WorldWideScience

Sample records for collective potential energy

  1. Potential energy savings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    1996-01-01

    This chapter describes the chosen methods for estimating the potential energy savings if ordinary window glazing is exchanged with aerogel glazing as well as commercial low-energy glazings.......This chapter describes the chosen methods for estimating the potential energy savings if ordinary window glazing is exchanged with aerogel glazing as well as commercial low-energy glazings....

  2. Energy collection via Piezoelectricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveen Kumar, Ch

    2015-12-01

    In the present days, wireless data transmission techniques are commonly used in electronic devices. For powering them connection needs to be made to the power supply through wires else power may be supplied from batteries. Batteries require charging, replacement and other maintenance efforts. So, some alternative methods need to be developed to keep the batteries full time charged and to avoid the need of any consumable external energy source to charge the batteries. Mechanical energy harvesting utilizes piezoelectric components where deformations produced by different means are directly converted to electrical charge via piezoelectric effect. The proposed work in this research recommends Piezoelectricity as a alternate energy source. The motive is to obtain a pollution-free energy source and to utilize and optimize the energy being wasted. Current work also illustrates the working principle of piezoelectric crystal and various sources of vibration for the crystal.

  3. Dynamical collective potential energy landscape: its impact on the competition between fusion and quasi-fission in a heavy fusing system

    CERN Document Server

    Díaz-Torres, A

    2006-01-01

    A realistic microscopically-based quantum approach to the competition between fusion and quasi-fission in a heavy fusing system is applied to several reactions leading to $^{256}$No. Fusion and quasi-fission are described in terms of a diffusion process of nuclear shapes through a dynamical collective potential energy landscape which is initially diabatic and gradually becomes adiabatic. The microscopic ingredients of the theory are obtained with a realistic two-center shell model based on Woods-Saxon potentials. The results indicate that (i) the diabatic effects play a very important role in the onset of fusion hindrance for heavy systems, and (ii) very asymmetric reactions induced by closed shell nuclei seem to be the best suited to synthesize the heaviest compound nuclei.

  4. Collecting Solar Energy. Solar Energy Education Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Alexander

    This solar energy learning module for use with junior high school students offers a list of activities, a pre-post test, job titles, basic solar energy vocabulary, and diagrams of solar energy collectors and installations. The purpose is to familiarize students with applications of solar energy and titles of jobs where this knowledge could be…

  5. Collecting Solar Energy. Solar Energy Education Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Alexander

    This solar energy learning module for use with junior high school students offers a list of activities, a pre-post test, job titles, basic solar energy vocabulary, and diagrams of solar energy collectors and installations. The purpose is to familiarize students with applications of solar energy and titles of jobs where this knowledge could be…

  6. Potential energy savings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    1996-01-01

    The background for the simulations of annual energy consumption and indoor temperature level is described.......The background for the simulations of annual energy consumption and indoor temperature level is described....

  7. LHC Physics Potential versus Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quigg, Chris; /Fermilab

    2009-08-01

    Parton luminosities are convenient for estimating how the physics potential of Large Hadron Collider experiments depends on the energy of the proton beams. I present parton luminosities, ratios of parton luminosities, and contours of fixed parton luminosity for gg, u{bar d}, and qq interactions over the energy range relevant to the Large Hadron Collider, along with example analyses for specific processes.

  8. Estimates of global dew collection potential

    OpenAIRE

    Vuollekoski, H.; Vogt, M.; Sinclair, V. A.; Duplissy, J; Järvinen, H; E.-M. Kyrö; R. Makkonen; T. Petäjä; N. L. Prisle; Räisänen, P.; M. Sipilä; J. Ylhäisi; Kulmala, M

    2014-01-01

    The global potential for collecting usable water from dew on an artificial collector sheet was investigated by utilising 34 years of meteorological reanalysis data as input to a dew formation model. Dew formation was found to be frequent and common, but daily yields were mostly below 0.1 mm. Nevertheless, some water-stressed areas such as the coastal regions of northern Africa and the Arabian Peninsula show potential for large-scale dew ...

  9. World potential of renewable energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dessus, B.; Devin, B.; Pharabod, F.

    1991-07-01

    A comprehensive analysis, region by region, of the actually accessible renewable energies at a given horizon, is presented. The same methodology as the one employed to derive ``proven fossil energy reserves`` from ``energy resources`` is adopted, in which resources are defined by quantitative information on physical potential, while reserves take into account technical and economical accessibility. As renewable resources are fluctuating with time and are diluted in space and not readily transportable or storeable, it is necessary to consider the presence of populations or activities near enough to be able to profit by these diluted and volatile energies.

  10. Relativity, potential energy, and mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Eugene

    2016-11-01

    This paper is an exploration of the concept of energy, illuminated by the transformative insights of the special theory of relativity. Focusing on potential energy (PE), it will be shown that PE as presently defined is in conflict with the tenets of special relativity. Even though PE remains an indispensable theoretical device its actual physicality is questionable. Moreover its ontological status is quite different from that of both kinetic energy and mass, a significant point that is not widely appreciated. We will establish that PE is a theoretical concept as opposed to an empirical one; it is a descriptor of mass-energy without a detectable physical presence of its own. PE is a measure of energy stored, it is not the energy stored.

  11. Assessment of triton potential energy

    CERN Document Server

    Friar, J L

    1996-01-01

    An assessment is made of the dominant features contributing to the triton potential energy, with the objective of understanding qualitatively their origins and sensitivities. Relativistic effects, short-range repulsion, and OPEP dominance are discussed. A determination of the importance of various regions of nucleon-nucleon separation is made numerically.

  12. Assessment of Triton Potential Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friar, J. L.; Payne, G. L.

    1995-12-01

    An assessment is made of the dominant features contributing to the triton potential energy, with the objective of understanding qualitatively their origins and sensitivities. Relativistic effects, short-range repulsion, and OPEP dominance are discussed. A determination of the importance of various regions of nucleon-nucleon separation is made numerically.

  13. California Industrial Energy Efficiency Potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coito, Fred; Worrell, Ernst; Price, Lynn; Masanet, Eric; RafaelFriedmann; Rufo, Mike

    2005-06-01

    This paper presents an overview of the modeling approach andhighlights key findings of a California industrial energy efficiencypotential study. In addition to providing estimates of technical andeconomic potential, the study examines achievable program potential undervarious program-funding scenarios. The focus is on electricity andnatural gas savings for manufacturing in the service territories ofCalifornia's investor-owned utilities (IOUs). The assessment is conductedby industry type and by end use. Both crosscutting technologies andindustry-specific process measures are examined. Measure penetration intothe marketplace is modeled as a function of customer awareness, measurecost effectiveness, and perceived market barriers. Data for the studycomes from a variety of sources, including: utility billing records, theEnergy Information Association (EIA) Manufacturing Energy ConsumptionSurvey (MECS), state-sponsored avoided cost studies, energy efficiencyprogram filings, and technology savings and cost data developed throughLawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The study identifies 1,706GWh and 47 Mth (million therms) per year of achievable potential over thenext twelve years under recent levels of program expenditures, accountingfor 5.2 percent of industrial electricity consumption and 1.3 percent ofindustrial natural gas consumption. These estimates grow to 2,748 GWh and192 Mth per year if all cost-effective and achievable opportunities arepursued. Key industrial electricity end uses, in terms of energy savingspotential, include compressed air and pumping systems that combine toaccount for about half of the total achievable potential estimates. Fornatural gas, savings are concentrated in the boiler and process heatingend uses, accounting for over 99 percent to total achievablepotential.

  14. California Industrial Energy Efficiency Potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coito, Fred; Worrell, Ernst; Price, Lynn; Masanet, Eric; RafaelFriedmann; Rufo, Mike

    2005-06-01

    This paper presents an overview of the modeling approach andhighlights key findings of a California industrial energy efficiencypotential study. In addition to providing estimates of technical andeconomic potential, the study examines achievable program potential undervarious program-funding scenarios. The focus is on electricity andnatural gas savings for manufacturing in the service territories ofCalifornia's investor-owned utilities (IOUs). The assessment is conductedby industry type and by end use. Both crosscutting technologies andindustry-specific process measures are examined. Measure penetration intothe marketplace is modeled as a function of customer awareness, measurecost effectiveness, and perceived market barriers. Data for the studycomes from a variety of sources, including: utility billing records, theEnergy Information Association (EIA) Manufacturing Energy ConsumptionSurvey (MECS), state-sponsored avoided cost studies, energy efficiencyprogram filings, and technology savings and cost data developed throughLawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The study identifies 1,706GWh and 47 Mth (million therms) per year of achievable potential over thenext twelve years under recent levels of program expenditures, accountingfor 5.2 percent of industrial electricity consumption and 1.3 percent ofindustrial natural gas consumption. These estimates grow to 2,748 GWh and192 Mth per year if all cost-effective and achievable opportunities arepursued. Key industrial electricity end uses, in terms of energy savingspotential, include compressed air and pumping systems that combine toaccount for about half of the total achievable potential estimates. Fornatural gas, savings are concentrated in the boiler and process heatingend uses, accounting for over 99 percent to total achievablepotential.

  15. Generalized Collective Inference with Symmetric Clique Potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Rahul; Dewan, Ajit A

    2009-01-01

    Collective graphical models exploit inter-instance associative dependence to output more accurate labelings. However existing models support very limited kind of associativity which restricts accuracy gains. This paper makes two major contributions. First, we propose a general collective inference framework that biases data instances to agree on a set of {\\em properties} of their labelings. Agreement is encouraged through symmetric clique potentials. We show that rich properties leads to bigger gains, and present a systematic inference procedure for a large class of such properties. The procedure performs message passing on the cluster graph, where property-aware messages are computed with cluster specific algorithms. This provides an inference-only solution for domain adaptation. Our experiments on bibliographic information extraction illustrate significant test error reduction over unseen domains. Our second major contribution consists of algorithms for computing outgoing messages from clique clusters with ...

  16. The potential of renewable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-03-01

    On June 27 and 28, 1989, the US Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratories were convened to discuss plans for the development of a National Energy Strategy (NES) and, in particular, the analytic needs in support of NES that could be addressed by the laboratories. As a result of that meeting, interlaboratory teams were formed to produce analytic white papers on key topics, and a lead laboratory was designated for each core laboratory team. The broad-ranging renewables assignment is summarized by the following issue statement from the Office of Policy, Planning and Analysis: to what extent can renewable energy technologies contribute to diversifying sources of energy supply What are the major barriers to greater renewable energy use and what is the potential timing of widespread commercialization for various categories of applications This report presents the results of the intensive activity initiated by the June 1989 meeting to produce a white paper on renewable energy. Scores of scientists, analysts, and engineers in the five core laboratories gave generously of their time over the past eight months to produce this document. Their generous, constructive efforts are hereby gratefully acknowledged. 126 refs., 44 figs., 32 tabs.

  17. Wind Energy Potential in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Z.A. Saifullah

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh is encountering difficulties in supplying energy to maintain its economic growth. Government of Bangladesh is looking for renewable energy sources to meet up the total power demand in this country. The present study aims to assess wind energy potential in Bangladesh as a sustainable solution to overcome the energy crisis. Wind speed at six coastal zones Patenga, Cox’s Bazar, Teknaf, Char Fassion, Kuakata and Kutubdia at Bay of Bengal of Bangladesh have been analyzed. A near shore wind farm has been considered at these locations having a coastal line of 574 km. The turbines are spaced 7D apart in the prevailing wind direction, and 3D apart in the perpendicular direction, where D is rotor diameter. This near shore wind farm with an array of 5104 horizontal axis wind turbines with hub height of 100 m and rotor diameter of 75 m with a wind speed of 7 m/sec is capable to generate 1855.25 MW of electrical power. This can mitigate 55.93 per cent of energy shortage in 2016. By developing renewable energy sources it is possible to compensate 11.25 per cent of total power demand by 2020.

  18. Estimates of global dew collection potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuollekoski, H.; Vogt, M.; Sinclair, V. A.; Duplissy, J.; Järvinen, H.; Kyrö, E.-M.; Makkonen, R.; Petäjä, T.; Prisle, N. L.; Räisänen, P.; Sipilä, M.; Ylhäisi, J.; Kulmala, M.

    2014-08-01

    The global potential for collecting usable water from dew on an artificial collector sheet was investigated by utilising 34 years of meteorological reanalysis data as input to a dew formation model. Dew formation was found to be frequent and common, but daily yields were mostly below 0.1 mm. Nevertheless, some water-stressed areas such as the coastal regions of northern Africa and the Arabian Peninsula show potential for large-scale dew harvesting, as the yearly yield can reach up to 100 L m-2 for a commonly used polyethylene foil. Statistically significant trends were found in the data, indicating overall changes in dew yields between ±15% over the investigated time period.

  19. Scheme of energy collective services; Schema de services collectifs de l'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The scheme of collective energy services aims at facilitating and valorizing the contribution of the national organizations to the national energy plan and to the durable development of the country. The scheme comprises three main goals: defining the exploitation goals of local renewable energy resources and the goals of rational energy uses which can contribute to the national energy independence, to the security of supplies and to the abatement of the greenhouse effect; evaluating the foreseeable energy needs of regions and their energy production potentiality, their energy saving possibilities and their energy transportation needs; and finally, determining the conditions in which the government and the national organizations will be able to favor the energy saving actions and the production and use of renewable energies taking into account their impact on employment and their long-term financial consequences. This document is organized in five parts: 1 - status, stakes and perspectives: energy demand perspectives at the 2010-2020 vista, potentialities of energy saving and renewable energy sources development, implication of the international commitment of France in the fight against greenhouse effect; 2 - action means for new measures: buildings and accommodations, transportation sector, industry sector, mastery of electricity demand, development of renewable energy sources, decentralized energy production, energy storage, transport and distribution, economic tools and public means of sustain; 3 - follow up of the scheme of energy collective services; 4 - analysis of regional contributions; 5 - appendixes and maps. (J.S.)

  20. Energy-dependent collective excitations in Os and Pt isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budaca, A. I.; Budaca, R.

    2017-08-01

    An exactly solvable model is constructed by considering an energy-dependent harmonic oscillator potential in the β part of the Bohr Hamiltonian separated adiabatically from the γ-angular degrees of freedom. The energy dependence is linear and introduced in the string constant. The fundamental implications of the energy dependence in quantum theory are thoroughly discussed in connection with the slope parameter. The numerical applications of the model are found to match the collective features for extended chains of even-even Os and Pt isotopes, which exhibit a smooth evolution in the slope of the energy dependence.

  1. Potential Energy Cost Savings from Increased Commercial Energy Code Compliance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, Michael I.; Hart, Philip R.; Athalye, Rahul A.; Zhang, Jian; Cohan, David F.

    2016-08-22

    An important question for commercial energy code compliance is: “How much energy cost savings can better compliance achieve?” This question is in sharp contrast to prior efforts that used a checklist of code requirements, each of which was graded pass or fail. Percent compliance for any given building was simply the percent of individual requirements that passed. A field investigation method is being developed that goes beyond the binary approach to determine how much energy cost savings is not realized. Prototype building simulations were used to estimate the energy cost impact of varying levels of non-compliance for newly constructed office buildings in climate zone 4C. Field data collected from actual buildings on specific conditions relative to code requirements was then applied to the simulation results to find the potential lost energy savings for a single building or for a sample of buildings. This new methodology was tested on nine office buildings in climate zone 4C. The amount of additional energy cost savings they could have achieved had they complied fully with the 2012 International Energy Conservation Code is determined. This paper will present the results of the test, lessons learned, describe follow-on research that is needed to verify that the methodology is both accurate and practical, and discuss the benefits that might accrue if the method were widely adopted.

  2. Using Public Participation to Improve MELs Energy Data Collection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, Iris (Hoi Ying); Kloss, Margarita; Brown, Rich; Meier, Alan

    2014-03-11

    Miscellaneous Electric Loads (MELs) have proliferated in the last decade, and comprise an increasing share of building energy consumption. Because of the diversity of MELs and our lack of understanding about how people use them, large-scale data collection is needed to inform meaningful energy reduction strategies. Traditional methods of data collection, however, usually incur high labor and metering equipment expenses. As an alternative, this paper investigates the feasibility of crowdsourcing data collection to satisfy at least part of the data collection needs with acceptable accuracy. This study assessed the reliability and accuracy of crowdsourced data, by recruiting over 20 volunteers (from the 2012 Lawrence Berkeley Lab, Open House event) to test our crowdsourcing protocol. The protocol asked volunteers to perform the following tasks for three test products with increasing complexity - record power meter and product characteristics, identify all power settings available, and report the measured power. Based on our collected data and analysis, we concluded that volunteers performed reasonably well for devices with functionalities with which they are familiar, and might not produce highly accurate field measurements for complex devices. Accuracy will likely improve when participants are measuring the power used by devices in their home which they know how to operate, by providing more specific instructions including instructional videos. When integrated with existing programs such as the Home Energy Saver tool, crowdsourcing data collection from individual homeowners has the potential to generate a substantial amount of information about MELs energy use in homes.

  3. Using Public Participation to Improve MELs Energy Data Collection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloss, Margarita; Cheung, Iris [Hoi; Brown, Richard; Meier, Alan

    2014-08-11

    Miscellaneous and electronic loads (MELs) comprise an increasing share of building energy consumption. Large-scale data collection is needed to inform meaningful energy reduction strategies because of the diversity of MELs and our lack of understanding about how people use them. Traditional methods of data collection, however, usually incur high labor and metering equipment expenses. As an alternative, this paper investigates the feasibility of crowdsourcing data collection to satisfy at least part of the data collection needs with acceptable accuracy. We assessed the reliability and accuracy of crowd-sourced data by recruiting 18 volunteers and testing our crowdsourcing protocol. The protocol asked volunteers to perform measurement tasks for three MELs devices of increasing complexity 1) record power meter and MELs product characteristics, 2) identify and measure all power modes available, and 3) report the measured power. Volunteers performed reasonably well for devices with functionalities with which they were familiar, but many could not correctly identify all available power modes in complex devices. Accuracy may improve when participants measure the power used by familiar devices in their home, or by providing more specific instructions, e.g. videos. Furthermore, crowdsourcing data collection from individual homeowners has the potential to generate valuable information about MELs energy use in homes when integrated with existing programs such as Home Energy Saver and Building America.

  4. Geothermal Energy: Tapping the Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Bill

    2008-01-01

    Ground source geothermal energy enables one to tap into the earth's stored renewable energy for heating and cooling facilities. Proper application of ground-source geothermal technology can have a dramatic impact on the efficiency and financial performance of building energy utilization (30%+). At the same time, using this alternative energy…

  5. Biowaste energy potential in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nzila, C.; DeWulf, J.; Spanjers, H.; Kiriamiti, H.; Langenhove, H.

    2010-01-01

    Energy affects all aspects of national development. Hence the current global energy crisis demands greater attention to new initiatives on alternative energy sources that are renewable, economically feasible and sustainable. The agriculture-dependent developing countries in Africa can mitigate the e

  6. Renewable energy costs, potentials, barriers: Conceptual issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verbruggen, Aviel, E-mail: aviel.verbruggen@ua.ac.b [University of Antwerp (Belgium); Fischedick, Manfred [Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment, Energy (Germany); Moomaw, William [Tufts University, Center for International Environment and Resource Policy (United States); Weir, Tony [University of the South Pacific, Fiji Islands (Fiji); Nadai, Alain [Centre International de Recherche sur nvironnement et le Developpement CIRED (France); Nilsson, Lars J. [University of Lund (Sweden); Nyboer, John [Simon Fraser University, School of Resource and Environmental Management (Canada); Sathaye, Jayant [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (United States)

    2010-02-15

    Renewable energy can become the major energy supply option in low-carbon energy economies. Disruptive transformations in all energy systems are necessary for tapping widely available renewable energy resources. Organizing the energy transition from non-sustainable to renewable energy is often described as the major challenge of the first half of the 21st century. Technological innovation, the economy (costs and prices) and policies have to be aligned to achieve full renewable energy potentials, and barriers impeding that growth need to be removed. These issues are also covered by IPCC's special report on renewable energy and climate change to be completed in 2010. This article focuses on the interrelations among the drivers. It clarifies definitions of costs and prices, and of barriers. After reviewing how the third and fourth assessment reports of IPCC cover mitigation potentials and commenting on definitions of renewable energy potentials in the literature, we propose a consistent set of potentials of renewable energy supplies.

  7. Energy efficiency potentials and energy management practices in Swedish firms

    OpenAIRE

    Backlund, Sandra; Broberg, Sarah; Ottosson, Mikael; Thollander, Patrik

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve energy efficiency and reach the EU:s 20-20-20 primary energy saving target, focus has mainly been on diffusion of technology. Previous studies have illustrated large untapped energy saving potentials from implementing energy management practices in firms. Energy management practices have large effects on energy utilization and also a short pay-back time. According to these studies, energy management practices also effect investment decisions and the outcome of investments ...

  8. Potential of renewable and alternative energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konovalov, V.; Pogharnitskaya, O.; Rostovshchikova, A.; Matveenko, I.

    2015-11-01

    The article deals with application potential of clean alternative renewable energy sources. By means of system analysis the forecast for consumption of electrical energy in Tomsk Oblast as well as main energy sources of existing energy system have been studied up to 2018. Engineering potential of renewable and alternative energy sources is evaluated. Besides, ranking in the order of their efficiency descending is performed. It is concluded that Tomsk Oblast has high potential of alternative and renewable energy sources, among which the most promising development perspective is implementation of gasification stations to save fuel consumed by diesel power stations as well as building wind-power plants.

  9. Potential energy savings and thermal comfort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Rudbeck, Claus Christian; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    1996-01-01

    The simulation results on the energy saving potential and influence on indoor thermal comfort by replacement of common windows with aerogel windows as well as commercial low-energy windows are described and analysed.......The simulation results on the energy saving potential and influence on indoor thermal comfort by replacement of common windows with aerogel windows as well as commercial low-energy windows are described and analysed....

  10. The development of empirical models to evaluate energy use and energy cost in wastewater collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, David Morgan

    This research introduces a unique data analysis method and develops empirical models to evaluate energy use and energy cost in wastewater collection systems using operational variables. From these models, several Best Management Processes (BMPs) are identified that should benefit utilities and positively impact the operation of existing infrastructure as well as the design of new infrastructure. Further, the conclusions generated herein display high transferability to certain manufacturing processes. Therefore, it is anticipated that these findings will also benefit pumping applications outside of the water sector. Wastewater treatment is often the single largest expense at the local government level. Not surprisingly, significant research effort has been expended on examining the energy used in wastewater treatment. However, the energy used in wastewater collection systems remains underexplored despite significant potential for energy savings. Estimates place potential energy savings as high as 60% within wastewater collection; which, if applied across the United States equates to the energy used by nearly 125,000 American homes. Employing three years of data from Renewable Water Resources (ReWa), the largest wastewater utility in the Upstate of South Carolina, this study aims to develop useful empirical equations that will allow utilities to efficiently evaluate the energy use and energy cost of its wastewater collection system. ReWa's participation was motivated, in part, by their recent adoption of the United States Environmental Protection Agency "Effective Utility Strategies" within which exists a focus on energy management. The study presented herein identifies two primary variables related to the energy use and cost associated with wastewater collection: Specific Energy (Es) and Specific Cost (Cs). These two variables were found to rely primarily on the volume pumped by the individual pump stations and exhibited similar power functions for the three year

  11. Storing unsteady energy, like photovoltaically generated electric energy, as potential energy

    OpenAIRE

    Kutz, Nadja

    2012-01-01

    A proposal to store unsteady energy in potential energy via lifting masses with a rough quantitative overview. Some applications and methods to harvest the potential energy are also given. A focus is put on photovoltaically generated energy.

  12. Geothermal Energy Potential in Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryde, Philip R.

    1977-01-01

    Reviews types of geothermal energy sources in the western states, including hot brine systems and dry steam systems. Conversion to electrical energy is a major potential use of geothermal energy, although it creates environmental disruptions such as noise, corrosion, and scaling of equipment. (AV)

  13. Geothermal Energy Potential in Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryde, Philip R.

    1977-01-01

    Reviews types of geothermal energy sources in the western states, including hot brine systems and dry steam systems. Conversion to electrical energy is a major potential use of geothermal energy, although it creates environmental disruptions such as noise, corrosion, and scaling of equipment. (AV)

  14. Energy potential mapping for energy-producing neighborhoods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobbelsteen, van den A.; Broersma, S.; Stremke, S.

    2011-01-01

    Over the past five years, the method of energy potential mapping (EPM) has evolved from a cartoonish charting of climatic features with energy consequences to a detailed methodology for the development of spatial plans based on energy-effective foundations. By means of EPM the rudimentary features

  15. Assessment of wind energy potential in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Rong; Zhang De; Wang Yuedong; Xing Xuhuang; Li Zechun

    2009-01-01

    China wind atlas was made by numerical simulation and the wind energy potential in China was calculated. The model system for wind energy resource assessment was set up based on Canadian Wind Energy Simulating Toolkit (WEST) and the simulating method was as follows. First, the weather classes were obtained depend on meteorological data of 30 years. Then, driven by the initial meteorological field produced by each weather class, the meso-scale model ran for the distribution of wind energy resources according each weather class condition one by one. Finally, averaging all the modeling output weighted by the occurrence frequency of each weather class, the annual mean distribution of wind energy resources was worked out. Compared the simulated wind energy potential with other results from several ac-tivities and studies for wind energy resource assessment, it is found that the simulated wind energy potential in mainland of China is 3 times that from the second and the third investigations for wind energy resources by CMA, and is similar to the wind energy potential obtained by NREL in Solar and Wind Energy Resource Assessment (SWERA) project. The simulated offshore wind energy potential of China seems smaller than the true value. According to the simulated results of CMA and considering lots of limited factors to wind energy development, the final conclusion can be obtained that the wind energy availability in China is 700~1 200 GW, in which 600~1 000 GW is in mainland and 100~200 GW is on offshore, and wind power will become the important part of energy composition in future.

  16. The Wind Energy Potential of Kurdistan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arefi, Farzad; Moshtagh, Jamal; Moradi, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    In the current work by using statistical methods and available software, the wind energy assessment of prone regions for installation of wind turbines in, Qorveh, has been investigated. Information was obtained from weather stations of Baneh, Bijar, Zarina, Saqez, Sanandaj, Qorveh, and Marivan. The monthly average and maximum of wind speed were investigated between the years 2000-2010 and the related curves were drawn. The Golobad curve (direction and percentage of dominant wind and calm wind as monthly rate) between the years 1997-2000 was analyzed and drawn with plot software. The ten-minute speed (at 10, 30, and 60 m height) and direction (at 37.5 and 10 m height) wind data were collected from weather stations of Iranian new energy organization. The wind speed distribution during one year was evaluated by using Weibull probability density function (two-parametrical), and the Weibull curve histograms were drawn by MATLAB software. According to the average wind speed of stations and technical specifications of the types of turbines, the suitable wind turbine for the station was selected. Finally, the Divandareh and Qorveh sites with favorable potential were considered for installation of wind turbines and construction of wind farms.

  17. Renewable energy costs, potentials, barriers. Conceptual issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verbruggen, Aviel [University of Antwerp (Belgium); Fischedick, Manfred [Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment, Energy (Germany); Moomaw, William [Tufts University, Center for International Environment and Resource Policy (United States); Weir, Tony [University of the South Pacific, Fiji Islands (Fiji); Nadai, Alain [Centre International de Recherche sur Environnement et le Developpement CIRED (France); Nilsson, Lars J. [University of Lund (Sweden); Nyboer, John [Simon Fraser University, School of Resource and Environmental Management (Canada); Sathaye, Jayant [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (United States)

    2010-02-15

    Renewable energy can become the major energy supply option in low-carbon energy economies. Disruptive transformations in all energy systems are necessary for tapping widely available renewable energy resources. Organizing the energy transition from non-sustainable to renewable energy is often described as the major challenge of the first half of the 21st century. Technological innovation, the economy (costs and prices) and policies have to be aligned to achieve full renewable energy potentials, and barriers impeding that growth need to be removed. These issues are also covered by IPCC's special report on renewable energy and climate change to be completed in 2010. This article focuses on the interrelations among the drivers. It clarifies definitions of costs and prices, and of barriers. After reviewing how the third and fourth assessment reports of IPCC cover mitigation potentials and commenting on definitions of renewable energy potentials in the literature, we propose a consistent set of potentials of renewable energy supplies. (author)

  18. Investigating Energy-Saving Potentials in the Cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Sheng Lee

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Collecting webpage messages can serve as a sensor for investigating the energy-saving potential of buildings. Focusing on stores, a cloud sensor system is developed to collect data and determine their energy-saving potential. The owner of a store under investigation must register online, report the store address, area, and the customer ID number on the electric meter. The cloud sensor system automatically surveys the energy usage records by connecting to the power company website and calculating the energy use index (EUI of the store. Other data includes the chain store check, company capital, location price, and the influence of weather conditions on the store; even the exposure frequency of store under investigation may impact the energy usage collected online. After collecting data from numerous stores, a multi-dimensional data array is constructed to determine energy-saving potential by identifying stores with similarity conditions. Similarity conditions refer to analyzed results that indicate that two stores have similar capital, business scale, weather conditions, and exposure frequency on web. Calculating the EUI difference or pure technical efficiency of stores, the energy-saving potential is determined. In this study, a real case study is performed. An 8-dimensional (8D data array is constructed by surveying web data related to 67 stores. Then, this study investigated the savings potential of the 33 stores, using a site visit, and employed the cloud sensor system to determine the saving potential. The case study results show good agreement between the data obtained by the site visit and the cloud investigation, with errors within 4.17%. Among 33 the samples, eight stores have low saving potentials of less than 5%. The developed sensor on the cloud successfully identifies them as having low saving potential and avoids wasting money on the site visit.

  19. 78 FR 29749 - Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy; Agency Information Collection Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy; Agency Information Collection Extension AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). ACTION: Submission for Office of... Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE- 2G), U.S. Department of Energy, 1000 Independence Avenue...

  20. Energy collection efficiency of holographic planar solar concentrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Jose M; Zhang, Deming; Myer, Brian; Kostuk, Raymond K

    2010-02-10

    We analyze the energy collection properties of holographic planar concentrator systems. The effects of solar variation on daily and annual energy collection are evaluated. Hologram diffraction efficiency, polarization, crosstalk in cascaded elements, and constraints imposed by the radiance theorem, as well as solar illumination characteristics, are considered. A planar holographic solar concentrator configuration is designed and modeled to maximize energy collection efficiency during the course of a year without the need for tracking. Results indicated that nearly 50% of the available energy illuminating hologram areas can be collected by photovoltaic cells without the need of tracking.

  1. Wind energy in China: Estimating the potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jiahai

    2016-07-01

    Persistent and significant curtailment has cast concern over the prospects of wind power in China. A comprehensive assessment of the production of energy from wind has identified grid-integrated wind generation potential at 11.9-14% of China's projected energy demand by 2030.

  2. Energy life cycle assessment of rice straw bio-energy derived from potential gasification technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shie, Je-Lueng; Chang, Ching-Yuan; Chen, Ci-Syuan; Shaw, Dai-Gee; Chen, Yi-Hung; Kuan, Wen-Hui; Ma, Hsiao-Kan

    2011-06-01

    To be a viable alternative, a biofuel should provide a net energy gain and be capable of being produced in large quantities without reducing food supplies. Amounts of agricultural waste are produced and require treatment, with rice straw contributing the greatest source of such potential bio-fuel in Taiwan. Through life-cycle accounting, several energy indicators and four potential gasification technologies (PGT) were evaluated. The input energy steps for the energy life cycle assessment (ELCA) include collection, generator, torrefaction, crushing, briquetting, transportation, energy production, condensation, air pollution control and distribution of biofuels to the point of end use. Every PGT has a positive energy benefit. The input of energy required for the transportation and pre-treatment are major steps in the ELCA. On-site briquetting of refused-derived fuel (RDF) provides an alternative means of reducing transportation energy requirements. Bio-energy sources, such as waste rice straw, provide an ideal material for the bio-fuel plant.

  3. Estimates of global dew collection potential on artificial surfaces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vuollekoski, H; Vogt, M; Sinclair, V. A; Duplissy, J; Järvinen, H; Kyrö, E.-M; Makkonen, R; Petäjä, T; Prisle, N. L; Räisänen, P; Sipilä, M; Ylhäisi, J; Kulmala, M

    2015-01-01

      The global potential for collecting usable water from dew on an artificial collector sheet was investigated by utilizing 34 years of meteorological reanalysis data as input to a dew formation model...

  4. Timing of potential and metabolic brain energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korf, Jakob; Gramsbergen, Jan Bert

    2007-01-01

    The temporal relationship between cerebral electro-physiological activities, higher brain functions and brain energy metabolism is reviewed. The duration of action potentials and transmission through glutamate and GABA are most often less than 5 ms. Subjects may perform complex psycho-physiologic......The temporal relationship between cerebral electro-physiological activities, higher brain functions and brain energy metabolism is reviewed. The duration of action potentials and transmission through glutamate and GABA are most often less than 5 ms. Subjects may perform complex psycho...... functions. We introduce the concepts of potential and metabolic brain energy to distinguish trans-membrane gradients of ions or neurotransmitters and the capacity to generate energy from intra- or extra-cerebral substrates, respectively. Higher brain functions, such as memory retrieval, speaking...

  5. Bohm's Quantum Potential as an Internal Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Dennis, Glen; De Gosson, Maurice,; Hiley, Basil

    2014-01-01

    We pursue our discussion of Fermi's surface initiated in Dennis, de Gosson and Hiley and show that Bohm's quantum potential can be viewed as an internal energy of a quantum system. This gives further insight into the role it played by the quantum potential in stationary states. It also allows us to provide a physically motivated derivation of Schr\\"odinger's equation for a particle in an external potential.

  6. Energy collector for collecting solar energy and the like

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bansal, J.M.; Kumar, A.

    1978-10-03

    A solar energy collector connectable with a fluid-circulating system is contained in a plenum within an insulative housing and has a plurality of generally parallel, heat-absorbing conduits extending between intake and outlet manifolds and confronting the sun or other heat source through a transparent window, each conduit being separated from an adjacent conduit by an intervening slot. Positioned below the conduits is a heat-absorbing tank which is connected in fluid-flow relationship with the outlet manifold and also with the circulation system so that a heat-transfer medium may flow continuously between the energy collector and the circulation system. The tank receives radiant energy through the slots and after absorbing some of the radiation reflects the remaining portion upwardly to the conduits to thereby increase radiation intensity on and heat absorption by the conduits. Multiple reflections between tank and conduits further increase energy absorption both by tank and conduit. The conduits may be of round cross section or may have a planar heat-absorbing surface facing the sun and an arcuate, convex surface facing the tank. The tank may be provided with a plurality of arcuate troughs, a trough underlying and paralleling each conduit to both absorb energy and reflect energy toward the overlying conduit. The conduits may be provided with internal air ducts which communicate with the hot-air plenum and permit heat from the hot air to be transferred through the duct walls and to the fluid medium within the conduits.

  7. Quadrupole Collective Dynamics from Energy Density Functionals: Collective Hamiltonian and the Interacting Boson Model

    CERN Document Server

    Nomura, K; Otsuka, T; Shimizu, N; Vretenar, D

    2011-01-01

    Microscopic energy density functionals (EDF) have become a standard tool for nuclear structure calculations, providing an accurate global description of nuclear ground states and collective excitations. For spectroscopic applications this framework has to be extended to account for collective correlations related to restoration of symmetries broken by the static mean field, and for fluctuations of collective variables. In this work we compare two approaches to five-dimensional quadrupole dynamics: the collective Hamiltonian for quadrupole vibrations and rotations, and the Interacting Boson Model. The two models are compared in a study of the evolution of non-axial shapes in Pt isotopes. Starting from the binding energy surfaces of $^{192,194,196}$Pt, calculated with a microscopic energy density functional, we analyze the resulting low-energy collective spectra obtained from the collective Hamiltonian, and the corresponding IBM-2 Hamiltonian. The calculated excitation spectra and transition probabilities for t...

  8. Power Collection from Wave Energy Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Molinas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Most Wave Energy Converters (WECs produce highly distorted power due to thereciprocal motion induced by ocean waves. Some WEC systems have integrated energystorage that overcomes this limitation, but add significant expenses to an already costlysystem. As an alternative approach, this article investigates the direct export option thatrelies on aggregate smoothing among several WECs. By optimizing the positioning of theWEC devices with respect to the incoming waves, fluctuations may be mutually canceledout between the devices. This work is based on Fred. Olsen’s WEC system Lifesaver, anda WEC farm consisting of 48 devices is designed in detail and simulated. The major costdriver for the electrical export system is the required oversize factor necessary for transferof the average power output. Due to the low power quality, this number can be as high as20 at the entry point of the electrical system, and it is thus crucial to quickly improve thepower quality so that the downstream power system is efficiently utilized. The simulationsundertaken in this work indicate that a high quality power output can be achieved at the farmlevel, but that a significant oversize factor will be required in the intermediate power systemwithin the farm.

  9. Energy Transfer in Scattering by Rotating Potentials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Volker Enss; Vadim Kostrykin; Robert Schrader

    2002-02-01

    Quantum mechanical scattering theory is studied for time-dependent Schrödinger operators, in particular for particles in a rotating potential. Under various assumptions about the decay rate at infinity we show uniform boundedness in time for the kinetic energy of scattering states, existence and completeness of wave operators, and existence of a conserved quantity under scattering. In a simple model we determine the energy transferred to a particle by collision with a rotating blade.

  10. Alternative energies: Engineering, economics, market potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hake, B.

    1981-11-01

    Rentability calculations are disappointing for most alternative energies. Technical improvements that might change this are not in sight, so that the dependence on imported oil and gas will hardly be reduced. Producers of solar collectors, heat pumps, solar cells, and cogeneration units must keep in mind that the market will hardly expand. This was the result of a seminar on 'Alternative energy sources: Technology, economics, marketing potential - a critical review', held on May 5 at Haus der Technik, Essen.

  11. Production systems and energy potential of tidal energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Rodrigo Quintero-González

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the concept of tidal power and distinguishes the types of systems to exploitation the tidal energy; the same way; it also shows how this technology serves as a source of energy in some countries around the world, which is a role associated with the energy potential available in each region. This point equally shows through numbers in GWh/year per km2 reservoir surface. Last but not least, it is the influence that this technology has had on the environment, its contributions for improving and evaluating from an environmental point of view.

  12. Potential energy surface of alanine polypeptide chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Yakubovich, Alexander V.; Solov'yov, Andrey V.

    2006-01-01

    The multidimensional potential energy surfaces of the peptide chains consisting of three and six alanine (Ala) residues have been studied with respect to the degrees of freedom related to the twist of these molecules relative to the peptide backbone (these degrees of freedom are responsible...

  13. Energy from streaming current and potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthuis, Wouter; Schippers, Bob; Eijkel, Jan C.T.; van den Berg, Albert

    2005-01-01

    It is investigated how much energy can be delivered by a streaming current source. A streaming current and subsequent streaming potential originate when double layer charge is transported by hydrodynamic flow. Theory and a network model of such a source is presented and initial experimental results

  14. Preorganized Chromophores Facilitate Triplet Energy Migration, Annihilation and Upconverted Singlet Energy Collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahato, Prasenjit; Yanai, Nobuhiro; Sindoro, Melinda; Granick, Steve; Kimizuka, Nobuo

    2016-05-25

    Photon upconversion (UC) based on triplet-triplet annihilation (TTA) has the potential to enhance significantly photovoltaic and photocatalytic efficiencies by harnessing sub-bandgap photons, but the progress of this field is held back by the chemistry problem of how to preorganize multiple chromophores for efficient UC under weak solar irradiance. Recently, the first maximization of UC quantum yield at solar irradiance was achieved using fast triplet energy migration (TEM) in metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with ordered acceptor arrays, but at the same time, a trade-off between fast TEM and high fluorescence efficiency was also found. Here, we provide a solution for this trade-off issue by developing a new strategy, triplet energy migration, annihilation and upconverted singlet energy collection (TEM-UPCON). The porous structure of acceptor-based MOF crystals allows triplet donor molecules to be accommodated without aggregation. The surface of donor-doped MOF nanocrystals is modified with highly fluorescent energy collectors through coordination bond formation. Thanks to the higher fluorescence quantum yield of surface-bound collectors than parent MOFs, the implementation of the energy collector greatly improves the total UC quantum yield. The UC quantum yield maximization behavior at ultralow excitation intensity was retained because the TTA events take place only in the MOF acceptors. The TEM-UPCON concept may be generalized to collectors with various functions and would lead to quantitative harvesting of upconverted energy, which is difficult to achieve in common molecular diffusion-based systems.

  15. Estimates of global dew collection potential on artificial surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Vuollekoski, H.; Vogt, M.; Sinclair, V. A.; Duplissy, J; Järvinen, H; Kyrö, E.-M.; R. Makkonen; T. Petäjä; N. L. Prisle; Räisänen, P.; M. Sipilä; J. Ylhäisi; Kulmala, M

    2015-01-01

    The global potential for collecting usable water from dew on an artificial collector sheet was investigated by utilizing 34 years of meteorological reanalysis data as input to a dew formation model. Continental dew formation was found to be frequent and common, but daily yields were mostly below 0.1 mm. Nevertheless, some water-stressed areas such as parts of the coastal regions of northern Africa and the Arabian Peninsula show potential for large-scale dew harvesting, as th...

  16. Fluctuations of collective coordinates and convexity theorems for energy surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Giraud, B G; Sami, T

    2016-01-01

    Constrained energy minimizations of a many-body Hamiltonian return energy landscapes e(b) where b= representes the average value(s) of one (or several) collective operator(s), B, in an "optimized" trial state Phi_b, and e = is the average value of the Hamiltonian in this state Phi_b. It is natural to consider the uncertainty, Delta e, given that Phi_b usually belongs to a restricted set of trial states. However, we demonstrate that the uncertainty, Delta b, must also be considered, acknowledging corrections to theoretical models. We also find a link between fluctuations of collective coordinates and convexity properties of energy surfaces.

  17. Divacancy binding energy, formation energy and surface energy of BCC transition metals using MEAM potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uniyal, Shweta; Chand, Manesh; Joshi, Subodh; Semalty, P. D.

    2016-05-01

    The modified embedded atom method (MEAM) potential parameters have been employed to calculate the unrelaxed divacancy formation energy, binding energy and surface energies for low index planes in bcc transition metals. The calculated results of divacancy binding energy and vacancy formation energy compare well with experimental and other available calculated results.

  18. Sparse representation for a potential energy surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seko, Atsuto; Takahashi, Akira; Tanaka, Isao

    2014-07-01

    We propose a simple scheme to estimate the potential energy surface (PES) for which the accuracy can be easily controlled and improved. It is based on model selection within the framework of linear regression using the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) technique. Basis functions are selected from a systematic large set of candidate functions. The sparsity of the PES significantly reduces the computational cost of evaluating the energy and force in molecular dynamics simulations without losing accuracy. The usefulness of the scheme for describing the elemental metals Na and Mg is clearly demonstrated.

  19. Evaluation of bio-energy potential using world energy models; Sekai energy model ni yoru bio energy no potential hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujino, J.; Yamaji, K. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Yamamoto, H. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-01-30

    Bio-energy potential is evaluated using world energy models. The world energy model is a dynamic model by which the total cost of energy systems between 1995 and 2055 can be minimized on the basis of the optimization type world energy demand and supply model. For the given utilization costs of transportation, recovery and planting, the utilization of bio-energy is promoted even under the cost minimization condition. However, the utilization amount varies in a wide range by changing the utilization costs. Among conversion technologies of bio-energy, it is biomass liquefaction that provides the largest utilization amount. Thermal demand, direct combustion for power generation, and biomass gasification follow to the above. Biomass-integrated gasifier/gas turbine (BIG/GT) is to be used up to 2020. It is not to be used after 2030, due to the complete shift to the biomass liquefaction. For a model including the utilization of fast breeder after 2030, the utilization amount of bio-energy is not to change. Competition with food and land utilization is to be investigated. 11 refs., 19 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Evaluation of bio-energy potential using world energy models; Sekai energy model ni yoru bio energy no potential hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujino, J.; Yamaji, K. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Yamamoto, H. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-01-30

    Bio-energy potential is evaluated using world energy models. The world energy model is a dynamic model by which the total cost of energy systems between 1995 and 2055 can be minimized on the basis of the optimization type world energy demand and supply model. For the given utilization costs of transportation, recovery and planting, the utilization of bio-energy is promoted even under the cost minimization condition. However, the utilization amount varies in a wide range by changing the utilization costs. Among conversion technologies of bio-energy, it is biomass liquefaction that provides the largest utilization amount. Thermal demand, direct combustion for power generation, and biomass gasification follow to the above. Biomass-integrated gasifier/gas turbine (BIG/GT) is to be used up to 2020. It is not to be used after 2030, due to the complete shift to the biomass liquefaction. For a model including the utilization of fast breeder after 2030, the utilization amount of bio-energy is not to change. Competition with food and land utilization is to be investigated. 11 refs., 19 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Collective Decision Making as the Actualization of Decision Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Ule

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some characteristics and dilemmas of collective decision making. Collective decision making could be presented as the process of successive crystallization of dominant alternatives under the influence of different decision contexts from primary given decision potentials. This process is presented as the many-phased process of the acting of contextually dependent “energizing factors” of the collective decision making on the “attractiveness matrix” of outcomes of collective decisions. The attractiveness matrix determines the attractiveness for each alternative of decision, and the most attractive alternative in the given situation presents the rational decision in the given situation. In the final phase of decision making holds a context which gets a simplified attractiveness matrix. It corresponds to the common decision for one of the alternatives.

  2. Computed potential energy surfaces for chemical reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walch, Stephen P.

    1994-01-01

    Quantum mechanical methods have been used to compute potential energy surfaces for chemical reactions. The reactions studied were among those believed to be important to the NASP and HSR programs and included the recombination of two H atoms with several different third bodies; the reactions in the thermal Zeldovich mechanism; the reactions of H atom with O2, N2, and NO; reactions involved in the thermal De-NO(x) process; and the reaction of CH(squared Pi) with N2 (leading to 'prompt NO'). These potential energy surfaces have been used to compute reaction rate constants and rates of unimolecular decomposition. An additional application was the calculation of transport properties of gases using a semiclassical approximation (and in the case of interactions involving hydrogen inclusion of quantum mechanical effects).

  3. On Euclidean designs and the potential energy

    CERN Document Server

    Miezaki, Tsuyoshi

    2011-01-01

    We study Euclidean designs from the viewpoint of the potential energy. For a finite set in Euclidean space, We formulate a linear programming bound for the potential energy by applying harmonic analysis on a sphere. We also introduce the concept of strong Euclidean designs from the viewpoint of the linear programming bound, and we give a Fisher type inequality for strong Euclidean designs. A finite set on Euclidean space is called a Euclidean a-code if any distinct two points in the set are separated at least by a. As a corollary of the linear programming bound, we give a method to determine an upper bound on the cardinalities of Euclidean a-codes on concentric spheres of given radii. Similarly we also give a method to determine a lower bound on the cardinalities of Euclidean t-designs as an analogue of the linear programming bound.

  4. Wave energy potential in Galicia (NW Spain)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iglesias, Gregorio; López, Mario; Carballo, Rodrigo;

    2009-01-01

    Wave power presents significant advantages with regard to other CO2-free energy sources, among which the predictability, high load factor and low visual and environmental impact stand out. Galicia, facing the Atlantic on the north-western corner of the Iberian Peninsula, is subjected to a very...... harsh wave climate; in this work its potential for energy production is assessed based on three-hourly data from a third generation ocean wave model (WAM) covering the period 1996 - 2005. Taking into account the results of this assessment along with other relevant considerations such as the location...... of ports, navigation routes, and fishing and aquaculture zones, an area is selected for wave energy exploitation. The transformation of the offshore wave field as it propagates into this area is computed by means of a nearshore wave model (SWAN) in order to select the optimum locations for a wave farm. Two...

  5. Learning Potential Energy Landscapes using Graph Kernels

    CERN Document Server

    Ferré, G; Barros, K

    2016-01-01

    Recent machine learning methods make it possible to model potential energy of atomic configurations with chemical-level accuracy (as calculated from ab-initio calculations) and at speeds suitable for molecular dynamics simulation. Best performance is achieved when the known physical constraints are encoded in the machine learning models. For example, the atomic energy is invariant under global translations and rotations; it is also invariant to permutations of same-species atoms. Although simple to state, these symmetries are complicated to encode into machine learning algorithms. In this paper, we present a machine learning approach based on graph theory that naturally incorporates translation, rotation, and permutation symmetries. Specifically, we use a random walk graph kernel to measure the similarity of two adjacency matrices, each of which represents a local atomic environment. We show on a standard benchmark that our Graph Approximated Energy (GRAPE) method is competitive with state of the art kernel m...

  6. Potential energy surfaces of Polonium isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerlo-Pomorska, B.; Pomorski, K.; Schmitt, C.; Bartel, J.

    2015-11-01

    The evolution of the potential energy landscape is analysed in detail for ten even-even polonium isotopes in the mass range 188\\lt A\\lt 220 as obtained within the macroscopic-microscopic approach, relying on the Lublin-Strasbourg drop model and the Yukawa-folded single-particle energies for calculating the microscopic shell and pairing corrections. A variant of the modified Funny-Hills nuclear shape parametrization is used to efficiently map possible fission paths. The approach explains the main features of the fragment partition as measured in low-energy fission along the polonium chain. The latter lies in a transitional region of the nuclear chart, and will be essential to consistently understand the evolution of fission properties from neutron-deficient mercury to heavy actinides. The ability of our method to predict fission observables over such an extended region looks promising.

  7. The Wind Energy Potential of Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawri, Nikolai; Nína Petersen, Guðrún; Bjornsson, Halldór; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Jónasson, Kristján; Bay Hasager, Charlotte; Clausen, Niels-Erik

    2014-05-01

    While Iceland has an abundant wind energy resource, its use for electrical power production has so far been limited. Electricity in Iceland is generated primarily from hydro- and geothermal sources, and adding wind energy has so far not been considered practical or even necessary. However, wind energy is becoming a more viable option, as opportunities for new hydro- or geothermal power installations become limited. In order to obtain an estimate of the wind energy potential of Iceland, a wind atlas has been developed as part of the joint Nordic project 'Improved Forecast of Wind, Waves and Icing' (IceWind). Downscaling simulations performed with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model were used to determine the large-scale wind energy potential of Iceland. Local wind speed distributions are represented by Weibull statistics. The shape parameter across Iceland varies between 1.2 and 3.6, with the lowest values indicative of near-exponential distributions at sheltered locations, and the highest values indicative of normal distributions at exposed locations in winter. Compared with summer, average power density in winter is increased throughout Iceland by a factor of 2.0 - 5.5. In any season, there are also considerable spatial differences in average wind power density. Relative to the average value within 10 km of the coast, power density across Iceland varies between 50 - 250%, excluding glaciers, or between 300 - 1500 W m-2 at 50 m above ground level in winter. At intermediate elevations of 500 - 1000 m above mean sea level, power density is independent of the distance to the coast. In addition to seasonal and spatial variability, differences in average wind speed and power density also exist for different wind directions. Along the coast in winter, power density of onshore winds is higher by 100 - 700 W m-2 than that of offshore winds. The regions with the highest average wind speeds are impractical for wind farms, due to the distances from road

  8. Energy Savings Potential of Radiative Cooling Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Nicholas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Weimin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Alvine, Kyle J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Katipamula, Srinivas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-11-30

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Technologies Program (BTP), conducted a study to estimate, through simulation, the potential cooling energy savings that could be achieved through novel approaches to capturing free radiative cooling in buildings, particularly photonic ‘selective emittance’ materials. This report documents the results of that study.

  9. Potential energy landscapes of tetragonal pyramid molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Yuichiro; Sato, Hirofumi; Morgan, John W. R.; Wales, David J.

    2016-11-01

    Hiraoka et al. have developed a self-assembling system referred to as a nanocube (Hiraoka et al., 2008). In the present contribution a coarse-grained model for this system is analysed, focusing on how the potential energy landscape for self-assembly is related to the geometry of the building blocks. We find that six molecules assemble to form various clusters, with cubic and sheet structures the most stable. The relative stability is determined by the geometry of the building blocks.

  10. Potential Fluctuation Equality for Free Energy Evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Ngo, Van

    2011-01-01

    Jarzynski's equality [1] allows us to investigate free energy landscapes (FELs) by constructing distributions of work performed on a system from an initial ensemble of states to final states. This work is experimentally measured by extension-versus-force (EVF) curves. We proposed a new approach that enables us to reconstruct such FELs without necessity of measuring EVF curves. We proved that any free energy changes could be computed by measuring the fluctuations of a harmonic external potential in final states. The main assumption of our proof is that one should probably treat a potential's minimum {\\lambda} (thought to be control parameter) and time in separate and independent manners. We recovered Jarzynski's equality from the introduction of a double Heaviside function. We then applied the approach in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to compute the free energy barrier of breaking DNA base pairs (bps). The free energy barrier for breaking a CG bp in our simulations is identified as 1.7 +/- 0.2 kcal/mol t...

