WorldWideScience

Sample records for collective intelligent behavior

  1. Artificial intelligence: Collective behaviors of synthetic micromachines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Wentao

    Synthetic nano- and micromotors function through the conversion of chemical free energy or forms of energy into mechanical motion. Ever since the first reports, such motors have been the subject of growing interest. In addition to motility in response to gradients, these motors interact with each other, resulting in emergent collective behavior like schooling, exclusion, and predator-prey. However, most of these systems only exhibit a single type of collective behavior in response to a certain stimuli. The research projects in the disseratation aim at designing synthetic micromotors that can exhibit transition between various collective behaviors in response to different stimuli, as well as quantitative understanding on the pairwise interaction and propulsion mechanism of such motors. Chapter 1 offers an overview on development of synthetic micromachines. Interactions and collective behaviors of micromotors are also summarized and included. Chapter 2 presents a silver orthophosphate microparticle system that exhibits collective behaviors. Transition between two collective patterns, clustering and dispersion, can be triggered by shift in chemical equilibrium upon the addition or removal of ammonia, in response to UV light, or under two orthogonal stimuli (UV and acoustic field) and powering mechanisms. The transitions can be explained by the self-diffusiophoresis mechanism resulting from either ionic or neutral solute gradients. Potential applications of the reported system in logic gates, microscale pumping, and hierarchical assembly have been demonstrated. Chapter 3 introduces a self-powered oscillatory micromotor system in which active colloids form clusters whose size changes periodically. The system consists of an aqueous suspension of silver orthophosphate particles under UV radiation, in the presence of a mixture of glucose and hydrogen peroxide. The colloid particles first attract with each other to form clusters. After a lag time of around 5min, chemical

  2. The State of Collective Intelligence Behavior and Practices of Danish Corporations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallin, Carina Antonia

    , quality in creativity and innovation, and the ability to predict new market trends and operational changes better than the competition. The purpose of this research is to map the state of collective intelligence behavior and related crowdsourcing methods applied by CEOs, directors and managers of Denmark......'s leading corporations across different sectors. As the first quantitative and qualitative research on the status of collective intelligence behavior and practices of top Danish corporations, we investigate the corporations’ use of collective intelligence, crowdsourcing methods (including crowdsourcing...

  3. Collective Intelligence in Crises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Büscher, Monika; Liegl, Michael; Thomas, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    . By examining these dynamics with the concept of social collective intelligence, important opportunities and challenges can be examined. In this chapter we focus on socio-technical aspects of social collective intelligence in crises to discuss positive and negative frictions and avenues for innovation....... Of particular interest are ways of bridging between collective intelligence in crises and official emergency response efforts....

  4. Artificial intelligence exploration of unstable protocells leads to predictable properties and discovery of collective behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Points, Laurie J; Taylor, James Ward; Grizou, Jonathan; Donkers, Kevin; Cronin, Leroy

    2018-01-30

    Protocell models are used to investigate how cells might have first assembled on Earth. Some, like oil-in-water droplets, can be seemingly simple models, while able to exhibit complex and unpredictable behaviors. How such simple oil-in-water systems can come together to yield complex and life-like behaviors remains a key question. Herein, we illustrate how the combination of automated experimentation and image processing, physicochemical analysis, and machine learning allows significant advances to be made in understanding the driving forces behind oil-in-water droplet behaviors. Utilizing >7,000 experiments collected using an autonomous robotic platform, we illustrate how smart automation cannot only help with exploration, optimization, and discovery of new behaviors, but can also be core to developing fundamental understanding of such systems. Using this process, we were able to relate droplet formulation to behavior via predicted physical properties, and to identify and predict more occurrences of a rare collective droplet behavior, droplet swarming. Proton NMR spectroscopic and qualitative pH methods enabled us to better understand oil dissolution, chemical change, phase transitions, and droplet and aqueous phase flows, illustrating the utility of the combination of smart-automation and traditional analytical chemistry techniques. We further extended our study for the simultaneous exploration of both the oil and aqueous phases using a robotic platform. Overall, this work shows that the combination of chemistry, robotics, and artificial intelligence enables discovery, prediction, and mechanistic understanding in ways that no one approach could achieve alone.

  5. Theory of Collective Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolpert, David H.

    2003-01-01

    In this chapter an analysis of the behavior of an arbitrary (perhaps massive) collective of computational processes in terms of an associated "world" utility function is presented We concentrate on the situation where each process in the collective can be viewed as though it were striving to maximize its own private utility function. For such situations the central design issue is how to initialize/update the collective's structure, and in particular the private utility functions, so as to induce the overall collective to behave in a way that has large values of the world utility. Traditional "team game" approaches to this problem simply set each private utility function equal to the world utility function. The "Collective Intelligence" (COIN) framework is a semi-formal set of heuristics that recently have been used to construct private utility. functions that in many experiments have resulted in world utility values up to orders of magnitude superior to that ensuing from use of the team game utility. In this paper we introduce a formal mathematics for analyzing and designing collectives. We also use this mathematics to suggest new private utilities that should outperform the COIN heuristics in certain kinds of domains. In accompanying work we use that mathematics to explain previous experimental results concerning the superiority of COIN heuristics. In that accompanying work we also use the mathematics to make numerical predictions, some of which we then test. In this way these two papers establish the study of collectives as a proper science, involving theory, explanation of old experiments, prediction concerning new experiments, and engineering insights.

  6. Synthetic collective intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solé, Ricard; Amor, Daniel R; Duran-Nebreda, Salva; Conde-Pueyo, Núria; Carbonell-Ballestero, Max; Montañez, Raúl

    2016-10-01

    Intelligent systems have emerged in our biosphere in different contexts and achieving different levels of complexity. The requirement of communication in a social context has been in all cases a determinant. The human brain, probably co-evolving with language, is an exceedingly successful example. Similarly, social insects complex collective decisions emerge from information exchanges between many agents. The difference is that such processing is obtained out of a limited individual cognitive power. Computational models and embodied versions using non-living systems, particularly involving robot swarms, have been used to explore the potentiality of collective intelligence. Here we suggest a novel approach to the problem grounded in the genetic engineering of unicellular systems, which can be modified in order to interact, store memories or adapt to external stimuli in collective ways. What we label as Synthetic Swarm Intelligence defines a parallel approach to the evolution of computation and swarm intelligence and allows to explore potential embodied scenarios for decision making at the microscale. Here, we consider several relevant examples of collective intelligence and their synthetic organism counterparts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Multiple Intelligences: A Collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Robin, Ed.; Bellanca, James, Ed.

    As a concise resource for Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences and its implications for schooling around the world, this collection is designed for educators, parents, and others interested in education. The first section discusses Gardner and his background, and the second section expounds his theory. The third section explores the…

  8. An intelligence collection management model.

    OpenAIRE

    Gandy, Thomas A.

    1984-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis examines the structure and functions of a generalized tactical intelligence collection system. Included are its position in the intelligence system structure, relationship with other activities in the intelligence system, and the organization and control of its components. A mathematical optimization model of a simplified intelligence collection system is developed to explore several issues related to intelligence collect...

  9. Fostering collective intelligence education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Meza

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available New educational models are necessary to update learning environments to the digitally shared communication and information. Collective intelligence is an emerging field that already has a significant impact in many areas and will have great implications in education, not only from the side of new methodologies but also as a challenge for education. This paper proposes an approach to a collective intelligence model of teaching using Internet to combine two strategies: idea management and real time assessment in the class. A digital tool named Fabricius has been created supporting these two elements to foster the collaboration and engagement of students in the learning process. As a result of the research we propose a list of KPI trying to measure individual and collective performance. We are conscious that this is just a first approach to define which aspects of a class following a course can be qualified and quantified.

  10. Distributed Control with Collective Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolpert, David H.; Wheeler, Kevin R.; Tumer, Kagan

    1998-01-01

    We consider systems of interacting reinforcement learning (RL) algorithms that do not work at cross purposes , in that their collective behavior maximizes a global utility function. We call such systems COllective INtelligences (COINs). We present the theory of designing COINs. Then we present experiments validating that theory in the context of two distributed control problems: We show that COINs perform near-optimally in a difficult variant of Arthur's bar problem [Arthur] (and in particular avoid the tragedy of the commons for that problem), and we also illustrate optimal performance in the master-slave problem.

  11. Collective behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstone, Robert L; Gureckis, Todd M

    2009-07-01

    The resurgence of interest in collective behavior is in large part due to tools recently made available for conducting laboratory experiments on groups, statistical methods for analyzing large data sets reflecting social interactions, the rapid growth of a diverse variety of online self-organized collectives, and computational modeling methods for understanding both universal and scenario-specific social patterns. We consider case studies of collective behavior along four attributes: the primary motivation of individuals within the group, kinds of interactions among individuals, typical dynamics that result from these interactions, and characteristic outcomes at the group level. With this framework, we compare the collective patterns of noninteracting decision makers, bee swarms, groups forming paths in physical and abstract spaces, sports teams, cooperation and competition for resource usage, and the spread and extension of innovations in an online community. Some critical issues surrounding collective behavior are then reviewed, including the questions of "Does group behavior always reduce to individual behavior?"Is 'group cognition' possible?" and "What is the value of formal modeling for understanding group behavior?" Copyright © 2009 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  12. Using Collective Intelligence to Route Internet Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolpert, David H.; Tumer, Kagan; Frank, Jeremy

    1998-01-01

    A Collective Intelligence (COIN) is a community of interacting reinforcement learning (RL) algorithms designed so that their collective behavior maximizes a global utility function. We introduce the theory of COINs, then present experiments using that theory to design COINs to control internet traffic routing. These experiments indicate that COINs outperform previous RL-based systems for such routing that have previously been investigated.

  13. Collective Intelligence. Chapter 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolpert, David H.

    2003-01-01

    Many systems of self-interested agents have an associated performance criterion that rates the dynamic behavior of the overall system. This chapter presents an introduction to the science of such systems. Formally, collectives are defined as any system having the following two characteristics: First, the system must contain one or more agents each of which we view as trying to maximize an associated private utility; second, the system must have an associated world utility function that rates the possible behaviors of that overall system. In practice, collectives are often very large, distributed, and support little, if any, centralized communication and control, although those characteristics are not part of their formal definition. A naturally occurring example of a collective is a human economy. One can identify the agents and their private utilities as the human individuals in the economy and the associated personal rewards they are each trying to maximize. One could then identify the world utility as the time average of the gross domestic product. ("World utility" per se is not a construction internal to a human economy, but rather something defined from the outside.) To achieve high world utility it is necessary to avoid having the agents work at cross-purposes lest phenomena like liquidity traps or the Tragedy of the Commons (TOC) occur, in which agents' individually pursuing their private utilities lowers world utility. The obvious way to avoid such phenomena is by modifying the agents utility functions to be "aligned" with the world utility. This can be done via punitive legislation. A real-world example of an attempt to do this was the creation of antitrust regulations designed to prevent monopolistic practices.

  14. Optimal incentives for collective intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Richard P; Helbing, Dirk

    2017-05-16

    Collective intelligence is the ability of a group to perform more effectively than any individual alone. Diversity among group members is a key condition for the emergence of collective intelligence, but maintaining diversity is challenging in the face of social pressure to imitate one's peers. Through an evolutionary game-theoretic model of collective prediction, we investigate the role that incentives may play in maintaining useful diversity. We show that market-based incentive systems produce herding effects, reduce information available to the group, and restrain collective intelligence. Therefore, we propose an incentive scheme that rewards accurate minority predictions and show that this produces optimal diversity and collective predictive accuracy. We conclude that real world systems should reward those who have shown accuracy when the majority opinion has been in error.

  15. Collective-Intelligence Recommender Systems: Advancing Computer Tailoring for Health Behavior Change Into the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadasivam, Rajani Shankar; Cutrona, Sarah L; Kinney, Rebecca L; Marlin, Benjamin M; Mazor, Kathleen M; Lemon, Stephenie C; Houston, Thomas K

    2016-03-07

    What is the next frontier for computer-tailored health communication (CTHC) research? In current CTHC systems, study designers who have expertise in behavioral theory and mapping theory into CTHC systems select the variables and develop the rules that specify how the content should be tailored, based on their knowledge of the targeted population, the literature, and health behavior theories. In collective-intelligence recommender systems (hereafter recommender systems) used by Web 2.0 companies (eg, Netflix and Amazon), machine learning algorithms combine user profiles and continuous feedback ratings of content (from themselves and other users) to empirically tailor content. Augmenting current theory-based CTHC with empirical recommender systems could be evaluated as the next frontier for CTHC. The objective of our study was to uncover barriers and challenges to using recommender systems in health promotion. We conducted a focused literature review, interviewed subject experts (n=8), and synthesized the results. We describe (1) limitations of current CTHC systems, (2) advantages of incorporating recommender systems to move CTHC forward, and (3) challenges to incorporating recommender systems into CTHC. Based on the evidence presented, we propose a future research agenda for CTHC systems. We promote discussion of ways to move CTHC into the 21st century by incorporation of recommender systems.

  16. Collective-Intelligence Recommender Systems: Advancing Computer Tailoring for Health Behavior Change Into the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutrona, Sarah L; Kinney, Rebecca L; Marlin, Benjamin M; Mazor, Kathleen M; Lemon, Stephenie C; Houston, Thomas K

    2016-01-01

    Background What is the next frontier for computer-tailored health communication (CTHC) research? In current CTHC systems, study designers who have expertise in behavioral theory and mapping theory into CTHC systems select the variables and develop the rules that specify how the content should be tailored, based on their knowledge of the targeted population, the literature, and health behavior theories. In collective-intelligence recommender systems (hereafter recommender systems) used by Web 2.0 companies (eg, Netflix and Amazon), machine learning algorithms combine user profiles and continuous feedback ratings of content (from themselves and other users) to empirically tailor content. Augmenting current theory-based CTHC with empirical recommender systems could be evaluated as the next frontier for CTHC. Objective The objective of our study was to uncover barriers and challenges to using recommender systems in health promotion. Methods We conducted a focused literature review, interviewed subject experts (n=8), and synthesized the results. Results We describe (1) limitations of current CTHC systems, (2) advantages of incorporating recommender systems to move CTHC forward, and (3) challenges to incorporating recommender systems into CTHC. Based on the evidence presented, we propose a future research agenda for CTHC systems. Conclusions We promote discussion of ways to move CTHC into the 21st century by incorporation of recommender systems. PMID:26952574

  17. Faire preuve d'intelligence collective (To Display Collective Intelligence).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laferriere, Therese

    2000-01-01

    The need for lifelong learning is increasing as humanity transforms the planet into a global village. The growing number of people using the electronic infrastructure is creating new practices in which learning and work are intertwined. Professional educators must build the collective intelligence required for a knowledge-based society, and in…

  18. The rules of information aggregation and emergence of collective intelligent behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettencourt, Luis [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Information is a peculiar quantity. Unlike matter or energy, the aggregation of knowledge from many individuals can in fact produce more (or less) information than the sum of its parts. We use the formalism of information theory to derive general principles of information aggregation and collective organization under which information pooling can be synergetic or to identify when it will be redundant. We then show how several problems of collective cognition and coordination can be understood in terms of the conditions that allow for the minimization of uncertainty (maximization of predictability) under information pooling over many individuals. We discuss in some detail how collective coordination in swarms, markets, language processing and collaborative filtering may be guided by the optimal aggregation of information over many sources and identify circumstances when these processes fail, leading e.g. to inefficient markets. The contrast to approaches to understand coordination and collaboration via traditional decision and game theory is discussed as well as the incentives to individuals and groups to find optimal information aggregation mechanisms.

  19. An Intelligence Collection Management Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-01

    classification of inteligence collection requirements in terms of. the a-.- metnodo"c, .ev--e in Chaster Five. 116 APPgENDIX A A METHOD OF RANKING...of Artificial Intelligence Tools and Technigues to!TN’X n~l is n rs aa~emfft-.3-ufnyva: ’A TZ Ashby W. Ecss. An Introduction to Cybernetics. New York

  20. Business Sustainability and Collective Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Paulo

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyze to which point collective intelligence (CI) concepts and ideas, as applied to organizations, can contribute to enlarge the conceptual basis for business sustainability (BS). Design/methodology/approach: The paper is written from an engineer-minded, systemic and cybernetic perspective. It begins by…

  1. Advances in Collective Intelligence 2011

    CERN Document Server

    Baumöl, Ulrike; Krämer, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    Collective intelligence has become an attractive subject of interest for both academia and industry. More and more conferences and workshops discuss the impact of the users‘ motivation to participate in the value creation process, the enabling role of leading-edge information and communication technologies and the need for better algorithms to deal with the growing amount of shared data. There are many interesting and challenging topics that need to be researched and discussed with respect to knowledge creation, creativity and innovation processes carried forward in the emerging communities of practice. COLLIN is on the path to become the flagship conference in the areas of collective intelligence and ICT-enabled social networking. We were delighted to again receive contributions from different parts of the world including Australia, Europe, Asia, and the United States. Encouraged by the positive response, we plan COLLIN 2012 to be held next year end of August at FernUniverstität in Hagen. In order to guar...

  2. New perspectives on intelligence collection and processing

    OpenAIRE

    Tekin, Muhammet

    2016-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Intelligence-production activities are typically viewed as part of an intelligence cycle, consisting of planning, collection, processing, analysis, and dissemination stages. Once a request for information is issued, the intelligence agencies mostly deal with the collection and processing activities of the cycle. However, in most situations, there is an enormous amount of data to be collected. This overabundance of information requires...

  3. Fleet Assignment Using Collective Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine, Nicolas E.; Bieniawski, Stefan R.; Kroo, Ilan M.; Wolpert, David H.

    2004-01-01

    Product distribution theory is a new collective intelligence-based framework for analyzing and controlling distributed systems. Its usefulness in distributed stochastic optimization is illustrated here through an airline fleet assignment problem. This problem involves the allocation of aircraft to a set of flights legs in order to meet passenger demand, while satisfying a variety of linear and non-linear constraints. Over the course of the day, the routing of each aircraft is determined in order to minimize the number of required flights for a given fleet. The associated flow continuity and aircraft count constraints have led researchers to focus on obtaining quasi-optimal solutions, especially at larger scales. In this paper, the authors propose the application of this new stochastic optimization algorithm to a non-linear objective cold start fleet assignment problem. Results show that the optimizer can successfully solve such highly-constrained problems (130 variables, 184 constraints).

  4. Intelligence and Prosocial Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Ru; Shi, Jiannong; Yong, W.

    2012-01-01

    Results of prev ious studies of the relationship between prosocial behav ior and intelligence hav e been inconsistent. This study attempts to distinguish the dif f erences between sev eral prosocial tasks, and explores the way s in which cognitiv e ability inf luences prosocial behav ior. In Stud...

  5. New trends in computational collective intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Sang-Wook; Trawiński, Bogdan

    2015-01-01

    This book consists of 20 chapters in which the authors deal with different theoretical and practical aspects of new trends in Collective Computational Intelligence techniques. Computational Collective Intelligence methods and algorithms are one the current trending research topics from areas related to Artificial Intelligence, Soft Computing or Data Mining among others. Computational Collective Intelligence is a rapidly growing field that is most often understood as an AI sub-field dealing with soft computing methods which enable making group decisions and processing knowledge among autonomous units acting in distributed environments. Web-based Systems, Social Networks, and Multi-Agent Systems very often need these tools for working out consistent knowledge states, resolving conflicts and making decisions. The chapters included in this volume cover a selection of topics and new trends in several domains related to Collective Computational Intelligence: Language and Knowledge Processing, Data Mining Methods an...

  6. A Survey of Collective Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolpert, David H.; Tumer, Kagan

    1999-01-01

    This chapter presents the science of "COllective INtelligence" (COIN). A COIN is a large multi-agent systems where: i) the agents each run reinforcement learning (RL) algorithms; ii) there is little to no centralized communication or control; iii) there is a provided world utility function that, rates the possible histories of tile full system. Tile conventional approach to designing large distributed systems to optimize a world utility does not use agents running RL algorithms. Rather that approach begins with explicit modeling of the overall system's dynamics, followed by detailed hand-tuning of the interactions between the components to ensure that they "cooperate" as far as the world utility is concerned. This approach is labor-intensive, often results in highly non-robust systems, and usually results in design techniques that, have limited applicability. In contrast, with COINs we wish to solve the system design problems implicitly, via the 'adaptive' character of the RL algorithms of each of the agents. This COIN approach introduces an entirely new, profound design problem: Assuming the RL algorithms are able to achieve high rewards, what reward functions for the individual agents will, when pursued by those agents, result in high world utility? In other words, what reward functions will best ensure that we do not have phenomena like the tragedy of the commons, or Braess's paradox? Although still very young, the science of COINs has already resulted in successes in artificial domains, in particular in packet-routing, the leader-follower problem, and in variants of Arthur's "El Farol bar problem". It is expected that as it matures not only will COIN science expand greatly the range of tasks addressable by human engineers, but it will also provide much insight into already established scientific fields, such as economics, game theory, or population biology.

  7. Programming collective intelligence: building smart web 2.0 applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Segaran, Toby

    2007-01-01

    .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction to Collective Intelligence What Is Collective Intelligence? What Is Machine Learning? Limits of Machine Learning Real-Life Examples Other Uses for Learning...

  8. New challenges in computational collective intelligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Ngoc Thanh; Katarzyniak, Radoslaw Piotr [Wroclaw Univ. of Technology (Poland). Inst. of Informatics; Janiak, Adam (eds.) [Wroclaw Univ. of Technology (Poland). Inst. of Computer Engineering, Control and Robotics

    2009-07-01

    The book consists of 29 chapters which have been selected and invited from the submissions to the 1{sup st} International Conference on Collective Intelligence - Semantic Web, Social Networks and Multiagent Systems (ICCCI 2009). All chapters in the book discuss various examples of applications of computational collective intelligence and related technologies to such fields as semantic web, information systems ontologies, social networks, agent and multiagent systems. The editors hope that the book can be useful for graduate and Ph.D. students in Computer Science, in particular participants to courses on Soft Computing, Multi-Agent Systems and Robotics. This book can also be useful for researchers working on the concept of computational collective intelligence in artificial populations. It is the hope of the editors that readers of this volume can find many inspiring ideas and use them to create new cases intelligent collectives. Many such challenges are suggested by particular approaches and models presented in particular chapters of this book. (orig.)

  9. COllective INtelligence with sequences of actions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J. 't Hoen (Pieter Jan); S.M. Bohte (Sander)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe design of a Multi-Agent System (MAS) to perform well on a collective task is non-trivial. Straightforward application of learning in a MAS can lead to sub optimal solutions as agents compete or interfere. The COllective INtelligence (COIN) framework of Wolpert et al. proposes an

  10. Python for Collective Intelligence and Collaborative Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper will define the two terms Collective Intelligence and Collaborative Filtering and discuss how these two ideas can be used to create personally relevant filters allowing end users more personalized access to information on their chosen topics of interest.  In addition various mathematical models used to filter data and compare preferences and their corresponding pythonic implementations will be discussed.  Finally a simple example using web API’s and Collective Intelligence algorithms will be demonstrated to provide an idea of the type of things that can be achieved, relatively easily, using python for Collective Intelligence and Collaborative Filtering.  This short abstract will be accompanied by a talk given at PyCon Asia 2010.

  11. Spatial Collective Intelligence? credibility, accuracy, and Volunteered Geographic Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielman, Seth E

    2014-01-01

    Collective intelligence is the idea that under the right circumstances collections of individuals are smarter than even the smartest individuals in the group (Suroweiki 2004), that is a group has an "intelligence" that is independent of the intelligence of its members. The ideology of collective intelligence undergirds much of the enthusiasm about the use of "volunteered" or crowdsourced geographic information. Literature from a variety of fields makes clear that not all groups possess collective intelligence, this paper identifies four pre-conditions for the emergence of collective intelligence and then examine the extent to which collectively generated mapping systems satisfy these conditions. However, the "intelligence" collectively generated maps is hard to assess because there are two difficult to reconcile perspectives on map quality- the credibility perspective and the accuracy perspective. Much of the current literature on user generated maps focuses on assessing the quality of individual contributions. However, because user generated maps are complex social systems and because the quality of a contribution is difficult to assess this strategy may not yield an "intelligent" end product. The existing literature on collective intelligence suggests that the structure of groups more important that the intelligence of group members. Applying this idea to user generated suggests that systems should be designed to foster conditions known to produce collective intelligence rather than privileging particular contributions/contributors. The paper concludes with some design recommendations and by considering the implications of collectively generated maps for both expert knowledge and traditional state sponsored mapping programs.

  12. Efficient Media Exploitation Towards Collective Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylonas, Phivos; Solachidis, Vassilios; Geyer-Schulz, Andreas; Hoser, Bettina; Chapman, Sam; Ciravegna, Fabio; Staab, Steffen; Smrz, Pavel; Kompatsiaris, Yiannis; Avrithis, Yannis

    In this work we propose intelligent, automated content analysis techniques for different media to extract knowledge from the multimedia content. Information derived from different sources/modalities will be analyzed and fused, in terms of spatiotemporal, personal and even social contextual information. In order to achieve this goal, semantic analysis will be applied to the content items, taking into account the content itself (e.g., text, images and video), as well as existing personal, social and contextual information (e.g., semantic and machine-processable metadata and tags). The above process exploits the so-called “Media Intelligence” towards the ultimate goal of identifying “Collective Intelligence”, emerging from the collaboration and competition among people, empowering innovative services and user interactions. The utilization of “Media Intelligence” constitutes a departure from traditional methods for information sharing, since semantic multimedia analysis has to fuse information from both the content itself and the social context, while at the same time the social dynamics have to be taken into account. Such intelligence provides added-value to the available multimedia content and renders existing procedures and research efforts more efficient.

  13. Swarms, phase transitions, and collective intelligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millonas, M.M. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1992-12-31

    A model of the collective behavior of a large number of locally acting organisms is proposed. The model is intended to be realistic, but turns out to fit naturally into the category of connectionist models, Like all connectionist models, its properties can be divided into the categories of structure, dynamics, and learning. The space in which the organisms move is discretized, and is modeled by a lattice of nodes, or cells. Each cell hag a specified volume, and is connected to other cells in the space in a definite way. Organisms move probabilistically between local cells in this space, but with weights dependent on local morphogenic substances, or morphogens. The morphogens are in turn are effected by the passage of an organism. The evolution of the morphogens, and the corresponding constitutes of the organisms constitutes the collective behavior of the group. The generic properties of such systems are analyzed, and a number of results are obtained. The model has various types of phase transitions and self-organizing properties controlled both by the level of the noise, and other parameters. It is hoped that the present mode; might serve as a paradigmatic example of a complex cooperative system in nature. In particular this model can be used to explore the relation of phase transitions to at least three important issues encountered in artificial life. Firstly, that of emergence as complex adaptive behavior. Secondly, as an exploration of second order phase transitions in biological systems. Lastly, to derive behavioral criteria for the evolution of collective behavior in social organisms. The model is then applied to the specific case of ants moving on a lattice. The local behavior of the ants is inspired by the actual behavior observed in the laboratory, and analytic results for the collective behavior are compared to the corresponding laboratory results. Monte carlo simulations are used as illustrations.

  14. Swarms, phase transitions, and collective intelligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millonas, M.M. (Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Physics)

    1992-01-01

    A model of the collective behavior of a large number of locally acting organisms is proposed. The model is intended to be realistic, but turns out to fit naturally into the category of connectionist models, Like all connectionist models, its properties can be divided into the categories of structure, dynamics, and learning. The space in which the organisms move is discretized, and is modeled by a lattice of nodes, or cells. Each cell hag a specified volume, and is connected to other cells in the space in a definite way. Organisms move probabilistically between local cells in this space, but with weights dependent on local morphogenic substances, or morphogens. The morphogens are in turn are effected by the passage of an organism. The evolution of the morphogens, and the corresponding constitutes of the organisms constitutes the collective behavior of the group. The generic properties of such systems are analyzed, and a number of results are obtained. The model has various types of phase transitions and self-organizing properties controlled both by the level of the noise, and other parameters. It is hoped that the present mode; might serve as a paradigmatic example of a complex cooperative system in nature. In particular this model can be used to explore the relation of phase transitions to at least three important issues encountered in artificial life. Firstly, that of emergence as complex adaptive behavior. Secondly, as an exploration of second order phase transitions in biological systems. Lastly, to derive behavioral criteria for the evolution of collective behavior in social organisms. The model is then applied to the specific case of ants moving on a lattice. The local behavior of the ants is inspired by the actual behavior observed in the laboratory, and analytic results for the collective behavior are compared to the corresponding laboratory results. Monte carlo simulations are used as illustrations.

  15. E-expertise modern collective intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Gubanov, Dmitry; Novikov, Dmitry; Raikov, Alexander

    2014-01-01

      This book focuses on organization and mechanisms of expert decision-making support using modern information and communication technologies, as well as information analysis and collective intelligence technologies (electronic expertise or simply e-expertise). Chapter 1 (E-Expertise) discusses the role of e-expertise in decision-making processes. The procedures of e-expertise are classified, their benefits and shortcomings are identified, and the efficiency conditions are considered. Chapter 2 (Expert Technologies and Principles) provides a comprehensive overview of modern expert technologies. A special emphasis is placed on the specifics of e-expertise. Moreover, the authors study the feasibility and reasonability of employing well-known methods and approaches in e-expertise. Chapter 3 (E-Expertise: Organization and Technologies) describes some examples of up-to-date technologies to perform e-expertise. Chapter 4 (Trust Networks and Competence Networks) deals with the problems of expert finding and grouping...

  16. Inter-cooperative collective intelligence techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bessis, Nik

    2014-01-01

    This book covers the latest advances in the rapid growing field of inter-cooperative collective intelligence aiming the integration and cooperation of various computational resources, networks and intelligent processing paradigms to collectively build intelligence and advanced decision support and interfaces for end-users. The book brings a comprehensive view of the state-of-the-art in the field of integration of sensor networks, IoT and Cloud computing, massive and intelligent querying and processing of data. As a result, the book presents lessons learned so far and identifies new research issues, challenges and opportunities for further research and development agendas. Emerging areas of applications are also identified and usefulness of inter-cooperative collective intelligence is envisaged.   Researchers, software developers, practitioners and students interested in the field of inter-cooperative collective intelligence will find the comprehensive coverage of this book useful for their research, academic...

  17. A Computational Model of Crowds for Collective Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Prpic, John; Jackson, Piper; Nguyen, Thai

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we present a high-level computational model of IT-mediated crowds for collective intelligence. We introduce the Crowd Capital perspective as an organizational-level model of collective intelligence generation from IT-mediated crowds, and specify a computational system including agents, forms of IT, and organizational knowledge.

  18. Avoiding Braess' Paradox Through Collective Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolpert , David H.; Tumer, Kagan

    1999-01-01

    In an Ideal Shortest Path Algorithm (ISPA), at each moment each router in a network sends all of its traffic down the path that will incur the lowest cost to that traffic. In the limit of an infinitesimally small amount of traffic for a particular router, its routing that traffic via an ISPA is optimal, as far as cost incurred by that traffic is concerned. We demonstrate though that in many cases, due to the side-effects of one router's actions on another routers performance, having routers use ISPA's is suboptimal as far as global aggregate cost is concerned, even when only used to route infinitesimally small amounts of traffic. As a particular example of this we present an instance of Braess' paradox for ISPA'S, in which adding new links to a network decreases overall throughput. We also demonstrate that load-balancing, in which the routing decisions are made to optimize the global cost incurred by all traffic currently being routed, is suboptimal as far as global cost averaged across time is concerned. This is also due to "side-effects", in this case of current routing decision on future traffic. The theory of COllective INtelligence (COIN) is concerned precisely with the issue of avoiding such deleterious side-effects. We present key concepts from that theory and use them to derive an idealized algorithm whose performance is better than that of the ISPA, even in the infinitesimal limit. We present experiments verifying this, and also showing that a machine-learning-based version of this COIN algorithm in which costs are only imprecisely estimated (a version potentially applicable in the real world) also outperforms the ISPA, despite having access to less information than does the ISPA. In particular, this COIN algorithm avoids Braess' paradox.

  19. Guess the Score, fostering collective intelligence in the class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep M. Monguet

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the use of serious games as a tool to enhance collective intelligence of undergraduate and graduate students. The development of social skills of individuals in a group is related to the performance of the collective intelligence of the group manifested through the shared and collaborative development of intellectual tasks [1]. Guess the Score GS, is a serious game implemented by means of an online tool, created to foster the development, collaboration and engagement of students. It's has been designed with the intention of facilitating the development of individual’s social skills in a group in order to promote education of collective intelligence. This paper concludes that the design of learning activities using serious games as a support tool in education, generate awareness about of utilities of gaming in the collective learning environment and the fostering of collective intelligence education.

  20. Guess the score, fostering collective intelligence in the class

    OpenAIRE

    Monguet, Josep M.; Jaime Meza

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes the use of serious games as a tool to enhance collective intelligence of undergraduate and graduate students. The development of social skills of individuals in a group is related to the performance of the collective intelligence of the group manifested through the shared and collaborative development of intellectual tasks [1]. Guess the Score GS, is a serious game implemented by means of an online tool, created to foster the development, collaboration and engagement of st...

  1. Cumulative culture can emerge from collective intelligence in animal groups

    OpenAIRE

    Sasaki, Takao; Biro, Dora

    2017-01-01

    Studies of collective intelligence in animal groups typically overlook potential improvement through learning. Although knowledge accumulation is recognised as a major advantage of group living within the framework of Cumulative Cultural Evolution (CCE), the interplay between CCE and collective intelligence has remained unexplored. Here, we use homing pigeons to investigate whether the repeated removal and replacement of individuals in experimental groups (a key method in testing for CCE) alt...

  2. Unattended Ground Sensors for Expeditionary Force 21 Intelligence Collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    employment and range in using the McQ UGS. It is encryption capable and has an internal solar power charger for the repeaters to aid in extended...assets to support long range, all weather, reduced footprint, and multi -sensor collections in any environment [3]. Ground reconnaissance forces may be...approaches toward asset integration for multi -source intelligence collections, specifically UGS as cueing assets, all to better support EF 21 intelligence

  3. Herd Clustering: A synergistic data clustering approach using collective intelligence

    KAUST Repository

    Wong, Kachun

    2014-10-01

    Traditional data mining methods emphasize on analytical abilities to decipher data, assuming that data are static during a mining process. We challenge this assumption, arguing that we can improve the analysis by vitalizing data. In this paper, this principle is used to develop a new clustering algorithm. Inspired by herd behavior, the clustering method is a synergistic approach using collective intelligence called Herd Clustering (HC). The novel part is laid in its first stage where data instances are represented by moving particles. Particles attract each other locally and form clusters by themselves as shown in the case studies reported. To demonstrate its effectiveness, the performance of HC is compared to other state-of-the art clustering methods on more than thirty datasets using four performance metrics. An application for DNA motif discovery is also conducted. The results support the effectiveness of HC and thus the underlying philosophy. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  4. Forecasting rain events - Meteorological models or collective intelligence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arazy, Ofer; Halfon, Noam; Malkinson, Dan

    2015-04-01

    Collective intelligence is shared (or group) intelligence that emerges from the collective efforts of many individuals. Collective intelligence is the aggregate of individual contributions: from simple collective decision making to more sophisticated aggregations such as in crowdsourcing and peer-production systems. In particular, collective intelligence could be used in making predictions about future events, for example by using prediction markets to forecast election results, stock prices, or the outcomes of sport events. To date, there is little research regarding the use of collective intelligence for prediction of weather forecasting. The objective of this study is to investigate the extent to which collective intelligence could be utilized to accurately predict weather events, and in particular rainfall. Our analyses employ metrics of group intelligence, as well as compare the accuracy of groups' predictions against the predictions of the standard model used by the National Meteorological Services. We report on preliminary results from a study conducted over the 2013-2014 and 2014-2015 winters. We have built a web site that allows people to make predictions on precipitation levels on certain locations. During each competition participants were allowed to enter their precipitation forecasts (i.e. 'bets') at three locations and these locations changed between competitions. A precipitation competition was defined as a 48-96 hour period (depending on the expected weather conditions), bets were open 24-48 hours prior to the competition, and during betting period participants were allowed to change their bets with no limitation. In order to explore the effect of transparency, betting mechanisms varied across study's sites: full transparency (participants able to see each other's bets); partial transparency (participants see the group's average bet); and no transparency (no information of others' bets is made available). Several interesting findings emerged from

  5. Cumulative culture can emerge from collective intelligence in animal groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Takao; Biro, Dora

    2017-04-18

    Studies of collective intelligence in animal groups typically overlook potential improvement through learning. Although knowledge accumulation is recognized as a major advantage of group living within the framework of Cumulative Cultural Evolution (CCE), the interplay between CCE and collective intelligence has remained unexplored. Here, we use homing pigeons to investigate whether the repeated removal and replacement of individuals in experimental groups (a key method in testing for CCE) alters the groups' solution efficiency over successive generations. Homing performance improves continuously over generations, and later-generation groups eventually outperform both solo individuals and fixed-membership groups. Homing routes are more similar in consecutive generations within the same chains than between chains, indicating cross-generational knowledge transfer. Our findings thus show that collective intelligence in animal groups can accumulate progressive modifications over time. Furthermore, our results satisfy the main criteria for CCE and suggest potential mechanisms for CCE that do not rely on complex cognition.

  6. Priming intelligent behavior: an elusive phenomenon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R Shanks

    Full Text Available Can behavior be unconsciously primed via the activation of attitudes, stereotypes, or other concepts? A number of studies have suggested that such priming effects can occur, and a prominent illustration is the claim that individuals' accuracy in answering general knowledge questions can be influenced by activating intelligence-related concepts such as professor or soccer hooligan. In 9 experiments with 475 participants we employed the procedures used in these studies, as well as a number of variants of those procedures, in an attempt to obtain this intelligence priming effect. None of the experiments obtained the effect, although financial incentives did boost performance. A Bayesian analysis reveals considerable evidential support for the null hypothesis. The results conform to the pattern typically obtained in word priming experiments in which priming is very narrow in its generalization and unconscious (subliminal influences, if they occur at all, are extremely short-lived. We encourage others to explore the circumstances in which this phenomenon might be obtained.

  7. Relationship between emotional intelligence and organizational citizenship behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnipseed, David L; Vandewaa, Elizabeth A

    2012-06-01

    This study evaluated hypothesized positive linkages between organizational citizenship behavior and the emotional intelligence dimensions of perception, using emotion, understanding emotion, and management of emotion, involving two samples. Sample 1 comprised 334 employed college students, 52% male, with a mean age of 23.4 yr., who worked an average of 29.6 hr. per week. Sample 2 comprised 72 professors, 81% female, with a mean age of 47 yr. Measures were the Emotional Intelligence Scale and the Organizational Citizenship Behavior Scale. Results of hierarchical multiple regressions indicated a positive link between organizational citizenship behavior and emotional intelligence. There were differences between the samples. In Sample 1, each of the emotional intelligence dimensions were positively linked to citizenship behavior: using and managing emotion were the greatest contributors. In Sample 2, managing emotion was the only contributor. Emotional intelligence had the strongest relationship with citizenship behavior directed at individuals.

  8. Power through Things: Following Traces of Collective Intelligence in Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Mačiulienė

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – it is becoming increasingly difficult to ignore the input Internet of Things (IoT has to offer in development of public, business and other societal structures. Therefore, paper seeks to determine the current state of knowledge in the field of IoT terms of wisdom creation and emergence of collective intelligence. First, we discuss concept of collective intelligence, then we define phenomena of IoT and identify areas of its application. Later, the author reviews how intelligent outputs of IoT are defined in scientific literature. These findings of theoretical investigation may shed some light on research field that is promising but still very vague.Design/methodology/approach – this article provides a general overview of IoT concept and its growing relation to collective intelligence. Methods of document analysis and content analysis were applied. Theoretical analysis enabled recognition of IoT phenomena in relation to wisdom creation and emergence of collective intelligence.Findings – general overview of the field revealed that new understanding of collective intelligence surfaces. Often intelligent behavior and decisions emerge from ever increasing cooperation between ‘things’ and humans. The variety of new concepts and authors trying to describe relationship of ‘things’ with each other and humans when creating intelligent outcomes revealed that this field is still in its very infancy and still needs considerable amount of industry and scientific efforts to be understood and executed.Research limitations – although the paper has successfully demonstrated that IoT provides vast amounts of data for people to process and create knowledge this could be considered only as initial phase in studying the field. IoT and its intelligent outcomes need more investigations in terms of real life case studies and industry reviews in order to create valid definitions, models and future guidelines. Practical implications – this

  9. 75 FR 49946 - National Drug Intelligence Center: Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Extension...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    ... National Drug Intelligence Center: Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Extension With Change... Response System. The United States Department of Justice (DOJ), National Drug Intelligence Center (NDIC... Intelligence Center, Fifth Floor, 319 Washington Street, Johnstown, PA 15901. Written comments and suggestions...

  10. Human collective intelligence under dual exploration-exploitation dilemmas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wataru Toyokawa

    Full Text Available The exploration-exploitation dilemma is a recurrent adaptive problem for humans as well as non-human animals. Given a fixed time/energy budget, every individual faces a fundamental trade-off between exploring for better resources and exploiting known resources to optimize overall performance under uncertainty. Colonies of eusocial insects are known to solve this dilemma successfully via evolved coordination mechanisms that function at the collective level. For humans and other non-eusocial species, however, this dilemma operates within individuals as well as between individuals, because group members may be motivated to take excessive advantage of others' exploratory findings through social learning. Thus, even though social learning can reduce collective exploration costs, the emergence of disproportionate "information scroungers" may severely undermine its potential benefits. We investigated experimentally whether social learning opportunities might improve the performance of human participants working on a "multi-armed bandit" problem in groups, where they could learn about each other's past choice behaviors. Results showed that, even though information scroungers emerged frequently in groups, social learning opportunities reduced total group exploration time while increasing harvesting from better options, and consequentially improved collective performance. Surprisingly, enriching social information by allowing participants to observe others' evaluations of chosen options (e.g., Amazon's 5-star rating system in addition to choice-frequency information had a detrimental impact on performance compared to the simpler situation with only the choice-frequency information. These results indicate that humans groups can handle the fundamental "dual exploration-exploitation dilemmas" successfully, and that social learning about simple choice-frequencies can help produce collective intelligence.

  11. Human collective intelligence under dual exploration-exploitation dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyokawa, Wataru; Kim, Hye-rin; Kameda, Tatsuya

    2014-01-01

    The exploration-exploitation dilemma is a recurrent adaptive problem for humans as well as non-human animals. Given a fixed time/energy budget, every individual faces a fundamental trade-off between exploring for better resources and exploiting known resources to optimize overall performance under uncertainty. Colonies of eusocial insects are known to solve this dilemma successfully via evolved coordination mechanisms that function at the collective level. For humans and other non-eusocial species, however, this dilemma operates within individuals as well as between individuals, because group members may be motivated to take excessive advantage of others' exploratory findings through social learning. Thus, even though social learning can reduce collective exploration costs, the emergence of disproportionate "information scroungers" may severely undermine its potential benefits. We investigated experimentally whether social learning opportunities might improve the performance of human participants working on a "multi-armed bandit" problem in groups, where they could learn about each other's past choice behaviors. Results showed that, even though information scroungers emerged frequently in groups, social learning opportunities reduced total group exploration time while increasing harvesting from better options, and consequentially improved collective performance. Surprisingly, enriching social information by allowing participants to observe others' evaluations of chosen options (e.g., Amazon's 5-star rating system) in addition to choice-frequency information had a detrimental impact on performance compared to the simpler situation with only the choice-frequency information. These results indicate that humans groups can handle the fundamental "dual exploration-exploitation dilemmas" successfully, and that social learning about simple choice-frequencies can help produce collective intelligence.

  12. How Useful and Possible Collective Intelligence Technologies Are in Programming of Public Sector’s Decisions?

    OpenAIRE

    Rūta Tamošiūnaitė; Alvydas Baležentis

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – to explore the essence of concepts of collective intelligence and collective intelligence technologies and to analyze their adaption possibilities in programming public sector’s decisions.Design/methodology/approach – review of previous researches and systemic analysis of their findings in the field of intelligence generated by many and collective intelligence technologies is executed. Also, review of collective intelligence technologies and empirical research (qualitative analysis ...

  13. The ecology of collective behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah M Gordon

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Similar patterns of interaction, such as network motifs and feedback loops, are used in many natural collective processes, probably because they have evolved independently under similar pressures. Here I consider how three environmental constraints may shape the evolution of collective behavior: the patchiness of resources, the operating costs of maintaining the interaction network that produces collective behavior, and the threat of rupture of the network. The ants are a large and successful taxon that have evolved in very diverse environments. Examples from ants provide a starting point for examining more generally the fit between the particular pattern of interaction that regulates activity, and the environment in which it functions.

  14. Emergence of collective intelligence in musical performances

    CERN Document Server

    Lacasa, Lucas

    2016-01-01

    The average individual is typically a mediocre singer, with a rather restricted capacity to sing a melody in tune. Yet when many singers are assembled to perform collectively, the resulting melody of the crowd is suddenly perceived by an external listener as perfectly tuned -as if it was actually a choral performance- even if each individual singer is out of tune. This is an example of the so-called wisdom of crowds effect and can be routinely observed in music concerts or other social events, when a group of people spontaneously sings at unison. In this paper we provide a simple mechanistic explanation for the onset of this collective phenomenon.

  15. New Perspectives on Intelligence Collection and Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Introduction 1 1.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.2 Research Questions and Methodology ...Questions and Methodology In this study, we adopt a model that allows us to benefit from the ideas developed within the online learning community. We...advancement of technology, the capabilities of the collection assets, espe - cially technical ones, constantly improve. However, the required resolution of

  16. Criticality triggers the emergence of collective intelligence in groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vincenzo, Ilario; Giannoccaro, Ilaria; Carbone, Giuseppe; Grigolini, Paolo

    2017-08-01

    A spinlike model mimicking human behavior in groups is employed to investigate the dynamics of the decision-making process. Within the model, the temporal evolution of the state of systems is governed by a time-continuous Markov chain. The transition rates of the resulting master equation are defined in terms of the change of interaction energy between the neighboring agents (change of the level of conflict) and the change of a locally defined agent fitness. Three control parameters can be identified: (i) the social interaction strength β J measured in units of social temperature, (ii) the level of confidence β' that each individual has on his own expertise, and (iii) the level of knowledge p that identifies the expertise of each member. Based on these three parameters, the phase diagrams of the system show that a critical transition front exists where a sharp and concurrent change in fitness and consensus takes place. We show that at the critical front, the information leakage from the fitness landscape to the agents is maximized. This event triggers the emergence of the collective intelligence of the group, and in the end it leads to a dramatic improvement in the decision-making performance of the group. The effect of size M of the system is also investigated, showing that, depending on the value of the control parameters, increasing M may be either beneficial or detrimental.

  17. Emotional Intelligence Is a Protective Factor for Suicidal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Christine B.; Nock, Matthew K.

    2009-01-01

    Emotional intelligence is found to be a protective factor for suicidal behavior after examining the relations between childhood sexual abuse and suicidal ideation and attempts to emotional intelligence. Childhood sexual abuse is found to be a strong predictive of the results.

  18. Behavior Analysis and the Quest for Machine Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Kenneth R.; Hutchison, William R.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses three approaches to building intelligent systems: artificial intelligence, neural networks, and behavior analysis. BANKET, an object-oriented software system, is explained; a commercial application of BANKET is described; and a collaborative effort between the academic and business communities for the use of BANKET is discussed.…

  19. 5th International Conference on Computational Collective Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Trawinski, Bogdan; Nguyen, Ngoc

    2014-01-01

    The book consists of 19 extended and revised chapters based on original works presented during a poster session organized within the 5th International Conference on Computational Collective Intelligence that was held between 11 and 13 of September 2013 in Craiova, Romania. The book is divided into three parts. The first part is titled “Agents and Multi-Agent Systems” and consists of 8 chapters that concentrate on many problems related to agent and multi-agent systems, including: formal models, agent autonomy, emergent properties, agent programming, agent-based simulation and planning. The second part of the book is titled “Intelligent Computational Methods” and consists of 6 chapters. The authors present applications of various intelligent computational methods like neural networks, mathematical optimization and multistage decision processes in areas like cooperation, character recognition, wireless networks, transport, and metal structures. The third part of the book is titled “Language and Knowled...

  20. Knowledge acquisition for medical diagnosis using collective intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Chan, G; Rodríguez-González, A; Alor-Hernández, G; Gómez-Berbís, J M; Mayer-Pujadas, M A; Posada-Gómez, R

    2012-11-01

    The wisdom of the crowds (WOC) is the process of taking into account the collective opinion of a group of individuals rather than a single expert to answer a question. Based on this assumption, the use of processes based on WOC techniques to collect new biomedical knowledge represents a challenging and cutting-edge trend on biomedical knowledge acquisition. The work presented in this paper shows a new schema to collect diagnosis information in Diagnosis Decision Support Systems (DDSS) based on collective intelligence and consensus methods.

  1. The Hyper-Cortex of Human Collective-Intelligence Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez, Marko A.

    2005-01-01

    Individual-intelligence research, from a neurological perspective, discusses the hierarchical layers of the cortex as a structure that performs conceptual abstraction and specification. This theory has been used to explain how motor-cortex regions responsible for different behavioral modalities such as writing and speaking can be utilized to express the same general concept represented higher in the cortical hierarchy. For example, the concept of a dog, represented across a region of high-lev...

  2. The effects of emotional intelligence on counterproductive work behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Morteza Emami

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the effects of emotional intelligence on counterproductive work behavior. The study uses a questionnaire for measuring the effects of emotional intelligence, which consists of four components including self-awareness, self-control, self-motivation and empathy. In addition, the study uses another questionnaire to measure the effects of counterproductive work behavior. The study has accomplished among full time employees who work for Indus...

  3. Using collective intelligence to fine-tune public health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Andy; Carroll, Denis; Foggie, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The European Union Future Internet Assembly, the roadmap for the Web heading towards semantic interoperability and building on the UK's adoption of the Internet and social media are accelerating the development of Web 3.0. A number of health portals are opening, some with facilities for the capture of Patient Based Records. Collective Intelligence will be generated that, applied to health, has potential to support Public Health policy. By using the Internet, millions of people in the course of their daily activities contribute to uncertified data stores, some explicitly collaborating to create collective knowledge bases, some contributing implicitly through the patterns of their choices and actions. An application of soft computing, called Collective Health Intelligence, that reasons uncertified and certified data could enhance the social pool of existing health knowledge available to the public health agencies. Collective Health Intelligence could be used to complement national programmes by employing innovative sampling techniques, cost-effectively generating anonymous data trends that would quantify policy, indicate epidemiological effects and supply metrics to test policy efficacy.

  4. Self-organized flexible leadership promotes collective intelligence in human groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kurvers, R.H.J.M.; Wolf, Max; Naguib, Marc; Krause, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Collective intelligence refers to the ability of groups to outperform individual decision-makers. At present, relatively little is known about the mechanisms promoting collective intelligence in natural systems. We here test a novel mechanism generating collective intelligence: self-organization

  5. Detection Accuracy of Collective Intelligence Assessments for Skin Cancer Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurvers, Ralf H J M; Krause, Jens; Argenziano, Giuseppe; Zalaudek, Iris; Wolf, Max

    2015-12-01

    Incidence rates of skin cancer are increasing globally, and the correct classification of skin lesions (SLs) into benign and malignant tissue remains a continuous challenge. A collective intelligence approach to skin cancer detection may improve accuracy. To evaluate the performance of 2 well-known collective intelligence rules (majority rule and quorum rule) that combine the independent conclusions of multiple decision makers into a single decision. Evaluations were obtained from 2 large and independent data sets. The first data set consisted of 40 experienced dermoscopists, each of whom independently evaluated 108 images of SLs during the Consensus Net Meeting of 2000. The second data set consisted of 82 medical professionals with varying degrees of dermatology experience, each of whom evaluated a minimum of 110 SLs. All SLs were evaluated via the Internet. Image selection of SLs was based on high image quality and the presence of histopathologic information. Data were collected from July through October 2000 for study 1 and from February 2003 through January 2004 for study 2 and evaluated from January 5 through August 7, 2015. For both collective intelligence rules, we determined the true-positive rate (ie, the hit rate or specificity) and the false-positive rate (ie, the false-alarm rate or 1 - sensitivity) and compared these rates with the performance of single decision makers. Furthermore, we evaluated the effect of group size on true- and false-positive rates. One hundred twenty-two medical professionals performed 16 029 evaluations. Use of either collective intelligence rule consistently outperformed single decision makers. The groups achieved an increased true-positive rate and a decreased false-positive rate. For example, individual decision makers in study 1, using the pattern analysis as diagnostic algorithm, achieved a true-positive rate of 0.83 and a false-positive rate of 0.17. Groups of 3 individuals achieved a true-positive rate of 0.91 and a

  6. micROS: a morphable, intelligent and collective robot operating system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xuejun; Dai, Huadong; Yi, Xiaodong; Wang, Yanzhen; Yang, Shaowu; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Zhiyuan; Zhou, Yun; Peng, Xuefeng

    2016-01-01

    Robots are developing in much the same way that personal computers did 40 years ago, and robot operating system is the critical basis. Current robot software is mainly designed for individual robots. We present in this paper the design of micROS, a morphable, intelligent and collective robot operating system for future collective and collaborative robots. We first present the architecture of micROS, including the distributed architecture for collective robot system as a whole and the layered architecture for every single node. We then present the design of autonomous behavior management based on the observe-orient-decide-act cognitive behavior model and the design of collective intelligence including collective perception, collective cognition, collective game and collective dynamics. We also give the design of morphable resource management, which first categorizes robot resources into physical, information, cognitive and social domains, and then achieve morphability based on self-adaptive software technology. We finally deploy micROS on NuBot football robots and achieve significant improvement in real-time performance.

