 to discuss cancer and fertility in young adults. Specialists in oncology, assisted reproduction, embryology and clinical genetics presented published data and ongoing research on cancer and fertility, with particular focus on strategies to preserve fertility. This report is based on the expert presentations and group discussions, supplemented with publications from literature searches and the authors' knowledge. Fertility preservation should be considered for all young people undergoing potentially gonadotoxic cancer treatment. A variety of options are required to facilitate safe and effective fertility preservation for individual patients. Sperm banking is a simple and low-cost intervention. Embryo cryopreservation is the only established method of female fertility preservation. Oocyte cryopreservation offers a useful option for women without a male partner. Emergency ovarian stimulation and cryopreservation of ovarian tissue (followed by tissue transplantation or in-vitro maturation of oocytes) are experimental techniques for women who require urgent cancer treatment. Further prospective studies are required to validate cryopreservation of oocytes and ovarian tissue, in-vitro maturation of oocytes and new vitrification techniques and to identify any long-term sequelae of slow freezing of embryos.

  4. Incidences and Analyses of Green Marketing Strategy in Colombian Exports Incidences and Analyses of Green Marketing Strategy in Colombian Exports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Marie Zwerg-Villegas

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available As environmental awareness plays a more prominent role in purchasing decisions, as consumers demand improved corporate responsibility, and as national governments implement regulation of not just the immediate firm’s environmental impact, but instead on the impact throughout the value chain; those corporations which participate in green marketing strategies will be positioned for marketplace competitive advantage. This paper takes the reader through a literature review to define green marketing and applies the term to Colombian exporting firms recognized for their environmental practices or products. A survey of seventy-five small and medium sized Colombian exporters determines usage and perceptions of green marketing practices. Research indicates that Colombian small and medium sized firms do not yet feel market pressures to adopt green marketing strategies, but do so based on corporate level ethics.Mientras la conciencia ambiental juega un papel más importante en las decisiones decompra, los consumidores demandan mejoras en la responsabilidad corporativa y losgobiernos nacionales implementan legislación para reglamentar no solo el impactoambiental de la empresa inmediata sino también de la cadena de valor entera; lascorporaciones que participan en estrategias de mercadeo verde se posicionarán parala ventaja competitiva en el mercado. Esta obra lleva al lector por un recuento literariopara definir al mercadeo verde y después aplica el término a empresas colombianas exportadoras reconocidas por sus prácticas o productos ambientales. La encuestade setenticinco pequeñas y medianas empresas exportadoras determina el uso ypercepciones de las prácticas de mercadeo verde. La investigación demuestra queempresas pequeñas y medianas colombianas no sienten presiones del mercado poradoptar estrategias verdes sino se hace por ética corporativa.

  5. Satisfaction with life as an antecedent of fertility: Partner + Happiness = Children?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Parr

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the relationships between satisfaction with life in general, particular domains of life, the partner, and parental relationships with existing children, and subsequent fertility. The data are from 2,948 women and 2,622 men aged 15 to 44 years from a longitudinal survey of the household population in Australia. For both sexes a strong positive relationship between prior satisfaction with life and fertility two years later is found. Men's satisfaction with their partner and with their partner's relationship with existing children are positively related to fertility. Fertility is also related to age, parity, marital status, education, employment and birthplace.

  6. EPR and Fluorescence Spectroscopy in the Photodegradation Study of Arabian and Colombian Crude Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen L. B. Guedes

    2006-01-01

    W/m2. The reduction in the linewidth of the free radical of 9.8% in Arabian oil and 18.5% in Colombian oil, as well as the decrease in radical numbers, indicated photochemical degradation, especially in Colombian oil. The linewidth narrowing corresponding to free radicals in the irradiated oils occurred due to the rearrangement among radicals and aromatic carbon consumption. The irradiated oils showed a reduction in the relative intensity of fluorescence of the aromatics with high molecular mass, polar aromatics, and asphaltene. The fluorescent fraction was reduced by 61% in Arabian oil and 72% in Colombian oil, corresponding to photochemical degradation of crude oil aromatic compounds.

  7. Heroes of our time. The figure of the drug-trafficker in Colombian narcotelenovelas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Palaversich

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the representation of drug traffickers in Colombian narcotelenovelas. While the Colombian official discourse treats these characters as the embodiment of evil and cruelty, narcotelenovelas treat them as models of social mobility in countries characterized by social injustice. The figure of drug trafficker (narcotraficante represented in Colombian TV series is constructed at the intersection of two myths: the ancient myth of the social bandit, a brave macho man who steals from the rich and gives to the poor, and the contemporary myth about the capitalist entrepreneur (a self-made man who rises from poverty and marginality to a position of power and wealth.

  8. Men's Role and Men's Lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, James B.

    1978-01-01

    The growing literature on men is clearly a response to the cultural ferment generated by feminism. However, as in the discussion of women's lives since the first advent of feminism, centuries of assumptions do not give way readily to appropriate scientific skepticism. (Author/MC)

  9. The Familial and the Familiar: Locating Relatedness in Colombian Donor-conception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Malissa Kay

    2017-09-20

    In this article, I explore how women undergoing in-vitro fertilization with familial or anonymous egg donors located relatedness with a donor-conceived child through familial and social identities. Recognizing gametes as substances that contain biological and sociocultural/behavioral traits, shaped women's narratives around interconnected notions of the familial and familiar, or the social understanding of biological and social inheritance, and knowledge of the genetic materials involved. Women's narratives of relatedness reflect their relationships with family and society and their desire to reproduce these relationships in their child(ren), a process that reproduces prevailing Colombian social values and notions of ideal citizens. En este artículo exploro cómo las mujeres que hacen uso de la fecundación in vitro con donantes de óvulos familiares o anónimos construyen relaciones de parentesco con sus hijos a través de identidades familiares y sociales. El reconocimiento de los gametos como sustancias que contienen rasgos biológicos y socioculturales/conductuales, da forma a las narrativas de las mujeres en torno a nociones interconectadas de lo familial y familiar es decir la comprensión social de la herencia biológica y social así como también moldean el conocimiento de los materiales genéticos involucrados en la proceso de fecundación in vitro. Las narrativas de parentesco de las mujeres que participaron de este estudio reflejan sus relaciones con la familia y la sociedad y su deseo de reproducir estas relaciones en su(s) hijo(s), un proceso que reproduce los valores sociales colombianos predominantes y las nociones de ciudadanos ideales.

  10. Chromosomal Abnormality in Men with Impaired Spermatogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Mierla

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chromosomal abnormalities and Y chromosome microdeletions are regarded as two most frequent genetic causes associated with failure of spermatogenesis in the Caucasian population. Materials and Methods: To investigate the distribution of genetic defects in the Romanian population with azoospermia or severe oligozoospermia, karyotype analysis by G-banding was carried out in 850 idiopathic infertile men and in 49 fertile men with one or more children. Screening for microdeletions in the azoospermia factor (AZF region of Y chromosome was performed by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR on a group of 67 patients with no detectable chromosomal abnormality. The results of the two groups were compared by a two-tailed Fisher’s exact test. Results: In our study chromosomal abnormalities were observed in 12.70% and 8.16% of infertile and fertile individuals respectively. Conclusion: Our data suggests that infertile men with severe azoospermia have higher incidences of genetic defects than fertile men and also patients from any other group. Infertile men with normal sperm present a higher rate of polymorphic variants. It is important to know whether there is a genetic cause of male infertility before patients are subjected to intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI or testicular sperm extraction (TESE/ICSI treatment.

  11. The changing role of men since ICPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, J V

    1999-01-01

    The Cairo Programme of Action released in September 1994 offered concrete actions for improving the quality of life of all people. Key recommendations included: 1) empowering women in the economic, political and social arenas; 2) removing gender inequalities in education; 3) integrating family planning with related efforts to improve maternal and child health and prevent the spread of HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections; 4) increasing financial and human resources commitments; and 5) strengthening cooperation between the public and private sectors in implementing these goals. In this report, men's role in bringing about gender equality is presented. Specific actions cited included: 1) promotion of equal participation of men and women in family and household responsibilities, as well as in community life; 2) emphasize men's responsibility to support their children and family financially; 3) development of initiatives engaging men's support for maternal health and safe motherhood; and 4) legislation for regulating men's fertility.

  12. Fertilization in northern forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedwall, Per Ola; Gong, Peichen; Ingerslev, Morten

    2014-01-01

    resources into food, health and industrial products and energy. Fertilization in Sweden and Finland is currently practiced by extensive fertilization regimens where nitrogen fertilizers are applied once, or up to three times, during a rotation period, mainly in mature forest. This type of fertilization......Forests of northern ecosystems respond slowly to management activities and the possibilities to increase the growth in a short-term perspective and meet swift increases in society's demand for biomass are small. An exception among the silvicultural measures is fertilization which can be applied...... in combination with present management systems and, almost instantly, enhances forest productivity. There may, however, be both economic and environmental constraints to large-scale applications of fertilizers in forest. Here we review the literature concerning biomass production of forests under different...

  13. Fertility Preservation for Female

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jack Huang; Seang Lin Tan; Ri-Cheng Chian

    2006-01-01

    Preservation of female fertility is an important issue today. However, there are few effective clinical options for preserving female fertility. Firstly, conventional in vitro fertilization (IVF) followed by embryo cryopreservation is an accepted procedure but is not applicable to all women. Embryo freezing is suitable only for women with a male partner and may not be acceptable to some patients due to moral and religious reasons. Ovarian tissue freezing is another option of female fertility preservation but is an invasive procedure and the efficacy of this technique remains to be determined.Oocyte cryopreservation is also method for fertility preservation. Egg freezing is minimally invasive and can avoid the ethical and moral concerns related to cryopreservation of embryos. However, conventional slow freezing/rapid thawing methods are associated with low survival of oocytes. Recent development in vitrification of oocytes appears promising. Therefore, vitrification of unfertilized eggs may be a novel method to preserve female fertility.

  14. The role of SPRASA in female fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Angela; Holland, Olivia J; Tong, Mancy; Shelling, Andrew N; Chamley, Lawrence W

    2015-04-01

    Fertility is a complex process and infertility can have many causes. Sperm protein reactive with antisperm antibody (SPRASA)/sperm lysozyme-like protein 1 is a protein discovered as the target of autoantibodies in infertile men and previously thought to be expressed only in sperm. Using a bovine in vitro fertilization model, we have shown that SPRASA antiserum reduced sperm binding to zona-free oocytes and the development of embryos to morulae but did not affect the postfertilization cleavage rate to 2 cells or sperm motility. We demonstrated that SPRASA was expressed in ovarian follicles, corpora lutea, and oocytes by a combination of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. Female mice immunized with SPRASA had profound infertility following timed matings and those mice that did become pregnant had reduced fetal viability. The levels of antibodies reactive with SPRASA in 204 fertile and 202 infertile couples were elevated in 3 infertile but no fertile women. Together, these results indicate that SPRASA has a role in female fertility.

  15. The Strengthening of the Colombian Air Force: An Effective Strategy on the Road to Negotiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janiel Melamed Visbal

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses how the strengthening of the Colombian Air Force since the beginning of the new millennium, resulted in the military weakening of the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC-EP. These circumstances, along with the overall strengthening of the national security forces allowed to develop the proper conditions to initiate a set of peace talks between the most remarkable insurgent organization and the Colombian State, in very different conditions from previous experiences.

  16. Strategies in the Colombian Telecommunication Market – Seen Through the Perspective of Porter

    OpenAIRE

    Arbin, Bodil; Jönsson, Lars Holmberg and Caroline

    2006-01-01

    The most important conclusion we can draw from our research is that Porter´s three generic strategies, mainly the differentiation strategy, still are frequently used in the Colombian telecommunication market. Another conclusion is that a high-speed changing environment, such as the Colombian market, demands that the operators combine and integrate their strategy with other secondary strategies to become succesful. They can not, as Porter says, only depend on one strategy

  17. Evaluating Colombian SMEs’ technological innovation: Part 1: conceptual basis, evaluation methodology and characterisation of innovative companies

    OpenAIRE

    Óscar Fernando Castellanos Domínguez; Luz Marina Torres; Aida Mayerly Fúquene Montañez

    2010-01-01

    Innovative processes currently constitute one of the most important alternatives for increasing organisations’ levels of competitiveness and productivity. The Colombian state (being conscious of this) has generated mechanisms aimed at encouraging technological and innovative development activities in SMEs, as was the case with the Colombian Prize for Entrepreneurial Technological Innovation for SME (Innova) 2006. The experience acquired through the technical evaluation of such prize was a ...

  18. Reliability of Health-Related Physical Fitness Tests among Colombian Children and Adolescents: The FUPRECOL Study

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson Ramírez-Vélez; Diogo Rodrigues-Bezerra; Jorge Enrique Correa-Bautista; Mikel Izquierdo; Felipe Lobelo

    2015-01-01

    Substantial evidence indicates that youth physical fitness levels are an important marker of lifestyle and cardio-metabolic health profiles and predict future risk of chronic diseases. The reliability physical fitness tests have not been explored in Latino-American youth population. This study's aim was to examine the reliability of health-related physical fitness tests that were used in the Colombian health promotion "Fuprecol study". Participants were 229 Colombian youth (boys n = 124 and g...

  19. The Cost of Collateralized Borrowing in the Colombian Money Market: Does Connectedness Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Constanza Martínez; Carlos León

    2014-01-01

    Under the view that the market is a weighted and directed network (Barabási, 2003), this document is a first attempt to model the Colombian money market within a spatial econometrics framework. By estimating two standard spatial econometric models, we study the cost of collateralized borrowing (i.e. sell/buy backs) among Colombian financial institutions, and its relationship with the effects induced by traditional variables (leverage, size and borrowing levels), and by spatial variables resul...

  20. Fertilization in echinoderms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santella, Luigia; Vasilev, Filip; Chun, Jong T

    2012-08-31

    For more than 150 years, echinoderm eggs have served as overly favored experimental model systems in which to study fertilization. Sea urchin and starfish belong to the same phylum and thus share many similarities in their fertilization patterns. However, several subtle but fundamental differences do exist in the fertilization of sea urchin and starfish, reflecting their phylogenetic bifurcation approximately 500 million years ago. In this article we review some of the seminal and recent findings that feature similarities and differences in sea urchin and starfish at fertilization.

  1. Sexuality, fertility, and renal transplantation: a survey of survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schover, L R; Novick, A C; Steinmuller, D R; Goormastic, M

    1990-01-01

    A questionnaire on sexual function and fertility was completed by 54 men and 36 women, at an average of 3 years after successful renal transplant. Sexual desire increased significantly compared to reports of levels 6 months pretransplant. Men also had improved erectile function and ability to reach noncoital orgasms. About a quarter of men and women remained sexually dysfunctional, however. The frequency of sexual activity and overall sexual satisfaction did not improve significantly. Marital status and satisfaction were in the normal range for this group, except that those who became ill before adulthood were less likely to have married or have had children. Infertility was a major concern for 10% of the sample. Regular menstrual cycles were present in 64% of women under age 50, representing a significant improvement after transplantation. Three men fathered a child and two women became pregnant after transplantation. Most patients wanted more information on sexuality, fertility, and renal disease.

  2. Common Elements Treatment Approach based on a Cognitive Behavioral Intervention: implementation in the Colombian Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Gabriela Pacichana-Quinayáz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Due to the limited supply of mental health services for Afro-Colombian victims of violence, a Common Elements Treatment Approach (CETA intervention has been implemented in the Colombian Pacific. Given the importance of improvement in mental health interventions for this population, it is necessary to characterize this process. This article seeks to describe the implementation of CETA for Afro-Colombian victims of violence in Buenaventura and Quibdó, Colombia through case studieswith individual in-depth interviews with Lay Psychosocial Community Workers (LPCW, supervisors, and coordinators responsible for implementing CETA. From this six core categories were obtained: 1. Effect of armed conflict and poverty 2. Trauma severity 3. Perceived changes with CETA 4. Characteristics and LPCW’s performance 5. Afro-Colombian culturalapproach and 6. Strategies to promote users’ well-being.Colombian Pacific’s scenario implies several factors, such as the active armed conflict, economic crisis, and lack of mental health care resources, affecting the implementation process and the intervention effects. This implies the need to establish and strengthen partnerships between institutions in order to administer necessary mental health care for victims of violence in the Colombian Pacific.

  3. Common Elements Treatment Approach based on a Cognitive Behavioral Intervention: implementation in the Colombian Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacichana-Quinayáz, Sara Gabriela; Osorio-Cuéllar, Gisel Viviana; Bonilla-Escobar, Francisco Javier; Fandiño-Losada, Andrés; Gutiérrez-Martínez, María Isabel

    2016-06-01

    Due to the limited supply of mental health services for Afro-Colombian victims of violence, a Common Elements Treatment Approach (CETA) intervention has been implemented in the Colombian Pacific. Given the importance of improvement in mental health interventions for this population, it is necessary to characterize this process. This article seeks to describe the implementation of CETA for Afro-Colombian victims of violence in Buenaventura and Quibdó, Colombia through case studieswith individual in-depth interviews with Lay Psychosocial Community Workers (LPCW), supervisors, and coordinators responsible for implementing CETA. From this six core categories were obtained: 1. Effect of armed conflict and poverty 2. Trauma severity 3. Perceived changes with CETA 4. Characteristics and LPCW's performance 5. Afro-Colombian culturalapproach and 6. Strategies to promote users' well-being.Colombian Pacific's scenario implies several factors, such as the active armed conflict, economic crisis, and lack of mental health care resources, affecting the implementation process and the intervention effects. This implies the need to establish and strengthen partnerships between institutions in order to administer necessary mental health care for victims of violence in the Colombian Pacific.

  4. Extensive Listening in a Colombian University: Process, Product, and Perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Mayora

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The current paper reports an experience implementing a small-scale narrow listening scheme (one of the varieties of extensive listening with intermediate learners of English as a foreign language in a Colombian university. The paper presents (a how the scheme was designed and implemented, including materials and procedures (the process; (b how the students performed in the different activities with an emphasis on time spent watching/listening and their perceptions of video difficulty and self-rated comprehension (the product; and (c how the students felt and viewed the experience (perception. Product and perceptions showed that the pedagogical implementation was positive which leads to a discussion of a number of implications for this context and similar ones.

  5. 2nd Colombian Congress on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics

    CERN Document Server

    Cristancho, Marco; Isaza, Gustavo; Pinzón, Andrés; Rodríguez, Juan

    2014-01-01

    This volume compiles accepted contributions for the 2nd Edition of the Colombian Computational Biology and Bioinformatics Congress CCBCOL, after a rigorous review process in which 54 papers were accepted for publication from 119 submitted contributions. Bioinformatics and Computational Biology are areas of knowledge that have emerged due to advances that have taken place in the Biological Sciences and its integration with Information Sciences. The expansion of projects involving the study of genomes has led the way in the production of vast amounts of sequence data which needs to be organized, analyzed and stored to understand phenomena associated with living organisms related to their evolution, behavior in different ecosystems, and the development of applications that can be derived from this analysis.  .

  6. Business Cycle and Risk Premium in the Colombian Stock Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Mauricio Gómez Sánchez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Through the Hodrick-Prescott methodology this paper presents a review about the relationship between the ex post risk premium of the stock market and business cycles observed in Colombia. Through quarterly information from the fourth quarter of 2001 to the third quarter of 2012, statistical evidence shows that the increase and decrease of ex post risk premium follow a countercyclical behavior in tune with existing research conducted about the United States and emerging economies, although with non-contemporary relationships with private consumption. In addition, it is found that in the last decade the Colombian risk premium follows a process of Auto Regressive Moving Average Models (ARMA, showing that there is no variation in at least two consecutive quarters and whose behavior is generated in part by external events at the domestic economic activity level experienced in near past periods.

  7. Curriculum, human development and integral formation within the colombian caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Rodríguez Akle

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the reality of the colombian Caribbean from the perspective of human development integral to start to understand that problematic situations are opportunities to enhance the transformations that allow to retrieve the subject social and collective. So the reconstruction of regional identity from the contributions of educational communities that build-oriented curriculum to become full, proactive, people with leadership and management capacity for sustainable development in a changing world. The article proposes some strategies to address alternatives to a society in which the quality of life and human dignity are the sense of the daily work in the context of the caribbean colombianidad and globalism in practice.  

  8. Dismemberment: cause of death in the Colombian armed conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morcillo-Méndez, Maria Dolores; Campos, Isla Yolima

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to illustrate major findings in the recovery and analysis of victims, where dismemberment is the cause of death, but also a manner of torture within the context of the armed conflict in Colombia. It is intended to provide useful analytical information and to contribute to the correct interpretation of forensic analyses in cases of dismemberment and/or in the examination of human remains within the context of the Colombian armed conflict. The importance of including dismemberment as an opinion in the forensic report by correlating the findings on the body, the grave and context of the information available, and the accounts on the facts is encouraged. Otherwise these cases will be recorded as undetermined cause of death, which does not reflect the brutality of the war.

  9. Antiprotozoal and cytotoxic activities in vitro of Colombian Annonaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, Edison; Arango, Gabriel Jaime; Jiménez, Nora; Alzate, Fernando; Ruiz, Grace; Gutiérrez, David; Paco, Marco Antonio; Giménez, Alberto; Robledo, Sara

    2007-05-22

    Ethnobotanical and chemotaxonomical studies for antiparasitic activity of Colombian Annonaceae were carried out. In vitro antiprotozoal activity of 36 extracts obtained from six different species was determined against promastigotes of three Leishmania species, epimastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi and both chloroquine sensitive (F32) and resistant (W2) Plasmodium falciparum. Cytotoxic activity was evaluated in U-937 cells. Active extracts were selected according their selectivity index (SI). Extracts from Annona muricata, Rollinia exsucca, Rollinia pittieri and Xylopia aromatica were active against Leishmania spp. and Trypanosoma cruzi showing IC50 values lower than 25 microg/ml. Hexane extract from Rollinia pittieri leaves was the most selective against Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania spp. (IS=10 and 16, respectively). The extracts from Desmopsis panamensis, Pseudomalmea boyacana, Rollinia exsucca and Rollinia pittieri showed good antiplasmodial activity (IC50 Annonaceae extracts. Results presented here also demonstrate which plants and/or plant parts could be useful in the treatment of leishmaniasis, Chagas' disease and malaria.

  10. Antioxidant activity of twenty five plants from Colombian biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquera, Oscar M; Correa, Yaned M; Buitrago, Diana C; Niño, Jaime

    2007-08-01

    The antioxidant activity of the crude n-hexane, dichloromethane, and methanol extracts from 25 species belonging to the Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae, Rubiaceae, and Solanaceae families collected at natural reserves from the Eje Cafetero Ecorregión Colombia, were evaluated by using the spectrophotometric 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical-scavenging method. The strongest antioxidant activities were showed by the methanol and dichloromethane extracts from the Euphorbiaceae, Alchornea coelophylla (IC50 41.14 mg/l) and Acalypha platyphilla (IC50 111.99 mg/l), respectively. These two species had stronger DPPH radical scavenging activities than hydroquinone (IC50 151.19 mg/l), the positive control. The potential use of Colombian flora for their antioxidant activities is discussed.

  11. Fertilizer Use and Water Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reneau, Fred; And Others

    This booklet presents informative materials on fertilizer use and water quality, specifically in regard to environmental pollution and protection in Illinois. The five chapters cover these topics: Fertilizer and Water Quality, Fertilizer Use, Fertilizers and the Environment, Safety Practices, and Fertilizer Management Practices. Key questions are…

  12. Fertilizer Use and Water Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reneau, Fred; And Others

    This booklet presents informative materials on fertilizer use and water quality, specifically in regard to environmental pollution and protection in Illinois. The five chapters cover these topics: Fertilizer and Water Quality, Fertilizer Use, Fertilizers and the Environment, Safety Practices, and Fertilizer Management Practices. Key questions are…

  13. Frustrated fertility: a population paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcfalls Ja, J

    1979-05-01

    This Bulletin examines the causes of subfecundity -- the diminished ability to reproduce -- and its effect today and in the past on the fertility, or actual reproductive performance, of individuals and, hence, populations. By definition, all real populations are subfecund since all experience some degree of involuntary biological factors affecting coitus, conception, or the ability to carry a conceptus to live birth which reduces their fecundity below the estimated biological population maximum of 15 children per woman. Affecting both men and women, these factors fall into 5 categories: genetic factors such as blood group incompatibilities and inherited sickle cell anemia or diabetes; psychopathology, including psychic stress and behavioral disorders (e.g., drug and alcohol abuse); infectious diseases such as gonorrhea, malaria, tuberculosis, and postabortion infection; malnutrrition, including the chronic undernutrition of the 3rd World and the overnutrition of developed societies; and hazards posed by increasing amounts of radiation and toxic chemicals in the environment. Reducing subfecundity requires improved living conditions, avoidance of or protection from known hazards, and adoption of medical advances which now can help 40 to 60% of subfecund couples. But even in the U.S. fertility would certainly rise among the 15% of couples now estimated to be involuntarily childless and the 10% who have fewer children than they want, and among disadvantaged groups, and teenagers.

  14. Correlations in fertility across generations: can low fertility persist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolk, Martin; Cownden, Daniel; Enquist, Magnus

    2014-03-22

    Correlations in family size across generations could have a major influence on human population size in the future. Empirical studies have shown that the associations between the fertility of parents and the fertility of children are substantial and growing over time. Despite their potential long-term consequences, intergenerational fertility correlations have largely been ignored by researchers. We present a model of the fertility transition as a cultural process acting on new lifestyles associated with fertility. Differences in parental and social influences on the acquisition of these lifestyles result in intergenerational correlations in fertility. We show different scenarios for future population size based on models that disregard intergenerational correlations in fertility, models with fertility correlations and a single lifestyle, and models with fertility correlations and multiple lifestyles. We show that intergenerational fertility correlations will result in an increase in fertility over time. However, present low-fertility levels may persist if the rapid introduction of new cultural lifestyles continues into the future.

  15. [Socio-demographic, Psychiatric and Legal Characterization of Colombian Unimputable Patients, 2000-2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar-Echavarría, Juliana; Molina-Osorio, Sergio Ignacio; Restrepo-Bernal, Diana Patricia

    Mental illness has been associated with violent behaviour. Criminal behavior in the mentally ill population in Colombia has not been well studied. This is a retrospective, descriptive study, from a secondary source. An analysis was made of the sociodemographic, clinical, and legal variables of 127 unfit to plead patients. A descriptive analysis of quantitative variables was performed by measures of central tendency, and frequencies and percentages were calculated for the qualitative variables. The software SPSS(®) version 21.0 was used to analyse the data, and the study was approved by the Research Committee of the CES University. The median age was 34 years, interquartile range 19 years, and 92.1% were men. The primary diagnosis was schizophrenia in 63%, 66.9% consumed alcohol, and 58.3% other drugs at the time they committed the crime. Almost one/third (29.1%) had a criminal record, and the most common type of crime was murder in 44.1% of cases. Around half (50.3%) of the victims had some degree of consanguinity with the patient. The study subjects had higher illiteracy and lower educational levels than the Colombian prison population. Schizophrenia was the main diagnosis, and homicide the most prevalent crime, which agrees with the literature where non-indictable patients are responsible for 5%-20% of murder cases worldwide. To reduce the gap between the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders, especially schizophrenia, should be within the specific actions to prevent violence and criminal behavior associated with mental illness. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  16. Infertility in men with inflammatory bowel disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Takeshi Shin; Hiroshi Okada

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease(IBD) predominantly affects young adults. Fertility-related issues are therefore im-portant in the m-anagem-ent of patients with IBD. However, relatively m-odest attention has been paid to reproductive issues faced by m-en with IBD. To investigate the effects of IBD and its treatm-ent on m-ale fertility, we reviewed the current literature using a system-atic search for published studies. A PubM ed search were perform-ed using the m-ain search term-s "IBD AND m-ale infertility", "Crohn’s disease AND m-ale infertility", "ulcerative colitis AND m-ale infertility". References in review articles were used if relevant. We noted that active inflammation, poor nutrition, alcohol use, sm-oking, m-edications, and surgery m-ay cause infertility in m-en with IBD. In surgery such as proctocolectom-y with ileal pouch-anal anastom-osis, rectal incision seem-s to be associated with sexual dysfunction. Of the m-edications used for IBD, sulfasalazine reversibly reduces m-ale fertility. No other m-edications appear to affect m-ale fertility significantly, although sm-all studies suggested som-e adverse effects. There are lim-ited data on the effects of drugs for IBD on m-ale fertility and pregnancy outcom-es; however, patients should be inform-ed of the possible effects of paternal drug exposure. This review provides inform-ation on fertility-related issues in m-en with IBD and discusses treatm-ent options.

  17. Family systems and fertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moenkediek, Bastian

    2016-01-01

    This thesis studies the role of regional family organization principles, so called family systems, for explaining fertility behaviours in different parts of Europe. Studying family systems and its impact on fertility is important, because many aspects of societal life, such as the organization of we

  18. Partner selection among Latino immigrant men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Fernanda T; Shedlin, Michele G; Brooks, Kelly D; Montes Penha, Marcelo; Reisen, Carol A; Zea, Maria Cecilia; Poppen, Paul J

    2010-12-01

    This qualitative study explored partner selection in a sample of immigrant Latino men who have sex with men (MSM). In-depth interviews were conducted with men living in the greater New York metropolitan area who had been born in Brazil (n = 10), Colombia (n = 14), or the Dominican Republic (n = 9). One focus group was conducted with MSM from each of the three countries (9 Brazilian, 11 Colombian, and 5 Dominican participants). A grounded theory approach revealed three main themes relating to partner selection. The first concerned stereotypes of how Latino and Anglo-American men tend to behave in their sexual encounters and relationships. The participants perceived Latinos to be more affectionate and passionate, whereas they saw Anglo-American men as more independent and practical. These cultural discrepancies sometimes resulted in a preference for Latino partners. A second theme concerned stereotypes of the national groups, including expectations that Brazilians would be sexy and sensual and that Dominicans would have large penises. As found in other research on MSM of color, ethnic and national stereotypes were associated with experiences of sexual objectification. The third theme addressed the importance of masculine characteristics in sexual attraction and partner selection. Negative feelings towards effeminate men who did not conform to normative male physical or behavioral presentation reflect a stigma found inside and outside of the gay community. These findings suggest that gender and ethnic stereotypes play an important role in shaping partner choice and have implications for sexual risk and relationship formation.