  11. Collection of Condensate Water: Global Potential and Water Quality Impacts

    KAUST Repository

    Loveless, Kolin Joseph

    2012-12-28

    Water is a valuable resource throughout the world, especially in hot, dry climates and regions experiencing significant population growth. Supplies of fresh water are complicated by the economic and political conditions in many of these regions. Technologies that can supply fresh water at a reduced cost are therefore becoming increasingly important and the impact of such technologies can be substantial. This paper considers the collection of condensate water from large air conditioning units as a possible method to alleviate water scarcity issues. Using the results of a climate model that tested data collected from 2000 to 2010, we have identified areas in the world with the greatest collection potential. We gave special consideration to areas with known water scarcities, including the coastal regions of the Arabian Peninsula, Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. We found that the quality of the collected water is an important criterion in determining the potential uses for this water. Condensate water samples were collected from a few locations in Saudi Arabia and detailed characterizations were conducted to determine the quality of this water. We found that the quality of condensate water collected from various locations and types of air conditioners was very high with conductivities reaching as low as 18 μS/cm and turbidities of 0. 041 NTU. The quality of the collected condensate was close to that of distilled water and, with low-cost polishing treatments, such as ion exchange resins and electrochemical processes, the condensate quality could easily reach that of potable water. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

  12. In Search of the Wind Energy Potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik

    2017-01-01

    The worldwide advancement of wind energy is putting high demands on a number of underlying technologies such as wind turbine aerodynamics, structural dynamics, gearbox design, electrical grid connections, and so on. As wind is the only fuel for wind power plants, naturally, wind-meteorology and w......The worldwide advancement of wind energy is putting high demands on a number of underlying technologies such as wind turbine aerodynamics, structural dynamics, gearbox design, electrical grid connections, and so on. As wind is the only fuel for wind power plants, naturally, wind......-meteorology and wind-climatology are essential for any utilization of wind energy. This is what we are concerned about here with a view on what has happened in wind energy potential assessments in the last 25 years where the utilization of wind turbines in national power supply has accelerated and what......., The New Worldwide Microscale Wind Resource Assessment Data on IRENA's Global Atlas (The EUDP Global Wind Atlas, 2015)], and finally, the perspective for the current work with the New European Wind Atlas [E. L. Petersen et al., Energy Bull. 17, 34–39 (2014); Environ. Res. Lett. 8(1), 011005 (2013...

  13. An Integrative STEM Aproach to Teaching Solar Energy Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Bill; Mona, Lynn; Stout, Heath; Bierly, Mike; McAninch, Steve

    2015-01-01

    "Against the backdrop of the daunting carbon-neutral energy needs of our global future, the largest gap between our present use of solar energy and its enormous undeveloped potential defines a compelling imperative for science and technology in the 21st century" (Lewis & Norcera 2006). Concurrently, the United States educational…

  14. An Integrative STEM Aproach to Teaching Solar Energy Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Bill; Mona, Lynn; Stout, Heath; Bierly, Mike; McAninch, Steve

    2015-01-01

    "Against the backdrop of the daunting carbon-neutral energy needs of our global future, the largest gap between our present use of solar energy and its enormous undeveloped potential defines a compelling imperative for science and technology in the 21st century" (Lewis & Norcera 2006). Concurrently, the United States educational…

  15. Assessing the wind energy potential projects in Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Himri, Y. [Electricity and Gas National Enterprise (SONELGAZ) Bechar (Algeria); Laboratory Renewable Energy and Thermal, University of Bechar (Algeria); Himri, S. [University of Bechar, Department of Fundamental Sciences (Algeria); Boudghene Stambouli, A. [University of Sciences and Technology of Oran, Department of Electronic (Algeria)

    2009-10-15

    A research program is under way in the SONELGAZ R and D Office with the aim of studying the potential of wind energy in Algeria. This paper presents an analysis of recently collected hourly wind data over a period of almost 5 years between 2002 and 2006, from four selected sites as well as preliminary evaluation of the wind energy potential. The results showed that Tindouf and Dely Brahim sites have higher wind energy potential with annual wind speed average of 5.8 and 5.7 m/s respectively at height of 17 m above ground level (AGL). The two sites are candidates for remote area wind energy applications. The Ouled Fayet and Marsa Ben M'hidi sites wind speed data indicated that the two sites have lower annual wind speed averages between 3.9-4.7 m/s at 17 m AGL. That makes the two sites candidates for installation of windmills to provide water for drinking and small scale irrigation purposes Brief description of the equipment, is also performed. Finally the aim of this work is only a preliminary study in order to assess wind energy analysis in Algeria and give useful insights to engineers and experts dealing with wind energy. (author)

  16. Collective institutional entrepreneurship and contestations in wind energy in India

    OpenAIRE

    Jolly, S Suyash; Raven, RPJM Rob

    2013-01-01

    With 19550 MW installed in 2013, India is considered a success story in terms of net installed capacity of wind power. Few existing studies on wind energy in India have highlighted the important role of institutions, and most lack a detailed account of how influential institutions came about through the work of advocacy groups, or tend to focus on short time periods. This paper uses the notion of collective institutional entrepreneurship to analyse institutionalisation of wind energy in India...

  17. Collection and concentration of solar energy using Fresnel type lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, R. F.

    1975-01-01

    The efficiency of collecting solar energy using a Fresnel type lens was measured for two different collectors. A flow collector utilizes the temperature difference and heat capacity in water measurements to determine the amount of absorbed energy retained from sun rays passing through the Fresnel lens. A static collector is a hollow copper box filled with vegetable heating oil for absorption of focused solar radiation.

  18. WIND SPEED AND ENERGY POTENTIAL ANALYSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. TOKGÖZLÜ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a case study on application of wavelet techniques to analyze wind speed and energy (renewable and environmental friendly energy. Solar and wind are main sources of energy that allows farmers to have the potential for transferring kinetic energy captured by the wind mill for pumping water, drying crops, heating systems of green houses, rural electrification's or cooking. Larger wind turbines (over 1 MW can pump enough water for small-scale irrigation. This study tried to initiate data gathering process for wavelet analyses, different scale effects and their role on wind speed and direction variations. The wind data gathering system is mounted at latitudes: 37° 50" N; longitude 30° 33" E and height: 1200 m above mean sea level at a hill near Süleyman Demirel University campus. 10 minutes average values of two levels wind speed and direction (10m and 30m above ground level have been recorded by a data logger between July 2001 and February 2002. Wind speed values changed between the range of 0 m/s and 54 m/s. Annual mean speed value is 4.5 m/s at 10 m ground level. Prevalent wind

  19. Development potential of wind energy in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmet Akova

    2011-07-01

    energy potential, as part of the renewable energy sources of Turkey, are highly important and each of these two sources has the technical potential to cover the electric production in 2008. The recent increase in the number of wind energy power stations can be related to the preparation of Turkish Wind Atlas, the preparation of legal arrangements to support private sector entrepreneurs and the rise in oil prices. Wind energy power stations are active in Marmara, Aegean region and the Mediterreanean region witnessing more constant and strong winds and are anticipated to be founded in other geographical regions as well in the future.

  20. Theoretical studies of potential energy surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harding, L.B. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The goal of this program is to calculate accurate potential energy surfaces (PES) for both reactive and nonreactive systems. To do this the electronic Schrodinger equation must be solved. Our approach to this problem starts with multiconfiguration self-consistent field (MCSCF) reference wavefunctions. These reference wavefunctions are designed to be sufficiently flexible to accurately describe changes in electronic structure over a broad range of geometries. Electron correlation effects are included via multireference, singles and doubles configuration interaction (MRSDCI) calculations. With this approach, the authors are able to provide useful predictions of the energetics for a broad range of systems.

  1. Estimates of global dew collection potential on artificial surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuollekoski, H.; Vogt, M.; Sinclair, V. A.; Duplissy, J.; Järvinen, H.; Kyrö, E.-M.; Makkonen, R.; Petäjä, T.; Prisle, N. L.; Räisänen, P.; Sipilä, M.; Ylhäisi, J.; Kulmala, M.

    2015-01-01

    The global potential for collecting usable water from dew on an artificial collector sheet was investigated by utilizing 34 years of meteorological reanalysis data as input to a dew formation model. Continental dew formation was found to be frequent and common, but daily yields were mostly below 0.1 mm. Nevertheless, some water-stressed areas such as parts of the coastal regions of northern Africa and the Arabian Peninsula show potential for large-scale dew harvesting, as the yearly yield may reach up to 100 L m-2 for a commonly used polyethylene foil. Statistically significant trends were found in the data, indicating overall changes in dew yields of between ±10% over the investigated time period.

  2. Collective Energy Foraging of Robot Swarms and Robot Organisms

    CERN Document Server

    Kernbach, Serge

    2011-01-01

    Cooperation and competition among stand-alone swarm agents increase collective fitness of the whole system. A principally new kind of collective systems is demonstrated by some bacteria and fungi, when they build symbiotic organisms. Symbiotic life forms emerge new functional and self-developmental capabilities, which allow better survival of swarm agents in different environments. In this paper we consider energy foraging scenario for two robotic species, swarm robots and symbiotic robot organism. It is indicated that aggregation of microrobots into a robot organism can provide better functional fitness for the whole group. A prototype of microrobots capable of autonomous aggregation and disaggregation are shown.

  3. Cooperative effort for industrial energy data collection (IEDC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, H.J.

    1979-10-01

    The expanding research effort in recent years in industrial energy use has created a need for detailed data on specific industrial processes. To meet this need and eliminate multiple contacts with individual plants, a cooperative effort to collect and centralize industrial energy-use data has been organized by several solar research organizations. To date, a centralized list has been produced of industrial plants and trade associations that have been contracted, and a data format has been created for use by all organizations interested in participating in this effort.

  4. The Wind Energy Potential of Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nawri, Nikolai; Petersen, Guðrún Nína; Björnsson, Halldór

    2014-01-01

    Downscaling simulations performed with theWeather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model were used to determine the large-scale wind energy potential of Iceland. Local wind speed distributions are represented by Weibull statistics. The shape parameter across Iceland varies between 1.2 and 3.......6, with the lowest values indicative of near-exponential distributions at sheltered locations, and the highest values indicative of normal distributions at exposed locations in winter. Compared with summer, average power density in winter is increased throughout Iceland by a factor of 2.0e5.5. In any season......, there are also considerable spatial differences in average wind power density. Relative to the average value within 10 km of the coast, power density across Iceland varies between 50 and 250%, excluding glaciers, or between 300 and 1500 W m_2 at 50 m above ground level in winter. At intermediate elevations...

  5. Geothermal Energy: Delivering on the Global Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul L. Younger

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Geothermal energy has been harnessed for recreational uses for millennia, but only for electricity generation for a little over a century. Although geothermal is unique amongst renewables for its baseload and renewable heat provision capabilities, uptake continues to lag far behind that of solar and wind. This is mainly attributable to (i uncertainties over resource availability in poorly-explored reservoirs and (ii the concentration of full-lifetime costs into early-stage capital expenditure (capex. Recent advances in reservoir characterization techniques are beginning to narrow the bounds of exploration uncertainty, both by improving estimates of reservoir geometry and properties, and by providing pre-drilling estimates of temperature at depth. Advances in drilling technologies and management have potential to significantly lower initial capex, while operating expenditure is being further reduced by more effective reservoir management—supported by robust models—and increasingly efficient energy conversion systems (flash, binary and combined-heat-and-power. Advances in characterization and modelling are also improving management of shallow low-enthalpy resources that can only be exploited using heat-pump technology. Taken together with increased public appreciation of the benefits of geothermal, the technology is finally ready to take its place as a mainstream renewable technology, exploited far beyond its traditional confines in the world’s volcanic regions.

  6. Assessment potential wind energy in the north area of Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed F. Hassoon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Wind energy is renewable and environment friendly, which can be connected for various end-uses. A precise knowledge of wind energy regime is a pre-requisite for the efficient planning and implementation of any wind energy project. However, due to the absence of a reliable and accurate Iraq Wind Atlas, further studies on the assessment of wind energy are necessary. The main purpose of this paper is present and perform an investigation on the wind energy potential in the northern area of Iraq. Therefore, in this study, wind data collected over a period of nearly three decades at five different locations in order to figure out the wind energy potential in this region. The data from selected stations were analyzed using the two-parameter Weibull probability distribution function. The higher probability frequency wind speed at windy month (July is found in Tuz and Tikrit stations. In Tuz the range (2.5-3.0 m/s taken about 45% from the domain wind, In Tikrit the high ranges of wind (3.5-4.0 m/s and (4.0-4.5m/s form 40.9% and 36.4% of wind speed frequency, but high frequency of low wind speed is concentrated at Biji, Kirkuk and Mosul. This is reflected on The maximum expected energy output (13.5kw/h occupied at Tikrit station. Overall The study presented here is an attempt to promote wind energy in north Iraq and to bridge the gap in order to create prospective Wind Atlas of Iraq.

  7. POTENTIAL FOR WASTEWATER MANAGEMENT USING ENERGY CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alistair R. McCRACKEN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In most countries within Europe there are numerous small rural Waste Water Treatment Works (WWTWs often serving a small number of people equivalents (PEs. It is usually impractical and expensive to upgrade such WWTWs and yet they are often delivering potentially highly polluting effluent into streams and rivers. Short Rotation Coppice (SRC willow, grown as an energy source, may be an ideal crop for the bioremediation of a variety of effluents and wastewater streams. As part of an EU funded (INTERREG IVA project called ANSWER (Agricultural Need for Sustainable Willow Effluent Recycling four Proof of Concept irrigation schemes were established ranging in size from 5 to 15 ha. One of the larger of these at Bridgend, Co. Donegal, Republic of Ireland was planted in spring 2013 and has been irrigated with municipal effluent since June 2014. Over 19,000 m3 of effluent has been applied to the willow thus preventing 617 kg N and 28.5 kg P from being discharged to a neighbouring stream. Using SRC willow for the bioremediation of effluent from small rural WWWTs offers a sustainable, cost-effective and practical solution to wastewater management in many countries. There may be also potential to use willow for the bioremediation of landfill leachates, within the footprint of the landfill site.

  8. Role and potential of renewable energy and energy efficiency for global energy supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krewitt, Wolfram; Nienhaus, Kristina [German Aerospace Center e.V. (DLR), Stuttgart (Germany); Klessmann, Corinna; Capone, Carolin; Stricker, Eva [Ecofys Germany GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Graus, Wina; Hoogwijk, Monique [Ecofys Netherlands BV, Utrecht (Netherlands); Supersberger, Nikolaus; Winterfeld, Uta von; Samadi, Sascha [Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment and Energy GmbH, Wuppertal (Germany)

    2009-12-15

    The analysis of different global energy scenarios in part I of the report confirms that the exploitation of energy efficiency potentials and the use of renewable energies play a key role in reaching global CO2 reduction targets. An assessment on the basis of a broad literature research in part II shows that the technical potentials of renewable energy technologies are a multiple of today's global final energy consumption. The analysis of cost estimates for renewable electricity generation technologies and even long term cost projections across the key studies in part III demonstrates that assumptions are in reasonable agreement. In part IV it is shown that by implementing technical potentials for energy efficiency improvements in demand and supply sectors by 2050 can be limited to 48% of primary energy supply in IEA's ''Energy Technology Perspectives'' baseline scenario. It was found that a large potential for cost-effective measures exists, equivalent to around 55-60% of energy savings of all included efficiency measures (part V). The results of the analysis on behavioural changes in part VI show that behavioural dimensions are not sufficiently included in energy scenarios. Accordingly major research challenges are revealed. (orig.)

  9. Refinery energy profile. Data collection: Task 2 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, R.W.; Olivent, W.P.; Brandt, D.L.; Golden, T.G.; Hanson, O.L.

    1978-04-01

    Under Task 2, the raw data to be used in developing the various energy balances which will make up the refinery energy profile were gathered and recorded on a unit by unit basis. Temperature, pressure, flow, and composition data for each stream flowing to or from a significant energy producer or consumer were gathered to the maximum extent possible using available instrumentation and additional instrumentation moved on site. The procedures used, the problems encountered, the unit time requirements, comments on the instrumentation used, and representative samples of the data collected are included in the report. Many methods and techniques were employed in gathering the data but no techniques are being recommended in this Task 2 Report. Recommendations will be made in the final report after the data have been evaluated and all profiles prepared.

  10. Energy potential of region and its quantitative assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Aleksandrovna Kovalenko

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is the development of the concept of the energy potential of the region (EPR, the analysis of the existing structure of relationships for the EPR elements in Ukraine and improvement of a quantitative assessment of energy potential of the region (country. The methods of an assessment of the existing condition of energy potential of the territory are the subject matter of the research. As a result of the analysis of concept’s definitions of energy potential of the region, it has further development and included the consumer potential of energy resources and capacity of management. The structure of relationships between elements of energy potential is developed for the Ukraine region. The new economic indicator — the realized energy potential is offered for an EPR assessment. By means of this indicator, the assessment of energy potential for the different countries of the world and a number of Ukraine areas of is performed.

  11. Potential of renewable energy systems in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wen; Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2011-01-01

    Along with high-speed economic development and increasing energy consumption, the Chinese Government faces a growing pressure to maintain the balance between energy supply and demand. In 2009, China has become both the largest energy consumer and CO2 emitting country in the world. In this case...... system has demonstrated the possibility of converting into a 100% renewable energy system. This paper discusses the perspective of renewable energy in China firstly, and then analyses whether it is suitable to adopt similar methodologies applied in other countries as China approaches a renewable energy......, the inappropriate energy consumption structure should be changed. As an alternative, a suitable infrastructure for the implementation of renewable energy may serve as a long-term sustainable solution. The perspective of a 100% renewable energy system has been analyzed and discussed in some countries previously...

  12. Alaska's renewable energy potential.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-02-01

    This paper delivers a brief survey of renewable energy technologies applicable to Alaska's climate, latitude, geography, and geology. We first identify Alaska's natural renewable energy resources and which renewable energy technologies would be most productive. e survey the current state of renewable energy technologies and research efforts within the U.S. and, where appropriate, internationally. We also present information on the current state of Alaska's renewable energy assets, incentives, and commercial enterprises. Finally, we escribe places where research efforts at Sandia National Laboratories could assist the state of Alaska with its renewable energy technology investment efforts.

  13. Free-energy calculation methods for collective phenomena in membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, Yuliya G.; Fuhrmans, Marc; Barragan Vidal, Israel A.; Müller, Marcus

    2015-09-01

    Collective phenomena in membranes are those which involve the co-operative reorganization of many molecules. Examples of these are membrane fusion, pore formation, bending, adhesion or fission. The time and length scales, on which these processes occur, pose a challenge for atomistic simulations. Therefore, in order to solve the length scale problem it is popular to introduce a coarse-grained representation. To facilitate sampling of the relevant states additional computational techniques, which encourage the system to explore the free-energy landscape far from equilibrium and visit transition states, are needed. These computational techniques provide insights about the free-energy changes involved in collective transformations of membranes, yielding information about the rate limiting states, the transformation mechanism and the influence of architectural, compositional and interaction parameters. A common approach is to identify an order parameter (or reaction coordinate), which characterizes the pathway of membrane reorganization. However, no general strategy exists to define such an order parameter that can properly describe cooperative reorganizations in membranes. Recently developed methods can overcome this problem of the order-parameter choice and allow us to study collective phenomena in membranes. We will discuss such methods as thermodynamic integration, umbrella sampling, and the string method and results provided by their applications to particle-based simulations, particularly focusing on membrane fusion and pore formation.

  14. Solar-energy potential in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sozen, Adnan; Ozalp, Mehmet [Gazi Univ., Mechanical Education Dept., Ankara (Turkey); Arcaklioglu, Erol [Kirikkale Univ., Mechanical Engineering Dept., Kirikkale (Turkey); Kanit, E. Galip [Turkish State Meteorological Office, Ankara (Turkey)

    2005-04-01

    In this study, a new formula based on meteorological and geographical data was developed to determine the solar-energy potential in Turkey using artificial neural-networks (ANNs). Scaled conjugate gradient (SCG) and Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) learning algorithms and a logistic sigmoid transfer function were used in the network. Meteorological data for the last four years (2000-2003) from 18 cities (Bilecik, Kirsehir, Akhisar, Bingol, Batman, Bodrum, Uzunkopru, Sile, Bartin, Yalova, Horasan, Polatli, Malazgirt, Koycegiz, Manavgat, Dortyol, Karatas and Birecik) spread over Turkey were used as data in order to train the neural network. Meteorological and geographical data (latitude, longitude, altitude, month, mean sunshine duration, and mean temperature) were used in the input layer of the network. Solar radiation is the output layer. One-month test data for each city was used, and these months data were not used for training. The results show that the maximum mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) was found to be 3.448% and the R{sup 2} value 0.9987 for Polatli. The best approach was found for Kirsehir (MAPE=1.2257, R{sup 2}=0.9998). The MAPE and R{sup 2} for the testing data were 3.3477 and 0.998534, respectively. The ANN models show greater accuracy for evaluating solar-resource possibilities in regions where a network of monitoring stations has not been established in Turkey. This study confirms the ability of the ANN to predict solar-radiation values precisely (Author)

  15. Solar-energy potential in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soezen, Adnan; Arcaklioglu, Erol; Oezalp, Mehmet; Kanit, E. Galip

    2005-04-01

    In this study, a new formula based on meteorological and geographical data was developed to determine the solar-energy potential in Turkey using artificial neural-networks (ANNs). Scaled conjugate gradient (SCG) and Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) learning algorithms and a logistic sigmoid transfer function were used in the network. Meteorological data for the last four years (2000 {yields} 2003) from 18 cities (Bilecik, Kirsehir, Akhisar, Bingoel, Batman, Bodrum, Uzunkoeprue, Sile, Bartin, Yalova, Horasan, Polatli, Malazgirt, Koeycegiz, Manavgat, Doertyol, Karatas and Birecik) spread over Turkey were used as data in order to train the neural network. Meteorological and geographical data (latitude, longitude, altitude, month, mean sunshine duration, and mean temperature) were used in the input layer of the network. Solar radiation is the output layer. One-month test data for each city was used, and these months data were not used for training. The results show that the maximum mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) was found to be 3.448% and the R{sup 2} value 0.9987 for Polatli. The best approach was found for Kirsehir (MAPE=1.2257, R{sup 2}=0.9998). The MAPE and R{sup 2} for the testing data were 3.3477 and 0.998534, respectively. The ANN models show greater accuracy for evaluating solar-resource possibilities in regions where a network of monitoring stations has not been established in Turkey. This study confirms the ability of the ANN to predict solar-radiation values precisely.

  16. Potential energy savings and thermal comfort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Rudbeck, Claus Christian; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    1996-01-01

    Results of simulations carried out on four different buildings with common windows, commercial low-energy windows and xerogel windows are presented. The results are the annual energy consumption for space heating and the indoor air temperature level....

  17. Renewable Energy Potential for New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    RE-Powering America's Land: Renewable Energy on Contaminated Land and Mining Sites was presented by Penelope McDaniel, during the 2008 Brown to Green: Make the Connection to Renewable Energy workshop.

  18. Energy savings potential from energy-conserving irrigation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilfert, G.L.; Patton, W.P.; Harrer, B.J.; Clark, M.A.

    1982-11-01

    This report systematically compares, within a consistent framework, the technical and economic characteristics of energy-conserving irrigation systems with those of conventional irrigation systems and to determine total energy savings. Levelized annual costs of owning and operating both energy-conserving and conventional irrigation systems have been developed and compared for all 17 states to account for the differences in energy costs and irrigation conditions in each state. Market penetration of energy-conserving systems is assessed for those systems having lower levelized annual costs than conventional systems performing the same function. Annual energy savings were computed by matching the energy savings per system with an assumed maximum market penetration of 100 percent in those markets where the levelized annual costs of energy-conserving systems are lower than the levelized annual costs of conventional systems.

  19. Opportunistic Sensor Data Collection with Bluetooth Low Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Sergio; Vidal, Rafael; Gomez, Carles

    2017-01-23

    Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) has gained very high momentum, as witnessed by its widespread presence in smartphones, wearables and other consumer electronics devices. This fact can be leveraged to carry out opportunistic sensor data collection (OSDC) in scenarios where a sensor node cannot communicate with infrastructure nodes. In such cases, a mobile entity (e.g., a pedestrian or a vehicle) equipped with a BLE-enabled device can collect the data obtained by the sensor node when both are within direct communication range. In this paper, we characterize, both analytically and experimentally, the performance and trade-offs of BLE as a technology for OSDC, for the two main identified approaches, and considering the impact of its most crucial configuration parameters. Results show that a BLE sensor node running on a coin cell battery can achieve a lifetime beyond one year while transferring around 10 Mbit/day, in realistic OSDC scenarios.

  20. Opportunistic Sensor Data Collection with Bluetooth Low Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Sergio; Vidal, Rafael; Gomez, Carles

    2017-01-01

    Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) has gained very high momentum, as witnessed by its widespread presence in smartphones, wearables and other consumer electronics devices. This fact can be leveraged to carry out opportunistic sensor data collection (OSDC) in scenarios where a sensor node cannot communicate with infrastructure nodes. In such cases, a mobile entity (e.g., a pedestrian or a vehicle) equipped with a BLE-enabled device can collect the data obtained by the sensor node when both are within direct communication range. In this paper, we characterize, both analytically and experimentally, the performance and trade-offs of BLE as a technology for OSDC, for the two main identified approaches, and considering the impact of its most crucial configuration parameters. Results show that a BLE sensor node running on a coin cell battery can achieve a lifetime beyond one year while transferring around 10 Mbit/day, in realistic OSDC scenarios. PMID:28124987

  1. Data collection from energy certificates. Experiences and analysis. Synthesis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loga, Tobias; Diefenbach, Nikolaus (eds.); Popiolek, Malgorzata; Panek, Aleksander [Narodowa Agencja Poszanowania Energii S.A. (NAPE), Warsaw (Poland); Cohen, Robert [Energy for Sustainable Development Ltd (ESD), Overmoor (GB)] (and others)

    2008-03-15

    Apart from the described bottom-up approach DATAMINE also aims at drawing general conclu-sions concerning monitoring with the help of energy certificates. Of course 12 projects simultane-ously being carried out in 12 EU countries bring up the question if there is a way for a common analysis of the collected data or at least for a common understanding of the data from different projects. Against that background a harmonised data structure with 255 data fields was defined. The ''philosophy'' of this approach was as follows: Each project partner could use his own data structure and carry out his analysis in an individual way according to the objectives and conditions of his individual model project. But at the end he had to translate his data base in the harmonised data structure and to deliver it to the project coordinator IWU who collect all data in a common evaluation data base. This will make possible a cross-country comparison of the collected data - taking into consideration that because of the different types of energy certificates neither all data fields of the data structure can be filled in by the model projects nor will a comparison of all model projects be possible. So the harmonised data structure can be seen as a simplified ''common lan-guage'' that facilitates an understanding of data bases from different projects. A detailed descrip-tion of the data structure among with other general results from the first DATAMINE workpackages which were carried out before the model projects is given in the DATAMINE synthesis report ''Con-cepts for Data Collection and Analysis'' from December 2006 which is also available on the project website. (orig.)

  2. Calculation of Electron Beam Potential Energy from RF Photocathode Gun

    CERN Document Server

    Liu Wan Ming; Power, John G; Wang, Haitao

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the contribution of potential energy to beam dynamics as simulated by PARMELA at low energies (10 - 30MeV). We have developed a routine to calculate the potential energy of the relativistic electron beam using the static coulomb potential in the rest frame (first order approximation as in PARMELA). We found that the potential energy contribution to the beam dynamics could be very significant, particularly with high charge beams generated by an RF photocathode gun. Our results show that when the potential energy is counted correctly and added to the kinetic energy from PARMELA, the total energy is conserved. Simulation results of potential and kinetic energies for short beams (~1 mm) at various charges (1 - 100 nC) generated by a high current RF photocathode gun are presented.

  3. User behaviour impact on energy savings potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    corresponding to different levels of energy consumption. The purpose of the analysis is to identify the importance of each of the four primary user-related parameters in terms of their relative and combined impact on the overall energy needs before/after upgrading; 1) Indoor temperature, 2) Internal heat gain......, 3) Domestic hot water consumption and 4) Air change rate. Based on the analysis, a methodology is established that can be used to make more realistic and accurate predictions of expected energy savings associated with energy upgrading taking into account user behaviour....

  4. Energy Efficiency Improvement Potential in Historical Brick Building

    OpenAIRE

    Žogla, Gatis; Blumberga, Andra; Zvaigznītis, Kristaps; Dzikēvičs, Miķelis; Blumberga, Dagnija; Burinskiene, Marija

    2013-01-01

    Energy efficiency in historical heritage buildings is viewed as a taboo because these buildings usually are law-protected and no energy efficiency measures that would change the appearance of building are allowed. In this paper we look at a potential of increasing energy efficiency level in historical buildings. Measurements to determine energy efficiency of a historical brick building have been done, which also give the possibility to determine the potential of energy efficiency measures in ...

  5. Energy conservation potential of surface modification technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le, H.K.; Horne, D.M.; Silberglitt, R.S.

    1985-09-01

    This report assesses the energy conservation impact of surface modification technologies on the metalworking industries. The energy conservation impact of surface modification technologies on the metalworking industries is assessed by estimating their friction and wear tribological sinks and the subsequent reduction in these sinks when surface modified tools are used. Ion implantation, coatings, and laser and electron beam surface modifications are considered.

  6. Optimisation of logistics processes of energy grass collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bányai, Tamás.

    2010-05-01

    The collection of energy grass is a logistics-intensive process [1]. The optimal design and control of transportation and collection subprocesses is a critical point of the supply chain. To avoid irresponsible decisions by right of experience and intuition, the optimisation and analysis of collection processes based on mathematical models and methods is the scientific suggestible way. Within the frame of this work, the author focuses on the optimisation possibilities of the collection processes, especially from the point of view transportation and related warehousing operations. However the developed optimisation methods in the literature [2] take into account the harvesting processes, county-specific yields, transportation distances, erosion constraints, machinery specifications, and other key variables, but the possibility of more collection points and the multi-level collection were not taken into consideration. The possible areas of using energy grass is very wide (energetically use, biogas and bio alcohol production, paper and textile industry, industrial fibre material, foddering purposes, biological soil protection [3], etc.), so not only a single level but also a multi-level collection system with more collection and production facilities has to be taken into consideration. The input parameters of the optimisation problem are the followings: total amount of energy grass to be harvested in each region; specific facility costs of collection, warehousing and production units; specific costs of transportation resources; pre-scheduling of harvesting process; specific transportation and warehousing costs; pre-scheduling of processing of energy grass at each facility (exclusive warehousing). The model take into consideration the following assumptions: (1) cooperative relation among processing and production facilties, (2) capacity constraints are not ignored, (3) the cost function of transportation is non-linear, (4) the drivers conditions are ignored. The

  7. The Potential of Heat Collection from Solar Radiation in Asphalt Solar Collectors in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beddu, Salmia; Talib, Siti Hidayah Abdul; Itam, Zarina

    2016-03-01

    The implementation of asphalt solar collectors as a means of an energy source is being widely studied in recent years. Asphalt pavements are exposed to daily solar radiation, and are capable of reaching up to 70°C in temperature. The potential of harvesting energy from solar pavements as an alternative energy source in replace of non-renewable energy sources prone to depletion such as fuel is promising. In Malaysia, the sun intensity is quite high and for this reason, absorbing the heat from sun radiation, and then utilizing it in many other applications such as generating electricity could definitely be impressive. Previous researches on the different methods of studying the effect of heat absorption caused by solar radiation prove to be quite old and inaffective. More recent findings, on the otherhand, prove to be more informative. This paper focuses on determining the potential of heat collection from solar radiation in asphalt solar collectors using steel piping. The asphalt solar collector model constructed for this research was prepared in the civil engineering laboratory. The hot mixed asphalt (HMA) contains 10% bitumen mixed with 90% aggregates of the total size of asphalt. Three stainless steel pipes were embedded into the interior region of the model according to the design criteria, and then put to test. Results show that harvesting energy from asphalt solar collectors proves highly potential in Malaysia due its the hot climate.

  8. The quasi-Gaussian entropy theory : Free energy calculations based on the potential energy distribution function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amadei, A; Apol, MEF; DiNola, A; Berendsen, HJC

    1996-01-01

    A new theory is presented for calculating the Helmholtz free energy based on the potential energy distribution function. The usual expressions of free energy, internal energy and entropy involving the partition function are rephrased in terms of the potential energy distribution function, which must

  9. The quasi-Gaussian entropy theory : Free energy calculations based on the potential energy distribution function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amadei, A; Apol, MEF; DiNola, A; Berendsen, HJC

    1996-01-01

    A new theory is presented for calculating the Helmholtz free energy based on the potential energy distribution function. The usual expressions of free energy, internal energy and entropy involving the partition function are rephrased in terms of the potential energy distribution function, which must

  10. Material and energy recovery in integrated waste management systems: the potential for energy recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consonni, Stefano; Viganò, Federico

    2011-01-01

    This article is part of a set of six coordinated papers reporting the main findings of a research project carried out by five Italian universities on "Material and energy recovery in Integrated Waste Management Systems (IWMS)". An overview of the project and a summary of the most relevant results can be found in the introductory article of the series. This paper describes the work related to the evaluation of mass and energy balances, which has consisted of three major efforts (i) development of a model for quantifying the energy content and the elemental compositions of the waste streams appearing in a IWMS; (ii) upgrade of an earlier model to predict the performances of Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants; (iii) evaluation of mass and energy balances of all the scenarios and the recovery paths considered in the project. Results show that not only the amount of material available for energy recovery is significantly higher than the Unsorted Residual Waste (URW) left after Separate Collection (SC), because selection and recycling generate significant amounts of residues, but its heating value is higher than that of the original, gross waste. Therefore, the energy potential of what is left after recycling is always higher than the complement to 100% of the Source Separation Level (SSL). Also, increasing SSL has marginal effects on the potential for energy recovery: nearly doubling SSL (from 35% to 65%) reduces the energy potential only by one fourth. Consequently, even at high SSL energy recovery is a fundamental step of a sustainable waste management system. Variations of SSL do bring about variations of the composition, heating value and moisture content of the material fed to WtE plants, but these variations (i) are smaller than one can expect; (ii) have marginal effects on the performances of the WtE plant. These considerations suggest that the mere value of SSL is not a good indicator of the quality of the waste management system, nor of its energy and environmental

  11. Energy performance contracting - energy saving potential of selected energy conservation measures (ECM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, M. (Dansk Energi Analyse A/S, Frederiksberg (Denmark)); Langkilde, G.; Olesen, Bjarne W. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, ICIEE, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Moerck, O. (Cenergia Energy Consultants, Herlev (Denmark)); Sundman, O. (DONG Energy, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Engelund Thomsen, K. (Aalborg Univ., SBi, Hoersholm (Denmark))

    2008-09-15

    This report has been developed under the research project 'Etablering af grundlag for energitjenester i Danmark' (project number: ENS-33031-0185) under the Danish research programme - EFP. The objective of this project has been to contribute to the utilisation of the large potential for energy conservations in the building sector within the public, industry and service sectors through the development of a better basis for decision making for both the Energy Service Companies (ESCOes) and the building owners. The EU directive on Energy Service Contracting points at the buildings as the area where the biggest potential market for energy services and energy efficiency improvements are. The EFP-project has two parts: (1) A Danish part and (2) participation in the international cooperation project 'Holistic Assesment Tool-Kit on Energy Efficient Retrofit Measures for Government Buildings (EnERGo)', Annex 46 under the IEA R and D program 'Energy Conservation In Buildings And Community Systems' (ECBCS). This report describes the Danish contributions to the IEA projects subtask B, which has a primary objective to develop a database of energy conservation measures (ECM) with descriptions and performance characteristics of these. (au)

  12. 10 CFR 207.3 - Method of collecting energy information under ESECA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Method of collecting energy information under ESECA. 207.3... than ESECA or that such energy information should, as a matter of discretion, be collected under the... verifying the accuracy of any energy information requested, acquired, or collected by the DOE,...

  13. Directory of Energy Data Collection Forms: Forms in use as of October 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-28

    This is the seventeenth edition of the Directory of Energy Data Collection forms, an authoritative listing of selected public use forms currently used as basic energy information gathering tools by the Department of Energy (DOE). Originally entitled EIA Data Collection forms, this directory provides an overview of DOE`s energy information collection programs for decisionmakers in Government and industry.

  14. Excited collective states of nuclei within Bohr Hamiltonian with Tietz-Hua potential

    CERN Document Server

    Chabab, M; Hamzavi, M; Lahbas, A; Oulne, M

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present new analytical solutions of the Bohr Hamiltonian problem that we derived with the Tietz-Hua potential, here used for describing the {\\beta}-part of the nuclear collective potential plus harmonic oscillator one for the {\\gamma}-part. Also, we proceed to a systematic comparison of the numerical results obtained with this kind of {\\beta}-potential with others which are widely used in such a framework as well as with the experiment. The calculations are carried out for energy spectra and electromagnetic transition probabilities for {\\gamma}-unstable and axially symmetric deformed nuclei. In the same frame, we show the effect of the shape flatness of the {\\beta}-potential beyond its minimum on transition rates calculations.

  15. Geothermal energy market potential in industrial processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, R.J.; Hanny, J.A.; Knuth, W.H.

    1978-11-01

    Geothermal energy is currently being used for a number of industrial processes in countries throughout the world. Its application in the United States is mainly limited to space heating even though the temperature of the geothermal fluid is sufficient for process uses, and could be sold at attractive prices while maintaining a high return on investment. The temperature span for industrial use ranges from 40 to 275/sup 0/C, thus encompassing both the abundant low temperature and the less available high temperature resources. Hydrothermal fluids can be used either directly or indirectly dependent upon fluid quality and process needs. The barriers facing hydrothermal industrial process development are (a) the development infrastructure does not exist, (b) energy users are not aware of hydrothermal energy and its advantages, (c) federal incentives are limited, (d) resources are not fully defined.

  16. Potential evaluation of biomass-based energy sources for Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Ozcan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Turkey has great potential with respect to renewable energy sources (RES and, among such sources, “biomass energy” is of particular importance. The purpose of this study is to determine the primary electrical energy potential obtainable from the biomass potential, according to different biomass source types. In this study, the biomass sources of municipal solid wastes, energy crops, animal manure and urban wastewater treatment sludge are evaluated. For each source, individual biogas and biomass energy potential calculations are made. Methods for energy conversion from wastes applicable to the conditions of Turkey, and technical and economic parameters are used. As a result of the calculations made, the total primary energy value of biogas obtainable from the examined sources is 188.21 TWh/year. The total primary energy value related to the potential of the evaluated biomass sources is 278.40 TWh/year.

  17. Energy potential in the food industry; Store energipotensialer i naeringsmiddelindustrien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, E; Risberg, T M; Mydske, H J; Helgerud, H E

    2007-07-01

    The food industry is one of the most power consuming industries (excluding the heavy industry) and has large potential for reducing the energy consumption. This report explains the most energy efficient measures and if the injunctions are followed

  18. Physico-chemical properties and energy potential of wood wastes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physico-chemical properties and energy potential of wood wastes from ... Journal Home > Vol 36, No 2 (2017) > ... The results are indications that the wood wastes are suitable as feedstock for renewable energy generation with little or no ...

  19. Collective flows in high-energy heavy-ion collisions at AGS and SPS energies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Ohnishi; M Isse; N Otuka; P K Sahu; Y Nara

    2006-04-01

    Proton collective flows in heavy-ion collisions from AGS ((2–11) A GeV) to SPS ((40, 158) A GeV) energies are investigated in a nonequilibrium transport model with nuclear mean-field (MF). Sideward , directed 1, and elliptic 2 flows are systematically studied with different assumptions on the nuclear equation of state (EoS). We find that momentum dependence in the nuclear MF is important for understanding the proton collective flows at AGS and SPS energies. Calculated results with momentum-dependent MF qualitatively reproduce the experimental data of proton sideward, directed, and elliptic flows in an incident energy range of (2–158) A GeV.

  20. If the renewable energy saves a collective memory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratiba Wided, Biara; Boumediene, Touati [Laboratory of energy in Arid Zones, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Bechar (Algeria)], email: halilouwided@yahoo.fr, email: btouatidz@yahoo.fr

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents a strategy of using renewable energies (solar and ground water in particular), to create a climate of well-being in the southern part of the Algerian Sahara, a vast territory, where nodal points are disparate and isolated, and where the electrification of houses and infrastructure is very difficult, if not virtually impossible. These oases are home to people with a particular culture and a rich literature which are unfortunately at risk of extinction. To protect this heritage requires that a balance be struck between the preservation of a historical and cultural identity and the improvement of the living conditions of the people in the oases, to which they are attached; this means pleasant temperatures, controlled humidity levels and abundant natural lighting. This requires providing renewable energy for the people, whether to supply drinking water or irrigation for farming and palm culture. Better integrating these people into their surrounding contexts would help stabilize them, safeguard their vernacular heritage, and facilitate transmission of their collective memory.

  1. Supersymmetry of Demkov-Ostrovsky effective potentials at zero energy

    CERN Document Server

    Rosu, H C; Wolf, K B; Obregón, O; Rosu, Haret C; Reyes, Marco A; Wolf, Kurt Bernardo; Obregon, Octavio

    1995-01-01

    We present a Natanzon-type supersymmetric analysis of the wave problem with Demkov-Ostrovsky (DO) spherically symmetric class of focusing potentials at zero energy. It is known that at zero binding energy there exists a degenerate ``bound" state for this class of potentials. Working at zero energy and in the so-called R_{0}=0 sector, we obtain the corresponding superpartner (fermionic) DO scattering potentials within the standard one-dimensional supersymmetric procedure.

  2. Available Potential Energy and the Maintenance of the General Circulation

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenz, Edward N.

    2011-01-01

    The available potential energy of the atmosphere may be defined as the difference between the total potential energy and the minimum total potential energy which could result from any adiabatic redistribution of mass. It vanishes if the density stratification is horizontal and statically stable everywhere, and is positive otherwise. It is measured approximately by a weighted vertical average of the horizontal variance of temperature. In magnitude it is generally about ten times the total kine...

  3. Potential evaluation of biomass-based energy sources for Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa Ozcan; Semra Öztürk; Yuksel Oguz

    2015-01-01

    Turkey has great potential with respect to renewable energy sources (RES) and, among such sources, “biomass energy” is of particular importance. The purpose of this study is to determine the primary electrical energy potential obtainable from the biomass potential, according to different biomass source types. In this study, the biomass sources of municipal solid wastes, energy crops, animal manure and urban wastewater treatment sludge are evaluated. For each source, individual biogas and biom...

  4. Microscopically derived potential energy surfaces from mostly structural considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ermamatov, M.J. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal Fluminense, 24210-340, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Institute of Nuclear Physics, Ulughbek, Tashkent 100214 (Uzbekistan); Hess, Peter O., E-mail: hess@nucleares.unam.mx [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, UNAM, Circuito Exterior, C.U., A.P. 70-543, 04510, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2016-08-15

    A simple procedure to estimate the quadrupole Potential-Energy-Surface (PES) is presented, using mainly structural information, namely the content of the shell model space and the Pauli exclusion principle. Further microscopic properties are implicitly contained through the use of results from the Möller and Nix tables or experimental information. A mapping to the geometric potential is performed yielding the PES. The General Collective Model is used in order to obtain an estimate on the spectrum and quadrupole transitions, adjusting only the mass parameter. First, we test the conjecture on known nuclei, deriving the PES and compare them to known data. We will see that the PES approximates very well the structure expected. Having acquired a certain confidence, we predict the PES of several chain of isotopes of heavy and super-heavy nuclei and at the end we investigate the structure of nuclei in the supposed island of stability. One of the main points to show is that simple assumptions can provide already important information on the structure of nuclei outside known regions and that spectra and electromagnetic transitions can be estimated without using involved calculations and assumptions. The procedure does not allow to calculate binding energies. The method presented can be viewed as a starting point for further improvements.

  5. Bandwidth Study on Energy Use and Potential Energy Savings Opportunities in U.S. Petroleum Refining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabine Brueske, Caroline Kramer, Aaron Fisher

    2015-06-01

    Energy bandwidth studies of U.S. manufacturing sectors can serve as foundational references in framing the range (or bandwidth) of potential energy savings opportunities. This bandwidth study examines energy consumption and potential energy savings opportunities in U.S. petroleum refining. The study relies on multiple sources to estimate the energy used in nine individual process areas, representing 68% of sector-wide energy consumption. Energy savings opportunities for individual processes are based on technologies currently in use or under development; these potential savings are then extrapolated to estimate sector-wide energy savings opportunity.

  6. Bandwidth Study on Energy Use and Potential Energy Saving Opportunities in U.S. Chemical Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabine Brueske, Caroline Kramer, Aaron Fisher

    2015-06-01

    Energy bandwidth studies of U.S. manufacturing sectors can serve as foundational references in framing the range (or bandwidth) of potential energy savings opportunities. This bandwidth study examines energy consumption and potential energy savings opportunities in U.S. chemical manufacturing. The study relies on multiple sources to estimate the energy used in the production of 74 individual chemicals, representing 57% of sector-wide energy consumption. Energy savings opportunities for individual chemicals and for 15 subsectors of chemicals manufacturing are based on technologies currently in use or under development; these potential savings are then extrapolated to estimate sector-wide energy savings opportunity.

  7. Energy Savings Potential and Research & Development Opportunities for Commercial Refrigeration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2009-09-01

    This study documents the energy consumption of commercial refrigeration equipment (CRE) in the U.S. and evaluated the energy savings potential of various technologies and energy efficiency measures that could be applied to such equipment. The study provided an overview of CRE applications, assessed the energy-savings potential of CRE in the U.S., outline key barriers to adoption of energy-savings technologies, and recommended opportunities for advanced energy saving technology research. The study was modeled after an earlier 1996 report by Arthur D. Little, Inc., and updated key information, examined more equipment types, and outlined long-term research and development opportunities.

  8. The economics of wind energy. Collection of papers for discussions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vihriaelae, H. [ed.

    1995-12-31

    This publication contains the proceedings of EWEA Special Topic Conference `95 on the economics of wind energy, held in Helsinki, Finland, on 5-7 September, 1995. The programme consisted of panel discussions and poster presentations on National Programmes and Operational Experience of Wind Energy, Grid Issues and Avoided Direct Costs of Wind Energy, Avoided External Costs of Wind Energy, The Role of Wind Energy in Future Energy Supply and Technical Innovations of Wind Energy

  9. Potential Energy Sources Pose Mining Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Summarizes the discussions of a Division of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry symposium on solids handling for synthetic fuels production. Included is a description of technical difficulties with the use of coal seams and deposits of oil shale and oil sand as potential sources of fuel. (CC)

  10. Zeta-function approach to Casimir energy with singular potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Khusnutdinov, N R

    2006-01-01

    In the framework of zeta-function approach the Casimir energy for three simple model system: single delta potential, step function potential and three delta potentials is analyzed. It is shown that the energy contains contributions which are peculiar to the potentials. It is suggested to renormalize the energy using the condition that the energy of infinitely separated potentials is zero which corresponds to subtraction all terms of asymptotic expansion of zeta-function. The energy obtained in this way obeys all physically reasonable conditions. It is finite in the Dirichlet limit and it may be attractive or repulsive depending on the strength of potential. The effective action is calculated and it is shown that the surface contribution appears. The renormalization of the effective action is discussed.

  11. Diabatic potential energy surfaces of H+ + CO

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    F George D X; Sanjay Kumar

    2007-09-01

    Ab initio adiabatic and diabatic surfaces of the ground and the first excited electronic states have been computed for the H+ + CO system for the collinear ( = 0°) and the perpendicular ( = 90°) geometries employing the multi-reference configuration interaction method and Dunning's -VTZ basis set. Other properties such as mixing angle before coupling potential and before coupling matrix elements have also been obtained in order to provide an understanding of the coupling dynamics of inelastic and charge transfer process.

  12. On the hypothetical utilization of atmospheric potential energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Frisius

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric potential energy is typically divided into an available and a nonavailable part. In this article a hypothetical utilization of a fraction of the nonavailable potential energy is described. This part stems from the water vapor that can be converted into the liquid phase. An energy gain results when the potential energy of the condensate relative to a reference height exceeds the energy necessary to condensate the water vapor. It is shown that this can be the case in a saturated atmosphere without convective available potential energy. Finally, simulations with the numerical cloud model HURMOD are performed to estimate the usability of the device in practice. Indeed, a positive energy output results in a simulation with immediate gathering of the condensate. On the contrary, potential energy gained falls significantly short of the necessary energy for forming the condensate when a realistic cloud microphysical scheme allowing re-evaporation of condensate is applied. Taken together it can be concluded that, a utilization of atmospheric potential energy is hypothetically possible but the practical realization is probably not feasible.

  13. A hierarchy of potential energy surfaces constructed from energies and energy derivatives calculated on grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matito, Eduard; Toffoli, Daniele; Christiansen, Ove

    2009-04-01

    In this work we develop and test a methodology for the generation of Born-Oppenheimer potential energy surfaces (PES) for use in vibrational structure calculations. The method relies on the widely used restricted-mode-coupling expansion of the fully coupled potential surface where only up to n or less vibrational coordinates are coupled in the potential. Low-order derivatives of the energy are then used to extrapolate the higher mode-coupling potential terms; derivative information is thus used in a convenient way for the evaluation of higher mode couplings avoiding their explicit calculation on multidimensional grids. The formulation, which is a variant of the popular modified Shepard interpolation, is general for any extrapolation of (n +p)-mode-coupling terms from n-mode couplings and can be applied to the energy or any other molecular property surface for which derivative information is available. The method depends only on analytical parameter-free weight functions that satisfy important limiting conditions and control the contribution from each direction of extrapolation. The procedure has been applied on a representative set of 13 molecules, and its accuracy has been tested using only gradients and using both gradients and Hessians. The results provide evidence for the importance of higher mode couplings and illustrate the cost efficiency of the proposed approach.

  14. Wind energy potential in Aden-Yemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Algifri, A.H. [University of Aden (Republic of Yemen). Faculty of Engineering

    1998-02-01

    In this article a number of years data on wind speed in Aden has been studied and presented. A statistical analysis was carried out from which the annual wind speed was found to be 4.5 m/s and most of the time the wind speed is in the range of 3.5-7.5 m/s. The wind speed distributions were represented by Weibull and Rayleigh distributions. It was found that the Rayleigh distribution is suitable to represent the actual probability of wind speed data for Aden. The wind speed data showed that the maximum monthly wind speed occurs in the month of February with the maximum in the month of June. It is concluded that Aden can be explored for wind energy applications. (author)

  15. Geothermal energy potential in the San Luis Valley, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coe, B.A.

    1980-01-01

    The background of the area itself is investigated considering the geography, population, economy, attitudes of residents, and energy demands of the area. The requirements for geothermal energy development are considered, including socio-economic, institutional, and environmental conditions as well as some technical aspects. The current, proposed, and potential geothermal energy developments are described. The summary, conclusions, and methodology are included. (MHR)

  16. Energy saving potential of emerging technologies in milk powder production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moejes, S.N.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2017-01-01

    Background

    The food industry has a large potential for energy reduction which, with an eye on the future, has to be exploited. Milk powder production consists of many thermal processes and is responsible for 15% of the total energy use in the dairy industry. A reduction in energy consumptio

  17. The Climate Literacy and Energy Awareness Network (CLEAN) - Enabling Collective Impact on Climate and Energy Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledley, T. S.; Gold, A. U.; Niepold, F., III

    2015-12-01

    Numerous climate change education efforts exist that aim to enable citizens and society to make informed decisions addressing environmental and societal issues arising from climate change. To extend the reach and impact of these efforts, it is necessary to coordinate them in order to reach a greater collective impact. The Collective Impact model, as described by Kania & Kramer (2011), requires five elements: 1) a common agenda; 2) shared measurement systems; 3) mutually reinforcing activities; 4) continuous communication; and 5) a well-funded backbone support organization. The CLEAN Network, as an example of a rudimentary form of such an organization, engages in continuous communication through weekly teleconferences, an active listserv and other activities to share resources, activities, and ideas that is moving the network to develop common understandings that will likely lead to the development of effective collective impact on increasing climate and energy literacy. A Spring 2013 survey of the CLEAN Network provided insight as to how the CLEAN Network was addressing member needs and identified what other support was needed to increase its collective impact. In addition, community discussions identified the components needed for an effective overarching backbone support organization. A Fall 2015 survey of the CLEAN Network and the broader climate change education community is being conducted to examine 1) how the CLEAN Network make up and needs have evolved and how they compare to the broader community, and 2) to gather further input into the shaping of the elements of collective impact on climate and energy literacy. This presentation will describe the results from the 2015 survey and compare them to the 2013 survey and the community discussions. This will include describing the CLEAN Network's evolving professional make up, engagement of its members network activities, the importance of the network to members; how the findings compare with the broader climate

  18. Morphing ab initio potential energy curve of beryllium monohydride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Špirko, Vladimír

    2016-12-01

    Effective (mass-dependent) potential energy curves of the ground electronic states of 9BeH, 9BeD, and 9BeT are constructed by morphing a very accurate MR-ACPF ab initio potential of Koput (2011) within the framework of the reduced potential energy curve approach of Jenč (1983). The morphing is performed by fitting the RPC parameters to available experimental ro-vibrational data. The resulting potential energy curves provide a fairly quantitative reproduction of the fitted data. This allows for a reliable prediction of the so-far unobserved molecular states in terms of only a small number of fitting parameters.