  7. A Framework for the Systematic Collection of Open Source Intelligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pouchard, Line Catherine [ORNL; Trien, Joseph P [ORNL; Dobson, Jonathan D [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    Following legislative directions, the Intelligence Community has been mandated to make greater use of Open Source Intelligence (OSINT). Efforts are underway to increase the use of OSINT but there are many obstacles. One of these obstacles is the lack of tools helping to manage the volume of available data and ascertain its credibility. We propose a unique system for selecting, collecting and storing Open Source data from the Web and the Open Source Center. Some data management tasks are automated, document source is retained, and metadata containing geographical coordinates are added to the documents. Analysts are thus empowered to search, view, store, and analyze Web data within a single tool. We present ORCAT I and ORCAT II, two implementations of the system.

  8. Kompetensi Guru, Spiritual Intelligence, Self Determination Theorydan Organization Citizenship Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Jayadi Jayadi

    2012-01-01

    AbstractThe purpose of this study was to examine the factors that affect the organization citizenship behavior, namely teacher competence, spiritual intelligence, and self-determination theory in junior high school teacher. Some 231 junior high school teachers in East Kotawaringin Sampit are given four scales to fill in, namely teacher competence scale, spiritual intelligence scale, self-determination theory scale and organization citizenshipbehavior scale. Data was analyzed with statistical ...

  9. KOMPETENSI GURU, SPIRITUAL INTELLIGENCE, SELF DETERMINATION THEORYDAN ORGANIZATION CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR

    OpenAIRE

    Jayadi Jayadi

    2013-01-01

    AbstractThe purpose of this study was to examine the factors that affect the organization citizenship behavior, namely teacher competence, spiritual intelligence, and self-determination theory in junior high school teacher. Some 231 junior high school teachers in East Kotawaringin Sampit are given four scales to fill in, namely teacher competence scale, spiritual intelligence scale, self-determination theory scale and organization citizenshipbehavior scale. Data was analyzed with statistical ...

  10. The role of trait emotional intelligence in predicting networking behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Torres-Coronas

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective – The purpose of this paper is to obtain evidence of the relation between entrepreneur proactive networking behavior and trait emotional intelligence to support transition towards entrepreneurial careers. Design/methodology/approach – The Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Short form (TEIQue-SF, developed by Cooper and Petrides (2010, was used to test hypotheses on the factors that define a proactive use of a professional network and their relationship with the individual level of trait emotional intelligence and its four components (well-being, self-control, emotionality and sociability. A questionnaire was sent to local entrepreneurs to verify whether trait emotional intelligence act as a predictor of proactive networking behavior. Theoretical foundation – We will be using Petrides and Furnham’s (2001 trait EI definition and EI will be studied within a personality framework (Petrides, 2001, Petrides & Furnham, 2001, 2006, 2014. Findings – Final findings partially confirms research hypothesis, with some components of EI (well-being and self-control factors showing a significant positive correlation with proactive networking behavior. This indicates that entrepreneurs’ ability to regulate emotions influences their networking behavior helping them to succeed in their business relationships. Practical implications – The present study provides a clear direction for further research by focusing on how trait emotional intelligence affects social networking behavior amongst entrepreneurs, thus demonstrating the utility of using trait EI to evaluate high potential entrepreneurs.

  11. The impact of emotional intelligence on faculty members' knowledge sharing behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoomeh Arabshahi,

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Universities and institutions of higher education with a professional, special, educational and cultural environment, play an important role in effective knowledge management and preparing the background for knowledge sharing. Faculty members are known as the main elements of the university who own mental and intellectual property. Their knowledge sharing under certain conditions along with knowledge sharing behaviors improve individual and organizational operations. Moreover, the tendency to do these actions is the most important factor in knowledge sharing behavior and emotional intelligence (EQ, as one of the social intelligence factors, can guide individual thinking and activity. This study examines the impact of emotional intelligence on faculty members' knowledge sharing behaviors. Regarding the purpose and nature, this study was functional and its methodology was exploratory and due to evaluation of the relations and impacts among variables, it was a correlational method. Data collection included interviews with experts for the qualitative part and a questionnaire for the quantitative part. The qualitative findings indicate different emotional intelligence dimensions, which includes self-awareness, social skills, coping with pressure, adaptability and overall creation. In addition, the result of EQ dimensions on knowledge sharing behavior reveal that “social skills, coping with pressure, and overall creation” share a link with faculty members' research behavior among the four dimensions of knowledge sharing behavior and that “adaptability” has no significant relationship with knowledge sharing behavior.

  12. The effects of emotional intelligence on counterproductive work behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Morteza Emami

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the effects of emotional intelligence on counterproductive work behavior. The study uses a questionnaire for measuring the effects of emotional intelligence, which consists of four components including self-awareness, self-control, self-motivation and empathy. In addition, the study uses another questionnaire to measure the effects of counterproductive work behavior. The study has accomplished among full time employees who work for Industrial Projects Management of Iran (IPMI, as a general contractor, undertakes EPC projects in field of oil, gas and petrochemical industries in Iran. Using structural equation modeling, the study has determined a negative and meaningful relationship between various components of emotional intelligence and counterproductive work behavior.

  13. Smart Waste Collection System Based on Location Intelligence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez, Jose Manuel Guterrez Lopez; Jensen, Michael; Andreasen, Morten Henius

    2015-01-01

    (IoT) integration with data access networks, Geographic Information Systems (GIS), combinatorial optimization, and electronic engineering can contribute to improve cities’ management systems. We present a waste collection solution based on providing intelligence to trashcans, by using an IoT prototype......Cities around the world are on the run to become smarter. Some of these have seen an opportunity on deploying dedicated municipal access networks to support all types of city management and maintenance services requiring a data connection. This paper practically demonstrates how Internet of Things...

  14. Inferring individual rules from collective behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukeman, Ryan; Li, Yue-Xian; Edelstein-Keshet, Leah

    2010-01-01

    Social organisms form striking aggregation patterns, displaying cohesion, polarization, and collective intelligence. Determining how they do so in nature is challenging; a plethora of simulation studies displaying life-like swarm behavior lack rigorous comparison with actual data because collecting field data of sufficient quality has been a bottleneck. Here, we bridge this gap by gathering and analyzing a high-quality dataset of flocking surf scoters, forming well-spaced groups of hundreds of individuals on the water surface. By reconstructing each individual's position, velocity, and trajectory, we generate spatial and angular neighbor-distribution plots, revealing distinct concentric structure in positioning, a preference for neighbors directly in front, and strong alignment with neighbors on each side. We fit data to zonal interaction models and characterize which individual interaction forces suffice to explain observed spatial patterns. Results point to strong short-range repulsion, intermediate-range alignment, and longer-range attraction (with circular zones), as well as a weak but significant frontal-sector interaction with one neighbor. A best-fit model with such interactions accounts well for observed group structure, whereas absence or alteration in any one of these rules fails to do so. We find that important features of observed flocking surf scoters can be accounted for by zonal models with specific, well-defined rules of interaction. PMID:20616032

  15. [Community development in Quebec : the contribution of collective intelligence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisvert, Réal; Milette, Claire

    2009-01-01

    This article introduces guidelines and certain applications of a national plan and mechanism currently deployed in several regions of Quebec for advancing knowledge on community development. This scheme relies upon the collective intelligence of communities and supports the efforts of various stakeholders in order to improve population living conditions, health and welfare. It primarily distinguishes itself by granting equal importance to quantitative data collected from administrative files and to qualitative data acquired by acknowledging and processing perceptions and observations which arise from actors working in community development. These data are used to support the preparation and planning of interventions implemented according to the socio-economic and socio-health situation of the communities and their potential for development.

  16. How Useful and Possible Collective Intelligence Technologies Are in Programming of Public Sector’s Decisions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rūta Tamošiūnaitė

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – to explore the essence of concepts of collective intelligence and collective intelligence technologies and to analyze their adaption possibilities in programming public sector’s decisions.Design/methodology/approach – review of previous researches and systemic analysis of their findings in the field of intelligence generated by many and collective intelligence technologies is executed. Also, review of collective intelligence technologies and empirical research (qualitative analysis of expert statements are employed. Finally, synthesis of study results into system of possibilities for adaption of existing collective intelligence technologies in programming public sector’s decisions is done.Findings – collective intelligence concept is explored in depth. Collective intelligence technologies are overviewed and a course line for adaption in programming public sector’s decisions is presented. Differences between ministries and municipalities in comprehending decisions’ structure are presented. Decision characteristics for programming are given in relation to case appropriate social technologies.Research limitations/implications – references used for the analysis on intelligence generated by many and collective intelligences technologies are not an exhaustive list within the field. Accomplished empirical research leans only upon analyses of Lithuanian experts. No technical insights into the technologies of collective intelligence are made.Practical implications – findings of the paper provide suggestions for improving strategy of decision making process in public sector, due to which efficient model for participation of citizens (and residents is possible.Originality/value – the systemic analysis of concepts of collective intelligence and collective intelligence technologies and their adaption possibilities in public sector’s decisions is presented. A new viewpoint is given to means of citizens (and residents

  17. Modeling and simulating human teamwork behaviors using intelligent agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiaocong; Yen, John

    2004-12-01

    Among researchers in multi-agent systems there has been growing interest in using intelligent agents to model and simulate human teamwork behaviors. Teamwork modeling is important for training humans in gaining collaborative skills, for supporting humans in making critical decisions by proactively gathering, fusing, and sharing information, and for building coherent teams with both humans and agents working effectively on intelligence-intensive problems. Teamwork modeling is also challenging because the research has spanned diverse disciplines from business management to cognitive science, human discourse, and distributed artificial intelligence. This article presents an extensive, but not exhaustive, list of work in the field, where the taxonomy is organized along two main dimensions: team social structure and social behaviors. Along the dimension of social structure, we consider agent-only teams and mixed human-agent teams. Along the dimension of social behaviors, we consider collaborative behaviors, communicative behaviors, helping behaviors, and the underpinning of effective teamwork-shared mental models. The contribution of this article is that it presents an organizational framework for analyzing a variety of teamwork simulation systems and for further studying simulated teamwork behaviors.

  18. Correlation of Emotional Intelligence and Instructional Leadership Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munroe, Myra D.

    2009-01-01

    Leadership is second only to classroom instruction among all school-related factors contributing to student learning (Marzano et al., 2005). Understanding the role of emotional intelligence in instructional leadership behaviors with a focus on establishing expectations for student academic success provides valuable information about practices…

  19. Analysis of the relation between intelligence and criminal behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Jovanovic

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the cognitive aspects of personality is intelligence. A large number of previous studies have shown that the intelligence within the criminal population is decreased, particularly in its verbal aspect.The aim of this study is to determine whether there is a link between intelligence and criminal behavior and how it is manifested.Methods: The research involved criminal inmates of the Correctional institutes of Republic of Srpska and Court Department of Psychiatry Clinic Sokolac who committed homicide and various non-homicide acts. Thetest group consisted of 60 inmates who have committed homicide (homicide offenders and a control group of 60 inmates who did not commit homicide (non-homicide offenders. The study was controlled, transverse or cross-sectional study.Results: Average intelligence of inmates (homicidal and non-homicidal was IQ 95.7. Intelligence of homicide inmates was IQ 97.4 and non-homicide IQ 94.09. Intelligence coeffi cients for non-homicide inmatesubgroups were as follows - subgroup consisting of robbery offenders (IQ 96.9, subgroup consisting of theft perpetrators (IQ 93.83, subgroups consisting of other criminal offenders (IQ 92.8. Verbal intellectual ability– IQw of homicide inmates was 91.22, and 91.10 IQw of non-homicide inmates. Intellectual abilities in nonverbal or manipulative part were average, but they were higher in homicide inmates group (IQm 103.65 than in the group of non-homicide inmates (IQm 97.08.Conclusion: Average intelligence of investigated inmates (homicide and non-homicide is lower than in the general population and corresponds to low average. Verbal part of intelligence is lowered while nonverbalpart is within the average range.

  20. Beliefs and environmental behavior: the moderating effect of emotional intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Luzón, Maria Carmen; Calvo-Salguero, Antonia; Salinas, Jose Maria

    2014-12-01

    Recent decades have seen a proliferation of studies aiming to explain how pro-environmental behavior is shaped by attitudes, values and beliefs. In this study, we have included an aspect in our analysis that has been rarely touched upon until now, that is, the intelligent use of emotions as a possible component of pro-environmental behavior. We applied the Trait Meta Mood Scale-24 (TMMS-24) and the New Environmental Paradigm scale to a sample of 184 male and female undergraduate students. We also carried out correlation and hierarchical regression analyses of blocks. The results show the interaction effects of the system of environmental beliefs and the dimensions of emotional intelligence on glass recycling attitudes, intentions and behavior. The results are discussed from the perspective of research on how the management of emotions guides thought and behavior. © 2014 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Smarter Grid through Collective Intelligence: User Awareness for Enhanced Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Macarulla

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – This paper examines the scenario of a university campus, and the impact on energy consumption of the awareness of building managers and users (lecturers, students and administrative staff.Design/methodology/approach – This study draws a comparison between direct fruition of the information by both skilled (building managers and unskilled (users recipients, and the effect of peer pressure and beneficial competition between users in applying the good practices. In fact, the usage of edutainment, implemented by the automatic publication on the Twitter platform of energy consumption data from different users, can promote general users’ awareness on best practices and their effect on energy consumption. In addition, the use of a social network platform allows the interaction between users, sharing experiences and increasing the collective intelligence in the energy efficiency field.Findings – Tests revealed that enhanced awareness helped managers to identify strategies that, if implemented in the whole building, could reduce energy consumption by about 6%. The tests on university users’ awareness hint that the expected energy savings can reach 9%, in addition to the previous 6%. In fact, the measures were implemented in one of the three common rooms, and at building level the total energy consumption decreased by 3.42%, proving that a large deal of energy can be saved by capillary actions targeting society at large. The emerging collective intelligence of the final users ends up having a stronger effect on energy saving than the actions of more educated professionals.Practical implications – The approach used in this paper moved the burden of evolving the energy saving strategies to new scenarios onto the collective intelligence of the users, by connecting the users – and their experiences in new scenarios – using a social network to provide guidelines to other users involved in the same decision processes

  2. GROWTH OF COLLECTIVE INTELLIGENCE BY LINKING KNOWLEDGE WORKERS THROUGH SOCIAL MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAROSLAVA KUBÁTOVÁ

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Collective intelligence can be defined, very broadly, as groups of individuals that do things collectively, and that seem to be intelligent. Collective intelligence has existed for ages. Families, tribes, companies, countries, etc., are all groups of individuals doing things collectively, and that seem to be intelligent. However, over the past two decades, the rise of the Internet has given upturn to new types of collective intelligence. Companies can take advantage from the so-called Web-enabled collective intelligence. Web-enabled collective intelligence is based on linking knowledge workers through social media. That means that companies can hire geographically dispersed knowledge workers and create so-called virtual teams of these knowledge workers (members of the virtual teams are connected only via the Internet and do not meet face to face. By providing an online social network, the companies can achieve significant growth of collective intelligence. But to create and use an online social network within a company in a really efficient way, the managers need to have a deep understanding of how such a system works. Thus the purpose of this paper is to share the knowledge about effective use of social networks in companies. The main objectives of this paper are as follows: to introduce some good practices of the use of social media in companies, to analyze these practices and to generalize recommendations for a successful introduction and use of social media to increase collective intelligence of a company.

  3. Effects of nurses' emotional intelligence on their organizational citizenship behavior, with mediating effects of leader trust and value congruence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, So-Hee; Han, Sang-Sook; Joo, Yun-Su

    2018-02-20

    To investigate the causal relationship between nurses' emotional intelligence and their organizational citizenship behavior and the possible mediating effects of leader trust and value congruence. The participants were 348 nurses who were working in a general hospital in a metropolitan area. The data were collected from December 16, 2012 to February 20, 2013. The hypothetical model of emotional intelligence, organizational citizenship behavior, leader trust, and value congruence was fitted to the actual data via structural equation modeling. The leaders' emotional intelligence had a direct positive effect on leader trust and value congruence; however, the nurses' own emotional intelligence had a negative effect on these two variables. Furthermore, leader trust had a direct positive effect on organizational citizenship behavior; value congruence had no such relationship. The nurses' emotional intelligence had a partial, indirect effect on organizational citizenship behavior via leader trust. In a nursing organization, it is necessary to build a system, such as mentoring, to be able to exchange emotions actively among the members in order to enhance emotional intelligence and have the same values between leaders and members throughout open communication. Therefore, nurse managers can contribute greatly to the enhancement of organizational performance by promoting members' organizational citizenship behavior through improving their relationships with them and gaining their trust, while concurrently making efforts to further develop their emotional intelligence. © 2018 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  4. Collective intelligence in medical diagnosis systems: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Chan, Gandhi S; Ceh-Varela, Edgar Eduardo; Sanchez-Cervantes, Jose L; Villanueva-Escalante, Marisol; Rodríguez-González, Alejandro; Pérez-Gallardo, Yuliana

    2016-07-01

    Diagnosing a patient's condition is one of the most important and challenging tasks in medicine. We present a study of the application of collective intelligence in medical diagnosis by applying consensus methods. We compared the accuracy obtained with this method against the diagnostics accuracy reached through the knowledge of a single expert. We used the ontological structures of ten diseases. Two knowledge bases were created by placing five diseases into each knowledge base. We conducted two experiments, one with an empty knowledge base and the other with a populated knowledge base. For both experiments, five experts added and/or eliminated signs/symptoms and diagnostic tests for each disease. After this process, the individual knowledge bases were built based on the output of the consensus methods. In order to perform the evaluation, we compared the number of items for each disease in the agreed knowledge bases against the number of items in the GS (Gold Standard). We identified that, while the number of items in each knowledge base is higher, the consensus level is lower. In all cases, the lowest level of agreement (20%) exceeded the number of signs that are in the GS. In addition, when all experts agreed, the number of items decreased. The use of collective intelligence can be used to increase the consensus of physicians. This is because, by using consensus, physicians can gather more information and knowledge than when obtaining information and knowledge from knowledge bases fed or populated from the knowledge found in the literature, and, at the same time, they can keep updated and collaborate dynamically. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Crowdteaching: Supporting Teaching as Designing in Collective Intelligence Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mimi Recker

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The widespread availability of high-quality Web-based content offers new potential for supporting teachers as designers of curricula and classroom activities. When coupled with a participatory Web culture and infrastructure, teachers can share their creations as well as leverage from the best that their peers have to offer to support a collective intelligence or crowdsourcing community, which we dub crowdteaching. We applied a collective intelligence framework to characterize crowdteaching in the context of a Web-based tool for teachers called the Instructional Architect (IA. The IA enables teachers to find, create, and share instructional activities (called IA projects for their students using online learning resources. These IA projects can further be viewed, copied, or adapted by other IA users. This study examines the usage activities of two samples of teachers, and also analyzes the characteristics of a subset of their IA projects. Analyses of teacher activities suggest that they are engaging in crowdteaching processes. Teachers, on average, chose to share over half of their IA projects, and copied some directly from other IA projects. Thus, these teachers can be seen as both contributors to and consumers of crowdteaching processes. In addition, IA users preferred to view IA projects rather than to completely copy them. Finally, correlational results based on an analysis of the characteristics of IA projects suggest that several easily computed metrics (number of views, number of copies, and number of words in IA projects can act as an indirect proxy of instructionally relevant indicators of the content of IA projects.

  6. Appearing smart: the impression management of intelligence, person perception accuracy, and behavior in social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Nora A

    2007-03-01

    Intelligence is an important trait that affects everyday social interaction. The present research utilized the ecological perspective of social perception to investigate the impression management of intelligence and strangers' evaluations of targets' intelligence levels. The ability to effectively portray an impression of intelligence to outside judges as well as interaction partners was appraised and the effect of impression management on the accurate judgment of intelligence was assessed. In addition, targets' behavior was studied in relation to impression management, perceived intelligence, and actual measured intelligence. Impression-managing targets appeared more intelligent to video judges but not to their interaction partner as compared to controls. The intelligence quotient (IQ) of impression-managing targets was more accurately judged than controls' IQ. Impression-managing targets displayed distinct nonverbal behavioral patterns that differed from controls. Looking while speaking was a key behavior: It significantly correlated with IQ, was successfully manipulated by impression-managing targets, and contributed to higher perceived intelligence ratings.

  7. Effect of Undergraduates’ Emotional Intelligence on Information Search Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Haocheng

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available [Purpose/significance] Information search capability is the focus of information literacy education. This paper explores the relationship between emotional intelligence and information search behavior. [Method/process] Based on the data from the questionnaires by 250 undergraduates, this paper used IBM SPSS Statistics 19.0 for statistical data analysis. [Result/conclusion]The correlation between emotional intelligence and information search capability is positively obvious. When it comes to all variables in the regression equation, information search behavior is mainly affected by regulation and utilization of the dimension of emotion. Utilization of emotion mainly affects retrieval strategies, information evaluation, behavior adjustment and total score; regulation of emotions mainly affects the information reference.

  8. Effects of departing individuals on collective behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Yuta; Okuda, Shoma; Migita, Masao; Murakami, Hisashi; Tomaru, Takenori

    2017-07-01

    Utilizing living organisms' abilities is an effective approach to realize flexible and unconventional computing. One possible bio-inspired computer might be developed from animal collective research by clarifying collective behaviors. Therefore, it is important to reveal how collective animal behaviors emerge. In many studies, individuals departing from the other individualsare generally ignored. Is it not possible that such departing individuals contribute to the organization of such collectives? To investigate the effects of individuals departing from a collective against collective behaviors, we observed and analyzed the behaviors of 40 soldier crabs in four types of experimental arenas. The recorded behaviors demonstrate a temporally changing pattern and the existence of departing individuals. We analyzed the relationship between global activity and cohesion levels and verified the features of departing individuals. The results imply that departing individuals contribute to collective behaviors.

  9. Global Collective Intelligence in Technological Societies: as a result of Collaborative Knowledge in combination with Artificial Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Piedra Calderón

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The big influence of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT, especially in area of construction of Technological Societies has generated big social changes. That is visible in the way of relating to people in different environments. These changes have the possibility to expand the frontiers of knowledge through sharing and cooperation. That has meaning the inherently creation of a new form of Collaborative Knowledge. The potential of this Collaborative Knowledge has been given through ICT in combination with Artificial Intelligence processes, from where is obtained a Collective Knowledge. When this kind of knowledge is shared, it gives the place to the Global Collective Intelligence.

  10. Teamwork in Health Care: Maximizing Collective Intelligence via Inclusive Collaboration and Open Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Anna T; Woolley, Anita Williams

    2016-09-01

    Teams offer the potential to achieve more than any person could achieve working alone; yet, particularly in teams that span professional boundaries, it is critical to capitalize on the variety of knowledge, skills, and abilities available. This article reviews research from the field of organizational behavior to shed light on what makes for a collectively intelligent team. In doing so, we highlight the importance of moving beyond simply including smart people on a team to thinking about how those people can effectively coordinate and collaborate. In particular, we review the importance of two communication processes: ensuring that team members with relevant knowledge (1) speak up when one's expertise can be helpful and (2) influence the team's work so that the team does its collective best for the patient. © 2016 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Collective intelligence meets medical decision-making: the collective outperforms the best radiologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Max; Krause, Jens; Carney, Patricia A; Bogart, Andy; Kurvers, Ralf H J M

    2015-01-01

    While collective intelligence (CI) is a powerful approach to increase decision accuracy, few attempts have been made to unlock its potential in medical decision-making. Here we investigated the performance of three well-known collective intelligence rules ("majority", "quorum", and "weighted quorum") when applied to mammography screening. For any particular mammogram, these rules aggregate the independent assessments of multiple radiologists into a single decision (recall the patient for additional workup or not). We found that, compared to single radiologists, any of these CI-rules both increases true positives (i.e., recalls of patients with cancer) and decreases false positives (i.e., recalls of patients without cancer), thereby overcoming one of the fundamental limitations to decision accuracy that individual radiologists face. Importantly, we find that all CI-rules systematically outperform even the best-performing individual radiologist in the respective group. Our findings demonstrate that CI can be employed to improve mammography screening; similarly, CI may have the potential to improve medical decision-making in a much wider range of contexts, including many areas of diagnostic imaging and, more generally, diagnostic decisions that are based on the subjective interpretation of evidence.

  12. Collective intelligence meets medical decision-making: the collective outperforms the best radiologist.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Wolf

    Full Text Available While collective intelligence (CI is a powerful approach to increase decision accuracy, few attempts have been made to unlock its potential in medical decision-making. Here we investigated the performance of three well-known collective intelligence rules ("majority", "quorum", and "weighted quorum" when applied to mammography screening. For any particular mammogram, these rules aggregate the independent assessments of multiple radiologists into a single decision (recall the patient for additional workup or not. We found that, compared to single radiologists, any of these CI-rules both increases true positives (i.e., recalls of patients with cancer and decreases false positives (i.e., recalls of patients without cancer, thereby overcoming one of the fundamental limitations to decision accuracy that individual radiologists face. Importantly, we find that all CI-rules systematically outperform even the best-performing individual radiologist in the respective group. Our findings demonstrate that CI can be employed to improve mammography screening; similarly, CI may have the potential to improve medical decision-making in a much wider range of contexts, including many areas of diagnostic imaging and, more generally, diagnostic decisions that are based on the subjective interpretation of evidence.

  13. Algorithmic requirements for swarm intelligence in differently coupled collective systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stradner, Jürgen; Thenius, Ronald; Zahadat, Payam; Hamann, Heiko; Crailsheim, Karl; Schmickl, Thomas

    2013-05-01

    Swarm systems are based on intermediate connectivity between individuals and dynamic neighborhoods. In natural swarms self-organizing principles bring their agents to that favorable level of connectivity. They serve as interesting sources of inspiration for control algorithms in swarm robotics on the one hand, and in modular robotics on the other hand. In this paper we demonstrate and compare a set of bio-inspired algorithms that are used to control the collective behavior of swarms and modular systems: BEECLUST, AHHS (hormone controllers), FGRN (fractal genetic regulatory networks), and VE (virtual embryogenesis). We demonstrate how such bio-inspired control paradigms bring their host systems to a level of intermediate connectivity, what delivers sufficient robustness to these systems for collective decentralized control. In parallel, these algorithms allow sufficient volatility of shared information within these systems to help preventing local optima and deadlock situations, this way keeping those systems flexible and adaptive in dynamic non-deterministic environments.

  14. Swarm intelligence in fish? The difficulty in demonstrating distributed and self-organised collective intelligence in (some) animal groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannou, Christos C

    2017-08-01

    Larger groups often have a greater ability to solve cognitive tasks compared to smaller ones or lone individuals. This is well established in social insects, navigating flocks of birds, and in groups of prey collectively vigilant for predators. Research in social insects has convincingly shown that improved cognitive performance can arise from self-organised local interactions between individuals that integrates their contributions, often referred to as swarm intelligence. This emergent collective intelligence has gained in popularity and been directly applied to groups of other animals, including fish. Despite being a likely mechanism at least partially explaining group performance in vertebrates, I argue here that other possible explanations are rarely ruled out in empirical studies. Hence, evidence for self-organised collective (or 'swarm') intelligence in fish is not as strong as it would first appear. These other explanations, the 'pool-of-competence' and the greater cognitive ability of individuals when in larger groups, are also reviewed. Also discussed is why improved group performance in general may be less often observed in animals such as shoaling fish compared to social insects. This review intends to highlight the difficulties in exploring collective intelligence in animal groups, ideally leading to further empirical work to illuminate these issues. Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Emotional Intelligence and Adaptive Success of Nurses Caring for People with Mental Retardation and Severe Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerits, Linda; Derksen, Jan J. L.; Verbruggen, Antoine B.

    2004-01-01

    The emotional intelligence profiles, gender differences, and adaptive success of 380 Dutch nurses caring for people with mental retardation and accompanying severe behavior problems are reported. Data were collected with the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory, Utrecht-Coping List, Utrecht-Burnout Scale, MMPI-2, and GAMA. Absence due to illness…

  16. Values, Intelligence and Client Behavior in Career Counseling: A Field Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagiv, Lilach; Schwartz, Shalom H.

    2004-01-01

    We examine relations of values and intelligence to overt behavior in a field study of clients in career counseling (N = 365). Eleven counselors reported their clients' independence, activity and insightfulness behaviors. As predicted, both values and intelligence correlated substantially with particular behaviors. Activity and independence…

  17. An empirical investigation on relationship between organizational intelligence and faculty members' knowledge sharing behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoomeh Arabshahi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Universities and institutions of higher education with a professional, special, educational and cultural environment play important roles in the direction towards the effective management of knowledge and space provision for the sharing of knowledge. Faculty members are known as the main elements of the university and they are the mental and intellectual investment banks who share their knowledge under certain conditions. In addition, their knowledge sharing behaviors lead to the success and improvement of individual and organizational operations. Moreover, organizational intelligence is the capacity of the organization to create knowledge and to use it in a strategic way to coordinate and to conform itself to its surroundings. This study examines the impact of organizational intelligence on faculty members' knowledge sharing behaviors. Data collection for qualitative research includes interviews with experts and quantitative research is performed using a questionnaire. The research results show that there was a significant relationship between organizational intelligence and faculty members' knowledge sharing behaviors. Among these dimensions, “knowledge application” influenced other dimensions. On the other hand, “common outcome” had a significant relationship with the “behavioral” dimension and “special and professional activities”.

  18. The role of spiritual intelligence in employees’ withdrawal behaviors in physical education organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davoud Noroozi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Spiritual intelligence is the mind’s capacity to handle substantial and spiritual aspects of life. According to previous studies, spiritual intelligence can be effective in reducing the withdrawal behavior of employees. This study investigated the effect of spiritual intelligence on employees’ withdrawal behavior in Ardabil Physical Education organization. The statistical population of this study included all the employees of Physical Education organization of Ardabil (N=60. Descriptive Statistics, Pearson Correlation, and Linear Regression Analyses were used to assess the association between spiritual intelligence and withdrawal behaviors. The results of the study revealed that spiritual intelligence had positive and significant effect on reducing employees’ withdrawal behavior. The findings supported that spiritual intelligence training as a new psychological and religious construction may reduce psychological and physical withdrawal behaviors and improve the employees’ perception of themselves.

  19. An Integrated Conceptual Environment based on Collective Intelligence and Distributed Artificial Intelligence for Connecting People on Problem Solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile MAZILESCU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the different forms of intelligence within organizations in a systemic and inclusive vision, in order to conceptualize an integrated environment based on Distributed Artificial Intelligence (DAI and Collective Intelligence (CI. In this way we effectively shift the classical approaches of connecting people with people using collaboration tools (which allow people to work together, such as videoconferencing or email, groupware in virtual space, forums, workflow, of connecting people with a series of content management knowledge (taxonomies and documents classification, ontologies or thesauri, search engines, portals, to the current approaches of connecting people on the use (automatic of operational knowledge to solve problems and make decisions based on intellectual cooperation. The best way to use collective intelligence is based on knowledge mobilization and semantic technologies. We must not let computers to imitate people but to support people think and develop their ideas within a group. CI helps people to think together, while DAI tries to support people so as to limit human error. Within an organization, to manage CI is to combine instruments like Semantic Technologies (STs, knowledge mobilization methods for developing Knowledge Management (KM strategies, and the processes that promote connection and collaboration between individual minds in order to achieve collective objectives, to perform a task or to solve increasingly economic complex problems.

  20. The insensitive ruins it all : Compositional and compilational influences of social sensitivity on collective intelligence in groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meslec, M.N.; Aggarwal, I.; Curseu, P.L.

    2016-01-01

    A group's collective intelligence reflects its capacity to perform well across a variety of cognitive tasks and it transcends the individual intelligence of its members. Previous research shows that group members' social sensitivity is a potential antecedent of collective intelligence, yet it is

  1. The Study of Intelligent Vehicle Navigation Path Based on Behavior Coordination of Particle Swarm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Gaining; Fu, Weiping; Wang, Wen

    2016-01-01

    In the behavior dynamics model, behavior competition leads to the shock problem of the intelligent vehicle navigation path, because of the simultaneous occurrence of the time-variant target behavior and obstacle avoidance behavior. Considering the safety and real-time of intelligent vehicle, the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is proposed to solve these problems for the optimization of weight coefficients of the heading angle and the path velocity. Firstly, according to the behavior dynamics model, the fitness function is defined concerning the intelligent vehicle driving characteristics, the distance between intelligent vehicle and obstacle, and distance of intelligent vehicle and target. Secondly, behavior coordination parameters that minimize the fitness function are obtained by particle swarm optimization algorithms. Finally, the simulation results show that the optimization method and its fitness function can improve the perturbations of the vehicle planning path and real-time and reliability.

  2. The Significance of Emotional Intelligence on Entrepreneurial Behavior of Instructors (Case study: Iran Technical and vocational Training Organization (TVTO’s Instructors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Karimi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurial characteristics, in fact, are the entrepreneur’s behavioral outputs in different conditions. The behavior, which can be increasingly changed during the times, is a function of acquired and inherent factors. Emotional intelligence as a set of teachable and acquisitive behaviors, can affect the entrepreneurs’ behavioral characteristics. This paper tried to study the relationship between emotional intelligence and entrepreneurial behavioral characteristics among the Iran Technical and vocational Training Organization (TVTO’s Instructors. The statistical sample population in this research is 105 instructors from all over the Iran. Two standardized questionnaires including; Measurement Instrument of Personality characteristics of Iranian’s Entrepreneurs and “Bar- On” Test for assessing the Emotional Intelligence has been used for data collection after testing their validity and reliability. Results from data analysis using descriptive and inferential statistical techniques showed that there is a significant positive relationship between entrepreneurial characteristics and emotional intelligence among Iran TVTO’s instructors.

  3. Impact of emotional intelligence on employee task performance though the moderation of proactive behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Shazma Ahmad Khan; Faryal Sheikh

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to reveal the association between emotional intelligence (EI) and employee task performance and to check the partial or full moderation of proactive behavior. The study concludes that there exist a positive relationship between emotional intelligence and employee task performance. By developing Proactive behavior in leaders and employees organizational task performance can be enhanced in the workplace. The factors of emotional intelligence (Cognitive Ability, Inte...

  4. Connecting Multiple Intelligences through Open and Distance Learning: Going towards a Collective Intelligence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros Vieira, Leandro Mauricio; Ferasso, Marcos; Schröeder, Christine da Silva

    2014-01-01

    This theoretical essay is a learning approach reflexion on Howard Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences and the possibilities provided by the education model known as open and distance learning. Open and distance learning can revolutionize traditional pedagogical practice, meeting the needs of those who have different forms of cognitive…

  5. Emotional Intelligence as a Predictor of Adolescent Risk Behavior Participation and Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaar, Nicole R.; Williams, John E.

    2012-01-01

    The current study aimed to investigate emotional intelligence as a predictor of adolescent risk participation and risk perception. While research has suggested that certain personality traits relate to adolescent risk behavior and perception, the extent to which emotional intelligence relates to risk behavior participation and perception is…

  6. Epigenetic Memory as a Basis for Intelligent Behavior in Clonal Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latzel, Vít; Rendina González, Alejandra P; Rosenthal, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Environmentally induced epigenetic change enables plants to remember past environmental interactions. If this memory capability is exploited to prepare plants for future challenges, it can provide a basis for highly sophisticated behavior, considered intelligent by some. Against the backdrop of an overview of plant intelligence, we hypothesize: (1) that the capability of plants to engage in such intelligent behavior increases with the additional level of complexity afforded by clonality, and; (2) that more faithful inheritance of epigenetic information in clonal plants, in conjunction with information exchange and coordination between connected ramets, is likely to enable especially advanced intelligent behavior in this group. We therefore further hypothesize that this behavior provides ecological and evolutionary advantages to clonal plants, possibly explaining, at least in part, their widespread success. Finally, we suggest avenues of inquiry to enable assessing intelligent behavior and the role of epigenetic memory in clonal species.

  7. Evidence for a collective intelligence factor in the performance of human groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolley, Anita Williams; Chabris, Christopher F; Pentland, Alex; Hashmi, Nada; Malone, Thomas W

    2010-10-29

    Psychologists have repeatedly shown that a single statistical factor--often called "general intelligence"--emerges from the correlations among people's performance on a wide variety of cognitive tasks. But no one has systematically examined whether a similar kind of "collective intelligence" exists for groups of people. In two studies with 699 people, working in groups of two to five, we find converging evidence of a general collective intelligence factor that explains a group's performance on a wide variety of tasks. This "c factor" is not strongly correlated with the average or maximum individual intelligence of group members but is correlated with the average social sensitivity of group members, the equality in distribution of conversational turn-taking, and the proportion of females in the group.

  8. Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy on Spiritual Well-Being and Emotional Intelligence of the Elderly Mourners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solaimani Khashab, Abas; Ghamari Kivi, Hosain; Fathi, Davod

    2017-04-01

    Objective: Grief is one of the most painful experiences of the humans after linking emotions. In the literature of trauma, grief and mourning can be seen on many topics. Intervention and treatment of grief seems necessary as the period of mourning is prolonged. Thus, this study aimed at understanding the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy on spiritual well-being and emotional intelligence in the elderly bereavement. Method: This was an experimental study with pre-and posttest design, and control group. The population of this study was the elderly mourners in city of Ardabil in 15-2014. After conducting clinical interviews and diagnostic tests using the sampling method, 30 elderly mourners selected. Spiritual Well-Being questionnaire and Emotional Intelligence questionnaire were used for data collection. The questionnaire and pretest-posttest were used in this study. Data were analyzed using multivariate analysis of covariance. Results: The results of the data analysis revealed that cognitive behavioral therapy increased spiritual well-being and emotional intelligence of the mourners was not significantly different between the 2 groups (PEmotional Intelligence at pretest was not significant in the intervention group compared with the control group (P>0.05). Conclusion: Method of cognitive behavioral therapy helps confront the emotional drain and grief acceptance, increasing the spiritual well-being and emotional intelligence of the elderly bereavement.‏.

  9. Self-organized flexible leadership promotes collective intelligence in human groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurvers, Ralf H J M; Wolf, Max; Naguib, Marc; Krause, Jens

    2015-12-01

    Collective intelligence refers to the ability of groups to outperform individual decision-makers. At present, relatively little is known about the mechanisms promoting collective intelligence in natural systems. We here test a novel mechanism generating collective intelligence: self-organization according to information quality. We tested this mechanism by performing simulated predator detection experiments using human groups. By continuously tracking the personal information of all members prior to collective decisions, we found that individuals adjusted their response time during collective decisions to the accuracy of their personal information. When individuals possessed accurate personal information, they decided quickly during collective decisions providing accurate information to the other group members. By contrast, when individuals had inaccurate personal information, they waited longer, allowing them to use social information before making a decision. Individuals deciding late during collective decisions had an increased probability of changing their decision leading to increased collective accuracy. Our results thus show that groups can self-organize according to the information accuracy of their members, thereby promoting collective intelligence. Interestingly, we find that individuals flexibly acted both as leader and as follower depending on the quality of their personal information at any particular point in time.

  10. Implementing Artificial Intelligence Behaviors in a Virtual World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krisler, Brian; Thome, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we will present a look at the current state of the art in human-computer interface technologies, including intelligent interactive agents, natural speech interaction and gestural based interfaces. We describe our use of these technologies to implement a cost effective, immersive experience on a public region in Second Life. We provision our Artificial Agents as a German Shepherd Dog avatar with an external rules engine controlling the behavior and movement. To interact with the avatar, we implemented a natural language and gesture system allowing the human avatars to use speech and physical gestures rather than interacting via a keyboard and mouse. The result is a system that allows multiple humans to interact naturally with AI avatars by playing games such as fetch with a flying disk and even practicing obedience exercises using voice and gesture, a natural seeming day in the park.

  11. Social collective intelligence combining the powers of humans and machines to build a smarter society

    CERN Document Server

    Miorandi, Daniele; Rovatsos, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The book focuses on Social Collective Intelligence, a term used to denote a class of socio-technical systems that combine, in a coordinated way, the strengths of humans, machines and collectives in terms of competences, knowledge and problem solving capabilities with the communication, computing and storage capabilities of advanced ICT.Social Collective Intelligence opens a number of challenges for researchers in both computer science and social sciences; at the same time it provides an innovative approach to solve challenges in diverse application domains, ranging from health to education

  12. Quantum collective behavior in low dimensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, R.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis focuses on collective behavior in low-dimensional quantum many-body systems that are closely related to experimental settings. We start by describing the evolution of a localized electron spin in a semiconductor quantum dot. The focus is on the influence of direct interactions with the

  13. A study on the relationship between emotional intelligence, organizational commitment and organizational citizenship behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saman Chehrazi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a casual structure model between emotional intelligence and organizational citizenship behavior by using organizational commitment as mediator variable. The study is accomplished among 324 employees of united bus company in city of Tehran, Iran. Using structural equation modeling, the study has confirmed that emotional intelligence influenced on organizational citizenship behavior and commitment. The study also confirms that organizational commitment influenced on organizational citizenship behavior. Finally, the study has confirmed that there were significant relationships between emotional intelligence and its dimensions with organizational citizenship behavior and organizational commitment of employees.

  14. Collective behaviors of book holding durations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ren-De; Guo, Qiang; Han, Jing-Ti; Liu, Jian-Guo

    2016-10-01

    Duration can directly reflect the collective reading behaviors of library user book holding. In this paper, by introducing the burstiness and memory coefficients, we empirically investigate the collective book holding behavior of three university libraries. The statistical results show that there are similar properties among the students with different backgrounds, presenting the burstiness = - 0.2 and memory = 0.5 for three datasets, which indicates that memory and random effects coexist in student book holding durations. In addition, we analyze the behavior patterns without duplicate durations by merging a series of books borrowed and returned at the same time. The results show the average burstiness B increases to -0.16 and memory M drops to 0.16 for three datasets, which indicates that both duplicate behavior and student's preference affect the memory effect. Furthermore, we present a model which assumes student's next book holding duration follows the previous one with probability p, and with probability 1 - p, the student would hold the book independently. The experimental results show that the presented model can reproduce the burstiness and memory effect of student book holding durations when p = 0.5 for empirical datasets and p = 0.2 for de-duplicate datasets, which indicate that the student's preferential holding behavior occurs with the probability p. This work helps in deeply understanding the regularity of duration-based human behaviors.

  15. Social collective intelligence: combining the powers of humans and machines to build a smarter society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miorandi, Daniele; Maltese, Vincenzo; Rovatsos, Michael; Nijholt, Antinus; Stewart, James

    2014-01-01

    The book focuses on Social Collective Intelligence, a term used to denote a class of socio-technical systems that combine, in a coordinated way, the strengths of humans, machines and collectives in terms of competences, knowledge and problem solving capabilities with the communication, computing and

  16. Examining the Relationship between Collective Teacher Efficacy and the Emotional Intelligence of Elementary School Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Education research has established a significant relationship between collective teacher efficacy and student achievement. This study considered the relationship between emotional intelligence of elementary school principals and collective teacher efficacy as perceived by teachers' and principals' self-report. Study findings suggest that…

  17. The magic of collective emotional intelligence in learning groups : No guys needed for the spell!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curseu, P.L.; Pluut, H.; Boros, S.; Meslec, M.N.

    2015-01-01

    Using a cross-lagged design, the present study tests an integrative model of emergent collective emotions in learning groups. Our results indicate that the percentage of women in the group fosters the emergence of collective emotional intelligence, which in turn stimulates social integration within

  18. Business Intelligence: The Smart Way to Track Academic Collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Debra

    2005-01-01

    University collections are a vital source of knowledge for researchers and often a source of pride for universities. Without an effective way to manage and query them, however, collections often go underutilized. Parts of a collection can remain untapped for years, and the larger it grows, the more difficult management becomes. Unfortunately,…

  19. Understanding Collective Intelligence in Agent-Based Systems: an Information-Theoretic Approach to the Measurement and Comparison of Intelligence in Groups

    OpenAIRE

    NADER CHMAIT

    2017-01-01

    This research aims to better understand the phenomenon of collective intelligence across the three cognitive systems: human, animal and machine. Major characteristics shaping the spread of intelligence in groups are identified and their influences on group performance are measured using an intelligence test. We address how much groups, implementing different communication and co-operation protocols, can outperform individuals by. Moreover, a new predictive model for the accuracy of artifi...

  20. [How bacteria resist antibiotics: a primary form of collective intelligence?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechère, Jean-Claude

    2004-01-01

    Bacteria produce inhibitory enzymes (beta-lactamases, etc), block antibiotic attachment to target molecules (MRSA, etc.), extrude antibiotics from the cell by active efflux systems (multidrug resistant pseudomonas, etc) or limit antibiotic penetration through the outer membrane in Gram negatives. Genetically, resistance occurs after mutation or horizontal transfers (transformation, transduction, conjugation) of mobile genetic elements (integrons, transposons, phages, plasmids), associated with a risk of epidemic spread. Recent data stress the importance pheromones for facilitating inter-bacterial genetic exchanges. Activated by quinolones and penicillins the SOS response augments the mutation rate (by about 10,000 fold) and liberates mobile genetic elements offering more opportunities to select resistance. These highly pertinent non-darwinian systems raise the hypothesis of a primary form of intelligence developed already 3.8 billions years ago.

  1. Collective behaviour and swarm intelligence in slime moulds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Chris R; Latty, Tanya

    2016-11-01

    The study of collective behaviour aims to understand how individual-level behaviours can lead to complex group-level patterns. Collective behaviour has primarily been studied in animal groups such as colonies of insects, flocks of birds and schools of fish. Although less studied, collective behaviour also occurs in microorganisms. Here, we argue that slime moulds are powerful model systems for solving several outstanding questions in collective behaviour. In particular, slime mould may hold the key to linking individual-level mechanisms to colony-level behaviours. Using well-established principles of collective animal behaviour as a framework, we discuss the extent to which slime mould collectives are comparable to animal groups, and we highlight some potentially fruitful areas for future research.

  2. Intelligence and safe and healthy behavior in a small sample of students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cramer, J.S.; Hoogendoorn, S.M.

    2013-01-01

    There is ample evidence in the epidemiological literature that intelligence (like education and affluence) is related with reduced mortality rates and a longer life. This may be the direct result of safer and healthier behavior of more intelligent people. We have tried to test this hypothesis by a

  3. PARENTAL ACCEPTANCE / REJECTION AND EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AMONG ADOLESCENTS WITH AND WITHOUT DELINQUENT BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orhideja ŠURBANOVSKA

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction This paper analyzes the parental acceptance or rejection and the emotional intelligence among adolescents with and without delinquent behavior. Objectives: The primary objective of this study is to explore the differences between parents’ acceptance/rejection (by mother and father, respectively and the emotional intelligence among adolescentswith and without delinquent behavior, as well as the correlation between parents’ acceptance/rejection (by mother and father, respectively and the emotional intelligence among minors with delinquent behavior. Methods: The survey was conducted on two groups of adolescents, that is, 30 respondents serving a prison sentence for minors and/or have been imposed an educational measure of referral to an Educational and Correctional Facility aged 14 to 18, and 40 respondents that are secondary school students at the same age. In this research, the terms minors and adolescents both refer to persons aged 14-18 years. All respondents were males. The following measuring instruments were used: Parental Acceptance/Rejection Questionnaire and a Questionnaire for Measuring Emotional Intelligence – 45. Results: Minors with and without delinquent behavior differ considerably in terms of perceiving parental acceptance (by the mother and by the father, aggressiveness, neglect and undifferentiated rejection. The feeling of being rejected by the parents is more common among minors with delinquent behavior than in those without such behavior. Furthermore, minors with delinquent behavior have lower emotional intelligence compared with their peers without delinquent behavior. Positive associations were found between parental acceptance and emotional intelligence. Conclusion: Minors with delinquent behavior have experienced lower acceptance and higher rejection from the parents and have lower emotional intelligence than their peers without delinquent behavior. In general, parental acceptance is associated with

  4. Optical Communication System for Remote Monitoring and Adaptive Control of Distributed Ground Sensors Exhibiting Collective Intelligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, S.M.; Stantz, K.M.; Trahan, M.W.; Wagner, J.S.

    1998-11-01

    Comprehensive management of the battle-space has created new requirements in information management, communication, and interoperability as they effect surveillance and situational awareness. The objective of this proposal is to expand intelligent controls theory to produce a uniquely powerful implementation of distributed ground-based measurement incorporating both local collective behavior, and interoperative global optimization for sensor fusion and mission oversight. By using a layered hierarchal control architecture to orchestrate adaptive reconfiguration of autonomous robotic agents, we can improve overall robustness and functionality in dynamic tactical environments without information bottlenecks. In this concept, each sensor is equipped with a miniaturized optical reflectance modulator which is interactively monitored as a remote transponder using a covert laser communication protocol from a remote mothership or operative. Robot data-sharing at the ground level can be leveraged with global evaluation criteria, including terrain overlays and remote imaging data. Information sharing and distributed intelli- gence opens up a new class of remote-sensing applications in which small single-function autono- mous observers at the local level can collectively optimize and measure large scale ground-level signals. AS the need for coverage and the number of agents grows to improve spatial resolution, cooperative behavior orchestrated by a global situational awareness umbrella will be an essential ingredient to offset increasing bandwidth requirements within the net. A system of the type described in this proposal will be capable of sensitively detecting, tracking, and mapping spatial distributions of measurement signatures which are non-stationary or obscured by clutter and inter- fering obstacles by virtue of adaptive reconfiguration. This methodology could be used, for example, to field an adaptive ground-penetrating radar for detection of underground structures in

  5. Modern science: a case of collective intelligence? On the role of thought economy and gratifying attention in knowledge production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franck, Georg

    2012-07-16

    Your attention please: Phenomenal conciousness, that is, how something feels, does not exist for an observer. As science relies on observations, it is not aware of the nature of subjectivity and thus science is not often defined as a collective intelligence. In this Essay, the roles of intelligence and attention are discussed, as well as an analysis of scientific communication and citation, in order to evaluate whether science is a case of collective intelligence.

  6. Behavioral problems and intelligence quotient changes in pediatric epilepsy: A case-control study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shyama Choudhary; N Niranjan; Satyendra Khichar; Pramod Berwal; Abhijeet Barath

    2017-01-01

    ...: To find behavioral problems and intelligence quotient (IQ) changes associated with epilepsy and to know the association of variables such as frequency, type of seizures, and duration of disease with cognitive impairment...

  7. Interview with Pierre A. Lévy, French Philosopher of Collective Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    This article features an interview with Pierre A. Lévy, Professor in the Department of Communication, University of Ottawa, Canada. He occupies the Canada Research Chair in Collective Intelligence where he is engaged in research on the design of a universal system for semantic addressing of digital documents. He completed his MA at the Sorbonne…

  8. Programming Collective Intelligence Building Smart Web 2.0 Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Segaran, Toby

    2008-01-01

    This fascinating book demonstrates how you can build web applications to mine the enormous amount of data created by people on the Internet. With the sophisticated algorithms in this book, you can write smart programs to access interesting datasets from other web sites, collect data from users of your own applications, and analyze and understand the data once you've found it.

  9. Intelligence Collection Targeting and Interdiction of Dark Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    examples of terrorist technological communications countered by a baseline of NTM collection with OSINT and HUMINT only serving as enablers or...he visits while traveling as an ostensible tourist ( OSINT ) would be useful.54 In summary, Sims’s observation not only enforce the strategic

  10. Industry Cluster's Adaptive Co-competition Behavior Modeling Inspired by Swarm Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Wei; Ye, Feifan

    Adaptation helps the individual enterprise to adjust its behavior to uncertainties in environment and hence determines a healthy growth of both the individuals and the whole industry cluster as well. This paper is focused on the study on co-competition adaptation behavior of industry cluster, which is inspired by swarm intelligence mechanisms. By referencing to ant cooperative transportation and ant foraging behavior and their related swarm intelligence approaches, the cooperative adaptation and competitive adaptation behavior are studied and relevant models are proposed. Those adaptive co-competition behaviors model can be integrated to the multi-agent system of industry cluster to make the industry cluster model more realistic.

  11. A study on the relationship between emotional intelligence, organizational commitment and organizational citizenship behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Saman Chehrazi; Mehrdad Hoseini Shakib; Mohammad Hosein Askari Azad

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a casual structure model between emotional intelligence and organizational citizenship behavior by using organizational commitment as mediator variable. The study is accomplished among 324 employees of united bus company in city of Tehran, Iran. Using structural equation modeling, the study has confirmed that emotional intelligence influenced on organizational citizenship behavior and commitment. The study also confirms that organizational commitment influenced on organiza...

  12. Data and methods to facilitate delivery system reform: harnessing collective intelligence to learn from positive deviance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luft, Harold S

    2010-10-01

    Researchers often focus on the data and methods to assess policy changes, but data and methods can also be policy tools. To improve, health care systems need mechanisms and incentives for continually gathering, assessing, and acting on data. This requires (1) more comprehensive data, (2) converting data into information, and (3) incentives to apply that information. Restructured economic incentives can encourage clinicians to increase value (higher quality and/or lower cost) for their patients. While necessary, incentives are not sufficient-information is also needed. Incentives can lead clinicians to demand better information. Much of the necessary data is already used in patient care and billing; some additional variables will come directly from patients. The notion builds on two concepts: collective intelligence and positive deviance. The former characterizes knowledge gained from observing the behavior of many independent actors adapting to changing situations. Positive deviants are those who achieve far better results than expected. By rewarding positive deviants, rather than trying to identify and "correct" those who are problematic, providers will voluntarily identify themselves and their methods for achieving superior outcomes. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  13. Is Collective Intelligence (Mostly) the General Factor of Personality? A Comment on Woolley, Chabris, Pentland, Hashmi and Malone (2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodley, Michael A.; Bell, Edward

    2011-01-01

    A recent paper [Woolley, Chabris, Pentland, Hashmi, & Malone. (2010). "Evidence for a collective intelligence factor in the performance of human groups." "Science", 330, 686-688] presents evidence for the existence of a general collective intelligence factor, "c," which may undergird performance on a variety of group tasks. This factor appears to…

  14. Games that Enlist Collective Intelligence to Solve Complex Scientific Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Burnett; Michelle Furlong; Paul Guy Melvin; Richard Singiser

    2016-01-01

    There is great value in employing the collective problem-solving power of large groups of people. Technological advances have allowed computer games to be utilized by a diverse population to solve problems. Science games are becoming more popular and cover various areas such as sequence alignments, DNA base-pairing, and protein and RNA folding. While these tools have been developed for the general population, they can also be used effectively in the classroom to teach students about various t...

