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Sample records for collared flycatcher ficedula

  1. High individual repeatability and population differentiation in stable isotope ratios in winter-grown collared flycatcher Ficedula albicollis feathers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hjernquist, Marten B.; Veen, Thor; Font, Laura; Klaassen, Marcel

    For migrants, we often lack complete information of their spatial distribution year round. Here, we used stable carbon, nitrogen and hydrogen isotope ratios extracted from feathers grown at the wintering sites of the long-distance migratory collared flycatcher Ficedula albicollis, to study how

  2. Yolk androgens do not appear to mediate sexual conflict over parental investment in the collared flycatcher Ficedula albicollis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruuskanen, Suvi; Doligez, Blandine; Tschirren, Barbara; Pitala, Natalia; Gustafsson, Lars; Groothuis, Ton G G; Laaksonen, Toni

    2009-04-01

    Males and females are in conflict over parental care, as it would be favourable for one parent to shift labour to the other. Yolk hormones may offer a mechanism through which female birds could influence offspring traits in ways that increase the relative investment by the male. We studied the role of yolk androgens in mediating sexual conflict over parental care in the collared flycatcher (Ficedula albicollis). In a cross-fostering experiment, the male's proportion of total feeding visits increased with increasing androgen levels in the foster eggs. This could suggest that sexual conflict over parental care may be influenced by the female's differential allocation of yolk androgens or a maternal effect associated with yolk androgens. However, when we experimentally elevated yolk androgen levels, male feeding rates did not differ between control and androgen-manipulated nests. This suggests that other egg components correlated with yolk androgen levels, rather than yolk androgen levels per se, may influence male parental effort. In conclusion, yolk androgens per se do not appear to mediate sexual conflict over parental investment in the collared flycatcher.

  3. The Analysis of Heavy Metal Concentrations in Eggs of Collared Flycatchers, Ficedula Albicollis (Passeriformes, Muscicapidae, and Tits, Parus Major, Parus Caeruleus (Passeriformes, Paridae, in Different Areas of North-Eastern Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaplygina A. B.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Collared flycatchers (Ficedula albicollis Temminck, 1815, have more opportunities to accumulate heavy metals due to migration but they are more resistant to contamination in contrast to tits, (Parus major Linnaeus, 1758, Parus caeruleus Linnaeus, 1758. This research aimed to detect concentrations of some trace elements in eggs of the collared flycatcher, great tit and blue tit in different areas. There were found differences in heavy metal concentrations in the eggs among species and study areas. For collared flycatchers there were not established consistent patterns of changes in element concentrations among areas. The highest heavy metal levels were found in tits in samples of egg contents from a forest park (Pb - 3.1410 ± 0.3249, Cu - 19.3290 ± 1.4840, Zn - 66.9612 ± 17.6665, Fe - 249.5513 ± 40.2800, Mn - 6.9032 ± 0.2946, Ca - 8298.3570 ± 0.1080, Sr - 17.6032 ± 0.7512, Ni - 0.5177 ± 0.0220. The lowest concentrations were found in egg contents of tits in Hetmanskyi National Nature Park (Cu - 4.3492 ± 0.2079, Fe - 44.6647 ± 0.2627, Mn - 1.3194 ± 0.2374, Ca - 998.7001 ± 0.0006, Ni - 0.2443 ± 0.0439, Cr - 0.1466 ± 0.0424. The results indicate that heavy metals accumulated differently in shells and contents of eggs of collared flycatchers and tits in each of the study area. Some of microelements (zinc, mercury, iron, manganese, selenium and iodine in small amounts are required for normal growth and development of birds. Heavy metal concentrations in egg shells and egg contents of all species did not exceed permissible levels.

  4. Taxonomy of the European Pied Flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca (Aves: Muscicapidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salvador, Rodrigo B.; Van der Jeugd, Henk; Tomotani, Barbara M.

    2017-01-01

    The convoluted taxonomy of the European Pied Flycatcher, Ficedula hypoleuca ([Pallas], 1764) (Aves: Passeriformes: Muscicapidae) might present a challenge for researchers working in other areas of biology. We present here a historical review of this species’ nomenclature, discuss its generic

  5. Arthropods in trophic-cenosis structure of collared flycatcher consortium in conditions of forest ecosystems of North-Eastern Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    CHAPLYGINA A.B.; GRAMMA V.N.; BONDARETS D.I.; SAVYNSKA N.O.

    2015-01-01

    The study is based on taxonomic and quantitative analysis of feed ration of nestlings and structure of nidikolas of collared flycatcher ( Ficedula albicollis (Temminck, 1815)). Ecological features and consortium relations of flycatchers and their specific feeding behavior were analyzed. Materials were collected in May - July 2009-2014 on the transformed territories of North-Eastern Ukraine. Functioning of trophic structure of biogeocenosis with the participation of flycatcher as a heterotroph...

  6. Song degradation in the hole-nesting pied flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lampe, Helene M.; Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Pedersen, Simon Boel

    2007-01-01

    In the hole-nesting pied flycatcher, Ficedula hypoleuca, a male may become polyterritorial after attracting a primary female. However, the female may recognize her mate's song and attack other females that associate with him. Differences in sound degradation amongst different habitats and within....... This is consistent with the shorter polyterritorial distances of flycatchers in the deciduous forest. Furthermore, song degradation was stronger inside the nestboxes. Being inside may, therefore, reduce a female's possibility of detecting and recognizing songs. This may be one reason why female pied flycatchers...

  7. Spatial distribution of breeding Pied Flycatchers Ficedula hypoleuca in respect to their natal sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokolov, L.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Study of philopatry and dispersal of pied flycatchers Ficedula hypoleuca was launched on the Courish Spit (SE Baltic in 1981. Since then, ca. 9,000 nestlings were ringed at different sites in the Russian part of the Courish Spit. A total of 557 individuals ringed as pulli were recaptured in subsequent seasons in the study area. Both males and females are more often recaptured in the plots where they were ringed than in other plots. These results were interpreted in the framework of the hypothesis forwarded by Löhrl (1959 and supported by Berndt & Winkel (1979. These authors suggested that cavity nesters (pied flycatchers and collared flycatchers F. albicollis imprint their future local breeding area during the period of postfledging exploration. Birds that survive until the next spring, return to these imprinted areas to breed. A similar study done by Sokolov et al. (1984 on the Courish Spit in an open nesting species, the chaffinch Fringilla coelebs, confirmed this finding. We assumed that juvenile pied flycatchers disperse for varying distances during their postfledging movements and imprint a local area, some 1–5 kilometres in diameter. This area is the goal of their migration next spring. It is suggested that in spring, yearlings are non–randomly distributed in respect to the area they have imprinted as juveniles. Recently, Vysotsky (2000, 2001 re–analysed the same data on philopatry of pied flycatchers on the Courish Spit and forwarded an alternative hypothesis. He suggests that juveniles, both males and females, do not imprint any local area during the postfledging period, but are distributed randomly across the area of several dozens of kilometres in spring. Vysotsky was able to show that distribution of distances of natal dispersal did not differ from the random pattern the study plot which was an 8.5 km long line of nest boxes along the Courish Spit. The aim of this study was to test these two alternative hypotheses. To do so, we

  8. Climatic effects on timing of spring migration and breeding in a long-distance migrant, the pied flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Both, C.; Bijlsma, R.G.; Visser, M.E.

    2005-01-01

    Climate change has advanced the breeding dates of many bird species, but for few species we know whether this advancement is sufficient to track the advancement of the underlying levels of the food chain. For the long-distance migratory pied flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca the advancement in breeding

  9. Climatic effects on timing of spring migration and breeding in a long-distance migrant, the pied flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Both, C; Bijlsma, RG; Visser, ME

    Climate change has advanced the breeding dates of many bird species, but for few species we know whether this advancement is sufficient to track the advancement of the underlying levels of the food chain. For the long-distance migratory pied flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca the advancement in breeding

  10. Arthropods in trophic-cenosis structure of collared flycatcher consortium in conditions of forest ecosystems of North-Eastern Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Chaplygina

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The study is based on taxonomic and quantitative analysis of feed ration of nestlings and structure of nidikolas of collared flycatcher (Ficedula albicollis (Temminck, 1815. Ecological features and consortium relations of flycatchers and their specific feeding behavior were analyzed. Materials were collected in May – July 2009–2014 on the transformed territories of North-Eastern Ukraine. Functioning of trophic structure of biogeocenosis with the participation of flycatcher as a heterotrophic core of big autotrophic group was studied. Spatial and trophic relations of flycatcher with the woody vegetation and insect-phytophages (leaf beetles, leafhoppers, and barbels have been described. In the feed ration of flycatcher nestlings the prevalence is given to representatives of Hexapoda (83%, including Lepidoptera (16 families, 24%, Hymenoptera (12 families, 23% and Coleoptera (40 families, 15%. We characterize trophic groups of arthropods in the consortium of flycatchers: phytophages (33%, zoophages (45%, parasites, bloodsuckers, saprophages (16%, necrophages (4%, coprophages, keratophages. Fauna of arthropods of collared flycatcher nests was analyzed. Nests of birds as a heterotrophic consortium is the habitat of invertebrates with 293 taxons belonging to the Hexapoda, Arachnida, Malacostraca and Myriaroda, sometimes Mollusca. In the trophic structure of the population of flycatcher the representatives of Hexapoda dominate (278 species, where the first place is given to zoophages (127 species, 45%, including parasites (Culicidae, Tabanidae, Mallophaga, Hippoboscidae, Aphaniptera. The second are phytophages (78 species, 28%, the third – decomposers (75 species, 27%, and the last presenting detritivores (48 species, 18% and necrophages (27 species, 10%. Constant ectoparasitic species of flycatchers are Ricinus sp. (Mallophaga, Ornithomyia avicularia L. (Diptera, Protocalliphora azurea chrysorrhea Mg. (Diptera, Ceratophyllus sp. (Aphaniptera

  11. Degradation of song in a species using nesting holes: the Pied Flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene M. Lampe

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The habitat, but also the nest hole of a hole-nesting species, will degrade the song during transmission. We investigated how the sounds degrade in a sound transmission experiment with the song of the Pied Flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca (Muscicapidae. Ten different song elements were transmitted to microphones placed inside and outside a nest box. On average, song degradation was much greater inside than outside the nest boxes, especially with respect to excess attenuation and blurring of the song elements. Being inside a nest box therefore strongly reduces a Pied Flycatcher's possibility of detecting and recognizing songs or eavesdropping on singing interactions.O habitat, mas também a cavidade do ninho de uma espécie nidificando em ocos, provoca uma degradação do som durante sua transmissão. Pesquisamos como os sons são degradados num experimento de transmissão sonora usando o canto do pássaro Ficedula hypoleuca (Muscicapidae. Dez elementos diferentes do canto foram enviados para microfones colocados dentro e fora de uma caixa de nidificação. Em média, a degradação do canto foi muito maior dentro do que fora do ninho, particularmente no que diz respeito ao excesso de atenuação e à borrada dos elementos do canto. Estar dentro de uma cavidade de nidificação, portanto, reduz fortemente a capacidade da espécie de detectar e reconhecer cantos ou de interceptar interações vocais.

  12. Geographic patterns of genetic differentiation and plumage colour variation are different in the pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehtonen, Paula K.; Laaksonen, Toni; Artemyev, Aleksandr V.; Belskii, Eugen; Both, Christiaan; Bures, Stanislav; Bushuev, Andrey V.; Krams, Indrikis; Moreno, Juan; Maegi, Marko; Nord, Andreas; Potti, Jaime; Ravussin, Pierre-Alain; Sirkiae, Paeivi M.; Saetre, Glenn-Peter; Primmer, Craig R.; Bureš, Stanislav; Mägi, Marko; Sirkiä, Päivi M.

    2009-01-01

    The pied flycatcher is one of the most phenotypically variable bird species in Europe. The geographic variation in phenotypes has often been attributed to spatial variation in selection regimes that is associated with the presence or absence of the congeneric collared flycatcher. Spatial variation

  13. Identifying the African Wintering Grounds of Hybrid Flycatchers Using a Multi-Isotope (d

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, T.; Hjernquist, M.B.; Van Wilgenburg, S.L.; Hobson, K.A.; Folmer, E.; Font, L.; Klaassen, M.

    2014-01-01

    Migratory routes and wintering grounds can have important fitness consequences, which can lead to divergent selection on populations or taxa differing in their migratory itinerary. Collared (Ficedula albicollis) and pied (F. hypoleuca) flycatchers breeding in Europe and wintering in different

  14. Slow improvements of metal exposure, health- and breeding conditions of pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) after decreased industrial heavy metal emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berglund, A.M.M., E-mail: asa.berglund@emg.umu.se; Nyholm, N.E.I.

    2011-09-15

    The environment around metal industries, such as smelters, is often highly contaminated due to continuous deposition of metals. We studied nest box breeding populations of pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) in a well-studied pollution gradient from a sulfide ore smelter in Northern Sweden, after reduced aerial metal emissions (by 93-99%) from the smelter. The deposition of arsenic, cadmium, copper and zinc (based on moss samples) reflected the reduced emissions fairly well. However, nestling pied flycatchers had similar concentrations of these elements and mercury in tissues (bone, liver and blood) and feces in the 2000s, as in the 1980s, when the emissions were substantially higher. The exposure to high metal concentrations in the close vicinity of the smelter resulted in inhibited ALAD activities, depressed hemoglobin and hematocrit levels and increased mortality of nestlings. Our results indicate that in the highly contaminated environment around the smelter, nestlings reflected the slowly cycling soil pool, rather than the atmospheric deposition, and the concentration in soils plays an important role for the response of pied flycatchers to reduced atmospheric deposition. - Highlights: {yields} Pied flycatchers were studied in a pollution gradient from a sulfide smelter. {yields} Metal emissions from the smelter have decreased substantially. {yields} Nestling birds still had high metal concentrations in tissues. {yields} Health and survival rates of nestlings were negatively affected. {yields} Recovery of birds is not expected in the near future.

  15. A test of the "sexy son" hypothesis: sons of polygynous collared flycatchers do not inherit their fathers' mating status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Lars; Qvarnström, Anna

    2006-02-01

    According to the original "sexy son" hypothesis, a female may benefit from pairing with an already-mated male despite a reduction in fecundity because her sons inherit their father's attractiveness. We used data from a long-term study of collared flycatchers (Ficedula albicollis) collected during 24 years to test this prediction. Our results show that the sons of polygynously mated females fledged in poor condition and therefore did not inherit their father's large forehead patch (a condition-dependent display trait) or mating status. From the female's perspective, polygynous pairing resulted in fewer recruited grandchildren than did a monogamous pairing. The reproductive value of sons did not outweigh the fecundity costs of polygyny because the low paternal care reduced the attractiveness of sons. When there are long-lasting parental effects on offspring attractiveness, costs of polygyny may include the production of nonsexy sons.

  16. Identifying the African Wintering Grounds of Hybrid Flycatchers Using a Multi–Isotope (d2H, d13C, d15N) Assignment Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, T.; Hjernquist, M.B.; Wilgenburg, S.L.; Hobson, K.A.; Folmer, E.; Font Morales, L.; Klaassen, M.

    2014-01-01

    Migratory routes and wintering grounds can have important fitness consequences, which can lead to divergent selection on populations or taxa differing in their migratory itinerary. Collared (Ficedula albicollis) and pied (F. hypoleuca) flycatchers breeding in Europe and wintering in different

  17. Identifying the African wintering grounds of hybrid flycatchers using a multi-isotope (δ2H, δ13C, δ15N) assignment approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, Thor; Hjernquist, Marten B.; Van Wilgenburg, Steven L.; Hobson, Keith A.; Folmer, Eelke; Font, Laura; Klaassen, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    Migratory routes and wintering grounds can have important fitness consequences, which can lead to divergent selection on populations or taxa differing in their migratory itinerary. Collared (Ficedula albicollis) and pied (F. hypoleuca) flycatchers breeding in Europe and wintering in different

  18. Snail consumption and breeding performance of pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) along a pollution gradient in the Middle Urals, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belskii, Eugen; Grebennikov, Maxim

    2014-08-15

    During the years 1989-91, 1997-2003, and 2005-07, we studied how emissions from the Middle Urals copper smelter affect snail availability and reproduction of free-living pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca). We counted snail shells dropped in nests and analysed food samples of nestlings. Pied flycatchers brought to nestlings fewer shells in heavily polluted sites compared to background sites, resulting in reduced Ca intake. Species diversity of snails collected by birds decreased with decreasing distance from the pollution source. The pattern was the same both in deciduous and coniferous forests. In sites closest to the smelter, 20-50% of breeding females suffered from Ca deficiency, which resulted in an increased proportion of deserted clutches and clutches with defective eggshells. Number of fledglings per nest decreased in heavily polluted sites, especially in broods with decreased snail supply. This study demonstrated that pollution can cause both direct effect of toxicants to birds and indirect effects via reduced Ca availability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of habitat and latitude on nestling diet of Pied Flycatchers Ficedula hypoleuca

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanz, JJ

    1998-01-01

    Composition and diversity of the nestling diet of Pied Flycatchers Ficedulo hypoleuca was compared among 17 European study areas that differed in habitat type (deciduous or coniferous forest). The most abundant foods were butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera), with a high proportion of caterpillars.

  20. Effects of pollution on land snail abundance, size and diversity as resources for pied flycatcher, Ficedula hypoleuca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eeva, Tapio; Rainio, Kalle; Suominen, Otso

    2010-09-01

    Passerine birds need extra calcium during their breeding for developing egg shells and proper growth of nestling skeleton. Land snails are an important calcium source for many passerines and human-induced changes in snail populations may pose a severe problem for breeding birds. We studied from the bird's viewpoint how air pollution affects the shell mass, abundance and diversity of land snail communities along a pollution gradient of a copper smelter. We sampled remnant snail shells from the nests of an insectivorous passerine, the pied flycatcher, Ficedula hypoleuca, to find out how the availability of land snails varies along the pollution gradient. The total snail shell mass increased towards the pollution source but declined abruptly in the vicinity of the smelter. This spatial variation in shell mass was evident also within a single snail species and could not be wholly explained by spatially varying snail numbers or species composition. Instead, the total shell mass was related to their shell size, individuals being largest at the moderately polluted areas. Smaller shell size suggests inferior growth of snails in the most heavily polluted area. Our study shows that pollution affects the diversity, abundance (available shell mass) and individual quality of land snails, posing reproductive problems for birds that rely on snails as calcium sources during breeding. There are probably both direct pollution-related (heavy metal and calcium levels) and indirect (habitat change) effects behind the observed changes in snail populations. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Yolk hormones have sex-specific long-term effects on behavior in the pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruuskanen, Suvi; Laaksonen, Toni

    2010-02-01

    The hormonal environment during early development, such as maternally derived androgens in bird eggs, shapes the development and phenotype of the offspring in ways that may have important long-term consequences for behaviour. We studied the effects of yolk androgens on multiple behavioural traits in female and male pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) by experimentally elevating androgen levels (testosterone and androstenedione) in the eggs. The birds were housed in a common-garden environment in captivity until full independence, after which their behaviour was tested. We found that androgen-treated males were more likely than control males to explore a novel environment and showed higher activity in the presence of a novel object. In response to a simulated predator attack, androgen-treated males mainly showed freezing behaviour, while control males showed escape behaviour. Females from the androgen treatment and control group showed no differences in these behaviours. Androgen treatment did not affect neophobia (latency to approach the novel object) or dominance behaviour in either sex. Behaviour in the novel environment and towards a novel object was repeatable, but behaviours in the different experiments were mostly not inter-correlated. These results indicate that yolk androgens have various long-lasting effects on behaviour, especially in males, but that they do not induce a distinct behavioural syndrome. As behaviour is strongly linked with fitness, our results suggest that yolk androgens may play a role in determining fitness, and thus play a potentially adaptive role. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Natural selection and inheritance of breeding time and clutch size in the collared flycatcher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, B C; Kruuk, L E B; Merilä, J

    2003-02-01

    Many characteristics of organisms in free-living populations appear to be under directional selection, possess additive genetic variance, and yet show no evolutionary response to selection. Avian breeding time and clutch size are often-cited examples of such characters. We report analyses of inheritance of, and selection on, these traits in a long-term study of a wild population of the collared flycatcher Ficedula albicollis. We used mixed model analysis with REML estimation ("animal models") to make full use of the information in complex multigenerational pedigrees. Heritability of laying date, but not clutch size, was lower than that estimated previously using parent-offspring regressions, although for both traits there was evidence of substantial additive genetic variance (h2 = 0.19 and 0.29, respectively). Laying date and clutch size were negatively genetically correlated (rA = -0.41 +/- 0.09), implying that selection on one of the traits would cause a correlated response in the other, but there was little evidence to suggest that evolution of either trait would be constrained by correlations with other phenotypic characters. Analysis of selection on these traits in females revealed consistent strong directional fecundity selection for earlier breeding at the level of the phenotype (beta = -0.28 +/- 0.03), but little evidence for stabilising selection on breeding time. We found no evidence that clutch size was independently under selection. Analysis of fecundity selection on breeding values for laying date, estimated from an animal model, indicated that selection acts directly on additive genetic variance underlying breeding time (beta = -0.20 +/- 0.04), but not on clutch size (beta = 0.03 +/- 0.05). In contrast, selection on laying date via adult female survival fluctuated in sign between years, and was opposite in sign for selection on phenotypes (negative) and breeding values (positive). Our data thus suggest that any evolutionary response to selection on

  3. Lead exposure and biological effects in pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) before and after the closure of a lead mine in northern Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berglund, A.M.M., E-mail: asa.berglund@emg.umu.s [Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umea University, SE-901 87 Umea (Sweden); Ingvarsson, P.K. [Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umea University, SE-901 87 Umea (Sweden); Danielsson, H. [IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute Ltd., P.O. Box 5302, SE-400 14 Gothenburg (Sweden); Nyholm, N.E.I. [Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umea University, SE-901 87 Umea (Sweden)

    2010-05-15

    Mining activities affect the surrounding environment by increasing exposure to metals. In this study, metal accumulation and its effects on reproduction and health of pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) nestlings were monitored before and up to five years after a lead mine and enrichment plant closed down. The lead concentration in moss, nestling blood, liver and feces all indicated decreased lead exposure by at least 31% after closure, although only blood lead decreased significantly. Although the birds responded fairly well to the changed atmospheric deposition (based on moss samples), concentrations were still higher compared with birds in a reference area, and breeding was affected at the mine (smaller clutches and higher mortality). Surviving nestlings suffered from lower hemoglobin levels, mean cell hemoglobin concentrations and inhibited delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity. Lead poisoning contributed to poor health and adverse reproductive effects, but other factors (e.g. increased parasitic load) probably also affected the birds. - Increased mortality and lower blood values in pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) nestlings near a closed lead mine.

  4. Exploratory analyses of migration timing and morphometrics of the Pied Flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harnos Andrea

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ornithological studies often rely on large temporal scale ringing datasets as source of information. However, basic descriptive statistics of collected data are rarely provided. In order to fill this gap, here we present the first item of a series of exploratory analyses of migration timing and body size measurements of the most frequent Passerine species at a ringing station located in Central Hungary (1984–2015. First, we give a concise description of foreign ring recoveries of the Pied Flycatcher in relation to Hungary. We then shift focus to data of 2860 individuals deriving from the ringing station, where birds have been trapped, handled and ringed with standardized methodology since 1984. Timing is described through annual and daily capture and recapture frequencies and their descriptive statistics. We show annual mean arrival dates within the study period and we present the cumulative distribution of first captures with stopover durations. We present the distributions of wing, third primary, tail length and body mass, and the annual means of these variables. Furthermore, we show the distribution of individual fat and muscle scores, and the distribution of body mass within each fat score category. We distinguish migration periods (spring and autumn, age (i.e. juveniles and adults and sex groups. Our aim is to provide a comprehensive overview of the analysed variables. However, we do not aim to interpret the obtained results, merely draw attention to interesting patterns, that may be worth exploring in detail. Data used here are available upon request for further analyses.

  5. Subtle but ubiquitous selection on body size in a natural population of collared flycatchers over 33 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björklund, M; Gustafsson, L

    2017-07-01

    Understanding the magnitude and long-term patterns of selection in natural populations is of importance, for example, when analysing the evolutionary impact of climate change. We estimated univariate and multivariate directional, quadratic and correlational selection on four morphological traits (adult wing, tarsus and tail length, body mass) over a time period of 33 years (≈ 19 000 observations) in a nest-box breeding population of collared flycatchers (Ficedula albicollis). In general, selection was weak in both males and females over the years regardless of fitness measure (fledged young, recruits and survival) with only few cases with statistically significant selection. When data were analysed in a multivariate context and as time series, a number of patterns emerged; there was a consistent, but weak, selection for longer wings in both sexes, selection was stronger on females when the number of fledged young was used as a fitness measure, there were no indications of sexually antagonistic selection, and we found a negative correlation between selection on tarsus and wing length in both sexes but using different fitness measures. Uni- and multivariate selection gradients were correlated only for wing length and mass. Multivariate selection gradient vectors were longer than corresponding vector of univariate gradients and had more constrained direction. Correlational selection had little importance. Overall, the fitness surface was more or less flat with few cases of significant curvature, indicating that the adaptive peak with regard to body size in this species is broader than the phenotypic distribution, which has resulted in weak estimates of selection. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  6. 454 sequencing reveals extreme complexity of the class II Major Histocompatibility Complex in the collared flycatcher

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    Gustafsson Lars

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because of their functional significance, the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC class I and II genes have been the subject of continuous interest in the fields of ecology, evolution and conservation. In some vertebrate groups MHC consists of multiple loci with similar alleles; therefore, the multiple loci must be genotyped simultaneously. In such complex systems, understanding of the evolutionary patterns and their causes has been limited due to challenges posed by genotyping. Results Here we used 454 amplicon sequencing to characterize MHC class IIB exon 2 variation in the collared flycatcher, an important organism in evolutionary and immuno-ecological studies. On the basis of over 152,000 sequencing reads we identified 194 putative alleles in 237 individuals. We found an extreme complexity of the MHC class IIB in the collared flycatchers, with our estimates pointing to the presence of at least nine expressed loci and a large, though difficult to estimate precisely, number of pseudogene loci. Many similar alleles occurred in the pseudogenes indicating either a series of recent duplications or extensive concerted evolution. The expressed alleles showed unambiguous signals of historical selection and the occurrence of apparent interlocus exchange of alleles. Placing the collared flycatcher's MHC sequences in the context of passerine diversity revealed transspecific MHC class II evolution within the Muscicapidae family. Conclusions 454 amplicon sequencing is an effective tool for advancing our understanding of the MHC class II structure and evolutionary patterns in Passeriformes. We found a highly dynamic pattern of evolution of MHC class IIB genes with strong signals of selection and pronounced sequence divergence in expressed genes, in contrast to the apparent sequence homogenization in pseudogenes. We show that next generation sequencing offers a universal, affordable method for the characterization and, in perspective

  7. The effect of elevated reproductive effort onhumoral immune function in collared flycatcher females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichoń, Mariusz; Dubiec, Anna; Chadzińska, Magdalena

    2001-02-01

    In order to test whether high reproductive investments impair immune function in naturally breeding collared flycatchers, we performed a brood manipulation experiment and simultaneously induced an immune response by challenging birds with a non-pathogenic antigen - sheep red blood cells (SRBC). Females rearing experimentally enlarged number of nestlings showed significantly lower level of specific anti-SRBC antibodies than control females attending unaltered broods, but only in one of the two study years. The haemoconcentration of leukocytes did not differ between the two groups in both study years. The significant difference in immunological responsiveness between control and enlarged group coincided with differences in survival probability to the next breeding season: females attending enlarged broods showed lower probability of survival than control females, but there was no relationship between the level of immune response and survival probability. Our results indicate that reproduction may indeed trade for resources with immune functions at least in terms of specific antibody production. However, as in the other studies on reproductive costs, these costs seem not always to be pronounced.

  8. Yolk androgens do not appear to mediate sexual conflict over parental investment in the collared flycatcher Ficedula albicollis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruuskanen, Suvi; Doligez, Blandine; Tschirren, Barbara; Pitala, Natalia; Gustafsson, Lars; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Laaksonen, Toni

    Mates and females are in conflict over parental care, as it would be favourable for one parent to shift labour to the other. Yolk hormones may offer a mechanism through which female birds could influence offspring traits in ways that increase the relative investment by the male. We studied the role

  9. Paternal effort related to experimentally manipulated paternity of male collared flycatchers

    OpenAIRE

    Sheldon, B. C.; Ellegren, H.

    1998-01-01

    The way that variation in paternity affects the optimal level of paternal effort has been a contentious issue, both in terms of theory and the empirical data needed to test competing theories. Clarification of the theoretical issues has led to the prediction that a reduction in paternal effort should only be expected when (i) there are substantial costs of paternal care and (ii) males have available some cue to their share of paternity in the current brood. Previous work on the collared flyca...

  10. [Estimation of heritability and repeatability of resting metabolic rate in birds, with free-living pied flycatchers Ficedula hypoleuca (Aves: Passeriformes) as an example].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushuev, A V; Kerimov, A B; Ivankina, E V

    2010-01-01

    Estimates of a trait heritability and repeatability can get at an idea of its usefulness for being an individual characteristic and its ability to change under selection pressure. Heritability and repeatability of energetic parameters still poorly studied in birds. The most important physiological characteristic of homoiotherms is resting metabolic rate (RMR), which, in the absence of productive processes, does not exceed basal metabolic rate (BMR). We estimated BMR repeatability in free-living pied flycatchers in Moscow Region (55 degrees 44' N, 36 degrees 51' E; 1992-2008) and Tomsk (56 degrees 20' N, 84 degrees 56' E; 2008-2009) populations over intervals from 40 days to 3 years. In Moscow Region population, BMR repeatability amounted to tau = 0.34 +/- 0.10 (n=80) if measured over 1 year interval, tau = 0.60 +/- 0.15 (n=19) if measured over 2 years interval, and tau = 0.85 +/- 0.13 (n=6) if measured over 3 years interval providing that consecutive BMR measurements were done in the same period of reproductive season. In Tomsk population, BMR repeatability, measured over 1 year interval, amounted to tau = 0.49 +/- 0.11 (n=50). Repeatability is a measure of a trait constancy and sets the upper limit of its heritability. To estimate RMR heritability, cross-fostering experiments have been conducted in 2003-2005 with flycatchers of Moscow Region population. RMR of chicks positively correlated with BMR of their biological fathers, whereas such correlation in metabolic rates between chicks and their foster fathers was absent. The RMR heritability estimate turned out to be h2 = 0.43 +/- 0.17 (n=210). The obtained estimates of heritability and repeatability of fundamental energetic traits are rather high for physiological features. This suggests the existence of a potential for direct selection on BMR and evolutionary stable diversity of avian populations with regard to basal metabolic rate.

  11. African departure rather than migration speed determines variation in spring arrival in pied flycatchers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouwehand, Janne; Both, Christiaan

    Properly timed spring migration enhances reproduction and survival. Climate change requires organisms to respond to changes such as advanced spring phenology. Pied flycatchers Ficedula hypoleuca have become a model species to study such phenological adaptations of long-distance migratory songbirds

  12. Provisioning response to manipulation of apparent predation danger by parental Pied Flycatchers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hakkarainen, H.; Yli-Tuomi, I.; Korpimaki, E.; Ydenberg, R.C.

    2002-01-01

    We tested whether nest visitation rate of parent pied Flycatch ers (Ficedula hypoleuca) is decreased by an experimentally increased predation risk. We simulated predation risk by placing a stuffed Pygmy Owl (Glaucidium passerinzm) in the nest vicinity and by playback of pygmy owl's whistling. We

  13. Variation in eggshell traits between geographically distant populations of pied flycatchers Ficedula hypoleuca

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morales, J.; Ruuskanen, S.; Laaksonen, T.; Mateo, R.; Belskii, E.; Eeva, T.; Jarvinen, A.; Kerimov, A.; Korpimaki, E.; Krams, I.; Morosinotto, C.; Mand, R.; Orell, M.; Qvarnstrom, A.; Siitari, H.; Slager, F.M.; Tiglar, V.; Visser, M.E.; Winkel, W.; Zang, H.; Moreno, J.

    2013-01-01

    The expression and impact of maternal effects may vary greatly between populations and environments. However, little is known about large-scale geographical patterns of variation in maternal deposition to eggs. In birds, as in other oviparous animals, the outermost maternal component of an egg is

  14. Trypanosomes of some Fennoscandian birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon F. Bennett

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Linear measurements and derived indices of trypanosomes from species of Fennoscandian birds were compared to those reported form Trypanosoma avium, T. everetti, T. ontarioensis and T. paddae. The trypanosomes encountered in the Fennoscandian birds were identified as T. avium from Tengmalm's owl Aegolius funereus and the pied flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca, T. everetti from the great tit Parus major and collared flycatcher F. albicollis and T. ontarioensis from the collared flycatcher; T. paddae was not seen.

  15. East African Rarities Committee Report 2010–2013

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (Mikael Kall). Southern Black Flycatcher Melaenornis pammmelaina. First record for Uganda: Lake Mburo NP, 12 February 2010 (Roger Skeen). Collared Flycatcher Ficedula albicollis. First record for Uganda: Queen Elizabeth NP, 10 March 2003 (photograph from Philip. Palmer). Red-billed Buffalo Weaver Bubalornis niger.

  16. Candidate genes for colour and vision exhibit signals of selection across the pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) breeding range

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehtonen, P. K.; Laaksonen, T.; Artemyev, A. V.; Belskii, E.; Berg, P. R.; Both, C.; Buggiotti, L.; Bures, S.; Burgess, M. D.; Bushuev, A. V.; Krams, I.; Moreno, Juan; Maegi, M.; Nord, A.; Potti, J.; Ravussin, P-A; Sirkia, P. M.; Saetre, G-P; Winkel, W.; Primmer, C. R.; Bureš, S.; Mägi, M.; Sirkiä, P.M.

    The role of natural selection in shaping adaptive trait differentiation in natural populations has long been recognized. Determining its molecular basis, however, remains a challenge. Here, we search for signals of selection in candidate genes for colour and its perception in a passerine bird. Pied

  17. Yolk hormones and sexual conflict over parental investment in the pied flycatcher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laaksonen, Toni; Adamczyk, Freya; Ahola, Markus; Möstl, Erich; Lessells, C Kate M

    2011-02-01

    Female birds might be able to manipulate the parental effort of their male partner through elevated transfer of hormones to the eggs, since these hormones affect many chick traits that males might use as cues for adjusting the level of their investment. We experimentally studied whether female pied flycatchers Ficedula hypoleuca could manipulate male investment via yolk androgens. There is much more variation in yolk androgen levels between females than within clutches, and in order to change the androgen levels of the eggs, we swapped whole clutches between nests. To estimate the androgen levels of the clutch, we measured the androgen content of a single egg per clutch. Females did not succeed in manipulating male effort using yolk androgens, since there was no relationship between the division of parental care within a pair and either original or foster egg androgen levels. One of these relationships should have occurred if females were manipulating males. The proportion of feeding visits by the male was higher when the male was old (55%) than when he was young (45%) and females laid eggs with higher androgen levels when mated with a young male. Young males did not exhibit any responses to yolk androgen levels either, which indicates that females cannot exploit their effort more than that of old males. We suggest that females may allocate yolk androgens to adjust the growth trajectories of the chicks to poor growing conditions when mated with young males that are poor providers or occupying a poor territory.

  18. Experimentally reduced paternity affects paternal effort and reproductive success in pied flycatchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifjeld; Slagsvold; Ellegren

    1998-02-01

    The question of whether, and how, male birds should change their parental effort in response to reduced paternity is a controversial issue among behavioural ecologists. We report a study on pied flycatchers, Ficedula hypoleuca, in which paternity was manipulated through experimentally induced mate switching during the female's fertile period. The paternity of care-giving males ranged from 0 to 100% of the brood. The number of parental males per nest varied between zero and two, and the amount of male assistance in nestling provisioning had a marked effect on female reproductive success. For 17 monogamous males, provisioning effort and the body mass of nestlings on day 12 were reduced at low levels of paternity. However, the shape of the effort function was not unambiguously determined. Male provisioning effort showed a curvilinear decline, whereas nestling body mass showed a linear decline. Two important assumptions of the theory of optimal parental effort seem to be fulfilled in this case: that males had reliable cues to their paternity, and that paternity is likely to be increased in future (normal) breeding attempts. The fact that males reduced their effort at the expense of the welfare of the offspring suggests that there are significant costs of parental care in this species. Whether a similar response to cuckoldry occurs in unmanipulated breeding situations remains to be studied.Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  19. Prototype Stilbene Neutron Collar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, M. K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Shumaker, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Snyderman, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Verbeke, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wong, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-10-26

    A neutron collar using stilbene organic scintillator cells for fast neutron counting is described for the assay of fresh low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel assemblies. The prototype stilbene collar has a form factor similar to standard He-3 based collars and uses an AmLi interrogation neutron source. This report describes the simulation of list mode neutron correlation data on various fuel assemblies including some with neutron absorbers (burnable Gd poisons). Calibration curves (doubles vs 235U linear mass density) are presented for both thermal and fast (with Cd lining) modes of operation. It is shown that the stilbene collar meets or exceeds the current capabilities of He-3 based neutron collars. A self-consistent assay methodology, uniquely suited to the stilbene collar, using triples is described which complements traditional assay based on doubles calibration curves.

  20. Collaring of Po Superconducting Dipole

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    The picture shows the placing of a stack of stainless steel collars around the superconducting coils.Pre-assembled collar stacks were placed under and on top of the coils,the collars interleaving as comb teeth. During the following collaring operation of compression under a press the collars were locked together by means of side wedges. See also photos 8211532X, 7903168

  1. The Blue Collar Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy eVan Orden

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Much effort has gone into elucidating control of the body by the brain, less so the role of the body in controlling the brain. This essay develops the idea that the brain does a great deal of work in the service of behavior that is controlled by the body, a blue collar role compared to the white collar control exercised by the body. The argument that supports a blue collar role for the brain is also consistent with recent discoveries clarifying the white collar role of synergies across the body's tensegrity structure, and the evidence of critical phenomena in brain and behavior.

  2. Natural selection acts in opposite ways on correlated hormonal mediators of prenatal maternal effects in a wild bird population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tschirren, Barbara; Postma, Erik; Gustafsson, Lars; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Doligez, Blandine

    2014-01-01

    Maternal hormones are important mediators of prenatal maternal effects. Although many experimental studies have demonstrated their potency in shaping offspring phenotypes, we know remarkably little about their adaptive value. Using long-term data on a wild collared flycatcher (Ficedula albicollis)

  3. White collar crime

    OpenAIRE

    Burgos, Álvaro

    2016-01-01

    The White Collar Crime has particular characteristics that range from the profile of its author to the difficulties of the criminal process where it is investigated. El delito de Cuello Blanco cuenta con características particulares desde el perfil de su autor, hasta las dificultades del proceso penal en que se investiga.

  4. Southwestern willow flycatchers (Empidonax traillii extimus) in a grazed landscape: factors influencing brood parasitism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katherine M. Brodhead; Scott H. Stoleson; Deborah M. Finch

    2007-01-01

    Brood parasitism by Brown-headed Cowbirds (Molothrus ater; hereafter "cowbirds") is an important factor contributing to the endangered status of the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus, hereafter "flycatcher"). We report on factors that influence brood parasitism on the flycatcher using...

  5. Do ornaments, arrival date, and sperm size influence mating and paternity success in the collared flycatcher?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Edme, A.; Zobač, P.; Opatová, Pavlína; Šplíchalová, P.; Munclinger, P.; Albrecht, Tomáš; Krist, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 1 (2017), č. článku 3. ISSN 0340-5443 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/2472 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Mating success * Extra-pair paternity * Differential allocation * Sexual ornament * Sperm size Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.185, year: 2016

  6. Song degradation in the hole-nesting pied flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca: Implications for polyterritorial behaviour in contrasting habitat-types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lampe, Helene M.; Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Pedersen, Simon Boel

    2007-01-01

    nestboxes may, therefore, be important for male and female behaviour since the male may have to move outside female hearing range to avoid harassment, and the female may have to listen for the mate to be able to locate competing females. This may be difficult from inside the nest cavity.We used ten common...

  7. Pied Flycatchers Ficedula hypoleuca travelling from Africa to breed in Europe: differential effects of winter and migration conditions on breeding date

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Both, C.; Sanz, J.J.; Artemyev, A.V.; Blaauw, B.; Cowie, R.J.; Dekhuijzen, A.J.; Enemar, A.; Järvinen, A.; Nyholm, N.E.I.; Potti, J.; Ravussin, P.-A.; Silverin, B.; Slater, F.M.; Sokolov, L.V.; Visser, M.E.; Winkel, W.; Wright, J.; Zang, H.

    2006-01-01

    In most bird species there is only a short time window available for optimal breeding due to variation in ecological conditions in a seasonal environment. Long-distance migrants must travel before they start breeding, and conditions at the wintering grounds and during migration may affect travelling

  8. Demography of the Seychelles Black Paradise-flycatcher ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We quantified the annual breeding success, adult mortality and juvenile recruitment of the flycatcher on La Digue, monitored tri-weekly over a two-year period (June 1999–June 2001), to determine factors affecting population demographics and assess the implications for the reintroduction of populations to other islands.

  9. Abundance, Distribution and Ecology of Flycatchers in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forest ecosystems are recognized as important biodiversity conservation areas. We studied abundance, distribution and activity budget of flycatchers within the Arboretum of Ruhande in Southern Rwanda. The point observation method was used to collect data along line transects from May to June 2012. A total of 177 ...

  10. Describing Willow Flycatcher habitats: scale perspectives and gender differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedgwick, James A.; Knopf, Fritz L.

    1992-01-01

    We compared habitat characteristics of nest sites (female-selected sites) and song perch sites (male-selected sites) with those of sites unused by Willow Flycatchers (Empidonax traillii) at three different scales of vegetation measurement: (1) microplot (central willow [Salix spp.] bush and four adjacent bushes); (2) mesoplot (0.07 ha); and, (3) macroplot (flycatcher territory size). Willow Flycatchers exhibited vegetation preferences at all three scales. Nest sites were distinguished by high willow density and low variability in willow patch size and bush height. Song perch sites were characterized by large central shrubs, low central shrub vigor, and high variability in shrub size. Unused sites were characterized by greater distances between willows and willow patches, less willow coverage, and a smaller riparian zone width than either nest or song perch sites. At all scales, nest sites were situated farther from unused sites in multivariate habitat space than were song perch sites, suggesting (1) a correspondence among scales in their ability to describe Willow Flycatcher habitat, and (2) females are more discriminating in habitat selection than males. Microhabitat differences between male-selected (song perch) and female-selected (nest) sites were evident at the two smaller scales; at the finest scale, the segregation in habitat space between male-selected and female-selected sites was greater than that between male-selected and unused sites. Differences between song perch and nest sites were not apparent at the scale of flycatcher territory size, possibly due to inclusion of (1) both nest and song perch sites, (2) defended, but unused habitat, and/or (3) habitat outside of the territory, in larger scale analyses. The differences between nest and song perch sites at the finer scales reflect their different functions (e.g., nest concealment and microclimatic requirements vs. advertising and territorial defense, respectively), and suggest that the exclusive use

  11. Elucidating spatially explicit behavioral landscapes in the Willow Flycatcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakian, Amanda V.; Sullivan, Kimberly A.; Paxton, Eben H.

    2012-01-01

    Animal resource selection is a complex, hierarchical decision-making process, yet resource selection studies often focus on the presence and absence of an animal rather than the animal's behavior at resource use locations. In this study, we investigate foraging and vocalization resource selection in a population of Willow Flycatchers, Empidonax traillii adastus, using Bayesian spatial generalized linear models. These models produce “behavioral landscapes” in which space use and resource selection is linked through behavior. Radio telemetry locations were collected from 35 adult Willow Flycatchers (n = 14 males, n = 13 females, and n = 8 unknown sex) over the 2003 and 2004 breeding seasons at Fish Creek, Utah. Results from the 2-stage modeling approach showed that habitat type, perch position, and distance from the arithmetic mean of the home range (in males) or nest site (in females) were important factors influencing foraging and vocalization resource selection. Parameter estimates from the individual-level models indicated high intraspecific variation in the use of the various habitat types and perch heights for foraging and vocalization. On the population level, Willow Flycatchers selected riparian habitat over other habitat types for vocalizing but used multiple habitat types for foraging including mountain shrub, young riparian, and upland forest. Mapping of observed and predicted foraging and vocalization resource selection indicated that the behavior often occurred in disparate areas of the home range. This suggests that multiple core areas may exist in the home ranges of individual flycatchers, and demonstrates that the behavioral landscape modeling approach can be applied to identify spatially and behaviorally distinct core areas. The behavioral landscape approach is applicable to a wide range of animal taxa and can be used to improve our understanding of the spatial context of behavior and resource selection.

  12. Nestling sex ratio in the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, E.H.; Sogge, M.K.; McCarthey, T.D.; Keim, P.

    2002-01-01

    Using molecular-genetic techniques, we determined the gender of 202 Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) nestlings from 95 nests sampled over a five-year period. Overall nestling sex ratio did not vary significantly from 50:50 among years, by clutch order, or by mating strategy (monogamous vs. polygamous pairings). However, we did observe significant differences among the four sites sampled, with sex ratios biased either toward males or females at the different sites. Given the small population sizes and geographic isolation of many of the endangered subspecies' breeding populations, sex-ratio differences may have localized negative impacts. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2002.

  13. What Do Owls, Salamanders, Flycatchers and Cuckoos Have In Common?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musgrave, Maria A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Wildlife Management

    2016-09-27

    This is an article from the Los Alamos Living magazine. Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on a beautiful and unique landscape that provides important protected habitat to many species, including a few that are federally-listed as threatened or endangered. These species are the Jemez Mountains Salamander, the Mexican Spotted Owl, the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher, the Yellow-billed Cuckoo, and the New Mexico Meadow Jumping Mouse. Part of the job of the Laboratory's wildlife biologists is to survey for these species each year and determine what actions need to be taken if they are found.

  14. KETERKAITAN WHITE COLLAR CRIME DENGAN CORPORATE CRIME

    OpenAIRE

    R. Dyatmiko Soemodihardjo

    2003-01-01

    White collar crime is a crime that carried out by respected persons, whereas corporate crime is a crime that related to corporation. White collar crime and crime corporate are always related to economic crime. White collar crime can be committed by corporation, that is why a kind of crime emerges namely corporate crime.

  15. A new species of Muscicapa flycatcher from Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, J Berton C; Rasmussen, Pamela C; Yong, Ding Li; Prawiradilaga, Dewi M; Putra, Dadang Dwi; Round, Philip D; Rheindt, Frank E

    2014-01-01

    The Indonesian island of Sulawesi, a globally important hotspot of avian endemism, has been relatively poorly studied ornithologically, to the extent that several new bird species from the region have been described to science only recently, and others have been observed and photographed, but never before collected or named to science. One of these is a new species of Muscicapa flycatcher that has been observed on several occasions since 1997. We collected two specimens in Central Sulawesi in 2012, and based on a combination of morphological, vocal and genetic characters, we describe the new species herein, more than 15 years after the first observations. The new species is superficially similar to the highly migratory, boreal-breeding Gray-streaked Flycatcher Muscicapa griseisticta, which winters in Sulawesi; however, the new species differs strongly from M. griseisticta in several morphological characters, song, and mtDNA. Based on mtDNA, the new species is only distantly related to M. griseisticta, instead being a member of the M. dauurica clade. The new species is evidently widely distributed in lowland and submontane forest throughout Sulawesi. This wide distribution coupled with the species' apparent tolerance of disturbed habitats suggests it is not currently threatened with extinction.

  16. A new species of Muscicapa flycatcher from Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Berton C Harris

    Full Text Available The Indonesian island of Sulawesi, a globally important hotspot of avian endemism, has been relatively poorly studied ornithologically, to the extent that several new bird species from the region have been described to science only recently, and others have been observed and photographed, but never before collected or named to science. One of these is a new species of Muscicapa flycatcher that has been observed on several occasions since 1997. We collected two specimens in Central Sulawesi in 2012, and based on a combination of morphological, vocal and genetic characters, we describe the new species herein, more than 15 years after the first observations. The new species is superficially similar to the highly migratory, boreal-breeding Gray-streaked Flycatcher Muscicapa griseisticta, which winters in Sulawesi; however, the new species differs strongly from M. griseisticta in several morphological characters, song, and mtDNA. Based on mtDNA, the new species is only distantly related to M. griseisticta, instead being a member of the M. dauurica clade. The new species is evidently widely distributed in lowland and submontane forest throughout Sulawesi. This wide distribution coupled with the species' apparent tolerance of disturbed habitats suggests it is not currently threatened with extinction.

  17. A New Species of Muscicapa Flycatcher from Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Ding Li; Prawiradilaga, Dewi M.; Putra, Dadang Dwi; Round, Philip D.; Rheindt, Frank E.

    2014-01-01

    The Indonesian island of Sulawesi, a globally important hotspot of avian endemism, has been relatively poorly studied ornithologically, to the extent that several new bird species from the region have been described to science only recently, and others have been observed and photographed, but never before collected or named to science. One of these is a new species of Muscicapa flycatcher that has been observed on several occasions since 1997. We collected two specimens in Central Sulawesi in 2012, and based on a combination of morphological, vocal and genetic characters, we describe the new species herein, more than 15 years after the first observations. The new species is superficially similar to the highly migratory, boreal-breeding Gray-streaked Flycatcher Muscicapa griseisticta, which winters in Sulawesi; however, the new species differs strongly from M. griseisticta in several morphological characters, song, and mtDNA. Based on mtDNA, the new species is only distantly related to M. griseisticta, instead being a member of the M. dauurica clade. The new species is evidently widely distributed in lowland and submontane forest throughout Sulawesi. This wide distribution coupled with the species' apparent tolerance of disturbed habitats suggests it is not currently threatened with extinction. PMID:25419968

  18. Habitat and sex differences in physiological condition of breeding Southwestern Willow Flycatchers (Empidonax traillii extimus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, J.C.; Sogge, M.K.; Kern, M.D.

    2005-01-01

    The Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus; here- after “flycatcher”) is a federally listed endangered species that breeds in densely vegetated riparian habitats dominated by native and exotic plants, including introduced monotypic saltcedar (Tamarix ramosissima). Some workers have theorized that saltcedar is unsuitable habitat for the flycatcher, primarily because it generally supports a smaller and less diverse invertebrate community (the flycatcher's food base) than native habitats (e.g. Salix spp.). However, differences in insect communities between native and saltcedar habitats are not proof that saltcedar habitats are inferior. The only way to evaluate whether the habitats differ in dietary or energetic quality is to document actual food limitation or its manifestations. Measurements of an individual's body condition and metabolic state can serve as indicators of environmental stressors, such as food limitation and environmental extremes. We captured 130 flycatchers breeding in native and saltcedar habitats in Arizona and New Mexico and measured 12 variables of physiological condition. These variables included body mass, fat level, body condition index, hematocrit, plasma triglycerides, plasma free fatty acids and glycerol, plasma glucose and beta-hydroxybutyrate, plasma uric acid, total leukocyte count, and heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio. We found substantial sex-based differences in the condition of male and female flycatchers. Ten of the 12 measures of physiological condition differed significantly between the sexes. In all cases where male and female condition differed (except mass), the differences suggest that males were in poorer condition than females. We found few habitat-based differences in flycatcher condition. Only 3 of the 12 physiological condition indices differed significantly between habitats. Our data show that, at least in some parts of the flycatcher's range, there is no evidence that flycatchers breeding in

  19. Rotten Apples versus Rotten Barrels in White Collar Crime: A Qualitative Analysis of White Collar Offenders in Norway

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Petter Gottschalk

    2012-01-01

      White-collar crime is financial crime committed by white-collar criminals. Sensational white-collar crime cases regularly appear in the international business press and studies in journals of ethics and crime...

  20. A Collar for Marking Big Game Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Phillips

    1970-01-01

    A Simple, inexpensive collar made of Armor-tite (a vinyl-coated nylon fabric) was designed for marking white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and moose (Alces alces). Field tests showed that the material is easily seen and extrememly durable. It may be suitable for use on other large mammals. The collar can be quickly fitted to individual animals under field...

  1. A Natural History Summary and Survey Protocol for the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogge, Mark K.; ,; Ahlers, Darrell; ,; Sferra, Susan J.; ,

    2010-01-01

    The Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) has been the subject of substantial research, monitoring, and management activity since it was listed as an endangered species in 1995. When proposed for listing in 1993, relatively little was known about the flycatcher's natural history, and there were only 30 known breeding sites supporting an estimated 111 territories rangewide (Sogge and others, 2003a). Since that time, thousands of presence/absences surveys have been conducted throughout the historical range of the flycatcher, and many studies of its natural history and ecology have been completed. As a result, the ecology of the flycatcher is much better understood than it was just over a decade ago. In addition, we have learned that the current status of the flycatcher is better than originally thought: as of 2007, the population was estimated at approximately 1,300 territories distributed among approximately 280 breeding sites (Durst and others, 2008a). Concern about the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher on a rangewide scale was brought to focus by Unitt (1987), who described declines in flycatcher abundance and distribution throughout the Southwest. E. t. extimus populations declined during the 20th century, primarily because of habitat loss and modification from activities, such as dam construction and operation, groundwater pumping, water diversions, and flood control. In 1991, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) designated the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher as a candidate category 1 species (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1991). In July 1993, the USFWS proposed to list E. t. extimus as an endangered species and to designate critical habitat under the Act (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1993). A final rule listing E. t. extimus as endangered was published in February 1995 (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1995); critical habitat was designated in 1997 (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1997). The USFWS Service released a Recovery Plan for

  2. Does the Laser-Microtextured Short Implant Collar Design Reduce Marginal Bone Loss in Comparison with a Machined Collar?

    OpenAIRE

    Gultekin, B. Alper; Sirali, Ali; Gultekin, Pinar; Yalcin, Serdar; Mijiritsky, Eitan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To compare marginal bone loss between subgingivally placed short-collar implants with machined collars and those with machined and laser-microtextured collars. Materials and Methods. The investigators used a retrospective study design and included patients who needed missing posterior teeth replaced with implants. Short-collar implants with identical geometries were divided into two groups: an M group, machined collar; and an L group, machined and laser-microtextured collar. Implants...

  3. Microvascularization on collared peccary placenta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, Tatiana Carlesso; Oliveira, Moacir Franco; Dantzer, Vibeke

    2012-01-01

    The microvascularization of the collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) placenta was studied by vascular casts and immunolocalization of a-smooth muscle actin and vimentin, to identify the three dimensional organization and vascular flow interrelation in the microvasculature between the maternal...... and fetal compartments of the placentae. The immunolocalization of vimentin in the vascular endothelium and in the smooth muscle cells of blood vessels showed indented capillaries along the uterine epithelium and the trophoblast at the sides of complementary maternal and fetal microfolds, or rugae...... into a microvascular network wall in a basket-like fashion. At the base of these baskets venules were formed. On the fetal side, arterioles branched centrally in the fetal rugae into a capillary network in a bulbous form, complementary to the opposite maternal depressions forming the baskets. At the base...

  4. Status and breeding ecology of the southwestern willow flycatcher in the Grand Canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogge, M.K.; Tibbitts, T.J.; Petterson, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    Ernpidonax trailIll extirnus is one of several recognized subspecies of the Willow Flycatcher (Unitt 1987, Browning 1993), a neotropical migrant that breeds across much of North America. This southwestern race is a riparian obligate, nesting in dense patches of willow (Salix sp.), willow-cottonwood (Populus sp.), or other similarly structured habitats. In some areas of the Southwest, it nests in dense stands of tamarisk (Tamarix sp.). Willow Flycatchers were once widespread and locally common in the Southwest (Unitt 1987) but have declined to the point that E. t. extirnus was listed as an endangered subspecies in 1995 (USFWS 1995).

  5. Linguistic Diversity in Blue‐Collar Workplaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønsmann, Dorte; Kraft, Kamilla

    In this paper we examine the management of linguistic diversity in blue‐collar workplaces and its implications. The blue‐collar context is somewhat neglected in studies of globalisation and its consequences for the workplace. Hence, our focus here is on blue‐collar workplaces in the context...... for establishing stable linguistic practices.This study is based on data from two ethnographic studies of blue‐collar workplaces in Denmark and Norway, and it includes observational data, ethnographic interviews as well as interactional data. The latter has been analysed using conversation analysis.Our data...... these situations include drawing pictures, gesturing, referring to signs, and even speaking Danish/Norwegian regardless of the fact that interlocutors do not understand the language. Through the use of these linguistic and other semiotic resources, the barriers posed by linguistic diversity are usually overcome...

  6. [Factors associated with depressive symptoms in blue-collar and white-collar male workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Yurika; Nishitani, Naoko; Sakakibara, Hisataka

    2015-01-01

    Mental disorders are increasing and their influence on productivity is a concern in the workplace. However, few studies have investigated depression among blue-collar and white-collar workers in the manufacturing industry. The purpose of this study was to clarify the factors associated with depressive symptoms, focusing on lifestyles and insomnia. A self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted of 1,963 workers at an annual health checkup in a manufacturing company. Of the 1,712 respondents (response rate: 87%), 1,258 male worker subjects (blue-collar 674; white-collar 584) were analyzed after excluding those with mental diseases. The questionnaire included items on basic attributes and lifestyle. The Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS) and The Center for Epidemiologic Studies for Depression Scale (CES-D) were used to evaluate insomnia and depressive symptoms. The incidence of depressive symptoms with CES-D scores of ≥16 was 15.1% in both the blue-collar and the white-collar workers. Insomnia with AIS scores of ≥6 were encountered in 18.8% of the blue-collar workers and 18.3% of the white-collar workers. Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that for the blue-collar workers, depressive symptoms were associated with "AIS scores ≥6" (Odds ratio (OR): 10.93; 95% confidence interval (CI): 6.12-19.15), "not get rid of fatigue with sleep" (OR: 3.36; 95%CI: 1.85-6.09), "skip breakfast over 3 times a week" (OR: 3.10; 95%CI:1.42-6.76), "no family living together" (OR: 2.08; 95%CI: 1.05-4.12), and "commuting time" (OR: 1.01; 95%CI: 1.00-1.02). For the white-collar workers, depressive symptoms were related to "AIS scores ≥6" (OR: 14.91; 95%CI: 7.54-29.49), and "no family living together" (OR: 2.54; 95%CI: 1.27-5.09). Sleep time was not associated with depression in both blue- and white-collar workers. Depressive symptoms were found in 51.6% of the blue-collar workers with insomnia with AIS scores ≥6 and 53.8% of white-collar workers. Depressive symptoms were

  7. The effects of prey size on diet differentiation of seven passerine species at two spring stopover sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchetti, C.M.; Locatelli, D.P.; Van Noordwijk, A.J.; Baldaccini, N.E.

    1998-01-01

    Prey size was evaluated for seven passerine trans-Saharan migrant species at two spring stopover sites in Sardinia, Italy. The species considered were Pied Flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca, Spotted Flycatcher Muscicapa striata, Redstart Phoenicurus phoenicurus, Garden Warbler Sylvia borin, Whitethroat

  8. Breeding biology and behavior of Hammond's and western flycatchers in northwestern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    H.F. Sakai

    1988-01-01

    The Hammond's (Empidonax hammondii) and Western (E. difficilis) flycatchers are sympatric within portions of their breeding ranges in north- western California. Westerns are common in a variety of habitats (Bent 1942:247, Johnson 1980:11-23); Hammond's are more abundant at higher elevations (Bent 1942:226, Johnson...

  9. Alternate non-stop migration strategies of pied flycatchers to cross the Sahara desert

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouwehand, Janne; Both, Christiaan

    Each year more than two billion songbirds cross the Sahara, but how they perform this formidable task is largely unknown. Using geolocation tracks from 27 pied flycatchers, a nocturnally migrating passerine, we show that most birds made diurnal flights in both autumn and spring. These diurnal

  10. Status and migration of the Southwestern willow flycatcher in New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch; Jeffrey F. Kelly

    1999-01-01

    In the Southwestern United States, recent degradation of riparian habitats has been linked to decline of the Southwestern subspecies of the Willow Flycatcher. During a 2-year banding effort, migration patterns and bird fat content were analyzed. Recommendations for managers, and outlines for conservation plans, are included.

  11. One a Blue-Collar Worker, Always a Blue-Collar Worker?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwight, Alice Heasley

    1978-01-01

    There are many blue-collar workers who aspire to work in the white-collar world. Work histories of employed adults from an industrial area of Baltimore who were classified as Realistic (based on the Holland Vocational Preference Inventory) show most adults are apparently unable to move out of this classification. (Author)

  12. Trunnion Collar Removal Machine - Gap Analysis Table

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Johnson

    2005-06-27

    The purpose of this document is to review the existing the trunnion collar removal machine against the ''Nuclear Safety Design Bases for License Application'' (NSDB) [Ref. 10] requirements and to identify codes and standards and supplemental requirements to meet these requirements. If these codes and standards can not fully meet these requirements then a ''gap'' is identified. These gaps will be identified here and addressed using the ''Trunnion Collar Removal Machine Design Development Plan'' [Ref. 15]. The codes and standards, supplemental requirements, and design development requirements for the trunnion collar removal machine are provided in the gap analysis table (Appendix A, Table 1). Because the trunnion collar removal machine is credited with performing functions important to safety (ITS) in the NSDB [Ref. 10], design basis requirements are applicable to ensure equipment is available and performs required safety functions when needed. The gap analysis table is used to identify design objectives and provide a means to satisfy safety requirements. To ensure that the trunnion collar removal machine performs required safety functions and meets performance criteria, this portion of the gap analysis tables supplies codes and standards sections and the supplemental requirements and identifies design development requirements, if needed.

  13. Vortex wake, downwash distribution, aerodynamic performance and wingbeat kinematics in slow-flying pied flycatchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muijres, Florian T.; Bowlin, Melissa S.; Johansson, L. Christoffer; Hedenström, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Many small passerines regularly fly slowly when catching prey, flying in cluttered environments or landing on a perch or nest. While flying slowly, passerines generate most of the flight forces during the downstroke, and have a ‘feathered upstroke’ during which they make their wing inactive by retracting it close to the body and by spreading the primary wing feathers. How this flight mode relates aerodynamically to the cruising flight and so-called ‘normal hovering’ as used in hummingbirds is not yet known. Here, we present time-resolved fluid dynamics data in combination with wingbeat kinematics data for three pied flycatchers flying across a range of speeds from near hovering to their calculated minimum power speed. Flycatchers are adapted to low speed flight, which they habitually use when catching insects on the wing. From the wake dynamics data, we constructed average wingbeat wakes and determined the time-resolved flight forces, the time-resolved downwash distributions and the resulting lift-to-drag ratios, span efficiencies and flap efficiencies. During the downstroke, slow-flying flycatchers generate a single-vortex loop wake, which is much more similar to that generated by birds at cruising flight speeds than it is to the double loop vortex wake in hovering hummingbirds. This wake structure results in a relatively high downwash behind the body, which can be explained by the relatively active tail in flycatchers. As a result of this, slow-flying flycatchers have a span efficiency which is similar to that of the birds in cruising flight and which can be assumed to be higher than in hovering hummingbirds. During the upstroke, the wings of slowly flying flycatchers generated no significant forces, but the body–tail configuration added 23 per cent to weight support. This is strikingly similar to the 25 per cent weight support generated by the wing upstroke in hovering hummingbirds. Thus, for slow-flying passerines, the upstroke cannot be regarded as

  14. Vortex wake, downwash distribution, aerodynamic performance and wingbeat kinematics in slow-flying pied flycatchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muijres, Florian T; Bowlin, Melissa S; Johansson, L Christoffer; Hedenström, Anders

    2012-02-07

    Many small passerines regularly fly slowly when catching prey, flying in cluttered environments or landing on a perch or nest. While flying slowly, passerines generate most of the flight forces during the downstroke, and have a 'feathered upstroke' during which they make their wing inactive by retracting it close to the body and by spreading the primary wing feathers. How this flight mode relates aerodynamically to the cruising flight and so-called 'normal hovering' as used in hummingbirds is not yet known. Here, we present time-resolved fluid dynamics data in combination with wingbeat kinematics data for three pied flycatchers flying across a range of speeds from near hovering to their calculated minimum power speed. Flycatchers are adapted to low speed flight, which they habitually use when catching insects on the wing. From the wake dynamics data, we constructed average wingbeat wakes and determined the time-resolved flight forces, the time-resolved downwash distributions and the resulting lift-to-drag ratios, span efficiencies and flap efficiencies. During the downstroke, slow-flying flycatchers generate a single-vortex loop wake, which is much more similar to that generated by birds at cruising flight speeds than it is to the double loop vortex wake in hovering hummingbirds. This wake structure results in a relatively high downwash behind the body, which can be explained by the relatively active tail in flycatchers. As a result of this, slow-flying flycatchers have a span efficiency which is similar to that of the birds in cruising flight and which can be assumed to be higher than in hovering hummingbirds. During the upstroke, the wings of slowly flying flycatchers generated no significant forces, but the body-tail configuration added 23 per cent to weight support. This is strikingly similar to the 25 per cent weight support generated by the wing upstroke in hovering hummingbirds. Thus, for slow-flying passerines, the upstroke cannot be regarded as inactive

  15. Boron-Coated Straw Collar for Uranium Neutron Coincidence Collar Replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Jianwei [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Croft, Stephen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); McElroy, Robert Dennis [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this project was to design and optimize, in simulation space, an active neutron coincidence counter (or collar) using boron-coated straws (BCSs) as a non-3He replacement to the Uranium Neutron Coincidence Collar (UNCL). UNCL has been used by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom) since the 1980s to verify the 235U content in fresh light water reactor fuel assemblies for safeguards purposes. This report documents the design and optimization of the BCS collar.

  16. 76 FR 11812 - Drill Pipe and Drill Collars From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-03

    ... COMMISSION Drill Pipe and Drill Collars From China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in... of imports of drill pipe and drill collars from China, provided for in subheadings 7304.22, 7304.23... drill pipe and drill collars from China were subsidized within the meaning of section 703(b) of the Act...

  17. 75 FR 10501 - Drill Pipe and Drill Collars from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... COMMISSION Drill Pipe and Drill Collars from China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in... injury by reason of imports from China of drill pipe and drill collars, provided for in subheadings 7304... by reason of LTFV and subsidized imports of drill pipe and drill collars from China. Accordingly...