  19. 75 FR 17079 - Agency Information Collection: Energy Conservation Program: Compliance and Certification...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    ... Part 431 Agency Information Collection: Energy Conservation Program: Compliance and Certification... manufacturers or private labelers to report on and certify compliance with energy efficiency standards for... Service officials to facilitate compliance with and enforcement of the energy conservation...

  20. 78 FR 72874 - Revision of a Currently Approved Information Collection for the Energy Efficiency and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-04

    ... Revision of a Currently Approved Information Collection for the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block... information and reporting guidance concerning the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant (EECBG...: ``Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant (EECBG) Program Status Report''; (3) Type of...

  1. Methodological Potential of the Concept of Collective Creative Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titova E. V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of definition of the concept “methodological potential” possibilities of development of the new theoretical and methodical ideas interfaced to the initial concept of collective creative education of Nominative of Ivanov are illustrated. Treatments of such concepts and the phenomena as an education technique, methodical approach of the teacher, methodical system are presented. It is shown as by means of the concept new vision of a problem of productivity and efficiency of educational activity opens. In end the short prospective characteristic of the new pedagogical theory - the theory of a personal choice in pedagogical activity is given.

  2. Regional Differences in China's Energy Efficiency and Conservation Potentials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Dan

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the maximum energy efficiency level and the energy saving potentials in each region in China that can be practically attained at current economic and technological development levels. Most of the nation's energy efficient provinces are found along the coast of southeast China, while most of its least energy efficient provinces are in the hinterland that is rich in coal resources, and which depends heavily on coal consumption. China's low efficiency in energy resource allocation stems from its secondary industry, which is handicapped by the lowest energy efficiency and the most striking regional differentials. 4comparison of the factors affecting the energy efficiency shows that the provinces being compared in this study differ tremendously in energy consumption structure, technological level of the secondary industry, and abundance of energy resources, and that the other factors are only adequate, rather than necessary, conditions. It is imperative to rectify the behaviors of provinces in balancing local energy allocation, to channel energy resources to energy efficient provinces, and to improve the national energy efficiency as a whole. When taking energy-saving steps, provinces must take into full consideration both the national and local factors that affect energy efficiency. Furthermore, it is unrealistic for China to set a unified energy saving goal for different provinces.

  3. NVU dynamics. III. Simulating molecules at constant potential energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingebrigtsen, Trond; Dyre, J. C.

    2012-01-01

    This is the final paper in a series that introduces geodesic molecular dynamics at constant potential energy. This dynamics is entitled NVU dynamics in analogy to standard energy-conserving Newtonian NVE dynamics. In the first two papers [T. S. Ingebrigtsen, S. Toxvaerd, O. J. Heilmann, T. B....... In this paper, the NVU algorithm for atomic systems is extended to be able to simulate the geodesic motion of molecules at constant potential energy. We derive an algorithm for simulating rigid bonds and test this algorithm on three different systems: an asymmetric dumbbell model, Lewis-Wahnström o......-terphenyl (OTP) and rigid SPC/E water. The rigid bonds introduce additional constraints beyond that of constant potential energy for atomic systems. The rigid-bond NVU algorithm conserves potential energy, bond lengths, and step length for indefinitely long runs. The quantities probed in simulations give results...

  4. Potential Energy Surfaces of Nitrogen Dioxide for the Ground State

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO Ju-Xiang; ZHU Zheng-He; CHENG Xin-Lu; YANG Xiang-Dong

    2007-01-01

    The potential energy function of nitrogen dioxide with the C2v symmetry in the ground state is represented using the simplified Sorbie-Murrell many-body expansion function in terms of the symmetry of NO2. Using the potential energy function, some potential energy surfaces of NO2(C2v, X2A1), such as the bond stretching contour plot for a fixed equilibrium geometry angle θ and contour for O moving around N-O (R1), in which R1 is fixed at the equilibrium bond length, are depicted. The potential energy surfaces are analysed. Moreover, the equilibrium parameters for NO2 with the C2v, Cs and D8h symmetries, such as equilibrium geometry structures and energies, are calculated by the ab initio (CBS-Q) method.

  5. Biomass energy: the scale of the potential resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Christopher B; Campbell, J Elliott; Lobell, David B

    2008-02-01

    Increased production of biomass for energy has the potential to offset substantial use of fossil fuels, but it also has the potential to threaten conservation areas, pollute water resources and decrease food security. The net effect of biomass energy agriculture on climate could be either cooling or warming, depending on the crop, the technology for converting biomass into useable energy, and the difference in carbon stocks and reflectance of solar radiation between the biomass crop and the pre-existing vegetation. The area with the greatest potential for yielding biomass energy that reduces net warming and avoids competition with food production is land that was previously used for agriculture or pasture but that has been abandoned and not converted to forest or urban areas. At the global scale, potential above-ground plant growth on these abandoned lands has an energy content representing approximately 5% of world primary energy consumption in 2006. The global potential for biomass energy production is large in absolute terms, but it is not enough to replace more than a few percent of current fossil fuel usage. Increasing biomass energy production beyond this level would probably reduce food security and exacerbate forcing of climate change.

  6. Renewable energy potential from biomass residues in Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Said, N.; Zamorano, M. [Civil Engineering Dept., Univ. of Granada, Campus de Fuentenueva, Granada (Spain); El-Shatoury, S.A. [Botany Dept., Faculty of Sciences, Suez Canal Univ., Ismailia (Egypt)

    2012-11-01

    Egypt has been one of the developing countries following successful programs for the development of renewable energy resources, with special emphasis on solar, wind and biomass. Utilization of biomass as a source of energy is important from energetic as well as environmental viewpoint. Furthermore, Egypt produces millions of biomass waste every year causing pollution and health problems. So, the incorporation of biomass with other renewable energy will increase the impact of solving energy and environmental problem. There is a good potential for the utilization of biomass energy resources in Egypt. Four main types of biomass energy sources are included in this study: agricultural residues, municipal solid wastes, animal wastes and sewage sludge. Analysis of the potential biomass resource quantity and its theoretical energy content has been computed according to literature review. The agriculture crop residue represents the main source of biomass waste with a high considerable amount of the theoretical potential energy in Egypt. Rice straw is considered one of the most important of such residue due to its high amount and its produced energy through different conversion techniques represent a suitable candidate for crop energy production in Egypt.

  7. Defining The Energy Saving Potential of Architectural Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naboni, Emanuele; Malcangi, Antonio; Zhang, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Designers, in response to codes or voluntary " green building " programs, are increasingly concerned with building energy demand reduction, but they are not fully aware of the energy saving potential of architectural design. According to literature, building form, construction and material choices...... on sustainable design: " Design With Climate " by Olgyay (1963), which discussed strategies for climate-adapted architecture, and Lechner´s " Heating, Cooling and Lighting " (1991), on how to reduce building energy needs by as much as 60 – 80 percent with proper architectural design decisions. Both books used...... behaviour. The research shows the best solution for each of the climates and compares them with Olgyay´s findings. Finally, for each climate the energy saving potential is defined and then compared to Lechner's conclusions. Defining The Energy Saving Potential of Architectural Design (PDF Download Available...

  8. 75 FR 4836 - Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Tribal Energy Resource Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-29

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Tribal Energy Resource Agreements... Affairs, is proposing to submit the information collection titled ``Tribal Energy Resource Agreements... resources on tribal lands. Information collected: Enables IEED to engage in a consultation process...

  9. Potential energy curves for neutral and multiply charged carbon monoxide

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pradeep Kumar; N Sathyamurthy

    2010-01-01

    Potential energy curves of various electronic states of CO+ (0 ≤ ≤ 6) are generated at MRCI/CASSCF level using cc-pvQZ basis set and the results are compared with available experimental and theoretical data.

  10. Possible explanation of the atmospheric kinetic and potential energy spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallgren, Andreas; Deusebio, Enrico; Lindborg, Erik

    2011-12-23

    We hypothesize that the observed wave number spectra of kinetic and potential energy in the atmosphere can be explained by assuming that there are two related cascade processes emanating from the same large-scale energy source, a downscale cascade of potential enstrophy, giving rise to the k(-3) spectrum at synoptic scales and a downscale energy cascade giving rise to the k(-5/3) spectrum at mesoscales. The amount of energy which is going into the downscale energy cascade is determined by the rate of system rotation, with negligible energy going downscale in the limit of very fast rotation. We present a set of simulations of a system with strong rotation and stratification, supporting these hypotheses and showing good agreement with observations.

  11. An assessement of global energy resource economic potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Mercure, J F

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an assessment of global economic energy potentials for all major natural energy resources. This work is based on both an extensive literature review and calculations using natural resource assessment data. Economic potentials are presented in the form of cost-supply curves, in terms of energy flows for renewable energy sources, or fixed amounts for fossil and nuclear resources, with strong emphasis on uncertainty, using a consistent methodology that allow direct comparisons to be made. In order to interpolate through available resource assessment data and associated uncertainty, a theoretical framework and a computational methodology are given based on statistical properties of different types of resources, justified empirically by the data, and used throughout. This work aims to provide a global database for natural energy resources ready to integrate into models of energy systems, enabling to introduce at the same time uncertainty over natural resource assessments. The supplementary mate...

  12. 77 FR 19683 - Proposed Information Collection; Land-Based Wind Energy Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Proposed Information Collection; Land-Based Wind Energy Guidelines AGENCY..., on an emergency basis, our request to collect information associated with the Land- Based Wind Energy... proposed wind energy facilities may have on wildlife and their habitat. OMB approved our request...

  13. 75 FR 16173 - Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Tribal Energy Resource Agreements; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Tribal Energy Resource Agreements... submitting the information collection titled ``Tribal Energy Resource Agreements (TERAs)'' to the Office of... determine the capacity of tribes to manage the development of energy resources on tribal lands....

  14. 78 FR 49736 - Revision of a Currently Approved Information Collection for the Energy Efficiency and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-15

    ... Revision of a Currently Approved Information Collection for the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block... information and reporting guidance concerning the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant (EECBG... information collection request contains: (1) 1910-5150; (2) ``Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block...

  15. Teaching Potential Energy Functions and Stability with Slap Bracelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hook, Stephen J.

    2005-10-01

    The slap bracelet, an inexpensive child's toy, makes it easy to engage students in hands-on exploration of potential energy curves as well as of stable, unstable, and meta-stable states. Rather than just observing the teacher performing a demonstration, the students can manipulate the equipment themselves and make their own observations, which are then pooled to focus a class discussion on potential energy functions and stability.

  16. On Conversions between Potential and Kinetic Energy in the Atmospher

    OpenAIRE

    White, Robert M.; Saltzman, Barry

    2011-01-01

    From a consideration of the large-scale horizontal variations of individual pressure change and 500 mb temperature in a mid-latitude sector of the Northern Hemisphere, computations are made of the required mean conversion of potential energy into the kinetic energy of the horizontal wind systems. The order of magnitude of the estimate obtained is in agreement with that obtained by Brunt from considerations of the frictional dissipation of kinetic energy. In addition, the role of organized ove...

  17. Modelling energy production by small hydro power plants in collective irrigation networks of Calabria (Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zema, Demetrio Antonio; Nicotra, Angelo; Tamburino, Vincenzo; Marcello Zimbone, Santo

    2017-04-01

    The availability of geodetic heads and considerable water flows in collective irrigation networks suggests the possibility of recovery potential energy using small hydro power plants (SHPP) at sustainable costs. This is the case of many Water Users Associations (WUA) in Calabria (Southern Italy), where it could theoretically be possible to recovery electrical energy out of the irrigation season. However, very few Calabrian WUAs have currently built SHPP in their irrigation networks and thus in this region the potential energy is practically fully lost. A previous study (Zema et al., 2016) proposed an original and simple model to site turbines and size their power output as well as to evaluate profits of SHPP in collective irrigation networks. Applying this model at regional scale, this paper estimates the theoretical energy production and the economic performances of SHPP installed in collective irrigation networks of Calabrian WUAs. In more detail, based on digital terrain models processed by GIS and few parameters of the water networks, for each SHPP the model provides: (i) the electrical power output; (iii) the optimal water discharge; (ii) costs, revenues and profits. Moreover, the map of the theoretical energy production by SHPP in collective irrigation networks of Calabria was drawn. The total network length of the 103 water networks surveyed is equal to 414 km and the total geodetic head is 3157 m, of which 63% is lost due to hydraulic losses. Thus, a total power output of 19.4 MW could theoretically be installed. This would provide an annual energy production of 103 GWh, considering SHPPs in operation only out of the irrigation season. The single irrigation networks have a power output in the range 0.7 kW - 6.4 MW. However, the lowest SHPPs (that is, turbines with power output under 5 kW) have been neglected, because the annual profit is very low (on average less than 6%, Zema et al., 2016). On average each irrigation network provides an annual revenue from

  18. Solar and wind energy potential and utilization in Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raja, I.A. (Balochistan Univ., Quetta (Pakistan). Dept. of Physics); Abro, R.S. (Sheffield Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Architecture Studies)

    1994-08-01

    This paper identifies the potentials of solar and wind energy. The prime sites for wind are coastal area, arid zone and hill terrains. Solar energy is abundant over most parts of the country, the maximum being received over Quetta valley. (author)

  19. Gravitational potential as a source of earthquake energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrows, L.; Langer, C.J.

    1981-01-01

    Some degree of tectonic stress within the earth originates from gravity acting upon density structures. The work performed by this "gravitational tectonics stress" must have formerly existed as gravitational potential energy contained in the stress-causing density structure. According to the elastic rebound theory (Reid, 1910), the energy of earthquakes comes from an elastic strain field built up by fairly continuous elastic deformation in the period between events. For earthquakes resulting from gravitational tectonic stress, the elastic rebound theory requires the transfer of energy from the gravitational potential of the density structures into an elastic strain field prior to the event. An alternate theory involves partial gravitational collapse of the stress-causing density structures. The earthquake energy comes directly from a net decrease in gravitational potential energy. The gravitational potential energy released at the time of the earthquake is split between the energy released by the earthquake, including work done in the fault zone and an increase in stored elastic strain energy. The stress associated with this elastic strain field should oppose further fault slip. ?? 1981.

  20. He-, Ne-, and Ar-phosgene intermolecular potential energy surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munteanu, Cristian R.; Henriksen, Christian; Felker, Peter M.

    2013-01-01

    Using the CCSD(T) model, we evaluated the intermolecular potential energy surfaces of the He-, Ne-, and Ar-phosgene complexes. We considered a representative number of intermolecular geometries for which we calculated the corresponding interaction energies with the augmented (He complex) and double...

  1. Geospatial Analysis of Renewable Energy Technical Potential on Tribal Lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doris, E.; Lopez, A.; Beckley, D.

    2013-02-01

    This technical report uses an established geospatial methodology to estimate the technical potential for renewable energy on tribal lands for the purpose of allowing Tribes to prioritize the development of renewable energy resources either for community scale on-tribal land use or for revenue generating electricity sales.

  2. Conversion potential energy and its application to thermodynamic optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Jing; GUO ZengYuan

    2012-01-01

    In general,heat transfers can be classified into two categories according to the purposes of object heating or cooling and the heat to work conversion.Recently,a new physical quantity,entransy (or potential energy),was proposed to describe the ability of heat transfer with the former purpose.This paper addresses the concept of potential energy in terms of the heat transfer processes for the latter purpose,named the conversion potential energy.The physical meaning of this newly introduced concept is the potential energy for the heat to work conversion stored in the equivalent mass of heat (thermomass) derived on the basis of the Einstein's special theory of relativity.The dissipation of conversion potential energy occurs during the real irreversible heat to work conversion processes as a measure of the conversion irreversibility.Finally,a heat to work conversion problem of a heat exchanger group is provided to show that the minimum conversion potential energy dissipation rate can be used as an optimization criterion for the heat transfer performance with the purpose of the heat to work conversion.

  3. Establishing a Commercial Buildings Energy Data Framework for India: A Comprehensive Look at Data Collection Approaches, Use Cases and Institutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyer, Maithili [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kumar, Satish [Synurja, LLC, Vienna, VA (United States); Mathew, Sangeeta [Synurja, LLC, Vienna, VA (United States); Stratton, Hannah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mathew, Paul [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Singh, Mohini [Synurja, LLC, Vienna, VA (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Enhancing energy efficiency of the commercial building stock is an important aspect of any national energy policy. Understanding how buildings use energy is critical to formulating any new policy that may impact energy use, underscoring the importance of credible data. Data enables informed decision making and good quality data is essential for policy makers to prioritize energy saving strategies and track implementation. Given the uniqueness of the buildings sector and challenges to collecting relevant energy data, this study characterizes various elements involved in pertinent data collection and management, with the specific focus on well-defined data requirements, appropriate methodologies and processes, feasible data collection mechanisms, and approaches to institutionalizing the collection process. This report starts with a comprehensive review of available examples of energy data collection frameworks for buildings across different countries. The review covers the U.S. experience in the commercial buildings sector, the European experience in the buildings sector and other data collection initiatives in Singapore and China to capture the more systematic efforts in Asia in the commercial sector. To provide context, the review includes a summary and status of disparate efforts in India to collect and use commercial building energy data. Using this review as a key input, the study developed a data collection framework for India with specific consideration to relevant use cases. Continuing with the framework for data collection, this study outlines the key performance indicators applicable to the use cases and their collection feasibility, as well as immediate priorities of the participating stakeholders. It also discusses potential considerations for data collection and the possible approaches for survey design. With the specific purpose of laying out the possible ways to structure and organize data collection institutionally, the study collates existing

  4. Thermal energy storage subsystems (a collection of quarterly reports)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    Five quarterly reports are presented, covering the progress made in the development, fabrication, and delivery of three Thermal Energy Storage Subsystems. The design, development, and progress toward the delivery of three subsystems are discussed. The subsystem uses a salt hydrate mixture for thermal energy storage. Included are the program schedules, technical data, and other program activities from October 1, 1976 through December 31, 1977.

  5. Collective institutional entrepreneurship and contestations in wind energy in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jolly, Suyash; Raven, Rob

    2015-01-01

    With 21,136MW of wind energy installed in 2014, India is considered a success story in terms of net installed capacity. Few existing studies on Indian wind energy have highlighted the important role of institutions, and how they stemmed from the work of advocacy groups; studies also tend to focus on

  6. Collective institutional entrepreneurship and contestations in wind energy in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jolly, Suyash; Raven, Rob

    2015-01-01

    With 21,136MW of wind energy installed in 2014, India is considered a success story in terms of net installed capacity. Few existing studies on Indian wind energy have highlighted the important role of institutions, and how they stemmed from the work of advocacy groups; studies also tend to focus on

  7. IRETHERM: The geothermal energy potential of Irish radiothermal granites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Thomas; Jones, Alan; Muller, Mark; Feely, Martin; Brock, Andrew; Long, Mike; Waters, Tim

    2014-05-01

    The IRETHERM project is developing a strategic understanding of Ireland's deep geothermal energy potential through integrated modelling of new and existing geophysical and geological data. One aspect of IRETHERM's research focuses on Ireland's radiothermal granites, where increased concentrations of radioelements provide elevated heat-production (HP), surface heat-flow (SHF) and subsurface temperatures. An understanding of the contribution of granites to the thermal field of Ireland is important to assessing the geothermal energy potential of this low-enthalpy setting. This study focuses on the Galway granite in western Ireland, and the Leinster and the buried Kentstown granites in eastern Ireland. Shallow (geothermal project. These studies yielded HP = 2-3 μWm-3 and HF = 80 mWm-2 at the Sally Gap borehole in the Northern Units of the Leinster granite, to the SW of Dublin. In the Galway granite batholith, on the west coast of Ireland, the Costelloe-Murvey granite returned HP = 7 μWm-3 and HF = 77 mWm-2, measured at the Rossaveal borehole. The buried Kentstown granite, 35 km NW of Dublin, has an associated negative Bouguer anomaly and was intersected by two mineral exploration boreholes at depths of 660 m and 490 m. Heat production is measured at 2.4 μWm-3 in core samples taken from the weathered top 30 m of the granite. The core of this study consists of a program of magnetotelluric (MT) and audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) data acquisition across the three granite bodies, over three fieldwork seasons. MT and AMT data were collected at 59 locations along two profiles over the Leinster granite. Preliminary results show that the northern units of the Leinster granite (40 km SW of Dublin) extend to depths of 2-5 km. Preliminary results from the southern profile suggest a greater thickness of granite to a depth of 6-9 km beneath the Tullow pluton, 75 km SW of Dublin. Over the Galway granite, MT and AMT data have been collected at a total of 75 sites (33 consist of only

  8. Separable representation of energy-dependent optical potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlophe, L.; Elster, Ch.

    2016-03-01

    Background: One important ingredient for many applications of nuclear physics to astrophysics, nuclear energy, and stockpile stewardship are cross sections for reactions of neutrons with rare isotopes. Since direct measurements are often not feasible, indirect methods, e.g., (d ,p ) reactions, should be used. Those (d ,p ) reactions may be viewed as three-body reactions and described with Faddeev techniques. Purpose: Faddeev equations in momentum space have a long tradition of utilizing separable interactions in order to arrive at sets of coupled integral equations in one variable. Optical potentials representing the effective interactions in the neutron (proton) nucleus subsystem are usually non-Hermitian as well as energy dependent. Potential matrix elements as well as transition matrix elements calculated with them must fulfill the reciprocity theorem. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a separable, energy-dependent representation of complex, energy-dependent optical potentials that fulfill reciprocity exactly. Methods: Momentum space Lippmann-Schwinger integral equations are solved with standard techniques to obtain the form factors for the separable representation. Results: Starting from a separable, energy-independent representation of global optical potentials based on a generalization of the Ernst-Shakin-Thaler (EST) scheme, a further generalization is needed to take into account the energy dependence. Applications to n +48Ca ,n +208Pb , and p +208Pb are investigated for energies from 0 to 50 MeV with special emphasis on fulfilling reciprocity. Conclusions: We find that the energy-dependent separable representation of complex, energy-dependent phenomenological optical potentials fulfills reciprocity exactly. In addition, taking into account the explicit energy dependence slightly improves the description of the S matrix elements.

  9. Scenarios of energy demand and efficiency potential for Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzvetanov, P.; Ruicheva, M.; Denisiev, M.

    1996-12-31

    The paper presents aggregated results on macroeconomic and final energy demand scenarios developed within the Bulgarian Country Study on Greenhouse Gas Emissions Mitigation, supported by US Country Studies Program. The studies in this area cover 5 main stages: (1) {open_quotes}Baseline{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}Energy Efficiency{close_quotes} socioeconomic and energy policy philosophy; (2) Modeling of macroeconomic and sectoral development till 2020; (3) Expert assessments on the technological options for energy efficiency increase and GHG mitigation in the Production, Transport and Households and Services Sectors; (4) Bottom-up modeling of final energy demand; and (5) Sectoral and overall energy efficiency potential and policy. Within the Bulgarian Country Study, the presented results have served as a basis for the final integration stage {open_quotes}Assessment of the Mitigation Policy and Measures in the Energy System of Bulgaria{close_quotes}.

  10. Solar energy in California industry - Applications, characteristics and potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, R. H.; Pivirotto, D. S.

    1978-01-01

    Results of a survey to determine the potential applicability of solar thermal energy to industrial processes in California are presented. It is found that if the heat for all industrial processes at temperatures below 212 F were supplied by solar energy, total state energy consumption could be reduced by 100 trillion Btus (2%), while the use of solar energy in processes between 212 and 350 F could displace 500 trillion Btus. The issues and problems with which solar energy must contend are illustrated by a description of fluid milk processing operations. Solar energy application is found to be technically feasible for processes with thermal energy requirements below 212 F, with design, and degree of technical, economic and management feasibility being site specific. It is recommended that the state provide support for federal and industrial research, development and demonstration programs in order to stimulate acceptance of solar process heat application by industry.

  11. Solar energy in California industry - Applications, characteristics and potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, R. H.; Pivirotto, D. S.

    1978-01-01

    Results of a survey to determine the potential applicability of solar thermal energy to industrial processes in California are presented. It is found that if the heat for all industrial processes at temperatures below 212 F were supplied by solar energy, total state energy consumption could be reduced by 100 trillion Btus (2%), while the use of solar energy in processes between 212 and 350 F could displace 500 trillion Btus. The issues and problems with which solar energy must contend are illustrated by a description of fluid milk processing operations. Solar energy application is found to be technically feasible for processes with thermal energy requirements below 212 F, with design, and degree of technical, economic and management feasibility being site specific. It is recommended that the state provide support for federal and industrial research, development and demonstration programs in order to stimulate acceptance of solar process heat application by industry.

  12. Metallic bionanocatalysts: potential applications as green catalysts and energy materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaskie, Lynne E; Mikheenko, Iryna P; Omajai, Jacob B; Stephen, Alan J; Wood, Joseph

    2017-08-22

    Microbially generated or supported nanocatalysts have potential applications in green chemistry and environmental application. However, precious (and base) metals biorefined from wastes may be useful for making cheap, low-grade catalysts for clean energy production. The concept of bionanomaterials for energy applications is reviewed with respect to potential fuel cell applications, bio-catalytic upgrading of oils and manufacturing 'drop-in fuel' precursors. Cheap, effective biomaterials would facilitate progress towards dual development goals of sustainable consumption and production patterns and help to ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy. © 2017 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. Sustainable energy. Economic growth for the Netherlands with green potential; Duurzame energie. Economisch groeigebied voor Nederland met groene potentie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sijbesma, F.; Oudeman, M.

    2010-02-15

    Research of the economic potential and options for enhancing renewable energy in the Netherlands. The following research questions were addressed: What is the current and future economic value of renewable energy in the Netherlands?; What are the areas in which the Netherlands has a unique point of departure with respect to knowledge and activities?; How can the economic potential be optimally deployed? Can the opportunities be increased by making it a key area?; What are other ways are there to enhance the economic development?. [Dutch] Onderzoek naar de economische potentie en opties ter versterking van duurzame energie in Nederland. Daarbij stonden volgende onderzoeksvragen centraal: Wat is de huidige en toekomstige economische waarde van duurzame energie in Nederland?; Op welke gebieden heeft Nederland een unieke uitgangspositie qua kennis en bedrijvigheid? Hoe is de economische potentie optimaal te benutten?; Kunnen de kansen vergroot worden door het een sleutelgebied te maken?; Welke andere manieren zijn er om de economische ontwikkeling te stimuleren?.

  14. Potential of energy farming in the southeastern California desert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lew, V.

    1980-04-01

    The California Energy Commission is currently analyzing the use of energy farms to provide future sources of energy for California. Energy farms can be defined as growing plants and converting them to various forms of energy. The use of marginal desert lands in southeastern California for the siting of energy farms using acacia, Eucalyptus, euphorbia, quayule, jojoba, mesquite, or tamarisk is considered. Two hypothetical scenarios using either rainfall, or rainfall and groundwater as water sources were described to determine the maximum amount of energy produced from estimated amounts of suitable land in this area. Considering both scenarios, the maximum range of energy produced is .03 to 0.4 Quads. It is recommended that (1) genetic research be continued to increase biomass yields of these and other candidate plants grown in the desert; and (2) small test plots be established at varying desert locations to collect yield growth, and survival data. Once this information is known, the identification of the best plant(s) to use for energy farming in the California desert area will be known, as well as the cost and quantity of energy produced.

  15. 78 FR 4867 - Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Energy Resource Development Program Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-23

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Energy Resource Development Program... Information Resources. BILLING CODE 4310-4M-P ... comments on the renewal of Office of Management and Budget (OMB) approval for the collection of...

  16. Study of the potential of wave energy in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Wan Ching; Chan, Keng Wai; Ooi, Heivin

    2017-07-01

    Renewable energy is generally defined as energy harnessed from resources which are naturally replenished. It is an alternative to the current conventional energy sources such as natural gas, oil and coal, which are nonrenewable. Besides being nonrenewable, the harnessing of these resources generally produce by-products which could be potentially harmful to the environment. On the contrary, the generation from renewable energy does not pose environmental degradation. Some examples of renewable energy sources are sunlight, wind, tides, waves and geothermal heat. Wave energy is considered as one of the most promising marine renewable resources and is becoming commercially viable quicker than other renewable technologies at an astonishing growth rate. This paper illustrates the working principle of wave energy converter (WEC) and the availability of wave energy in Malaysia oceans. A good understanding of the behaviour of ocean waves is important for designing an efficient WEC as the characteristics of the waves in shallow and deep water are different. Consequently, wave energy converters are categorized into three categories on shore, near shore and offshore. Therefore, the objectives of this study is ought to be carried out by focusing on the formation of waves and wave characteristics in shallow as well as in deep water. The potential sites for implementation of wave energy harvesting technology in Malaysia and the wave energy available in the respective area were analysed. The potential of wave energy in Malaysia were tabulated and presented with theoretical data. The interaction between motion of waves and heave buoys for optimum phase condition by using the mass and diameter as the variables were investigated.

  17. Separable Representation of Energy-Dependent Optical Potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Hlophe, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Background. One important ingredient for many applications of nuclear physics to astrophysics, nuclear energy, and stockpile stewardship are cross sections for reactions of neutrons with rare isotopes. Since direct measurements are often not feasible, indirect methods, e.g. (d,p) reactions, should be used. Those (d,p) reactions may be viewed as three-body reactions and described with Faddeev techniques. Purpose. Faddeev equations in momentum space have a long tradition of utilizing separable interactions in order to arrive at sets of coupled integral equations in one variable. Optical potentials representing the effective interactions in the neutron (proton) nucleus subsystem are usually non-Hermitian as well as energy-dependent. Potential matrix elements as well as transition matrix elements calculated with them must fulfill the reciprocity theorem. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a separable, energy-dependent representation of complex, energy-dependent optical potentials that fulfill reciprocity e...

  18. Estimation of energy potential of agricultural enterprise biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lypchuk Vasyl

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioenergetics (obtaining of energy from biomass is one of innovative directions in energy branch of Ukraine. Correct and reliable estimation of biomass potential is essential for efficient use of it. The article reveals the issue of estimation of potential of biomass, obtained from byproducts of crop production and animal breeding, which can be used for power supply of agricultural enterprises. The given analysis was carried with application of common methodological fundamentals, revealed in the estimation of production structure of agricultural enterprises, structure of land employment, efficiency of crops growing, indicators of output of main and by-products, as well as normative (standard parameters of power output of energy raw material in relation to the chosen technology of its utilization. Results of the research prove high energy potential of byproducts of crop production and animal breeding at all of the studied enterprises, which should force its practical use.

  19. Potential for energy conservation in the glass industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrett-Price, B.A.; Fassbender, A.G.; Bruno, G.A.

    1986-06-01

    While the glass industry (flat glass, container glass, pressed and blown glass, and insulation fiber glass) has reduced its specific energy use (Btu/ton) by almost 30% since 1972, significant potential for further reduction still remains. State-of-the-art technologies are available which could lead to incremental improvements in glass industry energy productivity; however, these technologies must compete for capital with projects undertaken for other reasons (e.g., capacity expansion, equipment rebuild, labor cost reduction, product quality improvement, or compliance with environmental, health or safety regulations). Narrowing profit margins in the large tonnage segments of the glass industry in recent years and the fact that energy costs represent less than 25% of the value added in glass manufacture have combined to impede the widespread adoption of many state-of-the-art conservation technologies. Savings in energy costs alone have not provided the incentive to justify the capital expenditures required to realize the energy savings. Beyond implementation of state-of-the-art technologies, significant potential energy savings could accrue from advanced technologies which represent a radical departure from current glass making technology. Long-term research and development (R and D) programs, which address the technical and economic barriers associated with advanced, energy-conserving technologies, offer the opportunity to realize this energy-saving potential.

  20. Simple simulation for electron energy levels in geometrical potential wells

    CERN Document Server

    Pengpan, Teparksorn

    2008-01-01

    An octopus program is demonstrated to generate electron energy levels in three-dimensional geometrical potential wells. The wells are modeled to have shapes similar to cone, pyramid and truncated-pyramid. To simulate the electron energy levels in quantum mechanical scheme like the ones in parabolic band approximation scheme, the program is run initially to find a suitable electron mass fraction that can produce ground-state energies in the wells as close to those in quantum dots as possible and further to simulate excited-state energies. The programs also produce wavefunctions for exploring and determining their degeneracies and vibrational normal modes.

  1. Framework for State-Level Renewable Energy Market Potential Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreycik, C.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Doris, E.

    2010-01-01

    State-level policymakers are relying on estimates of the market potential for renewable energy resources as they set goals and develop policies to accelerate the development of these resources. Therefore, accuracy of such estimates should be understood and possibly improved to appropriately support these decisions. This document provides a framework and next steps for state officials who require estimates of renewable energy market potential. The report gives insight into how to conduct a market potential study, including what supporting data are needed and what types of assumptions need to be made. The report distinguishes between goal-oriented studies and other types of studies, and explains the benefits of each.

  2. Solar biomass energy: an overview of u.s. Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burwell, C C

    1978-03-10

    The U.S. annual biomass production for food, lumber, paper, and fiber, if used exclusively for energy, would provide 25 percent of current energy requirements. The collection of unharvested wood residues and cull trees for direct use as fuel for small nearby space-heating applications-especially for peak winter conditions-is an important near-term solar energy opportunity. Improved management of hundreds of millions of acres of productive forest land is an important opportunity for the long term. Harvest of cropland residues for energy values, new biomass production using intensive short-rotation silviculture, resubstitution of natural products for petroleum-based synthetics, and forest management for large-scale production of electricity and synthetic fuels are judged to be less appropriate directions for the U.S. energy system to take.

  3. Technical Potential of Solar Energy to Address Energy Poverty and Avoid GHG Emissions in Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowlin, S. C.; Heimiller, D.; Bilello, D.; Renne, D.

    2008-01-01

    This analysis explores the technical potential of photovoltaics (PV) or concentrating solar power (CSP) to address energy poverty in Africa through a geographic information system (GIS) screening of solar resource data developed by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL).

  4. Potential opportunities for energy savings in a Jordanian poultry company

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AlQdah, K. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Tafila Technical University, P.O. Box: 179, Tafila 66110 (Jordan)

    2010-08-15

    Rising concern about energy resource availability and energy prices in Jordan, cost of energy has become an issue that cannot be ignored in Jordan's industrial sector. In this study, energy auditing in a meat production factory related to poultry company was carried out. Based on the collected data and the conservation laws of energy, the performance of steam boilers, domestic hot water boilers, compressors, refrigeration systems, chillers, pumps, daily consumption of diesel and water were reviewed. The percentage of energy consumed by the refrigeration units, with respect to the total energy consumed, has been estimated. The results demonstrated a normal operation with thermal efficiency of 80.66% for the steam boiler, ability to save 18818.99 JD by installing economizer with payback period of 0.637 year and a 12.3% reduction of the energy cost achieved by reducing the blow down rate. The rate of diesel consumption was reduced by 12.87% over the last period of the study as a result of the recommendations that have been submitted to the technicians and professionals. The sum of 22223.77 JD can be saved by using heavy fuel oil instead of diesel oil. Moreover, this study demonstrated that energy saving can be considered as an ideal choice to increase profit and promote competition within the poultry industry if the company adopts all the proposals and recommendations that have been offered by this study. (author)

  5. Energy Planning in Selected European Regions - Methods for Evaluating the Potential of Renewable Energy Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Sliz-Szkliniarz, Beata

    2013-01-01

    Given their potentially positive impact on climate protection and the preservation of fossil resources, alternative energy sources have become increasingly important for the energy supply over the past years. However, the questions arises what economic and ecological impacts and potential conflicts over land use resources are associated with the promotion of renewable energy production. Using the examples of three selected European Regions in Poland, France and German, the dissertation discus...

  6. Development of a Novel Food Waste Collection Kiosk and Waste-to-Energy Business Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Franchetti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The U.S. generates more than 37 million metric tons of food waste each year, and over 95% of it is disposed of at U.S. landfills. This paper describes the development of a novel food waste collection kiosk and business model called “Greenbox” that will collect and store food waste from households and restaurants with incentives for user participation to spur food waste-to-energy production in a local community. Greenbox offers a low-cost collection point to divert food waste from landfills, reduce greenhouse gases from decomposition, and aid in generating cleaner energy. A functional prototype was successfully developed by a team of engineering students and a business model was created as part of a senior design capstone course. Each Greenbox unit has the potential to reduce 275 metric tons of food waste per year, remove 1320 kg of greenhouse gases, and create 470,000 liters of methane gas while providing a payback period of 4.2 years and a rate of return of 14.9%.

  7. Spatial Modelling of Solar energy Potential in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Omondi Oloo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy is one of the readily available renewable energy resources in the developing countries within the tropical region. Kenya is one of the countries which receive an average of approximately 6.5 sunshine hours in a single day throughout the year. However, there is slow adoption of solar energy resources in the country due to limited information on the spatial variability solar energy potential. This study aims at assessing the potential of photovoltaic solar energy in Kenya. The factors that influence incident solar radiation which were considered in this task included atmospheric transmissivity and topography. The influence of atmospheric transmissivity was factored in by modelling monthly transmissivity factors from a combination of cloud cover, diffuse ratios and the effect of altitude. The contribution of topography was included by applying hemispherical viewshed analysis to determine the amount of incident global radiation on the surface based on the orientation of the terrain. GIS concepts were used to integrate the spatial datasets from different themes. The results showed that, about 70% of the land area in Kenya has the potential of receiving approximately 5kWh/m2/day throughout the year. In outline, this work successfully assessed the spatio-temporal variability in the characteristics of solar energy potential in Kenya and can be used as a basis for policy support in the country.

  8. Warm body temperature facilitates energy efficient cortical action potentials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuguo Yu

    Full Text Available The energy efficiency of neural signal transmission is important not only as a limiting factor in brain architecture, but it also influences the interpretation of functional brain imaging signals. Action potential generation in mammalian, versus invertebrate, axons is remarkably energy efficient. Here we demonstrate that this increase in energy efficiency is due largely to a warmer body temperature. Increases in temperature result in an exponential increase in energy efficiency for single action potentials by increasing the rate of Na(+ channel inactivation, resulting in a marked reduction in overlap of the inward Na(+, and outward K(+, currents and a shortening of action potential duration. This increase in single spike efficiency is, however, counterbalanced by a temperature-dependent decrease in the amplitude and duration of the spike afterhyperpolarization, resulting in a nonlinear increase in the spike firing rate, particularly at temperatures above approximately 35°C. Interestingly, the total energy cost, as measured by the multiplication of total Na(+ entry per spike and average firing rate in response to a constant input, reaches a global minimum between 37-42°C. Our results indicate that increases in temperature result in an unexpected increase in energy efficiency, especially near normal body temperature, thus allowing the brain to utilize an energy efficient neural code.

  9. Potential for natural evaporation as a reliable renewable energy resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavusoglu, Ahmet-Hamdi; Chen, Xi; Gentine, Pierre; Sahin, Ozgur

    2017-09-26

    About 50% of the solar energy absorbed at the Earth's surface drives evaporation, fueling the water cycle that affects various renewable energy resources, such as wind and hydropower. Recent advances demonstrate our nascent ability to convert evaporation energy into work, yet there is little understanding about the potential of this resource. Here we study the energy available from natural evaporation to predict the potential of this ubiquitous resource. We find that natural evaporation from open water surfaces could provide power densities comparable to current wind and solar technologies while cutting evaporative water losses by nearly half. We estimate up to 325 GW of power is potentially available in the United States. Strikingly, water's large heat capacity is sufficient to control power output by storing excess energy when demand is low, thus reducing intermittency and improving reliability. Our findings motivate the improvement of materials and devices that convert energy from evaporation.The evaporation of water represents an alternative source of renewable energy. Building on previous models of evaporation, Cavusoglu et al. show that the power available from this natural resource is comparable to wind and solar power, yet it does not suffer as much from varying weather conditions.

  10. Wind energy potential analysis in Al-Fattaih-Darnah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tjahjana, Dominicus Danardono Dwi Prija, E-mail: danar1405@gmail.com; Salem, Abdelkarim Ali, E-mail: keemsalem@gmail.com; Himawanto, Dwi Aries, E-mail: dwiarieshimawanto@gmail.com [University of Sebelas Maret, Jl. Ir. Sutami No. 36 A, Surakarta, Indonesia 57126 (Indonesia)

    2016-03-29

    In this paper the wind energy potential in Al-Fattaih-Darnah, Libya, had been studied. Wind energy is very attractive because it can provide a clean and renewable energy. Due mostly to the uncertainty caused by the chaotic characteristics of wind near the earth’s surface, wind energy characteristic need to be investigated carefully in order to get consistent power generation. This investigation was based on one year wind data measured in 2003. As a result of the analysis, wind speed profile and wind energy potential have been developed. The wind energy potential of the location is looked very promising to generate electricity. The annual wind speed of the site is 8.21 m/s and the wind speed carrying maximum energy is 7.97 m/s. The annual power density of the site is classified into class 3. The Polaris P50-500 wind turbine can produce 768.39 M Wh/year and has capacity factor of 17.54%.

  11. Collecting of new data on existing wind energy converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, S. A.; Bjerregaard, E. T. D.; Paulsen, U. S.

    Measurements on a 55 kW VESTAS wind turbine were carried out during a period of approximately 2 months. The wind turbine is erected at a farm, and the produced energy is used for central heating and in cooling and drying systems at the farm. The energy production of the wind turbine is calculated as a function of the annual mean wind speed, and it is assumed that the wind speed frequency distribution is a Rayleigh distribution. The energy production during a period of 46 days from January the 20th to March the 7th 1983 was 20,665 kWh, and the total energy consumption by the owner in the same period was 12,983 kWh. The mean wind speed at hub height during the same period was 7.6 m/s. Approximately 8975 kWh or 69 per cent of the consumption was delivered directly from the wind turbine, and 11,690 kWh produced by the wind turbine was sold to the power supply company.

  12. Renewable energy technologies adoption in Kazakhstan: potentials, barriers and solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatayev, Marat; Marazza, Diego; Contin, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    The growth in environmental pollution alongside an increasing demand for electricity in Kazakhstan calls for a higher level of renewable energy penetration into national power systems. Kazakhstan has great potential for renewable energies from wind, solar, hydro and biomass resources that can be exploited for electricity production. In 2013, the Kazakhstani Ministry of Energy initiated a new power development plan, which aims to bring the share of renewable energy to 3% by 2020 rising to 30% by 2030 and 50% by 2050. The current contribution of renewable energy resources in the national electricity mix, however, is less than 1%. As a developing country, Kazakhstan has faced a number of barriers to increase renewable energy use, which have to be analysed and translated into a comprehensive renewable energy policy framework. This study presents an overview of the current conditions of renewable energy development in Kazakhstan. Secondly, it identifies and describes the main barriers that prevent diffusion of renewable energy technologies in Kazakhstan. Finally, the paper provides solutions to overcome specific barriers in order to successfully develop a renewable energy technology sector in Kazakhstan.

  13. Investigation into the potential of energy storage to tackle intermittency in renewable energy generation

    OpenAIRE

    Barbour, Edward

    2013-01-01

    Renewable Energy is by nature intermittent and matching the supply of energy to specific time dependent demand poses huge challenges. Energy storage is a useful tool in handling this temporal disparity, although except for regions very suitable for pumped hydroelectric storage schemes, it suffers from being technically difficult to implement and costly as a result. This study investigates the potential benefits offered by various scales of energy storage to different types of r...

  14. Communication: Fitting potential energy surfaces with fundamental invariant neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Kejie; Chen, Jun; Zhao, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Dong H.

    2016-08-01

    A more flexible neural network (NN) method using the fundamental invariants (FIs) as the input vector is proposed in the construction of potential energy surfaces for molecular systems involving identical atoms. Mathematically, FIs finitely generate the permutation invariant polynomial (PIP) ring. In combination with NN, fundamental invariant neural network (FI-NN) can approximate any function to arbitrary accuracy. Because FI-NN minimizes the size of input permutation invariant polynomials, it can efficiently reduce the evaluation time of potential energy, in particular for polyatomic systems. In this work, we provide the FIs for all possible molecular systems up to five atoms. Potential energy surfaces for OH3 and CH4 were constructed with FI-NN, with the accuracy confirmed by full-dimensional quantum dynamic scattering and bound state calculations.

  15. Saturation wind power potential and its implications for wind energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Mark Z; Archer, Cristina L

    2012-09-25

    Wind turbines convert kinetic to electrical energy, which returns to the atmosphere as heat to regenerate some potential and kinetic energy. As the number of wind turbines increases over large geographic regions, power extraction first increases linearly, but then converges to a saturation potential not identified previously from physical principles or turbine properties. These saturation potentials are >250 terawatts (TW) at 100 m globally, approximately 80 TW at 100 m over land plus coastal ocean outside Antarctica, and approximately 380 TW at 10 km in the jet streams. Thus, there is no fundamental barrier to obtaining half (approximately 5.75 TW) or several times the world's all-purpose power from wind in a 2030 clean-energy economy.

  16. Low-energy K- optical potentials: deep or shallow?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieplý, A.; Friedman, E.; Gal, A.; Mareš, J.

    2001-12-01

    The K- optical potential in the nuclear medium is evaluated self consistently from a free-space K-Nt matrix constructed within a coupled-channel chiral approach. The fit of model parameters gives a good description of the low-energy data plus the available K- atomic data. The resulting optical potential is relatively `shallow' in contradiction to the potentials obtained from phenomenological analysis. The calculated (Kstop-,π) hypernuclear production rates are very sensitive to the details of kaonic bound state wave function. The (Kstop-,π) reaction could thus serve as a suitable tool to distinguish between shallow and deep K- optical potentials.

  17. Capacitive technology for energy extraction from chemical potential differences

    OpenAIRE

    Bastos Sales, B.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis introduces the principle of Capacitive energy extraction based on Donnan Potential (CDP) to exploit salinity gradients. It also shows the fundamental characterization and improvements of CDP. An alternative application of this technology aimed at thermal gradients was tested.   Chapter 2 introduces the principle and initial tests. The entropy increase of mixing two solutions of different salt concentrations can be harnessed to generate electrical energy. Worldwide, the potent...

  18. Reaction Path Optimization with Holonomic Constraints and Kinetic Energy Potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brokaw, Jason B; Haas, Kevin R; Chu, Jhih-Wei

    2009-08-11

    Two methods are developed to enhance the stability, efficiency, and robustness of reaction path optimization using a chain of replicas. First, distances between replicas are kept equal during path optimization via holonomic constraints. Finding a reaction path is, thus, transformed into a constrained optimization problem. This approach avoids force projections for finding minimum energy paths (MEPs), and fast-converging schemes such as quasi-Newton methods can be readily applied. Second, we define a new objective function - the total Hamiltonian - for reaction path optimization, by combining the kinetic energy potential of each replica with its potential energy function. Minimizing the total Hamiltonian of a chain determines a minimum Hamiltonian path (MHP). If the distances between replicas are kept equal and a consistent force constant is used, then the kinetic energy potentials of all replicas have the same value. The MHP in this case is the most probable isokinetic path. Our results indicate that low-temperature kinetic energy potentials (optimization and can significantly reduce the required steps of minimization by 2-3 times without causing noticeable differences between a MHP and MEP. These methods are applied to three test cases, the C7eq-to-Cax isomerization of an alanine dipeptide, the (4)C1-to-(1)C4 transition of an α-d-glucopyranose, and the helix-to-sheet transition of a GNNQQNY heptapeptide. By applying the methods developed in this work, convergence of reaction path optimization can be achieved for these complex transitions, involving full atomic details and a large number of replicas (>100). For the case of helix-to-sheet transition, we identify pathways whose energy barriers are consistent with experimental measurements. Further, we develop a method based on the work energy theorem to quantify the accuracy of reaction paths and to determine whether the atoms used to define a path are enough to provide quantitative estimation of energy barriers.

  19. Potential of Sugarcane in Modern Energy Development in Southern Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Simone P.; Horta Nogueira, Luiz A.; Watson, Helen K.; Lynd, Lee Rybeck; Elmissiry, Mosad; Cortez,Luís A.B.

    2016-01-01

    For more than half of the Southern African population, human development is limited by a lack of access to electricity and modern energy for cooking. Modern bioenergy merits consideration as one means to address this situation in areas where sufficient arable land is available. While numerous studies have concluded that Africa has significant biomass potential, they do not indicate by how much it can effectively reduce the use of traditional biomass and provide more accessible energy, especia...

  20. Energy Potential Mapping: Visualising Energy Characteristics for the Exergetic Optimisation of the Built Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel Fremouw

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is difficult to fully satisfy the energy demand of today’s society with renewables. Nevertheless, most of the energy we use is lost as non-functional waste energy, whereas a large part of the built environment’s energy demand is only for low-quality energy, so the initial demand for primary, high-quality energy can be reduced by more effective usage, such as by low-exergy means. Gaining insight into the parameters of energy demands and local renewable and residual energy potentials enables matching energy demand with a fitting potential, not only concerning quantity but taking into account location, temporality and quality as well. The method of Energy Potential Mapping (EPM aims to visualise the energy potentials and demands by making information of quantity, quality and location of demand and supply accessible. The aspect of quality specifically applies to heat and cold. The methodology of EPM will be described and explained with case studies. The focus specifically lies on mapping heat (and cold, one of the main reasons for energy demand in the built environment. The visualisation of exergy, to be simplified as the quality of energy, becomes an extra parameter in the case of Dutch Heat Maps. These maps can help finding opportunities of practical implementations of exchanging or cascading heat or cold. This way EPM and Heat Mapping (HM enables application of exergy principles in the built environment. EPM and HM can be seen as a local energy catalogue and can be useful in spatial planning for energy-based urban and rural plans.

  1. Mapping Thermal Energy Resource Potentials from Wastewater Treatment Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Neugebauer

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater heat recovery via heat exchangers and heat pumps constitutes an environmentally friendly, approved and economically competitive, but often underestimated technology. By introducing the spatial dimension in feasibility studies, the results of calculations change considerably. This paper presents a methodology to estimate thermal energy resource potentials of wastewater treatment plants taking spatial contexts into account. In close proximity to settlement areas, wastewater energy can ideally be applied for heating in mixed-function areas, which very likely have a continuous heat demand and allow for an increased amount of full-load hours compared to most single-use areas. For the Austrian case, it is demonstrated that the proposed methodology leads to feasible results and that the suggested technology might reduce up to 17% of the Austrian global warming potential of room heating. The method is transferrable to other countries as the input data and calculation formula are made available. A broad application of wastewater energy with regard to spatial structures and spatial development potentials can lead to (1 increasing energy efficiency by using a maximum of waste heat and (2 a significant reduction of (fossil energy consumption which results in a considerable reduction of the global warming potential of the heat supply (GWP if electricity from renewables is used for the operation of heat pumps.

  2. 78 FR 37567 - Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Tribal Energy Resource Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Tribal Energy Resource Agreements... of energy resources on tribal lands. Information collection: Enables IEED to engage in a consultation... Assistant Director for Information Resources. BILLING CODE 4310-4M-P...

  3. An adaptive interpolation scheme for molecular potential energy surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalewski, Markus; Larsson, Elisabeth; Heryudono, Alfa

    2016-08-01

    The calculation of potential energy surfaces for quantum dynamics can be a time consuming task—especially when a high level of theory for the electronic structure calculation is required. We propose an adaptive interpolation algorithm based on polyharmonic splines combined with a partition of unity approach. The adaptive node refinement allows to greatly reduce the number of sample points by employing a local error estimate. The algorithm and its scaling behavior are evaluated for a model function in 2, 3, and 4 dimensions. The developed algorithm allows for a more rapid and reliable interpolation of a potential energy surface within a given accuracy compared to the non-adaptive version.