  19. Fertility decline in Paraguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Kanako; Stupp, Paul; Melian, Mercedes

    2009-09-01

    Recent reproductive health surveys show that the fertility rate in Paraguay decreased precipitously from 4.3 lifetime births per woman in 1995-98 to 2.9 births in 2001-04. In this study, we establish data consistency between the 1998 and 2004 surveys by comparing a series of cohort-specific period rates and use the Bongaarts framework of proximate determinants of fertility to demonstrate that an increase in the contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR) between 1998 and 2004 fully accounts for the fertility decline. Decomposition of rates shows that changes in group-specific CPRs explain a greater proportion of the change in the overall CPR than do changes in population composition by educational attainment, urban residence, region, and language spoken at home. Finally, we show that younger cohorts of women in 2004 reported ideal completed fertility desires of less than 2.9 births, suggesting that the fertility rate is likely to continue to decrease.

  20. [Socioeconomic variables and fertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arguello, O

    1980-08-01

    While making comparative analyses of data collected by the World Fertility Survey regarding Latin America, a group of investigators of CELADE (Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia) realized that the selection of economic variables for the study of fertility had serious limitations. Such limitations did not allow the elaboration of a theory which took into account the complicated process of fertility, in all its socioeconomic, cultural, and psychological manifestations. Thus, this paper intends to lay the theoretical basis for the selection of all relevant variables, distinguishing, for example, the average fertility of women according to area of residence, place of early socialization, migrant status, social status, occupation of husband, level of instruction, occupation, and all changes in occupational activities of women in fertile age.

  1. Nonmarital Fertility and the Effects of Divorce Rates on Youth Suicide Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messner, Steven F.; Bjarnason, Thoroddur; Raffalovich, Lawrence E.; Robinson, Bryan K.

    2006-01-01

    Using pooled, time-series data for a sample of 15 developed nations, we assess the effect of divorce rates on gender-specific suicide rates for youths aged 15-19 with models of relative cohort size, lagged nonmarital fertility, and an interaction term for divorce rates and nonmarital fertility. The results reveal that, for young men, relative…

  2. The economics of fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loraine, J A

    1982-01-01

    The statement that economics and fertility are closely interrelated is a truism. The classical economists--Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Karl Marx, John Stuart Mill and John Maynard Keynes appreciated this fact, and their reviews are recounted and their prescience is assessed. Adam Smith (1723-1790) was primarily concerned with the desire of humankind to better his/her material conditions. Although he did not put forward a specific population policy, the tenet of his writing is pronatalist. Economic advantages would accrue to parents by the production of many children. Yet, underneath Smith's optimism, there was an apocalyptic vision of the distant future, i.e., the "steady state" when resources would be depleted or near exhaustion, when capital accumulation would have ceased, and living standards would be dropping vertiginously. In his 1st "Essay on Population" Malthus maintained that "the power of population is infinitely greater than the power of the earth to produce subsistence of men." Malthus can be complimented on his prescience. There is little question that the planet of today is grossly overpopulated and that a great gulf exists between numbers of people and their aspirations and the resources which the earth can provide for them. Malthus was particularly concerned about the population food dilemma, and that is still much in evidence in 1982. 2 concomitants of overpopulation--excessive urbanization and joblessness--could not be foreseen by Malthus. Marx did not deny the basic tenet promulgated by Malthus but to him this was simply an artifact of capitalist society which required "enormous reserves of proletarians" in order to maintain its odius system. Officially Communist governments remain in a Marxist straitjacket regarding the population issue. Mills approach was strongly antinatalist; he saw little need for an increase in human numbers. Mills was concerned that because of unlimited population growth and wealth the earth would lose much of its

  3. Fertility and Commuting Behaviour in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Huinink

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fertility behaviour is closely related to other dimensions of the individual life course, which are strongly interrelated themselves. Regarding the impact of job-related spatial mobility, empirical findings show a negative correlation between having children and commuting, particularly for women. Up to now, fertility intentions have not been thoroughly investigated in this respect. Longitudinal studies are lacking, too. In this paper, the effects of commuting arrangements of men and women on the intention of having a child within the next two years as well as the probability of realising this intention are addressed. The assumption is, that after accounting for other important factors (employment status, level of qualification, type of consensual union, number of children, residential mobility, medium- and long-distance commuting is negatively related to the fertility intention of women and its realisation. For men, effects are assumed to be nonexistent or even slightly positive. Longitudinal data from the first three waves of the German “Panel Analysis of Intimate Relationships and Family Dynamics” (pairfam are used to test the hypotheses. Firstly, a cross-sectional, multivariate probit-regression (with correlated errors on the intention to have a child within two years, on being childless and on medium- and long- distance commuting is applied. The model shows no significant correlation between commuting and the intention to have a child; it does however show a correlation between medium- and long distance commuting and the probability of women to be childless. Secondly, a longitudinal difference model on changing fertility intentions between panel wave 1 and wave 3 is estimated. For women, a positive effect can be found of interrupting medium- and long-distance commuting or, surprisingly, continuing medium- and long-distance commuting on the intention to have a child within two years. Thirdly, for men and women who reported a fertility

  4. Avaliação da eficácia adaptativa de mulheres e homens inseridos num programa de fertilização in vitro Evaluación de la eficacia adaptativa de mujeres y hombres inseridos en un programa de fertilización in vitro Evaluation of adaptive efficacy of men and women inserted in an in vitro fertilization programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Káthia Regina Ferreira D'Campos Corrêa

    2007-08-01

    los grupos "Adaptación Ineficaz Leve" y "Adaptación Ineficaz Intensa", respectivamente (p=0.000. Se verificó que el 20.2% de las personas estaban en crisis, siendo el 8,8 % de los hombres y el 31,6 % de las mujeres (p=0.002. Se concluyó que los hombres tenían mejor eficacia adaptativa que las mujeres durante el PFIV. Se sugiere seguimiento psicológico preventivo e intervenciones específicas, para los momentos críticos.Objective: to evaluate the adaptive efficacy of men and women inserted in an in vitro fertilization program (IVFP. Methods: Fifty-seven couples were evaluated, being 57 infertile women and their respective fertile partners, from March to October of 2002, from a Center of Human Reproduction. Questionnaire was employed to elicit socio-demographic data. The Operationalized Adaptive Diagnostic Scale (EDAO was used for the diagnosis of adaptation. Statistical analysis was performed using T test and qui-square test. A significance level of 5% was adopted. Results: Regardless presenting few difficulties, men showed a better adaptation than women. Regarding the diagnosis, 64.9% men and 52.6% were classified in "Light Ineffective Adaptation" and "Severe Ineffective Adaptation", respectively (p=0.000. It was observed that 20.2% of the subjects were in crisis: 8.8% of the men and 31.6% of the women (p=0.002. Conclusions: Men had a better adaptive efficacy compared to the women during IVFP. It was suggested the need for preventive psychological attendance, and specific interventions during the crisis.

  5. Communication and coping as predictors of fertility problem stress: cohort study of 816 participants who did not achieve a delivery after 12 months of fertility treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, L; Holstein, B E; Christensen, Ulla

    2005-01-01

    participants (n = 816, men and women) who had not achieved pregnancy by assisted reproduction or delivery at follow-up. RESULTS: Among both men and women, difficulties in partner communication predicted high fertility problem stress (odds ratio for women, 3.47, 95% confidence interval 2.09-5.76; odds ratio......BACKGROUND: We investigated coping strategies and communication strategies as predictors of fertility problem stress 12 months after start of fertility treatment. METHODS: We used a prospective, longitudinal cohort design including 2250 people beginning fertility treatment with a 12-month follow......-up. Data were based on self-administered questionnaires measuring communication with partner and with other people, coping strategies: active-avoidance coping, active-confronting coping, passive-avoidance coping, meaning-based coping, and fertility problem stress. The study population included those...

  6. Fine root dynamics for forests on contrasting soils in the Colombian Amazon

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    E. M. Jiménez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been hypothesized that as soil fertility increases, the amount of carbon allocated to below-ground production (fine roots should decrease. To evaluate this hypothesis, we measured the standing crop fine root mass and the production of fine roots (<2 mm by two methods: (1 ingrowth cores and, (2 sequential soil coring, during 2.2 years in two lowland forests growing on different soils types in the Colombian Amazon. Differences of soil resources were defined by the type and physical and chemical properties of soil: a forest on clay loam soil (Endostagnic Plinthosol at the Amacayacu National Natural Park and, the other on white sand (Ortseinc Podzol at the Zafire Biological Station, located in the Forest Reservation of the Calderón River. We found that the standing crop fine root mass and the production was significantly different between soil depths (0–10 and 10–20 cm and also between forests. The loamy sand forest allocated more carbon to fine roots than the clay loam forest with the production in loamy sand forest twice (mean±standard error=2.98±0.36 and 3.33±0.69 Mg C ha−1 yr−1, method 1 and 2, respectively as much as for the more fertile loamy soil forest (1.51±0.14, method 1, and from 1.03±0.31 to 1.36±0.23 Mg C ha−1 yr−1, method 2. Similarly, the average of standing crop fine root mass was higher in the white-sands forest (10.94±0.33 Mg C ha−1 as compared to the forest on the more fertile soil (from 3.04±0.15 to 3.64±0.18 Mg C ha−1. The standing crop fine root mass also showed a temporal pattern related to rainfall, with the production of fine roots decreasing substantially in the dry period of the year 2005. These results suggest that soil resources may play an important role in patterns of carbon allocation to the production of fine roots in these forests as the proportion of carbon allocated to above- and below-ground organs is different

  7. Age-specific fertility by educational level in the Finnish male cohort born 1940‒1950

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    Jessica Nisén

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Education is positively associated with completed fertility rate (CFR among men in Nordic countries, but the age patterns of fertility by educational level are poorly documented. Moreover, it is not known what parities contribute to the higher CFR among more highly educated men. Objective: To describe men's fertility by age, parity, and education in Finland. Methods: The study is based on register data covering the male cohort born in 1940‒1950 (N=38,838. Education was measured at ages 30‒34 and classified as basic, lower secondary, upper secondary, and tertiary. Fertility was measured until ages 59‒69. We calculated completed and age-specific fertility rates, and decomposed the educational gradient in CFR into parity-specific contributions. Results: The more highly educated men had more children (CFR: basic 1.71 and tertiary 2.06, had them later (mean age at having the first child: basic 26.1 and tertiary 28.1, and had them within a shorter interval (interquartile range of age at having the first child: basic 5.8 and tertiary 5.2. The educational gradient in the cumulative fertility rate was negative at young ages but turned positive by the early thirties. High levels of childlessness among those with a basic education explained three-quarters of the CFR difference between the lowest and highest educational groups. Fertility at ages above 45 was low and did not widen the educational gradient in CFR. Conclusions: The fact that highly educated men have more children than their counterparts with less education is largely attributable to higher fertility levels at older ages and the lower probability of remaining childless. Variation in fertility timing and quantity is wider among men with a low level of education.

  8. CONSUMO DE ALCOHOL Y FACTORES DE RIESGO EN ESTUDIANTES DE DOS UNIVERSIDADES COLOMBIANAS. (ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION AND RISK FACTORS IN STUDENTS OF TWO COLOMBIAN UNIVERSITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Hugo Cano Bedoya

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue identificar factores de riesgo del consumo de alcohol en estudiantes universitarios colombianos. Participaron 397 mujeres y 312 hombres, estudiantes de dos universidades privadas y católicas de la ciudad de Medellín (Colombia. Los resultados identificaron como factores de riesgo las dificultades para decir “no” a la gente (p=0.012 y el consumo de sustancias psicoactivas por miembros de la familia (p=0.022.Abstract:The objective of the current research was to identify the risk factors associated to alcohol consumption of Colombian University students. 397 women and 312 men, students from two private and Catholic universities in the city of Medellín (Colombia took part in it. The results identified as risk factors the difficulties to say 'no' to the people (p=0.012 and the consumption of psychoactive substances by members of the family (p=0.022.

  9. Vitamin D and fertility: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerchbaum, Elisabeth; Obermayer-Pietsch, Barbara

    2012-05-01

    Vitamin D has been well-known for its function in maintaining calcium and phosphorus homeostasis and promoting bone mineralization. There is some evidence that in addition to sex steroid hormones, the classic regulators of human reproduction, vitamin D also modulates reproductive processes in women and men. The aim of this review was to assess the studies that evaluated the relationship between vitamin D and fertility in women and men as well as in animals. We performed a systematic literature search in Pubmed for relevant English language publications published until October 2011. The vitamin D receptor (VDR) and vitamin D metabolizing enzymes are found in reproductive tissues of women and men. Vdr knockout mice have significant gonadal insufficiency, decreased sperm count and motility, and histological abnormalities of testis, ovary and uterus. Moreover, we present evidence that vitamin D is involved in female reproduction including IVF outcome (clinical pregnancy rates) and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). In PCOS women, low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels are associated with obesity, metabolic, and endocrine disturbances and vitamin D supplementation might improve menstrual frequency and metabolic disturbances in those women. Moreover, vitamin D might influence steroidogenesis of sex hormones (estradiol and progesterone) in healthy women and high 25(OH)D levels might be associated with endometriosis. In men, vitamin D is positively associated with semen quality and androgen status. Moreover, vitamin D treatment might increase testosterone levels. Testiculopathic men show low CYP21R expression, low 25(OH)D levels, and osteoporosis despite normal testosterone levels.

  10. Management of ejaculatory disorders in infertile men

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yagil Barazani; Peter J Stah; Harris M Nagler; Doron S Stember

    2012-01-01

    Ejaculatory dysfunction is a highly prevalent clinical condition that may be classified along a continuum that ranges from premature ejaculation (PE),through retarded or delayed ejaculation (DE),to complete anejaculation (AE).Retrograde ejaculation (RE) represents a distinct entity in which ejaculate is expelled either partially or completely into the bladder.While DE and PE are significant sources of sexual dissatisfaction among men and their partners,patients with these disorders retain normal fertility in most cases.Conversely,men with AE and RE are unable to deliver sperm into the female genital tract and are therefore rendered subfertile.Therefore,in reviewing ejaculatory disorders as they relate to fertility,this paper will primarily focus on the diagnosis and management of AE and RE.Physiology,diagnostic strategies,pharmacological treatments,and procedural interventions relevant to AE and RE are discussed.

  11. [Hermit crabs (Anomura: Paguroidea) distribution patterns in the Colombian Caribbean Sea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Campos, Bibian; Hernando Campos, Néstor; Bermúdez Tobón, Adriana

    2012-03-01

    Hermit crabs represent the marine life in the Colombian Caribbean, and are important for the dynamic equilibrium maintenance in ecosystems, the ecological interactions and their impact on food web stability. Generally, in order to come up with some conservation strategies, strong bio-geographical information is needed for poll cies definition. With this aim, this study analyzed the distribution patterns of hermit crabs in the Colombian Caribbean Sea. through classification and spatial ordination multivariate analyses, using historical records from years 1916 to 2006. Besides, the world distribution of Colombian species and their geographic affinity in the Caribbean and Western Atlantic were identified. The results show deep differences between coastal and continental slope faunas, and latitudinal differences in the assemblages, with the identification of three groups: Northeast. Center and Southwest. The differences in faunal composition that support these three groups were determined. Based on maps of the Colombian marine ecosystems, it was found that the main factors affecting the distribution of hermit crabs were the Caribaná slope (depth), water-mass temperature, Guajira sea-grass beds, and particular conditions of "Coralline Archipelagos" and "Darién" eco-regions. Colombian hermit crab fauna is more related to the North Atlantic and the Antilles, than to the South Atlantic and the Gulf of Mexico. Additionally, geographical sub-provinces in which Colombia is included, these were found as transition zones among Northern and Austral subprovinces of the Greater Caribbean.

  12. Optimizing Natural Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... heavy alcohol consumption (> 2 drinks per day), heavy caffeine consumption, and the use of recreational drugs such as marijuana have all been associated with reduced fertility. Therefore, women (and ... alcohol and caffeine use, and avoid smoking and all recreational drugs ...

  13. Commercial Nitrogen Fertilizer Purchased

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Amounts of fertilizer nitrogen (N) purchased by states in individual years 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009 and 2011, and the % change in average amounts purchased per year...

  14. Chapter VII. Predicting Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Section 2. Visual and Microscopic Approaches for Differentiating Unfertilized Germinal Discs and Early dead Embryos from Pre-Incubated Blastoderms Section 3. Predicting the Duration of fertility by Counting Sperm in the Outer Perivitelline Layer of Laid Eggs...

  15. Cancer and fertility preservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambertini, Matteo; Del Mastro, Lucia; Pescio, Maria C

    2016-01-01

    cryopreservation and embryo/oocyte cryopreservation are standard strategies for fertility preservations in male and female patients, respectively; other strategies (e.g. pharmacological protection of the gonads and gonadal tissue cryopreservation) are considered experimental techniques. However, since then, new......In the last years, thanks to the improvement in the prognosis of cancer patients, a growing attention has been given to the fertility issues. International guidelines on fertility preservation in cancer patients recommend that physicians discuss, as early as possible, with all patients...... of reproductive age their risk of infertility from the disease and/or treatment and their interest in having children after cancer, and help with informed fertility preservation decisions. As recommended by the American Society of Clinical Oncology and the European Society for Medical Oncology, sperm...

  16. Commercial Phosporus Fertilizer Purchased

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Amounts of fertilizer P2O5 purchased by states in individual years 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009 and 2011, and the % change in average amounts purchased per year from...

  17. Seminal androgens, oestradiol and progesterone in oligoasthenoteratozoospermic men with varicocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalata, A; El-Mogy, M; Abdel-Khabir, A; El-Bayoumy, Y; El-Baz, M; Mostafa, T

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to assess seminal androgens, oestradiol, progesterone levels in oligoasthenoteratozoospermic (OAT) men with varicocele (Vx). In all, 154 men with matched age and body mass index were investigated that were divided into healthy fertile controls (n = 35), OAT men with Vx (n = 55), OAT men without Vx (n = 64). They were subjected to assessment of semen parameters, seminal levels of testosterone (T), androstenedione (A), 5α-androstane-3 α,17 β-diol (3 α-diol), oestradiol (E2 ), 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) and progesterone (P). Seminal levels of T and A were significantly decreased where seminal levels of 3 α-diol, E2 , 17-OHP, P were significantly higher in OAT men with/without Vx compared with fertile controls. Sperm count, sperm motility and sperm normal forms percentage demonstrated significant positive correlation with seminal T and A and significant negative correlation with seminal 3 α-diol, E2 , P. It is concluded that in fertile men, seminal T and A are significantly increased and seminal 3 α-diol, E2 , 17-OHP, P are significantly decreased compared with infertile OAT men with/without Vx. Association of Vx demonstrated a nonsignificant influence on these hormonal levels in OAT cases. Sperm count, sperm motility and sperm normal forms demonstrated significant positive correlation with seminal T, A and significant negative correlation with seminal 3 α-diol, E2 , P.

  18. Gender equality and fertility intentions revisited: Evidence from Finland

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    Anneli Miettinen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Stimulated by the recent debate on gender roles and men's fertility behaviour (Puur et al. 2008; Westhoff and Higgins 2009; Goldsheider, Oláh and Puur 2010, we present evidence from Finland as a country well into the second phase of the so-called gender revolution. We examine how gender role attitudes relate to childbearing intentions at the onset of family life, intentions to have many (3 or more children, and high personal fertility ideals among low-parity men and women. Gender equality attitudes are measured for both the public and the domestic sphere and the influence of work and family orientation is controlled for. Finding signs of a U-shaped association among men, we conclude that both traditional and egalitarian attitudes raise men's expected fertility compared to men with intermediate gender attitudes and independently of family values. Among Finnish women the impact of gender attitudes is smaller and more ambiguous.

  19. Clonal population structure of Colombian sylvatic Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez, E; Arcos-Burgos, M; Triana, O; Moreno, J; Jaramillo, N

    1998-12-01

    Isoenzyme variability and evidence of genetic exchange were evaluated in 75 wild stocks of Trypanosoma cruzi obtained from different hosts from 5 geographical regions within the endemic area in Colombia. Cluster analysis of genetic variability was attempted. Thirty-three multilocus enzyme genotypes (clonets) were identified from 75 stocks, 27 of which clustered with zymodeme Z1 and 6 with zymodeme Z3. Two stocks isolated from human infections showed the potential risk to rural communities in Colombia. The stocks exhibited departures from Hardy-Weinberg expectations, including both fixed heterozygote and fixed homozygote demes, where both segregation and recombination were absent. To inspect for population subdivision that might falsely imply clonality in these stocks, Wright's F statistics were calculated. Theta values (Fst) were significantly different from 0 when 33 clonets, 27 Z1-like clonets, and 5 geographical subpopulations were compared; thus, a significant amount of divergence has occurred between and within them. In addition, linkage disequilibrium was detected for most possible pairwise comparisons of loci. In conclusion, the above results all support a scenario of long-term clonal evolution in Colombian sylvatic T. cruzi populations.

  20. [Leptospiral antibodies in a Colombian zoo's neotropical primates and workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Marlyn H; Astudillo, Miryam; Sánchez, Jorge A; González, Lina M; Varela, Néstor

    2011-10-01

    Detecting antibodies against Leptospira spp. in Neotropical primates and workers in a Colombian Zoo and identifying the risk factors associated with the disease. A cross-sectional study was performed regarding 65 Neotropical primates and 20 zookeepers. The samples were processed by microagglutination test (MAT) using a reference strain collection consisting of 21 Leptospira serovars. The people being evaluated were given a structured survey to identify risk factors. There was 25 % (5/20) Leptospira spp. infection seroprevalence in the staff and 23.07 % (15/65) in Neotropical monkeys. The most frequently occurring serovars in workers were bataviae, gryppotyphosa and ranarum; icterohaemorrhagiae, pomona and ranarum were the predominant serovars in non-human primates. The black spider monkey (Ateles fusciceps), white-fronted capuchin (Cebus albifrons) and white-footed tamarin (Saguinus leucopus) showed the highest reactivity. Most of the personnel were using protective clothing. The contact between primates and zookeepers involving different Leptospira sp. serovars was evident. Zoo personnel using protective clothing and their length of experience were considered to be protective factors for the disease. There may be a risk of Leptospira transmission between zoo animals and staff, and it is therefore important to strengthen active surveillance and implement promotion and prevention programs.

  1. Leaching of oxadyxil and tebuconazole in Colombian soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldana, M; De Prado, R; Martínez, M J

    2011-01-01

    Lake Tota (Boyaca, Colombia) supplies water for human consumption, agriculture and industry for more than 500.000 people. Oxadixyl and Tebuconazole are fungicides used in onion crops in the lake catchment area. The mobility of pesticides in soil, bioavailability and transfer to other environmental compartments depend on sorption and desorption kinetics and mechanisms. An understanding of these processes is essential for transport modeling and the rational design of corrective measures against pollution. A displacement study was performed on a hand packed soil column in laboratory conditions. A pulse of 0,01 M CaCl2 solution, containing a tracer (Bromide) and the fungicides Oxadixyl y Tebuconazole, was injected. Column experiment was performed at 0.078 cmh(-1) flow rate under unsaturated conditions. Eluates were collected in flasks at constant intervals and the volumes of eluate were recorded. After rainfall simulation, the soil from the column was sliced into six successive sections (5 cm). Methanol extraction was used to determine the fungicide in each soil section. Samples were measured by HPLC. Only Oxadixyl was recovered in leachates. Unlike bromide breakthrough curve, Oxadixyl was asymmetrical, with early breakthrough and increased tailing. The percentage eluted was 96.7% after ten pore volumes. Tebuconazole showed the highest retention in the first five cm of soil layer. The results suggest that oxadyxil presents highs risk to leachate through the soil profile and that Tebuconazole is strongly absorbed in Colombian soil.

  2. Antibacterial Activity of Aluminum in Clay from the Colombian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londono, S Carolina; Hartnett, Hilairy E; Williams, Lynda B

    2017-02-21

    The problems of antibiotic overuse compel us to seek alternative antibacterial agents. Some clays have been shown to kill antibiotic-resistant human pathogens and may provide an alternative to known antibiotics. Here we show that Al toxicity plays a central role in the antibacterial action of a kaolin-rich clay from the Colombian Amazon (AMZ). Antibacterial susceptibility testing shows minimum inhibitory concentrations of 80 mg/mL against a model Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922). The clay buffered the media pH to ∼4.6 and Eh values to +360 mV. Chemical analysis of AMZ and bacteria showed that Al, P, and transition metals (Fe, Cu, Mn, and Zn) were exchanged during incubation at 37 °C. Only Al derived from the clay exceeded the minimum inhibitory concentrations for E. coli under acidic conditions. Ion imaging showed elevated Al levels in the bacterial membrane, and high intracellular Fe levels, relative to those of untreated controls. Phosphorus depletion in E. coli after reaction with AMZ, together with evidence of membrane permeabilization, suggests that Al reacts with membrane phospholipids, enhancing intracellular transport of metals. These results highlight the importance of dissolved Al for amplifying the toxicity of transition metals to human pathogens.

  3. The prevalence of Microfilaria spp. in primates of colombian zoos

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    Rosmery Ladino De La Hortúa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of Microfilaria spp in 266 human and non human primates of Colombian zoos located between 5 and 2850 meters over sea level (mosl was of 6.39% (17/266. Most of them were adult males Saguinus leucopus, Saguinus oedipus, Saimiri sciureus and Aotus sp; corresponding to Matecaña, Santa Fe and Santacruz zoos, located between 1.001-2.000 mosl. The microfilarias species observed in this study are morphologically compatible with Dipetalonema perstans and Microfilaria bolivarensis, using direct drop technique, Woo, extended of central blood and capillary dyed with Giemsa and Knott, The most sensible technique was extended of central blood dyed with Giemsa. The statistical program used was Epi info 6.1, to determinate prevalence by sex, age, species, zoo, technique and altitude, with a significance level of (P = 0.05. The Saguinus leucopus showed high quantities of microfilaremias with sickness signs, so they were considered reservoirs and / or porter of the microfilarias.

  4. Microstructural and Mechanical Properties of Alkali Activated Colombian Raw Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Criado

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Microstructural and mechanical properties of alkali activated binders based on blends of Colombian granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS and fly ash (FA were investigated. The synthesis of alkali activated binders was conducted at 85 °C for 24 h with different slag/fly ash ratios (100:0, 80:20, 60:40, 40:60, 20:80, and 0:100. Mineralogical and microstructural characterization was carried out by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX and Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR. Mechanical properties were evaluated through the compressive strength, modulus of elasticity and Poisson’s ratio. The results show that two different reaction products were detected in the slag/fly ash mixtures, a calcium silicate hydrate with Al in its structure (C-A-S-H gel and a sodium aluminosilicate hydrate (N-A-S-H gel with higher number of polymerized species and low content in Ca. It was found that with the increase of the amount of added slag, the amount of C-A-S-H gel increased and the amount of N-A-S-H gel decreased. The matrix was more dense and compact with almost absence of pores. The predominance of slag affected positively the compressive strength, Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio, with 80% slag and 20% fly ash concrete being the best mechanical performance blend.

  5. Applying life cycle management of colombian cocoa production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Orlando Ortiz-R

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The present research aims to evaluate the usefulness of the application of Life Cycle Management in the agricultural sector focusing on the environmental and socio-economic aspects of decision making in the Colombian cocoa production. Such appraisal is based on the application of two methodological tools: Life Cycle Assessment, which considers environmental impacts throughout the life cycle of the cocoa production system, and Taguchi Loss Function, which measures the economic impact of a process' deviation from production targets. Results show that appropriate improvements in farming practices and supply consumption can enhance decision-making in the agricultural cocoa sector towards sustainability. In terms of agri-business purposes, such qualitative shift allows not only meeting consumer demands for environmentally friendly products, but also increasing the productivity and competitiveness of cocoa production, all of which has helped Life Cycle Management gain global acceptance. Since farmers have an important role in improving social and economic indicators at the national level, more attention should be paid to the upgrading of their cropping practices. Finally, one fundamental aspect of national cocoa production is the institutional and governmental support available for farmers in face of socio-economic or technological needs.

  6. Colombian/Venezuelan prospects post-Americas coal conference `98

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    The 1998 Americas Coal Conference took place in Cartagena, Colombia in late April. This article presents some highlights from the conference. Ivan Daza, President of Carbocol, gave an overview of the role of Colombian coal in the world, an outlook for supply and demand, a review of the status of carbocol`s privatisation, expansion and third party access to El Cerrejon`s infrastructure. Eric Ford presented a paper on the historical developmental of Carbonnes del Cerrejon and of the potential future of the company. Mike Tracey, President of Drummond Colombia, gave an update on Mina Pribbenow and mentioned the acquisition of two new reserves El Descanso and Guamaral and the reconstruction of the railway between Mina Pribbenow and the port. Maria Cecilla Ruiseco presented the viewpoint of Carbones del Carcibe and the future of coal exports from the Cesar Deposit. A paper by Dr. Lujan of Ferrovias outlined plans to privatise the railway system, concentrating on the section linking central Colombia to the West Atlantic coast. Marcel van den Berg talked on the present and future outlook for Venezuelan coal exports. 1 fig., 2 photos.

  7. Scopic regimes, discipline, and subjects. arts education in Colombian school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Alexander Sosa Gutiérrez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the conditions in which Arts education emerges in the Colombian school system at the end of 18th century and the beginning of 19thcentury as a process of taking ownership of Enlightenment discourses belonging to Modernity. Based on that, it describes scopic regimes -understood as points of view that become a production way of the visual thing mobilized by school, since it is a cross-cutting find in this search which showed four stages in the process of introducing Arts education in Colombia: 1. Pedro Rodríguez de Campomanes’ Enlightenment discourse on popular education in Arts aimed at transforming craft guilds, 2. The creation of a relationship between Arts and science during the Botanical Expedition and the establishment of drawing workshops, 3. The creation of the Republican public instruction system with the promotion of Lancasterian system with utilitarian purposes. 4. The circulation of geometrical drawing manuals and the introduction of objective teaching (Pestalozzian methods.