  18. Criminal Trajectories of White-collar Offenders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Onna, J.; van der Geest, V.R.; Huisman, W.; Denkers, A.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives:This article analyzes the criminal development and sociodemographic and criminal profile of a sample of prosecuted white-collar offenders. It identifies trajectory groups and describes their profiles based on crime, sociodemographic, and selection offence characteristics.Methods:The

  19. Evaluating elk habitat interactions with GPS collars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A. Rumble; Lakhdar Benkobi; Fredrick Lindzey; R. Scott Gamo

    2001-01-01

    Global positioning systems (GPS) are likely to revolutionize animal telemetry studies. GPS collars allow biologists to collect systematically scheduled data when VHF telemetry data is difficult or impossible to collect. Past studies have shown that the success of GPS telemetry is greater when animals are standing, or in open habitats. To make effective use of GPS...

  20. White collar rhabdomyolysis with acute kidney injury

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bhakthavatsalam, RK; Venu, G; Raju, PKrishnam; Madhusudan, HC

    2016-01-01

    ...] Knochel called exercise induced rhabdomyolysis as white collar rhabdomyolysis because of increased incidence noted in educated and professionals who are not accustomed to strenuous exercise. [4] It may present as asymptomatic illness with elevated creatine kinase to life-threatening complications such as cardiac arrhythmias, cardiac arrest, compa...

  1. Wolves, Canis lupus, carry and cache the collars of radio-collared White-tailed Deer, Odocoileus virginianus, they killed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michael E.; Mech, L. David

    2011-01-01

    Wolves (Canis lupus) in northeastern Minnesota cached six radio-collars (four in winter, two in spring-summer) of 202 radio-collared White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) they killed or consumed from 1975 to 2010. A Wolf bedded on top of one collar cached in snow. We found one collar each at a Wolf den and Wolf rendezvous site, 2.5 km and 0.5 km respectively, from each deer's previous locations.

  2. Myiarchus flycatchers are the primary seed dispersers of Bursera longipes in a Mexican dry forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almazán-Núñez, R Carlos; Eguiarte, Luis E; Arizmendi, María Del Coro; Corcuera, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the seed dispersal of Bursera longipes by birds along a successional gradient of tropical dry forest (TDF) in southwestern Mexico. B. longipes is an endemic tree to the TDF in the Balsas basin. The relative abundance of frugivorous birds, their frequency of visits to B. longipes and the number of removed fruits were recorded at three study sites with different stages of forest succession (early, intermediate and mature) characterized by distinct floristic and structural elements. Flycatchers of the Myiarchus and Tyrannus genera removed the majority of fruits at each site. Overall, visits to B. longipes were less frequent at the early successional site. Birds that function as legitimate dispersers by consuming whole seeds and regurgitating or defecating intact seeds in the process also remove the pseudoaril from seeds, thereby facilitating the germination process. The highest germination percentages were recorded for seeds that passed through the digestive system of two migratory flycatchers: M. cinerascens and M. nutingii. Perch plants, mainly composed of legumes (e.g., Eysenhardtia polystachya, Acacia cochliacantha, Calliandra eryophylla, Mimosa polyantha), serve also as nurse plants since the number of young individuals recruited from B. longipes was higher under these than expected by chance. This study shows that Myiarchus flycatchers are the most efficient seed dispersers of B. longipes across all successional stages. This suggests a close mutualistic relationship derived from adaptive processes and local specializations throughout the distribution of both taxa, as supported by the geographic mosaic theory of coevolution.

  3. Myiarchus flycatchers are the primary seed dispersers of Bursera longipes in a Mexican dry forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Carlos Almazán-Núñez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the seed dispersal of Bursera longipes by birds along a successional gradient of tropical dry forest (TDF in southwestern Mexico. B. longipes is an endemic tree to the TDF in the Balsas basin. The relative abundance of frugivorous birds, their frequency of visits to B. longipes and the number of removed fruits were recorded at three study sites with different stages of forest succession (early, intermediate and mature characterized by distinct floristic and structural elements. Flycatchers of the Myiarchus and Tyrannus genera removed the majority of fruits at each site. Overall, visits to B. longipes were less frequent at the early successional site. Birds that function as legitimate dispersers by consuming whole seeds and regurgitating or defecating intact seeds in the process also remove the pseudoaril from seeds, thereby facilitating the germination process. The highest germination percentages were recorded for seeds that passed through the digestive system of two migratory flycatchers: M. cinerascens and M. nutingii. Perch plants, mainly composed of legumes (e.g., Eysenhardtia polystachya, Acacia cochliacantha, Calliandra eryophylla, Mimosa polyantha, serve also as nurse plants since the number of young individuals recruited from B. longipes was higher under these than expected by chance. This study shows that Myiarchus flycatchers are the most efficient seed dispersers of B. longipes across all successional stages. This suggests a close mutualistic relationship derived from adaptive processes and local specializations throughout the distribution of both taxa, as supported by the geographic mosaic theory of coevolution.

  4. LHC collars - 12 million high technology gems

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Some 12 million steel collars will keep the LHC dipole magnet structures rigid. Their production has just begun. A huge job began last week: the high speed manufacturing of twelve million steel collars for the 1250 dipole magnets of the future Large Hadron Collider, LHC. The challenge is not only a matter of quantity: these collars are very high technology components because of the important role they play in the way the collider works. One of the main difficulties with the accelerator is that the magnetic field that keeps particles in orbit must have the same configuration and intensity in all the dipoles. But when the 8.33 tesla magnetic field is on -100.000 times the earth magnetic field - it produces a very strong force that can deform the 'soft' parts of the magnets, such as superconducting coils. The force loading one metre of dipole is almost comparable with the weight of a Boeing 747 - about 400 tonnes - so a huge deformation would occur without a mechanical component to keep the whole structure rigid...

  5. Neutron Collar Evolution and Fresh PWR Assembly Measurements with a New Fast Neutron Passive Collar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menlove, Howard Olsen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Geist, William H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Root, Margaret A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rael, Carlos D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Belian, Anthony P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-11-02

    The passive neutron collar approach removes the effect of poison rods when using a 1mm Gd liner. This project sets out to solve the following challenges: BWR fuel assemblies have less mass and less neutron multiplication than PWR; and effective removal of cosmic ray spallation neutron bursts needed via QC tests.

  6. White collar rhabdomyolysis with acute kidney injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R K Bhakthavatsalam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhabdomyolysis is a clinical syndrome resulting from the disintegration of muscle cell and spillage of toxic intracellular contents into circulation. Strenuous, unaccustomed exercise leads to exertional rhabdomyolysis and cause AKI. We report a 26-year-old female who developed white collar rhabdomyolysis with AKI after performing sit-ups (Super Yoga Brain for 108 times in temple. She was managed with hemodialysis and supporting therapy. She made a full recovery after 4 weeks. Awareness of this condition and early diagnosis is highlighted.

  7. Fixed point indices and manifolds with collars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Henry Gottlieb

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns a formula which relates the Lefschetz number L(f for a map f:M→M′ to the fixed point index I(f summed with the fixed point index of a derived map on part of the boundary of ∂M. Here M is a compact manifold and M′ is M with a collar attached.

  8. Open-Design Collar vs. Conventional Philadelphia Collar Regarding User Satisfaction and Cervical Range of Motion in Asymptomatic Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, Faezeh; Kamyab, Mojtaba; Azadinia, Fatemeh; Hajiaghaei, Behnam

    2016-04-01

    The current study aimed to compare the Philadelphia collar and an open-design cervical collar with regard to user satisfaction and cervical range of motion in asymptomatic adults. Seventy-two healthy subjects (36 women, 36 men) aged 18 to 29 yrs were recruited for this study. Neck movements, including active flexion, extension, right/left lateral flexion, and right/left axial rotation, were assessed in each subject under three conditions--without wearing a collar and while wearing two different cervical collars--using a dual digital inclinometer. Subject satisfaction was assessed using a five-item self-administered questionnaire. Both Philadelphia and open-design collars significantly reduced cervical motions (P design collar more greatly reduced cervical motions in three planes and the differences were statistically significant except for limiting flexion. Satisfaction scores for Philadelphia and open-design collars were 15.89 (3.87) and 19.94 (3.11), respectively. Based on the data of the 72 subjects presented in this study, the open-design collar adequately immobilized the cervical spine as a semirigid collar and was considered cosmetically acceptable, at least for subjects aged younger than 30 yrs.

  9. 78 FR 59972 - Drill Pipe and Drill Collars from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... COMMISSION Drill Pipe and Drill Collars from China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission... phase investigation of the antidumping and countervailing duty orders on drill pipe and drill collars... remanding certain aspects of the Commission's affirmative threat determination in Drill Pipe and Drill...

  10. Does the Laser-Microtextured Short Implant Collar Design Reduce Marginal Bone Loss in Comparison with a Machined Collar?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gultekin, B Alper; Sirali, Ali; Gultekin, Pinar; Yalcin, Serdar; Mijiritsky, Eitan

    Purpose . To compare marginal bone loss between subgingivally placed short-collar implants with machined collars and those with machined and laser-microtextured collars. Materials and Methods . The investigators used a retrospective study design and included patients who needed missing posterior teeth replaced with implants. Short-collar implants with identical geometries were divided into two groups: an M group, machined collar; and an L group, machined and laser-microtextured collar. Implants were evaluated according to marginal bone loss, implant success, and probing depth (PD) at 3 years of follow-up. Results . Sixty-two patients received 103 implants (56 in the M group and 47 in the L group). The cumulative survival rate was 100%. All implants showed clinically acceptable marginal bone loss, although bone resorption was lower in the L group (0.49 mm) than in the M group (1.38 mm) at 3 years ( p bone loss for both groups; however, bone resorption was less in the L group than in the M group before and after loading. The laser-microtextured collar implant may provide a shallower PD than the machined collar implant.

  11. Does the Laser-Microtextured Short Implant Collar Design Reduce Marginal Bone Loss in Comparison with a Machined Collar?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Alper Gultekin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To compare marginal bone loss between subgingivally placed short-collar implants with machined collars and those with machined and laser-microtextured collars. Materials and Methods. The investigators used a retrospective study design and included patients who needed missing posterior teeth replaced with implants. Short-collar implants with identical geometries were divided into two groups: an M group, machined collar; and an L group, machined and laser-microtextured collar. Implants were evaluated according to marginal bone loss, implant success, and probing depth (PD at 3 years of follow-up. Results. Sixty-two patients received 103 implants (56 in the M group and 47 in the L group. The cumulative survival rate was 100%. All implants showed clinically acceptable marginal bone loss, although bone resorption was lower in the L group (0.49 mm than in the M group (1.38 mm at 3 years (p<0.01. A significantly shallower PD was found for the implants in the L group during follow-up (p<0.01. Conclusions. Our results suggest predictable outcomes with regard to bone loss for both groups; however, bone resorption was less in the L group than in the M group before and after loading. The laser-microtextured collar implant may provide a shallower PD than the machined collar implant.

  12. Geographic variation in the plumage coloration of willow flycatchers Empidonax traillii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Eben H.; Sogge, Mark K.; Koronkiewicz, Thomas J.; McLeod, Mary Anne; Theimer, Tad C.

    2010-01-01

    The ability to identify distinct taxonomic groups of birds (species, subspecies, geographic races) can advance ecological research efforts by determining connectivity between the non-breeding and breeding grounds for migrant species, identifying the origin of migrants, and helping to refine boundaries between subspecies or geographic races. Multiple methods are available to identify taxonomic groups (e.g., morphology, genetics), and one that has played an important role for avian taxonomists over the years is plumage coloration. With the advent of electronic devices that can quickly and accurately quantify plumage coloration, the potential of using coloration as an identifier for distinct taxonomic groups, even when differences are subtle, becomes possible. In this study, we evaluated the degree to which plumage coloration differs among the four subspecies of the willow flycatcher Empidonax traillii, evaluated sources of variation, and considered the utility of plumage coloration to assign subspecies membership for individuals of unknown origin. We used a colorimeter to measure plumage coloration of 374 adult willow flycatchers from 29 locations across their breeding range in 2004 and 2005. We found strong statistical differences among the mean plumage coloration values of the four subspecies; however, while individuals tended to group around their respective subspecies' mean color value, the dispersion of individuals around such means overlapped. Mean color values for each breeding site of the three western subspecies clustered together, but the eastern subspecies' color values were dispersed among the other subspecies, rather than distinctly clustered. Additionally, sites along boundaries showed evidence of intergradation and intermediate coloration patterns. We evaluated the predictive power of colorimeter measurements on flycatchers by constructing a canonical discriminant model to predict subspecies origin of migrants passing through the southwestern U

  13. Cervical collar-related pressure ulcers in trauma patients in intensive care unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ham, H.W.; Schoonhoven, L.; Galer, A.A.; Shortridge-Baggett, L.L.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The application of a cervical collar (C-collar) in trauma patients can be life-saving. Previous studies, however, describe development of pressure ulcers related to C-collars. OBJECTIVE: To retrospectively compare collar-related pressure ulcers (CRPUs) occurring in trauma patients

  14. MONEY LAUNDERING: RING AROUND THE WHITE COLLAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob RUB

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In mine study I will deal with money laundering as a leading factor in white-collar criminality. The purpose of the present study and the guiding line in this article is to legislative upgrade of white-collar criminality fighting that might be of great importance as we intend to plan the policy of reduction of money Laundering criminality in Israel and Moldova. In order to deal with mine research subject I will express the lookout which I have conducted over a period three years and have included public sector tenders, with the CFE (Collection for the Environment Recycling Corporation in Israel. It has been found white-collar criminals are usually conventional people who deal with rises or opportunity that leads them to transgress the border temporarily and perpetrate a crime, and it is likely that they would be affected strongly by the punishment process. Therefore the outcome of the study is to produce the necessary steps to reduce the phenomenon of money Laundering crime in Israel and the Republic of Moldova. In order to obtain this purposes and the author has performed some new steps to upgrade and supplement the Law with subjects as: Punishment Origin offences Entities obligated to report, Expanding of the duties of Money Laundering Prohibition Authority as a regulator and with authority to assign fines, etc. Those practical frameworks are necessary steps to reduce the phenomenon of Money Laundering in Israel and the Republic of Moldova by constitutional - legal standpoints.SPĂLAREA BANILOR CA INFRACŢIUNE A GULERELOR ALBEÎn studiul efectuat se demonstrează că spălarea de bani constituie factorul principal al criminalităţii gulerelor albe. Scopul propus în acest articol este de a realiza o analiză complexă a propunerilor legislative îndreptate spre lupta cu cri-minalitatea gulerelor albe şi de a propune noi politici menite să reducă criminalitatea gulerelor albe atât în Republica Moldova, cât şi în Israel. Întru a

  15. 1:100k Digital Raster Graphic - Collars Removed

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — A digital raster graphic (DRG) is a scanned image of an U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) standard series topographic map, including all map collar information. The...

  16. Testing VHF/GPS collar design and safety in the study of free-roaming horses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail H Collins

    Full Text Available Effective and safe monitoring techniques are needed by U.S. land managers to understand free-roaming horse behavior and habitat use and to aid in making informed management decisions. Global positioning system (GPS and very high frequency (VHF radio collars can be used to provide high spatial and temporal resolution information for detecting free-roaming horse movement. GPS and VHF collars are a common tool used in wildlife management, but have rarely been used for free-roaming horse research and monitoring in the United States. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the design, safety, and detachment device on GPS/VHF collars used to collect free-roaming horse location and movement data. Between 2009 and 2010, 28 domestic and feral horses were marked with commercial and custom designed VHF/GPS collars. Individual horses were evaluated for damage caused by the collar placement, and following initial observations, collar design was modified to reduce the potential for injury. After collar modifications, which included the addition of collar length adjustments to both sides of the collar allowing for better alignment of collar and neck shapes, adding foam padding to the custom collars to replicate the commercial collar foam padding, and repositioning the detachment device to reduce wear along the jowl, we observed little to no evidence of collar wear on horses. Neither custom-built nor commercial collars caused injury to study horses, however, most of the custom-built collars failed to collect data. During the evaluation of collar detachment devices, we had an 89% success rate of collar devices detaching correctly. This study showed that free-roaming horses can be safely marked with GPS and/or VHF collars with minimal risk of injury, and that these collars can be a useful tool for monitoring horses without creating a risk to horse health and wellness.

  17. Revisiting white collar criminality from a social harm perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicky Vasilantonopoulou

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Social harm approach seems to be the only promising proposal to deal with white collar crimes. By overwhelming the “crime – schema” an end is straightly put to a long lasting “war” of the white-collar crime criminologists, arguing since the late of ‘40s whether white collar crime is a crime or not, while the harmful results from white collar activities follow an uncontrollable trajectory. A second “end” is destined for the stalemate that critical criminology is remained locked since the deconstruction of crime. The critical arguments about the systemic origins of the crimes of powerful loose not only faith but also validity when the proclaiming solutions end up at the same tools and structures with their very cause. Under this prism, social harm approach does not represent the “anti-paradigm” of critical criminology but a new step beyond. White collar crime may be used as a typical example of the allegation that crime lacks any ontological substance while the reality of its social harms may function as stable basis even for seemingly utopian goals.

  18. Occupational contact dermatitis in blue-collar workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwensen, Jakob F; Menné, Torkil; Veien, Niels K

    2014-01-01

    observed among blue-collar workers (19.6%) than among controls (23.9%) (p = 0.005). Allergens with a statistically significant association with the occupational group of blue-collar workers were epoxy resins, methyldibromo glutaronitrile, 2-bromo-2-nitro-1,3-propanediol, potassium dichromate......, and methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI)/methylisothiazolinone (MI). The following occupations were additionally identified as risk factors for contact sensitization to MCI/MI and MI, epoxy resins, and potassium dichromate, respectively: painting, construction work, and tile setting/terrazzo work. CONCLUSION: Contact allergy...

  19. White-collar crime: corporate and securities and commodities fraud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Marilyn; Norris, Donna M

    2009-01-01

    In this era of increased interest in white-collar crime, forensic psychiatrists are in a key position to study the individual characteristics of offenders. While a comprehensive theory of high-level white-collar crime should consider societal and organizational contributions, there is value in understanding the personal traits that place an individual at high risk for offending. As the impact of the criminal acts of this group has been increasingly felt by larger groups from all socioeconomic strata, there is less willingness by the public to view these crimes as victimless and harmless.

  20. Burnout and work engagement of South African blue-collar workers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    proneness of general blue-collar workers (Kirschenbaum, Oigenblick & Goldberg 2000). Blue-collar workers in different industries are constantly faced with harsh and dangerous working conditions. In the mining industry, for example, employees work.

  1. White Collar Workers At Higher Odds of Death from ALS, Parkinson's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_167172.html White Collar Workers at Higher Odds of Death From ... thought more desirable, but a new study suggests white collar workers have a higher risk of death ...

  2. Mobbing in the pied flycatcher. Effect of experiencing a live owl on responses to a stuffed facsimile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalter, M D

    1978-06-01

    A surprisingly high proportion (42%) of breeding pied flycatchers failed to mob a stuffed pygmy owl placed near the nests. To determine whether the range of effective stimulus objects eliciting mobbing could be extended in these "non-mobbers", a live owl, resembling the ineffective dummy in nearly all static owl traits, was briefly exposed. It evoked strong mobbing from all birds, as did the stuffed specimen on a subsequent presentation. The role of experience with live predators and the effect of labile properties of the latter on the mobbing response are discussed.

  3. Physiological studies of Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc. causing collar rot of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro studies were conducted on the effect of temperature, pH levels, carbon, nitrogen and amino acids on the mycelial growth and biomass production of Sclerotium rofsii Sacc. causing collar rot of mint. The results reveal that the growth of S. rolfsii was maximum at 30°C which was reduced significantly below 20°C and ...

  4. Generic online animal activity recognition on collar tags

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamminga, Jacob W.; Bisby, Helena C.; Le Viet Duc, Duc Viet; Meratnia, Nirvana; Havinga, Paul J. M.

    2017-01-01

    Animal behaviour is a commonly-used and sensitive indicator of animal welfare. Moreover, the behaviour of animals can provide rich information about their environment. For online activity recognition on collar tags of animals, fundamental challenges include: limited energy resources, limited CPU and

  5. Physiological studies of Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc. causing collar rot of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MUTHUKUMAR

    2013-12-04

    Dec 4, 2013 ... In vitro studies were conducted on the effect of temperature, pH levels, carbon, nitrogen and amino acids on the mycelial growth and biomass production of Sclerotium rofsii Sacc. causing collar rot of mint. The results reveal that the growth of S. rolfsii was maximum at 30°C which was reduced significantly ...

  6. Effect of Collar Diameter and Lifting Period on Shoot Biomass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of collar diameter and lifting period on shoot biomass production of Teak (Tectona grandis Linn. F) stumps were investigated during the 2006 dry season on the research farm of Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana. The lifting period is time when planting of stumps is delayed.

  7. Gender Differences in Coping with Involuntary White Collar Job Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eby, Lillian T.; Buch, Kimberly

    Corporate restructuring has resulted in involuntary job loss for a significant number of white collar workers. This study investigated gender differences in reaction to involuntary job loss and tested a model of career gorwth through job loss. Former clients, 456 males and 62 females, of a nationwide outplacement firm completed a questionnaire…

  8. Weak managers and the plight of white-collar workers

    OpenAIRE

    Hirschhorn, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Far too many employees are unhappy at work. Today, one of the major problems - resulting from weak, callous, dispassionate, greedy managers and leaders - is the great number of workers, including white-collar ones, who are grossly underemployed, underpaid, and maltreated by management.

  9. The Origin of Black Smock and White Collar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesapcioglu, Muhsin; Meseci Giorgetti, Filiz

    2009-01-01

    Although there are many empirical studies on the functions of school uniform, studies which focus on the origins of school uniform are neglected. Purpose of this study is to reveal historical origins of black smock and white collar. To achieve this purpose, a qualitative research method was adopted. As a result of the research, it was determined…

  10. SEXUAL IMPRINTING IN THE COLLARED DOVE (STREPTOPELIA-DECAOCTO)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TENCATE, C; HILBERS, J; HALL, M

    Although the occurrence of sexual imprinting has been demonstrated for doves, it is less well known how strong this effect is and which factors contribute to it. Therefore we examined whether cross-fostering collared doves (Streptopelia decaocto) to white ring doves (Streptopelia risoria) affected

  11. Habitat shifts in the evolutionary history of a Neotropical flycatcher lineage from forest and open landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christidis Les

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the role ecological shifts play in the evolution of Neotropical radiations that have colonized a variety of environments. We here examine habitat shifts in the evolutionary history of Elaenia flycatchers, a Neotropical bird lineage that lives in a range of forest and open habitats. We evaluate phylogenetic relationships within the genus based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence data, and then employ parsimony-based and Bayesian methods to reconstruct preferences for a number of habitat types and migratory behaviour throughout the evolutionary history of the genus. Using a molecular clock approach, we date the most important habitat shifts. Results Our analyses resolve phylogenetic relationships among Elaenia species and confirm several species associations predicted by morphology while furnishing support for other taxon placements that are in conflict with traditional classification, such as the elevation of various Elaenia taxa to species level. While savannah specialism is restricted to one basal clade within the genus, montane forest was invaded from open habitat only on a limited number of occasions. Riparian growth may have been favoured early on in the evolution of the main Elaenia clade and subsequently been deserted on several occasions. Austral long-distance migratory behaviour evolved on several occasions. Conclusion Ancestral reconstructions of habitat preferences reveal pronounced differences not only in the timing of the emergence of certain habitat preferences, but also in the frequency of habitat shifts. The early origin of savannah specialism in Elaenia highlights the importance of this habitat in Neotropical Pliocene and late Miocene biogeography. While forest in old mountain ranges such as the Tepuis and the Brazilian Shield was colonized early on, the most important colonization event of montane forest was in conjunction with Pliocene Andean uplift. Riparian habitats may have

  12. Men's mobility into management from blue collar and white collar jobs: race differences across the early work-career.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, George; Maume, David

    2014-07-01

    Within the context of the "particularistic mobility thesis" we examine racial differences in the incidence, and determinants of, as well as timing to, mobility into management across the critical early career years at a refined level, namely, when groups share similar white collar and blue collar jobs. Findings from a Panel Study of Income Dynamics sample of men support theory and indicate that from both job levels a racial hierarchy exists: African Americans have the lowest rate of mobility, reach management through a route that is relatively formal and structured by a traditional range of stratification-based causal factors and take longest to reach management. Whites, in contrast, have the highest mobility rate, reach management through a relatively informal path that is less structured by traditional stratification-based factors, and reach management the quickest, and, across all three issues Latinos occupy an intermediate ground between African Americans and Latinos. Further, as predicted by theory, racial differences, particularly, relative to whites, are greater among those tracked from blue collar jobs than white collar jobs. Discussed are implications of the findings for understanding racial disadvantage in the American labor market across the work-career and on an inter-generational basis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Dependence of Magnetic Field Quality on Collar Supplier and Dimensions in the Main LHC Dipole

    CERN Document Server

    Bellesia, B; Santoni, C; Todesco, E

    2006-01-01

    In order to keep the electro-magnetic forces and to minimize conductor movements, the superconducting coils of the main Large Hadron Collider dipoles are held in place by means of austenitic steel collars. Two suppliers provide the collars necessary for the whole LHC production, which has now reached more than 800 collared coils. In this paper we first assess if the different collar suppliers origin a noticeable difference in the magnetic field quality measured at room temperature. We then analyze the measurements of the collar dimensions carried out at the manufacturers, comparing them to the geometrical tolerances. Finally we use a magneto-static model to evaluate the expected spread in the field components induced by the actual collar dimensions. These spreads are compared to the magnetic measurements at room temperature over the magnet production in order to identify if the collars, rather than other components or assembly process, can account for the measured magnetic field effects. It has been found tha...

  14. Numerical study of the collar wave characteristics and the effects of grooves in acoustic logging while drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yufeng; Guan, Wei; Hu, Hengshan; Xu, Minqiang

    2017-05-01

    Large-amplitude collar wave covering formation signals is still a tough problem in acoustic logging-while-drilling (LWD) measurements. In this study, we investigate the propagation and energy radiation characteristics of the monopole collar wave and the effects of grooves on reducing the interference to formation waves by finite-difference calculations. We found that the collar wave radiates significant energy into the formation by comparing the waveforms between a collar within an infinite fluid, and the acoustic LWD in different formations with either an intact or a truncated collar. The collar wave recorded on the outer surface of the collar consists of the outward-radiated energy direct from the collar (direct collar wave) and that reflected back from the borehole wall (reflected collar wave). All these indicate that the significant effects of the borehole-formation structure on collar wave were underestimated in previous studies. From the simulations of acoustic LWD with a grooved collar, we found that grooves broaden the frequency region of low collar-wave excitation and attenuate most of the energy of the interference waves by multireflections. However, grooves extend the duration of the collar wave and convert part of the collar-wave energy originally kept in the collar into long-duration Stoneley wave. Interior grooves are preferable to exterior ones because both the low-frequency and the high-frequency parts of the collar wave can be reduced and the converted inner Stoneley wave is relatively difficult to be recorded on the outer surface of the collar. Deeper grooves weaken the collar wave more greatly, but they result in larger converted Stoneley wave especially for the exterior ones. The interference waves, not only the direct collar wave but also the reflected collar wave and the converted Stoneley waves, should be overall considered for tool design.

  15. Hazard Prevention Regarding Occupational Accidents Involving Blue-Collar Foreign Workers: A Perspective of Taiwanese Manpower Agencies

    OpenAIRE

    Huan-Cheng Chang; Mei-Chin Wang; Hung-Chang Liao; Shu-Fang Cheng; Ya-huei Wang

    2016-01-01

    Since 1989, blue-collar foreign workers have been permitted to work in Taiwanese industries. Most blue-collar foreign workers apply for jobs in Taiwan through blue-collar foreign workers’ agencies. Because blue-collar foreign workers are not familiar with the language and culture in Taiwan, in occupational accident education and hazard prevention, the agencies play an important role in the coordination and translation between employees and blue-collar foreign workers. The purpose of this stud...

  16. Cardiovascular Risk Factors in White Collar Workers Under Shift Work

    OpenAIRE

    Vangelova K.

    2017-01-01

    Shift work is associated with circadian disruption, disturbs sleep and social life, and modifies disease risk factors, and thus can potentially contribute to various chronic diseases including cardiovascular diseases. The aim of the study was to follow cardiovascular risk in white collar workers under shift work. Cardiovascular risk was studied in sound-engineering staff in sound-recording production. The study encompassed 168 employees (46% males and 54% females) working under shift work of ...

  17. Relative fitness of a generalist parasite on two alternative hosts: a cross-infestation experiment to test host specialization of the hen flea Ceratophyllus gallinae (Schrank).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelgren, A; McCoy, K D; Richner, H; Doligez, B

    2016-05-01

    Host range is a key element of a parasite's ecology and evolution and can vary greatly depending on spatial scale. Generalist parasites frequently show local population structure in relation to alternative sympatric hosts (i.e. host races) and may thus be specialists at local scales. Here, we investigated local population specialization of a common avian nest-based parasite, the hen flea Ceratophyllus gallinae (Schrank), exploiting two abundant host species that share the same breeding sites, the great tit Parus major (Linnaeus) and the collared flycatcher Ficedula albicollis (Temminck). We performed a cross-infestation experiment of fleas between the two host species in two distinct study areas during a single breeding season and recorded the reproductive success of both hosts and parasites. In the following year, hosts were monitored again to assess the long-term impact of cross-infestation. Our results partly support the local specialization hypothesis: in great tit nests, tit fleas caused higher damage to their hosts than flycatcher fleas, and in collared flycatcher nests, flycatcher fleas had a faster larval development rates than tit fleas. However, these results were significant in only one of the two studied areas, suggesting that the location and history of the host population can modulate the specialization process. Caution is therefore called for when interpreting single location studies. More generally, our results emphasize the need to explicitly account for host diversity in order to understand the population ecology and evolutionary trajectory of generalist parasites. © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  18. Does the lead apron and collar always reduce radiation dose?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nortje, C J; Harris, A M; Lackovic, K P; Wood, R E

    2001-11-01

    The possibility that personal lead shielding devices can increase absorption of radiation has not been entertained. The purpose of the present investigation specifically was to determine whether pituitary dose might be increased when a leaded apron and thyroid collar are used. Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were used to measure absorbed dose. They were calibrated at the kVp used in the clinical situation and a calibration curve relating light output to dose was generated. Lithium fluoride TLD discs were placed in the pituitary gland region of a Rando-Alderson female human phantom. The equivalent of 100 transpharyngeal exposures were delivered. The resultant light output from recovered dosimeters was converted to a uGy value using the calibration curve. The experiment was repeated using a 0.25 mm lead equivalent collar and apron fitted to the phantom in the customary manner. The entire process was repeated in order to have 30 dosimeters for the unshielded and 30 dosimeters for the shielded conditions. A further 30 dosimeters were sham irradiated and served as controls. A statistical comparison between unshielded and shielded conditions was performed. When the leaded apron and thyroid collar were used the absorbed dose to the pituitary gland was increased significantly (P < 0.05). Following this a second group, using a different dosimetry system and a male phantom repeated the experiment. In both cases, the shielded phantom received significantly higher dose to the pituitary region than the unshielded.

  19. Habitat Selection and Activity Pattern of GPS Collared Sumateran Tigers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolly Priatna

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Although translocation has been used in mitigating human-carnivore conflict for decades, few studies have been conducted on the behavioral ecology of released animals. Such information is necessary in the context of sustainable forest management. In this study we determine the type of land cover used as main habitat and examine the activity pattern of translocated tigers. Between 2008 and 2010 we captured six conflict tigers and translocated them 74-1,350 km from their capture sites in Sumatera. All tigers were fitted with global positioning system (GPS collars. The collars were set to fix 24-48 location coordinates per day.  All translocated tigers showed a preference for a certain habitat type within their new home range, and tended to select the majority of natural land cover type within the landscape as their main habitat, but the availability of natural forest habitat within the landscape remains essensial for their survival. The activity of male translocated tigers differed significantly between the six time intervals of 24 hours, and their most active periods were in the afternoon (14:00-18:00 hours and in the evening (18:00-22:00 hours. Despite being preliminary, the findings of this study-which was the first such study conducted in Sumatera-highlight the conservation value of tiger translocation and provide valuable information for improving future management of conflict tigers.Keywords: activity pattern, GPS collars, habitat selection, sumateran tiger, translocation

  20. Fix success and accuracy of GPS radio collars in old-growth temperate coniferous forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sager-Fradkin, Kimberly A.; Jenkins, Kurt J.; Hoffman, Robert L.; Happe, P.; Beecham, J.; Wright, R.G.

    2007-01-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) telemetry is used extensively to study animal distribution and resource selection patterns but is susceptible to biases resulting from data omission and spatial inaccuracies. These data errors may cause misinterpretation of wildlife habitat selection or spatial use patterns. We used both stationary test collars and collared free-ranging American black bears (Ursus americanus) to quantify systemic data loss and location error of GPS telemetry in mountainous, old-growth temperate forests of Olympic National Park, Washington, USA. We developed predictive models of environmental factors that influence the probability of obtaining GPS locations and evaluated the ability of weighting factors derived from these models to mitigate data omission biases from collared bears. We also examined the effects of microhabitat on collar fix success rate and examined collar accuracy as related to elevation changes between successive fixes. The probability of collars successfully obtaining location fixes was positively associated with elevation and unobstructed satellite view and was negatively affected by the interaction of overstory canopy and satellite view. Test collars were 33% more successful at acquiring fixes than those on bears. Fix success rates of collared bears varied seasonally and diurnally. Application of weighting factors to individual collared bear fixes recouped only 6% of lost data and failed to reduce seasonal or diurnal variation in fix success, suggesting that variables not included in our model contributed to data loss. Test collars placed to mimic bear bedding sites received 16% fewer fixes than randomly placed collars, indicating that microhabitat selection may contribute to data loss for wildlife equipped with GPS collars. Horizontal collar errors of >800 m occurred when elevation changes between successive fixes were >400 m. We conclude that significant limitations remain in accounting for data loss and error inherent in using

  1. Kızılırmak Vadisinde Kuşları Etkileyen Olumsuz Faktörler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşegül İLİKER

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Totally, 263 bird species were observed in the Kızılırmak valley between 2010-2012 years. Among them were 93 residents, 82 summer migrants, 51 winter migrants and 37 transit migrants. When evaluated in IUCN criteria, Egyptian vulture (Neophron percnopterus, saker falcon (Falco cherrug and velvet scoter (Melanitta fusca are endengared (EN, marbled teal (Marmaronette angustirostris, great bustard (Otis tarda and aquatic warbler (Acrocephalus paludicola are vulnareble (VU and ferruginous duck (Aythya nyroca, red kite (Milvus milvus, pallid harrier (Circus macrourus, red footed falcon (Falco vespertinus, great snipe (Gallinago media, rock partridge (Alectoris graeca, black tailed godwit (Limosa limosa, European roller (Coracias garrulus and semi collared flycatcher (Ficedula semitorquata are near threatened (NT. Among negatively affecting factors the birds, in Kızılırmak Valley; reed cutting, water regime changing, recreational activities in riverside, stubble burning, agricultural land expansion, chemical and noise pollution can be considered

  2. Increased Executive Functioning, Attention, and Cortical Thickness in White-Collar Criminals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raine, Adrian; Laufer, William S.; Yang, Yaling; Narr, Katherine L.; Thompson, Paul; Toga, Arthur W.

    2011-01-01

    Very little is known on white collar crime and how it differs to other forms of offending. This study tests the hypothesis that white collar criminals have better executive functioning, enhanced information processing, and structural brain superiorities compared to offender controls. Using a case-control design, executive functioning, orienting, and cortical thickness was assessed in 21 white collar criminals matched with 21 controls on age, gender, ethnicity, and general level of criminal offending. White collar criminals had significantly better executive functioning, increased electrodermal orienting, increased arousal, and increased cortical gray matter thickness in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, inferior frontal gyrus, somatosensory cortex, and the temporal-parietal junction compared to controls. Results, while initial, constitute the first findings on neurobiological characteristics of white-collar criminals It is hypothesized that white collar criminals have information-processing and brain superiorities that give them an advantage in perpetrating criminal offenses in occupational settings. PMID:22002326

  3. Interactions between the Avian Parasite, Philornis downsi (Diptera: Muscidae) and the Galapagos Flycatcher, Myiarchus magnirostris Gould (Passeriformes: Tyrannidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincango, Piedad; Causton, Charlotte; Cedeño, Daniel; Castañeda, Johanna; Hillstrom, Alexandra; Freund, Deborah

    2015-10-01

    An incidental observation of the fly Philornis downsi parasitizing a Galapagos Flycatcher (Myiarchus magnirostris) nest has revealed new insights into the searching behavior and biology of this invasive fly parasite and its interactions with endemic landbirds in the Galapagos Islands. Observations suggest that P. downsi relies on olfactory cues, or olfactory cues combined with the activity of adult birds, to locate nests and that flies continue to visit nests when chicks are >3 d old. At least 200 eggs were laid by P. downsi in different parts of the nest and >40 early-instar larvae were found inside the head of one chick, with additional larvae found in the base of the nest. Parasitism was the likely cause of mortality of both chicks found in or near the nest. This description of P. downsi parasitizing chicks of M. magnirostris highlights the vulnerability of this endemic bird species to this invasive fly.

  4. Female-biased sex ratio, polygyny, and persistence in the endangered Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kus, Barbara E.; Howell, Scarlett; Wood, Dustin A.

    2017-01-01

    Demographic changes in populations, such as skewed sex ratios, are of concern to conservationists, especially in small populations in which stochastic and other events can produce declines leading to extirpation. We documented a decline in one of the few remaining populations of Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) in southern California, USA, which dropped from 40 to 5 adults between 2000 and 2015. Declines were unequal between sexes (94% for males, 82% for females). Adult sex ratios were female-biased in 10 of 16 yr. The proportion of paired males that were polygynous ranged from 0% to 100%, depending on the ratio of females to males in the adult population. Some males paired with up to 5 females simultaneously. We investigated the role of nestling sex ratio in the female-biased adult sex ratio by using genetic techniques to determine sex from blood samples collected from 162 nestlings in 72 nests from 2002 to 2009. Both population-level and within-brood nestling sex ratios were female-biased, and were not influenced by nest order (first or subsequent), parental mating type (monogamous or polygynous), or year. Disproportionately more females than males were recruited into the breeding population, mirroring nestling and fledgling sex ratios. It thus appears that a skewed nestling sex ratio has contributed to a female-biased adult population, which in turn has influenced mating behavior. We propose that the capacity for polygyny, which generally occurs at low levels in Southwestern Willow Flycatchers, has allowed this population to persist through a decline that might otherwise have resulted in extinction.

  5. Downhole vibration causing a drill collar failure and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quanta Zhu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In large borehole drilling of some blocks or formations, due to serious downhole vibration, fatigue failure of a drill collar occurs frequently and most washouts and fractures are in thread root. An analysis of the above failure shows that the drill collar fatigue failure is caused by the cyclic bending stress due to serious downhole vibration. Therefore, downhole vibration modes were theoretically analyzed in terms of axial vibration, lateral vibration, stick-slip, and the physical model established by the mechanical vibration field. Then the resonance damage caused by the actual different downhole vibrations and its theoretical basis were analyzed; and according to the downhole drill string lateral vibration and whirling law, the best area to ensure drilling parameter stability based on the given boundary conditions was figured out, and the theory was clarified that in the best area of drilling, the maximum ROP will be achieved by maintaining the drill string stable or eliminating the vibration/stick-slip, meanwhile the stress fatigue of BHA will be reduced or eliminated especially for drill collar. Finally, solutions were provided as follows: (1 According to the special BHA, drilling conditions, together with physical and mathematical models listed above, downhole resonance speed and related parameters to be avoided can be easily figured out. It was also clarified that resonance speed is exactly the vibration speed that need to be avoided; and that the resonance frequency can be avoided with software for vibration analysis in BHA design and application at well sites; (2 V-Stab is a new and efficient tool which can reduce or eliminate downhole lateral vibration and stick-slip.

  6. Collarín para soportes metálicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Miguel, J. L.

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available In architectural works, structural calculations are usually few and simple, they mostly corroborate what is already known. Calculations are made for the most part with the purpose of exploring solutions. When working in a specific case operations ought to be framed in the practical understanding, with predictable values and tabulated solutions, with no surprises. To write numbers and trust them blindly, is like a reckless appointment, something that should not be done in structures. This article shows how to use the structural knowledge in order to explore a specific solution: a collar for metal supports.

    En las obras de arquitectura los cálculos estructurales suelen ser pocos y sencillos, más bien para corroborar algo que se sabía de antemano. Los números se hacen, en su mayor parte, para explorar soluciones; cuando se trabaja en un caso particular debe operarse en un marco conocido, con valores predictables y soluciones tabuladas, sin sorpresas. Hacer números para fiarse a pies juntillas de ellos, es como una cita a ciegas, algo no recomendable en estructuras. Este artículo muestra cómo usar los conocimientos estructurales para explorar una solución: la de un collarín para soportes metálicos.

  7. White-Collar Crime, Legal Sanctions, and Social Control: "Idols of the Theatre" in Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, John C., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Recent literature on the control of white-collar crime has often glossed over the sociolegal effect of the attitudes held by persons charged with the responsibility of determining criminal guilt. On many occasions, the factually guilty white-collar offender is not regarded by trial jurors as an offender. (Author)

  8. GPS radio collar 3D performance as influenced by forest structure and topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Scott Gamo; Mark A. Rumble; Fred Lindzey; Matt Stefanich

    2000-01-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) telemetry enables biologists to obtain accurate and systematic locations of animals. Vegetation can block signals from satellites to GPS radio collars. Therefore, a vegetation dependent bias to telemetry data may occur which if quantified, could be accounted for. We evaluated the performance of GPS collars in 6 structural stage...

  9. Career and Technical Education: Pursuing a Pipeline for the New Green-Collar Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnett, Sally E.; Kozlowski, Patti; Peach, Peggy; Varela, Erika

    2009-01-01

    As the white- and blue-collar jobs are thinning because of the economic downturn, the economy is being rejuvenated by a new color of collar jobs--green. Green jobs encompass a range of skills, educational backgrounds and occupational profiles. The green industry has been recognized as a high-growth workforce sector because of the demand for…

  10. The unusual floatation collar around nauplii of certain parasitic barnacles (Crustacea: Cirripedia: Rhizocephala)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høeg, Jens Thorvald; Møller, Ole Sten; Rybakov, Alexey V.

    2004-01-01

    Nauplii of the rhizocephalan families Peltogastridae and Lernaeodiscidae carry a torus-shaped collar around the body. It consists of an exceedingly thin cuticle connected to the general body cuticle along a continuous narrow ridge. In nauplii of some species, the collar is very large and its surf...

  11. Ovarian folliculogenesis in collared peccary: Pecari tajacu (Artiodactyla: Tayassuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diva Anelie Guimarães

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The sustainability and production of collared peccary (Pecari tajacu has been studied in the last few years; however, further information on its reproduction is necessary for breeding systems success. Understanding folliculogenesis aspects will contribute to effective reproductive biotechniques, which are useful in the preservation and production of wildlife. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ovarian folliculogenesis in collared peccary. Ovaries from six adult females of collared peccary were obtained through ovariectomy and analyzed. These were fixed in aqueous Bouin’s solution and sectioned into 7μm slices, stained with hematoxilin-eosin and analyzed by light microscopy. The number of pre-antral and antral follicles per ovary was estimated using the Fractionator Method. The follicles, oocytes and oocyte nuclei were measured using an ocular micrometer. Results showed that the length, width, thickness, weight, and the gross anatomy of the right and left ovaries were not significantly different. However, the mean number of corpora lutea was different between the phases of the estrous cycle (pLa sustentabilidad y la producción de pecarí de collar (Pecari tajacu han sido estudiados en los últimos años, sin embargo, más información sobre su reproducción es necesaria para el éxito de los sistemas de crianza . La comprensión de los aspectos relacionados con la foliculogénesis contribuirá con la aplicación de biotécnicas de reproducción, las cuales son útiles en la preservación y la producción de la vida silvestre. El objetivo de este estudio fue obtener datos sobre la población folicular del ovario de pecarí de collar. En relación con la población folicular en el ovario derecho, los valores de los folículos primordiales y primarios fueron similares, pero se observó que había una diferencia significativa (p<0.05 con el secundario. En el ovario izquierdo, la fase folicular presentó diferencias significativas (p<0

  12. Referred pain from myofascial trigger points in head, neck, shoulder, and arm muscles reproduces pain symptoms in blue-collar (manual) and white-collar (office) workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César; Gröbli, Christian; Ortega-Santiago, Ricardo; Fischer, Christine Stebler; Boesch, Daniel; Froidevaux, Philippe; Stocker, Lilian; Weissmann, Richard; González-Iglesias, Javier

    2012-07-01

    To describe the prevalence and referred pain area of trigger points (TrPs) in blue-collar (manual) and white-collar (office) workers, and to analyze if the referred pain pattern elicited from TrPs completely reproduces the overall spontaneous pain pattern. Sixteen (62% women) blue-collar and 19 (75% women) white-collar workers were included in this study. TrPs in the temporalis, masseter, upper trapezius, sternocleidomastoid, splenius capitis, oblique capitis inferior, levator scapulae, scalene, pectoralis major, deltoid, infraspinatus, extensor carpi radialis brevis and longus, extensor digitorum communis, and supinator muscles were examined bilaterally (hyper-sensible tender spot within a palpable taut band, local twitch response with snapping palpation, and elicited referred pain pattern with palpation) by experienced assessors blinded to the participants' condition. TrPs were considered active when the local and referred pain reproduced any symptom and the patient recognized the pain as familiar. The referred pain areas were drawn on anatomic maps, digitized, and measured. Blue-collar workers had a mean of 6 (SD: 3) active and 10 (SD: 5) latent TrPs, whereas white-collar workers had a mean of 6 (SD: 4) active and 11 (SD: 6) latent TrPs (P>0.548). No significant differences in the distribution of active and latent TrPs in the analyzed muscles between groups were found. Active TrPs in the upper trapezius, infraspinatus, levator scapulae, and extensor carpi radialis brevis muscles were the most prevalent in both groups. Significant differences in referred pain areas between muscles (Pactive TrPs reproduced the overall pain pattern. The distribution of TrPs was not significantly different between groups. Clinicians should examine for the presence of muscle TrPs in blue-collar and white-collar workers.

  13. Decent Work in the Chinese Apparel Industry: Comparative Analysis of Blue-Collar and White-Collar Garment Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caixia Chen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Addressing labor issues in the apparel industry is significantly important due to customers’ increasing awareness of poor working conditions and growing labor crises in apparel production locations worldwide. Decent work is a key element to achieving fair and harmonious employment, but is not always evident in global apparel production networks. This study examines the working conditions in China’s garment manufacturing industry, which employs more than 10 million workers. A survey was administered to 313 blue-collar workers and 228 white-collar workers on issues related to decent work, including workers’ concerns, satisfaction levels and attitudes towards decent work. Regression analysis showed that workers’ attitudes are significantly related to age, education level, service length and monthly wage. Gap analysis revealed poor understanding of decent work and low satisfaction with primary indicators of decent work. However, results suggest that workers increasingly value soft factors and the overall work experience, not only financial benefits. Cluster analysis identified four clusters of workers. This study contributes to understanding garment worker perceptions of decent work and provides implications for the operationalization of decent work in China’s garment manufacturing industry.

  14. Hydroxyapatite-coated collars reduce radiolucent line progression in cemented distal femoral bone tumor implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coathup, Melanie J; Sanghrajka, Anish; Aston, William J; Gikas, Panagiotis D; Pollock, Robin C; Cannon, Stephen R; Skinner, John A; Briggs, Timothy W R; Blunn, Gordon W

    2015-04-01

    Aseptic loosening of massive bone tumor implants is a major cause of prosthesis failure. Evidence suggests that an osteointegrated hydroxyapatite (HA)-coated collar would reduce the incidence of aseptic loosening around the cemented intramedullary stem in distal femoral bone tumor prostheses. Because these implants often are used in young patients with a tumor, such treatment might extend the longevity of tumor implants. Questions/purposes We asked whether (1) HA-coated collars were more likely to osteointegrate; (2) HA collars were associated with fewer progressive radiolucent lines around the stem-cement interface; and (3) HA-coated collars were associated with less bone loss at the bone-shoulder implant junction? Twenty-two patients were pair-matched to one of two groups--either (1) implants with a HA-coated ingrowth collar (HA Collar Group); or (2) implants without an ingrowth collar (Noncollar Group). Age, sex, and length of followup were similar in both groups. HA-coated collars were developed and used at our institution from 1992 to address the high failure rate attributable to aseptic loosening in patients with massive bone tumor implants. Before this, smooth titanium shafts were used routinely adjacent to bone at the transection site. The minimum followup was 2 years (mean, 7 years; range, 2-12 years). Radiographs obtained throughout the followup period were analyzed and osteointegration at the shaft of the implant quantified. Radiolucent line progression around the cemented stem was semi-quantitatively assessed and cortical bone loss at the bone-shoulder implant junction was measured during the followup period. Comparison of the most recent radiographs showed nine of 11 patients had osteointegrated HA collars, whereas only one patient in the Noncollar Group had osteointegration (p > 0.001). The radiolucent line score quantified around the cemented stem was lower in the HA Collar Group when compared with the Noncollar Group (p = 0.001). Results showed an

  15. Catechin content and consumption ratio of the collared lemming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Thomas B.

    2003-01-01

    catechin content. Dicrostonyx species are known to have specialised on shrubs, especially Dryas spp. and Salix spp., rather than graminoids like other related microtines. Bioassays were conducted using food material from Dryas spp., Salix arctica, Vaccinium uliginosum, Kobresia myosuroides and Poa glauca....... Enclosures with the first three species mentioned were further treated by clipping to simulate herbivory in order to induce the production of the plant defence compound catechin. Treatment increased the catechin content in Dryas spp., S. arctica (females only) and V. uliginosum significantly compared...... with the catechin concentration in untreated plants. These elevated catechin concentrations had a significantly negative effect on the consumption rate of Dryas spp. and female S. arctica by collared lemmings....

  16. Tracking maize pollen development by the Leaf Collar Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begcy, Kevin; Dresselhaus, Thomas

    2017-12-01

    An easy and highly reproducible nondestructive method named the Leaf Collar Method is described to identify and characterize the different stages of pollen development in maize. In plants, many cellular events such as meiosis, asymmetric cell division, cell cycle regulation, cell fate determination, nucleus movement, vacuole formation, chromatin condensation and epigenetic modifications take place during pollen development. In maize, pollen development occurs in tassels that are confined within the internal stalk of the plant. Hence, identification of the different pollen developmental stages as a tool to investigate above biological processes is impossible without dissecting the entire plant. Therefore, an efficient and reproducible method is necessary to isolate homogeneous cell populations at individual stages throughout pollen development without destroying the plant. Here, we describe a method to identify the various stages of pollen development in maize. Using the Leaf Collar Method in the maize inbreed line B73, we have determined the duration of each stage from pollen mother cells before meiosis to mature tricellular pollen. Anther and tassel size as well as percentage of pollen stages were correlated with vegetative stages, which are easily recognized. The identification of stage-specific genes indicates the reproducibility of the method. In summary, we present an easy and highly reproducible nondestructive method to identify and characterize the different stages of pollen development in maize. This method now opens the way for many subsequent physiological, morphological and molecular analyses to study, for instance, transcriptomics, metabolomics, DNA methylation and chromatin patterns during normal and stressful conditions throughout pollen development in one of the economically most important grass species.

  17. Augmenting the osseointegration of endoprostheses using laser-sintered porous collars: an in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumith, A; Coathup, M; Chimutengwende-Gordon, M; Aston, W; Briggs, T; Blunn, G

    2017-02-01

    Massive endoprostheses rely on extra-cortical bone bridging (ECBB) to enhance fixation. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of selective laser sintered (SLS) porous collars in augmenting the osseointegration of these prostheses. The two novel designs of porous SLS collars, one with small pores (Ø700 μm, SP) and one with large pores (Ø1500 μm, LP), were compared in an ovine tibial diaphyseal model. Osseointegration of these collars was compared with that of a clinically used solid, grooved design (G). At six months post-operatively, the ovine tibias were retrieved and underwent radiological and histological analysis. Porous collars provided a significantly greater surface (p < 0.001) for the ingrowth of bone than the standard grooved design. Significantly greater extracortical pedicle formation was seen radiologically around the grooved design (length p = 0.002, thickness p < 0.001, surface area p = 0.002) than around the porous collars. However, the ingrowth of bone occurred from the transection site into the porous structure of both types of collar. A fivefold increase in integration was seen with the SP and a threefold increase in the LP design when compared with G (p < 0.001). SLS porous collars allow the direct ingrowth of more bone and are better than current designs which rely on surface ongrowth and ECBB. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:276-82. ©2017 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  18. Manufacturing Gender Inequality in the New Economy: High School Training for Work in Blue-Collar Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, April; Bosky, Amanda; Muller, Chandra

    2016-08-01

    Tensions between the demands of the knowledge-based economy and remaining, blue-collar jobs underlie renewed debates about whether schools should emphasize career and technical training or college-preparatory curricula. We add a gendered lens to this issue, given the male-dominated nature of blue-collar jobs and women's greater returns to college. Using the ELS:2002, this study exploits spatial variation in school curricula and jobs to investigate local dynamics that shape gender stratification. Results suggest a link between high school training and jobs in blue-collar communities that structures patterns of gender inequality into early adulthood. Although high school training in blue-collar communities reduced both men's and women's odds of four-year college enrollment, it had gender-divergent labor market consequences. Men in blue-collar communities took more blue-collar courses, had higher rates of blue-collar employment, and earned similar wages relative to otherwise comparable men from non-blue-collar communities. Women were less likely to work and to be employed in professional occupations, and they suffered severe wage penalties relative to their male peers and women from non-blue-collar communities. These relationships were due partly to high schools in blue-collar communities offering more blue-collar and fewer advanced college-preparatory courses. This curricular tradeoff may benefit men, but it appears to disadvantage women.

  19. In-field Calibration of a Fast Neutron Collar for the Measurement of Fresh PWR Fuel Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swinhoe, Martyn Thomas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); De Baere, Paul [European Commission (Luxembourg). Euratom Safeguards

    2015-04-17

    A new neutron collar has been designed for the measurement of fresh LEU fuel assemblies. This collar uses “fast mode” measurement to reduce the effect of burnable poison rods on the assay and thus reduce the dependence on the operator’s declaration. The new collar design reduces effect of poison rods considerably. Instead of 12 pins of 5.2% Gd causing a 20.4% effect, as in the standard thermal mode collar, they only cause a 3.2% effect in the new collar. However it has higher efficiency so that reasonably precise measurements can be made in 25 minutes, rather than the 1 hour of previous collars. The new collar is fully compatible with the use of the standard data collection and analysis code INCC. This report describes the calibration that was made with a mock-up assembly at Los Alamos National Laboratory and with actual assemblies at the AREVA Fuel fabrication Plant in Lingen, Germany.

  20. Book Review--Understanding White-Collar Crime: An Opportunity Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas M.C. Allan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Book review of: "Understanding White-Collar Crime: An Opportunity Perspective" by M.L. Benson and S.S. Simpson, Routledge, New York, 2015, paperback, 336 pages, ISBN: 9780415704038 Reviewed by Douglas M.C. Allan

  1. Factors associated with utilization of traditional Chinese medicine by white collar foreign workers living in Taiwan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daly, Maria; Tai, Chen-Jei; Deng, Chung-Yeh; Chien, Li-Yin

    2009-01-01

    .... The objectives of this study were to investigate the prevalence and patterns of TCM use among non-Asian white-collar workers living in Taiwan, and examine factors likely to influence their use of TCM...

  2. Efficacy of an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar against fleas, ticks, mites and lice on dogs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stanneck, Dorothee; Kruedewagen, Eva M; Fourie, Josephus J; Horak, Ivan G; Davis, Wendell; Krieger, Klemens J

    2012-01-01

    The studies reported here were conducted to ascertain the efficacy of imidacloprid/flumethrin incorporated in a slow-release matrix collar, against infestations of dogs by fleas, ticks, mites and lice...

  3. The development and validation of a job crafting measure for use with blue-collar workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karina; Abildgaard, Johan Simonsen

    2012-01-01

    are characterized by poor working conditions and low well-being. We present the development and adaptation of a job crafting measure that may be used among blue-collar workers, based on an existing scale by Tims, Bakker, and Derks (2012) that was not specifically developed for blue-collar workers. We test....... They also add to knowledge of the job crafting behaviours in which blue-collar workers engage and link them to well-being outcomes.......Abstract Job crafting describes a set of proactive behaviours in which employees may engage to shape their work in order to minimize hindering job demands and maximize resources and challenging demands. Such behaviours may be particularly important among blue-collar workers whose jobs...

  4. The biomechanical effect of the collar of a femoral stem on total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Insu; Bae, Ji-Yong; Park, Jin-Hong; Yoon, Taek-Rim; Todo, Mitsugu; Mawatari, Masaaki; Hotokebuchi, Takao

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the biomechanical effect of collars, finite element analyses are carried out through two hip joints that are implanted using collared and collarless stems, respectively, and an intact hip joint model. For the analyses, the sacrum, coxal bone, and the cancellous and cortical bones of a femur are modelled using finite elements based on X-ray computed tomographic images taken from a 27-year-old woman. From the results, it is found that a collar with perfect calcar contact prevents stem subsidence and decreases the proximal-lateral gap and the lateral stem tilting. Therefore, it can impart reasonable biomechanical stability for total hip arthroplasty. However, its low load transmission ability and increased stem tilting effect due to the imperfect contact between the collar and the calcar are found to be serious problems that need to be solved. Results of clinical follow-up are presented for supporting the computational results.

  5. A recommended integrated mechanism to enhance OSH management of blue-collar foreign workers in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hung-Chang; Cheng, Shu-Fang; Wang, Ya-Huei; Lee, Lien-Hsiung

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the roles and functions of businesses, labor-exporting countries' representative offices in Taiwan, religious organizations, and manpower agencies in promoting occupational safety and health (OSH). It also offers advice to Taiwanese authorities on making policies and improvements regarding the oversight mechanism mandated by the Labor Safety and Health Act, giving them an idea of what to focus on when enforcing control over blue-collar foreign workers' OSH conditions. This study also proposes that Taiwanese authorities may serve not only as an overseer/inspector of those hiring blue-collar foreign workers in Taiwan, but also expand their role to lay down policies regarding a variety of OSH teaching materials in the blue-collar foreign workers' native languages (spoken or written), the qualifications of translators in blue-collar foreign workers' OSH training programs, and regulations concerning the longer hours such training programs take.

  6. Part 4: GPS Telemetry Detection Rates (GPS Test Collar Sites), GCS NAD 83 (2015)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Bias correction in GPS telemetry data-sets requires a strong understanding of the mechanisms that result in missing data. We tested wildlife GPS collars in a variety...

  7. Use and perception of collars for companion cats in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrod, M; Keown, A J; Farnworth, M J

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the use and utility of collars for companion cats in New Zealand, and to explore public perception of collar use. An online questionnaire was distributed using emails and social media to members of the general public in New Zealand. The questionnaire collected details of respondents, cat ownership status, and responses to a number of questions regarding collar use in cats. A total of 511 responses were collected. Of these, 393/511 (76.9%) reported owning ≥1 cat at the time of the survey, and 141/393 (35.9%) stated that ≥1 of their cats wore collars and 211/393 (53.7%) had ≥1 of their cats micro-chipped. Of the respondents with a pet cat, 351/393 (89.3%) allowed their cats some outdoor access. Respondents mainly used collars for identification and to reduce predation. Reasons for not using collars included cat intolerance of collars, repeated collar loss and concern over collar safety. Differences were found between cat owners and non-owners regarding whether they agreed that cats were important for pest control (43 vs. 25%, pCruelty to Animals as sources of pet care information. Collar use within this sample of cat owners in New Zealand appeared to be low, with more using microchips for identification. The majority of cat owners in this study indicated their cats had some outdoor access, with collars being used for cat identification and to reduce hunting behaviour. Significant differences existed in opinions on cat management between cat owners and non-owners in this study. It should be noted that this preliminary exploration was based on a self-selected group of respondents and so results and conclusions cannot be extrapolated to the wider population. As the most trusted source of information about pet care, an enhanced understanding of cat ownership and management may be of use to veterinarians to promote responsible pet ownership and to develop national policies and practices to improve cat welfare.

  8. The relationship between physical activity levels and metabolic syndrome in male white-collar workers

    OpenAIRE

    Ko, Kwang-Jun; Kim, Eon-Ho; Baek, Un-Hyo; Gang, Zhao; Kang, Seol-Jung

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Physical activity is important for preventing and managing metabolic syndrome. White-collar workers can be inherently predisposed to chronic diseases, as their jobs are primarily sedentary. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between physical activity and metabolic syndrome in male white-collar workers. [Subjects and Methods] Physical activity and metabolic syndrome factors were measured in 331 male public office workers. Physical activity was classified as hig...

  9. Evaluation of Implant Collar Surfaces for Marginal Bone Loss: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Roodabeh Koodaryan; Ali Hafezeqoran

    2016-01-01

    Background. It is important to understand the influence of different collar designs on peri-implant marginal bone loss, especially in the critical area. Objectives. The purpose of the present systematic review and meta-analysis was to compare dental implants with different collar surfaces, evaluating marginal bone loss and survival rates of implants. Methods. Eligibility criteria included clinical human studies, randomized controlled trials, and prospective and retrospective studies, which ev...

  10. Influence of two different machined-collar heights on crestal bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero-Climent, Mariano; Romero Ruiz, Manuel María; Díaz-Castro, Carmen María; Bullón, Pedro; Ríos-Santos, Jose Vincente

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this trial was to evaluate crestal bone level changes radiographically in a standardized fashion over a period of 12 months in humans for implants with a 0.7-mm machined collar (implant type A) versus type B implants with a 1.5-mm machined collar. Twenty-five patients with multiple missing teeth in posterior sectors were randomly assigned to one of the two groups: A (0.7-mm machined-collar implants) or B (1.5-mm machined-collar implants). Changes at crestal bone level were assessed by measuring the shoulder-crest distance (SCD) on the mesial and distal aspects of each implant on customized periapical radiographs, which were taken on the day of surgery and 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery. Eighty-one implants were included in the study. Mean SCD was 0.54 ± 0.53 mm at baseline and 1.49 ± 0.40 mm after 12 months. For 0.7-mm-collar implants, mean SCD was 1.40 ± 0.39 mm, while it was 1.56 ± 0.40 mm for 1.5-mm-collar implants. Statistically significant differences were found only between the two types of implants for distal measurements at 3 and 12 months after placement. Both 0.7- and 1.5-mm machined-collar implants can be used with predictable results, as changes in peri-implant crestal bone levels are similar for both implant types and do not seem to be significant from a clinical point of view. The SCD may well depend more on the location of the abutment-implant interface than on machined-collar height.

  11. Hydroxyapatite-coated collars reduce radiolucent line progression in cemented distal femoral bone tumor implants

    OpenAIRE

    Coathup, M. J.; Sanghrajka, A.; Aston, W. J.; Gikas, P. D.; Pollock, R. C.; Cannon, S. R.; Skinner, J. A.; Briggs, T. W.; Blunn, G. W.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Aseptic loosening of massive bone tumor implants is a major cause of prosthesis failure. Evidence suggests that an osteointegrated hydroxyapatite (HA)-coated collar would reduce the incidence of aseptic loosening around the cemented intramedullary stem in distal femoral bone tumor prostheses. Because these implants often are used in young patients with a tumor, such treatment might extend the longevity of tumor implants. Questions/purposes We asked whether (1) HA-coated collars we...

  12. Mechanical behaviour of a closed collar model for an 11.5 T dipole magnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emden, W. van; Daum, C.; Geerinck, J. [Nationaal Inst. voor Kernfysica en Hoge-Energiefysica (NIKHEF), Amsterdam (Netherlands). Sectie H; Ouden, A. den; Kate, H.H.J. ten; Avest, D. ter; Wessel, S. [University of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands). Applied Superconductivity Centre; Dubbeldam, R. [HOLEC Inc., Ridderkerk (Netherlands)

    1992-03-01

    A 10 cm long model of an 11.5 T Nb{sub 3}Sn accelerator dipole magnet, which will be built in the Netherlands, with a closed ring shaped collar has been constructed. Measurements of the collar deformation and the prestress at the poles have been made with a structural analysis using the Finite Element Method (FEM) of the code ANSYS. (author). 11 refs.; 18 figs.; 7 tabs.

  13. Mechanical behaviour of a closed collar model for an 11. 5 T dipole magnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emden, W. van; Daum, C.; Geerinck, J. (Nationaal Inst. voor Kernfysica en Hoge-Energiefysica (NIKHEF), Amsterdam (Netherlands). Sectie H); Ouden, A. den; Kate, H.H.J. ten; Avest, D. ter; Wessel, S. (University of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands). Applied Superconductivity Centre); Dubbeldam, R. (HOLEC Inc., Ridderkerk (Netherlands))

    1992-03-01

    A 10 cm long model of an 11.5 T Nb{sub 3}Sn accelerator dipole magnet, which will be built in the Netherlands, with a closed ring shaped collar has been constructed. Measurements of the collar deformation and the prestress at the poles have been made with a structural analysis using the Finite Element Method (FEM) of the code ANSYS. (author). 11 refs.; 18 figs.; 7 tabs.

  14. The evolution of the ozone collar in the Antarctic lower stratosphere during early August 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariotti, A.; Mechoso, C.R.; Legras, B.; Daniel, V.

    2000-02-01

    The ozone evolution in the lower stratosphere of the Southern Hemisphere during the period 5--10 August 1994 is analyzed. The analysis focuses on the ozone collar (the band of maximum values in ozone mixing ratio around the Antarctic ozone hole at these altitudes) and the development of collar filaments. Ozone mixing ratios provided by the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on board the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite and by an ER-2 aircraft participating in the Airborne Southern Hemisphere Ozone Experiment/Measurements for Assessing the Effects of stratospheric Aircraft campaign are compared with values at corresponding locations in high-resolution isentropic maps obtained by using the numerical scheme of contour advection with surgery (CAS). The CAS reconstructed ozone maps provide a view of the way in which air masses are exported from the outskirts of the collar to form the tongues of higher mixing ratios observed at lower latitudes on MLS synoptic maps. There is an overall consistency between the datasets insofar as the collar location is concerned. This location seems to be primarily defined by the local properties of the flow. Nevertheless the CAS reconstructed collar tends to become weaker than that depicted by MLS data. By means of radioactive calculation estimates, it is argued that diabatic descent may be responsible for maintaining the ozone concentration approximately constant in the collar while filaments isentropically disperse collarlike mixing ratios from this region toward lower latitudes.