  4. Calculating vibrational spectra using modified Shepard interpolated potential energy surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evenhuis, Christian R; Manthe, Uwe

    2008-07-14

    A potential energy interpolation approach based on modified Shepard interpolation and specifically designed for calculation of vibrational states is presented. The importance of the choice of coordinates for the rate of convergence is demonstrated. Studying the vibrational states of the water molecule as a test case, a coordinate system comprised of inverse bond distances and trigonometric functions of the bond angle is found to be particularly efficient. Different sampling schemes used to locate the reference points in the modified Shepard interpolation are investigated. A final scheme is recommended, which allows the construction of potential energy surfaces to sub-wave-number accuracy.

  5. An adaptive interpolation scheme for molecular potential energy surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Kowalewski, Markus; Heryudono, Alfa

    2016-01-01

    The calculation of potential energy surfaces for quantum dynamics can be a time consuming task -- especially when a high level of theory for the electronic structure calculation is required. We propose an adaptive interpolation algorithm based on polyharmonic splines combined with a partition of unity approach. The adaptive node refinement allows to greatly reduce the number of sample points by employing a local error estimate. The algorithm and its scaling behavior is evaluated for a model function in 2, 3 and 4 dimensions. The developed algorithm allows for a more rapid and reliable interpolation of a potential energy surface within a given accuracy compared to the non-adaptive version.

  6. Potentials and market prospects of wind energy in Vojvodina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katić Vladimir A.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an overview of the wind energy potentials, technologies and market prospects in the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina, the region of Serbia with the most suitable location for exploitation of wind energy. The main characteristics of the region have been presented regarding wind energy and electric, road, railway and waterway infrastructure. The wind farm interconnection with the public grid is explained. The most suitable locations for the wind farms are presented, with present situation and future prospects of wind market in Vojvodina.

  7. Biohydrogen production as a potential energy fuel in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.T. Sekoai

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Biohydrogen production has captured increasing global attention due to it social, economic and environmental benefits. Over the past few years, energy demands have been growing significantly in South Africa due to rapid economic and population growth. The South African parastatal power supplier i.e. Electricity Supply Commission (ESKOM has been unable to meet the country’s escalating energy needs. As a result, there have been widespread and persistent power cuts throughout the country. This prompts an urgent need for exploration and implementation of clean and sustainable energy fuels like biohydrogen production in order to address this crisis. Therefore, this paper discusses the current global energy challenges in relation to South Africa’s problems. It then examines the feasibility of using biohydrogen production as a potential energy fuel in South Africa. Finally, it reviews the hydrogen-infrastructure development plans in the country.

  8. Analyses on Energy Saving Potential Based on Large-scale Public Buildings Energy Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuping Chen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available To analyze large-scale public buildings’ energy-saving potential is one of the methods to realize scientific energy control management and service. This method aims at a typical public building’s powerconsumed system. Through analyzing and comparing the consumption data, it succeeds in analyzing the use efficiency of building power, consumption level and economic effects of the energy utilization. More over, this method has a quantity analysis on the power-consumed unit’s building usage, so that it is able to find the unit’s energy-saving potential. Its bases of all analyses are building energy balance and analyzing theory of energy cost, analyzing theory of engineering economy and environment and rational distribution theory of energy utilization system.

  9. Fossil energy savings potential of sugar cane bio-energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Thu Lan T; Hermansen, John Erik; Sagisaka, Masayuki

    2009-01-01

    One important rationale for bio-energy systems is their potential to save fossil energy. Converting a conventional sugar mill into a bio-energy process plant would contribute to fossil energy savings via the extraction of renewable electricity and ethanol substituting for fossil electricity...... and gasoline, respectively. This paper takes a closer look at the Thai sugar industry and examines two practical approaches that will enhance fossil energy savings. The first one addresses an efficient extraction of energy in the form of electricity from the excess bagasse and cane trash. The second while...... proposing to convert molasses or sugar cane to ethanol stresses the use of bagasse as well as distillery spent wash to replace coal in meeting ethanol plants' energy needs. The savings potential achieved with extracting ethanol from surplus sugar versus current practice in sugar industry in Thailand amounts...

  10. Potentials and policy implications of energy and material efficiency improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, Ernst; Levine, Mark; Price, Lynn; Martin, Nathan; van den Broek, Richard; Block, Kornelis

    1997-01-01

    There is a growing awareness of the serious problems associated with the provision of sufficient energy to meet human needs and to fuel economic growth world-wide. This has pointed to the need for energy and material efficiency, which would reduce air, water and thermal pollution, as well as waste production. Increasing energy and material efficiency also have the benefits of increased employment, improved balance of imports and exports, increased security of energy supply, and adopting environmentally advantageous energy supply. A large potential exists for energy savings through energy and material efficiency improvements. Technologies are not now, nor will they be, in the foreseeable future, the limiting factors with regard to continuing energy efficiency improvements. There are serious barriers to energy efficiency improvement, including unwillingness to invest, lack of available and accessible information, economic disincentives and organizational barriers. A wide range of policy instruments, as well as innovative approaches have been tried in some countries in order to achieve the desired energy efficiency approaches. These include: regulation and guidelines; economic instruments and incentives; voluntary agreements and actions, information, education and training; and research, development and demonstration. An area that requires particular attention is that of improved international co-operation to develop policy instruments and technologies to meet the needs of developing countries. Material efficiency has not received the attention that it deserves. Consequently, there is a dearth of data on the qualities and quantities for final consumption, thus, making it difficult to formulate policies. Available data, however, suggest that there is a large potential for improved use of many materials in industrialized countries.

  11. Global Potential of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labeling Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeil, Michael A; McNeil, Michael A.; Letschert, Virginie; de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2008-06-15

    This report estimates the global potential reductions in greenhouse gas emissions by 2030 for energy efficiency improvements associated with equipment (appliances, lighting, and HVAC) in buildings by means of energy efficiency standards and labels (EES&L). A consensus has emerged among the world's scientists and many corporate and political leaders regarding the need to address the threat of climate change through emissions mitigation and adaptation. A further consensus has emerged that a central component of these strategies must be focused around energy, which is the primary generator of greenhouse gas emissions. Two important questions result from this consensus: 'what kinds of policies encourage the appropriate transformation to energy efficiency' and 'how much impact can these policies have'? This report aims to contribute to the dialogue surrounding these issues by considering the potential impacts of a single policy type, applied on a global scale. The policy addressed in this report is Energy Efficient Standards and Labeling (EES&L) for energy-consuming equipment, which has now been implemented in over 60 countries. Mandatory energy performance standards are important because they contribute positively to a nation's economy and provide relative certainty about the outcome (both timing and magnitudes). Labels also contribute positively to a nation's economy and importantly increase the awareness of the energy-consuming public. Other policies not analyzed here (utility incentives, tax credits) are complimentary to standards and labels and also contribute in significant ways to reducing greenhouse gas emissions. We believe the analysis reported here to be the first systematic attempt to evaluate the potential of savings from EES&L for all countries and for such a large set of products. The goal of the analysis is to provide an assessment that is sufficiently well-quantified and accurate to allow comparison and integration

  12. Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy: A Collection of Speeches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaborg, Glenn T.

    1970-07-01

    It is now a quarter of a century since nuclear energy was introduced to the public. Its introduction was made in the most dramatic, but unfortunately in the most destructive way - through the use of a nuclear weapon. Since that introduction enormous strides have been made in developing the peaceful applications of this great and versatile force. Because these strides have always been overshadowed by the focusing of public attention on the military side of the atom, the public has never fully understood or appreciated the gains and status of the peaceful atom. This booklet is an attempt to correct, in some measure, this imbalance in public information and attitude. It is a compilation of remarks, and excerpts of remarks, that I [Seaborg] have made in recent years in an effort to bring to the public the story of the remarkable benefits the peaceful atom has to offer man. This is a story that grows with the development and progress of the peaceful atom. It must be told so that we can learn to use the power of nuclear energy wisely and through this use help to build a world in which the military applications of the atom will never again be a threat to mankind.

  13. Energy harvesting potential of tuned inertial mass electromagnetic transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Takehiko; Araki, Yoshikazu; Ikago, Kohju

    2017-02-01

    The demand for developing renewable energy technologies has been growing in today's society. As one of promising renewable energy sources, large-scale energy harvesting from structural vibrations employing electromagnetic transducers has recently been proposed and considerable effort has been devoted to increase the power generation capability. In this paper, we introduce the mechanism of a tuned inertial mass electromagnetic transducer (TIMET), which can absorb vibratory energy more efficiently by tuning the parameters to adjust the system. Then we propose a new vibratory energy harvester with the TIMET and determine the parameter values for the device with a simple static admittance (SA) control law to maximize the energy harvested from a stationary stochastic disturbance. To investigate the energy harvesting potential of the TIMET further, the performance-guaranteed (PG) control and the LQG control proposed in the literature are applied as well. Then the numerical simulation studies are carried out and the effectiveness of the proposed energy harvester is examined by comparing the traditional electromagnetic transducers.

  14. Potential of Using Solar Energy for Drinking Water Treatment Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhary, S. S.; Batista, J.; Ahmad, S.

    2016-12-01

    Where water is essential to energy generation, energy usage is integral to life cycle processes of water extraction, treatment, distribution and disposal. Increasing population, climate change and greenhouse gas production challenges the water industry for energy conservation of the various water-related operations as well as limiting the associated carbon emissions. One of the ways to accomplish this is by incorporating renewable energy into the water sector. Treatment of drinking water, an important part of water life cycle processes, is vital for the health of any community. This study explores the feasibility of using solar energy for a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) with the long-term goal of energy independence and sustainability. A 10 MGD groundwater DWTP in southwestern US was selected, using the treatment processes of coagulation, filtration and chlorination. Energy consumption in units of kWh/day and kWh/MG for each unit process was separately determined using industry accepted design criteria. Associated carbon emissions were evaluated in units of CO2 eq/MG. Based on the energy consumption and the existing real estate holdings, the DWTP was sized for distributed solar. Results showed that overall the motors used to operate the pumps including the groundwater intake pumps were the largest consumers of energy. Enough land was available around DWTP to deploy distributed solar. Results also showed that solar photovoltaics could potentially be used to meet the energy demands of the selected DWTP, but warrant the use of a large storage capacity, and thus increased costs. Carbon emissions related to solar based design were negligible compared to the original case. For future, this study can be used to analyze unit processes of other DWTP based on energy consumption, as well as for incorporating sustainability into the DWTP design.

  15. Pseudospectral Gaussian quantum dynamics: Efficient sampling of potential energy surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaps, Charles W.; Mazziotti, David A.

    2016-04-01

    Trajectory-based Gaussian basis sets have been tremendously successful in describing high-dimensional quantum molecular dynamics. In this paper, we introduce a pseudospectral Gaussian-based method that achieves accurate quantum dynamics using efficient, real-space sampling of the time-dependent basis set. As in other Gaussian basis methods, we begin with a basis set expansion using time-dependent Gaussian basis functions guided by classical mechanics. Unlike other Gaussian methods but characteristic of the pseudospectral and collocation methods, the basis set is tested with N Dirac delta functions, where N is the number of basis functions, rather than using the basis function as test functions. As a result, the integration for matrix elements is reduced to function evaluation. Pseudospectral Gaussian dynamics only requires O ( N ) potential energy calculations, in contrast to O ( N 2 ) evaluations in a variational calculation. The classical trajectories allow small basis sets to sample high-dimensional potentials. Applications are made to diatomic oscillations in a Morse potential and a generalized version of the Henon-Heiles potential in two, four, and six dimensions. Comparisons are drawn to full analytical evaluation of potential energy integrals (variational) and the bra-ket averaged Taylor (BAT) expansion, an O ( N ) approximation used in Gaussian-based dynamics. In all cases, the pseudospectral Gaussian method is competitive with full variational calculations that require a global, analytical, and integrable potential energy surface. Additionally, the BAT breaks down when quantum mechanical coherence is particularly strong (i.e., barrier reflection in the Morse oscillator). The ability to obtain variational accuracy using only the potential energy at discrete points makes the pseudospectral Gaussian method a promising avenue for on-the-fly dynamics, where electronic structure calculations become computationally significant.

  16. Capacitive technology for energy extraction from chemical potential differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastos Sales, B.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis introduces the principle of Capacitive energy extraction based on Donnan Potential (CDP) to exploit salinity gradients. It also shows the fundamental characterization and improvements of CDP. An alternative application of this technology aimed at thermal gradients was tested.  

  17. ENERGY POTENTIAL OF SOLID STATE CW-MICROWAVE TRANCEIVERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Gorelik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main parameters and block diagrams of CW-microwave transceivers are considered. The advisability of leading in conception of energy potential is founded. Qualitative assessment of three ways of CW-microwave transceivers composing is done. The some features for application of CW-microwave transceivers are discussed.

  18. Unified Technical Concepts. Module 7: Potential and Kinetic Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technical Education Research Center, Waco, TX.

    This concept module on potential and kinetic energy is one of thirteen modules that provide a flexible, laboratory-based physics instructional package designed to meet the specialized needs of students in two-year, postsecondary technical schools. Each of the thirteen concept modules discusses a single physics concept and how it is applied to each…

  19. Assessing the potential for biomass energy development in South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger C. Conner; Tim O. Adams; Tony G. Johnson

    2009-01-01

    An assessment of the potential for developing a sustainable biomass energy industry in South Carolina was conducted. Biomass as defined by Forest Inventory and Analysis is the aboveground dry weight of wood in the bole and limbs of live trees ≥1-inch diameter at breast height, and excludes tree foliage, seedlings, and understory...

  20. Scattering at zero energy for attractive homogeneous potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derezinski, Jan; Skibsted, Erik

    2009-01-01

    We compute up to a compact term the zero-energy scattering matrix for a class of potentials asymptotically behaving as −γ|x|−μ with 0 < μ < 2 and γ > 0. It turns out to be the propagator for the wave equation on the sphere at time ....

  1. Design tool for the thermal energy potential of asphalt pavements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loomans, M.G.L.C.; Oversloot, H.P.; Bondt, A. de; Jansen, R.; Rij, H. van

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a design tool for the calculation of the thermal energy potential of a so-called asphalt collector. Two types of numerical models have been developed and validated against experimental results from a full-scale test-site. The validation showed to be a tedious

  2. Review of Potential Characterization Techniques in Approaching Energy and Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. LePoire

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Societal prosperity is linked to sustainable energy and a healthy environment. However, tough global challenges include increased demand for fossil fuels, while approaching peak oil production and uncertainty in the environmental impacts of energy generation. Recently, energy use was identified as a major component of economic productivity, along with capital and labor. Other environmental resources and impacts may be nearing environmental thresholds, as indicated by nine planetary environmental boundaries, many of which are linked to energy production and use. Foresight techniques could be applied to guide future actions which include emphasis on (1 energy efficiency to bridge the transition to a renewable energy economy; (2 continued research, development, and assessment of new technologies; (3 improved understanding of environment impacts including natural capital use and degradation; (4 exploration of GDP alternative measures that include both economic production and environmental impacts; and (5 international cooperation and awareness of longer-term opportunities and their associated potential scenarios. Examples from the U.S. and the international community illustrate challenges and potential.

  3. Heterobarrier for converting hot-phonon energy to electric potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Seungha; Melnick, Corey; Kaviany, Massoud

    2013-02-01

    We show that hot phonons emitted in energy conversion or resistive processes can be converted to electric potential in heterobarrier structures. Using phonon and electron interaction kinetics and self-consistent ensemble Monte Carlo, we find the favorable conditions for unassisted absorption of hot phonons and design graded heterobarriers for their direct conversion into electric energy. Tandem barriers with nearly optical-phonon height allow for substantial potential gain without current loss. We find that 19% of hot phonons can be harvested with an optimized GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs barrier structure over a range of current and electron densities, thus enhancing the overall energy conversion efficiency and reducing waste heat.

  4. Turkey's High Temperature Geothermal Energy Resources and Electricity Production Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgin, Ö.

    2012-04-01

    Turkey is in the first 7 countries in the world in terms of potential and applications. Geothermal energy which is an alternative energy resource has advantages such as low-cost, clean, safe and natural resource. Geothermal energy is defined as hot water and steam which is formed by heat that accumulated in various depths of the Earth's crust; with more than 20oC temperature and which contain more than fused minerals, various salts and gases than normal underground and ground water. It is divided into three groups as low, medium and high temperature. High-temperature fluid is used in electricity generation, low and medium temperature fluids are used in greenhouses, houses, airport runways, animal farms and places such as swimming pools heating. In this study high temperature geothermal fields in Turkey which is suitable for electricity production, properties and electricity production potential was investigated.

  5. Three-dimensional potential energy surface of Ar–CO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumiyoshi, Yoshihiro, E-mail: y-sumiyoshi@gunma-u.ac.jp [Division of Pure and Applied Science, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Gunma University, 4-2 Aramaki, Maebashi, Gunma 371-8510 (Japan); Endo, Yasuki [Department of Basic Science, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan)

    2015-01-14

    A three-dimensional intermolecular potential energy surface of the Ar–CO complex has been determined by fitting most of the previously reported spectroscopic data, where observed transition frequencies by microwave, millimeter-wave, submillimeter-wave, and infrared spectroscopy were reproduced simultaneously within their experimental accuracies. A free rotor model Hamiltonian considering all the freedom of motions for an atom-diatom system was applied to calculate vibration-rotation energies. A three-dimensional potential energy surface obtained by ab initio calculations at the CCSD(T)-F12b/aug-cc-pV5Z level of theory was parameterized by a model function consisting of 46 parameters. They were used as initial values for the least-squares analysis of the experimental data. A total of 20 parameters were optimized to reproduce all the spectroscopic data.

  6. Pontential energies and potential-energy tensors for subsystems: general properties

    CERN Document Server

    Caimmi, R

    2016-01-01

    With regard to generic two-component systems, the theory of first variations of global quantities is reviewed and explicit expressions are inferred for subsystem potential energies and potential-energy tensors. Performing a conceptual experiment, a physical interpretation of subsystem potential energies and potential-energy tensors is discussed. Subsystem tidal radii are defined by requiring an unbound component in absence of the other one. To this respect, a few guidance examples are presented as: (i) an embedding and an embedded homogeneous sphere; (ii) an embedding and an embedded truncated, singular isothermal sphere where related centres are sufficiently distant; (iii) a homogeneous sphere and a Roche system i.e. a mass point surrounded by a vanishing atmosphere. The results are discussed and compared with the findings of earlier investigations.

  7. U.S. Building-Sector Energy Efficiency Potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Rich; Borgeson, Sam; Koomey, Jon; Biermayer, Peter

    2008-09-30

    This paper presents an estimate of the potential for energy efficiency improvements in the U.S. building sector by 2030. The analysis uses the Energy Information Administration's AEO 2007 Reference Case as a business-as-usual (BAU) scenario, and applies percentage savings estimates by end use drawn from several prior efficiency potential studies. These prior studies include the U.S. Department of Energy's Scenarios for a Clean Energy Future (CEF) study and a recent study of natural gas savings potential in New York state. For a few end uses for which savings estimates are not readily available, the LBNL study team compiled technical data to estimate savings percentages and costs of conserved energy. The analysis shows that for electricity use in buildings, approximately one-third of the BAU consumption can be saved at a cost of conserved energy of 2.7 cents/kWh (all values in 2007 dollars), while for natural gas approximately the same percentage savings is possible at a cost of between 2.5 and 6.9 $/million Btu. This cost-effective level of savings results in national annual energy bill savings in 2030 of nearly $170 billion. To achieve these savings, the cumulative capital investment needed between 2010 and 2030 is about $440 billion, which translates to a 2-1/2 year simple payback period, or savings over the life of the measures that are nearly 3.5 times larger than the investment required (i.e., a benefit-cost ratio of 3.5).

  8. Novel mixture model for the representation of potential energy surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Tien Lam; Kino, Hiori; Terakura, Kiyoyuki; Miyake, Takashi; Dam, Hieu Chi

    2016-10-01

    We demonstrate that knowledge of chemical physics on a materials system can be automatically extracted from first-principles calculations using a data mining technique; this information can then be utilized to construct a simple empirical atomic potential model. By using unsupervised learning of the generative Gaussian mixture model, physically meaningful patterns of atomic local chemical environments can be detected automatically. Based on the obtained information regarding these atomic patterns, we propose a chemical-structure-dependent linear mixture model for estimating the atomic potential energy. Our experiments show that the proposed mixture model significantly improves the accuracy of the prediction of the potential energy surface for complex systems that possess a large diversity in their local structures.

  9. Rotational Energy Transfer of N2 Gas Determined Using a New Ab Initio Potential Energy Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Winifred M.; Stallcop, James R.; Partridge, Harry; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Rotational energy transfer between two N2 molecules is a fundamental process of some importance. Exchange is expected to play a role, but its importance is somewhat uncertain. Rotational energy transfer cross sections of N2 also have applications in many other fields including modeling of aerodynamic flows, laser operations, and linewidth analysis in nonintrusive laser diagnostics. A number of N2-N2 rigid rotor potential energy surface (PES) has been reported in the literature.

  10. Performance-based potential for residential energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Performance-based potential for residential energy efficiency

    2013-01-15

    Energy performance contracts (EPCs) have proven an effective mechanism for increasing energy efficiency in nearly all sectors of the economy since their introduction nearly 30 years ago. In the modern form, activities undertaken as part of an EPC are scoped and implemented by experts with specialized technical knowledge, financed by commercial lenders, and enable a facility owner to limit risk and investment of time and resources while receiving the rewards of improved energy performance. This report provides a review of the experiences of the US with EPCs and discusses the possibilities for the residential sector to utilize EPCs. Notably absent from the EPC market is the residential segment. Historically, research has shown that the residential sector varies in several key ways from markets segments where EPCs have proven successful, including: high degree of heterogeneity of energy use characteristics among and within households, comparatively small quantity of energy consumed per residence, limited access to information about energy consumption and savings potential, and market inefficiencies that constrain the value of efficiency measures. However, the combination of recent technological advances in automated metering infrastructure, flexible financing options, and the expansion of competitive wholesale electricity markets to include energy efficiency as a biddable supply-side resource present an opportunity for EPC-like efforts to successfully engage the residential sector, albeit following a different model than has been used in EPCs traditionally.(Author)

  11. Determination of pair-structure factor of scattering potential of a collection of particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Zhao, Daomu

    2010-02-01

    The method of determination of the pair-structure factor of a collection of particles has been discussed. It is shown that the pair-structure factor of scattering potential of the collection of particles can be determined from the cross-spectral density function of the scattered field.

  12. The ESTMAP Project (Energy storage Mapping and Planning): focus on the subsurface data collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaelle Bader, Anne; Beccaletto, Laurent; Bialkowski, Anne; Jaudin, Florence; Hladík, Vit; Holeček, Jan; Van Gessel, Serge; Meinke-Hubeny, Frank; Wiersma, Frank

    2016-04-01

    There is a strong link between energy security and the "2030 climate and energy framework" of European Commission. Reaching the goals of the "2030 framework" both efficiently and at the lowest possible costs for all is seen as a key step to address the energy security challenge in the long run. This requires elaboration of the framework for investments in renewables and energy efficiency. This planning has to be based on a robust and integrated set of data. As most data relevant to energy storage exists in a fragmented form, the major work in the ESTMAP project consists of compiling existing data in a unified database and exploiting it to optimise energy systems planning. Geologists, engineers and system modellers joined forces to define the format and the content of a database of both subsurface and above surface storage sites (existing, planned and potential). The idea is to ensure that the newly compiled dataset will fit the needs for robust modelling, planning and designing on a coherent basis and comparable among Member States and other European neighbouring countries. One of the project output consists of a geographical database providing information on distribution and expected capacity of existing and future energy storage sites in Europe, including costs and accessibility. Both subsurface storage options (hydrogen, compressed air, natural gas, underground pumped hydro, etc.) and above ground storages (pumped hydro, LNG, liquid air, etc.) are taken into account. In this project, BRGM, assisted by TNO, CGS and VITO, is in charge of data collection of subsurface energy storage. The objective of this task is to gather readily available and public data on existing and future potential storage sites. These data incorporate (1) the geographic location, description, characterization, subsurface properties and feasibility and capacity assessments of the subsurface reservoirs, as well as (2) the identification of known subsurface storage facilities attached to these

  13. Study of chirally motivated low-energy K - optical potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieplý, A.; Friedman, E.; Gal, A.; Mareš, J.

    2001-12-01

    The K - optical potential in the nuclear medium is evaluated self consistently from a free-space K -N t matrix constructed within a coupled-channel chiral approach to the low-energy K¯N data. The chiral-model parameters are fitted to a select subset of the low-energy data plus the K - atomic data throughout the periodic table. The resulting attractive K - optical potentials are relatively 'shallow', with central depth of the real part about 55 MeV, for a fairly reasonable reproduction of the atomic data with χ2/ N≈2.2. Relatively 'deep' attractive potentials of depth about 180 MeV, which result in other phenomenological approaches with χ2/ N≈1.5, are ruled out within chirally motivated models. Different physical data input is required to distinguish between shallow and deep K - optical potentials. The (K -stop, π) reaction could provide such a test, with exclusive rates differing by over a factor of three for the two classes of potentials. Finally, forward (K -,p) differential cross sections for the production of relatively narrow deeply bound K -nuclear states are evaluated for deep K - optical potentials, yielding values considerably lower than those estimated before.

  14. Energy potential of fruit tree pruned biomass in Croatia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilandzija, N.; Voca, N.; Kricka, T.; Martin, A.; Jurisic, V.

    2012-11-01

    The world's most developed countries and the European Union (EU) deem that the renewable energy sources should partly substitute fossil fuels and become a bridge to the utilization of other energy sources of the future. This paper will present the possibility of using pruned biomass from fruit cultivars. It will also present the calculation of potential energy from the mentioned raw materials in order to determine the extent of replacement of non-renewable sources with these types of renewable energy. One of the results of the intensive fruit-growing process, in post pruning stage, is large amount of pruned biomass waste. Based on the calculated biomass (kg ha{sup 1}) from intensively grown woody fruit crops that are most grown in Croatia (apple, pear, apricots, peach and nectarine, sweet cherry, sour cherry, prune, walnut, hazelnut, almond, fig, grapevine, and olive) and the analysis of combustible (carbon 45.55-49.28%, hydrogen 5.91-6.83%, and sulphur 0.18-0.21%) and non-combustible matters (oxygen 43.34-46.6%, nitrogen 0.54-1.05%, moisture 3.65-8.83%, ashes 1.52-5.39%) with impact of lowering the biomass heating value (15.602-17.727 MJ kg{sup 1}), the energy potential of the pruned fruit biomass is calculated at 4.21 PJ. (Author) 31 refs.

  15. Casimir Energies and Pressures for $\\delta$-function Potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Milton, K A

    2004-01-01

    The Casimir energies and pressures for a massless scalar field associated with $\\delta$-function potentials in 1+1 and 3+1 dimensions are calculated. For parallel plane surfaces, the results are finite, coincide with the pressures associated with Dirichlet planes in the limit of strong coupling, and for weak coupling do not possess a power-series expansion in 1+1 dimension. The relation between Casimir energies and Casimir pressures is clarified,and the former are shown to involve surface terms. The Casimir energy for a $\\delta$-function spherical shell in 3+1 dimensions has an expression that reduces to the familiar result for a Dirichlet shell in the strong-coupling limit. However, the Casimir energy for finite coupling possesses a logarithmic divergence first appearing in third order in the weak-coupling expansion, which seems unremovable. The corresponding energies and pressures for a derivative of a $\\delta$-function potential for the same spherical geometry generalizes the TM contributions of electrodyn...

  16. Residential energy efficiency: Progress since 1973 and future potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Arthur H.

    1985-11-01

    Today's 85 million U.S. homes use 100 billion of fuel and electricity (1150/home). If their energy intensity (resource energy/ft2) were still frozen at 1973 levels, they would use 18% more. With well-insulated houses, need for space heat is vanishing. Superinsulated Saskatchewan homes spend annually only 270 for space heat, 150 for water heat, and 400 for appliances, yet they cost only 2000±1000 more than conventional new homes. The concept of Cost of Conserved Energy (CCE) is used to rank conservation technologies for existing and new homes and appliances, and to develop supply curves of conserved energy and a least cost scenario. Calculations are calibrated with the BECA and other data bases. By limiting investments in efficiency to those whose CCE is less than current fuel and electricity prices, the potential residential plus commercial energy use in 2000 AD drops to half of that estimated by DOE, and the number of power plants needed drops by 200. For the whole buildings sector, potential savings by 2000 are 8 Mbod (worth 50B/year), at an average CCE of 10/barrel.

  17. THE POTENTIAL FOR BIOMASS ENERGY IN THREE ALBANIAN REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jupe

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Biomass combustion is amongst the oldest and the most mature technique for conversion of biomass to energy; but still a great challenge lies ahead in developing new; more efficient and environmentally sustainable -systems. In light of the European Action and the National Strategy in the energy sector; Albania has enacted a friendly policy regarding renewable energy sources; including biomass. Execution of such projects is delegated to both regional and local authorities for various technical; economic and socio-environmental considerations as well as for an integrated approach to the land use planning. This paper identifies the main sources of biomass energy in three different regions of Albania i.e. Korça; Tirana and Vlora. It shows the weight of each possibility on the total potential for energy production by biomass as well as the type and distribution of each biomass. The manner how the potential offered by forestry; agriculture and agro-industry would be utilized will; apart from availability of appropriate technology; also depend on the ability of economic operators to organize themselves efficiently while respecting environmental sustainability.

  18. Global and Regional Future Potential for Energy from Municipal Solid Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, J. S.; Smith, S. J.

    2008-12-01

    Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) is a low-cost form of alternative energy with a large potential for future expansion. MSW is already collected and aggregated at population centers where energy demands are high. In addition, it is non-seasonal, and using MSW as an energy source reduces land demand for waste disposal sites in urban areas where land pressures are high. Across the world, the MSW generation rate and its composition vary greatly, but detailed historical data on MSW are not well archived for most of the world. In this study, material flows into the MSW stream are estimated by analyzing production and trade statistics of food, wood, and paper. A life cycle analysis for consumption is used to estimate the amount and composition of MSW for all countries of the world. The primary energy available is estimated based on the energy content of the various waste components. The relationship between GDP, population, per capita GDP, and MSW generation is determined via a regression model. The ObjECTS MiniCAM (integrated assessment model) is used to project the demand for waste-to-energy for the next century for different regions of the world under various international climate policy scenarios. MSW is potentially a low net carbon energy source that can displace fossil energy, and as such, demand for waste-to-energy increases under a climate policy that places a price on carbon emissions.

  19. The potential for geothermal energy in the United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downing, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    This work is a review of goethermal prospects in the UK. The book summarizes the results of an investigation of Britain's geothermal energy potential by the British Geological Survey between 1977 and 1984, supported by the Department of Energy and the EEC. The assessment covers both resources and the prospects for their development. Hot groundwaters in deep sedimentary basins and heat stored in 'hot dry rocks' are considered. The structure of the basins and the nature and properties of the sediments they contain are described and illustrated with maps and diagrams.

  20. [Biomass energy utilization in microbial fuel cells: potentials and challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liping; Cheng, Shaoan

    2010-07-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) that can harvest biomass energy from organic wastes through microbial catalysis have garnered more and more attention within the past decade due to its potential benefits to ecological environment. In this article, the updated progress in MFCs is reviewed, with a focus on frontier technologies such as chamber configurations, feedstock varieties and the integration of MFCs with microbial electrolysis cells for hydrogen production. And on the other hand, the challenges like development of cost-effective electrode materials, improvement of biomass energy recovery and power output, design and optimization of commercial MFC devices are presented.

  1. The Potential For Energy Efficiency In The State of Iowa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadley, SW

    2001-12-05

    The purpose of this study was to do an initial estimate of the potential for energy savings in the state of Iowa. Several methods for determining savings were examined, including existing programs, surveys, savings calculators, and economic simulation. Each method has advantages and disadvantages, trading off between detail of information, accuracy of results, and scope. This paper concentrated on using economic simulation (the NEMS model (EIA 2000a)) to determine market potential for energy savings for the residential and commercial sectors. The results of surveys were used to calculate the economic potential for savings in the industrial sector. The NEMS model is used by the Energy Information Administration to calculate twenty-year projections of energy use for every region of the country. The results of the Annual Energy Outlook 2000 were used as the Base case (EIA 1999a). Two alternative cases were created to simulate energy savings policies. Voluntary, market-related programs were simulated by lowering the effective discount rates that end-users use when making decisions on equipment purchases. Standards programs in the residential sector were simulated by eliminating the availability of low efficiency equipment in future years. The parameters for these programs were based on the Moderate scenario from the DOE Clean Energy Futures study (Interlaboratory Working Group 2000), which assumed increased concern by society on energy efficiency but not to the point of fiscal policies such as taxes or direct subsidies. The study only considered a subset of the various programs, policies, and technologies that could reduce energy use. The major end-uses in the residential sector affected by the policies were space cooling (20% savings by 2020) and water heating (14% savings by 2020.) Figure S-1 shows the space cooling savings when voluntary programs and minimum efficiency standards were implemented. Refrigerators, freezers, and clothes dryers saw slight improvements

  2. Fossil energy savings potential of sugar cane bio-energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Thu Lan T. [Department of Agroecology, Aarhus University, Tjele (Denmark); The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok (Thailand); Hermansen, John E. [Department of Agroecology, Aarhus University, Tjele (Denmark); Sagisaka, Masayuki [Institute of Science for Safety and Sustainability, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2009-11-15

    One important rationale for bio-energy systems is their potential to save fossil energy. Converting a conventional sugar mill into a bio-energy process plant would contribute to fossil energy savings via the extraction of renewable electricity and ethanol substituting for fossil electricity and gasoline, respectively. This paper takes a closer look at the Thai sugar industry and examines two practical approaches that will enhance fossil energy savings. The first one addresses an efficient extraction of energy in the form of electricity from the excess bagasse and cane trash. The second while proposing to convert molasses or sugar cane to ethanol stresses the use of bagasse as well as distillery spent wash to replace coal in meeting ethanol plants' energy needs. The savings potential achieved with extracting ethanol from surplus sugar versus current practice in sugar industry in Thailand amounts to 15 million barrels of oil a year. Whether the saving benefits could be fully realized, however, depends on how well the potential land use change resulting from an expansion of ethanol production is managed. The results presented serve as a useful guidance to formulate strategies that enable optimum utilization of biomass as an energy source. (author)

  3. Data Network Equipment Energy Use and Savings Potential in Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanzisera, Steven; Nordman, Bruce; Brown, Richard E.

    2010-06-09

    Network connectivity has become nearly ubiquitous, and the energy use of the equipment required for this connectivity is growing. Network equipment consists of devices that primarily switch and route Internet Protocol (IP) packets from a source to a destination, and this category specifically excludes edge devices like PCs, servers and other sources and sinks of IP traffic. This paper presents the results of a study of network equipment energy use and includes case studies of networks in a campus, a medium commercial building, and a typical home. The total energy use of network equipment is the product of the stock of equipment in use, the power of each device, and their usage patterns. This information was gathered from market research reports, broadband market penetration studies, field metering, and interviews with network administrators and service providers. We estimate that network equipment in the USA used 18 TWh, or about 1percent of building electricity, in 2008 and that consumption is expected to grow at roughly 6percent per year to 23 TWh in 2012; world usage in 2008 was 51 TWh. This study shows that office building network switches and residential equipment are the two largest categories of energy use consuming 40percent and 30percent of the total respectively. We estimate potential energy savings for different scenarios using forecasts of equipment stock and energy use, and savings estimates range from 20percent to 50percent based on full market penetration of efficient technologies.

  4. Wind energy potential in Antakya and Iskenderun regions, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilgili, M.; Sahin, B. [Cukurova Univ., Adana (Turkey). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Kahraman, A. [Selcuk Univ., Konya (Turkey). Faculty of Technical Education

    2004-08-01

    The aim of this study is to establish the potential and the feasibility basis for the wind energy resources in some locations of East Mediterranean region of Turkey and provide suitable data for evaluating the potential wind power. For this purpose, hourly wind data, which were observed between the years 1997 and 2001 at the meteorological stations of Antakya and Iskenderun regions, were used. The dominant wind directions, the mean values, wind speeds, wind potential and the frequency distributions were determined. The results were classified according to the height above the ground level. Finally, the wind atlas of these regions in the form of contours of constant wind speed and wind potential was produced. (author)

  5. The potential impact of hydrogen energy use on the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ruijven, B. J.; Lamarque, J. F.; van Vuuren, D. P.; Kram, T.; Eerens, H.

    2009-04-01

    Energy models show very different trajectories for future energy systems (partly as function of future climate policy). One possible option is a transition towards a hydrogen-based energy system. The potential impact of such hydrogen economy on atmospheric emissions is highly uncertain. On the one hand, application of hydrogen in clean fuel cells reduces emissions of local air pollutants, like SOx and NOx. On the other hand, emissions of hydrogen from system leakages are expected to change the atmospheric concentrations and behaviour (see also Price et al., 2007; Sanderson et al., 2003; Schultz et al., 2003; Tromp et al., 2003). The uncertainty arises from several sources: the expected use of hydrogen, the intensity of leakages and emissions, and the atmospheric chemical behaviour of hydrogen. Existing studies to the potential impacts of a hydrogen economy on the atmosphere mostly use hydrogen emission scenarios that are based on simple assumptions. This research combines two different modelling efforts to explore the range of impacts of hydrogen on atmospheric chemistry. First, the potential role of hydrogen in the global energy system and the related emissions of hydrogen and other air pollutants are derived from the global energy system simulation model TIMER (van Vuuren, 2007). A set of dedicated scenarios on hydrogen technology development explores the most pessimistic and optimistic cases for hydrogen deployment (van Ruijven et al., 2008; van Ruijven et al., 2007). These scenarios are combined with different assumptions on hydrogen emission factors. Second, the emissions from the TIMER model are linked to the NCAR atmospheric model (Lamarque et al., 2005; Lamarque et al., 2008), in order to determine the impacts on atmospheric chemistry. By combining an energy system model and an atmospheric model, we are able to consistently explore the boundaries of both hydrogen use, emissions and impacts on atmospheric chemistry. References: Lamarque, J.-F., Kiehl, J. T

  6. Evaluation of global onshore wind energy potential and generation costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuyu; Luckow, Patrick; Smith, Steven J; Clarke, Leon

    2012-07-17

    In this study, we develop an updated global estimate of onshore wind energy potential using reanalysis wind speed data, along with updated wind turbine technology performance, land suitability factors, cost assumptions, and explicit consideration of transmission distance in the calculation of transmission costs. We find that wind has the potential to supply a significant portion of the world energy needs, although this potential varies substantially by region and with assumptions such as on what types of land can be used to site wind farms. Total global economic wind potential under central assumptions, that is, intermediate between optimistic and pessimistic, is estimated to be approximately 119.5 petawatt hours per year (13.6 TW) at less than 9 cents/kWh. A sensitivity analysis of eight key parameters is presented. Wind potential is sensitive to a number of input parameters, particularly wind speed (varying by -70% to +450% at less than 9 cents/kWh), land suitability (by -55% to +25%), turbine density (by -60% to +80%), and cost and financing options (by -20% to +200%), many of which have important policy implications. As a result of sensitivities studied here we suggest that further research intended to inform wind supply curve development focus not purely on physical science, such as better resolved wind maps, but also on these less well-defined factors, such as land-suitability, that will also have an impact on the long-term role of wind power.

  7. Renewable (alternative) energies. Theoretical potentials, realistic future of the energy supply; Erneuerbare (alternative) Energien. Theoretische Potentiale, reale Zukunft der Energieversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, K.H. [Hochschule fuer Technik Suedwestfalen (Germany)]|[Institut fuer Technologie- und Wissenstransfer an der Hochschulabteilung Soest (Germany); Giber, J. [TU Budapest (Hungary). Inst. fuer Atomphysik

    2007-07-01

    The depletion of fossil fuels and the accumulation of greenhouse gases, whose effects are already making themselves felt, are impacting not only on technical but also on societal and political developments around the globe. The human demand for energy from fossil fuels is growing worldwide, and the depletion of these reserves can already be clearly perceived. This is incidentally also true of nuclear fuels, at least for those reserves that are exploitable with currently available technology. The use of renewable energies such as wind power, solar energy, geothermal energy, hydropower and biomass - to name just a few - appears at present to offer a solution to the future problems relating to energy supply and environment (global warming and follow-on effects). The technologies required for this are already well-advanced today. Over a period of several years the authors have collected data and facts on global energy scenarios, evaluated countless studies, studied the technologies required for tapping renewable energy potentials and performed their own calculations on the topic.

  8. Accurate global potential energy surface for the H + OH+ collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannouni, M. A.; Jaidane, N. E.; Halvick, P.; Stoecklin, T.; Hochlaf, M.

    2014-05-01

    We mapped the global three-dimensional potential energy surface (3D-PES) of the water cation at the MRCI/aug-cc-pV5Z including the basis set superposition (BSSE) correction. This PES covers the molecular region and the long ranges close to the H + OH+(X3Σ-), the O + H2+(X2Σg+), and the hydrogen exchange channels. The quality of the PES is checked after comparison to previous experimental and theoretical results of the spectroscopic constants of H2O+(tilde X2B1) and of the diatomic fragments, the vibronic spectrum, the dissociation energy, and the barrier to linearity for H2O+(tilde X2B1). Our data nicely approach those measured and computed previously. The long range parts reproduce quite well the diatomic potentials. In whole, a good agreement is found, which validates our 3D-PES.

  9. On the wave energy potential of Western Black Sea shelf

    CERN Document Server

    Galabov, Vasko

    2013-01-01

    In the present study we evaluate the approaches to estimate the wave energy potential of the western Black Sea shelf with numerical models. For the purpose of our evaluation and due to the lack of long time series of measurements in the selected area of the Black Sea, we compare the modeled mean wave power flux output from the SWAN wave model with the only available long term measurements from the buoy of Gelendzhik for the period 1997-2003 (with gaps). The forcing meteorological data for the numerical wave models for the selected years is extracted from the ERA Interim reanalysis of ECMWF (European Centre for Medium range Forecasts). For the year 2003 we also compare the estimated wave power with the modeled by SWAN, using ALADIN regional atmospheric model winds. We try to identify the shortcomings and limitations of the numerical modeling approach to the evaluation of the wave energy potential in Black Sea.

  10. Energy Perspectives In Switzerland: The Potential Of Nuclear Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foskolos, K.; Hardegger, P

    2005-03-01

    In 2004, discussions were started in Switzerland concerning future of energy supply, including domestic electricity generation. On behalf of the Federal Office of Energy, PSI undertook a study to evaluate the potential of future nuclear technologies, covering electricity demand, with a time horizon up to 2050. It has been shown that nuclear power plants (NPPs) of the Third Generation, similar to the ones currently under construction in several other countries, built on the existing nuclear sites in Switzerland, have the potential to replace, at competitive costs, the existing nuclear plants, and even to cover (postulated) increases in electricity demand. Because of their late maturity (expected at the earliest around 2030), NPPs of the Fourth Generation, which are currently under development, cannot play a major role in Switzerland, since, with the exception of the Leibstadt NPP, all decisions regarding replacement of the current Swiss NPPs have to be taken before 2030. (author)

  11. Potential for energy technologies in residential and commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glesk, M.M.

    1979-11-01

    The residential-commercial energy technology model was developed as a planning tool for policy analysis in the residential and commercial building sectors. The model and its procedures represent a detailed approach to estimating the future acceptance of energy-using technologies both in new construction and for retrofit into existing buildings. The model organizes into an analytical framework all relevant information and data on building energy technology, building markets, and government policy, and it allows for easy identification of the relative importance of key assumptions. The outputs include estimates of the degree of penetration of the various building energy technologies, the levels of energy use savings associated with them, and their costs - both private and government. The model was designed to estimate the annual energy savings associated with new technologies compared with continued use of conventional technology at 1975 levels. The amount of energy used under 1975 technology conditions is referred to as the reference case energy use. For analytical purposes the technologies were consolidated into ten groupings: electric and gas heat pumps; conservation categories I, II, and III; solar thermal (hot water, heating, and cooling); photovoltaics, and wind systems. These groupings clearly do not allow an assessment of the potential for individual technologies, but they do allow a reasonable comparison of their roles in the R/C sector. Assumptions were made regarding the technical and economic performances of the technologies over the period of the analysis. In addition, the study assessed the non-financial characteristics of the technologies - aesthetics, maintenance complexity, reliability, etc. - that will also influence their market acceptability.

  12. Schematic potential energy for interaction between isobutene and zeolite mordenite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Serrano, L A [Programa de Crudo Maya, IMP, AP 15-805, DF 07730 (Mexico); Flores-Sandoval, C A [Programa de Crudo Maya, IMP, AP 15-805, DF 07730 (Mexico); Zaragoza, I P [Programa de Ingenieria Molecular, IMP, AP 15-805, DF 07730 (Mexico)

    2004-06-09

    A schematic representation of the potential energy for the interaction between isobutene and H mordenite was presented by using eight different positions (P1-P8) of C{sub 1} or C{sub 2} atoms located in front of the acid hydrogen (H{sup +}). In all cases a {pi} complex was formed yielding different values of the adsorption energy. In some cases of the adsorption point in P1-P8 the frontier orbitals are shown. The P8 position exhibits the highest value obtained for the adsorption energy, where the C{sub 1} atom is in front of the H{sup +}. Calculations were of all electron type employing HF/6-31G**.

  13. Market potential for optical fiber sensors in the energy sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosselmann, T.

    2007-07-01

    For a long time electric power was taken as a natural unlimited resource. With globalisation the demand for energy has risen. This has brought rising prices for fossil fuels, as well as a diversification of power generation. Besides conventional fossil, nuclear plants are coming up again. Renewable energy sources are gaining importance resulting in recent boom of wind energy plants. In the past reliability and availability and an extremely long lifetime were of paramount importance. Today this has been added by cost, due to the global competition and the high fuel costs. New designs of power components have increased efficiency using lesser material. Higher efficiency causes inevitably higher stress on the materials, of which the machines are built. As a reduction of lifetime is not acceptable and maintenance costs are expected to be at a minimum, condition monitoring systems are going to being used now. This offers potentials for fibre optic sensor application.

  14. The Potential of Renewable Energy Sources in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakipova, S.; Jakovics, A.; Gendelis, S.

    2016-02-01

    The article discusses some aspects of the use of renewable energy sources in the climatic conditions prevailing in most of the territory of Latvia, with relatively low wind speeds and a small number of sunny days a year. The paper gives a brief description of the measurement equipment and technology to determine the parameters of the outer air; the results of the measurements are also analysed. On the basis of the data obtained during the last two years at the meteorological station at the Botanical Garden of the University of Latvia, the energy potential of solar radiation and wind was estimated. The values of the possible and the actual amount of produced energy were determined.

  15. On the potential energy landscape of supercooled liquids and glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodney, D.; Schrøder, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The activation-relaxation technique (ART), a saddle-point search method, is applied to determine the potential energy landscape around supercooled and glassy configurations of a three-dimensional binary Lennard-Jones system. We show a strong relation between the distribution of activation energies...... around a given glassy configuration and its history, in particular, the cooling rate used to produce the glass and whether or not the glass was plastically deformed prior to sampling. We also compare the thermally activated transitions found by ART around a supercooled configuration with the succession...... of transitions undergone by the same supercooled liquid during a time trajectory simulated by molecular dynamics. We find that ART is biased towards more heterogeneous transitions with higher activation energies and more broken bonds than the MD simulation....

  16. Electronic structure, molecular bonding and potential energy surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruedenberg, K. [Ames Laboratory, IA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    By virtue of the universal validity of the generalized Born-Oppenheimer separation, potential energy surfaces (PES`) represent the central conceptual as well as quantitative entities of chemical physics and provide the basis for the understanding of most physicochemical phenomena in many diverse fields. The research in this group deals with the elucidation of general properties of PES` as well as with the quantitative determination of PES` for concrete systems, in particular pertaining to reactions involving carbon, oxygen, nitrogen and hydrogen molecules.

  17. Collection and dissemination of thermal energy storage system information for the pulp and paper industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edde, H.

    1981-01-01

    The collection and dissemination of thermal energy storage (TES) system technology for the pulp and paper industry with the intent of reducing fossil fuel usage is discussed. The study plan is described and a description presented of example TES systems.

  18. Electromagnetic potentials basis for energy density and power flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puthoff, H. E.

    2016-09-01

    In rounding out the education of students in advanced courses in applied electromagnetics it is incumbent on us as mentors to raise issues that encourage appreciation of certain subtle aspects that are often overlooked during first exposure to the field. One of these has to do with the interplay between fields and potentials, with the latter often seen as just a convenient mathematical artifice useful in solving Maxwell’s equations. Nonetheless, to those practiced in application it is well understood that various alternatives in the use of fields and potentials are available within electromagnetic (EM) theory for the definitions of energy density, momentum transfer, EM stress-energy tensor, and so forth. Although the various options are all compatible with the basic equations of electrodynamics (e.g., Maxwell’s equations, Lorentz force law, gauge invariance), nonetheless certain alternative formulations lend themselves to being seen as preferable to others with regard to the transparency of their application to physical problems of interest. Here we argue for the transparency of an energy density/power flux option based on the EM potentials alone.

  19. Bohm's quantum potential as an internal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis, Glen, E-mail: gdennis502@gmail.com [TPRU, Birkbeck College, University of London, London, WC1E 7HX (United Kingdom); Gosson, Maurice A. de, E-mail: maurice.de.gosson@univie.ac.at [University of Vienna, Faculty of Mathematics, NuHAG, Oskar-Morgenstern-Platz 1, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Hiley, Basil J., E-mail: b.hiley@bbk.ac.uk [TPRU, Birkbeck College, University of London, London, WC1E 7HX (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-26

    Highlights: • The quantum potential is seen as internal energy associated with a phase space region. • Fermi's trick shows that Bohm's particle is an extended structure in phase space. • We associate Bohm's quantum potential with a context-dependent energy redistribution. • A physically motivated derivation of Schrodinger's equation is provided. • We show the Fermi set associated with a 3-D coherent state contains a quantum blob. - Abstract: We pursue our discussion of Fermi's surface initiated by Dennis, de Gosson and Hiley and show that Bohm's quantum potential can be viewed as an internal energy of a quantum system, giving further insight into its role in stationary states. This implies that the ‘particle’ referred to in Bohm's theory is not a classical point-like object but rather has an extended structure in phase space which can be linked to the notion of a symplectic capacity, a topological feature of the underlying symplectic geometry. This structure provides us with a new, physically motivated derivation of Schrödinger's equation provided we interpret Gleason's theorem as a derivation of the Born rule from fundamental assumptions about quantum probabilities.

  20. Potential energy surface and rovibrational energy levels of the H2-CS van der Waals complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis-Alpizar, Otoniel; Stoecklin, Thierry; Halvick, Philippe; Dubernet, Marie-Lise; Marinakis, Sarantos

    2012-12-21

    Owing to its large dipole, astrophysicists use carbon monosulfide (CS) as a tracer of molecular gas in the interstellar medium, often in regions where H(2) is the most abundant collider. Predictions of the rovibrational energy levels of the weakly bound complex CS-H(2) (not yet observed) and also of rate coefficients for rotational transitions of CS in collision with H(2) should help to interpret the observed spectra. This paper deals with the first goal, i.e., the calculation of the rovibrational energy levels. A new four-dimensional intermolecular potential energy surface for the H(2)-CS complex is presented. Ab initio potential energy calculations were carried out at the coupled-cluster level with single and double excitations and a perturbative treatment of triple excitations, using a quadruple-zeta basis set and midbond functions. The potential energy surface was obtained by an analytic fit of the ab initio data. The equilibrium structure of the H(2)-CS complex is found to be linear with the carbon pointing toward H(2) at the intermolecular separation of 8.6 a(o). The corresponding well depth is -173 cm(-1). The potential was used to calculate the rovibrational energy levels of the para-H(2)-CS and ortho-H(2)-CS complexes. The present work provides the first theoretical predictions of these levels. The calculated dissociation energies are found to be 35.9 cm(-1) and 49.9 cm(-1), respectively, for the para and ortho complexes. The second virial coefficient for the H(2)-CS pair has also been calculated for a large range of temperature. These results could be used to assign future experimental spectra and to check the accuracy of the potential energy surface.

  1. Energy balance of chosen crops and their potential to saturate energy consumption in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Hrčková

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to assess and compare energy inputs and outputs of various crop managements in 2011–2012. Two main crops on arable land and three permanent grasslands were investigated. Silage maize (Zea mays L. and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. were grown on lowland, whilst two semi-natural grasslands and grassland infested by tufted hair-grass (Deschampsia caespitose (L. P. Beauv were located in mountainous regions of Slovakia. In these crops and grasslands the dry matter yield was measured and subsequently the supplementary energy, energy gain and unifying energy value – tonne of oil equivalent (TOE – were calculated. Silage maize with 233.37 GJ*ha-1 has provided the highest energy gain. In the group of grasslands, grassland infested by tufted hair-grass has offered the highest energy gain (59.77 GJ*ha-1. And this grassland had the lowest requirement on the supplementary energy (3.66 GJ*ha-1, contrary to silage maize with highest one (12.37 GJ*ha-1. The total energy potential of the crop biomasses was confronted with energy consumption in Slovakia. Winter wheat has the biggest energy potential, but it could cover only 19.6% and 11.3% total consumption of electricity or natural gas, respectively. Large area of permanent grasslands and their spatial location make them an important energy reservoir for bioenergy production. But, it is not possible to replace all consumed fossil fuels by bioenergy from these tested renewable energy sources.