  8. Problematic Internet use in a sample of Colombian university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Ximena Puerta-Cortés

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Internet is a tool that facilitates the development of academic and social activities, business and entertainment. However, particular bevavior may arise in relation with its overuse. This research aims to identify sociodemographic characteristics and type of Internet use in a sample of Colombian university students and relate it to the possible use problematic. The sample consisted of 595 students from the University of Ibagué of 16-34 years of age who completed all three sections of the questionnaire: (1 socio-demographic data, (2 Internet usage information and (3 an adapted version of the Internet Addiction Test - IAT- (Young, 1998a. The results showed two groups, one with controlled use of the internet (88% and one with problematic use (12 %, only one case showed addictive use. Problematic Internet use was related to the number of hours  pent on social networks, chat, sites with adult content and movies. The use of these Internet applications generated interference in daily activities.

  9. THE EPIPHYTIC BRYOPHYTE FLORA OF THE COLOMBIAN AMAZON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAURA V. CAMPOS

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available An inventory of 384 plots on 64 trees, in four localities across the Colombian Amazon region (Amazonas, Caquetá, Putumayo, Vaupés, yielded 160 species of epiphytic bryophytes (116 of liverworts, 44 of mosses, in 64 genera and 26 families. Sampling was carried out in four non-seasonally flooded forests (Terra Firme, where bryophytes where collected from the base to the outer canopy, of 16 trees per locality. The flora is characterized by dominance of liverworts, especially Lejeuneaceae. The families with the highest number of records were Lejeuneaceae (55%, Calymperaceae (10%, Lepidoziaceae (8%, Octoblepharaceae (6% and Sematophyllaceae (5%. The most common genera in number of records were Cheilolejeunea (11%, Pycnolejeunea (8%, Archilejeunea (8% Ceratolejeunea (8% and Syrrhopodon (7%.Syrropodon and Lejeunea were the most species-rich genera, followed by Ceratolejeunea and Cheilolejeunea. In average, the localities had 102 species in sixteen phorophytes. In terms of species richness and composition there were no significant differences between the four localities.

  10. Colombian experience in applying rules concerning agricultural biosecurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Silva C.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Genetic engineering has made possible the creation of Genetic Modified Organisms (GMOs, or transgenic crops. The growth around the world of transgenic crops areas for commercial purposes, such as soybean, maize, canola and cotton is being amazing: from 1.7 million hectares in 1996 to 52.6 million in 2001. Historically, not many technologies have reached, in such a short period of time, such a higher adoption. The use of these technologies, nevertheless their well-known benefits, has brought some worries related with biosafety. In Colombia the Colombian Institute for Agriculture and Cattle (ICA, its Spanish acronym in order to introduce GMOs to the country and prevent or minimize the potential risk for agriculture generated by this kind of organisms, has established two instruments: the Agreement 013/98, creating the National Technical Biosafety Committee (CTN, its Spanish acronym, intersectorial adviser organism; and the Resolution 3492/98, establishing procedures for introduction, production, reléase and marketing of GMOs for agricultural purposes. Under this regulations, ICA has approved five different requests involving eight events with GMOs: carnation for commercial multiplicación purposes; cotton and rice for evaluation genotype in field at a small scale; cassava, brachiaria, stylozantes, coffee and sugar cane for research in genetic improvement throughout genetic engineering techniques in confined handling. Based on the accomplished experience, the future will make improve the legal and institutional instruments, as well as technical and scientific capacity of the country in biosafety. 

  11. Male fertility in Greece: Trends and differentials by education level and employment status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Tragaki

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: More than downplayed, the role of men in the demographic analysis of reproduction has been entirely neglected. However, male fertility can be an important issue for exploring how economic and employment uncertainties relate to fertility and family dynamics. Objective: This paper intends to study fertility variations over time, relying solely on data referring to father's socio-demographic characteristics; in particular, their age, education level, and employment status. Methods: We use a combination of Labor Force Survey and Demographic Statistics data on population and Vital Statistics on births to estimate male fertility indicators and fertility differentials by education level and employment status, for the period 1992-2011 in Greece. In addition, over-time developments in male TFR are separated into structural (education-specific and employment-specific distributions and behavioral (fertility, per se changes. Results: We find that the male fertility level is declining, the fertility pattern is moving into higher ages, and the reproduction period for men is getting shorter. From 1992 up to 2008, changes in male fertility were mostly driven by behavioral rather than compositional factors. However, the decline of male fertility over the period of economic recession (2008-2011 is largely attributed to the continuous decrease in the proportions of employed men. Conclusions: The study suggests that male fertility merits further exploration. In particular, years of economic downturn and countries where household living standards are mostly associated with male employment, a father's employability is likely to emerge as an increasingly important factor of fertility outcomes.

  12. Sperm chromatin structure assay results in Nigerian men with unexplained infertility

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Faduola, Paul; Kolade, Charles Oluwabukunmi

    2015-01-01

    .... This study aimed to compare the extent of sperm DNA damage in sperm samples from Nigerian men with unexplained infertility and in sperm samples from a fertile group composed of sperm donors who had...

  13. Associations between dietary patterns and semen quality in men undergoing IVF/ICSI treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vujkovic, M.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Dohle, G.R.; Bonsel, G.J.; Lindemans, J.; Macklon, N.S.; Spek, van der P.J.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Steegers-Theunissen, R.P.M.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study investigates whether dietary patterns, substantiated by biomarkers, are associated with semen quality. METHODS: In 161 men of subfertile couples undergoing in vitro fertilization treatment in a tertiary referral clinic in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, we assessed nutrient intake

  14. Associations between dietary patterns and semen quality in men undergoing IVF/ICSI treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vujkovic, M.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Dohle, G.R.; Bonsel, G.J.; Lindemans, J.; Macklon, N.S.; Spek, van der P.J.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Steegers-Theunissen, R.P.M.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study investigates whether dietary patterns, substantiated by biomarkers, are associated with semen quality. METHODS: In 161 men of subfertile couples undergoing in vitro fertilization treatment in a tertiary referral clinic in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, we assessed nutrient

  15. Associations between dietary patterns and semen quality in men undergoing IVF/ICSI treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vujkovic, M.; de Vries, J. H.; Dohle, G. R.; Bonsel, G. J.; Lindemans, J.; Macklon, N. S.; van der Spek, P. J.; Steegers, E. A. P.; Steegers-Theunissen, R. P. M.

    This study investigates whether dietary patterns, substantiated by biomarkers, are associated with semen quality. In 161 men of subfertile couples undergoing in vitro fertilization treatment in a tertiary referral clinic in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, we assessed nutrient intakes and performed

  16. Notes for a Genealogy of Dress Codes and Aestheticizing Technologies in the Colombian School

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    Alexánder Aldana Bautista

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This article shows an analysis of the schoolchild’s construction from a series of aestheticizing technologies that constitute a child’s body in which the aesthetic utopia of modern school is inscribed. The paper, derived from an archaeological–genealogical research about school uniform and dress codes in the Colombian school during the late twentieth century and the early twenty– first century revolves around the following questions: What enabled the emergence of some discourses about school bodies, appropriate appearance and attire in the Colombian school? How did the school subject became a properly uniformed, seemly, neat, respectful and beauty person?

  17. New species of Lachesilla Westwood in the pedicularia group (Psocodea: 'Psocoptera': Lachesillidae) from the Colombian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchola, Oscar Fernando Saenz; Aldrete, Alfonso Neri García; Obando, Ranulfo González

    2015-02-05

    Two species of Lachesilla, in the pedicularia species group, from the Colombian Amazonia, are here described and illustrated. Also, a record of L. asymmetriproctus García Aldrete, for the Colombian Department of Putumayo is provided. An identification key to Lachesilla species in the pedicularia group with a single male clunial apophysis is presented, together with a diagnosis of this assemblage of species. A table is included indicating the distribution of Lachesilla species with one and two male clunial apophyses. The species treated in this paper constitute the first lachesillids known from the Department of Putumayo, Colombia. 

  18. Percentage of Body Fat and Fat Mass Index as a Screening Tool for Metabolic Syndrome Prediction in Colombian University Students

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    Robinson Ramírez-Vélez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available High body fat is related to metabolic syndrome (MetS in all ethnic groups. Based on the International Diabetes Federation (IDF definition of MetS, the aim of this study was to explore thresholds of body fat percentage (BF% and fat mass index (FMI for the prediction of MetS among Colombian University students. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1687 volunteers (63.4% women, mean age = 20.6 years. Weight, waist circumference, serum lipids indices, blood pressure, and fasting plasma glucose were measured. Body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA and FMI was calculated. MetS was defined as including more than or equal to three of the metabolic abnormalities according to the IDF definition. Receiver operating curve (ROC analysis was used to determine optimal cut-off points for BF% and FMI in relation to the area under the curve (AUC, sensitivity, and specificity in both sexes. The overall prevalence of MetS was found to be 7.7%, higher in men than women (11.1% vs. 5.3%; p < 0.001. BF% and FMI were positively correlated to MetS components (p < 0.05. ROC analysis indicated that BF% and FMI can be used with moderate accuracy to identify MetS in university-aged students. BF% and FMI thresholds of 25.55% and 6.97 kg/m2 in men, and 38.95% and 11.86 kg/m2 in women, were found to be indicative of high MetS risk. Based on the IDF criteria, both indexes’ thresholds seem to be good tools to identify university students with unfavorable metabolic profiles.

  19. Men perceive their female partners, and themselves, as more attractive around ovulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cobey, Kelly D.; Buunk, Abraham P.; Pollet, Thomas V.; Klipping, Christine; Roberts, S. Craig

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test whether men perceive changes in their female partner's attractiveness as a function of her fertility status. We further tested how both male and female self-perception varies in relation to female fertility status. This study benefits from the use of transvagina

  20. Serum Levels of Melatonin and Oxidative Stress Markers and Correlation between Them in Infertile Men

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    Sara Soleimani Rad

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Infertility is the problem of 15% of young couples in different societies. One of the factors that could affect fertility is oxidative stress. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to investigate the level of Melatonin, a free radical scavenger, and its correlation with oxidative biomarkers in infertile men. Methods:For this purpose, fertile and infertile men in 2 groups, 30 people in each group, were studied. The fertile men were selected from husbands of patients admitted to Alzahra obstetric and gynecology hospital, according to WHO standards. The infertile men were selected from patients referred to infertility ward. Blood sampling from the participants carried out at a specific time, sera collected and the levels of malondialdehyde, total antioxidant capacity and Melatonin were detected in the sera. The data were analyzed using t-test and Sperman's correlation method. Results: Melatonin level in the sera from fertile men were 522 (39.32 ng/L and in infertile men were 511.78 (34.6 ng/L. MDA level in fertile and infertile men were 2.26 (0.34 vs 2.99 (0.44 nmol/ml which was significantly different. The level of TAC in the sera from fertile men were significantly higher than in infertile men. The result obtained for correlation coefficient Spearman's test revealed a significant, strong and direct correlation between Melatonin and TAC and a significant and reverse correlation between melatonin and MDA.Conclusion: It is concluded that melatonin could be involved in infertility. In other word, melatonin treatment and antioxidant-rich nutrition could help fertility by combating oxidative stress.

  1. Climate Change Impacts in a Colombian Andean Tropical Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocampo, O. L.; Vélez, J. J.; Londoño, A.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change and climate variability have a large impact on water resources. Developing regions have less capacity to prepare for, respond to, and recover from climate-related hazards and effects, and then, populations may be disproportionately affected. In Colombia, the geographical location and the marked irregularity in the terrain, give as a result, a complex climate. These factors have contributed to the water supply of the territory. Unfortunately, the visualization of abundant and inexhaustible water resources created a great disregard for them. Besides, the water supply is not distributed uniformly across the country, and then there is water-deficit in some areas as Andean Region, where the largest population and the main development centers are located. In recent decades, water conflicts have emerged locally and regionally, which have generated a crisis in the allocation mechanisms and have improved the understanding of the water situation in Colombia. The Second National Communication to CCMNU alerts on possible future consequences of climate change and the need for regional studies for understanding climate change impacts on the fragile ecosystems of high mountains as paramos and fog forest, which are water production regulators. Colombian water resources are greatly affected by changes in rainfall patterns influenced by El Niño and La Niña. The recent disasters in the 2010-2011 rainy seasons have caught the attention of not only the authorities but from the scientific community to explore strategies to improve water management by tracking, anticipating and responding to climate variability and climate change. Whereas sound water management is built upon long-term, the country is undertaking a pilot exercise for the integrated management of water resources, five Basins are selected, among them, is the Chinchiná River Basin; this Andean tropical Basin is located on the western slopes at the central range in the Andes between 4°48 and 5°12 N

  2. Fertility outcomes in asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Elisabeth Juul; Thomsen, Simon Francis; Lindenberg, Svend

    2016-01-01

    Evidence is increasing of an association between asthma and aspects of female reproduction. However, current knowledge is limited and furthermore relies on questionnaire studies or small populations. In a prospective observational cohort study to investigate whether time to pregnancy, the number...... of fertility treatments, and the number of successful pregnancies differ significantly between women with unexplained infertility with and without asthma.245 women with unexplained infertility (aged 23-45 years) underwent questionnaires and asthma and allergy testing while undergoing fertility treatment. 96...... women entering the study had either a former doctor's diagnosis of asthma or were diagnosed with asthma when included. After inclusion they were followed for a minimum of 12 months in fertility treatment, until they had a successful pregnancy, stopped treatment, or the observation ended.The likelihood...

  3. Sotho fertility symbolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, C

    1980-01-01

    This paper deals with the traditional beliefs and mythical folklore of the Sotho-Tswana ethnic tribes of South Africa. Their ritual practices are predominantly concerned with the weather, the vicissitudes of the seasonal cycle, and, especially the rain-making powers of certain individuals. It is well known that rain, in all civilizations, is a symbol of fertility. Thus, adolescent girls and young women, as mediators of the association between water and fertility, can be relied upon to bring the clouds and torrential downpours. The characteristic Sesotho explanation that babies come from the river is clearly an allusion to the water of the womb, and the river is generally recognized as a methaphor of the womb. Also, the onset of menarche involves rituals having to do with the drawing and pouring of water, another clear allusion to the beginning of fertility.

  4. Association of human leukocyte A, B, and DR antigens in Colombian patients with diagnosis of spondyloarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Ana M; Peña, Paola; Avila, Mabel; Briceño, Ignacio; Jaramillo, Carlos; Vargas-Alarcon, Gilberto; Rueda, Juan C; Saldarriaga, Eugenia-Lucia; Angarita, Jose-Ignacio; Martinez-Rodriguez, Nancy; Londono, John

    2017-04-01

    There is substantial evidence that non-B27 major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes are associated with spondyloarthritis (SpA). Studies in Mexican and Tunisian populations demonstrated the association of SpA and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) B15. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of HLA-A, B, and DR antigens in a group of Colombian patients with a diagnosis of SpA. A total of 189 patients and 100 healthy subjects were included in the present study. All subjects underwent a complete characterization of HLA alleles A, B, and DR. Of the 189 studied patients, 35 were reactive arthritis (ReA), 87 were ankylosing spondylitis (AS), and 67 undifferentiated SpA (uSpA). According to the Assessment of Spondyloarthritis International Society (ASAS) criteria, 167 were axial SpA (axSpA) and 171 were peripheral SpA (pSpA). 63.8% were men, with a mean age of 35.9 ± 12.7 years. 40.7% (77/189) of patients were HLA-B27 positive of which 52.9% had AS and 42.5% axSpA. 23.2% (44/189) of patients were HLA-B15 positive: 23.8% were uSpA, 12.57% were axSpA, and 11.7% were pSpA. In addition, HLA-DRB1*01 was associated with AS (58.6%) and axSpA (42.5%). Also, HLA-DRB1*04 was present in 62 patients with AS (71.2%) and in 26 with axSpA (15.5%). In this population, we found a strong association between the presence of HLA-B27 and the diagnosis of axSpA and AS, but the HLA-B15 is also significantly associated with all subtypes of the disease, predominantly with pSpA. Additionally, HLA-DR1 and DR4 were associated in a cohort of patients with SpA from Colombia.

  5. First Colombian Multicentric Newborn Screening for Congenital Toxoplasmosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Marin, Jorge Enrique; de-la-Torre, Alejandra; Angel-Muller, Edith; Rubio, Jorge; Arenas, Jaime; Osorio, Elkin; Nuñez, Lilian; Pinzon, Lyda; Mendez-Cordoba, Luis Carlos; Bustos, Agustin; de-la-Hoz, Isabel; Silva, Pedro; Beltran, Monica; Chacon, Leonor; Marrugo, Martha; Manjarres, Cristina; Baquero, Hernando; Lora, Fabiana; Torres, Elizabeth; Zuluaga, Oscar Elias; Estrada, Monica; Moscote, Lacides; Silva, Myriam Teresa; Rivera, Raul; Molina, Angie; Najera, Shirley; Sanabria, Antonio; Ramirez, Maria Luisa; Alarcon, Claudia; Restrepo, Natalia; Falla, Alejandra; Rodriguez, Tailandia; Castaño, Giovanny

    2011-01-01

    Aims To determine the incidence of congenital toxoplasmosis in Colombian newborns from 19 hospital or maternal child health services from seven different cities of five natural geographic regions (Caribbean, Central, Andean, Amazonia and Eastern). Materials and Methods We collected 15,333 samples from umbilical cord blood between the period of March 2009 to May 2010 in 19 different hospitals and maternal-child health services from seven different cities. We applied an IgM ELISA assay (Vircell, Spain) to determine the frequency of IgM anti Toxoplasma. The results in blood cord samples were confirmed either by western blot and repeated ELISA IgM assay. In a sub-sample of 1,613 children that were negative by the anti-Toxoplasma IgM assay, the frequency of specific anti-Toxoplasma IgA by the ISAGA assay was determined. All children with positive samples by IgM, IgA, clinical diagnosis or treatment during pregnancy were recalled for confirmatory tests after day 10 of life. Results 61 positive samples for specific IgM (0.39%) and 9 positives for IgA (0.5%) were found. 143 questionnaires were positive for a clinical diagnosis or treatment for toxoplasmosis during pregnancy. 109 out of the 218 children that had some of the criteria for postnatal confirmatory tests were followed. Congenital toxoplasmosis infection was confirmed in 15 children: 7 were symptomatic, and three of them died before the first month of life (20% of lethality). A significant correlation was found between a high incidence of markers for congenital toxoplasmosis and higher mean annual rainfall for the city. Conclusions Incidence for congenital toxoplasmosis is significantly different between hospitals or maternal child health services from different cities in Colombia. Mean annual rainfall was correlated with incidence of congenital toxoplasmosis. PMID:21655304

  6. First Colombian multicentric newborn screening for congenital toxoplasmosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Enrique Gómez-Marin

    Full Text Available AIMS: To determine the incidence of congenital toxoplasmosis in Colombian newborns from 19 hospital or maternal child health services from seven different cities of five natural geographic regions (Caribbean, Central, Andean, Amazonia and Eastern. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We collected 15,333 samples from umbilical cord blood between the period of March 2009 to May 2010 in 19 different hospitals and maternal-child health services from seven different cities. We applied an IgM ELISA assay (Vircell, Spain to determine the frequency of IgM anti Toxoplasma. The results in blood cord samples were confirmed either by western blot and repeated ELISA IgM assay. In a sub-sample of 1,613 children that were negative by the anti-Toxoplasma IgM assay, the frequency of specific anti-Toxoplasma IgA by the ISAGA assay was determined. All children with positive samples by IgM, IgA, clinical diagnosis or treatment during pregnancy were recalled for confirmatory tests after day 10 of life. RESULTS: 61 positive samples for specific IgM (0.39% and 9 positives for IgA (0.5% were found. 143 questionnaires were positive for a clinical diagnosis or treatment for toxoplasmosis during pregnancy. 109 out of the 218 children that had some of the criteria for postnatal confirmatory tests were followed. Congenital toxoplasmosis infection was confirmed in 15 children: 7 were symptomatic, and three of them died before the first month of life (20% of lethality. A significant correlation was found between a high incidence of markers for congenital toxoplasmosis and higher mean annual rainfall for the city. CONCLUSIONS: Incidence for congenital toxoplasmosis is significantly different between hospitals or maternal child health services from different cities in Colombia. Mean annual rainfall was correlated with incidence of congenital toxoplasmosis.

  7. Coral diseases and bleaching on Colombian Caribbean coral reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navas-Camacho, Raúl; Gil-Agudelo, Diego Luis; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Alberto; Reyes-Nivia, María Catalina; Garzón-Ferreira, Jaime

    2010-05-01

    Since 1998 the National Monitoring System for the Coral Reefs of Colombia (SIMAC) has monitored the occurrence of coral bleaching and diseases in some Colombian coral reefs (permanent stations at San Andres Island, Rosario Islands, Tayrona, San Bernardo Islands and Urabá). The main purpose is to evaluate their health status and to understand the factors that have been contributing to their decline. To estimate these occurrences, annual surveys in 126 permanent belt transects (10 x 2m) with different depth intervals (3-6 meters, 9-12 meters and 15-18 meters) are performed at all reef sites. Data from the 1998-2004 period, revealed that San Andrés Island had many colonies with diseases (38.9 colonies/m2), and Urabá had high numbers with bleaching (54.4 colonies/m2). Of the seven reported coral diseases studied, Dark Spots Disease (DSD), and White Plague Disease (WPD) were noteworthy because they occurred in all Caribbean monitored sites, and because of their high interannual infection incidence. Thirty five species of scleractinian corals were affected by at least one disease and a high incidence of coral diseases on the main reef builders is documented. Bleaching was present in 34 species. During the whole monitoring period, Agaricia agaricites and Siderastrea siderea were the species most severely affected by DSD and bleaching, respectively. Diseases on species such as Agaricia fragilis, A. grahamae, A. humilis, Diploria clivosa, Eusmilia fastigiata, Millepora complanata, and Mycetophyllia aliciae are recorded for first time in Colombia. We present bleaching and disease incidences, kinds of diseases, coral species affected, reef localities studied, depth intervals of surveys, and temporal (years) variation for each geographic area. This variation makes difficult to clearly determine defined patterns or general trends for monitored reefs. This is the first long-term study of coral diseases and bleaching in the Southwestern Caribbean, and one of the few long

  8. Riverbank filtration for the treatment of highly turbid Colombian rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Juan Pablo; van Halem, Doris; Rietveld, Luuk

    2017-05-01

    The poor quality of many Colombian surface waters forces us to seek alternative, sustainable treatment solutions with the ability to manage peak pollution events and to guarantee the uninterrupted provision of safe drinking water to the population. This review assesses the potential of using riverbank filtration (RBF) for the highly turbid and contaminated waters in Colombia, emphasizing water quality improvement and the influence of clogging by suspended solids. The suspended sediments may be favorable for the improvement of the water quality, but they may also reduce the production yield capacity. The cake layer must be balanced by scouring in order for an RBF system to be sustainable. The infiltration rate must remain high enough throughout the river-aquifer interface to provide the water quantity needed, and the residence time of the contaminants must be sufficient to ensure adequate water quality. In general, RBF seems to be a technology appropriate for use in highly turbid and contaminated surface rivers in Colombia, where improvements are expected due to the removal of turbidity, pathogens and to a lesser extent inorganics, organic matter and micro-pollutants. RBF has the potential to mitigate shock loads, thus leading to the prevention of shutdowns of surface water treatment plants. In addition, RBF, as an alternative pretreatment step, may provide an important reduction in chemical consumption, considerably simplifying the operation of the existing treatment processes. However, clogging and self-cleansing issues must be studied deeper in the context of these highly turbid waters to evaluate the potential loss of abstraction capacity yield as well as the development of different redox zones for efficient contaminant removal.

  9. A proposal for mitigation of floods in main colombian rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donado, L. D.; Bravo, E.; Ortiz, R. O.

    2012-04-01

    Floods are naturally produced by rainfall and are a worldwide threat, which cannot be controlled. The effects of the floods are not proportional to the magnitude of the events in different parts of the world. It is due to the local risk management and the reduction of the vulnerability. This research looks for the reduction of the effects of the heavy rainfall in the Magdalena River. Two main effects are detected: intensity of the rainfall and residence time of the flow in the river. Several factors were detected to increase the vulnerability of the Magdalena Valley. Those are the increase of sediment load caused by deforestation, mining and the lack of sustainable urban drainage systems. Unfortunately, the majority of the Colombian actions have been aimed to the construction of public works for "controlling" the effects of the floods and reducing the territory vulnerability without any technical reason but private interests. All the investments are done with no planning or management. In a continue review of all the dikes and walls to avoid river floods, we appreciate that the failure of this elements increased the territory vulnerability, generating false expectation of security. We propose some non-structural solutions in combination of structural ones for reducing costs of investments and emergency attention. The main conclusion of this work is based on the fact that natural hazards are unavoidable but they can be mitigated reducing the residence time of the water on the channels with the reactivation of old natural channels and constructing cutoff channels in the meandering valley.

  10. Anthropometric characteristics and physical performance of colombian elite male wrestlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Velez, Robinson; Argothyd, Rodrigo; Meneses-Echavez, Jose Francisco; Beatriz Sanchez-Puccini, Maria; Lopez-Alban, Carlos Alejandro; Cohen, Daniel Dylan

    2014-12-01

    Wrestling was an important part of the ancient Olympic Games and is still one of the most popular events of the modern Olympic Games. Studies indicate that general physiologic profile of successful wrestlers is high anaerobic power and capacity, muscular strength, above average aerobic power, exceptional flexibility, fat free mass, and a mesomorphic somatotype. The objective of the present study was to evaluate anthropometric characteristics and physical performance of elite male wrestlers. The Colombian Wrestling Team was evaluated while in preparation for the Olympic Games (n = 21; age, 27.9 ± 6.7 years). Athletes were tested on anthropometric and fitness parameters: body composition, somatotype distribution according to Heath-Carter, aerobic capacity, vertical jump, and anaerobic power. The evaluations showed a mean body fat percentage of 13.6% ± 3.0% (95% CI, 12.2%-15%), muscle mass of 46.4% ± 2.2% (95% CI, 45.4%-47.4%), Ponderal index of 41.0 ± 1.8 (95% CI, 40.2-41.8), body adiposity index (BAI) 25.1 ± 3.6 (95% CI, 23.5-26.8), and somatotype distribution mesomorphic-ectomorph (5.3-1.6-3.8). Mean aerobic capacity was 45.9 ± 6.6 mL/kg/min (95% CI, 42.8-48.9), vertical jump was 36.4 ± 6.6 cm (95% CI, 11.8-16.6), and anaerobic power was 92.6 ± 19.5 kg/s (95% CI, 83.7-101.5). These results provided a profile of elite wrestlers that could be used as training targets for developing athletes. The results may also provide information for training and tactical planning.

  11. Fertility incentives and disincentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Financioglu, N

    1984-06-01

    Some 40 countries use some form of incentives and disincentives in support of population policies, about half with the aim of reducing fertility and half with the aim of increasing it. These schemes range from limitations on tax and family allowances or maternity benefits after a given family size has been reached to payments to acceptors of fertility control methods. Some schemes aim to eliminate or reduce the cost and inconvenience people may face in achieving their fertility preferences, whereas others contain an element of deterrence. It is difficult to isolate and measure the impact of incentives on fertility from the effects of other factors such as family planning service availability or modernization. Studies in pronatalist countries suggest that incentive schemes produce short-term fertility increases without a change in average family size. Monetary incentives must be constantly increased to keep pace with inflation, placing a heavy burden on government budgets. Administrative capacity to operate the scheme is critical in terms of both manpower and efficient systems for record keeping, monitoring, and close supervision to prevent abuse. There is also considerable debate on the moral and ethical implications of incentives and disincentives as policy tools. Incentives offered for the acceptance of a particular fertility control method potentially contravene the principle of voluntary and informed consent. In addition, the relative value of the reward is greater for those in the lower income groups. The discriminatory nature of certain types of incentives and disincentives is illustrated by measures introduced in Singapore that give highest priority in school enrollment to the children of highly educated mothers with 2-3 children. This ruling is expected to further intensify the controversy surrounding incentive and disincentive schemes.

  12. Adolescent fertility: worldwide concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senderowitz, J; Paxman, J M

    1985-04-01

    There is growing concern over the adverse health, social, economic, and demographic effects of adolescent fertility. Morbidity and mortality rates ar significantly higher for teenage mothers and their infants, and early initiation of childbearing generally means truncated education, lower future family income, and larger completed family size. Adolescent fertility rates, which largely reflect marriage patterns, range from 4/1000 in Mauritania; in sub-Saharan Africa, virtually all rates are over 100. In most countries, adolescent fertility rates are declining due to rising age at marriage, increased educational and economic opportunities for young women, changes in social customs, increased use of contraception, and access to abortion. However, even if fertility rates were to decline dramatically among adolescent women in developing countries, their sheer numbers imply that their fertility will have a major impact on world population growth in the years ahead. The number of women in the world ages 15-19 years is expected to increase from 245 million in 1985 to over 320 million in the years 2020; 82% of these women live in developing countries. As a result of more and earlier premarital sexual activity, fostered by the lengthening gap between puberty and marriage, diminished parental and social controls, and increasing peer and media pressure to be sexually active, abortion and out-of-wedlock childbearing are increasing among teenagers in many developed and rapidly urbanizing developing countries. Laws and policies regarding sex education in the schools and access to family planning services by adolescents can either inhibit or support efforts to reduce adolescent fertility. Since contraceptive use is often sporadic and ineffective among adolescents, family planning services are crucial. Such programs should aim to reduce adolescents' dependence on abortion through preventive measures and increase awareness of the benefits of delayed sexual activity. Similarly, sex

  13. Fertility and the economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, G S

    1992-08-01

    Fertility and the economy is examined in the context of the Malthusian question about the links between family choices and longterm economic growth. Micro level differences are not included not are a comprehensive range of economic or determinant variables. Specific attention is paid to income and price effects, the quality of children, overlapping generations, mortality effects, uncertainty, and economic growth. Fertility and the demand for children in linked to parental incomes and the cost of rearing children, which is affected by public policies that change the costs. Demand is also related to child and adult mortality, and uncertainty about sex of the child. Fertility in one generation affects fertility in the next. Malthusian and neoclassical models do not capture the current model of modern economies with rising income/capita and human and physical capital, extensive involvement of married women in the labor force, and declining fertility to very low levels. In spite of the present advances in firm knowledge about the relationships between fertility and economic and social variables, there is still much greater ignorance of the interactions. The Malthusian utility function that says fertility rises and falls with income did hold up to 2 centuries of scrutiny, and the Malthusian inclusion of the shifting tastes in his analysis could be translated in the modern context to include price of children. The inclusion of net cost has significant consequences, i.e., rural fertility can be higher because the cost of rearing when children contribute work to maintaining the farm is lower than in the city. An income tax deduction for children in the US reduces cost. Economic growth raises the cost of children due the time spent on child care becoming more valuable. The modern context has changed from Malthusian time, and the cost of education, training, and medical care is relevant. The implication is that a rise in income could reduce the demand for children when

  14. Soil microbes and plant fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miransari, Mohammad

    2011-12-01

    With respect to the adverse effects of chemical fertilization on the environment and their related expenses, especially when overused, alternative methods of fertilization have been suggested and tested. For example, the combined use of chemical fertilization with organic fertilization and/or biological fertilization is among such methods. It has been indicated that the use of organic fertilization with chemical fertilization is a suitable method of providing crop plants with adequate amount of nutrients, while environmentally and economically appropriate. In this article, the importance of soil microbes to the ecosystem is reviewed, with particular emphasis on the role of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, and endophytic bacteria in providing necessary nutrients for plant growth and yield production. Such microbes are beneficial to plant growth through colonizing plant roots and inducing mechanisms by which plant growth increases. Although there has been extensive research work regarding the use of microbes as a method of fertilizing plants, it is yet a question how the efficiency of such microbial fertilization to the plant can be determined and increased. In other words, how the right combination of chemical and biological fertilization can be determined. In this article, the most recent advances regarding the effects of microbial fertilization on plant growth and yield production in their combined use with chemical fertilization are reviewed. There are also some details related to the molecular mechanisms affecting the microbial performance and how the use of biological techniques may affect the efficiency of biological fertilization.