  15. Collective purchase behavior toward retail price changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Hiromichi; Watanabe, Tsutomu; Takayasu, Hideki; Takayasu, Misako

    2011-02-01

    By analyzing a huge amount of point-of-sale data collected from Japanese supermarkets, we find power law relationships between price and sales numbers. The estimated values of the exponents of these power laws depend on the category of products; however, they are independent of the stores, thereby implying the existence of universal human purchase behavior. The rate of sales numbers around these power laws are generally approximated by log-normal distributions implying that there are hidden random parameters, which might proportionally affect the purchase activity.

  16. The magic of collective emotional intelligence in learning groups: No guys needed for the spell!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curşeu, Petru L; Pluut, Helen; Boroş, Smaranda; Meslec, Nicoleta

    2015-05-01

    Using a cross-lagged design, the present study tests an integrative model of emergent collective emotions in learning groups. Our results indicate that the percentage of women in the group fosters the emergence of collective emotional intelligence, which in turn stimulates social integration within groups (increases group cohesion and reduces relationship conflict) and the associated affective similarity, with beneficial effects for group effectiveness. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  17. Mob control models of threshold collective behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Breer, Vladimir V; Rogatkin, Andrey D

    2017-01-01

    This book presents mathematical models of mob control with threshold (conformity) collective decision-making of the agents. Based on the results of analysis of the interconnection between the micro- and macromodels of active network structures, it considers the static (deterministic, stochastic and game-theoretic) and dynamic (discrete- and continuous-time) models of mob control, and highlights models of informational confrontation. Many of the results are applicable not only to mob control problems, but also to control problems arising in social groups, online social networks, etc. Aimed at researchers and practitioners, it is also a valuable resource for undergraduate and postgraduate students as well as doctoral candidates specializing in the field of collective behavior modeling.

  18. Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J

    2012-09-01

    Intelligence is the ability to learn from past experience and, in general, to adapt to, shape, and select environments. Aspects of intelligence are measured by standardized tests of intelligence. Average raw (number-correct) scores on such tests vary across the life span and also across generations, as well as across ethnic and socioeconomic groups. Intelligence can be understood in part in terms of the biology of the brain-especially with regard to the functioning in the prefrontal cortex. Measured values correlate with brain size, at least within humans. The heritability coefficient (ratio of genetic to phenotypic variation) is between 0.4 and 0.8. But genes always express themselves through environment. Heritability varies as a function of a number of factors, including socioeconomic status and range of environments. Racial-group differences in measured intelligence have been reported, but race is a socially constructed rather than biological variable. As a result, these differences are difficult to interpret. Different cultures have different conceptions of the nature of intelligence, and also require different skills in order to express intelligence in the environment. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012 doi: 10.1002/wcs.1193 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Games that Enlist Collective Intelligence to Solve Complex Scientific Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Stephen; Furlong, Michelle; Melvin, Paul Guy; Singiser, Richard

    2016-03-01

    There is great value in employing the collective problem-solving power of large groups of people. Technological advances have allowed computer games to be utilized by a diverse population to solve problems. Science games are becoming more popular and cover various areas such as sequence alignments, DNA base-pairing, and protein and RNA folding. While these tools have been developed for the general population, they can also be used effectively in the classroom to teach students about various topics. Many games also employ a social component that entices students to continue playing and thereby to continue learning. The basic functions of game play and the potential of game play as a tool in the classroom are discussed in this article.

  20. Games that Enlist Collective Intelligence to Solve Complex Scientific Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Stephen; Furlong, Michelle; Melvin, Paul Guy; Singiser, Richard

    2016-01-01

    There is great value in employing the collective problem-solving power of large groups of people. Technological advances have allowed computer games to be utilized by a diverse population to solve problems. Science games are becoming more popular and cover various areas such as sequence alignments, DNA base-pairing, and protein and RNA folding. While these tools have been developed for the general population, they can also be used effectively in the classroom to teach students about various topics. Many games also employ a social component that entices students to continue playing and thereby to continue learning. The basic functions of game play and the potential of game play as a tool in the classroom are discussed in this article. PMID:27047610

  1. Games that Enlist Collective Intelligence to Solve Complex Scientific Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Burnett

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There is great value in employing the collective problem-solving power of large groups of people. Technological advances have allowed computer games to be utilized by a diverse population to solve problems. Science games are becoming more popular and cover various areas such as sequence alignments, DNA base-pairing, and protein and RNA folding. While these tools have been developed for the general population, they can also be used effectively in the classroom to teach students about various topics. Many games also employ a social component that entices students to continue playing and thereby to continue learning. The basic functions of game play and the potential of game play as a tool in the classroom are discussed in this article.

  2. Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Intelligence is the ability to learn from experience and to adapt to, shape, and select environments. Intelligence as measured by (raw scores on) conventional standardized tests varies across the lifespan, and also across generations. Intelligence can be understood in part in terms of the biology of the brain—especially with regard to the functioning in the prefrontal cortex—and also correlates with brain size, at least within humans. Studies of the effects of genes and environment suggest that the heritability coefficient (ratio of genetic to phenotypic variation) is between .4 and .8, although heritability varies as a function of socioeconomic status and other factors. Racial differences in measured intelligence have been observed, but race is a socially constructed rather than biological variable, so such differences are difficult to interpret. PMID:22577301

  3. Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J

    2012-03-01

    Intelligence is the ability to learn from experience and to adapt to, shape, and select environments. Intelligence as measured by (raw scores on) conventional standardized tests varies across the lifespan, and also across generations. Intelligence can be understood in part in terms of the biology of the brain-especially with regard to the functioning in the prefrontal cortex-and also correlates with brain size, at least within humans. Studies of the effects of genes and environment suggest that the heritability coefficient (ratio of genetic to phenotypic variation) is between .4 and .8, although heritability varies as a function of socioeconomic status and other factors. Racial differences in measured intelligence have been observed, but race is a socially constructed rather than biological variable, so such differences are difficult to interpret.

  4. A Materials Approach to Collective Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouellette, Nicholas

    Aggregations of social animals, such as flocks of birds, schools of fish, or swarms of insects, are beautiful, natural examples of self-organized behavior far from equilibrium. Understanding these systems, however, has proved to be quite challenging. Determining the rules of interaction from empirical measurements of animals is a difficult inverse problem. Thus, researchers tend to focus on the macroscopic behavior of the group instead. Because so many of these systems display large-scale ordered patterns, it has become the norm in modeling animal aggregations to focus on this order. Large-scale patterns alone, however, are not sufficient information to characterize all the dynamics of animal aggregations, and do not provide stringent enough conditions to benchmark models. Instead, I will argue that we should borrow ideas from materials characterization to describe the macroscopic state of an animal group in terms of its response to external stimuli. I will illustrate these ideas with recent experiments on mating swarms of the non-biting midge Chironomus riparius, where we have developed methods to apply controlled perturbations and measure the detailed swarm response. Our results allow us to begin to describe swarms in terms of state variables and response functions, bringing them into the purview of theories of active matter. These results also point towards new, more detailed ways of characterizing and hopefully comparing collective behavior in animal groups.

  5. The Impact of Sympathetic Components of Emotional Intelligence on Citizenship Behavior of Physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Sahafi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: One of the most important characteristics of an effective employee performance is person'sSympathetic components of emotional intelligence that has been increasingly considered in anenterprise environment. In this article, we will survey this component in promoting citizenship behaviorof physicians.Materials and methods: In a descriptive, co relational and statistical community approach Theoutstanding performance of an organization using simple random sampling method, 212 cases wereincluded as doctors having subspecialty of the infertility in the Islamic Republic of Iran. A questionnairewas used for data collection. After summarization, structural equation modeling techniques were usedfor analysis and interpretation of research data.Results: The Sympathetic component has a significant positive impact on organizational citizenshipbehavior (T=2.90 and this factor with the effect of 0.46% has the impact on organizational citizenshipbehavior.Conclusion: Considering the importance of sympathy aspect due to results of this research hospitalmanagers are recommended to consider the importance of emotional intelligence in order to enhancethe social capabilities of citizenship behaviors of physicians.

  6. The Importance of Collective Intelligence Implementing the ‘Third Mission’ of Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktorija Stokaitė

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – transformation of regular traditional university is a natural going process, which was affected not only by attractive theoretical or practical meaning of entrepreneurial university, but by the necessity of economic and social changes, as well. According to that, university is an important member of “Triple Helix” (University-Industry-State model importance of collective intelligence for the implementation and development of “Third Mission” of university hybrid. “Triple Helix” model’s expansion is being proven in the upshot of analysis of scientific literature.Design/Methodology/Approach – analysis of scientific literature.Findings – after literature analysis, the following findings are presented: Concept of “Third Mission”; The importance of entrepreneurial university for “Third Mission’s” implementation is investigated; The importance of collective intelligence for “Third Mission’s” implementation is highlighted.Practical usage – according to the necessity of fast changes for Lithuanian and for East European universities in common, it is being expected that proven importance of collective intelligence for the implementation of “Third Mission” of university will affect the research of unique interdisciplinary solutions.Originality/Value – the main concept of collective intelligence is not really new, but the article explains its value for entrepreneurial university and for implementation of “Third Mission”. The development of hybrid “Triple Helix” model has not been investigated properly yet. Because of this, it is expected that the article will affect the start of new discussions and research of new solutions.Research type – literature review, viewpoint.

  7. Urban Architecture as Connective-Collective Intelligence. Which Spaces of Interaction?

    OpenAIRE

    Andreina Maahsen-Milan; Margot Pellegrino; Luigi Oliva; Marco Simonetti

    2013-01-01

    During the twentieth century, with the advent of industrial society and globalization, the language of planning changed according to the shifts in construction and use of physical space. By borrowing terms and spatial forms from biology and cybernetics, industrial society and globalization increased the original semantic connotations. Moving from cognitive sciences, this paper outlines the definition of architecture as connective-collective intelligence and presents its implication in urban d...

  8. Dimensions of emotional intelligence related to physical and mental health and to health behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Enrique G. eFernández-Abascal; María Dolores eMartín-Díaz

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the relationship between Emotional Intelligence and health is examined. The current work investigated the dimensions of EI are sufficient to explain various components of physical and mental health, and various categories of health-related behaviors.A sample of 855 participants completed two measures of EI, the Trait Meta-Mood Scale (TMMS) and Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue), a measure of health, the Health Survey SF-36 Questionnaire (SF-36); and a measure of...

  9. Algorithmic governance: Developing a research agenda through the power of collective intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Danaher

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We are living in an algorithmic age where mathematics and computer science are coming together in powerful new ways to influence, shape and guide our behaviour and the governance of our societies. As these algorithmic governance structures proliferate, it is vital that we ensure their effectiveness and legitimacy. That is, we need to ensure that they are an effective means for achieving a legitimate policy goal that are also procedurally fair, open and unbiased. But how can we ensure that algorithmic governance structures are both? This article shares the results of a collective intelligence workshop that addressed exactly this question. The workshop brought together a multidisciplinary group of scholars to consider (a barriers to legitimate and effective algorithmic governance and (b the research methods needed to address the nature and impact of specific barriers. An interactive management workshop technique was used to harness the collective intelligence of this multidisciplinary group. This method enabled participants to produce a framework and research agenda for those who are concerned about algorithmic governance. We outline this research agenda below, providing a detailed map of key research themes, questions and methods that our workshop felt ought to be pursued. This builds upon existing work on research agendas for critical algorithm studies in a unique way through the method of collective intelligence.

  10. The Insensitive Ruins It All: Compositional and Compilational Influences of Social Sensitivity on Collective Intelligence in Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meslec, Nicoleta; Aggarwal, Ishani; Curseu, Petru L

    2016-01-01

    A group's collective intelligence reflects its capacity to perform well across a variety of cognitive tasks and it transcends the individual intelligence of its members. Previous research shows that group members' social sensitivity is a potential antecedent of collective intelligence, yet it is still unclear whether individual or group-level indices are responsible for the positive association between social sensitivity and collective intelligence. In a comprehensive manner, we test the extent to which both compositional (lowest and highest individual score) and compilational aspects (emergent group level) of social sensitivity are associated with collective intelligence. This study has implications for research that explores groups as information processors, and for group design as it indicates how a group should be composed with respect to social sensitivity if the group is to reach high levels of collective intelligence. Our empirical results indicate that collectively intelligent groups are those in which the least socially sensitive group member has a rather high score on social sensitivity. Differently stated, (socially sensitive) group members cannot compensate for the lack of social sensitivity of the other group members.

  11. Heartless and cunning? Intelligence in adolescents with antisocial behavior and psychopathic traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jennifer L; Briskman, Jacqueline; Humayun, Sajid; Dadds, Mark R; Scott, Stephen

    2013-12-30

    Clinical theory predicts that individuals high in psychopathic traits possess average or above average intelligence; however findings in adult and child samples have been mixed. The present study aimed to investigate (1) the relationship between verbal and nonverbal intelligence and the three dimensions of psychopathy (callous-unemotional (CU) traits, narcissism, impulsivity); and (2) whether these dimensions moderate the association between verbal and nonverbal intelligence and the severity of antisocial behavior. Participants were 361 adolescents aged 9-18 years (68% boys) and their parents, drawn from four samples with different levels of risk for antisocial behavior. Families were disadvantaged and 25% were from an ethnic minority. Verbal intelligence was unrelated to parent-reported CU traits, narcissism or impulsivity after controlling for gender, sociodemographic disadvantage, sample, antisocial behavior and hyperactivity. Narcissism, but not CU traits or impulsivity, was significantly related to lower nonverbal IQ. None of the three psychopathic trait dimensions moderated the relationship between verbal or nonverbal IQ and antisocial behavior. CU traits, narcissism, hyperactivity and inclusion in the very high or high risk samples were significantly related to more severe antisocial behavior. Results contradict the widely held view that psychopathic traits are associated with better than average verbal or nonverbal intelligence. Crown Copyright © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Mother's but not father's education predicts general fluid intelligence in emerging adulthood: Behavioral and neuroanatomical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Feng; Chen, Zhencai; Xue, Song; Wang, Xu; Liu, Jia

    2015-11-01

    Lower parental education impairs cognitive abilities of their offspring such as general fluid intelligence dependent on the prefrontal cortex (PFC), but the independent contribution of mother's and father's education is unknown. We used an individual difference approach to test whether mother's and father's education independently affected general fluid intelligence in emerging adulthood at both the behavioral and neural level. Behaviorally, mother's but not father's education accounted for unique variance in general fluid intelligence in emerging adulthood (assessed by the Raven's advanced progressive matrices). Neurally, the whole-brain correlation analysis revealed that the regional gray matter volume (rGMV) in the medial PFC was related to both mother's education and general fluid intelligence but not father's education. Furthermore, after controlling for mother's education, the association between general fluid intelligence and the rGMV in medial PFC was no longer significant, indicating that mother's education plays an important role in influencing the structure of the medial PFC associated with general fluid intelligence. Taken together, our study provides the first behavioral and neural evidence that mother's education is a more important determinant of general cognitive ability in emerging adulthood than father's education. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Collective Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Viña Sirgo, Carlota

    2010-01-01

    Estudio e implantación de algoritmos de recomendación, búsqueda, ranking y aprendizaje. Estudi i implantació d'algorismes de recomanació, cerca, rànquing i aprenentatge. Study and implementation of recommendation, search, ranking and learning algorithms.

  14. Individual and Collective Behavior in Bacterial Suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, John O.

    2003-03-01

    Speed, direction, and style of swimming are observable behaviors of individual bacterial cells. Measurements on dilute, nominally monodisperse populations yield distribution functions that provide biologically and/or physically determined means and spreads. Responses to asymmetries, e.g. directional swimming in gradients of chemical concentration, or suppression of directional isotropy and modification of speed distributions near boundaries are also measurable. At intermediate concentrations, e.g volume fractions of 10-3, equivalent to 10^9 cells/ml, collective consumption and directional environmental supply of metabolites can generate migration toward the source of metabolite molecules. For the case of the aerobic bacteria Bacillus subtilis, migration toward the source of oxygen at the fluid-air interface leads to a (Rayleigh-Taylor) plume instability, eventually yielding bioconvection flows that enhance mixing. As the highest possible concentration (approximately close-packed) is approached, there arises a remarkable phase transition, from random orientation of the cells to long range order. Surging domains encompassing thousands of cells swimming at approximately the same speed develop, break up and re-form. The power law exponent for transport of passive scalars (microspheres) suspended in this system of chaotic yet coherently moving bacteria is similar to that observed for "2-d turbulence". Videos, data analyses and some preliminary theoretical approaches relating to the individual cells' hydrodynamic interactions, leading to behavior near boundaries and development of the ordered phase, will be included in the presentation. Application to formation of biofilms, the possible intervention of polymers exuded by the cells, and quorum sensing are "biological" aspects to be considered.

  15. Genetic and Environmental Influences on the Development of Intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels, M.; Rietveld, M.J.H.; van Baal, G.C.M.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2002-01-01

    Measures of intelligence were collected in 209 twin pairs at 5, 7, 10, and 12 years of age, as part of a longitudinal project on intelligence, brain function, and behavioral problems. Intelligence was measured at 5, 7, and 10 years of age with the RAKIT, a well-known Dutch intelligence test,

  16. Relationship between emotional intelligence and organizational citizenship behavior in critical and emergency nurses in south east of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofighi, M; Tirgari, B; Fooladvandi, M; Rasouli, F; Jalali, M

    2015-01-01

    Several factors including emotional intelligence affect the efficiency of people. It seems that organizational behavior of each person is strongly influenced by emotional intelligence. Therefore, the present study is aimed to examine the relationship between emotional intelligence and organizational citizenship behavior in critical and emergency nurses in teaching hospitals supervised by Kerman Medical University in Southeast of Iran. This study employed a descriptive cross sectional design. A census sample consisted of 150 critical and emergency nurses working in teaching hospitals supervised by Kerman Medical University participated in this study. Emotional intelligence and organizational citizenship behavior questionnaire was used to assess nurses' emotional intelligence and organizational citizenship behavior by available sampling method. The results showed that the mean age of the participants was 35 years. Most participants (94%) were females and belonged to the age group of 26-30 years. Overall mean score of organizational citizenship behavior scale was 88.21 (±10.4). In the organizational citizenship behavior categories, altruism mean score was higher than the other mean scores. Overall mean score of emotional intelligence was (121.08 ± 17.56). In the subgroups of emotional intelligence, mean score of the relationship management, was higher than the average of other factors. Pearson's correlation coefficient showed no significant relationship between emotional intelligence and organizational citizenship behavior (p ≥ 0.05). The study suggests that health care managers should organize systematic and dynamic policies and procedures in dealing with emotional intelligence and organizational citizenship behavior to assist critical and emergency nurses.

  17. Hospital-Based Nurses’ Perceptions of the Adoption of Web 2.0 Tools for Knowledge Sharing, Learning, Social Interaction and the Production of Collective Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Web 2.0 provides a platform or a set of tools such as blogs, wikis, really simple syndication (RSS), podcasts, tags, social bookmarks, and social networking software for knowledge sharing, learning, social interaction, and the production of collective intelligence in a virtual environment. Web 2.0 is also becoming increasingly popular in e-learning and e-social communities. Objectives The objectives were to investigate how Web 2.0 tools can be applied for knowledge sharing, learning, social interaction, and the production of collective intelligence in the nursing domain and to investigate what behavioral perceptions are involved in the adoption of Web 2.0 tools by nurses. Methods The decomposed technology acceptance model was applied to construct the research model on which the hypotheses were based. A questionnaire was developed based on the model and data from nurses (n = 388) were collected from late January 2009 until April 30, 2009. Pearson’s correlation analysis and t tests were used for data analysis. Results Intention toward using Web 2.0 tools was positively correlated with usage behavior (r = .60, P collective intelligence. PMID:22079851

  18. Hospital-based nurses' perceptions of the adoption of Web 2.0 tools for knowledge sharing, learning, social interaction and the production of collective intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Adela S M

    2011-11-11

    Web 2.0 provides a platform or a set of tools such as blogs, wikis, really simple syndication (RSS), podcasts, tags, social bookmarks, and social networking software for knowledge sharing, learning, social interaction, and the production of collective intelligence in a virtual environment. Web 2.0 is also becoming increasingly popular in e-learning and e-social communities. The objectives were to investigate how Web 2.0 tools can be applied for knowledge sharing, learning, social interaction, and the production of collective intelligence in the nursing domain and to investigate what behavioral perceptions are involved in the adoption of Web 2.0 tools by nurses. The decomposed technology acceptance model was applied to construct the research model on which the hypotheses were based. A questionnaire was developed based on the model and data from nurses (n = 388) were collected from late January 2009 until April 30, 2009. Pearson's correlation analysis and t tests were used for data analysis. Intention toward using Web 2.0 tools was positively correlated with usage behavior (r = .60, P r = .72, P r = .58, P r = .45, P r = .7, P r = .64, P r = .60,P r = .004, P r = .47, P r = .24,P r = .45, P r = .41,P r = .69,P learning, social interaction, and the production of collective intelligence.

  19. 1st International Conference on Robot Intelligence Technology and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Matson, Eric; Myung, Hyun; Xu, Peter

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, robots have been built based on cognitive architecture which has been developed to model human cognitive ability. The cognitive architecture can be a basis for intelligence technology to generate robot intelligence. In this edited book the robot intelligence is classified into six categories: cognitive intelligence, social intelligence, behavioral intelligence, ambient intelligence, collective intelligence and genetic intelligence. This classification categorizes the intelligence of robots based on the different aspects of awareness and the ability to act deliberately as a result of such awareness. This book aims at serving researchers and practitioners with a timely dissemination of the recent progress on robot intelligence technology and its applications, based on a collection of papers presented at the 1st International Conference on Robot Intelligence Technology and Applications (RiTA), held in Gwangju, Korea, December 16-18, 2012. For a better readability, this edition has the total 101 ...

  20. THE RELATION BETWEEN DRIVER BEHAVIOR AND INTELLIGENT TRANSPORT SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alica Kalašová

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of Slovakia’s transport policy is to reduce the number of traffic accidents and increase safety on our roads. Implementation of intelligent transport systems presents one of the possibilities how to meet this goal. Acceptance of these systems by motor vehicle drivers and other road traffic participants is necessary in order for them to fulfill their purpose. Only if the drivers will accept intelligent transport systems, it is possible to flexibly and effectively manage road traffic flexibly and effectively. From the perspective of a driver it concerns, in particular, the possibility of using alternative routes when traffic accidents or other obstacles occurs on the route that would significantly affect the continuity and safety of road traffic. Thanks to these technologies, it is possible to choose the appropriate route while driving, of course based on the criterion, which the driver considers the most important during the transport from origin to destination (driving time, distance from origin to destination, fuel consumption, quality of infrastructure. Information isare provided to the driver through variable message signs or directly in the vehicle (RDS-TMC. Another advantage of intelligent transport systems is a positive impact on psychological well-being of the driver while driving. Additional information about the possible obstacles, weather conditions and dangerous situations that occur on the roads as well as alternative routes are provided to the driver well in advance. This paper is mainly focused on how the drivers perceive the influence of intelligent transport systems in Žilina region.

  1. The Relationship between Parenting Stress, Parental Intelligence and Child Behavior Problems in a Study of Korean Preschool Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jeong Yoon

    2007-01-01

    The current study examined the relationship between Korean mothers' parenting stress and parental intelligence, and child behavior problems as well as the mediation effects of parental intelligence, which tested the association between parenting stress and child behavior problems. A sample of 436 typically developing children and their mothers…

  2. THE EFFECT OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE TRAINING ON BEHAVIOR PROBLEMS OF BOYS WITH EXTERNALIZED BEHAVIOR DISORDER IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosar Moghaddam POUR

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of emotional intelligence on the behavior problems of boys with Externalized behavior disorder in Primary Schools. Method: This quasi-experimental study was conducted along with a pre-test, post-test, with a control group and a follow-up test. For sampling, 40 students identified with Externalized behavioral problems through the Teacher Report Form (TRF and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL were chosen and randomly divided into two groups (20 in the experimental group and 20 in the control group. The experimental group received emotional intelligence training program in 17 sessions (2 sessions per week, 60 minutes per session and the control group received no training beyond their regular school program. After two months, in order to examine the stability (durability of training effect, the follow-up test was conducted. Finally, the data obtained were analyzed using the statistical method of generalized estimating equations. Results: The results showed that the intervention program had created a significant difference between the scores of the experimental and control group (p<0.001 and the rate of behavioral problems (aggression, rule breaking occurrence has dropped. This was true for the follow-up results too. Conclusions: It can be concluded that Emotional Intelligence Training decreases the behavior problems of boys with Externalized behavior disorder and helps to prevent high occurrence of these problems.

  3. Designing training programs for the development of emotional intelligence in adolescents with behavioral problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Degtyarev

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, deviant behavior is considered as a combination of different manifestations of personality, leading eventually to its social desaptation. It is shown that an effective method of preventing deviant behavior is psychological training. Group training activity helps to solve the problems associated with the development of various behavioral skills, to provide psychological support, and can be used as a means of psychological work with teenagers with behavioral problems. We discuss the basic points required to effectively create and conduct training programs in general, as well as the challenges and opportunities of designing trainings in order to develop emotional intelligence as a method of prevention of deviant behavior

  4. The Potential of Collective Intelligence in Emergency Medicine: Pooling Medical Students' Independent Decisions Improves Diagnostic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kämmer, Juliane E; Hautz, Wolf E; Herzog, Stefan M; Kunina-Habenicht, Olga; Kurvers, Ralf H J M

    2017-08-01

    Evidence suggests that pooling multiple independent diagnoses can improve diagnostic accuracy in well-defined tasks. We investigated whether this is also the case for diagnostics in emergency medicine, an ill-defined task environment where diagnostic errors are rife. A computer simulation study was conducted based on empirical data from 2 published experimental studies. In the computer experiments, 285 medical students independently diagnosed 6 simulated patients arriving at the emergency room with dyspnea. Participants' diagnoses (n = 1,710), confidence ratings, and expertise levels were entered into a computer simulation. Virtual groups of different sizes were randomly created, and 3 collective intelligence rules (follow-the-plurality rule, follow-the-most-confident rule, and follow-the-most-senior rule) were applied to combine the independent decisions into a final diagnosis. For different group sizes, the performance levels (i.e., percentage of correct diagnoses) of the 3 collective intelligence rules were compared with each other and against the average individual accuracy. For all collective intelligence rules, combining independent decisions substantially increased performance relative to average individual performance. For groups of 4 or fewer, the follow-the-most-confident rule outperformed the other rules; for larger groups, the follow-the-plurality rule performed best. For example, combining 5 independent decisions using the follow-the-plurality rule increased diagnostic accuracy by 22 percentage points. These results were robust across case difficulty and expertise level. Limitations of the study include the use of simulated patients diagnosed by medical students. Whether results generalize to clinical practice is currently unknown. Combining independent decisions may substantially improve the quality of diagnoses in emergency medicine and may thus enhance patient safety.

  5. Collective intelligence, social networks and social capital: searching for conceptual connections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Bellia Margoto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available It is a theoretical essay whose goal was the search for conceptual similarities between the phenomena of collective intelligence, social networking and social capital within the context of the information society. Thereby, those elements are presented and discussed considering different authors. It appears that the concepts covered have numerous points of convergence and strong relations of proximity and complementarity. The conclusions point to the idea that the consideration of these relationships in the theoretical perspectives adopted in the research developed in the fields under consideration, could significantly enrich the results to be achieved.

  6. Collective Intelligence for Optimal Power Flow Solution Using Ant Colony Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boumediène ALLAOUA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the performance ant collective intelligence efficiency for electrical network. Solutions for Optimal Power Flow (OPF problem of a power system deliberate via an ant colony optimization metaheuristic method. The objective is to minimize the total fuel cost of thermal generating units and also conserve an acceptable system performance in terms of limits on generator real and reactive power outputs, bus voltages, shunt capacitors/reactors, transformers tap-setting and power flow of transmission lines. Simulation results on the IEEE 30-bus electrical network show that the ant colony optimization method converges quickly to the global optimum.

  7. Trait emotional intelligence and leadership self-efficacy: their relationship with collective efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, José J; Sánchez, José C

    2007-11-01

    In this article, a leadership model is presented, with which to investigate the relationship of trait emotional intelligence (trait EI), leadership self-efficacy and leader's task self-efficacy with collective task efficacy and group performance. The sample was made up of 217 undergraduate students, randomly assigned to work teams of 1 leader and 2 followers that were requested to perform a production task. An adapted version of the Schutte Self-Report Inventory (SSRI; Schutte et al., 1998) was used to measure trait EI. Structural equation modeling was used to test the hypothesized relationships. Results indicated that task self-efficacy was a mediator between leadership self-efficacy and collective task efficacy; the latter, in turn, was the best predictor of group performance. No significant relationship was found between trait EI and collective task efficacy although, unexpectedly, trait EI was positively associated with leadership self-efficacy. Implications of the results are discussed.

  8. A behavioral genetic study of trait emotional intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, Philip A; Petrides, K V; Bratko, Denis; Schermer, Julie Aitken

    2008-10-01

    Numerous models of emotional intelligence (EI) have proposed the existence of hitherto undiscovered mental abilities, competencies, and skills. The theory of trait emotional intelligence suggests that the content domains of these models invariably contain permutations of personality traits. The two studies in this article examine the heritability of trait EI scores with a view to demonstrating empirically that the construct has a similar level of genetic influence as other personality traits. Study 1 was a family design of 133 high-school students and their parents. Regressions of offspring on midparent scores suggested median upper-limit heritability estimates of .18 at facet level, .25 at factor level, and .32 at the global trait EI level. Study 2 was a twin design (213 pairs of monozygotic [MZ] twins and 103 pairs of dizygotic [DZ] twins). It yielded median heritabilities of .42 for the facets, .44 for the factors, and .42 for global trait EI. Overall, our findings are in accordance with studies of the major personality dimensions and provide further empirical support for the conceptualization of EI as a personality trait. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved

  9. Intelligent Behavior, Art Costa, and the Role of the Library Media Specialist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shein, Dina

    1999-01-01

    Discusses Art Costa's 14 Intelligent Behavior Characteristics and gives examples of picture books that apply to each characteristic, including persistence, decreasing impulsivity, listening, cooperative thinking, flexibility, metacognition, accuracy and precision, sense of humor, questioning, using past knowledge, risk taking, using all senses,…

  10. Frontal Electroencephalogram Activation Asymmetry, Emotional Intelligence, and Externalizing Behaviors in 10-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santesso, L. Diane; Dana, L. Reker; Schmidt, Louis A.; Segalowitz, Sidney J.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the relations among resting frontal brain electrical activity (EEG) (hypothesized to reflect a predisposition to positive versus negative affect and ability to regulate emotions), emotional intelligence, and externalizing behaviors in a sample of non-clinical 10-year-old children. We found that boys…

  11. A study of relationship between emotional intelligence and innovative work behavior of managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Shojaei

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the relationship between emotional intelligence and its components, self-awareness, self-management, social-awareness and relationship-management, with managers’ innovative work behavior. The research statistical population includes 100 managers of private bank branches in the city of Tehran selected with the random sampling method. The research type is descriptive-correlation. The tool for data aggregation is comprised of two questionnaires of emotional intelligence by Bradberry and Greaves (2006 [Bradberry, T., & Greaves, J. (2006. The emotional intelligence quick book: Everything you need to know to put your EQ to work. Simon and Schuster.] and innovative work behavior based on the studies of Janssen (2000 [Janssen, O. (2000. Job demands, perceptions of effort‐reward fairness and innovative work behaviour. Journal of Occupational and organizational psychology, 73(3, 287-302.]. The Pearson correlation coefficient and multiple regression analysis have been used for data analysis. The results indicated that there was a positive and significant relationship between emotional intelligence and its components with innovative work behavior of managers. In addition, regression analysis showed that the self-management variable had the highest effect in estimating the managers’ innovative work behavior followed by relationship-management, self-awareness and social-awareness.

  12. Navigation Behaviors Based on Fuzzy ArtMap Neural Networks for Intelligent Autonomous Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amine Chohra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of hybrid intelligent systems (HISs is necessary to bring the behavior of intelligent autonomous vehicles (IAVs near the human one in recognition, learning, adaptation, generalization, decision making, and action. First, the necessity of HIS and some navigation approaches based on fuzzy ArtMap neural networks (FAMNNs are discussed. Indeed, such approaches can provide IAV with more autonomy, intelligence, and real-time processing capabilities. Second, an FAMNN-based navigation approach is suggested. Indeed, this approach must provide vehicles with capability, after supervised fast stable learning: simplified fuzzy ArtMap (SFAM, to recognize both target-location and obstacle-avoidance situations using FAMNN1 and FAMNN2, respectively. Afterwards, the decision making and action consist of two association stages, carried out by reinforcement trial and error learning, and their coordination using NN3. Then, NN3 allows to decide among the five (05 actions to move towards 30∘, 60∘, 90∘, 120∘, and 150∘. Third, simulation results display the ability of the FAMNN-based approach to provide IAV with intelligent behaviors allowing to intelligently navigate in partially structured environments. Finally, a discussion, dealing with the suggested approach and how its robustness would be if implemented on real vehicle, is given.

  13. All-source Information Management and Integration for Improved Collective Intelligence Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    increasing amounts of ISR data and information from various sources (SIGINT, IMINT, GEOINT, HUMINT, OSINT , etc.), produced in disparate multiple media...Electronic Intelligence (ELINT) • Open Source Intelligence ( OSINT ) • Technical Intelligence (TECHINT) These intelligence disciplines produce...Multi-sources: SIGINT, IMINT/GeoINT, HUMINT, OSINT , etc. – Various formats: sensor data, multimedia (text, images, audio, video) • Hard/soft

  14. Can Simple Transmission Chains Foster Collective Intelligence in Binary-Choice Tasks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussaïd, Mehdi; Seyed Yahosseini, Kyanoush

    2016-01-01

    In many social systems, groups of individuals can find remarkably efficient solutions to complex cognitive problems, sometimes even outperforming a single expert. The success of the group, however, crucially depends on how the judgments of the group members are aggregated to produce the collective answer. A large variety of such aggregation methods have been described in the literature, such as averaging the independent judgments, relying on the majority or setting up a group discussion. In the present work, we introduce a novel approach for aggregating judgments-the transmission chain-which has not yet been consistently evaluated in the context of collective intelligence. In a transmission chain, all group members have access to a unique collective solution and can improve it sequentially. Over repeated improvements, the collective solution that emerges reflects the judgments of every group members. We address the question of whether such a transmission chain can foster collective intelligence for binary-choice problems. In a series of numerical simulations, we explore the impact of various factors on the performance of the transmission chain, such as the group size, the model parameters, and the structure of the population. The performance of this method is compared to those of the majority rule and the confidence-weighted majority. Finally, we rely on two existing datasets of individuals performing a series of binary decisions to evaluate the expected performances of the three methods empirically. We find that the parameter space where the transmission chain has the best performance rarely appears in real datasets. We conclude that the transmission chain is best suited for other types of problems, such as those that have cumulative properties.

  15. Can Simple Transmission Chains Foster Collective Intelligence in Binary-Choice Tasks?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Moussaïd

    Full Text Available In many social systems, groups of individuals can find remarkably efficient solutions to complex cognitive problems, sometimes even outperforming a single expert. The success of the group, however, crucially depends on how the judgments of the group members are aggregated to produce the collective answer. A large variety of such aggregation methods have been described in the literature, such as averaging the independent judgments, relying on the majority or setting up a group discussion. In the present work, we introduce a novel approach for aggregating judgments-the transmission chain-which has not yet been consistently evaluated in the context of collective intelligence. In a transmission chain, all group members have access to a unique collective solution and can improve it sequentially. Over repeated improvements, the collective solution that emerges reflects the judgments of every group members. We address the question of whether such a transmission chain can foster collective intelligence for binary-choice problems. In a series of numerical simulations, we explore the impact of various factors on the performance of the transmission chain, such as the group size, the model parameters, and the structure of the population. The performance of this method is compared to those of the majority rule and the confidence-weighted majority. Finally, we rely on two existing datasets of individuals performing a series of binary decisions to evaluate the expected performances of the three methods empirically. We find that the parameter space where the transmission chain has the best performance rarely appears in real datasets. We conclude that the transmission chain is best suited for other types of problems, such as those that have cumulative properties.

  16. 2nd International Conference on Robot Intelligence Technology and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Matson, Eric; Myung, Hyun; Xu, Peter; Karray, Fakhri

    2014-01-01

    We are facing a new technological challenge on how to store and retrieve knowledge and manipulate intelligence for autonomous services by intelligent systems which should be capable of carrying out real world tasks autonomously. To address this issue, robot researchers have been developing intelligence technology (InT) for “robots that think” which is in the focus of this book. The book covers all aspects of intelligence from perception at sensor level and reasoning at cognitive level to behavior planning at execution level for each low level segment of the machine. It also presents the technologies for cognitive reasoning, social interaction with humans, behavior generation, ability to cooperate with other robots, ambience awareness, and an artificial genome that can be passed on to other robots. These technologies are to materialize cognitive intelligence, social intelligence, behavioral intelligence, collective intelligence, ambient intelligence and genetic intelligence. The book aims at serving resear...

  17. Collective intelligence for translational medicine: Crowdsourcing insights and innovation from an interdisciplinary biomedical research community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budge, Eleanor Jane; Tsoti, Sandra Maria; Howgate, Daniel James; Sivakumar, Shivan; Jalali, Morteza

    2015-01-01

    Translational medicine bridges the gap between discoveries in biomedical science and their safe and effective clinical application. Despite the gross opportunity afforded by modern research for unparalleled advances in this field, the process of translation remains protracted. Efforts to expedite science translation have included the facilitation of interdisciplinary collaboration within both academic and clinical environments in order to generate integrated working platforms fuelling the sharing of knowledge, expertise, and tools to align biomedical research with clinical need. However, barriers to scientific translation remain, and further progress is urgently required. Collective intelligence and crowdsourcing applications offer the potential for global online networks, allowing connection and collaboration between a wide variety of fields. This would drive the alignment of biomedical science with biotechnology, clinical need, and patient experience, in order to deliver evidence-based innovation which can revolutionize medical care worldwide. Here we discuss the critical steps towards implementing collective intelligence in translational medicine using the experience of those in other fields of science and public health.

  18. Cognitive-Operative Model of Intelligent Learning Systems Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laureano-Cruces, Ana Lilia; Ramirez-Rodriguez, Javier; Mora-Torres, Martha; de Arriaga, Fernando; Escarela-Perez, Rafael

    2010-01-01

    In this paper behavior during the teaching-learning process is modeled by means of a fuzzy cognitive map. The elements used to model such behavior are part of a generic didactic model, which emphasizes the use of cognitive and operative strategies as part of the student-tutor interaction. Examples of possible initial scenarios for the…

  19. 4th International Conference on Robot Intelligence Technology and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Karray, Fakhri; Jo, Jun; Sincak, Peter; Myung, Hyun

    2017-01-01

    This book covers all aspects of robot intelligence from perception at sensor level and reasoning at cognitive level to behavior planning at execution level for each low level segment of the machine. It also presents the technologies for cognitive reasoning, social interaction with humans, behavior generation, ability to cooperate with other robots, ambience awareness, and an artificial genome that can be passed on to other robots. These technologies are to materialize cognitive intelligence, social intelligence, behavioral intelligence, collective intelligence, ambient intelligence and genetic intelligence. The book aims at serving researchers and practitioners with a timely dissemination of the recent progress on robot intelligence technology and its applications, based on a collection of papers presented at the 4th International Conference on Robot Intelligence Technology and Applications (RiTA), held in Bucheon, Korea, December 14 - 16, 2015. For better readability, this edition has the total of 49 article...

  20. 3rd International Conference on Robot Intelligence Technology and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Weimin; Jo, Jun; Sincak, Peter; Myung, Hyun

    2015-01-01

    This book covers all aspects of robot intelligence from perception at sensor level and reasoning at cognitive level to behavior planning at execution level for each low level segment of the machine. It also presents the technologies for cognitive reasoning, social interaction with humans, behavior generation, ability to cooperate with other robots, ambience awareness, and an artificial genome that can be passed on to other robots. These technologies are to materialize cognitive intelligence, social intelligence, behavioral intelligence, collective intelligence, ambient intelligence and genetic intelligence. The book aims at serving researchers and practitioners with a timely dissemination of the recent progress on robot intelligence technology and its applications, based on a collection of papers presented at the 3rd International Conference on Robot Intelligence Technology and Applications (RiTA), held in Beijing, China, November 6 - 8, 2014. For better readability, this edition has the total 74 papers group...

  1. Collective intelligence of the artificial life community on its own successes, failures, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Steen; Raven, Michael J; Keating, Gordon N; Bedau, Mark A

    2003-01-01

    We describe a novel Internet-based method for building consensus and clarifying conflicts in large stakeholder groups facing complex issues, and we use the method to survey and map the scientific and organizational perspectives of the artificial life community during the Seventh International Conference on Artificial Life (summer 2000). The issues addressed in this survey included artificial life's main successes, main failures, main open scientific questions, and main strategies for the future, as well as the benefits and pitfalls of creating a professional society for artificial life. By illuminating the artificial life community's collective perspective on these issues, this survey illustrates the value of such methods of harnessing the collective intelligence of large stakeholder groups.

  2. Urban Architecture as Connective-Collective Intelligence. Which Spaces of Interaction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Simonetti

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available During the twentieth century, with the advent of industrial society and globalization, the language of planning changed according to the shifts in construction and use of physical space. By borrowing terms and spatial forms from biology and cybernetics, industrial society and globalization increased the original semantic connotations. Moving from cognitive sciences, this paper outlines the definition of architecture as connective-collective intelligence and presents its implication in urban design. Spontaneous and commercial initiatives are redefining the communication form of urban life, affecting the procedures of the transmission of traditional knowledge. This approach to building environment is moving towards a complex multichannel interaction, involving both the individual and the collective experiences of space and technology. In describing some signs of that process, the authors outline new features that are changing the concept of sustainability in urban design.

  3. Revealed preference tests for collective household behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cherchye, L.J.H.; de Rock, B.; Vermeulen, F.M.P.; Verriest, E.; Molina, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter contains a state of the art of revealed preference tests for consistency of observed household behavior with Pareto efficiency. These tests are entirely nonparametric, since they do not require any assumptions regarding the parametric form of individual preferences or the intrahousehold

  4. Determination of collective behavior of the financial market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shouwei; Xu, Tao; He, Jianmin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we adopt the network synchronization to measure the collective behavior in the financial market, and then analyze the factors that affect the collective behavior. Based on the data from the Chinese financial market, we find that the clustering coefficient, the average shortest path length and the volatility fluctuation have a positive effect on the collective behavior respectively, while the average return has a negative effect on it; the effect of the average shortest path length on the collective behavior is the greatest in the above four variables; the above results are robust against the window size and the time interval between adjacent windows of the stock network; the effect of network structures and stock market properties on the collective behavior during the financial crisis is the same as those during other periods.

  5. Examining the relationship among emotional intelligence, organizational communications and organizational citizenship behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarifeh Eynollahzadeh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the relationship between emotional intelligence, organizational communications and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB for a case study of Islamic Azad University, Gorgan Branch, and Sama Institution in Iran. Statistical population includes all heads and assistants and employees of Islamic Azad University and Sama Institution in city of Gorgan, Iran as 300 people. Sample size was determined as 169 people according to Korjesi and Morgan table. This research is operational by goal, and survey and correlation by method. To determine questionnaire reliability and questionnaire validity, Cronbach Alpha coefficient for emotional intelligence questionnaire, organizational communications questionnaire, and OCB questionnaire were calculated as 0.86, 0.86, 0.87 and 0.85, respectively. To analyze data and information, Pearson correlation coefficient by inferential level was used. Results indicate that there was a significant relationship between emotional intelligence and organizational communication and OCB.

  6. Individual and social correlates of aggressive behavior in Lebanese undergraduates: The role of trait emotional intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Ruiz, Maria-Jose; Baaklini, Amal

    2017-08-11

    This study investigates the relationship between Aggressive Behavior and individual factors, namely trait Emotional Intelligence, personality dimensions, emotion regulation and self-worth, as well as social factors, namely accepting/rejecting parenting styles and exposure to violence. The sample consisted of 252 university students in Lebanon (154 females), from 16 to 30 years old. Results from hierarchical regression analyses (controlling for age and gender and in the presence of social and individual predictors) showed that the Self-control and Emotionality factors of trait Emotional Intelligence were significant negative predictors of Aggressive Behavior while controlling for age and gender, and in the presence of social and individual predictors). Exposure to violence and openness to experience also predicted Aggressive Behavior. Implications for future research and limitations of the present study are discussed.

  7. More than intelligence: distinct cognitive/behavioral clusters linked to adaptive dysfunction in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papazoglou, Aimilia; Jacobson, Lisa A; Zabel, T Andrew

    2013-02-01

    Impairments in adaptive functioning are frequently associated with intellectual disability (ID); however, adaptive dysfunction can be seen in many individuals with a variety of neurological conditions without ID. The extent to which other variables may be associated with adaptive dysfunction is unclear. In a mixed clinical sample of children (n = 348) consecutively referred for neuropsychological evaluation, the majority were rated as showing weak adaptive skills (ABAS-II, >1 SD below the mean; 71%), with a substantial proportion evidencing frank impairment (>2 SD below the mean, 45%). We examined patterns of scores on measures of intelligence (WISC-IV) and behavioral/affective dysregulation (BRIEF and BASC-2). Using hierarchical cluster analysis, a four cluster model yielded the most appropriate fit and adaptive functioning was subsequently examined across clusters. As expected, adaptive functioning was most intact in the cluster characterized by average IQ and minimal behavioral dysregulation. Other clusters were marked by adaptive dysfunction and distinguished by sub-average intellectual functioning and varying behavioral/emotional dysregulation. In contrast to traditional views associating low IQ with adaptive dysfunction, adaptive impairment was comparable between the cluster characterized by low intelligence and the cluster with average intelligence but significant behavioral dysregulation. These data suggest that adaptive functioning should be considered across various cognitive/behavioral conditions.

  8. Collective Behavior of Amoebae in Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Albert

    2005-03-01

    We have discovered new aspects of social behavior in Dictyostelium discoideum by culturing high density colonies in liquid media depleted of nutrients in confined geometries by using three different preparations: I. thin (15-40um thick) and II. ultrathin (media with a mineral oil overlayer, and III. microfluidic chambers fabricated in PDMS (˜7um tall). We find greatly reduced, if not eliminated, cell on cell layering in the microfluidic system when compared to the wetting layer preparations. The ultrathin films reveal robust behavior of cells despite flattening that increased their areas by over an order of magnitude. We also observed that the earliest synchronized response of cells following the onset of starvation, a precursor to aggregation, was hastened by reducing the thickness of the aqueous culture layer. We were surprised to find that the threshold concentration for aggregation was raised by thin film confinement when compared to bulk behavior. Finally, both the ultra thin and microfluidic preparations reveal, with new clarity, vortex states of aggregation.

  9. Government-Driven Participation and Collective Intelligence: A Case of the Government 3.0 Initiative in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taewoo Nam

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Park Geun-hye Administration of Korea (2013–2017 aims to increase the level of transparency and citizen trust in government through the Government 3.0 initiative. This new initiative for public sector innovation encourages citizen-government collaboration and collective intelligence, thereby improving the quality of policy-making and implementation and solving public problems in a new way. However, the national initiative that identifies collective intelligence and citizen-government collaboration alike fails to understand what the wisdom of crowds genuinely means. Collective intelligence is not a magic bullet to solve public problems, which are called “wicked problems”. Collective deliberation over public issues often brings pain and patience, rather than fun and joy. It is not so easy that the public finds the best solution for soothing public problems through collective deliberation. The Government 3.0 initiative does not pay much attention to difficulties in gathering scattered wisdom, but rather highlights uncertain opportunities created by collective interactions and communications. This study deeply discusses the weaknesses in the logic of, and approach to, collective intelligence underlying the Government 3.0 initiative in Korea and the overall influence of the national initiative on participatory democracy.

  10. Collective Intelligence and Three Aspects of Planning in Organizations: A NASA Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billman, Dorrit; Feary, Michael

    2010-01-01

    For many complex sociotechnical systems, planning seems to require explicit coordination; certainly, in executing a plan the activities of different actors must be tightly coupled. However, distributing the needed planning information can be very burdensome and error prone, because different groups need different collections of information, updated or kept current on different time cycles. Further, the information needed to form successful plans is often highly distributed, and while feedback about the success of prior plans may exist, it may not be available to those in a position of using this to improve plans or to detect and resolve other problems in the system (Weick, 1995). Tools to support various aspects of planning have been developed, and can provide a huge benefit to the individuals working on that aspect. To be tractable, most solutions address a quite bounded slice of work, isolating it from the larger context. Prospective planning takes place over multiple, nested cycles of decision making. This builds a plan that specifies activities of different granularity. "Subplans" may specify multiple parallel activities by different groups and individuals, as well as sequential, nested actions by a single actor. Planning produces valuable, sharable, external, representations: in addition to prospective use, plans support retrospective assessment and also action in the present. Viewing planning in a larger context - both temporal and organizational -- enables noticing what one does not know and generating more systemic and effective solutions. Viewing a problem as one of collective intelligence invites thinking about the larger organizational context. Many approaches to supporting collective intelligence do not support execution of highly contingent actions, distributed across many players, and hence provide incomplete support for planning. However, CI technology maybe helpful in managing the processes of gathering information for decision making in planning

  11. From manager's emotional intelligence to objective store performance: Through store cohesiveness and sales-directed employee behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilderom, Celeste P.M.; Hur, YounHee; Wiersma, Uco J.; van den Berg, Peter T.; Lee, Jaehoon

    2015-01-01

    The relationships among manager's emotional intelligence, store cohesiveness, sales-directed employee behavior, and objective store performance were investigated. Non-managerial sales employees of a large retail electronics chain in South Korea (N = 1611) rated the emotional intelligence of their

  12. From manager’s emotional intelligence to objective store performance : Through store cohesiveness and sales-directed employee behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilderom, C.P.M.; Hur, Y.; Wiersma, U.J.; van den Berg, Petrus; Lee, J.

    2015-01-01

    The relationships among manager's emotional intelligence, store cohesiveness, sales-directed employee behavior, and objective store performance were investigated. Non-managerial sales employees of a large retail electronics chain in South Korea (N = 1611) rated the emotional intelligence of their

  13. The Evolution of the Algorithms for Collective Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Deborah M

    2016-12-21

    Collective behavior is the outcome of a network of local interactions. Here, I consider collective behavior as the result of algorithms that have evolved to operate in response to a particular environment and physiological context. I discuss how algorithms are shaped by the costs of operating under the constraints that the environment imposes, the extent to which the environment is stable, and the distribution, in space and time, of resources. I suggest that a focus on the dynamics of the environment may provide new hypotheses for elucidating the algorithms that produce the collective behavior of cellular systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Dimensions of emotional intelligence related to physical and mental health and to health behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Abascal, Enrique G; Martín-Díaz, María Dolores

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and health is examined. The current work investigated the dimensions of EI are sufficient to explain various components of physical and mental health, and various categories of health-related behaviors. A sample of 855 participants completed two measures of EI, the Trait Meta-Mood Scale and trait emotional intelligence questionnaire, a measure of health, the Health Survey SF-36 Questionnaire (SF-36); and a measure of health-related behaviors, the health behavior checklist. The results show that the EI dimensions analyzed are better predictors of mental health than of physical health. The EI dimensions that positively explain the Mental Health Component are Well-Being, Self-Control and Sociability, and negatively, Attention. Well-Being, Self-Control and Sociability positively explain the Physical Health Component. EI dimensions predict a lower percentage of health-related behaviors than they do health components. Emotionality and Repair predict the Preventive Health Behavior category, and only one dimension, Self-Control, predicts the Risk Taking Behavior category. Older people carry out more preventive behaviors for health.

  15. Dimensions of Emotional intelligence related to physical and mental health and to health behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique G. eFernández-Abascal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the relationship between Emotional Intelligence and health is examined. The current work investigated the dimensions of EI are sufficient to explain various components of physical and mental health, and various categories of health-related behaviors.A sample of 855 participants completed two measures of EI, the Trait Meta-Mood Scale (TMMS and Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue, a measure of health, the Health Survey SF-36 Questionnaire (SF-36; and a measure of health-related behaviors, the Health Behavior Checklist (HBC. The results show that the EI dimensions analyzed are better predictors of mental health than of physical health. The EI dimensions that positively explain the Mental Health Component are Well-Being, Self-Control and Sociability, and negatively, Attention. Well-Being, Self-Control and Sociability positively explain the Physical Health Component.EI dimensions predict a lower percentage of health-related behaviors than they do health components. Emotionality and Repair predict the Preventive Health Behavior category, and only one dimension, Self-Control, predicts the Risk Taking Behavior category. Older people carry out more preventive behaviors for health.

  16. THE BORDER BETWEEN BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE AND PSYCHOLOGY- SEGMENTATION BASED ON CUSTOMER BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Student Codrin POPA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In today’s economy, marketers have been facing two challenging trends: fierce competition between companies offering essentially similar products, and dealing with customers that are increasingly informed and demanding, but less and less loyal. Under these conditions, it has become imperative for managers and for marketing professionals to invest in business intelligence in order to find patterns in the consumers’ behavior that could predict their future buying decisions. In this report we have presented how Decision Support Systems, data analysis and customer segmentation can help companies to know their customers better in order to predict (and influence their future actions. At the same time, we have argued that Business Intelligence should meet psychology and neurology halfway, and accept that there is a very high emotional subconscious component that produces a high degree of unpredictability in consumers’ behavior.