  2. Automated Data Collection for Determining Statistical Distributions of Module Power Undergoing Potential-Induced Degradation: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hacke, P.; Spataru, S.

    2014-08-01

    We propose a method for increasing the frequency of data collection and reducing the time and cost of accelerated lifetime testing of photovoltaic modules undergoing potential-induced degradation (PID). This consists of in-situ measurements of dark current-voltage curves of the modules at elevated stress temperature, their use to determine the maximum power at 25 degrees C standard test conditions (STC), and distribution statistics for determining degradation rates as a function of stress level. The semi-continuous data obtained by this method clearly show degradation curves of the maximum power, including an incubation phase, rates and extent of degradation, precise time to failure, and partial recovery. Stress tests were performed on crystalline silicon modules at 85% relative humidity and 60 degrees C, 72 degrees C, and 85 degrees C. Activation energy for the mean time to failure (1% relative) of 0.85 eV was determined and a mean time to failure of 8,000 h at 25 degrees C and 85% relative humidity is predicted. No clear trend in maximum degradation as a function of stress temperature was observed.

  3. Adaptive free energy sampling in multidimensional collective variable space using boxed molecular dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Mike; Paci, Emanuele; McIntosh-Smith, Simon; Glowacki, David R

    2016-12-22

    The past decade has seen the development of a new class of rare event methods in which molecular configuration space is divided into a set of boundaries/interfaces, and then short trajectories are run between boundaries. For all these methods, an important concern is how to generate boundaries. In this paper, we outline an algorithm for adaptively generating boundaries along a free energy surface in multi-dimensional collective variable (CV) space, building on the boxed molecular dynamics (BXD) rare event algorithm. BXD is a simple technique for accelerating the simulation of rare events and free energy sampling which has proven useful for calculating kinetics and free energy profiles in reactive and non-reactive molecular dynamics (MD) simulations across a range of systems, in both NVT and NVE ensembles. Two key developments outlined in this paper make it possible to automate BXD, and to adaptively map free energy and kinetics in complex systems. First, we have generalized BXD to multidimensional CV space. Using strategies from rigid-body dynamics, we have derived a simple and general velocity-reflection procedure that conserves energy for arbitrary collective variable definitions in multiple dimensions, and show that it is straightforward to apply BXD to sampling in multidimensional CV space so long as the Cartesian gradients ∇CV are available. Second, we have modified BXD to undertake on-the-fly statistical analysis during a trajectory, harnessing the information content latent in the dynamics to automatically determine boundary locations. Such automation not only makes BXD considerably easier to use; it also guarantees optimal boundaries, speeding up convergence. We have tested the multidimensional adaptive BXD procedure by calculating the potential of mean force for a chemical reaction recently investigated using both experimental and computational approaches - i.e., F + CD3CN → DF + D2CN in both the gas phase and a strongly coupled explicit CD3CN solvent

  4. Assessment of Wind Energy Potential in Golestan Province of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Hashemi-Tilehnoee

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy sources are estimated to have a thriving future in many countries as well as Iran. The aim of this work is the evaluation of wind energy potentiality for the five counties of Golestan province in the northern region of Iran. A long term data source, consisting of  30 years in Gorgan, 22 years in Gonbade-e Qabus, 21 years in Maraveh Tappeh, 9 years in Aliabad, and 7 years in Bandar-e Turkaman of eight-hourly mean wind data, was adopted and analyzed. Mean wind power based on quantified data, Weibull distribution function, the relative percentage error (RPE and wind direction between obtaining values of wind power has been considered. According to these data, it was found that the numerical values of the shape parameter and scale parameter for Golestan varied a tight range. Annual values of ‘‘k’’ ranged from 2.7 to 4.7 where it is constant in different elevation because of better performance of this method in estimating wind energy potential, while annual values of ‘‘c’’ were in the range of 2.6 m/s in 10 m and 7.6 m/s in 40 m. Wind power densities have been estimated and relatively low for large wind turbines. The consequences indicate that in some months Maraveh Tappeh and Bandar-e Turkaman has best wind energy potential, as class 2, in order to establish some small wind turbine models for the sustainable development of Golestan province. Article History: Received Sept 13, 2015; Received in revised form Dec 27, 2015; Accepted January 17, 2016; Available online How to Cite This Article: Babayani, D., Khaleghi, M. and Hashemi-Tilehnoee, M. (2016 Assessment of Wind Energy Potential in Golestan Province of Iran. Int. Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 5(1, 25-31. http://dx.doi.org/10.14710/ijred.5.1.25-31 

  5. GIS Assessment of Wind Energy Potential in California and Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, R. K.; Snow, M. M.

    2008-05-01

    Energy efficiency coupled with renewable energy technologies can provide most of the U.S. carbon emissions reductions needed to contain atmospheric carbon concentrations at 450-500 parts per million, considered by many to be a tipping point in mitigating climate change. Among the leaders in the alternative energy sector is wind power, which is now one of the largest sources of new power generation in the U.S. creating jobs and revenue for rural communities while powering our economy with an emissions-free source of energy. In 2006, wind turbines capable of generating more than 2,400 megawatts of electricity were installed in the U.S. and by 2007 this number had risen to 3,000 megawatts. The U.S. generated 31 billion kilowatt-hours of wind power in 2007, which is enough electricity to power the equivalent of nearly 3 million average homes. It is estimated that generating the same amount of electricity would require burning 16 million tons of coal or 50 million barrels of oil. This study examines the wind power potential of sites near populated areas in Florida and California to determine the practicability of installing wind turbines at these locations. A GIS was developed in order to conduct a spatial analysis of these sites based on mean annual wind speed measured in meters per second and wind power density ratings measured in watts per square meter. The analysis indicates that coastal areas of Cocoa Beach, Key West, Hollywood, and West Palm Beach, respectively, possess the greatest potential for wind energy in Florida with mean annual wind speeds of 4.9 m/s and average wind power density ratings of 171 w/m2 peaking at Cocoa Beach followed by wind speeds of 4.64 m/s and wind power ratings of 115 w/m2 at Key West. California wind energy potential is even greater than that of Florida with Fairfield exhibiting mean annual wind speeds of 5.9 m/s and average wind power density ratings of 327 w/m2 followed by the Mojave and Palmdale areas with mean annual wind speeds of

  6. Municipal Solid Waste Management and its Energy Potential in Roorkee City, Uttarakhand, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Tabish; Kulkarni, Kishore

    2016-03-01

    Energy plays a vital role in the development of any country. With rapid economic growth and multifold urbanization, India faces the problem of municipal solid waste management and disposal. This problem can be mitigate through adoption of environment friendly technologies for treatment and processing of waste before it is disposed off. Currently, urban and industrial wastes throughout India receive partial treatment before its final disposal, except in few exceptional cases. This practice leads to severe environmental pollution problems including major threat to human health. There is an absolute need to provide adequate waste collection and treatment before its disposal. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) is getting importance in recent years. The MSW management involves collection, transportation, handling and conversion to energy by biological and thermal routes. Based on the energy potential available, the energy conversion through biogas production using available waste is being carried out. Waste-to-energy is now a clean, renewable, sustainable source of energy. The estimation of energy content of MSW in Roorkee city is discussed in this paper. Furthermore this paper also takes into account the benefits of carbon credits.

  7. 78 FR 23290 - Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Energy Resource Development Program Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Energy Resource Development Program... Burden: $0. Dated: April 12, 2013. John Ashley, Acting Assistant Director for Information Resources... comments on the renewal of Office of Management and Budget (OMB) approval for the collection of...

  8. 78 FR 19005 - Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Tribal Energy Resource Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Tribal Energy Resource Agreements... resources on tribal lands. Information collection: Enables IEED to engage in a consultation process with... Assistant Director for Information Resources. BILLING CODE 4310-4M-P...

  9. Multiple scattering of low energy ions in matter: Influence of energy loss and interaction potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mekhtiche, A. [Laboratoire SNIRM, Faculté de Physique, Université des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumediene (USTHB), BP 32 El Alia, Bab Ezzouar, Algiers (Algeria); Faculté des Sciences et de la Technologie, Université Yahia Farès de Médéa (Algeria); Khalal-Kouache, K., E-mail: kkouache@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire SNIRM, Faculté de Physique, Université des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumediene (USTHB), BP 32 El Alia, Bab Ezzouar, Algiers (Algeria)

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, the effect of inelastic energy loss and interaction potential on transmitted ions at low energy is studied. For this purpose, angular distributions of slow He{sup +} ions transmitted through thin Ag films are calculated using the theory of multiple scattering. Thin films (20–50 Å at 2 keV and 50–200 Å at 10 keV) are considered so that the total path length of transmitted ions can be approximated by the value of the target thickness in this calculation. The corresponding values of the relative energy loss ΔE/E are comprised between 0.04 and 0.17. We show that even if low values of the thickness are considered, the total energy loss of ions in the target should be included in the calculation. These calculated angular distributions are also influenced by the potential used to describe the interaction between the incident ion and the target atom.

  10. Molecular spinless energies of the modified Rosen-Morse potential energy model in higher spatial dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Chun-Sheng; Dai, Jian-Wei; Zhang, Lie-Hui; Liu, Jian-Yi; Zhang, Guang-Dong

    2015-01-01

    We solve the Klein-Gordon equation with the modified Rosen-Morse potential energy model in D spatial dimensions. The bound state energy equation has been obtained by using the supersymmetric WKB approximation approach. We find that the inter-dimensional degeneracy symmetry exists for the molecular system represented by the modified Rosen-Morse potential. For fixed vibrational and rotational quantum numbers, the relativistic energies for the 61Πu state of the 7Li2 molecule and the X3Π state of the SiC radical increase as D increases. We observe that the behavior of the relativistic vibrational energies in higher dimensions remains similar to that of the three-dimensional system.

  11. An ab initio potential energy surface and vibrational energy levels of HXeBr

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Guo Huang; En Cui Yang; Dai Qian Xie

    2008-01-01

    A three-dimensional global potential energy surface for the electronic ground state of HXeBr molecule is constructed from morethan 4200 ab initio points. These points are generated using an internally contracted multi-reference configuration interactionmethod with the Davidson correction (icMRCI + Q) and large basis sets. The stabilities and dissociation barriers are identified fromthe potential energy surfaces. The three-body dissociation channel is found to be the dominate dissociation channel for HXeBr.Based on the obtained potentials, low-lying vibrational energy levels of HXeBr calculated using the Lanczos algorithm is found tobe in good agreement with the available experimental band origins.2008 Zheng Guo Huang. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Chinese Chemical Society. All rights reserved.

  12. 77 FR 74512 - Interim Policy Leasing for Renewable Energy Data Collection Facility on the Outer Continental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Interim Policy Leasing for Renewable Energy Data Collection Facility on... leasing are identified as Brunswick NH 17-02 OCS blocks numbered 6074, 6174, and 6126. The proposed lease... of competitive interest from parties interested in leasing any of these nominated areas. The...

  13. 75 FR 17078 - Agency Information Collection: Energy Conservation Program: Compliance and Certification...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    ... Part 431 Agency Information Collection: Energy Conservation Program: Compliance and Certification... horsepower electric motors covered under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA), as amended, Public Law 94-163, codified at, 42 U.S.C. 6291 et seq. Under EPCA, a manufacturer or private labeler...

  14. Developing the World's Digital Collection on Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Emil

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the developers/development, maintainers, and users of the digital collection on peaceful uses of nuclear energy, produced by the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Sensitive to users in both developing and highly developed countries, this system provides closer linkage…

  15. 77 FR 8273 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB; Capture Energy Efficiency...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ...The proposed information collection requirement described below has been submitted to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review, as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act. The Department is soliciting public comments on the subject proposal. HUD is creating the Capture Energy Efficiency Measures for PIH (CEEMP) data system to track the amount and types of Energy Conservation......

  16. Examining fine potential energy effects in high-energy fission dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, K.; Schmitt, C.; Nadtochy, P. N.; Kmiecik, M.; Maj, A.; Wasiak, P.; Wieleczko, J. P.

    2013-11-01

    The potential energy surface plays a decisive role in nuclear fission. Together with inertia and viscosity, it influences the trajectory of the system, and the properties of the fission fragments result from the puzzling interplay between static and dynamical effects. A careful study on the influence of the parametrization of the potential energy landscape in heavy-ion-induced fission is performed. Dynamical calculations are done within the stochastic Langevin approach in a three-dimensional deformation space. Various prescriptions of the potential energy surface are considered, probing two different Liquid Drop models and the deformation dependence of the Wigner/congruence energy. A wide set of observables, including cross sections, particle multiplicities, and integral, as well as isotopic and isobaric, distributions of fission and evaporation products, is analyzed. Nuclei close to the Businaro-Gallone point are confirmed to be well suited for investigating the Liquid Drop parametrization, while the influence of the deformation-dependent Wigner/congruence energy is difficult to demonstrate unambiguously in fission at high excitation energies.

  17. Correlation energy and dispersion interaction in the ab initio potential energy curve of the neon dimer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bytautas, Laimutis; Ruedenberg, Klaus

    2008-06-01

    A close approximation to the empirical potential energy curve of the neon dimer is obtained by coupled-cluster singles plus doubles plus noniterative triples calculations by using nonaugmented correlation-consistent basis sets without counterpoise corrections and complementing them by three-term extrapolations to the complete basis set limit. The potential energy is resolved into a self-consistent-field Hartree-Fock contribution and a correlation contribution. The latter is shown to decay in the long-range region in accordance with the empirical dispersion expansion.

  18. Potential for energy conservation in the cement industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrett-Price, B.A.

    1985-02-01

    This report assesses the potential for energy conservation in the cement industry. Energy consumption per ton of cement decreased 20% between 1972 and 1982. During this same period, the cement industry became heavily dependent on coal and coke as its primary fuel source. Although the energy consumed per ton of cement has declined markedly in the past ten years, the industry still uses more than three and a half times the fuel that is theoretically required to produce a ton of clinker. Improving kiln thermal efficiency offers the greatest opportunity for saving fuel. Improving the efficiency of finish grinding offers the greatest potential for reducing electricity use. Technologies are currently available to the cement industry to reduce its average fuel consumption per ton by product by as much as 40% and its electricity consumption per ton by about 10%. The major impediment to adopting these technologies is the cement industry's lack of capital as a result of low or no profits in recent years.

  19. Intermolecular potential energy surface and thermophysical properties of ethylene oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crusius, Johann-Philipp, E-mail: johann-philipp.crusius@uni-rostock.de; Hassel, Egon [Lehrstuhl für Technische Thermodynamik, Universität Rostock, 18059 Rostock (Germany); Hellmann, Robert; Bich, Eckard [Institut für Chemie, Universität Rostock, 18059 Rostock (Germany)

    2014-10-28

    A six-dimensional potential energy hypersurface (PES) for two interacting rigid ethylene oxide (C{sub 2}H{sub 4}O) molecules was determined from high-level quantum-chemical ab initio calculations. The counterpoise-corrected supermolecular approach at the MP2 and CCSD(T) levels of theory was utilized to determine interaction energies for 10178 configurations of two molecules. An analytical site-site potential function with 19 sites per ethylene oxide molecule was fitted to the interaction energies and fine tuned to agree with data for the second acoustic virial coefficient from accurate speed of sound measurements. The PES was validated by computing the second virial coefficient, shear viscosity, and thermal conductivity. The values of these properties are substantiated by the best experimental data as they tend to fall within the uncertainty intervals and also obey the experimental temperature functions, except for viscosity, where experimental data are insufficient. Due to the lack of reliable data, especially for the transport properties, our calculated values are currently the most accurate estimates for these properties of ethylene oxide.

  20. Current EU-27 technical potential of organic waste streams for biogas and energy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Helge; Fischer, Peter; Schumacher, Britt; Adler, Philipp

    2013-11-01

    Anaerobic digestion of organic waste generated by households, businesses, agriculture, and industry is an important approach as method of waste treatment - especially with regard to its potential as an alternative energy source and its cost-effectiveness. Separate collection of biowaste from households or vegetal waste from public green spaces is already established in some EU-27 countries. The material recovery in composting plants is common for biowaste and vegetal waste. Brewery waste fractions generated by beer production are often used for animal feeding after a suitable preparation. Waste streams from paper industry generated by pulp and paper production such as black liquor or paper sludge are often highly contaminated with toxic substances. Recovery of chemicals and the use in thermal processes like incineration, pyrolysis, and gasification are typical utilization paths. The current utilization of organic waste from households and institutions (without agricultural waste) was investigated for EU-27 countries with Germany as an in-depth example. Besides of biowaste little is known about the suitability of waste streams from brewery and paper industry for anaerobic digestion. Therefore, an evaluation of the most important biogas process parameters for different substrates was carried out, in order to calculate the biogas utilization potential of these waste quantities. Furthermore, a calculation of biogas energy potentials was carried out for defined waste fractions which are most suitable for anaerobic digestion. Up to 1% of the primary energy demand can be covered by the calculated total biogas energy potential. By using a "best-practice-scenario" for separately collected biowaste, the coverage of primary energy demand may be increased above 2% for several countries. By using sector-specific waste streams, for example the German paper industry could cover up to 4.7% and the German brewery industry up to 71.2% of its total energy demand.

  1. Fact Sheet: Best Practices Handbook for the Collection and Use of Solar Energy Applications; Best Practices Handbook for the Collection and Use of Solar Energy Applications (Fact Sheet), Energy Systems Integration (ESI), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-06-01

    This fact sheet presents highlights from the Best Practices Handbook for the Collection and Use of Solar Resource Data for Solar Energy Applications, which provides detailed information about solar resource data and the resulting data products needed for planning each stage of large concentrating solar power systems, from initial site selection to system operations.

  2. Energy strategy and mitigation potential in energy sector of the Russian federation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakovlev, A.F.; Petrov, V.N.; Chupyatov, V.P.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the mitigation potential in the Russian energy sector and presents CO{sub 2} - emission scenarios. Based on the Russian energy strategy, energy conservation potential has been estimated and three groups of energy conservation measures have been pointed out. Taking into account the economic development scenarios and the scenarios of energy consumption and energy conservation, future CO{sub 2} emission scenarios for 2000 and 2010 have been prepared. Some important characteristics of these scenarios have been presented and discussed. For the period 2000-2010 annual growth rates for CO{sub 2} emission in the Russian energy sector will not exceed 0.9-1.3 %, and emission levels in 2000 make up - 75-78 %, and in 2010 - 81-88 % of the 1990 level. For the probable scenario the CO{sub 2} emission reducing will make up about 6% and 25% (for the optimistic scenario about 16% and 31%) of CO{sub 2} emission for reference scenario in 2000 and 2010 respectively. Additional CO{sub 2} emission reducing (3-5% of domestic CO{sub 2} emission) will result from increasing share of natural gas consumption.

  3. Wavelet Study of Meteorological Data Collected by Arduino-Weather Station: Impact on Solar Energy Collection Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caccamo Maria Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Meteorological data collected by an automated LSI Lastem weather station connected with an Arduino device for remote acquisition are reported and discussed. Weather station, located at 38° 15’ 35.10’’ N latitude and 15° 35’ 58.86’’ E longitude, registered data which were analysed by wavelet transform to obtain time-frequency characterization of the signals. Such an approach allowed to highlight the correlation existing among the registered meteorological data. The results show a positive correlation between the minimum temperature and the maximum temperature values whereas a negative correlation emerges between daily rainfall and minimum temperature values as well as for daily rainfall and maximum temperature values. These results suggest the possibility to estimate the global and diffuse solar radiation using more reliable climatologic parameters for optimizing solar energy collected by solar panels.

  4. Theoretical studies of potential energy surfaces and computational methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, R. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This project involves the development, implementation, and application of theoretical methods for the calculation and characterization of potential energy surfaces involving molecular species that occur in hydrocarbon combustion. These potential energy surfaces require an accurate and balanced treatment of reactants, intermediates, and products. This difficult challenge is met with general multiconfiguration self-consistent-field (MCSCF) and multireference single- and double-excitation configuration interaction (MRSDCI) methods. In contrast to the more common single-reference electronic structure methods, this approach is capable of describing accurately molecular systems that are highly distorted away from their equilibrium geometries, including reactant, fragment, and transition-state geometries, and of describing regions of the potential surface that are associated with electronic wave functions of widely varying nature. The MCSCF reference wave functions are designed to be sufficiently flexible to describe qualitatively the changes in the electronic structure over the broad range of geometries of interest. The necessary mixing of ionic, covalent, and Rydberg contributions, along with the appropriate treatment of the different electron-spin components (e.g. closed shell, high-spin open-shell, low-spin open shell, radical, diradical, etc.) of the wave functions, are treated correctly at this level. Further treatment of electron correlation effects is included using large scale multireference CI wave functions, particularly including the single and double excitations relative to the MCSCF reference space. This leads to the most flexible and accurate large-scale MRSDCI wave functions that have been used to date in global PES studies.

  5. Potential impacts of nanotechnology on energy transmission applications and needs.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D.; Environmental Science Division

    2007-11-30

    The application of nanotechnologies to energy transmission has the potential to significantly impact both the deployed transmission technologies and the need for additional development. This could be a factor in assessing environmental impacts of right-of-way (ROW) development and use. For example, some nanotechnology applications may produce materials (e.g., cables) that are much stronger per unit volume than existing materials, enabling reduced footprints for construction and maintenance of electricity transmission lines. Other applications, such as more efficient lighting, lighter-weight materials for vehicle construction, and smaller batteries having greater storage capacities may reduce the need for long-distance transport of energy, and possibly reduce the need for extensive future ROW development and many attendant environmental impacts. This report introduces the field of nanotechnology, describes some of the ways in which processes and products developed with or incorporating nanomaterials differ from traditional processes and products, and identifies some examples of how nanotechnology may be used to reduce potential ROW impacts. Potential environmental, safety, and health impacts are also discussed.

  6. Potential environmental effects of energy conservation measures in northwest industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baechler, M C; Gygi, K F; Hendrickson, P L

    1992-01-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) has identified 101 plants in the Pacific Northwest that account for 80% of the region's industrial electricity consumption. These plants offer a precise target for a conservation program. PNL determined that most of these 101 plants were represented by 11 major industries. We then reviewed 36 major conservation technologies used in these 11 industrial settings to determine their potential environmental impacts. Energy efficiency technologies designed for industrial use may result in direct or indirect environmental impacts. Effects may result from the production of the conservation measure technology, changes in the working environment due to different energy and material requirements, or changes to waste streams. Industry type, work-place conditions, worker training, and environmental conditions inside and outside the plant are all key variables that may affect environmental outcomes. To address these issues this report has three objectives: Describe potential conservation measures that Bonneville may employ in industrial programs and discuss potential primary impacts. Characterize industrial systems and processes where the measure may be employed and describe general environmental issues associated with each industry type. Review environmental permitting, licensing, and other regulatory actions required for industries and summarize the type of information available from these sources for further analysis.

  7. Assessment of Global Wind Energy Resource Utilization Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, M.; He, B.; Guan, Y.; Zhang, H.; Song, S.

    2017-09-01

    Development of wind energy resource (WER) is a key to deal with climate change and energy structure adjustment. A crucial issue is to obtain the distribution and variability of WER, and mine the suitable location to exploit it. In this paper, a multicriteria evaluation (MCE) model is constructed by integrating resource richness and stability, utilization value and trend of resource, natural environment with weights. The global resource richness is assessed through wind power density (WPD) and multi-level wind speed. The utilizable value of resource is assessed by the frequency of effective wind. The resource stability is assessed by the coefficient of variation of WPD and the frequency of prevailing wind direction. Regression slope of long time series WPD is used to assess the trend of WER. All of the resource evaluation indicators are derived from the atmospheric reanalysis data ERA-Interim with spatial resolution 0.125°. The natural environment factors mainly refer to slope and land-use suitability, which are derived from multi-resolution terrain elevation data 2010 (GMTED 2010) and GlobalCover2009. Besides, the global WER utilization potential map is produced, which shows most high potential regions are located in north of Africa. Additionally, by verifying that 22.22 % and 48.8 9% operational wind farms fall on medium-high and high potential regions respectively, the result can provide a basis for the macroscopic siting of wind farm.

  8. Renewable energy data requirements: A review of user opinions and data collection efforts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevenson, G.G.

    1991-11-01

    Interest in the contribution of renewable energy to US energy supply is growing. This interest stems from environmental and energy security concerns and the desire to develop domestic resources. In order to plan for the use of renewable energy, data are essential to a variety of users both inside and outside the government. The purpose of this study is to identify priorities and requirements for gathering different types of renewable energy data. Results of this study are to be used by the US Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration (EIA), in planning and evaluating its ongoing and future renewable energy information programs. The types of renewable energy addressed in this study include biomass (wood, agricultural residues, and crops grown for energy), municipal solid waste, geothermal energy, solar energy, and wind. To assess the relative importance of different types of information, we reviewed existing renewable energy data collection efforts and asked the opinions of renewable energy data users. Individuals in government, private industry, research organizations, industry trade associations, and public interest research groups were contacted and questioned about particular renewable energy data items. An analysis of their responses provides the basis for the conclusions in this report. The types of information; about which we asked each respondent included resource stock and flow information; quantities of energy inputs (e.g., wood) and outputs (e.g., electricity, heat); energy input and output costs and prices; numbers, location, and production capacities of energy conversion facilities; quantities and costs of energy conversion equipment; and quantities of pollutant emissions from energy conversion. 5 refs., 25 tabs.

  9. Potential for energy savings in old and new auto engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, John R.

    1985-11-01

    This paper disucsses the potential for energy savings in the transportation sector through the use of both improved and entirely new automotive engines. Although spark-ignition and diesel internal combustion engines will remain the dominant choices for passenger-car use throughout the rest of this century, improved versions of these engines (lean-burn, low-friction spark-ignition and adiabatic, low-friction diesel engines) could, in the long term, provide a 20-30 percent improvement in fuel economy over what is currently available. The use of new materials, and modifications to both vehicle structure and vehicle transmissions may yield further improvements. Over a longer time frame, the introduction of the high-temperature gas-turbine engine and the use of new synfuels may provide further opportunities for energy conservation.

  10. Stabilized Quasi-Newton Optimization of Noisy Potential Energy Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Schaefer, Bastian; Roy, Shantanu; Goedecker, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Optimizations of atomic positions belong to the most commonly performed tasks in electronic structure calculations. Many simulations like global minimum searches or characterizations of chemical reactions require performing hundreds or thousands of minimizations or saddle computations. To automatize these tasks, optimization algorithms must not only be efficient, but also very reliable. Unfortunately computational noise in forces and energies is inherent to electronic structure codes. This computational noise poses a sever problem to the stability of efficient optimization methods like the limited-memory Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno algorithm. We here present a technique that allows obtaining significant curvature information of noisy potential energy surfaces. We use this technique to construct both, a stabilized quasi-Newton minimization method and a stabilized quasi-Newton saddle finding approach. We demonstrate with the help of benchmarks that both the minimizer and the saddle finding approach are sup...

  11. Energy expenditure estimates during school physical education: Potential vs. reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahan, David; McKenzie, Thomas L

    2017-02-01

    Schools are salient locations for addressing the high prevalence of overweight and obesity. Most US states require some physical education (PE) and the energy expended during PE has potential to positively affect energy balance. We previously used 2012 data to examine state policies for PE to calculate estimated student energy expenditure (EEE) under potential (i.e., recommendations followed) and existing conditions. Since then, data have been updated on both state policies and the conduct of PE. Based on updated data, we used PE frequency, duration, and intensity, student mass, and class size to calculate EEE for the delivery of PE under (a) national professional recommendations, (b) 2016 state policies, and (c) school-reported conditions. Although increased from four years ago, only 22 states currently have policies mandating specific PE minutes. EEE over 10years shows the enormous impact PE could have on energy balance. For the average recommended-size PE class, resultant annual EEE based on professional recommendations for min/week far exceeded those based on average state (n=22) policy for min/week by 44.5% for elementary, 62.7% for middle, and 59.5% for high schools. Since 2012 more states adopted policies for PE minutes than dropped them, however, EEE over 10years showed a net loss of 1200kcal/student. With no overall recent improvements in state PE policy and professional recommendations currently not being met, PE remains an underutilized public health resource for EEE. Strong policies, coupled with enhanced accountability of PE teachers and administrators, are needed to ensure PE exists in schools.

  12. Energy use and potential energy conservation for companies and institutions; Energieverbruik en besparingspotentieel bedrijven en instellingen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Groot, G.M.; Morgenstern, P.P.

    2009-07-01

    The VROM Inspectorate (VI) ordered an investigation to determine which types of companies and institutions would qualify for the VI project Climate and Energy, which aims to stimulate companies to save energy. The project will focus on branches and sectors that, currently, are not participating in government energy conservation agreements or the Greenhouse gas Emission Trading System, but that have a high energy consumption and a significant potential for conserving energy. A large part of the Dutch trade, services and government sector (Handel, Diensten en Overheid (HDO)) qualifies for participation in the project of the VROM Inspectorate. This HDO sector is responsible for 12% of the energy use within the Netherlands and has large energy-saving potential. Many of the branches within this sector use a considerable amount of energy (five petajoules or more), but are not part of any energy conservation agreement. The branches involved are: recreation; healthcare and welfare; wholesale; retail; car trade, maintenance and repairs; food services; and commercial and financial services. The largest energy conservation measures for which the costs could be recovered within five years, relate to power consumption by machines, appliances and lighting. Insulation of existing buildings could also realise substantial energy savings, although the cost-recovery time would be longer and, therefore, these measures often are not mandatory. An important part of the industrial sector, consuming around 30 per cent of the energy within the Netherlands, does not qualify for participation in the VI project. In this sector, around 90% of the energy is used by companies that already participate in energy conservation agreements (the Covenant Benchmarking, and the Long-term agreements on energy efficiency (LTA3)), or in the Greenhouse Gas Emission Trading System (EU ETS). These companies have the largest potential for saving energy. Industrial sectors that, as yet, do not participate in

  13. Bandwidth Study on Energy Use and Potential Energy Saving Opportunities in U.S. Pulp and Paper Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabine Brueske, Caroline Kramer, Aaron Fisher

    2015-06-01

    Energy bandwidth studies of U.S. manufacturing sectors can serve as foundational references in framing the range (or bandwidth) of potential energy savings opportunities. This bandwidth study examines energy consumption and potential energy savings opportunities in U.S. pulp and paper manufacturing. The study relies on multiple sources to estimate the energy used in six individual process areas, representing 52% of sector-wide energy consumption. Energy savings opportunities for individual processes are based on technologies currently in use or under development; the potential savings are then extrapolated to estimate sector-wide energy savings opportunity

  14. Bandwidth Study on Energy Use and Potential Energy Saving Opportunities in U.S. Iron and Steel Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keith Jamison, Caroline Kramer, Sabine Brueske, Aaron Fisher

    2015-06-01

    Energy bandwidth studies of U.S. manufacturing sectors can serve as foundational references in framing the range (or bandwidth) of potential energy savings opportunities. This bandwidth study examines energy consumption and potential energy savings opportunities in U.S. iron and steel manufacturing. The study relies on multiple sources to estimate the energy used in six individual process areas and select subareas, representing 82% of sector-wide energy consumption. Energy savings opportunities for individual processes and subareas are based on technologies currently in use or under development; the potential savings are then extrapolated to estimate sector-wide energy savings opportunity.

  15. Freezing of Energy of a Soliton in an External Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambusi, D.; Maspero, A.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper we study the dynamics of a soliton in the generalized NLS with a small external potential ɛV of Schwartz class. We prove that there exists an effective mechanical system describing the dynamics of the soliton and that, for any positive integer r, the energy of such a mechanical system is almost conserved up to times of order ɛ - r . In the rotational invariant case we deduce that the true orbit of the soliton remains close to the mechanical one up to times of order ɛ - r .

  16. The Potential Energy Landscape and Mechanisms of Diffusion in Liquids

    OpenAIRE

    Keyes, T.; J. Chowdhary

    2001-01-01

    The mechanism of diffusion in supercooled liquids is investigated from the potential energy landscape point of view, with emphasis on the crossover from high- to low-T dynamics. Molecular dynamics simulations with a time dependent mapping to the associated local mininum or inherent structure (IS) are performed on unit-density Lennard-Jones (LJ). New dynamical quantities introduced include r2_{is}(t), the mean-square displacement (MSD) within a basin of attraction of an IS, R2(t), the MSD of t...

  17. Potential Energy Surfaces Using Algebraic Methods Based on Unitary Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Lemus

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This contribution reviews the recent advances to estimate the potential energy surfaces through algebraic methods based on the unitary groups used to describe the molecular vibrational degrees of freedom. The basic idea is to introduce the unitary group approach in the context of the traditional approach, where the Hamiltonian is expanded in terms of coordinates and momenta. In the presentation of this paper, several representative molecular systems that permit to illustrate both the different algebraic approaches as well as the usual problems encountered in the vibrational description in terms of internal coordinates are presented. Methods based on coherent states are also discussed.

  18. Potential Energy Surfaces and Quantum Yields for Photochromic Diarylethene Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Hatakeyama

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Photochromic diarylethenes (DAEs are among the most promising molecular switching systems for future molecular electronics. Numerous derivatives have been synthesized recently, and experimental quantum yields (QYs have been reported for two categories of them. Although the QY is one of the most important properties in various applications, it is also the most difficult property to predict before a molecule is actually synthesized. We have previously reported preliminary theoretical studies on what determines the QYs in both categories of DAE derivatives. Here, reflecting theoretical analyses of potential energy surfaces and recent experimental results, a rational explanation of the general guiding principle for QY design is presented for future molecular design.

  19. Waste characterisation, determining the energy potential of waste

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oelofse, Suzanna HH

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Oelofse2_2015.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 4108 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Oelofse2_2015.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 1 Waste characterisation..., determining the energy potential of waste 25 November 2015 by Prof Suzan Oelofse Research Group Leader: Waste for Development Competency Area: Solutions for a Green Economy 2 WtE should consider Fitness for purpose • Feedstock...

  20. Taboo search by successive confinement: Surveying a potential energy surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekmarev, Sergei F.

    2001-09-01

    A taboo search for minima on a potential energy surface (PES) is performed by means of confinement molecular dynamics: the molecular dynamics trajectory of the system is successively confined to various basins on the PES that have not been sampled yet. The approach is illustrated for a 13-atom Lennard-Jones cluster. It is shown that the taboo search radically accelerates the process of surveying the PES, with the probability of finding a new minimum defined by a propagating Fermi-like distribution.

  1. Waste to Energy Potential - A High Concentration Anaerobic Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    REPORT DATE 23 MAY 2012 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2012 to 00-00-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Waste to Energy Potential - A High...and fermentative bacteria break down organic carbon to VFAs Acetogens break down VFAs to CH3CO2 − and H2 + Acetoclastic methanogens break...s -999999 999999 7 481 su -999999 999999 0 .. -999999 999999 HCA8 pti Flo$&-tdgc Tan.\\ feed su -999999 999999 0 .. -999999 999999 A-l>o -999999

  2. Potential energy surfaces and reaction dynamics of polyatomic molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Yan-Tyng.

    1991-11-01

    A simple empirical valence bond (EVB) model approach is suggested for constructing global potential energy surfaces for reactions of polyatomic molecular systems. This approach produces smooth and continuous potential surfaces which can be directly utilized in a dynamical study. Two types of reactions are of special interest, the unimolecular dissociation and the unimolecular isomerization. For the first type, the molecular dissociation dynamics of formaldehyde on the ground electronic surface is investigated through classical trajectory calculations on EVB surfaces. The product state distributions and vector correlations obtained from this study suggest very similar behaviors seen in the experiments. The intramolecular hydrogen atom transfer in the formic acid dimer is an example of the isomerization reaction. High level ab initio quantum chemistry calculations are performed to obtain optimized equilibrium and transition state dimer geometries and also the harmonic frequencies.

  3. Wind and Solar Energy Potential Assessment for Development of Renewables Energies Applications in Bucaramanga, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordóñez, G.; Osma, G.; Vergara, P.; Rey, J.

    2014-06-01

    Currently, the trend of micro-grids and small-scale renewable generation systems implementation in urban environments requires to have historical and detailed information about the energy potential resource in site. In Colombia, this information is limited and do not favor the design of these applications; for this reason, must be made detailed studies of the energy potential in their cities. In this paper is presented the wind and solar energy resource assessment for the city of Bucaramanga, based on the monitoring on four strategic points during the years 2010, 2011 and 2012. According to the analysis, is evidenced a significant solar resource throughout the year ascending on average to 1 734 kWh/m2, equivalent to 4.8 kWh/m2/day. Also, from a wind statistical study based on the Weibull probability distribution and Wind Power Density (WPD) was established the wind potential as Class 1 according to the scale of the Department of Energy of the United States (DOE), since the average speed is near 1.4 m/s. Due this, it is technically unfeasible the using of micro-turbines in the city, even so their potential for natural ventilation of building was analyzed. Finally, is presented a methodology to analyze solar harvesting by sectors in the city, according to the solar motion and shadowing caused by existing structures.

  4. Energy potential of sugar cane biomass in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rípoli Tomaz Caetano Cannavam

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is a developing tropical country with abundant biomass resources. Sugar cane (Saccahrum spp. is primarily produced to obtain sugar and alcohol. Presently sugar cane is burned before harvest. If the cane were not burned before harvest, the trash (tops and leaves could be collected and burned to produce steam to generate electricity, or be converted into alcohol fuel and decrease the severe air pollution problems caused by sugar cane burning. Based upon logical assumptions and appropriate data, we estimate the number of people that could be served each year by this biomass if its energy was converted into electricity. From trash and bagasse, 7.0x10(6 and 5.5x10(6 people y-1 could be served, respectively.

  5. CPAC: Energy-Efficient Data Collection through Adaptive Selection of Compression Algorithms for Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HyungJune Lee

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We propose a technique to optimize the energy efficiency of data collection in sensor networks by exploiting a selective data compression. To achieve such an aim, we need to make optimal decisions regarding two aspects: (1 which sensor nodes should execute compression; and (2 which compression algorithm should be used by the selected sensor nodes. We formulate this problem into binary integer programs, which provide an energy-optimal solution under the given latency constraint. Our simulation results show that the optimization algorithm significantly reduces the overall network-wide energy consumption for data collection. In the environment having a stationary sink from stationary sensor nodes, the optimized data collection shows 47% energy savings compared to the state-of-the-art collection protocol (CTP. More importantly, we demonstrate that our optimized data collection provides the best performance in an intermittent network under high interference. In such networks, we found that the selective compression for frequent packet retransmissions saves up to 55% energy compared to the best known protocol.

  6. Transportation Energy Futures Series. Potential for Energy Efficiency Improvement Beyond the Light-Duty-Vehicle Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vyas, A. D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Patel, D. M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bertram, K. M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Considerable research has focused on energy efficiency and fuel substitution options for light-duty vehicles, while much less attention has been given to medium- and heavy-duty trucks, buses, aircraft, marine vessels, trains, pipeline, and off-road equipment. This report brings together the salient findings from an extensive review of literature on future energy efficiency options for these non-light-duty modes. Projected activity increases to 2050 are combined with forecasts of overall fuel efficiency improvement potential to estimate the future total petroleum and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions relative to current levels. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  7. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Potential for Energy Efficiency Improvement Beyond the Light-Duty-Vehicle Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vyas, A. D.; Patel, D. M.; Bertram, K. M.

    2013-03-01

    Considerable research has focused on energy efficiency and fuel substitution options for light-duty vehicles, while much less attention has been given to medium- and heavy-duty trucks, buses, aircraft, marine vessels, trains, pipeline, and off-road equipment. This report brings together the salient findings from an extensive review of literature on future energy efficiency options for these non-light-duty modes. Projected activity increases to 2050 are combined with forecasts of overall fuel efficiency improvement potential to estimate the future total petroleum and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions relative to current levels. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  8. Renewable energy technologies in the Maldives - determining the potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Alphen, Klaas; Hekkert, Marko P. [Department of Innovation Studies, Copernicus Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation, University of Utrecht, P.O. Box 80115, NL 3508 TC, Utrecht (Netherlands); van Sark, Wilfried G.J.H.M. [Department of Science, Technology and Society, Copernicus Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation, Utrecht University, Heidelberglaan 2, 3584 CS, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2007-10-15

    The Maldives is one of the most vulnerable countries to the projected impacts of climate change, due to a combination of the small sizes of the islands and their low height above sea level. Like other small island developing states, the Maldives depends overwhelmingly on petroleum imports for their electricity production, which creates serious economic and financial difficulties. The Government of Maldives is therefore committed to promote sustainable energy and has been actively pursuing several inter-related initiatives to overcome the existing barriers to the utilization of renewable energy technologies. To assist this, the quantification and evaluation of the potentials of available solar and wind resources in the country for electricity applications has been performed. The hybrid system design tool HOMER has been used to create optimal renewable energy (RE) system designs. In order to evaluate these different RE alternatives a multi-criteria analysis is performed using a number of criteria that are likely to be decisive in implementation decisions. The evaluation shows that fully RE system configurations are not financially viable in the Maldives while the RE-diesel hybrid systems could bring down the price of electricity with 5-10 cent/kWh in smaller outer islands. Assuming that these latter systems with a high probability of adoption are implemented, the results show that 10% of the electricity in the Maldives could be supplied by RE based systems in a cost effective way. (author)

  9. Oxidative potential of particulate matter collected at sites with different source characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Nicole A. H.; Yang, Aileen; Strak, Maciej; Steenhof, Maaike; Hellack, Bryan; Gerlofs-Nijland, Miriam E.; Kuhlbusch, Thomas; Kelly, Frank; Harrison, Roy M.; Brunekreef, Bert; Hoek, Gerard; Cassee, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    Background: The oxidative potential (OP) of particulate matter (PM) has been proposed as a more health relevant metric than PM mass. Different assays exist for measuring OP and little is known about how the different assays compare. Aim: To assess the OP of PM collected at different site types and t

  10. Automated Data Collection for Determining Statistical Distributions of Module Power Undergoing Potential-Induced Degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hacke, Peter; Spataru, Sergiu

    We propose a method for increasing the frequency of data collection and reducing the time and cost of accelerated lifetime testing of photovoltaic modules undergoing potential-induced degradation (PID). This consists of in-situ measurements of dark current-voltage curves of the modules at elevate...

  11. Networks of triboelectric nanogenerators for harvesting water wave energy: a potential approach toward blue energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Yang, Jin; Li, Zhaoling; Fan, Xing; Zi, Yunlong; Jing, Qingshen; Guo, Hengyu; Wen, Zhen; Pradel, Ken C; Niu, Simiao; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2015-03-24

    With 70% of the earth's surface covered with water, wave energy is abundant and has the potential to be one of the most environmentally benign forms of electric energy. However, owing to lack of effective technology, water wave energy harvesting is almost unexplored as an energy source. Here, we report a network design made of triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) for large-scale harvesting of kinetic water energy. Relying on surface charging effect between the conventional polymers and very thin layer of metal as electrodes for each TENG, the TENG networks (TENG-NW) that naturally float on the water surface convert the slow, random, and high-force oscillatory wave energy into electricity. On the basis of the measured output of a single TENG, the TENG-NW is expected to give an average power output of 1.15 MW from 1 km(2) surface area. Given the compelling features, such as being lightweight, extremely cost-effective, environmentally friendly, easily implemented, and capable of floating on the water surface, the TENG-NW renders an innovative and effective approach toward large-scale blue energy harvesting from the ocean.

  12. Potential strategic consequences of the nuclear energy revival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferguson, Ch.D.

    2010-07-01

    Many people have projected their hopes and fears onto nuclear power. Nuclear energy has both benefits and risks, and disagreement persists about whether this energy source is, on balance, more of an asset than a liability. This debate involves a complicated set of factors that are difficult to assess, let alone fully resolve because of the differing interests in various countries' use and pursuit of nuclear power. Renewed interest throughout the globe in harnessing this energy source has stoked this perennial debate and raised concern about security threats from states and non-state actors while holding out the promise of more electricity for more people. While the motivations for nuclear energy vary among states, the two primary public goods this energy source offers are countering human-induced climate change and providing for greater energy security. Although views on how to achieve energy security differ, the essential aspect for nuclear energy is that for several countries, especially those with scarce indigenous energy sources from fossil fuels, investing in nuclear power plants diversifies electricity production portfolios and helps reduce dependence on foreign sources of energy. The focus here is on assessing the potential security consequences of increased use of nuclear power in the existing nuclear power states and most importantly in many more states that have in recent years expressed interest in this power source. The risks of nuclear power include possible reactor accidents, release of radioactive waste to the environment, attacks on or sabotage of nuclear facilities, and misuse of peaceful nuclear technologies to make nuclear weapons. While safety of nuclear plants and disposal of radioactive waste are important issues, this paper analyzes the latter two issues. In addition, it addresses two under-examined risks: military attacks on nuclear facilities and the effects on security alliances and conventional arms buildups as more countries seek to

  13. ROMANIA'S ENERGY POTENTIAL OF RENEWABLE ENERGIES IN THE CONTEXT OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maghear Diana

    2011-12-01

    environmental pollution as well as the depletion of the conventional resources that are highly polluting, highlighting the energy potential that renewable energy resources Romania has. This issue will be extensively discussed in the thesis entitled 'The necessity and importance of sustainable development of Romania. Case study on the use of renewable energies for heating the population in the western part of Romania' which I intend to realize and support at The West University of Timisoara, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, under the guidance of Professor Doctor Laura Cismas.

  14. Potential radiological impact of a conceptual Hanford Nuclear Energy Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soldat, J. K.

    1978-10-01

    The potential radiological impact of the siting of 20 light-water reactors and associated nuclear fuel cycle facilities on the Hanford reservation was evaluated by calculating the potential radiation doses received by individuals and populations in the vicinity of the reservation. The largest contributor to the potential radiation doses, to both the individual and the 50-mile population, were the effluents from the conceptual 1500 MT/yr fuel reprocessing plant. The effluents from the 20 reactors combined was the second largest contributor. The radiation dose contributions from the 300 MT/yr mixed oxide fuel fabrication plant were insignificant. The highest organ dose from all facilities combined was 24 mrem/yr to the child thyroid; followed by 8 mrem/yr to the adult thyroid. The 50-year collective dose commitment to the population within 50 miles was about 50 man-rem for most organs of reference, while the estimate for bone was 70 man-rem. With the exception of /sup 85/Kr, the release rates of radionuclides were within the EPA guidelines. Removal of about 90% of the 4 x 10/sup 5/ Ci/yr per gigawatt-year of electricity of /sup 85/Kr from the fuel reprocessing plant gaseous effluents would be required for compliance with the EPA guidelines.

  15. Computed Potential Energy Surfaces and Minimum Energy Pathways for Chemical Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walch, Stephen P.; Langhoff, S. R. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Computed potential energy surfaces are often required for computation of such parameters as rate constants as a function of temperature, product branching ratios, and other detailed properties. For some dynamics methods, global potential energy surfaces are required. In this case, it is necessary to obtain the energy at a complete sampling of all the possible arrangements of the nuclei, which are energetically accessible, and then a fitting function must be obtained to interpolate between the computed points. In other cases, characterization of the stationary points and the reaction pathway connecting them is sufficient. These properties may be readily obtained using analytical derivative methods. We have found that computation of the stationary points/reaction pathways using CASSCF/derivative methods, followed by use of the internally contracted CI method to obtain accurate energetics, gives usefull results for a number of chemically important systems. The talk will focus on a number of applications including global potential energy surfaces, H + O2, H + N2, O(3p) + H2, and reaction pathways for complex reactions, including reactions leading to NO and soot formation in hydrocarbon combustion.

  16. Identification and quantification of potential wave energy in the coast of Atlántico state in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Pérez-Zapata

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the progress regarding the identification and quantification of potential wave energy in Atlántico state coast. The used methodology will serve as a starting point to establish the energetic potential in Colombia in this energy. The theoretical energetic potential estimated at the near shore in the Atlantic coast waves is approximately 1107 MW and this was possible with data that has been collected and processed since January 2016. We applied equations that take into account variables such as: significant wave height, period, sea water density, temperature and wind speed in the area. Also it is shown the progress of the near shore system design for the verification of the wave energetic potential consisting of a device which transforms kinetic energy of the sea waves into gravitational potential energy that is going to be used to move an alternating current generator.

  17. Energy of Cohesion, Compressibility, and the Potential Energy Functions of the Graphite System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girifalco, L. A.; Lad, R. A.

    1956-01-01

    The lattice summations of the potential energy of importance in the graphite system have been computed by direct summation assuming a Lennard-Jones 6-12 potential between carbon atoms. From these summations, potential energy curves were constructed for interactions between a carbon atom and a graphite monolayer, between a carbon atom and a graphite surface, between a graphite monolayer and a semi-infinite graphite crystal and between two graphite semi-infinite crystals. Using these curves, the equilibrium distance between two isolated physically interacting carbon atoms was found to be 2.70 a, where a is the carbon-carbon distance in a graphite sheet. The distance between a surface plane and the rest of the crystal was found to be 1.7% greater than the interlayer spacing. Theoretical values of the energy of cohesion and the compressibility were calculated from the potential curve for the interaction between two semi-infinite crystals. They were (delta)E(sub c) = -330 ergs/sq cm and beta =3.18x10(exp -12)sq cm/dyne, respectively. These compared favorably with the experimental values of (delta)E(sub c) = -260 ergs/sq cm and beta = 2.97 X 10(exp -2) sq cm/dyne.

  18. Effects of a More Accurate Polarizable Hamiltonian on Polymorph Free Energies Computed Efficiently by Reweighting Point-Charge Potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dybeck, Eric C; Schieber, Natalie P; Shirts, Michael R

    2016-08-09

    We examine the free energies of three benzene polymorphs as a function of temperature in the point-charge OPLS-AA and GROMOS54A7 potentials as well as the polarizable AMOEBA09 potential. For this system, using a polarizable Hamiltonian instead of the cheaper point-charge potentials is shown to have a significantly smaller effect on the stability at 250 K than on the lattice energy at 0 K. The benzene I polymorph is found to be the most stable crystal structure in all three potentials examined and at all temperatures examined. For each potential, we report the free energies over a range of temperatures and discuss the added value of using full free energy methods over the minimized lattice energy to determine the relative crystal stability at finite temperatures. The free energies in the polarizable Hamiltonian are efficiently calculated using samples collected in a cheaper point-charge potential. The polarizable free energies are estimated from the point-charge trajectories using Boltzmann reweighting with MBAR. The high configuration-space overlap necessary for efficient Boltzmann reweighting is achieved by designing point-charge potentials with intramolecular parameters matching those in the expensive polarizable Hamiltonian. Finally, we compare the computational cost of this indirect reweighted free energy estimate to the cost of simulating directly in the expensive polarizable Hamiltonian.

  19. EBDC: An Energy-Balanced Data Collection Mechanism Using a Mobile Data Collector in WSNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Hwa Kuo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The data collection problem is one of the most important issues in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs. Constructing a tree from all sensor nodes to the sink node is the simplest way, but this raises the problem of energy unbalance since the sensors closer to the sink node would have much higher workloads from relaying data. To cope with the energy unbalance problem, a number of mobile-sink mechanisms have been proposed in recent years. This paper proposes an Energy-Balanced Data Collection mechanism, called EBDC, which determines the trajectory of a mobile data collector (or mobile sink such that the data-relaying workloads of all sensors can be totally balanced. Theoretical analysis and performance evaluation reveal that the proposed EBDC mechanism outperforms the existing approaches in terms of network lifetime and the degree of energy balancing.

  20. Fluid circulating pump operated by same incident solar energy which heats energy collection fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, E. R.

    1980-01-01

    The application of using a spacecraft solar powered pump terrestrially to reduce or eliminate the need for fossil fuel generated electricity for domestic solar hot water systems was investigated. A breadboard prototype model was constructed utilizing bimetals to convert thermal energy into mechanical motion by means of a toggle operated shutter mechanism. Although it did not meet expected thermal efficiency, the prototype model was sufficient to demonstrate the mechanical concept.