  15. Bioelectrical Impedance Vector Analysis and Muscular Fitness in Healthy Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Fernando; Cristi-Montero, Carlos; González-Ruíz, Katherine; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson

    2016-01-01

    Muscle strength can define the general muscular fitness (MF) measurable through hand-grip strength (HG), which is a factor that relates to the health of people of different ages. In this study we evaluated the muscle strength together with a bioimpedance electric analysis in 223 healthy Colombian adult subjects. The bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA) was conducted to determine the resistance (R), reactance (Xc) and phase angle (PhA). We classified the subjects into three groups (for tertiles), obtaining lower values of R and Xc in subjects with lower HG, plus a high correlation between PhA and HG. An increase in the level of PhA is associated with a high level of MF in a sample of healthy Latin American adult men. The BIVA’s parameters and PhA are a potentially effective preventive measure to be integrated into routine screening in the clinical setting. PMID:27384579

  16. Bioelectrical Impedance Vector Analysis and Muscular Fitness in Healthy Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Rodríguez-Rodríguez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Muscle strength can define the general muscular fitness (MF measurable through hand-grip strength (HG, which is a factor that relates to the health of people of different ages. In this study we evaluated the muscle strength together with a bioimpedance electric analysis in 223 healthy Colombian adult subjects. The bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA was conducted to determine the resistance (R, reactance (Xc and phase angle (PhA. We classified the subjects into three groups (for tertiles, obtaining lower values of R and Xc in subjects with lower HG, plus a high correlation between PhA and HG. An increase in the level of PhA is associated with a high level of MF in a sample of healthy Latin American adult men. The BIVA’s parameters and PhA are a potentially effective preventive measure to be integrated into routine screening in the clinical setting.

  17. Fertility and Commuting Behaviour in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Huinink

    2012-12-01

    Firstly, a cross-sectional, multivariate probit-regression (with correlated errors on the intention to have a child within two years, on being childless and on medium- and long- distance commuting is applied. The model shows no significant correlation between commuting and the intention to have a child; it does however show a correlation between medium- and long distance commuting and the probability of women to be childless. Secondly, a longitudinal difference model on changing fertility intentions between panel wave 1 and wave 3 is estimated. For women, a positive effect can be found of interrupting medium- and long-distance commuting or, surprisingly, continuing medium- and long-distance commuting on the intention to have a child within two years. Thirdly, for men and women who reported a fertility intention in the first wave, a longitudinal Heckman-selection probit-regression on the probability of having a child between wave 1 and wave 3 is estimated. It shows negative effects of medium- and long-distance commuting on having a child. Taken together, these findings support the assumption that commuting plays a characteristically different role in different phases of the fertility-related decision process.

  18. Life-Metaphors among Colombian Leadership Students: Core Values and Educational Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Edward; Acosta-Orozco, Catalina

    2015-01-01

    The present study utilized metaphor analysis to explore the core values of Colombian college students in a leadership program. The entire class of 60 students was invited to respond to a structured questionnaire. It asked participants to state their preferred life-metaphor, whether they had always preferred this metaphor since childhood or…

  19. Life-Metaphors among Colombian Medical Students: Uncovering Core Values and Educational Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Edward; Acosta-Orozco, Catalina; Compton, William C.

    2015-01-01

    The present study utilized metaphor analysis to examine the core values of Colombian medical students. The entire 9th semester medical class of 60 students was invited to respond to a structured questionnaire. It asked participants to state their preferred life-metaphor, whether they had always preferred this metaphor since childhood or…

  20. Colombian equity return and narrow money supply: an asymmetric cointegration analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu V. Nguyen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric, cointegrating relationship between the return on equity market and the narrowly defined money supply is documented. In fact, equity return and the monthly percentage change in the Colombian money supply M1 spread adjusts to the threshold value slower when a contractionary countercyclical policy action or an economic shock causes the money supply M1 to fall relative to the share price index, widening their spread, than when an expansionary countercyclical monetary policy action or a shock causes money supply M1 to move in the opposite direction, narrowing their spread. The empirical findings further indicate the impact lag on the Colombian monetary policy in the equity market is two years. These empirical findings should be of interest to both domestic and international investors who are interested in the Colombian equity market. The results also reveal the presence of both the neoclassical and the post-Keynesian positions on the relationship between equity return and money supply M1 in the Colombian financial market. In the age of globalization, these findings may provide a better understanding of the impact of the countercyclical monetary policy on the equity market in Latin American economies.

  1. "Coded and Uncoded Error Feedback: Effects on Error Frequencies in Adult Colombian EFL Learners' Writing"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on a small-scale study into the effects of uncoded correction (writing the correct forms above each error) and coded annotations (writing symbols that encourage learners to self-correct) on Colombian university-level EFL learners' written work. The study finds that while both coded annotations and uncoded correction appear to…

  2. Materials Development in the Colombian Context: Some Considerations about Its Benefits and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos Holguín, Bertha; Aguirre Morales, Jahir

    2014-01-01

    Materials development is a field of study which has recently acquired significant importance in the Colombian context due to the fact that teachers, as materials developers, consider materials development as an area of knowledge that helps them to improve their teaching practices. However, the rationale, the gains as well as the challenges that…

  3. Life-Metaphors among Colombian Medical Students: Uncovering Core Values and Educational Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Edward; Acosta-Orozco, Catalina; Compton, William C.

    2015-01-01

    The present study utilized metaphor analysis to examine the core values of Colombian medical students. The entire 9th semester medical class of 60 students was invited to respond to a structured questionnaire. It asked participants to state their preferred life-metaphor, whether they had always preferred this metaphor since childhood or…

  4. Life-Metaphors among Colombian Leadership Students: Core Values and Educational Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Edward; Acosta-Orozco, Catalina

    2015-01-01

    The present study utilized metaphor analysis to explore the core values of Colombian college students in a leadership program. The entire class of 60 students was invited to respond to a structured questionnaire. It asked participants to state their preferred life-metaphor, whether they had always preferred this metaphor since childhood or…

  5. Education-Related Factors in Cultural Intelligence Development: A Colombian Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robledo-Ardila, Cristina; Aguilar-Barrientos, Sara; Román-Calderón, Juan Pablo

    2016-01-01

    This article reports the results of a study inquiring about the role of education-related factors in the development of cultural intelligence. Five hundred fifty-seven students of a Colombian international business (IB) undergraduate program participated in the study. The psychometric properties of the measures were assessed by conducting…

  6. Conflict of interests in corporate law: colombian regulations and comparative law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Andrés Arcila Salazar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper has the goal of discussing the colombian regulations regarding conflict of interests in corporate law based on national doctrine, and comparative law, to understand the current discussions in this matter and to see what the analysis of the future legislative reforms must focus on.

  7. Four novel Talaromyces species isolated from leaf litter from Colombian Amazon rain forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yilmaz, Neriman; López-Quintero, Carlos A.; Vasco-Palacios, Aída Marcela; Frisvad, Jens C.; Theelen, Bart; Boekhout, Teun; Samson, Robert A.; Houbraken, Jos

    2016-01-01

    Various Talaromyces strains were isolated during a survey of fungi involved in leaf litter decomposition in tropical lowland forests in the Caquetá and Amacayacu areas of the Colombian Amazon. Four new Talaromyces species are described using a polyphasic approach, which includes phenotypic character

  8. The Impact of Authentic Materials and Tasks on Students' Communicative Competence at a Colombian Language School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo Losada, César Augusto; Insuasty, Edgar Alirio; Jaime Osorio, María Fernanda

    2017-01-01

    This article reports on a study carried out in a foreign language school at a Colombian public university. Its main purpose was to analyze the extent to which the use of authentic materials and tasks contributes to the enhancement of the communicative competence on an A2 level English course. A mixed study composed of a quasi-experimental and a…

  9. [Public health stewardship and governance regarding the Colombian healthcare system, 2012-2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth-Deubel, André N; Molina-Marín, Gloria

    2013-01-01

    Analysing decision-making concerning public health issues regarding the Colombian healthcare system from a market economy-based approach. This study involved applying Glaser and Strauss's grounded theory in six Colombian cities during 2012: Bogotá, Barranquilla, Bucaramanga, Leticia, Medellin and Pasto. 120 individual interviews were conducted with professionals involved in decision-making, running public healthcare programmes and making policy within public and private institutions. Fourteen focus groups were held with community organisation leaders. The findings suggested national and municipal health authorities' weak stewardship and ineffective governance regarding public healthcare policy and programmes, related to a lack of staff trained in public health management issues. In turn, this was related to political parties' interference and private insurers' particular interests and the structural fragmentation of functions and actors within the health system, thereby limiting public health development. A new axiology is necessary for achieving effective governance (I.e. cooperation between Colombian Healthcare Social Security System actors) to overcome current incompetence and financial self-interest predominating within the Colombian healthcare system.

  10. A Critical Exploration of Colombian Teacher Education from Freire's "Directivity" Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubiano, Clara Inés

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents an exploration of Colombian teacher education from Paulo Freire's "directivity" perspective, which involves the political notion of education and the struggle for social justice. It examines certain existing tensions in teacher education, and analyses critically their implications for the teaching profession…

  11. Studies on Colombian cryptogams XVIII. The genus Stereocaulon (Schreber) Hoffmann (Lichenès)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhout, T.

    1982-01-01

    Nineteen species of Stereocaulon are treated from the northern Andes, mainly from Colombia. Descriptions and keys are given, with notes on the north-Andean distribution and ecology. Seven species are new for the Colombian flora, viz. St. atlanticum, St. claviceps, St. corticatulum (chem. strain with

  12. Exploring the Roles of Parents and Students in EFL Literacy Learning: A Colombian Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado Torres, Sergio Aldemar; Castañeda-Peña, Harold Andrés

    2016-01-01

    There is little scholarly information about parent involvement in their children's English as a Foreign Language (EFL henceforth) literacy learning in the Colombian context. This exploratory-qualitative study looks into the possible roles of parents and children in EFL literacy learning at home, with special emphasis on parental roles and…

  13. "Coded and Uncoded Error Feedback: Effects on Error Frequencies in Adult Colombian EFL Learners' Writing"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on a small-scale study into the effects of uncoded correction (writing the correct forms above each error) and coded annotations (writing symbols that encourage learners to self-correct) on Colombian university-level EFL learners' written work. The study finds that while both coded annotations and uncoded correction appear to…

  14. Species richness and origin of the bryophyte flora of the Colombian Andes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gradstein, S.R.; Reenen, van G.B.A.; Griffin, D.

    1988-01-01

    Based on data from the ECOANDES project, a phytogeographical analysis has been made of the bryophyte flora along the wet, foggy western slope (1000-4500 m) and the drier eastern slope (500-4500 m) of the Colombian Central Cordillera at the ‘Parque de los Nevados’. Species richness increases with alt

  15. Colombian women and U.S. servicemen : Encounters and experiences from Melgar, Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Lozano Arévalo (Natalia)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractMore than 50 years of armed conflict in Colombia have permeated the entire society with a culture of violence and war, which have left few citizens untouched. A crucial decision in the history of the conflict was to invite U.S. to take part in the Colombian war. What did this mean at lo

  16. Review and Analysis of the Colombian Foreign Language Bilingualism Policies and Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Sará, Mary Mily

    2017-01-01

    This article reviews the background of the foreign language bilingualism in Colombia, as well as the Colombian bilingualism plans and the policy launched between 2004 and 2016. Then, these plans and policy are analyzed taking into account the most common criticisms from the academic community. In this sense, aspects such as the lack of continuity,…

  17. DECOLONIZING “COMPROMISO CARIBE”: TOWARD THE DESIGN AND IDENTIFICATION FOR OTHER PERSPECTIVES ON COLOMBIAN CARIBBEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Sánchez Maldonado

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This text makes a reading of the document “compromiso Caribe” exploring the context in it was raised. Makes a review of how this discourse has hidden the emergence of other approaches and claims of Caribbean -Colombian subjects about their multiple realities and experience at different sites of existence. It is argued that although the “compromiso caribe” is in a sense a general cry of the Caribbean -Colombian and offers some regional unity against a centralized state, its orientation is still in the hands of hegemonic sectors (economic, political and academic that that reproduce patterns of cultural racism that starts on a lack of the perspectives of caribbean colombian subjects perspectives, who have been made invisible by that speech, while they are to give a political power to Compromiso Caribe as a device of coloniality. Thus, compromiso Caribe is a prisoner of culturalist and that the power, action repertoires and the path of the struggles of other subjects elsewhere in the Colombian Caribbean in order to its existence, undermining their own chances of enriching and the nature of their demands.

  18. A multi-layered network of the (Colombian) sovereign securities market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renneboog, Luc; Leon Rincon, Carlos; Pérez, Jhonatan; Alexandrova-Kabadjova, Bilana; Diehl, Martin; Heuver, Richard; Martinez-Jaramillo, Serafín

    2015-01-01

    We study the network of Colombian sovereign securities settlements. With data from the settlement market infrastructure we study financial institutions’ transactions from three different trading and registering individual networks that we combine into a multi-layer network. Examining this network of

  19. Macrofungal diversity in Colombian Amazon forests varies with regions and regimes of disturbance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez-Quintero, C.A.; Straatsma, G.; Franco-Molano, A.E.; Boekhout, T.

    2012-01-01

    Here we present the results of fungal biodiversity studies from some selected Colombian Amazon forests in relationship to plant biodiversity and successional stages after slash and burn agriculture. Macrofungal diversity was found to differ between forests occurring in two regions (Araracuara vs Ama

  20. Initial Characterization of Colombian High School Physics Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge on Electric Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo-Niño, Lina Viviana; Cañada, Florentina; Mellado, Vicente

    2017-01-01

    We explore the initial characterization of the pedagogical content knowledge of four, in-service, Colombian pre-university secondary education physics teachers on the concept of electric field. Two of them teach the content in English as a second language. The aim of the study was to obtain an image of the participants' teaching of electric field…

  1. Protected Areas legislation and the conservation of the Colombian Orinoco Basin natural ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Aldana

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Colombia has shown a strong commitment to the achievement of the CBD´s biodiversity target, by promoting the conservation of at least 10% of its natural ecosystems. Protected Area categories in Colombia are undergoing a standardization process that should enhance the country´s capacity to protect its natural ecosystems. In this study we use a spatial analysis to examine how the legislation and the civil society´s initiatives help in the conservation of natural ecosystems in the Colombian Orinoco Basin. We found that differentiation in use restriction legislation limits the conservation potential of some Protected Area categories. The only fully Protected Areas in Colombia are the Natural National Parks System Areas, which protect only 10% of the area of natural ecosystems and less than 50% of the natural ecosystems in the Colombian Orinoco Basin. Indigenous Reserves help significantly in the conservation of the natural ecosystems in the Colombian Orinoco Basin, but are not a Protected Area category, making it difficult for indigenous groups to aid in the accomplishment of conservation goals in Colombia.A small percentage of ecosystems of the Colombian Orinoco Basin fall outside of any Protected Area or Indigenous Reserve and urgent actions may be needed to protect them. Future similar studies should use current and updated information on Protected Areas and take into account changes in land cover, for a better understanding of the role of different categories of Protected Areas in the achievement of conservation objectives in Colombia.

  2. A Critical Exploration of Colombian Teacher Education from Freire's "Directivity" Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubiano, Clara Inés

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents an exploration of Colombian teacher education from Paulo Freire's "directivity" perspective, which involves the political notion of education and the struggle for social justice. It examines certain existing tensions in teacher education, and analyses critically their implications for the teaching profession regarding…

  3. Initial Characterization of Colombian High School Physics Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge on Electric Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo-Niño, Lina Viviana; Cañada, Florentina; Mellado, Vicente

    2017-01-01

    We explore the initial characterization of the pedagogical content knowledge of four, in-service, Colombian pre-university secondary education physics teachers on the concept of electric field. Two of them teach the content in English as a second language. The aim of the study was to obtain an image of the participants' teaching of electric field…

  4. Draft Genome Sequences of 13 Colombian Helicobacter pylori Strains Isolated from Pacific Coast and Andean Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, Alvaro; Kodaman, Nuri; Piazuelo, M Blanca; Romero-Gallo, Judith; Sobota, Rafal S; Israel, Dawn A; Bravo, Luis E; Morgan, Douglas R; Wilson, Keith T; Correa, Pelayo; Peek, Richard M; Williams, Scott M; Schneider, Barbara G

    2017-04-13

    We present here the draft genomes of 13 Helicobacter pylori strains isolated from Colombian residents on the Pacific coast (n = 6) and in the Andes mountains (n = 7), locations that differ in gastric cancer risk. These 13 strains were obtained from individuals with diagnosed gastric lesions. Copyright © 2017 Pazos et al.

  5. Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL): Considerations in the Colombian Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Bonces, Jaisson

    2012-01-01

    The present article seeks to encourage reflection on the characteristics and considerations when implementing Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) in a diverse context such as the Colombian one. Initially, the general aspects of an innovative and changing education in a globalized world are presented by stating the need to innovate.…

  6. Species richness and distribution of understorey bryophytes in different forest types in Colombian Amazonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benavides, J.C.; Duque, A.J.; Duivenvoorden, J.F.; Cleef, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    The first bryophyte survey results from Colombian Amazonia are presented. Bryophyte species, differentiated into mosses and liverworts, and further into four life-form classes, were sampled in 0.1-ha plots. These plots were distributed over four landscape units in the middle Caquetá area: floodplain

  7. Association of vascular epiphytes with landscape units and phorophytes in humid lowland forests of Colombian Amazonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benavides, A.M.; Vasco, A.; Duque, A.J.; Duivenvoorden, J.F.

    2011-01-01

    The species composition of vascular epiphytes and phorophytes (trees and lianas) was studied in ten 0.1-ha forest plots distributed over three landscape units (floodplains, swamps and well-drained uplands) in Colombian Amazonia. The aim was to analyse how host-preferences contributed to the patterns

  8. Colombian Strategies and Operational Concepts Used in Today’s Counterterrorism Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-12

    example, the Colombian president’s democratic security policy has been the decisive instrument that has weakened the FARC more over the last eight...Crimen Violento Y Actividad Criminal En Colombia. Analisis , Bogota, D.C. FARC, Secretariat. 1990. Estrategia Fuerzas armadas Revolucionarias de

  9. Plasmodium vivax sporozoite challenge in malaria-naïve and semi-immune Colombian volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arévalo-Herrera, Myriam; Forero-Peña, David A.; Rubiano, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    induced in naïve and semi-immune volunteers by infected mosquito bites was compared. Methods: Seven malaria-naïve and nine semi-immune Colombian adults (n = 16) were subjected to the bites of 2-4 P. vivax sporozoite-infected Anopheles mosquitoes. Parasitemia levels, malaria clinical manifestations...

  10. Colombian women and U.S. servicemen : Encounters and experiences from Melgar, Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Lozano Arévalo (Natalia)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractMore than 50 years of armed conflict in Colombia have permeated the entire society with a culture of violence and war, which have left few citizens untouched. A crucial decision in the history of the conflict was to invite U.S. to take part in the Colombian war. What did this mean at

  11. Genetics, genomics and fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to enhance the sustainability of dairy businesses, new management tools are needed to increase the fertility of dairy cattle. Genomic selection has been successfully used by AI studs to screen potential sires and significantly decrease the generation interval of bulls. Buoyed by the success...

  12. Fertility and Infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgebin-Crist, Marie-Claire; And Others

    In this report, emphasis is placed on major research developments in the reproductive sciences, their impact on the health of individuals as well as on that of society, and on current trends that may provide new opportunities for future research in fertility and infertility. In the first section, major developments in the reproductive sciences are…

  13. Fertility and Infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgebin-Crist, Marie-Claire; And Others

    In this report, emphasis is placed on major research developments in the reproductive sciences, their impact on the health of individuals as well as on that of society, and on current trends that may provide new opportunities for future research in fertility and infertility. In the first section, major developments in the reproductive sciences are…

  14. Sperm preparation for fertilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gadella, B.M.

    2014-01-01

    Description This book contains 19 chapters that discuss theoretical and applied andrology for domestic, zoo and wild animals. Topics include semen and its constituents; sperm production and harvest; determinants of sperm morphology; sperm preparation for fertilization; practical aspects of semen cry

  15. Mobility, Fertility, and Residential Crowding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Earl W.

    1977-01-01

    Regression analyses predicting fertility and mobility in a sample of a metropolitan county in New York State indicate that residential mobility serves to release the negative pressure that residential crowding might exert on fertility behavior. (Author)

  16. Agriculture: Nutrient Management and Fertilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fertilizers and soil amendments can be derived from raw materials, composts and other organic matter, and wastes, such as sewage sludge and certain industrial wastes. Overuse of fertilizers can result in contamination of surface water and groundwater.

  17. Sex and Fertility After SCI

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Blog Facing Disability Jeff Shannon Donate Experts \\ Sex and Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Topics Adult ... Spasticity, Physical Therapy-Lokomat Spasticity, Physical Therapy-Lokomat Sex and Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Sex and ...

  18. HPV in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Hauwers, K W M; Tjalma, W A A

    2008-01-01

    To collect information about HPV in men and the (possible) correlation with HVP infection in women. Review of the literature. An overview of HPV-related penile and anal malignancies in men and the risk factors of acquiring HPV. In men HPV is also partially responsible for anogenital malignancies. Although the prevalence of HPV-related malignancies in men is much lower than in women, it is useful to gain more knowlege. Especially knowing if men are really the HPV reservoir and transmitters for women can make a difference in deciding whether men should also be screened for HPV and if they are good candidates for vaccination.

  19. Distribution of Tortoises and Freshwater Turtles of the Colombian Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Camilo Montes Corea

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This research reviews the Colombian Caribbean distribution of the species Kinosternon scorpioides, Trachemys callirostris,Mesoclemmys dahli and Chelonoidis carbonaria, and to present new records for the region. The species K. scorpioides is reported for the first time in the Manzanares River drainage, Santa Marta, department of Magdalena. Trachemys callirostris was recorded inthe Cañas River, department of La Guajira, being the first record for this species in a small river on the north side of the SierraNevada de Santa Marta. Chelonoidis carbonaria was recorded in a wetland in Santa Marta. We recorded a female M. dahli in thevillage of Monterrubio, municipality of Sabanas de San Angel, department of Magdalena. Three of the four species includedin this account are listed in some category of threat. The lack of knowledge of the biology and distribution of these species could be considered a threat to them because ignorance precludes the establishment of their true conservation status and hinders the development of management plans required for their protection.DISTRIBUCIÓN DE TORTUGAS CONTINENTALESDEL CARIBE COLOMBIANOEste estudio revisa la distribución para el Caribe colombiano de las especies Kinosternon scorpioides, Trachemys callirostris,Mesoclemmys dahli y Chelonoidis carbonaria y nuevas localidades en la distribución de dichas especies para la región. La especie K. scorpioides es registrada por primera vez en la cuenca del río Manzanares, en Santa Marta, Magdalena. Trachemys callirostris fue registrada en el río Cañas, La Guajira, constituyéndose en el primer registro para la especie en un riachuelo de la cara norte de la Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta. Chelonoidis carbonaria fue registrada en un humedal ubicado en la ciudad de Santa Marta. Se registró una hembra de M. dahli en el corregimiento Monterrubio, municipio Sabana de San Ángel, Magdalena. Tres de las cuatro especies incluidas en esta revisión se encuentran en alguna

  20. Coral diseases and bleaching on Colombian Caribbean coral reefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Navas-Camacho

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Since 1998 the National Monitoring System for the Coral Reefs of Colombia (SIMAC has monitored the occurrence of coral bleaching and diseases in some Colombian coral reefs (permanent stations at San Andres Island, Rosario Islands, Tayrona, San Bernardo Islands and Urabá. The main purpose is to evaluate their health status and to understand the factors that have been contributing to their decline. To estimate these occurrences, annual surveys in 126 permanent belt transects (10x2m with different depth intervals (3-6 meters, 9-12 meters and 15-18 meters are performed at all reef sites. Data from the 1998-2004 period, revealed that San Andrés Island had many colonies with diseases (38.9 colonies/m2, and Urabá had high numbers with bleaching (54.4 colonies/m2. Of the seven reported coral diseases studied, Dark Spots Disease (DSD, and White Plague Disease (WPD were noteworthy because they occurred in all Caribbean monitored sites, and because of their high interannual infection incidence. Thirty five species of scleractinian corals were affected by at least one disease and a high incidence of coral diseases on the main reef builders is documented. Bleaching was present in 34 species. During the whole monitoring period, Agaricia agaricites and Siderastrea siderea were the species most severely affected by DSD and bleaching, respectively. Diseases on species such as Agaricia fragilis, A.grahamae, A. humilis, Diploria clivosa, Eusmilia fastigiata, Millepora complanata, and Mycetophyllia aliciae are recorded for first time in Colombia. We present bleaching and disease incidences, kinds of diseases, coral species affected, reef localities studied, depth intervals of surveys, and temporal (years variation for each geographic area. This variation makes difficult to clearly determine defined patterns or general trends for monitored reefs. This is the first long-term study of coral diseases and bleaching in the Southwestern Caribbean, and one of the few

  1. Hormonal and seminal parameters in infertile men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, B; Francavilla, S; Properzi, G; Martini, M; Fabbrini, A

    1986-01-01

    500 infertile patients (250 with and 250 without left side varicocele) and 33 fertile men were evaluated as far as seminal parameters and the hormonal status were concerned. Sperm motility was constantly lower in infertile patients also when infertile group was compared to fertile one with the same sperm density. Serum testosterone levels were lower in infertile groups when compared to fertile men, and this confirms the existence of an androgenic deficit as a common finding in infertility associated or not to varicocele. FSH and LH increased (p less than 0.001) when sperm density dropped to less than 5 X 10(6) spermatozoa/ml. A negative correlation was found between both gonadotropins and sperm count (p less than 0.001), also after exclusion of azoo- and oligozoospermic (less than 5 X 10(6) spermatozoa/ml) patients (p less than 0.01). Gonadotropins were moreover tightly correlated between each other (p less than 0.001). Our data suggest that both gonadotropins are tightly tuned with sperm output and thus with the spermatogenic potential.

  2. Immigrant fertility in Sweden, 2000-2011: A descriptive note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotta Persson

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Modern Scandinavian population registers provide excellent data sources that allow a user to quickly gain an impression of the level of fertility and its structure across subpopulations. This may also allow the analyst to check a feature of the much-cited disruption hypothesis, at least in part. Objective: The purpose of this note is to exploit this potential to give an overview of the structure of recent total fertility after immigration to Sweden from various groups of sending countries, separately for males and females. In the process we demonstrate to what extent the post-migration fertility compensation which is part of the fertility disruption hypothesis is fulfilled in our study population. Due to the nature of our data we have refrained from studying fertility before migration. Methods: Based on data from a combination of two Swedish administrative registers (the Historic Population Register and the Multi-Generation Register that cover both men and women in the entire population for the years 2000-2011, we compute and plot TFR-like age-cumulated fertility levels, specific for years since immigration, for six groups of sending countries, separately for men and women. Results: We find that the post-migration fertility compensation specified as part of the fertility disruption hypothesis is visibly confirmed in our Swedish study population for female European immigrants from non-EU countries and for female immigrants from non-European countries with a low or medium UN Human Development Index, but not so for other female immigrants, i.e. not for those who come from a Nordic country or from a non-Nordic EU country, and not for female immigrants from a non-European country with a high Human Development Index, including the United States. We find mild but less conclusive evidence for the same feature for males. Conclusions: This shows that at least as far as post-migration fertility compensation is concerned, the disruption

  3. Sperm DNA damage in men from infertile couples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juris Erenpreiss; Saad Elzanaty; Aleksander Giwercman

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the prevalence of high levels of sperm DNA damage among men from infertile couples with both normal and abnormal standard semen parameters. Methods: A total of 350 men from infertile couples were assessed. Standard semen analysis and sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA) were carried out. Results: Ninety-seven men (28% of the whole study group) had a DNA fragmentation index (DFI) > 20%, and 43 men (12%) had a DFI > 30%. In the group of men with abnormal semen parameters (n = 224), 35% had a DFI > 20%, and 16% had a DFI > 30%, whereas these numbers were 15% and 5%, respectively, in the group of men with normal semen parameters (n = 126). Men with low sperm motility and abnormal morphology had significantly higher odds ratios (Ors) for having a DFI > 20% (4.0 for motility and 1.9 for morphology) and DFI > 30% (6.2 for motility and 2.8 for morphology) compared with men with normal sperm motility and morphology. Conclusion: In almost one-third of unselected men from infertile couples, the DFI exceeded the level of 20% above which, according to previous studies, the in vivo fertility is reduced. A significant proportion of men with otherwise normal semen parameters also had high sperm DNA damage levels. Thus, the SCSA test could add to explaining causes of infertility in cases where semen analysis has not shown any deviation from the norm. We also recommend running the SCSA test to choose the appropriate assisted reproductive technique (ART).