  17. Online Behavior Analysis-Based Student Profile for Intelligent E-Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Kun; Zhang, Yiying; He, Yeshen; Zhou, Yilin; Tan, Wei; Li, Xiaoxia

    2017-01-01

    With the development of mobile platform, such as smart cellphone and pad, the E-Learning model has been rapidly developed. However, due to the low completion rate for E-Learning platform, it is very necessary to analyze the behavior characteristics of online learners to intelligently adjust online education strategy and enhance the quality of learning. In this paper, we analyzed the relation indicators of E-Learning to build the student profile and gave countermeasures. Adopting the similarit...

  18. Intelligence, Attention, and Behavioral Outcomes in Internationally Adopted Girls with a History of Institutionalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petranovich, Christine L; Walz, Nicolay Chertkoff; Staat, Mary Allen; Chiu, Chung-Yiu Peter; Wade, Shari L

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association of neurocognitive functioning with internalizing and externalizing problems and school and social competence in children adopted internationally. Participants included girls between the ages of 6-12 years who were internationally adopted from China (n = 32) or Eastern Europe (n = 25) and a control group of never-adopted girls (n = 25). Children completed the Vocabulary and Matrix Reasoning subtests from the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence and the Score! and Sky Search subtests from the Test of Everyday Attention for Children. Parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist and the Home and Community Social Behavior Scales. Compared to the controls, the Eastern European group evidenced significantly more problems with externalizing behaviors and school and social competence and poorer performance on measures of verbal intelligence, perceptual reasoning, and auditory attention. More internalizing problems were reported in the Chinese group compared to the controls. Using generalized linear regression, interaction terms were examined to determine whether the associations of neurocognitive functioning with behavior varied across groups. Eastern European group status was associated with more externalizing problems and poorer school and social competence, irrespective of neurocognitive test performance. In the Chinese group, poorer auditory attention was associated with more problems with social competence. Neurocognitive functioning may be related to behavior in children adopted internationally. Knowledge about neurocognitive functioning may further our understanding of the impact of early institutionalization on post-adoption behavior.

  19. Too Much of a Good Thing? Emotional Intelligence and Interpersonal Conflict Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Christin; Kwantes, Catherine T

    2015-01-01

    Research suggests that the outcomes of interpersonal conflict are determined not only by the conflict itself, but also by the way in which it is handled. Confrontational and domineering tactics have been found to magnify the adverse impact of conflict. Thus, investigations of determinants of aggressive conflict management behaviors are of considerable interest. This study extends the literature by examining the relationship between conflict management preferences and conflict management behaviors and by examining how emotional intelligence (EI) shapes this preference-behavior relationship. Individuals' conflict management preferences predicted actual conflict management behaviors. EI was found to moderate this relationship. However, some of these moderating effects run contrary to the popular view of EI as a prosocial concept. Specifically, some EI facets were found to strengthen the link between aggressive conflict management preferences and subsequent conflict management behaviors.

  20. Cognitions as determinants of (mal)adaptive emotions and emotionally intelligent behavior in an organizational context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spörrle, Matthias; Welpe, Isabell M; Försterling, Friedrich

    2006-01-01

    This study applies the theoretical concepts of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT; Ellis, 1962, 1994) to the analysis of functional and dysfunctional behaviour and emotions in the workplace and tests central assumptions of REBT in an organizational setting. We argue that Ellis' appraisal theory of emotion sheds light on some of the cognitive and emotional antecedents of emotional intelligence and emotionally intelligent behaviour. In an extension of REBT, we posit that adaptive emotions resulting from rational cognitions reflect more emotional intelligence than maladaptive emotions which result from irrational cognitions, because the former lead to functional behaviour. We hypothesize that semantically similar emotions (e.g. annoyance and rage) lead to different behavioural reactions and have a different functionality in an organizational context. The results of scenario experiments using organizational vignettes confirm the central assumptions of Ellis' appraisal theory and support our hypotheses of a correspondence between adaptive emotions and emotionally intelligent behaviour. Additionally, we find evidence that irrational job-related attitudes result in reduced work (but not life) satisfaction.

  1. Should Cops Be Spies? Evaluating the Collection and Sharing of National Security Intelligence by State, Local and Tribal Law Enforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    more in depth discussion. 7 were civilian or military, the threat to their domains, legislative mandates and frequently political considerations... political considerations will continue to affect the efficient collection and sharing of classified domestic national security intelligence...police forces to private enterprises” (p. 198). Both Crumpton and Fathali Moghaddam have postulated globalization as a meme that has created new

  2. Developing an Emotional Intelligence Program Training and Study Its Effectiveness on Emotional Intelligence of Adolescents with Emotional and Behavioral Problems That Living in Single Parent Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motamedi, Farzaneh; Ghobari-Bonab, Bagher; Beh-pajooh, Ahmad; Yekta, Mohsen Shokoohi; Afrooz, Gholam Ali

    2017-01-01

    Development of children and adolescents' personality is strongly affected by their parents, and absence of one of them has an undesirable effect on their development, and makes them vulnerable to later psychological disorders and behavioral problems. The purpose of this study was to develop an emotional intelligence training program and to…

  3. Intelligent behaviors for a convoy of indoor mobile robots operating in unknown environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrington, Nathan M.; Nguyen, Hoa G.; Pezeshkian, Narek

    2004-12-01

    Intelligent behaviors allow a convoy of small indoor robots to perform high-level mission tasking. These behaviors include various implementations of map building, localization, obstacle avoidance, object recognition, and navigation. Several behaviors have been developed by SSC San Diego, with integration of other behaviors developed by open-source projects and a technology transfer effort funded by DARPA. The test system, developed by SSC San Diego, consists of ROBART III (a prototype security robot), serving as the master platform, and a convoy of four ActivMedia Pioneer 2-DX robots. Each robot, including ROBART III, is equipped with a SICK LMS 200 laser rangefinder. Using integrated wireless network repeaters, the Pioneer 2-DX robots maintain an ad hoc communication link between the operator and ROBART III. The Pioneer 2-DX robots can also act as rear guards to detect intruders in areas that ROBART III has previously explored. These intelligent behaviors allow a single operator to command the entire convoy of robots during a mission in an unknown environment.

  4. Combining human and machine intelligence to derive agents' behavioral rules for groundwater irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yao; Quinn, Christopher J.; Cai, Ximing; Garfinkle, Noah W.

    2017-11-01

    For agent-based modeling, the major challenges in deriving agents' behavioral rules arise from agents' bounded rationality and data scarcity. This study proposes a "gray box" approach to address the challenge by incorporating expert domain knowledge (i.e., human intelligence) with machine learning techniques (i.e., machine intelligence). Specifically, we propose using directed information graph (DIG), boosted regression trees (BRT), and domain knowledge to infer causal factors and identify behavioral rules from data. A case study is conducted to investigate farmers' pumping behavior in the Midwest, U.S.A. Results show that four factors identified by the DIG algorithm- corn price, underlying groundwater level, monthly mean temperature and precipitation- have main causal influences on agents' decisions on monthly groundwater irrigation depth. The agent-based model is then developed based on the behavioral rules represented by three DIGs and modeled by BRTs, and coupled with a physically-based groundwater model to investigate the impacts of agents' pumping behavior on the underlying groundwater system in the context of coupled human and environmental systems.

  5. Collective Intelligence: Aggregation of Information from Neighbors in a Guessing Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Toni; Zamora, Jordi; Eguíluz, Víctor M

    2016-01-01

    Complex systems show the capacity to aggregate information and to display coordinated activity. In the case of social systems the interaction of different individuals leads to the emergence of norms, trends in political positions, opinions, cultural traits, and even scientific progress. Examples of collective behavior can be observed in activities like the Wikipedia and Linux, where individuals aggregate their knowledge for the benefit of the community, and citizen science, where the potential of collectives to solve complex problems is exploited. Here, we conducted an online experiment to investigate the performance of a collective when solving a guessing problem in which each actor is endowed with partial information and placed as the nodes of an interaction network. We measure the performance of the collective in terms of the temporal evolution of the accuracy, finding no statistical difference in the performance for two classes of networks, regular lattices and random networks. We also determine that a Bayesian description captures the behavior pattern the individuals follow in aggregating information from neighbors to make decisions. In comparison with other simple decision models, the strategy followed by the players reveals a suboptimal performance of the collective. Our contribution provides the basis for the micro-macro connection between individual based descriptions and collective phenomena.

  6. Collective Intelligence: Aggregation of Information from Neighbors in a Guessing Game.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni Pérez

    Full Text Available Complex systems show the capacity to aggregate information and to display coordinated activity. In the case of social systems the interaction of different individuals leads to the emergence of norms, trends in political positions, opinions, cultural traits, and even scientific progress. Examples of collective behavior can be observed in activities like the Wikipedia and Linux, where individuals aggregate their knowledge for the benefit of the community, and citizen science, where the potential of collectives to solve complex problems is exploited. Here, we conducted an online experiment to investigate the performance of a collective when solving a guessing problem in which each actor is endowed with partial information and placed as the nodes of an interaction network. We measure the performance of the collective in terms of the temporal evolution of the accuracy, finding no statistical difference in the performance for two classes of networks, regular lattices and random networks. We also determine that a Bayesian description captures the behavior pattern the individuals follow in aggregating information from neighbors to make decisions. In comparison with other simple decision models, the strategy followed by the players reveals a suboptimal performance of the collective. Our contribution provides the basis for the micro-macro connection between individual based descriptions and collective phenomena.

  7. Snap Forensics: A Tradeoff between Ephemeral Intelligence and Persistent Evidence Collection

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Yijun; Tun, Thein

    2017-01-01

    Digital evidence needs to be made persistent so that it can be used later. For citizen forensics, sometimes intelligence cannot or should not be made persistent forever. In this position paper, we propose a form of snap forensics by defining an elastic duration of evidence/intelligence validity. Explicitly declaring such a duration could unify the treatment of both ephemeral intelligence and persistent evidence towards more flexible storage to satisfy privacy requirements.

  8. The Role of Objective Numeracy and Fluid Intelligence in Sex-Related Protective Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieckmann, Nathan F; Peters, Ellen; Leon, Juan; Benavides, Martin; Baker, David P; Norris, Alison

    2015-01-01

    A wealth of studies has indicated that greater cognitive ability is related to healthier behaviors and outcomes throughout the lifespan. In the present paper, we focus on objective numeracy (ability with numbers) and present findings from a study conducted in the Peruvian Highlands that examines the relations among formal education, numeracy, other more general cognitive skills, and a sex-related protective behavior (condom use). Our results show a potential unique protective effect of numeracy on this healthprotective behavior even after accounting for measures of fluid intelligence and potential confounding factors. These results add to a growing literature highlighting the robust protective effect on health behaviors of greater cognitive skills that are enhanced through schooling. Challenges for future research will be identifying the causal mechanisms that underlie these effects and translating this knowledge into effective interventions for improving health.

  9. Cooperative Intelligence in Roundabout Intersections Using Hierarchical Fuzzy Behavior Calculation of Vehicle Speed Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosankić Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new fuzzy-behavior-based algorithm for roundabout intersection management is presented. The algorithm employs cooperative intelligence and includes intelligent vehicles and infrastructure to calculate speed profiles for different vehicles, in order to achieve more comfortable driving profiles, as well to reduce congestion and CO2 emissions. The algorithm uses adaptive spatio-temporal reservation technique and was tested in MATLAB/Simulink environment. The algorithm is designed to function in different scenarios with both cooperative and non-cooperative vehicles, as well as optional intersection infrastructure. Results have show that using the proposed algorithm different vehicle communication types can be successfully combined in order to increase traffic flow through roundabout intersections.

  10. Collective intelligence: aggregation of information from neighbors in a guessing game

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez, Toni; Eguíluz, Víctor M

    2016-01-01

    Complex systems show the capacity to aggregate information and to display coordinated activity. In the case of social systems the interaction of different individuals leads to the emergence of norms, trends in political positions, opinions, cultural traits, and even scientific progress. Examples of collective behavior can be observed in activities like the Wikipedia and Linux, where individuals aggregate their knowledge for the benefit of the community, and citizen science, where the potential of collectives to solve complex problems is exploited. Here, we conducted an online experiment to investigate the performance of a collective when solving a guessing problem in which each actor is endowed with partial information and placed as the nodes of an interaction network. We measure the performance of the collective in terms of the temporal evolution of the accuracy, finding no statistical difference in the performance for two classes of networks, regular lattices and random networks. We also determine that a Ba...

  11. The structure of group task performance-A second look at "collective intelligence": Comment on Woolley et al. (2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Credé, Marcus; Howardson, Garett

    2017-10-01

    Collective intelligence has been described as a general factor that "explains a group's performance on a wide variety of tasks" (Woolley, Chabris, Pentland, Hashmi, & Malone, 2010, p. 686), much like the general intelligence factor explains individuals' performance on cognitive ability tasks. This construct has received widespread attention in both the media and academic community. In this article we reexamine the data from 6 previously published samples that have been used to examine the existence of the collective intelligence construct and show that the empirical support for the construct is generally weak. Specifically, we show that the general factor explains only little variance in the performance on many group tasks. We also highlight how 2 statistical artifacts-the apparent presence of low effort responding and the nested nature of the data-may also have inflated the little covariation that exists between group performance on different tasks. These findings suggest that there is insufficient support for the existence of a collective intelligence construct. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Online Behavior Analysis-Based Student Profile for Intelligent E-Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Liang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of mobile platform, such as smart cellphone and pad, the E-Learning model has been rapidly developed. However, due to the low completion rate for E-Learning platform, it is very necessary to analyze the behavior characteristics of online learners to intelligently adjust online education strategy and enhance the quality of learning. In this paper, we analyzed the relation indicators of E-Learning to build the student profile and gave countermeasures. Adopting the similarity computation and Jaccard coefficient algorithm, we designed a system model to clean and dig into the educational data and also the students’ learning attitude and the duration of learning behavior to establish student profile. According to the E-Learning resources and learner behaviors, we also present the intelligent guide model to guide both E-Learning platform and learners to improve learning things. The study on student profile can help the E-Learning platform to meet and guide the students’ learning behavior deeply and also to provide personalized learning situation and promote the optimization of the E-Learning.

  13. Behavioral problems and intelligence quotient changes in pediatric epilepsy: A case–control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyama Choudhary

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epilepsy is the most common chronic neurological disease and has neurological impairment as an important comorbidity. Objective: To find behavioral problems and intelligence quotient (IQ changes associated with epilepsy and to know the association of variables such as frequency, type of seizures, and duration of disease with cognitive impairment. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study, consisting of 50 cases (patients of epilepsy and 50 controls (other patients of same socioeconomic status was conducted at S.P. Medical College, Bikaner. The patients were subjected to detailed clinical history, thorough examination, Pediatric Symptom Checklist, and Bhatia's Battery of Performance intelligence Test. Data analysis was carried out with the help of SPSS 22 software. Results: The prevalence of behavioral problems in generalized and partial seizure group was high (42% and 53.8% as compared to control group (9%. Low IQ was present more in the patients (44% of generalized and partial seizure group as compared with the control group, and results were statistically significant. Furthermore, behavioral problems were more in patients who were having more number of seizures (≥3 per year with significant P values (χ2 = 5.067, P = 0.024. Conclusion: We conclusively found that behavioral problems and cognitive factors, apart from control of seizures, must be kept in mind to determine how well a child with epilepsy progresses toward independence.

  14. Collective animal behavior from Bayesian estimation and probability matching.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Pérez-Escudero

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Animals living in groups make movement decisions that depend, among other factors, on social interactions with other group members. Our present understanding of social rules in animal collectives is mainly based on empirical fits to observations, with less emphasis in obtaining first-principles approaches that allow their derivation. Here we show that patterns of collective decisions can be derived from the basic ability of animals to make probabilistic estimations in the presence of uncertainty. We build a decision-making model with two stages: Bayesian estimation and probabilistic matching. In the first stage, each animal makes a Bayesian estimation of which behavior is best to perform taking into account personal information about the environment and social information collected by observing the behaviors of other animals. In the probability matching stage, each animal chooses a behavior with a probability equal to the Bayesian-estimated probability that this behavior is the most appropriate one. This model derives very simple rules of interaction in animal collectives that depend only on two types of reliability parameters, one that each animal assigns to the other animals and another given by the quality of the non-social information. We test our model by obtaining theoretically a rich set of observed collective patterns of decisions in three-spined sticklebacks, Gasterosteus aculeatus, a shoaling fish species. The quantitative link shown between probabilistic estimation and collective rules of behavior allows a better contact with other fields such as foraging, mate selection, neurobiology and psychology, and gives predictions for experiments directly testing the relationship between estimation and collective behavior.

  15. Collective animal behavior from Bayesian estimation and probability matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Escudero, Alfonso; de Polavieja, Gonzalo G

    2011-11-01

    Animals living in groups make movement decisions that depend, among other factors, on social interactions with other group members. Our present understanding of social rules in animal collectives is mainly based on empirical fits to observations, with less emphasis in obtaining first-principles approaches that allow their derivation. Here we show that patterns of collective decisions can be derived from the basic ability of animals to make probabilistic estimations in the presence of uncertainty. We build a decision-making model with two stages: Bayesian estimation and probabilistic matching. In the first stage, each animal makes a Bayesian estimation of which behavior is best to perform taking into account personal information about the environment and social information collected by observing the behaviors of other animals. In the probability matching stage, each animal chooses a behavior with a probability equal to the Bayesian-estimated probability that this behavior is the most appropriate one. This model derives very simple rules of interaction in animal collectives that depend only on two types of reliability parameters, one that each animal assigns to the other animals and another given by the quality of the non-social information. We test our model by obtaining theoretically a rich set of observed collective patterns of decisions in three-spined sticklebacks, Gasterosteus aculeatus, a shoaling fish species. The quantitative link shown between probabilistic estimation and collective rules of behavior allows a better contact with other fields such as foraging, mate selection, neurobiology and psychology, and gives predictions for experiments directly testing the relationship between estimation and collective behavior.

  16. Impact of emotional intelligence and spiritual intelligence on the caring behavior of nurses: a dimension-level exploratory study among public hospitals in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Devinder; Sambasivan, Murali; Kumar, Naresh

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this research is to study the impact of individual factors such as emotional intelligence (EI) and spiritual intelligence (SI) on the caring behavior of nurses. A cross-sectional survey using questionnaire was conducted by sampling 550 nurses working in seven major public hospitals in Malaysia. Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM). The main findings are: (1) critical existential thinking and transcendental awareness dimensions of SI have significant impacts on assurance of human presence dimension of caring behavior; (2) personal meaning production and conscious state expansion dimensions of SI have significant impacts on perception of emotion and managing own emotions dimensions of EI; and (3) managing own emotions dimension of EI has significant impacts on respectful deference to other and assurance of human presence dimensions of caring behavior of nurses. The results can be used to recruit and educate nurses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. An Algorithm for Global Optimization Inspired by Collective Animal Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Cuevas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A metaheuristic algorithm for global optimization called the collective animal behavior (CAB is introduced. Animal groups, such as schools of fish, flocks of birds, swarms of locusts, and herds of wildebeest, exhibit a variety of behaviors including swarming about a food source, milling around a central locations, or migrating over large distances in aligned groups. These collective behaviors are often advantageous to groups, allowing them to increase their harvesting efficiency, to follow better migration routes, to improve their aerodynamic, and to avoid predation. In the proposed algorithm, the searcher agents emulate a group of animals which interact with each other based on the biological laws of collective motion. The proposed method has been compared to other well-known optimization algorithms. The results show good performance of the proposed method when searching for a global optimum of several benchmark functions.

  18. Supporting Multi-agent Coordination and Computational Collective Intelligence in Enterprise 2.0 Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seddik Reguieg

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a novel approach utilizing a professional Social network (Pro Social Network and a new coordination protocol (CordiNet. Our motivation behind this article is to convince Small and Medium Enterprises managers that current organizations have chosen to use Enterprise 2.0 tools because these latter have demonstrated remarkable innovation as well as successful collaboration and collective intelligence. The particularity of our work is that is allows employer to share diagnosis and fault repair procedures on the basis of some modeling agents. In fact, each enterprise is represented by a container of agents to ensure a secured and confidential information exchange between intra employers, and a central main container to connect all enterprises’ containers for a social information exchange. Enterprise’s container consists of a Checker Enterprise Agent (ChEA, a Coordinator Enterprise Agent (CoEA and a Search Enterprise Agent (SeEA. Whereas the central main container comprises its proper agents such as Selection Agent (SA, and a Supervisor Agent (SuA. JADE platform is used to allow agents to communicate and collaborate. The FIPA-ACL performatives have been extended for this purpose. We conduct some experiments to demonstrate the feasibility of our approach.

  19. An intelligent data collection tool for chemical safety/risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdonck, Frederik A M; Van Sprang, Patrick A; Vanrolleghem, Peter A

    2008-02-01

    REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals) is the new European chemical legislation which aims to assess risk or safety of tens of thousands of chemicals to improve the protection of human health and the environment. The chemical safety assessment process is of an iterative nature. First, an initial, worst-case assessment is conducted after which refinements are made until no risk has been estimated or the risk is adequately controlled. Wasting time and resources on additional testing and implementing risk management measures with low effect on risk conclusions should be avoided as much as possible. This paper demonstrates the usefulness of an intelligent data collection strategy based on a sensitivity (and uncertainty) analysis on the risk assessment model EUSES to identify and order the most important "within-EU-TGD-reducible" input parameters influencing the local and regional risk characterisation ratios. The ordering can be adjusted for the costs involved in additional testing (e.g. ecotoxicity, physico-chemical properties, emission estimates, etc.). The risk refinement tool therefore reduces the resources needed to obtain a realistic risk estimate (both less conservative and less uncertain) as efficient as possible.

  20. Path branching in simulation of an intelligent object behavior in a virtual reality system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mironov, Sergey F.

    2001-02-01

    Virtual reality systems gained a wide expansion nowadays. They appear as three-dimensional trainers and simulators, video games, various visualization systems, virtual www-spaces and so on. The area of applications for such systems is rapidly expanding that is supported first of all by a quick development of appropriate hardware and software tools. The main problem in the virtual reality systems is allowing a user to be effectively present in the space, navigate through it, and also to interact with the space, objects and characters (intelligent agents) embedded in the created synthetic space. One of the tasks raising on building the virtual reality system is creation of behavioral animation (or simply behavior) of intellectual agents. The behavior represents actions that are usually described with terms of natural speech, having social, psychological or physiological meanings that are not necessarily trivial in reducing to actual animation, i.e. to movement of effectors, skeleton etc.

  1. Intelligent behaviors through vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Richard D.; Sturgeon, Purser; Brown, Mike

    2012-06-01

    The last decade has seen a significant increase in intelligent safety devices on private automobiles. These devices have both increased and augmented the situational awareness of the driver and in some cases provided automated vehicle responses. To date almost all intelligent safety devices have relied on data directly perceived by the vehicle. This constraint has a direct impact on the types of solutions available to the vehicle. In an effort to improve the safety options available to a vehicle, numerous research laboratories and government agencies are investing time and resources into connecting vehicles to each other and to infrastructure-based devices. This work details several efforts in both the commercial vehicle and the private auto industries to increase vehicle safety and driver situational awareness through vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure communication. It will specifically discuss intelligent behaviors being designed to automatically disable non-compliant vehicles, warn tractor trailer vehicles of unsafe lane maneuvers such as lane changes, passing, and merging, and alert drivers to non-line-of-sight emergencies.

  2. Emotional intelligence and features of social and psychological adaptation in adolescents with deviant behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Degtyarev A.V.,

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The problem of social-psychological adaptation of adolescents with deviant behavioral today is of particular relevance in relation to the current process of restructuring of educational institutions - the merging of general and specialized schools for adolescents with behavioral problems in a unified educational complexes. In these circumstances it is necessary to find an efficient tool that will simultaneously accelerate the process of adaptation and have a positive preventive effect. In this article, the author shows that such a tool can become the emotional intelligence as a construct that includes various abilities of the emotional sphere. The main hypothesis of the study was that the socio-psychological adaptation of adolescents with deviant behavior has its own characteristics, different from the norm group, and is interconnected with the components of emotional intelligence. The study was conducted on the basis of general education school № 2077 formed by the merger of five educational institutions: the former school № 738, № 703, № 702, № 7 and № 77. The study involved 222 teenagers from 14 to 16 years (111 girls and 111 boys.

  3. Trait psychopathy, emotional intelligence, and criminal thinking: Predicting illegal behavior among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fix, Rebecca L; Fix, Spencer T

    2015-01-01

    Research focusing on individuals high on trait psychopathy remains limited. Higher trait psychopathy is associated with lower levels of emotional intelligence and increased participation in illegal behavior. Additionally, research has confirmed significantly higher levels of criminal thinking and lower levels of empathy in the incarcerated psychopathic population. However, the relationships between trait psychopathy and criminal thinking have not been researched in the community or college population. To test for such differences, questionnaires containing relevant measures were administered to 111 college students. Results indicated that higher levels of trait psychopathy were significantly related to less caring for others, intrapersonal understanding, and general mood, and greater interpersonal functioning and stress management. Furthermore, trait psychopathy was a strong predictor of violent, property, drug, and status offenses. Power-oriented criminal thinking was also predictive of violent behaviors, and entitlement predicted property offending. Results suggest emotional intelligence is important for predicting psychopathy, and trait psychopathy is a strong predictor of all types of illegal behaviors among the non-incarcerated population. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Parenting style, emotional intelligence, and psycho-behavioral outcomes of Thai adolescents in HIV-affected families

    OpenAIRE

    Thammawijaya, Panithee

    2012-01-01

    Background: The adolescents children of HIV-infected parents tend to have several psycho-behavioral challenges including functioning at schools and in their families. Objective of this study is to examine 1) the role of parenting style, parent's quality of life, and family functioning in self-esteem and emotional intelligence of HIV-affected adolescents in Thailand, 2) associations of perceived social support, emotional intelligence and self-esteem of HIV-affected adolescents with their stres...

  5. The impact of maternal emotional intelligence and parenting style on child anxiety and behavior in the dental setting

    OpenAIRE

    Aminabadi, Naser-Asl; Pourkazemi, Maryam; Babapour, Jalil; Oskouei, Sina-Ghertasi

    2012-01-01

    Objective. The present study investigated the correlations between maternal emotional intelligence (EQ), parenting style, child trait anxiety and child behavior in the dental setting. Study design. One-hundred seventeen children, aged 4-6 years old (mean 5.24 years), and their mothers participated in the study. The BarOn Emotional Quotient Inventory and Bumrind�s parenting style questionnaire were used to quantify maternal emotional intelligence and parenting style. Children�s anxiety and beh...

  6. The impact of maternal emotional intelligence and parenting style on child anxiety and behavior in the dental setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminabadi, Naser-Asl; Pourkazemi, Maryam; Babapour, Jalil; Oskouei, Sina-Ghertasi

    2012-11-01

    The present study investigated the correlations between maternal emotional intelligence (EQ), parenting style, child trait anxiety and child behavior in the dental setting. One-hundred seventeen children, aged 4-6 years old (mean 5.24 years), and their mothers participated in the study. The BarOn Emotional Quotient Inventory and Bumrind's parenting style questionnaire were used to quantify maternal emotional intelligence and parenting style. Children's anxiety and behavior was evaluated using the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS) and Frankl behavior scale. Significant correlation was found between maternal EQ and child behavior (r=0.330; pparenting style and child behavior. There was no significant correlation between mother's total EQ and child's total anxiety; however, some subscales of EQ and anxiety showed significant correlations. There were significant correlations between authoritarian parenting style and separation anxiety (r=0.186; pparenting style and mother's EQ (r=0.286; pchild anxiety and behavior (r = -0.81). Regression analysis revealed maternal EQ is effective in predicting child behavior (β=0.340; pchild's behavior in the dental setting is correlated to mother's emotional intelligence. Emotionally intelligent mothers were found to have predominantly authoritative parenting style.

  7. Collecting Behavioral Data in General Education Settings: A Primer for Behavioral Data Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, David L.; Vostal, Brooks; Lylo, Brooke; Hua, Youjia

    2011-01-01

    Recent trends toward the inclusion of students with disabilities mean that a majority of students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) now spend at least 40% of their day in general education settings. With this change in location, teachers in general education settings are now asked to perform tasks that were not given much emphasis…

  8. Collective Motion in Bacterial Populations with Mixed Phenotypic Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeger, Kentaro; Strickland, Ben; Shoup, Daniel; Ursell, Tristan

    The motion of large, densely packed groups of organisms is often qualitatively distinct from the motion of individuals, yet hinges on individual properties and behaviors. Collective motion of bacteria depends strongly on the phenotypic behaviors of individual cells, the physical interactions between cells, and the geometry of their environment, often with multiple phenotypes coexisting in a population. Thus, to characterize how these selectively important interactions affect group traits, such as cell dispersal, spatial segregation of phenotypes, and material transport in groups, we use a library of Bacillus subtilis mutants that modulate chemotaxis, motility, and biofilm formation. By mixing phenotypes and observing bacterial behaviors and motion at single cell resolution, we probe collective motion as a function of phenotypic mixture and environmental geometry. Our work demonstrates that collective microbial motion exhibits a transition, from `turbulence' to semiballistic burrowing, as phenotypic composition varies. This work illuminates the role that individual cell behaviors play in the emergence of collective motion, and may signal qualitatively distinct regimes of material transport in bacterial populations. University of Oregon.

  9. Turnaround Migration as an Episode of Collective Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Rex R.; Garkovich, Lorraine

    1984-01-01

    Presents a collective behavior model for examining the population turnaround (urban to rural migration) of the 1960s/1970s as a specific form of mass movement. Specifies the value-added process that produced this particular episode at this particular point in social history. Explores factors influencing decline in turnaround migration. (Author/MH)

  10. Biogenic amines and collective organization in a superorganism: neuromodulation of social behavior in ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamhi, J Frances; Traniello, James F A

    2013-01-01

    The ecological dominance of ants has to a great extent been achieved through their collective action and complex social organization. Ants provide diverse model systems to examine the neural underpinnings of individual behavior and group action that contribute to their evolutionary success. Core elements of ant colony structure such as reproductive and ergonomic division of labor, task specialization, and social integration are beginning to be understood in terms of cellular neuroanatomy and neurochemistry. In this review we discuss the neuroethology of colony organization by focusing on the role of biogenic amines in the control of social behavior in ants. We examine the role of neuromodulation in significant sociobiological characteristics of ants, including reproductive hierarchies, colony foundation, social food flow, nestmate recognition, territoriality, and size- and age-related sensory perception and task performance as well as the involvement of monoamines in collective intelligence, the ultimate key to the global dominance of these remarkable superorganisms. We conclude by suggesting future directions for the analysis of the aminergic regulation of behavior and social complexity in ants. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Towards a global participatory platform. Democratising open data, complexity science and collective intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham Shum, S.; Aberer, K.; Schmidt, A.; Bishop, S.; Lukowicz, P.; Anderson, S.; Charalabidis, Y.; Domingue, J.; de Freitas, S.; Dunwell, I.; Edmonds, B.; Grey, F.; Haklay, M.; Jelasity, M.; Karpištšenko, A.; Kohlhammer, J.; Lewis, J.; Pitt, J.; Sumner, R.; Helbing, D.

    2012-11-01

    The FuturICT project seeks to use the power of big data, analytic models grounded in complexity science, and the collective intelligence they yield for societal benefit. Accordingly, this paper argues that these new tools should not remain the preserve of restricted government, scientific or corporate élites, but be opened up for societal engagement and critique. To democratise such assets as a public good, requires a sustainable ecosystem enabling different kinds of stakeholder in society, including but not limited to, citizens and advocacy groups, school and university students, policy analysts, scientists, software developers, journalists and politicians. Our working name for envisioning a sociotechnical infrastructure capable of engaging such a wide constituency is the Global Participatory Platform (GPP). We consider what it means to develop a GPP at the different levels of data, models and deliberation, motivating a framework for different stakeholders to find their ecological niches at different levels within the system, serving the functions of (i) sensing the environment in order to pool data, (ii) mining the resulting data for patterns in order to model the past/present/future, and (iii) sharing and contesting possible interpretations of what those models might mean, and in a policy context, possible decisions. A research objective is also to apply the concepts and tools of complexity science and social science to the project's own work. We therefore conceive the global participatory platform as a resilient, epistemic ecosystem, whose design will make it capable of self-organization and adaptation to a dynamic environment, and whose structure and contributions are themselves networks of stakeholders, challenges, issues, ideas and arguments whose structure and dynamics can be modelled and analysed.

  12. A collection of pseudo-words to study multi-talker speech intelligibility without shifts of spatial attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kachina eAllen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A new collection of pseudo-words was recorded from a single female speaker of American English for use in multi-talker speech intelligibility research. The pseudo-words (known as the PARG collection consist of three groups of single syllable pseudo-words varying only by the initial phoneme. The PARG method allows speech intelligibility to be studied free of the influence of shifts of spatial attention from one loudspeaker location to another in multi-talker contexts. To achieve this, all PARG pseudo-words share the same concluding rimes, with only the first phoneme serving as a distinguishing identifier. This ensures that listeners are unable to correctly identify the target pseudo-word without hearing the initial phoneme. As the duration of all the initial phonemes are brief, much shorter than the time required to spatially shift attention, the PARG method assesses speech intelligibility without the confound of shifting spatial attention. The PARG collection is available free for research purposes.

  13. Emotional intelligence, emotions, and feelings of support staff working with clients with intellectual disabilities and challenging behavior: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zijlmans, Linda J M; Embregts, Petri J C M; Bosman, Anna M T

    2013-11-01

    Working with clients who show challenging behavior can be emotionally demanding and stressful for support staff, because this behavior may cause a range of negative emotional reactions and feelings. These reactions are of negative influence on staff wellbeing and behavior. Research has focused on negative emotions of staff. However, a distinction between emotions and feelings has never been made in the research field of intellectual disabilities. Negative emotions and feelings may be regulated by emotional intelligence, a psychological construct that takes into account personal style and individual differences. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between emotional intelligence on the one hand and emotions and feelings on the other. Participants were 207 support staff serving clients with moderate to borderline intellectual disabilities and challenging behavior. Emotional intelligence, emotions, and feelings were measured with questionnaires. The results show that emotional intelligence, emotions, and feelings are related. However, found relationships were weak. Most significant relations were found between feelings and stress management and adaptation elements of emotional intelligence. Because the explored variables can change over time they call for a longitudinal research approach. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Collective Behavior of Market Participants during Abrupt Stock Price Changes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Ichi Maskawa

    Full Text Available Under uncertainty, human and animal collectives often respond stochastically to events they encounter. Human or animal individuals behave depending on others' actions, and sometimes follow choices that are sub-optimal for individuals. Such mimetic behaviors are enhanced during emergencies, creating collective behavior of a group. A stock market that is about to crash, as markets did immediately after the Lehman Brothers bankruptcy, provides illustrative examples of such behaviors. We provide empirical evidence proving the existence of collective behavior among stock market participants in emergent situations. We investigated the resolution of extreme supply-and-demand order imbalances by increased balancing counter orders: buy and sell orders for excess supply and demand respectively, during times of price adjustment, so-called special quotes on the Tokyo Stock Exchange. Counter orders increase positively depending on the quantity of revealed counter orders: the accumulated orders in the book until then. Statistics of the coming counter order are well described using a logistic regression model with the ratio of revealed orders until then to the finally revealed orders as the explanatory variable. Results given here show that the market participants make Bayesian estimations of optimal choices to ascertain whether to order using information about orders of other participants.

  15. Engineering Sensorial Delay to Control Phototaxis and Emergent Collective Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mite Mijalkov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Collective motions emerging from the interaction of autonomous mobile individuals play a key role in many phenomena, from the growth of bacterial colonies to the coordination of robotic swarms. For these collective behaviors to take hold, the individuals must be able to emit, sense, and react to signals. When dealing with simple organisms and robots, these signals are necessarily very elementary; e.g., a cell might signal its presence by releasing chemicals and a robot by shining light. An additional challenge arises because the motion of the individuals is often noisy; e.g., the orientation of cells can be altered by Brownian motion and that of robots by an uneven terrain. Therefore, the emphasis is on achieving complex and tunable behaviors from simple autonomous agents communicating with each other in robust ways. Here, we show that the delay between sensing and reacting to a signal can determine the individual and collective long-term behavior of autonomous agents whose motion is intrinsically noisy. We experimentally demonstrate that the collective behavior of a group of phototactic robots capable of emitting a radially decaying light field can be tuned from segregation to aggregation and clustering by controlling the delay with which they change their propulsion speed in response to the light intensity they measure. We track this transition to the underlying dynamics of this system, in particular, to the ratio between the robots’ sensorial delay time and the characteristic time of the robots’ random reorientation. Supported by numerics, we discuss how the same mechanism can be applied to control active agents, e.g., airborne drones, moving in a three-dimensional space. Given the simplicity of this mechanism, the engineering of sensorial delay provides a potentially powerful tool to engineer and dynamically tune the behavior of large ensembles of autonomous mobile agents; furthermore, this mechanism might already be at work within

  16. Intelligence, Social Class of Origin, Childhood Behavior Disturbance and Education as Predictors of Status Attainment in Midlife in Men: The Aberdeen Children of the 1950s Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Stumm, Sophie; Macintyre, Sally; Batty, David G.; Clark, Heather; Deary, Ian J.

    2010-01-01

    In a birth cohort of 6281 men from Aberdeen, Scotland, social class of origin, childhood intelligence, childhood behavior disturbance and education were examined as predictors of status attainment in midlife (46 to 51 years). Social class of origin, intelligence and behavior disturbance were conceptualized as correlated predictors, whose effects…

  17. Emergent collective decision-making: Control, model and behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Tian

    In this dissertation we study emergent collective decision-making in social groups with time-varying interactions and heterogeneously informed individuals. First we analyze a nonlinear dynamical systems model motivated by animal collective motion with heterogeneously informed subpopulations, to examine the role of uninformed individuals. We find through formal analysis that adding uninformed individuals in a group increases the likelihood of a collective decision. Secondly, we propose a model for human shared decision-making with continuous-time feedback and where individuals have little information about the true preferences of other group members. We study model equilibria using bifurcation analysis to understand how the model predicts decisions based on the critical threshold parameters that represent an individual's tradeoff between social and environmental influences. Thirdly, we analyze continuous-time data of pairs of human subjects performing an experimental shared tracking task using our second proposed model in order to understand transient behavior and the decision-making process. We fit the model to data and show that it reproduces a wide range of human behaviors surprisingly well, suggesting that the model may have captured the mechanisms of observed behaviors. Finally, we study human behavior from a game-theoretic perspective by modeling the aforementioned tracking task as a repeated game with incomplete information. We show that the majority of the players are able to converge to playing Nash equilibrium strategies. We then suggest with simulations that the mean field evolution of strategies in the population resemble replicator dynamics, indicating that the individual strategies may be myopic. Decisions form the basis of control and problems involving deciding collectively between alternatives are ubiquitous in nature and in engineering. Understanding how multi-agent systems make decisions among alternatives also provides insight for designing

  18. Mapping collective behavior in the big-data era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, R Alexander; O'Brien, Michael J; Brock, William A

    2014-02-01

    The behavioral sciences have flourished by studying how traditional and/or rational behavior has been governed throughout most of human history by relatively well-informed individual and social learning. In the online age, however, social phenomena can occur with unprecedented scale and unpredictability, and individuals have access to social connections never before possible. Similarly, behavioral scientists now have access to "big data" sets - those from Twitter and Facebook, for example - that did not exist a few years ago. Studies of human dynamics based on these data sets are novel and exciting but, if not placed in context, can foster the misconception that mass-scale online behavior is all we need to understand, for example, how humans make decisions. To overcome that misconception, we draw on the field of discrete-choice theory to create a multiscale comparative "map" that, like a principal-components representation, captures the essence of decision making along two axes: (1) an east-west dimension that represents the degree to which an agent makes a decision independently versus one that is socially influenced, and (2) a north-south dimension that represents the degree to which there is transparency in the payoffs and risks associated with the decisions agents make. We divide the map into quadrants, each of which features a signature behavioral pattern. When taken together, the map and its signatures provide an easily understood empirical framework for evaluating how modern collective behavior may be changing in the digital age, including whether behavior is becoming more individualistic, as people seek out exactly what they want, or more social, as people become more inextricably linked, even "herdlike," in their decision making. We believe the map will lead to many new testable hypotheses concerning human behavior as well as to similar applications throughout the social sciences.

  19. Modeling and Simulation of Synchronous Threshold in Vent Collective Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaofeng Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the strengthening of the social contradiction, the outbreak of vent collective behavior tends to be frequent. The essence of vent collective behavior is emergence of synchronization. In order to explore the threshold of consensus synchronization in vent collective behavior, a mathematic model and a corresponding simulation model based on multi-agent are proposed. The results of analysis by mean field theory and simulation experiments show the following. (1 There is a threshold Kc for consensus synchronization in global-coupling and homogeneous group, and when the system parameter K is greater than Kc, consensus synchronization emerge. Otherwise the system cannot achieve synchronization. The conclusion is verified by further study of multiagent simulation. (2 Compared with the global-coupling situation, the process of synchronization is delayed in local-coupling and homogeneous group. (3 For local-coupling and heterogeneous group, consensus dissemination can achieve synchronization only when the effects of the parameters meet the threshold requirements of consensus synchronization.

  20. A persistent homology approach to collective behavior in insect swarms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinhuber, Michael; Ouellette, Nicholas T.

    Various animals from birds and fish to insects tend to form aggregates, displaying self-organized collective swarming behavior. Due to their frequent occurrence in nature and their implications for engineered, collective systems, these systems have been investigated and modeled thoroughly for decades. Common approaches range from modeling them with coupled differential equations on the individual level up to continuum approaches. We present an alternative, topology-based approach for describing swarming behavior at the macroscale rather than the microscale. We study laboratory swarms of Chironomus riparius, a flying, non-biting midge. To obtain the time-resolved three-dimensional trajectories of individual insects, we use a multi-camera stereoimaging and particle-tracking setup. To investigate the swarming behavior in a topological sense, we employ a persistent homology approach to identify persisting structures and features in the insect swarm that elude a direct, ensemble-averaging approach. We are able to identify features of sub-clusters in the swarm that show behavior distinct from that of the remaining swarm members. The coexistence of sub-swarms with different features resembles some non-biological systems such as active colloids or even thermodynamic systems.

  1. Measuring and modeling behavioral decision dynamics in collective evacuation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean M Carlson

    Full Text Available Identifying and quantifying factors influencing human decision making remains an outstanding challenge, impacting the performance and predictability of social and technological systems. In many cases, system failures are traced to human factors including congestion, overload, miscommunication, and delays. Here we report results of a behavioral network science experiment, targeting decision making in a natural disaster. In a controlled laboratory setting, our results quantify several key factors influencing individual evacuation decision making in a controlled laboratory setting. The experiment includes tensions between broadcast and peer-to-peer information, and contrasts the effects of temporal urgency associated with the imminence of the disaster and the effects of limited shelter capacity for evacuees. Based on empirical measurements of the cumulative rate of evacuations as a function of the instantaneous disaster likelihood, we develop a quantitative model for decision making that captures remarkably well the main features of observed collective behavior across many different scenarios. Moreover, this model captures the sensitivity of individual- and population-level decision behaviors to external pressures, and systematic deviations from the model provide meaningful estimates of variability in the collective response. Identification of robust methods for quantifying human decisions in the face of risk has implications for policy in disasters and other threat scenarios, specifically the development and testing of robust strategies for training and control of evacuations that account for human behavior and network topologies.

  2. The relation between emotional intelligence and criminal behavior: A study among convicted criminals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelu Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lack of emotional intelligence (EI may lead to maladjustment and inability to achieve desired goals. A relationship between low levels of EI and crime has been proposed. Aim: The aim was to assess the relationship between EI and criminal behavior. Materials and Methods: Study sample consisted of 202 subjects, in whom 101 subjects were convicted offenders, and 101 were matched normal controls. Offender group comprised of individuals convicted for different crimes such as murder, rape, and robbery, selected from Birsa Munda Central Jail, Hotwar, Ranchi, Jharkhand, India based on purposive sampling. Sample of the normal control group was taken from Ranchi and nearby areas. All subjects gave informed consent for participating in the study. Both the groups were matched on age, gender, education, occupation, and marital status. All participants were assessed on General Health Questionnaire-12 and Mangal Emotional Intelligence Inventory (MEII. The results were analyzed using statistical package SPSS-version 20. Results: The group of convicted offenders obtained significantly lower scores on all the domains of MEII such as intrapersonal awareness (own emotions, interpersonal awareness (others emotions, intrapersonal management (own emotions and interpersonal management (others emotions, and aggregate emotional quotient in comparison to their normal counterparts. Conclusion: The convicted offenders group had significantly lower EI compared to normal subjects. Starting EI enhancement program in prison can help the inmates better understand their feelings and emotions.

  3. Relationships Between Components of Emotional Intelligence and Suicidal Behavior in Alcohol-dependent Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopera, Maciej; Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Klimkiewicz, Anna; Suszek, Hubert; Krasowska, Aleksandra; Brower, Kirk J; Wojnar, Marcin

    2017-09-08

    The importance of investigating various emotional skills in assessment of suicide risk in alcohol-dependent (AD) individuals has recently become the focus of increasing interest. The objective of this study was to explore the relationships between self-reported components of emotional intelligence and lifetime prevalence of suicide attempts in a clinical sample of AD subjects. A group of 80 inpatients entering an alcohol treatment program in Warsaw, Poland, was recruited. Baseline information about demographics, psychopathological symptoms, personality, and severity of alcohol problems was obtained. The Schutte Self-Report Emotional Intelligence Test was utilized for assessment of emotional processing. Lifetime history of suicide attempts was obtained from the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview. After accounting for affect-related suicide risk factors (severity of depression, anxiety, neuroticism), and also other significant predictors (eg, age, sex, history of childhood abuse), mood regulation/optimism deficits remained a significant correlate of lifetime suicide attempts in AD patients. In the mediation models, mood regulation appeared to fully mediate the relationship between history of suicide attempts and depression, and also neuroticism. The results of this study support the evidence that poor mood regulation might be related to the risk for suicidal behavior in AD individuals. These findings point towards the significance of addressing the issue of emotion-related skills in the therapy of those AD subjects who are at risk for suicide.

  4. The relation between emotional intelligence and criminal behavior: A study among convicted criminals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Neelu; Prakash, Om; Sengar, K S; Chaudhury, Suprakash; Singh, Amool R

    2015-01-01

    Lack of emotional intelligence (EI) may lead to maladjustment and inability to achieve desired goals. A relationship between low levels of EI and crime has been proposed. The aim was to assess the relationship between EI and criminal behavior. Study sample consisted of 202 subjects, in whom 101 subjects were convicted offenders, and 101 were matched normal controls. Offender group comprised of individuals convicted for different crimes such as murder, rape, and robbery, selected from Birsa Munda Central Jail, Hotwar, Ranchi, Jharkhand, India based on purposive sampling. Sample of the normal control group was taken from Ranchi and nearby areas. All subjects gave informed consent for participating in the study. Both the groups were matched on age, gender, education, occupation, and marital status. All participants were assessed on General Health Questionnaire-12 and Mangal Emotional Intelligence Inventory (MEII). The results were analyzed using statistical package SPSS-version 20. The group of convicted offenders obtained significantly lower scores on all the domains of MEII such as intrapersonal awareness (own emotions), interpersonal awareness (others emotions), intrapersonal management (own emotions) and interpersonal management (others emotions), and aggregate emotional quotient in comparison to their normal counterparts. The convicted offenders group had significantly lower EI compared to normal subjects. Starting EI enhancement program in prison can help the inmates better understand their feelings and emotions.

  5. Perancangan Autonomous Landing pada Quadcopter Menggunakan Behavior-Based Intelligent Fuzzy Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalidia Nurin Hamdani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Quadcopter adalah salah satu platform unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV yang saat ini banyak diriset karena kemampuannya melakukan take-off dan landing secara vertikal. Karena menggunakan 4 motor brushless sebagai penggerak utama, quadcopter memiliki kompleksitas yang cukup tinggi baik dalam pemodelan maupun pengendalian. Landing merupakan salah satu mekanisme pada quadcopter yang membutuhkan kecepatan yang akurat dan aman dengan tetap mempertahankan keseimbangan. Pada penelitian ini, penulis menggunakan Behavior-Based Intelligent Fuzzy Control (BBIFC sebagai dasar kontrol untuk penerapan autonomous landing pada quadcopter. BBIFC adalah salah satu skema high-level control di mana desain kontrol terdiri dari beberapa layer. Ada 2 layer yang digunakan pada penelitian ini yaitu layer untuk pengendalian sudut pitch, roll, yaw dan layer untuk pengendalian ketinggian. Setiap layer memiliki mekanisme kontrol yang berbeda yang didesain menggunakan Intelligent Fuzzy Controller dan kontroler PID. Dengan metode ini dihasilkan algoritma untuk mekanisme safe autonomous landing dengan mengikuti sinyal eksponensial di mana quadcopter mencapai titik 0 (nol meter dalam waktu 15 detik dan Kontroler PID dapat mengendalikan keseimbangan quadcopter dalam waktu 7.97 detik untuk roll dan pitch serta 1.25 detik untuk yaw sejak gangguan sudut diberikan.

  6. Cognitive "Habitus" and Collective Intelligence: Concepts for the Explanation of Inequality of Educational Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Roy

    2005-01-01

    'Intelligence' has long been a problematic concept for educational policy-makers. Sociologists of education concerned to explain social inequalities in educational attainment have suggested that, despite the through-going criticism of the classical IQ concept, teachers continue to maintain practices which ensure that their taken-for-granted ideas…

  7. A RAND Analysis Tool for Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance: The Collections Operations Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Alkire developed the output parser to help organize and analyze the large amount of data returned by the model. Louis Moore provided patient advice...GMTI/MMTI LR -100 SIGINT Airborne Signals Intelligence Payload SIGINT Military Very High Frequency SIGINT U2 Sensor Suite EO/IR/SAR a Representation

  8. A New Dimension of Business Intelligence: Location-based Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Zeljko Panian

    2012-01-01

    Through the course of this paper we define Locationbased Intelligence (LBI) which is outgrowing from process of amalgamation of geolocation and Business Intelligence. Amalgamating geolocation with traditional Business Intelligence (BI) results in a new dimension of BI named Location-based Intelligence. LBI is defined as leveraging unified location information for business intelligence. Collectively, enterprises can transform location data into business intelligence applic...

  9. Durham Zoo: Powering a Search-&-Innovation Engine with Collective Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Absalom

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – Durham Zoo (hereinafter – DZ is a project to design and operate a concept search engine for science and technology. In DZ, a concept includes a solution to a problem in a particular context.Design – Concept searching is rendered complex by the fuzzy nature of a concept, the many possible implementations of the same concept, and the many more ways that the many implementations can be expressed in natural language. An additional complexity is the diversity of languages and formats, in which the concepts can be disclosed.Humans understand language, inference, implication and abstraction and, hence, concepts much better than computers, that in turn are much better at storing and processing vast amounts of data.We are 7 billion on the planet and we have the Internet as the backbone for Collective Intelligence. So, our concept search engine uses humans to store concepts via a shorthand that can be stored, processed and searched by computers: so, humans IN and computers OUT.The shorthand is classification: metadata in a structure that can define the content of a disclosure. The classification is designed to be powerful in terms of defining and searching concepts, whilst suited to a crowdsourcing effort. It is simple and intuitive to use. Most importantly, it is adapted to restrict ambiguity, which is the poison of classification, without imposing a restrictive centralised management.In the classification scheme, each entity is shown together in a graphical representation with related entities. The entities are arranged on a sliding scale of similarity. This sliding scale is effectively fuzzy classification.Findings – The authors of the paper have been developing a first classification scheme for the technology of traffic cones, this in preparation for a trial of a working system. The process has enabled the authors to further explore the practicalities of concept classification. The CmapTools knowledge modelling kit to develop the

  10. The Jekyll and Hyde of emotional intelligence: emotion-regulation knowledge facilitates both prosocial and interpersonally deviant behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Côté, S.; DeCelles, K.A.; McCarthy, J.M.; van Kleef, G.A.; Hideg, I.

    2011-01-01

    Does emotional intelligence promote behavior that strictly benefits the greater good, or can it also advance interpersonal deviance? In the investigation reported here, we tested the possibility that a core facet of emotional intelligence—emotion-regulation knowledge—can promote both prosocial and

  11. The effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral group therapy training on improving emotional intelligence and general health of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghel Masjedi, M; Taghavizadeh, M; Azadi, N; Hosseinzadeh, F; Koushkestani, A

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of the current research was to examine the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral group therapy (CBT) training on the general health and improve the emotional intelligence of male adolescents in Tehran city. Methodology: The current research is a semi-trial research with pretest-posttest experimental design and two test and control groups, which were carried out in the 2014-2015 academic year. 40 high school male students were chosen via proper sampling approach and they were stochastically classified into test and control team (each team, n = 20). The students were protested via Baron emotional intelligence and GHQ-28 general health questionnaire. Subsequently, the test group was trained in the cognitive-behavioral group therapy for eight sessions and the control group received no interventions. In the end, both groups were post-tested, and the data were investigated by using a multivariate investigation of covariance method and SPSS-20. Findings: The outcomes demonstrated that there were notable distinctions between the experiment and the checking teams after the implementation of the CBT training (P emotional intelligence and general health increased in test group rather than in the check team. Conclusion: The findings indicated that the CBT practice is useful in improving emotional intelligence and general health in adolescent male students. Thus, one can recommend that appropriate therapy training could be designed to improve their emotional intelligence and general health.