  1. Biogas from poultry waste-production and energy potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornelas, Karoline Carvalho; Schneider, Roselene Maria; do Amaral, Adriana Garcia

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of heat treatment on poultry litter with different levels of reutilisation for potential generation of biogas in experimental biodigesters. Chicken litter used was obtained from two small-scale poultry houses where 14 birds m(-2) were housed for a period of 42 days per cycle. Litter from aviary 1 received no heat treatment while each batch of litter produced from aviary 2 underwent a fermentation process. For each batch taken, two biodigesters were set for each aviary, with hydraulic retention time of 35 days. The efficiency of the biodigestion process was evaluated by biogas production in relation to total solids (TS) added, as well as the potential for power generation. Quantified volumes ranged from 8.9 to 41.1 L of biogas for aviary 1, and 6.7 to 33.9 L of biogas for aviary 2, with the sixth bed reused from both aviaries registering the largest biogas potential. Average potential biogas in m(3) kg(-1) of TS added were 0.022 to 0.034 for aviary 1 and 0.015 to 0.022 for aviary 2. Energy values ​​of biogas produced were calculated based on calorific value and ranged from 0.06 to 0.33 kWh for chicken litter without fermentation and from 0.05 to 0.27 kWh for chicken litter with fermentation. It was concluded that the re-use of poultry litter resulted in an increase in biogas production, and the use of fermentation in the microbiological treatment of poultry litter seems to have negatively influenced production of biogas.

  2. Improved DFT Potential Energy Surfaces via Improved Densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Cheol; Park, Hansol; Son, Suyeon; Sim, Eunji; Burke, Kieron

    2015-10-01

    Density-corrected DFT is a method that cures several failures of self-consistent semilocal DFT calculations by using a more accurate density instead. A novel procedure employs the Hartree-Fock density to bonds that are more severely stretched than ever before. This substantially increases the range of accurate potential energy surfaces obtainable from semilocal DFT for many heteronuclear molecules. We show that this works for both neutral and charged molecules. We explain why and explore more difficult cases, for example, CH(+), where density-corrected DFT results are even better than sophisticated methods like CCSD. We give a simple criterion for when DC-DFT should be more accurate than self-consistent DFT that can be applied for most cases.

  3. Potential alternative energy technologies on the Outer Continental Shelf.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D.; Environmental Assessment

    2007-04-20

    This technical memorandum (TM) describes the technology requirements for three alternative energy technologies for which pilot and/or commercial projects on the U.S. Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) are likely to be proposed within the next five to seven years. For each of the alternative technologies--wind, wave, and ocean current--the TM first presents an overview. After each technology-specific overview, it describes the technology requirements for four development phases: site monitoring and testing, construction, operation, and decommissioning. For each phase, the report covers the following topics (where data are available): facility description, electricity generated, ocean area (surface and bottom) occupied, resource requirements, emissions and noise sources, hazardous materials stored or used, transportation requirements, and accident potential. Where appropriate, the TM distinguishes between pilot-scale (or demonstration-scale) facilities and commercial-scale facilities.

  4. Renewable energy technologies in the Maldives - Realizing the potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alphen, Klaas van; Hekkert, Marko P. [Department of Innovation Studies, Copernicus Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation, University of Utrecht, P.O. Box 80115, NL 3508 TC, Utrecht (Netherlands); Sark, Wilfried G.J.H.M. van [Department of Science, Technology and Society, Copernicus Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation, Utrecht University, Heidelberglaan 2, 3584 CS, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2008-01-15

    Like in many Small Island Developing States, the techno-economic potential of renewable energy technologies (RETs) in the Maldives is substantial. However, it is not certain that these economically viable RETs will indeed be implemented and utilized, since this is greatly influenced by various social, institutional and political factors (i.e., the Innovation System). In order to steer away from activities that enhance the current fossil fuel based lock-in situation and create an environment that increases the chance of a successful transfer and diffusion of RETs, several projects have been set up in the Maldives. These projects have been initiated by the Global Environmental Facility, the United Nations Development Program, and the European Commission. In this article we evaluate these projects by analyzing whether or not they strengthen the local Renewable Energy Innovation System. This evaluation shows that these RE programs strengthen most of the key processes necessary in an Innovation System conducive to technology transfer. However, as not enough attention is being paid to local entrepreneurial activities and the creation of a domestic market for RETs, the process of RET transfer might run the risk of stagnation after completion of the RE programs. (author)

  5. CONNECTION BETWEEN THE POTENTIAL WIND ENERGY AND THE WINDY DAYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KÁROLY TAR

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary wind climate information are required for the selection of the sites of energetic wind measurements. Optimal locations of wind energy projects, where the amount of utilizable wind energy can be forecasted with a good approach, can be determined using GIS and statistical methods. Anyhow, it is necessary to elaborate methods what make posible to gain data for the wind potential of a given location on the base of measured data. Monthly number of windy days can be such predictor if its basic statistical parameters and its connection to the monthly mean wind power can be determined. This latter one can be substituted by the area under the curve of the function fitted to thehourly averages of the cubes of the wind speeds. A regression modell is fitted to the monthly number of windy days and areas under the curve, on the base of time series of 7 Hungarian weather stations and the error of the modell is determined. On this base, the modell is extrapolated to a 35 years long period. The area under the curve proportional to the monthly mean wind power calculated on the base of the monthly number of windy days show a significant decreasing trend in 4 Hungarian weather stations.

  6. Energy and time modelling of kerbside waste collection: Changes incurred when adding source separated food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Joel; Othman, Maazuza; Burn, Stewart; Crossin, Enda

    2016-10-01

    The collection of source separated kerbside municipal FW (SSFW) is being incentivised in Australia, however such a collection is likely to increase the fuel and time a collection truck fleet requires. Therefore, waste managers need to determine whether the incentives outweigh the cost. With literature scarcely describing the magnitude of increase, and local parameters playing a crucial role in accurately modelling kerbside collection; this paper develops a new general mathematical model that predicts the energy and time requirements of a collection regime whilst incorporating the unique variables of different jurisdictions. The model, Municipal solid waste collect (MSW-Collect), is validated and shown to be more accurate at predicting fuel consumption and trucks required than other common collection models. When predicting changes incurred for five different SSFW collection scenarios, results show that SSFW scenarios require an increase in fuel ranging from 1.38% to 57.59%. There is also a need for additional trucks across most SSFW scenarios tested. All SSFW scenarios are ranked and analysed in regards to fuel consumption; sensitivity analysis is conducted to test key assumptions. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The potential of energy farming in the southeastern California desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, V.

    1980-04-01

    The use of energy forms to provide future sources of energy for California is considered. Marginal desert lands in southeastern California are proposed for the siting of energy farms using acacia, eucalyptus, euphorbia, guayule, jojoba, mesquite, or tamarisk.

  8. Estimating Solar Energy Potential in Buildings on a Global Level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrichenko, Ksenia

    2015-01-01

    This chapter contributes to the debate around net-zero energy concept from a global perspective. By means of comprehensive modelling, it analyses how much global building energy consumption could be reduced through utilisation of building-integrated solar energy technologies and energy......-efficiency improvements. Valuable insights on the locations and building types, in which it is feasible to achieve a net-zero level of energy performance through solar energy utilisation, are presented in world maps....

  9. Collecting Family Health History using an Online Social Network: a Nationwide Survey among Potential Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Brandon M.; O’Connell, Nathaniel S.; Qanungo, Suparna; Halbert-Hughes, Chanita; Schiffman, Joshua D.

    2015-01-01

    Family health history (FHx) is one of the most important risk factors for disease. Unfortunately, collection and use of FHx is under-utilized in the clinical setting. Efforts to improve collection of FHx have had minimal impact. A novel approach to collect FHx using social networking capabilities is being explored. We conducted a nationwide survey of 5,258 respondents to 1- assess the interest in using an online social network for FHx, 2- identify if such a tool would have clinical utility, and 3- identify notable trends and potential concerns. We found survey respondents to be very supportive of the proposed approach and interesting trends related to age, education, and race were identified. Results from this survey will be used to guide future research and development of a proposed FHx social network application. PMID:26958272

  10. In-flight food delivery and waste collection service: the passengers’ perspective and potential improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romli, F. I.; Rahman, K. Abdul; Ishak, F. D.

    2016-10-01

    Increased competition in the commercial air transportation industry has made service quality of the airlines as one of the key competitive measures to attract passengers against their rivals. In-flight services, particularly food delivery and waste collection, have a notable impact on perception of the overall airline's service quality because they are directly and interactively provided to passengers during flight. An online public survey is conducted to explore general passengers' perception of current in-flight food delivery and waste collection services, and to identify potential rooms for improvement. The obtained survey results indicate that in-flight service does have an effect on passengers' choice of airlines. Several weaknesses of the current service method and possible improvements have been established from the collected responses.

  11. Quantum Nondemolition Measurement of the Collective Motional Energy of Two Trapped Ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Shi-Biao

    2002-01-01

    We propose a quantum nondemolition measurement of the collective motional energy of two trapped ions for the first time.It is based on the excitation of the two ions by two lasers with appropriate frequencies and amplitudes.The scheme also provides a new possibility of preparing vibrational Fock states and laser cooling.

  12. Joint Mobile Data Collection and Wireless Energy Transfer in Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Ping; Li, Ya-Ting; Liu, Wei-Rong; Duan, Gui-Hua; Chen, Ying-Wen; Xiong, Neal

    2017-08-16

    In wireless rechargeable sensor networks (WRSNs), there is a way to use mobile vehicles to charge node and collect data. It is a rational pattern to use two types of vehicles, one is for energy charging, and the other is for data collecting. These two types of vehicles, data collection vehicles (DCVs) and wireless charging vehicles (WCVs), are employed to achieve high efficiency in both data gathering and energy consumption. To handle the complex scheduling problem of multiple vehicles in large-scale networks, a twice-partition algorithm based on center points is proposed to divide the network into several parts. In addition, an anchor selection algorithm based on the tradeoff between neighbor amount and residual energy, named AS-NAE, is proposed to collect the zonal data. It can reduce the data transmission delay and the energy consumption for DCVs' movement in the zonal. Besides, we design an optimization function to achieve maximum data throughput by adjusting data rate and link rate of each node. Finally, the effectiveness of proposed algorithm is validated by numerical simulation results in WRSNs.

  13. 75 FR 64348 - BOEMRE Information Collection Activity: 1010-0182, Increased Safety Measures for Energy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-19

    ... a safe manner by well- trained personnel using technology, precautions, and techniques sufficient to... techniques or other forms of information technology. Agencies must also estimate the non-hour paperwork cost...: 1010-0182, Increased Safety Measures for Energy Development on the OCS NTL, Extension of a Collection...

  14. Potential Risk of Hybridization in Ex Situ Collections of Two Endangered Species of Sinojackia Hu (Styracaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Spontaneous hybridization in ex situ facilities can undermine the genetic integrity of ex situ collections and potentially contaminate open-pollinated seeds or seedlings destined for the reintroduction of endangered plant species into the wild. In the present study, the potential risk of hybridization between two endangered Chinese endemic species, namely Sinojackia xylocarpa Hu and S. rehderiana Hu, which are naturally allopatric species but were conserved ex situ in Wuhan Botanical Garden (WBG), Wuhan, China, were investigated over three consecutive years from 2003 to 2005. The entire overlapping flowering period of the two species was 14-20 d and the two species shared the same pollinator insects during the entire flowering season in WBG. The floral isolation between the two species was not an issue in the ex situ collection at WBG. The results suggest an opportunity for pollen transfer between species and a potential risk of genetic introgression and loss of genetic identity of open-pollinated seeds produced in the ex situ collection of these two endangered species. An artificial reciprocal cross between S. xylocarpa and S. rehderiana confirmed that the two congener species could readily set seeds, indicating no post-pollination barriers to hybridization and the importance of spatial isolation as a barrier to inter-specific crossing. Therefore, to manage these crossable species with overlapping flowering times and shared pollination vectors in ex situ facilities, spatial isolation should be carefully considered to minimize the possibility of spontaneous hybridization.

  15. On the global and regional potential of renewable energy sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogwijk, Monique Maria

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis, the central research question is: what can be the contribution of renewable energy sources to the present and future world and regional energy supply system. The focus is on wind, solar PV and biomass energy (energy crops) for electricity generation. For the assessment of the economi

  16. On the global and regional potential of renewable energy sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogwijk, Monique Maria

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis, the central research question is: what can be the contribution of renewable energy sources to the present and future world and regional energy supply system. The focus is on wind, solar PV and biomass energy (energy crops) for electricity generation. For the assessment of the economi

  17. Potential Ambient Energy-Harvesting Sources and Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Faruk

    2009-01-01

    Ambient energy harvesting is also known as energy scavenging or power harvesting, and it is the process where energy is obtained from the environment. A variety of techniques are available for energy scavenging, including solar and wind powers, ocean waves, piezoelectricity, thermoelectricity, and physical motions. For example, some systems…

  18. The Potential of Renewable Energy Systems in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wen; Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the prospective of renewable energy in the process of sustainable development in China. Along with the high-speed economic development and increasing energy consumption, the Chinese Government faces a growing pressure to maintain the balance between energy supply and demand....... Such sustainable energy strategy typical involves three technologies issue: energy conservation, efficiency improvement and replacement fossil fuel by renewable energy sources. Denmark is an example of such strategy can be implemented and it shows the possibility of converting into a 100% renewable energy system...... as well as reduce environmental pollution. To ensure energy security and mitigate climate changes the inappropriate energy consumption structure should be changed. As an alternative, a suitable infrastructure for the implementation of renewable energy may serve as a long-term sustainable possibility...

  19. China and United States have Great Potential for Energy Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ China and the United States are the top two consumers of energy resources in the worldand are thus bound to cooperate in this area. Such cooperation includes mutual study andabsorption of each other's energy policies, cooperation in related technology, includingnuclear energy, and cooperation in energy strategy. If the two countries succeed in suchcooperation, it would not only enhance strategic mutual trust between them but alsocontribute positively to global energy assurance and security.

  20. Constrained Broyden Dimer Method with Bias Potential for Exploring Potential Energy Surface of Multistep Reaction Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Cheng; Liu, Zhi-Pan

    2012-07-10

    To predict the chemical activity of new matter is an ultimate goal in chemistry. The identification of reaction pathways using modern quantum mechanics calculations, however, often requires a high demand in computational power and good chemical intuition on the reaction. Here, a new reaction path searching method is developed by combining our recently developed transition state (TS) location method, namely, the constrained Broyden dimer method, with a basin-filling method via bias potentials, which allows the system to walk out from the energy traps at a given reaction direction. In the new method, the reaction path searching starts from an initial state without the need for preguessing the TS-like or final state structure and can proceed iteratively to the final state by locating all related TSs and intermediates. In each elementary reaction step, a reaction direction, such as a bond breaking, needs to be specified, the information of which is refined and preserved as a normal mode through biased dimer rotation. The method is tested successfully on the Baker reaction system (50 elementary reactions) with good efficiency and stability and is also applied to the potential energy surface exploration of multistep reaction processes in the gas phase and on the surface. The new method can be applied for the computational screening of new catalytic materials with a minimum requirement of chemical intuition.

  1. Tropical Cyclone Signatures in Atmospheric Convective Available Potential Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studholme, Joshua; Gulev, Sergey

    2016-04-01

    Tropical cyclones play an important role in the climate system providing transports of energy and water vapor, forcing the ocean, and also affecting mid-latitude circulation phenomena. Tropical cyclone tracks experience strong interannual variability and in addition, longer term trend-like changes in all ocean basins. Analysis of recent historical data reveal a poleward shift in the locations of tropical cyclone tracks in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres (Kossin et al. 2014, Nature, 509, 349-352). The physical consequences of these alterations are largely unconstrained. For example, the increasing encroachment of tropical cyclone activity into the extra-tropical environment presents a novel and still poorly understood paradigm for tropical-extratropical interactions. In this respect, the role that the atmospheric convective available potential energy (CAPE) plays in the dynamics of tropical cyclones is highly interesting. The two characteristic global-scale spatial patterns in CAPE are identified using EOF analysis. The first pattern shows an abundance of CAPE in the centre of the Pacific and corresponds to the El Nino Southern Oscillation. The second one is capturing positive CAPE anomalies in the oceanic tropics and negative anomalies over equatorial Africa. Associated with these buoyancy patterns, alterations in tropical cyclone activity occur in all basins forming both zonal and meridional patterns. Atmospheric buoyancy is the trigger for deep convection, and subsequently cyclone genesis. This is the mechanism of impact upon location at the start of cyclone tracks. It is found to have less impact upon where cyclones subsequently move, whether or not they undergo extratropical transition and when and where they experience lysis. It is shown that CAPE plays a critical role in the general circulation in the tropics which in turn is the larger steering context for embedded systems within the Walker and Hadley cells. So this lack of `latter life' impact

  2. Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy Technologies: Potential Navigational Impacts and Mitigation Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cool, Richard, M.; Hudon, Thomas, J.; Basco, David, R.; Rondorf, Neil, E.

    2009-12-10

    checklist for assessing the navigational impacts of potential marine and hydrokinetic projects, and provides guidance for improving the existing navigational guidance promulgated by the USCG in Navigation Vessel Inspection Circular 02 07. At the request of the USCG, our checklist and mitigation guidance was written in a generic nature so that it could be equally applied to offshore wind projects. PCCI teleconferenced on a monthly basis with DOE, Pacific Energy Ventures and reVision in order to share information and review work products. Although the focus of our effort was on marine and hydrokinetic technologies, as defined above, this effort drew upon earlier work by the USCG on offshore wind renewable energy installations. The guidance provided herein can be applied equally to marine and hydrokinetic technologies and to offshore wind, which are collectively referred to by the USCG as Renewable Energy Installations.

  3. Energy Efficiency and Emissions Reduction Potential of China's Industrial Sector%Energy Efficiency and Emissions Reduction Potential of China's Industrial Sector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Xiaohong; Zhang Chao

    2012-01-01

    Based on the total-factor energy efficiency framework, this paper calculates China's industrial energy efficiency and CO2 emissions reduction potential from 2000 to 2009 by utilizing the directional distance function and data envelopment analysis. The empirical results show that: China's industrial overall energy effi- ciency is relatively lower while the emis-sions reduction potential is relatively greater, given the optimum production frontier. Sig- nificant indus-trial disparities of energy efficiency and emissions reduction potential exist. Energy efficiency and emis-sions reduc- tion potential significantly show different tendencies of industrial dynamic variation. This paper suggests the Chinese government impose differential carbon taxes, flexibly utilize carbon market me-cha-nism, strengthen energy-saving technological R&D, promote the utilization of renewable energy, and strengthen environmental supervision and regulation, so as to improve China's industrial en- ergy efficiency and reduce CO2 emissions.

  4. Stalking Higher Energy Conformers on the Potential Energy Surface of Charged Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brites, Vincent; Cimas, Alvaro; Spezia, Riccardo; Sieffert, Nicolas; Lisy, James M; Gaigeot, Marie-Pierre

    2015-03-10

    Combined theoretical DFT-MD and RRKM methodologies and experimental spectroscopic infrared predissociation (IRPD) strategies to map potential energy surfaces (PES) of complex ionic clusters are presented, providing lowest and high energy conformers, thresholds to isomerization, and cluster formation pathways. We believe this association not only represents a significant advance in the field of mapping minima and transition states on the PES but also directly measures dynamical pathways for the formation of structural conformers and isomers. Pathways are unraveled over picosecond (DFT-MD) and microsecond (RRKM) time scales while changing the amount of internal energy is experimentally achieved by changing the loss channel for the IRPD measurements, thus directly probing different kinetic and isomerization pathways. Demonstration is provided for Li(+)(H2O)3,4 ionic clusters. Nonstatistical formation of these ionic clusters by both direct and cascade processes, involving isomerization processes that can lead to trapping of high energy conformers along the paths due to evaporative cooling, has been unraveled.

  5. Vibrational energies for HFCO using a neural network sum of exponentials potential energy surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Ekadashi; Brown, Alex

    2016-05-07

    A six-dimensional potential energy surface (PES) for formyl fluoride (HFCO) is fit in a sum-of-products form using neural network exponential fitting functions. The ab initio data upon which the fit is based were computed at the explicitly correlated coupled cluster with single, double, and perturbative triple excitations [CCSD(T)-F12]/cc-pVTZ-F12 level of theory. The PES fit is accurate (RMSE = 10 cm(-1)) up to 10 000 cm(-1) above the zero point energy and covers most of the experimentally measured IR data. The PES is validated by computing vibrational energies for both HFCO and deuterated formyl fluoride (DFCO) using block improved relaxation with the multi-configuration time dependent Hartree approach. The frequencies of the fundamental modes, and all other vibrational states up to 5000 cm(-1) above the zero-point energy, are more accurate than those obtained from the previous MP2-based PES. The vibrational frequencies obtained on the PES are compared to anharmonic frequencies at the MP2/aug-cc-pVTZ and CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ levels of theory obtained using second-order vibrational perturbation theory. The new PES will be useful for quantum dynamics simulations for both HFCO and DFCO, e.g., studies of intramolecular vibrational redistribution leading to unimolecular dissociation and its laser control.

  6. Empirical Study Of Wind Energy Potential In Calabar Cross River State Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uquetan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper focuses on wind energy potentials in Calabar a coastal city. The wind speed data were collected from Margaret Ekpo International Airport Calabar NIMET. The Objective of this study is to examine whether the wind energy in Calabar can generate sufficient energy to supplement electricity generation for the Calabar region. The primary data obtained is monthly mean in the form of wind speed for a period of 5year 2008 - 2012. These was used to estimate the available wind energy potential in calabar. The results show that the annual wind is 1.3 ms indicating Calabar as a low wind speed region. The wind power density value of 3.11Wm2 indicates that Calabar wind can only be used for small stand-alone wind power systems such as battery charging and for powering street light and water pumps fig 1 2 3 amp 4. The weibull probability distribution scale parameters k are higher in values and variability than the shape parameter c for the monthly distribution. Calabar wind cannot be used to generate electricity because the wind speed data at 10m height doesnt exceed 2.5ms due to the standard cut in speed.

  7. Rotational Energy Transfer of N2 Determined Using a New Ab Initio Potential Energy Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Winifred M.; Stallcop, James R.; Partridge, Harry; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    A new N2-N2 rigid-rotor surface has been determined using extensive Ab Initio quantum chemistry calculations together with recent experimental data for the second virial coefficient. Rotational energy transfer is studied using the new potential energy surface (PES) employing the close coupling method below 200 cm(exp -1) and coupled state approximation above that. Comparing with a previous calculation based on the PES of van der Avoird et al.,3 it is found that the new PES generally gives larger cross sections for large (delta)J transitions, but for small (delta)J transitions the cross sections are either comparable or smaller. Correlation between the differences in the cross sections and the two PES will be attempted. The computed cross sections will also be compared with available experimental data.

  8. Auditory brainstem potentials in children with protein energy malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odabaş, Dursun; Caksen, Hüseyin; Sar, Sakir; Tombul, Temel; Kisli, Mesude; Tuncer, Oğuz; Yuca, Köksal; Yilmaz, Cahide

    2005-07-01

    In this study, auditory brainstem potentials (ABPs) were studied in children with protein energy malnutrition (PEM) to determine the effects of PEM on the developing brain in children. A total of 31 children, aged 3-36 months with moderate/severe PEM and 25 healthy children, aged 3-48 months were included in the study. Nutritional status of the children was assessed by the Gomez classification. Recordings of ABPs were performed by using Nihon Kohden Neuropack 2 device. Of 31 children, 22 (71%) had severe malnutrition, 9 (29%) had moderate malnutrition. Additionally, 8 (26%) and 9 (29%) children had iron deficiency anemia and hypoalbuminemi, respectively. There were significant differences in the mean latencies of the waves I-V on the right and left ears and in the mean interpeak latencies (IPLs) of the waves III-V and I-V on the right ear between the study and control groups (Pmalnutrition and iron deficiency anemia. We think that more extensive studies should be performed to determine whether or not there was a relationship between these parameters.

  9. Prospective framework for collection and exploitation of waste cooking oil as feedstock for energy conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singhabhandhu, Ampaitepin; Tezuka, Tetsuo [Energy Economics Laboratory, Department of Socio-Environmental Energy Science, Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Yoshida-honmachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2010-04-15

    From the viewpoint of waste-to-energy, waste cooking oil is one of the attractive and available recycled feedstocks, apart from agricultural residues. The generation of energy from waste cooking oil is considered as an effective technique for waste management, as well as a beneficial form of energy recovery. Two alternative systems and a conventional system of waste cooking oil collection and conversion are evaluated by the cost benefit analysis in order to find a suitable method for waste-to-energy conversion. The results show that the collection of waste cooking oil with waste lubricating oil (System II) a useful alternative to the management of waste cooking oil (B/C > 1). The total heat produced by the combustion of pyrolytic oil at maximum and minimum conversion rates is also determined. The separate collection of waste cooking oil, subjected to chemical pre-treatment prior to introduction in a pyrolysis reactor (System III), is considered an undesirable option (B/C < 1) due to the cost of the chemicals involved. Although the exclusion of chemical pre-treatment makes System III a desirable option, the total amount of heat of combustion generated is less. The increased electricity cost required for the process has no effect on the benefit-cost ratio of System II. However, System III, excluding chemical pre-treatment, becomes an unprofitable alternative when the electricity cost reaches 100% of the fixed capital cost at the minimum conversion rate. (author)

  10. Potential of best practice technology to improve energy efficiency in the global chemical and petrochemical sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saygin, D.; Patel, M.K.; Worrell, E.; Tam, C.; Gielen, D.J.

    2011-01-01

    The chemical and petrochemical sector is by far the largest industrial energy user, accounting for 30% of the industry's total final energy use. However, due to its complexity its energy efficiency potential is not well understood. This article analyses the energy efficiency potential on a country l

  11. Potential of best practice technology to improve energy efficiency in the global chemical and petrochemical sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saygin, D.; Patel, M.K.; Worrell, E.; Tam, C.; Gielen, D.J.

    2011-01-01

    The chemical and petrochemical sector is by far the largest industrial energy user, accounting for 30% of the industry's total final energy use. However, due to its complexity its energy efficiency potential is not well understood. This article analyses the energy efficiency potential on a country

  12. The Potential for Renewable Energy Development to Benefit Restoration of the Salton Sea. Analysis of Technical and Market Potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagne, Douglas [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Haase, Scott [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Oakleaf, Brett [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hurlbut, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Akar, Sertac [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wall, Anna [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Turchi, Craig [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pienkos, Philip [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Melius, Jennifer [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Melaina, Marc [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-11-01

    This report summarizes the potential for renewable energy development in the Salton Sea region, as well as the potential for revenues from this development to contribute financially to Salton Sea restoration costs. It considers solar, geothermal, biofuels or nutraceutical production from algae pond cultivation, desalination using renewable energy, and mineral recovery from geothermal fluids.


  13. Computed Potential Energy Surfaces and Minimum Energy Pathway for Chemical Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walch, Stephen P.; Langhoff, S. R. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Computed potential energy surfaces are often required for computation of such observables as rate constants as a function of temperature, product branching ratios, and other detailed properties. We have found that computation of the stationary points/reaction pathways using CASSCF/derivative methods, followed by use of the internally contracted CI method with the Dunning correlation consistent basis sets to obtain accurate energetics, gives useful results for a number of chemically important systems. Applications to complex reactions leading to NO and soot formation in hydrocarbon combustion are discussed.

  14. In vitro fertilizing potential of urethral and epididymal spermatozoa collected from domestic cats (Felis catus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochowska, S; Niżański, W

    2017-03-28

    The aim of this study was to provide a comparative analysis of in vitro fertilizing potential of frozen-thawed urethral and epididymal feline spermatozoa. Both types of semen were collected from 7 cats and cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen. To perform in vitro fertilization, both urethral and epididymal samples from the same individual were thawed and spermatozoa were co-incubated with in vitro matured cat oocytes. Obtained embryos were cultured in vitro for 7 days in a commercial medium. Cleavage rate, morula rate and blastocyst rate were calculated. Experiment was run in 10 replicates. The examined parameters showed no significant differences between urethral and epididymal spermatozoa (p>0.05). Cleavage rate and embryo's development were highly variable between replicates, even for the different sperm samples collected from one individual. There was no significant correlation between fertilizing capacity of two types of spermatozoa collected from the same male. In this study we confirmed that cryopreserved urethral spermatozoa have equally good fertilizing potential as epididymal ones, and both can be successfully used for in vitro fertilization in cats with the use of commercial medium.

  15. Global study of beyond-mean-field correlation energies in covariant energy density functional theory using a collective Hamiltonian method

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, K Q; Li, Z P; Yao, J M; Meng, J

    2015-01-01

    We report the first global study of dynamic correlation energies (DCEs) associated with rotational motion and quadrupole shape vibrational motion in a covariant energy density functional (CEDF) for 575 even-even nuclei with proton numbers ranging from $Z=8$ to $Z=108$ by solving a five-dimensional collective Hamiltonian, the collective parameters of which are determined from triaxial relativistic mean-field plus BCS calculation using the PC-PK1 force. After taking into account these beyond mean-field DCEs, the root-mean-square (rms) deviation with respect to nuclear masses is reduced significantly down to 1.14 MeV, which is smaller than those of other successful CEDFs: NL3* (2.96 MeV), DD-ME2 (2.39 MeV), DD-ME$\\delta$ (2.29 MeV) and DD-PC1 (2.01 MeV). Moreover, the rms deviation for two-nucleon separation energies is reduced by $\\sim34\\%$ in comparison with cranking prescription.

  16. Energy requirements and CO2 mitigation potential of PV systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alsema, E.A.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the energy requirements of PV modules and systems and calculate the Energy Pay-Back Time for two major PV applications. Based on a review of past energy analysis studies we explain the main sources of differences and establish a "best estimate" for key system components.

  17. Quadrupole Collectivity beyond N=28: Intermediate-Energy Coulomb Excitation of Ar47,48

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, R.; Gade, A.; Baugher, T.; Bazin, D.; Brown, B. A.; Glasmacher, T.; Grinyer, G. F.; Meharchand, R.; McDaniel, S.; Ratkiewicz, A.; Weisshaar, D.

    2012-05-01

    We report on the first experimental study of quadrupole collectivity in the very neutron-rich nuclei Ar47,48 using intermediate-energy Coulomb excitation. These nuclei are located along the path from doubly magic Ca to collective S and Si isotopes, a critical region of shell evolution and structural change. The deduced B(E2) transition strengths are confronted with large-scale shell-model calculations in the sdpf shell using the state-of-the-art SDPF-Uand EPQQM effective interactions. The comparison between experiment and theory indicates that a shell-model description of Ar isotopes around N=28 remains a challenge.

  18. Evaluation of Potential Locations for Siting Small Modular Reactors near Federal Energy Clusters to Support Federal Clean Energy Goals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belles, Randy J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Omitaomu, Olufemi A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Geographic information systems (GIS) technology was applied to analyze federal energy demand across the contiguous US. Several federal energy clusters were previously identified, including Hampton Roads, Virginia, which was subsequently studied in detail. This study provides an analysis of three additional diverse federal energy clusters. The analysis shows that there are potential sites in various federal energy clusters that could be evaluated further for placement of an integral pressurized-water reactor (iPWR) to support meeting federal clean energy goals.

  19. Bottom-up modelling of energy demand and technical energy savings potential in the Irish residential sector

    OpenAIRE

    Dineen, Denis

    2014-01-01

    The International Energy Agency has repeatedly identified increased end-use energy efficiency as the quickest, least costly method of green house gas mitigation, most recently in the 2012 World Energy Outlook, and urges all governing bodies to increase efforts to promote energy efficiency policies and technologies. The residential sector is recognised as a major potential source of cost effective energy efficiency gains. Within the EU this relative importance can be seen from a review of the ...

  20. Energy saving mechanisms, collective behavior and the variation range hypothesis in biological systems: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenchard, Hugh; Perc, Matjaž

    2016-09-01

    Energy saving mechanisms are ubiquitous in nature. Aerodynamic and hydrodynamic drafting, vortice uplift, Bernoulli suction, thermoregulatory coupling, path following, physical hooks, synchronization, and cooperation are only some of the better-known examples. While drafting mechanisms also appear in non-biological systems such as sedimentation and particle vortices, the broad spectrum of these mechanisms appears more diversely in biological systems that include bacteria, spermatozoa, various aquatic species, birds, land animals, semi-fluid dwellers like turtle hatchlings, as well as human systems. We present the thermodynamic framework for energy saving mechanisms, and we review evidence in favor of the variation range hypothesis. This hypothesis posits that, as an evolutionary process, the variation range between strongest and weakest group members converges on the equivalent energy saving quantity that is generated by the energy saving mechanism. We also review self-organized structures that emerge due to energy saving mechanisms, including convective processes that can be observed in many systems over both short and long time scales, as well as high collective output processes in which a form of collective position locking occurs.

  1. Collective Flow in Heavy Ion Collisions at Low to Relativistic Energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa, M. A.

    1997-04-01

    Recently, the phenomenon of collective flow in heavy ion collisions has been the subject of intense study. First observed at the Bevalac more than a decade ago, flow is now recognized as a universal feature of heavy ion collisions at all bombarding energies. Recent developments in three identified forms of flow-- sidewards flow, radial flow, and squeeze-out-- will be reviewed. At low energies (EOS and FOPI collaborations have considerably extended the work begun by the Plastic Ball group; here, studies of the flow of nucleons, fragments, and pions lead to a better understanding of the Equation of State of nuclear matter, momentum dependent interactions, and pion shadowing. The squeeze-out effect at Bevalac energies may be the most sensitive form of flow to the equation of state. Recent studies suggest that squeeze-out may be considered as an azimuthal modulation of the radial flow. The E895 collaboration is continuing the flow excitation function of the EOS/FOPI groups for 2-10 A GeV bombarding energies, with the aim of increasing the sensitivity to Equation of State parameters, as well as searching for flow signatures of Quark Gluon Plasma creation. Sidewards flow at the highest AGS energy for Au beams(11 A GeV) has been reported by the E877 collaboration, which has correlated the effect with pion interferometry measurements to identify possible dynamical correlations in the collision. Finally, at the highest energies currently available, the NA49 collaboration has found sidewards flow at SPS energies (160 A GeV); preliminary comparisons to RQMD calculations indicate that the model reproduces the flow well. At all of these bombarding energies (over 3 orders of magnitude!), the particle spectra show a strong non-thermal component which has been identified as largely isotropic or "radial" flow. While the sidewards flow accounts for only ~5% of emitted particles' energy, roughly 30-50% of the energy of emitted particles is found in radial flow. Several groups are

  2. Test Reference Year (TRY). Final report. [Weather data collection for building energy demand calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-08-01

    The Test Reference Year (TRY) for a specified location is a data collection consisting of 8760 sets of hourly weather data. Its main objective is to provide data for computerized calculations regarding energy conservation, energy consumption in buildings, and indoor climate. This report recommends a suitable format for such a TRY, describes which weather data are mandatory for such a TRY to meet the main objective, and recommends how it can be published. The report does not recommend any specific procedure for generating or selecting a TRY for a given location.

  3. Up and away in the potential landscape of diatomic molecule potential energy curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stwalley, William C.

    2016-12-01

    The understanding of the potential curves of a given molecule has expanded in many ways during my last 52 years as an experimental and theoretical molecular chemist/physicist in graduate school in Chemistry at Harvard and in both the Chemistry and Physics Departments at University of Iowa and University of Connecticut. This expansion has been up in energy and vibrational and rotational quantum numbers and away from Re to long range as well. It is clear that Prof. Robert Le Roy, who I have known since the late 1960s, has made many important and greatly appreciated contributions to the landscape I describe below from my personal perspective, especially with regard to long range molecules and solution of the radial Schrödinger equations and related calculations.

  4. French Brittany macroalgae screening: composition and methane potential for potential alternative sources of energy and products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jard, G; Marfaing, H; Carrère, H; Delgenes, J P; Steyer, J P; Dumas, C

    2013-09-01

    Macroalgae are biomass resources that represent a valuable feedstock to be used entirely for human consumption or for food additives after some extractions (mainly colloids) and/or for energy production. In order to better develop the algal sector, it is important to determine the capacity of macroalgae to produce these added-values molecules for food and/or for energy industries on the basis of their biochemical characteristics. In this study, ten macroalgae obtained from French Brittany coasts (France) were selected. The global biochemical composition (proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, fibers), the presence and characteristics of added-values molecules (alginates, polyphenols) and the biochemical methane potential of these algae were determined. Regarding its biochemical composition, Palmaria palmata is interesting for food (rich in nutrients) and for anaerobic digestion (0.279 LCH4/gVS). Saccharina latissima could be used for alginate extraction (242 g/kgTS, ratio between mannuronic and guluronic acid M/G=1.4) and Sargassum muticum for polyphenol extraction (19.8 g/kgTS).

  5. The Potential for Scaling Up a Fog Collection System on the Eastern Escarpment of Eritrea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mussie Fessehaye

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Fog is an untapped natural resource. A number of studies have been undertaken to understand its potential as an alternative or complementary water source. In 2007, a pilot fog-collection project was implemented in 2 villages on the Eastern Escarpment of Eritrea. The government of Eritrea, buoyed by the project’s positive results, has encouraged research into and application of fog-collection technologies to alleviate water-supply problems in this region. In 2014, this study was undertaken to assess the coverage, prevalence, intensity, and seasonality of fog on the Eastern Escarpment of Eritrea and consequently to identify potential beneficiary villages. Three independent methods used in the study—satellite image analyses, personal interviews, and a standard fog collector—produced reasonably similar characterizations of fog coverage and timing. The period with high fog incidence is mainly between November and March, with the highest number of fog days per year (96 on the central Eastern Escarpment and decreasing frequency to the south (78 days and north (73 days. The fog intensity on the central Eastern Escarpment is very high and in most cases reduces visibility to less than 500 m. In this period, a light to moderate breeze blows predominantly from the north and northeast. More than half of the villages in the region currently have a reliable water-supply system. The rest depend on seasonal roof-water harvesting, rock-water harvesting, and truck delivery and, therefore, could potentially benefit from fog collection as a supplementary water source. In particular, fog water could be useful for a small number of beneficiaries, including public services like schools and health facilities, where conventional water-delivery systems are not viable.

  6. Potential of sustainable energy with regard to engineering structures. WINN Energy from Water; Potentie duurzame energie bij kunstwerken. WINN Energie uit water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Jong, R.J. [Deltares, Delft (Netherlands); Slootjes, N. [HKV Lijn in Water, Lelystad (Netherlands); Van den Noortgaete, T. [Royal Haskoning, Amersfoort (Netherlands)

    2009-11-15

    This exploratory study focuses on the options of generating electrical energy from flowing water of constructions. Machines that could be suitable for other locations are also indicated. Remarks on deployment of hydropower in future constructions are also included [Dutch] Deze verkennende studie richt zich op de mogelijkheden bij bestaande kunstwerken elektrische energie uit stromend water op te wekken. Mogelijke machines voor andere locaties worden ook aangegeven. Opmerkingen over toepassing van waterkracht bij toekomstige werken zijn ook opgenomen.

  7. Automated Data Collection for Determining Statistical Distributions of Module Power Undergoing Potential-Induced Degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hacke, Peter; Spataru, Sergiu

    We propose a method for increasing the frequency of data collection and reducing the time and cost of accelerated lifetime testing of photovoltaic modules undergoing potential-induced degradation (PID). This consists of in-situ measurements of dark current-voltage curves of the modules at elevated...... stress temperature, their use to determine the maximum power at 25°C standard test conditions (STC), and distribution statistics for determining degradation rates as a function of stress level. The semi-continuous data obtained by this method clearly show degradation curves of the maximum power...

  8. Fuels from solar energy: photosynthetic systems--state of the art and potential for energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, J.C.

    1978-07-01

    Research on the mass culturing of microalgae has been carried out over the past 30 years in many parts of the world. Today there are numerous potential applications for algal mass cultures including protein production, wastewater treatment, water renovation, closed life-support systems, production of commercial chemicals, aquaculture, and bioconversion of energy. Photosynthetic yields over 30 gr dry wt m/sup -2/ day/sup -1/ have been attained on occasion in many locations for short periods and yields between 15 to 25 gr dry wt m/sup -2/ day/sup -1/ for longer periods are now common. This apparent upper limit in productivity is not coincidental. Under outdoor conditions peak yields are possible only under conditions of light limitation. Photosynthetic algae absorb light energy and convert it to stored chemical energy under rigid adherence to the laws of thermodynamics. By examining the basic physics of photosynthesis, it is possible to clearly demonstrate that under conditions of full sunlight in the most ideal locations maximum yields of 30 to 40 gr m/sup -2/ day/sup -1/ can be expected. For long-term operation of large-scale outdoor cultures, many bioengineering factors are involved and realistic yields considerably less than the maximum potential can be anticipated. Manipulation of the two independent variables, flow rate and depth, is the key to maximizing yields for varying outdoor sunlight intensities. Future applications for algal mass cultures will probably be restricted to small well-managed systems for solving specific environmental problems in individual communities and not on the grand scale envisaged in the past.

  9. Determining the potential of inedible weed biomass for bio-energy and ethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siripong Premjet

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Surveys of indigenous weeds in six provinces located in the low northern part of Thailand were undertaken to determine the potential of weed biomass for bio-energy and bio-ethanol. The results reveal that most of the weed samples had low moisture contents and high lower heating values (LHVs. The LHVs at the highest level, ranging from 17.7 to 18.9 Mg/kg, and at the second highest level, ranging from 16.4 to 17.6 Mg/kg, were obtained from 11 and 31 weed species, respectively. It was found that most of the collected weed samples contained high cellulose and low lignin contents. Additionally, an estimate of the theoretical ethanol yields based on the amount of cellulose and hemicellulose in each weed species indicated that a high ethanol yield resulted from weed biomasses with high cellulose and hemicellulose contents. Among the collected weed species, the highest level of ethanol yield, ranging from 478.9 to 548.5 L/ton (substrate, was achieved from 11 weed species. It was demonstrated that most of the collected weed species tested have the potential for thermal conversion and can be used as substrates for ethanol production.

  10. National Renewable Energy Laboratory information resources catalogue. A collection of energy efficiency and renewable energy information resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-31

    NREL`s first annual Information Resources Catalogue is intended to inform anyone interested in energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies of NREL`s outreach activities, including publications and services. For ease of use, all entries are categorized by subject. The catalogue is separated into six main sections. The first section lists and describes services that are available through NREL and how they may be assessed. The second section contains a list of documents that are published by NREL on a regular or periodic basis. The third section highlights NREL`s series publications written for specific audiences and presenting a wide range of subjects. NREL`s General Interest Publications constitute the fourth section of the catalogue and are written for nontechnical audiences. Descriptions are provided for these publications. The fifth section contains Technical Reports that detail research and development projects. The section on Conference Papers/Journal Articles/Book Chapters makes up the sixth and final section of the catalogue.

  11. Holographic lens spectrum splitting photovoltaic system for increased diffuse collection and annual energy yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorndran, Shelby D.; Wu, Yuechen; Ayala, Silvana; Kostuk, Raymond K.

    2015-09-01

    Concentrating and spectrum splitting photovoltaic (PV) modules have a limited acceptance angle and thus suffer from optical loss under off-axis illumination. This loss manifests itself as a substantial reduction in energy yield in locations where a significant portion of insulation is diffuse. In this work, a spectrum splitting PV system is designed to efficiently collect and convert light in a range of illumination conditions. The system uses a holographic lens to concentrate shortwavelength light onto a smaller, more expensive indium gallium phosphide (InGaP) PV cell. The high efficiency PV cell near the axis is surrounded with silicon (Si), a less expensive material that collects a broader portion of the solar spectrum. Under direct illumination, the device achieves increased conversion efficiency from spectrum splitting. Under diffuse illumination, the device collects light with efficiency comparable to a flat-panel Si module. Design of the holographic lens is discussed. Optical efficiency and power output of the module under a range of illumination conditions from direct to diffuse are simulated with non-sequential raytracing software. Using direct and diffuse Typical Metrological Year (TMY3) irradiance measurements, annual energy yield of the module is calculated for several installation sites. Energy yield of the spectrum splitting module is compared to that of a full flat-panel Si reference module.

  12. Study of energy conservation potential in the baking industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-05-01

    The U.S. baking industry consumes more than 82 trillion BTU/yr or 7% of the gross energy used by the U.S. food system. In order to establish energy saving possibilities in the baking industry, energy audits were performed for 5 bakery plants. These audits resulted in suggestions for formal programs for energy conservation and involve changes in operating procedures, equipment improvement, increased thermal insulation in buildings and equipment, recovery of waste heat, and the substitution of fossil fuel for higher cost electric power for heating. The economic advantages of such modifications are given. (LCL)

  13. Jet energy loss and bulk parton collectivity in nucleus-nucleus collisions at RHIC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Huan-Zhong

    2009-01-01

    Nucleus-nucleus collisions at RHIC produce high temperature and high energy density matter which exhibits paxtonic degrees of freedom. We will discuss measurements of nuclear modification factors for light hadrons and non-photonic electrons from heavy quark decays, which reflect the flavor dependence of energy loss of high momentum partons traversing the dense QCD medium. The dense QCD medium responds to energy loss of high momentum patrons in a pattern consistent with that expected from a hydrodynamic fluid. The hadronization of bulk partonic matter exhibits collectivity with effective partonic degrees of freedom. Nuclear collisions at RHIC provide an intriguing environment, where many constituent quark ingredients are readily available for possible formation of exotic particles through quark coalescence or recombinations.

  14. Collection of low-grade waste heat for enhanced energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dede, Ercan M.; Schmalenberg, Paul; Wang, Chi-Ming; Zhou, Feng; Nomura, Tsuyoshi

    2016-05-01

    Enhanced energy harvesting through the collection of low-grade waste heat is experimentally demonstrated. A structural optimization technique is exploited in the design of a thermal-composite substrate to guide and gather the heat emanating from multiple sources to a predetermined location. A thermoelectric generator is then applied at the selected focusing region to convert the resulting low-grade waste heat to electrical power. The thermal characteristics of the device are experimentally verified by direct temperature measurements of the system and numerically validated via heat conduction simulations. Electrical performance under natural and forced convection is measured, and in both cases, the device with optimized heat flow control plus energy harvesting demonstrates increased power generation when compared with a baseline waste heat recovery system. Electronics applications include energy scavenging for autonomously powered sensor networks or self-actuated devices.

  15. Collection of low-grade waste heat for enhanced energy harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ercan M. Dede

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced energy harvesting through the collection of low-grade waste heat is experimentally demonstrated. A structural optimization technique is exploited in the design of a thermal-composite substrate to guide and gather the heat emanating from multiple sources to a predetermined location. A thermoelectric generator is then applied at the selected focusing region to convert the resulting low-grade waste heat to electrical power. The thermal characteristics of the device are experimentally verified by direct temperature measurements of the system and numerically validated via heat conduction simulations. Electrical performance under natural and forced convection is measured, and in both cases, the device with optimized heat flow control plus energy harvesting demonstrates increased power generation when compared with a baseline waste heat recovery system. Electronics applications include energy scavenging for autonomously powered sensor networks or self-actuated devices.

  16. Seasonality on the antifungal potential of green propolis collected in Campo Grande - MS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Martini

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Apis melífera L. propolis is a resinous and balsamic material whose biological effects are related to its chemical composition. This chemical composition is greatly influenced by seasonality, so propolis from different seasons and regions has a different chemical composition. The increasing need for natural options to control fungi that cause damage to food crops makes propolis an alternative that deserves more research. In this context, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of seasonality on the antifungal potential of propolis collected in Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, on the fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae . Effects of different concentrations of ethanolic extracts of green propolis on the mycelial growth of the pathogen were evaluated. Concentrations of flavonoids and phenolic compounds in the samples were also determined by spectrophotometric methods. Results showed that the propolis extracts have a different chemical composition, potential fungi static effects on the tested fungus, and that there is interference of seasonality on the mycelial growth of the fungus, pointing to the concentration of 1250µg 100mL-1of the samples collected in the summer, in a first moment, as the most efficient.

  17. Potential Energy Savings in Refrigeration Systems Using Optimal Setpoints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Finn Slot; Thybo, Claus

    2004-01-01

    Energy efficiency of refrigeration systems has gradually been improved with help of control schemes utilizing the more flexible components. This paper proposes an approach in line with this trend, where a suboptimal condenser pressure is found in order to minimize the energy consumption. The obje......Energy efficiency of refrigeration systems has gradually been improved with help of control schemes utilizing the more flexible components. This paper proposes an approach in line with this trend, where a suboptimal condenser pressure is found in order to minimize the energy consumption....... The objective is to give an idea of how this optimization scheme works as well as to show what amount of energy it is possible to save. A steady state model of a simple refrigeration system will be used as a basis for the optimization....

  18. Light and energy and architecture. Potentials in transparent solar cells; Lys og energi og arkitektur. Potentialer i transparente solceller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Ellen Kathrine; Hilberth, T.R.; Munk, L.

    2008-04-15

    This publication aims to inspire and challenge to: 1) transform energy technology to architectural potentials, 2) introduce visions about daylight's potential into the energy debate, and 3) develop new strategies for interdisciplinary collaboration. In addition to converting solar energy to electricity transparent solar cells can be integrated into glass facades and thereby regulate indoor climate and daylight intake. Furthermore solar cells can contribute new visual dimensions. (BA)

  19. Assessment of grid-friendly collective optimization framework for distributed energy resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pensini, Alessandro; Robinson, Matthew; Heine, Nicholas; Stadler, Michael; Mammoli, Andrea

    2015-11-04

    Distributed energy resources have the potential to provide services to facilities and buildings at lower cost and environmental impact in comparison to traditional electric-gridonly services. The reduced cost could result from a combination of higher system efficiency and exploitation of electricity tariff structures. Traditionally, electricity tariffs are designed to encourage the use of ‘off peak’ power and discourage the use of ‘onpeak’ power, although recent developments in renewable energy resources and distributed generation systems (such as their increasing levels of penetration and their increased controllability) are resulting in pressures to adopt tariffs of increasing complexity. Independently of the tariff structure, more or less sophisticated methods exist that allow distributed energy resources to take advantage of such tariffs, ranging from simple pre-planned schedules to Software-as-a-Service schedule optimization tools. However, as the penetration of distributed energy resources increases, there is an increasing chance of a ‘tragedy of the commons’ mechanism taking place, where taking advantage of tariffs for local benefit can ultimately result in degradation of service and higher energy costs for all. In this work, we use a scheduling optimization tool, in combination with a power distribution system simulator, to investigate techniques that could mitigate the deleterious effect of ‘selfish’ optimization, so that the high-penetration use of distributed energy resources to reduce operating costs remains advantageous while the quality of service and overall energy cost to the community is not affected.

  20. The Fractional Virial Potential Energy in Two-Component Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caimmi, R.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Two-component systems are conceived as macrogases, and the related equation of state is expressed using the virial theorem for subsystems, under the restriction of homeoidally striated density profiles. Explicit calculations are performed for a useful reference case and a few cases of astrophysical interest, both with and without truncation radius. Shallower density profiles are found to yield an equation of state, $phi=phi(y,m$, characterized (for assigned values of the fractional mass, $m=M_j/ M_i$ by the occurrence of two extremum points, a minimum and a maximum, as found in an earlier attempt. Steeper density profiles produce a similar equation of state, which implies that a special value of $m$ is related to a critical curve where the above mentioned extremum points reduce to a single horizontal inflexion point, and curves below the critical one show no extremum points. The similarity of the isofractional mass curves to van der Waals' isothermal curves, suggests the possibility of a phase transition in a bell-shaped region of the $({sf O}yphi$ plane, where the fractional truncation radius along a selected direction is $y=R_j/R_i$, and the fractional virial potential energy is $phi=(E_{ji}_mathrm{vir}/(E_{ij}_mathrm{vir}$. Further investigation is devoted to mass distributions described by Hernquist (1990 density profiles, for which an additional relation can be used to represent a sample of $N=16$ elliptical galaxies (EGs on the $({sf O}yphi$ plane. Even if the evolution of elliptical galaxies and their hosting dark matter (DM haloes, in the light of the model, has been characterized by equal fractional mass, $m$, and equal scaled truncation radius, or concentration, $Xi_u=R_u/r_u^dagger$, $u=i,j$, still it cannot be considered as strictly homologous, due to different values of fractional truncation radii, $y$, or fractional scaling radii, $y^dagger=r_j^dagger/r_i^dagger$, deduced from sample objects.

  1. The potential for energy conservation in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsmith, R.S. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The period of high oil prices between 1973 and 1985 was traumatic in the United States, as it was also in the rest of the world. It was also instructive in showing the kinds of adaptation that could occur rapidly in a very large industrialized economy. During the period, energy use remained essentially constant while the economy continued to grow. The efficiency of energy use, as indicated by the ratio of energy consumption to gross domestic product, increased by 24 percent. Since 1985 there has been little further improvement in energy efficiency. Can this kind of improvement in efficiency be repeated, and if so, what can make it happen? A number of energy analysts have recently made projections for the next 20 years. The projections all indicate steady increases of about 1 percent per year in the level of energy use. Since these projections assumed that gross domestic product will increase by about 2.3 percent per year, the implication is that energy efficiency is expected to increase slowly during the next two decades.