  4. Nitrogen Use Efficiency of Coffee at the Vegetative Stage as Influenced by Fertilizer Application Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamanca-Jimenez, Alveiro; Doane, Timothy A; Horwath, William R

    2017-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) is the most limiting nutrient for coffee production in Colombia. An adequate supply is especially important during the vegetative period of growth, since any deficiency during this short period is known to have lasting effects on subsequent coffee bean production. Urea fertilizer is commonly applied on the soil surface since steep slopes hamper incorporation into soil, a practice which increases the risk of N volatilization. Little information is available on N recovery during early growth stages under different fertilizer application practices. The aim of this study was therefore to provide a comparison of (15)N uptake during the early vegetative growth stage under surface-applied and incorporation practices at two contrasting locations. The highest proportion of plant N derived from fertilizer (Ndff) occurred 60 days following application at the site with greater precipitation and soil organic matter, where surface application also increased the Ndff in roots and stems after 120 days. Although fertilizer N supplied approximately 20-29% of total plant N after 4 months, this fertilizer-derived N corresponded on average to only 5% of the total application, indicating that very little fertilizer (relative to how much is applied) reaches plants during this time. Apart from the difference in Ndff observed at the wetter site, there was no effect of application method on dry weight and macronutrient content in different plant components, root to shoot ratio, and leaf (13)C content. However, site effects were registered for most of these measurements, with the exception of total nutrient uptake. Similarly to Ndff trends, lower root/shoot ratio and higher concentrations of N, K, and Mg in aboveground biomass were found in the site with higher rainfall and soil organic matter, likely resulting from higher soil water and N availability. These findings provide new information useful as a direction for further research looking toward increasing NUE during the

  5. Nitrogen Use Efficiency of Coffee at the Vegetative Stage as Influenced by Fertilizer Application Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamanca-Jimenez, Alveiro; Doane, Timothy A.; Horwath, William R.

    2017-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) is the most limiting nutrient for coffee production in Colombia. An adequate supply is especially important during the vegetative period of growth, since any deficiency during this short period is known to have lasting effects on subsequent coffee bean production. Urea fertilizer is commonly applied on the soil surface since steep slopes hamper incorporation into soil, a practice which increases the risk of N volatilization. Little information is available on N recovery during early growth stages under different fertilizer application practices. The aim of this study was therefore to provide a comparison of 15N uptake during the early vegetative growth stage under surface-applied and incorporation practices at two contrasting locations. The highest proportion of plant N derived from fertilizer (Ndff) occurred 60 days following application at the site with greater precipitation and soil organic matter, where surface application also increased the Ndff in roots and stems after 120 days. Although fertilizer N supplied approximately 20–29% of total plant N after 4 months, this fertilizer-derived N corresponded on average to only 5% of the total application, indicating that very little fertilizer (relative to how much is applied) reaches plants during this time. Apart from the difference in Ndff observed at the wetter site, there was no effect of application method on dry weight and macronutrient content in different plant components, root to shoot ratio, and leaf 13C content. However, site effects were registered for most of these measurements, with the exception of total nutrient uptake. Similarly to Ndff trends, lower root/shoot ratio and higher concentrations of N, K, and Mg in aboveground biomass were found in the site with higher rainfall and soil organic matter, likely resulting from higher soil water and N availability. These findings provide new information useful as a direction for further research looking toward increasing NUE during the

  6. Natural fertility in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, E G

    1982-01-01

    The hypothesis that modernization trends in the Philippines led to an increase in fecundity and natural fertility between 1953-1972 was tested, using data from the 1973 National Demographic Survey. More specifically, it was hypothesized that increases in education, income levels, urbanization, female labor force participation, and other factors exerted a positive influence on the population's health and nutritional status and increased the risk of pregnancy by diminishing the strength of sexual taboos and by decreasing the incidence of breastfeeding. These changes, in turn, had a positive impact on natural fertility. Natural fertility was defined as marital fertility in the absence of specific efforts to control fertility. The use of natural fertility instead of fecundity allowed for the influence of behavioral patterns, such as breastfeeding and sexual taboos, on fertility. Period analysis of age specific marital fertility rates for each 5 year period between 1953-72 and cohort analysis of age specific marital fertility rates for the birth cohorts, aged 55-59, 50-54, 45-49, 40-44, and 35-39 in 1973 were undertaken. The effect of fertility control was determined by using an index derived from an equation provided by Coale and Trussell. Findings of both the period and cohort analysis supported the hypothesis. Period analysis revealed that natural fertility increased between 1953-57 and 1969-72 by 10% and that the greatest increase occurred during the 1950s when Philippine society experienced major modernization changes. The increases in natural fertility were accompanied by corresponding increases in fertility regulation in each time period. These trends tended to cancel each other out and resulted in a relatively stable total marital fertility rate throughout the time period. Cohort analysis revealed that only the total marital fertility rate of the youngest cohort was influenced by fertility regulation. The level of natural fertility for all cohorts as a group

  7. Testis Development and Fertility Potential in Boys with Klinefelter Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Shanlee M; Rogol, Alan D; Ross, Judith L

    2015-12-01

    Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is the leading genetic cause of primary hypogonadism and infertility in men. The clinical phenotype has expanded beyond the original description of infertility, small testes, and gynecomastia. Animal models, epidemiologic studies, and clinical research of male subjects with KS throughout the lifespan have allowed the better characterization of the variable phenotype of this condition. This review provides an overview on what is known of the epidemiology, clinical features, and pathophysiology of KS, followed by a more focused discussion of testicular development and the clinical management of hypogonadism and fertility in boys and men with KS.

  8. Genotyping of Israeli infertile men with idiopathic oligozoospermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madgar, I; Green, L; Kent-First, M; Weissenberg, R; Gershoni-Baruch, R; Goldman, B; Friedman, E

    2002-09-01

    Microdeletions of the long arm of the Y chromosome involving the azoospermia factor (AZF) region are associated with severe oligo- or azoospermia. Abnormal androgen receptor (AR) structure or function has also been implicated in male infertility. To assess the contribution of these genetic defects to male infertility, 61 Israeli men with severe oligo- (n = 15) or azoospermia (n = 46), were screened for Y chromosome microdeletions, and the AR-(CAG)n repeat length. Fifty fertile Israeli men were similarly analyzed. PCR amplification of 20-54 simple tag sequences (STSs) located at Yq was used to determine the rate and extent of Y chromosome microdeletions. PCR with primers flanking the AR-(CAG)n region and subsequent size fractionation on gradient acrylamide gels were used to determine AR-(CAG)n length. Five azoospermic individuals (5/61-8.2% and 5/46-10.8% of azoospermic patients) displayed Y chromosome microdeletions. The mean CAG repeat number in infertile men was 18.6 +/- 3.0 compared with 16.6 + 2.7 in fertile men (n = 50), a statistically significant difference (p = 0.003). Y chromosome microdeletions contribute to male infertility in our azoospermic population, and the mean length of the AR-CAG is significantly longer in our infertile population than in fertile men.

  9. Human Dignity: incorporation of the case law of the European Court of Human Rights by the Colombian Constitutional Court

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Silvana Insignares Cera; Viridiana Molinares Hassan

    2011-01-01

      This paper analyzes how the Colombian Constitutional Court in its jurisprudence includes references to case law of the European Court of Human Rights, in exercising its constitutional oversight and...

  10. Osteoporosis in Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... not supported by your browser. Home Osteoporosis Men Osteoporosis in Men Publication available in: PDF (71 KB) ... as life expectancy continues to rise. What Causes Osteoporosis? Bone is constantly changing—that is, old bone ...

  11. When Men Meet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Henning

    men, mænd, masculinity, maskulinitet, gender, køn, homosexuality, homoseksualitet, modernity, modernitet, postmodernity, postmodernitet......men, mænd, masculinity, maskulinitet, gender, køn, homosexuality, homoseksualitet, modernity, modernitet, postmodernity, postmodernitet...

  12. Men's Health: Violence Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health This information in Spanish ( en español ) Violence prevention for men Get help for violence in your ... help. Return to top More information on Violence prevention for men Explore other publications and websites Are ...

  13. Men and Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pressure Salt Cholesterol Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Men and Heart Disease Fact Sheet Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Source: Interactive Atlas of Heart Disease and Stroke Heart Disease Facts in Men Heart disease is the leading ...

  14. Sexual Problems in Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many men have sexual problems. They become more common as men age. Problems can include Erectile dysfunction Reduced or lost interest in sex ... problems may also be factors. Occasional problems with sexual function are common. If problems last more than ...

  15. Social mobility and fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianpiero Dalla Zuanna

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Intra- and inter-generational social mobility have in the past played an important role in attempts to explain fertility behaviour, and continue to do so today. The opinions expressed by social scientists in the first part of the 20th century are renewed and confirmed. More specifically: (1 intra-generational social mobility has been reinforced by the personal well-being aspirations and job careers of women; (2 status anxiety parents feel for their children pushes fertility down in large areas of the developed world (mainly in southern European and eastern Asian countries. Therefore, the provocative idea of Ariès that in the rich world, the child-king has now been replaced by the couple-queen does not perfectly hold.

  16. Conventional semen parameters and DNA fragmentation in relation to fertility status in a Greek population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evgeni, Evangelini; Lymberopoulos, George; Gazouli, Maria; Asimakopoulos, Byron

    2015-05-01

    Our study aimed to investigate the possible correlations between conventional seminal parameters and DNA fragmentation in specific groups of Greek men, selected in relation to their fertility history and to verify the validity of the recent WHO reference values for the basic semen analysis in this population. A total of 770 subject data were evaluated in three distinct groups: fertile men with children naturally conceived within one year of unprotected intercourse (n=78), subfertile men, having achieved pregnancies either naturally or by Assisted Reproduction Techniques, not resulting in live births (n=153) and infertile men, failing to produce either pregnancies or children (n=539). Semen volume, sperm concentration, total count, rapid and total progressive motility and morphology were evaluated following the World Health Organization (2010) methods. DNA fragmentation was assessed by the Sperm Chromatin Dispersion assay. The 5th percentile, as well as the 95% confidence intervals (CI) for each parameter, were calculated by the method of bootstrapping. Statistical correlations between the examined parameters were sought using the Spearman R test (pDNA fragmentation and sperm concentration, total count, progressive motility (rapid and total) and normal morphology in subfertile and infertile men (pDNA fragmentation in our group of fertile men. Concordance was established between the reference limits issued by the WHO 2010 for the basic semen parameters and semen quality of fertile men in the studied population. The variability of correlations established between DNA fragmentation and the conventional seminal profile in relation to fertility status indicates that they are independent attributes of semen quality, justifying the assessment of both during a comprehensive evaluation of male infertility. Moreover, the WHO 2010 reference limits were found adequately descriptive of seminal normality in Greek men. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Fertility, Migration, and Altruism

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    Consider migration to a higher income region as a human capital investment in which parents bear migration costs and children share returns. Migrants from a population with heterogeneous intergenerational discount rates will be self-selected on intergenerational altruism. Thus, immigrants may be self-selected on fertility. Soviet Jews who migrate to Israel despite high migration costs have significantly more children than members of the same birth cohort who migrate later when costs are low. ...

  18. Slow-Release Fertilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Under an SBIR (Small Business Innovative Research), ZeoponiX, Inc., introduced ZeoPro. This product is used as a fertilizer/soil amendment for golf courses, ball fields, greenhouse and horticultural uses. A combination of superior growth medium and soil conditioner allow for nutrient supplementation and high efficiency delivery of nutrients throughout the plant. ZeoPro provides a balanced nutrient system for major, minor, and trace nutrients.

  19. Fracture prevention in men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geusens, PP; Sambrook, P.N.; Lems, W.F.

    2009-01-01

    The lifetime risk of experiencing a fracture in 50-year-old men is lower (20%) than the risk in women (50%). Consequently, much less research has been carried out on osteoporosis and fracture risk in men. Differences in the risk and incidence of fractures between men and women are related to differe

  20. Domestic violence against men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Christopher F

    This article reviews the literature relating to domestic violence against men and examines some of the reasons why men are reluctant to report violent episodes. The article focuses on men as the victims and women as the perpetrators of domestic violence and identifies gaps in service provision. The role of the nurse in supporting male victims is also discussed.

  1. Rundt om Mad Men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jakob Isak

    2011-01-01

    Artiklen gør rede for Mad Mens tilblivelse, dens populærkulturelle efterdønninger, multimediale forgreninger og værkæstetiske karakteristika. "Story Matters Here" lyder AMCs motto, men Mad Men tilbyder et bredspektret engagement, der går langt ud over at følge med i en vedkommende fortælling...

  2. The fertility decline in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, W C; Harbison, S F

    1995-01-01

    In Sub-Saharan Africa Kenya is a prime example of a country experiencing a rapid decline in fertility and greater contraceptive prevalence. These changes have occurred since 1980 when fertility was high at 8.0 children per woman. In 1993 the total fertility rate (TFR) was 5.4, and the growth rate declined to about 2.0%. This transition is swifter than any country in contemporary Asia or historical Europe. The likely projection for Kenya is attainment of replacement level fertility during the 2020s and a leveling of population at about 100 million persons. Fertility has declined the most in urban areas and central and eastern regions. Bongaarts' proximate determinants (TFR, total marital fertility rate, total natural marital fertility rate, and total fecundity) are reduced to the proportion of currently married women using contraception, the proportion in lactational nonfecund status, and the proportion currently married. Actual fertility change is accounted for by total fertility change of 3.0 children. Lactational infecundability accounts for 0.5 potential births, and changes in marital fertility account for 1.0 reduced births per woman. About 70% of fertility reduction is accounted for by contraception and abortion. During 1977-78 80% of fertility control was due to lactational nonfecundity, 10% to nonmarriage, and 10% to contraception. In 1993 lactational nonfecundity accounted for 50% of the reduction, nonmarriage for 20%, and abortion about 30%. Future fertility is expected to be dependent on contraceptive prevalence. Kenya has experienced the Coale paradigm of preconditions necessary for demographic transition (willing, ready, and able). High fertility in Africa is not intractable. Creating the change in attitudes that leads to readiness is linked to education, health, and exposure to modernizing media and urban lifestyles. The public sector family planning program in Kenya has created the opportunity for access and availability of contraception. The key

  3. IN VITRO FERTILIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadawale N. M

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available First written document dealing with infertility may be found in the Kahoun papyrus (oldest Egyptian medical text, dated to 2200-1950 BC. The early attribution of infertility to women persisted for centuries and was often considered divine punishment.Infertility means 1 year of well-timed, unprotected intercourse without a pregnancy. The study shows about 10-15% of population is infertile. And 15-20% of couple have unexplained infertility (work-up is negative. Normally women are born with their lifetime egg supply, the Fertility initially declines at age 27.Significant decline at age 37-38. The chances of pregnancies are rare after age 44 besides this defect in female ovary, fallopian tube, uterus, and fibroid tumour causes infertility in female.Abnormality in sperm production and abnormality in sperm function causes infertility in male.To overcome the infertility egg are harvested from womens ovary and fertilized in laboratory with the sperm the embryos are then transfer into uterus known as In Vitro Fertilization.

  4. Environmental friendly nitrogen fertilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Avi; Shaviv

    2005-01-01

    With the huge intensification of agriculture and the increasing awareness to human health and natural resources sustainability, there was a shift towards the development of environmental friendly N application approaches that support sustainable use of land and sustain food production.The effectiveness of such approaches depends on their ability to synchronize plant nitrogen demand with its supply and the ability to apply favored compositions and dosages of N-species.They are also influenced by farming scale and its sophistication, and include the following key concepts: (i) Improved application modes such as split or localized ("depot") application; (ii) use of bio-amendments like nitrification and urease inhibitors and combinations of (i) and (ii); (iii) use of controlled and slow release fertilizers; (iv) Fertigation-fertilization via irrigation systems including fully automated and controlled systems; and (v) precision fertilization in large scale farming systems. The paper describes the approaches and their action mechanisms and examines their agronomic and environmental significance. The relevance of the approaches for different farming scales, levels of agronomic intensification and agro-technical sophistication is examined as well.

  5. Chinese culture and fertility decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C; Jia, S

    1992-01-01

    Coale has suggested that cultural factors exert a significant influence on fertility reduction; countries in the "Chinese cultural circle" would be the first to show fertility decline. In China, the view was that traditional Chinese culture contributed to increased population. This paper examines the nature of the relationship between Chinese culture and fertility. Attention was directed to a comparison of fertility rates of developing countries with strong Chinese cultural influence and of fertility within different regions of China. Discussion was followed by an explanation of the theoretical impact of Chinese culture on fertility and direct and indirect beliefs and practices that might either enhance or hinder fertility decline. Emigration to neighboring countries occurred after the Qing dynasty. Fertility after the 1950s declined markedly in Japan, Singapore, Hong Kong, South Korea, Taiwan, and mainland China: all countries within the Chinese cultural circle. Other countries within the Chinese circle which have higher fertility, yet lower fertility than other non-Chinese cultural countries, are Malaysia, Thailand, and Indonesia. Within China, regions with similar fertility patterns are identified as coastal regions, central plains, and mountainous and plateau regions. The Han ethnic group has lower fertility than that of ethnic minorities; regions with large Han populations have lower fertility. Overseas Chinese in East Asian countries also tend to have lower fertility than their host populations. Chinese culture consisted of the assimilation of other cultures over 5000 years. Fertility decline was dependent on the population's desire to limit reproduction, favorable social mechanisms, and availability of contraception: all factors related to economic development. Chinese culture affects fertility reduction by affecting reproductive views and social mechanisms directly, and indirectly through economics. Confucianism emphasizes collectivism, self

  6. Differential protein expression in seminal plasma from fertile and infertile males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadavid J, Angela P.; Alvarez, Angela; Markert, Udo R.; Maya, Walter Cardona

    2014-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to analyze human seminal plasma proteins in association with male fertility status using the proteomic mass spectrometry technology Surface-Enhanced Laser Desorption Ionization Time-of-Flight (SELDI-TOF-MS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Semen analysis was performed using conventional methods. Protein profiles of the seminal plasma were obtained by SELDI-TOF mass spectrometry over a strong anion exchanger, ProteinChip® Q10 array. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: We found statistically significant differences in motility and sperm count between fertile and infertile men. In addition, we observed ten seminal proteins that are significantly up-regulated in the infertile group. In conclusion, comparison of seminal plasma proteome in fertile and infertile men provides new aspects in the physiology of male fertility and might help in identifying novel markers of male infertility. PMID:25395747

  7. Sperm chromatin structure assay results in Nigerian men with unexplained infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faduola, Paul; Kolade, Charles Oluwabukunmi

    2015-09-01

    Several publications have established a relationship between sperm DNA damage and male factor infertility, based on data from America, Europe, and Asia. This study aimed to compare the extent of sperm DNA damage in sperm samples from Nigerian men with unexplained infertility and in sperm samples from a fertile group composed of sperm donors who had successfully impregnated a female partner naturally or through assisted conception. A total of 404 men underwent male fertility evaluation at Androcare Laboratories and Cryobank participated in this study. Semen analysis and a sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA) were performed on all subjects. The men in the unexplained infertility group were slightly older than the men in the fertile sperm group (36±10 years vs. 32±6 years, p=0.051). No significant difference was observed between the two groups in semen analysis parameters (p≥0.05). Men in the unexplained infertility group with normal semen parameters had a significantly higher DNA fragmentation index (DFI) than men in the fertile sperm group (27.5%±7.0% vs. 14.1%±5.3%, p<0.05). In the unexplained infertility group, 63% of the men had a DFI greater than 20%, compared to 4% in the fertile sperm group. In the unexplained infertility group, 15.2% of the subjects had a DFI greater than 30%, compared to 1% in the fertile sperm group. Our study showed that the SCSA may be a more reliable predictor of fertility potential than traditional semen analysis in cases of unexplained infertility.

  8. Development of the knowledge of fertility and fertility preservation scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNees P

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Angela Jukkala1, Karen Meneses1, Andres Azuero1, June Cho1, Patrick McNees1,21School of Nursing, 2School of Health Professions, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USAObjective: Infertility is a severe and often underestimated consequence of successful treatment for breast cancer. Ensuring young breast cancer survivors receive patient-centered health information on the impact of treatment on fertility and fertility preservation options in a timely manner is a critical component of high quality nursing care. The objective of this manuscript is to report the process used to develop and examine the reliability and validity of an instrument to measure a breast cancer survivor’s self-assessed knowledge of fertility and fertility preservation.Design: A scale development and descriptive study.Setting: Online and global.Participants: Ninety-two young breast cancer survivors (ages 25–45 years.Methods: Participants completed the Knowledge of Fertility and Fertility Preservation (KF Scale as part of their participation in a larger study, the Fertility Cancer Project (FCP.Results: An exploratory factor analysis revealed five domains: normal reproductive function; general information about fertility; cancer treatment factors affecting fertility; infertility information; and alternative parenting options. A confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the validity of the construct with a demonstrated good fit between the factor structure of the new scale and the observed data. Many participants self-assessed their overall knowledge of fertility and fertility preservation as “a little” and the majority rated their knowledge of infertility information as “a little”.Conclusion: The KF Scale can be used to provide useful information to support health care professionals in the development of patient-centered education that is responsive to the unique needs of each young breast cancer survivor. The initial testing of the KF Scale indicates

  9. Effects of medical causes, role concepts and treatment stages on quality of life in involuntary childless men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schick, M; Rösner, S; Toth, B; Strowitzki, T; Jank, A; Kentenich, H; Thöne, C; Wischmann, T

    2016-11-01

    Goal of this study was to investigate differences in quality of life in men contingent upon various fertility treatment stages, infertility causes and adoption of roles. A quantitative study with n = 115 men in three German fertility centres was devised. Participants completed a standardised, fertility-specific questionnaire devised for men (TLMK), sociodemographic and role items. Men having experienced severe medical conditions, for example cancer, reported significant higher quality of life compared to men with other infertility reasons [F(1,56) = 12.77, P = 0.001]. Furthermore, allocating participants into distinctive groups by means of kind and duration of treatment revealed significant group differences [F(2,111) = 4.94, P = 0.009], with quality of life decreasing with the use of more invasive fertility methods. A higher satisfaction with life was also stated by men adopting many tasks in the treatment process. The high quality of life displayed by men having experienced severe medical conditions contains valuable and far-reaching information about possible resilience factors that need to be researched more in detail. The finding of decreasing quality of life in men with the use of more invasive methods in treatment applies for increased psychosocial services in fertility clinics.

  10. Recommendations for fertility preservation in patients with lymphoma, leukemia, and breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, S Samuel; Donnez, Jacques; Barri, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Fertility issues should be addressed to all patients in reproductive age before cancer treatment. In men, cryopreservation of sperm should be offered to all cancer patients in reproductive age regardless of the risk of gonadal failure. In women, the recommendation of fertility preservation should...... be individualized based on multiple factors such as the urgency of treatment, the age of the patient, the marital status, the regimen and dosage of cancer treatment....

  11. MENX and MEN4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia S. Pellegata

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple endocrine neoplasias are autosomal dominant disorders characterized by the occurrence of tumors in at least two endocrine glands. Two MEN syndromes have long been known and are well characterized: the MEN type 1 (MEN1 and type 2 (MEN2. These syndromes are caused by germline mutations in the MEN1 and RET genes, respectively, and have a different tumor spectrum. Recently, a variant of the MEN syndromes arose spontaneously in a rat colony and was named MENX. Affected animals consistently develop multiple endocrine tumors, with a spectrum that shares features with both MEN1 and MEN2 human syndromes. Genetic studies identified a germline mutation in the Cdkn1b gene, encoding the p27 cell cycle inhibitor, as the causative mutation for MENX. Capitalizing on these findings, heterozygous germline mutations in the human homologue, CDKN1B, were searched for and identified in patients with multiple endocrine tumors. As a consequence of this discovery, a novel human MEN syndrome, named MEN4, was recognized, which is caused by mutations in p27. Altogether, these studies identified Cdkn1b/CDKN1B as a novel tumor susceptibility gene for multiple endocrine tumors in both rats and humans. Here we review the characteristics of the MENX and MEN4 syndromes and we briefly address the main function of p27 and how they are affected by MENX/4-associated mutations.

  12. Instituciones, gobernanza y sustentabilidad en la política colombiana de ordenamiento territorial municipal1/Institutions, governance and sustainability in the Colombian policy for municipal territorial ordering

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fabio Alberto Arias Arbeláez; Gloria María Vargas

    2010-01-01

      The Colombian policy for municipal territorial ordering, because of its multidimensional character and long term planning, is an institution that allows to investigate the practice of sustainable...

  13. Male coping with cancer-fertility issues: putting the 'social' into biopsychosocial approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawshaw, Marilyn

    2013-09-01

    Biopsychosocial approaches in infertility and cancer services and research pay limited attention to 'social dimensions'. Additionally, existing cancer-related male infertility research is dominated by sperm banking studies even though fertility-related social concerns in the long term are reported to have an adverse effect on wellbeing. This paper considers whether social influences affected the fertility-related experiences of 28 men interviewed as part of a mixed-gender qualitative study of 'South Asian' and 'White' cancer survivors and their professional carers. Findings are reported under: managing stigma; sexuality and virility; ambiguity in fertile status; relationship to sperm; and meaning of fatherhood. Gender and other social influences were ambiguous, fluid and subtle--yet powerful. Combinations were neither standard nor static, indicating the dangers of practitioners stereotyping, and/or assuming homogeneity of, (in)fertile men and being unaware of their own socialized expectations. Social structures and attitudes towards valued male social roles as well as the men's psychological capacity and bodily state appear to affect experience. Men may more readily be engaged if practitioners proactively attend to the impact of social concerns, including employment and financial matters, on their perceived capacity to be fathers as a route into raising issues of sexuality and fertility.

  14. Temporal Trends in Fertility Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin Blomberg; Priskorn, Lærke; Jensen, Tina Kold

    2015-01-01

    to determine total and age specific fertility rates. RESULTS: Total fertility rate (TFR) decreased from 4.1 to 1.8 children per woman and age specific fertility also decreased from 1901 to 2014. Women aged 30-34, 35-39 or 40-44 years in the first decade of the 20th century had higher fertility rates than......OBJECTIVE: Increasing age at first childbirth has been suggested to increase the risk for infertility. Our objective is to determine whether women above thirty years of age historically have been able to sustain fertility rates above replacement level. DESIGN: A descriptive nationwide Danish study...... for 10% of TFR in 1901 compared with 4% in 2014 despite usage of assisted reproduction. CONCLUSION: This nationwide study shows that women above 30 years of age historically have been able to sustain fertility rates above replacement level. This implies that other factors besides age are strong...

  15. Striking a balance: conscientious objection and reproductive health care from the Colombian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabal, Luisa; Olaya, Monica Arango; Robledo, Valentina Montoya

    2014-12-11

    Conscientious Objection or conscientious refusal (CO) in access to reproductive health care is at the center of current legal debates worldwide. In countries such as the US and the UK, constitutional dilemmas surrounding CO in the context of reproductive health services reveal inadequate policy frameworks for balancing CO rights with women's rights to access contraception and abortion. The Colombian Constitutional Court's holistic jurisprudence regarding CO standards has applied international human rights norms so as to not only protect women's reproductive rights as fundamental rights, but to also introduce clear limits for the exercise of CO in health care settings. This paper reviews Latin American lines of regulation in Argentina, Uruguay, and Mexico City to argue that the Colombian Court's jurisprudence offers a strong guidance for future comprehensive policy approaches that aim to effectively balance tensions between CO and women's reproductive rights.

  16. Enzootic Brugia infection in a two-year-old Colombian girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozek, W J; Reyes, M A; Ehrman, J; Garrido, F; Nieto, M

    1984-01-01

    Mature male and female filarial worms were present in a lymphatic vessel near a retro-auricular lymph node removed from a 2-year old Colombian girl. Although apparently mature microfilariae were present in the uterus of the female, none was detected in blood samples (Knott's) of peripheral blood taken during day or night. The identification of the worms as a species of Brugia is suggested by their location in a dilated lymphatic vessel, morphology of adults, and the distribution pattern of tail nuclei of the microfilariae. This case is similar to another Colombian case reported from the Departamento del Santander del Sur, and suggests that zoonotic filarial infections may not be uncommon in Colombia.

  17. Electronic nose for quality control of Colombian coffee through the detection of defects in "Cup Tests".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Juan; Durán, Cristhian; Reyes, Adriana

    2010-01-01

    Electronic noses (ENs), are used for many applications, but we must emphasize the importance of their application to foodstuffs like coffee. This paper presents a research study about the analysis of Colombian coffee samples for the detection and classification of defects (i.e., using "Cup Tests"), which was conducted at the Almacafé quality control laboratory in Cúcuta, Colombia. The results obtained show that the application of an electronic nose called "A-NOSE", may be used in the coffee industry for the cupping tests. The results show that e-nose technology can be a useful tool for quality control to evaluate the excellence of the Colombian coffee produced by National Federation of Coffee Growers.

  18. Online Peer Feedback Between Colombian and New Zealand FL Beginners: A Comparison and Lessons Learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanza Tolosa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on an exploratory study comparing the performance as online tutors of two groups of beginner eleven-year-old students of English in Colombia and Spanish in New Zealand. The native speaker students of the foreign language the others were learning corrected paragraphs written by their peers. The feedback provided by each group of tutors was analyzed for (1 language corrected, (2 input on errors, and (3 types of feedback provided. We found that both Colombian and New Zealand tutors willingly provided corrections to their peers and used other feedback strategies to foster attention to linguistic form. The Colombian tutors identified a higher number of errors, but the New Zealanders provided more detailed comments. We draw lessons from the exploration.