  12. Quantitative analysis of bloggers' collective behavior powered by emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrović, Marija; Paltoglou, Georgios; Tadić, Bosiljka

    2011-02-01

    Large-scale data resulting from users' online interactions provide the ultimate source of information to study emergent social phenomena on the Web. From individual actions of users to observable collective behaviors, different mechanisms involving emotions expressed in the posted text play a role. Here we combine approaches of statistical physics with machine-learning methods of text analysis to study the emergence of emotional behavior among Web users. Mapping the high-resolution data from digg.com onto bipartite networks of users and their comments onto posted stories, we identify user communities centered around certain popular posts and determine emotional contents of the related comments by the emotion classifier developed for this type of text. Applied over different time periods, this framework reveals strong correlations between the excess of negative emotions and the evolution of communities. We observe avalanches of emotional comments exhibiting significant self-organized critical behavior and temporal correlations. To explore the robustness of these critical states, we design a network-automaton model on realistic network connections and several control parameters, which can be inferred from the dataset. Dissemination of emotions by a small fraction of very active users appears to critically tune the collective states.

  13. Effects of Strategies Marketing of Collective Buying about Impulsive Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzi Elen Ferreira Dias

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Brazil has the second largest e-commerce market in the world. One model used in this sector is "collective buying", a feature of which is impulse sales. Consumer behavior can be influenced by several factors, two of which are addressed in this article: the individual impulsivity of consumers and strategies of mix marketing. Impulsive buying is characterized by an unplanned purchase, i.e. the need to acquire the product arises just before the purchase. Consumers respond differently to mixed strategies depending on their degree of impulsivity. Thus, this article aims to analyze the efficacy of different marketing mix strategies for impulsive and non-impulsive consumer purchasing behavior. 137 participants were given a questionnaire containing the Buying Impulsiveness scale from Rook and Fisher (1995, and statements about the marketing strategies used by collective buying sites. Through a regression analysis, three strategies were found to relate more to impulsivity: search for products from well-known brands, search for deals with big discounts and confidence in receiving the product. For e-commerce and researchers, this study elucidates which strategies, from the consumer's perspective, effectively persuade purchasing behavior.

  14. Role of Intelligence Quotient (IQ) on anxiety and behavior in children with hearing and speech impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Raghavendra M; Pashine, Aditi; Jose, Nijo A; Mantha, Somasundar

    2018-01-04

    To assess and compare the role of IQ on anxiety and behavior of children with and without hearing and speech impairment. A total of 120 children of age group 7-14 years were included in the study, of which control group comprised of 60 normal healthy children and 60 hearing and speech impaired children formed the study group. The study was done in two consecutive sessions. First appointment for Culture Fair Intelligence Test and second appointment for RMS pictorial anxiety score (RMS-PS) and Frankl behavior rating which were assessed during oral prophylaxis. IQ of children with hearing and speech impairment was lower as compared to normal healthy children. There was a positive correlation between IQ and anxiety in children with hearing and speech impairment while no correlation was found with behavior. Children with hearing and speech impairment are less anxious and more cooperative compared to normal healthy child in the dental setting and are, therefore, easier to manage. © 2018 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Detect and Defeat - The Complexities of Accomplishing the HLS Mission with Existing Intelligence Collection Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    carriers (UPS, DHL , FedEx) combined create one of the world’s largest postal systems in the world. The USPS alone handles over 200 billion letters...clientele, have successfully moved personnel into the United States potentially increasing the personnel strength of their sleeper cells.48 One...one can conclude that community size may contribute to the strength of relationships between local and federal intelligence organizations. Since

  16. Impact of a Collective Intelligence Tailored Messaging System on Smoking Cessation: The Perspect Randomized Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadasivam, Rajani Shankar; Borglund, Erin M; Adams, Roy; Marlin, Benjamin M; Houston, Thomas K

    2016-11-08

    Outside health care, content tailoring is driven algorithmically using machine learning compared to the rule-based approach used in current implementations of computer-tailored health communication (CTHC) systems. A special class of machine learning systems ("recommender systems") are used to select messages by combining the collective intelligence of their users (ie, the observed and inferred preferences of users as they interact with the system) and their user profiles. However, this approach has not been adequately tested for CTHC. Our aim was to compare, in a randomized experiment, a standard, evidence-based, rule-based CTHC (standard CTHC) to a novel machine learning CTHC: Patient Experience Recommender System for Persuasive Communication Tailoring (PERSPeCT). We hypothesized that PERSPeCT will select messages of higher influence than our standard CTHC system. This standard CTHC was proven effective in motivating smoking cessation in a prior randomized trial of 900 smokers (OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.03-2.81). PERSPeCT is an innovative hybrid machine learning recommender system that selects and sends motivational messages using algorithms that learn from message ratings from 846 previous participants (explicit feedback), and the prior explicit ratings of each individual participant. Current smokers (N=120) aged 18 years or older, English speaking, with Internet access were eligible to participate. These smokers were randomized to receive either PERSPeCT (intervention, n=74) or standard CTHC tailored messages (n=46). The study was conducted between October 2014 and January 2015. By randomization, we compared daily message ratings (mean of smoker ratings each day). At 30 days, we assessed the intervention's perceived influence, 30-day cessation, and changes in readiness to quit from baseline. The proportion of days when smokers agreed/strongly agreed (daily rating ≥4) that the messages influenced them to quit was significantly higher for PERSPeCT (73%, 23/30) than

  17. Collective Decision-Making and Oscillatory Behaviors in Cell Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Koichi; Sawai, Satoshi

    2013-12-01

    Many examples of oscillations are known in multicellular dynamics, however how properties of individual cells can account for the collective rhythmic behaviors at the tissue level remain elusive. Recently, studies in chemical reactions, synthetic gene circuits, yeast and social amoeba Dictyostelium have greatly enhanced our understanding of collective oscillations in cell populations. From these relatively simple systems, a unified view of how excitable and oscillatory regulations could be tuned and coupled to give rise to tissue-level oscillations is emerging. This chapter reviews recent progress in these and other experimental systems and highlight similarities and differences. We will show how group-level information can be encoded in the oscillations depending on degree of autonomy of single cells and discuss some of their possible biological roles.

  18. Potential and Challenges of Web-based Collective Intelligence to Tackle Societal Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birutė Pitrėnaitė-Žilėnienė

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – to research what are conditions and challenges for collective intelligence (hereinafter – CI, i.e., emerging applying social technologies, to tackle societal problems. Several objectives were set in order to achieve the goal: to analyze the scientific concepts of CI and its contents; to summarize possibilities and challenges of application of CI in largescale online argumentation; following theoretical attitudes towards CI, to analyze Lithuanian praxis of application of CI technologies in large-scale online argumentation.Methodology – the methods of document analysis and content analysis of virtual community projects were applied. Theoretical analysis enabled recognition of CI phenomena and the variety of interpretations on CI as well as preconditions and difficulties to be tackled in order to ensure effective application of CI technologies in the processes of different policies design and/or societal problem solving. Having theoretical analysis as a base, the authors researched how the theoretical frameworks correspond to practices of Lithuanian virtual community projects, which are oriented to identification and analysis of relevant problems that communities are facing.Findings – scientific documents analysis demonstrates the variety of possible interpretations of CI. Such interpretations depend on the researcher’s attitudes towards this phenomenon: some authors explain CI in a very broad sense not including the aspects of social technologies. However, in the last decades, with the emergence of the Internet, social technologies have become concurrent dimension of CI. The main principles of Web-based CI are geographically spread users and a big number of them. Materialization of these principles ensures variety of elements needed for emerging of CI. There are diverse web-based mediums, where CI is being developed. However, not all of them ensure collective action, which is obligatory for CI. Researchers have analyzed

  19. Extracting foreground ensemble features to detect abnormal crowd behavior in intelligent video-surveillance systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yi-Tung; Wang, Shuenn-Jyi; Tsai, Chung-Hsien

    2017-09-01

    Public safety is a matter of national security and people's livelihoods. In recent years, intelligent video-surveillance systems have become important active-protection systems. A surveillance system that provides early detection and threat assessment could protect people from crowd-related disasters and ensure public safety. Image processing is commonly used to extract features, e.g., people, from a surveillance video. However, little research has been conducted on the relationship between foreground detection and feature extraction. Most current video-surveillance research has been developed for restricted environments, in which the extracted features are limited by having information from a single foreground; they do not effectively represent the diversity of crowd behavior. This paper presents a general framework based on extracting ensemble features from the foreground of a surveillance video to analyze a crowd. The proposed method can flexibly integrate different foreground-detection technologies to adapt to various monitored environments. Furthermore, the extractable representative features depend on the heterogeneous foreground data. Finally, a classification algorithm is applied to these features to automatically model crowd behavior and distinguish an abnormal event from normal patterns. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method's performance is both comparable to that of state-of-the-art methods and satisfies the requirements of real-time applications.

  20. Behavioral and neural correlates of emotional intelligence: an event-related potentials (ERP) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raz, Sivan; Dan, Orrie; Arad, Hen; Zysberg, Leehu

    2013-08-14

    The present study was aimed at identifying potential behavioral and neural correlates of emotional intelligence (EI) by using scalp-recorded Event-Related Potentials (ERPs). EI levels were defined according to both self-report questionnaire and a performance-based test. We identified ERP correlates of emotional processing by comparing ERPs elicited in trials using pleasant, neutral and unpleasant pictures. The effects of these emotion-inducing pictures were then compared across groups with low and high EI levels. Behavioral results revealed a significant valence×EI group interaction effect since valence ratings were lower for unpleasant pictures and higher for pleasant pictures in the high EI group compared with the low EI group. The groups did not differ with respect to neutral picture ratings. The ERP results indicate that participants with high EI exhibited significantly greater mean amplitudes of the P2 (200-300ms post-stimulus) and P3 (310-450ms post-stimulus) ERP components in response to emotional and neutral pictures, at posterior-parietal as well as at frontal scalp locations. This may suggest greater recruitment of resources to process all emotional and non-emotional stimuli at early and late processing stages among individuals with higher EI. The present study also underscores the usefulness of ERP methodology as a sensitive measure for the study of emotional stimuli processing in the research field of EI. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Incremental prediction and moderating role of the perceived emotional intelligence over aggressive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peláez-Fernández, María Angeles; Extremera, Natalio; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to explore the influence of Perceived Emotional Intelligence (PEI) on aggression dimensions (Physical Aggression, Verbal Aggression, Hostility, and Anger) above and beyond the effects of gender, age, and personality traits (Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, and Openness to Experience), as well as the moderating role of PEI on the relationship between personality and aggressive behavior, among young adults. The Trait Meta-Mood Scale, the Big-Five Inventory, and the Aggression Questionnaire were administered to a 313 Spanish community sample, comprised of both males (39.0%) and females (61.0%), ranging from 14 to 69 years old (X = 24.74; SD = 9.27). Controlling the effects of age, gender, and personality, PEI dimensions (Attention, Clarity and Repair) accounted for 3% of the variance (p Verbal Aggression and Hostility. Interaction analysis showed that all PEI subscales moderated the relationship between four out of the Big-Five personality dimensions (Extraversion, Agreeableness, Neuroticism, and Openness to Experience) and the aggression dimensions. Particularly, the interaction between Attention and Extraversion and between Clarity and Neuroticism were significant predictors of Total Aggression (b = .67, t(313) = 2.35, p aggressive behavior among young adults and of the moderating role of PEI on the personality-aggression relationship.

  2. Roles of Personality Types, Emotional Intelligence and Gender Differences on Prosocial Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olukayode A. Afolabi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to dearth of research on prosocial behavior (PSB among undergraduates in Nigeria, this study investigated the influence of five –factorpersonality factors (FFP, emotional intelligence (EI and gender differences on prosocial behavior (PSB among undergraduates in Nigeria.Cross-sectional survey design was adopted to tap information from 200 randomly selected undergraduates. They responded to a carefullydesigned questionnaire with 4 sections. Five hypotheses were tested. The results showed that there were significant relationships betweenthe variables of study. The first step in the hierarchical regression showed that the independent and joint contributions of age, gender, religionand educational level on PSB were not significant. The second step which involved the FFP did not have significant independent and jointcontribution on PSB except for conscientiousness [R2 = .34, t = 7.08; p < .01]. In the third step EI also had no significant contribution but theoverall joint contribution (with other variables to PSB increased to 35.3%. However, high EI increased PSB [t(198 = 12.36; p < .01] but genderdid not have significant effect on PSB. The findings were discussed based on the existing literature and important recommendations weremade.

  3. Behavioral and mechanical determinants of collective subsurface nest excavation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaenkova, Daria; Gravish, Nick; Rodriguez, Greggory; Kutner, Rachel; Goodisman, Michael A D; Goldman, Daniel I

    2015-05-01

    Collective construction of topologically complex structures is one of the triumphs of social behavior. For example, many ant species construct underground nests composed of networks of tunnels and chambers. Excavation by these 'superorganisms' depends on the biomechanics of substrate manipulation, the interaction of individuals, and media stability and cohesiveness. To discover principles of robust social excavation, we used X-ray computed tomography to monitor the growth in three dimensions of nests built by groups of fire ants (Solenopsis invicta) in laboratory substrates composed of silica particles, manipulating two substrate properties: particle size and gravimetric moisture content. Ants were capable of nest construction in all substrates tested other than completely dry or fully saturated; for a given particle size, nest volume was relatively insensitive to moisture content. Tunnels were deepest at intermediate moisture content and the maximum tunnel depth correlated with measured yield force on small rod-shaped intruders (a proxy for cohesive strength). This implies that increased cohesive strength allowed creation of tunnels that were resistant to perturbation but did not decrease individual excavation ability. Ants used two distinct behaviors to create pellets composed of wetted particles, depending on substrate composition. However, despite the ability to create larger stable pellets in more cohesive substrates, pellet sizes were similar across all conditions. We posit that this pellet size balances the individual's load-carrying ability with the need to carry this pellet through confined crowded tunnels. We conclude that effective excavation of similarly shaped nests can occur in a diversity of substrates through sophisticated digging behaviors by individuals which accommodate both differing substrate properties and the need to work within the collective. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  4. Patient behavior and the benefits of artificial intelligence: the perils of "dangerous" literacy and illusory patient empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Peter J; Nakamoto, Kent

    2013-08-01

    Artificial intelligence can provide important support of patient health. However, limits to realized benefits can arise as patients assume an active role in their health decisions. Distinguishing the concepts of health literacy and patient empowerment, we analyze conditions that bias patient use of the Internet and limit access to and impact of artificial intelligence. Improving health literacy in the face of the Internet requires significant guidance. Patients must be directed toward the appropriate tools and also provided with key background knowledge enabling them to use the tools and capitalize on the artificial intelligence technology. Benefits of tools employing artificial intelligence to promote health cannot be realized without recognizing and addressing the patients' desires, expectations, and limitations that impact their Internet behavior. In order to benefit from artificial intelligence, patients need a substantial level of background knowledge and skill in information use-i.e., health literacy. It is critical that health professionals respond to patient search for information on the Internet, first by guiding their search to relevant, authoritative, and responsive sources, and second by educating patients about how to interpret the information they are likely to encounter. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Investigating the relationship between self-reported oral health status, oral health-related behaviors, type A behavior pattern, perceived stress and emotional intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitrescu, Alexandrina L

    2007-01-01

    Our aim was to determine students' self-rated oral health and oral-health-related behaviors in relation to type A behavior pattern (TABP), self-perceived stress (PSS) and emotional intelligence (EI). The present study sample consisted of 344 first to sixth year dental students. The questionnaire included information about socio-demographic factors, behavioral variables, self-reported oral health status, TABP, PSS and EI. Significant differences were found on EI and PSS Scale according to several variables: gender, year of study, anxiety in the every day life, perceived dental health, self-reported gingival condition, self-reported gum bleeding and reason for the dental visit (Pemotional intelligence might be a psychosocial risk marker that influences self-reported oral health status and behaviour.

  6. Assessing the Impact of Security Behavior on the Awareness of Open-Source Intelligence: A Quantitative Study of IT Knowledge Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Daniel B., III

    2014-01-01

    There is a lack of literature linking end-user behavior to the availability of open-source intelligence (OSINT). Most OSINT literature has been focused on the use and assessment of open-source intelligence, not the proliferation of personally or organizationally identifiable information (PII/OII). Additionally, information security studies have…

  7. Computational intelligence as a platform for data collection methodology in management science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Kristina Risom

    2006-01-01

    With the increased focus in management science on how to collect data close to the real-world of managers, then agent-based simulations have interesting prospects that are usable for the design of business applications aimed at the collection of data. As a new generation of data collection...

  8. The impact of maternal emotional intelligence and parenting style on child anxiety and behavior in the dental setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourkazemi, Maryam; Babapour, Jalil; Oskouei, Sina-Ghertasi

    2012-01-01

    Objective. The present study investigated the correlations between maternal emotional intelligence (EQ), parenting style, child trait anxiety and child behavior in the dental setting. Study design. One-hundred seventeen children, aged 4-6 years old (mean 5.24 years), and their mothers participated in the study. The BarOn Emotional Quotient Inventory and Bumrind�s parenting style questionnaire were used to quantify maternal emotional intelligence and parenting style. Children�s anxiety and behavior was evaluated using the Spence Children�s Anxiety Scale (SCAS) and Frankl behavior scale. Results. Significant correlation was found between maternal EQ and child behavior (r=0.330; panxiety; however, some subscales of EQ and anxiety showed significant correlations. There were significant correlations between authoritarian parenting style and separation anxiety (r=0.186; panxiety and behavior (r = -0.81). Regression analysis revealed maternal EQ is effective in predicting child behavior (?=0.340; pAnxiety, child behavior, parenting, pediatric dentistry. PMID:22926462

  9. Intelligence: Real or artificial?

    OpenAIRE

    Schlinger, Henry D.

    1992-01-01

    Throughout the history of the artificial intelligence movement, researchers have strived to create computers that could simulate general human intelligence. This paper argues that workers in artificial intelligence have failed to achieve this goal because they adopted the wrong model of human behavior and intelligence, namely a cognitive essentialist model with origins in the traditional philosophies of natural intelligence. An analysis of the word “intelligence” suggests that it originally r...

  10. Collective behavior of silver plasma during pulsed laser ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dildar, I. M.; Rehman, S.; Khaleeq-ur-Rahman, M.; Bhatti, K. A.; Shuaib, A.

    2015-07-01

    The present work reports an electrical investigation of silver plasma using a self-fabricated Langmuir probe in air and under a low vacuum (~10-3 torr). A silver target was irradiated with a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser with the wavelength 1.064 µm, energy 10 mJ, pulse duration 9-14 ns and power 1.1 MW. The collective behavior of a silver plasma plume is studied using a Langmuir probe as an electrical diagnostic technique. By applying different positive and negative voltages to the probe, the respective signals are collected on a four channels digital storage oscilloscope having a frequency of 500 MHz. An I-V curve helps to measure electron temperature and electron density directly and plasma frequency, response time, Debye length and number of particles in ‘Debye’s sphere’ indirectly using the theory of Langmuir probe and mathematical formulas. The floating potential is measured as negative for laser induced silver plasma in air and vacuum, following the theory of plasma.

  11. Adolescents' Prosocial Behavior Predicts Good Grades Beyond Intelligence and Personality Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbino, Maria; Zuffianò, Antonio; Eisenberg, Nancy; Castellani, Valeria; Luengo Kanacri, Bernadette Paula; Pastorelli, Concetta; Caprara, Gian Vittorio

    2017-02-25

    Researchers have demonstrated the prediction of academic functioning by children's prosocial behavior (PB). The goal of our study was to examine the contribution of adolescents' PB for middle and senior high school grades after controlling for stability of achievement and for intelligence, Big Five traits, and sociodemographic variables (i.e., sex and socioeconomic status). Study 1 examined on 165 adolescents (48.5% boys) the prediction by peer-reported PB in 7th grade of academic achievement at the end of junior high school, after controlling for the above variables. Study 2 examined the prediction by 927 (52% girls) 8th graders' PB of academic achievement 5 years later, at the end of senior high school, taking into account the stability of grades, personality traits, and socio-structural variables. Overall, hierarchical regression analysis indicated in both studies PB and Openness significantly predicted better grades in the short term and over time despite the high stability of grades across 5 years. Extraversion negatively predicted academic achievement across 1 year in junior high school. Findings supported the view of PB as a strength and a key resource for adolescents' academic attainment. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Developing Students' Cultural Intelligence through an Experiential Learning Activity: A Cross-Cultural Consumer Behavior Interview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurpis, Lada Helen; Hunter, James

    2017-01-01

    Business schools can increase their competitiveness by offering students intercultural skills development opportunities integrated into the traditional curricula. This article makes a contribution by proposing an approach to developing students' cultural intelligence that is based on the cultural intelligence (CQ) model, experiential learning…

  13. Integration of an intelligent systems behavior simulator and a scalable soldier-machine interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Tony; Manteuffel, Chris; Brewster, Benjamin; Tierney, Terry

    2007-04-01

    As the Army's Future Combat Systems (FCS) introduce emerging technologies and new force structures to the battlefield, soldiers will increasingly face new challenges in workload management. The next generation warfighter will be responsible for effectively managing robotic assets in addition to performing other missions. Studies of future battlefield operational scenarios involving the use of automation, including the specification of existing and proposed technologies, will provide significant insight into potential problem areas regarding soldier workload. The US Army Tank Automotive Research, Development, and Engineering Center (TARDEC) is currently executing an Army technology objective program to analyze and evaluate the effect of automated technologies and their associated control devices with respect to soldier workload. The Human-Robotic Interface (HRI) Intelligent Systems Behavior Simulator (ISBS) is a human performance measurement simulation system that allows modelers to develop constructive simulations of military scenarios with various deployments of interface technologies in order to evaluate operator effectiveness. One such interface is TARDEC's Scalable Soldier-Machine Interface (SMI). The scalable SMI provides a configurable machine interface application that is capable of adapting to several hardware platforms by recognizing the physical space limitations of the display device. This paper describes the integration of the ISBS and Scalable SMI applications, which will ultimately benefit both systems. The ISBS will be able to use the Scalable SMI to visualize the behaviors of virtual soldiers performing HRI tasks, such as route planning, and the scalable SMI will benefit from stimuli provided by the ISBS simulation environment. The paper describes the background of each system and details of the system integration approach.

  14. Open Peer Review: Collective Intelligence as a Framework for Theorizing Approaches to Peer Review in the Humanities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna Pack Sheffield

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article takes a moderate approach, balancing suggestions for when open peer review can benefit scholarship in the humanities, while offering important concerns authors and editors must consider before deciding to implement the process. I focus on online commenting functions and how they have been—and can be—used for open peer review to help improve the quality of an author’s scholarly work and change the way publishers go about their peer review processes. While open peer review is not necessarily digital, digital technologies allow for a broader range of participants and faster dissemination of knowledge, which is why this article focuses on online open peer review. Open Peer Review: Collective Intelligence as a Framework for Theorizing Approaches to Peer Review in the Humanities, by Jenna Pack Sheffield

  15. Soft computing in intelligent control

    CERN Document Server

    Jung, Jin-Woo; Kubota, Naoyuki

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, people have tendency to be fond of smarter machines that are able to collect data, make learning, recognize things, infer meanings, communicate with human and perform behaviors. Thus, we have built advanced intelligent control affecting all around societies; automotive, rail, aerospace, defense, energy, healthcare, telecoms and consumer electronics, finance, urbanization. Consequently, users and consumers can take new experiences through the intelligent control systems. We can reshape the technology world and provide new opportunities for industry and business, by offering cost-effective, sustainable and innovative business models. We will have to know how to create our own digital life. The intelligent control systems enable people to make complex applications, to implement system integration and to meet society’s demand for safety and security. This book aims at presenting the research results and solutions of applications in relevance with intelligent control systems. We propose to researchers ...

  16. The impact of emotional intelligence and intelligence quotient (IQ) on child anxiety and behavior in the dental setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminabadi, Naser Asl; Erfanparast, Leila; Adhami, Ziya Ebrahim; Maljaii, Ensiyeh; Ranjbar, Fatemeh; Jamali, Zahra

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of IQ and EQ on child's anxiety and behavior in the dental setting. One hundred and seven children (age range 7-12 years) were selected. BarOn Emotional Quotient Inventory: Youth Version (Baron EQ-I: YV) and the Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices (RCPM) tests were administered on the first examination session. Children's anxiety and behavior were evaluated using the modified child dental anxiety scale (MCDAS) and the sound, eye and motor (SEM) scales, respectively, during the second session. The mean (SD) age of subjects was 8.48 (1.41) years old. The result revealed a significant negative correlation between children's behavior and total EQ score (p IQ score. A significant positive correlation was found between anxiety scores on MCDAS and SEM (p IQ scores, on the other hand, were related to the child's EQ score (r = 0.20) and age (r = - 0.29).

  17. Intelligent Management System of Power Network Information Collection Under Big Data Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Yingying

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of economy and society, big data storage in enterprise management has become a problem that can’t be ignored. How to manage and optimize the allocation of tasks better is an important factor in the sustainable development of an enterprise. Now the enterprise information intelligent management has become a hot spot of management mode and concept in the information age. It presents information to the business managers in a more efficient, lower cost, and global form. The system uses the SG-UAP development tools, which is based on Eclipse development environment, and suits for Windows operating system, with Oracle as database development platform, Tomcat network information service for application server. The system uses SOA service-oriented architecture, provides RESTful style service, and HTTP(S as the communication protocol, and JSON as the data format. The system is divided into two parts, the front-end and the backs-end, achieved functions like user login, registration, password retrieving, enterprise internal personnel information management and internal data display and other functions.

  18. How to improve WEEE management? Novel approach in mobile collection with application of artificial intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Król, Aleksander; Nowakowski, Piotr; Mrówczyńska, Bogna

    2016-04-01

    In global demand of improvement of electrical and electronic waste management systems, stakeholders look for effective collection systems that generate minimal costs. In this study we propose a novel model for application in mobile collection schemes - on demand that waste be taken back from household residents. This type of the waste equipment collection is comfortable for residents as they can indicate day and time windows for the take-back. Collecting companies are interested in lowering operational costs required for service. This lowering includes selection of a sufficient number of vehicles and employees, and then minimising the routes' length in order to achieve savings in fuel consumption, and lowering of emissions. In the proposed model we use a genetic algorithm for optimisation of the route length and number of vehicles and fuzzy logic for representation of the household residents' satisfaction on the take-back service provided by collection companies. Also, modern communication channels like websites or mobile phone applications can be used to send the waste equipment take-back request from the household, so it has the potential to be developed in future applications. The operation of the model has been presented in the case study of a city in southern Poland. The results can be useful for collecting companies and software producers for preparation of new applications to be used in waste collection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Double-blind, placebo-controlled study of risperidone for the treatment of disruptive behaviors in children with subaverage intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aman, Michael G; De Smedt, Goedele; Derivan, Albert; Lyons, Ben; Findling, Robert L

    2002-08-01

    The short-term efficacy and safety of risperidone in the treatment of disruptive behaviors was examined in a well-characterized cohort of children with subaverage intelligence. In this 6-week, multicenter, double-blind, parallel-group study of 118 children (aged 5-12 years) with severely disruptive behaviors and subaverage intelligence (IQ between 36 and 84, inclusive), the subjects received 0.02-0.06 mg/kg per day of risperidone oral solution or placebo. The a priori primary efficacy measure was the change in score from baseline to endpoint on the conduct problem subscale of the Nisonger Child Behavior Rating Form. The risperidone group showed significantly greater improvement than did the placebo group on the conduct problem subscale of the Nisonger Child Behavior Rating Form from week 1 through endpoint (change in score of -15.2 and -6.2, respectively). Risperidone was also associated with significantly greater improvement than placebo on all other Nisonger Child Behavior Rating Form subscales at endpoint, as well as on the Aberrant Behavior Checklist subscales for irritability, lethargy/social withdrawal, and hyperactivity; the Behavior Problems Inventory aggressive/destructive behavior subscale; a visual analogue scale of the most troublesome symptom; and the Clinical Global Impression change score. The most common adverse effects reported during risperidone treatment were headache and somnolence. The extrapyramidal symptom profile of risperidone was comparable to that of placebo. Mean weight increases of 2.2 kg. and 0.9 kg occurred in the risperidone and placebo groups, respectively. Risperidone was effective and well tolerated for the treatment of severely disruptive behaviors in children with subaverage IQ.

  20. Coherence and incoherence collective behavior in financial market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shangmei; Xie, Qiuchao; Lu, Qing; Jiang, Xin; Chen, Wei

    2015-10-01

    Financial markets have been extensively studied as highly complex evolving systems. In this paper, we quantify financial price fluctuations through a coupled dynamical system composed of phase oscillators. We find that a Financial Coherence and Incoherence (FCI) coexistence collective behavior emerges as the system evolves into the stable state, in which the stocks split into two groups: one is represented by coherent, phase-locked oscillators, the other is composed of incoherent, drifting oscillators. It is demonstrated that the size of the coherent stock groups fluctuates during the economic periods according to real-world financial instabilities or shocks. Further, we introduce the coherent characteristic matrix to characterize the involvement dynamics of stocks in the coherent groups. Clustering results on the matrix provides a novel manifestation of the correlations among stocks in the economic periods. Our analysis for components of the groups is consistent with the Global Industry Classification Standard (GICS) classification and can also figure out features for newly developed industries. These results can provide potentially implications on characterizing the inner dynamical structure of financial markets and making optimal investment into tragedies.

  1. [19th century Russian research about collective behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engmann, Birk; Steinberg, Holger

    2017-05-01

    In the 19th century, collective behavior or crowd psychology was given a broad interest in psychiatric research. But until today the focus had always been on French, English or German publications neglecting the comprehensive Russian research that exists. That's why, the authors wish to elaborate 19th century Russian points of view on crowd psychology.Our research revealed that most of the Russian authors discussed imitation, suggestion, and hereditary predisposition - as did their colleagues in the West. Contrary to that, the 1881 monograph by Viktor Kandinsky could be regarded as an outstanding work because it presents an independent hypothesis on crowd psychology. Kandinsky postulated a gradual transition from normal to pathological based on neuro-anatomical und physiological presumptions. He postulated a causal chain which starts with exaltation followed by ecstasy, illusions, and at least hallucinations. He regarded exaltation to be a precondition in which a person accepts notions uncritically. Thus, in an exalted crowd one person that hallucinates may "infect" the others easily. People prone to mysticism, with a passion for mysterious things or on outstanding skills would be at a high risk of being infected. On the other hand, Kandinsky's hypothesis also implies that no one is exempt from such infection. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Collective Behavior of Animals: Swarming and Complex Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cañizo, J. A.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this short note we review some of the individual based models of the collective motion of agents, called swarming. These models based on ODEs (ordinary differential equations exhibit a complex rich asymptotic behavior in terms of patterns, that we show numerically. Moreover, we comment on how these particle models are connected to partial differential equations to describe the evolution of densities of individuals in a continuum manner. The mathematical questions behind the stability issues of these PDE (partial differential equations models are questions of actual interest in mathematical biology research.

    En esta nota repasamos algunos modelos basados en individuos para describir el movimiento colectivo de agentes, a lo que nos referimos usando la voz inglesa swarming. Estos modelos se basan en EDOs (ecuaciones diferenciales ordinarias y muestran un comportamiento asintótico complejo y rico en patrones, que mostramos numéricamente. Además, comentamos cómo se conectan estos modelos de partículas con las ecuaciones en derivadas parciales para describir la evolución de densidades de individuos de forma continua. Las cuestiones matemáticas relacionadas con la estabilidad de de estos modelos de EDP's (ecuaciones en derivadas parciales despiertan gran interés en la investigación en biología matemática.

  3. Spatially quantifying the leadership effectiveness in collective behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Haitao [State Key Laboratory of Digital Manufacturing Equipment and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Wang Ning [Department of Control Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Chen, Michael Z Q [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Hong Kong, Pok Fu Lam Road, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Su Riqi; Zhou Tao [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Zhou Changsong, E-mail: zht@mail.hust.edu.cn, E-mail: cszhou@hkbu.edu.hk, E-mail: zhutou@ustc.edu [Department of Physics, Centre for Nonlinear Studies, and Beijing-Hong Kong-Singapore Joint Centre for Nonlinear and Complex Systems (Hong Kong), Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong)

    2010-12-15

    Among natural biological flocks/swarms or mass social activities, when the collective behavior of the followers has been dominated by the direction or opinion of one leader group, it seems difficult for later-coming leaders to reverse the orientation of the mass followers, especially when they are in quantitative minority. This paper, however, reports a counter-intuitive phenomenon, i.e. Following the Later-coming Minority, provided that the later-comers obey a favorable distribution pattern that enables them to spread their influence to as many followers as possible within a given time and to be dense enough to govern these local followers they can influence directly from the beginning. We introduce a discriminant index to quantify the whole group's orientation under competing leaderships, with which the eventual orientation of the mass followers can be predicted before launching the real dynamical procedure. From the application point of view, this leadership effectiveness index also helps us to design an economical way for the minority later-coming leaders to defeat the dominating majority leaders solely by optimizing their spatial distribution pattern provided that the premeditated goal is available. Our investigation provides insights into effective leadership in biological systems with meaningful implications for social and industrial applications.

  4. Collective cell behavior on basement membranes floating in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Sarah; Bhattacharjee, Tapomoy; Morley, Cameron; Sawyer, W.; Angelini, Thomas

    The basement membrane is an essential part of the polarity of endothelial and epithelial tissues. In tissue culture and organ-on-chip devices, monolayer polarity can be established by coating flat surfaces with extracellular matrix proteins and tuning the trans-substrate permeability. In epithelial 3D culture, spheroids spontaneously establish inside-out polarity, morphing into hollow shell-like structures called acini, generating their own basement membrane on the inner radius of the shell. However, 3D culture approaches generally lack the high degree of control provided by the 2D culture plate or organ-on-chip devices, making it difficult to create more faithful in vitro tissue models with complex surface curvature and morphology. Here we present a method for 3D printing complex basement membranes covered in cells. We 3D print collagen-I and Matrigel into a 3D growth medium made from jammed microgels. This soft, yielding material allows extracellular matrix to be formed as complex surfaces and shapes, floating in space. We then distribute MCF10A epithelial cells across the polymerized surface. We envision employing this strategy to study 3D collective cell behavior in numerous model tissue layers, beyond this simple epithelial model.

  5. Evolutionary Developmental Soft Robotics As a Framework to Study Intelligence and Adaptive Behavior in Animals and Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Corucci

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a comprehensive methodology and simulation framework will be reviewed, designed in order to study the emergence of adaptive and intelligent behavior in generic soft-bodied creatures. By incorporating artificial evolutionary and developmental processes, the system allows to evolve complete creatures (brain, body, developmental properties, sensory, control system, etc. for different task environments. Whether the evolved creatures will resemble animals or plants is in general not known a priori, and depends on the specific task environment set up by the experimenter. In this regard, the system may offer a unique opportunity to explore differences and similarities between these two worlds. Different material properties can be simulated and optimized, from a continuum of soft/stiff materials, to the interconnection of heterogeneous structures, both found in animals and plants alike. The adopted genetic encoding and simulation environment are particularly suitable in order to evolve distributed sensory and control systems, which play a particularly important role in plants. After a general description of the system some case studies will be presented, focusing on the emergent properties of the evolved creatures. Particular emphasis will be on some unifying concepts that are thought to play an important role in the emergence of intelligent and adaptive behavior across both the animal and plant kingdoms, such as morphological computation and morphological developmental plasticity. Overall, with this paper, we hope to draw attention on set of tools, methodologies, ideas and results, which may be relevant to researchers interested in plant-inspired robotics and intelligence.

  6. Fuzzy Cognitive and Social Negotiation Agent Strategy for Computational Collective Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chohra, Amine; Madani, Kurosh; Kanzari, Dalel

    Finding the adequate (win-win solutions for both parties) negotiation strategy with incomplete information for autonomous agents, even in one-to-one negotiation, is a complex problem. Elsewhere, negotiation behaviors, in which the characters such as conciliatory or aggressive define a 'psychological' aspect of the negotiator personality, play an important role. The aim of this paper is to develop a fuzzy cognitive and social negotiation strategy for autonomous agents with incomplete information, where the characters conciliatory, neutral, or aggressive, are suggested to be integrated in negotiation behaviors (inspired from research works aiming to analyze human behavior and those on social negotiation psychology). For this purpose, first, one-to-one bargaining process, in which a buyer agent and a seller agent negotiate over single issue (price), is developed for a time-dependent strategy (based on time-dependent behaviors of Faratin et al.) and for a fuzzy cognitive and social strategy. Second, experimental environments and measures, allowing a set of experiments, carried out for different negotiation deadlines of buyer and seller agents, are detailed. Third, experimental results for both time-dependent and fuzzy cognitive and social strategies are presented, analyzed, and compared for different deadlines of agents. The suggested fuzzy cognitive and social strategy allows agents to improve the negotiation process, with regard to the time-dependent one, in terms of agent utilities, round number to reach an agreement, and percentage of agreements.

  7. Mindfulness facets, trait emotional intelligence, emotional distress, and multiple health behaviors: A serial two-mediator model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Ingo; Wollny, Anna; Sim, Chu-Won; Horsch, Antje

    2016-06-01

    In the present study, we tested a serial mindfulness facets-trait emotional intelligence (TEI)-emotional distress-multiple health behaviors mediation model in a sample of N = 427 German-speaking occupational therapists. The mindfulness facets-TEI-emotional distress section of the mediation model revealed partial mediation for the mindfulness facets Act with awareness (Act/Aware) and Accept without judgment (Accept); inconsistent mediation was found for the Describe facet. The serial two-mediator model included three mediational pathways that may link each of the four mindfulness facets with multiple health behaviors. Eight out of 12 indirect effects reached significance and fully mediated the links between Act/Aware and Describe to multiple health behaviors; partial mediation was found for Accept. The mindfulness facet Observe was most relevant for multiple health behaviors, but its relation was not amenable to mediation. Implications of the findings will be discussed. © 2016 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Reading the Mind in the Eyes or reading between the lines? Theory of Mind predicts collective intelligence equally well online and face-to-face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, David; Woolley, Anita Williams; Jing, Lisa X; Chabris, Christopher F; Malone, Thomas W

    2014-01-01

    Recent research with face-to-face groups found that a measure of general group effectiveness (called "collective intelligence") predicted a group's performance on a wide range of different tasks. The same research also found that collective intelligence was correlated with the individual group members' ability to reason about the mental states of others (an ability called "Theory of Mind" or "ToM"). Since ToM was measured in this work by a test that requires participants to "read" the mental states of others from looking at their eyes (the "Reading the Mind in the Eyes" test), it is uncertain whether the same results would emerge in online groups where these visual cues are not available. Here we find that: (1) a collective intelligence factor characterizes group performance approximately as well for online groups as for face-to-face groups; and (2) surprisingly, the ToM measure is equally predictive of collective intelligence in both face-to-face and online groups, even though the online groups communicate only via text and never see each other at all. This provides strong evidence that ToM abilities are just as important to group performance in online environments with limited nonverbal cues as they are face-to-face. It also suggests that the Reading the Mind in the Eyes test measures a deeper, domain-independent aspect of social reasoning, not merely the ability to recognize facial expressions of mental states.

  9. Reading the Mind in the Eyes or reading between the lines? Theory of Mind predicts collective intelligence equally well online and face-to-face.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Engel

    Full Text Available Recent research with face-to-face groups found that a measure of general group effectiveness (called "collective intelligence" predicted a group's performance on a wide range of different tasks. The same research also found that collective intelligence was correlated with the individual group members' ability to reason about the mental states of others (an ability called "Theory of Mind" or "ToM". Since ToM was measured in this work by a test that requires participants to "read" the mental states of others from looking at their eyes (the "Reading the Mind in the Eyes" test, it is uncertain whether the same results would emerge in online groups where these visual cues are not available. Here we find that: (1 a collective intelligence factor characterizes group performance approximately as well for online groups as for face-to-face groups; and (2 surprisingly, the ToM measure is equally predictive of collective intelligence in both face-to-face and online groups, even though the online groups communicate only via text and never see each other at all. This provides strong evidence that ToM abilities are just as important to group performance in online environments with limited nonverbal cues as they are face-to-face. It also suggests that the Reading the Mind in the Eyes test measures a deeper, domain-independent aspect of social reasoning, not merely the ability to recognize facial expressions of mental states.

  10. Urban Architecture as Connective-Collective Intelligence. Which Spaces of Interaction?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Andreina Maahsen-Milan; Margot Pellegrino; Luigi Oliva; Marco Simonetti

    2013-01-01

    .... This approach to building environment is moving towards a complex multichannel interaction, involving both the individual and the collective experiences of space and technology. In describing some signs of that process, the authors outline new features that are changing the concept of sustainability in urban design.

  11. Catalytic micromotors and micropumps and their collective behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibele, Michael Edward

    The overarching goal which initiated this research was the desire to learn how to synthesize artificial micrometer- and nanometer-sized objects which have the ability to move autonomously in solution, and to be able to understand, predict, and control their movements. In the natural world, such motion is common. Bacteria, for instance, use flagella, cilia, or other mechanisms to chemotax to nutrient-rich regions of their environments. However, at the outset of this research, only a few simple examples of artificially powered motions on the microscale had been reported in the literature. This dissertation discusses the evolution of artificial catalytic micromotors and micropumps from the initial bimetallic-microrod design, which catalyzed the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), to the current state of the field, in which particle motion can also be powered by hydrazine-derived fuels or by ultraviolet light. Analyses of these new motors are presented, with particular emphasis given to the motormotor interactions which occur in solution and which give rise to collective behavior in dense populations of the motors. The first artificial autonomous micromotor ever synthesized consisted of a bimetallic microrod with spatially segregated gold and platinum segments. When placed in aqueous solutions containing H2O2, this microrod decomposed the H2O2 asymmetrically on its two metallic surfaces and powered its own motion through solution via self-electrophoresis. In this dissertation, it is shown that a similar self-electrophoretic mechanism is at play in a micropump system comprised of spatially segregated, lithographically patterned, palladium and gold features, which operates in solutions of either hydrazine (N2H4) or N,N-dimethylhydrazine [(CH 3)2N(NH3)]. While this new electrophoretic system is interesting from a theoretical standpoint, N2H4 is highly toxic, and the decision was made to move on to other more environmentally friendly systems. The bulk of this

  12. Nurses’ burnout and counterproductive work behavior in a Nigerian sample: The moderating role of emotional intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard I. Ugwu

    Full Text Available This study examined the moderating role of EI in the relationship between burnout and CWB among 401 nurses drawn from various hospitals within South-eastern Nigeria. Three instruments were used for the collection of data, namely: Counterproductive Work Behaviour Checklist, Maslach Burnout Inventory, and Brief Emotional Intelligence scale. Moderated multiple regression results showed that emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment, positively predicted CWB. In addition, EI significantly and negatively predicted CWB. Results also showed that EI moderated the positive relationship between emotional exhaustion and CWB and between depersonalization and CWB such that the positive relationship between these two dimensions of burnout and CWB was stronger for nurses with low EI compared to those with high EI. The implications of the findings and limitations of the study were discussed. Keywords: Nurses, Burnout, Counterproductive work behaviour, Emotional intelligence

  13. Swarm intelligence in animal groups: when can a collective out-perform an expert?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsikopoulos, Konstantinos V; King, Andrew J

    2010-11-24

    An important potential advantage of group-living that has been mostly neglected by life scientists is that individuals in animal groups may cope more effectively with unfamiliar situations. Social interaction can provide a solution to a cognitive problem that is not available to single individuals via two potential mechanisms: (i) individuals can aggregate information, thus augmenting their 'collective cognition', or (ii) interaction with conspecifics can allow individuals to follow specific 'leaders', those experts with information particularly relevant to the decision at hand. However, a-priori, theory-based expectations about which of these decision rules should be preferred are lacking. Using a set of simple models, we present theoretical conditions (involving group size, and diversity of individual information) under which groups should aggregate information, or follow an expert, when faced with a binary choice. We found that, in single-shot decisions, experts are almost always more accurate than the collective across a range of conditions. However, for repeated decisions - where individuals are able to consider the success of previous decision outcomes - the collective's aggregated information is almost always superior. The results improve our understanding of how social animals may process information and make decisions when accuracy is a key component of individual fitness, and provide a solid theoretical framework for future experimental tests where group size, diversity of individual information, and the repeatability of decisions can be measured and manipulated.

  14. Swarm intelligence in animal groups: when can a collective out-perform an expert?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos V Katsikopoulos

    Full Text Available An important potential advantage of group-living that has been mostly neglected by life scientists is that individuals in animal groups may cope more effectively with unfamiliar situations. Social interaction can provide a solution to a cognitive problem that is not available to single individuals via two potential mechanisms: (i individuals can aggregate information, thus augmenting their 'collective cognition', or (ii interaction with conspecifics can allow individuals to follow specific 'leaders', those experts with information particularly relevant to the decision at hand. However, a-priori, theory-based expectations about which of these decision rules should be preferred are lacking. Using a set of simple models, we present theoretical conditions (involving group size, and diversity of individual information under which groups should aggregate information, or follow an expert, when faced with a binary choice. We found that, in single-shot decisions, experts are almost always more accurate than the collective across a range of conditions. However, for repeated decisions - where individuals are able to consider the success of previous decision outcomes - the collective's aggregated information is almost always superior. The results improve our understanding of how social animals may process information and make decisions when accuracy is a key component of individual fitness, and provide a solid theoretical framework for future experimental tests where group size, diversity of individual information, and the repeatability of decisions can be measured and manipulated.

  15. Intelligence analysis – the royal discipline of Competitive Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    František Bartes

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to propose work methodology for Competitive Intelligence teams in one of the intelligence cycle’s specific area, in the so-called “Intelligence Analysis”. Intelligence Analysis is one of the stages of the Intelligence Cycle in which data from both the primary and secondary research are analyzed. The main result of the effort is the creation of added value for the information collected. Company Competiitve Intelligence, correctly understood and implemented in busines...

  16. Dynamic assessment of intelligence is a better reply to adaptive behavior and cognitive plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabio, Rosa Angela

    2005-01-01

    In the present study, the author conducted 3 experiments to examine the dynamic testing of potential intelligence. She investigated the relationship between dynamic measures and other factors such as (a) static measures of intelligence (Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices Test [J. C. Raven, J. H. Court, & J. Raven, 1979] and the D48 [J. D. Black, 1961]) and (b) codifying speed, codifying accuracy, and school performance. The participants were kindergarten children (n = 150), primary school children (n = 287), and teenaged students (n = 198) who were all trained to master problem solving tests with dynamic measures of intelligence. The results showed that dynamic measures predict more accurately the relationships of codifying speed, codifying accuracy, and school performance.

  17. Identification of key factors in consumers' adoption behavior of intelligent medical terminals based on a hybrid modified MADM model for product improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yupeng; Chen, Yifei; Tzeng, Gwo-Hshiung

    2017-09-01

    As a new application technology of the Internet of Things (IoT), intelligent medical treatment has attracted the attention of both nations and industries through its promotion of medical informatisation, modernisation, and intelligentisation. Faced with a wide variety of intelligent medical terminals, consumers may be affected by various factors when making purchase decisions. To examine and evaluate the key influential factors (and their interrelationships) of consumer adoption behavior for improving and promoting intelligent medical terminals toward achieving set aspiration level in each dimension and criterion. A hybrid modified Multiple Attribute Decision-Making (MADM) model was used for this study, based on three components: (1) the Decision-Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL) technique, to build an influential network relationship map (INRM) at both 'dimensions' and 'criteria' levels; (2) the DEMATEL-based analytic network process (DANP) method, to determine the interrelationships and influential weights among the criteria and identify the source-influential factors; and (3) the modified Vlse Kriterijumska Optimizacija I Kompromisno Resenje (VIKOR) method, to evaluate and improve for reducing the performance gaps to meet the consumers' needs for continuous improvement and sustainable products-development. First, a consensus on the influential factors affecting consumers' adoption of intelligent medical terminals was collected from experts' opinion in practical experience. Next, the interrelationships and influential weights of DANP among dimensions/criteria based on the DEMATEL technique were determined. Finally, two intelligent medicine bottles (AdhereTech, A1 alternative; and Audio/Visual Alerting Pillbox, A2 alternative) were reviewed as the terminal devices to verify the accuracy of the MADM model and evaluate its performance on each criterion for improving the total certification gaps by systematics according to the modified VIKOR method

  18. Smart Collections: Can Artificial Intelligence Tools and Techniques Assist with Discovering, Evaluating and Tagging Digital Learning Resources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibbrandt, Richard; Yang, Dongqiang; Pfitzner, Darius; Powers, David; Mitchell, Pru; Hayman, Sarah; Eddy, Helen

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on a joint proof of concept project undertaken by researchers from the Flinders University Artificial Intelligence Laboratory in partnership with information managers from the Education Network Australia (edna) team at Education Services Australia to address the question of whether artificial intelligence techniques could be…

  19. A study on the effect of emotional intelligence on retail investors’ behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Pirayesh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Investment decisions are normally accomplished based on fundamental or technical methods. However, there are many cases where investors make their investment decisions based on their emotions. This study investigates the effects of various factors including biases representation, mental accounting and risk aversion when an investment decision is executed. In other words, the study examines the effects of emotional intelligence components on retail investors’ investment strategies on Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE. The proposed study selects a sample of 270 investors who had some experiences on TSE randomly and using a questionnaire based survey detected that there was a positive and meaningful relationship between emotional intelligence and investment decisions.

  20. Information flow, opinion polling and collective intelligence in house-hunting social insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Nigel R; Pratt, Stephen C; Mallon, Eamonn B; Britton, Nicholas F; Sumpter, David J T

    2002-11-29

    The sharing and collective processing of information by certain insect societies is one of the reasons that they warrant the superlative epithet 'super-organisms' (Franks 1989, Am. Sci. 77, 138-145). We describe a detailed experimental and mathematical analysis of information exchange and decision-making in, arguably, the most difficult collective choices that social insects face: namely, house hunting by complete societies. The key issue is how can a complete colony select the single best nest-site among several alternatives? Individual scouts respond to the diverse information they have personally obtained about the quality of a potential nest-site by producing a recruitment signal. The colony then deliberates over (i.e. integrates) different incoming recruitment signals associated with different potential nest-sites to achieve a well-informed collective decision. We compare this process in honeybees and in the ant Leptothorax albipennis. Notwithstanding many differences - for example, honeybee colonies have 100 times more individuals than L. albipennis colonies - there are certain similarities in the fundamental algorithms these societies appear to employ when they are house hunting. Scout honeybees use the full power of the waggle dance to inform their nest-mates about the distance and direction of a potential nest-site (and they indicate the quality of a nest-site indirectly through the vigour of their dance), and yet individual bees perhaps only rarely make direct comparisons of such sites. By contrast, scouts from L. albipennis colonies often compare nest-sites, but they cannot directly inform one another of their estimation of the quality of a potential site. Instead, they discriminate between sites by initiating recruitment sooner to better ones. Nevertheless, both species do make use of forms of opinion polling. For example, scout bees that have formerly danced for a certain site cease such advertising and monitor the dances of others at random. That is

  1. iPixel: a visual content-based and semantic search engine for retrieving digitized mammograms by using collective intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alor-Hernández, Giner; Pérez-Gallardo, Yuliana; Posada-Gómez, Rubén; Cortes-Robles, Guillermo; Rodríguez-González, Alejandro; Aguilar-Laserre, Alberto A

    2012-09-01

    Nowadays, traditional search engines such as Google, Yahoo and Bing facilitate the retrieval of information in the format of images, but the results are not always useful for the users. This is mainly due to two problems: (1) the semantic keywords are not taken into consideration and (2) it is not always possible to establish a query using the image features. This issue has been covered in different domains in order to develop content-based image retrieval (CBIR) systems. The expert community has focussed their attention on the healthcare domain, where a lot of visual information for medical analysis is available. This paper provides a solution called iPixel Visual Search Engine, which involves semantics and content issues in order to search for digitized mammograms. iPixel offers the possibility of retrieving mammogram features using collective intelligence and implementing a CBIR algorithm. Our proposal compares not only features with similar semantic meaning, but also visual features. In this sense, the comparisons are made in different ways: by the number of regions per image, by maximum and minimum size of regions per image and by average intensity level of each region. iPixel Visual Search Engine supports the medical community in differential diagnoses related to the diseases of the breast. The iPixel Visual Search Engine has been validated by experts in the healthcare domain, such as radiologists, in addition to experts in digital image analysis.

  2. Artificial Intelligence, Knowledge Extraction and the Study of Human Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Ydewalle, Gery; Delhaye, Patrick

    1988-01-01

    Describes artificial intelligence (AI) as the study of intelligence with the ideas and methods of computation. States that the goal is to make computers more intelligent and thereby uncover the principles that make intelligent behavior possible. Discusses knowledge representations, production (if-then) systems, and expert systems as forms of AI.…

  3. Neurological Basis and Potential Modification of Emotional Intelligence through Affective/Behavioral Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Formally Supervised Trainees 1997-1999 David Glahn, Ph.D. Associate Professor, Yale University School of Medicine Provided mentorship in...Reis, I, & Detre, JA. FMRI evidence for the functional reserve model of post-ATL neuropsychological outcome prediction. Poster Presented at the David ...aspects of emotional intelligence, whereas psychopathological symp- toms, including somatization, anxiety, depression and para- noia , increased

  4. Use of artificial intelligence to shorten the behavioral diagnosis of autism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis P Wall

    Full Text Available The Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R is one of the most commonly used instruments for assisting in the behavioral diagnosis of autism. The exam consists of 93 questions that must be answered by a care provider within a focused session that often spans 2.5 hours. We used machine learning techniques to study the complete sets of answers to the ADI-R available at the Autism Genetic Research Exchange (AGRE for 891 individuals diagnosed with autism and 75 individuals who did not meet the criteria for an autism diagnosis. Our analysis showed that 7 of the 93 items contained in the ADI-R were sufficient to classify autism with 99.9% statistical accuracy. We further tested the accuracy of this 7-question classifier against complete sets of answers from two independent sources, a collection of 1654 individuals with autism from the Simons Foundation and a collection of 322 individuals with autism from the Boston Autism Consortium. In both cases, our classifier performed with nearly 100% statistical accuracy, properly categorizing all but one of the individuals from these two resources who previously had been diagnosed with autism through the standard ADI-R. Our ability to measure specificity was limited by the small numbers of non-spectrum cases in the research data used, however, both real and simulated data demonstrated a range in specificity from 99% to 93.8%. With incidence rates rising, the capacity to diagnose autism quickly and effectively requires careful design of behavioral assessment methods. Ours is an initial attempt to retrospectively analyze large data repositories to derive an accurate, but significantly abbreviated approach that may be used for rapid detection and clinical prioritization of individuals likely to have an autism spectrum disorder. Such a tool could assist in streamlining the clinical diagnostic process overall, leading to faster screening and earlier treatment of individuals with autism.