  15. Cervical collar-related pressure ulcers in trauma patients in intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, H W Wietske; Schoonhoven, L Lisette; Galer, A Anju; Shortridge-Baggett, L Lillie M

    2014-01-01

    The application of a cervical collar (C-collar) in trauma patients can be life-saving. Previous studies, however, describe development of pressure ulcers related to C-collars. To retrospectively compare collar-related pressure ulcers (CRPUs) occurring in trauma patients admitted to the intensive care unit wearing a C-collar before and after implementation of preventive interventions and to identify risk factors for CRPU development. Retrospective chart review of 88 trauma patients admitted to the intensive care unit before (2006) and after (2008) implementation of preventive interventions; early C-collar removal (<24 hours) and an occipital foam ring. Data were collected in the first 14 days of admission on pressure ulcer incidence, risk factors, and preventive interventions. The incidence of CRPUs was 1.1%. Although risk factors were present in the sample, it was impossible to identify significant risk factors for CRPU development and explore the effect of preventive interventions. The incidence of CRPUs in this study was low. CRPUs, however, should never be accepted as an inevitable complication of cervical immobilization. To identify trauma patients at risk and to apply effective preventive interventions for CRPU development, further research is needed.

  16. Collar height and heel counter-stiffness for ankle stability and athletic performance in basketball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Wu, Zitian; Lam, Wing-Kai

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the effects of collar height and heel counter-stiffness of basketball shoes on ankle stability during sidestep cutting and athletic performance. 15 university basketball players wore customized shoes with different collar heights (high and low) and heel counter-stiffness (regular, stiffer and stiffest) for this study. Ankle stability was evaluated in sidestep cutting while athletic performance evaluated in jumping and agility tasks. All variables were analysed using two-way repeated ANOVA. Results showed shorter time to peak ankle inversion for both high collar and stiff heel counter conditions (P < 0.05), while smaller initial ankle inversion angle, peak inversion velocity and total range of inversion for wearing high collar shoes (P < 0.05). No shoe differences were found for performance variables. These findings imply that the collar height might play a larger role in lateral stability than heel counter-stiffness, while both collar height and counter-stiffness have no effect on athletic performance.

  17. Influence of Austenitic Steel Collar Dimensions on Magnetic Field Harmonics in the LHC Main Dipole

    CERN Document Server

    Bellesia, B; Todesco, Ezio

    2005-01-01

    The influence of the geometry of the collars in the main LHC dipole on the magnetic field harmonics is analyzed. The study aims at finding if the collar geometry is the driving mechanism of field quality for some harmonics and if the two different collar suppliers give a special signature on the magnetic field. Data of more than 700 magnets of the LHC series dipoles are analyzed and discussed. The main result of the analysis is that the collar shape is the driving mechanism of the magnetic field harmonics only for b2 and a3 in one of the three Cold Mass Assemblers (Firm3), where only collars of the supplier S2 are used. Two independent observations support this fact: firstly, strong correlations between apertures of the same magnet as expected from the assembly procedure have been found. Secondly, the expected values based on the measured dimensions of the collars and on a magneto-static model agree with magnetic measurements both for the average and for the standard deviation.

  18. A Comperative Study on Perceptions and Reactions of Workers: A Resear ch on Blue and White Collar Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fikret Ateş

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine perception of inequality and types of reaction of white and blue collar workers. The research was conducted over 120 white collar and 159 blue collar workers in an academic institution. It was determined with correlation analysis whether there is a relation between perception of inequality and reaction towards it for two groups. A significant and positive relation has been found between inequality perceptions and reaction towards inequality of blue collar workers. No significant relation has been found for white collar workers. Factor analysis was used to determine the dimensions of inequality perceptions andreactions towards inequality of blue and white collar workers. Results show that inequality perceptions and types of reactions towards inequality differ in terms of dimensions. Equity perceptions of blue collar workers are mostly based on comparisons with colleagues and nepotist behavior of their managers. White collar workers show sensitivity to the issues like salary, promotion and status. Blue collar workers prefer to report or to persuade their managers when they face with inequality. White collar workers decide to show their reactions by using more political methods.

  19. Convenience in white-collar crime: A resource perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petter Gottschalk

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available White-collar offenders have access to resources that make financial crime convenient. In the rare case of crime suspicion, resources are available in terms of professional attorney work, control over internal investigations, and public relations support. Hiring private investigators at an early stage of potential crime disclosure enables the organization to control the investigation mandate and influence the investigation process and the investigation output. Getting an early start on reconstruction of the past in terms of a fraud examination makes it possible for the suspect and the organization to influence what facts are relevant and how facts might be assessed in terms of possible violations of the penal code. Convenience aspects of private investigations are discussed in this article in terms of five internal investigations, two in the United States (General Motors and Lehman Brothers and three in Norway (Telenor VimpelCom, DNB Bank, and Norwegian Football Association. The aim of this research is to contribute insights into convenience associated with internal private investigations.

  20. Cardiovascular Risk Factors in White Collar Workers Under Shift Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vangelova K.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Shift work is associated with circadian disruption, disturbs sleep and social life, and modifies disease risk factors, and thus can potentially contribute to various chronic diseases including cardiovascular diseases. The aim of the study was to follow cardiovascular risk in white collar workers under shift work. Cardiovascular risk was studied in sound-engineering staff in sound-recording production. The study encompassed 168 employees (46% males and 54% females working under shift work of age 48.04 ± 8.8 years and length of service 21.6 ± 4.6 years. Our data show that 31.1% of the investigated employees were hypertensive, of which 22.6% had preliminary physician’s diagnosis of arterial hypertension, showing comparatively high rates of undiagnosed hypertension, higher in males in comparison to females. The TC and HDL-C were slightly higher with the females, while the triglycerides and TC/HDL-C ratio with the males. High rates of smoking, physical inactivity, overweight and obesity were found with both genders, slightly higher with the females. The preventive approach incorporating regular medical surveillance of shift workers and health promotion covering both life style factors and shift work organization is needed for tackling CVD in shift workers for better cardiovascular health.

  1. Interspecific variation in the relationship between clutch size, laying date and intensity of urbanization in four species of hole-nesting birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaugoyeau, Marie; Adriaensen, Frank; Artemyev, Alexandr; Bańbura, Jerzy; Barba, Emilio; Biard, Clotilde; Blondel, Jacques; Bouslama, Zihad; Bouvier, Jean-Charles; Camprodon, Jordi; Cecere, Francesco; Charmantier, Anne; Charter, Motti; Cichoń, Mariusz; Cusimano, Camillo; Czeszczewik, Dorota; Demeyrier, Virginie; Doligez, Blandine; Doutrelant, Claire; Dubiec, Anna; Eens, Marcel; Eeva, Tapio; Faivre, Bruno; Ferns, Peter N; Forsman, Jukka T; García-Del-Rey, Eduardo; Goldshtein, Aya; Goodenough, Anne E; Gosler, Andrew G; Grégoire, Arnaud; Gustafsson, Lars; Harnist, Iga; Hartley, Ian R; Heeb, Philipp; Hinsley, Shelley A; Isenmann, Paul; Jacob, Staffan; Juškaitis, Rimvydas; Korpimäki, Erkki; Krams, Indrikis; Laaksonen, Toni; Lambrechts, Marcel M; Leclercq, Bernard; Lehikoinen, Esa; Loukola, Olli; Lundberg, Arne; Mainwaring, Mark C; Mänd, Raivo; Massa, Bruno; Mazgajski, Tomasz D; Merino, Santiago; Mitrus, Cezary; Mönkkönen, Mikko; Morin, Xavier; Nager, Ruedi G; Nilsson, Jan-Åke; Nilsson, Sven G; Norte, Ana C; Orell, Markku; Perret, Philippe; Perrins, Christopher M; Pimentel, Carla S; Pinxten, Rianne; Richner, Heinz; Robles, Hugo; Rytkönen, Seppo; Senar, Juan Carlos; Seppänen, Janne T; Pascoal da Silva, Luis; Slagsvold, Tore; Solonen, Tapio; Sorace, Alberto; Stenning, Martyn J; Tryjanowski, Piotr; von Numers, Mikael; Walankiewicz, Wieslaw; Møller, Anders Pape

    2016-08-01

    The increase in size of human populations in urban and agricultural areas has resulted in considerable habitat conversion globally. Such anthropogenic areas have specific environmental characteristics, which influence the physiology, life history, and population dynamics of plants and animals. For example, the date of bud burst is advanced in urban compared to nearby natural areas. In some birds, breeding success is determined by synchrony between timing of breeding and peak food abundance. Pertinently, caterpillars are an important food source for the nestlings of many bird species, and their abundance is influenced by environmental factors such as temperature and date of bud burst. Higher temperatures and advanced date of bud burst in urban areas could advance peak caterpillar abundance and thus affect breeding phenology of birds. In order to test whether laying date advance and clutch sizes decrease with the intensity of urbanization, we analyzed the timing of breeding and clutch size in relation to intensity of urbanization as a measure of human impact in 199 nest box plots across Europe, North Africa, and the Middle East (i.e., the Western Palearctic) for four species of hole-nesters: blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus), great tits (Parus major), collared flycatchers (Ficedula albicollis), and pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca). Meanwhile, we estimated the intensity of urbanization as the density of buildings surrounding study plots measured on orthophotographs. For the four study species, the intensity of urbanization was not correlated with laying date. Clutch size in blue and great tits does not seem affected by the intensity of urbanization, while in collared and pied flycatchers it decreased with increasing intensity of urbanization. This is the first large-scale study showing a species-specific major correlation between intensity of urbanization and the ecology of breeding. The underlying mechanisms for the relationships between life history and

  2. Offshoring White-Collar Work: An Explorative Investigation of the Processes and Mechanisms in Two Danish Manufacturing Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slepniov, Dmitrij; Larsen, Marcus Møller; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum

    2010-01-01

    The globalisation of standardised manufacturing operations based predominantly on blue-collar work began some decades ago. However, the recent developments in offshoring also include the spread of the phenomenon to new occupational areas based on knowledge-intensive white-collar work. The purpose...... of Danish manufacturers, and on the basis of these, we first argue that the drivers of white-collar work offshoring in many respects are parallel to those of the earlier wave of blue-collar work offshoring. However, the existing offshoring and outsourcing frameworks do not necessarily adequately address...... the relationship between the two ‘waves’ of offshoring. Second, our results suggest that white-collar offshoring in manufacturing firms pose higher requirements to the organisational configuration and capabilities due to, ceteris paribus, the higher complexity of the white-collar tasks subjected to offshoring...

  3. Hazard Prevention Regarding Occupational Accidents Involving Blue-Collar Foreign Workers: A Perspective of Taiwanese Manpower Agencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan-Cheng Chang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Since 1989, blue-collar foreign workers have been permitted to work in Taiwanese industries. Most blue-collar foreign workers apply for jobs in Taiwan through blue-collar foreign workers’ agencies. Because blue-collar foreign workers are not familiar with the language and culture in Taiwan, in occupational accident education and hazard prevention, the agencies play an important role in the coordination and translation between employees and blue-collar foreign workers. The purpose of this study is to establish the agencies’ role in the occupational accidents education and hazard prevention for blue-collar foreign workers in Taiwan. This study uses a qualitative method—grounded theory—to collect, code, and analyze the data in order to understand the agencies’ role in occupational accident education and hazard prevention for blue-collar foreign workers in Taiwan. The results show that the duty of agencies in occupational accident education and hazard prevention includes selecting appropriate blue-collar foreign workers, communicating between employees and blue-collar foreign workers, collecting occupational safety and health information, assisting in the training of occupational safety and health, and helping blue-collar foreign workers adapt to their lives in Taiwan. Finally, this study suggests seven important points and discusses the implementation process necessary to improve governmental policies. The government and employees should pay attention to the education/training of occupational safety and health for blue-collar foreign workers to eliminate unsafe behavior in order to protect the lives of blue-collar foreign workers.

  4. Hazard Prevention Regarding Occupational Accidents Involving Blue-Collar Foreign Workers: A Perspective of Taiwanese Manpower Agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Huan-Cheng; Wang, Mei-Chin; Liao, Hung-Chang; Cheng, Shu-Fang; Wang, Ya-Huei

    2016-07-13

    Since 1989, blue-collar foreign workers have been permitted to work in Taiwanese industries. Most blue-collar foreign workers apply for jobs in Taiwan through blue-collar foreign workers' agencies. Because blue-collar foreign workers are not familiar with the language and culture in Taiwan, in occupational accident education and hazard prevention, the agencies play an important role in the coordination and translation between employees and blue-collar foreign workers. The purpose of this study is to establish the agencies' role in the occupational accidents education and hazard prevention for blue-collar foreign workers in Taiwan. This study uses a qualitative method-grounded theory-to collect, code, and analyze the data in order to understand the agencies' role in occupational accident education and hazard prevention for blue-collar foreign workers in Taiwan. The results show that the duty of agencies in occupational accident education and hazard prevention includes selecting appropriate blue-collar foreign workers, communicating between employees and blue-collar foreign workers, collecting occupational safety and health information, assisting in the training of occupational safety and health, and helping blue-collar foreign workers adapt to their lives in Taiwan. Finally, this study suggests seven important points and discusses the implementation process necessary to improve governmental policies. The government and employees should pay attention to the education/training of occupational safety and health for blue-collar foreign workers to eliminate unsafe behavior in order to protect the lives of blue-collar foreign workers.

  5. Job strain among blue-collar and white-collar employees as a determinant of total mortality: a 28-year population-based follow-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitsamo, Jorma; von Bonsdorff, Monika E; Ilmarinen, Juhani; Nygård, Clas-Håkan; Rantanen, Taina

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the effect of job demand, job control and job strain on total mortality among white-collar and blue-collar employees working in the public sector. Design 28-year prospective population-based follow-up. Setting Several municipals in Finland. Participants 5731 public sector employees from the Finnish Longitudinal Study on Municipal Employees Study aged 44–58 years at baseline. Outcomes Total mortality from 1981 to 2009 among individuals with complete data on job strain in midlife, categorised according to job demand and job control: high job strain (high job demands and low job control), active job (high job demand and high job control), passive job (low job demand and low job control) and low job strain (low job demand and high job control). Results 1836 persons died during the follow-up. Low job control among men increased (age-adjusted HR 1.26, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.42) and high job demand among women decreased the risk for total mortality HR 0.82 (95% CI 0.71 to 0.95). Adjustment for occupational group, lifestyle and health factors attenuated the association for men. In the analyses stratified by occupational group, high job strain increased the risk of mortality among white-collar men (HR 1.52, 95% CI 1.09 to 2.13) and passive job among blue-collar men (HR 1.28, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.47) compared with men with low job strain. Adjustment for lifestyle and health factors attenuated the risks. Among white-collar women having an active job decreased the risk for mortality (HR 0.78, 95% CI 0.60 to 1.00). Conclusion The impact of job strain on mortality was different according to gender and occupational group among middle-aged public sector employees. PMID:22422919

  6. Trichomonosis in free-ranging Eurasian collared doves (Streptopelia decaocto) and African collared dove hybrids (Streptopelia risoria) in the Caribbean and description of ITS-1 region genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimmelmayr, R; Stefani, L M; Thrall, M A; Landers, K; Revan, F; Miller, A; Beckstead, R; Gerhold, R

    2012-06-01

    We report the first documented occurrence of an outbreak of trichomonosis in a free-ranging small flock of Eurasian collared doves (Streptopelia decaocto) and African collared dove hybrids (Streptopelia risoria) in the Caribbean. In total, 18 birds were examined, including six African collared dove x Eurasian collared dove hybrids and 12 Eurasian collared doves. The affected age class consisted of adults. Sex distribution was equal. With a flock population size of 200 birds, mortality rate for the outbreak was estimated at 15-20%. Living birds were weak, showing evidence of mucus-stained beaks and open-mouth breathing. Caseous ulcerative yellow lesions were restricted to the upper gastrointestinal tract, with the exception of one bird, which had lesions in the upper gastrointestinal tract and in the liver. Ninety-four percent (17/18) of the affected birds had multiple extensive lesions. Lesions located on the roof of the oral cavity extended in 33% (6/18) into the orbit and in 11% (2/18) into the braincase. Using wet-mount microscopy, we were able to confirm Trichomonas gallinae in 22% (4/18) of the sampled animals. Fifteen samples submitted for PCR analysis tested positive. Sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS-1) region of the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) revealed two distinct genotypes of Trichomonas. One sequence had 100% identity to the prototype T. gallinae isolate, whereas the other sequences had 98-100% identity to recently described Trichomonas-like parabasalid. On the basis of gross and histologic findings, along with the sequence results from the columbids in this report, it is likely that this Trichomonas-like parabasalid is pathogenic.

  7. The effectiveness of extrication collars tested during the execution of spine-board transfer techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rossi, Gianluca; Heffernan, Tim P; Horodyski, Marybeth; Rechtine, Glenn R

    2004-01-01

    In the prehospital stages of emergency care, cervical collars are (supposedly) used to aid rescuers in maintaining in-line stabilization of the spinal column as patients with potential or actual injuries are shifted onto a spine board to achieve full spinal immobilization. Unfortunately, not a single study has examined the effectiveness of cervical collars to control motion during the execution of spine-board transfer techniques. To evaluate the controlling effect of three cervical collars during the execution of spine-board transfer techniques. This was a repeated measures investigation in which a cadaveric model was used to test the effectiveness of the Ambu (Ambu, Inc., Linthicum, MD), Aspen (Aspen Medical Products, Inc., Long Beach, CA) and Miami J (Jerome Medical, Moorestown, NJ) collars during the execution of the log-roll (LR) maneuver and the lift-and-slide (LS) technique. Six medical professionals executed the LR and the LS on five cadavers. An electromagnetic tracking device was used to capture angular movements generated at the C5-C6 vertebral segment during the execution of both transfer techniques. The types of motion that were analyzed in this study were flexion-extension, lateral flexion and axial rotation motion. To test the three cervical collars, an experimental lesion (ie, a complete segmental instability) was created at the aforementioned spinal level of the cadavers and sensors from the electromagnetic tracking device were affixed to the specified vertebrae to record the motion generated at the site of the lesion. Statistical tests did not reveal a significant interaction between the independent variables of this study (ie, transfer technique and collar type), lending no support to the notion that there may be a combination of collar and transfer technique that could theoretically offer added protection to the patient. Although there was a decrease in the amount of motion generated in every one of the planes of motion as a result of wearing

  8. Dotted collar placed around carotid artery induces asymmetric neointimal lesion formation in rabbits without intravascular manipulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kivelä Antti

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neointimal formation in atherosclerosis has been subject for intense research. However, good animal models mimicking asymmetrical lesion formation in human subjects have been difficult to establish. The aim of this study was to develop a model which would lead to the formation of eccentric lesions under macroscopically intact non-denuded endothelium. Methods We have developed a new collar model where we placed two cushions or dots inside the collar. Arterial lesions were characterized using histology and ultrasound methods. Results When this dotted collar was placed around carotid and femoral arteries it produced asymmetrical pressure on adventitia and a mild flow disturbance, and hence a change in shear stress. Our hypothesis was that this simple procedure would reproducibly produce asymmetrical lesions without any intraluminal manipulations. Intima/media ratio increased towards the distal end of the collar with the direction of blood flow under macroscopically intact endothelium. Macrophages preferentially accumulated in areas of the thickest neointima thus resembling early steps in human atherosclerotic plaque formation. Proliferating cells in these lesions and underlying media were scarce at eight weeks time point. Conclusion The improved dotted collar model produces asymmetrical human-like atherosclerotic lesions in rabbits. This model should be useful in studies regarding the pathogenesis and formation of eccentric atherosclerotic lesions.

  9. Trapping and displacement of liquid collars and plugs in rough-walled tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feng; Jensen, Oliver E.

    2017-09-01

    A liquid film wetting the interior of a long circular cylinder redistributes under the action of surface tension to form annular collars or occlusive plugs. These equilibrium structures are invariant under axial translation within a perfectly smooth uniform tube and therefore can be displaced axially by very weak external forcing. We consider how this degeneracy is disrupted when the tube wall is rough, and determine threshold conditions under which collars or plugs resist displacement under forcing. Wall roughness is modeled as a nonaxisymmetric Gaussian random field of prescribed correlation length and small variance, mimicking some of the geometric irregularities inherent in applications such as lung airways. The thin film coating this surface is modeled using lubrication theory. When the roughness is weak, we show how the locations of equilibrium collars and plugs can be identified in terms of the azimuthally averaged tube radius; we derive conditions specifying equilibrium collar locations under an externally imposed shear flow, and plug locations under an imposed pressure gradient. We use these results to determine the probability of external forcing being sufficient to displace a collar or plug from a rough-walled tube, when the tube roughness is defined only in statistical terms.

  10. White-collar workers' self-reported physical symptoms associated with using computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpinen, Leena; Pääkkönen, Rauno; Gobba, Fabriziomaria

    2012-01-01

    The aim of our work was to study the physical symptoms of upper- and lower-level white-collar workers using a questionnaire. The study was cross-sectional with a questionnaire posted to 15 000 working-age persons. The responses (6121) included 970 upper- and 1150 lower-level white-collar workers. In the upper- and lower-level white-collar worker groups, 45.7 and 56.0%, respectively, had experienced pain, numbness and aches in the neck either pretty often or more frequently. When comparing daily computer users and nonusers, there were significant differences in pain, numbness and aches in the neck or in the shoulders. In addition, age and gender influenced some physical symptoms. In the future, it is essential to take into account that working with computers can be especially associated with physical symptoms in the neck and in the shoulders when workers use computers daily.

  11. Cobb′s collar occurring in two brothers in a family: A rare entity revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha Pal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Most urethral strictures arise from iatrogenic, traumatic, or inflammatory causes. We report the familial occurrence of a congenital bulbar urethral stricture in two brothers. Retrograde and voiding cystourethrography was performed. A Cobb′s collar was diagnosed after radiological and endoscopic evaluation in both cases and was successfully managed with urethroplasty. Cobb′s collar is a rarely recognized cause of a membranous stricture of bulbar urethra that can lead to several urinary problems. In cases of adolescent and young adults presenting with symptoms of progressive urinary obstruction and enuresis with or without urinary tract infection, Cobb′s collar can be seen as a minor constriction in the bulbar urethra, but is not frequently symptomatic, and the familial occurrence of such a stricture is even rarer.

  12. Postmortem findings in collared peccaries raised in captivity in northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jael S. Batista

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study is a retrospective examination of diseases in collared peccaries that were diagnosed by the Veterinary Pathology Laboratory, Universidade Federal Rural do Semiárido. Necropsy and histological examination were performed from 2005 to 2010. Of the 50 necropsied collared peccaries, 24% died due to restraint and capture myopathy; 18% died from trauma; and the remainder was diagnosed with splenic hemangioma (6%, enterolithiasis (6%, gastritis (6%, gastric ulcer (4%, intestinal volvulus (4%, gastric volvulus (2%, mammary carcinoma (2%, polycystic kidney disease (2%, pyometra (2%, and suppurative bronchopneumonia (2%. Twelve animals remained undiagnosed, seven of which (14% were in advanced autolytic condition and five of which (10% had no gross or microscopic lesions that were compatible with disease. This paper describes illnesses that have not been reported in the collared peccary, focusing on their clinical and pathological aspects.

  13. Evaluation of Implant Collar Surfaces for Marginal Bone Loss: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koodaryan, Roodabeh; Hafezeqoran, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background. It is important to understand the influence of different collar designs on peri-implant marginal bone loss, especially in the critical area. Objectives. The purpose of the present systematic review and meta-analysis was to compare dental implants with different collar surfaces, evaluating marginal bone loss and survival rates of implants. Methods. Eligibility criteria included clinical human studies, randomized controlled trials, and prospective and retrospective studies, which evaluated dental implants with different collar surface in the same study. Results. Twelve articles were included, with a total of 492 machined, 319 rough-surfaced, and 352 rough-surfaced microthreaded neck implants. There was less marginal bone loss at implants with rough-surfaced and rough-surfaced microthreaded neck than at machined-neck implants (difference in means: 0.321, 95% CI: 0.149 to 0.493; p bone loss.

  14. The effect of bone growth onto massive prostheses collars in protecting the implant from fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromme, Paul; Blunn, Gordon W; Aston, William J; Abdoola, Tasneem; Koris, Jacob; Coathup, Melanie J

    2017-03-01

    Limb-sparing distal femoral endoprotheses used in cancer patients have a high risk of aseptic loosening. It had been reported that young adolescent patients have a higher rate of loosening and fatigue fracture of intramedullary stems because the implant becomes undersized as patients grow. Extracortical bone growth into the grooved hydroxyapatite-coated collar had been shown to reduce failure rates. The stresses in the implant and femur have been calculated from Finite Element models for different stages of bone growth onto the collar. For a small diameter stem without any bone growth, a large stress concentration at the implant shoulder was found, leading to a significant fracture risk under normal walking loads. Bone growth and osseointergration onto the implant collar reduced the stress level in the implant to safe levels. For small bone bridges a risk of bone fracture was observed. Copyright © 2016 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Relationship of the subperiosteal bone collar to metaphyseal lesions in abused infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinman, P K; Marks, S C

    1995-10-01

    We studied the relationship between the subperiosteal bone collar and forty metaphyseal lesions in specimens obtained at autopsy from ten infants who died with evidence of abuse. The fracture specimens were studied with high-detail radiography and light microscopy. The typical morphological pattern was a fracture extending through the primary spongiosa adjacent to the chondro-osseous junction. As the fracture line approached the cortex, it veered away from the growth plate, undercutting a fragment of bone that was thicker peripherally than it was centrally. Histological examination showed that this peripheral fragment of bone included the subperiosteal bone collar. Inclusion of the subperiosteal bone collar within the peripheral portion of the metaphyseal fracture fragment explains the radiographic appearance of corner fractures and bucket-handle patterns described by Caffey in abused infants.

  16. Cobb's collar occurring in two brothers in a family: A rare entity revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Partha; Ray, Sayantan; Talukdar, Arunansu; Sonthalia, Nikhil; Chakraborty, Sumit

    2014-01-01

    Most urethral strictures arise from iatrogenic, traumatic, or inflammatory causes. We report the familial occurrence of a congenital bulbar urethral stricture in two brothers. Retrograde and voiding cystourethrography was performed. A Cobb's collar was diagnosed after radiological and endoscopic evaluation in both cases and was successfully managed with urethroplasty. Cobb's collar is a rarely recognized cause of a membranous stricture of bulbar urethra that can lead to several urinary problems. In cases of adolescent and young adults presenting with symptoms of progressive urinary obstruction and enuresis with or without urinary tract infection, Cobb's collar can be seen as a minor constriction in the bulbar urethra, but is not frequently symptomatic, and the familial occurrence of such a stricture is even rarer. PMID:24851013

  17. Beaded-chain collars: A new method to radiotag kangaroo rats for short-term studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harker, M.B.; Rathbun, G.B.; Langtimm, C.A.

    1999-01-01

    To study burrow use by small mammals, we needed to develop a simple, non-invasive radiotag for the endangered giant kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ingens). We designed and tested a radiocollar made of beaded-chain on 4 captive Heermann's kangaroo rats (D. heermanii). Attachment of the collar required no anesthesia, the collar was easily fitted in 1-2 minutes, and it caused minimal stress to the animals. Once the collar design and attachment technique were perfected on the surrogate animals, we fitted radiocollars on 48 giant kangaroo rats for about 15 days. Upon recapture, 12 animals showed some minor fur or skin abrasion on the neck. Overall, the attachment performed as expected and proved to be a reliable method to radiotrack kangaroo rats during our short-term field study.

  18. Retrospective Evaluation of the Influence of the Collar Surface Topography on Peri-implant Bone Preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, Jose Alfredo; Senna, Plinio Mendes; Francischone, Carlos Eduardo; Francischone Junior, Carlos Eduardo; de Souza Picorelli Assis, Neuza Maria; Sotto-Maior, Bruno Salles

    To evaluate the influence of the collar surface topography on peri-implant marginal bone preservation. A total of 156 patients who received at least one cylindrical implant of regular diameter with an external-hexagon platform in the posterior region of the maxilla or mandible were recalled to the office for a retrospective evaluation. Implantation sites and implant length information were recorded, and implants were divided according to the collar surface topography: machined (M) or rough (R) surface. Each implant was assessed by digital periapical radiography, using a sensor holder for the paralleling technique. The marginal bone remodeling was determined as the distance from the implant platform to the first bone-to-implant contact, and the known implant length was used to calibrate the images in the computer software. The follow-up measurements were compared with those obtained from the radiograph taken at the time of prosthetic loading to determine the late bone remodeling. An independent t test was used to compare data. From 138 patients who attended the recall, 242 implants (M = 126; R = 116) were evaluated with a mean follow-up period of 4.6 ± 0.9 years. Similar success rates were found in both groups (M = 95.0%; R = 95.9%). Late bone remodeling in the maxilla was not influenced by the implant collar (P = .504); however, lower marginal bone loss was observed in the R group (1.20 ± 0.52 mm) compared with the M group (1.58 ± 0.73 mm) in the mandible (P = .007). Although the implant collar design did not influence the success rate of dental implants, the rough collar design reduced the late marginal bone remodeling around external-hexagon implants in the mandible. The maxilla was not benefited by the rough collar design.

  19. IS WHITE-COLLAR CRIMINALITY CLOSER TO THE RATIONAL MODEL THAN ANY OTHER TYPE MODEL?

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob RUB

    2016-01-01

    The basic premise is that white-collar felons are making non-rational decisions. To our opinion, they are not making decisions according to a calculation of profit or loss from perpetration of a crime as it was stated earlier in the scientific literature. In relation to the above mentioned premises, an illegal behavior is an occasion of a white-collar felon deciding to take the law into his own hands while taking risks. Naturally, the level of values and personality of the felon constitute a ...

  20. Inflammatory reaction to fabric collars from percutaneous antennas attached to intracoelomic radio transmitters implanted in harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulcahy, Daniel M.; Burek, K.A.; Esler, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    In wild birds implanted intracoelomically with radio transmitters, a synthetic fabric collar placed around the base of a percutaneous antenna is believed to function as a barrier to contamination of the coelom. We examined 13 fabric collars recovered from percutaneous antennas of radio transmitters implanted intracoelomically in harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) 12 months earlier. Both the transmitters and antenna collars were encapsulated in fibrous connective tissue, with adhesions to internal organs. Histologically, bacteria were evident at the fabric-plastic interface in 8 of 10 collars examined in cross section and along the length of the collar in 3 collars examined longitudinally. Bacteria were confined within the fibrotic sheath surrounding the transmitter and the antenna collar in all birds. No evidence of chronic systemic effects secondary to implantation was present on hematologic or serum biochemical testing. These findings indicate that antenna collars do not prevent the entry of bacteria along the percutaneous antenna but may help stabilize the antenna and minimize coelomic contamination. We conclude that radio transmitters implanted into the coelom of harlequin ducks do not appear to cause significant health problems for at least 1 year after implantation.

  1. Comparing the comfort and potential military performance restriction of neck collars from the body armor of six different countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeze, John; Watson, Celia H; Horsfall, Ian; Clasper, Jon

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this trial was to undertake an assessment of ballistic neck collars to assess comfort and potential military performance restriction. Neck collars from six different countries were procured with 71 U.K. servicemen assessing two randomly allocated collars to rate one against the other. 58% of participants had worn UK neck collars previously on exercise, but only 6% had used them on operational tours. Body armor with shorter and thinner collars was rated the most comfortable, despite lying close to the neck. It was easier to aim a rifle wearing collars with overlapping segments, especially when in the prone position. Although higher and more rigid collars fared worse overall, this could potentially be offset by the higher levels of ballistic protection they provide. There is a need to evaluate other methods of protecting the neck such as nape protectors and ballistic scarves in combination with the use of backpacks and biometric data collection. Currently, there exists no agreed method of performing ergonomic (or human factor) assessments of the varying components of military body armor systems. Published standards for the minimum military performance requirements of the various components of body armor, including neck collars, need to be established.

  2. Measuring neck collar loss of Pink-footed Geese Anser brachyrhynchus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Kevin Kuhlmann; Frederiksen, Morten; Madsen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    The ability to estimate mark loss of ringed animals is important to assess demographic parameters from mark-recapture studies correctly. Based on 23 years of neck collar recovery data from the Svalbard breeding population of Pink-footed Geese, we estimate an overall average annual loss rate of 3...

  3. Socializing Messages in Blue-Collar Families: Communicative Pathways to Social Mobility and Reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Kristen

    2011-01-01

    This study explicitly links processes of anticipatory socialization to social mobility and reproduction. An examination of the socializing messages exchanged between blue-collar parents (n = 41) and their children (n = 25) demonstrate that family-based messages about work and career seldom occur in straightforward, unambiguous ways. Instead,…

  4. Exploring New York State Policy Expectations Pertaining to Energy Efficiency and Green Collar Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauli, Felix Asher

    2012-01-01

    The Green Jobs Green New York (GJGNY) Act of 2009 was designed to reduce energy consumption by creating green collar workforce and providing energy efficiency audits to the public. The problem addressed in this study is the discrepancy between the expectations of Green Jobs Green New York Act of 2009 and the implementation of this policy. This…

  5. Fatigue as Prognostic Risk Marker of Mental Sickness Absence in White Collar Employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, C.A.M.; Heymans, M.W.; van Rhenen, W.; Groothoff, J.W.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Bultmann, U.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate fatigue as prognostic risk marker for identifying working employees at risk of long-term sickness absence (SA). Methods: At baseline, fatigue was measured in 633 white collar employees with the checklist individual strength (CIS) including scales for fatigue severity, reduced

  6. Fatigue as prognostic risk marker of mental sickness absence in white collar employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, C. A. M.; Heymans, M. W.; van Rhenen, W.; Groothoff, J. W.; Twisk, J. W. R.; Bültmann, U.

    2014-01-01

    To investigate fatigue as prognostic risk marker for identifying working employees at risk of long-term sickness absence (SA). At baseline, fatigue was measured in 633 white collar employees with the checklist individual strength (CIS) including scales for fatigue severity, reduced concentration,

  7. The relationship between physical activity levels and metabolic syndrome in male white-collar workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Kwang-Jun; Kim, Eon-Ho; Baek, Un-Hyo; Gang, Zhao; Kang, Seol-Jung

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Physical activity is important for preventing and managing metabolic syndrome. White-collar workers can be inherently predisposed to chronic diseases, as their jobs are primarily sedentary. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between physical activity and metabolic syndrome in male white-collar workers. [Subjects and Methods] Physical activity and metabolic syndrome factors were measured in 331 male public office workers. Physical activity was classified as high (N=101), moderate (N=115), or low (N=111) using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. To diagnose metabolic syndrome, the U.S. National Cholesterol Education Program’s standard was used. [Results] Waist circumference and triglyceride levels, factors of metabolic syndrome, were significantly higher in the low physical activity group than in the moderate or high activity group. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol was significantly lower in the low physical activity group than in the moderate or high activity group. Waist circumference and fasting glucose were negatively correlated with physical activity level, and HDL cholesterol showed a positive correlation with waist circumference. The odds ratios for metabolic syndrome were 2.03 times higher (95% confidence interval, 1.01–4.09) in the low physical activity group than in the high physical activity group. [Conclusion] Low physical activity was a risk factor for metabolic syndrome in white-collar workers. Therefore, increasing physical activity in daily life may prevent metabolic syndrome in white-collar workers. PMID:27942116

  8. Causes and consequences of timing errors associated with global positioning system collar accelerometer activity monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam J. Gaylord; Dana M. Sanchez

    2014-01-01

    Direct behavioral observations of multiple free-ranging animals over long periods of time and large geographic areas is prohibitively difficult. However, recent improvements in technology, such as Global Positioning System (GPS) collars equipped with motion-sensitive activity monitors, create the potential to remotely monitor animal behavior. Accelerometer-equipped...

  9. The relationship between physical activity levels and metabolic syndrome in male white-collar workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Kwang-Jun; Kim, Eon-Ho; Baek, Un-Hyo; Gang, Zhao; Kang, Seol-Jung

    2016-11-01

    [Purpose] Physical activity is important for preventing and managing metabolic syndrome. White-collar workers can be inherently predisposed to chronic diseases, as their jobs are primarily sedentary. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between physical activity and metabolic syndrome in male white-collar workers. [Subjects and Methods] Physical activity and metabolic syndrome factors were measured in 331 male public office workers. Physical activity was classified as high (N=101), moderate (N=115), or low (N=111) using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. To diagnose metabolic syndrome, the U.S. National Cholesterol Education Program's standard was used. [Results] Waist circumference and triglyceride levels, factors of metabolic syndrome, were significantly higher in the low physical activity group than in the moderate or high activity group. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol was significantly lower in the low physical activity group than in the moderate or high activity group. Waist circumference and fasting glucose were negatively correlated with physical activity level, and HDL cholesterol showed a positive correlation with waist circumference. The odds ratios for metabolic syndrome were 2.03 times higher (95% confidence interval, 1.01-4.09) in the low physical activity group than in the high physical activity group. [Conclusion] Low physical activity was a risk factor for metabolic syndrome in white-collar workers. Therefore, increasing physical activity in daily life may prevent metabolic syndrome in white-collar workers.

  10. Effects of oxen yoke and donkey collar on traction force and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The realization of mechanized zaï with draft animal encounters the weakness of hitch traction capabilities. To overcome this issue, a study was conducted in three villages in the northern Burkina Faso with the aim at evaluating the effect of improved yoke and improved collar respectively with oxen and donkey harnessing on ...

  11. 78 FR 12788 - Certain Electronic Bark Control Collars; Notice of Institution of Investigation; Institution of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Electronic Bark Control Collars; Notice of Institution of Investigation; Institution of Investigation Pursuant to 19 U.S.C. 1337 AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY...

  12. 78 FR 4167 - Certain Electronic Bark Control Collars; Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Electronic Bark Control Collars; Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY...

  13. Macroscopic and microscopic aspects of collared peccary and white-lipped peccary placenta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, T.C.; Dantzer, Vibeke; Jones, C.J.P.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines middle and late gestational placentae from 13 Tayassu tajacu (collared peccary) and 3 Tayassu pecari (white-lipped peccary), which are Artiodactyla belonging to the Family Tayassuidae. The chorionic sac of Tayassu species is diffuse and chorioallantoic. These epitheliochorial ...

  14. Job demands and health complaints in white and blue collar workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, K. J.; Roelen, C. A. M.; Koopmans, P. C.; Groothoff, J. W.

    2008-01-01

    Background: General health in the working population is thought to depend on working conditions. Objective: This survey studied job demands and health complaints in working white and blue collar employees. We expect physical and psychological job demands to be differentially distributed among white

  15. Collar Osteophytes Mimicking Osteonecrosis in Planar Bone Scintigraphy and Usefulness of SPECT/CT Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juang, Jr-Jian; Chen, Yi-Hsing; Tsai, Shih-Chuan; Lin, Wan-Yu

    2017-03-01

    The use of prednisolone is one major risk factor for osteonecrosis in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Bone scintigraphy can be a diagnostic tool for early diagnosis. We present a case who had collar osteophytes at the bilateral femoral heads, which mimicked osteonecrosis in the planar bone scintigram. An SPECT/CT scan avoided this pitfall and increased the diagnostic accuracy for osteonecrosis.

  16. Biomechanical effects of two different collar implant structures on stress distribution under cantilever fixed partial dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merıç, Gökçe; Erkmen, Erkan; Kurt, Ahmet; Eser, Atilim; özden, Ahmet Utku

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the effects of two distinct collar geometries of implants on stress distribution in the bone around the implants supporting cantilever fixed partial dentures (CFPDs) as well as in the implant-abutment complex and superstructures. The three-dimensional finite element method was selected to evaluate the stress distribution. CFPDs which was supported by microthread collar structured (MCS) and non-microthread collar structured (NMCS) implants was modeled; 300 N vertical, 150 N oblique and 60 N horizontal forces were applied to the models separately. The stress values in the bone, implant-abutment complex and superstructures were calculated. In the MCS model, higher stresses were located in the cortical bone and implant-abutment complex in the case of vertical load while decreased stresses in cortical bone and implant-abutment complex were noted within horizontal and oblique loading. In the case of vertical load, decreased stresses have been noted in cancellous bone and framework. Upon horizontal and oblique loading, a MCS model had higher stress in cancellous bone and framework than the NMCS model. Higher von Mises stresses have been noted in veneering material for NMCS models. It has been concluded that stress distribution in implant-supported CFPDs correlated with the macro design of the implant collar and the direction of applied force.

  17. The Association between Training and Organizational Commitment among White-Collar Workers in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Kamarul Zaman; Bakar, Raida Abu

    2003-01-01

    Responses from 204 of 300 Malaysian white-collar workers were analyzed for the association between training variables (availability of support, benefits, motivation, environment) and four types of organizational commitment. All training variables were significantly correlated with affective, normative, and overall commitment. Availability of…

  18. Fatigue as Prognostic Risk Marker of Mental Sickness Absence in White Collar Employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, C. A. M.; Heymans, M. W.; van Rhenen, W.; Groothoff, J. W.; Twisk, J. W. R.; Bultmann, U.

    Purpose To investigate fatigue as prognostic risk marker for identifying working employees at risk of long-term sickness absence (SA). Methods At baseline, fatigue was measured in 633 white collar employees with the checklist individual strength (CIS) including scales for fatigue severity, reduced

  19. "Blue-Collar Blues" uurib töösuhteid uutes oludes / Janar Ala

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ala, Janar, 1979-

    2009-01-01

    Tööproblemaatikat käsitlev näitus "Blue-Collar Blues" Tallinna Kunstihoones ja Tallinna Kunstihoone galeriis 31. jaanuarini 2010, kuraator Anders Härm. Lähemalt belgia-mehhiko kunstniku Francis Alys'e videost, austria kunstniku Oliver Ressleri ning venetsueela-saksa politoloogi Dario Azzelini videost "Viis tehast. Tööliste kontroll Venezuelas"

  20. Ergonomic assessment of enhanced protection under body armour combat shirt neck collars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeze, John; Granger, C J; Pearkes, T D; Clasper, J C

    2014-03-01

    Combat neck injury due to explosively propelled fragments is a significant cause of mortality and long-term morbidity in UK soldiers deployed on current operations. Reinforcing the collar of the existing under body armour combat shirt (UBACS) has been suggested as a potential method for reducing the incidence of combat neck injury. 20 soldiers serving in Afghanistan objectively compared three designs of enhanced protection UBACS (EP-UBACS) using 10 representative military tasks against a baseline of a standard UBACS. Each EP-UBACS design was trialled using three constituent materials: two layers of para-aramid felt, one layer of ultra high molecule weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) felt or two layers of a silk fabric. Subjective assessment of these nine configurations in terms of comfort, heat dissipation and overall acceptability were compared with the standard UBACS using a χ² test. All military tasks could be performed with all nine configurations of EP-UBACS. Although silk was the most comfortable material, it was not functionally practical in any of the three designs. Crossover collars incorporating UHMWPE or para-aramid were the only two of the nine configurations to demonstrate similar user acceptability to a standard UBACS. The EP-UBACS has the potential to provide neck protection without reducing performance incorporating materials analogous to either of the felts assessed in this study. The collar should provide stand-off from the skin to improve heat dissipation and comfort, which can be maximised by changing the current UBACS collar shape to one that crosses over at the front. Should a zip be desired, it should be moved to one side of the midline to reduce rubbing on the chin and be covered with ballistic protective material. Additional semi-circles of silk beneath the collar at the front and back would improve protection without affecting comfort.

  1. Design and testing of a GPS/GSM collar prototype to combat cattle rustling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco M. Tangorra

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Rustling is an age-old practice that was widespread in Italy until the first half of the 20th century. Today, incidents of cattle rustling are again being reported. However, the problem is not only found in Italy. It is also becoming a plague for ranchers in the US and is still rampant in East Africa. In Italy, the cattle rustling phenomena have usually been limited through the direct control of the herdsmen. Global positioning system (GPS and geographic information system (GIS combined technologies are increasingly applied for tracking and monitoring livestock with greater spatial and temporal resolution. However, so far, no case studies of the use of GPS technology to combat cattle rustling have been reported in the literature. The aim of this research was to develop a GPS/GSM (global system for mobile communication collar, using commercial hardware and implementing a specific software [ARVAshepherd 1.0; ARVAtec Srl, Rescaldina (MI, Italy] to track animals’ movements outside their grazing area and to signal when animals are straying outside virtual perimeters. A phase I study was conducted from January to June 2011 to build the GPS/GSM collar and to assess its performances in terms of GPS accuracy and precision, while a phase II study was conducted in July 2011 to test the GPS collar under real-life operating conditions. The static GPS positioning error achieved a circular error probable (50% and horizontal 95% accuracy of 1.462 m and 4.501 m, respectively. This is comparable with values obtained by other authors in static tests of a commercial GPS collar for grazing studies. In field tests, the system was able to identify the incorrect position of the cattle and the warning messages were sent promptly to the farmer, continuing until the animals had been repositioned inside the fence, thus highlighting the potential of the GPS/GSM collar as an anti-theft system.

  2. Unskilled blue collar workers: Bourgeois and/or authoritarian? Results from a small scale survey in Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans De Witte

    2007-04-01

    adopted the attitudes (and life style of white collar workers, from whom they can no longer be distinguished. Lipset’s hypothesis of the ‘authoritarianism of the working class’, on the other hand, states that blue collar workers more strongly endorse a conservative attitude on socio-cultural matters and a progressive stand concerning socio-economic issues. Both hypotheses are tested using data from a small scale survey (N = 135 among unskilled blue collar workers and lower- and mid-level white collar workers from different large companies in the region of Leuven, Belgium. The results indicate that the interviewed unskilled blue collar workers still hold a set of attitudes that distinguishes them from the interviewed white collar workers. So, the ‘embourgeoisement’ thesis was refuted. Instead, the unskilled blue collar workers were more conservative on a socio-cultural level, and more progressive concerning socio-economic issues. These results are in line with Lipset’s ‘authoritarianism of the working class’ hypothesis.

  3. Increase in intracranial pressure by application of a rigid cervical collar: a pilot study in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maissan, Iscander M; Ketelaars, Rein; Vlottes, Boris; Hoeks, Sanne E; den Hartog, Dennis; Stolker, Robert J

    2017-07-19

    Rigid cervical collars are known to increase intracranial pressure (ICP) in severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Cerebral blood flow might decrease according to the Kellie Monroe doctrine. For this reason, the use of the collar in patients with severe TBI has been abandoned from several trauma protocols in the Netherlands. There is no evidence on the effect of a rigid collar on ICP in patients with mild or moderate TBI or indeed patients with no TBI. As a first step we tested the effect in healthy volunteers with normal ICPs and intact autoregulation of the brain. In this prospective blinded cross-over study, we evaluated the effect of application of a rigid cervical collar in 45 healthy volunteers by measuring their optical nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) by transocular sonography. Sonographic measurement of the ONSD behind the eye is an indirect noninvasive method to estimate ICP and pressure changes. We included 22 male and 23 female volunteers. In total 360 ONSD measurements were performed in these 45 volunteers. Application of a collar resulted in a significant increase in ONSD in both the left (β=0.06, 95% confidence interval: 0.05-0.07, Pvolunteers with intact cerebral autoregulation. This suggests that ICP may increase after application of a collar. In healthy volunteers, this seems to be of minor importance. On the basis of our findings the effect of a collar on ONSD and ICP in patients with mild and moderate TBI needs to be determined.

  4. Using burst collars in a liner string for multi-zone completions in horizontal wellbores : case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenfeld, J. [WestFire Energy Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Kostenuk, N.; Jorgensen, M.; Sherman, S. [Trican Well Service Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Improvements in multi-zone completion technology (MZCT) for stimulating horizontal wells has resulted in an increased number of horizontal wells drilled in recent years. With MZCT, multi-stage fractures can be done along the horizontal section and stimulated either open hole; cased using external casing packers; or cemented into place. This paper described the use of the MZCT process in the Canadian Viking Formation, in Alberta's Redwater field and Saskatchewan's Plato field. Burst collars were used in the liner string of the horizontal section of the wellbore. The casing liner with specialized collars was cemented into place and coiled tubing was used to isolate each burst collar to stimulate each interval one at a time. There were no restrictions on the number of collars that could be run, nor the spacing between them. The study showed that there are similarities and advantages to using burst collars for MZCT, including cost savings and a full-bore diameter liner casing that is available for re-entry. The time requirement for fracture treatments using burst collars was found to be similar to that of an open hole packer system. Production results from wells completed with burst collars were found to be competitive with those treated with an open hole packer system or a pre-perforated cemented liner. 1 tab., 4 figs.

  5. The effects of laser microtexturing of the dental implant collar on crestal bone levels and peri-implant health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botos, Spyros; Yousef, Hoda; Zweig, Barry; Flinton, Robert; Weiner, Saul

    2011-01-01

    Polished and machined collars have been advocated for dental implants to reduce plaque accumulation and crestal bone loss. More recent research has suggested that a roughened titanium surface promotes osseointegration and connective tissue attachment. The purpose of this research was to compare crestal bone height adjacent to implants with laser-microtextured and machined collars from two different implant systems. Four implants, two with laser-microtextured collars and two with machined collars, were placed in the anterior mandible to serve as overdenture abutments. They were placed in alternating order, and the distal microtextured- and machined-collar implants were loaded with ball abutments. The mesial implants were left unloaded. The distal implants were immediately loaded with prefabricated dentures. Plaque Index, Bleeding Index, and probing depths (PDs) were measured after 6 and 12 months for the loaded implants. Bone loss for both groups (loaded and unloaded) was evaluated via standardized radiographs. Plaque and bleeding values were similar for both implant types. The microtextured-collar implants showed shallower PDs (0.36 ± 0.5 mm and 0.43 ± 0.51 mm) than those with machined collars (1.14 ± 0.77 mm and 1.64 ± 0.93 mm; bone loss for both loaded (0.19 ± 0.15 mm and 0.42 ± 0.34 mm) and unloaded groups (0.15 ± 0.15 mm and 0.29 ± 0.20 mm) than the machined implants for both the loaded (0.72 ± 0.5 mm and 1.13 ± 0.61 mm) and unloaded groups (0.29 ± 0.28 mm and 0.55 ± 0.32 mm). Application of laser-microtextured grooves to the implant collar resulted in shallower PDs and less peri-implant crestal bone loss than that seen around implants with machined collars.

  6. Parasitism, productivity, and population growth: response of Least Bell's Vireos (Vireo bellii pusillus) and Southwestern Willow Flycatchers (Empidonax traillii extimus) to cowbird (Molothrus spp.) control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kus, Barbara E.; Whitfield, Mary J.

    2005-01-01

    Cowbird (Molothrus spp.) control is a major focus of recovery-oriented management of two endangered riparian bird species,the Least Bell's Vireo (Vireo bellii pusillus) and Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus). During the past 20 years, annual trapping of cowbirds at Least Bell's Vireo and Southwestern Willow Flycatcher breeding sites has eliminated or reduced parasitism in comparison with pretrapping rates and, thereby, significantly increased seasonal productivity of nesting pairs. Enhanced productivity, in turn, has resulted in an 8-fold increase in numbers of Least Bell's Vireos; Southwestern Willow Flycatcher abundance, however, has changed little, and at some sites has declined despite cowbird control. Although generally successful by these short-term measures of host population response, cowbird control poses potential negative consequences for long-term recovery of endangered species. As currently employed, cowbird control lacks predetermined biological criteria to trigger an end to the control, making these species' dependence on human intervention open-ended. Prolonged reliance on cowbird control to manage endangered species can shift attention from identifying and managing other factors that limit populations--in particular, habitat availability. On the basis of our analysis of these long-term programs, we suggest that cowbird control be reserved for short-term crisis management and be replaced, when appropriate, by practices emphasizing restoration and maintenance of natural processes on which species depend. /// El manejo orientado hacia la recuperación de dos especies de aves ribereñas Vireo belli pusillus y Empidonax trailli extimus se ha focalizado principalmente en el control de los Molothrus spp parásitos. Durante los pasados 20 años, la captura anual de los Molothrus en las áreas de nidificación de Vireo belli pusillus y Empidonax trailli extimus ha eliminado o reducido el parasitismo en comparación con las tasas

  7. On the Relationship between White-Collar Crime and Political Sociology: A Suggestion and Resource for Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Jurg; Fritsch, Eric J.

    1993-01-01

    Describes a college-level student research project on white-collar crime and its relationship to political sociology. Provides suggestions for adapting the activity to other classrooms. Includes recommended resources that can be found in most college libraries. (CFR)

  8. Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) movements and behavior around a kill site and implications for GPS collar studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David

    2011-01-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) radio-collars are increasingly used to estimate Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) kill rates. In interpreting results from this technology, researchers make various assumptions about wolf behavior around kills, yet no detailed description of this behavior has been published. This article describes the behavior of six wolves in an area of constant daylight during 30 hours, from when the pack killed a Muskox (Ovibos moschatus) calf and yearling on Ellesmere Island, Nunavut, Canada, to when they abandoned the kill remains. Although this is only a single incident, it demonstrates one possible scenario of pack behavior around a kill. Combined with the literature, this observation supports placing a radio-collar on the breeding male to maximize finding kills via GPS collars and qualifying results depending on whatever other information is available about the collared wolf's pack.

  9. Soft and rigid collars provide similar restriction in cervical range of motion during fifteen activities of daily living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Christopher P; Bible, Jesse E; Jegede, Kola A; Whang, Peter G; Grauer, Jonathan N

    2010-06-01

    Prospective cohort study. To evaluate the relative efficacies of soft and rigid collars for restricting both the full, active and functional ranges of motion (ROM) of the cervical spine during 15 activities of daily living (ADLs). Cervical collars are frequently used for the purpose of limiting cervical motion after surgical procedures or as a treatment for certain injuries. Rigid collars are generally believed to reduce cervical motion to a greater extent than soft collars but the latter are often preferred by patients because of their greater comfort. Although there are some data to suggest that soft collars restrict full, active ROM (i.e., the extremes of motion) to a lesser degree than rigid braces, there are currently no comparative studies that have assessed the effects of these 2 types of cervical collars on the functional ROM that is required to perform multiple ADLs. In this investigation, a previously validated electrogoniometer device was used to quantify both the full, active ROM of 10 subjects as well as the functional ROM they exhibited during a series of 15 ADLs. For each individual, these ROM measurements were repeated after the application of both a soft collar and a rigid orthosis. The soft collar limited flexion/extension, lateral bending, and rotation by 27.1%+/-9.9% (mean+/-standard deviation), 26.1%+/-4.8%, and 29.3%+/-10.3%, respectively. The corresponding reductions in ROM with a rigid collar were 53.7%+/-7.2%, 34.9%+/-6%, and 59.2%+/-5.3%, respectively. The rigid collar resulted in significantly lower full, active ROM in both the sagittal and axial planes but not in the lateral bending plane. Compared with the soft collar, the rigid collar afforded no difference in motion during 13 of the 15 simulated ADLs. Greater motion was only noted with backing up a car and sitting from a standing position. Although subjects exhibited less full, active ROM of the cervical spine when immobilized in a rigid collar than when they were placed in a soft

  10. Monitoring Animal Behaviour and Environmental Interactions Using Wireless Sensor Networks, GPS Collars and Satellite Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Corke

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Remote monitoring of animal behaviour in the environment can assist in managing both the animal and its environmental impact. GPS collars which record animal locations with high temporal frequency allow researchers to monitor both animal behaviour and interactions with the environment. These ground-based sensors can be combined with remotely-sensed satellite images to understand animal-landscape interactions. The key to combining these technologies is communication methods such as wireless sensor networks (WSNs. We explore this concept using a case-study from an extensive cattle enterprise in northern Australia and demonstrate the potential for combining GPS collars and satellite images in a WSN to monitor behavioural preferences and social behaviour of cattle.

  11. Monitoring Animal Behaviour and Environmental Interactions Using Wireless Sensor Networks, GPS Collars and Satellite Remote Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handcock, Rebecca N; Swain, Dave L; Bishop-Hurley, Greg J; Patison, Kym P; Wark, Tim; Valencia, Philip; Corke, Peter; O'Neill, Christopher J

    2009-01-01

    Remote monitoring of animal behaviour in the environment can assist in managing both the animal and its environmental impact. GPS collars which record animal locations with high temporal frequency allow researchers to monitor both animal behaviour and interactions with the environment. These ground-based sensors can be combined with remotely-sensed satellite images to understand animal-landscape interactions. The key to combining these technologies is communication methods such as wireless sensor networks (WSNs). We explore this concept using a case-study from an extensive cattle enterprise in northern Australia and demonstrate the potential for combining GPS collars and satellite images in a WSN to monitor behavioural preferences and social behaviour of cattle.

  12. Monitoring Animal Behaviour and Environmental Interactions Using Wireless Sensor Networks, GPS Collars and Satellite Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handcock, Rebecca N.; Swain, Dave L.; Bishop-Hurley, Greg J.; Patison, Kym P.; Wark, Tim; Valencia, Philip; Corke, Peter; O'Neill, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    Remote monitoring of animal behaviour in the environment can assist in managing both the animal and its environmental impact. GPS collars which record animal locations with high temporal frequency allow researchers to monitor both animal behaviour and interactions with the environment. These ground-based sensors can be combined with remotely-sensed satellite images to understand animal-landscape interactions. The key to combining these technologies is communication methods such as wireless sensor networks (WSNs). We explore this concept using a case-study from an extensive cattle enterprise in northern Australia and demonstrate the potential for combining GPS collars and satellite images in a WSN to monitor behavioural preferences and social behaviour of cattle. PMID:22412327

  13. Bullous aplasia cutis congenita with hair collar sign: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Faruk Elmas

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aplasia cutis congenita is a rare embryologic disorder characterized by localized or generalized absence of skin. The disease is frequently sporadic, however, it may also be familial. It usually affects the scalp, but, even rarely, it may be seen on other body areas. Skin may be affected with or without some congenital anomalies, especially bone anomalies. An 8-month-old girl presented with skin defect at the vertex since birth. A hair collar sign was observed around the lesion. In our case, bone and other systemic abnormalities were not associated with skin defect. Here, we report the case of a patient clinically diagnosed with bullous aplasia cutis congenita with hair collar sign which is a rare entity.

  14. Radiographic analysis of crestal bone levels around Laser-Lok collar dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapoff, Cary A; Lahey, Brent; Wasserlauf, Perry A; Kim, David M

    2010-04-01

    This retrospective radiographic study was organized to evaluate the clinical efficacy of implants with Laser-Lok microtexturing (8- and 12-microm grooves). A physical attachment of connective tissue fibers to the Laser-Lok microtexturing on the implant collar has been previously demonstrated using human histology, polarized light microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. This analysis of 49 implants demonstrated a mean crestal bone loss of 0.44 mm at 2 years postrestoration and 0.46 mm at 3 years. All bone loss was contained within the height of the collar, and no bone loss was evident to the level of the implant threads. The radiographic evaluation of the clinical application of this implant supports previous findings that establishing a biologic seal of connective tissue fibers around a dental implant may be clinically relevant.

  15. FORTY PLUS CLUBS AND WHITE-COLLAR MANHOOD DURING THE GREAT DEPRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Wood

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available As scholars of gender and labor have argued, chronic unemployment during the Great Depression precipitated a “crisis” of masculinity, compelling men to turn towards new industrial unions and the New Deal as ways to affirm work, breadwinning, and patriarchy as bases for manhood. But did all men experience this crisis? During the late 1930s, white-collar men organized groups called “Forty Plus Clubs” in response to their worries about joblessness and manhood. The clubs made it possible for unemployed executives to find new jobs, while at the same time recreating the male-dominated culture of the white-collar office. For male executives, Forty Plus Clubs precluded the Depression-era crisis of manhood, challenging the idea that the absence ofpaid employment was synonymous with the loss of masculinity.

  16. Effects of Collar Permeability on the Field Quality of the Large Aperture Quadrupoles for the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Catalan-Lasheras, N; Kirby, G; Mess, K H; Ostojic, R; Russenschuck, Stephan

    2008-01-01

    The LHC contains a number of large aperture quadrupoles (MQY) in the insertions. The acceptance of these magnets was based on warm magnetic measurements performed before delivery to CERN. During the series production of the MQY quadrupoles, the permeability of the collars drifted from the nominal value, and effects on the transfer function and multipole components became evident. To study the effects on the magnetic field, variable permeability of the stainless-steel collars as a function of local field and temperature was introduced into a numerical model. Comparing the results with measured data, we could isolate the contribution of permeability deviation on the magnetic field quality. The extrapolation of transfer function and field multipoles to operating temperature and current gives the necessary offsets, which are compared with measurements on a reduced set of magnets.

  17. Collared Pecary (tayassu tajacu) as a new model of renal ischemic injury induced by clamping the renal artery

    OpenAIRE

    Bezerra,Dayseanny de Oliveira; Feitosa,Matheus Levi Tajra; Almeida,Hatawa Melo de; Costa,Francisco Assis Lima; Braga,Juliana Fortes Vilarinho; Souza,Francisco de Assis Leite; Alves,Flávio Ribeiro; Pessoa,Gerson Tavares; Carvalho,Maria Acelina Martins de

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: The use of the collared peccary as an experimental model for ischemic nephropathy. METHODS: A total of 12 collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) was used and ischemic nephropathy was induced in six of these animals that constituted the experimental group (G1) while the other six formed the control group (G2). Ischemic nephropathy was induced surgically by partial occlusion of the left renal artery. The disease course was assessed by hematological tests, serum chemistry, urinalysis, ultras...

  18. GUILTY OR INNOCENT? COMMENTS FROM INTERNET USERS ABOUT WHITE-COLLAR CRIME

    OpenAIRE

    Cintia Rodrigues de Oliveira; Valdir Machado Valadão Júnior; Rodrigo Miranda

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze comments from Internet users posted in news about white-collar crime found in the national electronic press. We focused our analysis on reports about a specific type of whitecollar crime, slave labor, with the objective of identifying the conceptions surrounding the subject based on a dynamic inter-textual analysis woven in its production. As a result, we observe discourse, speech and ideologies imbedded in the analyzed comments, indicating the importance of understa...

  19. Implants With and Without Laser-Microtextured Collar: A 10-Year Clinical and Radiographic Comparative Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnieri, Renzo; Ceccarelli, Rolando; Ricci, John L; Testori, Tiziano

    2018-02-01

    This article reports, after at least 10 years of follow-up, the comparative data of marginal bone loss (MBL) and periimplant soft tissue parameters, around implant with and without laser-microtextured (L) collar surface, previously reported at 3 years of follow-up. Twenty implants with L collar surface (test) were placed adjacent to 20 control implants with machined (M) collar surface in 15 partially edentulous patients, who were followed up for at least 10 years as part of a prospective longitudinal study. The plaque score, bleeding on probing (BoP) score, and probing depth (PD) were recorded at baseline and at each year follow-up examination. Mucosal recession (MR), and radiographic MBL were assessed at baseline and after at least 10 years. Four patients were lost during follow-up, so the number of implants that have been followed for at least 10 years was 32 (16 tests and 16 controls). At the end of the follow-up period, no significant differences were found between the study groups regarding the presence of plaque and BoP (P > 0.05). A statistically significant difference between test and control implant was found for mean PD (2.3 ± 0.7 mm vs 3.8 ± 0.8), MBL (1.23 ± 0.21 mm vs 2.8 ± 0.9 mm), and mean MR (1.08 ± 0.4 mm vs 2.46 ± 0.3 mm). Results suggest that after at least 10 years of function, implants with laser-microtexturing (L) collar surface, compared with implants with machined surface, lead to lower MBL and PD.

  20. Fresh-Socket Implants of Different Collar Length: Clinical Evaluation in the Aesthetic Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespi, Roberto; Capparè, Paolo; Polizzi, Elisabetta; Gherlone, Enrico

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this clinical study was to compare clinical evaluations of implants in the aesthetic zone with smooth collars of different length. Sixty-six patients requiring extractions of one, two, or three teeth in the aesthetic zone of the maxilla were enrolled in this study. Ninety-four implants were positioned and were loaded immediately after tooth extraction. Forty-seven implants with a short smooth collar of 0.5 mm (SCI) and 47 implants with a long smooth collar of 1.8 mm (LCI) were utilized in this study and were placed using a nonsubmerged approach. Clinical (gingival index, modified plaque index, modified bleeding index, probing depth, gingival recession) and intraoral digital radiographic parameters were measured at baseline and after 6, 12, 24, and 36 months of healing to evaluate crestal bone loss levels over time. After a follow-up period of 36 months, a survival rate of 100% was reported. The SCI group showed a mean bone loss of 1.07 ± 0.38 mm at 12 months and 1.09 ± 0.38 mm at 36 months. The LCI group showed a mean bone loss of 0.46 ± 0.14 mm at 12 months and 0.53 ± 0.12 mm at 36 months. After the 36-month follow-up period, both groups showed stable bone levels over time. Statistically significant differences were found between groups (p bone loss between the two types of implant with different smooth-collar lengths, but no differences in gingival vestibular margin outcome were observed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. The effect of bone growth onto massive prostheses collars in protecting the implant from fracture

    OpenAIRE

    Fromme, P.; Blunn, G. W.; Aston, W. J.; Abdoola, T.; Koris, J.; Coathup, M. J.

    2017-01-01

    Limb-sparing distal femoral endoprotheses used in cancer patients have a high risk of aseptic loosening. It had been reported that young adolescent patients have a higher rate of loosening and fatigue fracture of intramedullary stems because the implant becomes undersized as patients grow. Extracortical bone growth into the grooved hydroxyapatite-coated collar had been shown to reduce failure rates. The stresses in the implant and femur have been calculated from Finite Element models for diff...