  19. From Agamben State of Emergency to Colombian State of Emergency: A Possibility of Understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos López

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The following article seeks to open the possibility of thinking the reality of the Colombian conflict from new conceptual categories, specifically those put forth by Giorgio Agamben, not necessarily to force the facts into the theory, but to open new possibilities of understanding the human tragedy that Colombia has lived (and continues to live in terms of human loss (death policies, of lack of conditions to live a dignified life and of an existence that is zoé (barely existence, stripped from dignity rather than bios (life in political community. The text further proposes the question of whether the Colombian State has become an everlasting State of Emergency that employs it as a normal mode of establishing social and political hegemony

  20. Public and previous consultation on administrative rulemaking in the Colombian legal system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Gómez Velásquez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article addresses the figure of previous and public consultation in administrative rulemaking in the Colombian legal system. Doing that, the article uses a comparative law, a systematic interpretation and a jurisprudential approach to propose some de lege ferenda and de lege data interpretation on the figure. The thesis aims to hold is that from the existing legal framework it is possible to preach the existence of the figure form certain regulations, but also in a generic form in the light of the provisions of Article 8.8 of CPACA. However, due to the imprecise way the consultation was regulated there will be desirable that the legislative branch develop it in more detail manner in the near future or the Consejo de Estado as the Colombian supreme court on this particular issue defining in a unified way the scope of the public consultation. While this occurs, this paper proposes a constitutional interpretation of the institution.

  1. Mössbauer study of Fe mineralogy with respect to rank, type and Colombian carboniferous zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caballero, F. Reyes, E-mail: carefa4@hotmail.com; Martínez Ovalle, S. A., E-mail: s.agustin.martinez@uptc.edu.co [Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia, Grupo de Física Nuclear Aplicada y Simulación (Colombia); Díaz Lagos, M., E-mail: mercedes.diaz@uptc.edu.co [Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia, Escuela de Ingeniería Geológica (Colombia); Gómez, O. P., E-mail: olgapatricia.gomez@uptc.edu.co [Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia, Escuela de Ingeniería de Minas (Colombia); Blandón, A., E-mail: asblando@unal.edu.co [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Departamento de Materiales y Minerales, Facultad de Minas (Colombia)

    2017-11-15

    The transmission mode of Fe-57 Mössbauer spectroscopy was used to identify iron bearing minerals and establish relationships between and among these minerals and the ranks and types of various carboniferous zones in Colombia. Maceral and mineral compositions vary significantly among Colombian carboniferous zones. These variations determine some of the final characteristics and potential uses of coal, and therefore significantly contribute to defining coal quality. A comparison of spectroscopy results shows that the thermal maturity of the Colombian coals ranges from lignite to semianthracite. Similarities and differences exist with respect to conventional parameters. The coals of Córdoba and Cauca have higher sulfur contents > 2 % ash contents. Iron bearing minerals identified included pyrite, which was, found everywhere, and illite, ankerite, siderite, iron sulfates were found in particular areas. Coals from Valle del Cauca, Córdoba, Caldas and Santander are characterized by oxidation of pyrite and its transformation into ferrous or ferric sulfate.

  2. Political lnfluence and Economic Power in the Communication Media: Colombian Broadcasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Alberto Gil Bolívar

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of radio broadcasting in Colombia has put this media at the top of the audience, penetration (99,9%, credibility and influence. Its investments have not been displaced to other media, as television or press.The concentration of broadcasting media by families and political-economic groups reflects the same two-party system of the Colombian society. Thus, while during more than one hundred years the Colombian State has been dominated by the traditional rightist parties -Liberal and Conservative-, the national broadcasting enterprise has belonged to leaders or economic groups deeply relationed with one of these political units. Industry and politics are the two factors that have brought to the broadcasting polarization in two big commercial channels: CARACOL -1inked to the Liberal Party, and RCN, to the Conservatives.

  3. Literacy and Academic Texts: Writing Control in the Colombian Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Maldonado García

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article of reflection proposes an archaeological reading of a file made up of corpus of published research in Spanish and governmental documents, published in the last decade, that analyze the written production in the Colombian higher education (ES and that are marked by two discourses in Tension: studies of cognitive language and cultural-linguistic studies. Through the archaeological reading of Foucauldian court, the emergence of two controversial scenarios is shown. First stage: the Academic Literacy (AA discourse, in the beginning, was closer to the psycho-cognitive perspective and the literacy approach closer to the cultural perspective; however, with the passing of the days, both recognize the importance of cultural and cognitive and nourish each other, thus generating an opacity and a discursive fusion. Second, these two discourses created a robust investigative field, composed of networks and groups, which denounced the writers' incompetence of Colombian teachers and then control the evaluation of writing.

  4. Use and management of the natural resources of the Colombian Amazon rain forest: a biological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Yaneth Landínez Torres

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the main features associated with biological use practices and management of forest resources in the Colombian Amazon. The theoretical cut proposal contrasts biological level, the forms of appropriation of forest resources in indigenous and urban contexts depending on the importance that such activity involves the establishment of management strategies biodiversity in Colombia. In this way, provides an integrative perspective that will address conflict situations considering environmental factors not only biological but cultural in various scenarios , to give sustenance to the decisions made and provide a reasonable treatment that enables the implementation of environmental regulation mechanisms in especially in areas such as strategic biological Colombian Amazon. Finally, reflect on the importance of facilitating the functional analysis of the connections and interrelationships of ecosystem components, including human communities, sketching involving both biological and social guidelines for sustainable use of biodiversity.

  5. Presence of Recurrent Airway Obstruction in a Group of Colombian Native Horses with Respiratory Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Alejandro Castillo Franz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the presence of recurrent airway obstruction (RAO through bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL in a group of twenty Colombian native horses with respiratory symptoms. Each animal underwent a clinical examination in order to corroborate the respiratory disturbance and later perform the BAL. The results obtained showed that 65% of the animals under study tested positive for RAO, based on the clinical and BAL results, and that, among the total number of animals that tested positive, 61.5% suffered a severe form of such condition. We also found an association between the number of neutrophils and the color of the BAL fluid, and an inverse relationship between cell cytology of macrophages and neutrophils. It is concluded that the Colombian native horse, like other horse breeds, suffers from RAO, sometimes severely, related to predisposing factors such as accommodation and stabling.

  6. Fertility and age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korula George

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The changing social scenario together with economic growth and an increase in job opportunities has to a great extent reduced gender inequality and has resulted in more and more older women seeking help from infertility clinics. Fertility and aging have always been closely linked and the age of the female partner remains the single most important factor in predicting success with treatment. Although tests for the ovarian reserve are an important informative tool and are helpful in selecting treatment options, they are poor predictors of the outcome.

  7. WILL FERTILITY REBOUND IN JAPAN

    OpenAIRE

    Creina Day

    2012-01-01

    Fertility and per capita income are now positively associated across most high income OECD countries. Low fertility and a gender wage gap persist in Japan. This paper presents an original model where endogenous increases in childcare prices and gender equity in capital allocation play important roles in the effect of per capita income growth and rising female relative wages on fertility. Results suggest Japan has cause for optimism. Economic growth will raise female relative wages where capit...

  8. Construction of the enemy in the Colombian armed conflict 1998-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio González Z

    2016-04-01

    should be taken as a toolbox or as a lens, which are used if they allow a better view and leaving aside whether or disturb the look muddy work. I think the construction of the enemy in the Colombian armed conflict 1998-2010, is that: a good toolbox or good lenses that allow us auscultate some phenomena and raises some concerns?

  9. Estimation of Solar Radiation Incident on Horizontal and Tilted Surfaces For 7 Colombian Zones

    OpenAIRE

    Corredor, L.M

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses a procedure that was adopted for the development of a linear regression model for estimating solar radiation on horizontal surfaces for 7 Colombian zones. The correlations, the simulated global solar radiation on tilted surface and the simulated diffuse solar radiation on a horizontal surface for each zone are shown. The values of sunshine-hours and the solar radiation were taken from January 2012 to January 2013. The solar radiation values...

  10. Electrocardiographic parameters in Colombian Creole horses, patients in a veterinary establishment in Antioquia, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana Mira Hernández; Silvia Posada Arias; Cristian Alejandro Castillo Franz; Alejandro Saldarriaga Restrepo

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac disorders in horses are not generally manifested as in other animals; however, there are conditions that need to be properly diagnosed to assess athletic performance. There are several studies on the use of complementary diagnostic methods, such as an electrocardiogram (ECG), in equine cardiology. Despite this, there are no baseline data for the case of Colombian Creole horses (CCH). This study aimed to describe the electrocardiographic tracings of 57 CCH patients at the Clínica Veter...

  11. [Some rights not constitutionally defined which are part of the rights to health. The Colombian case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecilia Paz, Martha

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews the three approaches adopted by the Colombian Constitutional Court to justify the protection of the right to health, and questions whether other rights that are not constitutionally defined, i.e. the right to a precise diagnosis, the right to access medical records, and the right to informed consent, also belong to the right to health or if they are distinctly different rights with a defined constitutional character.

  12. Minimum Vital of Drinking Water in the Jurisprudence of the Colombian Constitutional Court

    OpenAIRE

    Restrepo Gutiérrez, Elizabeth; Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Medellín; Zárate Yepes, Carlos Alberto; Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Medellín

    2016-01-01

    The minimum vital of drinking water for vulnerable people isprotected by the Colombian Constitutional Jurisprudence,locally and nationally. The Constitutional Court has created asolid jurisprudential line on the right to water in relation to thesuspension of water supply service for the customer’s failure topay for the service; this Court has also defined the conditionsnecessary for the companies to refrain from suspending serviceand the minimum amount necessary for survival. Compliance witht...

  13. Detection and characterizacion of Colombian wetlands using Alos Palsar and MODIS imagery

    OpenAIRE

    L.M. Estupinan-Suarez; Florez-Ayala, C.; M.J. Quinones; Pacheco, A.M.; Santos, A. C.

    2015-01-01

    Wetlands regulate the flow of water and play a key role in risk management of extreme flooding and drought. In Colombia, wetland conservation has been a priority for the government. However, there is an information gap neither an inventory nor a national baseline map exists. In this paper, we present a method that combines a wetlands thematic map with remote sensing derived data, and hydrometeorological stations data in order to characterize the Colombian wetlands. Following the adop...

  14. The Colombian-United States Free Trade Treaty: A Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA)

    OpenAIRE

    Cristian A Yepes

    2014-01-01

    "Free trade treaties are generally centered on defining some game rules to achieve commercial exchange. In this article, the contents of the text of the free trade treaty between Colombia and the United States are discussed using a critical discourse analysis, which will help to identify the power relationships in this discourse in the context of Colombian company management. The particularities of the free trade treaty are also analyzed from a linguistic point of view, and taking into accoun...

  15. The Colombian Awakening: President Alvaro Uribe’s Integrated Action Approach to Counterinsurgency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Bogotá, 2003, 32-33. The revenues from the taxes resourced the Ministry of Defense’s (MOD) new Plan de Choque (Shock Plan). This initiative was a...just within Ecuador’s borders. Colombian security forces killed Raul Reyes , the FARC’s spokesman and second-in-command. 67 Purported evidence...from Reyes ’ laptop computer that implicated Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez and Ecuador’s President Rafael Correa in supporting FARC activities

  16. Notes for a Genealogy of Dress Codes and Aestheticizing Technologies in the Colombian School

    OpenAIRE

    Alexánder Aldana Bautista

    2016-01-01

    This article shows an analysis of the schoolchild’s construction from a series of aestheticizing technologies that constitute a child’s body in which the aesthetic utopia of modern school is inscribed. The paper, derived from an archaeological–genealogical research about school uniform and dress codes in the Colombian school during the late twentieth century and the early twenty– first century revolves around the following questions: What enabled the emergence of some discourses about school ...

  17. New species of Cladiopsocus Roesler (Psocodea: 'Psocoptera': Psocomorpha: Cladiopsocidae) from the Colombian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obando, Ranulfo González; Aldrete, Alfonso N García; Carrejo, Nancy

    2016-06-22

    Ten species of Cladiopsocus Roesler were identified among recent collections from the Colombian departments of Amazonas and Putumayo. Eight new species were found, five from Putumayo and three from Amazonas, that are here described and illustrated. C. ramulosus (Enderlein) and C. domesticus (New) were found in the Putumayo department. The number of species in the genus is increased to 28, with two from Angola, and 26 from the Neotropics. An identification key to the males of the neotropical species is included.

  18. Plan Colombia: Reality of the Colombian Crisis and Implications for Hemispheric Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-12-01

    commanders to either do their jobs or resign.77 Commander of the Armed Forces General Jorge Enrique Mora underscored Uribe’s goals and stated that the... Vicente del Caguan to discuss the possibility of establishing a meat packing plant in the heart of FARC territory. Not only did it seem unusual that...and that the area around San Vicente del Caguan is mostly jungle, with no major roads and little infrastructure.107 The Colombian military charged that

  19. Combination of product quality management and exports: The case of Colombian fruits companies

    OpenAIRE

    Lu Luque, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Quality management provides to companies a framework to improve quality in overall systems, reduction of costs, reallocation of resources efficiently, correct planning of strategies, prevent or correct errors in the right time and increase the performance of companies. In this text, we discuss the different theories in this field, their obligatory or non-obligatory compliance, the importance of quality management for exporting companies and a case study of a Colombian firm that its main objec...

  20. Benthic communities and geomorphology of the Tesoro Island Coral Reef, Colombian Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-M., Juan M.

    1995-01-01

    The benthic communities distribution in Tesoro Island (Colombian Caribbean) coral reef was determinad by cartography of reef morphology and functional groups from aerial photographs, theodolite triangulation, and bottom transects over depths ranging from O to 30 m. Tesoro Island is a sand cay reef developed over an emerged reef platform whose basal cone possibly originated by mud diapirism on the continental shelf. The benthic communities are distributed as subzones of the geomorphologic unit...

  1. Implementation and evaluation of the strategy Pairs Trading for Colombian public debt bonds

    OpenAIRE

    Fajardo Rodriguez, Sandra Milena

    2017-01-01

    Pair trading is a statistical trading strategy based on the concept of mean reverting; investors select two related assets and establish a relation between them buying the underpriced asset and selling the overpriced. When the market returns to the equilibrium the strategy create profit from the short and long position. The empirical application of this paper proposes the evaluation of three methodologies for the implementation of the pair trading strategy using the information of Colombian p...

  2. A shift in policy, a shift in peace : Colombian civil society peace initiatives (1997-2008)

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Julia Drey

    2009-01-01

    In the last fifteen years, Colombia's rapidly growing peace movement has produced activists who fervently work to create peace in a country that has been in conflict for more than forty years. These activists and the organizations that support them represent a heterogeneous group of people who use a diverse array of peace initiatives (or peace actions) to achieve their peace goals. Their work has attempted (and often succeeded) in influencing and impacting Colombian citizens, the government a...

  3. Analysis of the colombian scientific production in chemistry. Wokdatabase(2001-2012)

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    An exploratory analysis is presented through somes cientometric indicators of production of articles in thearea of chemistry with Colombian author institutional affiliation,reported in the Web of Knowledge(2001 - 2012). Indicators analyzed: Number of citations, articles peryear, number of authors per article. The study was complemented with bivariat estatistical tests and techniques. Among the results published numerous articles found reference three to five authors,with predominant from 2009...

  4. Editorial. About the beginning of the colombian government talks with the FARC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Alberto Andrade Rodriguez

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available It is clear that the current context of Colombia, with regard to the armed conflict, has as its epicenter the possibility of a negotiated solution. Some voices have been raised to defend this alternative, others have "twittered" from different media to advocate against impunity and to remind the Colombians the "atrocities" committed by guerrillas; atrocities that should, according to them, be punished with rigor and without hesitation. © Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Sociales.

  5. Leadership and performance in multicultural business environments a qualitative study in German-Colombian teams

    OpenAIRE

    Spieß, Juliane

    2015-01-01

    Multicultural leadership is a topic a great interest in nowadays globalized work environment. Colombia emerges as an attractive marketplace with appealing business opportunities, especially for German enterprises. After presenting Colombia’s current political, social and economic situation, the thesis elaborates the complex subject of cultural differences while focusing on the peculiarities of German and Colombian national cultures. The resulting implications for a team’s collaboration and le...

  6. Analysis of energy production with different photovoltaic technologies in the Colombian geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Y.; Zafra, D.; Acevedo, V.; Ospino, A.

    2014-06-01

    This research has analyzed the photovoltaic technologies, Polycrystalline silicon, Monocrystalline Silicon, GIS, Cadmium Tellurium and Amorphous Silicon; in eight cities of the Colombian territory, in order to obtain a clear idea of what is the most appropriate for each city or region studied. PVsyst simulation software has been used to study in detail each photovoltaic technology, for an installed capacity of 100kW knowing the specific data of losses by temperature, mismatch, efficiency, wiring, angle inclination of the arrangement, among others

  7. In Search of an Effective C2 Architecture for Counterinsurgency Operations: Lessons from the Colombian Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    Lessons from the Colombian Experience Lessons Learned, Concepts and Organizations, Social Domain Issues Román D. Ortiz, Nicolás Urrutia...Nicolás Urrutia Universidad de los Andes Departamento de Ciencia Política Carrera 1E # 18A - 10 Edificio Franco, Piso 3 Telephone: (57-1) 339...and military, and analyzes their impact upon the design of system architecture over time. In addition, it offers insight into the social processes

  8. Single Mothers, Single Fathers: Gender Differences in Fertility after a Nonmarital Birth

    OpenAIRE

    Guzzo, Karen Benjamin; Hayford, Sarah R.

    2010-01-01

    Research on nonmarital fertility has focused almost exclusively on unmarried mothers, due in part to a lack of fertility information for men. Cycle 6 of the National Survey of Family Growth allows exploration of nonmarital fertility for both genders. We compare the characteristics of unmarried first-time mothers (n = 2,455) and fathers (n = 797), use event history techniques to model second birth hazards, and examine the distribution of men’s and women’s second births across types of relation...

  9. Hormonal imbalances and psychological scars left behind in infertile men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Chong Won; Seok, Hyun Ha; Song, Seung-Hun; Kim, Eun Sun; Her, Young Sun; Yoon, Tae Ki

    2012-01-01

    The effect of infertility on the psychological well-being of couples has been the subject of increasing attention in recent years. The frustration of couples of a relatively young age (ie, in their fourth decades) provokes not only anxiety and depression but also negative effects on the relationships. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a diagnosis of male infertility on anxiety and depression in the men themselves and in fertile female spouses. The prospective cross-sectional study consisted of 264 participants, 72 males diagnosed with nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA) and their fertile spouses and 60 fertile couples attending our university between January 1, 2009, and April 30, 2010. The Beck Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and hormone levels were measured during initial and follow-up visits. In NOA men, follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone were positively associated with anxiety, in contrast to testosterone, which was inversely associated with anxiety. After the diagnosis of NOA, producing no testicular sperm, the panic intensity among men increased significantly, whereas their spouses exhibited less panic. By contrast, fertile female partners of NOA men reported higher BDI scores after the initial diagnosis of azoospermia, whereas their partners recorded higher levels of depression after the absence of testicular sperm was discovered. Insomnia was the most common complaint for both sexes after the diagnosis of azoospermia. Hormonal abnormalities had a negative effect on the quality of life. Physicians and clinicians should acknowledge the immense psychosocial effect of the diagnosis of male infertility on both males and their fertile female partners.

  10. New reliability charge incentives and structure in the Colombian electrical sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio E. Villareal Navarro

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Ensuring sector reliability has always been an important issue in electrical sector policy. However, the challenge could be even greater for hydro-dependent systems (as in the Colombian system operating in the South-American equatorial zone, since clima-tic shocks such as the “el niño” phenomenon usually have a very strong impact on supply, thereby leading to market disequili-brium. Such systems thus require a very specific regulatory structure to assure generation units as “backup units” which may gene-rate electrical energy during critical moments. This paper examines the new reliability charge developed by the Colombian Commission for Regulating Energy and Gas (CREG, its characteristics and incentive mechanisms to ensure Colombian electrical system reliability under extreme weather condition. The new system promotes sector reliability during periods of scarcity and provi-des a clear incentive for new investment in backup generation. However, the instrument’s design could be improved if it included an explicit penalty for those units which do not honor their firm energy commitment. The instrument could thus encourage the non-entry of units which have either low reliability levels or speculative purposes.

  11. Evaluating Colombian SMEs’ technological innovation. Part 2: problems and challenges in innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar Fernando Castellanos Domínguez

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available As innovation is an extremely important aspect of economic progress, then new technologies and improving exist-ing ones must be evaluated for establishing the state of innovative culture and the ability to develop technology. The Colombian Innova award for Entrepreneurial Technological Innovation for SMEs was created in 2004, aimed at motivating technological and innovative development in this type of company. It also represents an important state initiative for promoting entrepreneurial innovation, providing a valuable source of information for establishing mechanisms for producing innovation in companies and gauging the current state of Colombian SMEs regarding innovation. This article outlines the structure of the award value chain, following-up and analysing the award’s results, understanding how it is awarded and identifying the actors involved in it. Analysing the award value chain led to identifying the lack of coordination between the National Innovation System (NIS and companies and establishing participants and award-winners’ geographical and sector distribution (contrasts being found between cities such as Bogotá, Medellín and Cali. The characteristics of processes leading to promoting innovation in participating companies (in most cases developing their innovative products or processes in completely organisationally endog-enous contexts were thus identified. These results (providing valuable information for strengthening the award also provided important input for strengthening strategies for promoting innovation in Colombian SMEs

  12. Validation of the European Cyberbullying Intervention Project Questionnaire for Colombian Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-López, Mauricio; Casas, José A; Romera, Eva M; Ortega-Ruiz, Rosario; Del Rey, Rosario

    2017-02-01

    Cyberbullying is the act of using unjustified aggression to harm or harass via digital devices. Currently regarded as a widespread problem, the phenomenon has attracted growing research interest in different measures of cyberbullying and the similarities and differences across countries and cultures. This article presents the Colombian validation of the European Cyberbullying Intervention Project Questionnaire (ECIPQ) involving 3,830 high school students (M = 13.9 years old, standard deviation = 1.61; 48.9 percent male), of which 1,931 were Colombian and 1,899 Spanish. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), content validation, and multigroup analysis were performed with each of the sample subgroups. The optimal fits and psychometric properties obtained confirm the robustness and suitability of the assessment instrument to jointly measure cyber-aggression and cyber-victimization. The results corroborated the theoretical construct and the two-dimensional and universal nature of cyberbullying. The multigroup analysis showed that cyberbullying dynamics are similar in both countries. The comparative analyses of prevalence revealed that Colombian students are less involved in cyberbullying. The results indicate the suitability of the instrument and the advantages of using such a tool to evaluate and guide psychoeducational interventions aimed at preventing cyberbullying in countries where few studies have been performed.

  13. Lack of Association between Recurrent Pregnancy Loss and Inherited Thrombophilia in a Group of Colombian Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, Henry; Castañeda, Serguei A.; Cardona Maya, Wálter; Alvarez, Leonor; Gómez, Joaquín; Gómez, Jorge; Torres, José; Tobón, Luis; Bedoya, Gabriel; Cadavid, Ángela P.

    2012-01-01

    Studies have shown an association between recurrent pregnancy loss and inherited thrombophilia in Caucasian populations, but there is insufficient knowledge concerning triethnic populations such as the Colombian. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether inherited thrombophilia is associated with recurrent pregnancy loss. Methods. We conducted a case-control study of 93 patients with recurrent pregnancy loss (cases) and 206 healthy multiparous women (controls) in a Colombian subpopulation. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) markers of the inherited thrombophilias factor V Leiden, prothrombin G20210A, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T were genotyped by PCR-RFLP. Activated protein C resistance and plasma levels of antithrombin, protein C, and protein S were also measured. Results. The frequency of thrombophilia-associated SNPs, activated protein C resistance, and anticoagulant protein deficiencies, was low overall, except for the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T SNP. The differences between patients and controls had no statistical significance. Conclusion. Our study confirms the low prevalence of inherited thrombophilias in non-Caucasian populations and it is unlikely that the tested thrombophilias play a role in the pathogenesis of recurrent pregnancy loss in this Colombian population. PMID:22577540

  14. Evaluating Colombian SMEs’ technological innovation: Part 1: conceptual basis, evaluation methodology and characterisation of innovative companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar Fernando Castellanos Domínguez

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Innovative processes currently constitute one of the most important alternatives for increasing organisations’ levels of competitiveness and productivity. The Colombian state (being conscious of this has generated mechanisms aimed at encouraging technological and innovative development activities in SMEs, as was the case with the Colombian Prize for Entrepreneurial Technological Innovation for SME (Innova 2006. The experience acquired through the technical evaluation of such prize was a valuable element for identifying Colombian MSMSC innovative characteristics and trends. The present article seeks to establish the current state of innovation in SMEs from expe- rience gained when evaluating and awarding the Innova prize; a frame of reference concerning innovation and design, the methodology used for evaluating the prize and some general statistics regarding the results obtained in 2006 are thus presented. A future publication will give the factors influencing innovation taking geographical regions, sectors and impact as reference. Such results revealed innovative initiatives in strategic sectors such as computer science and services, the leadership of cities such as Bogota and MedellIn and the need for producing clear guidelines for incorporating process and product design into being part of the innovative process.

  15. Smart grids in the colombian electric system: Current situation and potential opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Mauricio Giral Ramírez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Context: This paper focuses on providing a functional analysis of smart grids, with the purpose of establishing a framework to identify the main characteristics of the current electric interconnection system in Colombia. It also names the positive incentives proposed by the Colombian government to support both research and development projects that implement non-conventional energy sources and promoting energy management based on efficiency. Method: An architecture model that describes the components interoperability of a smart grid is presented using a descriptive methodology. Results: The results include a list of the objectives established by the Colombian public and private entities related to energy development, specially focusing on the opportunities to provide some kind of artificial intelligence to the current electrical system. Conclusions: It is necessary for the Colombian energy system to supply the energy demand considering electrical safety, social equity, and the minimum environmental impact. These restrictions impose new challenges for the energy system itself: From a technical point of view, the traditional electrical grid must be outfitted with the characteristics of a smart grid, and from a legal perspective, it is essential to generate a clear regulatory framework that promotes the development of this type of technology.

  16. Osteometric sorting of skeletal elements from a sample of modern Colombians: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Juan Manuel Guerrero; Hackman, Lucina; Martínez, Wendy; Medina, César Sanabria

    2016-03-01

    The Colombian armed conflict has been catalogued not only as the longest civil war in the western hemisphere, but also as having one of the highest indexes of missing persons. Among the several challenges faced by forensic practitioners in Colombia, the commingling of human remains has been recognised as one of the most difficult to approach. The method of osteometric sorting described by Byrd and Adams and Byrd (2008) has proven relevant as a powerful tool to aid in the reassociation process of skeletal structures. The aim of this research was to evaluate the three osteometric sorting models developed by Byrd (2008) (paired elements, articulating bone portions and other bone portions) in a sample of modern Colombian individuals. A set of 39 linear measurements was recorded from a sample of 100 individuals (47 females and 53 males aged between 20 and 74 and 18 and 77 years, respectively), which was used to create a reference sample database. A different subset of eight individuals (five females aged between 23 and 48 years, and three males aged between 27 and 43 years) was employed to randomly create six small-scale commingled assemblages for the purposes of testing the osteometric sorting models. Results demonstrate that this method has significant potential for use in the Colombian forensic context.

  17. Lack of Association between Recurrent Pregnancy Loss and Inherited Thrombophilia in a Group of Colombian Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Cardona

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown an association between recurrent pregnancy loss and inherited thrombophilia in Caucasian populations, but there is insufficient knowledge concerning triethnic populations such as the Colombian. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether inherited thrombophilia is associated with recurrent pregnancy loss. Methods. We conducted a case-control study of 93 patients with recurrent pregnancy loss (cases and 206 healthy multiparous women (controls in a Colombian subpopulation. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs markers of the inherited thrombophilias factor V Leiden, prothrombin G20210A, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T were genotyped by PCR-RFLP. Activated protein C resistance and plasma levels of antithrombin, protein C, and protein S were also measured. Results. The frequency of thrombophilia-associated SNPs, activated protein C resistance, and anticoagulant protein deficiencies, was low overall, except for the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T SNP. The differences between patients and controls had no statistical significance. Conclusion. Our study confirms the low prevalence of inherited thrombophilias in non-Caucasian populations and it is unlikely that the tested thrombophilias play a role in the pathogenesis of recurrent pregnancy loss in this Colombian population.

  18. Men in Feminised Workplaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warming, Kenn

    »Male nurses – Is that really what It’s called?« »Aren’t all male hairdressers gay?« »All preschool educators do is to wipe children’s bums, isn’t it?« »Cleaning is a job for women, not for menMen working in women’s professions often give rise to a lot of prejudices. But why? Are these men less...... masculine than other men? Or do they rather represent a new, more tolerant and less stereotypical male gender role? If less restricted by stereotypes, are men then eager to challenge traditional dichotomised perceptions of man/masculinity and woman/femininity? By means of analyses of interviews with more...... than 160 Bulgarian, Danish, Italian and Polish men working in traditional women’s occupations, this publication tries to answer some of these questions....

  19. The Role of Facial and Body Hair Distribution in Women's Judgments of Men's Sexual Attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixson, Barnaby J W; Rantala, Markus J

    2016-05-01

    Facial and body hair are some of the most visually conspicuous and sexually dimorphic of all men's secondary sexual traits. Both are androgen dependent, requiring the conversion of testosterone into dihydrotestosterone via the enzyme 5α reductase 2 for their expression. While previous studies on the attractiveness of facial and body hair are equivocal, none have accounted as to how natural variation in their distribution may influence male sexual attractiveness. In the present study, we quantified men's facial and body hair distribution as either very light, light, medium, or heavy using natural photographs. We also tested whether women's fertility influenced their preferences for beards and body hair by comparing preferences among heterosexual women grouped according their fertility (high fertility, low fertility, and contraceptive use). Results showed that men with more evenly and continuously distributed facial hair from the lower jaw connecting to the mustache and covering the cheeks were judged as more sexually attractive than individuals with more patchy facial hair. Men with body hair were less attractive than when clean shaven, with the exception of images depicting some hair around the areolae, pectoral region, and the sternum that were significantly more attractive than clean-shaven bodies. However, there was no effect of fertility on women's preferences for men's beard or body hair distribution. These results suggest that the distribution of facial and body hair influences male attractiveness to women, possibly as an indication of masculine development and the synthesis of testosterone into dihydrotestosterone via 5α reductase.