  5. Use of artificial intelligence to shorten the behavioral diagnosis of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Dennis P; Dally, Rebecca; Luyster, Rhiannon; Jung, Jae-Yoon; Deluca, Todd F

    2012-01-01

    The Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) is one of the most commonly used instruments for assisting in the behavioral diagnosis of autism. The exam consists of 93 questions that must be answered by a care provider within a focused session that often spans 2.5 hours. We used machine learning techniques to study the complete sets of answers to the ADI-R available at the Autism Genetic Research Exchange (AGRE) for 891 individuals diagnosed with autism and 75 individuals who did not meet the criteria for an autism diagnosis. Our analysis showed that 7 of the 93 items contained in the ADI-R were sufficient to classify autism with 99.9% statistical accuracy. We further tested the accuracy of this 7-question classifier against complete sets of answers from two independent sources, a collection of 1654 individuals with autism from the Simons Foundation and a collection of 322 individuals with autism from the Boston Autism Consortium. In both cases, our classifier performed with nearly 100% statistical accuracy, properly categorizing all but one of the individuals from these two resources who previously had been diagnosed with autism through the standard ADI-R. Our ability to measure specificity was limited by the small numbers of non-spectrum cases in the research data used, however, both real and simulated data demonstrated a range in specificity from 99% to 93.8%. With incidence rates rising, the capacity to diagnose autism quickly and effectively requires careful design of behavioral assessment methods. Ours is an initial attempt to retrospectively analyze large data repositories to derive an accurate, but significantly abbreviated approach that may be used for rapid detection and clinical prioritization of individuals likely to have an autism spectrum disorder. Such a tool could assist in streamlining the clinical diagnostic process overall, leading to faster screening and earlier treatment of individuals with autism.

  6. Simulating pile load-settlement behavior from CPT data using intelligent computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkroosh, I.; Nikraz, H.

    2011-09-01

    Analysis of pile load-settlement behavior is a complex problem due to the participation of many factors involved. This paper presents a new procedure based on artificial neural networks (ANNs) for simulating the load-settlement behavior of pile foundations embedded in sand and mixed soils (subjected to axial loads). Three ANN models have been developed, a model for bored piles and two other models for driven piles (a model for each of concrete and steel piles). The data used for development of the ANN models is collected from the literature and comprise a series of in-situ piles load tests as well as cone penetration test (CPT) results. The data of each model is divided into two subsets: Training set for model calibration and independent validation set for model verification. Predictions from the ANN models are compared with the results of experimental data and with predictions of number of currently adopted load-transfer methods. Statistical analysis is used to verify the performance of the models. The results indicate that the ANN model performs very well and able to predict the pile load-settlement behaviour accurately.

  7. Moral Intelligence in the Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    2009-01-01

    Moral intelligence is newer and less studied than the more established cognitive, emotional and social intelligences, but has great potential to improve our understanding of learning and behavior. Moral intelligence refers to the ability to apply ethical principles to personal goals, values and actions. The construct of moral intelligence consists…

  8. Four converging measures of temporal discounting and their relationships with intelligence, executive functions, thinking dispositions, and behavioral outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra G Basile

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Temporal discounting is the tendency to devalue temporally distant rewards. Past studies have examined the k-value, the indifference point, and the area under the curve as dependent measures on this task. The current study included these three measures and a fourth measure, called the interest rate total score. The interest rate total score was based on scoring only those items in which the delayed choice should be preferred given the expected return based on simple interest rates. In addition, associations with several individual difference measures were examined including intelligence, executive functions (inhibition, working memory, and set-shifting, thinking dispositions (Need for Cognition and Consideration of Future Consequences and engagement in substance use and gambling behavior. A staircase temporal discounting task was examined in a sample of 99 university students. Replicating previous studies, temporal discounting increased with longer delays to reward and decreased with higher reward magnitudes. A hyperbolic function accounted for variance in temporal discounting better than an exponential function. Reaction time at the indifference point was significantly longer than at the other choice points. The four dependent measures of temporal discounting were all significantly correlated and were also significantly associated with our individual difference measures. That is, the tendency to wait for a larger delayed reward on all of the temporal discounting measures was associated with higher intelligence, higher executive functions and more consideration of future consequences. Associations between our measures of temporal discounting and outcomes related to substance use and gambling behavior were modest in our university sample.

  9. Collective Animal Behavior from Bayesian Estimation and Probability Matching

    OpenAIRE

    Alfonso Perez-Escudero; Gonzalo G. de Polavieja

    2011-01-01

    Animals living in groups make movement decisions that depend, among other factors, on social interactions with other group members. Our present understanding of social rules in animal collectives is mainly based on empirical fits to observations, with less emphasis in obtaining first-principles approaches that allow their derivation. Here we show that patterns of collective decisions can be derived from the basic ability of animals to make probabilistic estimations in the presence of uncertai...

  10. THE INFLUENCE OF SPIRITUAL INTELLIGENCE,LEADERSHIP, AND ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE ON ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR: A STUDY TO ISLAMIC BANK IN MAKASSAR CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhdar. HM

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study are to find out and to analys: (1 the influence of spiritual intelligence on organizational citizenship behavior; (2 the influence of leadership on organizational citizenship behavior; (3 the influence of organizationan culture on organizational citizenship behaviorThe population included all employees of Islamic Bank in Makassar City. There were 178 samples determined by using Slovin formula. The samples were selected in two stages: proportional and purposive sampling. The data were analyzed by using path analysis with the AMOS 21 program. The results show that: spiritual intelligence has a positive and significant influence on organizational citizenship behavior; leadership has a positive and significant influence on organizational citizenship behavior; organizational culture has a positive and significant influence on organizational citizenship behavior.

  11. Computational intelligence in optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Tenne, Yoel

    2010-01-01

    This volume presents a collection of recent studies covering the spectrum of computational intelligence applications with emphasis on their application to challenging real-world problems. Topics covered include: Intelligent agent-based algorithms, Hybrid intelligent systems, Cognitive and evolutionary robotics, Knowledge-Based Engineering, fuzzy sets and systems, Bioinformatics and Bioengineering, Computational finance and Computational economics, Data mining, Machine learning, and Expert systems. ""Computational Intelligence in Optimization"" is a comprehensive reference for researchers, prac

  12. Intelligence Policy and the Science of Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baginski, Maureen

    Intelligence policy must protect the security of intelligence sources, and the privacy of individuals. We have moved away from a world in which the most important information was secret, and was very hard to collect. Today there is a lot of valuable information that is available open source, and provides key context for intelligence analysis. At the same time, a scientific focus is needed to define the missing elements, so that they can be collected. Moving away from the “vacuum cleaner” approach will improve intelligence operations and, at the same time, solve many of the most difficult issues of privacy of citizens and security of sources.

  13. Collecting social network data to study social activity-travel behavior: an egocentric approach

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Antonio Carrasco; Bernie Hogan; Barry Wellman; Miller, Eric J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a data collection effort designed to incorporate the social dimension in social activity-travel behavior by explicitly studying the link between individuals’ social activities and their social networks. The main hypothesis of the data collection effort is that individuals’ travel behavior is conditional upon their social networks; that is, a key cause of travel behavior is the social dimension represented by social networks. With this hypothesis in mind, and using survey a...

  14. Measuring and Modeling Behavioral Decision Dynamics in Collective Evacuation

    CERN Document Server

    Carlson, Jean M; Stromberg, Sean P; Bassett, Danielle S; Craparo, Emily M; Gutierrez-Villarreal, Francisco; Otani, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Identifying and quantifying factors influencing human decision making remains an outstanding challenge, impacting the performance and predictability of social and technological systems. In many cases, system failures are traced to human factors including congestion, overload, miscommunication, and delays. Here we report results of a behavioral network science experiment, targeting decision making in a natural disaster. In each scenario, individuals are faced with a forced "go" versus "no go" evacuation decision, based on information available on competing broadcast and peer-to-peer sources. In this controlled setting, all actions and observations are recorded prior to the decision, enabling development of a quantitative decision making model that accounts for the disaster likelihood, severity, and temporal urgency, as well as competition between networked individuals for limited emergency resources. Individual differences in behavior within this social setting are correlated with individual differences in inh...

  15. A New Model for the Collective Behavior of Animals

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, P The; Diep, H T

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new model in order to study behaviors of self-organized system such as a group of animals. We assume that the individuals have two degrees of freedom corresponding one to their internal state and the other to their external state. The external state is characterized by its moving orientation. The rule of the interaction between the individuals is determined by the internal state which can be either in the non-excited state or in the excited state. The system is put under a source of external perturbation called "noise". To study the behavior of the model with varying noise, we use the Monte-Carlo simulation technique. The result clearly shows two first-order transitions separating the system into three phases: with increasing noise, the system undergoes a phase transition from a frozen dilute phase to an ordered compact phase and then to the disordered dispersed phase. These phases correspond to behaviors of animals: uncollected state at low noise, flocking at medium noise and runaway at high noi...

  16. Collective behavior of Dictyostelium discoideum monitored by impedance analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Edith; Aue, Dennis; Tarantola, Marco; Polo, Elena; Westendorf, Christian; Oikawa, Noriko; Bodenschatz, Eberhard; Geil, Burkhard; Janshoff, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Dictyostelium discoideum cells respond to periodic signals of extracellular cAMP by collective changes of cell-cell and cell-substrate contacts. This was confirmed by dielectric analysis employing electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) and impedance measurements involving cell-filled micro channels in conjunction with optical microscopy providing a comprehensive picture of chemotaxis under conditions of starvation. PMID:23713138

  17. Collection Development Behaviors in School Librarians: LGBTQQ Books and Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickman, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    For all students in public and private schools, the need to search for themselves in books and other resources is real and ever-growing. Selection is of prime importance in collection development-second only to de-selection, and with about two and a half million LGBTQQ teens in the U.S., the weight of selection choices that reflect the needs and…

  18. Characteristic periodicities of collective behavior at the foreign exchange market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, A.-H.; Hołyst, J. A.

    2008-04-01

    As the result of empirical investigations into the foreign exchange market a group structure of characteristic periodic decisions of market participants is found. In order to explain this finding at the microscopic level the agent-based model of a financial market in which N market participants trade M financial commodities is considered. If different sources of periodic information exist then the relationship among these characteristic periodic behaviors may be associated with a special structure where market participants perceive such information in the foreign exchange market.

  19. Emotional Intelligence and Identity Style as Risk Factors for High-Risk Behavior in Prisoners: The Mediating Role of Resiliency and Social Adjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maktabi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background A motivation for the intense scientific interest in high-risk behaviors is to do with firmly held belief that behaviors such as substance abuse and delinquency have ubiquitous, catastrophic outcomes. Objectives The current study aimed to examine a model of risk factors for high-risk behaviors in prisoners. It was hypothesized that emotional intelligence and identity style have an indirect effect on high-risk behaviors via the mediating role of social adjustment and resiliency. Materials and Methods The sample consisted of 293 prisoners that were selected via simple random sampling and participated in this research by completing Schutte’s emotional intelligence scale, Berzonsky identity style inventory, social adjustment scale, Conner-Davidson’s resilience scale, and high risk behavior scale; all these instruments are reliable and have been validated. Structural equation modeling (SEM through SPSS 20 and AMOS 20 were used for data analysis. Results The results suggested that the model had good fit (root mean square of approximation = 0.07, comparative fit index = 0.95, normed fit index = 0.91, goodness of fit index =0.93 with the data. Accordingly, the indirect effect of resiliency on high-risk behavior via social adjustment and resiliency, and the indirect effect of identity style on high-risk behavior via emotional intelligence and resiliency were approved. Conclusions Our findings suggest the importance of high-risk behaviors in terms of etiological pathways, maintenance process and treatment interventions.

  20. Understanding recurrent crime as system-immanent collective behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perc, Matjaž; Donnay, Karsten; Helbing, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Containing the spreading of crime is a major challenge for society. Yet, since thousands of years, no effective strategy has been found to overcome crime. To the contrary, empirical evidence shows that crime is recurrent, a fact that is not captured well by rational choice theories of crime. According to these, strong enough punishment should prevent crime from happening. To gain a better understanding of the relationship between crime and punishment, we consider that the latter requires prior discovery of illicit behavior and study a spatial version of the inspection game. Simulations reveal the spontaneous emergence of cyclic dominance between "criminals", "inspectors", and "ordinary people" as a consequence of spatial interactions. Such cycles dominate the evolutionary process, in particular when the temptation to commit crime or the cost of inspection are low or moderate. Yet, there are also critical parameter values beyond which cycles cease to exist and the population is dominated either by a stable mixture of criminals and inspectors or one of these two strategies alone. Both continuous and discontinuous phase transitions to different final states are possible, indicating that successful strategies to contain crime can be very much counter-intuitive and complex. Our results demonstrate that spatial interactions are crucial for the evolutionary outcome of the inspection game, and they also reveal why criminal behavior is likely to be recurrent rather than evolving towards an equilibrium with monotonous parameter dependencies.

  1. Understanding recurrent crime as system-immanent collective behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matjaž Perc

    Full Text Available Containing the spreading of crime is a major challenge for society. Yet, since thousands of years, no effective strategy has been found to overcome crime. To the contrary, empirical evidence shows that crime is recurrent, a fact that is not captured well by rational choice theories of crime. According to these, strong enough punishment should prevent crime from happening. To gain a better understanding of the relationship between crime and punishment, we consider that the latter requires prior discovery of illicit behavior and study a spatial version of the inspection game. Simulations reveal the spontaneous emergence of cyclic dominance between "criminals", "inspectors", and "ordinary people" as a consequence of spatial interactions. Such cycles dominate the evolutionary process, in particular when the temptation to commit crime or the cost of inspection are low or moderate. Yet, there are also critical parameter values beyond which cycles cease to exist and the population is dominated either by a stable mixture of criminals and inspectors or one of these two strategies alone. Both continuous and discontinuous phase transitions to different final states are possible, indicating that successful strategies to contain crime can be very much counter-intuitive and complex. Our results demonstrate that spatial interactions are crucial for the evolutionary outcome of the inspection game, and they also reveal why criminal behavior is likely to be recurrent rather than evolving towards an equilibrium with monotonous parameter dependencies.

  2. Multiculturalism and innovative work behavior: The mediating role of cultural intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korzilius, H.P.L.M.; Bücker, J.J.L.E.; Beerlage, S.

    2017-01-01

    Innovative work behavior is a key organizational competence. Informed by a framework for describing the role of cultural competences as an antecedent for international business performance this study seeks to explicate the connection between individual multiculturalism and innovative work behaviors,

  3. Collective Behavior of Camphor Floats Migrating on the Water Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimori, Hiraku; Suematsu, Nobuhiko J.; Nakata, Satoshi

    2017-10-01

    As simple and easily controllable objects among various self-propelled particles, camphor floats on the water surface have been widely recognized. In this paper, we introduce characteristic behaviors and discuss the background mechanism of camphor floats on water, both in isolated and non-isolated conditions. In particular, we focus on: (i) the transition of dynamical characters through bifurcations exhibited by systems with small number of camphor floats and (ii) the emergence of a rich variety of complex dynamics observed in systems with large number camphor floats, and attempt to elucidate these phenomena through mathematical modeling as well as experimental analysis. Finally, we discuss the connection of the dynamics of camphor floats to that of a wider class of complex and sophisticated dynamics exhibited by various types of self-propelled particles.

  4. Understanding recurrent crime as system-immanent collective behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Perc, Matjaz; Helbing, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Containing the spreading of crime is a major challenge for society. Yet, since thousands of years, no effective strategy has been found to overcome crime. To the contrary, empirical evidence shows that crime is recurrent, a fact that is not captured well by rational choice theories of crime. According to these, strong enough punishment should prevent crime from happening. To gain a better understanding of the relationship between crime and punishment, we consider that the latter requires prior discovery of illicit behavior and study a spatial version of the inspection game. Simulations reveal the spontaneous emergence of cyclic dominance between ''criminals'', ''inspectors'', and ''ordinary people'' as a consequence of spatial interactions. Such cycles dominate the evolutionary process, in particular when the temptation to commit crime or the cost of inspection are low or moderate. Yet, there are also critical parameter values beyond which cycles cease to exist and the population is dominated either by a stab...

  5. Counterproductive work behavior among frontline government employees: Role of personality, emotional intelligence, affectivity, emotional labor, and emotional exhaustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponniah Raman

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research is to study the effect of personality, emotional intelligence (EI, affectivity, emotional labor and emotional exhaustion on counterproductive work behavior (CWB of front line employees in the government sector. A questionnaire was designed and distributed to 625 front line employees working at service counters in 25 ministries in Malaysia. We received responses from 519employees (response rate = 83%. The data was analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM. The main findings are: (1 personality factors of employees drive their EI, affectivity, emotional labor, emotional exhaustion, and CWB and (2 EI and affectivity impact emotional labor, emotional exhaustion and CWB. Through the integrated model, we have studied the indirect roles of emotional labor and emotional exhaustion. This is one of the few studies that have effectively integrated the five constructs into a single framework to study their effects on CWB.

  6. A survey on impact of emotional intelligence, organizational citizenship behaviors and job satisfaction on employees’ performance in Iranian hotel industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambiz Heidarzadeh Hanzaee

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of employees’ Emotional Intelligence (EI, Job Satisfaction (JS and Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB on Employee's Performance (EP in Iranian hotel industry. The proposed study of this paper designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 225 employees who have a high interaction with customers in hotel industry. In order to describe the data, the frequency distribution tables have been used and the structural equations model (SEM has been used to describe the data. The results of this survey have confirmed all the proposed hypotheses of this survey except the one, which was associated with the relationship between OCB on EP. Therefore, EI have positive impacts on JS, OCB and EP in Iranian hotel industry. Conclusion and Managerial implications have been offers.

  7. Modeling habitual and addictive smartphone behavior: The role of smartphone usage types, emotional intelligence, social stress, self-regulation, age, and gender

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Deursen, Alexander Johannes Aloysius Maria; Bolle, Colin L.; Hegner, Sabrina M.; Hegner, Sabrina; Kommers, Petrus A.M.

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigates the role of process and social oriented smartphone usage, emotional intelligence, social stress, self-regulation, gender, and age in relation to habitual and addictive smartphone behavior. We conducted an online survey among 386 respondents. The results revealed that

  8. Modeling habitual and addictive smartphone behavior: The role of smartphone usage types, emotional intelligence, social stress, self-regulation, age, and gender

    OpenAIRE

    van Deursen, Alexander Johannes Aloysius Maria; Bolle, Colin L.; Hegner, Sabrina M.; Hegner, Sabrina; Kommers, Petrus A.M.

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigates the role of process and social oriented smartphone usage, emotional intelligence, social stress, self-regulation, gender, and age in relation to habitual and addictive smartphone behavior. We conducted an online survey among 386 respondents. The results revealed that habitual smartphone use is an important contributor to addictive smartphone behavior. Process related smartphone use is a strong determinant for both developing habitual and addictive smartphone beh...

  9. Nonlinear Socio-Ecological Dynamics and First Principles ofCollective Choice Behavior of ``Homo Socialis"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonis, M.

    Socio-ecological dynamics emerged from the field of Mathematical SocialSciences and opened up avenues for re-examination of classical problems of collective behavior in Social and Spatial sciences. The ``engine" of this collective behavior is the subjective mental evaluation of level of utilities in the future, presenting sets of composite socio-economic-temporal-locational advantages. These dynamics present new laws of collective multi-population behavior which are the meso-level counterparts of the utility optimization individual behavior. The central core of the socio-ecological choice dynamics includes the following first principle of the collective choice behavior of ``Homo Socialis" based on the existence of ``collective consciousness": the choice behavior of ``Homo Socialis" is a collective meso-level choice behavior such that the relative changes in choice frequencies depend on the distribution of innovation alternatives between adopters of innovations. The mathematical basis of the Socio-Ecological Dynamics includes two complementary analytical approaches both based on the use of computer modeling as a theoretical and simulation tool. First approach is the ``continuous approach" --- the systems of ordinary and partial differential equations reflecting the continuous time Volterra ecological formalism in a form of antagonistic and/or cooperative collective hyper-games between different sub-sets of choice alternatives. Second approach is the ``discrete approach" --- systems of difference equations presenting a new branch of the non-linear discrete dynamics --- the Discrete Relative m-population/n-innovations Socio-Spatial Dynamics (Dendrinos and Sonis, 1990). The generalization of the Volterra formalism leads further to the meso-level variational principle of collective choice behavior determining the balance between the resulting cumulative social spatio-temporal interactions among the population of adopters susceptible to the choice alternatives and the

  10. Reading the Mind in the Eyes or Reading between the Lines? Theory of Mind Predicts Collective Intelligence Equally Well Online and Face-To-Face

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, David; Woolley, Anita Williams; Jing, Lisa X.; Chabris, Christopher F.; Malone, Thomas W.

    2014-01-01

    Recent research with face-to-face groups found that a measure of general group effectiveness (called “collective intelligence”) predicted a group’s performance on a wide range of different tasks. The same research also found that collective intelligence was correlated with the individual group members’ ability to reason about the mental states of others (an ability called “Theory of Mind” or “ToM”). Since ToM was measured in this work by a test that requires participants to “read” the mental states of others from looking at their eyes (the “Reading the Mind in the Eyes” test), it is uncertain whether the same results would emerge in online groups where these visual cues are not available. Here we find that: (1) a collective intelligence factor characterizes group performance approximately as well for online groups as for face-to-face groups; and (2) surprisingly, the ToM measure is equally predictive of collective intelligence in both face-to-face and online groups, even though the online groups communicate only via text and never see each other at all. This provides strong evidence that ToM abilities are just as important to group performance in online environments with limited nonverbal cues as they are face-to-face. It also suggests that the Reading the Mind in the Eyes test measures a deeper, domain-independent aspect of social reasoning, not merely the ability to recognize facial expressions of mental states. PMID:25514387

  11. 76 FR 44301 - Information Collection; Homeowner Risk Reduction Behaviors Concerning Wildfire Risks and Climate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-25

    ... Behaviors Concerning Wildfire Risks and Climate Change Impacts. The information will be collected from... INFORMATION: Title: Understanding the Threats of Wildfire & Climate Change: Risk Mitigation Behaviors of... risk, and climate change. The objective of this study is to help decisionmakers better understand the...

  12. Behavior pattern (innate action) of individuals in fish schools generating efficient collective evasion from predation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, M; Kashimori, Y; Hoshino, O; Fujita, K; Kambara, T

    2005-07-21

    The schooling of fishes is one typical animal social behavior. One primary function of fish school is to protect members when attacked by predators. One main way that the school reduces the predator's chance of making a successful kill is to confuse the predator as it makes its strike. This may be accomplished by collective evasion behaviors organized through integration of motions of individual fish made based on their innate actions (behavior patterns). In order to investigate what kind of behavior pattern of individuals can generate the efficient collective evasion of a school, we present a model of evasion behavior pattern which consists of three component behavior patterns, schooling, cooperative escape, and selfish escape behavior patterns and the rule for choice of one among them with proper timing. Each fish determines its movement direction taking into account simultaneously three kinds of elemental motions, mimicking its neighbors, avoiding collisions with its nearest neighbors, and escaping from an approaching predator. The weights of three elemental motions are changed depending on which component behavior pattern the fish carries out. The values of the weights for three component behavior patterns can be definitively determined under the condition that the collective evasion of the school becomes the most efficient, that is, the probability that any member is eaten by the predator becomes minimum.

  13. Participatory Learning through Behavioral and Cognitive Engagements in an Online Collective Information Searching Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Ching; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationships between college students' behavioral and cognitive engagements while performing an online collective information searching (CIS) activity. The activity aimed to assist the students in utilizing a social bookmarking application to exploit the Internet in a collective manner. A group of 101 college…

  14. Modeling collective animal behavior with a cognitive perspective: a methodological framework.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Weitz

    Full Text Available The last decades have seen an increasing interest in modeling collective animal behavior. Some studies try to reproduce as accurately as possible the collective dynamics and patterns observed in several animal groups with biologically plausible, individual behavioral rules. The objective is then essentially to demonstrate that the observed collective features may be the result of self-organizing processes involving quite simple individual behaviors. Other studies concentrate on the objective of establishing or enriching links between collective behavior researches and cognitive or physiological ones, which then requires that each individual rule be carefully validated. Here we discuss the methodological consequences of this additional requirement. Using the example of corpse clustering in ants, we first illustrate that it may be impossible to discriminate among alternative individual rules by considering only observational data collected at the group level. Six individual behavioral models are described: They are clearly distinct in terms of individual behaviors, they all reproduce satisfactorily the collective dynamics and distribution patterns observed in experiments, and we show theoretically that it is strictly impossible to discriminate two of these models even in the limit of an infinite amount of data whatever the accuracy level. A set of methodological steps are then listed and discussed as practical ways to partially overcome this problem. They involve complementary experimental protocols specifically designed to address the behavioral rules successively, conserving group-level data for the overall model validation. In this context, we highlight the importance of maintaining a sharp distinction between model enunciation, with explicit references to validated biological concepts, and formal translation of these concepts in terms of quantitative state variables and fittable functional dependences. Illustrative examples are provided of the

  15. Collecting real-time data with a behavioral simulation: A new methodological trait

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Kristina Risom

    As the complexity of problems and the speed of changes increase for companies, the accuracy of research relies on the measurement of behavior close to the real world of the respondents. Recent reviews within different research fields of the social sciences have pointed at the need for more...... interactive methods of collecting data [1, 2]. To collect real-time data as opposed to retrospective data, new methodological traits are needed. The paper proposes that a behavioral simulation supported by Web technology is a valid new research strategy to handle the collection of real-time data. Adapting...... to 'survey fatigues' and the lack of interaction [1, 12-16]. The concerns of the paper are the contributions of a simulation, the opportunities and challenges with Web technology, ensuring the validity and reliability of the data collected, and finally, a designed behavioral simulation is presented...

  16. How can Human Intelligence Enhance Collection in an Era of Un-manned Technology and Reduced Personnel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-12

    impulse can substitute for direct on-the scene knowledge of the key factors in a given country or region. No matter how spectacular a photo may be it... shopping centers, schools, sporting events, the ATM, and almost anywhere public business takes places, cameras record our activities. While this is not...Iraq had a mobile , biological weapons program.”44 But perhaps the final straw in how the Intelligence Community fails to share information and

  17. Intelligent Systems Approach for Automated Identification of Individual Control Behavior of a Human Operator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaychik, Kirill B.; Cardullo, Frank M.

    2012-01-01

    Results have been obtained using conventional techniques to model the generic human operator?s control behavior, however little research has been done to identify an individual based on control behavior. The hypothesis investigated is that different operators exhibit different control behavior when performing a given control task. Two enhancements to existing human operator models, which allow personalization of the modeled control behavior, are presented. One enhancement accounts for the testing control signals, which are introduced by an operator for more accurate control of the system and/or to adjust the control strategy. This uses the Artificial Neural Network which can be fine-tuned to model the testing control. Another enhancement takes the form of an equiripple filter which conditions the control system power spectrum. A novel automated parameter identification technique was developed to facilitate the identification process of the parameters of the selected models. This utilizes a Genetic Algorithm based optimization engine called the Bit-Climbing Algorithm. Enhancements were validated using experimental data obtained from three different sources: the Manual Control Laboratory software experiments, Unmanned Aerial Vehicle simulation, and NASA Langley Research Center Visual Motion Simulator studies. This manuscript also addresses applying human operator models to evaluate the effectiveness of motion feedback when simulating actual pilot control behavior in a flight simulator.

  18. Organizing intelligence: development of behavioral science and the research based model of business education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottom, William P

    2009-01-01

    Conventional history of the predominant, research-based model of business education (RBM) traces its origins to programs initiated by the Ford Foundation after World War II. This paper maps the elite network responsible for developing behavioral science and the Ford Foundation agenda. Archival records of the actions taken by central nodes in the network permit identification of the original vision statement for the model. Analysis also permits tracking progress toward realizing that vision over several decades. Behavioral science was married to business education from the earliest stages of development. The RBM was a fundamental promise made by advocates for social science funding. Appraisals of the model and recommendations for reform must address its full history, not the partial, distorted view that is the conventional account. Implications of this more complete history for business education and for behavioral theory are considered.

  19. Dynamical modeling of collective behavior from pigeon flight data: flock cohesion and dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieck Kattas, Graciano; Xu, Xiao-Ke; Small, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Several models of flocking have been promoted based on simulations with qualitatively naturalistic behavior. In this paper we provide the first direct application of computational modeling methods to infer flocking behavior from experimental field data. We show that this approach is able to infer general rules for interaction, or lack of interaction, among members of a flock or, more generally, any community. Using experimental field measurements of homing pigeons in flight we demonstrate the existence of a basic distance dependent attraction/repulsion relationship and show that this rule is sufficient to explain collective behavior observed in nature. Positional data of individuals over time are used as input data to a computational algorithm capable of building complex nonlinear functions that can represent the system behavior. Topological nearest neighbor interactions are considered to characterize the components within this model. The efficacy of this method is demonstrated with simulated noisy data generated from the classical (two dimensional) Vicsek model. When applied to experimental data from homing pigeon flights we show that the more complex three dimensional models are capable of simulating trajectories, as well as exhibiting realistic collective dynamics. The simulations of the reconstructed models are used to extract properties of the collective behavior in pigeons, and how it is affected by changing the initial conditions of the system. Our results demonstrate that this approach may be applied to construct models capable of simulating trajectories and collective dynamics using experimental field measurements of herd movement. From these models, the behavior of the individual agents (animals) may be inferred.

  20. Using Smartphones to Collect Daily Sexual Behavior Data from College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Malachi; Jozkowski, Kristen N

    2018-02-15

    Objective Our objectives were to measure reporting differences between sexual behavior data from daily diary and retrospective estimates and to assess the utility of using smartphones to collect sexual behavior data from a college student population. Participants Eighty-six participants (68 female, 18 male) completed the study. Methods For thirty days during the Spring 2017 semester, participants received prompts to participate in daily diaries about their previous day's sexual behavior on their smartphones. Participants then retrospectively reported their past thirty days of sexual behavior and provided feedback on the process of receiving daily diaries on their smartphones. Results We found that college students overreported their sexual behavior on the retrospective survey compared to their daily diary reports (ps < .001; Cohen's ds ≥ 1.51). Participants provided positive and constructive feedback. Conclusions Using smartphones to administer daily diaries is a promising technique for obtaining reliable sexual behavior data from college students.

  1. Intelligence, Parental Depression, and Behavior Adaptability in Deaf Children Being Considered for Cochlear Implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushalnagar, Poorna; Krull, Kevin; Hannay, Julia; Mehta, Paras; Caudle, Susan; Oghalai, John

    2007-01-01

    Cognitive ability and behavioral adaptability are distinct, yet related, constructs that can impact childhood development. Both are often reduced in deaf children of hearing parents who do not provide sufficient language and communication access. Additionally, parental depression is commonly observed due to parent-child communication difficulties…

  2. Poetry as Deep Intelligence: A Qualitative Approach for the Organizational Behavior Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Buskirk, William; London, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors argue that poetry provides a valuable if overlooked resource to the organizational behavior professor. The authors describe a workshop designed to evoke students' innate poetic metaphors to enable a more lively engagement with course material. Because many of students' personal, private, and emotionally charged…

  3. A comprehensive driver behavior model for the evaluation of intelligent intersections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaap, Nina; van Arem, Bart

    2006-01-01

    Many traffic problems occur on urban intersections. Advanced Driver Assistance Systems aim to solve these problems. However, their effects cannot be deduced directly from observing normal driving behavior, because adding a system alters the driving task. A model must be used to represent both normal

  4. Reflexive Photography, Attitudes, Behavior, and CALL: ITAs Improving Spoken English Intelligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Lara

    2015-01-01

    Research in the field of Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) has frequently taken a top-down approach when investigating learners' attitudes and behavior, both in the course as well as for their personal use. Suggestions are given for use of technology, and future research (Beatty, 2010; Levy & Stockwell, 2006). One perspective that has…

  5. Political Orientations, Intelligence and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindermann, Heiner; Flores-Mendoza, Carmen; Woodley, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    The social sciences have traditionally assumed that education is a major determinant of citizens' political orientations and behavior. Several studies have also shown that intelligence has an impact. According to a theory that conceptualizes intelligence as a "burgher" (middle-class, civil) phenomenon--intelligence should promote civil…

  6. The search for intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, E. J.

    1980-12-01

    Implications of current understandings of the nature of human intelligence for the possibility of extraterrestrial intelligence are discussed. The perceptual theory of intelligence as the manipulation of perceptual images rather than language is introduced, and conditions leading to the ascendancy of man over other hominids with similar conceptual abilities are discussed, including the liberation of the hands from a locomotive function and the evolution of neoteny. It is argued that the specificity of the environmental, behavioral and physiological conditions which lead to the emergence of technologically oriented, and communicative intelligent creatures suggests that any SETI would most likely be fruitless.

  7. Fuzzy Logic Controller Design for Intelligent Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Han Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a fuzzy logic controller by which a robot can imitate biological behaviors such as avoiding obstacles or following walls. The proposed structure is implemented by integrating multiple ultrasonic sensors into a robot to collect data from a real-world environment. The decisions that govern the robot’s behavior and autopilot navigation are driven by a field programmable gate array- (FPGA- based fuzzy logic controller. The validity of the proposed controller was demonstrated by simulating three real-world scenarios to test the bionic behavior of a custom-built robot. The results revealed satisfactorily intelligent performance of the proposed fuzzy logic controller. The controller enabled the robot to demonstrate intelligent behaviors in complex environments. Furthermore, the robot’s bionic functions satisfied its design objectives.

  8. A Computer Model of Drafting Effects on Collective Behavior in Elite 10,000-m Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenchard, Hugh; Renfree, Andrew; Peters, Derek M

    2017-03-01

    Drafting in cycling influences collective behavior of pelotons. Although evidence for collective behavior in competitive running events exists, it is not clear if this results from energetic savings conferred by drafting. This study modeled the effects of drafting on behavior in elite 10,000-m runners. Using performance data from a men's elite 10,000-m track running event, computer simulations were constructed using Netlogo 5.1 to test the effects of 3 different drafting quantities on collective behavior: no drafting, drafting to 3 m behind with up to ~8% energy savings (a realistic running draft), and drafting up to 3 m behind with up to 38% energy savings (a realistic cycling draft). Three measures of collective behavior were analyzed in each condition: mean speed, mean group stretch (distance between first- and last-placed runner), and runner-convergence ratio (RCR), which represents the degree of drafting benefit obtained by the follower in a pair of coupled runners. Mean speeds were 6.32 ± 0.28, 5.57 ± 0.18, and 5.51 ± 0.13 m/s in the cycling-draft, runner-draft, and no-draft conditions, respectively (all P < .001). RCR was lower in the cycling-draft condition but did not differ between the other 2. Mean stretch did not differ between conditions. Collective behaviors observed in running events cannot be fully explained through energetic savings conferred by realistic drafting benefits. They may therefore result from other, possibly psychological, processes. The benefits or otherwise of engaging in such behavior are as yet unclear.

  9. Comparisons of Intelligence and Behavior in Children With Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder and ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raldiris, Tarah L; Bowers, Thomas G; Towsey, Carla

    2014-12-18

    Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) can easily be misdiagnosed as having ADHD. A total of 164 children were compared on cognitive and behavioral measures for four groups of children: FASD, ADHD, FASD + ADHD, and other neuropsychological disorders. The ADHD group was not significantly different from the "other diagnosis" group on any of the measurements. The children with FASD were found to perform significantly worse than ADHD on externalizing problems, Full-Scale IQ, and indices of Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Reasoning, and Working Memory. The comorbid FASD + ADHD group was significantly weaker than ADHD on verbal comprehension measures. The FASD children demonstrated significantly higher levels of atypicality and aggression relative to ADHD, and the FASD + ADHD group demonstrated significantly higher levels of hyperactivity and withdrawal relative to ADHD. These results indicate that children with FASD display a differential behavioral and cognitive profile that is significantly poorer than children with ADHD and other types of neuropsychological disorders. © 2014 SAGE Publications.

  10. KOMPETENSI GURU, SPIRITUAL INTELLIGENCE DENGAN SELF DETERMINATION THEORY SEBAGAI MEDIASI DENGAN ORGANIZATION CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR

    OpenAIRE

    Jayadi Jayadi

    2013-01-01

    AbstractThe purpose of this study was to examine the factors that affect theorganization citizenship behavior, namely teacher competence, spiritualintelligence, and self-determination theory in junior high school teacher.Some 231 junior high school teachers in East Kotawaringin Sampit aregiven four scales to fill in, namely teacher competence scale, spiritualintelligence scale, self-determination theory scale and organization citizenshipbehavior scale. Data was analyzed with statistical techn...

  11. Does Intelligence Provide Survival Value?

    OpenAIRE

    Cairns, John

    2009-01-01

    Intelligence is defined as a general mental capacity to reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly, comprehend ideas, and learn. Intelligence can also be defined as the ability to acquire and apply information gathered from the environment to modify its behavior. It is this intelligence that has allowed the genus Homo to survive for 2 million years. However, recently the global financial meltdown and the deleterious effects of climate change raise the question of whether intelligence has ...

  12. Decision-Making Amplification under Uncertainty: An Exploratory Study of Behavioral Similarity and Intelligent Decision Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Merle Wayne

    2013-01-01

    Intelligent decision systems have the potential to support and greatly amplify human decision-making across a number of industries and domains. However, despite the rapid improvement in the underlying capabilities of these "intelligent" systems, increasing their acceptance as decision aids in industry has remained a formidable challenge.…

  13. Aggression and prosocial behaviors in social conflicts mediating the influence of cold social intelligence and affective empathy on children's social preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreras, M R; Braza, P; Muñoz, J M; Braza, F; Azurmendi, A; Pascual-Sagastizabal, E; Cardas, J; Sánchez-Martín, J R

    2014-08-01

    This study proposes a model in which aggressive and prosocial behaviors exhibited in social conflicts mediate the influence of empathy and social intelligence to children's social preference by same-sex peers. Data were obtained from kindergarten to the end of the first grade. The sample yielded 117 Spanish children (64 girls and 53 boys) with a mean age of 62.8 months (SD = 3.3) at the beginning of the study. For boys, affective empathy contributed to boys' social preference through a decrease in physical aggression as responses to social conflict. For girls, affective empathy had an indirect effect on girls' preference by increasing assistance to others in their conflicts. No mediating effect in the contribution of social intelligence on girls' social preference was detected. Our results suggest that, only for girls, cold social intelligence can promote both indirect aggression (coercive strategic that do not leave social preference, at least at these ages) and behaviors that lead social preference (such as prosocial behaviors). © 2014 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Mechanical cell-substrate feedback explains pairwise and collective endothelial cell behavior in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.F.M. van Oers (Rene); R.M.H. Merks (Roeland)

    2013-01-01

    htmlabstractIn vitro cultures of endothelial cells are a widely used model system of the collective behavior of endothelial cells during vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. When seeded in a extracellular matrix, endothelial cells can form blood vessel-like structures, including vascular networks and

  15. Collective Efficacy, Organizational Citizenship Behavior, and School Effectiveness in Alabama Public High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, J. Darrell

    2010-01-01

    For several decades, researchers have searched for school-level properties that can overcome the negative consequences of student SES on school effectiveness. Two promising constructs that have been identified are collective teacher efficacy (CE) and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). This study examined the relationship between these two…

  16. 76 FR 1621 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; NIH Toolbox for Assessment of Neurological and Behavioral...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-11

    ... sensory) for use in large longitudinal or epidemiological studies where functioning is monitored over time... Neurological and Behavioral Function. Type of Information Collection Request: New. Need and Use of Information...' age, gender, race/ethnicity, education and primary language. The targeted population will be non...

  17. Organic Computing and Swarm Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkle, Daniel; Middendorf, Martin; Scheidler, Alexander

    The relations between swarm intelligence and organic computing are discussed in this chapter. The aim of organic computing is to design and study computing systems that consist of many autonomous components and show forms of collective behavior. Such organic computing systems (OC systems) should possess self-x properties (e.g., self-healing, self-managing, self-optimizing), have a decentralized control, and be adaptive to changing requirements of their user. Examples of OC systems are described in this chapter and two case studies are presented that show in detail that OC systems share important properties with social insect colonies and how methods of swarm intelligence can be used to solve problems in organic computing.

  18. A Heart for Interaction: Physiological Entrainment and Behavioral Coordination in a Collective, Creative Construction Task

    CERN Document Server

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Roepstoff, Andreas; Tylén, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Interpersonal physiological entrainment is increasingly argued to underlie rapport, empathy and even team performance. Inspired by the model of interpersonal synergy, we investigate the presence, temporal development, possible mechanisms and impact of interpersonal heart rate entrainment during individual and collective creative LEGO construction tasks. In Study 1 we show how HR entrainment is driven by a plurality of sources including task constraints and behavioral coordination. Generally, HR entrainment is more prevalent in individual trials (involving participants doing the same things) than in collective ones (involving participants taking turns and performing complementary actions). However, when contrasted against virtual pairs, collective trials display more stable HR entrainment supporting the idea that online social interaction plays a role. Furthermore, HR entrainment is found to grow across collective but not individual trials. In Study 2 we further show that in collective trials the dynamics of H...

  19. Dynamical modeling of collective behavior from pigeon flight data: flock cohesion and dispersion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciano Dieck Kattas

    Full Text Available Several models of flocking have been promoted based on simulations with qualitatively naturalistic behavior. In this paper we provide the first direct application of computational modeling methods to infer flocking behavior from experimental field data. We show that this approach is able to infer general rules for interaction, or lack of interaction, among members of a flock or, more generally, any community. Using experimental field measurements of homing pigeons in flight we demonstrate the existence of a basic distance dependent attraction/repulsion relationship and show that this rule is sufficient to explain collective behavior observed in nature. Positional data of individuals over time are used as input data to a computational algorithm capable of building complex nonlinear functions that can represent the system behavior. Topological nearest neighbor interactions are considered to characterize the components within this model. The efficacy of this method is demonstrated with simulated noisy data generated from the classical (two dimensional Vicsek model. When applied to experimental data from homing pigeon flights we show that the more complex three dimensional models are capable of simulating trajectories, as well as exhibiting realistic collective dynamics. The simulations of the reconstructed models are used to extract properties of the collective behavior in pigeons, and how it is affected by changing the initial conditions of the system. Our results demonstrate that this approach may be applied to construct models capable of simulating trajectories and collective dynamics using experimental field measurements of herd movement. From these models, the behavior of the individual agents (animals may be inferred.

  20. Perception of nursing students about behaviors and ethical aspects involved in patient data collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Dias Reis Pessalacia

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To identify the perception of nursing students in relation to the behaviors and ethical issues involved in data collection from patients. Methodology. Descriptive and exploratory study with a qualitative approach, using the content analysis proposed by Bardin as the theoretical framework. Participants were students in the 7th period of the nursing undergraduate course at a public university located in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, in 2011. Data were collected through interviews. Results. From the analysis of the results, the following categories emerged: preservation of patients' intimacy and privacy, respect for patients' autonomy, experiences and feelings of students and training strategies relating to the nursing process during the undergraduate course. Conclusion. The nursing students are concerned with the ethical approach during data collection from patients and the preservation of their rights. Pedagogical practices should be reinforced that take into consideration the technical aspects, as well as those related to behaviors and ethics.

  1. Collective behavior and critical fluctuations in the spatial spreading of obesity, diabetes and cancer

    CERN Document Server

    Gallos, Lazaros K; Havlin, Shlomo; Sigman, Mariano; Makse, Hernán A

    2012-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases like diabetes, obesity and certain forms of cancer have been increasing in many countries at alarming levels. A difficulty in the conception of policies to reverse these trends is the identification of the drivers behind the global epidemics. Here, we implement a spatial spreading analysis to investigate whether diabetes, obesity and cancer show spatial correlations revealing the effect of collective and global factors acting above individual choices. We adapt a theoretical framework for critical physical systems displaying collective behavior to decipher the laws of spatial spreading of diseases. We find a regularity in the spatial fluctuations of their prevalence revealed by a pattern of scale-free long-range correlations. The fluctuations are anomalous, deviating in a fundamental way from the weaker correlations found in the underlying population distribution. This collective behavior indicates that the spreading dynamics of obesity, diabetes and some forms of cancer like lung can...

  2. Trends in ambient intelligent systems the role of computational intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Mohammad; Abraham, Ajith

    2016-01-01

    This book demonstrates the success of Ambient Intelligence in providing possible solutions for the daily needs of humans. The book addresses implications of ambient intelligence in areas of domestic living, elderly care, robotics, communication, philosophy and others. The objective of this edited volume is to show that Ambient Intelligence is a boon to humanity with conceptual, philosophical, methodical and applicative understanding. The book also aims to schematically demonstrate developments in the direction of augmented sensors, embedded systems and behavioral intelligence towards Ambient Intelligent Networks or Smart Living Technology. It contains chapters in the field of Ambient Intelligent Networks, which received highly positive feedback during the review process. The book contains research work, with in-depth state of the art from augmented sensors, embedded technology and artificial intelligence along with cutting-edge research and development of technologies and applications of Ambient Intelligent N...

  3. Observer accuracy and behavior analysis: Data collection procedures on hand hygiene compliance in a neurovascular unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinz, Krista L; McGee, Heather M; Huitema, Bradley E; Dickinson, Alyce M; Van Enk, Richard A

    2014-10-01

    Although observational studies are popular, little has been done to study the integrity of human observers and the data collection process. Issues of data collection integrity threaten functional findings, leading to problematic interpretation and decreased replication. In our study the response effort associated with hand hygiene data collection in a hospital setting was manipulated using an altered data collection tool. A counterbalanced ABAB design was implemented across 2 semesters of a hand hygiene data collection practicum course. When response effort increased, compliant audits decreased and when response effort decreased, compliant audits increased. These results were statistically significant, with an overall level change z that had a P value of .001 (first semester) and .007 (second semester). These findings may warrant an increased awareness of data collection procedures where recording options include a less effortful response. The results of our study support basic research on response effort and choice behavior in an applied setting, bringing into question the integrity of data collection procedures and the integrity of the data collected. These results also suggest the need for standardizing reporting systems to ensure hand hygiene collection and reporting procedures are comparable across settings. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Collective Decision Dynamics in Group Evacuation: Modeling Tradeoffs and Optimal Behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Schlesinger, Kimberly J; Ali, Imtiaz; Carlson, Jean M

    2016-01-01

    Quantifying uncertainties in collective human behavior and decision making is crucial for ensuring public health and safety, enabling effective disaster response, informing the design of transportation and communication networks, and guiding the development of new technologies. However, modeling and predicting such behavior is notoriously difficult, due to the influence of a variety of complex factors such as the availability and uncertainty of information, the interaction and influence of social groups and networks, the degree of risk or time pressure involved in a situation, and differences in individual personalities and preferences. Here, we develop a stochastic model of human decision making to describe the empirical behavior of subjects in a controlled experiment simulating a natural disaster scenario. We compare the observed behavior to that of statistically optimal Bayesian decision makers, quantifying the extent to which human decisions are optimal and identifying the conditions in which sub-optimal ...

  5. Handbook of swarm intelligence concepts, principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Yuhui; Panigrahi, Bijaya Ketan

    2011-01-01

    Recent work on the behavior of swarming creatures such as bees posits an innate collective intelligence that gives rise to myriad computational problem-solving techniques. This volume is both an introduction to the topic and a survey of leading-edge research.

  6. A Sensor-Enabled Smartphone Application to Collect Eating Behavior Data for Population Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maramis, Christos; Moulos, Ioannis; Ioakeimidis, Ioannis; Nolstam, Jenny; Lekka, Irini; Bergh, Cecilia; Maglaveras, Nicos

    2016-01-01

    The worldwide extent of obesity and eating disorders (ED) today highlights the necessity for efficient treatment, but also early prevention of eating-related diseases. A promising category of therapeutic and preventive interventions comes from the domain of behavioral informatics (BI), whose purpose is to monitor and modify harmful behaviors - unhealthy eating in the particular case - with the help of information and communication technologies. Smartphones have already shown great promise in delivering such BI interventions in the field of obesity and ED. In fact, plenty of smartphone applications aiming to monitor and support the change of eating behavior with the help of built-in or external sensors have been proposed in the scientific literature. However, to the best of our knowledge, no smartphone application up to date has been designed to collect eating behavior data for the purpose of population screening against obesity or ED. In this work we describe a novel, sensor-enabled smartphone application that captures in-meal behavioral data from multiple subjects in a brief data collection process, with the end goal of recording, in detail, the user's eating style throughout a cooked meal. These data can later be employed for assessing the subjects' risk for obesity or ED. The proposed application has undergone preliminary evaluation with respect to its usability and technical soundness, yielding promising results.

  7. Connecting single cell to collective cell behavior in a unified theoretical framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Mishel; Bullo, Francesco; Campàs, Otger

    Collective cell behavior is an essential part of tissue and organ morphogenesis during embryonic development, as well as of various disease processes, such as cancer. In contrast to many in vitro studies of collective cell migration, most cases of in vivo collective cell migration involve rather small groups of cells, with large sheets of migrating cells being less common. The vast majority of theoretical descriptions of collective cell behavior focus on large numbers of cells, but fail to accurately capture the dynamics of small groups of cells. Here we introduce a low-dimensional theoretical description that successfully captures single cell migration, cell collisions, collective dynamics in small groups of cells, and force propagation during sheet expansion, all within a common theoretical framework. Our description is derived from first principles and also includes key phenomenological aspects of cell migration that control the dynamics of traction forces. Among other results, we explain the counter-intuitive observations that pairs of cells repel each other upon collision while they behave in a coordinated manner within larger clusters.

  8. Evolution of Collective Behaviors for a Real Swarm of Aquatic Surface Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Miguel; Costa, Vasco; Gomes, Jorge; Rodrigues, Tiago; Silva, Fernando; Oliveira, Sancho Moura; Christensen, Anders Lyhne

    2016-01-01

    Swarm robotics is a promising approach for the coordination of large numbers of robots. While previous studies have shown that evolutionary robotics techniques can be applied to obtain robust and efficient self-organized behaviors for robot swarms, most studies have been conducted in simulation, and the few that have been conducted on real robots have been confined to laboratory environments. In this paper, we demonstrate for the first time a swarm robotics system with evolved control successfully operating in a real and uncontrolled environment. We evolve neural network-based controllers in simulation for canonical swarm robotics tasks, namely homing, dispersion, clustering, and monitoring. We then assess the performance of the controllers on a real swarm of up to ten aquatic surface robots. Our results show that the evolved controllers transfer successfully to real robots and achieve a performance similar to the performance obtained in simulation. We validate that the evolved controllers display key properties of swarm intelligence-based control, namely scalability, flexibility, and robustness on the real swarm. We conclude with a proof-of-concept experiment in which the swarm performs a complete environmental monitoring task by combining multiple evolved controllers. PMID:26999614

  9. Evolution of Collective Behaviors for a Real Swarm of Aquatic Surface Robots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Duarte

    Full Text Available Swarm robotics is a promising approach for the coordination of large numbers of robots. While previous studies have shown that evolutionary robotics techniques can be applied to obtain robust and efficient self-organized behaviors for robot swarms, most studies have been conducted in simulation, and the few that have been conducted on real robots have been confined to laboratory environments. In this paper, we demonstrate for the first time a swarm robotics system with evolved control successfully operating in a real and uncontrolled environment. We evolve neural network-based controllers in simulation for canonical swarm robotics tasks, namely homing, dispersion, clustering, and monitoring. We then assess the performance of the controllers on a real swarm of up to ten aquatic surface robots. Our results show that the evolved controllers transfer successfully to real robots and achieve a performance similar to the performance obtained in simulation. We validate that the evolved controllers display key properties of swarm intelligence-based control, namely scalability, flexibility, and robustness on the real swarm. We conclude with a proof-of-concept experiment in which the swarm performs a complete environmental monitoring task by combining multiple evolved controllers.

  10. Evolution of Collective Behaviors for a Real Swarm of Aquatic Surface Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Miguel; Costa, Vasco; Gomes, Jorge; Rodrigues, Tiago; Silva, Fernando; Oliveira, Sancho Moura; Christensen, Anders Lyhne

    2016-01-01

    Swarm robotics is a promising approach for the coordination of large numbers of robots. While previous studies have shown that evolutionary robotics techniques can be applied to obtain robust and efficient self-organized behaviors for robot swarms, most studies have been conducted in simulation, and the few that have been conducted on real robots have been confined to laboratory environments. In this paper, we demonstrate for the first time a swarm robotics system with evolved control successfully operating in a real and uncontrolled environment. We evolve neural network-based controllers in simulation for canonical swarm robotics tasks, namely homing, dispersion, clustering, and monitoring. We then assess the performance of the controllers on a real swarm of up to ten aquatic surface robots. Our results show that the evolved controllers transfer successfully to real robots and achieve a performance similar to the performance obtained in simulation. We validate that the evolved controllers display key properties of swarm intelligence-based control, namely scalability, flexibility, and robustness on the real swarm. We conclude with a proof-of-concept experiment in which the swarm performs a complete environmental monitoring task by combining multiple evolved controllers.