  2. Does Shoe Collar Height Influence Ankle Joint Kinematics and Kinetics in Sagittal Plane Maneuvers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang, Ying Fang, Xini Zhang, Junliang He, Weijie Fu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Objective of the study is to investigate the effects of basketball shoes with different collar heights on ankle kinematics and kinetics and athletic performance in different sagittal plane maneuvers. Twelve participants who wore high-top and low-top basketball shoes (hereafter, HS and LS, respectively performed a weight-bearing dorsiflexion (WB-DF maneuver, drop jumps (DJs, and lay-up jumps (LJs. Their sagittal plane kinematics and ground reaction forces were recorded using the Vicon motion capture system and Kistler force plates simultaneously. Moreover, ankle dorsiflexion and plantarflexion angles, moment, power, stiffness, and jump height were calculated. In the WB-DF test, the peak ankle dorsiflexion angle (p = 0.041 was significantly smaller in HS than in LS. Additionally, the peak ankle plantarflexion moment (p = 0.028 and power (p = 0.022 were significantly lower in HS than in LS during LJs but not during DJs. In both jumping maneuvers, no significant differences were found in the jump height or ankle kinematics between the two shoe types. According to the WB-DF test, increasing shoe collar height can effectively reduce the ankle range of motion in the sagittal plane. Although the HS did not restrict the flexion–extension performance of the ankle joint during two jumping maneuvers, an increased shoe collar height can reduce peak ankle plantarflexion moment and peak power during the push-off phase in LJs. Therefore, a higher shoe collar height should be used to circumvent effects on the partial kinetics of the ankle joint in the sagittal plane.

  3. Does Shoe Collar Height Influence Ankle Joint Kinematics and Kinetics in Sagittal Plane Maneuvers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Fang, Ying; Zhang, Xini; He, Junliang; Fu, Weijie

    2017-12-01

    The Objective of the study is to investigate the effects of basketball shoes with different collar heights on ankle kinematics and kinetics and athletic performance in different sagittal plane maneuvers. Twelve participants who wore high-top and low-top basketball shoes (hereafter, HS and LS, respectively) performed a weight-bearing dorsiflexion (WB-DF) maneuver, drop jumps (DJs), and lay-up jumps (LJs). Their sagittal plane kinematics and ground reaction forces were recorded using the Vicon motion capture system and Kistler force plates simultaneously. Moreover, ankle dorsiflexion and plantarflexion angles, moment, power, stiffness, and jump height were calculated. In the WB-DF test, the peak ankle dorsiflexion angle (p = 0.041) was significantly smaller in HS than in LS. Additionally, the peak ankle plantarflexion moment (p = 0.028) and power (p = 0.022) were significantly lower in HS than in LS during LJs but not during DJs. In both jumping maneuvers, no significant differences were found in the jump height or ankle kinematics between the two shoe types. According to the WB-DF test, increasing shoe collar height can effectively reduce the ankle range of motion in the sagittal plane. Although the HS did not restrict the flexion-extension performance of the ankle joint during two jumping maneuvers, an increased shoe collar height can reduce peak ankle plantarflexion moment and peak power during the push-off phase in LJs. Therefore, a higher shoe collar height should be used to circumvent effects on the partial kinetics of the ankle joint in the sagittal plane.

  4. Neck collar for restraining head and body movements in rats for behavioral task performance and simultaneous neural activity recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateyama, Yukina; Oyama, Kei; Lo, Cheuk Wa Christopher; Iijima, Toshio; Tsutsui, Ken-Ichiro

    2016-04-01

    Head fixation has been one of the major methods in behavioral neurophysiology because it allows precision in stimulus application and behavioral assessment. Most neural recordings in awake monkeys have been obtained under head fixation, which is nowadays also being used in awake rodents. However, head fixation devices in rats often become unstable within several months, which increases risks for inflammation, infection, and necrosis of the bone and surrounding tissue. In this study we developed a novel non-invasive "neck collar system" for restraining the head and body movements of behaving rats. The attachment of the neck collar for 2-3 months did not affect the animals' health and welfare. Rats under neck-collar fixation could learn a behavioral task (standard delayed licking task) with the same efficiency as those under standard head fixation. They could also learn a more complicated task (delayed pro/anti-licking task) under neck-collar fixation and afterwards transfer their learning to the task under standard head fixation. Furthermore, we were able to record single-unit activity in rats under neck-collar fixation during the performance of the standard delayed licking task. This system consists of economical materials and is easily constructed, and it enables head-restraint without surgery, thus eliminating the risk of inflammation or infection. We consider the neck-collar fixation developed in this study would be useful for restraining the head of a behaving rodent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Increased lung function decline in blue-collar workers exposed to welding fumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaon, Isabelle; Demange, Valérie; Herin, Fabrice; Touranchet, Annie; Paris, Christophe

    2012-07-01

    There is no consensus at the present time about the effect of welding on lung function decline. This study compared lung function decline between blue-collar workers exposed and not exposed to welding fumes in a French longitudinal cohort of 21,238 subjects aged 37 to 52 years at inclusion. Medical data, occupation, sector of activity, and spirometry were recorded twice by occupational physicians in 1990 and 1995. A job-exposure matrix was used to identify 503 male blue-collar workers exposed to welding fumes and 709 control subjects and to define the weekly duration of exposure to welding fumes. Baseline lung function parameters were higher in workers exposed to welding fumes than in control subjects. After a 5-year follow-up, welding-fume exposure was associated with a nonsignificant decline in FVC (P = .06) and FEV(1) (P = .07) after adjustment for age, pack-years, BMI, and baseline value of the parameter. A significant accelerated decline in FEV(1) (P = .046) was also observed in never smokers exposed to welding fumes. An “exposure-response” relationship was observed between FEV(1) decline and weekly duration of exposure to welding fumes in nonsmokers but not in smokers. Blue-collar workers exposed to welding fumes showed accelerated decline in lung function, which, in nonsmokers, was related to weekly duration of exposure.

  6. Fatigue as prognostic risk marker of mental sickness absence in white collar employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelen, C A M; Heymans, M W; van Rhenen, W; Groothoff, J W; Twisk, J W R; Bültmann, U

    2014-06-01

    To investigate fatigue as prognostic risk marker for identifying working employees at risk of long-term sickness absence (SA). At baseline, fatigue was measured in 633 white collar employees with the checklist individual strength (CIS) including scales for fatigue severity, reduced concentration, reduced motivation, and reduced physical activity. SA was medically certified by an occupational physician in the 3rd or 4th SA week with diagnostic codes according to the 10th version of the International Classification of Diseases. Medically certified SA was retrieved at the individual level from an occupational health register after 1-year follow-up. CIS scores were investigated as prognostic risk markers predicting medically certified SA and particularly SA certified as mental SA. 614 employees (N = 378 men and N = 236 women) had complete data and were eligible for analysis; 63 (10 %) had medically certified SA of whom 39 (6 %) had mental SA. Fatigue severity and total CIS scores were associated with medically certified SA in men, but poorly discriminated between men with and without medically certified SA. Fatigue severity, reduced concentration, reduced motivation, and total CIS scores were also associated with mental SA in men. CIS and its reduced concentration scale were valid prognostic risk markers of mental SA. CONCLUSION Fatigue was a prognostic risk marker of mental SA in white collar men. The CIS should be further validated as a screening tool for the risk of mental SA in white collar working populations.

  7. Testing the level of social desirability during job interview on white-collar profession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek ePreiss

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Social desirability as a tendency to present oneself in a better light rather than in a truthful manner is common feature presented during job interviews. Previous studies mainly focused on blue-collar professions and therefore authors researched contrary set of white-collar professions in three sub-studies with four different participant groups (legal professions; police officers; controls and university students influenced by scenarios; overall N=636. It was hypothesized that candidates for legal profession would show similar tendency towards social desirability, when compared with controls. Furthermore, police officers were hypothesized to show similar levels of social desirability as legal professions. Lastly, participants in the instruction manipulation condition were hypothesized to show increased levels of social desirability in tender situation as compared to the honest situation. All groups were tested with Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR, Paulhus, 1984. Statistical analyses revealed statistically significant differences for both subscales of BIDR when comparing legal professions and control group. Similarly, increased levels of social desirability were detected in police officer candidates as well as in university students in the tender situation compared with students in the honest situation. The overall results indicated that it is typical for white-collar candidates to adapt to the testing situation and it cannot be expected to see different behavior from legal profession candidates as was originally expected.

  8. The vascular collar of the ilium: three-dimensional evaluation of the dominant nutrient foramen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Craig A; Black, Sue M

    2013-05-01

    Nutrient arteries are the predominant blood supply to endochondral bones and are particularly important during the early stages of endochondral ossification and the active growth period. These nutrient vessels traverse the periosteal shell of a developing bone to invade the disintegrating cartilage matrix and bring about endochondral bone formation. This results in the formation of a nutrient foramen which is retained as the vascular conduit between the exterior and interior of the bone. This study examined the dominant nutrient foramen of the neonatal ilium using high resolution micro-computed (micro-CT) tomography. Three-dimensional reconstruction of micro-CT data consistently demonstrated the presence of a distinctive, yet poorly reported, collar of bone extending into the trabecular cavity beyond the endosteum. This study proposes that this collar of bone may have formed in response to osteogenic signaling from approximated arterial vasculature. Additionally, it is suggested that the formation of this collar may act as a protective mechanism to the dominant nutrient vessel and as a potential biomechanical anchor for surrounding trabeculae, aiding to increase the biomechanical competency around the area of the foramen. The documentation of this osteological structure is important from a clinical perspective to prevent the misinterpretation of fracturing and pathology on plain plate radiographs and clinical computed tomography scans. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Evaluation of Implant Collar Surfaces for Marginal Bone Loss: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roodabeh Koodaryan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. It is important to understand the influence of different collar designs on peri-implant marginal bone loss, especially in the critical area. Objectives. The purpose of the present systematic review and meta-analysis was to compare dental implants with different collar surfaces, evaluating marginal bone loss and survival rates of implants. Methods. Eligibility criteria included clinical human studies, randomized controlled trials, and prospective and retrospective studies, which evaluated dental implants with different collar surface in the same study. Results. Twelve articles were included, with a total of 492 machined, 319 rough-surfaced, and 352 rough-surfaced microthreaded neck implants. There was less marginal bone loss at implants with rough-surfaced and rough-surfaced microthreaded neck than at machined-neck implants (difference in means: 0.321, 95% CI: 0.149 to 0.493; p<0.01. Conclusion. Rough and rough-surfaced microthreaded implants are considered a predictable treatment for preserving early marginal bone loss.

  10. Prolonged Sitting is Associated with Attenuated Heart Rate Variability during Sleep in Blue-Collar Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallman, David M; Sato, Tatiana; Kristiansen, Jesper; Gupta, Nidhi; Skotte, Jørgen; Holtermann, Andreas

    2015-11-19

    Prolonged sitting is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular diseases and mortality. However, research into the physiological determinants underlying this relationship is still in its infancy. The aim of the study was to determine the extent to which occupational and leisure-time sitting are associated with nocturnal heart rate variability (HRV) in blue-collar workers. The study included 138 blue-collar workers (mean age 45.5 (SD 9.4) years). Sitting-time was measured objectively for four days using tri-axial accelerometers (Actigraph GT3X+) worn on the thigh and trunk. During the same period, a heart rate monitor (Actiheart) was used to sample R-R intervals from the electrocardiogram. Time and frequency domain indices of HRV were only derived during nighttime sleep, and used as markers of cardiac autonomic modulation. Regression analyses with multiple adjustments (age, gender, body mass index, smoking, job-seniority, physical work-load, influence at work, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity) were used to investigate the association between sitting time and nocturnal HRV. We found that occupational sitting-time was negatively associated (p 0.05). In conclusion, objectively measured occupational sitting-time was associated with reduced nocturnal HRV in blue-collar workers. This indicates an attenuated cardiac autonomic regulation with increasing sitting-time at work regardless of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. The implications of this association for cardiovascular disease risk warrant further investigation via long-term prospective studies and intervention studies.

  11. Density dependence of avian clutch size in resident and migrant species : is there a constraint on the predictability of competitor density?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Both, C

    The presence of density dependence of clutch size is tested in 57 long-term population studies of 10 passerine bird species. In about half of the studies of tit species Parus spp. density dependence of clutch size was found, while none was found in studies of two flycatcher species Ficedula spp. One

  12. Longitudinal data reveal ontogenetic changes in the wing morphology of a long-distance migratory bird

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De la Hera, I.; Pulido, F.; Visser, M.E.

    2014-01-01

    In migratory bird species, juveniles normally have shorter and more rounded wings than adults. The causes of this age-specific difference in wing morphology, however, are largely unknown. Here, we used longitudinal data collected over 3 years from a Pied Flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca population to

  13. Climate change and population declines in a long-distance migratory bird

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Both, C; Bouwhuis, S; Lessells, CM; Visser, ME

    2006-01-01

    Phenological responses to climate change differ across trophic levels(1-3), which may lead to birds failing to breed at the time of maximal food abundance. Here we investigate the population consequences of such mistiming in the migratory pied flycatcher, Ficedula hypoleuca(4). In a comparison of

  14. Density dependence of avian clutch size in resident and migrant species: is there a constraint on the predictability of competitor density?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Both, C.

    2000-01-01

    The presence of density dependence of clutch size is tested in 57 long-term population studies of 10 passerine bird species. In about half of the studies of tit species Parus spp. density dependence of clutch size was found, while none was found in studies of two flycatcher species Ficedula spp. One

  15. Efficacy of an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar against fleas, ticks, mites and lice on dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The studies reported here were conducted to ascertain the efficacy of imidacloprid/flumethrin incorporated in a slow-release matrix collar, against infestations of dogs by fleas, ticks, mites and lice. Efficacy was evaluated against the flea Ctenocephalides felis felis, the ticks Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Ixodes ricinus, Ixodes scapularis, Dermacentor reticulatus and Dermacentor variabilis, the mite Sarcoptes scabiei and the biting louse Trichodectes canis. Methods Groups of collar-treated dogs (n = 7–10) were infested with fleas and/or ticks at monthly intervals at least, over a period of up to 8 months. Efficacy against fleas was evaluated 24 to 48 h after treatment and 24 h after each re-infestation. Efficacy against ticks was evaluated at 48 h (acaricidal), 6 h (repellent) and 48 h (sustained) after infestation. The effect of regular shampooing or immersion in water on the efficacy of the collars was also tested. Efficacy against flea larvae was assessed by incubating blanket samples after dog contact with viable flea eggs. Effectiveness against lice and mites was evaluated after treatment of naturally infested animals. With the exception of the mites, efficacy was calculated by comparison with untreated negative control groups. Results Efficacy against fleas (24 h) generally exceeded 95%, and against flea larvae it exceeded 99% for 8 months. Sustained acaricidal (48 h) efficacy, covering a period of 8 months was 100% against I. ricinus, starting 2 days after treatment (in vivo), and 100% against I. scapularis (in vitro), above 97% against R. sanguineus, generally above 97% against D. reticulatus and above 90% for D. variabilis. Repellent (6 h) efficacy 2 days after treatment and continuing for 8 months was consistently 100% against I. ricinus, and above 90% against R. sanguineus. Regular shampooing affected efficacy against fleas and ticks to a lesser extent than regular immersion in water. The collars eliminated

  16. Simulations of a PSD Plastic Neutron Collar for Assaying Fresh Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hausladen, Paul [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Newby, Jason [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); McElroy, Robert Dennis [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The potential performance of a notional active coincidence collar for assaying uranium fuel based on segmented detectors constructed from the new PSD plastic fast organic scintillator with pulse shape discrimination capability was investigated in simulation. Like the International Atomic Energy Agency's present Uranium Neutron Collar for LEU (UNCL), the PSD plastic collar would also function by stimulating fission in the 235U content of the fuel with a moderated 241Am/Li neutron source and detecting instances of induced fission via neutron coincidence counting. In contrast to the moderated detectors of the UNCL, the fast time scale of detection in the scintillator eliminates statistical errors due to accidental coincidences that limit the performance of the UNCL. However, the potential to detect a single neutron multiple times historically has been one of the properties of organic scintillator detectors that has prevented their adoption for international safeguards applications. Consequently, as part of the analysis of simulated data, a method was developed by which true neutron-neutron coincidences can be distinguished from inter-detector scatter that takes advantage of the position and timing resolution of segmented detectors. Then, the performance of the notional simulated coincidence collar was evaluated for assaying a variety of fresh fuels, including some containing burnable poisons and partial defects. In these simulations, particular attention was paid to the analysis of fast mode measurements. In fast mode, a Cd liner is placed inside the collar to shield the fuel from the interrogating source and detector moderators, thereby eliminating the thermal neutron flux that is most sensitive to the presence of burnable poisons that are ubiquitous in modern nuclear fuels. The simulations indicate that the predicted precision of fast mode measurements is similar to what can be achieved by the present UNCL in thermal mode. For example, the

  17. Diet of the Fuscous Flycatcher Cnemotriccus fuscatus (Wied, 1831 – Aves, Tyrannidae - in three habitats of the northern Pantanal, Mato Grosso, Brazil

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    MG Gaiotti

    Full Text Available The Fuscous Flycatcher (Cnemotriccus fuscatus is a medium-sized Tyrannidae widespread in South America. Despite its large distribution, there have been very few studies on its diet, especially in different habitats. This study presents data on diet variation in three habitats in the Pantanal wetlands in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. The specimens were captured through a mist-netting programme between February 2000 and May 2010, in the Retiro Novo Farm, in the Poconé municipality. Birds were captured in three vegetation types: Landizal, Cambarazal and Cordilheira. Tartar emetic was used to obtain the regurgitation samples identified at order level. We captured 61 individuals (21, 26 and 14 in the above described habitats, respectively. Diet of C. fuscatus differed between the three habitats. Ants and beetles were the most relevant prey items either in numerical frequency (NF or in frequency of occurrence (OF, in terms of the overall diet (NF = 27.34% and 37.89%; OF = 36.06% and 75.4%, respectively. However, in Cordilheira, seeds and beetles dominated the NF (21.8% and 38.1%, respectively and OF (28.5% and 85.7%, respectively. Cnemotriccus fuscatus was found to have an omnivorous diet, although in Cambarazal, individuals preyed exclusively on arthropods. The present study provides an important contribution to the knowledge of the diet of a poorly studied Neotropical bird.

  18. Small- and large-scale heterogeneity in genetic variation across the collard flycatcher genome: implications for estimating genetic diversity in nonmodel organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingvarsson, Pär K; Wang, Jing

    2017-07-01

    Population genetic studies in nonmodel organisms are often hampered by a lack of reference genomes that are essential for whole-genome resequencing. In the light of this, genotyping methods have been developed to effectively eliminate the need for a reference genome, such as genotyping by sequencing or restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq). However, what remains relatively poorly studied is how accurately these methods capture both average and variation in genetic diversity across an organism's genome. In this issue of Molecular Ecology Resources, Dutoit et al. (2016) use whole-genome resequencing data from the collard flycatcher to assess what factors drive heterogeneity in nucleotide diversity across the genome. Using these data, they then simulate how well different sequencing designs, including RAD sequencing, could capture most of the variation in genetic diversity. They conclude that for evolutionary and conservation-related studies focused on the estimating genomic diversity, researchers should emphasize the number of loci analysed over the number of individuals sequenced. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Range expansion and population dynamics of an invasive species: the Eurasian Collared-Dove (Streptopelia decaocto.

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    Spencer N Scheidt

    Full Text Available Invasive species offer ecologists the opportunity to study the factors governing species distributions and population growth. The Eurasian Collared-Dove (Streptopelia decaocto serves as a model organism for invasive spread because of the wealth of abundance records and the recent development of the invasion. We tested whether a set of environmental variables were related to the carrying capacities and growth rates of individual populations by modeling the growth trajectories of individual populations of the Collared-Dove using Breeding Bird Survey (BBS and Christmas Bird Count (CBC data. Depending on the fit of our growth models, carrying capacity and growth rate parameters were extracted and modeled using historical, geographical, land cover and climatic predictors. Model averaging and individual variable importance weights were used to assess the strength of these predictors. The specific variables with the greatest support in our models differed between data sets, which may be the result of temporal and spatial differences between the BBS and CBC. However, our results indicate that both carrying capacity and population growth rates are related to developed land cover and temperature, while growth rates may also be influenced by dispersal patterns along the invasion front. Model averaged multivariate models explained 35-48% and 41-46% of the variation in carrying capacities and population growth rates, respectively. Our results suggest that widespread species invasions can be evaluated within a predictable population ecology framework. Land cover and climate both have important effects on population growth rates and carrying capacities of Collared-Dove populations. Efforts to model aspects of population growth of this invasive species were more successful than attempts to model static abundance patterns, pointing to a potentially fruitful avenue for the development of improved invasive distribution models.

  20. Estrus cycle monitoring of captive collared peccaries (Pecari tajacu in semiarid conditions

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    Keilla M. Maia

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Collared peccaries (Peccary tajacu are among the most hunted species in Latin America due the appreciation of their pelt and meat. In order to optimize breeding management of captive born collared peccaries in semiarid conditions, the objective was to describe and correlate the changes in the ovarian ultrasonographic pattern, hormonal profile, vulvar appearance, and vaginal cytology during the estrus cycle in this species. During 45 days, females (n=4 were subjected each three days to blood collection destined to hormonal dosage by enzyme immunoassay (EIA. In the same occasions, evaluation of external genitalia, ovarian ultrasonography and vaginal cytology were conducted. Results are presented as means and standard deviations. According to hormonal dosage, six estrous cycles were identified as lasting 21.0 ± 5.7 days, being on average 6 days for the estrogenic phase and 15 days for the progesterone phase. Estrogen presented mean peak values of 55.6 ± 20.5 pg/mL. During the luteal phase, the high values for progesterone were 35.3 ± 4.4 ng/mL. The presence of vaginal mucus, a reddish vaginal mucosa and the separation of the vulvar lips were verified in all animals during the estrogenic peak. Through ultrasonography, ovarian follicles measuring 0.2±0.1 cm were visualized during the estrogen peak. Corpora lutea presented hyperechoic regions measuring 0.4±0.2 cm identified during luteal phase. No significant differences (P>0.05 between proportions of vaginal epithelial cells were identified when comparing estrogenic and progesterone phases. In conclusion, female collared peccaries, captive born in semiarid conditions, have an estral cycle that lasts 21.0±5.7 days, with estrous signs characterized by vulvar lips edema and hyperemic vaginal mucosa, coinciding with developed follicles and high estrogen levels.

  1. Evaluating methods for estimating home ranges using GPS collars: A comparison using proboscis monkeys (Nasalis larvatus.

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    Danica J Stark

    Full Text Available The development of GPS tags for tracking wildlife has revolutionised the study of home ranges, habitat use and behaviour. Concomitantly, there have been rapid developments in methods for estimating habitat use from GPS data. In combination, these changes can cause challenges in choosing the best methods for estimating home ranges. In primatology, this issue has received little attention, as there have been few GPS collar-based studies to date. However, as advancing technology is making collaring studies more feasible, there is a need for the analysis to advance alongside the technology. Here, using a high quality GPS collaring data set from 10 proboscis monkeys (Nasalis larvatus, we aimed to: 1 compare home range estimates from the most commonly used method in primatology, the grid-cell method, with three recent methods designed for large and/or temporally correlated GPS data sets; 2 evaluate how well these methods identify known physical barriers (e.g. rivers; and 3 test the robustness of the different methods to data containing either less frequent or random losses of GPS fixes. Biased random bridges had the best overall performance, combining a high level of agreement between the raw data and estimated utilisation distribution with a relatively low sensitivity to reduced fixed frequency or loss of data. It estimated the home range of proboscis monkeys to be 24-165 ha (mean 80.89 ha. The grid-cell method and approaches based on local convex hulls had some advantages including simplicity and excellent barrier identification, respectively, but lower overall performance. With the most suitable model, or combination of models, it is possible to understand more fully the patterns, causes, and potential consequences that disturbances could have on an animal, and accordingly be used to assist in the management and restoration of degraded landscapes.

  2. Evaluating methods for estimating home ranges using GPS collars: A comparison using proboscis monkeys (Nasalis larvatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Danica J; Vaughan, Ian P; Ramirez Saldivar, Diana A; Nathan, Senthilvel K S S; Goossens, Benoit

    2017-01-01

    The development of GPS tags for tracking wildlife has revolutionised the study of home ranges, habitat use and behaviour. Concomitantly, there have been rapid developments in methods for estimating habitat use from GPS data. In combination, these changes can cause challenges in choosing the best methods for estimating home ranges. In primatology, this issue has received little attention, as there have been few GPS collar-based studies to date. However, as advancing technology is making collaring studies more feasible, there is a need for the analysis to advance alongside the technology. Here, using a high quality GPS collaring data set from 10 proboscis monkeys (Nasalis larvatus), we aimed to: 1) compare home range estimates from the most commonly used method in primatology, the grid-cell method, with three recent methods designed for large and/or temporally correlated GPS data sets; 2) evaluate how well these methods identify known physical barriers (e.g. rivers); and 3) test the robustness of the different methods to data containing either less frequent or random losses of GPS fixes. Biased random bridges had the best overall performance, combining a high level of agreement between the raw data and estimated utilisation distribution with a relatively low sensitivity to reduced fixed frequency or loss of data. It estimated the home range of proboscis monkeys to be 24-165 ha (mean 80.89 ha). The grid-cell method and approaches based on local convex hulls had some advantages including simplicity and excellent barrier identification, respectively, but lower overall performance. With the most suitable model, or combination of models, it is possible to understand more fully the patterns, causes, and potential consequences that disturbances could have on an animal, and accordingly be used to assist in the management and restoration of degraded landscapes.

  3. Prolonged Sitting is Associated with Attenuated Heart Rate Variability during Sleep in Blue-Collar Workers

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    David M Hallman

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged sitting is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular diseases and mortality. However, research into the physiological determinants underlying this relationship is still in its infancy. The aim of the study was to determine the extent to which occupational and leisure-time sitting are associated with nocturnal heart rate variability (HRV in blue-collar workers. The study included 138 blue-collar workers (mean age 45.5 (SD 9.4 years. Sitting-time was measured objectively for four days using tri-axial accelerometers (Actigraph GT3X+ worn on the thigh and trunk. During the same period, a heart rate monitor (Actiheart was used to sample R-R intervals from the electrocardiogram. Time and frequency domain indices of HRV were only derived during nighttime sleep, and used as markers of cardiac autonomic modulation. Regression analyses with multiple adjustments (age, gender, body mass index, smoking, job-seniority, physical work-load, influence at work, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity were used to investigate the association between sitting time and nocturnal HRV. We found that occupational sitting-time was negatively associated (p < 0.05 with time and frequency domain HRV indices. Sitting-time explained up to 6% of the variance in HRV, independent of the covariates. Leisure-time sitting was not significantly associated with any HRV indices (p > 0.05. In conclusion, objectively measured occupational sitting-time was associated with reduced nocturnal HRV in blue-collar workers. This indicates an attenuated cardiac autonomic regulation with increasing sitting-time at work regardless of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. The implications of this association for cardiovascular disease risk warrant further investigation via long-term prospective studies and intervention studies.

  4. Pattern of Smoking Habit among Greek Blue and White Collar Workers

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    Christos Hadjichristodoulou

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to investigate the prevalence of smoking in a Greek working population. A questionnaire regarding smoking habit was collected from 1,005 out of 1,200 blue and white-collar employees (response rate: 84%. The overall smoking prevalence was 48.4% and did not differ by sex, age, education, and occupation. The mean cigarette consumption per day was 25.54, with no difference observed by occupation. The above-mentioned findings, if confirmed by further research, are alarming and inconsistent with the prevalent pattern of smoking habits in the West.

  5. Pattern of Smoking Habit among Greek Blue and White Collar Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachiotis, George; Karydis, Ioannis; Drivas, Spyros; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2009-01-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the prevalence of smoking in a Greek working population. A questionnaire regarding smoking habit was collected from 1,005 out of 1,200 blue and white-collar employees (response rate: 84%). The overall smoking prevalence was 48.4% and did not differ by sex, age, education, and occupation. The mean cigarette consumption per day was 25.54, with no difference observed by occupation. The above-mentioned findings, if confirmed by further research, are alarming and inconsistent with the prevalent pattern of smoking habits in the West. PMID:19578462

  6. Influence of implant collar design on stress and strain distribution in the crestal compact bone: a three-dimensional finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wan-Ling; Chen, Chen-Sheng; Hsu, Ming-Lun

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the influence of implant collar geometry on the distribution of stress and strain in the crestal compact bone contiguous to an implant collar for four types of bone under axial and oblique loads. Finite element models of threaded implants with three kinds of implant collar designs (divergent, straight, and convergent) with their corresponding suprastructures embedded in the posterior mandible were created with ANSYS software. Eight different test conditions incorporating four types of bone (orthotropic and effectively isotropic in part 1 and high and low densities in part 2) under separate 100-N axial and 35.6-degree oblique forces were created to investigate the stress and strain distributions in the crestal compact bone around the implant collars. In all eight conditions, the divergent collar demonstrated the lowest maximum von Mises and principal stresses and strains in the crestal compact bone contiguous to the implant collar, followed by the straight and convergent collars. The oblique load induced higher peak values than the axial load. The orthotropic design amplified and increased the pathologic microstrains and tensile stresses in the crestal compact bone compared to the effectively isotropic design, especially in models with a convergent collar design. In part 2 of the study, the maximum von Mises stresses and strains increased with a decrease in the cancellous bone density. Under oblique loading, the convergent and straight collars showed pathologic microstrain values as well as excessive ultimate tensile stresses in the orthotropic bone model with low-density cancellous bone. Within the limitations, it was concluded that stress and strain distributions in the adjacent compact bone are influenced by the implant collar design. The divergent implant collar design was associated with the lowest stress and strain concentrations in the crestal compact bone.

  7. Long-term survival of cemented distal femoral endoprostheses with a hydroxyapatite-coated collar: a histological study and a radiographic follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coathup, Melanie Jean; Batta, Vineet; Pollock, Robin C; Aston, William J; Cannon, Stephen R; Skinner, John A; Briggs, Timothy W R; Unwin, Paul S; Blunn, Gordon William

    2013-09-04

    The objective of this study was to examine the degree of osteointegration into a hydroxyapatite-coated collar and relate this finding to aseptic loosening in patients with a distal femoral replacement used to treat primary bone cancer. Our hypothesis was that the implant collar would increase osteointegration and reduce the rate of aseptic implant loosening. Sixty-one patients treated with a primary cemented distal femoral prosthesis between 1992 and 2001 were included in this study. The mean duration of follow-up was 8.5 years (range, two to eighteen years). Extracortical bone growth into the grooved hydroxyapatite-coated collar was quantified radiographically. Histological sections through four hydroxyapatite-coated collars and four implants with no collar, retrieved following amputation due to local recurrence or at autopsy at a mean of 3.5 years (range, 1.4 to 6.1 years) after implantation, were evaluated as well. Five (8%) of the implants were revised because of aseptic loosening, 3% of the implants fractured, and 3% were revised because of infection. Six limbs (10%) required amputation because of local tumor recurrence. On radiographs, osteointegration into the collar was seen to have occurred in 70% of the patients and did not correlate with sex, age, diagnosis, or length of time postoperatively. Histological analysis showed mature lamellar bone within the grooves of the hydroxyapatite-coated collar, and bone was observed in direct contact with the hydroxyapatite coating. Extracortical bone failed to make direct contact with the surface of the implants manufactured without a collar. The use of cemented distal femoral massive bone tumor prostheses with a hydroxyapatite-coated collar located at the shoulder of the implant was followed by a low (8%) rate of revision due to aseptic loosening. The use of hydroxyapatite grooved collars may lead to osteointegration of the implant shoulder (collar) and may reduce the rate of aseptic loosening.

  8. Retrospective multicenter evaluation of the "fly-catching syndrome" in 24 dogs: EEG, BAER, MRI, CSF findings and response to antiepileptic and antidepressant treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrzosek, Marcin; Płonek, Marta; Nicpoń, Józef; Cizinauskas, Sigitas; Pakozdy, Akos

    2015-12-01

    The fly-catching syndrome (FCS) is a rare canine condition of sudden, occasional, or constant episodes of biting the air. It may be accompanied by jumping, licking, and swallowing. The etiology of FCS is unknown and controversial. Various explanations for its occurrence have included epileptoid disorders such as visual cortex epileptiform disturbances and simple and complex partial seizures as well as compulsive disorders, hallucinatory behavior, and stereotypy. A retrospective multicenter analysis of 24 dogs with clinical symptoms of FCS is presented. Clinical signs at the time of presentation, the mean age at onset of the disease, the response to treatment, and the clinical outcome were recorded and analyzed in all patients. All dogs underwent clinical, neurological, and otoscopic examinations. Complete blood cell counts (CBCs) and serum chemistry panels were obtained from each dog. Diagnostic testing included MRI and EEG examinations in 21 cases, BAER in 19 cases, and CSF analysis in 20 cases. The EEG revealed spike activity in 8 (38%) of the 21 cases, 7 of which had activity in the occipital lobes. The brainstem auditory evoked response (BAER) revealed three cases of bilateral deafness. The MRI revealed six cases of Chiari malformation (CM), one case of syringohydromyelia (SM), and one case of a falx cerebri meningioma. The dogs were divided into groups according to their treatment protocol. Group A included dogs treated with phenobarbital (PB), and group B consisted of dogs treated with fluoxetine (FLX). Thirty-six percent of the dogs in group A responded to PB, while 100% of the dogs in group B responded to FLX. The results suggest that FCS is more responsive to FLX than PB. However, the etiology of this behavior remains unclear in most cases. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Optimized cutting and forming parameters for a robust collar drawing process for hot-rolled complex-phase steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, S.; Beier, T.; Woestmann, S.

    2017-09-01

    The demands on materials for automotive applications are steadily increasing. For chassis components, the trend is towards thinner and higher strength materials for weight and cost reduction. In view of attainable strengths of up to 1200 MPa for hot rolled materials, certain aspects need to be analysed and evaluated in advance in the development process using these materials. Collars in particular, for example in control arms, have been in focus for part and process design. Issues concerning edge and surface cracks are observed due to improper geometry and process layout. The hole expansion capability of the chosen material grade has direct influence on the achievable collar height. In general, shear cutting reduces the residual formability of blank edges and the hole expansion capability. In this paper, using the example of the complex phase steel CP-W® 800 of thyssenkrupp, it is shown how a suitable geometry of a collar and optimum shear cutting parameters can be chosen.

  10. Charge collection efficiency characterization of a HgI 2 Frisch collar spectrometer with collimated high energy gamma rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargar, A.; Ariesanti, E.; James, S.; McGregor, D. S.

    2011-10-01

    In this study, a 2.1×2.1×4.1 mm 3 HgI 2 Frisch collar device was characterized through probing the device with a highly collimated 662 keV gamma rays ( 137Cs check source) along the length and width of the device. In a systematic series of experiments, the detector was probed along its central line under different operating voltages of 1600, 1300, 1000, 800, 600 and 500 V. The experimental results were confirmed through a simulation of the charge collection for a device with the same size and operating conditions. It is shown that the HgI 2 Frisch collar device has a uniform response to gamma rays over two-thirds of the detector volume. The HgI 2 crystals and the Frisch collar detectors were grown and fabricated within the S.M.A.R.T Laboratory at Kansas State University.

  11. The welfare consequences and efficacy of training pet dogs with remote electronic training collars in comparison to reward based training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan J Cooper

    Full Text Available This study investigated the welfare consequences of training dogs in the field with manually operated electronic devices (e-collars. Following a preliminary study on 9 dogs, 63 pet dogs referred for recall related problems were assigned to one of three Groups: Treatment Group A were trained by industry approved trainers using e-collars; Control Group B trained by the same trainers but without use of e-collars; and Group C trained by members of the Association of Pet Dog Trainers, UK again without e-collar stimulation (n = 21 for each Group. Dogs received two 15 minute training sessions per day for 4-5 days. Training sessions were recorded on video for behavioural analysis. Saliva and urine were collected to assay for cortisol over the training period. During preliminary studies there were negative changes in dogs' behaviour on application of electric stimuli, and elevated cortisol post-stimulation. These dogs had generally experienced high intensity stimuli without pre-warning cues during training. In contrast, in the subsequent larger, controlled study, trainers used lower settings with a pre-warning function and behavioural responses were less marked. Nevertheless, Group A dogs spent significantly more time tense, yawned more often and engaged in less environmental interaction than Group C dogs. There was no difference in urinary corticosteroids between Groups. Salivary cortisol in Group A dogs was not significantly different from that in Group B or Group C, though Group C dogs showed higher measures than Group B throughout sampling. Following training 92% of owners reported improvements in their dog's referred behaviour, and there was no significant difference in reported efficacy across Groups. Owners of dogs trained using e-collars were less confident of applying the training approach demonstrated. These findings suggest that there is no consistent benefit to be gained from e-collar training but greater welfare concerns compared with

  12. The welfare consequences and efficacy of training pet dogs with remote electronic training collars in comparison to reward based training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Jonathan J; Cracknell, Nina; Hardiman, Jessica; Wright, Hannah; Mills, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the welfare consequences of training dogs in the field with manually operated electronic devices (e-collars). Following a preliminary study on 9 dogs, 63 pet dogs referred for recall related problems were assigned to one of three Groups: Treatment Group A were trained by industry approved trainers using e-collars; Control Group B trained by the same trainers but without use of e-collars; and Group C trained by members of the Association of Pet Dog Trainers, UK again without e-collar stimulation (n = 21 for each Group). Dogs received two 15 minute training sessions per day for 4-5 days. Training sessions were recorded on video for behavioural analysis. Saliva and urine were collected to assay for cortisol over the training period. During preliminary studies there were negative changes in dogs' behaviour on application of electric stimuli, and elevated cortisol post-stimulation. These dogs had generally experienced high intensity stimuli without pre-warning cues during training. In contrast, in the subsequent larger, controlled study, trainers used lower settings with a pre-warning function and behavioural responses were less marked. Nevertheless, Group A dogs spent significantly more time tense, yawned more often and engaged in less environmental interaction than Group C dogs. There was no difference in urinary corticosteroids between Groups. Salivary cortisol in Group A dogs was not significantly different from that in Group B or Group C, though Group C dogs showed higher measures than Group B throughout sampling. Following training 92% of owners reported improvements in their dog's referred behaviour, and there was no significant difference in reported efficacy across Groups. Owners of dogs trained using e-collars were less confident of applying the training approach demonstrated. These findings suggest that there is no consistent benefit to be gained from e-collar training but greater welfare concerns compared with positive reward based

  13. Prevalence and health correlates of work-life conflict among blue- and white-collar workers from different economic sectors

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    Oliver eHämmig

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The research on work-life conflict (WLC is largely neglected in occupational medicine and public health and typically limited to white-collar workers and public servants. This study therefore aims to explore possible differences in the prevalence of WLC and its association with health outcomes between white- and blue-collar workers from different work environments in Switzerland. Cross-sectional survey data collected in 2007 in the service sector and in 2010 in the industrial sector were used for statistical analyses. A subsample of university graduates employed by large service companies (N=1,170 from the first survey’s population was taken and compared with a subsample of low or unskilled industrial and construction workers with no or only compulsory education (N=489 from the second survey’s population. The results show almost consistently, and particularly in women, a lower prevalence of time- and strain-based forms and both causal directions of WLC in blue-collar workers. However, associations between different WLC measures and general, physical and mental health outcomes were found to be equally strong or even stronger among blue-collar workers compared to white-collar workers. Low or unskilled industrial and construction workers are less frequently affected by higher degrees of WLC but are then at no lower risk of suffering poor self-rated health or severe backaches and sleep disorders than university graduates working in the service sector with comparable exposure to WLC. In conclusion it can be stated that WLC turned out to be much less prevalent but equally or even more detrimental to health in blue-collar workers, who therefore need to be considered in future studies.

  14. Different parts, different stories: climate sensitivity of growth is stronger in root collars vs. stems in tundra shrubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropars, Pascale; Angers-Blondin, Sandra; Gagnon, Marianne; Myers-Smith, Isla H; Lévesque, Esther; Boudreau, Stéphane

    2017-08-01

    Shrub densification has been widely reported across the circumpolar arctic and subarctic biomes in recent years. Long-term analyses based on dendrochronological techniques applied to shrubs have linked this phenomenon to climate change. However, the multi-stemmed structure of shrubs makes them difficult to sample and therefore leads to non-uniform sampling protocols among shrub ecologists, who will favor either root collars or stems to conduct dendrochronological analyses. Through a comparative study of the use of root collars and stems of Betula glandulosa, a common North American shrub species, we evaluated the relative sensitivity of each plant part to climate variables and assessed whether this sensitivity is consistent across three different types of environments in northwestern Québec, Canada (terrace, hilltop and snowbed). We found that root collars had greater sensitivity to climate than stems and that these differences were maintained across the three types of environments. Growth at the root collar was best explained by spring precipitation and summer temperature, whereas stem growth showed weak and inconsistent responses to climate variables. Moreover, sensitivity to climate was not consistent among plant parts, as individuals having climate-sensitive root collars did not tend to have climate-sensitive stems. These differences in sensitivity of shrub parts to climate highlight the complexity of resource allocation in multi-stemmed plants. Whereas stem initiation and growth are driven by microenvironmental variables such as light availability and competition, root collars integrate the growth of all plant parts instead, rendering them less affected by mechanisms such as competition and more responsive to signals of global change. Although further investigations are required to determine the degree to which these findings are generalizable across the tundra biome, our results indicate that consistency and caution in the choice of plant parts are a key

  15. Fungal pathogens associated with crown and collar rot of apple trees in southern Syria

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    Walid Ghazi Naffaa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Crown and collar rot of apple trees is a destructive and widespread disease in most areas of the world. Surveys have been done to describe disease symptoms, estimate the disease incidence, and identify the pathogens associated with this disease in southern Syria. Disease incidence was 0.08 – 10 % in most studied sites, only in Alroom location it was up to 14.7 % in 2014 and 17.8 % in 2015, with average of 11.8 %. Symptoms included small pale green leaves, sparse foliage, and a reddish-brown discoloration of inner bark of the infected area at the base of infected tree. The isolated fungi belonged to genera and form genera Phytophthora, Rosellinia, Rhizoctonia, Phialophora, Acremonium, Pestalotiopsis, Cylindrocarpon and Verticillium. Phytophthora was isolated from all infected trees, and was the most frequent pathogen (53.7 % of total isolates. Phytophthora isolates recovered from crown cankers of apple were identified as P. cactorum (91.5 % and P. cambivora (8.5 %. The results of this study are the first report of crown and collar root rot of apple in Syria.

  16. Factors Associated with Halitosis in White-Collar Employees in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Zhang, Yu; Lu, Hai-Xia; Feng, Xi-Ping

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the factors associated with halitosis in Chinese white-collar employees. Subjects in three randomly selected office buildings in Shanghai, China, were enrolled in this cross-sectional study using cluster random sampling. Oral malodor was assessed by measuring volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) with a portable sulfide monitor. Subjects' oral health, including dental caries, periodontal status, and tongue coating, was evaluated clinically. A questionnaire was used to obtain information about participants' demographic characteristics, oral hygiene habits, and health behaviors. Of the 805 subjects invited to participate in this study, 720 were enrolled (89.4% response rate). Data from these subjects were used for statistical analyses. The prevalence of halitosis was 33.2%. In the final regression model, halitosis was significantly related to tongue coating thickness, periodontal pocket depth, no food consumption within 2 hours prior to oral examination, and less intake frequency of sweet foods. In this Chinese white-collar population, tongue coating and periodontal disease were associated with halitosis. Oral hygiene education should be provided at the population level to encourage the maintenance of oral health and fresh breath. Consumption of sweet foods may reduce VSC production, although this finding requires further investigation.

  17. Factors associated with utilization of traditional Chinese medicine by white collar foreign workers living in Taiwan

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    Deng Chung-Yeh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM has remained an integral part of Chinese culture and society for thousands of years. In Taiwan TCM is a recognized element of its National Health Insurance Scheme. However, there is no knowledge about how TCM is accessed by foreign workers from a non-Asian cultural background. The objectives of this study were to investigate the prevalence and patterns of TCM use among non-Asian white-collar workers living in Taiwan, and examine factors likely to influence their use of TCM. Methods This study applied a cross-sectional survey design. A total of 207 white-collar foreign workers of a non-Asian background currently holding National Health Insurance cards who had lived in Taiwan for 4 months or more participated in this study. Results The prevalence of TCM use was 45%. The most frequently used therapies were traditional Chinese herbs/medicine and acupuncture. Factors indicating the likelihood of TCM usage were age 31–40 years, visit to an allopathic medical doctor in the last year, ability to read Chinese, having a friend or family member available to assist in the use of TCM, and access to information about TCM services available in Taiwan. Conclusion Utilization of TCM by people of a non-Asian background living in Taiwan appears to be most influenced by enabling factors including language ability, access to information, and informal reference persons.

  18. Factors Associated with Halitosis in White-Collar Employees in Shanghai, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Chen

    Full Text Available To investigate the factors associated with halitosis in Chinese white-collar employees.Subjects in three randomly selected office buildings in Shanghai, China, were enrolled in this cross-sectional study using cluster random sampling. Oral malodor was assessed by measuring volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs with a portable sulfide monitor. Subjects' oral health, including dental caries, periodontal status, and tongue coating, was evaluated clinically. A questionnaire was used to obtain information about participants' demographic characteristics, oral hygiene habits, and health behaviors.Of the 805 subjects invited to participate in this study, 720 were enrolled (89.4% response rate. Data from these subjects were used for statistical analyses. The prevalence of halitosis was 33.2%. In the final regression model, halitosis was significantly related to tongue coating thickness, periodontal pocket depth, no food consumption within 2 hours prior to oral examination, and less intake frequency of sweet foods.In this Chinese white-collar population, tongue coating and periodontal disease were associated with halitosis. Oral hygiene education should be provided at the population level to encourage the maintenance of oral health and fresh breath. Consumption of sweet foods may reduce VSC production, although this finding requires further investigation.

  19. Simplifying NFP: preliminary report of a pilot study of the 'collar' method in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faundes, A; Lamprecht, V; Osis, M J; Lopes, B C

    1997-01-01

    Natural methods of fertility regulation are acceptable in most cultures. Many couples worldwide do not wish to use contraceptives or do not have access to them but wish to limit their family size or lengthen the time between births. Barriers to expanding use of natural family planning (NFP) methods include a lack of providers who can teach NFP and a lack of time to teach and follow couples during the initial months of NFP use. If simple yet effective methods of NFP are available, then NFP could be introduced to a wider audience. Recently, calendar rules have been revised that use a set interval to identify fertile days. These new rules provide better coverage of fertile days and require less abstinence than the rules traditionally used with the calendar method. One of these new rules is being field tested in a pilot study in Brazil. Couples are asked to abstain from day 9-19 (inclusive) of the menstrual cycle, using a beaded necklace (the 'collar') as a mnemonic device. Focus groups with the teacher-monitors and in-depth interviews with female and male users were carried out to evaluate the acceptability of the 'collar' method. A preliminary analysis of these focus groups and interviews from the first site is presented.

  20. Measuring the actual I-131 thyroid uptake curve with a collar detector system: a feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinks, Peter; Van Gils, Koen; Dickerscheid, Dennis B.M.; Habraken, Jan B.A. [Department of Medical Physics, St. Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Kranenborg, Ellen; Lavalaye, Jules [Department of Nuclear Medicine, St. Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein (Netherlands)

    2017-06-15

    Radionuclide therapy using I-131 is commonly used for the treatment of benign thyroid diseases. The therapeutic dose to be administered is calculated based on the type of disease, the volume of the thyroid, and the measured uptake percentage. This methodology assumes a similar biological half-life of iodine, whereas in reality a large variation in biological half-life is observed. More knowledge about the actual biological half-life of iodine for individual patients will improve the quantification of the delivered radiation dose during radioiodine therapy and could aid the evaluation of the success of the therapy. In this feasibility study we used a novel measurement device [Collar Therapy Indicator (CoTI)] to measure the uptake curve of patients undergoing I-131 radioiodine therapy. The CoTI device is a light-weight wearable device that contains two independent gamma radiation detectors that are placed in a collar. By comparing results of thyroid uptake measurements with results obtained with a gamma camera, the precision of the system is demonstrated. Additionally, for three patients the uptake curve is measured during 48 h of admission in the hospital. The presented results demonstrate the feasibility of the new measurement device to measure the uptake curve during radioiodine therapy. (orig.)

  1. Erwinia amylovora – the Causal Agent of Root Collar Necrosis of Apple Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veljko Gavrilović

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A large-scale outbreak of fire blight symptoms caused by Erwinia amylovora was recorded in pome fruit trees during 2007. In addition to fruit necrosis and shoot blight as the typical disease symptoms, dark purple necrosis was observed in the root collar area girdling the trunk just above the ground and thus withering the whole apple tree. Since similar symptoms on apple trees could be caused by E. amylovora or one of several phytopathogenic fungi of the genera Phomopsis and Phytophthora, an investigation was conducted to identify the causal agent of this disease. Levan-producing, nonfluorescent bacteria were isolated from diseased samples. The isolated strains produced HR in tobacco leaves and necrosis of artificially inoculated, immature pear fruits, followed by oozing of bacterial exudate, a characterisitic of E. amylovora. Based on the results of pathogenicity tests, biochemical characteristics, ELISA test and PCR analysis, it was confirmed that the investigated strainsbelonged to E. amylovora, causing the root collar necrosis of apple trees as an atypical symptom of this bacterium in Serbia. The explanation of this symptom may be that the vegetative rootstocks were infected with E. amylovora. Therefore, the development of diagnostic protocols for detection of E. amylovora in apple rootstock is very important for health inspections of planting materials.

  2. Sperm morphological and morphometric evaluation in captive collared peccaries (Pecari tajacu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia C. Sousa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare different staining methods for the evaluation of sperm morphology by light microscopy and also to describe the morphometry of the entire sperm in collared peccaries (Pecari tajacu. Semen from 10 males was obtained by electroejaculation and evaluated for sperm motility, vigor, and concentration. Semen smears were prepared through three different staining methods: Bengal rose, brome-phenol blue, and eosin-nigrosin. Smears were evaluated under light microscopy and sperm morphologic alterations were determined in percentage. In addition, sperm morphometric analysis was conducted by light microscopy coupled to image analyzer software. The smears stained with Bengal Rose provide the best results for the visualization of the sperm tail, midpiece, and head. The use of eosin-nigrosin stain did not allow an adequate impregnation, and some sperm presented a few contrasts with the background. A higher incidence of bent coiled tails was verified in the use of brome-phenol blue staining (P<0.05. Through morphometric evaluation, it was observed that the tail occupies the greatest proportion (89% of the sperm which presents a discretely elongated head. According to the results, the use of the Bengal Rose stain is recommended for the morphologic evaluation of the collared peccary sperm.

  3. Factors associated with utilization of traditional Chinese medicine by white collar foreign workers living in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Maria; Tai, Chen-Jei; Deng, Chung-Yeh; Chien, Li-Yin

    2009-01-14

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has remained an integral part of Chinese culture and society for thousands of years. In Taiwan TCM is a recognized element of its National Health Insurance Scheme. However, there is no knowledge about how TCM is accessed by foreign workers from a non-Asian cultural background. The objectives of this study were to investigate the prevalence and patterns of TCM use among non-Asian white-collar workers living in Taiwan, and examine factors likely to influence their use of TCM. This study applied a cross-sectional survey design. A total of 207 white-collar foreign workers of a non-Asian background currently holding National Health Insurance cards who had lived in Taiwan for 4 months or more participated in this study. The prevalence of TCM use was 45%. The most frequently used therapies were traditional Chinese herbs/medicine and acupuncture. Factors indicating the likelihood of TCM usage were age 31-40 years, visit to an allopathic medical doctor in the last year, ability to read Chinese, having a friend or family member available to assist in the use of TCM, and access to information about TCM services available in Taiwan. Utilization of TCM by people of a non-Asian background living in Taiwan appears to be most influenced by enabling factors including language ability, access to information, and informal reference persons.

  4. Histology of palate and soft palate tonsil of collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teófilo, T S; Morais, M R P T; Dias, G F; Diniz, A N; Chaves, H S A; Fontenele-Neto, J D

    2014-10-01

    Peccaries are characterized by a prominent skin gland, known as scent gland, which is located in the middle of the rump. These animals are able to survive in a great variety of habitats, from humid tropical forests to semi-arid areas. They are omnivorous animals, and their diet includes fibrous material, vegetables, fruits, small vertebrates and insects. Collared peccary hard palate and soft palate tonsils were studied, macroscopic morphometric data were collected and tissue samples were paraffin-embedded. Sections were stained with HE, Gomori's trichrome and von Kossa; the first two were used to study general organization and the latter to detect calcium deposits. The hard palate showed one incisive papilla followed by several rugae united by a distinct raphe. The hard palate is lined by a keratinised squamous epithelium resting on a dense connective, whereas in the soft palate, the epithelium is parakeratinised and showed lymphocyte infiltration. The palate showed several pacinian corpuscles in the propria-submucosa. Two ovoid-shaped tonsils were found in the soft palate, and several crypts were observed on its surface. The epithelium was highly infiltrated by lymphocytes, and within the crypts, tonsilloliths were frequently observed. The study showed that the general organization of collared peccary palate is similar to other species, but in its oropharynx, only the soft palate tonsil was present and the pacinian corpuscles formed small aggregates. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Total workload, work stress and perceived symptoms in Swedish male and female white-collar employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krantz, Gunilla; Berntsson, Leeni; Lundberg, Ulf

    2005-04-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse how paid work, unpaid household tasks, child care, work-child care interactions and perceived work stress are associated with reported symptoms in male and female white-collar employees. A questionnaire was mailed to 1300 men and 1300 women belonging to the white-collar sector, with at least 35 hours of regular employment a week and a participant age of between 32 and 58 years. It contained items relating to total workload (hours spent on paid work, unpaid household tasks and childcare), subjective indices for work stress and symptoms. The response rate was 65% (743 women; 595 men). Gender difference in symptom prevalence was tested by analyses of variance. Odds ratios were used to estimate the bivariate associations between work-related variables and symptom prevalence. A multivariate analysis estimated the effect of paid and unpaid work interaction, work-childcare interplay and possible synergy. The frequency and severity of symptoms was higher in women than in men (P work and household duties (OR 2.09; 1.06-4.14), whereas men responded more selectively to long working hours, i.e. >50 h/week (OR 1.61; 1.02-2.54). However, childcare (working long hours. Working life and private circumstances and the interplay between them need to be taken into account to curb stress-related ill health in both men and women.

  6. Improving the diet of employees at blue-collar worksites: results from the "Food at work" intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Anne Dahl; Thorsen, Anne Vibeke; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard

    2011-01-01

    ) changes in employees' dietary habits derived from 4 d pre-coded food diaries of a group of employees at the worksites (paired-data structure); and (ii) the canteen nutrition environment as identified by aggregating chemical nutritional analysis of individual canteen lunches (different participants...... at baseline and at endpoint). Setting. Eight blue-collar worksites (five of these with canteens). Subject. Employees. Results. In the intervention group (n 102), several significant positive nutritional effects were observed among employees, including a median daily decrease in intake of fat (—2.2% E, P = 0...... in the intervention group (median difference 11% E, P blue-collar worksites. Copyright © The Authors 2010....

  7. LOCAL IDEOLOGIES AND PUNISHMENT FOR WHITE-COLLAR CRIME: A COMPARISON BETWEEN THE U.S. AND CHINA

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Paoyang

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation is inspired by Garland’s Culture of Control, which provides an ideological lens through which to understand responses to street crime. The present study aims to utilize the lens, exploring white-collar crime to investigate what I call the Culture of No Control in regard to corporate crime. Two economic giants—the United States and China— are utilized in this study, as the prosecution rate for white-collar crime has reached a 20-year low in both nations, and both are deeply i...

  8. Accidental hanging by a T-shirt collar in a man with morphine intoxication: an unusual case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodikara, Sarathchandra; Alagiyawanna, Ramesh

    2011-09-01

    Accidental hanging is rare across all age groups, and it is even rarer in the adult population except in autoerotic asphyxia. Few cases have been reported in the literature, which describe unusual patterns of accidental hanging. This article focuses on an unusual pattern of accidental hanging of a 25-year-old man, who was in a state of morphine-induced central nervous system depression and found dead in a sitting position with the collar of his T-shirt hanging off a jutting-out root of a tree. The hanged collar acted as a ligature compressing the neck.

  9. The effect of collar on aseptic loosening and proximal femoral bone resorption in hybrid total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caglar, Omur; Atilla, Bulent; Tokgozoglu, Mazhar; Alpaslan, Mumtaz

    2008-03-01

    This study compared proximal femoral bone resorption in hybrid total hip arthroplasty cases that had poor or good contact between the collar and proximal medial femoral neck. A total of 94 patients (102 hips) comprised the study group. Mean patient age was 52 years, and mean follow-up was 4.86 years. Bone resorption of the proximal femur was evaluated with immediate postoperative and follow-up anteroposterior and lateral radiographs. Statistical analysis using the Mann-Whitney test showed no significant difference between the groups that had good or poor contact. The collar did not prevent calcar resorption even when ideal contact was achieved.

  10. Physical activity, job demand-control, perceived stress-energy, and salivary cortisol in white-collar workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Blangsted, Anne Katrine; Hansen, Ernst Albin

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to examine the association between physical activity and perceived job demand, job control, perceived stress and energy, and physiological arousal reflected by morning and evening concentrations of cortisol in saliva among white-collar workers.......The aim of the present study is to examine the association between physical activity and perceived job demand, job control, perceived stress and energy, and physiological arousal reflected by morning and evening concentrations of cortisol in saliva among white-collar workers....

  11. Influence of Laser-Microtextured Surface Collar on Marginal Bone Loss and Peri-Implant Soft Tissue Response: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhaozhao; Zhang, Yujiao; Li, Junying; Wang, Hom-Lay; Yu, Haiyang

    2017-07-01

    A laser-microtextured surface (LMS) dental implant collar appears to promote a more tooth-like gingival collagen fiber attachment, which may help to stabilize peri-implant tissues. The purpose of this systematic review is to assess the clinical effect of an LMS versus non-LMS collar on crestal bone level and peri-implant soft tissue response. Electronic and manual literature searches were performed by two independent reviewers for articles written in English up to December 2016. Studies were included if they were human clinical trials with the purpose of evaluating the impact of an LMS collar on peri-implant hard and soft tissues. Cumulative marginal bone loss (MBL), probing depth (PD), and survival rate (SR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to show the performance of LMS implant collars. MBL, PD, and SR data were analyzed with a random effects model to compare the influence of LMS collars with non-LMS collars (e.g., roughened surface and machined surface). Fifteen human clinical studies (three randomized controlled trials, six cohort studies, and six case series) with 772 implants met the inclusion criteria. For the overall data, the weighted mean MBL was 0.72 mm (95% CI: 0.59 to 0.85 mm), PD was 1.81 mm (95% CI: 1.13 to 2.49 mm), and SR was 0.97 (95% CI: 0.95 to 0.98). MBL around an LMS collar was significantly less than around machined-surface collars (weighted mean difference [WMD]: -0.77; 95% CI: -1.01 to -0.52; I 2 = 95.2%; P collar can reduce the amount of MBL and PD compared with a machined-surface collar. Due to high heterogeneity between the included studies, results should be interpreted cautiously.

  12. Natural selection acts in opposite ways on correlated hormonal mediators of prenatal maternal effects in a wild bird population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschirren, Barbara; Postma, Erik; Gustafsson, Lars; Groothuis, Ton G G; Doligez, Blandine

    2014-10-01

    Maternal hormones are important mediators of prenatal maternal effects. Although many experimental studies have demonstrated their potency in shaping offspring phenotypes, we know remarkably little about their adaptive value. Using long-term data on a wild collared flycatcher (Ficedula albicollis) population, we show that natural selection acts in opposite ways on two maternally derived androgens, yolk androstenedione (A4) and yolk testosterone (T). High yolk A4 concentrations are associated with higher fitness, whereas high yolk T concentrations are associated with lower fitness. Natural selection thus favours females that produce eggs with high A4 and low T concentrations. Importantly, however, there exists a positive (non-genetic) correlation between A4 and T, which suggests that females are limited in their ability to reach this adaptive optimum. Thereby, these results provide strong evidence for an adaptive value of differential maternal androgen deposition, and a mechanistic explanation for the maintenance of variation in maternal investment in the wild. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  13. Aggressive behavior of the male parent predicts brood sex ratio in a songbird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szász, Eszter; Garamszegi, László Zsolt; Hegyi, Gergely; Szöllősi, Eszter; Markó, Gábor; Török, János; Rosivall, Balázs

    2014-08-01

    Brood sex ratio is often affected by parental or environmental quality, presumably in an adaptive manner that is the sex that confers higher fitness benefits to the mother is overproduced. So far, studies on the role of parental quality have focused on parental morphology and attractiveness. However, another aspect, the partner's behavioral characteristics, may also be expected to play a role in brood sex ratio adjustment. To test this hypothesis, we investigated whether the proportion of sons in the brood is predicted by the level of territorial aggression displayed by the father, in the collared flycatcher ( Ficedula albicollis). The proportion of sons in the brood was higher in early broods and increased with paternal tarsus length. When controlling for breeding date and body size, we found a higher proportion of sons in the brood of less aggressive fathers. Male nestlings are more sensitive to the rearing environment, and the behavior of courting males may often be used by females to assess their future parental activity. Therefore, adjusting brood sex ratio to the level of male aggression could be adaptive. Our results indicate that the behavior of the partner could indeed be a significant determinant in brood sex ratio adjustment, which should not be overlooked in future studies.

  14. Explaining stasis: microevolutionary studies in natural populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merilä, J; Sheldon, B C; Kruuk, L E

    2001-01-01

    Microevolution, defined as a change in the genetic constitution of a population over time, is considered to be of commonplace occurrence in nature. Its ubiquity can be inferred from the observation that quantitative genetic divergence among populations usually exceeds that to be expected due to genetic drift alone, and from numerous observations and experiments consistent with local adaptation. Experimental manipulations in natural populations have provided evidence that rapid evolutionary responses may occur in the wild. However, there are remarkably few cases where direct observations of natural populations have revealed microevolutionary changes occurring, despite the frequent demonstration of additive genetic variation and strong directional selection for particular traits. Those few cases where responses congruent with expectation have been demonstrated are restricted to changes over one generation. In this article we focus on possible explanations as to why heritable traits under apparently strong directional selection often fail to show the expected evolutionary response. To date, few of these explanations for apparent stasis have been amenable to empirical testing. We describe new methods, derived from procedures developed by animal breeding scientists, which can be used to address these explanations, and illustrate the approach with examples from long-term studies of collared flycatchers (Ficedula albicollis) and red deer (Cervus elaphus). Understanding why most intensively studied natural populations do not appear to be evolving is an important challenge for evolutionary biology.

  15. Birds reveal their personality when singing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    László Zsolt Garamszegi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Individual differences in social behaviour may have consequences for mate choice and sexual signalling, because partners should develop preferences for personalities that maximize reproductive output. Here we propose that behavioural traits involved in sexual advertisement may serve as good indicators of personality, which is fundamental for sexual selection to operate on temperament. Bird song has a prominent and well-established role in sexual selection, and it displays considerable variation among individuals with a potentially strong personality component. Therefore, we predicted that features of song would correlate with estimates of personality. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a field study of free-living male collared flycatchers, Ficedula albicollis, we characterised personality based on the exploration of an altered breeding environment, and based on the risk taken when a potential predator was approaching during a simulated territorial interaction. We found that explorative and risk-taker individuals consistently sang at lower song posts than shy individuals in the presence of a human observer. Moreover, males from lower posts established pair-bonds relatively faster than males from higher posts. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results may demonstrate that risk taking during singing correlates with risk taking during aggression and with exploration, thus personality may be manifested in different contexts involving sexual advertisement. These findings are in accordance with the hypothesis that the male's balance between investment in reproduction and risk taking is reflected in sexual displays, and it may be important information for choosy females that seek partners with personality traits enhancing breeding success.