  2. Wind energy potential in the site of Batna in Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aksas, M. [Batna Univ. (Algeria). Dept. of Physics

    2010-07-01

    Algeria has launched a national program that promotes the use of renewable energy sources in the frame of its sustainable energy development plan for 2020. The first target is to increase electricity production by renewable energies to 10-12 per cent of the total production by 2015. Wind energy is the fastest growing source of renewable energy in the world, with an average growth rate of 30 per cent. New technological developments in wind energy design have contributed to this significant growth. Hybrid wind and solar systems are also possible economical alternative for isolated and remote areas. The objective of this study was to establish an accurate assessment of the wind energy resource in the region of Batna in the North East of Algeria. Hourly measured long term wind speed data of Batna during the period of 1999-2008 were statistically analyzed. The probability density distributions were then derived from long term wind speed data and the distributional parameters were identified. Annual mean values of wind speed and power were also calculated. The frequency distribution of daily totals of wind speed data were counted. The mean annual value of Weibull shape parameter k was 1.61 while the annual value of the scale parameter c was 4.91 m/s. 19 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  3. Energy Savings Potential for Pumping Water in District Heating Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Sarbu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In district heating stations, the heat carrier is circulated between the energy source and consumers by a pumping system. Fluid handling systems, such as pumping systems, are responsible for a significant portion of the total electrical energy use. Significant opportunities exist to reduce pumping energy through smart design, retrofitting, and operating practices. Most existing systems requiring flow control make use of bypass lines, throttling valves or pump speed adjustments. The most efficient of these options is pump speed control. One of the issues in using variable-speed pumping systems, however, is the total efficiency of the electric motor/pump arrangement under a given operating condition. This paper provides a comprehensive discussion about pump control in heating stations and analyzes the energy efficiency of flow control methods. Specific attention is also given to the selection of motor types, sizing and pump duty cycle. A comparative energy analysis is performed on the hot water discharge adjustment using throttling control valves and variable-speed drives in a district heating station constructed in Romania. To correlate the pumped flow rate with the heat demand and to ensure the necessary pressure using minimum energy, an automatic system has been designed. The performances of these control methods are evaluated in two practical applications. The results show that approximately 20%–50% of total pumping energy could be saved by using the optimal control method with variable-speed pumps. Additionally, some modernization solutions to reduce the environmental impact of heating stations are described.

  4. Informal sector energy use in Tanzania. Efficiency and employment potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosier, R. [Center for Energy and the Environment, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    1994-06-01

    The informal sector in Tanzania contains a large number of small-scale business entrepreneurs filling a largely service role in the economy. The subsectors of the informal sector included in this study were food preparation, beer brewing, grain milling, carpentry, metal working and auto repairs. Over the past several years, women have entered into this subsector as part of economic survival activities. In terms of energy efficiency, the food preparation subsectors are the least efficient, while the welders and carpenters tend to be the most efficient, as the latter make use of electricity and the former utilize traditional fuels. However, the energy use of the informal sector is limited by capital limitations - informal cement and fertilizer factories simply do not exist. To a certain scale, energy efficiency follows capital intensity in the formal sector. The most capital intensive subsectors demonstrate the smallest gross energy requirements as they make greater use of modern fuels. The least capital intensive firms utilize the most energy in the form of traditional fuels. The energy-use patterns of the informal sector differ in the same way as the overall energy consumption patterns of the three cities. 6 tabs

  5. Energy production study of crops with biofuel potential in Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donato, Lidia; Huerga, Ignacio; Hilbert, Jorge [Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria (CIA/INTA), Buenos Aires (Argentina). Centro de Investigacion de Agroindustria. Inst. de Ingenieria Rural], Emails: ingdonato@cnia.inta.gov.ar, ihuerga@cnia.inta.gov.ar, hilbert@cnia.inta.gov.ar

    2008-07-01

    The present study is focus on the final energy balance of bioenergy production in Argentina using soybean, sunflower, rapeseed, corn and sorghum as feedstocks. The balance considers the difference between the energy contained per unit and the amount used for its generation in all the different steps from sowing to final destination. For direct energy consumption Costo Maq software was employed using local fuel consumption forecast for each field labor. Particular attention is paid to the energy consumption in the agricultural steps considering the distinctive no till system spread out in Argentina that has a very low energy input. Direct and indirect energy were considered in the different steps of bioethanol and biodiesel generation. Industrial conversion consumption was based on international literature data. Comparisons were made between tilled and no till practices and considering or not the energy contained in co products. Results indicate a balance ranging from 0.96 to 1.54 not considering the co products. If co products were introduced the balances ranged between 1.09 and 4.67. (author)

  6. Potential of energy savings in the hotel sector in Jordan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Y.; Mustafa, M.; Al-Mashaqbah, S.; Mashal, K.; Mohsen, M. [Hashemite Univ., Zarqa (Jordan)

    2007-07-01

    The number of different types of tourism accommodation has been growing over the past few years. The country of Jordan will face significant challenges in trying to meet the growing energy need and electricity demands while, at the same time, developing the energy sector in a way that minimizes the adverse impacts on the economy, the environment, and social life. This paper discussed energy consumption in the tourist accommodation sector in Jordan. It presented an evaluation of energy conservation in hotels based on a recent survey on environmental performance in Jordan's tourism sector. A survey was designed and distributed to hotels managers and supervisors during August 2006. Field visits were also conducted. The findings focused on several themes, including electricity and diesel fuel consumption and the willingness to adopt energy efficient procedures. such as switching incandescent bulbs to energy saving light bulbs, installing power monitoring systems and using energy efficient appliances. It was concluded that most electricity was consumed for lighting and air-conditioning. 18 refs., 7 tabs., 3 figs.

  7. Potential of energy savings in the hotel sector in Jordan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Yahya [Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Hashemite University, Zarqa 13115 (Jordan); Mustafa, Mairna [Department of Sustainable Tourism, Queen Rania' s Institute of Tourism and Heritage, Hashemite University, Zarqa 13115 (Jordan); Al-Mashaqbah, Shireen [International Office, Hashemite University, Zarqa 13115 (Jordan); Mashal, Kholoud [Department of Land Management and Environment, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environment, Hashemite University, Zarqa 13115 (Jordan); Mohsen, Mousa [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Hashemite University, Zarqa 13115 (Jordan)

    2008-11-15

    This paper presents some insights into Jordan's energy consumption in the tourist accommodation sector. The results of a recent survey on environmental performance in the tourist accommodation sector in Jordan were used to evaluate energy conservation in hotels. A survey was designed and distributed to hotels' managers and departments' supervisors in order to understand the environmental performance in the tourist accommodation sector in Jordan during the period 10-17 August 2006. Also some field visits were conducted to fully understand hotels interaction regarding the environment, in addition to help interpreting the results of the survey. The study is limited to all classified hotels in Jordan. It was found that lighting hotels' main building and outside areas, and air conditioning consume more electricity compared to other departments. The results show that few classified hotels already installed energy saving equipments, though, it was noticed that managers of one star hotels were not really willing to make such changes in their hotels, on the other hand, other classified hotels (2-5 star hotels) have shown a high willingness to make changes in their hotels to reduce the consumption of different types of energy. Hotel's classification played a significant role in explaining variations in most of the results, particularly when it comes to long-term investments to reduce energy consumption by using energy efficient appliances. Five and four star hotels were the most hotels willing to use energy efficient appliances to reduce energy consumption. The study suggested some strategies to help reduce the negative impacts of high energy consumption in hotels. These strategies include better insulation, and enhanced insulation for the hot water reticulation system. Moreover, enhancing and increasing the level of awareness among all hoteliers through a directed and well-designed campaign. Also offer interest free loans; and activate precise

  8. Airports offer unrealized potential for alternative energy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVault, Travis L; Belant, Jerrold L; Blackwell, Bradley F; Martin, James A; Schmidt, Jason A; Wes Burger, L; Patterson, James W

    2012-03-01

    Scaling up for alternative energy such as solar, wind, and biofuel raises a number of environmental issues, notably changes in land use and adverse effects on wildlife. Airports offer one of the few land uses where reductions in wildlife abundance and habitat quality are necessary and socially acceptable, due to risk of wildlife collisions with aircraft. There are several uncertainties and limitations to establishing alternative energy production at airports, such as ensuring these facilities do not create wildlife attractants or other hazards. However, with careful planning, locating alternative energy projects at airports could help mitigate many of the challenges currently facing policy makers, developers, and conservationists.

  9. Microscopic Calculation of IBM Parameters by Potential Energy Surface Mapping

    CERN Document Server

    Bentley, I

    2011-01-01

    A coherent state technique is used to generate an Interacting Boson Model (IBM) Hamiltonian energy surface that simulates a mean field energy surface. The method presented here has some significant advantages over previous work. Specifically, that this can be a completely predictive requiring no a priori knowledge of the IBM parameters. The technique allows for the prediction of the low lying energy spectra and electromagnetic transition rates which are of astrophysical interest. Results and comparison with experiment are included for krypton, molybdenum, palladium, cadmium, gadolinium, dysprosium and erbium nuclei.

  10. Energy efficiency improvement potentials and a low energy demand scenario for the global industrial sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kermeli, Katerina; Graus, Wina H J; Worrell, Ernst

    2014-01-01

    The adoption of energy efficiency measures can significantly reduce industrial energy use. This study estimates the future industrial energy consumption under two energy demand scenarios: (1) a reference scenario that follows business as usual trends and (2) a low energy demand scenario that takes i

  11. Energy potential mapping: visualising energy characteristics for the exergetic optimisation of the built environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broersma, S.; Fremouw, M.A.; Van den Dobbelsteen, A.A.J.F.

    2013-01-01

    It is difficult to fully satisfy the energy demand of today’s society with renewables. Nevertheless, most of the energy we use is lost as non-functional waste energy, whereas a large part of the built environment’s energy demand is only for low-quality energy, so the initial demand for primary,

  12. Energy efficiency improvement potentials and a low energy demand scenario for the global industrial sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kermeli, Katerina; Graus, Wina H J; Worrell, Ernst

    2014-01-01

    The adoption of energy efficiency measures can significantly reduce industrial energy use. This study estimates the future industrial energy consumption under two energy demand scenarios: (1) a reference scenario that follows business as usual trends and (2) a low energy demand scenario that takes

  13. Energy potential mapping: visualising energy characteristics for the exergetic optimisation of the built environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broersma, S.; Fremouw, M.A.; Van den Dobbelsteen, A.A.J.F.

    2013-01-01

    It is difficult to fully satisfy the energy demand of today’s society with renewables. Nevertheless, most of the energy we use is lost as non-functional waste energy, whereas a large part of the built environment’s energy demand is only for low-quality energy, so the initial demand for primary, high

  14. An investigation on the fuel savings potential of hybrid hydraulic refuse collection vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Frank A; Bosse, Thomas; Sawodny, Oliver

    2014-09-01

    Refuse trucks play an important role in the waste collection process. Due to their typical driving cycle, these vehicles are characterized by large fuel consumption, which strongly affects the overall waste disposal costs. Hybrid hydraulic refuse vehicles offer an interesting alternative to conventional diesel trucks, because they are able to recuperate, store and reuse braking energy. However, the expected fuel savings can vary strongly depending on the driving cycle and the operational mode. Therefore, in order to assess the possible fuel savings, a typical driving cycle was measured in a conventional vehicle run by the waste authority of the City of Stuttgart, and a dynamical model of the considered vehicle was built up. Based on the measured driving cycle and the vehicle model including the hybrid powertrain components, simulations for both the conventional and the hybrid vehicle were performed. Fuel consumption results that indicate savings of about 20% are presented and analyzed in order to evaluate the benefit of hybrid hydraulic vehicles used for refuse collection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Swim performance and energy homeostasis in spottail shiner (Notropis hudsonius) collected downstream of a uranium mill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goertzen, Meghan M; Hauck, Dominic W; Phibbs, James; Weber, Lynn P; Janz, David M

    2012-01-01

    The Key Lake uranium milling operation (Saskatchewan, Canada) releases complex effluent into the local watershed. The objective of the current study was to investigate whether fish from an effluent-receiving waterbody exhibited differences in swimming performance and energy homeostasis compared to fish from a local reference site. Juvenile spottail shiner (Notropis hudsonius) were collected from a lake downstream of the uranium mill, and compared to fish collected from a nearby reference lake. Critical swimming speed (U(crit); fatigue velocity), tail beat frequency, and tail amplitude did not differ significantly when comparing fish collected from the exposure lake and reference lake. Captured shiner used in swim tests were considered fatigued, and metabolic endpoints were compared between this group and non-fatigued fish, which were treated similarly but not subjected to swim tests. In both non-fatigued and fatigued shiner, liver glycogen was significantly greater in fish collected from the exposure lake compared to the reference lake. However, it is unclear if this effect, and others related to condition, were the result of contaminant exposure or other environmental factors. While there were no differences in plasma lactate, hematocrit or liver triglycerides in non-fatigued fish between sites, only fatigued reference fish had increased lactate and hematocrit and decreased triglycerides. In non-fatigued fish, plasma glucose did not significantly differ between sites, but significantly decreased after swimming only in fish from the exposure lake. In summary, shiner from the exposure site demonstrated similar swim endurance and possessed greater energy stores despite metabolic alterations compared to shiner from the reference site. Therefore, because fish collected downstream of the uranium mill operation had similar swimming ability as fish from the reference lake, U(crit) test results presented here may not reflect or be indicative of metabolic effects of complex

  16. Potential sustainable energy source: Pheroid™ with incorporated light harvesting materials

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smit, Jacoba E

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available . In the photosynthetic system light energy is absorbed by antenna chlorophylls and this energy is then passed onto a reaction centre chlorophyll molecule where charge separation occurs [1] in less than 100 ps and at about 95% efficiency [2]. It has been shown...-based combinations, which enables the production of small, elastic artificial vesicles, called Pheroid™. Previous work has shown that photosynthetic light harvesting material can be incorporated into the Pheroid™ (Figure 1). Figure 1: Examples of photosynthetic...

  17. Chapter 2: Assessing the Potential Energy Impacts of Clean Energy Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assessing the Multiple Benefits of Clean Energy” helps state energy, environmental, and economic policy makers identify and quantify the many benefits of clean energy to support the development and implementation of cost-effective clean energy initiatives

  18. Fossil energy and rural reconstruction: Potential for sustainable development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaarsma, Catharinus F.; van Lier, Hubert N. (Department of Physical Planning and Rural Development, Wageningen Agricultural University, Wageningen, (Netherlands))

    1993-12-01

    Environmental problems such as smog, acid rain and the greenhouse effect have drawn increased attention to the role of fossil energy. To obtain sustainable development, a reduction in fossil energy consumption is necessary, in urban as well as in rural areas. In rural areas, land use and land exploitation as well as energy consumption depend on such factors as soil properties, water management systems and physical layout. These factors, and in this way the energy consumption, can be influenced by rural reconstructions. Modern rural reconstructions aim at improvement of land and water use conditions, accessibility, and conditions for outdoor recreation and for nature development. Energy productivity and consumption for various land uses as related to reconstruction of the countryside have been studied. This research paper focuses on the improvement of water management and parcellation, the rural road system, outdoor recreation and landscape-ecological systems. Results are applied to the Melderslo Land Reallocation Project in the southern Province of Limburg, in the Netherlands. Environmental problems require a reduction in fossil energy consumption, part of which has to be achieved in rural areas. This study shows that rural reconstruction can contribute to this goal

  19. Experimental Energy Consumption of Frame Slotted ALOHA and Distributed Queuing for Data Collection Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pere Tuset-Peiro

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Data collection is a key scenario for the Internet of Things because it enables gathering sensor data from distributed nodes that use low-power and long-range wireless technologies to communicate in a single-hop approach. In this kind of scenario, the network is composed of one coordinator that covers a particular area and a large number of nodes, typically hundreds or thousands, that transmit data to the coordinator upon request. Considering this scenario, in this paper we experimentally validate the energy consumption of two Medium Access Control (MAC protocols, Frame Slotted ALOHA (FSA and Distributed Queuing (DQ. We model both protocols as a state machine and conduct experiments to measure the average energy consumption in each state and the average number of times that a node has to be in each state in order to transmit a data packet to the coordinator. The results show that FSA is more energy efficient than DQ if the number of nodes is known a priori because the number of slots per frame can be adjusted accordingly. However, in such scenarios the number of nodes cannot be easily anticipated, leading to additional packet collisions and a higher energy consumption due to retransmissions. Contrarily, DQ does not require to know the number of nodes in advance because it is able to efficiently construct an ad hoc network schedule for each collection round. This kind of a schedule ensures that there are no packet collisions during data transmission, thus leading to an energy consumption reduction above 10% compared to FSA.

  20. Current status and future potential of energy derived from Chinese agricultural land: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Ningning; Mao, Chunlan; Feng, Yongzhong; Zhang, Tong; Xing, Zhenjie; Wang, Yanhong; Zou, Shuzhen; Yin, Dongxue; Han, Xinhui; Ren, Guangxin; Yang, Gaihe

    2015-01-01

    Energy crisis is receiving attention with regard to the global economy and environmental sustainable development. Developing new energy resources to optimize the energy supply structure has become an important measure to prevent energy shortage as well as achieving energy conservation and emission reduction in China. This study proposed the concept of energy agriculture and constructed an energy agricultural technical support system based on the analysis of energy supply and demand and China's foreign dependence on energy resources, combined with the function of agriculture in the energy field. Manufacturing technology equipment and agricultural and forestry energy, including crop or forestry plants and animal feces, were used in the system. The current status and future potential of China's marginal land resources, energy crop germplasm resources, and agricultural and forestry waste energy-oriented resources were analyzed. Developing the function of traditional agriculture in food production may promote China's social, economic, and environmental sustainable development and achieve energy saving and emission reduction.

  1. Soil-based treatments of mechanically collected cyanobacterial blooms from Lake Taihu: efficiencies and potential risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Jia, Yunlu; Li, Enhua; Zhao, Shuang; Zhou, Qichao; Liu, Liming; Song, Lirong

    2012-12-18

    In China, mechanical collection of cyanoblooms followed by soil-based treatments has been widely used as emergency strategies in many eutrophicated freshwaters. This study was to evaluate both efficiencies and potential risks of typical soil-based technologies. Results from this study indicated that over 90% of cyanobacterial biomass and 96% of dissolved microcystins (MCs) could be restrained in soils via three-level systems, which were much better than single-level systems. High concentrations of MCs, ranged from 65 to 276 ng g⁻¹ and from 2.12 to 6.6 ng g⁻¹, were found in soils around treatment systems and croplands, respectively. In the soil solutions, MCs ranged from 0.35 to 2.0 μg L⁻¹, showing a potentially high leaching risk. In the samples from shallow groundwater near the treatment systems, MC concentrations were detected as high as 1.2 μg L⁻¹. Moreover, bioaccumulations of MCs varied between 22 and 365 μg kg⁻¹, and 19-222 μg kg⁻¹ were found in 13 kinds of crops and 7 kinds of wild grass, respectively. Our results indicated for the first time that current soil-based technologies were effective but could pose potential environmental, ecological, and public health risks. Further improvements of these technologies were also proposed based on our findings.

  2. Bioactive potential of some intertidal molluscs collected from Mumbai coast,West coast of India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Atul G Babar; Anant Pande; Balasaheb G Kulkarni

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To identify the bioactive potential of crude methanolic extracts of five gastropods and one bivalve collected from the west coast of India (Mumbai coast). Methods: Disc-diffusion assay and micro-dilution technique were used to test the bioactive potential of these molluscs against six pathogenic bacteria. Results: The crude methanolic extracts of all the molluscs showed significant activity against one or more bacteria tested. Minimum inhibitory concentration of crude methanolic extracts was found in the range of 0.10–0.35 mg/mL against human pathogenic bacterial strains. Hemifusus pugilinus and Nerita sp. extracts were most effective showing activity against all bacterial strains. Hemifusus pugilinus extract exhibited good activity against Vibrio cholerae contrary to earlier reports. Methanolic extract of Gafrarium divaricatum demonstrated considerable activity against both Escherichia coli and Streptococcus pyogenes. Trochus radiatus extract was inactive against all the bacteria tested except Escherichiacoli. Euchelus asper extract was active against Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Conclusions: All the molluscs screened exhibited potential activity against one or more bacterial strain. Further work is in progress to isolate the active constituents of the extracts.

  3. Calibrated energy simulations of potential energy savings in actual retail buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhafi, Zuhaira

    Retail stores are commercial buildings with high energy consumption due to their typically large volumes and long hours of operation. This dissertation assesses heating, ventilating and air conditioning saving strategies based on energy simulations with input parameters from actual retail buildings. The dissertation hypothesis is that "Retail store buildings will save a significant amount of energy by (1) modifying ventilation rates, and/or (2) resetting set point temperatures. These strategies have shown to be beneficial in previous studies. As presented in the literature review, potential energy savings ranged from 0.5% to 30% without compromising indoor thermal comfort and indoor air quality. The retail store buildings can be ventilated at rates significantly lower than rates called for in the ASHRAE Standard 62.1-2010 while maintaining acceptable indoor air quality. Therefore, two dissertation objectives are addressed: (1) Investigate opportunities to reduce ventilation rates that do not compromise indoor air quality in retail stores located in Central Pennsylvania, (2) Investigate opportunities to increase (in summer) and decrease (in winter) set point temperatures that do not compromise thermal comfort. This study conducted experimental measurements of ventilation rates required to maintain acceptable air quality and indoor environmental conditions requirements for two retail stores using ASHRAE Standard 62.1_2012. More specifically, among other parameters, occupancy density, indoor and outdoor pollutant concentrations, and indoor temperatures were measured continuously for one week interval. One of these retail stores were tested four times for a yearlong time period. Pollutants monitored were formaldehyde, carbon dioxide, particle size distributions and concentrations, as well as total volatile organic compounds. As a part of the base protocol, the number of occupants in each store was hourly counted during the test, and the results reveal that the occupant

  4. Crustal Gravitational Potential Energy Change and Subduction Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, P. P.

    2017-05-01

    Crustal gravitational potential energy (GPE) change induced by earthquakes is an important subject in geophysics and seismology. For the past forty years the research on this subject stayed in the stage of qualitative estimate. In recent few years the 3D dynamic faulting theory provided a quantitative solution of this subject. The theory deduced a quantitative calculating formula for the crustal GPE change using the mathematic method of tensor analysis under the principal stresses system. This formula contains only the vertical principal stress, rupture area, slip, dip, and rake; it does not include the horizontal principal stresses. It is just involved in simple mathematical operations and does not hold complicated surface or volume integrals. Moreover, the hanging wall vertical moving (up or down) height has a very simple expression containing only slip, dip, and rake. The above results are significant to investigate crustal GPE change. Commonly, the vertical principal stress is related to the gravitational field, substituting the relationship between the vertical principal stress and gravitational force into the above formula yields an alternative formula of crustal GPE change. The alternative formula indicates that even with lack of in situ borehole measured stress data, scientists can still quantitatively calculate crustal GPE change. The 3D dynamic faulting theory can be used for research on continental fault earthquakes; it also can be applied to investigate subduction earthquakes between oceanic and continental plates. Subduction earthquakes hold three types: (a) crust only on the vertical up side of the rupture area; (b) crust and seawater both on the vertical up side of the rupture area; (c) crust only on the vertical up side of the partial rupture area, and crust and seawater both on the vertical up side of the remaining rupture area. For each type we provide its quantitative formula of the crustal GPE change. We also establish a simplified model (called

  5. The Potential for Harvesting Energy from the Movement of Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Knight

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, wireless devices have decreased in size and power requirements. These devices generally use batteries as a power source but can employ additional means of power, such as solar, thermal or wind energy. However, sensor networks are often deployed in conditions of minimal lighting and thermal gradient such as densely wooded environments, where even normal wind energy harvesting is limited. In these cases a possible source of energy is from the motion of the trees themselves. We investigated the amount of energy and power available from the motion of a tree in a sheltered position, during Beaufort 4 winds. We measured the work performed by the tree to lift a mass, we measured horizontal acceleration of free movement, and we determined the angular deflection of the movement of the tree trunk, to determine the energy and power available to various types of harvesting devices. We found that the amount of power available from the tree, as demonstrated by lifting a mass, compares favourably with the power required to run a wireless sensor node.

  6. The potential for harvesting energy from the movement of trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarry, Scott; Knight, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Over the last decade, wireless devices have decreased in size and power requirements. These devices generally use batteries as a power source but can employ additional means of power, such as solar, thermal or wind energy. However, sensor networks are often deployed in conditions of minimal lighting and thermal gradient such as densely wooded environments, where even normal wind energy harvesting is limited. In these cases a possible source of energy is from the motion of the trees themselves. We investigated the amount of energy and power available from the motion of a tree in a sheltered position, during Beaufort 4 winds. We measured the work performed by the tree to lift a mass, we measured horizontal acceleration of free movement, and we determined the angular deflection of the movement of the tree trunk, to determine the energy and power available to various types of harvesting devices. We found that the amount of power available from the tree, as demonstrated by lifting a mass, compares favourably with the power required to run a wireless sensor node.

  7. Logging potentials and energy wood resources in southern Finland; Potentiaaliset hakkuumahdollisuudet ja energiapuuvarat Etelae- Suomessa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesonen, M.; Malinen, J. [Finnish Forest Research Inst. METLA, Vantaa (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    Development of energy wood resources in Southern Finland over the next 40 years was studied on the basis of four cutting scenarios. Development of energy wood accrual was considered on the production cost levels of FIM 45/MWh and FIM 55/MWh in scenarios describing sustainable cutting potential, long-term cutting plans of forest owners and cutting of industrial mechandable wood over the years of depression. Effects of limitations concerning energy wood harvesting from meagre forest land and bogs on the energy wood accruals of sustainable cutting potential were also studied. The energy wood potential in Southern Finland was estimated at 3.6 million m{sup 3}/a on the production cost level of FIM 45/MWh. The energy wood accrual equal to sustainable cutting potential was 70 % of the energy wood potential. The energy wood potential increased to 8.8 m{sup 3}/a when the production cost level increased to FIM 55/MWh, the energy wood accrual of sustainable cutting potential being 51 %. The energy wood accruals according to felling plans of forest owners and cuttings over the years of depression were smaller than that of sustainable cutting potential, due to smaller loggings. Limitation of energy wood harvesting from meagre forest land and bogs would reduce the energy wood accrual of sustainable cutting potential by 22 %. This would involve a reduction of one million m{sup 3} in the harvesting potential. The energy wood accrual of sustainable cutting potential in Finland was 5.8 million m{sup 3}/a on the production cost level of FIM 55/MWh. This is equal to the aim set by the BIOENERGY Research Programme for the use potential of 1 Mtoe (equivalent oil tonne) on the production cost level of FIM 45/MWh

  8. Potential energy surface of the photolysis of isocyanic acid HNCO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The dissociation curves of the photolysis of the isocyanic acidHNCOHN+CO corresponding to the ground state (S0), the first triplet excited state (T1) and the first singlet excited state (S1) have been studied respectively at the UHF/6-311G** and CIS/6-311G** levels using ab initio method. The energy surface crossing points, S1/T1, T1/S0 and S1/S0, have been found and the characteristics of the energy minimum crossing point were given, based on which, the changes of the crossing points' geometries along the lower electronic energy surface and its end-result have been located according to the steepest descent principle. The computational result indicates that the photolysis of the isocyanic acid HNCOHN+CO has three competitive reaction channels ((A)-(C)), and from the kinetic piont of view, channel (A) is the most advantageous.

  9. Potential impact of contrails on solar energy gain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Weihs

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of contrails on global shortwave radiation and on solar energy gain. The study was done for days with a high contrail persistence and looking at situations where the contrails were obstructing the sun. Measurements of cloudiness using a fish eye camera, diffuse and direct shortwave measurements and measurements of the short circuit current of three different types of photovoltaic (PV modules were performed at the solar observatory Kanzelhöhe (1540 m a.s.l. during a period of one year with a time resolution of one minute. Our results show that contrails moving between sun and observer/sensor may reduce the global radiation by up to 72%. A statistic of contrail persistence and influence of contrails on global irradiance and solar energy gain is presented. The losses in solar energy gain that were recorded may even be critical under some circumstances for PV system performance.

  10. Potential impact of contrails on solar energy gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weihs, P.; Rennhofer, M.; Baumgartner, D. J.; Gadermaier, J.; Wagner, J. E.; Gehring, J. E.; Laube, W.

    2015-03-01

    The effect of contrails on global short-wave radiation (sum of direct and downward diffuse solar radiation) and on solar energy gain was investigated. The study was performed during days with high contrail persistence and focused on situations where the contrails were obstructing the sun. Measurements of cloudiness using a fish-eye camera, diffuse and direct short-wave measurements and measurements of the short circuit current of three different types of photovoltaic (PV) modules were performed at the Kanzelhöhe Observatory (1540 m a.s.l.) with a time resolution of 1 min over a period of 1 year. The results show that contrails moving between sun and observer/sensor may reduce the global radiation by up to 72%. An analysis of contrail persistence and the influence of contrails on global irradiance and solar energy gain is presented. The losses in solar energy gain that were recorded may be critical under specific circumstances.

  11. The extended Lennard-Jones potential energy function: A simpler model for direct-potential-fit analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajigeorgiou, Photos G.

    2016-12-01

    An analytical model for the diatomic potential energy function that was recently tested as a universal function (Hajigeorgiou, 2010) has been further modified and tested as a suitable model for direct-potential-fit analysis. Applications are presented for the ground electronic states of three diatomic molecules: oxygen, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen fluoride. The adjustable parameters of the extended Lennard-Jones potential model are determined through nonlinear regression by fits to calculated rovibrational energy term values or experimental spectroscopic line positions. The model is shown to lead to reliable, compact and simple representations for the potential energy functions of these systems and could therefore be classified as a suitable and attractive model for direct-potential-fit analysis.

  12. Low-energy collective excitations in the neutron star inner crust

    CERN Document Server

    Chamel, N; Reddy, S

    2012-01-01

    We study the low-energy collective excitations of the neutron star inner crust, where a neutron superfluid coexists with a Coulomb lattice of nuclei. The dispersion relation of the modes is calculated systematically from a microscopic theory including neutron band structure effects. These effects are shown to lead to a strong mixing between the Bogoliubov-Anderson bosons of the neutron superfluid and the longitudinal crystal lattice phonons. In addition, the speed of the transverse shear mode is greatly reduced as a large fraction of superfluid neutrons are entrained by nuclei. Not only does the much smaller velocity of the transverse mode increase the specific heat of the inner crust, but it also decreases its electron thermal conductivity. These results may impact our interpretation of the thermal relaxation in accreting neutron stars. Due to strong mixing, the mean free path of the superfluid mode is found to be greatly reduced. Our results for the collective mode dispersion relations and their damping may...

  13. Assessment of Energy Production Potential from Tidal Streams in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, Kevin A. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Savannah, GA (United States); Fritz, Hermann M. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Savannah, GA (United States); French, Steven P. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Smith, Brennan T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Neary, Vincent [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2011-06-29

    The project documented in this report created a national database of tidal stream energy potential, as well as a GIS tool usable by industry in order to accelerate the market for tidal energy conversion technology.

  14. Waste-to-energy potential in the Western Province of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar K.M. Ouda

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Waste-to-energy (WTE is a viable option for municipal solid waste (MSW management and a renewable energy source. MSW is a chronic problem in Saudi Arabia and more specifically in Saudi Urban areas. The MSW practices in KSA are simply done by collecting the waste and dumping it in open landfill sites. KSA is considering WTE as a potential renewable energy source that can contribute to electricity demand in the Kingdom. This research aims to assess potential contribution of WTE facility to meet electricity demand in the three main cities in the Western Province of Saudi Arabia and to provide an alternative solution to landfills. Three scenarios for WTE utilization were developed: Mass Burn, Mass Burn with recycling, and refused derived fuel (RDF with biomethanation. The Mass Burn scenario implies full waste stream incineration; the Mass Burn with recycling scenario considers segregation of reusable materials and the waste leftover for incineration; while RDF with biomethanation considers segregation of general waste stream into inorganic and organic waste and utilizes organic waste for biomethanation and inorganic for RDF. The analyses were completed for Jeddah, Makkah, and Madina cities; with current total population of about 6.3 million. The results show that Jeddah has the potential to produce about 180 MW of electricity based on incineration scenario; about 11.25 MW based on incineration with recycling scenario; and about 87.3 MW based RDF with biomethanation scenario by the year 2032. These values and other two cities values are based on theoretical ideals and they help in identifying the optimal WTE techniques for each city.

  15. Lessons from a pilot deployment of energy efficient data collection protocols in wireless sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edordu, C.; Yang, Y.

    2009-07-01

    This study reports results of, as well as experiences and engineering challenges encountered, during a pilot deployment of a Dual Prediction and Probabilistic Scheduler (DPPS) for energy efficient data collection (EEDC). The deployment was motivated by sensor network supplier, Senceive Ltd., whose researchers wanted to incorporate more intelligence into their firmware to facilitate more cost effective remote asset management. The process of embedding and deploying DPPS, highlighted the importance of re-evaluating the assumptions typically overlooked in computer simulations and emphasises the need for sensor network researchers as a whole to reconsider the usefulness of EEDC protocols through real-life experimental deployment.

  16. Passive Collecting of Solar Radiation Energy using Transparent Thermal Insulators, Energetic Efficiency of Transparent Thermal Insulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smajo Sulejmanovic

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper explains passive collection of solar radiation energy using transparent thermal insulators. Transparent thermal insulators are transparent for sunlight, at the same time those are very good thermal insulators. Transparent thermal insulators can be placed instead of standard conventional thermal insulators and additionally transparent insulators can capture solar radiation, transform it into heat and save heat just as standard insulators. Using transparent insulators would lead to reduce in usage of fossil fuels and would help protection of an environment and reduce effects of global warming, etc.

  17. Energy eigenvalues of spherical symmetric potentials with relativistic corrections: analytic results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dineykhan, M; Zhaugasheva, S A [Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Toinbaeva, N Sh [al-Farabi Kazak National University, Almaty (Kazakhstan)

    2010-01-14

    Based on the investigation of the asymptotic behaviour of the polarization loop function for charged n scalar particles in an external gauge field, we determine the interaction Hamiltonian including the relativistic corrections. The energy eigenvalues of spherical symmetric potentials for two-particle bound state systems with relativistic corrections are analytically derived. The energy spectra of linear and funnel potentials with orbital and radial excitations are determined. The energy spectrum of a superposition of Coulomb and Yukawa potentials is also determined. Our result shows that the energy spectrum with the relativistic corrections for the linear, harmonic oscillator and funnel potentials is smaller than the upper boundaries for the energy spectrum established in the framework of the spinless Salpeter equation for the orbital and radial excited states. The relativistic corrections to the energy spectrum of a superposition of the attractive Coulomb potential and the Yukawa (exponentially screened Coulomb) potentials are very small.

  18. Evolution of collectivity in the 78Ni region: Coulomb excitation of 74Ni at intermediate energies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marchi T.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of the collective properties of nuclear excitations far from stability provides information about the shell structure at extreme conditions. Spectroscopic observables such as the energy or the transition probabilities of the lowest states, in nuclei with large neutron excess, allow to probe the density and isospin dependence of the effective interaction. Indeed, it was recently shown that tensor and three-body forces play an important role in breaking and creating magic numbers. Emblematic is the case of the evolution of the Ni isotopic chain where several features showed up moving from the most neutron rich stable isotope (64Ni towards the 78Ni nucleus where the large neutron excess coincides with a double shell closure. In this framework, we have recently performed an experiment with the goal to extract the B(E2; 0+ → 2+ value for the 74Ni nucleus in an intermediate-energy Coulomb excitation experiment: preliminary results are discussed.

  19. New ideas for the design of optical devices with applications in solar energy collection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaves, Julio; Pereira, Manuel Collares

    2001-07-01

    New ideas for the design of optical devices and some applications to solar energy collection are presented. These are mainly solar concentrators resulting from the combination of known anidoloc (nonimaging) optics devices and known curves such as parabolic, elliptical, hyperbolic, circular arcs or flat mirrors. Other tailored curves are also used in some cases. Two possible applications are in compact high concentration devices for solar energy and ideal concentrators having a gap between the optics and the receiver. Only two dimensional solutions are explored in these cases. Due to the high number of internal reflections, the use of high reflectivity mirrors is mandatory or, alternatively, the use of total internal reflection. Combinations of 3D CPCs and torus are also presented. The obtained devices allow tracking of the sun without the need to move the receiver. An application to solar cooking is presented.

  20. Ultrasonic seam welding technologies of copper plate and tube for collecting solar energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤勇; 万珍平; 刘亚俊; 刘树道

    2003-01-01

    The ultrasonic welding is applied more and more extensively due to its advantages such as environmental protection, cleaning and energy saving. By researching the mechanism on ultrasonic seam welding of copper plates and tubes for collecting solar energy, it is put forward that the ultrasonic metal welding process can be divided into two stages, and two factors make functions jointly to join the welded metal specimens. In order to successfully join the welding, three basic conditions must be satisfied, that is, there should be high frequency friction vibration in the contact interface; pressure must be imposed on the plate specimen during friction vibration; the time of friction vibration and pressure imposed should be proper. Furthermore, how to select the hardness of copper plate and tube and ultrasonic seam welding parameters is analyzed by experiments.

  1. Experiential meaning potential in the Topaz Energy logo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Christian Mosbæk

    2017-01-01

    Based on the premise that corporate logos are all pervasive in the semiotic landscapes of the post-industrial, globalized world order, the article contends that there is an increasing need for understanding how logos make meaning thus constraining human behaviour. The article argues...... that conventional wisdom about the meaning potential of visual texts offers limited insight into logos because they are structurally too simple to convey, for example, ideational meaning as typically understood. Instead, the article argues, we can approach the meaning potential of logos “from below” from phonetic...... how the logo for Irish fuel and convenience retail chain Topaz can be interpreted using the concept of experiential meaning potential....

  2. Energy consumption and energy saving potentials in piglet production; Energieverbrauch und energetische Einsparpotenziale in der Ferkelerzeugung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neiber, Josef; Neser, Stefan [Bayerische Landesanstalt fuer Landwirtschaft (LFL), Freising (DE). Inst. fuer Landtechnik und Tierhaltung (ILT)

    2010-07-01

    For agricultural farms, a considerable share of variable costs is due to the energy consumption for agricultural production processes. In particular, piglet production and nursery have a high thermal and electric energy demand. For the planning and the redevelopment of pig housing systems, a good knowledge of the energy demand of different consumers is of great importance. With this knowledge, it is possible to derive measures for improving energy efficiency and reducing energy consumption. (orig.)

  3. Estimating potential saving with energy consumption behaviour model in higher education institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Hafizal Ishak

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Towards sustainable Higher Education Institutions (HEIs, energy consumption behaviour is one of several issues that require an attention by facilities manager. Information from the behavioural aspect would be useful for facilities manager on managing the energy and determining potential energy saving. A lack of information negatively affects this aim. Hence, this paper proposes a methodology for assessing the energy consumption behaviour with the objective determining potential energy saving. The method used energy culture framework as basis and joined with centrographic approach and multiple-regression analysis. A self-administrated survey carried out involving 1400 respondents in selected HEIs. There are four types of energy use among students in HEIs namely, 'high', 'low', ‘medium’ and 'conserve' determined from the centrographic analysis. The energy consumption behaviour model was developed and tested against the holdout sample. Through the model's application, there is a vast potential for energy savings with over 55 kWh daily among the students.

  4. The Potential for Wave Energy in the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, H. C.; Chozas, Julia Fernandez

    2010-01-01

    The North Sea has not yet been regarded as prime area for wave energy development in Europe except in Denmark, Benelux and Germany. The reason is the relatively low intensity of waves (12-17kW/m) compared to the Atlantic with a wave climate of 24-48kW/m. Further on the design wave load is almost ...

  5. Potential displacement of petroleum imports by solar energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeLeon, P.; Jackson, B.L.; McNown, R.F.; Mahrenholz, G.J.

    1980-05-01

    The United States currently imports close to half of its petroleum requirements. This report delineates the economic, social, and political costs of such a foreign oil dependency. These costs are often intangible, but combined they clearly constitute a greater price for imported petroleum than the strictly economic cost. If we can assume that imported oil imposes significant socioeconomic costs upon the American economy and society, one way to reduce these costs is to develop alternative, domestic energy sources - such as solar energy technologies - which can displace foreign petroleum. The second half of this report estimates that by the year 2000, solar energy technologies can displace 3.6 quads of petroleum. This figure includes solar energy applications in utilities, industrial and agricultural process heat, and transportation. The estimate can be treated as a lower bound; if the United States were to achieve the proposed goal of 20 quads by 2000, the amount of displaced oil probably would be greater. Although all the displaced oil would not be imported, the reduction in imported petroleum would relieve many of the conditions that increase the present cost of foreign oil to the American consumer.

  6. physico-chemical properties and energy potential of wood wastes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    energy calculations revealed that the wood wastes used in this study contain relatively low ... European solid biomass and biogas sectors generated a ... processing industries generate a huge volume of wood wastes ... produced to water for the purpose of generating steam in ..... Conversion: The Interface of Biotechnology,.

  7. Chemical production from waste carbon monoxide: its potential for energy conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrmann, C.A.; Schiefelbein, G.F.; Molton, P.M.; Li, C.T.; Elliott, D.C.; Baker, E.G.

    1977-11-01

    Results of a study of the potential for energy conservation by producing chemicals from by-product or waste carbon monoxide (CO) from industrial sources are summarized. Extensive compilations of both industrial sources and uses for carbon monoxide were developed and included. Reviews of carbon monoxide purification and concentration technology and preliminary economic evaluations of carbon monoxide concentration, pipeline transportation and utilization of CO in the synthesis of ammonia and methanol are included. Preliminary technical and economic feasibility studies were made of producing ammonia and methanol from the by-product CO produced by a typical elemental phosphorus plant. Methanol synthesis appears to be more attractive than ammonia synthesis when using CO feedstock because of reduced water gas shift and carbon dioxide removal requirements. The economic studies indicate that methanol synthesis from CO appears to be competitive with conventional technology when the price of natural gas exceeds $0.82/million Btu, while ammonia synthesis from CO is probably not competitive until the price of natural gas exceeds $1.90/million Btu. It is concluded that there appears to be considerable potential for energy conservation in the chemical industry, by collecting CO rather than flaring it, and using it to make major chemicals such as ammonia and methanol.

  8. Energy recovery potential and life cycle impact assessment of municipal solid waste management technologies in Asian countries using ELP model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandyaswargo, Andante Hadi; Onoda, Hiroshi; Nagata, Katsuya [Waseda Univ., Saitama (Japan). Graduate School of Environment and Energy Engineering

    2012-11-01

    Natural resource scarcity and the effects of environmental destruction have pushed societies to use and reuse resources more efficiently. Waste should no longer be seen as a burden but rather as another source of material such as energy fuel. This study analyzes the potential of three waste management technologies - incineration with energy recovery, composting, and sanitary landfill gas collection - as ways to recover energy and material from municipal solid waste. The study applies the environmental load point (ELP) method and utilizes municipal waste characteristics and composition from India, Indonesia, and China as case studies. The ELP methodology employs integrated weighting in the quantification process to get a one-unit result. This study particularly uses analytic hierarchical process questionnaires to get the weighting value of the nine impact categories: energy depletion, global warming, ozone depletion, resource consumption, ecosystem influence, water pollution, waste disposal, air pollution, and acid rain. The results show that the scenario which includes composting organic waste and sanitary landfill with gas collection for energy recovery has medium environmental impact and the highest practicability. The optimum material and energy potential is from the Chinese case study in which 254 tonnes of compost fertilizer and 60 MWh of electricity is the estimated output for every 1,000 tonnes of waste treated. (orig.)

  9. Evaluation of collection method and diet effects on apparent digestibility and energy values of swine diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y S; Tran, H; Bundy, J W; Burkey, T E; Kerr, B J; Nielsen, M K; Miller, P S

    2016-06-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of collection method and diet type on digestibility coefficients. In Exp. 1, 24 barrows were fed either a corn-soybean meal (CSBM) diet or CSBM with 20% dried distillers' grains with solubles (CSBM-DDGS). In Exp. 2, the effects of basal diet and collection method on determination of dried distillers' grains with solubles (DDGS) digestibility were studied using 24 barrows. The 4 diets used in Exp. 2 were: a CSBM (basal 1) , a barley-canola meal (BCM; basal 2), 80% basal 1 with 20% DDGS (CSBM-DDGS), and 80% basal 2 with 20% DDGS (BCM-DDGS). In both experiments, feces were collected using a time-based collection method (DY) or a "marker-to-marker" collection method (MM). Diets contained 0.5% of titanium dioxide (TiO) for estimating digestibility using the index marker approach (IM). The apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of DM and GE were lower ( diet than in the CSBM diet in Exp. 1 but were not different in Exp. 2. All the estimates of BCM-based diets were consistently lower ( diets. In Exp. 1, digestibility coefficients determined by the DY and MM were not different from each other, whereas those estimates were lower ( diet type and method for dietary digestibility coefficients. Digestibility and energy values estimated by the DY and MM were not different in pigs fed CSBM-based diets and the BCM-DDGS diet, whereas those estimates were greater ( diet and method for estimating DDGS digestibility. The ATTD of DM and GE of DDGS using the MM were greater ( diets. The mean DE and ME (as-fed basis) of DDGS were 3,994 and 3,688 kcal/kg, respectively, when estimated using the basal 1 diet and were 3,919 and 3,547 kcal/kg, respectively, when estimated using the basal 2 diet. In conclusion, both collection methods can be used to estimate energy and nutrient digestibility of diets and DDGS when using CSBM-based diets.

  10. A comparison between the solar energy collection by fix and tracking collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrison, John D [San Diego State University, San Diego (United States)

    2000-07-01

    A realistic mathematical simulation of solar thermal energy collection for an air flat plate collector, six designs of fixed evacuated collectors and two designs of tracking evacuated collectors at port Hardy, British Columbia and Edmonton, Alberta, in Canada and Daggett, California in the United States has been calculated. Differences in solar energy collection by the different collector designs arise only from differences in collector geometry, since the same collector orientations, selective absorber and solar radiation data are used in the simulations for all collector designs. It is found that solar energy collection in Canada by an air flat plate collector is significantly lower than that of the fixed evacuated and the tracking evacuated collectors at the lowest operating temperatures. This occurs because of the high thermal losses for the air flat plate collector, and the low solar insolation and low winter ambient temperatures in Canada. Highly concentrating tracking collectors which collect no diffuse radiation do not collect as much solar energy at lower temperatures as all of the fixed evacuated collectors at Port Hardy in Canada where there are a limited number of clear days. The fixed, vacuum tubular (dewar type) collector collects the most solar energy at low temperatures. At higher temperatures it collects the least amount of energy of all of the evacuated collectors. This is because of its low concentration and thus larger radiation losses. The vacuum vertical fin and higher concentration shaped glass evacuated collectors at high temperatures. Solar energy collection at Daggett is much higher than that at the two Canadian stations because of the high solar insolation and moderate to warm ambient temperatures. By rotating of the more highly concentrating CPC evacuated collectors about their axes placed parallel to the polar axis so as to track the sun, significantly higher energy collection is obtained, particularly for sites with higher annual

  11. Free energy for a damped cold atom in SU(2) non-Abelian gauge potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guingarey, Issoufou; Avossevou, Gabriel Y. H.

    2017-03-01

    Our main aim in this work is to find out the exact formula of the equilibrium free energy for a cold atom subjected to a harmonic potential in the background of an artificial non-Abelian uniform magnetic field and linearly coupled to a heat bath. The heat bath consists of a collection of independent quantum harmonic oscillators, while its interaction with the cold atom is modeled in terms of bilinear coupling between the coordinate variables of the cold atom and the oscillators. The main thermodynamic properties of such a system are modified in comparison with the Abelian case. For a non-Abelian magnetic field generated from the laser methods employing degenerate dark states, we evaluate the effect of the non-Abelian dynamics on the magnetic moment of the cold atom.

  12. Multidimensionally constrained covariant density functional theories—nuclear shapes and potential energy surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shan-Gui

    2016-06-01

    The intrinsic nuclear shapes deviating from a sphere not only manifest themselves in nuclear collective states but also play important roles in determining nuclear potential energy surfaces (PES’s) and fission barriers. In order to describe microscopically and self-consistently nuclear shapes and PES’s with as many shape degrees of freedom as possible included, we developed multidimensionally constrained covariant density functional theories (MDC-CDFTs). In MDC-CDFTs, the axial symmetry and the reflection symmetry are both broken and all deformations characterized by {β }λ μ with even μ are considered. We have used the MDC-CDFTs to study PES’s and fission barriers of actinides, the non-axial octupole Y 32 correlations in N = 150 isotones and shapes of hypernuclei. In this Review we will give briefly the formalism of MDC-CDFTs and present the applications to normal nuclei.

  13. Multidimensionally-constrained covariant density functional theories --- nuclear shapes and potential energy surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Shan-Gui

    2016-01-01

    The intrinsic nuclear shapes deviating from a sphere not only manifest themselves in nuclear collective states but also play important roles in determining nuclear potential energy surfaces (PES's) and fission barriers. In order to describe microscopically and self-consistently nuclear shapes and PES's with as many shape degrees of freedom as possible included, we developed multidimensionally-constrained covariant density functional theories (MDC-CDFTs). In MDC-CDFTs, the axial symmetry and the reflection symmetry are both broken and all deformations characterized by $\\beta_{\\lambda\\mu}$ with even $\\mu$ are considered. We have used the MDC-CDFTs to study PES's and fission barriers of actinides, the non-axial octupole $Y_{32}$ correlations in $N = 150$ isotones and shapes of hypernuclei. In this Review we will give briefly the formalism of MDC-CDFTs and present the applications to normal nuclei.

  14. The underestimated potential of solar energy to mitigate climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creutzig, Felix; Agoston, Peter; Goldschmidt, Jan Christoph; Luderer, Gunnar; Nemet, Gregory; Pietzcker, Robert C.

    2017-09-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's fifth assessment report emphasizes the importance of bioenergy and carbon capture and storage for achieving climate goals, but it does not identify solar energy as a strategically important technology option. That is surprising given the strong growth, large resource, and low environmental footprint of photovoltaics (PV). Here we explore how models have consistently underestimated PV deployment and identify the reasons for underlying bias in models. Our analysis reveals that rapid technological learning and technology-specific policy support were crucial to PV deployment in the past, but that future success will depend on adequate financing instruments and the management of system integration. We propose that with coordinated advances in multiple components of the energy system, PV could supply 30-50% of electricity in competitive markets.

  15. Energy conservation potential of Portland Cement particle size distribution control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tresouthick, S.W.

    1985-01-01

    The main objective of Phase 3 is to develop practical economic methods of controlling the particle size distribution of portland cements using existing or modified mill circuits with the principal aim of reducing electrical energy requirements for cement manufacturing. The work of Phase 3, because of its scope, will be carried out in 10 main tasks, some of which will be handled simultaneously. Progress on each of these tasks is discussed in this paper.

  16. Evolution of the potential-energy surface of amorphous silicon

    OpenAIRE

    Kallel, Houssem; Mousseau, Normand; Schiettekatte, François

    2010-01-01

    The link between the energy surface of bulk systems and their dynamical properties is generally difficult to establish. Using the activation-relaxation technique (ART nouveau), we follow the change in the barrier distribution of a model of amorphous silicon as a function of the degree of relaxation. We find that while the barrier-height distribution, calculated from the initial minimum, is a unique function that depends only on the level of distribution, the reverse-barrier height distributio...

  17. Selection of materials with potential in sensible thermal energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, A.I.; Martinez, M.; Segarra, M. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Martorell, I.; Cabeza, L.F. [GREA Innovacio Concurrent, Edifici CREA, Universitat de Lleida, Pere de Cabrera s/n, 25001 Lleida (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    Thermal energy storage is a technology under investigation since the early 1970s. Since then, numerous new applications have been found and much work has been done to bring this technology to the market. Nevertheless, the materials used either for latent or for sensible storage were mostly investigated 30 years ago, and the research has lead to improvement in their performance under different conditions of applications. In those years a significant number of new materials were developed in many fields other than storage and energy, but a great effort to characterize and classify these materials was done. Taking into account the fact that thousands of materials are known and a large number of new materials are developed every year, the authors use the methodology for materials selection developed by Prof. Ashby to give an overview of other materials suitable to be used in thermal energy storage. Sensible heat storage at temperatures between 150 and 200 C is defined as a case study and two different scenarios were considered: long term sensible heat storage and short term sensible heat storage. (author)

  18. Transportation and energy efficiency: Promised potentials, serious roadblocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraft-Oliver, T.V.