  20. Fertile ground? : soil fertility management and the African smallholder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Misiko, M.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords: smallholder farmers, soil fertility, experimentation, "inconvenience", realist.The focus in this thesis is to form a view of how well soil fertility research performs within the ever shifting smallholder contexts. This study examined application of agro-ecological knowled

  1. Cancer treatment: fertility and sexual side effects in women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alternative Names Radiotherapy - fertility; Radiation - fertility; Chemotherapy - fertility; Sexual dysfunction - cancer treatment References American Cancer Society. Fertility and women with cancer. Updated November 6, 2013. www.cancer. ...

  2. Adverse trends in male reproductive health and decreasing fertility rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Priskorn, Lærke; Holmboe, Stine; Jørgensen, Niels

    2012-01-01

    that the first decline in average sperm number of 20-40 mill/mL might not have had much effect on pregnancy rates, as the majority of men would still have had counts far above the threshold value. However, due to the assumed decline in semen quality, the sperm counts of the majority of 20 year old European men......Healthy men produce an enormous number of sperms, far more than necessary for conception. However, several studies suggest that semen samples where the concentration of sperms is below 40 mill/mL may be associated with longer time to pregnancy or even subfertility, and specimens where...... are now so low that we may be close to the crucial tipping point of 40 mill/mL spermatozoa. Consequently, we must face the possibility of more infertile couples and lower fertility rates in the future....

  3. Multipartner Fertility in Nicaragua: Complex Family Formation in a Low-Income Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeer, Kammi K; Hays, Jake

    2017-03-03

    Multipartner fertility (having children with more than one partner) is an important topic in demographic research, but little is known about its incidence and correlates in low-income settings, where rates may be high because of poverty, union instability and early childbearing. Data from the 2011-2012 Encuesta Nicaragüense de Demografía y Salud were used to calculate the prevalence of multipartner fertility among 8,320 mothers and 2,141 fathers with two or more children. Logistic and multinomial regression were used to identify individual and family characteristics associated with multipartner fertility. Among those with multiple children, 33% of mothers and 41% of fathers had had children with more than one partner. The prevalence of multipartner fertility was elevated among less-educated women, nonreligious men, and women and men who had grown up in urban areas (odds ratios, 1.3-1.6). Multipartner fertility was associated with lower current household wealth among mothers, and with increased risk of single parenthood and higher fertility among mothers and fathers. Fathers who had had multiple fertility partners were six times as likely as fathers with one fertility partner to report not providing financial support to, or sharing their surname with, at least one of their biological children. Multipartner fertility is a critical demographic and social phenomenon that may contribute to and reflect important gender and family structure inequalities in Nicaragua. Mothers with multipartner fertility may be at especially high risk of raising children without the children's fathers and with low levels of economic support.

  4. Women's education and fertility behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The education of women results in changes in women's health status, family well being, and fertility decline. The aim of human rights and social justice is also served by increasing women's educational levels. A review of the trends in developing countries has shown that there is a strong correlation between advanced female education (10 or more years) and lower fertility. Data for 26 countries was presented in table form for total fertility rates by years of education. There were many differences in the patterns of fertility by educational level based on country level of development. The data appeared to show stronger correlations between fertility and education in more prosperous societies; culture and social structure also influenced fertility. Partial primary education has been shown in some countries to be related to increased fertility. A UN study found a curvilinear relationship between fertility and education in 14 out of 38 countries with World Fertility Surveys. There were only 3 countries with Demographic and Health Surveys which showed the curvilinear pattern. The UN study confirmed that maternal education was related to shorter durations of postpartum abstinence and short durations of lactation. Caution was urged in interpreting that an increase in a few years of schooling in a dominant rural, illiterate population would facilitate rapid fertility decline. A critical threshold effect for educational attainment was found in mainly the least developed countries. Female education has direct and indirect effects on fertility. Education may affect breast feeding patterns, contraceptive use, social norms about small families, later age at marriage, and later age at first birth. The suggestion was that education provided for reproductive choice and reduces the gap between actual and desired family size. At the country and individual level of analysis, contraceptive use was linked with education. Effective contraceptive use was still however impeded by

  5. Rundt om Mad Men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jakob Isak

    2011-01-01

    Artiklen gør rede for Mad Mens tilblivelse, dens populærkulturelle efterdønninger, multimediale forgreninger og værkæstetiske karakteristika. "Story Matters Here" lyder AMCs motto, men Mad Men tilbyder et bredspektret engagement, der går langt ud over at følge med i en vedkommende fortælling....... Artiklen argumenterer for, at Mad Mens popularitet blandt andet skyldes, at den let lader sig knytte til service-, kultur-, og livsstilsjournalistiske stofområder....

  6. Coral diseases and bleaching on Colombian Caribbean coral reefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Navas-Camacho

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Since 1998 the National Monitoring System for the Coral Reefs of Colombia (SIMAC has monitored the occurrence of coral bleaching and diseases in some Colombian coral reefs (permanent stations at San Andres Island, Rosario Islands, Tayrona, San Bernardo Islands and Urabá. The main purpose is to evaluate their health status and to understand the factors that have been contributing to their decline. To estimate these occurrences, annual surveys in 126 permanent belt transects (10x2m with different depth intervals (3-6 meters, 9-12 meters and 15-18 meters are performed at all reef sites. Data from the 1998-2004 period, revealed that San Andrés Island had many colonies with diseases (38.9 colonies/m2, and Urabá had high numbers with bleaching (54.4 colonies/m2. Of the seven reported coral diseases studied, Dark Spots Disease (DSD, and White Plague Disease (WPD were noteworthy because they occurred in all Caribbean monitored sites, and because of their high interannual infection incidence. Thirty five species of scleractinian corals were affected by at least one disease and a high incidence of coral diseases on the main reef builders is documented. Bleaching was present in 34 species. During the whole monitoring period, Agaricia agaricites and Siderastrea siderea were the species most severely affected by DSD and bleaching, respectively. Diseases on species such as Agaricia fragilis, A.grahamae, A. humilis, Diploria clivosa, Eusmilia fastigiata, Millepora complanata, and Mycetophyllia aliciae are recorded for first time in Colombia. We present bleaching and disease incidences, kinds of diseases, coral species affected, reef localities studied, depth intervals of surveys, and temporal (years variation for each geographic area. This variation makes difficult to clearly determine defined patterns or general trends for monitored reefs. This is the first long-term study of coral diseases and bleaching in the Southwestern Caribbean, and one of the few

  7. Why do men seek status? Fitness payoffs to dominance and prestige.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Rueden, Christopher; Gurven, Michael; Kaplan, Hillard

    2011-07-22

    In many human societies, high male social status associates with higher fertility, but the means by which status increases lifetime fitness have not been systematically investigated. We analyse the pathways by which male status begets reproductive success in a small-scale, Amerindian society. Men who are more likely to win a dyadic physical confrontation, i.e. dominant men, have higher intra-marital fertility for their age, and men with more community-wide influence, i.e. prestigious men, exhibit both higher intra-marital fertility and lower offspring mortality. Both forms of status elicit support from allies and deference from competitors, but high status men are not provisioned more than their peers. Prestigious but not dominant men marry wives who first give birth at earlier ages, which multivariate analysis suggests is the strongest pathway between status and fitness in this population. Furthermore, men are motivated to pursue status because of fitness gains both within and outside of marital unions: dominant and prestigious men have more in-pair surviving offspring as well as more extra-marital affairs.

  8. Female attraction to appetitive-aggressive men is modulated by women's menstrual cycle and men's vulnerability to traumatic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giebel, Gilda; Weierstall, Roland; Schauer, Maggie; Elbert, Thomas

    2013-03-20

    Many studies have reported that during high fertility points in the menstrual cycle, women demonstrate increased preference for men with masculinized faces and bodies. In this study, we analyzed whether appetitive aggression in men serves as an additional signal for a favored partner choice. Appetitive aggression describes the intrinsic motivation to act violently even when not being threatened. This study evaluated the responses of 1212 women to one of four descriptions regarding a soldier´s experience after returning from war. The four vignettes included trauma related symptoms with high or low appetitive aggression, or no trauma related symptoms with high or low appetitive aggression. Participants rated their desirability for the soldier in regards to potential long-term and short-term relationships. Results indicate that women preferred a soldier high in appetitive aggression as a short-term mate but not as a long-term relationship. This preference for the "warrior" was higher for women in their fertile window of the menstrual cycle. We conclude that women in their fertile window prefer men exhibiting higher appetitive aggression as a short-term partner, revealing appetitive aggression in men may serve as a signal for a higher genetic fitness.

  9. Cold fronts in the Colombian Caribbean Sea and their relationship to extreme wave events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Royero, J. C.; Otero, L. J.; Restrepo, J. C.; Ruiz, J.; Cadena, M.

    2013-11-01

    Extreme ocean waves in the Caribbean Sea are commonly related to the effects of storms and hurricanes during the months of June through November. The collapse of 200 m of the Puerto Colombia pier in March 2009 revealed the effects of meteorological phenomena other than storms and hurricanes that may be influencing the extreme wave regime in the Colombian Caribbean. The marked seasonality of these atmospheric fronts was established by analyzing the meteorological-marine reports of the Instituto de Hidrología, Meteorología y Estudios Ambientales of Colombia (IDEAM, based on its initials in Spanish) and the Centro de Investigación en Oceanografía y Meteorología of Colombia (CIOH, based on its initials in Spanish) during the last 16 yr. The highest number of cold fronts was observed during the months of January, February, and March, with 6 fronts occurring per year. An annual trend was observed and the highest number of fronts occurred in 2010 (20 in total); moreover, an annual strong relationship between the maximum average wave values and the cold fronts in the central zone of the Colombian Caribbean during the first three months of the year was established. In addition, the maximum values of the significant height produced by the passage of cold fronts during the last 16 yr were identified. Although the Colombian Caribbean has been affected by storms and hurricanes in the past, this research allows us to conclude that there is a strong relationship between cold fronts and the largest waves in the Colombian Caribbean during the last 16 yr, which have caused damage to coastal infrastructure. We verified that the passage of a cold front corresponded to the most significant extreme wave event of the last two decades in the Colombian Caribbean, which caused the structural collapse of the Puerto Colombia pier, located near the city of Barranquilla, between 5 and 10 March 2009. This information is invaluable when evaluating average and extreme wave regimes for the

  10. Sex and Fertility After SCI

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... having sex after a spinal cord injury? Can men and women still have sex after a spinal ... spinal cord injury? How is sexual function in men affected by a spinal cord injury ? What are ...

  11. Menstrual cycle pattern and fertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolstad, Henrik A.; Bonde, Jens Peter; Hjøllund, Niels Henrik;

    1999-01-01

    To characterize how the menstrual cycle pattern relates to fertility regardless of potential biases caused by inappropriate coital timing during the menstrual cycle or early embryonal loss.......To characterize how the menstrual cycle pattern relates to fertility regardless of potential biases caused by inappropriate coital timing during the menstrual cycle or early embryonal loss....

  12. Family Systems and Fertility Intentions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mönkediek, Bastian; Bras, Hilde

    2017-01-01

    Family systems, as normative frameworks in which family processes unfold, are believed to exert a major influence on fertility. While a number of studies have addressed family system effects on family size and the timing of births, the question of how family systems influence fertility intentions

  13. ASSESSMENT OF PERCHLORATE IN FERTILIZERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchlorate has been positively detected only in those materials known to be derived from Chilean caliche, which constitute less than 0.2% of U.S. fertilizer application. The data obtained in the preponderance of investigations suggest that fertilizers do not contribute to envir...

  14. Children Procedures and Treatment (Fertility Issues)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... approach the subject of fertility preservation with their cancer-stricken child? How is the Oncofertility Consortium addressing the fertility preservation needs of children? How do cancer and cancer treatment affect a child's fertility? Why ...

  15. Children Procedures and Treatment (Fertility Issues)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... approach the subject of fertility preservation with their cancer-stricken child? How is the Oncofertility Consortium addressing the fertility preservation needs of children? How do cancer and cancer treatment affect a child's fertility? Why ...

  16. Internal fertilization in an oviparous frog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, D S; Stewart, M M; Pough, F H; Brussard, P F

    1981-04-24

    Eleutherodactylus coqui, an oviparous frog, undergoes internal fertilization. If this mode of fertilization occurs in other species of anurans, interpretations of anuran reproductive strategies based on the assumption of external fertilization must be reviewed.

  17. [Thyroid gland and fertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, P

    2014-01-01

    It is well-known that the thyroid hormones are associated with a number of aspects of the human reproduction. Both states, hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism, have significant effect on the estrogen and androgen metabolism, the menstrual function and on fertility. The role of thyroid hormones (TH) during infertility has been little exploited. Interesting facts are that TH deficiency is more common in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and in certain cases with unexplained infertility. There are very few studies on the effect and paracrine regulation of TH and its receptors in the female reproductive tract. This report provides an overview of the most common thyroid disorders and their impact on ovarian function and reproductive performance in women as well as in cases with infertility and the implementation of assisted reproductive technologies (ART).

  18. Double fertilization in Helianthus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Telżyńska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available After controlled pollination of Helianthus annuus L. florets, the whole course of fertilization is described and documented on 24 microphotos. The timing of events is evaluated. The average cell cycle in the proembryo is 2 hours and the nuclear cycle in endosperm - 60 minutes.Plasmoptysis is suggested as the mechanism of pollen tube opening in the synergid. The structure of the thread-like sperm nucleus is interpreted as an end to end union of chromosomes, and the morphological changes of the sperm nuclei are explained as folding and coiling, based on a spiralization mechanism of chromosomes. Cytochemical observations indicating ribosome formation in the course of the nuclear cycles in the endosperm are described. The mechanisms accelerating nuclear cycles in the endosperm are discussed.

  19. Migrant fertility differentials in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundquist, F; Brown, L A

    1989-01-01

    The effects of migration on fertility in Ecuador were analyzed by subdividing migrant categories into permanent-, return-, circular-, and non-migrants, and context factors into 6 socioeconomic and agrarian variables. The study is introduced with a conceptual framework that explains personal intermediate variables and their influence on fertility in terms of demographic transition theory, and then defines the influences of selection for fertility, disruption of marital unions, and socialization into fertility norms at the origin vs. assimilation of norms at the destination. Migrants are usually better educated, younger and upwardly mobile, all selecting for lower fertility. Migration disrupts formation of marital unions, and causes separation of spouses, lowering fertility. Data for this study were from the 1974 and 1982 Ecuadorian Population Censuses. The contextual variables analyzed were urban/rural; manufacturing/agricultural; mineral extraction/economic recession; long/recent agricultural settlement; domestic/export crop; and large/medium sized farm. The analysis of personal attributes showed that fertility increased over the range on non-migrants through circular-, return- to permanent-migrants, a finding explained by degrees of disruption of unions. Higher fertility was associated with less education, lower economic participation, higher prevalence of marriage, longer residence and older ages. Regression analysis also showed that personal attributes outweighed contextual factors: thus age, marriage rates, residence time, education and economic activity were significant. Contextual factors were important only for non-migrants, except for destination variables which affected return-migrants and origin variables which affected circular-migrants. Low fertility was associated with urbanization, industrialization, mineral extraction, large farms, recent farm settlement and export crops. The results indicate cear influences of modernity and place influences on

  20. Breast cancer in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in situ - male; Intraductal carcinoma - male; Inflammatory breast cancer - male; Paget disease of the nipple - male; Breast cancer - male ... The cause of breast cancer in men is not clear. But there are risk factors that make breast cancer more likely in men: Exposure to ...

  1. Determinants of fertility in Rwanda in the context of a fertility transition: a secondary analysis of the 2010 Demographic and Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndahindwa, Vedaste; Kamanzi, Collins; Semakula, Muhammed; Abalikumwe, François; Hedt-Gauthier, Bethany; Thomson, Dana R

    2014-12-13

    Major improvements to Rwanda's health system, infrastructure, and social programs over the last decade have led to a rapid fertility transition unique from other African countries. The total fertility rate fell from 6.1 in 2005 to 4.6 in 2010, with a 3-fold increase in contraceptive usage. Despite this rapid national decline, many women still have large numbers of children. This study investigates predictors of fertility during this fertility transition to inform policies that improve individuals' reproductive health and guide national development. We used Poisson regression to separately model number of children born to ever married/cohabitated women (n = 8,309) and never married women (n = 1,220) age 15 to 49 based on 2010 Rwanda Demographic and Health Survey data. We used backward stepwise regression with a time offset to identify individual and household factors associated with woman's fertility level, accounting for sampling weights, clustering, and stratification. In ever married/cohabitating women, high fertility was significantly associated (p fertility in ever married/cohabitating women was associated with women's education (higher versus no education: IRR = 0.66), household wealth (highest versus lowest quintile: IRR = 0.93), and delayed sexual debut (25+ versus 8-18 years: IRR = 0.49). In never married women, low fertility was associated with education (higher versus no education: IRR = 0.22), household wealth (highest versus lowest quintile: IRR = 0.58), delayed sexual debut (25-49 versus 8-18 years: IRR = 0.43), and having an unmet need for contraception (IRR = 0.69). Although the study design does not allow causal conclusions, these results suggest several strategies to further reduce Rwanda's national fertility rate and support families to achieve their desired fertility. Strategies include policies and programs that promote delayed sexual debut via educational and economic opportunities for women, improved access to reproductive health information

  2. [Personality traits of men with Klinefelter syndrome and their partners].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otonicar, B; Velikonja, V; Zorn, B

    2001-02-01

    The aim of the study was to find whether personality traits of men with Klinefelter syndrome and their partners (group 1-n = 17) differ from those of couples affected by idiopathic infertility (group 2; n = 16) and from those of fertile couples (group 3 n = 17). We further investigated the attitudes of the three groups towards pregnancy, labour and sexuality to find potential différences among the three groups. Besides, we verified the hypotheses of below average or low average intelligence of men with Klinefelter syndrome, and of inferior quality of social life in these men. The data were collected using the interview on medical history, the questionnaire on attitudes towards pregnancy, labour and sexuality (S-S-G), the personality questionnaire MMPI-2. The Raven progressive matrices were used only in group 1. The results show that men with Klinefelter syndrome and their partners do not differ significantly from the couples with idiopathic infertility (group 2), having some shizoide traits in their personality structure and mostly negative attitudes towards pregnancy, labour and sexuality. However, a significant difference has been found between the Klinefelter syndrome group and the fertile couples group. The hypothesis of below average intelligence has not been confirmed, but the quality of social life of men with Klinefelter syndrome has been found inférior. We may thus conclude that in the management of infertile couples in whom the man has been affected by Klinefelter syndrome, the personality structure, importantly affecting the outcome of treatment, should be taken into consideration.

  3. Inter and intrastate conflicts nexus: The Colombian Peace process, as a means to prevent interstate conflicts in South America and rethink regional security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Montoya

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Colombian internal conflict case provides useful scenarios, realities and dynamics for nourishing the debate between those who treat internal and interstate conflicts as disconnected or totally independent phenomena and those who argue the frequent links between them. This policy paper is situated in the latter school of thought, and from that angle I shall argue the usefulness of perceiving the nexus between intrastate and interstate conflicts, and its applicability to the Colombian internal conflict. The paper highlights the importance of taking into account the strong nexus in order to prevent international disputes that put regional security at risk; it also suggests that the current Colombian peace process represents an historic opportunity for Colombia –and a great challenge for the Colombian society– while at the same time being an opportunity for thinking about a shared future in the South America region, which challenges the Colombian state and its performance at the international level.

  4. Reproductive parameters in young men living in Rochester, New York

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mendiola, Jaime; Jørgensen, Niels; Andersson, Anna-Maria

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe semen quality and reproductive hormone concentrations of young men living in Rochester, New York, and to compare these with published data from similar European and Japanese populations. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: University and college campuses in the Rochester......(S): Our study provides the first data in 70 years on semen quality and reproductive hormones in young men in the United States with unknown fertility. These data suggest that, overall, reproductive parameters in our study population of young college students from the northeastern United States are similar...

  5. Determination of sperm acrosin activity for evaluation of male fertility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun-HeCUI; Rui-LanZHAO; QiangWANG; Zi-YingZHANG

    2000-01-01

    Aim: To investigate a simple method for assaying acrosin activity for the evaluation of male fertility. Methods: The acrosin activity of 7.5 × 106 sperm without seminal plasma and acrosin activity inhibitors was assayed using N-α-benzoyl-DL-arginine-p-nitroanilide (BAPNA) and detergent (Triton X-100) as substrate. Results: The acrosin activity of 60 normal fertile men (35±10μIU/106 sperm ) was higher than that of 168 infertile men ( 16±8μIU/106 sperm) (P < 0.01 ). It was indicated that there was a significant positive correlation between the acrosin activity and the sperm motility ( r≥0. 6534, P < 0.01 ) and a significant negative correlation between the sperm malformed rate and the WBC number ( r≤-0. 5426, P < 0.01 ). The temperature and time of incubation and the sperm concentration could influence the assay results. Conclusion: Acrosin activity is an important index for the evaluation of male fertility. The approach developed by the authors is a simple method for the determination of acrosin activity.

  6. Regulation of male fertility by X-linked genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ke; Yang, Fang; Wang, Peijing Jeremy

    2010-01-01

    Infertility is a worldwide reproductive health problem, affecting men and women about equally. Mouse genetic studies demonstrate that more than 200 genes specifically or predominantly regulate fertility. However, few genetic causes of infertility in humans have been identified. Here, we focus on the regulation of male fertility by X-linked, germ cell-specific genes. Previous genomic studies reveal that the mammalian X chromosome is enriched for genes expressed in early spermatogenesis. Recent genetic studies in mice show that X-linked, germ cell-specific genes, such as A-kinase anchor protein 4 (Akap4), nuclear RNA export factor 2 (Nxf2), TBP-associated factor 7l (Taf7l), and testis-expressed gene 11 (Tex11), indeed play important roles in the regulation of male fertility. Moreover, we find that the Taf7l Tex11 double-mutant males exhibit much more severe defects in meiosis than either single mutant, suggesting that these 2 X-linked genes regulate male meiosis synergistically. The X-linked, germ cell-specific genes are particularly attractive in the study of male infertility in humans. Because males are hemizygous for X-linked genes, loss-of-function mutations in the single-copy X-linked genes, unlike in autosomal genes, would not be masked by a normal allele. The genetic studies of X-linked, germ cell-specific genes in mice have laid a foundation for mutational analysis of their human orthologues in infertile men.

  7. Famous Space Men's Salon Beijing's professional salon chain for men

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Services: Professional deep treatment of men's faces Treating men's "beer bellies" Spa hydrotherapy Brand new French Darphin top-class aromatherapy Spa herbal massage Treatment for men's reproductive health

  8. Famous Space Men's Salon Beijing's professional salon chain for men

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Services: Professional deep treatment of men's laces Treating men's "heer bellies" Spa hydrotherapy Brand-new French Darphin top-class aromatherapy Spa herbal massage Treatment for men's reproductive health

  9. The Effect of Gender Policies on Fertility: The Moderating Role of Education and Normative Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baizan, Pau; Arpino, Bruno; Delclòs, Carlos Eric

    In this paper, we aim to assess the extent to which individual-level completed fertility varies across contexts characterized by policies supporting different gender division of labor models. We examine key labor market and care policies that shape gender relations in households and in the public domain. We also consider the role of gender norms, which can act as both a moderator and a confounding factor for policy effects. We hypothesize that, by facilitating role compatibility and reducing the gendered costs of childrearing, policies that support gender equality lead to an increase in fertility levels and to a reduction in fertility differentials by the level of education. Using individual-level data from the European Union Survey on Income and Living Conditions for 16 countries, combined with country-level data, we analyze completed fertility through multilevel Poisson's models. We find that the national level of childcare coverage is positively associated with fertility. Family allowances, prevalence of women's part-time employment and length of paid leaves were also found to be positively associated with completed fertility, though the associations were not statistically significant. These variables show a significant positive pattern according to education. A high number of average working hours for men are negatively associated with completed fertility and show a strong negative pattern by educational level. The prevalence of gender-egalitarian norms is highly predictive of fertility levels, yet we found no consistent evidence of a weaker association of gender-equality policies in countries where egalitarian values are less prevalent.

  10. A Cross-Sectional Study of the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Associated Factors in Colombian Collegiate Students: The FUPRECOL-Adults Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Martínez-Torres

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MetS is one of the major public health problems worldwide. The objective of the present study is to investigate the prevalence and the associated variables of MetS in Colombian collegiate students. This cross-sectional study included a total of 890 (52% women healthy collegiate students (21.3 ± 3.2 years old. The prevalence of MetS was determined by the definition provided by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF. We further examined associations between the prevalence of MetS and related factors, such as age, gender, anthropometric and body composition, weight status, and nutrition profile. The overall prevalence of MetS was 6.0% (95% CI = 4.5% to 7.6%, and it was higher in men than women. The most prevalent components were low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high triglyceride levels, waist circumference, and blood pressure levels. The predisposing factors for having a MetS included: being male, over 23 years old, overweight or obese, and having an unhealthy waist-to-height ratio. In conclusion, the occurrence of MetS in young adults is substantial. These findings may be relevant to health promotion efforts for collegiate students in order to develop prospective studies and screening for young adults, which will aid in targeted intervention development to decrease cardiometabolic risk factors.

  11. A Cross-Sectional Study of the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Associated Factors in Colombian Collegiate Students: The FUPRECOL-Adults Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Torres, Javier; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; González-Ruíz, Katherine; Vivas, Andrés; Triana-Reina, Héctor Reynaldo; Prieto-Benavidez, Daniel Humberto; Carrillo, Hugo Alejandro; Ramos-Sepúlveda, Jeison Alexander; Villa-González, Emilio; García-Hermoso, Antonio; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson

    2017-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is one of the major public health problems worldwide. The objective of the present study is to investigate the prevalence and the associated variables of MetS in Colombian collegiate students. This cross-sectional study included a total of 890 (52% women) healthy collegiate students (21.3 ± 3.2 years old). The prevalence of MetS was determined by the definition provided by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF). We further examined associations between the prevalence of MetS and related factors, such as age, gender, anthropometric and body composition, weight status, and nutrition profile. The overall prevalence of MetS was 6.0% (95% CI = 4.5% to 7.6%), and it was higher in men than women. The most prevalent components were low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high triglyceride levels, waist circumference, and blood pressure levels. The predisposing factors for having a MetS included: being male, over 23 years old, overweight or obese, and having an unhealthy waist-to-height ratio. In conclusion, the occurrence of MetS in young adults is substantial. These findings may be relevant to health promotion efforts for collegiate students in order to develop prospective studies and screening for young adults, which will aid in targeted intervention development to decrease cardiometabolic risk factors. PMID:28264459

  12. The Colombian conference of bishops and its participation in peace negotiations with insurgent groups: origins and discussions (1982-1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Cristancho

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the most representative academic works about the participation of the Colombian Bishops’ Conference in negotiations with insurgent groups during the eighties, focusing on their perspective about their vision of peace. In that sense, this paper analyses how the Colombian clergy adapted to the national reality their perspective of peace, identifying the main debates and the wide variety of answers, focusing on two main issues: the relevance of establishing a relationship between the need to address social issues with the overcoming of violence and the participation of bishops and priests in the talks with the insurgency. As a result of these discussions, the Colombian Catholic Church gained greater unity in action on peace and conflict.

  13. Feasibility Study: Colombian Caribbean Folk Dances to Increase Physical Fitness and Health-Related Quality of Life in Older Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Ernesto; Hoyos, Diana P; Watt, Willinton J; Lema, Lucía; Arango, Carlos M

    2016-04-01

    The objectives of the study were to describe the feasibility of an intervention in older women based on folk dances of the Colombian Caribbean region, and to analyze the effects of the intervention on physical fitness and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). A pilot study was conducted in a sample of 27 participants, 15 in the intervention group (IG) and 12 in the comparison group (CG). Caribbean Colombian dance rhythms were introduced as an intervention that lasted 12 weeks. Recruitment and retention was not optimal. Treatment fidelity components indicated that intervention was administered as intended. IG participants showed positive and statistically significant changes in some components of physical fitness. No significant changes were observed in HRQoL indicators for either group. In conclusion, the intervention was feasible, but recruitment and retention was challenging. Folk dances of the Colombian Caribbean region provoked significant results in physical fitness but not in HRQoL.

  14. The Notion of Revolutionary War in Fernando Landazábal Reyes and its Repercussions in Colombian Armed Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Velásquez Rivera

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the characteristics of the armed Colombian conflict is the murder of civilians by the members of organisms of national security, who accuse those they kill of participating in a subversive strategy led by the Colombian Communist Party, which in turn supposedly originates in the revolutionary war, antithesis of the classic war. In Colombia, the phenomenon of revolutionary war has been approached in depth by the officer Fernando Landazábal Reyes. This article tries to show the principal features of the revolutionary war, from the perspective of the mentioned military man and the way since it could have reverberated in the armed colombian conflict.

  15. Characterization and effects of cold fronts in the Colombian Caribbean Coast and their relationship to extreme wave events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Ortiz-Royero

    2013-07-01

    passage of cold fronts during the last 16 yr were identified. Although the Colombian Caribbean has been affected by storms and hurricanes in the past, this research allows us to conclude that, there is a strong relationship between cold fronts and the largest waves in the Colombian Caribbean during the last 16 yr, which have caused damage to coastal infrastructure. We verified that the passage of a cold front corresponded to the most significant extreme wave event of the last two decades in the Colombian Caribbean, which caused the structural collapse of the Puerto Colombia pier, located near the city of Barranquilla, between 5 and 10 March 2009. This information is invaluable when evaluating average and extreme wave regimes for the purpose of informing the design of structures in this region of the Caribbean.

  16. Men becoming fathers by intracytoplasmic sperm injection were more often born small for gestational age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Liffner

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Being born with nonoptimal birth characteristics decreases the chance of becoming a father. Urogenital malformations as well as metabolic syndrome are more common in men born small for gestational age (SGA and could be contributing factors to the reduced fertility rate seen in these men. It could imply that men becoming fathers by assisted reproductive technology (ART more often are born with low birth weight (LBW, preterm, and/or SGA than men conceiving without treatment and also that men where intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI had to be performed more often are born with nonoptimal birth characteristics than men where conventional in vitro fertilization (IVF successfully could be used. In this retrospective, case-control study using Swedish national registers, we compared the birth characteristics of 1206 men who have become fathers by ART with a control group consisting of age-matched men who became fathers without treatment. The differences in birth characteristics between men becoming fathers by IVF and ICSI were also assessed. For men becoming fathers by ART, OR of being born with LBW was 1.66 (95% CI = 1.17-2.36 compared with fathers who conceived without treatment. OR of being born prematurely was 1.32 (95% CI = 1.00-1.77. Men becoming fathers via ICSI had a doubled increased likelihood of being born SGA compared with men who became fathers via IVF (OR = 2.12; 95% CI = 1.17-3.83. In conclusion, we have found that men becoming fathers by ICSI treatments had more often been born SGA than men becoming fathers by conventional IVF.