  16. Efficacy of an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar against fleas and ticks on cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The objectives of the studies listed here were to ascertain the therapeutic and sustained efficacy of 10% imidacloprid (w/w) and 4.5% flumethrin (w/w) incorporated in a slow-release matrix collar, against laboratory-infestations of fleas and ticks on cats. Efficacy was evaluated against the flea Ctenocephalides felis felis, and the ticks Ixodes ricinus, Amblyomma americanum and Rhipicephalus turanicus. The number of studies was so large that only a general overview can be presented in this abstract. Methods Preventive efficacy was evaluated by infesting groups of cats (n = 8-10) with C. felis felis and/or I. ricinus, A. americanum or R. turanicus at monthly intervals at least, for a period of up to 8 months. Efficacy against fleas was evaluated 24 to 48 h after treatment and 24 h after infestation, and against ticks at 6 h (repellent) or 48 h (acaricidal) after infestation. Efficacy against flea larvae was evaluated over a period of 8 months by incubating viable flea eggs on blanket samples after cat contact. In all cases efficacy was calculated by comparison with untreated negative control groups. Results Efficacy against fleas (24 h) generally exceeded 95% until study termination. In vitro efficacy against flea larvae exceeded 92% until Day 90 and then declined to 67% at the conclusion of the study on Day 230. Sustained acaricidal (48 h) efficacy over a period of eight months was consistently 100% against I. ricinus from Day 2 after treatment, 100% against A. americanum, except for 98.5% and 97.7% at two time-points, and between 94% and 100% against R. turanicus. From Day 2 until 8 months after treatment the repellent (6 h), efficacy was consistently 100% against I. ricinus, and between 54.8% and 85.4% against R. turanicus. Conclusion The rapid insecticidal and acaricidal properties of the medicated collars against newly- acquired infestations of fleas and ticks and their sustained high levels of preventive efficacy have been clearly demonstrated

  17. Assessing Herbivore Foraging Behavior with GPS Collars in a Semiarid Grassland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin D. Derner

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Advances in global positioning system (GPS technology have dramatically enhanced the ability to track and study distributions of free-ranging livestock. Understanding factors controlling the distribution of free-ranging livestock requires the ability to assess when and where they are foraging. For four years (2008–2011, we periodically collected GPS and activity sensor data together with direct observations of collared cattle grazing semiarid rangeland in eastern Colorado. From these data, we developed classification tree models that allowed us to discriminate between grazing and non-grazing activities. We evaluated: (1 which activity sensor measurements from the GPS collars were most valuable in predicting cattle foraging behavior, (2 the accuracy of binary (grazing, non-grazing activity models vs. models with multiple activity categories (grazing, resting, traveling, mixed, and (3 the accuracy of models that are robust across years vs. models specific to a given year. A binary classification tree correctly removed 86.5% of the non-grazing locations, while correctly retaining 87.8% of the locations where the animal was grazing, for an overall misclassification rate of 12.9%. A classification tree that separated activity into four different categories yielded a greater misclassification rate of 16.0%. Distance travelled in a 5 minute interval and the proportion of the interval with the sensor indicating a head down position were the two most important variables predicting grazing activity. Fitting annual models of cattle foraging activity did not improve model accuracy compared to a single model based on all four years combined. This suggests that increased sample size was more valuable than accounting for interannual variation in foraging behavior associated with variation in forage production. Our models differ from previous assessments in semiarid rangeland of Israel and mesic pastures in the United States in terms of the value of different

  18. Assessing herbivore foraging behavior with GPS collars in a semiarid grassland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustine, David J; Derner, Justin D

    2013-03-15

    Advances in global positioning system (GPS) technology have dramatically enhanced the ability to track and study distributions of free-ranging livestock. Understanding factors controlling the distribution of free-ranging livestock requires the ability to assess when and where they are foraging. For four years (2008-2011), we periodically collected GPS and activity sensor data together with direct observations of collared cattle grazing semiarid rangeland in eastern Colorado. From these data, we developed classification tree models that allowed us to discriminate between grazing and non-grazing activities. We evaluated: (1) which activity sensor measurements from the GPS collars were most valuable in predicting cattle foraging behavior, (2) the accuracy of binary (grazing, non-grazing) activity models vs. models with multiple activity categories (grazing, resting, traveling, mixed), and (3) the accuracy of models that are robust across years vs. models specific to a given year. A binary classification tree correctly removed 86.5% of the non-grazing locations, while correctly retaining 87.8% of the locations where the animal was grazing, for an overall misclassification rate of 12.9%. A classification tree that separated activity into four different categories yielded a greater misclassification rate of 16.0%. Distance travelled in a 5 minute interval and the proportion of the interval with the sensor indicating a head down position were the two most important variables predicting grazing activity. Fitting annual models of cattle foraging activity did not improve model accuracy compared to a single model based on all four years combined. This suggests that increased sample size was more valuable than accounting for interannual variation in foraging behavior associated with variation in forage production. Our models differ from previous assessments in semiarid rangeland of Israel and mesic pastures in the United States in terms of the value of different activity

  19. THE CALCULATION OF BURNABLE POISON CORRECTION FACTORS FOR PWR FRESH FUEL ACTIVE COLLAR MEASUREMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croft, Stephen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Favalli, Andrea [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swinhoe, Martyn T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-19

    Verification of commercial low enriched uranium light water reactor fuel takes place at the fuel fabrication facility as part of the overall international nuclear safeguards solution to the civilian use of nuclear technology. The fissile mass per unit length is determined nondestructively by active neutron coincidence counting using a neutron collar. A collar comprises four slabs of high density polyethylene that surround the assembly. Three of the slabs contain {sup 3}He filled proportional counters to detect time correlated fission neutrons induced by an AmLi source placed in the fourth slab. Historically, the response of a particular collar design to a particular fuel assembly type has been established by careful cross-calibration to experimental absolute calibrations. Traceability exists to sources and materials held at Los Alamos National Laboratory for over 35 years. This simple yet powerful approach has ensured consistency of application. Since the 1980's there has been a steady improvement in fuel performance. The trend has been to higher burn up. This requires the use of both higher initial enrichment and greater concentrations of burnable poisons. The original analytical relationships to correct for varying fuel composition are consequently being challenged because the experimental basis for them made use of fuels of lower enrichment and lower poison content than is in use today and is envisioned for use in the near term. Thus a reassessment of the correction factors is needed. Experimental reassessment is expensive and time consuming given the great variation between fuel assemblies in circulation. Fortunately current modeling methods enable relative response functions to be calculated with high accuracy. Hence modeling provides a more convenient and cost effective means to derive correction factors which are fit for purpose with confidence. In this work we use the Monte Carlo code MCNPX with neutron coincidence tallies to calculate the influence of

  20. Interpretación en arqueología : piezas de collar de una necrópolis navarra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amparo Castiela Rodríguez

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Los restos de ajuar, recuperados en la necrópolis que han seguido el rito de la cremación, nos llegan muy alterados y requieren en ocasiones un esfuerzo especial para su comprensión. En el caso de varias piezas procedentes de La Atalaya, que formaban parte de collares, cuya interpretación ofrecemos

  1. Leptographium bhutanense sp. nov., associated with the root collar weevil Hylobitelus chenkupdorjii on Pinus wallichiana in Bhutan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, X.D.; Jacobs, K.; Kirisits, T.; Chhetri, D.B.; Wingfield, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Leptographium spp. are commonly associated with bark beetles and weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), and some are important tree pathogens. In a recent survey of diseases and insect pests of conifer trees in Bhutan, the root collar weevil, Hylobitelus chenkupdorjii was found girdling young

  2. Correlations between Field Quality and Geometry of Components in the Collared Coils of the LHC Main Dipoles

    CERN Document Server

    Bellesia, B; Scandale, Walter; Todesco, Ezio; Völlinger, C

    2004-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) [1], a proton-proton superconducting accelerator, will consist of about 8400 superconducting magnet units, all operating in superfluid helium at a temperature of 1.9 K. The design of the superconducting main dipole magnets for the LHC is guided by the requirement of an extremely high field quality in the magnet aperture which is mainly defined by the layout of the superconducting coil and the position of the conductors. In order to avoid conductor movements within the magnet cross-section, the superconducting coils are held in place by surrounding stainless steel collars. In this paper, we review the dependence of field harmonics in the LHC main dipoles on dimensions of the hardware components of the collared coils. An analysis of the dimensional measurements of these compo-nents which are used in the collared coils produced so far is given. Sensitivity tables which are worked out through a coupled magneto-static model give the variation of the multipoles on collars, copper we...

  3. Pressure ulcers, indentation marks and pain from cervical spine immobilization with extrication collars and headblocks: An observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ham, W.H.; Schoonhoven, L.; Schuurmans, M.J.; Leenen, L.P.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the occurrence and severity of pressure ulcers, indentation marks and pain from the extrication collar combined with headblocks. Furthermore, the influence of time, injury severity and patient characteristics on the development of pressure ulcers, indentation marks and pain

  4. Pressure ulcers, indentation marks and pain from cervical spine immobilization with extrication collars and headblocks : An observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ham, Wietske H W; Schoonhoven, Lisette; Schuurmans, Marieke J; Leenen, Luke P H

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the occurrence and severity of pressure ulcers, indentation marks and pain from the extrication collar combined with headblocks. Furthermore, the influence of time, injury severity and patient characteristics on the development of pressure ulcers, indentation marks and pain

  5. A new member of the greater double-collared sunbird complex (Passeriformes: Nectariniidae) from the Eastern Arc Mountains of Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bowie, Rauri C. K.; Fjeldså, Jon; Kiure, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    We document the discovery of the first population of greater double-collared sunbird (Cinnyris afer complex) from the Eastern Arc Mountains of Tanzania. We assessed phylogenetic relationships and taxonomic rank based on mtDNA sequence data, nine microsatellite loci and morphology. This new taxon...

  6. Informing Tobacco Cessation Benefit Use Interventions for Unionized Blue-Collar Workers: A Mixed-Methods Reasoned Action Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yzer, Marco; Weisman, Susan; Mejia, Nicole; Hennrikus, Deborah; Choi, Kelvin; DeSimone, Susan

    2015-08-01

    Blue-collar workers typically have high rates of tobacco use but low rates of using tobacco cessation resources available through their health benefits. Interventions to motivate blue-collar tobacco users to use effective cessation support are needed. Reasoned action theory is useful in this regard as it can identify the beliefs that shape tobacco cessation benefit use intentions. However, conventional reasoned action research cannot speak to how those beliefs can best be translated into intervention messages. In the present work, we expand the reasoned action approach by adding additional qualitative inquiry to better understand blue-collar smokers' beliefs about cessation benefit use. Across three samples of unionized blue-collar tobacco users, we identified (1) the 35 attitudinal, normative, and control beliefs that represented tobacco users' belief structure about cessation benefit use; (2) instrumental attitude as most important in explaining cessation intention; (3) attitudinal beliefs about treatment options' efficacy, health effects, and monetary implications of using benefits as candidates for message design; (4) multiple interpretations of cessation beliefs (e.g., short and long-term health effects); and (5) clear implications of these interpretations for creative message design. Taken together, the findings demonstrate how a mixed-method reasoned action approach can inform interventions that promote the use of tobacco cessation health benefits.

  7. Load at fracture of monolithic and bilayered zirconia crowns with and without a cervical zirconia collar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øilo, Marit; Kvam, Ketil; Gjerdet, Nils Roar

    2016-05-01

    The effect of anatomic contour design in all or parts of zirconia crowns is uncertain regarding clinical reliability and survival rates. The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the load at fracture of monolithic, anatomic contour zirconia crowns with bilayered crowns with and without a cervical zirconia collar. Thirty zirconia crowns were fabricated for a shallow chamfer molar preparation, 10 with a normal core-veneer design, 10 with a core-veneer design with an additional cervical collar of zirconia, and 10 with a monolithic, anatomic contour design. Veneering ceramic was applied to the first 20 specimens to create an anatomic form. All crowns were cemented to epoxy abutments and loaded until complete fracture with a clinically relevant test method. The fracture modes and load at fracture were recorded. Statistically significant differences were found in the load at fracture and fracture modes among the test groups (Pcrown margin, mostly in the proximal region. The mean load at fracture was 4091 N for the normal core-veneer design, 4712 N for the collar design, and 6517 N for the monolithic, anatomic contour design. Monolithic, anatomical contour design gave higher loads at fracture than traditional core-veneer design. Crowns with a cervical zirconia collar had higher load at fracture than the core-veneer design, but lower than the monolithic crowns. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. "Blue-Collar Blues" : kõigi maade töötud, ühinege! / Ants Juske

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juske, Ants, 1956-2016

    2009-01-01

    Rahvusvaheline näitus "Blue-Collar Blues" Tallinna Kunstihoones ja Kunstihoone galeriis 31. jaanuarini 2010. Kuraator Anders Härm. Näituse ajendiks on 1. juulist 2009 Eestis kehtima hakanud töölepinguseadus, näituse fookus on töösuhetel

  9. Prophylactic treatment of flea-infested cats with an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar to forestall infection with Dipylidium caninum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fourie Josephus J

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of the study was to determine the sustained effectiveness of 10% imidacloprid (w/w and 4.5% flumethrin (w/w incorporated in a slow-release matrix collar in preventing Dipylidium caninum infection in cats following repeated laboratory-infestations with fleas infected with metacestodes. Methods Efficacy against infection with D. caninum was evaluated by infesting 16 cats with the flea Ctenocephalides felis felis infected with metacestodes of the tapeworm. Medicated collars were fitted to 8 of the cats and infestation of each cat with 200 fleas from a suitably infected batch commenced 7 days later and continued at weekly intervals until Day 28. Efficacy against fleas was evaluated 24 h after each infestation. Infection of the cats with D. caninum was verified by daily examination of the cats’ faeces and immediate surroundings for proglottids from Day 21 to Day 60. Calculation of the prophylactic effectiveness of the collars in preventing infection of the cats with D. caninum was based on the difference in the geometric mean number of scoleces recovered from the gastrointestinal tracts of collared compared to untreated cats at necropsy on Day 61. Results Efficacy of the collars against infestation of the cats with fleas was 99.9% on Day 7 and 100% at each subsequent weekly assessment. Infection of the fleas with metacestodes was ≥40% in 7 to 13 day old fleas, but progressively decreased thereafter. At necropsy all the control cats were infected with D. caninum and harboured between 19 and 346 scoleces with a geometric mean of 58.3. A single treated cat was infected and harboured 2 scoleces. Effective prevention of infection with D. caninum, based on a comparison of the geometric mean numbers of scoleces recovered from control and treated cats, was 99.7%. Conclusion The insecticidal components of the medicated collars are capable of rapidly eliminating newly-acquired infestations of fleas that are infected

  10. Using Molecular Genetic Markers to Resolve a Subspecies Boundary: The Northern Boundary of the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher in the Four-Corner States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Eben H.; Sogge, Mark K.; Theimer, Tad C.; Girard, Jessica; Keim, Paul

    2008-01-01

    *Executive Summary* The northern boundary of the endangered Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) is currently approximated as running through southern Colorado and Utah, but the exact placement is uncertain because this subspecies shares a border with the more northern and non-endangered E. t. adastus. To help resolve this issue, we evaluated the geographic distribution of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA by sampling breeding sites across the four-corner states (Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah). We found that breeding sites clustered into two major groups generally consistent with the currently designated boundary, with the exception of three sites situated along the current boundary. However, delineating a precise boundary that would separate the two subspecies is made difficult because (1) we found evidence for a region of intergradation along the boundary area, suggesting the boundary is not discreet, and (2) the boundary region is sparsely populated, with too few extant breeding populations to precisely locate a boundary. The boundary region encompasses an area where elevation changes markedly over relatively short distances, with low elevation deserts to the south and more mesic, higher elevation habitats to the north. We hypothesized that latitudinal and elevational differences and their concomitant ecological effects could form an ecological barrier that inhibited gene flow between the subspecies, forming the basis for the subspecies boundary. We modeled changes in geographic patterns of genetic markers as a function of latitude and elevation finding significant support for this relationship. The model was brought into a GIS environment to create multiple subspecies boundaries, with the strength of each predicted boundary evaluated on the basis of how much genetic variation it explained. The candidate boundary that accounted for the most genetic variation was situated generally near the currently recognized subspecies boundary

  11. Leptospira and Brucella antibodies in collared anteaters (Tamandua tetradactyla) in Brazilian zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Indiara dos Santos; Folly, Márcio Manhães; Garcia, Luize Néli Nunes; Ramos, Tatiane Mendes Varela; da Silva, Mariana Cristina; Pereira, Martha Maria

    2012-12-01

    The presence of Leptospira spp. and Brucella spp. antibodies was investigated in serum samples from 28 collared anteaters (Tamandua tetradactyla) kept in seven Brazilian zoos. Sera were tested against 19 Leptospira serovars using microscopic agglutination. Samples reacted to the following serovars: two (7.14%) to Patoc, three (10.71%) to Tarrasovi, three (10.71%) to both Patoc and Tarrasovi, two (7.14%) to Wolffi, and one (3.57%) to Australis. Two (7.14%) samples reacted to the buffered Brucella antigen test, but no confirmatory reaction occurred using the 2-mercaptoethanol slow slide agglutination test. No sample was reactive in the agar gel immunodiffusion test for rugose species of Brucella. The presence of anti-leptospira agglutinins in captive T. tetradactyla serum indicates that this species may be susceptible to infection by these bacteria.

  12. El collar de la paloma : tratado sobre el amor y los amantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina López Pita

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Se recoge en este trabajo la opinión que algunos estudiosos han dado sobre una de las mejores obras de la literatura árabe, calificada por don Emilio García Gómez de auténtica joya literaria. Su autor, el ilustre polígrafo cordobés, Ibn Hazm (994-1064, comenzó a escribirla en el año 1022 en unas duras condiciones, como él mismo reconoce, cuando se hallaba cautivo en dativa. Por entonces, el califato cordobés mostraba ya sus primeros síntomas de debilidad. Esta obra esta escrita en árabe purísimo y en rica prosa en la que se intercalan versos con un profundo sentimiento. En ella su autor nos narra aspectos del amor basados en su propia experiencia, y en lo que le contaron gentes de fiar, transmitiendo, en suma, como amaron las gentes de al-Andalus durante el gobierno de la dinastía omeya; por este motivo, algunos consideran, en parte, este libro como la autobiografía de su autor y de las gentes que le rodearon. Ibn Hazm compuso esta obra por encargo de un amigo y a través de ella le ofrece, por la amistad que les une, «ayuda» para alcanzar la verdad. En los sucesivos capítulos de que consta «El collar», el autor nos habla de los fundamentos del amor, entre los que destaca, la esencia del amor, las formas de enamoramiento,etc... de los accidentes del amor y de sus cualidades loables y vituperables; de las malaventuras que sobrevienen al amor, de la fealdad del pecado y de la castidad. No obstante, a pesar del plan previo establecido por el autor, estos temas se mezclan unos con otros, y de ello se excusa Ibn Hazm. «El collar de la paloma» ha tenido una gran divulgación, siendo traducido a las principales lenguas, y en él han querido encontrar, estudiosos de la literatura medieval ciertas similitudes.This report contains some opinión from several experts about one of the masterpieces of the arab literature, considered as an authentic jewel by Emilio García Gómez. Its author, the famous cordovan polygraph Ibn Hazm (994

  13. Prediction of objectively measured physical activity and sedentariness among blue-collar workers using survey questionnaires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Nidhi; Heiden, Marina; Mathiassen, Svend Erik

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We aimed at developing and evaluating statistical models predicting objectively measured occupational time spent sedentary or in physical activity from self-reported information available in large epidemiological studies and surveys. METHODS: Two-hundred-and-fourteen blue-collar workers...... responded to a questionnaire containing information about personal and work related variables, available in most large epidemiological studies and surveys. Workers also wore accelerometers for 1-4 days measuring time spent sedentary and in physical activity, defined as non-sedentary time. Least......, of the variance of the objectively measured exposures. Internal validation using bootstrapping suggested that the full and single-predictor models would show almost the same performance in new datasets as in that used for modelling. CONCLUSIONS: Both full and single-predictor models based on self...

  14. Compressive Strength Prediction of Square Concrete Columns Retrofitted with External Steel Collars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pudjisuryadi, P.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Transverse confining stress in concrete members, commonly provided by transverse reinforcement, has been recognized to enhance strength and ductility. Nowadays, the confining method has been further developed to external confinement approach. This type of confinement can be used for retrofitting existing concrete columns. Many external confining techniques have been proven to be successful in retrofitting circular columns. However, for square or rectangular columns, providing effective confining stress by external retrofitting method is not a simple task due to high stress concentration at column’s corners. This paper proposes an analytical model to predict the peak strength of square concrete columns confined by external steel collars. Comparison with the experimental results showed that the model can predict the peak strength reasonably well. However, it should be noted that relatively larger amount of steel is needed to achieve comparable column strength enhancement when it is compared with those of conve tional internally-confined columns.

  15. Smoking, diet, and health behaviors among lead-exposed blue-collar workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahar, D R; Kristal-Boneh, E; Froom, P; Harari, G; Ribak, J

    1999-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to compare dietary intake by smoking levels in blue-collar Israeli workers occupationally exposed to lead and thus identify additional areas for health-enhancing intervention in addition to smoking cessation. One hundred and eighty-seven male industrial employees who were exposed to lead through their work were screened at the worksite to evaluate health status and dietary intake. Smokers had higher intakes of fat, cholesterol, calcium, riboflavin, and vitamin E per day. They were consuming more meat and high-fat dairy products. Dose-response relationships were shown for fat and energy intake by smoking level. Thus, smoking is associated with other adverse health behaviors. When conducting epidemiologic or occupational studies, analyses should include adjustment for the fact that the lifestyles of smokers may also be unhealthy in other ways.

  16. Psychophysiological reactions to telework in female and male white-collar workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Ulf; Lindfors, Petra

    2002-10-01

    Information technology has created greater flexibility and mobility for employees, such as teleworkers. However, research on stress and health is limited. This study investigated psychophysiological arousal in 26 highly educated white-collar workers (12 women and 14 men) while (a) working at the office, (b) working at home (telework), and (c) relaxing at home. Blood pressure was significantly higher during work at the office than when teleworking at home, and men had significantly elevated epinephrine levels in the evening after telework at home. It was assumed that the lower cardiovascular arousal during telework is due to different work tasks and that elevated epinephrine levels in men after telework are caused by continued work after normal working hours.

  17. The role of the State Audit Institution in prevention of white-collar crime in the public sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šuput Jelena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the author points out to the important role of the Serbian State Audit Institution in prevention of corruptive practices, felonies and white-collar crime in the public sector in the Republic of Serbia. Although the activity of supreme state auditors is not primarily aimed at detecting criminal offences in the public sector, their efforts and results in this area are by no means insignificant. This is due to the fact that state auditors are well-trained to interpret and apply the legal provisions from the area of public finance, public procurements and accountancy, regulating the budget system of revenues and expenditures whose violation may constitute a criminal offence within the scope of white-collar crime. Considering the fact that it is an independent and autonomous state authority, the Serbian Supreme Audit Institution should play a very important role in reducing 'the dark figures of white-collar crime'. In many cases, the fear of crime detection as well as the fear of being punished are sufficient to exert the preventive effect on the potential perpetrators of white-collar crimes. However, we have to bear in mind that the prevention of corruption and other felonies which are qualified as white-collar crime calls for a joint effort of all state institutions and citizens alike. Another fact which is very important for improving the operative quality of the Supreme Audit Institution is its membership in the International Organisation of Supreme Audit Institutions and cooperation with the Supreme Audit Institutions in other countries.

  18. Biomechanical comparison of two different collar structured implants supporting 3-unit fixed partial denture: a 3-D FEM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meriç, Gökçe; Erkmen, Erkan; Kurt, Ahmet; Eser, Atilim; Ozden, Ahmet Utku

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the effects of two distinct collar geometries of implants on stress distribution in the bone as well as in the fixture-abutment complex, in the framework and in the veneering material of 3-unit fixed partial denture (FPD). The 3-dimensional finite element analysis method was selected to evaluate the stress distribution in the system composed of 3-unit FPD supported by two different dental implant systems with two distinct collar geometries; microthread collar structure (MCS) and non-microthread collar structure (NMCS). In separate load cases, 300 N vertical, 150 N oblique and 60 N horizontal, forces were utilized to simulate the multidirectional chewing forces. Tensile and compressive stress values in the cortical and cancellous bone and von Mises stresses in the fixture-abutment complex, in the framework and veneering material, were simulated as a body and investigated separately. In the cortical bone lower stress values were found in the MCS model, when compared with NMCS. In the cancellous bone, lower stress values were observed in the NMCS model when compared with MCS. In the implant-abutment complex, highest von Mises stress values were noted in the NMCS model; however, in the framework and veneering material, highest stress values were calculated in MCS model. MCS implants when compared with NMCS implants supporting 3-unit FPDs decrease the stress values in the cortical bone and implant-abutment complex. The results of the present study will be evaluated as a base for our ongoing FEA studies focused on stress distribution around the microthread and non-microthread collar geometries with various prosthesis design.

  19. A Double-Blind Randomized Trial Comparing Implants with Laser-Microtextured and Machined Collar Surfaces: Microbiologic and Clinical Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnieri, Renzo; Rappelli, Giorgio; Piemontese, Matteo; Procaccini, Maurizio; Quaranta, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical outcome of and determine the differences in periodonto-pathogenic microbiota around two types of implant collar surfaces: laser-microtextured (test) vs machined (control). Seventeen patients (11 periodontally healthy, and 6 periodontally compromised) were selected to receive the two different implants, placed randomly, in two edentulous sites. Six months following the surgical placement of the dental implants, subgingival plaque samples were collected using paper points from the peri-implant sulcus and from the sulcus of an adjacent tooth. The presence of five putative periodontal pathogens, namely, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Treponema denticola, and Tannerella forsythensis, was assessed using real-time polymerized chain reaction (RT-PCR). Peri-implant parameters and intraoral radiographs were recorded up to 1 year after abutment connection. In the main population, and in the periodontally compromised subgroup, the total number of periodontal pathogens around test implant sites was lower than control implant sites and adjacent tooth sites, with a statistically significant difference (P < .05). In periodontally healthy patients, the mean probing pocket depth for the test implant was 1.31 ± 0.51 mm, compared with 2.66 ± 0.83 mm for the control implant, while in periodontally compromised patients, it was 1.61 ± 0.58 mm for the test implant, compared with a mean value of 2.84 ± 1.0 mm for the control implant. Implants with a laser-microtextured collar surface are not more vulnerable to pathogenic microflora colonization than implants with a machined collar surface. In both of the subgroups of patients (periodontally healthy and periodontally compromised), implants with a laser-microtextured collar surface have a better clinical outcome at 1 year of loading, compared with implants with a machined collar surface.

  20. Better Few than Hungry: Flexible Feeding Ecology of Collared Lemurs Eulemur collaris in Littoral Forest Fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donati, Giuseppe; Kesch, Kristina; Ndremifidy, Kelard; Schmidt, Stacey L.; Ramanamanjato, Jean-Baptiste; Borgognini-Tarli, Silvana M.; Ganzhorn, Joerg U.

    2011-01-01

    Background Frugivorous primates are known to encounter many problems to cope with habitat degradation, due to the fluctuating spatial and temporal distribution of their food resources. Since lemur communities evolved strategies to deal with periods of food scarcity, these primates are expected to be naturally adapted to fluctuating ecological conditions and to tolerate a certain degree of habitat changes. However, behavioral and ecological strategies adopted by frugivorous lemurs to survive in secondary habitats have been little investigated. Here, we compared the behavioral ecology of collared lemurs (Eulemur collaris) in a degraded fragment of littoral forest of south-east Madagascar, Mandena, with that of their conspecifics in a more intact habitat, Sainte Luce. Methodology/Principal Findings Lemur groups in Mandena and in Sainte Luce were censused in 2004/2007 and in 2000, respectively. Data were collected via instantaneous sampling on five lemur groups totaling 1,698 observation hours. The Shannon index was used to determine dietary diversity and nutritional analyses were conducted to assess food quality. All feeding trees were identified and measured, and ranging areas determined via the minimum convex polygon. In the degraded area lemurs were able to modify several aspects of their feeding strategies by decreasing group size and by increasing feeding time, ranging areas, and number of feeding trees. The above strategies were apparently able to counteract a clear reduction in both food quality and size of feeding trees. Conclusions/Significance Our findings indicate that collared lemurs in littoral forest fragments modified their behavior to cope with the pressures of fluctuating resource availability. The observed flexibility is likely to be an adaptation to Malagasy rainforests, which are known to undergo periods of fruit scarcity and low productivity. These results should be carefully considered when relocating lemurs or when selecting suitable areas for

  1. Better few than hungry: flexible feeding ecology of collared lemurs Eulemur collaris in littoral forest fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donati, Giuseppe; Kesch, Kristina; Ndremifidy, Kelard; Schmidt, Stacey L; Ramanamanjato, Jean-Baptiste; Borgognini-Tarli, Silvana M; Ganzhorn, Joerg U

    2011-01-01

    Frugivorous primates are known to encounter many problems to cope with habitat degradation, due to the fluctuating spatial and temporal distribution of their food resources. Since lemur communities evolved strategies to deal with periods of food scarcity, these primates are expected to be naturally adapted to fluctuating ecological conditions and to tolerate a certain degree of habitat changes. However, behavioral and ecological strategies adopted by frugivorous lemurs to survive in secondary habitats have been little investigated. Here, we compared the behavioral ecology of collared lemurs (Eulemur collaris) in a degraded fragment of littoral forest of south-east Madagascar, Mandena, with that of their conspecifics in a more intact habitat, Sainte Luce. Lemur groups in Mandena and in Sainte Luce were censused in 2004/2007 and in 2000, respectively. Data were collected via instantaneous sampling on five lemur groups totaling 1,698 observation hours. The Shannon index was used to determine dietary diversity and nutritional analyses were conducted to assess food quality. All feeding trees were identified and measured, and ranging areas determined via the minimum convex polygon. In the degraded area lemurs were able to modify several aspects of their feeding strategies by decreasing group size and by increasing feeding time, ranging areas, and number of feeding trees. The above strategies were apparently able to counteract a clear reduction in both food quality and size of feeding trees. Our findings indicate that collared lemurs in littoral forest fragments modified their behavior to cope with the pressures of fluctuating resource availability. The observed flexibility is likely to be an adaptation to Malagasy rainforests, which are known to undergo periods of fruit scarcity and low productivity. These results should be carefully considered when relocating lemurs or when selecting suitable areas for their conservation.

  2. Better few than hungry: flexible feeding ecology of collared lemurs Eulemur collaris in littoral forest fragments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Donati

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Frugivorous primates are known to encounter many problems to cope with habitat degradation, due to the fluctuating spatial and temporal distribution of their food resources. Since lemur communities evolved strategies to deal with periods of food scarcity, these primates are expected to be naturally adapted to fluctuating ecological conditions and to tolerate a certain degree of habitat changes. However, behavioral and ecological strategies adopted by frugivorous lemurs to survive in secondary habitats have been little investigated. Here, we compared the behavioral ecology of collared lemurs (Eulemur collaris in a degraded fragment of littoral forest of south-east Madagascar, Mandena, with that of their conspecifics in a more intact habitat, Sainte Luce. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Lemur groups in Mandena and in Sainte Luce were censused in 2004/2007 and in 2000, respectively. Data were collected via instantaneous sampling on five lemur groups totaling 1,698 observation hours. The Shannon index was used to determine dietary diversity and nutritional analyses were conducted to assess food quality. All feeding trees were identified and measured, and ranging areas determined via the minimum convex polygon. In the degraded area lemurs were able to modify several aspects of their feeding strategies by decreasing group size and by increasing feeding time, ranging areas, and number of feeding trees. The above strategies were apparently able to counteract a clear reduction in both food quality and size of feeding trees. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings indicate that collared lemurs in littoral forest fragments modified their behavior to cope with the pressures of fluctuating resource availability. The observed flexibility is likely to be an adaptation to Malagasy rainforests, which are known to undergo periods of fruit scarcity and low productivity. These results should be carefully considered when relocating lemurs or when

  3. Cervical Spine Collar Removal by Emergency Room Nurses: A Quality Improvement Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Guillaume; Forgione, Massimo; Lusignan, Francis; Lanoue, Marc-André; Drouin, Simon

    2017-08-22

    The Canadian C-Spine Rule (CCR) is a clinical decision aid to facilitate the safe removal of cervical collars in the alert, orientated, low-risk adult trauma patient. Few health care settings have assessed initiatives to train charge nurses to use the CCR. This practice improvement project conducted in a secondary trauma center in Canada aimed to (1) train charge nurses of the emergency room to use the CCR, (2) monitor its use throughout the project period, and (3) compare the assessments of the charge nurses with those of emergency physicians. The project began with the creation of an interdisciplinary team. Clinical guidelines were established by the interdisciplinary project team. Nine charge nurses of the emergency room were then trained to use the CCR (3 on each 8-hour shift). The use of the CCR was monitored throughout the project period, from June 1 to October 5, 2016. The 3 aims of this practice improvement project were attained successfully. Over a 5-month period, 114 patients were assessed with the CCR. Charge nurses removed the cervical collars for 54 of 114 patients (47%). A perfect agreement rate (114 of 114 patients, 100%) was attained between the assessments of the nurses and those of physicians. This project shows that the charge nurses of a secondary trauma center can use the CCR safely on alert, orientated, and low-risk adult trauma patients as demonstrated by the agreement in the assessments of emergency room nurses and physicians. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Synchronous genetic turnovers across Western Eurasia in Late Pleistocene collared lemmings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palkopoulou, Eleftheria; Baca, Mateusz; Abramson, Natalia I; Sablin, Mikhail; Socha, Paweł; Nadachowski, Adam; Prost, Stefan; Germonpré, Mietje; Kosintsev, Pavel; Smirnov, Nickolay G; Vartanyan, Sergey; Ponomarev, Dmitry; Nyström, Johanna; Nikolskiy, Pavel; Jass, Christopher N; Litvinov, Yuriy N; Kalthoff, Daniela C; Grigoriev, Semyon; Fadeeva, Tatyana; Douka, Aikaterini; Higham, Thomas F G; Ersmark, Erik; Pitulko, Vladimir; Pavlova, Elena; Stewart, John R; Węgleński, Piotr; Stankovic, Anna; Dalén, Love

    2016-05-01

    Recent palaeogenetic studies indicate a highly dynamic history in collared lemmings (Dicrostonyx spp.), with several demographical changes linked to climatic fluctuations that took place during the last glaciation. At the western range margin of D. torquatus, these changes were characterized by a series of local extinctions and recolonizations. However, it is unclear whether this pattern represents a local phenomenon, possibly driven by ecological edge effects, or a global phenomenon that took place across large geographical scales. To address this, we explored the palaeogenetic history of the collared lemming using a next-generation sequencing approach for pooled mitochondrial DNA amplicons. Sequences were obtained from over 300 fossil remains sampled across Eurasia and two sites in North America. We identified five mitochondrial lineages of D. torquatus that succeeded each other through time across Europe and western Russia, indicating a history of repeated population extinctions and recolonizations, most likely from eastern Russia, during the last 50 000 years. The observation of repeated extinctions across such a vast geographical range indicates large-scale changes in the steppe-tundra environment in western Eurasia during the last glaciation. All Holocene samples, from across the species' entire range, belonged to only one of the five mitochondrial lineages. Thus, extant D. torquatus populations only harbour a small fraction of the total genetic diversity that existed across different stages of the Late Pleistocene. In North American samples, haplotypes belonging to both D. groenlandicus and D. richardsoni were recovered from a Late Pleistocene site in south-western Canada. This suggests that D. groenlandicus had a more southern and D. richardsoni a more northern glacial distribution than previously thought. This study provides significant insights into the population dynamics of a small mammal at a large geographical scale and reveals a rather complex

  5. The synergistic action of imidacloprid and flumethrin and their release kinetics from collars applied for ectoparasite control in dogs and cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The control of tick and flea burdens in dogs and cats has become essential to the control of important and emerging vector borne diseases, some of which are zoonoses. Flea worry and flea bite hypersensitivity are additionally a significant disease entity in dogs and cats. Owner compliance in maintaining the pressure of control measures has been shown to be poor. For these reasons efforts are continuously being made to develop ectoparasiticides and application methods that are safe, effective and easy to apply for pet owners. A new polymer matrix collar has recently been developed which is registered for 8 months use in cats and dogs. The basic properties of this collar have been investigated in several in vitro and in vivo studies. Methods The effects of imidacloprid, flumethrin and the combination were evaluated in vitro by means of whole cell voltage clamp measurement experiments conducted on isolated neuron cells from Spodoptera frugiperda. The in vitro efficacy of the two compounds and the combination against three species of ticks and their life stages and fleas were evaluated in a dry surface glass vial assay. The kinetics of the compounds over time in the collar were evaluated by the change in mass of the collar and measurement of the surface concentrations and concentrations of the actives in the collar matrix by HPLC. Hair clipped from collar treated dogs and cats, collected at various time points, was used to assess the acaricidal efficacy of the actives ex vivo. Results An in vitro isolated insect nerve model demonstrated the synergistic neurotoxic effects of the pyrethroid flumethrin and the neonicotinoid imidacloprid. An in vitro glass vial efficacy and mortality study against various life stages of the ticks Ixodes ricinus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Dermacentor reticulatus and against the flea (Ctenocephalides felis) demonstrated that the combination of these products was highly effective against these parasites. The release kinetics of

  6. The synergistic action of imidacloprid and flumethrin and their release kinetics from collars applied for ectoparasite control in dogs and cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanneck Dorothee

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The control of tick and flea burdens in dogs and cats has become essential to the control of important and emerging vector borne diseases, some of which are zoonoses. Flea worry and flea bite hypersensitivity are additionally a significant disease entity in dogs and cats. Owner compliance in maintaining the pressure of control measures has been shown to be poor. For these reasons efforts are continuously being made to develop ectoparasiticides and application methods that are safe, effective and easy to apply for pet owners. A new polymer matrix collar has recently been developed which is registered for 8 months use in cats and dogs. The basic properties of this collar have been investigated in several in vitro and in vivo studies. Methods The effects of imidacloprid, flumethrin and the combination were evaluated in vitro by means of whole cell voltage clamp measurement experiments conducted on isolated neuron cells from Spodoptera frugiperda. The in vitro efficacy of the two compounds and the combination against three species of ticks and their life stages and fleas were evaluated in a dry surface glass vial assay. The kinetics of the compounds over time in the collar were evaluated by the change in mass of the collar and measurement of the surface concentrations and concentrations of the actives in the collar matrix by HPLC. Hair clipped from collar treated dogs and cats, collected at various time points, was used to assess the acaricidal efficacy of the actives ex vivo. Results An in vitro isolated insect nerve model demonstrated the synergistic neurotoxic effects of the pyrethroid flumethrin and the neonicotinoid imidacloprid. An in vitro glass vial efficacy and mortality study against various life stages of the ticks Ixodes ricinus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Dermacentor reticulatus and against the flea (Ctenocephalides felis demonstrated that the combination of these products was highly effective against these

  7. Efficacy of a slow-release imidacloprid (10%)/flumethrin (4.5%) collar for the prevention of canine leishmaniosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brianti, Emanuele; Gaglio, Gabriella; Napoli, Ettore; Falsone, Luigi; Prudente, Chiara; Solari Basano, Fabrizio; Latrofa, Maria S; Tarallo, Viviana D; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Capelli, Gioia; Stanneck, Dorothee; Giannetto, Salvatore; Otranto, Domenico

    2014-07-14

    The efficacy of a slow-release insecticidal and repellent collar containing 10% imidacloprid and 4.5% flumethrin (Seresto, Bayer Animal Health) in preventing Leishmania infantum infection was evaluated in a large population of dogs living in a hyper-endemic area of Sicily (Italy). A total of 219 dogs, negative for L. infantum were enrolled in a multicentre, controlled study. Dogs were divided into two homogeneous groups, defined as G1 (n = 102) and G2 (n = 117). Before the start of the sand fly season, dogs in G1 were treated with the collar while animals in G2 were left untreated, serving as negative controls. Dogs were serially sampled on day D90, D180, D210 and D300 in order to assess Leishmania infection by IFAT, PCR on skin (D210-D300) and bone marrow (D300) and cytology on bone marrow aspirate (D300). Three dogs (2.9%) in G1 and 41 (40.2%) in G2 became positive for L. infantum in at least one of the diagnostic tests employed in the study. The number of seropositive dogs in G2 increased in the course of the study from 15 (D90) to 41 (D300), with some of them also positive in other diagnostic tests. Eight (19.6%) of the seropositive dogs in G2 showed an increase in antibody titers ranging from 1:160 to 1:1,280. At the last follow-up, some of dogs in G2 displayed overt clinical signs suggestive of leishmaniosis. The mean incidence density rate at the final follow-up was 4.0% for G1 and 60.7% for G2, leading to a mean efficacy of the collar in protecting dogs at both sites of 93.4%. The slow-release collar tested in this study was shown to be safe and highly effective in preventing L. infantum infection in a large population of dogs. Protection conferred by a single collar (up to eight months) spanned an entire sand fly season in a hyper-endemic area of southern Italy. The regular use of collars, at least during the sand fly season, may represent a reliable and sustainable strategy for the prevention of leishmaniosis in dogs living in or travelling to an

  8. Distribution and abundance of Least Bell’s Vireos (Vireo bellii pusillus) and Southwestern Willow Flycatchers (Empidonax traillii extimus) on the Middle San Luis Rey River, San Diego, southern California—2016 data summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Lisa D.; Howell, Scarlett L.; Kus, Barbara E.

    2017-09-29

    Executive SummaryWe surveyed for Least Bell’s Vireos (LBVI) (Vireo bellii pusillus) and Southwestern Willow Flycatchers (SWFL) (Empidonax traillii extimus) along the San Luis Rey River, between College Boulevard in Oceanside and Interstate 15 in Fallbrook, California (middle San Luis Rey River), in 2016. Surveys were done from March 30 to July 11 (LBVI) and from May 18 to July 30 (SWFL). We found 142 LBVI territories, at least 106 of which were occupied by pairs. Six additional transient LBVIs were detected. Of 20 banded LBVIs detected in the survey area, 9 had been given full color-band combinations prior to 2016, although we were unable to determine the exact color combination of 1 female LBVI. Seven other LBVIs with single (natal) federal bands were recaptured and banded in 2016. Four vireos with single dark blue federal bands indicating that they were banded as nestlings on the lower San Luis Rey River could not be recaptured for identification.Three SFWL territories were observed in the survey area in 2016. Two territories were occupied by pairs and one by a male of unknown breeding status. Both pairs attempted to nest at least once, and both pairs were successful, fledging three young each. Nesting began in early June and continued into July. Brown-Headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) eggs were not observed in either nest. An additional 12 transient Willow Flycatchers of unknown subspecies were detected in 2016.Two of the five resident SWFLs were originally banded as nestlings on Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton. One male and one female were banded as nestlings on Camp Pendleton in 2009 and 2011, respectively. One natal male of unknown breeding status, originally banded as a nestling on the middle San Luis Rey River in 2015, was recaptured and given a unique color combination in 2016. This male was later detected on Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton.

  9. Lightweight bilayer barium sulfate-bismuth oxide composite thyroid collars for superior radiation protection in fluoroscopy-guided interventions: a prospective randomized controlled trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Uthoff, Heiko; Benenati, Matthew J; Katzen, Barry T; Peña, Constantino; Gandhi, Ripal; Staub, Daniel; Schernthaner, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    To test whether newer bilayer barium sulfate-bismuth oxide composite (XPF) thyroid collars (TCs) provide superior radiation protection and comfort during fluoroscopy-guided interventions compared with standard...

  10. Soft and hard tissue modifications at immediate transmucosal implants (with Laser-Lok microtextured collar) placed into fresh extraction sites: a 6-month prospective study with surgical reentry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iorio-Siciliano, Vincenzo; Marzo, Giuseppe; Blasi, Andrea; Cafiero, Carlo; Mignogna, Michele; Nicolò, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Histologic and clinical studies confirm that laser-microtextured implant collars favor the attachment of connective fibers and reduce probing depth and peri-implant bone loss when compared with machined collars. This prospective study aimed at assessing the alveolar dimensional changes after immediate placement of a transmucosal implant with a Laser-Lok microtextured collar associated with bone regenerative procedures. Thirteen implants were placed immediately into single-rooted extraction sockets. Peri-implant defects were treated with bovine-derived xenografts and resorbable collagen membranes. At 6-month surgical reentry, the Laser-Lok microtextured collar provided more favorable conditions for the attachment of hard and soft tissues and reduced the alveolar bone loss.

  11. A prospective cohort study on severe pain as a risk factor for long-term sickness absence in blue- and white-collar workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Louis; Mortensen, Ole Steen; Hansen, Jørgen Vinsløv

    2011-01-01

    Objective To estimate the impact of pain in different body regions on future long-term sickness absence (LTSA) among blue- and white-collar workers. Method Prospective cohort study in a representative sample of 5603 employees (the Danish Work Environment Cohort Study) interviewed in 2000...... consecutive weeks. Age, gender, body mass index, smoking and diagnosed disease were controlled for. Results In 2000 the prevalence among blue- and white-collar workers, respectively, of severe pain was 33% and 29% (neck/shoulder), 33% and 25% (low back), 16% and 11% (hand/wrists), and 16% and 12% (knees...... factor among white-collar workers only (HR 1.35, 95% CI 1.21 to 1.85). Knee pain was not a significant risk factor. Conclusion While hand/wrist pain and low back pain are general risk factors for LTSA, neck/shoulder pain is a specific risk factor among white-collar workers. This study suggests...

  12. Summer Activity Sensor Data from Collars Deployed on Female Polar Bears in the Chukchi Sea 1989 to 1995 and Southern Beaufort Sea 1989 to 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These are data collected from two types of activity sensors housed within collars deployed on female polar bears in the Chukchi and southern Beaufort Seas during the...

  13. Denning Behavior Classifications Using Temperature Sensor Data on Collars Deployed on Polar Bears in the Southern Beaufort Sea, 1986-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data include two spreadsheets. The first is average daily temperatures received via satellite transmitting collars deployed on polar bears in the southern...

  14. Effects of atipamezole and medetomidine administration on seminal variables and functions of erection and ejaculation of the collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) after electroejaculation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    de Paiva, Ariana L C; Nunes, Talyta L; de Oliveira, Maria G C; de Morais, Alessandro M L; Dos Santos, Erika A A; Silva, Alexandre R; de Oliveira, Moacir F; de Paula, Valéria V

    2014-01-01

    ...) has already been determined. This study aimed at investigating and comparing the effects of medetomidine and atipamezole on the seminal variables of collared peccaries undergoing electroejaculation as well as at determining...

  15. The use of radio-collars for monitoring wildlife diseases: a case study from Iberian ibex affected by Sarcoptes scabiei in Sierra Nevada, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alasaad, Samer; Granados, José E; Fandos, Paulino; Cano-Manuel, Francisco-Javier; Soriguer, Ramón C; Pérez, Jesús M

    2013-08-22

    Wildlife radio tracking has gained popularity during the recent past. Ecologists and conservationists use radio-collars for different purposes: animal movement monitoring, home range, productivity, population estimation, behaviour, habitat use, survival, and predator-prey interaction, among others. The aim of our present study is to highlight the application of radio-collars for wildlife diseases monitoring. The spread of wildlife diseases and the efficacy of management actions for controlling them propose serious challenges for ecologists and conservationists, since it is difficult to re-capture (or simply observe) the same animal in pre-determined temporal interval, but such difficulty is overcome by the use of gps-gsm radio collars. In the present study we report, for the first time to our knowledge, the use of radio-collars in the monitoring of Iberian ibex affected by Sarcoptes scabiei in Sierra Nevada mountain range, Spain. Twenty-five moderate or slightly mangy animals were radio-collared between 2006 and 2013. The radio-collars allowed us to confirm the presence of resistance to S. scabiei within Iberian ibex population. Twenty (80%) of the collared animals recovered totally from mange, while the disease progressed in the other five Iberian ibex (20% of the collared animals) and the animals died. The average estimated recovery time of the resistant animals was 245 ± 277 days, and the estimated average survival time of the non-resistant Iberian ibex was 121 ± 71 days. Non-resistant animals survived at least 100 days, while all of them died with less than 200 days. Sixty per cent of the resistant animals were recovered with less than 200 days. We report, for the first time, the successful use of radio collars for wildlife diseases monitoring using Iberian ibex/S. scabiei as a model. By using radio collars we documented that most of the Sarcoptes-infected Iberian ibex are resistant to this disease, and we estimated the average time for Iberian ibex

  16. An exploratory clustering approach for extracting stride parameters from tracking collars on free-ranging wild animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewhirst, Oliver P; Roskilly, Kyle; Hubel, Tatjana Y; Jordan, Neil R; Golabek, Krystyna A; McNutt, J Weldon; Wilson, Alan M

    2017-02-01

    Changes in stride frequency and length with speed are key parameters in animal locomotion research. They are commonly measured in a laboratory on a treadmill or by filming trained captive animals. Here, we show that a clustering approach can be used to extract these variables from data collected by a tracking collar containing a GPS module and tri-axis accelerometers and gyroscopes. The method enables stride parameters to be measured during free-ranging locomotion in natural habitats. As it does not require labelled data, it is particularly suitable for use with difficult to observe animals. The method was tested on large data sets collected from collars on free-ranging lions and African wild dogs and validated using a domestic dog. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. VEGF system expression by immunohistochemistry and real-time RT-PCR study on collared peccary placenta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, Tatiana C.; Oliveira, Moacir F.; Papa, Paula C.

    2014-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is known to induce endothelial cell proliferation, to promote cell migration, and to inhibit apoptosis, thus playing a central role in angiogenesis and in the regulation of vasculogenesis. The expression of the VEGF-ligand receptor system was studied...... in the placenta and uterus of the collared peccary in nonpregnant females in the luteal phase and throughout pregnancy (>35, 75, 115, and 135 days). The material was examined by immunohistochemistry and by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Intense positive immunolabeling was observed...... in late pregnancy. In the collared peccary, the expression of the VEGF-ligand receptor system was similar to that in porcine and ruminant placentas, suggesting that an epitheliochorial placenta has the same physiological and interhemal barrier during vascular gestational development. The expression...

  18. An addition to the diversity of dendrobatid frogs in Venezuela: description of three new collared frogs (Anura: Dendrobatidae: Mannophryne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Luis Barrio-Amorós

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Three new species of collared frogs of the genus Mannophryne are described from Venezuela. Two are newly discovered taxa from the Venezuelan Andes, whereas the third species, previously confused with M. trinitatis, is from the Caracas area in the Cordillera de la Costa. The call of the three new species and that of Mannophryne collaris are described. Taxonomic, zoogeographic, and conservation issues are discussed.

  19. Biomechanical evaluation of a fiber-reinforced composite prosthesis supported by implants with and without a microthread collar design

    OpenAIRE

    Meriç, Gökçe; Erkmen, Erkan; Kurt, Ahmet; Eser, Atilim; Çelik, Gökhan

    2010-01-01

    Background/purpose: A fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) resin system was introduced as an alternative for implant-retained fixed dental prostheses (FDPs); however, the stress distribution in the bone around the implants which support the FRC-FDP has so far not been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the biomechanical behavior of FRC-FDPs supported by implants with different collar geometries. Materials and methods: A 3-dimensional finite element analysis method was selected ...

  20. Pressure ulcers, indentation marks and pain from cervical spine immobilization with extrication collars and headblocks: An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Wietske H W; Schoonhoven, Lisette; Schuurmans, Marieke J; Leenen, Luke P H

    2016-09-01

    To describe the occurrence and severity of pressure ulcers, indentation marks and pain from the extrication collar combined with headblocks. Furthermore, the influence of time, injury severity and patient characteristics on the development of pressure ulcers, indentation marks and pain was explored. Observational. Level one trauma centre in the Netherlands. Adult trauma patients admitted to the Emergency Department in an extrication collar combined with headblocks. Between January and December 2013, 342 patients were included. Study outcomes were incidence and severity of pressure ulcers, indentation marks and pain. The following dependent variables were collected: time in the cervical collar and headblocks, Glasgow Coma Scale, Mean Arterial Pressure, haemoglobin, Injury Severity Score, gender, age, and Body Mass Index. 75.4% of the patients developed a category 1 and 2.9% a category 2 pressure ulcer. Indentation marks were observed in 221 (64.6%) patients; 96 (28.1%) had severe indentation marks. Pressure ulcers and indentation marks were observed most frequently at the back, shoulders and chest. 63.2% experienced pain, of which, 38.5% experienced severe pain. Pain was mainly located at the occiput. Female patients experienced significantly more pain (NRS>3) compared to male patients (OR=2.14, 95% CI 1.21-3.80) None of the investigated variables significantly increased the probability of developing PUs or indentation marks. The high incidence of category 1 pressure ulcers and severe indentation marks indicate an increased risk for pressure ulcer development and may well lead to more severe PU lesions. Pain due to the application of the extrication collar and headblocks may lead to undesirable movement (in order to relieve the pressure) or to bias clinical examination of the cervical spine. It is necessary to revise the current practice of cervical spine immobilization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The impact of automation software on white-collar productivity : A multi-case study with a qualitative approach.

    OpenAIRE

    Godinez, Fernando; Diaz, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this thesis is to analyze through a qualitative study, how the implementation of automation software affects the productivity of clerical work performed by white-collar employees. Design/Methodology/Approach – Results are a product of secondary sources and the collection of primary data. Our research strategy was a multi-case study, which included four different companies. One in-depth interview per case was conducted with managers who were responsible for the softwar...

  2. Shoe collar height effect on athletic performance, ankle joint kinematics and kinetics during unanticipated maximum-effort side-cutting performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Gilbert Wing Kai; Park, Eun Jung; Lee, Ki-Kwang; Cheung, Jason Tak-Man

    2015-01-01

    Side-step cutting manoeuvres comprise the coordination between planting and non-planting legs. Increased shoe collar height is expected to influence ankle biomechanics of both legs and possibly respective cutting performance. This study examined the shoe collar height effect on kinematics and kinetics of planting and non-planting legs during an unanticipated side-step cutting. Fifteen university basketball players performed maximum-effort side-step cutting to the left 45° direction or a straight ahead run in response to a random light signal. Seven successful cutting trials were collected for each condition. Athletic performance, ground reaction force, ankle kinematics and kinetics of both legs were analysed using paired t-tests. Results indicated that high-collar shoes resulted in less ankle inversion and external rotation during initial contact for the planting leg. The high-collar shoes also exhibited a smaller ankle range of motion in the sagittal and transverse planes for both legs, respectively. However, no collar effect was found for ankle moments and performance indicators including cutting performance time, ground contact time, propulsion ground reaction forces and impulses. These findings indicated that high-collar shoes altered ankle positioning and restricted ankle joint freedom movements in both legs, while no negative effect was found for athletic cutting performance.

  3. Influence of collar design on peri-implant tissue healing around immediate implants: A pilot study in Foxhound dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-Guirado, José Luis; López-López, Patricia Jara; Maté Sánchez de Val, José Eduardo; Mareque-Bueno, Javier; Delgado-Ruiz, Rafael Arcesio; Romanos, Georgios E

    2015-07-01

    The study aims to assess the soft tissue level (STL) and crestal bone level (CBL), of titanium dental implants with different mixed collar abutments configurations. This study included 48 implants with the same dimensions. They were divided into two groups of 24 implants each one: implants with a polished collar of 2 mm plus a roughened area of 0.8 mm (CONTROL) and implants with a polished collar of 0.8 mm plus a micro-threated and roughened area of 2 mm (TEST). The implants were inserted randomly in the post-extraction sockets of P2, P3, P4, and M1 bilaterally in the lower jaw of six foxhound dogs. STL and CBL were evaluated after 8 and 12 weeks by histology and histometry. All implants were clinically and histologically osseointegrated. Healing patterns examined microscopically at 8 and 12 weeks for both groups yielded similar qualitative findings for the STL evaluation, without significant differences between groups (P > 0.05). CBL was significantly higher in the buccal side in comparison with the lingual side for both groups (P bone-to-implant contact) values significantly higher for control group in comparison with test (P bone resorption. Soft tissue dimensions were similar both at the test and control sites. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Adaptable neighbours: movement patterns of GPS-collared leopards in human dominated landscapes in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odden, Morten; Athreya, Vidya; Rattan, Sandeep; Linnell, John D C

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the nature of the interactions between humans and wildlife is of vital importance for conflict mitigation. We equipped five leopards with GPS-collars in Maharashtra (4) and Himachal Pradesh (1), India, to study movement patterns in human-dominated landscapes outside protected areas. An adult male and an adult female were both translocated 52 km, and exhibited extensive, and directional, post release movements (straight line movements: male = 89 km in 37 days, female = 45 km in 5 months), until they settled in home ranges of 42 km2 (male) and 65 km2 (female). The three other leopards, two adult females and a young male were released close to their capture sites and used small home ranges of 8 km2 (male), 11 km2 and 15 km2 (females). Movement patterns were markedly nocturnal, with hourly step lengths averaging 339±9.5 m (SE) during night and 60±4.1 m during day, and night locations were significantly closer to human settlements than day locations. However, more nocturnal movements were observed among those three living in the areas with high human population densities. These visited houses regularly at nighttime (20% of locations human settlements both day and night. The small home ranges of the leopards indicate that anthropogenic food resources may be plentiful although wild prey is absent. The study provides clear insights into the ability of leopards to live and move in landscapes that are extremely modified by human activity.

  5. Ancient DNA supports southern survival of Richardson's collared lemming (Dicrostonyx richardsoni) during the last glacial maximum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Tara L; Norris, Ryan W; Graham, Russell W; Semken, Holmes A; Shapiro, Beth

    2013-05-01

    Collared lemmings (genus Dicrostonyx) are circumpolar Arctic arvicoline rodents associated with tundra. However, during the last glacial maximum (LGM), Dicrostonyx lived along the southern ice margin of the Laurentide ice sheet in communities comprising both temperate and boreal species. To better understand these communities and the fate of these southern individuals, we compare mitochondrial cytochrome b sequence data from three LGM-age Dicrostonyx fossils from south of the Laurentide ice sheet to sequences from modern Dicrostonyx sampled from across their present-day range. We test whether the Dicrostonyx populations from LGM-age continental USA became extinct at the Pleistocene-Holocene transition ~11000 years ago or, alternatively, if they belong to an extant species whose habitat preferences can be used to infer the palaeoclimate along the glacial margin. Our results indicate that LGM-age Dicrostonyx from Iowa and South Dakota belong to Dicrostonyx richardsoni, which currently lives in a temperate tundra environment west of Hudson Bay, Canada. This suggests a palaeoclimate south of the Laurentide ice sheet that contains elements similar to the more temperate shrub tundra characteristic of extant D. richardsoni habitat, rather than the very cold, dry tundra of the Northern Arctic. While more data are required to determine whether or not the LGM southern population is ancestral to extant D. richardsoni, it seems most probable that the species survived the LGM in a southern refugium. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Trends in abundance of collared lemmings near Cape Churchill, Manitoba, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, M.E.; Andersen, D.E.

    2008-01-01

    Regular, multiannual cycles observed in the population abundance of small mammals in many arctic and subarctic ecosystems have stimulated substantial research, particularly among population ecologists. Hypotheses of mechanisms generating regular cycles include predator-prey interactions, limitation of food resources, and migration or dispersal, as well as abiotic factors such as cyclic climatic variation and environmental stochasticity. In 2004 and 2005, we used indirect methods to estimate trends in population size of Richardson's collared lemmings (Dicrostonyx richardsoni) retrospectively, and evaluated the extent of synchrony between lemming populations at 2 coastal tundra study areas separated by approximately 60 km near Cape Churchill, Manitoba, Canada. We collected scars on willow plants (Salix) resulting from lemming feeding. Ages of scars ranged from 0 to 13 years at both study areas. Scar-age frequency appeared cyclic and we used nonlinear Poisson regression to model the observed scar-age frequency. Lemming populations cycled with 2.8-year periodicity and the phase of the cycle was synchronous between the 2 study areas. We suggest that our approach could be applied in multiple settings and may provide the most efficient way to gather data on small mammals across both space and time in a diversity of landscapes. ?? 2008 American Society of Mammalogists.

  7. White collar 1-induced photolyase expression contributes to UV-tolerance of Ustilago maydis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brych, Annika; Mascarenhas, Judita; Jaeger, Elaine; Charkiewicz, Elzbieta; Pokorny, Richard; Bölker, Michael; Doehlemann, Gunther; Batschauer, Alfred

    2016-04-01

    Ustilago maydis is a phytopathogenic fungus causing corn smut disease. It also is known for its extreme tolerance to UV- and ionizing radiation. It has not been elucidated whether light-sensing proteins, and in particular photolyases play a role in its UV-tolerance. Based on homology analysis, U. maydis has 10 genes encoding putative light-responsive proteins. Four amongst these belong to the cryptochrome/photolyase family (CPF) and one represents a white collar 1 ortholog (wco1). Deletion mutants in the predicted cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer CPD- and (6-4)-photolyase were impaired in photoreactivation. In line with this, in vitro studies with recombinant CPF proteins demonstrated binding of the catalytic FAD cofactor, its photoreduction to fully reduced FADH(-) and repair activity for cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) or (6-4)-photoproducts, respectively. We also investigated the role of Wco1. Strikingly, transcriptional profiling showed 61 genes differentially expressed upon blue light exposure of wild-type, but only eight genes in the Δwco1 mutant. These results demonstrate that Wco1 is a functional blue light photoreceptor in U. maydis regulating expression of several genes including both photolyases. Finally, we show that the Δwco1 mutant is less tolerant against UV-B due to its incapability to induce photolyase expression. © 2015 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Kodiak brown bears surf the salmon red wave: direct evidence from GPS collared individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deacy, William; Leacock, William; Armstrong, Jonathan B; Stanford, Jack A

    2016-05-01

    A key constraint faced by consumers is achieving a positive energy balance in the face of temporal variation in foraging opportunities. Recent work has shown that spatial heterogeneity in resource phenology can buffer mobile consumers from this constraint by allowing them to track changes in resource availability across space. For example, salmon populations spawn asynchronously across watersheds, causing high-quality foraging opportunities to propagate across the landscape, prolonging the availability of salmon at the regional scale. However, we know little about how individual consumers integrate across phenological variation or the benefits they receive by doing so. Here, we present direct evidence that individual brown bears track spatial variation in salmon phenology. Data from 40 GPS collared brown bears show that bears visited multiple spawning sites in synchrony with the order of spawning phenology. The number of sites used was correlated with the number of days a bear exploited salmon, suggesting the phenological variation in the study area influenced bear access to salmon, a resource which strongly influences bear fitness. Fisheries managers attempting to maximize harvest while maintaining ecosystem function should strive to protect the population diversity that underlies the phenological variation used by wildlife consumers.

  9. Beads but no collar; the significance of an asymptomatic rib bone healing pattern in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbert, David

    2010-07-01

    When a long bone, such as a rib, is broken, the position of the break can be seen in the following weeks by a temporary collar of a collagen based material (callus) which holds the broken ends together during the repair process. However in infants a different pattern is sometimes found at autopsy, in which the repair material occurs as widely spaced "beads" along the shaft of the rib. The consistency of the bead material corresponds to the progress of repair in the normal way, but there is no focal region as would be expected in a clean break or greenstick fracture. It is proposed that this results from micro-fractures in the compact bone forming the outer aspect of the rib when it is bent excessively, during thoracic compression such as required in Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation, (CPR), or when the infant is "grabbed" when about to slip from the hands of a carer. The compact bone surface is covered by a relatively very elastic layer, the periosteum, which carries nerves sensitive to stretch or tearing of this periosteum. It is proposed that the local stretch induced in the periosteum bridging these micro-fractures is insufficient to cause these nerves to signal pain and so the condition is asymptomatic, and may be quite common in infancy. It should not be confused with imposed trauma. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. External and gastrointestinal parasites of the rufous-collared sparrow Zonotrichia capensis (Passeriformes, Emberizidae in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Llanos-Soto

    Full Text Available Abstract A total of 277 rufous-collared sparrows, Zonotrichia capensis Müller, 1776 (Emberizidae, were examined for external parasites. The birds were captured using mist nets in seven locations in northern and central Chile. Additionally, seven carcasses from central Chile (the Biobío region were necropsied to evaluate the presence of endoparasite infection. Ectoparasites were found on 35.8% (99/277 of the examined birds and they were represented by the following arthropods: feather mites Amerodectes zonotrichiae Mironov and González-Acuña, 2014 (Analgoidea: Proctophyllodidae, Proctophyllodes polyxenus Atyeo and Braasch, 1966 (Analgoidea: Proctophyllodidae, and Trouessartia capensis Berla, 1959 (Analgoidea: Trouessartiidae; a louse Philopterus sp. (Phthiraptera: Ischnocera; and ticks Amblyomma tigrinum Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae and Ixodes auritulus Neumann, 1904 (Acari: Ixodidae. Two of the seven necropsied carcasses were infected with the acanthocephalan Mediorhynchus papillosus Van Cleave, 1916 (Gigantorhynchida: Gigantorhynchidae. To our knowledge, this study reports P. polyxenus, Philopterus sp., A. tigrinum, and M. papillosus for the first time for Z. capensis and expands the distributional range for T. capensis to Chile.

  11. NFE2L3 (NRF3): the Cinderella of the Cap'n'Collar transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevillard, Grégory; Blank, Volker

    2011-10-01

    NFE2L3 [Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 3] or NRF3, a member of the Cap'n'Collar (CNC) family, is a basic-region leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor that was first identified over 10 years ago. Contrary to its extensively studied homolog NFE2L2 (NRF2), the regulation and function of the NFE2L3 protein have not yet attracted as much attention. Nevertheless, several recent reports have now shed light on the possible roles of NFE2L3. Structural and biochemical studies revealed a series of domains and modifications that are critical for its cellular regulation. The control of the subcellular localization of NFE2L3 appears to be essential for understanding its role in various cellular processes. Importantly, newer studies provide fascinating insights linking NFE2L3 to differentiation, inflammation, and carcinogenesis. Here, we present an overview of the current level of knowledge of NFE2L3 transcription factor biology in humans and mice. From being the Cinderella of the CNC transcription factors for many years, NFE2L3 may now rapidly come into its own.

  12. Chronic cervicogenic tinnitus rapidly resolved by intermittent use of cervical collar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl eBechter

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Cervicogenic tinnitus is a not generally accepted pathogenetic subtype, which might be subsumed under the concept of somatosensory tinnitus. After the personal experience of therapy resistant tinnitus in context with a cervical pain syndrome (CS and successful add-on treatment with cervical collar (CC, the idea was persued in several individual treatments in patients.Patients and Methods:Reporting one particular case with chronic tinnitus considered untreatable, but rapidly improved with CC use. Thereafter tinnitus was experimentally replicated by head inclination, the respective neck-head angles and cerebral blood flow measured. Results:Chronic subjective tinnitus of a 20 years duration completely disappeared within 4 weeks with an intermittent short time application of CC. Thereafter, tinnitus was liberately again induced by head inclination, set on with anterior tilt of 14°, reaching maximum strength by 23°. Tinnitus stopped with return to neutral head position. Blood flow in the vertebral arteries on both sides was unchanged during head inclination with prevalent tinnitus, however blood flow was physiologically reduced with head rotation though not accompanied by tinnitus.Discussion:In a single case of chronic tinnitus, we found that treatment with CC rapidly led to full remission. Nevertheless, tinnitus could be resumed by constrained head postures. Experimental tinnitus replication by inclination points to an underscored role of upper posterior cervical muscle groups, matching with animal experiments, working in concert with other triggers including psychological factors. Blood flow reduction in vertebral arteries was unrelated to tinnitus.

  13. Different autonomic responses to occupational and leisure time physical activities among blue-collar workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Tatiana O; Hallman, David M; Kristiansen, Jesper; Skotte, Jørgen H; Holtermann, Andreas

    2017-11-24

    The differential effect of occupational and leisure time physical activity on cardiovascular health is termed the physical activity health paradox. Cardiac autonomic modulation could bring insights about the underlying mechanism behind this differential effect. The aim was to compare heart rate variability (HRV) during different activities (sitting, standing and moving) at work and leisure among blue-collar workers. One hundred thirty-eight workers from the NOMAD cohort were included. Data from physical activity and HRV were obtained for 3-4 days using tri-axial accelerometers (Actigraph GT3X+) and a heart rate monitor (Actiheart). HRV indices were determined during sitting, standing and moving both at work and leisure. Linear mixed-models with two fixed factors (activities and domains) were applied to investigate differences in HRV indices adjusting for individual and occupational factors. The results showed significant effects of domain (p  0.05). Sympathovagal balance (LF/HF) was higher during work for sitting and moving (p < 0.01), but showed no difference for standing (p = 0.62). Differences in cardiac autonomic modulation between work and leisure were found, indicating sympathetic predominance during work and parasympathetic predominance during leisure for sitting. Autonomic responses can be part of the mechanism that explains the differential effect of occupational and leisure time physical activity on health.

  14. Relationships between health behavior, knowledge, and beliefs among Swedish blue-collar workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Näslund, G K

    1997-06-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess the health behavior, risk awareness and beliefs concerning the importance of positive health practices among blue-collar workers, and to examine the relationships between behavior, knowledge and beliefs. Data were gathered from 1359 workers aged 18-65 years using a postal questionnaire to 2493 randomly selected members of two labor unions. A high prevalence of negative health practices was noted among the respondents. While no relationship was found between health behaviors and awareness of risks associated with such behaviors, there was a relationship between positive health practices and strong beliefs about the importance of those practices. Awareness of the influence of a positive behavior on disease risk was associated with a stronger belief concerning the importance of that behavior. Women were characterized by having more positive health behavior, a higher level of risk awareness and stronger beliefs concerning the importance of positive health practices. It was concluded that while relationships were found between behavior and beliefs, and between beliefs and risk awareness, further research to establish the direction of the relationships is warranted.