  11. Artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Hunt, Earl B

    1975-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of artificial intelligence. This book presents the basic mathematical and computational approaches to problems in the artificial intelligence field.Organized into four parts encompassing 16 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the various fields of artificial intelligence. This text then attempts to connect artificial intelligence problems to some of the notions of computability and abstract computing devices. Other chapters consider the general notion of computability, with focus on the interaction bet

  12. Consistent Individual Differences Drive Collective Behavior and Group Functioning of Schooling Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolles, Jolle W; Boogert, Neeltje J; Sridhar, Vivek H; Couzin, Iain D; Manica, Andrea

    2017-09-25

    The ubiquity of consistent inter-individual differences in behavior ("animal personalities") [1, 2] suggests that they might play a fundamental role in driving the movements and functioning of animal groups [3, 4], including their collective decision-making, foraging performance, and predator avoidance. Despite increasing evidence that highlights their importance [5-16], we still lack a unified mechanistic framework to explain and to predict how consistent inter-individual differences may drive collective behavior. Here we investigate how the structure, leadership, movement dynamics, and foraging performance of groups can emerge from inter-individual differences by high-resolution tracking of known behavioral types in free-swimming stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) shoals. We show that individual's propensity to stay near others, measured by a classic "sociability" assay, was negatively linked to swim speed across a range of contexts, and predicted spatial positioning and leadership within groups as well as differences in structure and movement dynamics between groups. In turn, this trait, together with individual's exploratory tendency, measured by a classic "boldness" assay, explained individual and group foraging performance. These effects of consistent individual differences on group-level states emerged naturally from a generic model of self-organizing groups composed of individuals differing in speed and goal-orientedness. Our study provides experimental and theoretical evidence for a simple mechanism to explain the emergence of collective behavior from consistent individual differences, including variation in the structure, leadership, movement dynamics, and functional capabilities of groups, across social and ecological scales. In addition, we demonstrate individual performance is conditional on group composition, indicating how social selection may drive behavioral differentiation between individuals. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by

  13. Energy-Neutral Data Collection Rate Control for IoT Animal Behavior Monitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Wilhelm

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Energy-neutral operation (ENO is a major concern for Internet of things (IoT sensor systems. Animals can be tagged with IoT sensors to monitor their movement and behavior. These sensors wirelessly upload collected data and can receive parameters to change their operation. Typically, the behavior monitors are powered by a battery where the system relies upon harvesting solar radiation for sustainable operation. Solar panels typically are used as the harvesting mechanism and can have a level of uncertainty regarding consistent energy delivery due to factors such as adverse weather, foliage, time of day, and individual animal behavior. The variability of available energy inevitably creates a trade-off in the rate at which data can be collected with respect to incoming and stored energy. The objective of this research was to investigate and simulate methods and parameters that can control the data collection rate of an IoT behavior monitor to achieve sustained operation with unknown and random energy harvesting. Analysis and development of a control system were performed by creating a software model of energy consumption and then simulating using different initial conditions and random energy harvesting rates for evaluation. The contribution of this effort was the exploration into the usage of a discrete-time gain scheduled Proportional–Integral–Derivative (PID that was tuned to a specific device configuration, using battery state of charge as an input, and found to maintain a battery level set-point, reject small solar harvesting energy disturbances, and maintain a consistent data collection rate throughout the day.

  14. Consistent Individual Differences Drive Collective Behavior and Group Functioning of Schooling Fish

    OpenAIRE

    Jolles, Jolle W.; Boogert, Neeltje J.; Sridhar, Vivek H.; Couzin, Iain D.; Manica, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Summary The ubiquity of consistent inter-individual differences in behavior (“animal personalities”) [1, 2] suggests that they might play a fundamental role in driving the movements and functioning of animal groups [3, 4], including their collective decision-making, foraging performance, and predator avoidance. Despite increasing evidence that highlights their importance [5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16], we still lack a unified mechanistic framework to explain and to predict how co...

  15. Simple Models of Self-Propelled Colloids and Liquid Drops: From Individual Motion to Collective Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinaga, Natsuhiko

    2017-10-01

    In this review, we discuss recent developments in the theoretical models of self-propelled particles. We first summarize simple models, including active Brownian particles (ABPs), squirmers, and Janus particles (self-phoretic swimmers). We then consider the extension of these models in order to demonstrate the symmetry-breaking mechanism of the motion. Finally, we investigate the emergence of the rich collective behaviors of these models.

  16. Wireless Visual Sensor Network Robots- Based for the Emulation of Collective Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredy Hernán Martinez Sarmiento

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problem of bacterial quorum sensing emulate on small mobile robots. Robots that reflect the behavior of bacteria are designed as mobile wireless camera nodes. They are able to structure a dynamic wireless sensor network. Emulated behavior corresponds to a simplification of bacterial quorum sensing, where the action of a network node is conditioned by the population density of robots(nodes in a given area. The population density reading is done visually using a camera. The robot makes an estimate of the population density of the images, and acts according to this information. The operation of the camera is done with a custom firmware, reducing the complexity of the node without loss of performance. It was noted the route planning and the collective behavior of robots without the use of any other external or local communication. Neither was it necessary to develop a model system, precise state estimation or state feedback.

  17. Evolutionary dynamics of strategic behavior in a collective-risk dilemma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Abou Chakra

    Full Text Available A collective-risk social dilemma arises when a group must cooperate to reach a common target in order to avoid the risk of collective loss while each individual is tempted to free-ride on the contributions of others. In contrast to the prisoners' dilemma or public goods games, the collective-risk dilemma encompasses the risk that all individuals lose everything. These characteristics have potential relevance for dangerous climate change and other risky social dilemmas. Cooperation is costly to the individual and it only benefits all individuals if the common target is reached. An individual thus invests without guarantee that the investment is worthwhile for anyone. If there are several subsequent stages of investment, it is not clear when individuals should contribute. For example, they could invest early, thereby signaling their willingness to cooperate in the future, constantly invest their fair share, or wait and compensate missing contributions. To investigate the strategic behavior in such situations, we have simulated the evolutionary dynamics of such collective-risk dilemmas in a finite population. Contributions depend individually on the stage of the game and on the sum of contributions made so far. Every individual takes part in many games and successful behaviors spread in the population. It turns out that constant contributors, such as constant fair sharers, quickly lose out against those who initially do not contribute, but compensate this in later stages of the game. In particular for high risks, such late contributors are favored.

  18. The Relation of Teachers' Emotional Intelligence and Students' Social Skills to Students' Emotional and Behavioral Difficulties: A Study of Preschool Teachers' Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulou, Maria S.

    2017-01-01

    The present study used hierarchical linear modeling to examine predictors of students' emotional and behavioral difficulties in preschool classrooms. Specifically, the study examined (a) the link between teachers' perceptions of their own emotional intelligence and students' emotional and behavioral difficulties, (b) the link between teachers'…

  19. Intelligence analysis – the royal discipline of Competitive Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Bartes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to propose work methodology for Competitive Intelligence teams in one of the intelligence cycle’s specific area, in the so-called “Intelligence Analysis”. Intelligence Analysis is one of the stages of the Intelligence Cycle in which data from both the primary and secondary research are analyzed. The main result of the effort is the creation of added value for the information collected. Company Competiitve Intelligence, correctly understood and implemented in business practice, is the “forecasting of the future”. That is forecasting about the future, which forms the basis for strategic decisions made by the company’s top management. To implement that requirement in corporate practice, the author perceives Competitive Intelligence as a systemic application discipline. This approach allows him to propose a “Work Plan” for Competitive Intelligence as a fundamental standardized document to steer Competitive Intelligence team activities. The author divides the Competitive Intelligence team work plan into five basic parts. Those parts are derived from the five-stage model of the intelligence cycle, which, in the author’s opinion, is more appropriate for complicated cases of Competitive Intelligence.

  20. [Tadalafil combined with behavior therapy for semen collection from infertile males in whom masturbation fails].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wen-Hao; Jiang, Hui; Ma, Lu-Lin; Hong, Kai; Zhao, Lian-Ming; Liu, De-Feng; Mao, Jia-Ming; Yang, Yi; Zhang, Ju; Gao, Ling; Qiao, Jie

    2013-05-01

    To study the effect of Tadalafil combined with behavior therapy in helping obtain semen from infertile men in whom masturbation has failed. Sixty male infertile patients from whom masturbation had failed to obtain semen were equally assigned to receive Tadalafil combined with behavior therapy (combination group) or Tadalafil only (control group). All the patients took Tadalafil 20 mg orally the night before the day of semen collection by masturbation. Before this procedure, the patients of the combination group practiced masturbation 16 - 24 times at home. The average ages of the patients were (37.0 +/- 5.1) yr and (37.5 +/- 5.2) yr and their IIEF-5 scores were 16.50 +/- 1.25 and 16.90 +/- 1.09 in the combination and the control group, respectively, neither with statistically significant difference between the two groups. Semen was successfully obtained from 9 patients (30.0%) of the combination group and 1 patient (3.33%) of the control group, with statistically significant difference between the two groups (chi2 = 7.680, P masturbation, Tadalafil combined with behavior therapy can significantly increase the success rate of semen collection from the male infertile patients in whom masturbation fails.

  1. Residential Cooking Behavior in the United States: Data Collected from a Web-Based Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Y. W; Andrew, E. E; Hu, T. C; Singer, B. C; Ding, L.; Logue, J. M

    2014-08-01

    Cooking has a significant impact on indoor air quality. When cooking occurs, how foods are cooked, and the types of food that are cooked have all been shown to impact the rate at which occupants are exposed to pollutants. Home occupancy characteristics impact how concentrations in the home translate into exposures for the occupants. With the intent of expanding our understanding of cooking behavior in the U.S., we developed and advertised an online survey to collect household cooking behavior for the 24 hrs prior to taking the survey. The survey questions were designed to address gaps in knowledge needed to predict the impact of cooking on indoor concentrations of PM2.5 and other pollutants. The survey included the following questions: 1) which meals households ate at home; 2) number of household members at home during cooking; 3) the type of oil used for cooking; 4) the type of foods cooked at each meal; 5) the type of cooking devices used; and 6) the methods selected for food preparation. We also collected information on household characteristics such as their location (zip code), ethnicity, and ages of family members. We analyzed the variability in home cooking characteristics for households in different climate zones and with four different types of family compositions: 1 senior living alone, 1 adult living alone, 2 or more adults/seniors, and families with children. We used simple statistical tests to determine if the probability of certain cooking behaviors differed between these subgroups.

  2. Role of emotional intelligence in managerial effectiveness: An empirical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Sahidur Rahman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Emotional intelligence is very critical to the managerial effectiveness. The present study intends to explore the relationships between emotional intelligence and the three roles such as, interpersonal, informational, and decision of managerial effectiveness. Emotional intelligence is measured by using the Emotional Quotient Index (Rahim et al., 2002 [Rahim, M., Psenicka, C., Polychroniou, P., Zhao, J., Yu, C., Chan, K., Susana, K., Alves, M., Lee, C., Rahman, M.S., Ferdausy, S., & Wyk, R. (2002. A model of emotional intelligence and conflict management strategies: a study in seven countries. International Journal of Organizational Analysis, 10(4, 302-326.] while managerial effectiveness is assessed by using Tsui’s (1984 scale [Tsui, A.S. (1984. A role set analysis of managerial reputation. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 34, 64-96.]. Data were collected by distributing self-administered questionnaires among the working MBA students using a convenience sampling technique. Respondents are asked to rate their emotional intelligence and managerial effectiveness scales. Finally 127 usable responses are received and, then, analyzed by using the descriptive statistics, bivariate correlation, and regression analysis. Analysis shows that emotional intelligence was positively related with interpersonal role, informational role, and decision role. The main implication is that emotional intelligence could enhance managerial effectiveness guiding the managers, academics, and professionals. The limitations are the sample size and the sampling technique which might limit the generalizability of the findings. Future directions are also discussed.

  3. Self-Reported Resilient Behaviors of Seventh and Eighth Grade Students Enrolled in an Emotional Intelligence Based Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Veronica; Johnson, Michael B.; Smith, Robert

    2008-01-01

    School counselors are in a unique position to help at-risk students. Research indicates that teaching resiliency skills and emotional intelligence is a promising venture (Bernard, 1997; Chavkin & Gonzalez, 2000; Henderson & Milstein, 2002). Seventy identified at-risk seventh and eighth grade students enrolled in the Teen Leadership Program…

  4. Using Smartphones to Collect Behavioral Data in Psychological Science: Opportunities, Practical Considerations, and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harari, Gabriella M.; Lane, Nicholas D.; Wang, Rui; Crosier, Benjamin S.; Campbell, Andrew T.; Gosling, Samuel D.

    2017-01-01

    Smartphones now offer the promise of collecting behavioral data unobtrusively, in situ, as it unfolds in the course of daily life. Data can be collected from the onboard sensors and other phone logs embedded in today’s off-the-shelf smartphone devices. These data permit fine-grained, continuous collection of people’s social interactions (e.g., speaking rates in conversation, size of social groups, calls, and text messages), daily activities (e.g., physical activity and sleep), and mobility patterns (e.g., frequency and duration of time spent at various locations). In this article, we have drawn on the lessons from the first wave of smartphone-sensing research to highlight areas of opportunity for psychological research, present practical considerations for designing smartphone studies, and discuss the ongoing methodological and ethical challenges associated with research in this domain. It is our hope that these practical guidelines will facilitate the use of smartphones as a behavioral observation tool in psychological science. PMID:27899727

  5. Using Smartphones to Collect Behavioral Data in Psychological Science: Opportunities, Practical Considerations, and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harari, Gabriella M; Lane, Nicholas D; Wang, Rui; Crosier, Benjamin S; Campbell, Andrew T; Gosling, Samuel D

    2016-11-01

    Smartphones now offer the promise of collecting behavioral data unobtrusively, in situ, as it unfolds in the course of daily life. Data can be collected from the onboard sensors and other phone logs embedded in today's off-the-shelf smartphone devices. These data permit fine-grained, continuous collection of people's social interactions (e.g., speaking rates in conversation, size of social groups, calls, and text messages), daily activities (e.g., physical activity and sleep), and mobility patterns (e.g., frequency and duration of time spent at various locations). In this article, we have drawn on the lessons from the first wave of smartphone-sensing research to highlight areas of opportunity for psychological research, present practical considerations for designing smartphone studies, and discuss the ongoing methodological and ethical challenges associated with research in this domain. It is our hope that these practical guidelines will facilitate the use of smartphones as a behavioral observation tool in psychological science. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Urban Waste Recycling Behavior: Antecedents of Participation in a Selective Collection Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcés, Conchita; Lafuente, Alberto; Pedraja, Marta; Rivera, Pilar

    2002-09-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the antecedents of urban waste recycling behavior. To achieve this goal, a concrete urban waste management program was chosen. The study focuses on the Selective Collection Program (SCP) in Zaragoza, a medium-sized city in northeastern Spain. The research starts with a conceptual model in which the variables that potentially affect recycling behavior can be classified into two groups: incentives and barriers. Moreover, the sociodemographic characteristics of the individuals are included in our study. Given that the proposed model requires specification of latent variables or constructs, the analysis is based on the Structural Equation Models (SEM) methodology. The results revealed that environmental awareness, knowledge of the environmental impact of urban waste, and the positive perception of management by local government exercise a positive effect on individual recycling behavior, while perceived personal difficulties (space and time availability) and distance to and from the container have a negative effect. As regards sociodemographic variables, this study found that annual family income sustains a negative relationship with recycling behavior, while age maintains a positive one. The results obtained clearly show the important role that the public authorities play, especially municipal governments, in achieving the waste recycling objectives established in accordance with international legislation.

  7. Interplay between media and social influence in the collective behavior of opinion dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colaiori, Francesca; Castellano, Claudio

    2015-10-01

    Messages conveyed by media act as a major drive in shaping attitudes and inducing opinion shift. On the other hand, individuals are strongly affected by peer pressure while forming their own judgment. We solve a general model of opinion dynamics where individuals either hold one of two alternative opinions or are undecided and interact pairwise while exposed to an external influence. As media pressure increases, the system moves from pluralism to global consensus; four distinct classes of collective behavior emerge, crucially depending on the outcome of direct interactions among individuals holding opposite opinions. Observed nontrivial behaviors include hysteretic phenomena and resilience of minority opinions. Notably, consensus could be unachievable even when media and microscopic interactions are biased in favor of the same opinion: The unfavored opinion might even gain the support of the majority.

  8. Turnover, account value and diversification of real traders: evidence of collective portfolio optimizing behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton de Lachapelle, David; Challet, Damien

    2010-07-01

    Despite the availability of very detailed data on financial markets, agent-based modeling is hindered by the lack of information about real trader behavior. This makes it impossible to validate agent-based models, which are thus reverse-engineering attempts. This work is a contribution towards building a set of stylized facts about the traders themselves. Using the client database of Swissquote Bank SA, the largest online Swiss broker, we find empirical relationships between turnover, account values and the number of assets in which a trader is invested. A theory based on simple mean-variance portfolio optimization that crucially includes variable transaction costs is able to reproduce faithfully the observed behaviors. We finally argue that our results bring to light the collective ability of a population to construct a mean-variance portfolio that takes into account the structure of transaction costs.

  9. Interplay between media and social influence in the collective behavior of opinion dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colaiori, Francesca; Castellano, Claudio

    2015-10-01

    Messages conveyed by media act as a major drive in shaping attitudes and inducing opinion shift. On the other hand, individuals are strongly affected by peer pressure while forming their own judgment. We solve a general model of opinion dynamics where individuals either hold one of two alternative opinions or are undecided and interact pairwise while exposed to an external influence. As media pressure increases, the system moves from pluralism to global consensus; four distinct classes of collective behavior emerge, crucially depending on the outcome of direct interactions among individuals holding opposite opinions. Observed nontrivial behaviors include hysteretic phenomena and resilience of minority opinions. Notably, consensus could be unachievable even when media and microscopic interactions are biased in favor of the same opinion: The unfavored opinion might even gain the support of the majority.

  10. Coarse analysis of collective behaviors: Bifurcation analysis of the optimal velocity model for traffic jam formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Yasunari; Sugiyama, Yuki

    2017-12-01

    We present a general method for analyzing macroscopic collective phenomena observed in many-body systems. For this purpose, we employ diffusion maps, which are one of the dimensionality-reduction techniques, and systematically define a few relevant coarse-grained variables for describing macroscopic phenomena. The time evolution of macroscopic behavior is described as a trajectory in the low-dimensional space constructed by these coarse variables. We apply this method to the analysis of the traffic model, called the optimal velocity model, and reveal a bifurcation structure, which features a transition to the emergence of a moving cluster as a traffic jam.

  11. Intelligent Freigth Transport Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overø, Helene Martine; Larsen, Allan; Røpke, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    The Danish innovation project entitled “Intelligent Freight Transport Systems” aims at developing prototype systems integrating public intelligent transport systems (ITS) with the technology in vehicles and equipment as well as the IT-systems at various transport companies. The objective...... is to enhance the efficiency and lower the environmental impact in freight transport. In this paper, a pilot project involving real-time waste collection at a Danish waste collection company is described, and a solution approach is proposed. The problem corresponds to the dynamic version of the waste collection...

  12. The role of social media in the intelligence cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Bruce; den Hollander, Kees

    2016-05-01

    Social Media (SM) is a relatively new phenomenon. Intelligence agencies have been struggling to understand how to exploit the social pulse that flows from this source. The paper starts with a brief overview of SM with some examples of how it is being used by adversaries and how we might be able to exploit this usage. Often treated as another form of open source intelligence (OSINT), we look at some of the differences with traditional OSINT compared to SM then outline the possible uses by military intelligence. The next section looks at how SM fits into the different phases of the intelligence cycle: Direction, Collection, Processing and Dissemination. For the first phase, Direction, a number of questions are identified that can be answered typically by SM. For the second phase, the Collection, it is explained how SM, as an asset, transfers questions into methods and the use of different SM resources (e.g. marketer, cognitive behavioral psychologist) and sources to seek the required information. SM is exploited as a multi-intelligence capability. For the Processing phase some aspects are described in how to deal with this capacity (e.g. enabling other intelligence sources) and also which techniques are used to be able to validate the SM sources used.

  13. Collective Behavior of Chiral Active Matter: Pattern Formation and Enhanced Flocking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebchen, Benno; Levis, Demian

    2017-08-01

    We generalize the Vicsek model to describe the collective behavior of polar circle swimmers with local alignment interactions. While the phase transition leading to collective motion in 2D (flocking) occurs at the same interaction to noise ratio as for linear swimmers, as we show, circular motion enhances the polarization in the ordered phase (enhanced flocking) and induces secondary instabilities leading to structure formation. Slow rotations promote macroscopic droplets with late time sizes proportional to the system size (indicating phase separation) whereas fast rotations generate patterns consisting of phase synchronized microflocks with a controllable characteristic size proportional to the average single-particle swimming radius. Our results defy the viewpoint that monofrequent rotations form a vapid extension of the Vicsek model and establish a generic route to pattern formation in chiral active matter with possible applications for understanding and designing rotating microflocks.

  14. Competitive Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Pierrette; Hiller, Christine A.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the evolution of competitive intelligence since 1994, including terminology and definitions and analytical techniques. Addresses the issue of ethics; explores how information technology supports the competitive intelligence process; and discusses education and training opportunities for competitive intelligence, including core competencies…

  15. Opening the Semantic Space in the Service of Collective Intelligence - DOI: 10.3395/reciis.v1i1.43en

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Lévy

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available As the human recorded memory is progressively digitized and posted on line, the need for a common semantic coordinate system independant from natural languages and ontologies is growing. A future universal semantic addressing system, able to index all digital documents, should meet three basic requirements. First, each distinct concept should have a unique address. Second, the semantic coordinate system should be open to any concept and relations between concepts (ontologies, whatever the cultural environments where these concepts are created and transformed, without neither privileges nor exclusions. Third, it should support a group of mathematically defined (automatable operations on semantic addresses, namely : rotations, symmetries and translations in the « semantic space » ; semantic compression and decompression ; set-theory operations like union, intersection and symmetric differences ; ranking on semantic criteria ; semantic pattern recognition ; semantic distances measurement ; logical inferences, etc. Developped by an international research network led by the Canada Research Chair in Collective Intelligence at the University of Ottawa, the Information Economy MetaLanguage (IEML, allows the construction of a semantic coordinate system meeting these three constraints. Website, including the IEML dictionary, since may 2006 : www.ieml.org. In Brasil, BIREME (www.bireme.br is member of the IEML initiative.

  16. Multiple Intelligences Development of Athletes: Examination on Dominant Intelligences

    OpenAIRE

    Wei-ting; Hsu Hong-shih; Chou Wen-chang; Chen

    2011-01-01

    The study attempted to identify the dominant intelligences of athletes by comparing the developmental differences of multiple intelligences between athletes and non-athletes. The weekly specialized training hours and years of specialized training was examined to see how it can predict the dominant intelligence with the age factor controlled. There were 355 participants in the research (202 athletes and 153 non-athletes). Collected data were analyzed with one-way MANOVA an...

  17. Physics of microswimmers—single particle motion and collective behavior: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgeti, J.; Winkler, R. G.; Gompper, G.

    2015-05-01

    Locomotion and transport of microorganisms in fluids is an essential aspect of life. Search for food, orientation toward light, spreading of off-spring, and the formation of colonies are only possible due to locomotion. Swimming at the microscale occurs at low Reynolds numbers, where fluid friction and viscosity dominates over inertia. Here, evolution achieved propulsion mechanisms, which overcome and even exploit drag. Prominent propulsion mechanisms are rotating helical flagella, exploited by many bacteria, and snake-like or whip-like motion of eukaryotic flagella, utilized by sperm and algae. For artificial microswimmers, alternative concepts to convert chemical energy or heat into directed motion can be employed, which are potentially more efficient. The dynamics of microswimmers comprises many facets, which are all required to achieve locomotion. In this article, we review the physics of locomotion of biological and synthetic microswimmers, and the collective behavior of their assemblies. Starting from individual microswimmers, we describe the various propulsion mechanism of biological and synthetic systems and address the hydrodynamic aspects of swimming. This comprises synchronization and the concerted beating of flagella and cilia. In addition, the swimming behavior next to surfaces is examined. Finally, collective and cooperate phenomena of various types of isotropic and anisotropic swimmers with and without hydrodynamic interactions are discussed.

  18. Collective behavior and quorum sensing in a system of communicating microcapsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolmakov, German; Bhattacharya, Amitabh; Balazs, Anna

    2009-11-01

    We report the results on collective motion of polymeric microcapsules in a fluid-filled microchannel. We consider the case where motion of the nanoparticle-filled microcapsules is controlled by adhesion at the channel's wall and hydrodynamic coupling between the capsules. Using the hybrid Lattice Boltzmann method for fluid dynamics and Lattice spring model for the micromechanics of elastic solid, we determined how the characteristics of the substrate, the polymeric shell, encapsulated fluid and the surrounding solution affect the capsule's velocity and ``gait'' of the capsule within the system. In numerical computations we find the conditions under which microcapsules communicating through modification of the microchannel surface by released nanoparticles exhibit collective motion, thereby mimicking behavior of the colony of living cells. In particular, we show that this system demonstrates a quorum sensing. That is, the capsules motion depends on population and behavior of neighboring groups of capsules. Finally, the design of a repair-and-go system is presented, in which we show that deposition of nanoparticles from moving microcapsules onto a damaged substrate can be used as an effective tool for selective repair of defects or cracks on the substrate.

  19. Simulating Flying Insects Using Dynamics and Data-Driven Noise Modeling to Generate Diverse Collective Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jiaping; Wang, Xinjie; Manocha, Dinesh

    2016-01-01

    We present a biologically plausible dynamics model to simulate swarms of flying insects. Our formulation, which is based on biological conclusions and experimental observations, is designed to simulate large insect swarms of varying densities. We use a force-based model that captures different interactions between the insects and the environment and computes collision-free trajectories for each individual insect. Furthermore, we model the noise as a constructive force at the collective level and present a technique to generate noise-induced insect movements in a large swarm that are similar to those observed in real-world trajectories. We use a data-driven formulation that is based on pre-recorded insect trajectories. We also present a novel evaluation metric and a statistical validation approach that takes into account various characteristics of insect motions. In practice, the combination of Curl noise function with our dynamics model is used to generate realistic swarm simulations and emergent behaviors. We highlight its performance for simulating large flying swarms of midges, fruit fly, locusts and moths and demonstrate many collective behaviors, including aggregation, migration, phase transition, and escape responses. PMID:27187068

  20. Physics of microswimmers--single particle motion and collective behavior: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgeti, J; Winkler, R G; Gompper, G

    2015-05-01

    Locomotion and transport of microorganisms in fluids is an essential aspect of life. Search for food, orientation toward light, spreading of off-spring, and the formation of colonies are only possible due to locomotion. Swimming at the microscale occurs at low Reynolds numbers, where fluid friction and viscosity dominates over inertia. Here, evolution achieved propulsion mechanisms, which overcome and even exploit drag. Prominent propulsion mechanisms are rotating helical flagella, exploited by many bacteria, and snake-like or whip-like motion of eukaryotic flagella, utilized by sperm and algae. For artificial microswimmers, alternative concepts to convert chemical energy or heat into directed motion can be employed, which are potentially more efficient. The dynamics of microswimmers comprises many facets, which are all required to achieve locomotion. In this article, we review the physics of locomotion of biological and synthetic microswimmers, and the collective behavior of their assemblies. Starting from individual microswimmers, we describe the various propulsion mechanism of biological and synthetic systems and address the hydrodynamic aspects of swimming. This comprises synchronization and the concerted beating of flagella and cilia. In addition, the swimming behavior next to surfaces is examined. Finally, collective and cooperate phenomena of various types of isotropic and anisotropic swimmers with and without hydrodynamic interactions are discussed.

  1. Collective Behaviors of Mobile Robots Beyond the Nearest Neighbor Rules With Switching Topology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Boda; Han, Qing-Long; Zuo, Zongyu; Jin, Jiong; Zheng, Jinchuan

    2017-06-08

    This paper is concerned with the collective behaviors of robots beyond the nearest neighbor rules, i.e., dispersion and flocking, when robots interact with others by applying an acute angle test (AAT)-based interaction rule. Different from a conventional nearest neighbor rule or its variations, the AAT-based interaction rule allows interactions with some far-neighbors and excludes unnecessary nearest neighbors. The resulting dispersion and flocking hold the advantages of scalability, connectivity, robustness, and effective area coverage. For the dispersion, a spring-like controller is proposed to achieve collision-free coordination. With switching topology, a new fixed-time consensus-based energy function is developed to guarantee the system stability. An upper bound of settling time for energy consensus is obtained, and a uniform time interval is accordingly set so that energy distribution is conducted in a fair manner. For the flocking, based on a class of generalized potential functions taking nonsmooth switching into account, a new controller is proposed to ensure that the same velocity for all robots is eventually reached. A co-optimizing problem is further investigated to accomplish additional tasks, such as enhancing communication performance, while maintaining the collective behaviors of mobile robots. Simulation results are presented to show the effectiveness of the theoretical results.

  2. A portable platform to collect and review behavioral data simultaneously with neurophysiological signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tianxiao Jiang; Siddiqui, Hasan; Ray, Shruti; Asman, Priscella; Ozturk, Musa; Ince, Nuri F

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a portable platform to collect and review behavioral data simultaneously with neurophysiological signals. The whole system is comprised of four parts: a sensor data acquisition interface, a socket server for real-time data streaming, a Simulink system for real-time processing and an offline data review and analysis toolbox. A low-cost microcontroller is used to acquire data from external sensors such as accelerometer and hand dynamometer. The micro-controller transfers the data either directly through USB or wirelessly through a bluetooth module to a data server written in C++ for MS Windows OS. The data server also interfaces with the digital glove and captures HD video from webcam. The acquired sensor data are streamed under User Datagram Protocol (UDP) to other applications such as Simulink/Matlab for real-time analysis and recording. Neurophysiological signals such as electroencephalography (EEG), electrocorticography (ECoG) and local field potential (LFP) recordings can be collected simultaneously in Simulink and fused with behavioral data. In addition, we developed a customized Matlab Graphical User Interface (GUI) software to review, annotate and analyze the data offline. The software provides a fast, user-friendly data visualization environment with synchronized video playback feature. The software is also capable of reviewing long-term neural recordings. Other featured functions such as fast preprocessing with multithreaded filters, annotation, montage selection, power-spectral density (PSD) estimate, time-frequency map and spatial spectral map are also implemented.

  3. Analysis and classification of collective behavior using generative modeling and nonlinear manifold learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butail, Sachit; Bollt, Erik M; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2013-11-07

    In this paper, we build a framework for the analysis and classification of collective behavior using methods from generative modeling and nonlinear manifold learning. We represent an animal group with a set of finite-sized particles and vary known features of the group structure and motion via a class of generative models to position each particle on a two-dimensional plane. Particle positions are then mapped onto training images that are processed to emphasize the features of interest and match attainable far-field videos of real animal groups. The training images serve as templates of recognizable patterns of collective behavior and are compactly represented in a low-dimensional space called embedding manifold. Two mappings from the manifold are derived: the manifold-to-image mapping serves to reconstruct new and unseen images of the group and the manifold-to-feature mapping allows frame-by-frame classification of raw video. We validate the combined framework on datasets of growing level of complexity. Specifically, we classify artificial images from the generative model, interacting self-propelled particle model, and raw overhead videos of schooling fish obtained from the literature. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Empowering Students through Multiple Intelligences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubado, Karen

    2002-01-01

    Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences challenges narrow concepts of student talent and ability. This article applies this theory to the challenge of educating students with learning behavior disabilities. Reaching these young people and engaging them in learning can help them understand that intelligence comes in many forms. (Author)

  5. Information Selection in Intelligence Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    to test and compare the performance of the different algorithms and heuristics described in Chapter III, we have constructed a simulation of the...Routledge. Kaplan, E. H. (2011), “Operations research and intelligence analysis,” in: Fischhoff B. and Chauvin C., Intelligence analysis: behavioral

  6. An IoT-Aware Architecture for Collecting and Managing Data Related to Elderly Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aitor Almeida

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The world population will be made up of a growing number of elderly people in the near future. Aged people are characterized by some physical and cognitive diseases, like mild cognitive impairment (MCI and frailty, that, if not timely diagnosed, could turn into more severe diseases, like Alzheimer disease, thus implying high costs for treatments and cares. Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs enabling the Internet of Things (IoT can be adopted to create frameworks for monitoring elderly behavior which, alongside normal clinical procedures, can help geriatricians to early detect behavioral changes related to such pathologies and to provide customized interventions. As part of the City4Age project, this work describes a novel approach for collecting and managing data about elderly behavior during their normal activities. The data capturing layer is an unobtrusive and low-cost sensing infrastructure abstracting the heterogeneity of physical devices, while the data management layer easily manages the huge quantity of sensed data, giving them semantic meaning and fostering data shareability. This work provides a functional validation of the proposed architecture and introduces how the data it manages can be used by the whole City4Age platform to early identify risks related to MCI/frailty and promptly intervene.

  7. Intelligence Ethics:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønn, Kira Vrist

    2016-01-01

    Questions concerning what constitutes a morally justified conduct of intelligence activities have received increased attention in recent decades. However, intelligence ethics is not yet homogeneous or embedded as a solid research field. The aim of this article is to sketch the state of the art...... of intelligence ethics and point out subjects for further scrutiny in future research. The review clusters the literature on intelligence ethics into two groups: respectively, contributions on external topics (i.e., the accountability of and the public trust in intelligence agencies) and internal topics (i.......e., the search for an ideal ethical framework for intelligence actions). The article concludes that there are many holes to fill for future studies on intelligence ethics both in external and internal discussions. Thus, the article is an invitation – especially, to moral philosophers and political theorists...

  8. A study on relationship between emotional intelligence and entrepreneurship of trainees in vocational and technical organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Ataei Zanjani Nezhad

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Emotional intelligence is defined to guide behavior, thoughts, effective communicating with family and within organizations. The present study aims to investigate the relationship between emotional intelligence and entrepreneurship of trainees in vocational and technical organization of Zanjan in 2014. Method of this study is practical and survey method has been conducted for data collection. The population of the survey consists of 500 trainees and the study selects a sample of 300 people. The study uses two questionnaires, one for emotional intelligence based on Bar-On questionnaire and the other for entrepreneurship, which was made by authors. Reliability for Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire was calculated 0.85 by Cronbach's alpha and for entrepreneurship was 0.81. Data analysis was performed by using SPSS software and the results showed that there was a meaningful and positive relationship between entrepreneurship and all five dimensions of emotional intelligence, including intrapersonal, interpersonal, mood, impulse control and compatibility.

  9. Tree resin composition, collection behavior and selective filters shape chemical profiles of tropical bees (Apidae: Meliponini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Sara D; Schmitt, Thomas; Blüthgen, Nico

    2011-01-01

    The diversity of species is striking, but can be far exceeded by the chemical diversity of compounds collected, produced or used by them. Here, we relate the specificity of plant-consumer interactions to chemical diversity applying a comparative network analysis to both levels. Chemical diversity was explored for interactions between tropical stingless bees and plant resins, which bees collect for nest construction and to deter predators and microbes. Resins also function as an environmental source for terpenes that serve as appeasement allomones and protection against predators when accumulated on the bees' body surfaces. To unravel the origin of the bees' complex chemical profiles, we investigated resin collection and the processing of resin-derived terpenes. We therefore analyzed chemical networks of tree resins, foraging networks of resin collecting bees, and their acquired chemical networks. We revealed that 113 terpenes in nests of six bee species and 83 on their body surfaces comprised a subset of the 1,117 compounds found in resins from seven tree species. Sesquiterpenes were the most variable class of terpenes. Albeit widely present in tree resins, they were only found on the body surface of some species, but entirely lacking in others. Moreover, whereas the nest profile of Tetragonula melanocephala contained sesquiterpenes, its surface profile did not. Stingless bees showed a generalized collecting behavior among resin sources, and only a hitherto undescribed species-specific "filtering" of resin-derived terpenes can explain the variation in chemical profiles of nests and body surfaces from different species. The tight relationship between bees and tree resins of a large variety of species elucidates why the bees' surfaces contain a much higher chemodiversity than other hymenopterans.

  10. Tree resin composition, collection behavior and selective filters shape chemical profiles of tropical bees (Apidae: Meliponini.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara D Leonhardt

    Full Text Available The diversity of species is striking, but can be far exceeded by the chemical diversity of compounds collected, produced or used by them. Here, we relate the specificity of plant-consumer interactions to chemical diversity applying a comparative network analysis to both levels. Chemical diversity was explored for interactions between tropical stingless bees and plant resins, which bees collect for nest construction and to deter predators and microbes. Resins also function as an environmental source for terpenes that serve as appeasement allomones and protection against predators when accumulated on the bees' body surfaces. To unravel the origin of the bees' complex chemical profiles, we investigated resin collection and the processing of resin-derived terpenes. We therefore analyzed chemical networks of tree resins, foraging networks of resin collecting bees, and their acquired chemical networks. We revealed that 113 terpenes in nests of six bee species and 83 on their body surfaces comprised a subset of the 1,117 compounds found in resins from seven tree species. Sesquiterpenes were the most variable class of terpenes. Albeit widely present in tree resins, they were only found on the body surface of some species, but entirely lacking in others. Moreover, whereas the nest profile of Tetragonula melanocephala contained sesquiterpenes, its surface profile did not. Stingless bees showed a generalized collecting behavior among resin sources, and only a hitherto undescribed species-specific "filtering" of resin-derived terpenes can explain the variation in chemical profiles of nests and body surfaces from different species. The tight relationship between bees and tree resins of a large variety of species elucidates why the bees' surfaces contain a much higher chemodiversity than other hymenopterans.

  11. Tree Resin Composition, Collection Behavior and Selective Filters Shape Chemical Profiles of Tropical Bees (Apidae: Meliponini)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Sara D.; Schmitt, Thomas; Blüthgen, Nico

    2011-01-01

    The diversity of species is striking, but can be far exceeded by the chemical diversity of compounds collected, produced or used by them. Here, we relate the specificity of plant-consumer interactions to chemical diversity applying a comparative network analysis to both levels. Chemical diversity was explored for interactions between tropical stingless bees and plant resins, which bees collect for nest construction and to deter predators and microbes. Resins also function as an environmental source for terpenes that serve as appeasement allomones and protection against predators when accumulated on the bees' body surfaces. To unravel the origin of the bees' complex chemical profiles, we investigated resin collection and the processing of resin-derived terpenes. We therefore analyzed chemical networks of tree resins, foraging networks of resin collecting bees, and their acquired chemical networks. We revealed that 113 terpenes in nests of six bee species and 83 on their body surfaces comprised a subset of the 1,117 compounds found in resins from seven tree species. Sesquiterpenes were the most variable class of terpenes. Albeit widely present in tree resins, they were only found on the body surface of some species, but entirely lacking in others. Moreover, whereas the nest profile of Tetragonula melanocephala contained sesquiterpenes, its surface profile did not. Stingless bees showed a generalized collecting behavior among resin sources, and only a hitherto undescribed species-specific “filtering” of resin-derived terpenes can explain the variation in chemical profiles of nests and body surfaces from different species. The tight relationship between bees and tree resins of a large variety of species elucidates why the bees' surfaces contain a much higher chemodiversity than other hymenopterans. PMID:21858119

  12. Interpersonal intelligence: key concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meritxell Cano

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to delimit the conceptual space of interpersonal intelligence, relating it to situations in which it is used. To this end, we first identify some aspects of an intellectual nature and the type of objects represented. The next section is devoted to the origins of interpersonal intelligence and its role in human adaptation. A third section focuses on the type of procedures for its measurement, not as a collection of tools commonly used, but as a way to make explicit the kind of evidence that is appropriate as good indicators of this intelligence. Finally, we describe some of the main confusions associated with the idea of this form of intelligence, integrating all aspects previously discussed.

  13. Exploring complex dynamics in multi agent-based intelligent systems: Theoretical and experimental approaches using the Multi Agent-based Behavioral Economic Landscape (MABEL) model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandridis, Konstantinos T.

    This dissertation adopts a holistic and detailed approach to modeling spatially explicit agent-based artificial intelligent systems, using the Multi Agent-based Behavioral Economic Landscape (MABEL) model. The research questions that addresses stem from the need to understand and analyze the real-world patterns and dynamics of land use change from a coupled human-environmental systems perspective. Describes the systemic, mathematical, statistical, socio-economic and spatial dynamics of the MABEL modeling framework, and provides a wide array of cross-disciplinary modeling applications within the research, decision-making and policy domains. Establishes the symbolic properties of the MABEL model as a Markov decision process, analyzes the decision-theoretic utility and optimization attributes of agents towards comprising statistically and spatially optimal policies and actions, and explores the probabilogic character of the agents' decision-making and inference mechanisms via the use of Bayesian belief and decision networks. Develops and describes a Monte Carlo methodology for experimental replications of agent's decisions regarding complex spatial parcel acquisition and learning. Recognizes the gap on spatially-explicit accuracy assessment techniques for complex spatial models, and proposes an ensemble of statistical tools designed to address this problem. Advanced information assessment techniques such as the Receiver-Operator Characteristic curve, the impurity entropy and Gini functions, and the Bayesian classification functions are proposed. The theoretical foundation for modular Bayesian inference in spatially-explicit multi-agent artificial intelligent systems, and the ensembles of cognitive and scenario assessment modular tools build for the MABEL model are provided. Emphasizes the modularity and robustness as valuable qualitative modeling attributes, and examines the role of robust intelligent modeling as a tool for improving policy-decisions related to land

  14. Computational Intelligence in Intelligent Data Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Nürnberger, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Complex systems and their phenomena are ubiquitous as they can be found in biology, finance, the humanities, management sciences, medicine, physics and similar fields. For many problems in these fields, there are no conventional ways to mathematically or analytically solve them completely at low cost. On the other hand, nature already solved many optimization problems efficiently. Computational intelligence attempts to mimic nature-inspired problem-solving strategies and methods. These strategies can be used to study, model and analyze complex systems such that it becomes feasible to handle them. Key areas of computational intelligence are artificial neural networks, evolutionary computation and fuzzy systems. As only a few researchers in that field, Rudolf Kruse has contributed in many important ways to the understanding, modeling and application of computational intelligence methods. On occasion of his 60th birthday, a collection of original papers of leading researchers in the field of computational intell...

  15. Counterfactual simulations applied to SHRP2 crashes: The effect of driver behavior models on safety benefit estimations of intelligent safety systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bärgman, Jonas; Boda, Christian-Nils; Dozza, Marco

    2017-05-01

    As the development and deployment of in-vehicle intelligent safety systems (ISS) for crash avoidance and mitigation have rapidly increased in the last decades, the need to evaluate their prospective safety benefits before introduction has never been higher. Counterfactual simulations using relevant mathematical models (for vehicle dynamics, sensors, the environment, ISS algorithms, and models of driver behavior) have been identified as having high potential. However, although most of these models are relatively mature, models of driver behavior in the critical seconds before a crash are still relatively immature. There are also large conceptual differences between different driver models. The objective of this paper is, firstly, to demonstrate the importance of the choice of driver model when counterfactual simulations are used to evaluate two ISS: Forward collision warning (FCW), and autonomous emergency braking (AEB). Secondly, the paper demonstrates how counterfactual simulations can be used to perform sensitivity analyses on parameter settings, both for driver behavior and ISS algorithms. Finally, the paper evaluates the effect of the choice of glance distribution in the driver behavior model on the safety benefit estimation. The paper uses pre-crash kinematics and driver behavior from 34 rear-end crashes from the SHRP2 naturalistic driving study for the demonstrations. The results for FCW show a large difference in the percent of avoided crashes between conceptually different models of driver behavior, while differences were small for conceptually similar models. As expected, the choice of model of driver behavior did not affect AEB benefit much. Based on our results, researchers and others who aim to evaluate ISS with the driver in the loop through counterfactual simulations should be sure to make deliberate and well-grounded choices of driver models: the choice of model matters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to Identify Predictors of Oral Hygiene: A Collection of Unique Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brein, Daniel J; Fleenor, Thomas J; Kim, Soo-Woo; Krupat, Edward

    2016-03-01

    This study aims to identify predictors of performed oral hygiene behaviors (OHBs) based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), oral health knowledge, and demographic factors. Using a questionnaire, 381 participants in three general dental offices and one hospital dental department in York, Pennsylvania, were surveyed regarding performed OHB, attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, oral health knowledge, income, age, and sex. Three unique elements of OHB were identified for analysis: brushing, interdental cleaning, and tongue cleaning. Regression analysis revealed that attitude was the strongest predictor of brushing behavior, followed by oral health knowledge, perceived behavior control, subjective norms, and income. Perceived behavior control was the strongest predictor of interdental cleaning, followed by increased age and attitude. Female sex was the strongest predictor of tongue cleaning, followed by subjective norms, decreased age, and perceived behavior control. Respectively, these three groups of predictive variables explained 22.5% of brushing behavior, 22.7% of interdental cleaning behavior, and 9.5% of tongue cleaning behavior. The present findings highlight the utility of viewing OHB as a set of unique behaviors with unique predictive variables and provide additional support for use of TPB in predicting OHB. Periodontal practitioners should consider the strong associations of attitude and perceived behavioral control with brushing and interdental cleaning behaviors when designing interventional efforts to improve patient home care.

  17. Emotional intelligence, emotions, and feelings of support staff working with clients with intellectual disabilities and challenging behavior : An exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlmans, L.J.M.; Embregts, P.J.C.M.; Bosman, A.M.T.

    2013-01-01

    Working with clients who show challenging behavior can be emotionally demanding and stressful for support staff, because this behavior may cause a range of negative emotional reactions and feelings. These reactions are of negative influence on staff wellbeing and behavior. Research has focused on

  18. Emotional intelligence, emotions, and feelings of support staff working with clients with intellectual disabilities and challenging behavior: An exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlmans, L.J.M.; Embregts, P.J.C.M.; Bosman, A.M.T.

    2013-01-01

    Working with clients who show challenging behavior can be emotionally demanding and stressful for support staff, because this behavior may cause a range of negative emotional reactions and feelings. These reactions are of negative influence on staff wellbeing and behavior. Research has focused on

  19. Virtual Reality for Artificial Intelligence: human-centered simulation for social science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipresso, Pietro; Riva, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    There is a long last tradition in Artificial Intelligence as use of Robots endowing human peculiarities, from a cognitive and emotional point of view, and not only in shape. Today Artificial Intelligence is more oriented to several form of collective intelligence, also building robot simulators (hardware or software) to deeply understand collective behaviors in human beings and society as a whole. Modeling has also been crucial in the social sciences, to understand how complex systems can arise from simple rules. However, while engineers' simulations can be performed in the physical world using robots, for social scientist this is impossible. For decades, researchers tried to improve simulations by endowing artificial agents with simple and complex rules that emulated human behavior also by using artificial intelligence (AI). To include human beings and their real intelligence within artificial societies is now the big challenge. We present an hybrid (human-artificial) platform where experiments can be performed by simulated artificial worlds in the following manner: 1) agents' behaviors are regulated by the behaviors shown in Virtual Reality involving real human beings exposed to specific situations to simulate, and 2) technology transfers these rules into the artificial world. These form a closed-loop of real behaviors inserted into artificial agents, which can be used to study real society.

  20. Behavioral activities collected through smartphones and the association with illness activity in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurholt-Jepsen, Maria; Vinberg, Maj; Frost, Mads

    2016-01-01

    Smartphones are useful in symptom-monitoring in bipolar disorder (BD). Objective smartphone data reflecting illness activity could facilitate early treatment and act as outcome in efficacy trials. A total of 29 patients with BD presenting with moderate to severe levels of depressive and manic...... symptoms used a smartphone-based self-monitoring system during 12 weeks. Objective smartphone data on behavioral activities were collected. Symptoms were clinically assessed every second week using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and the Young Mania Rating Scale. Objective smartphone data correlated...... with symptom severity. The more severe the depressive symptoms (1) the longer the smartphone’s screen was “on”/day, (2) more received incoming calls/day, (3) fewer outgoing calls/day were made, (4) less answered incoming calls/day, (5) the patients moved less between cell towers IDs/day. Conversely, the more...

  1. Flagella-induced transitions in the collective behavior of confined microswimmers

    CERN Document Server

    Tsang, Alan Cheng Hou

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria exist in a free-swimming state or in a sessile biofilm state. The transition from free-swimming to sessile mode is characterized by changes in gene expression which alter, among others,the mechanics of flagellar motility. In this paper, we propose an idealized physical model to investigate the effects of flagellar activity on the hydrodynamic interactions among a population of microswimmers. We show that decreasing flagellar activity induces a hydrodynamically-triggered transition in confined microswimmers from turbulent-like swimming to aggregation and clustering. These results suggest that the interplay between flagellar activity and hydrodynamic interactions provides a physical mechanism for coordinating collective behaviors in confined bacteria, with potentially profound implications on biofilm initiation.

  2. Empirical analysis of collective human behavior for extraordinary events in blogosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Sano, Yukie; Watanabe, Hayafumi; Takayasu, Hideki; Takayasu, Misako

    2011-01-01

    To explain collective human behavior in blogosphere, we survey more than 1.8 billion entries and observe statistical properties of word appearance. We first estimate the basic properties of number fluctuation of ordinary words that appear almost uniformly. Then, we focus on those words that show dynamic growth with a tendency to diverge on a certain day, and also news words, that are typical keywords for natural disasters, grow suddenly with the occurrence of events and decay gradually with time. In both cases, the functional forms of growth and decay are generally approximated by power laws with exponents around -1 for a period of about 80 days. Our empirical analysis can be applied for the prediction of word frequency in blogosphere.

  3. Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    2012 International Conference on Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction (ICACII 2012) was the most comprehensive conference focused on the various aspects of advances in Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction. The conference provided a rare opportunity to bring together worldwide academic researchers and practitioners for exchanging the latest developments and applications in this field such as Intelligent Computing, Affective Computing, Machine Learning, Business Intelligence and HCI.   This volume is a collection of 119 papers selected from 410 submissions from universities and industries all over the world, based on their quality and relevancy to the conference. All of the papers have been peer-reviewed by selected experts.  

  4. Collective behavior of large-scale neural networks with GPU acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Jingyi; Wang, Rubin

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, the collective behaviors of a small-world neuronal network motivated by the anatomy of a mammalian cortex based on both Izhikevich model and Rulkov model are studied. The Izhikevich model can not only reproduce the rich behaviors of biological neurons but also has only two equations and one nonlinear term. Rulkov model is in the form of difference equations that generate a sequence of membrane potential samples in discrete moments of time to improve computational efficiency. These two models are suitable for the construction of large scale neural networks. By varying some key parameters, such as the connection probability and the number of nearest neighbor of each node, the coupled neurons will exhibit types of temporal and spatial characteristics. It is demonstrated that the implementation of GPU can achieve more and more acceleration than CPU with the increasing of neuron number and iterations. These two small-world network models and GPU acceleration give us a new opportunity to reproduce the real biological network containing a large number of neurons.

  5. Mechanical cell-matrix feedback explains pairwise and collective endothelial cell behavior in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René F M van Oers

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In vitro cultures of endothelial cells are a widely used model system of the collective behavior of endothelial cells during vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. When seeded in an extracellular matrix, endothelial cells can form blood vessel-like structures, including vascular networks and sprouts. Endothelial morphogenesis depends on a large number of chemical and mechanical factors, including the compliancy of the extracellular matrix, the available growth factors, the adhesion of cells to the extracellular matrix, cell-cell signaling, etc. Although various computational models have been proposed to explain the role of each of these biochemical and biomechanical effects, the understanding of the mechanisms underlying in vitro angiogenesis is still incomplete. Most explanations focus on predicting the whole vascular network or sprout from the underlying cell behavior, and do not check if the same model also correctly captures the intermediate scale: the pairwise cell-cell interactions or single cell responses to ECM mechanics. Here we show, using a hybrid cellular Potts and finite element computational model, that a single set of biologically plausible rules describing (a the contractile forces that endothelial cells exert on the ECM, (b the resulting strains in the extracellular matrix, and (c the cellular response to the strains, suffices for reproducing the behavior of individual endothelial cells and the interactions of endothelial cell pairs in compliant matrices. With the same set of rules, the model also reproduces network formation from scattered cells, and sprouting from endothelial spheroids. Combining the present mechanical model with aspects of previously proposed mechanical and chemical models may lead to a more complete understanding of in vitro angiogenesis.

  6. Artificial Intelligence,

    Science.gov (United States)

    PATTERN RECOGNITION, * ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE, *TEXTBOOKS, COMPUTER PROGRAMMING, MATHEMATICAL LOGIC, ROBOTS, PROBLEM SOLVING, STATISTICAL ANALYSIS, GAME THEORY, NATURAL LANGUAGE, SELF ORGANIZING SYSTEMS.

  7. Intelligent Potroom Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jan Berkow; Larry Banta

    2003-07-29

    The Intelligent Potroom Operation project focuses on maximizing the performance of an aluminum smelter by innovating components for an intelligent manufacturing system. The Intelligent Potroom Advisor (IPA) monitors process data to identify reduction cells exhibiting behaviors that require immediate attention. It then advises operational personnel on those heuristic-based actions to bring the cell back to an optimal operating state in order to reduce the duration and frequency of substandard reduction cell performance referred to as ''Off-Peak Modes'' (OPMs). Techniques developed to identify cells exhibiting OPMs include the use of a finite element model-based cell state estimator for defining the cell's current operating state via advanced cell noise analyses. In addition, rule induction was also employed to identify statistically significant complex behaviors that occur prior to OPMs. The intelligent manufacturing system design, concepts and formalisms developed in this project w ere used as a basis for an intelligent manufacturing system design. Future research will incorporate an adaptive component to automate continuous process improvement, a technology platform with the potential to improve process performance in many of the other Industries of the Future applications as well.