  17. Patients' attitudes to medical and psychosocial aspects of care in fertility clinics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, L; Holstein, B E; Boivin, J

    2003-01-01

    services for both men and women was high infertility-related stress in the marital, personal and social domain. CONCLUSIONS: A supportive attitude from medical staff and the provision of both medical and psychosocial information and support should be integral aspects of medical care in fertility clinics...

  18. Women's Education and Family Behavior: Trends in Marriage, Divorce and Fertility. NBER Working Paper No. 15725

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isen, Adam; Stevenson, Betsey

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines how marital and fertility patterns have changed along racial and educational lines for men and women. Historically, women with more education have been the least likely to marry and have children, but this marriage gap has eroded as the returns to marriage have changed. Marriage and remarriage rates have risen for women with a…

  19. His and Her Job: What Matters Most for Fertility Plans and Actual Childbearing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Gayle; Bernhardt, Eva

    2012-01-01

    This study examines workplace culture and fertility plans and transitions in Sweden. This study goes beyond previous research in examining the effect of particular job characteristics as well as the influence of a partner's job characteristics on women's and men's birth plans and transitions. We use data from the 1999 and 2003 Swedish Young Adult…

  20. Health screening - men age 65 and older

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health maintenance visit - men - over age 65; Physical exam - men - over age 65; Yearly exam - men - over age 65; Checkup - men - over age 65; Men's health - over age 65; Preventive care exam - men - over ...

  1. Research Progress in the Effect and Mechanism of Fertilization Measures on Soil Fertility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongfeng; HUANG; Limin; WANG; Weihua; LI; Xiaoxuan; QIU

    2015-01-01

    This paper firstly summarized the domestic and foreign research progress in the relationship between fertilization measures and soil fertility. It elaborated the relationship between fertilization measures and basic physical and chemical properties,soil enzyme activity,soil microorganism fertility index,and soil animal fertility index. It pointed out future researches about the relationship between fertilization measures and soil fertility include:( i) the relationship between fine and high efficient input of organic fertilizer and soil fertility,( ii) in-depth research of soil zoology fertility index,( iii) soil biology about long-term fertilization,and( iv) soil fertilization and agricultural diffused pollution. It is intended to provide scientific reference for improving farmland soil fertility and maintaining excellent ecological environment of farmland through proper fertilization measures.

  2. Treatment of infertility in men with spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brackett, N.L.; Lynne, C.M.; El Dib, Hussein Ibrahim El Desouki Hussein

    2010-01-01

    Most men with spinal cord injury (SCI) are infertile. Erectile dysfunction, ejaculatory dysfunction and semen abnormalities contribute to the problem. Treatments for erectile dysfunction include phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, intracavernous injections of alprostadil, penile prostheses...... of intrauterine insemination increases as the total motile sperm count inseminated increases. In vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection are options in cases of extremely low total motile sperm count. Reproductive outcomes for SCI male factor infertility are similar to outcomes for general male...... factor infertility...

  3. Treatment of infertility in men with spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brackett, N.L.; Lynne, C.M.; El Dib, Hussein Ibrahim El Desouki Hussein

    2010-01-01

    Most men with spinal cord injury (SCI) are infertile. Erectile dysfunction, ejaculatory dysfunction and semen abnormalities contribute to the problem. Treatments for erectile dysfunction include phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, intracavernous injections of alprostadil, penile prostheses...... of intrauterine insemination increases as the total motile sperm count inseminated increases. In vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection are options in cases of extremely low total motile sperm count. Reproductive outcomes for SCI male factor infertility are similar to outcomes for general male...... factor infertility...

  4. British Pakistani Muslim Masculinity, (In)fertility, and the Clinical Encounter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blell, Mwenza

    2017-08-11

    The experiences of men facing fertility disruptions are understudied. For British Pakistanis, the impact of infertility is heightened for women because of normative pressures to bear children. But what of men? I present data from in-depth interviews in North East England with infertile British Pakistani Muslims and relevant health professionals. British Pakistani men's level of participation in clinical encounters and responses to diagnoses of male factor infertility must be understood in the context of kinship, the construction of Pakistani ethnicity in the UK, and the subordinated forms of masculinity which accompany this identity.

  5. Fertility awareness and attitudes towards parenthood among Danish university college students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Nina Olsén; Marcussen, Signe; Backhausen, Mette Grønbæk

    2016-01-01

    the choice. The aim was to investigate attitudes towards parenthood, intentions for childbirth and knowledge about fertility issues among men and women. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study based on a validated 49-item questionnaire among students, who attended selected mandatory lectures...... at a Danish university college in February to April 2016. The participation rate was 99%, and 517 completed the questionnaire. RESULTS: Though the majority of all participants wished to have children in the future (>86%), there was significant difference between the genders (p = 0.002). Women rated having...... children to be more important than men did (p rated higher the likelihood of abstaining from having children if faced with infertility (p = 0.003). Knowledge about fertility issues was similar between genders including poor knowledge about the age-related decline in female fertility...

  6. Does Fertility Status Influence Impulsivity and Risk Taking in Human Females? Adaptive Influences on Intertemporal Choice and Risky Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnaz Kaighobadi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Informed by the research on adaptive decision making in other animal species, this study investigated human females' intertemporal and risky choices across the ovulatory cycle. We tested the hypothesis that at peak fertility, women who are exposed to environments that signal availability of higher quality mates (by viewing images of attractive males, become more impulsive and risk-seeking in economic decision tasks. To test this, we collected intertemporal and risky choice measures before and after exposure to images of either attractive males or neutral landscapes both at peak and low fertility conditions. The results showed an interaction between women's fertility status and image type, such that women at peak fertility viewing images of attractive men chose the smaller, sooner monetary reward option less than women at peak fertility viewing neutral images. Neither fertility status nor image type influenced risky choice. Thus, though exposure to images of men altered intertemporal choices at peak fertility, this occurred in the opposite direction than predicted—i.e., women at peak fertility became less impulsive. Nevertheless, the results of the current study provide evidence for shifts in preferences over the ovulatory cycle and opens future research on economic decision making.

  7. Slovenia: Generous family policy without evidence of any fertility impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milivoja Šircelj

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Slovenia was not a typical socialist country; the transformation that had started at the end of the 1980s did not cause such great turbulences as in other countries in transition. However, unfavorable consequences did accompany the transition, particularly for some segments of the population. Fertility trends in Slovenia, as seen in the total fertility rate, have not surpassed the replacement level since the end of the 1970s. The lowest level of 1.21 was reached during the 1999-2003 period. Since then, the total fertility rate has been increasing slightly. Postponement in childbearing began with cohorts born after 1960. In today's Slovenian society, on average young women achieve higher education than men, and they perceive (potential motherhood as a drawback in the labor market. Almost all parents in Slovenia are employed full-time, even those with small children. Nevertheless, the traditional gender-division of roles persists in the family. Extended education, relatively high unemployment among the young, and a shortage of adequate housing prolong the stay in the parental home. Together with insecure employment, a responsible parenthood norm, and the perceived high costs of children, this results in childbearing postponement and a lower final number of children. Slovenia has a relatively well-developed family policy, particularly on parental leave and pre-school childcare. Notwithstanding, almost no impact of family policy on fertility has ever been observed.

  8. Effects of cancer treatment on reproduction and fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Janice S; Case, Allison M

    2002-08-01

    (1) To review the effects of cancer treatment on reproduction and fertility in both women and men and (2) to review current and new techniques that could be used to preserve fertility and hormone production in women who have undergone cancer treatment. Entries to MEDLINE and CANCERLIT through to October 2001 were searched for evidence relevant to this article. This document is primarily based on large retrospective cohort series and case reports, as no randomized trials were available. The first part of this review article focuses on the effects of radiation and chemotherapy on reproductive function and innovative medical and surgical techniques employed to minimize these effects. The second part of this article describes conservative methods of managing cervical, endometrial, and ovarian cancer for women who wish to preserve their fertility. Over the last decade, there has been a trend toward trying to preserve reproductive function in young patients with malignancy. Information acquired over the last century on the reproductive effects of radiation and chemo-therapy has enabled us to tailor our treatment of various malignancies affecting young patients. As we learn more about the biology and clinical behaviour of gynaecologic malignancies, we are able to modify surgical management to preserve fertility in select cases. All of these trends are in keeping with our goal to optimize quality of life in cancer care without compromising safety or survival.

  9. [Prolactin and male fertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, G; Börner, A; Lauterbach, H; Thiel, W

    1983-03-01

    On 68 selected patients with disturbances of the potentia generandi et/sive coeundi (25 males with healthy metabolism and 43 males with diabetes) as well as 14 control persons PRL, LH, FSH, testosterone and oestradiol were determined radioimmunologically and the results were ascribed to sexological, clinical, spermatological and testo-histological findings. A statistically secure correlation was found between PRL values and disturbance of the libido as well as the presence of a gynaecomasty. PRL did not correlate with the spermatological variables volume of ejaculate, relative and absolute number of spermatozoa and motility. PRL did also not correlate with the testohistological findings. A relation between PRL and the peptide hormones LH and FSH as well as the steroid hormones testosterone and oestradiol could not be ascertained. Therefore the diagnostic values of a PRL determination is much limited; the pertinency of a hyperprolactinaemia may be increased by the proof of the symptoms reduction of libido and gynaecomasty with simultaneous disturbance of fertility. In our opinion the definition of hyperprolactinaemia needs revision, since at only determination of the basal value of more than 800 mU/l no more frequently pathologically andrological findings are to be observed than below 200 mU/l.

  10. Abnormal meiotic recombination in infertile men and its association with sperm aneuploidy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Kyle A; Wong, Edgar Chan; Chow, Victor; Nigro, Mark; Ma, Sai

    2007-12-01

    Defects in early meiotic events are thought to play a critical role in male infertility; however, little is known regarding the relationship between early meiotic events and the chromosomal constitution of human sperm. Thus, we analyzed testicular tissue from 26 men (9 fertile and 17 infertile men), using immunofluorescent techniques to examine meiotic chromosomes, and fluorescent in situ hybridization to assess sperm aneuploidy. Based on a relatively small sample size, we observed that 42% (5/12) of men with impaired spermatogenesis displayed reduced genome-wide recombination when compared to the fertile men. Analysis of individual chromosomes showed chromosome-specific defects in recombination: chromosome 13 and 18 bivalents with only a single crossover and chromosome 21 bivalents lacking a crossover were more frequent among the infertile men. We identified two infertile men who displayed a novel meiotic defect in which the sex chromosomes failed to recombine: one man had an absence of sperm in the testes, while the other displayed increased sex chromosome aneuploidy in the sperm, resulting in a 45,X abortus after intracytoplasmic sperm injection. When all men were pooled, we observed an inverse correlation between the frequency of sex chromosome recombination and XY disomy in the sperm. Recombination between the sex chromosomes may be a useful indicator for identifying men at risk of producing chromosomally abnormal sperm. An understanding of the molecular mechanisms that contribute to sperm aneuploidy in infertile men could aid in risk assessment for couples undergoing assisted reproduction.

  11. Long term persistence of clonal malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum lineages in the Colombian Pacific region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Echeverry Diego F

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Resistance to chloroquine and antifolate drugs has evolved independently in South America, suggesting that genotype - phenotype studies aimed at understanding the genetic basis of resistance to these and other drugs should be conducted in this continent. This research was conducted to better understand the population structure of Colombian Plasmodium falciparum in preparation for such studies. Results A set of 384 SNPs were genotyped in blood spot DNA samples from 447 P. falciparum infected subjects collected over a ten year period from four provinces of the Colombian Pacific coast to evaluate clonality, population structure and linkage disequilibrium (LD. Most infections (81% contained a single predominant clone. These clustered into 136 multilocus genotypes (MLGs, with 32% of MLGs recovered from multiple (2 – 28 independent subjects. We observed extremely low genotypic richness (R = 0.42 and long persistence of MLGs through time (median = 537 days, range = 1 – 2,997 days. There was a high probability (>5% of sampling parasites from the same MLG in different subjects within 28 days, suggesting caution is needed when using genotyping methods to assess treatment success in clinical drug trials. Panmixia was rejected as four well differentiated subpopulations (FST = 0.084 - 0.279 were identified. These occurred sympatrically but varied in frequency within the four provinces. Linkage disequilibrium (LD decayed more rapidly (r2 = 0.17 for markers Conclusions We conclude that Colombian populations have several advantages for association studies, because multiple clone infections are uncommon and LD decays over the scale of one or a few genes. However, the extensive population structure and low genotype richness will need to be accounted for when designing and analyzing association studies.

  12. Fertilization of SRC willow. II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sevel, L; Ingerslev, Morten; Nord-Larsen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Short rotation coppice (SRC) willow is an emerging cropping system in focus for production of biomass for energy. To increase production, the willow is commonly fertilized, but studies have shown differing effects of fertilization on biomass production, ranging from almost no response...... impacts of different doses of mineral fertilizer, manure and sewage sludge in a commercially grown SRC willow stand. We examined macro nutrient and heavy metal leaching rates and calculated element balances to evaluate the environmental impact. Growth responses were reported in a former paper (Sevel et al....... “Fertilization of SRC Willow, I: Biomass Production Response” Bioenergy Research, 2013). Nitrogen leaching was generally low, between 1 and 7 kg N ha−1 year−1 when doses of up to 120 kg N ha−1 year−1 were applied. Higher doses of 240 and 360 kg N ha−1 as single applications caused leaching of 66 and 99 kg N ha−1...

  13. Food security: Fertilizing hidden hunger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Christoph; Elliott, Joshua; Levermann, Anders

    2014-07-01

    Atmospheric CO2 fertilization may go some way to compensating the negative impact of climatic changes on crop yields, but it comes at the expense of a deterioration of the current nutritional value of food.

  14. IVF-In Vitro Fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, George H.

    1980-01-01

    Issues surrounding the controversial topic of in vitro fertilization and artificial manipulation of reproduction are discussed. The author examines the moral and ethical implications and presents results of a survey of various religious groups. (SA)

  15. Women, Men, and Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Form, William; McMillen, David Byron

    1983-01-01

    Data from the first national study of technological change show that proportionately more women than men operate machines, are more exposed to machines that have alienating effects, and suffer more from the negative effects of technological change. (Author/SSH)

  16. For Men Only

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkman, A. Victor, Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Central Piedmont Community College has developed a course designed to help men take an objective look at themselves and their circumstances, develop an awareness of alternate points of view, and learn processes for goal setting and lifestyle planning. (DC)

  17. Men and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in crisis? For more information Share Men and Depression Download PDF Download ePub Order a free hardcopy ... If so, you may have depression. What is depression? Everyone feels sad or irritable sometimes, or has ...

  18. Ship manoeuvrability: full scale trials of colombian navy riverine support patrol vessel

    OpenAIRE

    Carreño Moreno, Jorge; Sierra Vanegas, Etty; Jimenez Gonzalez, Victor

    2011-01-01

    Methodology and results of full scale maneuvering trials for Riverine Support Patrol Vessel “RSPV”, built by COTECMAR for the Colombian Navy are presented. !is ship is equipped with a “Pump – Jet” propulsion system and the hull corresponds to a wide-hull with a high Beam – Draft ratio (B/T=9.5). Tests were based on the results of simulation of turning diameters obtained from TRIBON M3© design software, applying techniques of Design of Experiments “DOE”, to rationalize the number of runs...

  19. A Comparison of Chinese and Colombian University EFL Students Regarding Learner Autonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximena Paola Buendía Arias

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research seeks to gain deeper understanding of learner autonomy in English as a Foreign Language students from different cultures through the identification and analysis of similarities and differences between Chinese and Colombian students from two public universities: Tianjin Foreign Studies University in China and Universidad Surcolombiana in Colombia. Data were gathered using questionnaires and interviews for comparative research. The participants’ responses were analyzed using quantitative methods such as independent samples t-test and qualitative methods such as data codification and triangulation were also used. The results indicate a significant difference between the two groups of learners regarding their autonomy. Complementarily, their autonomy-enhancement difficulties were diagnosed.

  20. THE COLOMBIAN REALITY FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF BEHAIOVR ANALYSIS: PEACE AS A RESULT OF CULTURAL PRACTICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BLANCA PATRICIA BALLESTEROS DE VALDERRAMA

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the advantage of applying behavior analysis to cultural practices comprehension, considering cultural practices as group behaviors, selected and maintained by social reinforcement contingencies and metacontingencies. The three types of contingencies formulated by Skinner are described, and the principal existing data related to aggressive behavior. A proposal to analyze some relevant aspects to Colombian reality is formulated, and finally, an intent to analyze peace as a result of cultural practices is presented, emphasizing positive reciprocal social processes. Mattaini's (1996 suggestion to graphical representation of cultural practices analysis is applied.

  1. Assessing Exporting Culture in Colombian SMEs: A Look at the ExportPromotion Program (EPP)

    OpenAIRE

    Sierra González, Jaime Humberto

    2009-01-01

    This paper makes an assessment of the Colombian Export Promotion Program. The process and the results of such a program are considered in the light of the literature on international strategy and exporting culture in developed and developing countries. Literature findings on EPAs and EPPs around the world are complemented by information from two surveys, one applied to a set of 56 firms that took part in the EPP (2002-2004) and the other addressed at a group of consultants hired by program op...

  2. Materials Development in the Colombian Context: Some Considerations About Its Benefits and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertha Ramos Holguín

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Materials development is a field of study which has recently acquired significant importance in the Colombian context due to the fact that teachers, as materials developers, consider materials development as an area of knowledge that helps them to improve their teaching practices. However, the rationale, the gains as well as the challenges that drive materials designers have not been explored enough in Colombia. This article aims to provide some general considerations about the benefits teachers, as material developers, will obtain and some of the shortcomings which may emerge along this process. Finally, the authors discuss some implications for teachers, students, and teacher education programs.

  3. Literature Review of the Application of DEA Methodology in the Colombian Educational Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arcadio Cervera Muñoz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of a literature review in the national intellectual production, related to the application of the methodology of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA, for its acronym in English in the Colombian education. Specifically, and as of this review, the article establishes the characteristics of the objects of study of the researches and presents how the methodology is used. In conclusion, although DEA management has been increased, it is still in its infancy and therefore, there are several research opportunities that include different types of decision units (DMU, types of institutions, educational levels, coverage and study objectives.

  4. Critical Socio-Cultural Elements of the Intercultural Endeavour of English Teaching in Colombian Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Ximena Bonilla

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article reports a study done with five English language teachers in Colombian rural areas. Questionnaires and interviews were used to see how these teachers understand their professional practice considering the contextual features of their regional workplaces. Amongst the findings, we noticed that these teachers have to mediate between local and global tensions and also deal with socio-cultural matches and mismatches in their labours. It is hoped this work raises awareness of critical socio-cultural factors involved in the teaching of English in rural settings and of the complexity of its intercultural dimension.

  5. THE INFLUENCE OF TH E INTERAMERICAN SYSTEM OF HUMAN RIGTHS IN THE CONSTITUTIONAL COLOMBIAN LAW

    OpenAIRE

    Fajardo Arturo, Luis Andrés; Universidad Sergio Arboleda

    2008-01-01

    The Colombian constitutional law has undergone a fundamental turnaround in the past 17 years. The introduction of the neoconstitucionalismo model in Latin America, coupled with the militancy of the Constitutional Court by a change in the legal culture, have made constitutional law exceeds by far the scope of the text of the Charter. The new form of constitutional law is structured across concepts that are derived from the judges and constitutional interpretations of human rights carried out b...

  6. From safety to psychosocial risk at work in Colombian legislation of occupational health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Díaz Bambula

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The professional practice of occupational health psychology in Colombia has been legislated since 2 008. Originally, Colombian law had been focused on safety and health; currently the emphasis is the management of risk, phenomena that in our country must be treated only by occupational health psychologists licensed for this. That gives space to recognize the normative psychosocial phenomena such as stress and burnout syndrome. It is important that psychologists know and reflect on the laws governing the practice. This review seeks to do an approach to reflect the implications of these regulations at the level of security, risk, social order, and logic of production.

  7. Illiterate but republicans. The world of the school book in the Colombian Caribbean, 1857-1886

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alarcón Meneses

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with two instruments used in the process of civic education in the Colombian Caribbean during the second half of the nineteenth century and civics textbooks. They represented at that time the ideal way to achieve enlightenment, a cornerstone with which it sought to lay the foundation that would support the political project of radical liberalism. It gave the duo an essential role in the modeling process of the mind and consciousness of children and young people who had to learn through these new moral codes and the values of the new republican regime. However, the process was implemented in a largely illiterate society.

  8. The genus Phyllophaga Harris (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae) in the Colombian Andean Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo, Luis Fernando; Wolff, Martha

    2013-01-01

    The number of species in the genus Phyllophaga Harris (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae) in Colombia is updated to 33. This group represents one of the most common components of the "white grubs" complex, known to damage important agricultural crops, especially in the Colombian Andean Mountains. A commented taxonomic history of the genus is provided, including five new records for the country (P. schizorhina, P. onoreana, P. densata, P. guanacasteca, and P. gigantea) and Phyllophaga tesorito is described as a new species. A key to the identification of male specimens of 30 species is included with a catalogue illustrating their key structures. Finally, aspects related to their ecological importance, geographic distribution, and phenology are discussed.

  9. The Colombian Policy of Rewards from the perspective of International Humanitarian Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Galvis - Martínez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The scandal caused by the assassination of a guerrilla leader by one of his subordinates and the payment of a substantial economic reward made to him by the State, led to the first questionings regarding the legality of the reward system in Colombia. This article seeks to establish if the state spon sored reward policy respects the rules of International Humanitarian Law applicable to the Colombian armed conflict. For this purpose the article will analyze both the legislative development and three of the most controversial situations raised in practice which prove the range and effects of the use of rewards as a strategic tactic within the armed conflict.

  10. Analysis of the colombian scientific production in chemistry. Wokdatabase(2001-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nubia Yaneth Gómez Velasco

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available An exploratory analysis is presented through somes cientometric indicators of production of articles in thearea of chemistry with Colombian author institutional affiliation,reported in the Web of Knowledge(2001 - 2012. Indicators analyzed: Number of citations, articles peryear, number of authors per article. The study was complemented with bivariat estatistical tests and techniques. Among the results published numerous articles found reference three to five authors,with predominant from 2009 to the United States and Spain, grouped into areasof knowledge and Biochemistry&Molecular Biology Biophysics.

  11. Kinetic analysis of the termal decomposition of colombian vacuum residua by termogravimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Andrey Diaz Mateus

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Five different Colombian vacuum residues were thermally decomposed in a thermogravimetric analyzer. Three heating rates were employed to heat the sample up to 650°C. The kinetic analysis was performed by the Coats-Redfern method to describe the non-isothermal pyrolysis of the residua, a reaction model where the reaction order gradually increases from first to second order is proposed and an excellent agreement of the experimental with the calculated data is presented. The results also indicate that the pyrolysis of a vacuum residue cannot be modeled by a single reaction mechanism.

  12. Inverse gas chromatography determination of some physicochemical parameters of a high rank Colombian coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baquero-Haeberlin, M.C.; Rincon, J.M. [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Santafe de Bogota (Colombia). Departamento de Quimica

    1997-12-31

    Dispersive component of the free surface energy of a Colombian semianthracite type coal - Paramo de Guerrero - was determined by Inverse Gas Chromatography (IGC), at zero coverage injecting the series of n-alkanes at 313, 333, 353 and 373 K. For the retention time, the mass center determination was used instead of the maximum peak in the chromatograms. The free surface energy (-{Delta}G{sub A}) increase linearly with the carbon atom number to the alkanes but is not constant due, probably to the conformational structure of the probes. The IGC study of the adsorption process in function of the temperature, provides the respective Enthalpy and Entropy values. (orig.)

  13. The amphibians and reptiles of the colombian caribbean islands san andrés and providencia

    OpenAIRE

    Dunn, Emmett Reid

    2012-01-01

    In connection with a study of Central America I have examined specimens from many of the islands off the coast, and I here set down a list of those I have seen from two Colombian islands which rise from deep water about 200 km. east of Nicaragua. They are about 100 km. apart. Both represent old volcanic peaks, and it is unlikely that they were ever connected to each other or to the mainland, although they may have been much larger during a lower glacial sealevel. The herpetological fauna of S...

  14. Fertility treatment and reproductive health of male offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Kold; Jørgensen, Niels; Asklund, Camilla;

    2007-01-01

    subject. After control for confounders, men whose mothers had received fertility treatment to conceive them had a 46% lower sperm concentration (95% confidence interval (CI): -63, -20) and a 45% lower total sperm count (95% CI: -64, -16). They had a smaller testis size (-0.9 ml, 95% CI: -2.2, 0.4), fewer...... motile sperm (-4.0%, 95% CI: -8.0, -0.1), and fewer morphologically normal spermatozoa (-2.0%, 95% CI: -4.1, 0.0). They also had a lower serum testosterone level and free androgen index (results not statistically significant). These findings should be viewed in light of the increasing use of fertility...

  15. Urogenital Infections in the Male and Their Implications on Fertility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hungerhuber E; Stief CG; Siebels M

    2004-01-01

    Male infertility is a clinical manifestation which concerns approximately 15 % of all couples in Europe. Male causes for infertility are found in 50% of involuntarily childless couples. For Germany this counts for a number of an equivalent of 50 000men/year. No causal factor is found in 60%-75% of cases (idiopathic male infertility).Nevertheless, reduced male fertility can be the result of congenital and acquired urogenital abnormalities, increased scrotal temperature (varicocele), endocrine disturbances, genetic abnorm alities and immunological factors. Furthermore, urogenital inflammations and infections play an important role. Indications for microbiological assessment include abnormal urine samples, urinary tract infections, prostatitis,epididymitis,orchitis, ejaculate infections and sexually transmitted diseases. In the following review, different infectious diseases of the male urogenital tract and their implications on fertility were reviewed.

  16. The effects of cigarette smoking on male fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovac, Jason R; Khanna, Abhinav; Lipshultz, Larry I

    2015-04-01

    Cigarette smoking, one of the main causes of preventable morbidity and mortality, has a multitude of well-known side effects. The relationship between cigarette smoking and infertility has been studied for decades; however, large-scale, population-wide prospective studies are lacking. The majority of the current literature is in the form of retrospective studies focused on the effects of smoking on semen analyses. This article discusses the results of these studies and reviews the postulated mechanisms. The effects of smoking on assisted reproduction and in vitro fertilization outcomes are noted. The consequences of smoking while pregnant on future fertility as well as the outcomes of second-hand smoke are analyzed. The current evidence suggests that men should be advised to abstain from smoking in order to improve reproductive outcomes.

  17. The Fertility Transition in Bavaria

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, John C.; Timothy W. Guinnane

    2001-01-01

    The decline of human fertility that occurred in Europe and North America in the nineteenth century, and elsewhere in the twentieth century, remains a topic of debate largely because there is no accepted explanation for the event. Disagreement persists in part because researchers have rarely used the detailed quantitative information necessary to form adequate tests of alternative theories. This paper uses district-level data from Bavaria to study the correlates of the decline of fertility in ...

  18. Y chromosome microdeletions in Turkish infertile men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamani Ayse

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available AIMS: To detect the frequency and types of both chromosomal abnormalities and Y chromosome microdeletions in infertile men attending to our university intracytoplasmic sperm injection ICSI/IVF centre and fertile control subjects in our patient population. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: A total of 50 infertile men who were referred to IVF center of Meram medical faculty were selected for the molecular azospermia factor (AZF screening program. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Karyotype analysis and polymerase chain reaction amplification using 15 Y-specific sequence-tagged sites of AZF region were done. RESULTS: The total prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities was found to be 10% (5/50, including 4 patients with numerical and 1 patient with structural abnormalities. Overall, 4 of the 50 patients tested (8% exhibited deletions of the Y chromosome, 3 of them being azospermic and 1 of them oligospermic men. The frequency of the microdeletions in subgroups with azospermia and oligozoospermia was found to be 10.7% (3/29 and 4.7% (1/21 respectively. Microdeletions of AZFb and AZFc regions were detected in all of the 4 patients. Neither AZFa nor AZFd microdeletions were indicated. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that one must know whether there is a genetic cause for male infertility before patients can be subjected to ISCI or testicular sperm extraction (TESE/ISCI treatment.

  19. [Sexual dysfunction in men with spinal injuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stien, Ragnar

    2008-02-14

    Spinal injuries may disturb men's sexual functions in various ways. Review article based on extensive clinical experience, lecturing, research and selected articles. A spinal injury may disrupt or disturb the connection between the brain's main centres for sexual function to the genitals. This often leads to extensive problems with erection, ejaculation, orgasm and fertility. Hormonal affection of sexuality is not much altered. Libido problems are of a more psychological nature, such as a poor self-esteem and lack of understanding from the surroundings. Sedative effects of medicines affect all aspects of sexuality. About 80% of men with spinal injuries have erection problems; mainly erection of short duration that can be treated with medicines administered orally (such as phosphodiesterase inhibitors) or by self injection of alpha-adrenergic inhibitors directly into the sinusoids in the penis. Only 10-15% ejaculate spontaneously. Ejaculation may be assisted in various ways, the vibro-ejaculation method being the most effective. The semen quality is reduced, possibly because of altered neurogen control of sperm maturation. Modern techniques for in vitro fertilisation combined with assisted ejaculation and careful control of the semen quality, has made it possible for most spinal-injured men to have their own children.

  20. Children Procedures and Treatment (Fertility Issues)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... approach the subject of fertility preservation with their cancer-stricken child? How is the Oncofertility Consortium addressing the fertility preservation needs of children? How do cancer and cancer treatment affect a child's fertility? Why should fertility preservation be a priority ...