  15. What is a 'good' job? Modelling job quality for blue collar workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Wendy; Haslam, Roger; Haslam, Cheryl

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a model of job quality, developed from interviews with blue collar workers: bus drivers, manufacturing operatives and cleaners (n  =  80). The model distinguishes between core features, important for almost all workers, and 'job fit' features, important to some but not others, or where individuals might have different preferences. Core job features found important for almost all interviewees included job security, personal safety and having enough pay to meet their needs. 'Job fit' features included autonomy and the opportunity to form close relationships. These showed more variation between participants; priorities were influenced by family commitments, stage of life and personal preference. The resulting theoretical perspective indicates the features necessary for a job to be considered 'good' by the person doing it, whilst not adversely affecting their health. The model should have utility as a basis for measuring and improving job quality and the laudable goal of creating 'good jobs'. Practitioner Summary: Good work can contribute positively to health and well-being, but there is a lack of agreement regarding the concept of a 'good' job. A model of job quality has been constructed based on semi-structured worker interviews (n  =  80). The model emphasises the need to take into account variation between individuals in their preferred work characteristics.

  16. A new fast neutron collar for safeguards inspection measurements of fresh low enriched uranium fuel assemblies containing burnable poison rods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Louise G., E-mail: evanslg@ornl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Swinhoe, Martyn T.; Menlove, Howard O. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Schwalbach, Peter; Baere, Paul De [European Commission, Euratom Safeguards Office (Luxembourg); Browne, Michael C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2013-11-21

    Safeguards inspection measurements must be performed in a timely manner in order to detect the diversion of significant quantities of nuclear material. A shorter measurement time can increase the number of items that a nuclear safeguards inspector can reliably measure during a period of access to a nuclear facility. In turn, this improves the reliability of the acquired statistical sample, which is used to inform decisions regarding compliance. Safeguards inspection measurements should also maintain independence from facility operator declarations. Existing neutron collars employ thermal neutron interrogation for safeguards inspection measurements of fresh fuel assemblies. A new fast neutron collar has been developed for safeguards inspection measurements of fresh low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel assemblies containing gadolinia (Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}) burnable poison rods. The Euratom Fast Collar (EFC) was designed with high neutron detection efficiency to make a fast (Cd) mode measurement viable whilst meeting the high counting precision and short assay time requirements of the Euratom safeguards inspectorate. A fast mode measurement reduces the instrument sensitivity to burnable poison rod content and therefore reduces the applied poison correction, consequently reducing the dependence on the operator declaration of the poison content within an assembly. The EFC non-destructive assay (NDA) of typical modern European pressurized water reactor (PWR) fresh fuel assembly designs have been simulated using Monte Carlo N-particle extended transport code (MCNPX) simulations. Simulations predict that the EFC can achieve 2% relative statistical uncertainty on the doubles neutron counting rate for a fast mode measurement in an assay time of 600 s (10 min) with the available {sup 241}AmLi (α,n) interrogation source strength of 5.7×10{sup 4} s{sup −1}. Furthermore, the calibration range of the new collar has been extended to verify {sup 235}U content in variable PWR fuel

  17. A new fast neutron collar for safeguards inspection measurements of fresh low enriched uranium fuel assemblies containing burnable poison rods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Louise G.; Swinhoe, Martyn T.; Menlove, Howard O.; Schwalbach, Peter; Baere, Paul De; Browne, Michael C.

    2013-11-01

    Safeguards inspection measurements must be performed in a timely manner in order to detect the diversion of significant quantities of nuclear material. A shorter measurement time can increase the number of items that a nuclear safeguards inspector can reliably measure during a period of access to a nuclear facility. In turn, this improves the reliability of the acquired statistical sample, which is used to inform decisions regarding compliance. Safeguards inspection measurements should also maintain independence from facility operator declarations. Existing neutron collars employ thermal neutron interrogation for safeguards inspection measurements of fresh fuel assemblies. A new fast neutron collar has been developed for safeguards inspection measurements of fresh low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel assemblies containing gadolinia (Gd2O3) burnable poison rods. The Euratom Fast Collar (EFC) was designed with high neutron detection efficiency to make a fast (Cd) mode measurement viable whilst meeting the high counting precision and short assay time requirements of the Euratom safeguards inspectorate. A fast mode measurement reduces the instrument sensitivity to burnable poison rod content and therefore reduces the applied poison correction, consequently reducing the dependence on the operator declaration of the poison content within an assembly. The EFC non-destructive assay (NDA) of typical modern European pressurized water reactor (PWR) fresh fuel assembly designs have been simulated using Monte Carlo N-particle extended transport code (MCNPX) simulations. Simulations predict that the EFC can achieve 2% relative statistical uncertainty on the doubles neutron counting rate for a fast mode measurement in an assay time of 600 s (10 min) with the available 241AmLi (α,n) interrogation source strength of 5.7×104 s-1. Furthermore, the calibration range of the new collar has been extended to verify 235U content in variable PWR fuel designs in the presence of up to 32

  18. Influence of a machined collar on crestal bone changes around titanium implants: a histometric study in the canine mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Joachim S; Jones, Archie A; Bakaeen, Lara G; Buser, Daniel; Schoolfield, John D; Cochran, David L

    2011-09-01

    It has been shown that peri-implant crestal bone reactions are influenced by both a rough-smooth implant border in one-piece, non-submerged, as well as an interface (microgap [MG] between implant/abutment) in two-piece butt-joint, submerged and non-submerged implants being placed at different levels in relation to the crest of the bone. According to standard surgical procedures, the rough-smooth implant border for implants with a smooth collar should be aligned with the crest of the bone exhibiting a smooth collar adjacent to peri-implant soft tissues. No data, however, are available for implants exhibiting a sandblasted, large-grit and acid-etched (SLA) surface all the way to the top of a non-submerged implant. Thus, the purpose of this study is to histometrically examine crestal bone changes around machined versus SLA-surfaced implant collars in a side-by-side comparison. A total of 60 titanium implants (30 machined collars and 30 SLA collars) were randomly placed in edentulous mandibular areas of five foxhounds forming six different subgroups (implant subgroups A to F). The implants in subgroups A to C had a machined collar (control), whereas the implants in subgroups D to F were SLA-treated all the way to the top (MG level; test). Furthermore, the MGs of the implants were placed at different levels in relation to the crest of the bone: the implants in subgroups A and E were 2 mm above the crest, in subgroups C and D 1 mm above, in subgroup B 3 mm above, and in subgroup F at the bone crest level. For all implants, abutment healing screws were connected the day of surgery. These caps were loosened and immediately retightened monthly. At 6 months, animals were sacrificed and non-decalcified histology was analyzed by evaluating peri-implant crestal bone levels. For implants in subgroup A, the estimated mean crestal bone loss (± SD) was -0.52 ± 0.40 mm; in subgroup B, +0.16 ± 0.40 mm (bone gain); in subgroup C, -1.28 ± 0.21 mm; in subgroup D, -0.43 ± 0.43 mm

  19. Aggressive behaviour of Robins Erithacus rubecula (Passeriformes, Muscicapidae at watering places in the forest steppe zone of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Markova

    2016-06-01

     The purpose of this research was to study interspecific and intra-specific aggressive reactions of Robins (Erithacus rubecula L. at watering places in natural and anthropogenically pressured areas. The study took place in Kaniv Nature Reserve, Cherkassy region, in May-June 2010, 2012 and 2014 and the state dendrology park “Oleksandriya” of the National Academy of Science in Bila Tserkva. The observation of the birds’ behavior was performed using the ethological methods of “total observation” and “continuous logging”. In order to calculate the critical distance at which a bird shows aggression, the watering areas studied were divided into 1 x 1 m squares. It was found that aggressive intersspecific actions of Robins were more frequent in the natural habitat of Kaniv Reserve while intraspecific aggression was more frequent in the dendrology park. It was noticed that Robins responded aggressively to 12 species of birds in the Kaniv Natur Reserve site. Those species were: Song Thrush (Turdus philomelos, Blackbird (T. merula, Great Tit (Parus major, BlueTit (P. caeruleus, Marsh Tit (P. palustris, Chaffinch (Fringilla coelebs, Hawfinch (Coccothraustes coccothraustes, Icterine Warbler (Hippolais icterina, Wood Warbler (Phylloscopus sibilatrix, Blackcap (Sylvia atricapilla, Collared Flycatcher (Ficedula albicollis and Spotted Flycatcher (Muscicapa striata. Most often, aggression was directed to individuals that were already at a watering place rather than birds which arrived after the Robins. Besides, Robins frequently initiate aggressive relations. An inverse correlation of aggressive acts and the size parameters of the species, which were objects of Robins’ aggression, was observed. A success rating of Robins’ defence and attack in aggressive relations in Kaniv Nature Reserve was established: Robins were always successful in protecting its territory or attacking an Icterine Warbler and Chiffchaff, and always fails in defending agianst or attacking a

  20. The impact of posture on wrist tendinosis among blue-collar workers: the San Francisco study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris-Adamson, Carisa; You, Doohee; Eisen, Ellen A; Goldberg, Robert; Rempel, David

    2014-02-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of wrist posture on incidence of wrist tendinosis in a prospective cohort of blue-collar workers. Previous studies have identified awkward wrist posture as a risk factor for wrist tendinosis, though the magnitude of the relationship is unclear. Workers (N = 413) at four industries were followed for up to 28 months with questionnaires and physical examinations every 4 months. Individualized exposure assessments of wrist posture were based on video analysis to determine the wrist extension/flexion angle for up to four tasks. Posture measures were calculated while in "heavy pinch" (> 1 kg force), "heavy power grip" (> 4 kg force), and across "all grips." A proportional hazards model estimated the relationship between time-weighted average posture measures and incidence of dominant-side wrist tendinosis. In a model based on tertiles of exposure, adjusted for age, gender, hand force, and repetition of exertions, risk of tendinosis more than doubled in the highest category (HR = 2.69, 95% CI = 1.01-7.21) across all grips. The relative risk was highest during heavy pinch (HR = 5.03, 95% CI = 0.74-34.05), though not statistically significant. Increased median wrist extension while in heavy power grip was protective (HR = 0.24, 95% CI = 0.06-0.94). In this study of production workers, median wrist flexion of more than 70, across all grips, was associated with an increased risk of tendinosis. The protective findings on median wrist extension during power grip deserve further investigation. Work tasks and tools should be designed to prevent sustained wrist flexion, especially during tasks involving forceful pinch.

  1. Adaptable neighbours: movement patterns of GPS-collared leopards in human dominated landscapes in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Odden

    Full Text Available Understanding the nature of the interactions between humans and wildlife is of vital importance for conflict mitigation. We equipped five leopards with GPS-collars in Maharashtra (4 and Himachal Pradesh (1, India, to study movement patterns in human-dominated landscapes outside protected areas. An adult male and an adult female were both translocated 52 km, and exhibited extensive, and directional, post release movements (straight line movements: male = 89 km in 37 days, female = 45 km in 5 months, until they settled in home ranges of 42 km2 (male and 65 km2 (female. The three other leopards, two adult females and a young male were released close to their capture sites and used small home ranges of 8 km2 (male, 11 km2 and 15 km2 (females. Movement patterns were markedly nocturnal, with hourly step lengths averaging 339±9.5 m (SE during night and 60±4.1 m during day, and night locations were significantly closer to human settlements than day locations. However, more nocturnal movements were observed among those three living in the areas with high human population densities. These visited houses regularly at nighttime (20% of locations <25 m from houses, but rarely during day (<1%. One leopard living in a sparsely populated area avoided human settlements both day and night. The small home ranges of the leopards indicate that anthropogenic food resources may be plentiful although wild prey is absent. The study provides clear insights into the ability of leopards to live and move in landscapes that are extremely modified by human activity.

  2. Cryopreservation of collared peccary (Pecari tajacu) semen using different freezing curves, straw sizes, and thawing rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, M A; Peixoto, G C X; Castelo, T S; Lima, G L; Silva, A M; Oliveira, M F; Silva, A R

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to verify the effect of different freezing curves, straw sizes, and thawing rates on the cryopreservation of collared peccary semen. Twelve ejaculates were obtained from captive adult males by electroejaculation, and evaluated for sperm motility, kinetic rating, viability, morphology, and functional membrane integrity. The ejaculates were diluted in a coconut water extender (ACP-116c) with egg yolk and glycerol, packaged into 0.25 mL or 0.50 mL plastic straws and cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen following a slow (-10 °C/min) or a fast (-40 °C/min) freezing curve. After one week, samples were thawed at 37 °C/1 min or 70 °C/8s and evaluated as reported for fresh semen, and also for kinematic parameters (computerized analysis). A significant decrease in sperm motility and kinetic rating was observed after glycerol addition at 5 °C and also after thawing for all the treatments (Pstraw size and thawing rate were taken as reference (P>0.05). In general, values for sperm characteristics found after thawing at 37 °C were better preserved than at 70 °C (Pstraws, which were similar for semen packaging (P>0.05). The evaluation of the kinematic parameters of sperm motility confirmed these results at values varying from 20% to 30% motile sperm for the samples tha wed at 37 °C, and values fewer than 12% motile sperm for samples thawed at 70 °C (Pstraws, but the thawing should be conducted at 37 °C/1 min. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of Back Pain on Occupational Stress among White-collar Workers

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    Amirhossein davoudian talab

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and purpose: The prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders in stressful jobs is very high. The people suffering from these disorders have low decision-making ability and perceived social support, while they have high physical and psychological job requirements. Regarding this, the present study was conducted with the aim of investigating the effect of waist and back pain on occupational stress. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on 89 employees of Abadan Ports and Marine Administration in 2016. The study population was selected through random sampling method. The data were collected using Health and Safety Executive Management Standards Indicator and Body Discomfort Chart. Data analysis was  performed using descriptive (i.e., frequency andpercentage and inferential statistics (i.e., t-test in SPSS version 18. Results: According to the findings, 50% and 31% of the participants had experienced waist and back pain, respectively. The highest and lowest stress levels in this study were related to role (77% and communication (2.32%, respectively. The results of the t-test revealed a significant difference between the people with waist pain and those without such pain in terms of peer support, role, communication, and variations (P<0.05. Conclusion: As the findings of the present study indicated, back pain and stress had high prevalence among the white-collar workers. Back pain can be an effective factor on the stress level of the office workers.

  4. Impact and correlates of poor sleep quality in Japanese white-collar employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Yuriko; Minowa, Masumi; Tango, Toshiro

    2003-06-15

    This study estimated the prevalence, examined associated impacts, and identified correlated factors of poor sleep quality among Japanese white-collar employees who were working in a labor market that included extensive downsizing and restructuring. A cross-sectional self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted as part of 2 consecutive studies on sleep. Sleep quality was measured with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. A telecommunications company in the Tokyo metropolitan area. Of 5,924 workers, 5,090 responded (85.9%). Results from 4,868 daytime employees were analyzed. N/A. The 1-month point prevalence of poor sleep quality was approximately 30% to 45% across age and gender and was significantly higher than in the general population of Japanese adults. The overall prevalence of absenteeism, poor physical and psychological health, problems in work performance and personal relationships, and accidents were 16.5%, 18.3%, 17.3%, 2.5%, 2.1%, and 1.8%, respectively. Poor sleepers were more likely to take sick leave, suffer from poor physical and psychological health, and have problems in occupational activities and personal relationships. The most strongly associated factor underlying poor sleep quality was perceived stress, followed by job dissatisfaction, being unmarried, poor bedroom environment, lower academic attainment, younger age, and hypertension. This study suggests that the cost related to poor sleep quality is extremely high. Comprehensive countermeasures against poor sleep quality at not only the individual, but also the organizational and societal levels, need to be considered for both employees and employers in order that health, safety, and productivity are ensured.

  5. FACTORS AFFECTING ROAD TRAFFIC NOISE ANNOYANCE AMONG WHITE-COLLAR EMPLOYEES WORKING IN TEHRAN

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    *1I. Alimohammadi, 2P. Nassiri, 3M. Azkhosh, 4M. Hoseini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of personal and attitudinal factors, noise level, hearing status and psychological traits on traffic-related noise annoyance among white-collar employees working in Tehran has been carefully analyzed. This survey has been conducted by interviewing 495 citizens working in non-manufacturing industries in Tehran, using questionnaires, Weinstein noise sensitivity scale, Beck’s depression, Buss and perry’s aggression, Zung’s anxiety, job satisfaction and Eysenc’s personality inventory. These citizens were office workers or store employees. Noise annoyance was determined both by numerical-based questionnaire criterion and by verbal index. Personal information, attitudinal factors and hearing conditions were determined using a general questionnaire. The amount of workplace noise the participants were exposed to was directly measured at their workplaces. It was revealed that among personal factors, age (p=0.030, marital status (p=0.004, residential period (p=0.001 and wealth (p=0.04 were related to noise annoyance. Attitudinal factors including sensitivity to noise (p=0.001, individual’s opinion on the need to control the noise (p=0.000 and individuals’ assessment of the amount of the workplace ambient noise (p= 0.000 were found to have relationship with noise annoyance. No meaningful relationship was seen between the equivalent noise level (p=0.879 and statistical noise level of L90 (p=0.909. The present study revealed that among all effective factors involved in noise annoyance, attitudinal factors had the most significant role in this regard.

  6. Tomographic Assessment of Bone Formation After the Collares Technique of Gingivoperiosteoplasty in Patients With Cleft Lip and Palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovo, Aline H S; Prietsch, José R; Collares, Marcus V M

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional study sought to assess bone formation and spontaneous tooth eruption in a cohort of 25 consecutive patients aged 6 to 11 years who underwent primary gingivoperiosteoplasty by the Collares technique. Cross-sectional study assessing bone formation in the cleft area using a within-group time series design. Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre (HCPA), a tertiary hospital in Brazil. Twenty-five patients with nonsyndromic, complete unilateral cleft lip and palate, no comorbidities, and unerupted permanent canines. Cheiloplasty was performed by means of the Millard II technique, with the addition of a triangle at the mucocutaneous junction, vomer flap nasal floor closure, and wide subperiosteal elevation, followed by gingivoperiosteoplasty by the Collares technique. Cone-beam computed tomography was used to assess treatment effect. In a novel method, software was used to obtain two three-dimensional reconstructions, one each of the cleft and noncleft sides, enabling quantitative comparison of bone presence in the alveolar defect area. Of the 25 patients, 24 achieved bone bridge formation. The cleft side had 75.1% (67.9%-82.3%) of the bone volume, 70.5% (53.1%-87.9%) of the height, and 63.3% (44.1%-82.5%) of the width of the noncleft side. Bone formation was 17.28% lower in patients with lateral incisor agenesis. Collares gingivoperiosteoplasty performed well as a technique for alveolar repair in patients with cleft lip and palate, allowing spontaneous eruption of deciduous and permanent lateral incisors through the bone bridge created.

  7. Peri-implant tissue reactions to immediate nonocclusal loaded implants with different collar design: an experimental study in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negri, Bruno; Calvo Guirado, José L; Maté Sánchez de Val, José E; Delgado Ruíz, Rafael A; Ramírez Fernández, María P; Barona Dorado, Cristina

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate bone remodelling and soft tissue reactions around immediate nonocclusal loaded implants with different collar configuration in beagle dogs. The mandibular bilateral second, third and fourth premolars of six beagle dogs were extracted. After 3 months of healing, four implants were placed in the mandibles of each dog. Randomly, two implants with a 1.5 mm polished surface collar (TSA, control group) and two implants with a 0.7 mm polished surface collar and 2.5 mm microthreaded area (TSAA, test group) were inserted. Both groups were treated with a minimal mucoperiosteal flap elevation approach. Impressions were taken and two single screw-retained restorations were inserted in each hemi-mandible 2 days after the implant placement. The animals were sacrificed at 1, 2 and 3 months (two specimens each), and biopsies were obtained. Samples were processed for ground sectioning. Histomorphometric analysis was carried out to compare buccal and lingual bone height loss and soft tissue behaviour between the two groups. Crestal bone resorption was significantly higher in the control group (P > 0.05). The establishment of the biological width showed similar outcomes for both groups. Only the distance from the top of the peri-implant mucosa to the apical portion of the barrier epithelium at lingual aspect was significantly more pronounced in the control group (P > 0.05). The alterations that occurred in the peri-implant tissues were related to the adaptation that occurred after the loading conditions in both groups. The microthread design might have an effect in maintaining the marginal bone loss against loading. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  8. Dog-appeasing pheromone collars reduce sound-induced fear and anxiety in beagle dogs: a placebo-controlled study

    OpenAIRE

    Landsberg, G. M.; Beck, A.; Lopez, A; Deniaud, M.; ARAUJO, J.A.; Milgram, N. W.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the effects of a dog-appeasing pheromone (DAP) collar in reducing sound-induced fear and anxiety in a laboratory model of thunderstorm simulation. Twenty-four beagle dogs naïve to the current test were divided into two treatment groups (DAP and placebo) balanced on their fear score in response to a thunderstorm recording. Each group was then exposed to two additional thunderstorm simulation tests on consecutive days. Dogs were video-assessed by a train...

  9. Environmental pollution has sex-dependent effects on local survival

    OpenAIRE

    Eeva, Tapio; Hakkarainen, Harri; Laaksonen, Toni; Lehikoinen, Esa

    2006-01-01

    Environmental pollutants cause a potential hazard for survival in free-living animal populations. We modelled local survival (including emigration) by using individual mark–recapture histories of males and females in a population of a small insectivorous passerine bird, the pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) living around a point source of heavy metals (copper smelter). Local survival of F. hypoleuca females did not differ between polluted and unpolluted environments. Males, however, showed...

  10. Nest as an extended phenotype signal of female quality in the great reed warbler

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jelínek, Václav; Požgayová, Milica; Honza, Marcel; Procházka, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 3 (2016), s. 428-437 ISSN 0908-8857 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600930903; GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/2404 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca * cross-fostering experiment * male reproductive success * cuckoos Cuculus canorus * egg color * sexual selection * clutch size * Acrocephalus arundinaceus * functional significance * Pygoscelis antarctica Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.228, year: 2016

  11. Differentiating nest sites characteristics of four sympatric cavity-nesting birds

    OpenAIRE

    Chunfa Zhou; Daqing Zhou; Xiangkun Kong; Wenhong Deng

    2012-01-01

    Diverse group of cavity-nesting birds inhabit secondary forests of northeastern China, accounting for about one-third of breeding avian species. We examined differences in nest-site characteristics amongfour cavity-nesting birds, including two cavity excavators (i.e., great spotted woodpecker [Dendrocopos major] and grey-headed woodpecker [Picus canus]) and two secondary cavity-nesters (i.e., yellow-rumped flycatcher [Ficedula zanthopygia] and Eurasian nuthatch [Sitta europaea]) in Dagang For...

  12. Feathers by day, membranes by night - Aerodynamic performance in bird and bat flight

    OpenAIRE

    Muijres, Florian

    2011-01-01

    The efficiency and performance of a flying animal is directly related to the aerodynamics around its body and flapping wings. Here, I have developed methods for quantifying the wake dynamics around a flying animal. The results are used to estimate the aerodynamic performance of flapping flight. Using these methods, I have studied flight of the Pied Flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca), the Pallas’ Long-tongued bat (Glossophaga soricina) and the Lesser Long-nosed Bat (Leptonycteris yerbabuenae). ...

  13. The white collar complex is involved in sexual development of Fusarium graminearum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hun Kim

    Full Text Available Sexual spores (ascospores of Fusarium graminearum, a homothallic ascomycetous fungus, are believed to be the primary inocula for epidemics of the diseases caused by this species in cereal crops. Based on the light requirement for the formation of fruiting bodies (perithecia of F. graminearum under laboratory conditions, we explored whether photoreceptors play an important role in sexual development. Here, we evaluated the roles of three genes encoding putative photoreceptors [a phytochrome gene (FgFph and two white collar genes (FgWc-1 and FgWc-2] during sexual development in F. graminearum. For functional analyses, we generated transgenic strains lacking one or two genes from the self-fertile Z3643 strain. Unlike the wild-type (WT and add-back strains, the single deletion strains (ΔFgWc-1 and ΔFgWc-2 produced fertile perithecia under constant light on complete medium (CM, an unfavorable medium for sexual development as well as on carrot agar (a perithecial induction condition. The expression of mating-type (MAT genes increased significantly in the gene deletion strains compared to the WT under both conditions. Deletion of FgFph had no significant effect on sexual development or MAT gene expression. In contrast, all of the deletion strains examined did not show significant changes in other traits such as hyphal growth, mycotoxin production, and virulence. A split luciferase assay confirmed the in vivo protein-protein interactions among three photoreceptors along with FgLaeA, a global regulator of secondary metabolism and fungal development. Introduction of an intact copy of the A. nidulans LreA and LreB genes, which are homologs of FgWc-1 and FgWc-2, into the ΔFgWc-1 and ΔFgWc-2 strains, respectively, failed to repress perithecia formation on CM in the gene deletion strains. Taken together, these results demonstrate that FgWc-1 and FgWc-2, two central components of the blue-light sensing system, negatively regulate sexual development in F

  14. Subdivision of arthropod cap-n-collar expression domains is restricted to Mandibulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Prashant P; Gupta, Tripti; Schwager, Evelyn E; Wheeler, Ward C; Extavour, Cassandra G

    2014-01-09

    The monophyly of Mandibulata - the division of arthropods uniting pancrustaceans and myriapods - is consistent with several morphological characters, such as the presence of sensory appendages called antennae and the eponymous biting appendage, the mandible. Functional studies have demonstrated that the patterning of the mandible requires the activity of the Hox gene Deformed and the transcription factor cap-n-collar (cnc) in at least two holometabolous insects: the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and the beetle Tribolium castaneum. Expression patterns of cnc from two non-holometabolous insects and a millipede have suggested conservation of the labral and mandibular domains within Mandibulata. However, the activity of cnc is unknown in crustaceans and chelicerates, precluding understanding of a complete scenario for the evolution of patterning of this appendage within arthropods. To redress these lacunae, here we investigate the gene expression of the ortholog of cnc in Parhyale hawaiensis, a malacostracan crustacean, and two chelicerates: the harvestman Phalangium opilio, and the scorpion Centruroides sculpturatus. In the crustacean P. hawaiensis, the segmental expression of Ph-cnc is the same as that reported previously in hexapods and myriapods, with two distinct head domains in the labrum and the mandibular segment. In contrast, Po-cnc and Cs-cnc expression is not enriched in the labrum of either chelicerate, but instead is expressed at comparable levels in all appendages. In further contrast to mandibulate orthologs, the expression domain of Po-cnc posterior to the labrum is not confined within the expression domain of Po-Dfd. Expression data from two chelicerate outgroup taxa suggest that the signature two-domain head expression pattern of cnc evolved at the base of Mandibulata. The observation of the archetypal labral and mandibular segment domains in a crustacean exemplar supports the synapomorphic nature of mandibulate cnc expression. The broader

  15. Using computerised surface wound mapping to compare the potential medical effectiveness of Enhanced Protection Under Body Armour Combat Shirt collar designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeze, John; Allanson-Bailey, L C; Hunt, N C; Delaney, R; Hepper, A E; Lewis, E A

    2015-03-01

    Protecting the neck from explosively propelled fragments has traditionally been achieved through a collar attached to the ballistic vest. An Enhanced Protection Under Body Armour Combat Shirt (EP-UBACS) collar has been identified as an additional method of providing neck protection but limited evidence as to its potential medical effectiveness exists to justify its procurement. Entry wound locations and resultant medical outcomes were determined using Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) for all fragmentation neck wounds sustained by UK soldiers between 01 January 2010 and 31 December 2011. Data were prospectively entered into a novel computerised tool base and comparisons made between three EP-UBACS neck collar designs in terms of predicted reduction in AIS scores. All collars reduced AIS scores, with the greatest reduction provided by designs incorporating increased standoff from the neck and an additional semi-circle of ballistic material underneath the collar at the front and back. This technique confirms that reinforcing the neck collar of an EP-UBACS would be expected to reduce injury severity from neck wounds. However, without knowledge of entry wound locations for injuries to other body areas as well as the use of AIS scores without clinical or pathological verification its further use in the future may be limited. The ability to overlay any armour design onto a standardised human was potentially the most useful part of this tool and we would recommend developing this technique using underlying anatomical structures and not just the skin surface. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Analysis of head impact exposure and brain microstructure response in a season-long application of a jugular vein compression collar: a prospective, neuroimaging investigation in American football

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myer, Gregory D; Yuan, Weihong; Barber Foss, Kim D; Thomas, Staci; Smith, David; Leach, James; Kiefer, Adam W; Dicesare, Chris; Adams, Janet; Gubanich, Paul J; Kitchen, Katie; Schneider, Daniel K; Braswell, Daniel; Krueger, Darcy; Altaye, Mekibib

    2016-01-01

    Background Historical approaches to protect the brain from outside the skull (eg, helmets and mouthpieces) have been ineffective in reducing internal injury to the brain that arises from energy absorption during sports-related collisions. We aimed to evaluate the effects of a neck collar, which applies gentle bilateral jugular vein compression, resulting in cerebral venous engorgement to reduce head impact energy absorption during collision. Specifically, we investigated the effect of collar wearing during head impact exposure on brain microstructure integrity following a competitive high school American football season. Methods A prospective longitudinal controlled trial was employed to evaluate the effects of collar wearing (n=32) relative to controls (CTRL; n=30) during one competitive football season (age: 17.04±0.67 years). Impact exposure was collected using helmet sensors and white matter (WM) integrity was quantified based on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) serving as the primary outcome. Results With similar overall g-forces and total head impact exposure experienced in the two study groups during the season (p>0.05), significant preseason to postseason changes in mean diffusivity, axial diffusivity and radial diffusivity in the WM integrity were noted in the CTRL group (corrected p0.05). The CTRL group demonstrated significantly larger preseason to postseason DTI change in multiple WM regions compared with the collar group (corrected p<0.05). Discussion Reduced WM diffusivity alteration was noted in participants wearing a neck collar after a season of competitive football. Collar wearing may have provided a protective effect against brain microstructural changes after repetitive head impacts. Trial registration number NCT02696200. PMID:27307271

  17. Dog-appeasing pheromone collars reduce sound-induced fear and anxiety in beagle dogs: a placebo-controlled study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsberg, G. M.; Beck, A.; Lopez, A.; Deniaud, M.; Araujo, J. A.; Milgram, N. W.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the effects of a dog-appeasing pheromone (DAP) collar in reducing sound-induced fear and anxiety in a laboratory model of thunderstorm simulation. Twenty-four beagle dogs naïve to the current test were divided into two treatment groups (DAP and placebo) balanced on their fear score in response to a thunderstorm recording. Each group was then exposed to two additional thunderstorm simulation tests on consecutive days. Dogs were video-assessed by a trained observer on a 6-point scale for active, passive and global fear and anxiety (combined). Both global and active fear and anxiety scores were significantly improved during and following thunder compared with placebo on both test days. DAP significantly decreased global fear and anxiety across ‘during’ and ‘post’ thunder times when compared with baseline. There was no significant improvement in the placebo group from baseline on the test days. In addition, the DAP group showed significantly greater use of the hide box at any time with increased exposure compared with the placebo group. The DAP collar reduced the scores of fear and anxiety, and increased hide use in response to a thunder recording, possibly by counteracting noise-related increased reactivity. PMID:26311736

  18. Dog-appeasing pheromone collars reduce sound-induced fear and anxiety in beagle dogs: a placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsberg, G M; Beck, A; Lopez, A; Deniaud, M; Araujo, J A; Milgram, N W

    2015-09-12

    The objective of the study was to assess the effects of a dog-appeasing pheromone (DAP) collar in reducing sound-induced fear and anxiety in a laboratory model of thunderstorm simulation. Twenty-four beagle dogs naïve to the current test were divided into two treatment groups (DAP and placebo) balanced on their fear score in response to a thunderstorm recording. Each group was then exposed to two additional thunderstorm simulation tests on consecutive days. Dogs were video-assessed by a trained observer on a 6-point scale for active, passive and global fear and anxiety (combined). Both global and active fear and anxiety scores were significantly improved during and following thunder compared with placebo on both test days. DAP significantly decreased global fear and anxiety across 'during' and 'post' thunder times when compared with baseline. There was no significant improvement in the placebo group from baseline on the test days. In addition, the DAP group showed significantly greater use of the hide box at any time with increased exposure compared with the placebo group. The DAP collar reduced the scores of fear and anxiety, and increased hide use in response to a thunder recording, possibly by counteracting noise-related increased reactivity. British Veterinary Association.

  19. Stuck in fragments: Population genetics of the Endangered collared brown lemur Eulemur collaris in the Malagasy littoral forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoncini, Stefania; D'Ercole, Jacopo; Brisighelli, Francesca; Ramanamanjato, Jean-Baptiste; Capelli, Cristian; Tofanelli, Sergio; Donati, Giuseppe

    2017-07-01

    The Endangered collared brown lemur (Eulemur collaris) is the largest primate living in the littoral forest of southeastern Madagascar, a top priority habitat for biodiversity conservation on the island. Because this lemur is a key seed-disperser, an evaluation of the structure and connectivity of the populations surviving in the forest fragments is urgently needed to guide conservation plans. Genetic variability at autosomal microsatellites and mitochondrial DNA was investigated in a total of 49 collared brown lemurs sampled by non-invasive methods in three littoral forest fragments and in the nearby lowland humid forest. The overall genetic diversity of E. collaris in the southeastern coastal region of Madagascar was lower than in other populations, as well as in other lemur species. The population appears highly structured, with less variable and more inbred groups inhabiting the littoral forest fragments compared to the inland area. Major barriers to gene flow were identified isolating littoral forest fragments from each other and from the inland lowland humid forest. Medium to long-term drift and scarce gene flow is the scenario that best explains the current genetic distribution. Habitat discontinuities such as rivers and grassland between forest fragments played a major role in structuring the population. A common history of size contraction is pointed out by several genetic estimators, indicating a possible ecological crisis triggered around 1,300 years ago. The adoption of strategies aimed at facilitating gene flow and population growth appears crucial to delay further loss of genetic diversity. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Can emergency nurses safely and accurately remove cervical spine collars in low risk adult trauma patients: An integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nicola; Curtis, Kate

    2016-05-01

    Well validated clinical decision rules exist to facilitate the safe removal of collars in the alert, orientated, low risk adult trauma patient, however this practice is traditionally conducted by medical staff. The aim of this review is to synthesise current evidence to determine the efficacy of emergency nurses in safely and accurately removing cervical spine collars using cervical spine rules, in alert, orientated, low risk trauma adult patients. A multi-method search strategy was used to find primary research studies followed by a rigorous screening and quality appraisal process. Data from included articles were extracted, grouped and synthesised. Nine quantitative research articles resulted in four key findings: the inter-rater reliability between nurses and doctors clearing the cervical spine was high (kappa range (0.61-0.80)); nurses can safely implement the cervical spine clinical decision rule; use of a cervical spine clinical decision rule decreases the time patients are immobilised and; nurses felt confident applying a cervical spine clinical decision rule. Appropriately trained emergency nurses can safely apply cervical spine rules to alert, orientated, low risk adult trauma patients. Implementation of nurses clearing cervical spines should include training and ongoing monitoring. Copyright © 2016 College of Emergency Nursing Australasia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A single-item global job satisfaction measure is associated with quantitative blood immune indices in white-collar employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Akinori; Irie, Masahiro; Takahashi, Masaya

    2013-01-01

    Although a single-item job satisfaction measure has been shown to be reliable and inclusive as multiple-item scales in relation to health, studies including immunological data are few. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity of single-item job and family life satisfaction based on its association with immune indices. A total of 189 white-collar employees (70% men) underwent a blood draw for the measurement of natural killer (NK), total T, and B cell counts as well as plasma immunoglobulin (Ig) G concentrations and completed single-item job and family life satisfaction measures, respectively. The response options for satisfaction measures were 'dissatisfied' (coded 1) to 'satisfied' (coded 4). Spearman's partial correlations controlling for cofactors revealed that increased job satisfaction was positively associated with NK cells (rsp=0.201, p=0.007) and IgG (rsp=0.178, p=0.018), while family life satisfaction was unrelated to immune indices. Those who reported a combination of low job/low family life satisfaction had significantly lower NK and higher B cell counts than those with a high job/high family life satisfaction. Our study suggests that the single-item summary measure of job satisfaction, but not family life satisfaction, may be a valid tool to evaluate immune status in healthy white-collar employees.

  2. A new member of the greater double-collared sunbird complex (Passeriformes: Nectariniidae) from the Eastern Arc Mountains of Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowie, Rauri C K; Fjeldså, Jon; Kiure, Jacob; Kristensen, Jan Bolding

    2016-10-12

    We document the discovery of the first population of greater double-collared sunbird (Cinnyris afer complex) from the Eastern Arc Mountains of Tanzania. We assessed phylogenetic relationships and taxonomic rank based on mtDNA sequence data, nine microsatellite loci and morphology. This new taxon, locally distributed in the Rubeho and Udzungwa Highlands, has close affinities (< 1% uncorrected sequence divergence) with C. whytei (split here from C. ludovicensis) of the Nyika Plateau in Malawi, but differs in having longer tarsi and in subtle plumage details. Although the birds from Nyika and Udzungwa-Rubeho are reciprocally monophyletic for mitochondrial DNA, coalescent analyses of the microsatellite data and the total molecular dataset could not reject the possibility of continued gene flow between the two populations. Thus, although we favour the phylogenetic species concept, we adopt a cautious approach and formally describe the Rubeho and Udzungwa greater double-collared sunbird population as a subspecies of Cinnyris whytei. This new sunbird taxon has been recorded only above 1700 m in scrub on the forest/grassland ecotone in a very restricted area in the Rubeho and Udzungwa Highlands of Tanzania. The effects of human settlement and agriculture threaten this taxon.

  3. IS WHITE-COLLAR CRIMINALITY CLOSER TO THE RATIONAL MODEL THAN ANY OTHER TYPE MODEL?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob RUB

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The basic premise is that white-collar felons are making non-rational decisions. To our opinion, they are not making decisions according to a calculation of profit or loss from perpetration of a crime as it was stated earlier in the scientific literature. In relation to the above mentioned premises, an illegal behavior is an occasion of a white-collar felon deciding to take the law into his own hands while taking risks. Naturally, the level of values and personality of the felon constitute a significant factor. Our current study offers an examination of deterring through a prism of the white-collar felon, who makes the decision to perpetrate a crime according to irrational components as well.White-collar crime, as family violence, and other socially harmful behaviors, is often excluded from examination. Of our opinion all the rational, social, biological, etc. theories of crimes, are the base of the reasons to make an offence, but in reality, the implementation of white-collar criminality closer to the non-rational model than any other type model. People are seen as less than fully rational. Often they do not make decisions that would appear to be in their own best interest for a variety of reasons. First, people do not always have all of the information they need to make informed decisions, and even if they do, may not have the capacity to optimally process that information. The personalities, experiences and options that of human beings given the choice in life, that it is quite naive to assume that we will all assess the situation similarly and arrive at similar choices. Many criminal events appear not to be very rational choices at all, or at least reflect patterns of decision making quite different from those more typically seen among law-abiding citizens. Ближе ли беловоротничковая преступность к рациональной модели, нежели к другим типам моделе

  4. Influence of Cryopreservation Solution on the In Vitro Culture of Skin Tissues Derived from Collared Peccary (Pecari tajacu Linnaeus, 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Alana A; Lira, Gabriela P O; Nascimento, Lucas E; Queiroz Neta, Luiza B; Santos, Maria V O; Oliveira, Moacir F; Silva, Alexandre R; Pereira, Alexsandra F

    2017-12-07

    Skin vitrification is a promising and alternative tool for the conservation of biodiversity, especially for wild mammals, such as collared peccaries. Several factors can affect the success of this procedure, such as the cryoprotectant solution used. Therefore, this study was carried out to compare the efficiency of various vitrification solutions for recovery of viable cells after in vitro culture of cryopreserved skin tissues derived from the collared peccary, aiming to study the application in biobanking, where cellular use is not immediately required. Then, Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) composed of 2.2 g/L sodium bicarbonate and 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) was supplemented with 3.0 M ethylene glycol (EG) or 3.0 M dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) or 1.5 M EG plus 1.5 M DMSO with or without sucrose (SUC; 0.25 M) to produce six solutions for solid-surface vitrification. After warming, skin tissues were cultured in vitro and recovered cells were analyzed for morphology, adhesion, subconfluence, and proliferative activity for developing the growth curve and determining the population doubling time (PDT), and viability by Trypan Blue. The vitrification did not alter the ability of the tissues to adhere to the culture dish, as well as the day of all explants with cell growth, subconfluence samples, subconfluence total time, and PDT (p > 0.05). Moreover, independent of the cryoprotectant solution used, the vitrification altered the day of all attached explants (p  0.05). Additionally, for viability after the third passage, only the EG-SUC group maintained the cell quality (88.3%), when compared with the nonvitrified (97.8%, p > 0.05). In conclusion, DMEM with 10% FBS, 3.0 M EG, and 0.25 M sucrose was the most efficient solution for vitrifying collared peccary skin tissues, leading to the in vitro culture of viable cells.

  5. Comparison of Clinical and Radiographic Outcomes of Platform-Switched Implants with a Rough Collar and Platform-Matched Implants with a Smooth Collar: A 1-Year Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yung-Ting; Chan, Hsun-Liang; Rudek, Ivan; Bashutski, Jill; Oh, Won-Suk; Wang, Hom-Lay; Oh, Tae-Ju

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the clinical and radiographic outcomes of single implants with a platform-switched rough collar (PSRC) and a platform-matched smooth collar (PMSC). Twenty-six patients missing a tooth in the anterior maxilla (through the premolars) were randomly assigned to the PSRC or the PMSC group. All implants were placed in a flapless approach and restored with an early loading protocol. Clinical measurements were performed at surgery, loading, and at 3, 6, and 12 months after loading. In addition, radiographic evaluations were carried out using standardized periapical radiographs and cone beam computed tomography. Patient satisfaction surveys were completed, and microbial analysis with DNA probes was performed. The implant survival rate was 100% for both groups. The mean marginal bone level (MBL) was significantly higher in the PSRC group compared to the PMSC group at all time points. From the 2-week postoperative visit to 1 year postloading, the mean MBL change in the PSRC group was 0.21 ± 0.56 mm and in the PMSC group it was 0.74 ± 0.47 mm. Soft tissue profiles were stable over time, with no significant differences between groups. There were no significant differences between groups in the number of microbial species seen. Patients in both groups were highly satisfied with postoperative and postprosthetic experiences. In this study, the PSRC method preserved marginal bone by a mean of 0.53 mm more than the standard PMSC protocol. Within the limitations of the present study, it can be concluded that the PSRC protocol may be beneficial in marginal bone preservation. Longitudinal studies are needed to verify the long-term effects of this approach.

  6. A prospective cohort study on severe pain as a risk factor for long-term sickness absence in blue- and white-collar workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Louis; Mortensen, Ole Steen; Hansen, Jørgen Vinsløv

    2011-01-01

    Objective To estimate the impact of pain in different body regions on future long-term sickness absence (LTSA) among blue- and white-collar workers. Method Prospective cohort study in a representative sample of 5603 employees (the Danish Work Environment Cohort Study) interviewed in 2000, and fol......Objective To estimate the impact of pain in different body regions on future long-term sickness absence (LTSA) among blue- and white-collar workers. Method Prospective cohort study in a representative sample of 5603 employees (the Danish Work Environment Cohort Study) interviewed in 2000...... consecutive weeks. Age, gender, body mass index, smoking and diagnosed disease were controlled for. Results In 2000 the prevalence among blue- and white-collar workers, respectively, of severe pain was 33% and 29% (neck/shoulder), 33% and 25% (low back), 16% and 11% (hand/wrists), and 16% and 12% (knees......). During 2001-2002, the prevalence of LTSA among blue- and white-collar workers was 18% and 12%, respectively. Hand/wrist pain (HR 1.49, 95% CI 1.23 to 1.81) and low back pain (HR 1.30, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.53) were significant risk factors among the total cohort. Neck/shoulder pain was a significant risk...

  7. Is prolonged sitting at work associated with the time course of neck–shoulder pain? A prospective study in Danish blue-collar workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nidhi; Heiden, Marina; Mathiassen, Svend Erik; Korshøj, Mette; Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Holtermann, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to determine the extent to which objectively measured sitting time at work is associated with the course of neck–shoulder pain across 1 year in blue-collar workers. Methods Data were analysed from 625 blue-collar workers in the Danish PHysical ACTivity cohort with Objective measurements (DPHACTO) cohort study (2012–2013). Objective data on sitting time were collected at baseline using accelerometry. Self-reported pain intensity (numeric rating scale 0–10) in the neck–shoulder region was registered for 1 year using repeated text messages (14 in total). Linear mixed models were used to determine the relationship between per cent time in sitting at work and trajectories of neck–shoulder pain, with and without adjustment for demographic, occupational and lifestyle factors, and baseline pain intensity. Results More sitting time at work was associated with a faster decline in pain intensity over 12 months, as indicated by a statistically significant effect of sitting on pain trajectories in the crude (p=0.020) and fully adjusted models (p=0.027). Conclusions In blue-collar workers, more sitting time at work was associated with a favourable development of pain intensity over time. The relationship between sitting at work and pain needs further investigation before explicit recommendations and guidelines on sedentary behaviour among blue-collar workers can be developed. PMID:28186937

  8. Comparative evaluation of laser-microtextured implant versus machined collar implant for soft and hard tissue attachment: A clinical and radiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Saroj Kumar; Kosala, Manab; Gupta, Ankit

    2017-01-01

    Various mechanical modifications in the collar region of endosseous implants is a challenge for better performance and osseointegration. Here is a comparative evaluation being carried out to find out the effect of the machined collar (MC) and Laser-Lok (LL)-modified titanium implants on the success of implants being commonly advocated in partially edentulous among serving personnel and their families. Twenty-four patients with appropriate inclusion and exclusion criteria were selected for placement of Biohorizons MC and LL implants in 12 cases each. Aseptic surgical procedure was followed for implant surgery, and clinical parameters such as clinical attachment loss, pocket depth (PD), bleeding on probing, and plaque index (PI), mobility parameters estimated by Periotest value, and radiographic assessment of crestal bone loss (CBL) at interval of 6 months and 1 year were recorded and compared by statistical analysis. Intragroup comparison at 6 and 12 months period for all the parameters were nonsignificant except CBL in Group A (CBL-MC) with 12 cases shows a mean of 0.917 and 1.500, respectively, standard deviation difference = 0.477 (significant) with P collar of the implants did not increase the PI and sulcular bleeding index. The probing PD was much less as observed in the group of LASER-treated implants in comparison with that of MC group. LL implant had an edge over MC proving success of the laser treatment on collars of implants.

  9. Crime and punishment. Instead of a slap on the wrist, crooked healthcare executives now are being sentenced to prison thanks to a crackdown on white-collar crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Mark

    2002-03-18

    Lawmakers wondering how to handle white-collar crime might look to the healthcare industry, where crooked executives are being held criminally accountable for shady business dealings and corrupt practices that previously may have resulted in quiet dismissals. A confluence of factors has driven the crackdown, from escalating whistleblower lawsuits to a decade-long effort to halt Medicare and Medicaid fraud.

  10. Prolonged fatigue is associated with sickness absence in men but not in women : prospective study with 1-year follow-up of white-collar employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, Corne A. M.; van Rhenen, Willem; Groothoff, Johan W.; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; Bultmann, Ute

    2014-01-01

    Prolonged fatigue adversely affects an individual's performance and functioning. The present study investigated the prospective associations between prolonged fatigue and sickness absence (SA) during 1-year follow-up. At baseline, a convenience sample of white-collar employees received the 20-item

  11. Localization of Electrical Insulation Failures in Superconducting Collared Coils by Analysis of the Distortion of a Pulsed Magnetic Field

    CERN Document Server

    Komorowski, P A

    2000-01-01

    The localization of possible electrical faults in superconducting accelerator magnets may, in most cases, be a complex, expensive and time-consuming process. In particular, inter-turn short circuits and failures of the ground insulation are well detectable when the magnet is collared, but often disappear after disassembly for repair due to the release of the pre-stress in the coils. The fault localization method presented in this paper is based on the measurement and analysis of the magnetic field generated inside the magnet aperture by a high voltage pulse. The presence of the fault modifies the distribution of the current in the coils and produces a distortion of the magnetic field. The described method aims at locating both the longitudinal and azimuthal position of the fault-affected area. The test method, the transient case FEM models and the implemented experimental set-up are presented and discussed for the LHC dipole models.

  12. Nucleic acid spot hybridization based species-specific detection of Sclerotium rolfsii associated with collar rot disease of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pravi, V; Jeeva, M L; Archana, P V

    2015-02-01

    Collar rot is one of the most destructive and prevalent disease of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius, resulting in heavy yield losses. The causative organism, Sclerotium rolfsii is a soil-borne polyphagous fungus characterized by prolific growth and ability to produce persistent sclerotia. The pathogen propagules surviving in soil and planting material are the major sources of inoculum. This study presents the suitability of DNA hybridization technique for species specific detection of S. rolfsii in soil and planting material. The detection limit of the probe was 10-15 pg of pure pathogen DNA. The developed probe was found to be highly specific and could be used for accurate identification of pathogen up to the species level. The protocol was standardized for detection of the pathogen in naturally infected field samples.

  13. [The case of a collar-bone wedge-fracture caused by the impact of safety-belt clasp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch-Bogusławska, Elzbieta; Wolska, Ewa

    2003-01-01

    In this study the case of a collar--bone wedge--fracture caused by the impact of safety--belt clasp was described. The presence of wedge--fracture is proof of an active mechanism of injury. This kind of fracture was described in traffic accidents as a Messerer fracture so far. The case of a wedge--fracture of the ulnar caused by impact of a baseball bat was also described. This study proves that Messerer fractures of bones are not characteristic only for long bones but may be connected with other types of bones if only the power of impact is strong enough to cause excessive bending of the bone trunk.

  14. Neck collar, "act-as-usual" or active mobilization for whiplash injury? A randomized parallel-group trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Alice; Montvilas, Erisela Qerama; Kasch, Helge

    2007-01-01

    practitioners within 10 days after a whiplash injury and randomized to: 1) immobilization of the cervical spine in a rigid collar followed by active mobilization, 2) advice to "act-as-usual," or 3) an active mobilization program (Mechanical Diagnosis and Therapy). Follow-up was carried out after 3, 6, and 12......-extension trauma to the cervical spine. It is unclear whether this, in some cases disabling, condition can be prevented by early intervention. Active interventions have been recommended but have not been compared with information only. Methods. Participants were recruited from emergency units and general......Study Design. Randomized, parallel-group trial. Objective. To compare the effect of 3 early intervention strategies following whiplash injury. Summary of Background Data. Long-lasting pain and disability, known as chronic whiplash-associated disorder (WAD), may develop after a forced flexion...

  15. Female white-collar workers remain at higher risk of breast cancer after adjustments for individual risk factors related to reproduction and lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullberg, Cecilia; Selander, Jenny; Albin, Maria; Borgquist, Signe; Manjer, Jonas; Gustavsson, Per

    2017-09-01

    The aim was to investigate the variation in risk of breast cancer between occupational groups with a focus on white-collar and blue-collar workers and to investigate to what extent the differences were explained by risk factors related to reproduction and lifestyle. Between 1991 and 1996, 14 119 women born between 1923 and 1950 and residents of Malmö, Sweden, were included in this cohort study. Individual data on risk factors (eg, age, parity, age at first child, months of breast feeding per child, hormonal replacement therapy, physical activity, alcohol consumption, smoking, height and body mass index) and occupational history were assessed using a questionnaire. First-time diagnoses of invasive breast cancer were identified through the Swedish Cancer Registry up until 31 December 2013. A total of 897 women were diagnosed with breast cancer. Analyses adjusted for age showed an increased risk for white-collar workers compared with blue-collar workers and indicated higher risks in the occupational categories: professionals, administrative and bookkeeping than among women in sales, transportation, production and service work. This difference was only marginally attenuated after adjustment for an extensive set of risk factors related to reproduction and lifestyle. Reproductive and lifestyle factors explain only a minor part of the increased risk of breast cancer in white-collar workers. Further studies are needed to investigate the remaining factors for the difference in risk between occupational groups. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. The impact of a laser-microtextured collar on crestal bone level and clinical parameters under various placement and loading protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnieri, Renzo; Serra, Mario; Bava, Luca; Grande, Maurizio; Farronato, Davide; Iorio-Siciliano, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    Physical attachment of connective tissue fibers to a laser-microtextured (8- and 12-μm grooves) surface on the collar of an implant has been demonstrated using human histology. Related clinical research has suggested that this microtextured surface may help to decrease initial bone loss after implant placement. The aim of this retrospective study was to compare crestal bone heights and clinical parameters between implants with laser-microtextured and machined collars placed and loaded with different protocols. This study evaluated 300 single implants in 300 patients (155 men, 145 women; mean age: 49.3 years; range: 45 to 75 years). One hundred sixty implants with laser-microtextured collars (L) and 140 with machined collars (M) were used. Implants were grouped into the treatment categories of immediate placement, delayed placement, immediate nonocclusal loading, and delayed loading. For all groups, crestal bone level, attachment level (CAL), Plaque Index, and bleeding on probing were recorded at baseline and 6, 12, and 24 months after loading with the definitive restoration. Nine implants were lost (four L and five M). The type of implant and timing of placement and loading showed no significant influence on survival rates. A mean CAL loss of 1.12 mm was observed during the first 2 years in the M group, while the mean CAL loss observed in the L group was 0.55 mm. Radiographically, L group implants showed a mean crestal bone loss of 0.58 mm, compared to 1.09 mm for the M group. A laser-microtextured surface on the implant collar may mitigate the negative sequelae associated with peri-implant bone loss, regardless of the placement and loading protocols used.

  17. Soft tissue conditions and marginal bone levels of implants with a laser-microtextured collar: a 5-year, retrospective, controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iorio-Siciliano, V; Matarasso, R; Guarnieri, R; Nicolò, M; Farronato, D; Matarasso, S

    2015-03-01

    To compare clinical and radiographic outcomes of implants with a Laser-Lok®-microtextured collar to implants with a resorbable blast textured (RBT) collar after a 5-year follow-up period. Thirty-four implants with a Laser-Lok®-microtextured collar (test group [TG]) and 31 implants with an RBT collar (control group [CG]) were placed in 45 non-smoking, periodontally healthy patients. The full-mouth plaque score, full-mouth bleeding score, number of sites with plaque, and the number of sites with bleeding on probing (BOP) were recorded at baseline, and at 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-year follow-up. Probing depth (PD) and mucosal recession were assessed at baseline and after the 5-year follow-up period. The radiographic marginal bone loss (MBL) was calculated by subtracting the bone level at the time of crown insertion from the bone level at the 5-year follow-up. An implant survival rate of 94% and of 90% was reported for the TG and the CG, respectively. No statistical differences were found between the study groups for presence of plaque (10.1% vs. 25%) or for number of sites with BOP (10.3% vs. 23%). The differences between both study groups were statistically significant for mean MBL (0.81 ± 0.24 vs. 2.02 ± 0.32 mm), mean PD (2.32 ± 0.44 vs. 4.25 ± 0.87 mm), and mean mucosal recession (0.16 ± 0.3 vs. 0.22 ± 0.3 mm). Within the limitations of this study, results suggest that the laser-microtextured implant collar surface may provide more favorable conditions for the attachment of hard and soft tissues, and reduce the level of MBL. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. An investigation into the effects of vacations on the health status in male white-collar workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarumi, K; Hagihara, A; Morimoto, K

    1998-04-01

    There are many stress factors in occupational settings, and the lack of vacations could be one of factors in the context of work stress. The authors have been studying the relationship between workload and employee health. This time, an investigation into the effects of leisure vacations on worker health status using male white-collar employees aged 20-60 years engaged in a manufacturing company was conducted. The subjects were questioned on work stress factors including vacations and modifiers in their occupational settings, and on psychological and physiological stress reactions; that is, how often they were able to take leisure vacations every year, their average working hours a day and work stress factors from the Demand-Control-Support model. The questions also examined other factors concerning the employees such as type-A behavior and lifestyles as modifiers, diseases of the employees, physical complaints, feelings about sleep, perceived stress, job and life satisfaction, and stress reactions as measured by physiological examination. Correlation and logistic regression analysis were conducted with the 551 eligible subjects. The results were as follows: Leisure vacation was decreasingly related to some of psychological stress reactions after adjustment was made for working hours and for modifiers. Less vacation was increasingly related to the workers' diseases especially among the employees aged 20-34, though the association was not statistically significant. Vacations did not show obvious association with physiological measures. These findings demonstrate the effectiveness and possibility of leisure vacation in controlling fatigue and maintaining the health of workers. Vacation should always be taken into consideration as a stress factor in a survey of the health problems of white-collar workers.

  19. Job mismatching, unequal opportunities and long-term sickness absence in female white-collar workers in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandmark, Hélène

    2009-01-01

    To investigate associations between long-term sick-listing and factors at work and in family life. Associations were investigated in a cross-sectional case-referent study. The study base included women in white-collar jobs, aged 30-55 years, living in three urban areas in Sweden between February 2004 and October 2004. A postal questionnaire was constructed with questions on occupational and family circumstances, and sent to 513 randomly selected female white-collar workers, of whom 233 had ongoing sick-leave of 90 days or more. The response rate was 81% (n = 413). Most of the women in this study were in managerial positions. The unadjusted associations showed that sick-listed women with children showed the highest estimates regarding reported long working hours, bullying, high mental strain, low control and low influence at work, and work-family imbalance. In a regression model, the strongest associations were: experiencing too high mental strain in work tasks (odds ratio (OR) = 2.57, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.09-3.15) and low control and influence at work (OR=2.17, 95% CI= 1.60-2.94). Sick-listed women reported an overall higher dissatisfaction with their workplace and working life. There seems to be a greater tendency for the sick-listed women in this study to experience low control and too high mental strain at work and to live in traditional family relationships with unequal opportunities. The women who were sick-listed were probably less able to cope with work stress and to find a balance between work and family life.

  20. Effects of capturing and collaring on polar bears: findings from long-term research on the southern Beaufort Sea population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, Karyn D.; Pagano, Anthony M.; Bromaghin, Jeffrey F.; Atwood, Todd C.; Durner, George M.; Simac, Kristin S.; Amstrup, Steven C.

    2014-01-01

    Context: The potential for research methods to affect wildlife is an increasing concern among both scientists and the public. This topic has a particular urgency for polar bears because additional research is needed to monitor and understand population responses to rapid loss of sea ice habitat.Aims: This study used data collected from polar bears sampled in the Alaska portion of the southern Beaufort Sea to investigate the potential for capture to adversely affect behaviour and vital rates. We evaluated the extent to which capture, collaring and handling may influence activity and movement days to weeks post-capture, and body mass, body condition, reproduction and survival over 6 months or more.Methods: We compared post-capture activity and movement rates, and relationships between prior capture history and body mass, body condition and reproductive success. We also summarised data on capture-related mortality.Key results: Individual-based estimates of activity and movement rates reached near-normal levels within 2–3 days and fully normal levels within 5 days post-capture. Models of activity and movement rates among all bears had poor fit, but suggested potential for prolonged, lower-level rate reductions. Repeated captures was not related to negative effects on body condition, reproduction or cub growth or survival. Capture-related mortality was substantially reduced after 1986, when immobilisation drugs were changed, with only 3 mortalities in 2517 captures from 1987–2013.Conclusions: Polar bears in the southern Beaufort Sea exhibited the greatest reductions in activity and movement rates 3.5 days post-capture. These shorter-term, post-capture effects do not appear to have translated into any long-term effects on body condition, reproduction, or cub survival. Additionally, collaring had no effect on polar bear recovery rates, body condition, reproduction or cub survival.Implications: This study provides empirical evidence that current capture

  1. The effects of breakfast on short-term cognitive function among Chinese white-collar workers: protocol for a three-phase crossover study

    OpenAIRE

    Zhenchuang Tang; Na Zhang; Ailing Liu; Dechun Luan; Yong Zhao; Chao Song; Guansheng Ma

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background As the first meal of the day, breakfast plays an important role in supplying energy and nutrients, which are critical to working and learning activities. A three-phase crossover study was designed to investigate the effects of breakfast on cognitive function among Chinese white-collar workers. The planned study protocol is presented. Methods A total of 264 participants aged 25–45 years will be recruited from Shenyang and Chongqing. Self-administered questionnaires will be ...

  2. The effects of breakfast on short-term cognitive function among Chinese white-collar workers: protocol for a three-phase crossover study

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Zhenchuang; Zhang, Na; Liu, AiLing; Luan, Dechun; Zhao, Yong; Song, Chao; Ma, Guansheng

    2017-01-01

    Background As the first meal of the day, breakfast plays an important role in supplying energy and nutrients, which are critical to working and learning activities. A three-phase crossover study was designed to investigate the effects of breakfast on cognitive function among Chinese white-collar workers. The planned study protocol is presented. Methods A total of 264 participants aged 25?45 years will be recruited from Shenyang and Chongqing. Self-administered questionnaires will be used to c...

  3. Review of selected coil and collared-coil assembly data from 10-M-long, 50-MM-Twin-aperture LHC dipole magnet prototypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devred, A

    1999-02-01

    In 1991, the Laboratoire Europeen pour la Physique des Particules (CERN) has launched the fabrication in industry of seven 10 m long, 50 mm twin aperture dipole magnet prototypes for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The design and specific features of these magnets have been described elsewhere. In this paper, we review some of the coil and collared-coil assembly data and we analyze the influence of tooling imperfections on magnet assembly. (author)

  4. A flea and tick collar containing 10% imidacloprid and 4.5% flumethrin prevents flea transmission of Bartonella henselae in cats

    OpenAIRE

    Lappin, Michael R.; Davis, Wendell L; Hawley, Jennifer R.; Brewer, Melissa; Morris, Arianne; Stanneck, Dorothee

    2013-01-01

    Background Bartonella henselae is transmitted amongst cats by Ctenocephalides felis and is associated with multiple clinical syndromes in cats and people. In a previous study, monthly spot-on administration of 10% imidacloprid/1% moxidectin was shown to block transmission of B. henselae amongst cats experimentally exposed to infected C. felis. The purpose of this study was to determine whether application of a flea and tick collar containing 10% imidacloprid and 4.5% flumethrin would lessen C...

  5. A Study of the Health-Related Quality of Life and Work-Related Stress of White-Collar Migrant Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Ying Tsai

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the health-related quality of life (HRQoL and work-related stress and its risk factors among white-collar businessmen and management workers that migrate to high-income developing countries. A structural questionnaire survey was administered to 156 white-collar Taiwanese management personnel of representative companies of their industries in Taiwan, who were assigned long-term job positions in China. Questionnaire content included demographics and medical history, self-reported physical and mental conditions, personal lifestyle and behavior, Beck Depression Inventory, and information on HRQoL. White-collar migrant workers reported a high prevalence of alcohol consumption (72.4% and perceived work-related stress (62.2%, and a lower prevalence of regular exercise (12.2%. Workers with higher levels of perceived work-related stress reported more alcohol consumption, a history of hyperlipidemia, and a higher prevalence of self-reported neck pain, poor sleep, and mild/moderate/severe depression. In our primary multivariate risk model to determine lifestyle and work-related stress variables and HRQoL, perceived work-related stress and a feeling of depression negatively impacted both the Physical Component Summary (PCS and Mental Component Summary (MCS scores of the SF-36 health survey. Hyperlipidemia and self-reported neck pain were associated with significantly lower PCS scores, whereas cardiovascular disease, gastric ulcer, and poor sleep were associated with statistically lower MCS scores. White-collar migrant workers are generally younger with high socioeconomic status. Perceived work-related stress and a feeling of depression indirectly affect HRQoL. Hyperlipidemia, self-reported neck pain, cardiovascular disease, gastric ulcer, and poor sleep also had a significant negative impact on HRQoL.

  6. Comparative evaluation of laser-microtextured implant versus machined collar implant for soft and hard tissue attachment: A clinical and radiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saroj Kumar Rath

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Various mechanical modifications in the collar region of endosseous implants is a challenge for better performance and osseointegration. Here is a comparative evaluation being carried out to find out the effect of the machined collar (MC and Laser-Lok (LL-modified titanium implants on the success of implants being commonly advocated in partially edentulous among serving personnel and their families. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four patients with appropriate inclusion and exclusion criteria were selected for placement of Biohorizons MC and LL implants in 12 cases each. Aseptic surgical procedure was followed for implant surgery, and clinical parameters such as clinical attachment loss, pocket depth (PD, bleeding on probing, and plaque index (PI, mobility parameters estimated by Periotest value, and radiographic assessment of crestal bone loss (CBL at interval of 6 months and 1 year were recorded and compared by statistical analysis. Results: Intragroup comparison at 6 and 12 months period for all the parameters were nonsignificant except CBL in Group A (CBL-MC with 12 cases shows a mean of 0.917 and 1.500, respectively, standard deviation difference = 0.477 (significant with P < 0.05. Similar significant difference in CBL was observed with superior result in LL implants. Conclusion: The presence of LASER textured with microgrooves on the collar of the implants did not increase the PI and sulcular bleeding index. The probing PD was much less as observed in the group of LASER-treated implants in comparison with that of MC group. LL implant had an edge over MC proving success of the laser treatment on collars of implants.

  7. The use of GPS radio-collars to track elephants (Loxodonta africana in the Tarangire National Park (Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Galanti

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The GPS (Global Positioning System telemetry was used in Tarangire National Park (Tanzania to study migration routes and the use of space by elephants (Loxodonta africana. Five female elephants were captured in November 1997 in five different areas of Tarangire National Park and fitted with GPS collars. The collar consists of a 6 channel Global Positioning System (GPS receiver, a radio-modem for data communication, a non volatile memory, and an independent VHF transmitter. The operator can «communicate» with the collar through a command unit connected to a PC. The GPS collar receives signals from different satellites which permits automatic calculation of its position, with an accuracy of 25 m. The data collected in the period November 1997 - April 1998 show that three female elephants mainly used the northern sector of the park, moving sometimes outside the protected area about 10 to 20 km NE of the park boundary. Also the two female elephants captured in the southern sector of the park moved outside, travelling about 80 km SE of the park boundary. Home range size varied between 159 and 660 km² for the northern elephants (n=3, and between 2104 and 3314 km² for the southern elephants (n=2. The elephants whose ranges extended outside the park exhibited their highest movement rate from 4 p.m. to 12 p.m., while those animals within the park had the highest movement rates during daylight hours (from 8 a.m. to 4 p.m.. We discuss the advantages and shortcomings of GPS-telemetry as a means of gathering useful information on space use and movements of elephants for the development of long-term conservation strategies for large herbivores in the whole Tarangire area.