    1995-12-31

    Transportation is both a critical element of achieving national economic development goals and a major consumer of scarce and expensive energy resources. Improvements in access and mobility from reduced congestion, higher speeds, additional non motorized and pedestrian options, and better mass transit will result in reductions in energy use in most cases. Additional improvements in vehicle efficiency are possible but will not meet the needs of the region for transportation and energy efficiency improvements in the absence of these other improvements. The barriers to success in the transport sector are obvious on a superficial level. They include lack of road space, inadequate or incomplete road networks, insufficient mass transit capacity, predation of pedestrian and nonmotorized vehicle space by motor vehicles, and financing. The lack of progress in solving many of these problems over the past ten to twenty years indicates that there are underlying issues not yet addressed. Perceptions of these problems have changed since the middle 1970s and early 1980s as international lending and technical assistance began to focus on transportation. In those early years the problems were described as financial, and `meeting demand` challenges. The World Bank is now conducting a review of their Transport Sector Policy. While the review has not progressed to a final document and certainly not to articulation or transformation of Bank policy, early drafts reflect a view that past failures to improve transportation circumstances are human resource and institutional problems.

  19. Electronic Energy Band and Transport Properties in Monolayer Graphene with Periodically Modulated Magnetic Vector Potential and Electrostatic Potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘正方; 伍清萍; 刘念华

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the electronic energy band and transport features of graphene superlattice with periodically modulated magnetic vector potential and electrostatic potential. It is found that both parallel magnetic vector potential and electrostatic potential can decisively shift Dirac point in a different way, which may be an efficient way to achieve electron or hole filter. We a/so find that applying modulated parallel and anti-parallel magnetic vector potential to the electrons can efficiently change electronic states between pass and stop states, which can be useful in designing electron or hole switches and lead to large magneto-resistance.

  20. Charting molecular free-energy landscapes with an atlas of collective variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemian, Behrooz; Millán, Daniel; Arroyo, Marino

    2016-11-01

    Collective variables (CVs) are a fundamental tool to understand molecular flexibility, to compute free energy landscapes, and to enhance sampling in molecular dynamics simulations. However, identifying suitable CVs is challenging, and is increasingly addressed with systematic data-driven manifold learning techniques. Here, we provide a flexible framework to model molecular systems in terms of a collection of locally valid and partially overlapping CVs: an atlas of CVs. The specific motivation for such a framework is to enhance the applicability and robustness of CVs based on manifold learning methods, which fail in the presence of periodicities in the underlying conformational manifold. More generally, using an atlas of CVs rather than a single chart may help us better describe different regions of conformational space. We develop the statistical mechanics foundation for our multi-chart description and propose an algorithmic implementation. The resulting atlas of data-based CVs are then used to enhance sampling and compute free energy surfaces in two model systems, alanine dipeptide and β-D-glucopyranose, whose conformational manifolds have toroidal and spherical topologies.

  1. Assessment of the Technical Potential for Achieving Net Zero-Energy Buildings in the Commercial Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, B.; Long, N.; Torcellini, P.; Judkoff, R.; Crawley, D.; Ryan, J.

    2007-12-01

    This report summarizes the findings from research conducted at NREL to assess the technical potential for zero-energy building technologies and practices to reduce the impact of commercial buildings on the U.S. energy system. Commercial buildings currently account for 18% of annual U.S. energy consumption, and energy use is growing along with overall floor area. Reducing the energy use of this sector will require aggressive research goals and rapid implementation of the research results.

  2. Intersections of potential energy surfaces of short-lived states: the complex analogue of conical intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuerbacher, Sven; Sommerfeld, Thomas; Cederbaum, Lorenz S

    2004-02-15

    Whereas conical intersections between potential energy surfaces of bound states are well known, the interaction of short-lived states has been investigated only rarely. Here, we present several systematically constructed model Hamiltonians to study the topology of intersecting complex potential energy surfaces describing short-lived states: We find the general phenomenon of doubly intersecting complex energy surfaces, i.e., there are two points instead of one as in the case of bound states where the potential energy surfaces coalesce. In addition, seams of intersections of the respective real and imaginary parts of the potential energy surfaces emanate from these two points. Using the Sigma* and Pi* resonance states of the chloroethene anion as a practical example, we demonstrate that our complete linear model Hamiltonian is able to reproduce all phenomena found in explicitly calculated ab initio complex potential energy surfaces.

  3. Potential and Evolution of Compressed Air Energy Storage: Energy and Exergy Analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Young-Min Kim; Jang-Hee Lee; Seok-Joon Kim; Daniel Favrat

    2012-01-01

    Energy storage systems are increasingly gaining importance with regard to their role in achieving load levelling, especially for matching intermittent sources of renewable energy with customer demand, as well as for storing excess nuclear or thermal power during the daily cycle. Compressed air energy storage (CAES), with its high reliability, economic feasibility, and low environmental impact, is a promising method for large-scale energy storage. Although there are only two large-scale CAES p...

  4. Energy Saving Potential by Utilizing Natural Ventilation under Warm Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oropeza-Perez, Ivan; Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this article is to show the potential of natural ventilation as a passive cooling method within the residential sector of countries which are located in warm conditions using Mexico as a case study. The method is proposed as performing, with a simplified ventilation model, thermal...

  5. Rivers of Energy: The Hydropower Potential. Worldwatch Paper No. 44.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deudney, Daniel

    Described are the history, current status and future potential of hydroelectric power in the world. Issues discussed include the environmental and social impacts of dam construction, and the use of small-scale hydroelectric installations in developing nations. Also considered are hydroelectric development of the world's remote regions, the need to…

  6. Potential for the Use of Energy Savings Performance Contracts to Reduce Energy Consumption and Provide Energy and Cost Savings in Non-Building Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Charles; Green, Andrew S.; Dahle, Douglas; Barnett, John; Butler, Pat; Kerner, David

    2013-08-01

    The findings of this study indicate that potential exists in non-building applications to save energy and costs. This potential could save billions of federal dollars, reduce reliance on fossil fuels, increase energy independence and security, and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The Federal Government has nearly twenty years of experience with achieving similar energy cost reductions, and letting the energy costs savings pay for themselves, by applying energy savings performance contracts (ESPC) inits buildings. Currently, the application of ESPCs is limited by statute to federal buildings. This study indicates that ESPCs can be a compatible and effective contracting tool for achieving savings in non-building applications.

  7. Electromagnetic Lead Screw for Potential Wave Energy Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Kaiyuan; Wu, Weimin

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new type electromagnetic lead screw (EMLS) intended for wave energy application. Similar to the mechanical lead screw, this electromagnetic version can transfer slow linear motion to high-rotational motion, offering gearing effects. Compared with the existing pure magnetic...... lead screw (MLS) employing permanent magnets only, the new EMLS proposed uses dc current to provide the required helical-shape magnetic field, offering a much simpler, robust structure compared with the MLS. The working principle and the performances of this EMLS are analyzed in this paper. Comparison...

  8. Program Potential: Estimates of Federal Energy Cost Savings from Energy Efficient Procurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Margaret [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fujita, K. Sydny [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-09-17

    In 2011, energy used by federal buildings cost approximately $7 billion. Reducing federal energy use could help address several important national policy goals, including: (1) increased energy security; (2) lowered emissions of greenhouse gases and other air pollutants; (3) increased return on taxpayer dollars; and (4) increased private sector innovation in energy efficient technologies. This report estimates the impact of efficient product procurement on reducing the amount of wasted energy (and, therefore, wasted money) associated with federal buildings, as well as on reducing the needless greenhouse gas emissions associated with these buildings.

  9. Solar array design based on shadow analysis for increasing net energy collection in a competition vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio-Gómez, Gilberto; Mejía-Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Suárez-Castañeda, Nicolás; Gil-Herrera, Ana; Barrera-Velásquez, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) applications such as in the architectural, automotive, and aerospace industries face design contradictions because they are expected to produce a lot of energy but are constrained by available area, surface shape, incident irradiance, shadows, and other aspects that have a negative influence on the energy produced by the solar panel. Solar competition vehicles are some of these challenging PV applications. The design of such solar arrays needs to consider efficiency evaluation in order to optimize space; it is difficult not to install solar modules in areas impacted by shadows. A design procedure for a solar array configuration based on shadow analysis for competition vehicles is presented. The principle is that shadows in moving objects can be simulated, since the vehicle, the earth and the sun are are moving in semipredictable patterns, thus net energy collection can be forecast. The case study presented is the solar array design of a vehicle that participated in the World Solar Challenge 2013. The obtained results illustrate how the employment of the procedure gives insights on important aspects to consider and also delivers qualitative and quantitative information for decision making. In addition, the experience in competition highlights some issues to be considered, modified, or improved in further vehicle designs.

  10. Potentials for energy savings and long term energy demands for Croatian households sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pukšec, Tomislav; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Duic, Neven

    2011-01-01

    demand in the future, based on careful and rational energy planning. Different financial, legal and technological mechanisms can lead to significant savings in the households sector which also leads to lesser greenhouse gas emissions and lower Croatian dependence on foreign fossil fuels....... relevant. In order to plan future energy systems it is important to know future possibilities and needs regarding energy demand for different sectors. Through this paper long term energy demand projections for Croatian households sector will be shown with a special emphasis on different mechanisms, both...... financial, legal but also technological that will influence future energy demand scenarios. It is important to see how these mechanisms influence, positive or negative, on future energy demand and which mechanism would be most influential. Energy demand predictions in this paper are based upon bottom...

  11. Potentials for energy savings and long term energy demands for Croatian households sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pukšec, Tomislav; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Duic, Neven

    2013-01-01

    demand in the future, based on careful and rational energy planning. Different financial, legal and technological mechanisms can lead to significant savings in the households sector which also leads to lesser greenhouse gas emissions and lower Croatian dependence on foreign fossil fuels....... relevant. In order to plan future energy systems it is important to know future possibilities and needs regarding energy demand for different sectors. Through this paper long term energy demand projections for Croatian households sector will be shown with a special emphasis on different mechanisms, both...... financial, legal but also technological that will influence future energy demand scenarios. It is important to see how these mechanisms influence, positive or negative, on future energy demand and which mechanism would be most influential. Energy demand predictions in this paper are based upon bottom...

  12. A consensus line search algorithm for molecular potential energy functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rurainski, Alexander; Hildebrandt, Andreas; Lenhof, Hans-Peter

    2009-07-15

    Force field based energy minimization of molecular structures is a central task in computational chemistry and biology. Solving this problem usually requires efficient local minimization techniques, i.e., iterative two-step methods that search first for a descent direction and then try to estimate the step width. The second step, the so called line search, typically uses polynomial interpolation schemes to estimate the next trial step. However, dependent on local properties of the objective function alternative schemes may be more appropriate especially if the objective function shows singularities or exponential behavior. As the choice of the best interpolation scheme cannot be made a priori, we propose a new consensus line search approach that performs several different interpolation schemes at each step and then decides which one is the most reliable at the current position. Although a naive consensus approach would lead to severe performance impacts, our method does not require additional evaluations of the energy function, imposing only negligible computational overhead. Additionally, our method can be easily adapted to the local behavior of other objective functions by incorporating suitable interpolation schemes or omitting non-fitting schemes. The performance of our consensus line search approach has been evaluated and compared to established standard line search algorithms by minimizing the structures of a large set of molecules using different force fields. The proposed algorithm shows better performance in almost all test cases, i.e., it reduces the number of iterations and function and gradient evaluations, leading to significantly reduced run times.

  13. The Potential for Wave Energy in the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, H. C.; Chozas, Julia Fernandez

    2010-01-01

    the North Sea are expected to change the priority in favour of utilising wave energy from the North Sea. The paper describes the opportunities for power production in the North Sea considering the competition for space and the synergy with offshore wind. Two approaches are used: a traditional national......The North Sea has not yet been regarded as prime area for wave energy development in Europe except in Denmark, Benelux and Germany. The reason is the relatively low intensity of waves (12-17kW/m) compared to the Atlantic with a wave climate of 24-48kW/m. Further on the design wave load is almost...... as in the Atlantic and the distance to shore relatively long compared to sites with good wave climate like Ireland, Portugal, Spain and the west coast of UK. The increasing activities within offshore wind in the North Sea and the attempt to build a super grid connecting the wind sites with the major consumers around...

  14. Potential need for fusion in the U. S. energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beardsworth, E; Powell, J

    1977-09-01

    For fusion to become available for commercial use in the 21st century, R and D must be undertaken now. But it is hard to justify these expenditures with a ''cost/benefit'' oriented assessment methodology, because of both the time frame and the uncertainty of the future benefits. Focusing on the factors most relevant for current consideration of fusion's commercial prospects, i.e., consumption levels and the outcomes for fission, solar, and coal, many possible futures of the U.S. energy system are posited and analyzed under various assumptions about costs. The ''Reference Energy System'' approach was modified to establish both an appropriate degree of detail and explicit time dependence, and a computer code used to organize the relevant data and to perform calculations of system cost (annual and discounted present value), resource use, and residuals that are implied by the consumption levels and technology mix in each scenario. Not-unreasonable scenarios indicate benefits in the form of direct cost savings, which may well exceed R and D costs, which could be attributed to the implementation of fusion.

  15. Energy potential of biomass from conservation grasslands in Minnesota, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungers, Jacob M; Fargione, Joseph E; Sheaffer, Craig C; Wyse, Donald L; Lehman, Clarence

    2013-01-01

    Perennial biomass from grasslands managed for conservation of soil and biodiversity can be harvested for bioenergy. Until now, the quantity and quality of harvestable biomass from conservation grasslands in Minnesota, USA, was not known, and the factors that affect bioenergy potential from these systems have not been identified. We measured biomass yield, theoretical ethanol conversion efficiency, and plant tissue nitrogen (N) as metrics of bioenergy potential from mixed-species conservation grasslands harvested with commercial-scale equipment. With three years of data, we used mixed-effects models to determine factors that influence bioenergy potential. Sixty conservation grassland plots, each about 8 ha in size, were distributed among three locations in Minnesota. Harvest treatments were applied annually in autumn as a completely randomized block design. Biomass yield ranged from 0.5 to 5.7 Mg ha(-1). May precipitation increased biomass yield while precipitation in all other growing season months showed no affect. Averaged across all locations and years, theoretical ethanol conversion efficiency was 450 l Mg(-1) and the concentration of plant N was 7.1 g kg(-1), both similar to dedicated herbaceous bioenergy crops such as switchgrass. Biomass yield did not decline in the second or third year of harvest. Across years, biomass yields fluctuated 23% around the average. Surprisingly, forb cover was a better predictor of biomass yield than warm-season grass with a positive correlation with biomass yield in the south and a negative correlation at other locations. Variation in land ethanol yield was almost exclusively due to variation in biomass yield rather than biomass quality; therefore, efforts to increase biomass yield might be more economical than altering biomass composition when managing conservation grasslands for ethanol production. Our measurements of bioenergy potential, and the factors that control it, can serve as parameters for assessing the economic

  16. The Potential of Indigenous Energy Resources for Remote Military Bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-03-01

    lected from a limited number of widely distributed ocean stations are Inherently unreliable as a measure of the precise amount of potential power...more widely distributed mirror system that reflects and focuses solar radiation on a central receiver. The mirrors ( heliostats ) required are quite...data from India Station in the North Atlantic as analyzed more precisely by S. H. Salter (1974) of Edinburgh. Our results differed from Salter’s by

  17. Energy potential of biomass from conservation grasslands in Minnesota, USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob M Jungers

    Full Text Available Perennial biomass from grasslands managed for conservation of soil and biodiversity can be harvested for bioenergy. Until now, the quantity and quality of harvestable biomass from conservation grasslands in Minnesota, USA, was not known, and the factors that affect bioenergy potential from these systems have not been identified. We measured biomass yield, theoretical ethanol conversion efficiency, and plant tissue nitrogen (N as metrics of bioenergy potential from mixed-species conservation grasslands harvested with commercial-scale equipment. With three years of data, we used mixed-effects models to determine factors that influence bioenergy potential. Sixty conservation grassland plots, each about 8 ha in size, were distributed among three locations in Minnesota. Harvest treatments were applied annually in autumn as a completely randomized block design. Biomass yield ranged from 0.5 to 5.7 Mg ha(-1. May precipitation increased biomass yield while precipitation in all other growing season months showed no affect. Averaged across all locations and years, theoretical ethanol conversion efficiency was 450 l Mg(-1 and the concentration of plant N was 7.1 g kg(-1, both similar to dedicated herbaceous bioenergy crops such as switchgrass. Biomass yield did not decline in the second or third year of harvest. Across years, biomass yields fluctuated 23% around the average. Surprisingly, forb cover was a better predictor of biomass yield than warm-season grass with a positive correlation with biomass yield in the south and a negative correlation at other locations. Variation in land ethanol yield was almost exclusively due to variation in biomass yield rather than biomass quality; therefore, efforts to increase biomass yield might be more economical than altering biomass composition when managing conservation grasslands for ethanol production. Our measurements of bioenergy potential, and the factors that control it, can serve as parameters for assessing

  18. Potential Global Benefits of Improved Ceiling Fan Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathaye, Nakul [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Phadke, Amol [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Shah, Nihar [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Letschert, Virginie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-10-31

    Ceiling fans contribute significantly to residential electricity consumption, both in an absolute sense and as a proportion of household consumption in many locations, especially in developing countries in warm climates. However, there has been little detailed assessment of the costs and benefits of efficiency improvement options for ceiling fans and the potential resulting electricity consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reductions. We analyze the costs and benefits of several options to improve the efficiency of ceiling fans and assess the global potential for electricity savings and GHG emission reductions with more detailed assessments for India, China, and the U.S. We find that ceiling fan efficiency can be cost-effectively improved by at least 50% using commercially available technology. If these efficiency improvements are implemented in all ceiling fans sold by 2020, 70 terrawatt hours per year (TWh/year) could be saved and 25 million metric tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions per year could be avoided, globally. We assess how policies and programs such as standards, labels, and financial incentives can be used to accelerate the adoption of efficient ceiling fans in order to realize this savings potential.

  19. A simulation study of microwave field effects on a 3D orthorhombic lattice of rotating dipoles: short-range potential energy variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapranov, Sergey V.; Kouzaev, Guennadi A.

    2016-05-01

    Variation of the short-range potential energy of interaction of nearest dipoles in a three-dimensional (3D) orthorhombic lattice exposed to microwave electric fields is studied by means of the Langevin dynamics simulations. The global increase of the mean potential energy is typical for all the frequencies and intensities at lower temperatures, whereas separate potential energy peaks or peak chains are observed at intermediate temperatures. A simple statistical model proposed to account for the temperature dependence of the field intensity for potential energy peaks suggests the concerted collective rotation of the dipoles. The temperature dependence of the peak frequency is explained using a combination of the one-dimensional Kramers and the resonant activation theories applied to the field-driven collective rotation, with the nearly degenerate angular coordinates of the dipoles being used as a single effective coordinate.

  20. Compact Muon Production and Collection Scheme for High-Energy Physics Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Stratakis, Diktys

    2015-01-01

    The relative immunity of muons to synchrotron radiation suggests that they might be used in place of electrons as probes in fundamental high-energy physics experiments. Muons are commonly produced indirectly through pion decay by interaction of a charged particle beam with a target. However, the large angle and energy dispersion of the initial beams as well as the short muon lifetime limits many potential applications. Here, we describe a fast method for manipulating the longitudinal and transverse phase-space of a divergent pion-muon beam to enable efficient capture and downstream transport with minimum losses. We also discuss the design of a handling system for the removal of unwanted secondary particles from the target region and thus reduce activation of the machine. The compact muon source we describe can be used for fundamental physics research in neutrino experiments.

  1. Compact Muon Production and Collection Scheme for High-Energy Physics Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stratakis, Diktys [Brookhaven; Neuffer, David V. [Fermilab

    2014-11-10

    The relative immunity of muons to synchrotron radiation suggests that they might be used in place of electrons as probes in fundamental high-energy physics experiments. Muons are commonly produced indirectly through pion decay by interaction of a charged particle beam with a target. However, the large angle and energy dispersion of the initial beams as well as the short muon lifetime limits many potential applications. Here, we describe a fast method for manipulating the longitudinal and transverse phase-space of a divergent pion-muon beam to enable efficient capture and downstream transport with minimum losses. We also discuss the design of a handling system for the removal of unwanted secondary particles from the target region and thus reduce activation of the machine. The compact muon source we describe can be used for fundamental physics research in neutrino experiments.

  2. Collective potential for large N hamiltonian matrix models and free Fisher information

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwal, A; Krishnaswami, G S; Rajeev, S G

    2003-01-01

    We formulate the planar `large N limit' of matrix models with a continuously infinite number of matrices directly in terms of U(N) invariant variables.good language to describe this formulation. The change of variables frommatrix elements to invariants induces an extra term in the hamiltonian,which is crucual in determining the ground state. We find that this collective potential has a natural meaning in terms of non-commutative probability theory:it is the `free Fisher information' discovered by Voiculescu. This formulation allows us to find a variational principle for the classical theory described by such large N limits. We then use the variational principle to study models more complex than the one describing the quantum mechanics of a single hermitian matrix (i.e., go beyond the so called D=1 barrier). We carry out approximate variational calculations for a few models and find excellent agreement with known results where such comparisons are possible. We also discover a lower bound for the ground state b...

  3. Centrals Lafayette and Aguirre as potential sites for energy cogeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delucca, R.

    1980-01-01

    Bagasse is the fiber residue left after grinding sugarcane. Its most important characteristics are its heating value, fiber content, moisture content, and ash. Bagasse has always been used in Puerto Rico's sugar mills as fuel for the generation of steam, which in turn is used for moving the mill engines, for processing (and evaporation), and for the generation of electricity. The total bagasse produced during the 1980 crop in all the Puerto Rico sugar mills amounted to approximately 827,213 tons (equivalent on an undried basis to 1,109,293 barrels of fuel-oil, which at current prices would amount to $23,572,476). Since not all sugar mills in Puerto Rico have steam-measuring instrumentation, it is not readily known how much steam was actually produced in the sugar mills from bagasse. But using the Aguirre steam production data we can get a rough figure of what the steam production could have been. In this way we have figured a total steam production of 1,216,320 pounds of steam per hour. After using 60% of this steam for cane grinding, we then have left 486,528 pounds of steam per hour. This amount of steam could be used to produce 12,637.1 kwh of energy in the mill power plants (from bagasse fuel only), as surplus energy which could be sold to the P.R. Electric Power Authority. This would have a value of $3,022,890.00 for a 125-day crop.

  4. 3D Printed Potential and Free Energy Surfaces for Teaching Fundamental Concepts in Physical Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliakin, Danil S.; Zaari, Ryan R.; Varganov, Sergey A.

    2015-01-01

    Teaching fundamental physical chemistry concepts such as the potential energy surface, transition state, and reaction path is a challenging task. The traditionally used oversimplified 2D representation of potential and free energy surfaces makes this task even more difficult and often confuses students. We show how this 2D representation can be…

  5. Assessment of renewable energy resources potential for large scale and standalone applications in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tucho, Gudina Terefe; Weesie, Peter D.M.; Nonhebel, Sanderine

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to determine the contribution of renewable energy to large scale and standalone application in Ethiopia. The assessment starts by determining the present energy system and the available potentials. Subsequently, the contribution of the available potentials for large scale and

  6. Potential contribution of hydro power plants to the energy consumption of East Asian islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoes, O.A.C.; Meijer, L.J.J.; Sarfianto, D.R.; Van der Ent, R.J.

    2014-01-01

    Population growth, increasing energy demand and depleting fossil fuel resei-ves put a pressure on conventional methods of electricity generation. Hydropower is an alternative energy source that is known to have a large capacity potential. However, previous estimations of the potential capacity have

  7. Potential contribution of hydro power plants to the energy consumption of East Asian islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoes, O.A.C.; Meijer, L.J.J.; Sarfianto, D.R.; Van der Ent, R.J.

    2014-01-01

    Population growth, increasing energy demand and depleting fossil fuel resei-ves put a pressure on conventional methods of electricity generation. Hydropower is an alternative energy source that is known to have a large capacity potential. However, previous estimations of the potential capacity have

  8. Catching the Wind in a Bottle: Collection Development for Wind Energy Technology Programs at Universities and Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Renvall, Poppy

    2009-01-01

    This article aims to assist information professionals in developing a resource collection that serves Wind Energy students in academic settings. Traditional as well as Internet resources should be utilized in order to meet the needs of this unique student population.

  9. Catching the Wind in a Bottle: Collection Development for Wind Energy Technology Programs at Universities and Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Renvall, Poppy

    2009-01-01

    This article aims to assist information professionals in developing a resource collection that serves Wind Energy students in academic settings. Traditional as well as Internet resources should be utilized in order to meet the needs of this unique student population.

  10. Ab initio ground state phenylacetylene-argon intermolecular potential energy surface and rovibrational spectrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cybulski, Hubert; Fernandez, Berta; Henriksen, Christian

    2012-01-01

    We evaluate the phenylacetylene-argon intermolecular potential energy surface by fitting a representative number of ab initio interaction energies to an analytic function. These energies are calculated at a grid of intermolecular geometries, using the CCSD(T) method and the aug-cc-pVDZ basis set ...

  11. Wave energy: Research about the potential for a small habitable island in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Rooijen, B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper is written for the TIDO-course AR0532 Smart & Bioclimatic Design Theory. Wave energy is a relatively unknown source of sustainable energy with great potential. This paper will give an overview of the possibilities of wave energy for the built environment.

  12. The potential role of hydrogen energy in India and Western Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ruijven, B.J.; Lakshmikanth, H.D.; van Vuuren, D.P.; de Vries, B.

    2008-01-01

    We used the TIMER energy model to explore the potential role of hydrogen in the energy systems of India and Western Europe, looking at the impacts on its main incentives: climate policy, energy security and urban air pollution. We found that hydrogen will not play a major role in both regions withou

  13. The global technical potential of bio-energy in 2050 considering sustainability constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberl, Helmut; Beringer, Tim; Bhattacharya, Sribas C; Erb, Karl-Heinz; Hoogwijk, Monique

    2010-12-01

    Bio-energy, that is, energy produced from organic non-fossil material of biological origin, is promoted as a substitute for non-renewable (e.g., fossil) energy to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and dependency on energy imports. At present, global bio-energy use amounts to approximately 50 EJ/yr, about 10% of humanity's primary energy supply. We here review recent literature on the amount of bio-energy that could be supplied globally in 2050, given current expectations on technology, food demand and environmental targets ('technical potential'). Recent studies span a large range of global bio-energy potentials from ≈30 to over 1000 EJ/yr. In our opinion, the high end of the range is implausible because of (1) overestimation of the area available for bio-energy crops due to insufficient consideration of constraints (e.g., area for food, feed or nature conservation) and (2) too high yield expectations resulting from extrapolation of plot-based studies to large, less productive areas. According to this review, the global technical primary bio-energy potential in 2050 is in the range of 160-270 EJ/yr if sustainability criteria are considered. The potential of bio-energy crops is at the lower end of previously published ranges, while residues from food production and forestry could provide significant amounts of energy based on an integrated optimization ('cascade utilization') of biomass flows.

  14. AN INVESTIGATION OF WAVE ENERGY POTENTIAL IN WESTERN BLACK SEA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlyas UYGUR

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The main energy sources which are natural, clean, environmentally friendly, and renewable are wind power, solar energy, biomass energy, hydro energy, and wave energy. The wave energy has no cost except for the first investment and maintenance. There is also no cost for input energy. Besides these, it has no pollution effect on the environment, it is cheap and there is a huge potential all around the world. Wave energy is a good opportunity to solve the energy problem for Turkey which is surrounded by seas. Concerning all these facts, it has been conducted some studies which included five years of observation in the Western Black Sea Region (Akçakoca. The wave energy potential has also been calculated. From this sutdy results, it can be concluded that the wave energy potential of this region is inefficient. It is believed that by the improvement of the new energy converter devices in future, this low potential can be used more efficiently and as a result this study might be used as a basis for the future researches.

  15. The Economic Potential of Three Nuclear-Renewable Hybrid Energy Systems Providing Thermal Energy to Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, Mark [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cutler, Dylan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Flores-Espino, Francisco [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stark, Greg [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jenkin, Thomas [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This report is one of a series of reports that Idaho National Laboratory and National Renewable Energy Laboratory are producing to investigate the technical and economic aspects of nuclear-renewable hybrid energy systems (N-R HESs). Previous reports provided results of an analysis of two N-R HES scenarios. This report builds that analysis with a Texas-synthetic gasoline scenario providing the basis in which the N-R HES sells heat directly to an industrial customer. Subsystems were included that convert electricity to heat, thus allowing the renewable energy subsystem to generate heat and benefit from that revenue stream. Nuclear and renewable energy sources are important to consider in the energy sector's evolution because both are considered to be clean and non-carbon-emitting energy sources.

  16. Assessment of potential biomass energy production in China towards 2030 and 2050

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Guangling

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide a more detailed picture of potential biomass energy production in the Chinese energy system towards 2030 and 2050. Biomass for bioenergy feedstocks comes from five sources, which are agricultural crop residues, forest residues and industrial wood waste......, energy crops and woody crops, animal manure, and municipal solid waste. The potential biomass production is predicted based on the resource availability. In the process of identifying biomass resources production, assumptions are made regarding arable land, marginal land, crops yields, forest growth rate......, and meat consumption and waste production. Four scenarios were designed to describe the potential biomass energy production to elaborate the role of biomass energy in the Chinese energy system in 2030. The assessment shows that under certain restrictions on land availability, the maximum potential biomass...

  17. Achieving Land, Energy, and Environmental Compatibility: Utility-Scale Solar Energy Potential and Land-Use in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffacker, M. K.; Hernandez, R. R.; Field, C. B.

    2013-12-01

    Solar energy is an archetype renewable energy technology with great potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions when substituted for carbon-intensive energy. Utility-scale solar energy (USSE; i.e., > 1 MW) necessitates large quantities of space making the efficient use of land for USSE development critical to realizing its full potential. However, studies elucidating the interaction between land-use and utility-scale solar energy (USSE) are limited. In this study, we assessed 1) the theoretical and technical potential of terrestrial-based USSE systems, and 2) land-use and land-cover change impacts from actual USSE installations (> 20 MW; planned, under construction, operating), using California as a case study due to its early adoption of renewable energy systems, unique constraints on land availability, immense energy demand, and vast natural resources. We used topo-climatic (e.g., slope, irradiance), infrastructural (e.g., proximity to transmission lines), and ecological constraints (e.g., threatened and endangered species) to determine highly favorable, favorable, and unfavorable locations for USSE and to assess its technical potential. We found that the theoretical potential of photovoltaic (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP) in California is 26,097 and 29,422 kWh/m2/day, respectively. We identified over 150 planned, under construction, and operating USSE installations in California, ranging in size from 20 to 1,000 MW. Currently, 29% are located on shrub- and scrublands, 23% on cultivated crop land, 13% on pasture/hay areas, 11% on grassland/herbaceous and developed open space, and 7% in the built environment. Understanding current land-use decisions of USSE systems and assessing its future potential can be instructive for achieving land, energy, and environmental compatibility, especially for other global regions that share similar resource demands and limitations.

  18. Vibrational energies and full analytic potential energy functions of PbI and InI from pure microwave data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Ji Ho; Köckert, Hansjochen; Mullaney, John C.; Stephens, Susanna L.; Evans, Corey J.; Walker, Nicholas R.; Le Roy, Robert. J.

    2016-12-01

    Pure rotational spectra of PbI and InI are interpreted to yield a full analytic potential energy function for each molecule. Rotational spectra for PbI have been retrieved from literature sources to perform the analysis. Rotational transition frequencies for excited vibrational states of InI (0 program, dPOTFIT. The well-depth parameter, De , is fixed at a literature value, while values of the equilibrium distance re and EMO exponent-coefficient expansion (potential-shape) parameters are determined from the fits. Comparison with potential functions determined after including older mid-IR and visible electronic transition data shows that our analysis of the pure microwave data alone yields potential energy functions that accurately predict (to better than 1%) the overtone vibrational energies far beyond the range spanned by the levels for which the microwave data is available.

  19. A Preliminary Study of the Potential to Kinetic Energy Conversion Process in the Stratosphere

    OpenAIRE

    White, Robert M.; Nolan, George F.

    2011-01-01

    The potential to kinetic energy conversion process in the lower stratosphere associated with the vertical exchange of warm and cold air is evaluated using adiabatically derived vertical velocities for the North American region for a five-day period. Preliminary results suggest the possibility that on the average the kinetic energy of stratospheric motions may not result from a conversion of potential energy within the stratosphere by this process. The further implication is that stratospheric...

  20. Monitoring energy use of copiers to determine program design and potential savings for the Energy Star Copier program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dandridge, C.B. [ReEnergize Consortium, Berkeley, CA (United States); Norford, L.K. [Massachussetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Nordman, B. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    In the past five years, considerable attention has been focused on the electricity use of office equipment in commercial office buildings. Several groups have monitored energy use of PCs, monitors, printers and fax machines. However, little attention has been paid to monitoring energy use of copiers. Procedures for testing energy usage and usage profiles of copiers are needed to make valid comparisons between machines and to determine overall energy use and potential energy savings. In this paper, the authors present a method to analyze the energy use and usage profiles of copiers. This method is determined through long-term measurements from a Watt-hour meter connected to the copier and by measuring light flashes from the copier. Energy use from the copier can also be estimated by using a test procedure developed by Dandridge. Results from using the long term monitoring methods will be presented for several different sized copiers, and compared to the estimated energy use derived from the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) method. After summarizing these results, the authors determine criteria for a program to recognize energy-efficient copiers. These criteria were submitted as an Energy Star Copier program to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The new Energy Star Copier Program was announced in July 1995, with criteria based on these suggestions. Using the final Energy Star Copier program criteria and this data, the authors determine potential future savings for the program. The ability to automatically turn the copier off at night is the greatest energy-saving feature most copiers can have. The best way to reduce overall office costs is to have the copier set automatically to make double-sided copies.

  1. Survey report for fiscal 1998 on the survey on preparation of data collection related to new energy technology development (unutilized energies); 1998 nendo shin energy gijutsu kaihatsu kankei data shu sakusei chosa (miriyo energy) chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Surveys have been made with objectives to put into order systematically the data related to unutilized energies, to include new data into the data collection, and to complete the data collection with higher degree of coverage. This paper elucidates the significance of unutilized energy using heat supply systems, puts into order the kinds and specific properties of unutilized energies, and enumerates the typical systems for heat supply utilizing the unutilized energies. Unutilized energy using heat supply facilities in Japan were surveyed, which were classified by unutilized energy sources, unutilized energy temperature levels, and territories to prepare a detailed data collection for typical introduction cases. Introduction cases in overseas countries were put into order with those in Europe and America as the main introduction cases. Policies, legislation and subsidy institutions on unutilized energies were surveyed and put into order mainly for Japan, Europe and America. The status of research and development in Japan is stated. Two representative examples of unutilized energy using heat supply systems were surveyed, and the effect of the introduction was investigated. Other statements include typical costs, basic terminology, lists of major related corporations and organizations, and such related information as distribution cost. (NEDO)

  2. Charge collection efficiency of GaAs detectors studied with low-energy heavy charged particles

    CERN Document Server

    Bates, R; Linhart, V; O'Shea, V; Pospísil, S; Raine, C; Smith, K; Sinor, M; Wilhelm, I

    1999-01-01

    Epitaxially grown GaAs layers have recently been produced with sufficient thickness and low enough free carrier concentration to permit their use as radiation detectors. Initial tests have shown that the epi-material behaves as a classical semiconductor as the depletion behaviour follows the square root dependency on the applied bias. This article presents the results of measurements of the growth of the active depletion depth with increasing bias using low-energy protons and alpha particles as probes for various depths and their comparison to values extrapolated from capacitance measurements. From the proton and alpha particle spectroscopic measurements, an active depth of detector material that collects 100% of the charge generated inside it was determined. The consistency of these results with independent capacitance measurements supports the idea that the GaAs epi-material behaves as a classical semiconductor. (author)

  3. Isospin dependence of collective flow in heavy-ion collisions at intermediate energies

    CERN Document Server

    Li, B A; Ko, C M; Yennello, S J; Li, Bao An

    1996-01-01

    Within the framework of an isospin-dependent Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlen beck (BUU) model using initial proton and neutron densities calculated from the nonlinear relativistic mean-field (RMF) theory, we compare the strength of transverse collective flow in reactions ^{48}Ca+^{58}Fe and ^{48}Cr+^{58}Ni, which have the same mass number but different neutron/proton ratios. The neutron-rich system (^{48}Ca+^{58}Fe) is found to show significantly stronger negative deflection and consequently has a higher balance energy, especially in peripheral collisions. NOTE ADDED IN PROOF: The new phenomenon predicted in this work has just been confirmed by an experiment done by G.D. Westfall et al. using the NSCL/MSU radioactive beam facility and a spartan soccer. A paper by R. Pak et al. is submitted to PRL to report the experimental result.

  4. Low-Energy Collective Excitation of Bose-Einstein Condensates in an Anisotropic Magnetic Trap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Lu; WANG Xiao-Rui; LI Ke; TAN Xin-Zhou; XIONG Hong-Wei; LU Bao-Long

    2009-01-01

    We experimentally investigate the collective excitation of 87Rb Bose-Einstein condensates confined in a cigarshaped magnetic trap (QUIC trap).Using a method of magnetic perturbation,the center-of-mass oscillation of the condensate is excited, so that the radial trapping frequency of the QUIc trap can be precisely determined.A high-order excitation,characterized by a fast shape oscillation,also occurs simultaneously,with a noticeable damping in the oscillation ampfitude compared with the oscillation of the center ofmass.The measured oscillation frequencies,associated with these two low-energy exeiration modes.agree well with theoretical predictions based on the Gross-Pitaevskii equation.

  5. Kappa distributions in the presence of a potential energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livadiotis, George

    2016-10-01

    Classical particle systems reside at thermal equilibrium with their velocity distribution function stabilized into a Maxwell distribution. On the contrary, collisionless and correlated particle systems, such as geophysical, space, and astrophysical plasmas, are characterized by a non-Maxwellian behavior, typically described by the so-called kappa distributions, or combinations thereof. Empirical kappa distributions have become increasingly widespread across plasma physics. A breakthrough in the field came with the connection of kappa distributions to non-extensive statistical mechanics. Understanding the statistical origin of kappa distributions was the cornerstone of further theoretical developments and applications, one of which is the generalization to the phase-space kappa distributions of a Hamiltonian with non-zero potentials. We present the theory behind the phase-space kappa distributions and discuss three important applications in collisionless plasmas: (i) origin of polytropic relation; (ii) gravitational field; (iii) barometric relation (i.e., pressure vs. altitude); and (iv) plasma magnetization.

  6. Test-retest reliability and construct validity of the ENERGY-child questionnaire on energy balance-related behaviours and their potential determinants: the ENERGY-project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Amika S

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insight in children's energy balance-related behaviours (EBRBs and their determinants is important to inform obesity prevention research. Therefore, reliable and valid tools to measure these variables in large-scale population research are needed. Objective To examine the test-retest reliability and construct validity of the child questionnaire used in the ENERGY-project, measuring EBRBs and their potential determinants among 10-12 year old children. Methods We collected data among 10-12 year old children (n = 730 in the test-retest reliability study; n = 96 in the construct validity study in six European countries, i.e. Belgium, Greece, Hungary, the Netherlands, Norway, and Spain. Test-retest reliability was assessed using the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC and percentage agreement comparing scores from two measurements, administered one week apart. To assess construct validity, the agreement between questionnaire responses and a subsequent face-to-face interview was assessed using ICC and percentage agreement. Results Of the 150 questionnaire items, 115 (77% showed good to excellent test-retest reliability as indicated by ICCs > .60 or percentage agreement ≥ 75%. Test-retest reliability was moderate for 34 items (23% and poor for one item. Construct validity appeared to be good to excellent for 70 (47% of the 150 items, as indicated by ICCs > .60 or percentage agreement ≥ 75%. From the other 80 items, construct validity was moderate for 39 (26% and poor for 41 items (27%. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that the ENERGY-child questionnaire, assessing EBRBs of the child as well as personal, family, and school-environmental determinants related to these EBRBs, has good test-retest reliability and moderate to good construct validity for the large majority of items.

  7. Kinetic and Available Potential Energy Transport during the Stratospheric Sudden Warming in January 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZUO Qunjie; GAO Shouting; L(U) Daren

    2012-01-01

    The local features of transient kinetic energy and available potential energy were investigated using ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) Interim Reanalysis data for the stratospheric sudden warming (SSW) event of January 2009.The Western Europe high plays important roles in the propagation of the energy from North America to Eurasian.When the Western Europe high appeared and shifted eastward,energy conversions increased and energy propagated from North America to Eurasian as a form of interaction energy flow.The baroclinic conversion between transient-eddy kinetic energy (Ke)and transient-eddy available potential energy (Ae) and the horizontal advection of geopotential height were approximately one order of magnitude less than Ke and Ae generation terms.So,these terms were less important to this SSW event.

  8. Community Energy Companies in the UK: A Potential Model for Sustainable Development in “Local” Energy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Séverine Saintier

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The rise of renewable energy sources (RES comes with a shift in attention from government and market energy governance to local community initiatives and self-regulation. Although this shift is generally welcome at domestic and EU level, the regulatory dimension, at both levels, is nevertheless not adapted to this multi-actor market since prosumers are not empowered and energy justice is far from achieved. The rise, in the UK, of Community Interest Companies (consumers and local actors’ collectives in the energy sector provides an interesting perspective as it allows a whole system’s view. Research was conducted with six energy community organizations in the South West of England in order to evaluate their role and identity and assess whether this exemplar of “the rise of a social sphere in regulation” could be used as a model for a more sustainable social approach to the governance of economic relations. Findings illustrate that such organizations undoubtedly play an important role in the renewable energy sector and they also help to alleviate some aspects of “energy injustice”. Yet, the failure to recognize, in terms of energy policy, at domestic and EU level, the importance of such actors undermines their role. The need to embed and support such organizations in policy is necessary if one is to succeed to put justice at the core of the changing energy landscape.

  9. Discovering the desirable alleles contributing to the lignocellulosic biomass traits in Saccharum germplasm collections for energy cane improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jianping [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Sandhu, Hardev [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2017-03-23

    were tested on marginal soils in Florida and showed very promising yield potential that is important for the successful use of energy cane as a dedicated feedstock for lignocellulosic ethanol production. 2) Multiple techniques at different project progress stages were utilized. For example, for the whole world germplasm accession genotyping, a cheap widely used SSR marker genotyping platform was utilized due to the large number of samples (over thousand). But the throughput of this technique is low in generating data points. However, the purpose the genotyping is to form a core collection for further high throughput genotyping. Thus the results from the SSR genotyping was quite good enough to generated the core collection. To genotype the few hundred core collection accessions, an target enrichment sequencing technology was used, which is not only high throughput in generating large number of genotyping data, but also has the candidate genes targeted to genotyping. The data generated would be sufficient in identifying the alleles contributing to the traits of interests. All the techniques used in this project are effective though extensive time was invested specifically for establish the pipeline in the experimental design, data analysis, and different approach comparison. 3) the research can benefit to the public in polyploid genotyping and new and cost efficient genotyping platform development

  10. Wavelet Study of Meteorological Data Collected by Arduino-Weather Station: Impact on Solar Energy Collection Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Caccamo Maria Teresa; Calabró Emanuele; Cannuli Antonio; Magazù Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    Meteorological data collected by an automated LSI Lastem weather station connected with an Arduino device for remote acquisition are reported and discussed. Weather station, located at 38° 15’ 35.10’’ N latitude and 15° 35’ 58.86’’ E longitude, registered data which were analysed by wavelet transform to obtain time-frequency characterization of the signals. Such an approach allowed to highlight the correlation existing among the registered meteorological data. The results show a positive corr...

  11. High-efficiency piezoelectric micro harvester for collecting low-frequency mechanical energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Song, Jinhui; Feng, Shuanglong; Xie, Xiong; Li, Zhenhu; Wang, Liang; Pu, Yayun; Kah Soh, Ai; Shen, Jun; Lu, Wenqiang; Liu, Shuangyi

    2016-12-01

    A single-layer zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod array-based micro energy harvester was designed and integrated with a piezoelectric metacapacitor. The device presents outstanding low-frequency (1-10 Hz) mechanical energy harvesting capabilities. When compared with conventional pristine ZnO nanostructured piezoelectric harvesters or generators, both open-circuit potential and short-circuit current are significantly enhanced (up to 3.1 V and 124 nA cm-2) for a single mechanical knock (˜34 kPa). Higher electromechanical conversion efficiency (1.3 pC/Pa) is also observed. The results indicate that the integration of the piezoelectric metacapacitor is a crucial factor for improving the low-frequency energy harvesting performance. A double piezoelectric-driven mechanism is proposed to explain current higher output power, in which the metacapacitor plays the multiple roles of charge pumping, storing and transferring. An as-fabricated prototype device for lighting an LED demonstrates high power transference capability, with over 95% transference efficiency to the external load.

  12. Clean Energy Policy Analysis: Impact Analysis of Potential Clean Energy Policy Options for the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative (HCEI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busche, S.; Doris, E.; Braccio, R.; Lippert, D.; Finch, P.; O' Toole, D.; Fetter, J.

    2010-04-01

    This report provides detailed analyses of 21 clean energy policy options considered by the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative working groups for recommendation to the 2010 Hawaii State Legislature. The report considers the impact each policy may have on ratepayers, businesses, and the state in terms of energy saved, clean energy generated, and the financial costs and benefits. The analyses provide insight into the possible impacts, both qualitative and quantitative, that these policies may have in Hawaii based on the experience with these policies elsewhere. As much as possible, the analyses incorporate Hawaii-specific context to reflect the many unique aspects of energy use in the State of Hawaii.

  13. A universal potential energy function and precise calculations on the molecular spectra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Changfeng; Yan Kun; Liu Daizhi

    2008-01-01

    By using a function with a phase factor, a universal analytic potential energy function applied to the interactions between diatoms or molecules is derived and six kinds of potential curves of common shapes are obtained by adjusting the phase factor. The spectroscopic parameters of ten diatomic molecules are calculated by using the potential energy function; as a consequence, all calculation results are in good agreement with experimental data.

  14. Imaging the potential distribution of charged adsorbates on graphene by low-energy electron holography

    CERN Document Server

    Latychevskaia, Tatiana; Escher, Conrad; Fink, Hans-Werner

    2016-01-01

    While imaging individual atoms can routinely be achieved in high resolution transmission electron microscopy, visualizing the potential distribution of individually charged adsorbates leading to a phase shift of the probing electron wave is still a challenging task. Since low-energy electrons are sensitive to localized potential gradients, we employed this tool in the 30 eV kinetic energy range to visualize the potential distribution of localized charged adsorbates present on free-standing graphene.

  15. Relativistic study of the energy-dependent Coulomb potential including Coulomb-like tensor interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Hamzavi, Majid

    2012-01-01

    The exact Dirac equation for the energy-dependent Coulomb (EDC) potential including a Coulomb-like tensor (CLT) potential has been studied in the presence of spin and pseudospin (p-spin) symmetries with arbitrary spin-orbit quantum number The energy eigenvalues and corresponding eigenfunctions are obtained in the framework of asymptotic iteration method (AIM). Some numerical results are obtained in the presence and absence of EDC and CLT potentials.

  16. Consequences of converting graded to action potentials upon neural information coding and energy efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Biswa; Laughlin, Simon Barry; Niven, Jeremy Edward

    2014-01-01

    Information is encoded in neural circuits using both graded and action potentials, converting between them within single neurons and successive processing layers. This conversion is accompanied by information loss and a drop in energy efficiency. We investigate the biophysical causes of this loss of information and efficiency by comparing spiking neuron models, containing stochastic voltage-gated Na(+) and K(+) channels, with generator potential and graded potential models lacking voltage-gated Na(+) channels. We identify three causes of information loss in the generator potential that are the by-product of action potential generation: (1) the voltage-gated Na(+) channels necessary for action potential generation increase intrinsic noise and (2) introduce non-linearities, and (3) the finite duration of the action potential creates a 'footprint' in the generator potential that obscures incoming signals. These three processes reduce information rates by ∼50% in generator potentials, to ∼3 times that of spike trains. Both generator potentials and graded potentials consume almost an order of magnitude less energy per second than spike trains. Because of the lower information rates of generator potentials they are substantially less energy efficient than graded potentials. However, both are an order of magnitude more efficient than spike trains due to the higher energy costs and low information content of spikes, emphasizing that there is a two-fold cost of converting analogue to digital; information loss and cost inflation.

  17. Collected rainfall as a water source in Danish households - what is the potential and what are the costs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, P.S.; Adeler, O.F.; Albrechtsen, H.-J.;

    1999-01-01

    and all rain falling on the surfaces is collected. This is equivalent to 24% of the total present production of drinking water, which is mainly based on groundwater. From household roofs 64.5 million m(3)/year can be collected if used for toilet flushing and washing of clothes. This is 68% of the actual......The water resource, energy and economy aspects of rainwater collection are assessed to evaluate rainfall collection as an alternative option for sustainable water supply. A maximum of 229 million m(3)/year of rainwater can be collected from Danish roofs, provided that all possible surfaces are used...... demand for toilet flushing and washing of clothes in households and 22% of the total water consumption in households, but only 7% of the total present drinking water production in Denmark. From the society point of view there is neither an environmental nor an economic reason to systematically promote...

  18. The Exact Nonrelativistic Energy Eigenvalues for Modified Inversely Quadratic Yukawa Potential Plus Mie-type Potential

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelmadjid Maireche

    2017-01-01

    The modified theories of noncommutative quantum mechanics have engrossed much attention in the last decade, especially its application to the fundamental three equations: Schrödinger, Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations. In this contextual exploration, we further investigate for modified quadratic Yukawa potential plus Mie-type potential (MIQYM) in the framework of modified nonrelativistic Schrödinger equation (MSE) using generalization of Bopp’s shift method and standard perturbation theory ins...

  19. Energy Efficient IoT Data Collection in Smart Cities Exploiting D2D Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsino, Antonino; Araniti, Giuseppe; Militano, Leonardo; Alonso-Zarate, Jesus; Molinaro, Antonella; Iera, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Fifth Generation (5G) wireless systems are expected to connect an avalanche of “smart” objects disseminated from the largest “Smart City” to the smallest “Smart Home”. In this vision, Long Term Evolution-Advanced (LTE-A) is deemed to play a fundamental role in the Internet of Things (IoT) arena providing a large coherent infrastructure and a wide wireless connectivity to the devices. However, since LTE-A was originally designed to support high data rates and large data size, novel solutions are required to enable an efficient use of radio resources to convey small data packets typically exchanged by IoT applications in “smart” environments. On the other hand, the typically high energy consumption required by cellular communications is a serious obstacle to large scale IoT deployments under cellular connectivity as in the case of Smart City scenarios. Network-assisted Device-to-Device (D2D) communications are considered as a viable solution to reduce the energy consumption for the devices. The particular approach presented in this paper consists in appointing one of the IoT smart devices as a collector of all data from a cluster of objects using D2D links, thus acting as an aggregator toward the eNodeB. By smartly adapting the Modulation and Coding Scheme (MCS) on the communication links, we will show it is possible to maximize the radio resource utilization as a function of the total amount of data to be sent. A further benefit that we will highlight is the possibility to reduce the transmission power when a more robust MCS is adopted. A comprehensive performance evaluation in a wide set of scenarios will testify the achievable gains in terms of energy efficiency and resource utilization in the envisaged D2D-based IoT data collection. PMID:27338385

  20. Energy Efficient IoT Data Collection in Smart Cities Exploiting D2D Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino Orsino

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Fifth Generation (5G wireless systems are expected to connect an avalanche of “smart” objects disseminated from the largest “Smart City” to the smallest “Smart Home”. In this vision, Long Term Evolution-Advanced (LTE-A is deemed to play a fundamental role in the Internet of Things (IoT arena providing a large coherent infrastructure and a wide wireless connectivity to the devices. However, since LTE-A was originally designed to support high data rates and large data size, novel solutions are required to enable an efficient use of radio resources to convey small data packets typically exchanged by IoT applications in “smart” environments. On the other hand, the typically high energy consumption required by cellular communications is a serious obstacle to large scale IoT deployments under cellular connectivity as in the case of Smart City scenarios. Network-assisted Device-to-Device (D2D communications are considered as a viable solution to reduce the energy consumption for the devices. The particular approach presented in this paper consists in appointing one of the IoT smart devices as a collector of all data from a cluster of objects using D2D links, thus acting as an aggregator toward the eNodeB. By smartly adapting the Modulation and Coding Scheme (MCS on the communication links, we will show it is possible to maximize the radio resource utilization as a function of the total amount of data to be sent. A further benefit that we will highlight is the possibility to reduce the transmission power when a more robust MCS is adopted. A comprehensive performance evaluation in a wide set of scenarios will testify the achievable gains in terms of energy efficiency and resource utilization in the envisaged D2D-based IoT data collection.