  8. Role Breadth Self-Efficacy and Foci of Proactive Behavior: Moderating Role of Collective, Relational, and Individual Self-Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Pin-Chyuan; Han, Ming-Chuan; Chiu, Su-Fen

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to identify the interactive effect of role breadth self-efficacy (RBSE) and the three levels of self-concept (collective, relational, and individual) in predicting of different foci of proactive behaviors. Results from 259 matched responses from an airline company in Taiwan showed that RBSE had a positive effect on (1) pro-organizational proactive behavior among those with higher collective self-concept, (2) pro-supervisor proactive behavior among those with higher relational self-concept, and (3) pro-self proactive behavior among those with higher individual self-concept. Our findings provide insights into the moderating role of different levels of self-concept on RBSE-proactive behavior process in terms of specific targets or beneficiaries. Further implications for organizational research and practice are discussed.

  9. Can Emotionally Intelligent Volleyball Players Be More Prone to Sportspersonship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Suleyman

    2016-01-01

    Emotional intelligence concept has been examined by researchers in the field of education as well as field of sports. When emotional intelligence theory examined, it comes to mind that emotional intelligence can be related to moral behaviors in sport. In this regard, the question of "Can emotional intelligence predict sportspersonship…

  10. Bacterial linguistic communication and social intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Jacob, Eshel; Becker, Israela; Shapira, Yoash; Levine, Herbert

    2004-08-01

    Bacteria have developed intricate communication capabilities (e.g. quorum-sensing, chemotactic signaling and plasmid exchange) to cooperatively self-organize into highly structured colonies with elevated environmental adaptability. We propose that bacteria use their intracellular flexibility, involving signal transduction networks and genomic plasticity, to collectively maintain linguistic communication: self and shared interpretations of chemical cues, exchange of chemical messages (semantic) and dialogues (pragmatic). Meaning-based communication permits colonial identity, intentional behavior (e.g. pheromone-based courtship for mating), purposeful alteration of colony structure (e.g. formation of fruiting bodies), decision-making (e.g. to sporulate) and the recognition and identification of other colonies - features we might begin to associate with a bacterial social intelligence. Such a social intelligence, should it exist, would require going beyond communication to encompass unknown additional intracellular processes to generate inheritable colonial memory and commonly shared genomic context.

  11. Cyber threat intelligence exchange: A growing requirement

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Veerasamy, Namosha

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available coming into the networks. Open source intelligence (OSINT) is derived from publically available information like books, publications, radio and television. In the context of the cyber threat intelligence, it can be sourced from the Internet from search... engines and other “crawling” technology. Human intelligence (HUMINT) differs somewhat in that SIGINT and OSINT can come from passive forms of intelligence collection like automated software but HUMINT is strongly active. It could consist of human...

  12. Architecture for robot intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, II, Richard Alan (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    An architecture for robot intelligence enables a robot to learn new behaviors and create new behavior sequences autonomously and interact with a dynamically changing environment. Sensory information is mapped onto a Sensory Ego-Sphere (SES) that rapidly identifies important changes in the environment and functions much like short term memory. Behaviors are stored in a DBAM that creates an active map from the robot's current state to a goal state and functions much like long term memory. A dream state converts recent activities stored in the SES and creates or modifies behaviors in the DBAM.

  13. ECONOMIC INTELLIGENCE - THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIRGIL - ION POPOVICI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic Intelligence (EI may be a solution in knowledge management as involves collecting, evaluating, processing, analysis and dissemination of economic data within organizations. The ultimate goal of economic intelligence (EI is to take advantage of this opportunity to develop and improve methods for identifying relevant information sources, analysis of information collected and manipulation, to give the user all the necessary decisions. Scope of the Economic Intelligence focused on information available outside the organization, covering wide areas from technology to market or legal issues. Economic Intelligence (EI is closely related to other approaches to information management, and knowledge management and business intelligence, excelling in the use of software tools.

  14. Intelligent Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.

    2005-01-01

    Forestillingen om at naturen er designet af en guddommelig 'intelligens' er et smukt filosofisk princip. Teorier om Intelligent Design som en naturvidenskabeligt baseret teori er derimod helt forfærdelig.......Forestillingen om at naturen er designet af en guddommelig 'intelligens' er et smukt filosofisk princip. Teorier om Intelligent Design som en naturvidenskabeligt baseret teori er derimod helt forfærdelig....

  15. Illusory Intelligences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, John

    2008-01-01

    Howard Gardner's theory of Multiple Intelligences has had a huge influence on school education. But its credentials lack justification, as the first section of this paper shows via a detailed philosophical analysis of how the intelligences are identified. If we want to make sense of the theory, we need to turn from a philosophical to a historical…

  16. Machine perception and intelligent control architecture for multirobot coordination based on biological principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomopoulos, Stelios C.; Braught, Grant

    1996-10-01

    Intelligent control, inspired by biological and AI (artificial intelligence) principles, has increased the understanding of controlling complex processes without precise mathematical model of the controlled process. Through customized applications, intelligent control has demonstrated that it is a step in the right direction. However, intelligent control has yet to provide a complete solution to the problem of integrated manufacturing systems via intelligent reconfiguration of the robotics systems. The aim of this paper is to present an intelligent control architecture and design methodology based on biological principles that govern self-organization of autonomous agents. Two key structural elements of the proposed control architecture have been tested individually on key pilot applications and shown promising results. The proposed intelligent control design is inspired by observed individual and collective biological behavior in colonies of living organisms that are capable of self-organization into groups of specialized individuals capable of collectively achieving a set of prescribed or emerging objectives. The nervous and brain system in the proposed control architecture is based on reinforcement learning principles and conditioning and modeled using adaptive neurocontrollers. Mathematical control theory (e.g. optimal control, adaptive control, and neurocontrol) is used to coordinate the interactions of multiple robotics agents.

  17. From kinetic to collective behavior in thermal transport on semiconductors and semiconductor nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomas, C. de; Lopeandia, A. F.; Alvarez, F. X., E-mail: xavier.alvarez@uab.cat [Department of Physics, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain); Cantarero, A. [Materials Science Institute, University of Valencia, P. O. Box 22085, 46071 Valencia (Spain)

    2014-04-28

    We present a model which deepens into the role that normal scattering has on the thermal conductivity in semiconductor bulk, micro, and nanoscale samples. Thermal conductivity as a function of the temperature undergoes a smooth transition from a kinetic to a collective regime that depends on the importance of normal scattering events. We demonstrate that in this transition, the key point to fit experimental data is changing the way to perform the average on the scattering rates. We apply the model to bulk Si with different isotopic compositions obtaining an accurate fit. Then we calculate the thermal conductivity of Si thin films and nanowires by only introducing the effective size as additional parameter. The model provides a better prediction of the thermal conductivity behavior valid for all temperatures and sizes above 30 nm with a single expression. Avoiding the introduction of confinement or quantum effects, the model permits to establish the limit of classical theories in the study of the thermal conductivity in nanoscopic systems.

  18. Artificial intelligence in cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonderman, Diana

    2017-12-01

    Decision-making is complex in modern medicine and should ideally be based on available data, structured knowledge and proper interpretation in the context of an individual patient. Automated algorithms, also termed artificial intelligence that are able to extract meaningful patterns from data collections and build decisions upon identified patterns may be useful assistants in clinical decision-making processes. In this article, artificial intelligence-based studies in clinical cardiology are reviewed. The text also touches on the ethical issues and speculates on the future roles of automated algorithms versus clinicians in cardiology and medicine in general.

  19. Science and engineering intelligent surveillance systems

    CERN Document Server

    Huihuan, Qian; Xu, Yangsheng

    2011-01-01

    As shortcomings such as high labor costs make intelligent surveillance systems more desirable, this practical book focuses on detecting abnormal behavior based on learning and the analysis of dangerous crowd behavior based on texture and optical flow.

  20. SPEECH INTELLIGIBILITY DEVELOPMENT IN SEVERE TO PROFOUND HEARING-IMPAIRED CHILDREN ESTABLISHMENT OF A DATA COLLECTION FOR EARLY INTERVENTION IN HEARING-IMPAIRED CHILDREN IN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Daneshman P. Borghei

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of early detection of hearing impairment in children is early intervention. There is growing interest in early detection of hearing impairment in developing countries. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the spoken language development in severe to profound hearing impaired children and compared their speech intelligibility with normal hearing children at the same age. Nine severe to profound hearing impaired children below 2 years old out of the primer 42 cases were selected for this survey. They receive aural habilitation and also speech therapy after beginning the speech production. Speech intelligibility test of these children was recorded on audio-tape, when they read five questions which can be answered with one word only, at the age of 4, 5 and 6 in comparison with 27 normal hearing children at the same age. At the age of 4 the mean speech intelligibility score of the studied group was 31.77% (SD 12.17 and the control was %96 (SD 2.23. At the age of 5, this score was %51.22 (SD 14.42, the control one 97.85% (SD 1.93. Finally at age 6 it was 72% (SD 18.97 for hearing–impaired group and 99.22% (SD 1.18 in control one. Severe to profound hearing impaired children acquired spoken language but not at the same level. In general, their speech development showed about 2 to 3 years delay. Their speech intelligibility was acceptable for severe group around the age 6 but almost semi–intelligible for profound group at the same age.

  1. Artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Ennals, J R

    1987-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence: State of the Art Report is a two-part report consisting of the invited papers and the analysis. The editor first gives an introduction to the invited papers before presenting each paper and the analysis, and then concludes with the list of references related to the study. The invited papers explore the various aspects of artificial intelligence. The analysis part assesses the major advances in artificial intelligence and provides a balanced analysis of the state of the art in this field. The Bibliography compiles the most important published material on the subject of

  2. Intelligent playgrounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lasse Juel

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines play, gaming and learning in regard to intelligent playware developed for outdoor use. The key questions are how does these novel artefacts influence the concept of play, gaming and learning. Up until now play and game have been understood as different activities. This paper...... examines if the sharp differentiation between the two can be uphold in regard to intelligent playware for outdoor use. Play and game activities will be analysed and viewed in conjunction with learning contexts. This paper will stipulate that intelligent playware facilitates rapid shifts in contexts...

  3. 76 FR 43265 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Evacuation Movement and Behavior Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ... Movement and Behavior Questionnaire AGENCY: National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). ACTION... behavior and movement of occupants from approximately 50 high-rise building evacuation drills in cities...

  4. Interviews of Human Intelligence (HUMINT) Officers

    OpenAIRE

    Nunan, Jordan; Milne, Rebecca; Shawyer, Andrea; Walsh, Dave; Stanier, Ian

    2017-01-01

    Poster presented at the 2017 Defence and Security Doctoral Symposium.Intelligence led policing is deemed a proactive measure to counter criminal activity. The use of both overt and covert practices are used to support this proactive approach to policing England and Wales. There are a variety of methods that agencies can use to collect intelligence. First amongst collection capabilities is the discipline of HUMINT, the branch charged with eliciting intelligence through interaction with human s...

  5. Collectively Facilitated Behavior of the Neonate Caterpillars of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terrence D. Fitzgerald

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The behavioral biology of the first instar larva of Cactoblastis cactorum was studied from the time of eclosion until the colony penetrated and initiated excavation of the host plant. Hatching from an egg stick was asynchronous, requiring 20 h for the entire cohort to eclose at 50%–70% RH and significantly longer at a lower range of RHs. On eclosion, neonates aggregated in an arena at the base of their egg stick and did not attempt to excavate the cladode until an average of 25 caterpillars had collected, approximately 15 h after the onset of egg hatch. Typically only a single entrance hole was formed, limiting the active process of excavating to one or a few individuals at-a-time until the host was fully penetrated and enlarged internally. Olfactometer tests showed that the neonates are strongly attracted to volatile chemicals released when caterpillars chewed into the cladode, accounting for the strong fidelity of the whole cohort to the initial site of penetration. In one instance, the caterpillars were observed to deal with an explosive release of mucilage by imbibing the liquid until the flooded zone was drained and the caterpillars could reenter the plant through the original entrance hole. Once inside the cladode, marked individuals adopted a regular cycle of defecating at the surface at a mean interval of approximately 10 min when followed for 35 successive cycles. Blanket spraying cladodes with a mandibular gland extract prior to hatching led to the independent dispersal of neonates and a failure to form an arena. When the cladode was impenetrable at the site of eclosion, the active cohort of unfed neonates set off together in search of a new site, marking and following a persistent trail that allowed late-to-eclose caterpillars to join their departed siblings. The adaptive significance of these observations is discussed in the context of the life history of the caterpillar.

  6. When Do Simpler Sexual Behavior Data Collection Techniques Suffice?: An Analysis of Consequent Uncertainty in HIV Acquisition Risk Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkerton, Steven D.; Benotsch, Eric G.; Mikytuck, John

    2007-01-01

    The "gold standard" for evaluating human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention programs is a partner-by-partner sexual behavior assessment that elicits information about each sex partner and the activities engaged in with that partner. When collection of detailed partner-by-partner data is not feasible, aggregate data (e.g., total…

  7. Analytical design of intelligent machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saridis, George N.; Valavanis, Kimon P.

    1987-01-01

    The problem of designing 'intelligent machines' to operate in uncertain environments with minimum supervision or interaction with a human operator is examined. The structure of an 'intelligent machine' is defined to be the structure of a Hierarchically Intelligent Control System, composed of three levels hierarchically ordered according to the principle of 'increasing precision with decreasing intelligence', namely: the organizational level, performing general information processing tasks in association with a long-term memory; the coordination level, dealing with specific information processing tasks with a short-term memory; and the control level, which performs the execution of various tasks through hardware using feedback control methods. The behavior of such a machine may be managed by controls with special considerations and its 'intelligence' is directly related to the derivation of a compatible measure that associates the intelligence of the higher levels with the concept of entropy, which is a sufficient analytic measure that unifies the treatment of all the levels of an 'intelligent machine' as the mathematical problem of finding the right sequence of internal decisions and controls for a system structured in the order of intelligence and inverse order of precision such that it minimizes its total entropy. A case study on the automatic maintenance of a nuclear plant illustrates the proposed approach.

  8. The Effects of Data Collection Method and Monitoring of Workers’ Behavior on the Generation of Demolition Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Gi-Wook; Kim, Young-Chan; Moon, Hyeun Jun; Hong, Won-Hwa

    2017-01-01

    The roles of both the data collection method (including proper classification) and the behavior of workers on the generation of demolition waste (DW) are important. By analyzing the effect of the data collection method used to estimate DW, and by investigating how workers’ behavior can affect the total amount of DW generated during an actual demolition process, it was possible to identify strategies that could improve the prediction of DW. Therefore, this study surveyed demolition waste generation rates (DWGRs) for different types of building by conducting on-site surveys immediately before demolition in order to collect adequate and reliable data. In addition, the effects of DW management strategies and of monitoring the behavior of workers on the actual generation of DW were analyzed. The results showed that when monitoring was implemented, the estimates of DW obtained from the DWGRs that were surveyed immediately before demolition and the actual quantities of DW reported by the demolition contractors had an error rate of 0.63% when the results were compared. Therefore, this study has shown that the proper data collection method (i.e., data were collected immediately before demolition) applied in this paper and monitoring on the demolition site have a significant impact on waste generation. PMID:29023378

  9. The Effects of Data Collection Method and Monitoring of Workers' Behavior on the Generation of Demolition Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Gi-Wook; Kim, Young-Chan; Moon, Hyeun Jun; Hong, Won-Hwa

    2017-10-12

    The roles of both the data collection method (including proper classification) and the behavior of workers on the generation of demolition waste (DW) are important. By analyzing the effect of the data collection method used to estimate DW, and by investigating how workers' behavior can affect the total amount of DW generated during an actual demolition process, it was possible to identify strategies that could improve the prediction of DW. Therefore, this study surveyed demolition waste generation rates (DWGRs) for different types of building by conducting on-site surveys immediately before demolition in order to collect adequate and reliable data. In addition, the effects of DW management strategies and of monitoring the behavior of workers on the actual generation of DW were analyzed. The results showed that when monitoring was implemented, the estimates of DW obtained from the DWGRs that were surveyed immediately before demolition and the actual quantities of DW reported by the demolition contractors had an error rate of 0.63% when the results were compared. Therefore, this study has shown that the proper data collection method (i.e., data were collected immediately before demolition) applied in this paper and monitoring on the demolition site have a significant impact on waste generation.

  10. The Effects of Data Collection Method and Monitoring of Workers’ Behavior on the Generation of Demolition Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gi-Wook Cha

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The roles of both the data collection method (including proper classification and the behavior of workers on the generation of demolition waste (DW are important. By analyzing the effect of the data collection method used to estimate DW, and by investigating how workers’ behavior can affect the total amount of DW generated during an actual demolition process, it was possible to identify strategies that could improve the prediction of DW. Therefore, this study surveyed demolition waste generation rates (DWGRs for different types of building by conducting on-site surveys immediately before demolition in order to collect adequate and reliable data. In addition, the effects of DW management strategies and of monitoring the behavior of workers on the actual generation of DW were analyzed. The results showed that when monitoring was implemented, the estimates of DW obtained from the DWGRs that were surveyed immediately before demolition and the actual quantities of DW reported by the demolition contractors had an error rate of 0.63% when the results were compared. Therefore, this study has shown that the proper data collection method (i.e., data were collected immediately before demolition applied in this paper and monitoring on the demolition site have a significant impact on waste generation.

  11. Principles and strategies for monitoring data collection integrity in a multi-site randomized clinical trial of a behavioral intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips-Salimi, Celeste R; Donovan Stickler, Molly A; Stegenga, Kristin; Lee, Melissa; Haase, Joan E

    2011-08-01

    Although treatment fidelity strategies for enhancing the integrity of behavioral interventions have been well described, little has been written about monitoring data collection integrity. This article describes the principles and strategies developed to monitor data collection integrity of the "Stories and Music for Adolescent/Young Adult Resilience During Transplant" study (R01NR008583, U10CA098543, and U10CA095861)-a multi-site Children's Oncology Group randomized clinical trial of a music therapy intervention for adolescents and young adults undergoing stem cell transplant. The principles and strategies outlined in this article provide one model for development and evaluation of a data collection integrity monitoring plan for behavioral interventions that may be adapted by investigators and may be useful to funding agencies and grant application reviewers in evaluating proposals. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Femtoscopic signatures of collective behavior as a probe of the thermal nature of relativistic heavy ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Kisiel, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Femtoscopy measures space-time characteristics of the particle emitting source created in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. It is argued that collective behavior of matter (radial flow) produces specific femtoscopic signatures. The one that is best known, the m_T dependence of the pion ``HBT radii'', can be explained by the alternative scenario of temperature gradients in an initial state thermal model. We identify others that can invalidate such alternatives, such as non-identical particle correlations and m_T scaling for particles of higher mass. Studies with a simple rescattering code show that as the interaction cross-section is increased the system develops collective behavior and becomes more thermalized at the same time, the two effects being the natural consequence of increased number of particle rescatterings. Repeating calculations with a more realistic rescattering model confirmed all of these conclusions and provided deeper insight into the mechanisms of collectivity buildup, showing a preference...

  13. Recent advances in the automatic collection of animal behavior and physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The true assessment of an animal's state of being depends on the collection of refined, repeatable data, free from influence of the collection method or observer bias. The last few years have seen significant technical advances in automatic data collection pertaining to the animal and its environmen...

  14. Longitudinal Associations of Neighborhood Collective Efficacy and Maternal Corporal Punishment with Behavior Problems in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Julie; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Neighborhood and parenting influences on early behavioral outcomes are strongly dependent upon a child's stage of development. However, little research has jointly considered the longitudinal associations of neighborhood and parenting processes with behavior problems in early childhood. To address this limitation, this study explores the…

  15. How Intelligent is your Intelligent Robot?

    OpenAIRE

    Winfield, Alan F. T.

    2017-01-01

    How intelligent is robot A compared with robot B? And how intelligent are robots A and B compared with animals (or plants) X and Y? These are both interesting and deeply challenging questions. In this paper we address the question "how intelligent is your intelligent robot?" by proposing that embodied intelligence emerges from the interaction and integration of four different and distinct kinds of intelligence. We then suggest a simple diagrammatic representation on which these kinds of intel...

  16. Resilience, tipping, and hydra effects in public health: emergent collective behavior in two agent-based models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Christopher Robert

    2016-03-15

    Collective health behavior often demonstrates counter-intuitive dynamics, sometimes resisting interventions designed to produce change, or even producing effects that are in the opposite direction than intended by the intervention, e.g. lowering infectivity resulting in increased infections. At other times collective health behavior exhibits sudden large-scale change in response to small interventions or change in the environment, a phenomenon often called "tipping." I hypothesize that these seemingly very different phenomena can all be explained by the same dynamic, a type of collective resilience. I compared two simple agent-based models of interactions in networks: a public health behavior game, in which individuals decide whether or not to adopt protective behavior, and a microbial-level game, in which three different strains of bacteria attack each other. I examined the type of networks and other conditions that support a dynamic balance, and determined what changes of conditions will tip the balance. Both models show lasting dynamic equilibrium and resilience, resulting from negative feedback that supports oscillating coexistence of diversity under a range of conditions. In the public health game, health protection is followed by free-riding defectors, followed by a rise in infection, in long-lasting cycles. In the microbial game, each of three strains takes turns dominating. In both games, the dynamic balance is tipped by lowering the level of local clustering, changing the level of benefit, or lowering infectivity or attack rate. Lowering infectivity has the surprising effect of increasing the numbers of infected individuals. We see parallel results in the microbial game of three bacterial strains, where lowering one strain's attack rate (analogous to lowering infectivity) increases the numbers of the restrained attacker, a phenomenon captured by the phrase, "the enemy of my enemy is my friend." Collective behavior often shows a dynamic balance, resulting

  17. Resilience, tipping, and hydra effects in public health: emergent collective behavior in two agent-based models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Robert Keane

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Collective health behavior often demonstrates counter-intuitive dynamics, sometimes resisting interventions designed to produce change, or even producing effects that are in the opposite direction than intended by the intervention, e.g. lowering infectivity resulting in increased infections. At other times collective health behavior exhibits sudden large-scale change in response to small interventions or change in the environment, a phenomenon often called “tipping.” I hypothesize that these seemingly very different phenomena can all be explained by the same dynamic, a type of collective resilience. Methods I compared two simple agent-based models of interactions in networks: a public health behavior game, in which individuals decide whether or not to adopt protective behavior, and a microbial-level game, in which three different strains of bacteria attack each other. I examined the type of networks and other conditions that support a dynamic balance, and determined what changes of conditions will tip the balance. Results Both models show lasting dynamic equilibrium and resilience, resulting from negative feedback that supports oscillating coexistence of diversity under a range of conditions. In the public health game, health protection is followed by free-riding defectors, followed by a rise in infection, in long-lasting cycles. In the microbial game, each of three strains takes turns dominating. In both games, the dynamic balance is tipped by lowering the level of local clustering, changing the level of benefit, or lowering infectivity or attack rate. Lowering infectivity has the surprising effect of increasing the numbers of infected individuals. We see parallel results in the microbial game of three bacterial strains, where lowering one strain’s attack rate (analogous to lowering infectivity increases the numbers of the restrained attacker, a phenomenon captured by the phrase, “the enemy of my enemy is my friend

  18. Genome-Wide Association Mapping for Intelligence in Military Working Dogs: Development of Advanced Classification Algorithm for Genome-Wide Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    al. (2007) “Efficient mapping of mendelian traits in dogs through genome-wide association.” Nat Genet 39:1321-1328. 12 Distribution A...collected data to genetically map superior intelligence in the military working dog. A behavioral testing regimen was developed by canine cognitive expert Dr...TERMS Military working dog genome-wide association study genetic marker intelligence 16

  19. Multi-Modal Intelligent Traffic Signal Systems (MMITSS) impacts assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    The study evaluates the potential network-wide impacts of the Multi-Modal Intelligent Transportation Signal System : (MMITSS) based on a field data analysis utilizing data collected from a MMITSS prototype and a simulation analysis. : The Intelligent...

  20. Uncertainty in artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Levitt, TS; Lemmer, JF; Shachter, RD

    1990-01-01

    Clearly illustrated in this volume is the current relationship between Uncertainty and AI.It has been said that research in AI revolves around five basic questions asked relative to some particular domain: What knowledge is required? How can this knowledge be acquired? How can it be represented in a system? How should this knowledge be manipulated in order to provide intelligent behavior? How can the behavior be explained? In this volume, all of these questions are addressed. From the perspective of the relationship of uncertainty to the basic questions of AI, the book divides naturally i

  1. Explaining Radical Group Behavior : Developing Emotion and Efficacy Routes to Normative and Nonnormative Collective Action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tausch, Nicole; Becker, Julia C.; Spears, Russell; Christ, Oliver; Saab, Rim; Singh, Purnima; Siddiqui, Roomana N.

    A recent model of collective action distinguishes 2 distinct pathways: an emotional pathway whereby anger in response to injustice motivates action and an efficacy pathway where the belief that issues can be solved collectively increases the likelihood that group members take action (van Zomeren,

  2. Intelligent systems

    CERN Document Server

    Irwin, J David

    2011-01-01

    Technology has now progressed to the point that intelligent systems are replacing humans in the decision making processes as well as aiding in the solution of very complex problems. In many cases intelligent systems are already outperforming human activities. Artificial neural networks are not only capable of learning how to classify patterns, such images or sequence of events, but they can also effectively model complex nonlinear systems. Their ability to classify sequences of events is probably more popular in industrial applications where there is an inherent need to model nonlinear system

  3. Collection and visualization of dietary behavior and reasons for eating using Twitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hingle, Melanie; Yoon, Donella; Fowler, Joseph; Kobourov, Stephen; Schneider, Michael Lee; Falk, Daniel; Burd, Randy

    2013-06-24

    Increasing an individual's awareness and understanding of their dietary habits and reasons for eating may help facilitate positive dietary changes. Mobile technologies allow individuals to record diet-related behavior in real time from any location; however, the most popular software applications lack empirical evidence supporting their efficacy as health promotion tools. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility and acceptability of a popular social media software application (Twitter) to capture young adults' dietary behavior and reasons for eating. A secondary aim was to visualize data from Twitter using a novel analytic tool designed to help identify relationships among dietary behaviors, reasons for eating, and contextual factors. Participants were trained to record all food and beverages consumed over 3 consecutive days (2 weekdays and 1 weekend day) using their mobile device's native Twitter application. A list of 24 hashtags (#) representing food groups and reasons for eating were provided to participants to guide reporting (eg, #protein, #mood). Participants were encouraged to annotate hashtags with contextual information using photos, text, and links. User experience was assessed through a combination of email reports of technical challenges and a 9-item exit survey. Participant data were captured from the public Twitter stream, and frequency of hashtag occurrence and co-occurrence were determined. Contextual data were further parsed and qualitatively analyzed. A frequency matrix was constructed to identify food and behavior hashtags that co-occurred. These relationships were visualized using GMap algorithmic mapping software. A total of 50 adults completed the study. In all, 773 tweets including 2862 hashtags (1756 foods and 1106 reasons for eating) were reported. Frequently reported food groups were #grains (n=365 tweets), #dairy (n=221), and #protein (n=307). The most frequently cited reasons for eating were #social (activity) (n=122

  4. Acute Mental Discomfort Associated with Suicide Behavior in a Clinical Sample of Patients with Affective Disorders: Ascertaining Critical Variables Using Artificial Intelligence Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Susana; Barros, Jorge; Echávarri, Orietta; García, Fabián; Osses, Alex; Moya, Claudia; Maino, María Paz; Fischman, Ronit; Núñez, Catalina; Szmulewicz, Tita; Tomicic, Alemka

    2017-01-01

    In efforts to develop reliable methods to detect the likelihood of impending suicidal behaviors, we have proposed the following. To gain a deeper understanding of the state of suicide risk by determining the combination of variables that distinguishes between groups with and without suicide risk. A study involving 707 patients consulting for mental health issues in three health centers in Greater Santiago, Chile. Using 345 variables, an analysis was carried out with artificial intelligence tools, Cross Industry Standard Process for Data Mining processes, and decision tree techniques. The basic algorithm was top-down, and the most suitable division produced by the tree was selected by using the lowest Gini index as a criterion and by looping it until the condition of belonging to the group with suicidal behavior was fulfilled. Four trees distinguishing the groups were obtained, of which the elements of one were analyzed in greater detail, since this tree included both clinical and personality variables. This specific tree consists of six nodes without suicide risk and eight nodes with suicide risk (tree decision 01, accuracy 0.674, precision 0.652, recall 0.678, specificity 0.670, F measure 0.665, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) area under the curve (AUC) 73.35%; tree decision 02, accuracy 0.669, precision 0.642, recall 0.694, specificity 0.647, F measure 0.667, ROC AUC 68.91%; tree decision 03, accuracy 0.681, precision 0.675, recall 0.638, specificity 0.721, F measure, 0.656, ROC AUC 65.86%; tree decision 04, accuracy 0.714, precision 0.734, recall 0.628, specificity 0.792, F measure 0.677, ROC AUC 58.85%). This study defines the interactions among a group of variables associated with suicidal ideation and behavior. By using these variables, it may be possible to create a quick and easy-to-use tool. As such, psychotherapeutic interventions could be designed to mitigate the impact of these variables on the emotional state of individuals, thereby reducing

  5. Understanding the Gap between Cognitive Abilities and Daily Living Skills in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders with Average Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Amie W.; Bishop, Somer L.

    2015-01-01

    Daily living skills standard scores on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-2nd edition were examined in 417 adolescents from the Simons Simplex Collection. All participants had at least average intelligence and a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder. Descriptive statistics and binary logistic regressions were used to examine the prevalence and…

  6. On an efficient and effective intelligent transportation system (ITS) safety and traffic efficiency application with corresponding driver behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekedebe, Nnanna; Yu, Wei; Lu, Chao

    2015-06-01

    Driver distraction could result in safety compromises attributable to distractions from in-vehicle equipment usage [1]. The effective design of driver-vehicle interfaces (DVIs) and other human-machine interfaces (HMIs) together with their usability, and accessibility while driving become important [2]. Driving distractions can be classified as: visual distractions (any activity that takes your eyes away from the road), cognitive distraction (any activity that takes your mind away from the course of driving), and manual distractions (any activity that takes your hands away from the steering wheel [2]). Besides, multitasking during driving is a distractive activity that can increase the risks of vehicular accidents. To study the driver's behaviors on the safety of transportation system, using an in-vehicle driver notification application, we examined the effects of increasing driver distraction levels on the evaluation metrics of traffic efficiency and safety by using two types of driver models: young drivers (ages 16-25 years) and middle-age drivers (ages 30-45 years). Our evaluation data demonstrates that as a drivers distraction level is increased, less heed is given to change route directives from the in-vehicle on-board unit (OBU) using textual, visual, audio, and haptic notifications. Interestingly, middle-age drivers proved more effective/resilient in mitigating the negative effects of driver distraction over young drivers [2].

  7. Aggressiveness and intelligence in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Munique de Souza Siqueira

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyse the aggressiveness and intelligence in adolescence, and to verify if exists association through these variables. The aggressiveness is inherent in human nature and collaborates in the construction of personality by influencing the behaviors positively or negatively. Intelligence refers to the cognitive skill that every individual has and contributes to the establishment of social relations. As a teenager the aggressiveness and the intelligence become more evident due to change in this phase of development. The sample of 35 adolescents of both sexes participated in this survey. The instruments used were the batch of reasoning tests – BPR-5 and the Aggressiveness scale for children and young people. The results indicated that there is no relationship between aggression and intelligence. However, based on the literature these variables interrelate. Therefore, it is suggested that this research be expanded with the use of other psychological instruments.

  8. Computational design of microscopic swimmers and capsules: From directed motion to collective behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolov, Svetoslav V.; Shum, Henry; Balazs, Anna C.; Alexeev, Alexander

    2016-02-01

    Systems of motile microscopic particles can exhibit behaviors that resemble those of living microorganisms, including cooperative motion, self-organization, and adaptability to changing environments. Using mesoscale computational modeling, we design synthetic microswimmers and microcapsules that undergo controllable, self-propelled motion in solution. Stimuli-responsive hydrogels are used to actuate the microswimmers and to enable their navigation and chemotaxing behavior. The self-propelled motion of microcapsules on solid surfaces is achieved by the release of encapsulated solutes that alter the surface adhesiveness. These signaling solutes also enable interactions among multiple microcapsules that lead to complex, cooperative behavior. Our findings provide guidelines for creating microscopic devices and machines able to autonomously move and mimic the communication and chemotaxis of biological microorganisms.

  9. Speech Intelligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Thomas

    Speech intelligibility (SI) is important for different fields of research, engineering and diagnostics in order to quantify very different phenomena like the quality of recordings, communication and playback devices, the reverberation of auditoria, characteristics of hearing impairment, benefit using hearing aids or combinations of these things.

  10. Multiple Intelligences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, Janet

    1999-01-01

    Details the characteristics of Howard Gardner's seven multiple intelligences (MI): linguistic, logical-mathematical, bodily-kinesthetic, spatial, musical, interpersonal, and intrapersonal. Discusses the implications of MI for instruction. Explores how students can study using their preferred learning style - visual, auditory, and physical study…

  11. Corneal Intelligence

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Murdoch3

    Corneal Intelligence. Ian Murdoch. Institute of Ophthalmology, Bath Street, London. In 2002, the ocular hypertension treatment study (OHTS) published their results. This study had taken 1636 ocular hypertensives. 1, 2. (IOP 24-32mmHg) and randomized them to receive therapy or no therapy. The primary outcome of the ...

  12. Relationship between emotional intelligence and organizational ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the organizational citizenship behavior categories, altruism mean score was higher than the other mean scores. Overall mean score of emotional intelligence was (121.08 ± 17.56). In the subgroups of emotional intelligence, mean score of the relationship management, was higher than the average of other factors.

  13. Cultural Intelligence (CQ) in MBA Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Mark J.; Ettner, Larry

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of cultural intelligence in MBA curricula. Shaping global corporate culture that manifests itself in powerful-shared values, group behavior, and persists despite changes in-group membership is decisive to organizational performance. In turn, cultural intelligence (CQ), defined, as an…

  14. Why Liberals and Atheists Are More Intelligent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Satoshi

    2010-01-01

    The origin of values and preferences is an unresolved theoretical question in behavioral and social sciences. The Savanna-IQ Interaction Hypothesis, derived from the Savanna Principle and a theory of the evolution of general intelligence, suggests that more intelligent individuals may be more likely to acquire and espouse evolutionarily novel…

  15. Emotional Intelligence: What the Research Says.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Casey D.; Mayer, John D.

    2000-01-01

    Educational practices involving emotional intelligence should be based on solid research, not sensationalistic claims. There are two emotional-intelligence models based on ability and an ability/social-competence mixture. Emphasizing cooperative behavior could stifle creativity, healthy skepticism, or spontaneity. Teaching emotional reasoning pays…

  16. Computational intelligence for traffic and mobility

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Wuhong

    2012-01-01

    This book presents the new development of computation intelligence for traffic, transportation and mobility, the main contents include traffic safety, mobility analysis, intelligent transportation system, smart vehicle, transportation behavior, driver modeling and assistance, transportation risk analysis and reliability system analysis, vehicle operation and active safety, urban traffic management and planning.

  17. Issues and challenges of intelligent systems and computational intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Pozna, Claudiu; Kacprzyk, Janusz

    2014-01-01

    This carefully edited book contains contributions of prominent and active researchers and scholars in the broadly perceived area of intelligent systems. The book is unique both with respect to the width of coverage of tools and techniques, and to the variety of problems that could be solved by the tools and techniques presented. The editors have been able to gather a very good collection of relevant and original papers by prominent representatives of many areas, relevant both to the theory and practice of intelligent systems, artificial intelligence, computational intelligence, soft computing, and the like. The contributions have been divided into 7 parts presenting first more fundamental and theoretical contributions, and then applications in relevant areas.        

  18. Issues and challenges in artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Kulikowski, Juliusz; Mroczek, Teresa; Wtorek, Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    The importance of human-computer system interaction problems is increasing due to the growing expectations of users on general computer systems capabilities in human work and life facilitation. Users expect system which is not only a passive tool in human hands but rather an active partner equipped with a sort of artificial intelligence, having access to large information resources, being able to adapt its behavior to the human requirements and to collaborate with the human users.   This book collects examples of recent human-computer system solutions. The content of the book is divided into three parts. Part I is devoted to detection, recognition and reasoning in different circumstances and applications. Problems associated with data modeling, acquisition and mining are presented by papers collected in part II and part III is devoted to Optimization.

  19. 75 FR 22596 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; NIH Toolbox for Assessment of Neurological and Behavioral...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... four domains of neurological and behavioral functioning (cognitive, emotional, motor and sensory) for..., with 66% English-speaking and 34% Spanish-speaking. Frequency of Response: Once to the screener, and... Respondents: 52,800 for the screener and 5,660 for the Toolbox measures; Estimated Number of Responses per...

  20. Intelligence in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Nader

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Partial results of an investigation are presented whose primary objective is to adapt and to standardize the neurocognitive assessment battery C.A.S. of Das and Naglieri (1997 in a child sample. The test is an operationalization of a non traditional intelligence model (PASS that considers the intelligent behaviors as a group of four cognitive basic processes (planning, attention, simultaneous and successive processing. The objectives of this work are to obtain the psychometric properties of the instrument and also, to analyze if differences exist according to sex and age. The study type is crosswise - transactional. It was administered the CAS to 150 children residents in Buenos Aires among the ages of 6 to 12 years (population general non consultant and the WISC-III to a sample of 50 children. 

  1. Preservice and Inservice Teachers' Implicit Theories of Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brett D.; Bryant, Lauren H.; Snyder, Jennifer Dee; Malone, David

    2012-01-01

    Implicit theories of intelligence (i.e., individuals' beliefs about the nature of intelligence, such as whether it is fixed or changeable) are important because they are related to individuals' behaviors and their beliefs in other areas (Sternberg, 2000). Implicit theories of intelligence are especially important in educational settings because…

  2. Class Collective Efficacy and Class Size as Moderators of the Relationship between Junior Middle School Students’ Externalizing Behavior and Academic Engagement: A Multilevel Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Tian

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the relationship between externalizing behavior and academic engagement, and tested the possibility of class collective efficacy and class size moderating this relationship. Data were collected from 28 Chinese classrooms (N = 1034 students; grades 7, 8, and 9 with student reports. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to test all hypotheses and results revealed a negative relationship between externalizing behavior and academic engagement; class collective efficacy was also significantly related to academic engagement. Additionally, class collective efficacy and class size moderated the relationship between externalizing behavior and academic engagement: For students in a class with high collective efficacy or small size (≤30 students, the relationship between externalizing behavior and academic engagement was weaker than for those in a class with low collective efficacy or large size (≥43 students. Results are discussed considering self-regulatory mechanisms and social environment theory, with possible implications for teachers of students’ learning provided.

  3. Class Collective Efficacy and Class Size as Moderators of the Relationship between Junior Middle School Students’ Externalizing Behavior and Academic Engagement: A Multilevel Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yu; Bian, Yulong; Han, Piguo; Gao, Fengqiang; Wang, Peng

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between externalizing behavior and academic engagement, and tested the possibility of class collective efficacy and class size moderating this relationship. Data were collected from 28 Chinese classrooms (N = 1034 students; grades 7, 8, and 9) with student reports. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to test all hypotheses and results revealed a negative relationship between externalizing behavior and academic engagement; class collective efficacy was also significantly related to academic engagement. Additionally, class collective efficacy and class size moderated the relationship between externalizing behavior and academic engagement: For students in a class with high collective efficacy or small size (≤30 students), the relationship between externalizing behavior and academic engagement was weaker than for those in a class with low collective efficacy or large size (≥43 students). Results are discussed considering self-regulatory mechanisms and social environment theory, with possible implications for teachers of students’ learning provided. PMID:28769851

  4. Spiritual Intelligence, Emotional Intelligence and Auditor's Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Hanafi, Rustam

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this research was to investigate empirical evidence about influence audi-tor spiritual intelligence on the performance with emotional intelligence as a mediator variable. Linear regression models are developed to examine the hypothesis and path analysis. The de-pendent variable of each model is auditor performance, whereas the independent variable of model 1 is spiritual intelligence, of model 2 are emotional intelligence and spiritual intelligence. The parameters were estima...

  5. Integrating artificial intelligence into organizational intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Leon, Florin; Gabriela M. Atanasiu

    2008-01-01

    Organizational intelligence is the capability of an organization to create knowledge and to use it in order to strategically adapt to its environment. Intelligence of an organization is more than the aggregated intelligence of its members – it is an emergent property of the complex interactions of its subsystems and the way they are aggregated. Processes analyse related to organizational intelligence can be achieved by means of agent-based simulations. Distributed artificial intelligence addr...

  6. Team B Intelligence Coups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Gordon R.

    2006-01-01

    The 2003 Iraq prewar intelligence failure was not simply a case of the U.S. intelligence community providing flawed data to policy-makers. It also involved subversion of the competitive intelligence analysis process, where unofficial intelligence boutiques "stovepiped" misleading intelligence assessments directly to policy-makers and…

  7. Collective Schema, As a New Concept Suggesting and a View to Proverbs from Cognitive Behavioral Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esat ÞANLI

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive Behavioral Tharapy doctrine and clinical accumulation have shown that there is a causal link between moods, paradigms, and assessments. These cognitive contents are named as automatic thoughts and schemas. Rational- adaptive automatic thoughts and schemas while bring to person good mood, irrational-maladaptive automatic thoughts and schemas bring to patology. On the other hand this cognitive structures have fed by accepted culture by society and components of this culture such as songs and proverbs which possess necessity and rules. The basic aim of this study is put forth concept of “collective schema” which will be assessable content in Cognitive Behavioral Approach , and clarifying bases of this concept deal with proverbs. In this sense, adaptive and maladaptive aspects of collective shema concept, have been commented, cognitive disortions which fed by maladaptive schemas deal with collective aspect, have been categorised and illustrated with proverbs. With this study we aimed create a groundwork for previous studies. [JCBPR 2016; 5(2.000: 85-93

  8. Behavior and performance of sows fed different levels of fiber and reared in individual cages or collective pens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FÁBIO E.L. BUDIÑO

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen pregnant sows were used. The experimental design was completely randomized with a 2x2 factorial scheme consisting of two housing systems (individual cages and collective pens and two diets (low [2.67%] and high [13.14%] level of crude fiber. Physiological, behavioral, environmental, and hormonal parameters were studied. In addition, the following productive and reproductive parameters were evaluated: weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion of the sow and piglets, number of piglets born dead and alive, number and weight at weaning, and backfat thickness of sows. Pregnant sows reared in collective pens and fed a high-fiber diet exhibited better physiological responses, indicating greater comfort and better animal welfare. The environmental variables were close to the comfort zone of the animals. In addition to providing a more comfortable environment, housing pigs in collective pens reduced stereotypy, permitting the sows to express a more natural behavior. The high-fiber diet did not interfere with female productive performance. Tifton hay can therefore be indicated as an alternative for the formulation of sow diets to improve animal welfare.

  9. Gender differences in adverse childhood experiences, collective violence, and the risk for addictive behaviors among university students in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Mhamdi, Sana; Lemieux, Andrine; Bouanene, Ines; Ben Salah, Arwa; Nakajima, Motohiro; Ben Salem, Kamel; al'Absi, Mustafa

    2017-06-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACE) have been linked to a variety of addictive behaviors. The recent adaptation of the ACE measure by the World Health Organization (WHO) allows for the assessment of the negative role of additional adverse experiences, such as extra-familial violence. To date, the relationship between extra-familial violence and addictive behaviors has not been assessed. We report the contribution of ACEs, including the new scales for extra-familial violence, on the risk for mental health problems and addictive behaviors by gender in a sample of young adults in Tunisia. We conducted a cross sectional study in Tunisia during 2014, where we recruited 1200 young university adults who completed the validated Arabic version of the WHO ACE questionnaire in a university setting. Results indicated that intra-familial adversities were associated with increased risk for addictive behaviors, particularly in males. ACEs were also associated with increased risk for mental health problems with women showing more difficulties than men. Exposure to peer, community and collective violence was higher in males than in females and logistic regression confirms that exposure to extra-familial violence increased the risk for addictive behaviors both in male and females by two to three-fold. Mental health problems were associated with peer violence and substance abuse in males, but not in females. Results demonstrate for the first time the contribution of exposure to extra-familial violence on risk for addictive behaviors. Results highlight the need for addressing mental health and addiction in a community with high burden of adversity and violence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. ICT-Supported Gaming for Competitive Intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterbergh, J.M.I.M.

    2005-01-01

    Collecting and processing competitive intelligence for the purpose of strategy formulation are complex activities requiring deep insight in and models of the “organization in its environment.” These insights and models need to be not only shared between CI (competitive intelligence) practitioners

  11. Understanding the gap between cognitive abilities and daily living skills in adolescents with autism spectrum disorders with average intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Amie W; Bishop, Somer L

    2015-01-01

    Daily living skills standard scores on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-2nd edition were examined in 417 adolescents from the Simons Simplex Collection. All participants had at least average intelligence and a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder. Descriptive statistics and binary logistic regressions were used to examine the prevalence and predictors of a "daily living skills deficit," defined as below average daily living skills in the context of average intelligence quotient. Approximately half of the adolescents were identified as having a daily living skills deficit. Autism symptomatology, intelligence quotient, maternal education, age, and sex accounted for only 10% of the variance in predicting a daily living skills deficit. Identifying factors associated with better or worse daily living skills may help shed light on the variability in adult outcome in individuals with autism spectrum disorder with average intelligence. © The Author(s) 2013.

  12. Malawian secondary students' beliefs about intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brett D; Rakes, Lee; Landon, Krista

    2013-01-01

    Students who view intelligence as malleable tend to be more academically motivated and perform at higher levels than students who view it as a fixed trait. We examined the beliefs of students from Malawi because the culture and schooling process in this country is very different from some other areas of the world in which students' views of intelligence have already been studied. Our research questions were: (1) How do Malawian students define intelligence? (2) To what extent do Malawian students view intelligence as malleable? (3) Are Malawian students' definitions of intelligence and beliefs about the malleability of intelligence similar to those of students in more developed countries? We conducted a mixed methods study and surveyed 136 students attending a secondary school in Malawi using a 39-item questionnaire. Students responded to questions about their intelligence beliefs on open- and closed-ended items. Our results showed that Malawian students believe that an intelligent student exhibits a variety of behaviors, including studying, working hard, reading, performing well on exams and in class, answering and asking questions, paying attention, and demonstrating good behavior. Most students believe that intelligence is malleable and provided responses that indicated that students can become more intelligent through effort. When compared to the findings of other studies, the present results suggest that the Malawian students who remain in secondary school have definitions of intelligence and beliefs about the malleability of intelligence that are similar to those of students in more developed countries, such as the US and Germany. In fact, it appears that Malawian secondary students have even higher malleable beliefs than American and German students. Finally, some of the measures that have been found to produce scores that are reliable and valid in other populations do not produce scores that are as reliable when used with Malawian students.

  13. Collective Behavior of a Spin-Aligned Gas of Interwell Excitons in Double Quantum Wells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larionov, A. V.; Bayer, M.; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    2005-01-01

    The kinetics of a spin-aligned gas of interwell excitons in GaAs/AlGaAs double quantum wells (n–i–n heterostructure) is studied. The temperature dependence of the spin relaxation time for excitons, in which a photoexcited electron and hole are spatially separated between two adjacent quantum well...... is associated with indirect evidence of the coherence of the collective phase of interwell excitons at temperatures below the critical value....

  14. Emotional Intelligence in medical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Hasan Sarkar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Emotional Intelligence is the ability to perceive, express, understand and regulate one’s inner emotions and the emotions of others. It is considered to be a ‘must have’ competence in the workplace. Several scientific studies have proven that the application of emotional intelligence is effective in improving the teaching-learning process and that it leads to organizational growth; however, only limited work has been carried out to assess its effectiveness in the practice of medicine, especially in India. Various scales have been developed to measure emotional intelligence but they are not universally applicable because emotional intelligence depends upon culture and personal background among other factors. In recent years in India, conflicts between patients and doctors have had serious, sometimes fatal, consequences for the physician. Behavior, when faced with a potential conflict-like situation, depends to a great extent on the emotional intelligence of the physician. Emotional intelligence of medical students and medical professionals can be honed through exposure to the medical humanities which are known to promote patient-centered care. Building better physician-patient relationships might help in averting doctor-patient conflict.

  15. Bio-inspired method and system for actionable intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosla, Deepak; Chelian, Suhas E.

    2009-05-01

    This paper describes a bio-inspired VISion based actionable INTelligence system (VISINT) that provides automated capabilities to (1) understand objects, patterns, events and behaviors in vision data; (2) translate this understanding into timely recognition of novel and anomalous entities; and (3) discover underlying hierarchies and relationships between disparate labels entered by multiple users to provide a consistent data representation. VISINT is both a system and a novel collection of novel bio-inspired algorithms/modules. These modules can be used independently for various aspects of the actionable intelligence problem or sequenced together for an end-to-end actionable intelligence system. The algorithms can be useful in many other applications such as scene understanding, behavioral analysis, automatic surveillance systems, etc. The bio-inspired algorithms are a novel combination of hierarchical spatial and temporal networks based on the Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART). The novel aspects of this work are that it is an end-to-end system for actionable intelligence that combines existing and novel implementations of various modules in innovative ways to develop a system concept for actionable intelligence. Although there are other algorithms/implementations of several of the modules in VISINT, they suffer from various limitations and often system integration is not considered. The overall VISINT system can be viewed an incremental learning system where no offline training is required and data from multiple sources and times can be seamlessly integrated. The user is in the loop, but due to the semi-supervised nature of the underlying algorithms, only significant variations of entities, not all false alarms, are shown to the user. It does not forget the past even with new learning. While VISINT is designed as a vision-based system, it could also work with other kinds of sensor data that can recognize and locate individual objects in the scene. Beyond that stage

  16. Teaching Transactional Analysis and Couples' Spiritual Intelligence in Isfahan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Ardeshiri-Lordejani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: One of the types of intelligences to which attention has been paid is the spiritual intelligence, which causes the person to find deep insight against life events and accidents and not be afraid of life difficulties and challenges. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to determine the effectiveness of group teaching via reciprocal behavior analysis on the increase of the couples' spiritual intelligence in the city of Isfahan, Iran. Materials and Methods: The research method of the present study was semi-experimental in pretest posttest and with control group type due to lack of probable sampling. The statistical population of the current study included couples referred to dispute resolution councils in the city of Isfahan. The statistical sample included 32 couples selected through improbable available sampling method and put into experimental and control groups. Then, the experimental group received teaching interventions related to reciprocal behavior analysis in 10 teaching sessions, while the control group did not receive such teaching interventions. The applied instrument in this study was King's spiritual intelligence questionnaire. The collected data were analyzed via covariance analysis in SPSS 10 software. Results: The results of multi-variable analysis showed that reciprocal relationship teaching could significantly increase the components of critical existential thinking and produce personal meaning in the experimental group compared to the control group at the posttest stage (P < 0.001. Conclusions: According to the findings of this study, group consultation through reciprocal analysis is a suitable method to increase couples' spiritual intelligence and finally the increase of their satisfaction, which can improve couples' spiritual quality through teaching it.

  17. Terrorism and the behavioral sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouten, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Terrorism has existed for millennia and is a phenomenon well-known to many parts of the world. Americans were forced to recognize this phenomenon, and our vulnerability to it, by two sets of events in 2001: the attacks on New York City and Washington, DC, and the anthrax mailings that followed shortly thereafter. Psychiatry, psychology, and other behavioral and social sciences have been looked to for assistance in collecting and analyzing intelligence data, understanding terrorism, and developing strategies to combat terrorism. In addition to reviewing areas in which the behavioral sciences have made contributions in addressing this problem, this article discusses the developing roles for behavioral scientists in this field.

  18. Immersive Technology for Human-Centric Cyberphysical Systems in Complex Manufacturing Processes: A Comprehensive Overview of the Global Patent Profile Using Collective Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usharani Hareesh Govindarajan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Immersive technology for human-centric cyberphysical systems includes broad concepts that enable users in the physical world to connect with the cyberworld with a sense of immersion. Complex systems such as virtual reality, augmented reality, brain-computer interfaces, and brain-machine interfaces are emerging as immersive technologies that have the potential for improving manufacturing systems. Industry 4.0 includes all technologies, standards, and frameworks for the fourth industrial revolution to facilitate intelligent manufacturing. Industrial immersive technologies will be used for smart manufacturing innovation in the context of Industry 4.0’s human machine interfaces. This research provides a thorough review of the literature, construction of a domain ontology, presentation of patent metatrend statistical analysis, and data mining analysis using a technology function matrix and highlights technical and functional development trends using latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA models. A total of 179 references from the IEEE and IET databases and 2,672 patents are systematically analyzed to identify current trends. The paper establishes an essential foundation for the development of advanced human-centric cyberphysical systems in complex manufacturing processes.

  19. Learning Emotional Intelligence: Training & Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shults, Allison

    2015-01-01

    This core assessment provides an overview and training of the use of Emotional Intelligence (EI) in the workplace. It includes a needs analysis for a local Chamber of Commerce, and outlines the importance of improving their organizational communication with the improvement of their EI. Behavioral objectives related to the skills needed are…

  20. Robotic intelligence kernel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruemmer, David J [Idaho Falls, ID

    2009-11-17

    A robot platform includes perceptors, locomotors, and a system controller. The system controller executes a robot intelligence kernel (RIK) that includes a multi-level architecture and a dynamic autonomy structure. The multi-level architecture includes a robot behavior level for defining robot behaviors, that incorporate robot attributes and a cognitive level for defining conduct modules that blend an adaptive interaction between predefined decision functions and the robot behaviors. The dynamic autonomy structure is configured for modifying a transaction capacity between an operator intervention and a robot initiative and may include multiple levels with at least a teleoperation mode configured to maximize the operator intervention and minimize the robot initiative and an autonomous mode configured to minimize the operator intervention and maximize the robot initiative. Within the RIK at least the cognitive level includes the dynamic autonomy structure.