  8. Patterns of smoking and its association with psychosocial work conditions among blue-collar and service employees of hospitality venues in Shenyang, PR China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xun; Liang, Huiying; Li, Xuelian; Guan, Peng; Yin, Zhihua; Zhou, Baosen

    2010-01-27

    To characterize the smoking patterns of hospitality employees in blue-collar and service occupations, and to examine its relations with psychosocial work conditions. The Shenyang Hospitality Industry Employees Survey-a face-to-face cross-sectional study of representative hospitality industry employees-was conducted between March and July 2008. A total of 4,213 workers were selected using stratified random cluster sampling designs, and final analyses were performed on 2,508 blue-collar and service subjects. Multilevel-logistic regression models were used to estimate the contribution of psychosocial work conditions to smoking status. Blue-collar and service employees smoked at a rate 1.4 times that of the general population (49.4% vs. 35.8%), more particularly for females (12.9% vs. 3.08%). Strain jobs had significantly higher odds ratio of daily smoking (OR 2.09, 95%CI: 1.28-3.41) compared to the relaxed category. The passive jobs (OR 2.01, 95%CI 1.27 to 3.17), highest job demands (OR 1.72, 95%CI: 1.13-2.61), and lowest job control (OR 2.56, 95%CI: 1.57-4.16) were also associated with a significantly higher daily smoking ratio. The negative relationship between job stability and smoking behavior was slightly stronger among daily than occasional smokers. However, neither job strain nor any of its components was found to be significantly associated with occasional smoking. Smoking in hospitality blue-collar and service employees is certainly a major occupational health problem in Shenyang. This evidence also suggests an association between psychosocial-work conditions and smoking status, and implies that more intervention studies where changes in work environment are carried out in combination with health promotion interventions should be performed.

  9. Impact of implant–abutment connection and positioning of the machined collar/microgap on crestal bone level changes: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Schwarz, Frank; Hegewald, Andrea; Becker, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To address the following focused question: What is the impact of implant–abutment configuration and the positioning of the machined collar/microgap on crestal bone level changes? Material and methods Electronic databases of the PubMed and the Web of Knowledge were searched for animal and human studies reporting on histological/radiological crestal bone level changes (CBL) at nonsubmerged one-/two-piece implants (placed in healed ridges) exhibiting different abutment configurations,...

  10. Impact of implant–abutment connection, positioning of the machined collar/microgap, and platform switching on crestal bone level changes. Camlog Foundation Consensus Report.

    OpenAIRE

    Schwarz, Frank; Alcoforado, Gil; Nelson, Katja; Schaer, Alex; Taylor, Thomas; Beuer, Florian; Strietzel, Frank Peter

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this consensus meeting was to assess the impact of implant–abutment connection, positioning of the machined collar/microgap, and platform switching on crestal bone level changes. Materials and methods Two comprehensive systematic reviews were prepared in advance of the meeting. Consensus statements, practical recommendations, and implications for future research were based on within group as well as plenary scrutinization and discussions of these systematic reviews. Resu...

  11. Physical activities at work and risk of musculoskeletal pain and its consequences: protocol for a study with objective field measures among blue-collar workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Korshøj, Mette; Lagersted-Olsen, Julie; Villumsen, Morten; Mortensen, Ole Steen; Skotte, Jørgen; Søgaard, Karen; Madeleine, Pascal; Thomsen, Birthe Lykke; Holtermann, Andreas

    2013-07-20

    Among blue-collar workers, high physical work demands are generally considered to be the main cause of musculoskeletal pain and work disability. However, current available research on this topic has been criticised for using self-reported data, cross-sectional design, insufficient adjustment for potential confounders, and inadequate follow-up on the recurrent and fluctuating pattern of musculoskeletal pain. Recent technological advances have provided possibilities for objective diurnal field measurements of physical activities and frequent follow-up on musculoskeletal pain.The main aim of this paper is to describe the background, design, methods, limitations and perspectives of the Danish Physical Activity cohort with Objective measurements (DPhacto) investigating the association between objectively measured physical activities capturing work and leisure time and frequent measurements of musculoskeletal pain among blue-collar workers. Approximately 2000 blue-collar workers are invited for the study and asked to respond to a baseline questionnaire, participate in physical tests (i.e. muscle strength, aerobic fitness, back muscle endurance and flexibility), to wear accelerometers and a heart rate monitor for four consecutive days, and finally respond to monthly text messages regarding musculoskeletal pain and quarterly questionnaires regarding the consequences of musculoskeletal pain on work activities, social activities and work ability for a one-year follow-up period. This study will provide novel information on the association between physical activities at work and musculoskeletal pain. The study will provide valid and precise documentation about the relation between physical work activities and musculoskeletal pain and its consequences among blue-collar workers.

  12. Effects of atipamezole and medetomidine administration on seminal variables and functions of erection and ejaculation of the collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) after electroejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paiva, Ariana L C; Nunes, Talyta L; de Oliveira, Maria G C; de Morais, Alessandro M L; Dos Santos, Erika A A; Silva, Alexandre R; de Oliveira, Moacir F; de Paula, Valéria V

    2014-08-08

    Alpha adrenergic drugs are usually used in the treatment of erectile and ejaculatory dysfunction in humans. The influence of such drugs on the seminal characteristics of wild animals has not been verified; whereas their impact on the seminal characteristics and erectile and ejaculatory functions of collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) has already been determined. This study aimed at investigating and comparing the effects of medetomidine and atipamezole on the seminal variables of collared peccaries undergoing electroejaculation as well as at determining whether these drugs affected the erectile and ejaculatory functions of this species. A statistically significant difference in sperm concentration was observed between AP (100.0 ± 26.0 × 106 sperm/ml) and MP (220.2 ± 49.8 × 106 sperm/ml); however, both these treatments did not differ from P treatment (180.0 ± 50.7 × 106 sperm/ml). No statistically significant difference was observed among all treatments with regard to erectile function. With regard to ejaculation time, no significant difference was observed between the MP and AP treatments; however, when compared with the P treatment, AP exhibited a significantly higher difference. When collared peccaries were anesthetized with propofol, neither medetomidine nor atipamezole significantly affected the characteristics of the semen or the erectile function, despite the fact that the AP treatment increased ejaculation time. Therefore, the data indicate that using propofol alone is an effective anesthetic protocol for collecting semen in collared peccaries. Other non-injectable anesthetic drugs, such as inhaled anesthetics, may be used in future research to collect semen from peccaries.

  13. Proposal for the award of two contracts for the supply of fine-blanked austenitic steel collars for the cold masses of the LHC superconducting dipole magnets

    CERN Document Server

    1999-01-01

    This document concerns the award of two contracts for the supply of 12 500 000 fine-blanked austenitic steel collars in three different shapes and of two different types for the cold masses of the LHC superconducting dipole magnets. Following a market survey carried out among 70 firms in fourteen Member States and one firm in Japan, a call for tenders (IT-2469/LHC/LHC) was sent on 3 June 1999 to eleven firms in five Member States and one firm in Japan. By the closing date, CERN had received five tenders. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of two contracts with: - MALVESTITI (IT) for the supply of up to 7 812 500 fine-blanked austenitic steel collars, which represents 5/8 of the total quantity required for the cold masses of the LHC superconducting dipole magnets, for a total amount of up to 6 908 509 Swiss francs, subject to revision for contractual deliveries after 31 December 2001, with an option for the supply of up to 4 687 500 additional fine-blanked austenitic steel collars, wh...

  14. Impact of implant-abutment connection and positioning of the machined collar/microgap on crestal bone level changes: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Frank; Hegewald, Andrea; Becker, Jürgen

    2014-04-01

    To address the following focused question: What is the impact of implant-abutment configuration and the positioning of the machined collar/microgap on crestal bone level changes? Electronic databases of the PubMed and the Web of Knowledge were searched for animal and human studies reporting on histological/radiological crestal bone level changes (CBL) at nonsubmerged one-/two-piece implants (placed in healed ridges) exhibiting different abutment configurations, positioning of the machined collar/microgap (between 1992 and November 2012: n = 318 titles). Quality assessment of selected full-text articles was performed according to the ARRIVE and CONSORT statement guidelines. A total of 13 publications (risk of bias: high) were eligible for the review. The weighted mean difference (WMD) (95% CI) between machined collars placed either above or below the bone crest amounted to 0.835 mm favoring an epicrestal positioning of the rough/smooth border (P bone crest amounted to -0.479 mm favoring a subcrestal position of the implant neck (P bone level changes at nonsubmerged implants, the impact of the implant-abutment connection lacks documentation. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Crestal bone changes at nonsubmerged implants (Camlog) with different machined collar lengths: a histomorphometric pilot study in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Frank; Herten, Monika; Bieling, Katrin; Becker, Jürgen

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to histomorphometrically investigate crestal bone changes at nonsubmerged implants (Camlog) with different machined collar lengths in a dog model. One-stage insertion of sandblasted acid-etched screw-type implants with machined neck sizes of 1.6 mm (CAM) and 0.4 mm (CAM+) was performed in the mandibles of 4 beagle dogs. Both types of implants were inserted so that the implant shoulder (IC) exceeded the alveolar crest for 0.4 mm. Placement was followed by the connection of standard abutments. The animals were sacrificed after 2 and 12 weeks. Dissected blocks were processed for histomorphometric analysis (eg, distance between IC and the coronal extension of bone-implant contact [CBI], the distance between IC and the apical extension of the inflammatory cell infiltrate, and the percentage of bone-implant contact). Histomorphometric analysis revealed significantly increased mean IC-CBI (CAM: 2.4 +/- 0.3 mm; CAM+: 1.6 +/- 0.1 mm) and BIC (CAM: 77%; CAM+: 80%) values in both groups at 12 weeks. However, mean IC-CBI values were significantly higher in the CAM group (P bone level changes after 12 weeks of healing, and (2) microbial leakage apparently did not contribute to the marginal bone resorption in either group.

  16. Cap-n-Collar Promotes Tissue Regeneration by Regulating ROS and JNK Signaling in the Drosophila melanogaster Wing Imaginal Disc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Amanda R; Seto, Mabel; Smith-Bolton, Rachel K

    2017-07-01

    Regeneration is a complex process that requires an organism to recognize and repair tissue damage, as well as grow and pattern new tissue. Here, we describe a genetic screen to identify novel regulators of regeneration. We ablated the Drosophila melanogaster larval wing primordium by inducing apoptosis in a spatially and temporally controlled manner and allowed the tissue to regenerate and repattern. To identify genes that regulate regeneration, we carried out a dominant-modifier screen by assessing the amount and quality of regeneration in adult wings heterozygous for isogenic deficiencies. We have identified 31 regions on the right arm of the third chromosome that modify the regenerative response. Interestingly, we observed several distinct phenotypes: mutants that regenerated poorly, mutants that regenerated faster or better than wild-type, and mutants that regenerated imperfectly and had patterning defects. We mapped one deficiency region to cap-n-collar (cnc), the Drosophila Nrf2 ortholog, which is required for regeneration. Cnc regulates reactive oxygen species levels in the regenerating epithelium, and affects c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) signaling, growth, debris localization, and pupariation timing. Here, we present the results of our screen and propose a model wherein Cnc regulates regeneration by maintaining an optimal level of reactive oxygen species to promote JNK signaling. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  17. [Ecological Correlates of Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Korean Blue-collar Workers: A Multi-level Study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Won Ju; Park, Yunhee

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate individual and organizational level of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors associated with CVD risk in Korean blue-collar workers working in small sized companies. Self-report questionnaires and blood sampling for lipid and glucose were collected from 492 workers in 31 small sized companies in Korea. Multilevel modeling was conducted to estimate effects of related factors at the individual and organizational level. Multilevel regression analysis showed that workers in the workplace having a cafeteria had 1.81 times higher CVD risk after adjusting for factors at the individual level (p=.022). The explanatory power of variables related to organizational level variances in CVD risk was 17.1%. The results of this study indicate that differences in the CVD risk were related to organizational factors. It is necessary to consider not only individual factors but also organizational factors when planning a CVD risk reduction program. The factors caused by having cafeteria in the workplace can be reduced by improvement in the CVD-related risk environment, therefore an organizational-level intervention approach should be available to reduce CVD risk of workers in small sized companies in Korea.

  18. Effects of Habitat Type and Group Size on Foraging and Vigilance Behaviors of the Red Collared Dove Streptopelia tranquebarica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herng-Chein Li

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most beneficial effects of foraging in group for animals is enhancement of predation avoidance. Habitat type and group size are known to affect foraging and vigilance behaviors of the animals. We video-filmed and analyzed foraging, vigilance and moving behaviors of 127 focal Red Collared Doves (Streptopelia tranquebarica in the western Taiwan to determine the effects of habitat types (open and obstructed and group sizes (1 to 27 doves on the behaviors. The results showed that the total foraging duration (sec and number of pecking increased with the increase in group size at both habitats, while the total vigilance duration (sec, number of scanning bouts and scan duration were higher at the obstructed habitat than those at the open habitat. The group-size effect on vigilance was found only at the obstructed habitat but not at the open habitat. However, the low potential predation threats and possible use of peripheral vision to detect predators might dismiss the group-size effect. Also, the total moving duration (sec decreased with the increase in group size, an indication of increasing foraging efficiency and anti-predatory benefits.

  19. Evaluation of anesthetic protocol for the collection of semen from captive collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) by electroejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, A L P; Castelo, T S; Queiroz, J P A F; Barros, I O; Paula, V V; Oliveira, M F; Silva, A R

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this study is to verify and compare the effects of acepromazine-tiletamine-zolazepam and propofol used in anesthetic protocols for semen collection by electroejaculation from captive collared peccaries. Ten sexually mature animals were physically restrained and anesthetized by either intravenous administration of tiletamine-zolazepam (2mg/kg) after acepromazine premedication, or a propofol dose of 5mg/kg. The onset of anesthetic recovery was determined by the animals regaining consciousness and attempting to stand. Semen was collected by electroejaculation and evaluated for volume, pH, sperm concentration, progressive motility, morphology, percentage of live cells and functional membrane integrity. Six anesthetized animals with the acepromazine-tiletamine-zolazepam protocol showed erection, but semen could be collected in only four (40%) attempts. Of the animals anesthetized using propofol, nine showed erection, and the ejaculates were collected in eight (80%) attempts. Furthermore, propofol afforded rapid recovery of animals, and ejaculates with enhanced sperm motility and functional membrane integrity as compared with those collected by the other protocol (Pelectroejaculation.

  20. Predictors of the work-related depressive symptoms among blue-collar male employees of an industrial unit in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Lotfizadeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Possible associations between depressive symptoms and work-related parameters have frequently been discussed in the literature. The present study was aimed to evaluate the work-related depressive symptoms and their possible-related parameters among male employees of Esfahan Steel Company (ESCO as one of the most important industrial sites in Iran. Materials and Methods: With a cross-sectional design and a stratified random sampling method in 2010, a total of 400 male employees were enrolled from the operational parts of the ESCO. Results: Among 400 participated employees, 245 (61.3% were rotational duty employees and 358 (89.5% were reported making <$500. After applying the linear regression model, some variables including: economic difficulties (P = 0.022, odds ratio [OR] = 0.558, 95% confidence interval [CI] =0.339–0.919, family-related problems (P = 0.003, OR = 0.303, 95% CI = 0.138–0.669, and work environment (P < 0.001, OR = 0.244, 95% CI = 0.140–0.426 were found to be significantly associated with higher depressive symptoms among the participants. Conclusion: The present study brought to light the predictors of occupational depressive symptoms among blue-collar employees of ESCO. More research is needed to find the causal relations between mental health and work-related parameters among Iranian employees.

  1. Effect of Low-Dose Vitamin D Supplementation on Serum 25(OH)D in School Children and White-Collar Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ronghua; Muyiduli, Xiamusiye; Su, Danting; Zhou, Biao; Fang, Yueqiang; Jiang, Shuying; Wang, Shuojia; Huang, Lichun; Mo, Minjia; Li, Minchao; Shao, Bule; Yu, Yunxian

    2017-05-17

    Our study aimed to investigate the nutritional vitamin D status of school children aged 9-15 years and white-collar workers in Zhejiang province, and evaluate the efficacy of low-dose-oral vitamin D supplementation in both populations. We conducted a prospective controlled trial during March 2014 to November 2015, comparing the efficacy of vitamin D supplements (400 IU/day) with non-intervention for 18 months in school children aged 9-15 years. Meanwhile, a before-after study was conducted among white-collar workers for 1 year. Serum 25(OH)D concentration was measured at baseline and after vitamin D supplementation, respectively. At the baseline, 95% of school children and 84% of adult participants had vitamin D deficiency (<20 ng/mL). In school children, no difference was observed between the intervention and control groups with regard to anthropometric data. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations of the school children intervention group, school children control group and white-collar workers were 12.77 ± 3.01 ng/mL, 14.17 ± 3.59 ng/mL and 16.58 ± 3.66 ng/mL at baseline and increased to 17.34 ± 3.78 ng/mL, 18.04 ± 4.01 ng/mL and 17.75 ± 5.36 ng/mL after vitamin D supplementation, respectively. Although, after adjusting for potential confounders, the 400 IU oral vitamin D supplementation increased serum 25(OH)D concentration in school children (β = 0.81, p = 0.0426) as well as in white-collar workers (p = 0.0839), the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was still very high among school children (79.23% in intervention group and 72.38% in control group) and white-collar workers (76.00%). High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was common in these two study populations. Daily doses of 400 IU oral vitamin D supplementation was not able to adequately increase serum 25(OH)D concentrations. A suitable recommendation regarding the level of vitamin D supplementation is required for this Chinese population.

  2. Effect of Low-Dose Vitamin D Supplementation on Serum 25(OH)D in School Children and White-Collar Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ronghua; Muyiduli, Xiamusiye; Su, Danting; Zhou, Biao; Fang, Yueqiang; Jiang, Shuying; Wang, Shuojia; Huang, Lichun; Mo, Minjia; Li, Minchao; Shao, Bule; Yu, Yunxian

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Our study aimed to investigate the nutritional vitamin D status of school children aged 9–15 years and white-collar workers in Zhejiang province, and evaluate the efficacy of low-dose-oral vitamin D supplementation in both populations. Methods: We conducted a prospective controlled trial during March 2014 to November 2015, comparing the efficacy of vitamin D supplements (400 IU/day) with non-intervention for 18 months in school children aged 9–15 years. Meanwhile, a before-after study was conducted among white-collar workers for 1 year. Serum 25(OH)D concentration was measured at baseline and after vitamin D supplementation, respectively. Results: At the baseline, 95% of school children and 84% of adult participants had vitamin D deficiency (D concentrations of the school children intervention group, school children control group and white-collar workers were 12.77 ± 3.01 ng/mL, 14.17 ± 3.59 ng/mL and 16.58 ± 3.66 ng/mL at baseline and increased to 17.34 ± 3.78 ng/mL, 18.04 ± 4.01 ng/mL and 17.75 ± 5.36 ng/mL after vitamin D supplementation, respectively. Although, after adjusting for potential confounders, the 400 IU oral vitamin D supplementation increased serum 25(OH)D concentration in school children (β = 0.81, p = 0.0426) as well as in white-collar workers (p = 0.0839), the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was still very high among school children (79.23% in intervention group and 72.38% in control group) and white-collar workers (76.00%). Conclusions: High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was common in these two study populations. Daily doses of 400 IU oral vitamin D supplementation was not able to adequately increase serum 25(OH)D concentrations. A suitable recommendation regarding the level of vitamin D supplementation is required for this Chinese population. PMID:28513555

  3. Lesão do colo do cafeeiro, causada pelo calor Collar injury- young coffe plants caused by heat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coaracy M. Franco

    1961-01-01

    Full Text Available Tem sido observada ocasionalmente uma lesão no colo de cafeeiros novos ao nível do solo. .Estudos dc laboratório mostraram que o caule de cafeeiros novos foram danificados quando ao redor dêle se fêz circular água aquecida às temperaturas de 45 o 50ºC. O aquecimento da superfície do solo, compreendendo o colo de cafeeiro vegetando em laminados, com o auxílio de uma lâmpada de raios infravermelhos, resultou em lesão semelhante àquela observada nas culturas. Essa lesão apareceu em tratamentos cujas temperaturas estiveram entre 44 e 51°C. O fato dessas temperaturas serem freqüentemente observadas em solos expostos ao sol, sugere que a lesão do caule do cafeeiro, observada freqüentemente em cafèzais novos, seja conseqüência do aquecimento excessivo da superfície do solo pelos raios solares.A collar injury of young, field coffee plants at the soil level has been observed occasionally in the summer. The location of the abnormality and the season when it appears .suggested that excessive heating of the soil surface by the sun rays could be its cause. Two experiments were then conducted in the laboratory to investigate this bypothesis. The first experiment consisted in circulating water at the desired temperature around the stem ofyoung coffee plants, using the same apparatus described in a previous paper. In a second experiment the base of the stem and the soil around it was heated by means of a G. E. 250 watts infrared industrial reflector. By changing the distance between the heat source and the plant, different temperatures at the soil surface could be obtained. The results of the first experiment showed that 4 plants out of o that were treated at 45ºC showed injury; the other 2 plants survived without damage. From 5 plants that were treated at 50ºC, 2 showed injury and 3 died shortly after the treatment. All plants subjected to the temperature treatments at 35°C and 40ºC survived without damage, while those treated at 55º

  4. Farklılıklar Kapsamında Davranış Tarzları ve Bireysel Performans: Beyaz ve Mavi Yakalı Çalışan Perspektifi(Individual Performance and Behaviors in The Context of Diversities: White-Collar and Blue-Collar Employee Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Nuray NİŞANCI

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the research is to identify the impact of behaviors on individual performance and the correlation between the two in the context of diversities among white-collar and blue-collar employees working in the advertising sector. The survey prepared within this framework was applied to 182 individuals (98 white-collar and 84 blue-collar within sixteen businesses located in the city of Izmir between May 2013 and August 2013. It was determined that ‘being in positive tendency’, ‘awareness’ and ‘not being in negative tendency’ attitudes towards diversity increase the individual performance. No difference was stated between white-collar and blue-collar employees in terms of these dimensions. A positive relationship was observed among ‘being in positive tendency’, ‘awareness’ and ‘not being in negative tendency’ attitudes towards diversity. Araştırmanın temel amacı, reklamcılık sektöründe çalışan beyaz ve mavi yakalı personelin farklılıklar kapsamında davranış tarzlarının bireysel performansa etkisi ve ilişkiselliğinin belirlenmesidir. Bu kapsamda hazırlanan anket formu Mayıs 2013 - Ağustos 2013 tarihleri arasında İzmir ilinde on altı işletme kapsamında 182 bireye (98 beyaz yakalı ve 84 mavi yakalı uygulanmıştır. Personelin farklılıklar kapsamında davranış tarzları çerçevesinde “pozitif eğilimde bulunma”, “farkındalık” ve “negatif eğilimde bulunmama”nın birey performansını artıracağı belirlenmiştir. Bu boyutlar açısından beyaz ve mavi yakalı çalışanlar arasında bir farklılık tespit edilmemiştir. Personelin farklılıklar kapsamında davranış tarzları çerçevesinde “pozitif eğilimde bulunma”, “farkındalık” ve “negatif eğilimde bulunmama” arasında pozitif bir ilişki görülmüştür.

  5. Interaction between the flagellar pocket collar and the hook complex via a novel microtubule-binding protein in Trypanosoma brucei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Albisetti

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma brucei belongs to a group of unicellular, flagellated parasites that are responsible for human African trypanosomiasis. An essential aspect of parasite pathogenicity is cytoskeleton remodelling, which occurs during the life cycle of the parasite and is accompanied by major changes in morphology and organelle positioning. The flagellum originates from the basal bodies and exits the cell body through the flagellar pocket (FP but remains attached to the cell body via the flagellum attachment zone (FAZ. The FP is an invagination of the pellicular membrane and is the sole site for endo- and exocytosis. The FAZ is a large complex of cytoskeletal proteins, plus an intracellular set of four specialised microtubules (MtQ that elongate from the basal bodies to the anterior end of the cell. At the distal end of the FP, an essential, intracellular, cytoskeletal structure called the flagellar pocket collar (FPC circumvents the flagellum. Overlapping the FPC is the hook complex (HC (a sub-structure of the previously named bilobe that is also essential and is thought to be involved in protein FP entry. BILBO1 is the only functionally characterised FPC protein and is necessary for FPC and FP biogenesis. Here, we used a combination of in vitro and in vivo approaches to identify and characterize a new BILBO1 partner protein-FPC4. We demonstrate that FPC4 localises to the FPC, the HC, and possibly to a proximal portion of the MtQ. We found that the C-terminal domain of FPC4 interacts with the BILBO1 N-terminal domain, and we identified the key amino acids required for this interaction. Interestingly, the FPC4 N-terminal domain was found to bind microtubules. Over-expression studies highlight the role of FPC4 in its association with the FPC, HC and FPC segregation. Our data suggest a tripartite association between the FPC, the HC and the MtQ.

  6. A systematic review and meta-analysis of workplace intervention strategies to reduce sedentary time in white-collar workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, A H Y; Ng, S H X; Tan, C S; Win, A M; Koh, D; Müller-Riemenschneider, F

    2016-05-01

    Prolonged sedentary behaviour has been associated with various detrimental health risks. Workplace sitting is particularly important, providing it occupies majority of total daily sedentary behaviour among desk-based employees. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to examine the effectiveness of workplace interventions overall, and according to different intervention strategies (educational/behavioural, environmental and multi-component interventions) for reducing sitting among white-collar working adults. Articles published through December 2015 were identified in five online databases and manual searches. Twenty-six controlled intervention studies published between 2003 and 2015 of 4568 working adults were included. All 26 studies were presented qualitatively, and 21 studies with a control group without any intervention were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled intervention effect showed a significant workplace sitting reduction of -39.6 min/8-h workday (95% confidence interval [CI]: -51.7, -27.5), favouring the intervention group. Multi-component interventions reported the greatest workplace sitting reduction (-88.8 min/8-h workday; 95% CI: -132.7, -44.9), followed by environmental (-72.8 min/8-h workday; 95% CI: -104.9, -40.6) and educational/behavioural strategies -15.5 min/8-h workday (95% CI:-22.9,-8.2). Our study found consistent evidence for intervention effectiveness in reducing workplace sitting, particularly for multi-component and environmental strategies. Methodologically rigorous studies using standardized and objectively determined outcomes are warranted. © 2016 World Obesity. © 2016 World Obesity.

  7. Are temporal patterns of sitting associated with obesity among blue-collar workers? A cross sectional study using accelerometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Gupta

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about associations of temporal patterns of sitting (i.e., distribution of sitting across time with obesity. We aimed investigating the association between temporal patterns of sitting (long, moderate and brief uninterrupted bouts and obesity indicators (body mass index (BMI, waist circumference and fat percentage, independently from moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA and total sitting time among blue-collar workers. Methods Workers (n = 205 wore Actigraph GT3X+ accelerometers on the thigh and trunk for 1–4 working days. Using the validated Acti4 software, the total sitting time and time spent sitting in brief (≤5 mins, moderate (>5 and ≤30 mins, and long (>30mins bouts on working days were determined for the whole day, and for leisure and work separately. BMI (kg/m2, waist circumference (cm and fat percentage were objectively measured. Results Results of linear regression analysis adjusted for multiple confounders indicated that brief bouts of sitting was negatively associated with obesity for the whole day (BMI, P < 0.01; fat percentage, P < 0.01; waist circumference, P < 0.01 and work (BMI, P < 0.01; fat percentage, P < 0.01; waist circumference, P < 0.01, but not for leisure. Sitting time in long bouts was positively associated with obesity indicators for the whole day (waist circumference, P = 0.05 and work (waist circumference, P = 0.01; BMI, P = 0.04, but not leisure. Conclusions For the whole day as well as for work, brief bouts and long bouts of sitting showed opposite associations with obesity even after adjusting for MVPA and total sitting time, while sitting during leisure did not show these associations. Thus, the temporal distribution of sitting seems to influence the relationship between sitting and obesity.

  8. Crestal bone changes around titanium implants. Part I: A retrospective radiographic evaluation in humans comparing two non-submerged implant designs with different machined collar lengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänggi, Michael P; Hänggi, Daniel C; Schoolfield, John D; Meyer, Jürg; Cochran, David L; Hermann, Joachim S

    2005-05-01

    Experimental studies demonstrated that peri-implant crestal hard and soft tissues are significantly influenced in their apico-coronal position by the rough/smooth implant border as well as the microgap/ interface between implant and abutment/restoration. The aim of this study was to evaluate radiographically the crestal bone level changes around two types of implants, one with a 2.8 mm smooth machined coronal length and the other with 1.8 mm collar. In 68 patients, a total of 201 non-submerged titanium implants (101 with a 1.8 mm, 100 with a 2.8 mm long smooth coronal collar) were placed with their rough/smooth implant border at the bone crest level. From the day of surgery up until 3 years after implant placement crestal bone levels were analyzed digitally using standardized radiographs. Bone remodeling was most pronounced during the unloaded, initial healing phase and did not significantly differ between the two types of implants over the entire observation period (P >0.20). Crestal bone loss for implants placed in patients with poor oral hygiene was significantly higher than in patients with adequate or good plaque control (P bone loss was detected in the group of patients who had been diagnosed with aggressive periodontitis prior to implant placement (P = 0.058). In both types of implants, sand-blasted, large grit, acid-etched (SLA) surfaced implants tended to have slightly less crestal bone loss compared to titanium plasma-sprayed (TPS) surfaced implants, but the difference was not significant (P >0.30). The implant design with the shorter smooth coronal collar had no additional bone loss and may help to reduce the risk of an exposed metal implant margin in areas of esthetic concern.

  9. Cervical spine collar clearance in the obtunded adult blunt trauma patient: a systematic review and practice management guideline from the Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mayur B; Humble, Stephen S; Cullinane, Daniel C; Day, Matthew A; Jawa, Randeep S; Devin, Clinton J; Delozier, Margaret S; Smith, Lou M; Smith, Miya A; Capella, Jeannette M; Long, Andrea M; Cheng, Joseph S; Leath, Taylor C; Falck-Ytter, Yngve; Haut, Elliott R; Como, John J

    2015-02-01

    With the use of the framework advocated by the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) Working Group, our aims were to perform a systematic review and to develop evidence-based recommendations that may be used to answer the following PICO [Population, Intervention, Comparator, Outcomes] question:In the obtunded adult blunt trauma patient, should cervical collar removal be performed after a negative high-quality cervical spine (C-spine) computed tomography (CT) result alone or after a negative high-quality C-spine CT result combined with adjunct imaging, to reduce peri-clearance events, such as new neurologic change, unstable C-spine injury, stable C-spine injury, need for post-clearance imaging, false-negative CT imaging result on re-review, pressure ulcers, and time to cervical collar clearance? Our protocol was registered with the PROSPERO international prospective register of systematic reviews on August 23, 2013 (REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42013005461). Eligibility criteria consisted of adult blunt trauma patients 16 years or older, who underwent C-spine CT with axial thickness of less than 3 mm and who were obtunded using any definition.Quantitative synthesis via meta-analysis was not possible because of pre-post, partial-cohort, quasi-experimental study design limitations and the consequential incomplete diagnostic accuracy data. Of five articles with a total follow-up of 1,017 included subjects, none reported new neurologic changes (paraplegia or quadriplegia) after cervical collar removal. There is a worst-case 9% (161 of 1,718 subjects in 11 studies) cumulative literature incidence of stable injuries and a 91% negative predictive value of no injury, after coupling a negative high-quality C-spine CT result with 1.5-T magnetic resonance imaging, upright x-rays, flexion-extension CT, and/or clinical follow-up. Similarly, there is a best-case 0% (0 of 1,718 subjects in 11 studies) cumulative literature incidence of unstable

  10. Rapid and sensitive detection of Sclerotium rolfsii associated with collar rot disease of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius by species-specific polymerase chain reaction assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pravi, V; Jeeva, M L; Archana, P V

    2014-09-01

    Collar rot disease caused by Sclerotium rolfsii is an economically important disease prevailing in all Amorphophallus growing areas. The pathogen propagules surviving in soil and planting material are the major sources of inoculum. A nested PCR assay has been developed for specific detection of S. rolfsii in soil and planting material. The PCR detection limit was 10 pg in conventional assay whereas 0.1 pg in nested assay. The primers designed were found to be highly specific and could be used for accurate identification of pathogen up to species level. The protocol was standardized for detection of the pathogen in artificially and naturally infected field samples.

  11. TREATMENT OF TRANSCONDYLAR EXTENSOR FRACTURES OF THE HUMERUS IN CHILDREN: ON THE ISSUE OF HISTORY OF THE METHOD “COLLAR AND CUFF”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Zolotov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the history of one of the methods of conservative treatment humeral transcondylar extensor fractures in children - a method «collar and cuff». The second and very common name of this method is connected with the name of the american orthopaedist Walter Blount. «The method of Blount» is mentioned in many domestic and foreign sources. Nevertheless the analysis of publications on the history of the discussed method of treatment indicates the priority in this matter other famous doctor - British podiatrist Robert Jones.

  12. Regionalización histológica de la glándula dorsal del pecarí de collar (Artiodactyla, Tayassuidae: Pecari tajacu)

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Carlos González Morales; Víctor Fajardo; Arturo Luna Blasio; Palestina Guevara-Fiore; Jorge Rodríguez-Antolín; Erendira Quintana

    2015-01-01

    Se describe histológicamente la glándula dorsal de machos y hembras del pecarí de collar en tres regiones: craneal, media y caudal. Con las tinciones Hematocilinaeosina y Tricrómica de Masson observamos una clara regionalización morfológica e histológica de esta glándula y se describe por primera vez la presencia de glándulas tubuloacinares en la región craneal de la glándula dorsal del macho de pecarí, cuya función es aún desconocida.

  13. Regionalización histológica de la glándula dorsal del pecarí de collar (Artiodactyla, Tayassuidae: Pecari tajacu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos González Morales

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describe histológicamente la glándula dorsal de machos y hembras del pecarí de collar en tres regiones: craneal, media y caudal. Con las tinciones Hematocilinaeosina y Tricrómica de Masson observamos una clara regionalización morfológica e histológica de esta glándula y se describe por primera vez la presencia de glándulas tubuloacinares en la región craneal de la glándula dorsal del macho de pecarí, cuya función es aún desconocida.

  14. Natural and sexual selection against hybrid flycatchers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Svedin, Nina; Wiley, Chris; Veen, Thor; Gustafsson, Lars; Qvarnstrom, Anna

    2008-01-01

    While sexual selection is generally assumed to quickly cause or strengthen prezygotic barriers between sister species, its role in causing postzygotic isolation, through the unattractiveness of intermediate hybrids, is less often examined. Combining 24 years of pedigree data and recently developed

  15. Willow Flycatcher Range - CWHR [ds594

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  16. Willow Flycatcher Habitat Model Results [ds278

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This dataset was developed by Chris Stermer (CDFG - RAP Program). No original metadata were located, but the following is an abstract from a document describing the...

  17. Radicals and Roman Collars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langman, Lauren; And Others

    A sociological study of students at Loyola University at the time of their protest regarding Kent State University and Cambodia revealed a wealth of factors regarding intergenerational conflict among Catholics. The majority of students supported the leaders and active participants of the political demonstration, and also approved of smoking…

  18. Bone changes around early loaded chemically modified sandblasted and acid-etched surfaced implants with and without a machined collar: a radiographic and resonance frequency analysis in the canine mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valderrama, Pilar; Jones, Archie A; Wilson, Thomas G; Higginbottom, Frank; Schoolfield, John D; Jung, Ronald E; Noujeim, Marcel; Cochran, David L

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the radiographic bone level and stability changes around early loaded chemically modified sandblasted and acid-etched implants with and without a machined collar. Seventy-two chemically modified sandblasted and acid-etched implants 4.1 mm in diameter and 8 mm in length were placed in six dogs. Thirty-six implants had no machined collar (NMC) and 36 had a 2.8-mm machined collar (MC). Resonance frequency measurements were obtained at placement and weekly for 3 weeks. All implants were loaded 21 days after surgery. Standardized periapical radiographs were obtained at baseline, at 3 weeks, and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. The radiographs were randomized and digitized, and linear measurements of the distance from the first bone-to-implant contact to the shoulder of the implant were performed at the mesial and distal aspects of each implant. For statistical analysis, mixed-model repeated-measures analysis of variance was used. All implants achieved hard and soft tissue integration clinically and radiographically and were clinically immobile. From placement to week 3, the mean implant stability increased for MC implants by more than 5 ISQs and for NMC implants by more than 7 ISQs. Radiographically, there were significant differences between treatment groups beginning at 3 months. After 12 months of loading, the MC implants presented a mean bone loss of 1.00 mm and the NMC implants presented a mean bone gain of 0.11 mm. Chemically modified sandblasted and acid-etched implants without a machined collar presented bone gain, and implants with a machined collar showed bone loss after a 1 year following early (21-day) loading. The tendency toward a coronal apposition of bone observed under these conditions may be attributed to the osteoconductive properties of the chemically modified surfaces of these implants and to the absence of the machined collar.

  19. Are forward bending of the trunk and low back pain associated among Danish blue-collar workers? A cross-sectional field study based on objective measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villumsen, Morten; Samani, Afshin; Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Gupta, Nidhi; Madeleine, Pascal; Holtermann, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the association between the duration of objectively measured forward bending of the trunk and low back pain (LBP) intensity among 198 Danish blue-collar workers (male = 115; female = 83). The duration of forward bending of ≥ 30°, ≥ 60° and ≥ 90° was divided into high (the highest tertile) and low-moderate (the remaining tertiles) categories. High (>5) and low ( ≤ 5) pain intensities were categorised from a self-reported 0-9 scale. Results of multi-adjusted logistic regressions indicated no significant positive associations between forward bending and LBP intensity. On the contrary, higher duration of forward bending of ≥ 30° was associated with lower LBP intensity during all day (OR = 0.40; 95% CI, 0.15-1.02; p = 0.05) and work (OR = 0.44; 95% CI, 0.17-1.15; p = 0.09). This indication of a negative association may be explained by fear-avoidance behaviour of the blue-collar worker, job crafting or healthy worker effect.

  20. [Analysis of case studies to evaluate supports for depressive white-collar workers who are returning to work after sick leave].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Miyako; Abe, Takeru; Miyazaki, Shougo; Hagihara, Akihito

    2010-01-01

    In Japan, mental health problems due to work stress among white-collar workers have become an important topic which needs to be addressed. As for the support for workers who are returning to work after sick leave, reliable findings have not yet been reported. The purpose of the present study was to obtain findings concerning support for workers who are returning to work after sick leave. We analyzed cases studies of white-collar workers between Jan. 1983 and May 2009. We identified 9 types of support; sick leave, change of work place, change of boss, change of work, decreasing work load, introduction of a decreased work load period, limiting work, consultation with corporate health care staff, and intervention by a party other than the company. Generally speaking, it has been revealed that each support has both positive and negative influences upon employees returning to work. In addition, consulting with corporate health care staff (prelationship between health care professionals (i.e., physicians, occupational nurses, counselors, etc.) and a depressive worker. In addition, the content and date of a company's support for a worker returning to work might vary significantly. Thus, we need to be very careful in interpreting these findings.

  1. Psychosocial Hazard Analysis in a Heterogeneous Workforce: Determinants of Work Stress in Blue- and White-Collar Workers of the European Steel Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler, Yannick Arnold; Bellingrath, Silja

    2017-01-01

    The European steel industry’s workforce is highly heterogeneous and consists of various occupational groups, presumably facing different psychosocial stressors. The few existing studies on the subject mainly focused on physical constraints of blue-collar workers, whereas the supposable psychosocial workload received only little research attention. This is remarkable considering the challenges associated with statutory required risk assessment of psychosocial hazards. Valid measures of hazard analysis must account for various stressors and reliably identify them, also between occupational groups. The present study, based on a sample of blue- and white-collar workers (N = 124) from the European steel industry, aims to provide a first insight into psychosocial stressors and strain at work in this rarely researched industrial sector. Furthermore, two well-known theoretical roadmaps in job analysis are examined regarding their utility for risk assessment in heterogeneous workforces: the German standard version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) and the short version of the effort–reward imbalance questionnaire. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that the COPSOQ was better suited to predict various strain indices in the present sample. Especially stressors relating to socioemotional aspects, such as work-privacy conflict, revealed a reasonable impact, indicating the need for comprehensive solutions at the organizational level instead of solutions focusing on single workplaces. To conclude, a broadly diversified and validated approach in psychosocial risk assessment is needed to adequately assess the variety of psychosocial factors at work and in different occupational groups. PMID:28861410

  2. Knock-in of nuclear localised beta-galactosidase reveals that the tyrosine phosphatase Ptprv is specifically expressed in cells of the bone collar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacquin, R; Mee, P J; Kawaguchi, J; Olmsted-Davis, E A; Gallagher, J A; Nichols, J; Lee, K; Karsenty, G; Smith, A

    2004-04-01

    Ptprv is a member of the transmembrane tyrosine phosphatase gene family reported to be expressed in osteoblasts and gonads. To better define the developmental and tissue specificity of Ptprv expression, we generated knock-in mice expressing a nuclear localised beta-galactosidase reporter under the control of resident Ptprv regulatory elements. Histochemical staining of Ptprv-nLacZ mice revealed that Ptprv expression is readily detectable in the foetal gonadal ridge of both sexes and in adult gonads where it is localised to Sertoli cells of the testis and celomic epithelial cells of the ovaries. During early limb development, Ptprv expression is prominent in the apical ectodermal ridge of the limb bud. At latter stages of development, Ptprv is predominantly expressed in the perichondrial and periosteal region of long bones, known as the bone collar. In contrast to previous indications from in vitro studies, there is little if any expression in mature osteoblasts in vivo. Analysis of Ptprv mRNA localisation by in situ hybridization in parallel with molecular markers of chondrocytes and osteoblasts confirmed the specific expression of Ptprv in immature bone collar cells. The specificity of Ptprv expression in these cells may be a useful tool to elucidate their role in the transition of skeletal elements from cartilage template to bone. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. A customised collared polished stem may reduce the complication rate of impaction grafting in revision hip surgery: a 12-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flecher, X; Blanc, G; Sainsous, B; Parratte, S; Argenson, J N

    2012-05-01

    We describe the results of 81 consecutive revision total hip replacements with impaction grafting in 79 patients using a collared polished chrome-cobalt stem, customised in length according to the extent of distal bone loss. Our hypothesis was that the features of this stem would reduce the rate of femoral fracture and subsidence of the stem. The mean follow-up was 12 years (8 to 15). No intra-operative fracture or significant subsidence occurred. Only one patient suffered a post-operative diaphyseal fracture, which was associated with a fall. All but one femur showed incorporation of the graft. No revision for aseptic loosening was recorded. The rate of survival of the femoral component at 12 years, using further femoral revision as the endpoint, was 100% (95% confidence interval (CI) 95.9 to 100), and at nine years using re-operation for any reason as the endpoint, was 94.6% (95% CI 92.0 to 97.2). These results suggest that a customised cemented polished stem individually adapted to the extent of bone loss and with a collar may reduce subsidence and the rate of fracture while maintaining the durability of the fixation.

  4. Proposal for the award of a contract for the supply of austenitic steel strips for collars of the LHC superconducting dipole magnets

    CERN Document Server

    1999-01-01

    This document concerns the award of a contract for the supply of 410 mm-wide austenitic steel strips for the collars of the LHC superconducting dipole magnets. Following a market survey carried out among 39 firms in twelve Member States and two firms in Japan, a call for tenders (IT-2618/LHC/LHC) was sent on 3 June 1999 to five firms in four Member States and two firms in Japan. The Council agreed to the Management?s proposal to invite Japanese industry to participate, where appropriate, in calls for tenders for supplies for the LHC Project (CERN/CC/2110). By the closing date, CERN had received six tenders. The Finance Committee is invited to approve the negotiation of a contract with the firm NIPPON STEEL CORPORATION (JP) for the supply of 11 000 tonnes of 410 mm-wide austenitic steel strips for the collars of the LHC superconducting dipole magnets for a total amount of 4 298 943 000 Japanese yen, subject to revision for contractual deliveries after 31 December 2000, with an option for the supply of up to 10...

  5. Identification of siderophore producing and cynogenic fluorescent Pseudomonas and a simple confrontation assay to identify potential bio-control agent for collar rot of chickpea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotasthane, Anil S; Agrawal, Toshy; Zaidi, Najam Waris; Singh, U S

    2017-06-01

    In soil, plant roots coexist with bacteria and fungi that produce siderophores capable of sequestering the available iron. Microbial cyanogenesis has been demonstrated in many species of fungi and in a few species of bacteria (e.g., Chromobacterium and Pseudomonas). Fluorescent Pseudomonas isolates P29, P59, P144, P166, P174, P187, P191 and P192 were cyanogenic and produced siderophores in the presence of a strong chelater 8-Hydroxyquinoline (50 mg/l). A simple confrontation assay for identifying potential antagonists was developed. Fluorescent Pseudomonas isolates P66, P141, P144, P166 and P174 were antagonistic against both Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotium rolfsii. Vigorous plant growth was observed following seed bacterization with P141, P200 and P240. In field experiments, seed bacterization with selected bacterial isolates resulted in reduced collar rot (S. rolfsii) incidence.

  6. "Una mujer trabaja doble aqui": Vignette-based focus groups on stress and work for Latina blue-collar women in eastern North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easter, Michele M; Linnan, Laura A; Bentley, Margaret E; DeVellis, Brenda M; Meier, Andrea; Frasier, Pamela Y; Kelsey, Kristine S; Campbell, Marci K

    2007-01-01

    Latina women are a growing percentage of the working population, and very little is known about their health needs and interests. The purpose of this article is to share qualitative research results gathered from Latina women with a particular focus on exploring stress and health. This project was a substudy of Health Works in the Community, a 5-year CDC-funded multiple risk-factor reduction trial using participatory action research approaches to address smoking, healthy eating, stress, and physical activity among blue-collar women from 12 manufacturing work sites in rural, eastern North Carolina. Five focus groups were conducted with trained, bilingual facilitators using a vignette-based moderator guide that appeared particularly effective with this population. Results from the focus groups are used to make recommendations for future research with Latinas and for developing effective work-site-based interventions to address issues of stress and health within this population.

  7. A Cultural Reading of a Chinese White-Collar Workplace Bestseller and its Filmic Adaptation: Li Ke’s A Story of Lala’s Promotion and Go Lala Go!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenshen Cai

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In 2007, Li Ke’s novel A Story of Lala’s Promotion (Du Lala Shengzhi Ji became a bestseller among Chinese white-collar workers in foreign-owned (Western companies and struck a chord with the Chinese middle class. The novel revolves around office politics, Western company culture and the white-collar lifestyle, the ‘shelved ladies’ phenomenon and middle-class aesthetics. To decipher the embedded cultural codes of this book, this study undertakes a textual analysis of the plots of A Story of Lala’s Promotion and its filmic adaptation, Go Lala Go! (Du Lala Shengzhi Ji dir. Xu Jinglei, 2010. This paper conducts a trans-media adaption study (from fiction to film to examine three interrelated themes in the novel and the film. First, focusing on the influence of Western corporate culture on Chinese white-collar workers under economic globalisation, the widely circulating rules of Western workplaces are interpreted, clarifying the acculturating process of Western culture over its Chinese counterpart. The paper further explains that on the platform provided by foreign companies, and with the influence and training of Western corporate culture, intelligent and diligent young Chinese aspirational women struggle and realise their dreams in the workplace. Second, employing a feminist perspective, an attempt is made to address the situation of contemporary Chinese white-collar women represented by the contemporary social phenomenon of the ‘shelved ladies’, which also serves as an emblem of female independence and individualism. Third, through an analysis of the filmic adaptation, which focuses on the white-collar female’s lifestyle and consumption habits, the paper also highlights the contemporary Chinese population’s pursuit of a middle-class identity and aesthetic that mirrors the overwhelming consumerism of post-socialist China.

  8. External validation of a collar-mounted triaxial accelerometer for second-by-second monitoring of eight behavioural states in dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid den Uijl

    Full Text Available Early detection of disease by an animal owner may motivate them to seek early veterinary advice. Presentation before a more advanced clinical manifestation is evident could lead to more effective treatment and thus benefit the animal's health and welfare. Accelerometers are able to detect changes in specific activities or behaviours, thus indicating early signs of possible adverse health events. The objective of this validation study was to determine whether the detection of eight behavioural states: walk, trot, canter/gallop, sleep, static/inactive, eat, drink, and headshake, by an accelerometer device was sufficiently accurate to be useful in a clinical setting. This fully independent external validation estimated the accuracy of a specific triaxial, collar-mounted accelerometer on a second-by second basis in 51 healthy dogs of different breeds, aged between 6 months and 13 years, weighing >10 kg. The overall diagnostic effectiveness was estimated as: % record correctly classified of > 95% in walk, trot, canter/gallop, eat, drink and headshake and >90% in sleep and static/inactive. The positive predictive values ranged from 93-100%, while the negative predictive values ranged from 96-100%, with exception of static/inactive (86%.This was probably because dogs were placed in unfamiliar kennels where they did not exhibit their typical resting behaviour. The device is worn on a collar, making its use feasible for anyone wanting to monitor their dog's behaviour. The high accuracy in detecting various kinds of behaviour appears promising in assessing canine health and welfare states.

  9. Passage marker excretion in red kangaroo (Macropus rufus), collared peccary (Pecari tajacu) and colobine monkeys (Colobus angolensis, C. polykomos, Trachypithecus johnii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarm, Angela; Ortmann, Sylvia; Wolf, Christian; Streich, W Jürgen; Clauss, Marcus

    2009-11-01

    Ruminants are characterized by an efficient particle-sorting mechanism in the forestomach (FRST) followed by selective rechewing of large food particles. For the nonruminating foregut fermenter pygmy hippo it was demonstrated that large particles are excreted as fast as, or faster than, the small particles. The same has been suggested for other nonruminating foregut fermenters. We determined the mean retention time of fluids and different-sized particles in six red kangaroos (Macropus rufus), seven collared peccaries (Pecari tajacu) and three colobine monkeys (Colobus angolensis, C. polykomos, Trachypithecus johnii). We fed Co-EDTA as fluid and mordanted fiber as particle markers (Cr, Ce). Mean (+ or - SD) total tract retention time for fluids, small and large particles was 14 + or - 2, 29 + or - 10 and 30 + or - 9 hr in red kangaroos, 26 + or - 2, 34 + or - 5 and 32 + or - 3 hr in collared peccaries and 57 + or - 17, 55 + or - 19 and 54 + or - 19 hr in colobine monkeys, respectively. Large and small particles were excreted simultaneously in all species. There was no difference in the excretion of fluids and particles in the colobine monkeys, in contrast to the other foregut fermenters. In the nonprimate, nonruminant foregut fermenters, the difference in the excretion of fluids and small particles decreases with increasing food intake. On the contrary, ruminants keep this differential excretion constant at different intake levels. This may be a prerequisite for the sorting of particles in their FRST and enable them to achieve higher food intake rates. The functional significance of differential excretion of fluids and particles from the FRST requires further investigations.

  10. Impactos da tecnologia de informação sobre o trabalho de "colarinho branco" Impacts of information technology on "white collar" work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo César Simões Borges

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available Grandes investimentos em tecnologia de informação (TI vêm sendo canalizados para a melhoria dos processos empresariais. Esses investimentos limitam-se, em geral, à automação pura e simples dos processos já existentes na companhia, os quais continuam sendo realiza-dos pelos mesmos profissionais e regidos pelos mesmos princípios anteriores à TI. Um corolário deste tipo de automação é o pequeno ganho de produtividade do trabalho de colarinho branco. Uma alternativa para este problema é a reengenharia de processos, que por meio do uso criativo da TI e da gestão por processos procura estabelecer novas formas muito mais eficientes de realizar o trabalho. Entretanto, tais formas alteram, freqüente e fundamentalmente, o perfil do profissional e a natureza de seu trabalho. É sobre estes impactos que estaremos discorrendo ao longo deste artigo.Huge investiments in information technology (IT have been directed to business process improvements. Generally, such investments are limited to the sole automation of already existing processes, which continue to be performed according to the same rules and by the same professionals prior to IT. A consequence of this kind of automation is the low producti-vity increase in white collar work. An alternative to this problem is business process reengi-neering, which, via the creative use of IT, strives to establish much more effective ways of performing work. However, very often such new ways affect the professional skills and the nature of the work. This paper discusses the impacts of IT on white collar work.

  11. A comparative study of three methods of ProSeal laryngeal mask airway insertion in children with simulated difficult laryngoscopy using a rigid neck collar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Bikramjit; Mitra, Subhro; Samanta, Arijit; Samal, Rajiv Kumar

    2014-09-01

    Combined introducer tool and stylet technique of ProSeal laryngeal mask airway (PLMA) insertion was compared with the conventional digital manipulation and introducer tool technique in children with a rigid neck collar. This was a randomized, single blinded, prospective study. Ninety ASA Grade I-II children weighing 10-20 kg were randomly allocated for PLMA insertion using the digital, introducer tool (IT) or combined IT and stylet techniques. Each group contained 30 patients. Difficult laryngoscopy was simulated using a rigid neck collar. The laryngoscopic view was graded prior to PLMA insertion. The digital and IT techniques were performed according to the manufacturer's instructions. The combined technique involved attaching the IT to the PLMA and inserting a flexible stylet through the drain tube. The median Cormack and Lehane grade was 2 in all three groups. Insertion was more frequently successful with the combined technique at the first attempt (combined 100%, digital 65.38%, IT 66.67%; p  0.05). The time taken for successful placement was similar among groups at the first attempt, but was shorter for the combined technique for overall attempts (combined 18.33 ± 1.27 seconds, digital 27.85 ± 9.05 seconds, IT 26.89 ± 7.17 seconds; p airway morbidity. PLMA insertion with combined IT and stylet technique was more frequently successful than the digital or IT technique in pediatric patients without cervical spine motion. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Soft and hard tissue response 
to an implant with a convergent 
collar in the esthetic area: 
preliminary report at 18 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canullo, Luigi; Tallarico, Marco; Pradies, Guillermo; Marinotti, Fabio; Loi, Ignazio; Cocchetto, Roberto

    The purpose of this prospective cohort study was to investigate, over an 18-month period, soft and hard tissue response to a transmucosal implant with a convergent collar inserted in the anterior maxillary esthetic area. From June 2013 to January 2014, 14 consecutive patients were enrolled (7 men and 7 women; mean age 63.7 ± 14 years) with 20 implants, needing at least one implant-supported restoration between the canines in the maxillary anterior esthetic area. Six months after hopeless tooth extraction and an alveolar socket graft, a transmucosal-type implant with convergent collar walls was inserted in a midcrestal position with mini-flap surgery. An impression was taken 2 months later, and a definitive abutment with a provisional restoration was positioned. The final restoration was seated 2 weeks later. Clinical parameters, photographs, radiographs, and impressions were taken at this timepoint, and after 6 and 18 months. Using dedicated software, radiographic analysis (to detect marginal bone-level changes) and cast analysis (to detect soft tissue vertical and horizontal changes) were performed. At the 18-month follow-up, all implants were clinically osseointegrated, stable, and showed no sign of infection. At baseline, interproximal radiographs revealed no bone defect around the implant. After an initial minimal bone loss (0.09 ± 0.144 mm), radiographic analysis showed a stable condition of bone remodeling (mean value 0.09 ± 0.08; range 0.0 to 0.5 mm) at the 18-month follow-up. No statistically significant horizontal dimensional changes of the alveolar ridge were observed between each timepoint. Mean soft tissue levels significantly improved between baseline and 18 months. The mean heights of the mesial papilla (MP) and distal papilla (DP) changes were 0.38 ± 0.22 and 0.47 ± 0.31, respectively. The level of the labial gingival margin (LGM) was 1.01 ± 0.63. Periodontal parameters never exceeded the physiological levels. Within

  13. Biological Significance of Photoreceptor Photocycle Length: VIVID Photocycle Governs the Dynamic VIVID-White Collar Complex Pool Mediating Photo-adaptation and Response to Changes in Light Intensity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arko Dasgupta

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Most organisms on earth sense light through the use of chromophore-bearing photoreceptive proteins with distinct and characteristic photocycle lengths, yet the biological significance of this adduct decay length is neither understood nor has been tested. In the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa VIVID (VVD is a critical player in the process of photoadaptation, the attenuation of light-induced responses and the ability to maintain photosensitivity in response to changing light intensities. Detailed in vitro analysis of the photochemistry of the blue light sensing, FAD binding, LOV domain of VVD has revealed residues around the site of photo-adduct formation that influence the stability of the adduct state (light state, that is, altering the photocycle length. We have examined the biological significance of VVD photocycle length to photoadaptation and report that a double substitution mutant (vvdI74VI85V, previously shown to have a very fast light to dark state reversion in vitro, shows significantly reduced interaction with the White Collar Complex (WCC resulting in a substantial photoadaptation defect. This reduced interaction impacts photoreceptor transcription factor WHITE COLLAR-1 (WC-1 protein stability when N. crassa is exposed to light: The fast-reverting mutant VVD is unable to form a dynamic VVD-WCC pool of the size required for photoadaptation as assayed both by attenuation of gene expression and the ability to respond to increasing light intensity. Additionally, transcription of the clock gene frequency (frq is sensitive to changing light intensity in a wild-type strain but not in the fast photo-reversion mutant indicating that the establishment of this dynamic VVD-WCC pool is essential in general photobiology and circadian biology. Thus, VVD photocycle length appears sculpted to establish a VVD-WCC reservoir of sufficient size to sustain photoadaptation while maintaining sensitivity to changing light intensity. The great diversity

  14. Understanding long-term sick leave in female white-collar workers with burnout and stress-related diagnoses: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Sick leave rates in Sweden have been significant since the end of the 1990s. In this paper we focus on individual female white-collar workers and explore various factors and setting-based sources of ill health in working life and in private life, in order to understand impaired work ability, leading ultimately to long-term sick leave. Methods A qualitative methodology was chosen, and thematic, open-ended interviews were carried out with 16 women. The interviewees were strategically selected from a cohort of 300 women in full-time white-collar jobs in high-level positions, living in three urban areas in Sweden, and on long-term sick leave ≥90 days. A qualitative content analysis was carried out. Results The informants in the study were generally well educated, but a few had surprisingly little formal education considering their salary level and position on the labour market. The women were in professional positions more commonly held by men, either as specialists with some degree of managerial role or as executives with managerial responsibilities. Both external and internal stressors were identified. The analysis indicated that being in these gender-typed jobs could have induced sex discrimination and role conflicts. The women expressed strong agreement regarding success in working life, but emphasised the lack of competence matching in their present jobs. They also lacked the sense of having a rewarding job, saw leadership as weak, and disliked their present workplace and colleagues. Impaired health may have hindered them from changing jobs; conversely, their locked-in positions could have resulted in deterioration in their health status. The women displayed personal overcommitment, both at work and in private life, and had difficulties in setting limits. Conclusions Factors in working life, as well as in private life, played an important role in the informants' deteriorated health and long-term sick leave. Job and workplace mismatching, problems in

  15. The effects of breakfast on short-term cognitive function among Chinese white-collar workers: protocol for a three-phase crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhenchuang; Zhang, Na; Liu, Ailing; Luan, Dechun; Zhao, Yong; Song, Chao; Ma, Guansheng

    2017-01-18

    As the first meal of the day, breakfast plays an important role in supplying energy and nutrients, which are critical to working and learning activities. A three-phase crossover study was designed to investigate the effects of breakfast on cognitive function among Chinese white-collar workers. The planned study protocol is presented. A total of 264 participants aged 25-45 years will be recruited from Shenyang and Chongqing. Self-administered questionnaires will be used to collect information on age, gender, marital status, education level, occupation, smoking habits, drinking habits, and breakfast behaviours. The participants will be randomly assigned to 3 equal-sized groups (Groups A, B, and C) and will be provided with a nutrition-adequate breakfast, a nutrition-inadequate breakfast, or no breakfast, respectively. Each participant will receive the breakfast treatment on the basis of assignment to one of three sequences (ABC/BCA/CAB). Each participant will complete a battery of cognitive tests assessing short-term memory, attention, and working memory 120 minutes after breakfast. Mood will be measured through a self-administered questionnaire assessing the dimensions of positive and negative frames of mind. Additionally, fasting blood glucose and postprandial 2-hour blood glucose levels will be tested with a blood-glucose meter (Roche ACCU-CHEK®-Performa). All the participants will take all the tests in three successive weeks, and the order of presentation will be counter-balanced across groups. The present study will be the first investigation of the effect of breakfast food type and quality on cognitive function amongst white-collar workers in China. We predict that a nutrition-adequate breakfast, compared with a nutrition-inadequate breakfast and no breakfast, will significantly improve short-term cognitive function. The results of this study should provide scientific evidence of the effect of breakfast quality on cognitive function and provide scientific

  16. Comparison of tracheal intubation using the Airtraq® and Mc Coy laryngoscope in the presence of rigid cervical collar simulating cervical immobilisation for traumatic cervical spine injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmaja Durga

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is difficult to visualise the larynx using conventional laryngoscopy in the presence of cervical spine immobilisation. Airtraq® provides for easy and successful intubation in the neutral neck position. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of Airtraq in comparison with the Mc Coy laryngoscope, when performing tracheal intubation in patients with neck immobilisation using hard cervical collar and manual in-line axial cervical spine stabilisation. Methods: A randomised, cross-over, open-labelled study was undertaken in 60 ASA I and II patients aged between 20 and 50 years, belonging to either gender, scheduled to undergo elective surgical procedures. Following induction and adequate muscle relaxation, they were intubated using either of the techniques first, followed by the other. Intubation time and Intubation Difficulty Score (IDS were noted using Mc Coy laryngoscope and Airtraq. The anaesthesiologist was asked to grade the ease of intubation on a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS of 1-10. Chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data between the groups and paired sample t-test for comparison of continuous data. IDS score and VAS were compared using Wilcoxon Signed ranked test. Results: The mean intubation time was 33.27 sec (13.25 for laryngoscopy and 28.95 sec (18.53 for Airtraq (P=0.32. The median IDS values were 4 (interquartile range (IQR 1-6 and 0 (IQR 0-1 for laryngoscopy and Airtraq, respectively (P=0.007. The median Cormack Lehane glottic view grade was 3 (IQR 2-4 and 1 (IQR 1-1 for laryngoscopy and Airtraq, respectively (P=0.003. The ease of intubation on VAS was graded as 4 (IQR 3-5 for laryngoscopy and 2 (IQR 2-2 for Airtraq (P=0.033. There were two failures to intubate with the Airtraq. Conclusion: Airtraq improves the ease of intubation significantly when compared to Mc Coy blade in patients immobilised with cervical collar and manual in-line stabilisation simulating cervical spine injury.

  17. The effects of breakfast on short-term cognitive function among Chinese white-collar workers: protocol for a three-phase crossover study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenchuang Tang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As the first meal of the day, breakfast plays an important role in supplying energy and nutrients, which are critical to working and learning activities. A three-phase crossover study was designed to investigate the effects of breakfast on cognitive function among Chinese white-collar workers. The planned study protocol is presented. Methods A total of 264 participants aged 25–45 years will be recruited from Shenyang and Chongqing. Self-administered questionnaires will be used to collect information on age, gender, marital status, education level, occupation, smoking habits, drinking habits, and breakfast behaviours. The participants will be randomly assigned to 3 equal-sized groups (Groups A, B, and C and will be provided with a nutrition-adequate breakfast, a nutrition-inadequate breakfast, or no breakfast, respectively. Each participant will receive the breakfast treatment on the basis of assignment to one of three sequences (ABC/BCA/CAB. Each participant will complete a battery of cognitive tests assessing short-term memory, attention, and working memory 120 minutes after breakfast. Mood will be measured through a self-administered questionnaire assessing the dimensions of positive and negative frames of mind. Additionally, fasting blood glucose and postprandial 2-hour blood glucose levels will be tested with a blood-glucose meter (Roche ACCU-CHEK®-Performa. All the participants will take all the tests in three successive weeks, and the order of presentation will be counter-balanced across groups. Discussion The present study will be the first investigation of the effect of breakfast food type and quality on cognitive function amongst white-collar workers in China. We predict that a nutrition-adequate breakfast, compared with a nutrition-inadequate breakfast and no breakfast, will significantly improve short-term cognitive function. The results of this study should provide scientific evidence of the effect of

  18. Understanding long-term sick leave in female white-collar workers with burnout and stress-related diagnoses: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandmark, Hélène; Renstig, Monica

    2010-04-26

    Sick leave rates in Sweden have been significant since the end of the 1990s. In this paper we focus on individual female white-collar workers and explore various factors and setting-based sources of ill health in working life and in private life, in order to understand impaired work ability, leading ultimately to long-term sick leave. A qualitative methodology was chosen, and thematic, open-ended interviews were carried out with 16 women. The interviewees were strategically selected from a cohort of 300 women in full-time white-collar jobs in high-level positions, living in three urban areas in Sweden, and on long-term sick leave > or =90 days. A qualitative content analysis was carried out. The informants in the study were generally well educated, but a few had surprisingly little formal education considering their salary level and position on the labour market. The women were in professional positions more commonly held by men, either as specialists with some degree of managerial role or as executives with managerial responsibilities. Both external and internal stressors were identified. The analysis indicated that being in these gender-typed jobs could have induced sex discrimination and role conflicts. The women expressed strong agreement regarding success in working life, but emphasised the lack of competence matching in their present jobs. They also lacked the sense of having a rewarding job, saw leadership as weak, and disliked their present workplace and colleagues. Impaired health may have hindered them from changing jobs; conversely, their locked-in positions could have resulted in deterioration in their health status. The women displayed personal overcommitment, both at work and in private life, and had difficulties in setting limits. Factors in working life, as well as in private life, played an important role in the informants' deteriorated health and long-term sick leave. Job and workplace mismatching, problems in connection with company profitability

  19. Understanding long-term sick leave in female white-collar workers with burnout and stress-related diagnoses: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandmark Hélène

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sick leave rates in Sweden have been significant since the end of the 1990s. In this paper we focus on individual female white-collar workers and explore various factors and setting-based sources of ill health in working life and in private life, in order to understand impaired work ability, leading ultimately to long-term sick leave. Methods A qualitative methodology was chosen, and thematic, open-ended interviews were carried out with 16 women. The interviewees were strategically selected from a cohort of 300 women in full-time white-collar jobs in high-level positions, living in three urban areas in Sweden, and on long-term sick leave ≥90 days. A qualitative content analysis was carried out. Results The informants in the study were generally well educated, but a few had surprisingly little formal education considering their salary level and position on the labour market. The women were in professional positions more commonly held by men, either as specialists with some degree of managerial role or as executives with managerial responsibilities. Both external and internal stressors were identified. The analysis indicated that being in these gender-typed jobs could have induced sex discrimination and role conflicts. The women expressed strong agreement regarding success in working life, but emphasised the lack of competence matching in their present jobs. They also lacked the sense of having a rewarding job, saw leadership as weak, and disliked their present workplace and colleagues. Impaired health may have hindered them from changing jobs; conversely, their locked-in positions could have resulted in deterioration in their health status. The women displayed personal overcommitment, both at work and in private life, and had difficulties in setting limits. Conclusions Factors in working life, as well as in private life, played an important role in the informants' deteriorated health and long-term sick leave. Job and

  20. Controlled clinical trial of how mobile health applications affect blue-collar men’s physical health as well as thoughts and actions in relation to their own physical health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levisen, Vinie Diana Hvidbak; Castaño, Francisco Mansilla; Jensen, Camilla Skovbjerg

    2017-01-01

    Background: Blue collar men have both the lowest average life and longest patient delay, and currently no research has been conducted with mobile health applications as health promotion interventions for this target group. This study wants to contribute with knowledge about how mobile health...... applications affect the level of physical activity amongst blue collar men as well as the frequency of how often they think and do something for their own physical health. Methods: Controlled clinical trial, men, aged 19–62 years, working in industrial companies, who are assigned to an intervention group (n=35......) or a control group (n=35) are allocated based on mobile phone type/model. Baseline and effect measurement is carried out in both groups. Intervention period of 6 months in which the intervention group uses mobile applications that record the number of steps, and they receive a health-promoting text message...

  1. Long commuting time, extensive overtime, and sympathodominant state assessed in terms of short-term heart rate variability among male white-collar workers in the Tokyo megalopolis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, T; Nishikido, N; Kobayashi, T; Kurokawa, Y; Kaneko, T; Kabuto, M

    1998-07-01

    To investigate the possible effects of long commuting time and extensive overtime on daytime cardiac autonomic activity, the short-term heart rate variability (HRV) both at supine rest and at standing rest of 223 male white-collar workers in the Tokyo Megalopolis was examined. Workers with a one-way commute of 90 min or more exhibited decreased vagal activity at supine rest and increased sympathetic activity regardless of posture, and those doing overtime of 60 h/month or more exhibited decreased vagal activity and increased sympathetic activity at standing rest. These findings suggest that chronic stress or fatigue resulting from long commuting time or extensive overtime caused these individuals to be in a sympathodominant state. Although these shifts in autonomic activities are not direct indicators of disease, it can be hypothesized that they can induce cardiovascular abnormalities or dysfunctions related to the onset of heart disease. Assessment of the daily and weekly variations in HRV as a function of daily life activities (such as working, commuting, sleeping, and exercising) among workers in Asia-Pacific urban areas might be one way of studying the possible effects of long commuting time, and extensive overtime, on health.

  2. The scalp hair collar and tuft signs: A retrospective multicenter study of 78 patients with a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessis, Didier; Bigorre, Michèle; Malissen, Nausicaa; Captier, Guillaume; Chiaverini, Christine; Abasq, Claire; Barbarot, Sébastien; Boccara, Olivia; Bourrat, Emmanuelle; El Fertit, Hassan; Eschard, Catherine; Hubiche, Thomas; Lacour, Jean-Philippe; Leboucq, Nicolas; Mahé, Emmanuel; Mallet, Stéphanie; Marque, Myriam; Martin, Ludovic; Mazereeuw-Hautier, Juliette; Milla, Nathalie; Phan, Alice; Plantin, Patrice; Picot, Marie-Christine; Puzenat, Eve; Rigau, Valérie; Vabres, Pierre; Fraitag, Sylvie; Boralevi, Franck

    2017-03-01

    Hair collar sign (HCS) and hair tuft of the scalp (HTS) are cutaneous signs of an underlying neuroectodermal defect, but most available data are based on case reports. We sought to define the clinical spectrum of HCS and HTS, clarify the risk for underlying neurovascular anomalies, and provide imaging recommendations. A 10-year multicenter retrospective and prospective analysis of clinical, radiologic, and histopathologic features of HCS and HTS in pediatric patients was performed. Of the 78 patients included in the study, 56 underwent cranial and brain imaging. Twenty-three of the 56 patients (41%) had abnormal findings, including the following: (1) cranial/bone defect (30.4%), with direct communication with the central nervous system in 28.6%; (2) venous malformations (25%); or (3) central nervous system abnormalities (12.5%). Meningeal heterotopia in 34.6% (9/26) was the most common neuroectodermal association. Sinus pericranii, paraganglioma, and combined nevus were also identified. The partial retrospective design and predominant recruitment from the dermatology department are limitations of this study. Infants with HCS or HTS are at high risk for underlying neurovascular anomalies. Magnetic resonance imaging scans should be performed in order to refer the infant to the appropriate specialist for management. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Influence of a microgrooved collar design on soft and hard tissue healing of immediate implantation in fresh extraction sites in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Soo-Yeon; Han, Dong-Hoo

    2010-08-01

    This study compared the alveolar bone reduction after immediate implantation using microgrooved and smooth collar implants in fresh extracted sockets. Four mongrel dogs were used in this study. The full buccal and lingual mucoperiosteal flaps were elevated and the third and fourth premolars of the mandible were removed. The implants were installed in the fresh extracted sockets. The animals were sacrificed after a 3-month healing period. The mandibles were dissected and each implant site was removed and processed for a histological examination. During healing, the marginal gaps in both groups, which were present between the implant and the socket walls at implantation, disappeared as a result of bone filling and resorption of the bone crest. The buccal bone crests were located apical of its lingual counterparts. At the 12-week interval, the mean bone-implant contact in the microgrooved group was significantly higher than that of the turned surface group. From the observations in some of the microgrooved groups, we have found bone attachment to the 12 mum microgrooved surface and collagen fibers perpendicular to the long axis of the implants over the 8 mum microgrooved surface. Within the limitations of this study, microgrooved implants may provide more favorable conditions for the attachment of hard and soft tissues and reduce the level of marginal bone resorption and soft tissue recession.

  4. Impact of implant-abutment connection, positioning of the machined collar/microgap, and platform switching on crestal bone level changes. Camlog Foundation Consensus Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Frank; Alcoforado, Gil; Nelson, Katja; Schaer, Alex; Taylor, Thomas; Beuer, Florian; Strietzel, Frank Peter

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this consensus meeting was to assess the impact of implant-abutment connection, positioning of the machined collar/microgap, and platform switching on crestal bone level changes. Two comprehensive systematic reviews were prepared in advance of the meeting. Consensus statements, practical recommendations, and implications for future research were based on within group as well as plenary scrutinization and discussions of these systematic reviews. Placing the smooth part of the implant below the alveolar crest may lead to bone loss. Despite a more pronounced bone remodeling, the subcrestal positioning of the microgap may help to retain the bony coverage of the rough surface. Crestal bone remodeling has been observed for either internal and external, or conical and butt-joint connections. There was a trend favoring the platform switching concept to prevent or minimize peri-implant marginal bone loss. Future research should consider an uniform and comparable study design, either excluding or exactly documenting possible confounding factors. © 2013 The Authors. Clinical Oral Implants Research published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Natural infections with pigeon paramyxovirus serotype 1: Pathologic changes in Eurasian collared-doves (Streptopelia decaocto) and rock pigeons (Columba livia) in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isidoro Ayza, Marcos; Afonso, C.L.; Stanton, J.B.; Knowles, Susan N.; Ip, Hon S.; White, C. LeAnn; Fenton, Heather; Ruder, M.G.; Dolinski, A. C.; Lankton, Julia S.

    2017-01-01

    Pigeon paramyxovirus serotype 1 (PPMV-1) is a globally distributed, virulent member of the avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 serogroup that causes mortality in columbiformes and poultry. Following introduction into the United States in the mid-1980s, PPMV-1 rapidly spread causing numerous mortality events in Eurasian collared-doves (Streptopelia decaocto) (ECDOs) and rock pigeons (Columba livia) (ROPIs). The investigators reviewed pathological findings of 70 naturally infected, free-ranging columbiforms from 25 different mortality events in the United States. Immunohistochemistry targeting PPMV-1 nucleoprotein was used to determine the tissue distribution of the virus in a subset of 17 birds from 10 of the studied outbreaks. ECDOs (61 birds) and ROPIs (9 birds) were the only species in which PPMV-1-associated disease was confirmed by viral isolation and presence of histologic lesions. Acute to subacute tubulointerstitial nephritis and necrotizing pancreatitis were the most frequent histologic lesions, with immunolabeling of viral antigen in renal tubular epithelial cells and pancreatic acinar epithelium. Lymphoid depletion of bursa of Fabricius and spleen was common, but the presence of viral antigen in these organs was inconsistent among infected birds. Hepatocellular necrosis was occasionally present with immunolabeling of hypertrophic Kupffer cells, and immunopositive eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were present in hepatocytes of 1 ECDO. Immunopositive lymphocytic choroiditis was present in 1 ECDO, while lymphocytic meningoencephalitis was frequent in ROPIs in absence of immunolabeling. This study demonstrates widespread presence of PPMV-1 antigen in association with histologic lesions, confirming the lethal potential of this virus in these particular bird species.

  6. Nest-site selection and population trend of Collared Pratincoles (Glareola pratincola breeding in agricultural habitats of the Nagykunság region (Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiss Ádám

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Collared Pratincole (Glareola pratincola, which was once a typical breeding species of the sodic grasslands of the Great Plain, has become threatened with extinction from Hungary. It disappeared from the traditional grassland breeding sites before the 2000 and is currently breeding only in three sites in agricultural environments in Hungary. The objectives of our research were to find links between the use of shallow wetlands and the breeding behaviour of the species and to identify the characteristics of its breeding on ploughed fields. Data were collected between 2008 and 2016 as part of preparations for the conservation of the largest population which is found in the Nagykunság. We found a positive correlation between colony size and the area of the nearby wetland. We calculated the proportion of habitat-types used for nesting, and found that cultivated fields and fallow lands were the most important. Additionally, we also found that colony sizes were substantially smaller during the research period than those found earlier in the traditional grassland habitats. Finally, we found a positive trend in the size of the population during the research period.

  7. A Parallel-Arm Randomized Controlled Trial to Assess the Effects of a Far-Infrared-Emitting Collar on Neck Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Sheng Lin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to assess the beneficial effects of a far-infrared-emitting collar (FIRC on the management of neck disorders. A neck disorder is generalized as neck muscle pain and its relative mental disorders because the etiologies of the neck’s multidimensional syndrome are either muscle impairment or psychiatric distress. This is the first study to determine the efficacy of a FIRC by evaluating objective physical evidence and psychometric self-reports using a parallel-arm randomized sham-controlled and single-blinded design. In this trial, 60 participants with neck disorders were observed at baseline and post-intervention. Compared to the placebo group after a 30-min intervention, the FIRC demonstrated a statistically significant biological effect in elevating skin temperature and promoting blood circulation with p-values 0.003 and 0.020, respectively. In addition, FIRC application significantly reduced neck muscle tension, relieved pain, ameliorated fatigue, improved depression, and decreased anxiety. The FIRC could therefore be a potential treatment for neck disorders.

  8. A multi-event model to study stage-dependent dispersal in radio-collared hares: when hunting promotes costly transience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avril, Alexis; Letty, Jérôme; Pradel, Roger; Léonard, Yves; Santin-Janin, Hugues; Pontier, Dominique

    2012-06-01

    Behavioral ecologists have often assumed that dispersal is costly mainly because of unfamiliarity with traversed habitats during dispersal and energy costs of the movement per se; thus, dispersers that have successfully settled should experience survival rates comparable to those of philopatric individuals. In this paper, we tested that hypothesis using 152 radio-collared European hares in a harvested population. We developed a multi-event capture recapture model, combining telemetry data and recoveries and separately modeling the foray probability, the settlement probability, and the permanent dispersal probability. The parameterization introduced here raises the possibility of separately testing effects on survival and dispersal probabilities at each stage of dispersal (departure, transience, and settlement). In accordance with our expectations, we reveal that dispersers incur higher mortality risks during transience and the early settlement period than philopatric individuals or settled dispersers. We also found that dispersers suffer from higher risks of being shot. Those results illustrate that unfamiliarity with the habitat during transience makes dispersal costly and that settled dispersers may enjoy survival rates comparable to those of philopatric individuals. Surprisingly, we also found that individuals have a higher probability of foraying during the hunting season. We suggest that hunting and related disturbances increase dispersal costs both by increasing mortality risk during transience and (perhaps) by increasing movement rates. We emphasize the need to take human pressures into account as factors that may drive the demographics of movements in populations.

  9. 1st place, PREMUS best paper competition: workplace and individual factors in wrist tendinosis among blue-collar workers--the San Francisco study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Carisa; Eisen, Ellen A; Goldberg, Robert; Krause, Niklas; Rempel, David

    2011-03-01

    Workplace studies have linked hand/wrist tendinosis to forceful and repetitive hand exertions, but the associations are not consistent. We report findings from a prospective study of right wrist tendinosis among blue-collar workers. Workers (N=413) at four industries were followed for 28 months with questionnaires and physical examinations every 4 months to identify incident cases of right wrist tendinosis. Exposure assessment of force and repetition were based on field measurements and video analysis to determine repetition rate and the percent time (% time) in heavy pinch (>1 kg-force) or power grip (>4 kg-force). All exposure variables were measured at the level of the individual and task. For workers responsible for >1 task, a time-weighted average exposure was calculated based on task hours per week. A proportional hazards model was used to assess the relationship between exposures and incidence of wrist tendinosis. During the 481 person-years of follow-up, there were 26 incident cases of right wrist tendinosis [incidence rate (IR) 5.40 cases per 100 person-years]. Adjusting for age, gender, and repetition, wrist tendinosis was associated with % time spent in heavy pinch [hazard ratio (HR) 5.01, 95% CI 1.27-19.79). Composite exposure measure American Conference of Industrial Hygienists Threshold Limit Value (ACGIH-TLV) for hand activity level (HR 3.95, 95% CI 1.52-10.26) was also associated with the outcome for the medium-exposure group using video-based total repetition rate. The workplace factors predicting wrist tendinosis were time-weighted average values of % time spent in heavy pinch and the ACGIH-TLV for Hand Activity Level. The % time spent in power grip was not a significant predictor, nor were any measures of repetition. An exposure-response relationship was observed for the % time spent in heavy pinch. These findings may improve programs for preventing occupational wrist tendinosis.

  10. Assessing the Effects of Light on Differentiation and Virulence of the Plant Pathogen Botrytis cinerea: Characterization of the White Collar Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hevia, Montserrat A.; Tudzynski, Paul; Larrondo, Luis F.

    2013-01-01

    Organisms are exposed to a tough environment, where acute daily challenges, like light, can strongly affect several aspects of an individual's physiology, including pathogenesis. While several fungal models have been widely employed to understand the physiological and molecular events associated with light perception, various other agricultural-relevant fungi still remain, in terms of their responsiveness to light, in the dark. The fungus Botrytis cinerea is an aggressive pathogen able to cause disease on a wide range of plant species. Natural B. cinerea isolates exhibit a high degree of diversity in their predominant mode of reproduction. Thus, the majority of naturally occurring strains are known to reproduce asexually via conidia and sclerotia, and sexually via apothecia. Studies from the 1970′s reported on specific developmental responses to treatments with near-UV, blue, red and far-red light. To unravel the signaling machinery triggering development – and possibly also connected with virulence – we initiated the functional characterization of the transcription factor/photoreceptor BcWCL1 and its partner BcWCL2, that form the White Collar Complex (WCC) in B. cinerea. Using mutants either abolished in or exhibiting enhanced WCC signaling (overexpression of both bcwcl1 and bcwcl2), we demonstrate that the WCC is an integral part of the mentioned machinery by mediating transcriptional responses to white light and the inhibition of conidiation in response to this stimulus. Furthermore, the WCC is required for coping with excessive light, oxidative stress and also to achieve full virulence. Although several transcriptional responses are abolished in the absence of bcwcl1, the expression of some genes is still light induced and a distinct conidiation pattern in response to daily light oscillations is enhanced, revealing a complex underlying photobiology. Though overlaps with well-studied fungal systems exist, the light-associated machinery of B. cinerea

  11. Effects of a multicomponent workplace intervention programme with environmental changes on physical activity among Japanese white collar employees: a protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Kawakami, Norito

    2017-10-24

    Physical activity is one of the most important health behaviours as a determinant of physical and mental health. Although intervention strategies for promoting physical activity among workers are needed, evidence for the effectiveness of multilevel workplace interventions with environmental changes on the promotion of physical activity are still limited due to lack of cluster randomised controlled trials (RCTs). The aim of this study is to investigate effects of a 3-month workplace intervention programme with environmental changes on the improvement in physical activity among Japanese white collar employees. This study will be a two-arm and parallel-group cluster (worksite) RCT. Japanese worksites and employees who are employed by the worksites will be recruited through health insurance associations and chambers of commerce. Worksites that meet the inclusion criteria will be randomly allocated to intervention or control groups. The intervention worksites will be offered the original intervention programme that consists of 13 contents with environmental changes. The control worksites will be able to get three times feedback of the assessment of the amount of physical activity and basic occupational health service in each worksite. The primary outcome will be the total amount of physical activity measured by the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire at baseline, 3 months and 6 months. Multilevel latent growth modelling will be conducted to examine the effectiveness of the intervention programme. This study was ethically approved by the research ethics committee of the Graduate School of Medicine and Faculty of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Japan (No. 11230). Results will be submitted and published in a scientific peer-reviewed journal. UMIN000024069; Pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. Comparative Efficacy of an Imidacloprid/Flumethrin Collar (Seresto®) and an Oral Fluralaner Chewable Tablet (Bravecto®) against Tick (Dermacentor variabilis and Amblyomma americanum) Infestations on Dogs: a Randomised Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmes, Cameon M; Hostetler, Joe; Davis, Wendell L; Settje, Terry; McMinn, Amy; Everett, William R

    2015-08-01

    This controlled laboratory study demonstrated the residual speed of efficacy of an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar (Seresto(®), Bayer) for the control of ticks (Dermacentor variabilis, Amblyomma americanum) at 6 and 12 hours post-infestation on dogs when compared to oral fluralaner (Bravecto(®), Merck). Dogs were randomised by pre-treatment tick counts: Group 1) imidacloprid 10 % (w/w)/flumethrin 4.5 % (w/w) collar, 2) fluralaner (dosage 25.1 - 49.4 mg/kg), and 3) non-treated controls. Ticks (50/species/dog) were infested on days 3, 14, 21, 28, 42, and 56 followed by 50 D. variabilis on days 70 and 84. Live and dead attached ticks were counted 6 and 12 hours later. Efficacy against both species at 6 and 12 hours for Group 1 was 94 - 100 %. Efficacy for Group 2 against both species at 6 hours was 4 - 69 %; efficacy at 12 hours was 8 - 100 %. Live (attached and non-attached) tick counts at 6 hours in Group 1 were significantly lower (p ≤ 0.05) than counts in Group 2 and 3 on all days. At 12 hours, live counts were significantly lower (p ≤ 0.05) in Group 1 than Group 2 for D. variabilis from days 56 - 84 and for A. americanum from days 28 - 56. There were significantly fewer (p ≤ 0.05) total ticks (total live and dead attached) on dogs in Group 1 compared to Group 2 and 3 at all time points. This study demonstrated that an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar was highly efficacious (94 - 100 %) at repelling and killing ticks on dogs at 6 and 12 hours post-infestation and was more efficacious than fluralaner as early as 6 hours post-infestation on all challenge days.

  13. Comparative Efficacy of an Imidacloprid/Flumethrin Collar (Seresto®) and an Oral Afoxolaner Chewable (NexGard®) against Tick (Dermacentor variabilis and Amblyomma americanum) Infestations on Dogs: a Randomised Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmes, Cameon M; Hostetler, Joe; Davis, Wendell L; Settje, Terry; Everett, William R

    2015-08-01

    This randomised controlled laboratory study demonstrated the residual speed of efficacy of an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar (Seresto(®), Bayer) for the control of ticks (Dermacentor variabilis, Amblyomma americanum) at 6 and 12 hours postinfestation on dogs when compared to oral afoxolaner (NexGard(®), Merial). Dogs were randomised by pre-treatment tick counts: Group 1) imidacloprid 10 % (w/w) / flumethrin 4.5 % (w/w) collar, 2) afoxolaner chewable (dosage 3.1 - 6.2 mg/kg), and 3) non-treated controls. Ticks (50/species/dog) were infested on days 3, 14, 21, and 28; live (attached and non-attached) and dead attached ticks were counted 6 and 12 hours later. Efficacy against live D. variabilis at 6 hours for Group 1 was 95 - 100 % and for Group 2 was 38 - 48 %; efficacy at 12 hours for Group 1 was 97 - 100 % and for Group 2 was 27 - 59 %. Efficacy against A. americanum at 6 hours for Group 1 was 94 - 100 % and for Group 2 was < 0 - 38 %; efficacy at 12 hours for Group 1 was 98 - 100 % and for Group 2 was 1 - 40 %. Live and total (total live and dead attached) tick counts in Group 1 against both tick species were significantly lower (p ≤ 0.05) than Group 2 and 3 at all time points. The number of live or total ticks on Group 2 dogs was never significantly lower when compared to the respective number of ticks on Group 3 (controls). This study demonstrated that an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar was highly efficacious (94 - 100 %) at repelling and killing ticks on dogs at 6 and 12 hours post-infestation and was more efficacious than afoxolaner on all challenge days.

  14. WHITE-COLLAR CRIME’S FORECASTING AND REDUCTION BY MEANS OF PRE-EMPLOYMENT TESTING IN THE PENAL POLITICS OF THE STATE: EMPIRICAL FINDINGS FOR MOLDOVA AND ISRAEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob RUB

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present article is to elaborate a valid method of forecasting of the potential offender during the hiring process by means of pre-employment tests as an integral part of the process of prevention and counteracting of the phenomenon of white-collar criminality in the realm of Penal Politics of the Republic of Moldova and the State of Israel. Namely, the „personality coefficient” of the potential offender, which, in the author’s opinion, will define better the likelihood of success in perpetrating a white-collar crime. As a result, a new methodology and tactics for the earlier reducing of white-collar criminality at workplace a new and original scale of pre-employment test valid for hiring process which will be justifiable not only from economical and sociological standpoint, but also from criminological point of view in the process of white-collar criminality reducing.Prognozarea şi reducerea criminalităţii gulerelor albe prin metoda testărilor pre-angajatoare în politica penală a statului: rezultatele empirice pentru Moldova şi IsraelScopul propus în acest articol constă în elaborarea unei metode valide pentru identificarea criminalilor potenţiali în procesul de angajare prin teste de pre-selecţie privite ca parte integrantă a procesului de prevenire şi combatere a fenomenului criminalităţii gulerelor albe în cadrul politicii penale a Republicii Moldova şi a Statului Israel. În special, este propus spre utilizare „coeficientul personalităţii” potenţialului infractor care, în opinia autorului, va defini mai precis probabilitatea săvârşirii crimei gulerelor albe. Prin urmare, este propusă şi argumentată o nouă metodologie şi tactică de reducere a criminalităţii gulerelor albe la locul de muncă, precum şi un model original de testare pre-angajare oportun din perspectivă economică, sociologică şi criminologică.

  15. Intra-specific brood parasitism revealed by DNA micro-satellite analyses in a sub-oscine bird, the vermilion flycatcher Parasitismo intraespecífico revelado mediante análisis de microsatélites de ADN en un ave suboscina, el cardenalito o saca tu real

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEJANDRO A RÍOS-CHELÉN

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Extra-pair reproduction is known to occur in many avian species. However, among passerines, the majority of studies on extra-pair reproduction have been carried out in oscine birds from temperate regions. Conversely, sub-oscines species, and particularly, species that inhabit tropical regions, have been studied to a much lesser extent. Given that a majority of avian species live in the tropics, it is important to study more tropical and sub-oscine species to have a more accurate picture of the rates of extra-pair reproduction among passerines, and a better understanding of the adaptive function of extra-pair reproduction in birds. Tropical species differ from temperate species in several ecological and life history traits, that may influence the occurrence of different modes of extra-pair reproduction and their prevalence. In this study we asked whether extra-pair reproduction occur in a sexually dimorphic and socially monogamous sub-oscine, the vermilion flycatcher (Pyrocephalus rubinus. We report cases of extra-pair paternity, extra-pair maternity and intra-specific brood parasitism, and discuss our results in the view of other studies with passerinesSe sabe que la reproducción extrapareja ocurre en muchas especies de aves. Sin embargo, entre paserinos, la mayoría de los estudios se han llevado a cabo en aves oscinas de regiones templadas. Por el contrario, las especies suboscinas, y en particular las especies que habitan regiones tropicales, se han estudiado mucho menos. Por lo tanto, es importante estudiar más especies tropicales y suboscinas para tener una visión más acertada de las tasas de reproducción extrapareja en paserinos y un mejor entendimiento de la función adaptativa de la reproducción extrapareja en aves. Las especies tropicales difieren de las especies que habitan regiones templadas en diversos rasgos ecológicos y de historia de vida, que podrían influir en las tasas de ocurrencia de diferentes modos de reproducci

  16. Organizational instability and cardiovascular risk factors in white-collar employees: an analysis of correlates of structural instability of workplace organization on risk factors for coronary heart disease in a sample of 3,904 white collar employees in the Stockholm region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerlund, Hugo; Theorell, Töres; Alfredsson, Lars

    2004-03-01

    The economic crisis in Sweden in the 1990s led to major reorganization at many workplaces, which appears to have had negative consequences for occupational and public health. Psychosocial questionnaires and medical screening data for 3,904 white-collar employees in 15 major companies plus a large number of small-scale entrepreneurs in Stockholm were used. Subjects were part of a study of working conditions and cardiovascular risk factors (WOLF). Workplaces were categorized using interview data from managers and union representatives. Categories were compared regarding job strain, blood pressure, serum cholesterol, triglycerides, and fibrinogen among employees. The companies formed five categories: 'Stable', 'Changing/Growing', 'Threatened Private', 'Questioned Public', plus 'Small Firms'. Compared with the 'Stable' group, employees in 'Changing/Growing' companies had higher job strain (0.28 SD, porganizational instability, such as downsizing, expansion in a favourable economic climate, appears to be adversely correlated with job strain and psychophysiology. The study also raises concerns about employees in small firms.

  17. Lightweight bilayer barium sulfate-bismuth oxide composite thyroid collars for superior radiation protection in fluoroscopy-guided interventions: a prospective randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uthoff, Heiko; Benenati, Matthew J; Katzen, Barry T; Peña, Constantino; Gandhi, Ripal; Staub, Daniel; Schernthaner, Melanie

    2014-02-01

    To test whether newer bilayer barium sulfate-bismuth oxide composite (XPF) thyroid collars (TCs) provide superior radiation protection and comfort during fluoroscopy-guided interventions compared with standard 0.5-mm lead-equivalent TCs. Institutional review board approval and written informed consent were obtained for this HIPAA-compliant study, and 144 fluoroscopy-guided vascular interventions were included at one center between October 2011 and July 2012, with up to two operators randomly assigned to wear XPF (n = 135) or standard 0.5-mm lead-equivalent (n = 121) TCs. Radiation doses were measured by using dosimeters placed outside and underneath the TCs. Wearing comfort was assessed at the end of each procedure on a visual analog scale (0-100, with 100 indicating optimal comfort). Adjusted differences in comfort and radiation dose reductions were calculated by using a mixed logistic regression model and the common method of inverse variance weighting, respectively. Patient (height, weight, and body mass index) and procedure (type and duration of intervention, operator, fluoroscopy time, dose-area product, and air kerma) data did not differ between the XPF and standard groups. Comfort was assessed in all 256 measurements. On average, the XPF TCs were 47.6% lighter than the standard TCs (mean weight ± standard deviation, 133 g ± 14 vs 254 g ± 44; P 90; odds ratio, 7.6; 95% confidence interval: 3.0, 19.2; P < .001). Radiation dose reduction provided by the TCs was analyzed in 117 data sets (60 in the XPF group, 57 in the standard group). The mean radiation dose reductions (ie, radiation protection) provided by XPF and standard TCs were 90.7% and 72.4%, with an adjusted mean difference of 17.9% (95% confidence interval: 7.7%, 28.1%; P < .001) favoring XPF. XPF TCs are a lightweight alternative to standard 0.5-mm lead-equivalent TCs and provide superior radiation protection during fluoroscopy-guided interventions. © RSNA, 2013.

  18. MONEY LAUNDERING AS AN ISOLATED PHENOMENON AND LEADING FACTOR IN WHITE-COLLAR CRIMINALITY, PUTS MOLDOVA CASE JUDICIARY ON THE SPOT

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    Jacob RUB

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Money laundering is a leading factor in white-collar criminality, with a big effect upon Gross National Product of the Israeli and Moldova economies. Israel and Moldova have made the first steps In order to cope with money laundering phenomenon. The model of handling the phenomenon in the USA has been studied that constitutes a role model of fighting money laundering. The vast majority (77% of all frauds were committed by individuals working in one of six departments: accounting, operations, sales, executive/upper management, customer service and purchasing. In Moldova, money laundering for the most part is connected to traditional forms and activities sources of illegal proceeds .Moldova is a transit country for money laundering. A money-laundering scandal is casting Moldova’s judiciary in an unfavorable light and is raising concerns about the government’s commitment to reforms needed to keep European Union integration on track. It is a need to address corruption as a national priority, and the priority of the relations between the EU and Moldova. The money laundering scandal indicates that Moldova is reluctant to wade deeply into judicial reform. In fact, the laundered of $20 billion, is an amount more than twice the size of Moldova’s GDP in 2013, and may be that it is just the tip of the iceberg, probably. White-collar criminality in Israel and Moldova means success of coping of the enforcement and judicial systems. In order to cope with this phenomenon, Israel makes its first steps. Anyway, the message must pave the way through a creation of a new model for dealing with reduction the isolated phenomenon of money laundering in both states.SPĂLAREA DE BANI, UN FENOMEN IZOLAT ŞI UN FACTOR IMPORTANT ÎN CRIMINALITATEA GULERELOR ALBE, PUNE PRACTICA JUDICIARĂ DIN REPUBLICA MOLDOVA INTR-O SITUAŢIE DIFICILĂSpălarea de bani este un factor important în criminalitatea gulerelor albe, având un efect semnificativ asupra produ-sului na

  19. Morfometría geométrica del borde corial y del collar de huevos de cinco especies del género Rhodnius Stal (Heteroptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae

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    Ximena Páez-Colasante

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. La taxonomía y sistemática de la subfamilia Triatominae (Heteroptera, Reduviidae se basan principalmente en caracteres biométricos y morfológicos de las formas adultas y, en algunos casos, de las ninfas. La Morfometría Geométrica es capaz de descomponer la forma en sus componentes tamaño isométrico y conformación. En el presente trabajo se utilizó laMorfometría Geométrica como herramienta de análisis de la configuración geométrica que resulta de la unión de los extremos del borde corial y del collar (configuración borde corial-collar de los huevos eclosionados de cinco especies del género Rhodnius Stal. Los huevos se observaron por Microscopía Electrónica de Barrido y las imágenes digitalizadas fueron analizadas morfogeométricamente. Estudiando el tamaño geométrico de la configuración borde corial-collar, se halló que no existen diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre las cinco especies deTriatominos. En cuanto a la conformación, se determinaron diferencias entre las especies al ser sometidas a un análisis discriminante. Se encontró además que la variación del tamaño contribuye a la variación en la conformación, es decir, efecto alométrico. Los resultados obtenidos indican que la conformación de la configuración geométrica “borde corial-collar” de los huevos de Rhodnius podría ser utilizada como herramienta taxonómica para este grupo. Morfometria geométrica da borda corial e colarinho de ovos de cinco espécies do Gênero Rhodnius (Heteroptera Reduviidae, Triatominae.Resumo. A taxonomia e sistemática da subfamília Triatominae (Heteroptera Reduviidae esta baseada principalmente em caracteres biométricos e morfológicos das formas adultas, e em alguns casos, das ninfas. A morfometria geométrica é capaz de descompor a forma em seus componentes, tamanho isométrico e conformação. No presente trabalho utilizou-se a morfometria geométrica como ferramenta de análise da configura

  20. Melanopareia bitorquata (d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837) is a distinct species: an appraisal of morphological variation in the Collared Crescentchest Melanopareia torquata (zu Wied-Neuwied, 1831) (Aves: Melanopareiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Leonardo Esteves; Gonzaga, Luiz Pedreira

    2016-11-15

    The Collared Crescentchest Melanopareia torquata is a poorly known and inconspicuous species of open savannas and grasslands in central Brazil, Paraguay and Bolivia. Three subspecies are currently recognized, but their taxonomic limits, ranges and conservation status are far from well-established. This paper analyses individual and geographic variation in this species on the basis of body measurements and plumage coloration of 119 specimens. A clinal pattern of body size variation and considerable mensural overlap precludes a clear-cut separation between the two subspecies restricted to Brazil, and there is evidently sexual dichromatism in some Brazilian populations. However, M. t. bitorquata shows highly distinct plumage features in parapatry with other forms, strongly suggesting it should be treated as a full species.

  1. Análise comparativa da origem do plexo branquial de catetos (Tayassu tajacu Comparative analysis of the origin of the brachial plexus of the collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu

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    Carlos Eduardo B. Moura

    2007-09-01

    .Collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu belongs to the Tayassuidae family, characterized by a "collar" of white hairs that cross behind the neck and extend bilaterally in front of the shoulders. It can be found from south-western United States to Argentina. In the literature a shortage of data is verified regarding the functional anatomy of the collared peccaries, especially of studies that involve the anatomy of the brachial plexus. To elucidate the behavior of this plexus of collared peccaries and with the purpose to contribute for the development of compared anatomy, this study was accomplished. Thirty animals of different ages were used (17 males and 13 females coming from the Wild Animal Multiplication Center of the "Universidade Federal Rural do Semiárido" Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. After slaughter bilateral dissection of the brachial plexuses took place, and the results were registered in schematic drawings and the dispositions grouped in tables for subsequent statistical analysis based on the percentile frequency. It was found that the Plexus brachialis of collared peccaries is the result of established communications, mainly among the Rami ventrales of the last three cervical nerves and of the first two thoracic nerves, having a contribution of the fourth and fifth cervical nerves in 16.67% and 50.00% of the cases, respectively. In 40.00% of the dissections the most frequent plexus was of the type C6, C7, C8, T1 and T2. The main nerves derived from brachial plexus of the collared peccaries and its respective origins had been: Nervus suprascapularis (C6, C7, Nn. subscapulares (C5, C6 e C7 or C6 e C7, N. axillaris (C6, C7, N. musculocutaneus (C7, C8, N. medianus (C7, C8, T1, T2, N. radialis (C8, T1, T2, N. ulnaris (C8, T1, T2, cranialis (C7, and caudalis (C7, C8 Nn. pectorales , N. thoracodorsalis (C6, C7, C8, N. thoracicus longus (C7, C8, and N. thoracicus lateralis (C8, T1, T2.

  2. Vitamin profiles in two free-living passerine birds under a metal pollution gradient - A calcium supplementation experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Sandra R; Espín, Silvia; Sánchez-Virosta, Pablo; Salminen, Juha-Pekka; Lilley, Thomas M; Eeva, Tapio

    2017-04-01

    Vitamin and carotenoid deficiency may impair development in free-living vertebrates, because of the importance of these micronutrients to growth, antioxidant defense and calcium regulation. Micronutrient and calcium insufficiency can be intensified by metal pollution which can interfere with nutrient homeostasis or indirectly reduce food availability. Furthermore, absorption of dietary heavy metals is dependent on food calcium and vitamin levels. We investigated the effect of calcium on plasma vitamin and carotenoid profiles and how these affected growth and survival in two passerine birds with different calcium turnover living along a metal pollution gradient. Vitamins (A, D 3 and E) and carotenoids were quantified from blood plasma of great tit (Parus major) and pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) nestlings. Metal concentrations in soil and in feces from the same nestlings were used to assess the exposure to air pollution. Additionally, we examined the vitamin level variation between developmental stages (eggs and nestlings within the same brood). Our results showed that generally higher concentrations of vitamins and carotenoids circulate in blood of great tits than in pied flycatchers. In general, birds inhabiting the polluted zone presented lower concentrations of the studied micronutrients. Calcium supplementation and metal pollution decreased vitamin A concentration in pied flycatcher, but not in great tit, while vitamin A affected growth and survival in great tit and pied flycatcher respectively. Our results suggest that populations under exposure to metal pollution may experience increased vitamin A deficiency, and that the two passerine species, while obtaining similar micronutrients in food, respond differently to environmental disturbance of nutrients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. TAURINE DEFICIENCY IN COLLARED-ANTEATER (TAMANDUA TERTRADACTYLA FED WITH DOGS AND CATS MILK SUBSTITUTES DEFICIÊNCIA DE TAURINA EM FILHOTE DE TAMANDUÁ-MIRIM (Tamandua tetradactyla ALIMENTADO COM SUBSTITUTOS DE LEITE PARA CÃES E GATOS

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    Rafael Otávio Cançado Motta

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available  The taurine is a sulphur amino acid that in most of the mammals produced in enough amounts in the liver, from metionine and cysteine, using the enzyme cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase. However, for felines are considered an essential amino acid, needing to be ingested as a supplement of the organism requirements. For anteaters the condition is not yet elucidated, but these animals have developed disease when fed with diet poor in this amino acid. The most frequent clinical sings observed in cats are dilated cardiomyopathy, retina degeneration, reproductive and development anomalies, increase of plaquetary aggregation, leucopenia and neurological disturbs. In the present case, a hand-hearing of collared-anteater (Tamandua tetradactyla feeding milk substitutes for dogs and cats, presented taurine deficiency, characterized mainly for loss of coats and seizures. The diagnosis was based in reply of the animal to the supplement, after which gad regression of the clinical sings without return.

    KEY WORDS: Collared-anteater, Tamandua tetradactyla, taurine. A taurina é um aminoácido sulfurado e, na maioria dos mamíferos, produzida em quantidades suficientes no fígado a partir de metionina e cisteína, utilizando a enzima decarboxilase do ácido cistéico sulfínico. Para felinos é considerado um aminoácido essencial, necessitando ser ingerido para suprimento às necessidades do organismo. Em tamanduás, esta condição não está bem definida, entretanto, animais alimentados com dietas carentes nesse aminoácido têm demonstrado sinais clínicos compatíveis com deficiência de taurina. Em gatos as alterações mais freqüentes são cardiomiopatia dilatada, degeneração da retina, anormalidades reprodutivas e de desenvolvimento, aumento da agregação plaquetária, leucopenia e distúrbios neurológicos. No presente caso, um filhote de tamanduá-mirim (Tamandua tetradactyla criado em cativeiro com substitutos de leite para c

  4. The risk of predation favors cooperation among breeding prey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krama, Tatjana; Berzins, Arnis; Rantala, Markus J

    2010-01-01

    Empirical studies have shown that animals often focus on short-term benefits under conditions of predation risk, which reduces the likelihood that they will cooperate with others. However, some theoretical studies predict that animals in adverse conditions should not avoid cooperation with their neighbors since it may decrease individual risks and increase long-term benefits of reciprocal help. We experimentally tested these two alternatives to find out whether increased predation risk enhances or diminishes the occurrence of cooperation in mobbing, a common anti-predator behavior, among breeding pied flycatchers, Ficedula hypoleuca. Our results show that birds attended mobs initiated by their neighbors more often, approached the stuffed predator significantly more closely, and mobbed it at a higher intensity in areas where the perceived risk of predation was experimentally increased. This study demonstrates a positive impact of predation risk on cooperation in breeding songbirds, which might help to explain the emergence and evolution of cooperation. PMID:20714404

  5. Biocontrol of collar rot disease of betelvine (Piper betle L.) caused by Sclerotium rolfsii by using rhizosphere-competent Pseudomonas fluorescens NBRI-N6 and P. fluorescens NBRI-N.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anand; Mehta, Sangeeta; Singh, Harikesh Bahadur; Nautiyal, Chandra Shekhar

    2003-08-01

    Collar rot disease of betelvine (Piper betle L.) caused by Sclerotium rolfsii is difficult to control by conventional means by use of chemicals; therefore, use of biocontrol agents is desirable. In the present study, 186 bacterial strains of different morphological types were screened for their biocontrol activity against S. rolfsii under in vitro conditions. Two strains, Pseudomonas fluorescens NBRI-N6 and P. fluorescens NBRI-N, were selected for further studies because of their ability to inhibit the mycelial growth of the pathogen significantly. Spontaneous rifampicin-resistant (Rif) derivatives of P. fluorescens NBRI-N6 and P. fluorescens NBRI-N showing growth rate and membrane protein composition comparable to the wild type were selected to facilitate their monitoring in the rhizosphere. Field trials demonstrated that strain P. fluorescens NBRI-N6 was better than P. fluorescens NBRI-N in increasing the yield of betelvine significantly, whereas a consortium of the two strains controlled the disease more than either of the strains. The screening method should prove useful in identifying rhizosphere bacteria with the greatest potential for controlling diseases caused by phytopathogenic fungi.

  6. Aproximación al estudio del vidrio prerromano: los materiales procedentes de la necrópolis ibérica de El Cigarralejo (Mula, Murcia. Composición química de varias cuentas de collar

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    Ruano Ruiz, Encarnación

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available For the first time, all the glass materials found in the excavations of the Iberian cemetery of El Cigarralejo (Mula, Murcia are studied together including those from the published and the unpublished tombs. The small number of glass items in the grave goods found in this Murcian cemetery let us consider them as prestigious adornments, sometimes with prophylactic purposes. As an hypothesis, we can consider that there was a glass workshop near the studied area. The chemical composition of some necklace beads is presented.

    El texto agrupa por primera vez todos los materiales de vidrio procedentes de las excavaciones de la necrópolis ibérica de El Cigarralejo (Mula, Murcia, tanto de las tumbas publicadas, como inéditas. El escaso número de objetos de vidrio en los ajuares de la necrópolis murciana permite considerarlos como adornos de prestigio y en algún caso con fines profilácticos. Sólo como hipótesis debemos considerar la existencia de un taller cercano al área estudiada. Se presenta la composición química de algunas cuentas de collar.

  7. Fate of native and introduced seeds consumed by captive white-lipped and collared peccaries (Tayassu pecari, Link 1795 and Pecari tajacu, Linnaeus 1758 in the Atlantic rainforest, Brazil

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    L. Lazure

    Full Text Available We studied the role of white-lipped and collared peccaries (Tayassu pecari and Pecari tajacu as seed predators and dispersers in the Atlantic rainforest of Brazil. The Atlantic rainforest ecosystem is highly threatened and has experienced dramatic declines in its populations of large mammals. Local extinctions can disrupt essential plant-animal interactions such as seed dispersion and seed predation. We tracked seeds from time of consumption to germination to assess the direct impact peccaries have on seed survival. We offered fruits of 20 species found in the Atlantic rainforest to the peccaries. Seeds were categorised as intact, scarified, ingested or defecated, and germination tests were performed. The overall impact by both peccary species was similar. Seeds were sometime scarified by mastication, always with fatal consequences. Most seeds that were consumed were destroyed during ingestion and digestion. Only small seeds (<10 mm were found in the feces and germination tests suggest a positive effect from the passage through the guts. Peccaries clearly have a double role as both seed predators and as small seeds dispersers, which is a specialised role within the granivore/frugivore community of the Atlantic rainforest.

  8. Determinação do ciclo estral em catetos Pecari tajacu: aspectos colpocitológicos e clínicos Determination of the estrous cycle in collared peccary Pecari tajacu: colpocytological and clinical aspects

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    Diva Anelie deAraujo Guimarães

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo estudar o ciclo estral do cateto, aplicando a colpocitologia como método diagnóstico. As amostras da citologia vaginal foram coletadas em dez fêmeas adultas, durante três vezes na semana, por seis meses. Verificou-se que a duração média do ciclo estral para esta espécie foi de 28,45 ± 5,45 dias. Observou-se diferença estatística (pThe main objective of this work was to study the estrous cycle of collared peccary by vaginal cytology. Samples were collected in 10 adult females, three times a week, for six months. The estrous cycle period for this specie was 28.45 ± 5.45 days. We observed a significant difference (p<0.01 between the cell types in the same phase of the oestrous cycle. During the proestrus phase, the exfoliative cytology arrangement showed high frequency of intermediate and superficial cells. The estrus phase had elevated rates of superficial cells, when compared to the other types, and an absence of leukocytes. During this phase, the external genitalia were reddish, tumescent; and the cervical mucus was evident. In the metaestrus phase, we observed a decrease of superficial cells, as well as the highest indices of intermediate cells, an increase of leukocytes and the presence of metestrus and foam cells. In the diestrus phase, the intermediate cells increased and leukocytes decreased. In conclusion, the present study suggests that it is possible to differentiate the phase of estrous cycle by vaginal cytology.

  9. Evaluation of the long-term efficacy and safety of an imidacloprid 10%/flumethrin 4.5% polymer matrix collar (Seresto®) in dogs and cats naturally infested with fleas and/or ticks in multicentre clinical field studies in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The objective of these two GCP multicentre European clinical field studies was to evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of a new imidacloprid/flumethrin collar (Seresto®, Bayer AnimalHealth, Investigational Veterinary Product(IVP)) in dogs and cats naturally infested with fleas and/or ticks in comparison to a dimpylat collar ("Ungezieferband fuer Hunde/fuer Katzen", Beaphar, Control Product (CP)). Methods 232 (IVP) and 81 (CP) cats and 271(IVP) and 129 (CP) dogs were treated with either product according to label claims and formed the safety population. Flea and tick counts were conducted in monthly intervals for up to 8 months in the efficacy subpopulation consisting of 118 (IVP) + 47 (CP) cats and 197 (IVP) + 94 (CP) dogs. Efficacy was calculated as reduction of infestation rate within the same treatment group and statistically compared between the two treatment groups. Results Preventive efficacy against fleas in cats/dogs varied in the IVP group between 97.4%/94.1% and 100%/100% (overall mean: 98.3%/96.7%) throughout the 8 month period and in the CP group between 57.1%/28.2% and 96.1%/67.8% (overall mean: 79.3%/57.9%). Preventive efficacy against ticks in cats/dogs varied in the IVP group between 94.0%/91.2% and 100%/100% (overall mean: 98.4%/94.7%) throughout the 8 month period and in the CP group between 90.7%/79.9% and 100%/88.0% (overall mean: 96.9%/85.6%). The IVP group was statistically non-inferior to the CP group, and on various assessment days, statistical superiority was proven for flea and tick count reduction in dogs and cats. Both treatments proved to be safe in dogs and cats with mainly minor local observations at the application site. There was moreover, no incidence of any mechanical problem with the collar in dogs and cats during the entire study period. Conclusions The imidacloprid/flumethrin collar proved to reduce tick counts by at least 90% and flea counts by at least 95% for a period of at least 7-8 months in cats and dogs

  10. Evaluation of the long-term efficacy and safety of an imidacloprid 10%/flumethrin 4.5% polymer matrix collar (Seresto® in dogs and cats naturally infested with fleas and/or ticks in multicentre clinical field studies in Europe

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    Stanneck Dorothee

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of these two GCP multicentre European clinical field studies was to evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of a new imidacloprid/flumethrin collar (Seresto®, Bayer AnimalHealth, Investigational Veterinary Product(IVP in dogs and cats naturally infested with fleas and/or ticks in comparison to a dimpylat collar ("Ungezieferband fuer Hunde/fuer Katzen", Beaphar, Control Product (CP. Methods 232 (IVP and 81 (CP cats and 271(IVP and 129 (CP dogs were treated with either product according to label claims and formed the safety population. Flea and tick counts were conducted in monthly intervals for up to 8 months in the efficacy subpopulation consisting of 118 (IVP + 47 (CP cats and 197 (IVP + 94 (CP dogs. Efficacy was calculated as reduction of infestation rate within the same treatment group and statistically compared between the two treatment groups. Results Preventive efficacy against fleas in cats/dogs varied in the IVP group between 97.4%/94.1% and 100%/100% (overall mean: 98.3%/96.7% throughout the 8 month period and in the CP group between 57.1%/28.2% and 96.1%/67.8% (overall mean: 79.3%/57.9%. Preventive efficacy against ticks in cats/dogs varied in the IVP group between 94.0%/91.2% and 100%/100% (overall mean: 98.4%/94.7% throughout the 8 month period and in the CP group between 90.7%/79.9% and 100%/88.0% (overall mean: 96.9%/85.6%. The IVP group was statistically non-inferior to the CP group, and on various assessment days, statistical superiority was proven for flea and tick count reduction in dogs and cats. Both treatments proved to be safe in dogs and cats with mainly minor local observations at the application site. There was moreover, no incidence of any mechanical problem with the collar in dogs and cats during the entire study period. Conclusions The imidacloprid/flumethrin collar proved to reduce tick counts by at least 90% and flea counts by at least 95% for a period of at least 7-8 months in

  11. Evaluation of the long-term efficacy and safety of an imidacloprid 10%/flumethrin 4.5% polymer matrix collar (Seresto®) in dogs and cats naturally infested with fleas and/or ticks in multicentre clinical field studies in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanneck, Dorothee; Rass, Julia; Radeloff, Isabel; Kruedewagen, Eva; Le Sueur, Christophe; Hellmann, Klaus; Krieger, Klemens

    2012-03-31

    The objective of these two GCP multicentre European clinical field studies was to evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of a new imidacloprid/flumethrin collar (Seresto®, Bayer AnimalHealth, Investigational Veterinary Product(IVP)) in dogs and cats naturally infested with fleas and/or ticks in comparison to a dimpylat collar ("Ungezieferband fuer Hunde/fuer Katzen", Beaphar, Control Product (CP)). 232 (IVP) and 81 (CP) cats and 271(IVP) and 129 (CP) dogs were treated with either product according to label claims and formed the safety population. Flea and tick counts were conducted in monthly intervals for up to 8 months in the efficacy subpopulation consisting of 118 (IVP) + 47 (CP) cats and 197 (IVP) + 94 (CP) dogs. Efficacy was calculated as reduction of infestation rate within the same treatment group and statistically compared between the two treatment groups. Preventive efficacy against fleas in cats/dogs varied in the IVP group between 97.4%/94.1% and 100%/100% (overall mean: 98.3%/96.7%) throughout the 8 month period and in the CP group between 57.1%/28.2% and 96.1%/67.8% (overall mean: 79.3%/57.9%). Preventive efficacy against ticks in cats/dogs varied in the IVP group between 94.0%/91.2% and 100%/100% (overall mean: 98.4%/94.7%) throughout the 8 month period and in the CP group between 90.7%/79.9% and 100%/88.0% (overall mean: 96.9%/85.6%). The IVP group was statistically non-inferior to the CP group, and on various assessment days, statistical superiority was proven for flea and tick count reduction in dogs and cats. Both treatments proved to be safe in dogs and cats with mainly minor local observations at the application site. There was moreover, no incidence of any mechanical problem with the collar in dogs and cats during the entire study period. The imidacloprid/flumethrin collar proved to reduce tick counts by at least 90% and flea counts by at least 95% for a period of at least 7-8 months in cats and dogs under field conditions. Therefore, it

  12. Variscita y ámbar en el Neolítico gallego. Análisis arqueométrico del collar del túmulo 1 de Chousa Nova, Silleda (Pontevedra, España

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    Domínguez-Bella, Salvador

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The excavation of barrow 1 of Chousa Nova, Silleda, Pontevedra (NW Spain offered surprising results. This mound, in spite of experiencing a large number and types of anthropic damage, still preserved a great constructive complexity. Within its megalithic chamber, formed by 5 granite orthostats and a large roofing slab of, also in granite, a set of archaeological materials appeared. These were an axe, a chisel and a polishing stone, with a set of 35 beads, most of them of a green stone and the rest of an organic material, with an extremely high degree of alteration, inserted between them. The analytical techniques have been in all cases not-destructives (X-ray diffraction and fluorescence spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, optical microscopy and environmental electronic microscopy, with microanalysis. The archaeometric analysis results show a mineralogical nature of these materials, based in variscite and amber. The textural and compositional features are very homogeneous between each assemblage of beads. The importance of the alteration phenomena and dissolution of the archaeological objects are determined and quantified. This alteration is due to an intense chemical attack during the burial periods. The possible source areas of provenance for these materials are also discussed on the basis of geochemical data obtained in the analysis.

    La excavación del túmulo 1 de Chousa Nova, Silleda (Pontevedra, proporcionó unos resultados sorprendentes. Aunque muy deteriorado, por diferentes factores, conservaba evidencias de una gran complejidad constructiva. Dentro de su cámara megalítica apareció, junto con otros objetos pulidos, un conjunto de 35 cuentas dispuestas a modo de collar. Se han estudiado todas, unas de color verde y otras de carácter orgánico, intercaladas entre ellas. Los resultados del análisis arqueométrico mediante técnicas no-destructivas (difracción y fluorescencia de Rayos X, espectroscopía de infrarrojos

  13. Natal habitat imprinting counteracts the diversifying effects of phenotype-dependent dispersal in a spatially structured population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Carlos; Canal, David; Potti, Jaime

    2016-08-08

    Habitat selection may have profound evolutionary consequences, but they strongly depend on the underlying preference mechanism, including genetically-determined, natal habitat and phenotype-dependent preferences. It is known that different mechanisms may operate at the same time, yet their relative contribution to population differentiation remains largely unexplored empirically mainly because of the difficulty of finding suitable study systems. Here, we investigate the role of early experience and genetic background in determining the outcome of settlement by pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) breeding in two habitat patches between which dispersal and subsequent reproductive performance is influenced by phenotype (body size). For this, we conducted a cross-fostering experiment in a two-patch system: an oakwood and a conifer plantation separated by only 1 km. Experimental birds mostly returned to breed in the forest patch where they were raised, whether it was that of their genetic or their foster parents, indicating that decisions on where to settle are determined by individuals' experience in their natal site, rather than by their genetic background. Nevertheless, nearly a third (27.6 %) moved away from the rearing habitat and, as previously observed in unmanipulated individuals, dispersal between habitats was phenotype-dependent. Pied flycatchers breeding in the oak and the pine forests are differentiated by body size, and analyses of genetic variation at microsatellite loci now provide evidence of subtle genetic differentiation between the two populations. This suggests that phenotype-dependent dispersal may contribute to population structure despite the short distance and widespread exchange of birds between the study plots. Taken together, the current and previous findings that pied flycatchers do not always settle in the habitat to which they are best suited suggest that their strong tendency to return to the natal patch regardless of their body size

  14. White Collar Criminality: A Prediction Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    for their success. The common theme running through the above four scales I is conscientiousness and attitudes toward prosocial 3 activities. If one...8217thank you’ cannot adequately express my appreciation to all of these individuals, my gratitude is sincerely extended to them all. Through the...Correctional Institutions. It is simply not possible to * express the gratitude I hold and the appreciation I have i for Harriet. I would also like to

  15. Tene Me Quia Fugi (Slave Collar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasheim, Lorraine A.

    This mini-text is a series of Martial's epigrams on the slave. The epigrams deal with: slave torture, tenderness to a slave, the slave as a curiosity, flogging, the slave as property, a selling point, the slave as a person, sex and the slave, and slaves as gifts. The epigrams come with complete Latin-English vocabularies and reading notes. The…

  16. Les charpentes à entrait retroussé moisé : exemples orléanais des XVe et XVIe siècles Braced collar-beam roofs: examples from 15th and 16th century Orleans

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    Clément Alix

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available La ville d’Orléans possède un ensemble important et inédit de charpentes à pannes des XVe et XVIe s. présentant la particularité de posséder un entrait retroussé moisé. Attesté dès le premier quart du XVe siècle, ce procédé innovant, constitué de deux pièces jumelées venant enserrer les principaux éléments de la ferme, va largement se diffuser dans les édifices religieux mais surtout dans l’habitat domestique, de la maison polyvalente en pan-de-bois au riche hôtel particulier. Ce mode de construction, démontrant une parfaite maîtrise de la statique de la charpente dès sa conception en vue de renforcer la triangulation de la ferme, s’impose donc rapidement dans un contexte architectural local marqué par la rareté de l’emploi de structures à chevrons-formant-fermes. Ainsi, on le retrouve également dans les charpentes à enrayure (tourelle d’escalier, toiture en pavillon, abside. L’utilisation généralisée de la moise à Orléans, et de manière plus ponctuelle en val de Loire et dans certaines régions de France, amène aussi à s’interroger sur l’origine de ce procédé connu sous d’autres formes dans des charpentes dès les XIIe-XIIIe s.The town of Orleans possesses an important and unpublished collection of timber-framed roof structures of the 15th and 16th centuries, with a braced collar-beam. Known since the first quarter of the 15th century, this innovative process, involving two twinned pieces clasping the main elements of the frame, became widely spread in religious buildings but particularly in domestic housing, from the multipurpose timber-framed home to the elaborate town house. This method of construction, demonstrating a perfect mastery of the statics of a roof structure from its design with a view to reinforcing the triangulation of the truss, rapidly established itself in a local architectural context marked by the rare use of “chevrons-formant-fermes” (common rafters forming a

  17. Comparative Speed of Kill, Repellent (anti-feeding) and Acaricidal Efficacy of an Imidacloprid/Flumethrin Collar (Seresto®) and a Fipronil/(S)-Methoprene/Eprinomectin/Praziquantel Spot-on (Broadline®) against Ixodes ricinus (Linné, 1758) on Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourie, Josephus J; Horak, Ivan G; de Vos, Christa; Deuster, Katrin; Schunack, Bettina

    2015-08-01

    Speed of kill, repellent (anti-feeding) and acaricidal efficacy of an imidacloprid 10 % (w/w) /flumethrin 4.5 % (w/w) collar (Seresto(®), Bayer) and a spot-on formulation of fipronil 8.3 % (w/v) /(S)-methoprene 10 % (w/v) /eprinomectin 0.4 % (w/v) /praziquantel 8.3 % (w/v) (Broadline(®), Merial) against artificiallyinduced infestations with Ixodes ricinus on cats, were assessed in a parallel group design, randomised, controlled study. Twenty-four cats were included and randomly allocated to treatment groups or a non-treated control group. Starting on Day (D) 7 after treatment until D28, cats were each infested with 50 I. ricinus at weekly intervals. Ticks were counted in situ on the cats at 6, 12 and 24 h and upon removal 48 h after each infestation. Based on arithmetic means, Seresto(®) proved to be 100 % effective against adult I. ricinus at all assessment times (6, 12, 24 and 48 h after infestation) throughout the month-long study. Broadline(®) was 0 % to 16.7 % effective at 6 h, 26.8 % to 50.0 % effective at 12 h, while at 24 h after infestation efficacy peaked at 81.5 % on D15 declining to 31.5 % on D29. Based on the 48 h tick counts, the efficacy of Broadline(®) peaked at 100 % on D16 after treatment and decreased to 83.2 % by D30. The Seresto(®) collar provided significantly faster speed of kill and better persistent acaricidal effectiveness against Ixodes ricinus on cats compared to Broadline(®) spot-on. The additional repellent (anti-feeding) effect of Seresto(®) prevents parasites from taking a blood meal and thereby reduces the risk of vector-borne disease pathogen transmission.

  18. Efficacy of slow-release collar formulations of imidacloprid/flumethrin and deltamethrin and of spot-on formulations of fipronil/(s - methoprene, dinotefuran/pyriproxyfen/permethrin and (s –methoprene/amitraz/fipronil against Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Ctenocephalides felis felis on dogs

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    Horak Ivan G

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two studies evaluating the efficacy of an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar (Seresto®, Bayer Animal Health, IVP, a deltamethrin collar (Scalibor®, MSD, CP1, a fipronil/(s-methoprene spot-on (Frontline Combo®, Merial, CP2, a dinotefuran/pyriproxyfen/permethrin spot-on (Vectra 3D®, Ceva, CP3 and an amitraz/fipronil/(s-methoprene spot-on (Certifect®, Merial, CP4/CP5 against repeated infestations with Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Ctenocephalides felis felis on dogs were conducted over periods of 226 days and 71 days respectively. Methods The first study comprised 4 groups of treated dogs and one untreated control group, and the second 3 groups of treated dogs and one control group. Each group consisted of 8 dogs. All dogs were infested with ticks and fleas at regular intervals. Ticks were counted 6 h, 18 h or 48 h after infestations and fleas 24 h after infestations. Efficacies of the treatments were calculated by comparison with the untreated control groups using standard descriptive statistics. Results The protective 48 h tick efficacy was 97.8% to 100% for the IVP (226 days, 69.3% to 97.4% for CP1 (170 days, 99.6% to 43.4% for CP2 (35 days and 98% to 61.4% for CP3 (35 days. The protective 18 h tick efficacy was 98% to 99.6% for the IVP (71 days, 100% to 86.5% for CP4 (29 days, 100% to 72.8% for CP4 after re-treatment (35 days and 98.8% to 54.3% for CP5 (35 days. The protective 6 h tick efficacy was 85.6% at Day 7 and 90.1% to 97.1% from Day 14 onwards for the IVP (70 days, 92.3% to 70.7% for CP4 (35 days, 97.5% to 65.2% for CP4 after re-treatment (35 days and 95.1% to 51.8% for CP5 (35 days. The protective 24 h flea efficacy was 99.5/90.9% to 100% for the IVP (71/226 days, 66.7% to 83% for CP1 (170 days, 100% to 88.5% for CP2 (35 days, 100% to 73.3% for CP3 (35 days, 100% to 98.7% for CP4 (35 days, 100% to 87.5% for CP4 after re-treatment (35 days and 100% to 79.5% for

  19. STRESS SYNDROME IN COLLARED PECARYS (Tayassu tajacu SUBMITTED TO CAPTURE AND CONTAINMENT IN DIFFERENT HOURS OF THE MORNING AT MOSSORO-RN-BRAZIL SÍNDROME DO ESTRESSE EM CATETOS (Tayassu tajacu SUBMETIDOS À CAPTURA E CONTENÇÃO EM DIFERENTES HORÁRIOS DA MANHÃ EM MOSSORÓ - RN

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    Carlos Eduardo Vieira Dias

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available During the collared peccaries’ (Tayassu tajacu management, raised in captivity at Rio Grande do Norte’s Semi-arid, is common, in the hottest hours of the day, the animals’ death after clinical manifestations of myophaty by capture. The objective of this work was to study the stress syndrome in collared peccary, submitted to capture and containment in different hours of the morning. Thirty-five collared peccaries were used and divided in seven groups with five animals, they were evaluated to each one hour, to 6 a.m up to 1 p.m, generating seven intervals (treatments. For 35 days, in week intervals, clinical, hematologic, anatomopathologic exams, and physico-chemical of the meat were realized. There was significant increase (P<0,05 in the respiratory and cardiac frequencies, beyond the rectal temperature from the first up to the seventh treatment. Spleen petechiaes and heart ecchymosis had been observed in the necroscopic exam. At the microscopic exam, it was observed degeneration, necrosis, and retraction of heart and skeletal muscle fibers. At the physico-chemical, it was observed high indexes of water besides low pH in the meat. It was concluded that capture and containment, in the hottest hours of the morning and with the management observed, cause important clinical alterations, high death frequency and physical-chemical alterations in the meat. Durante prática de manejo de catetos (Tayassu tajacu, criados em cativeiro no semi-árido do Rio Grande do Norte, é comum, principalmente quando realizada nas horas mais quentes do dia, a ocorrência de óbito após manifestações clínicas de miopatia de captura. Este trabalho objetiva estudar a síndrome do estresse em catetos submetidos à captura e contenção em diferentes horários da manhã. Foram utilizados 35 catetos, separados em sete grupos de cinco indivíduos, que foram avaliados a cada intervalo de uma hora, das seis até as treze horas, gerando sete intervalos (tratamentos

  20. Avaliação de Passifloraceas, fungicidas e Trichoderma para o manejo da Podridão-do-colo do maracujazeiro, causada por Nectria haematococca Evaluation of Passifloraceas, fungicides and Trichoderma for passion fruit collar rot handling, caused by Nectria haematococca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Herman Fischer

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A baixa produtividade do maracujazeiro-amarelo é devida, muitas vezes, a problemas fitossanitários, sendo a Podridão-do-colo, causada por Nectria haematococca, um dos principais problemas na maioria dos Estados produtores do Brasil. O controle desta doença é basicamente preventivo, evitando a introdução do agente patogênico na área. Sendo assim, o presente trabalho teve como objetivos: a avaliar o comportamento do maracujazeiro-amarelo 'Afruvec', 'IAC 275' e 'Maguary', do tipo pé-franco, e 'Afruvec' enxertado em cinco espécies de Passiflora (P. alata, P. maliformis, P. morifolia, P. mucronata e P. suberosa, em pomar com histórico de Podridão-do-colo; e b avaliar a eficiência de produtos químicos (oxicloreto de cobre, procloraz e tiabendazol e biológicos (Trichoderma harzianum e Trichoderma sp. no controle da Podridão-do-colo em maracujazeiro-amarelo 'Afruvec', sob condições de campo. As espécies P. maliformis, P. suberosa e P. alata, empregadas como porta-enxerto, apresentaram maior resistência à Podridão-do-colo do maracujazeiro em relação às plantas não enxertadas. Os produtos químicos e biológicos, aplicados em intervalos mensais ou quinzenais no colo da planta (500 mL de calda, não foram eficientes no controle da doença.The low productivity of yellow passion fruit is due often to the phytosanitary problems, being the Collar rot caused by Nectria haematococca, one of the main problems in the majority of the producing States of Brazil. The disease control is basically preventive, avoiding the introduction of the pathogen in the area. So, the present work aimed at: a evaluating the behavior of ungrafted yellow passion fruit cultivars 'Afruvec', 'IAC 275' and 'Maguary' and 'Afruvec' passion fruit grafted on five Passiflora species (Passiflora alata, P. maliformis, P. morifolia, P. mucronata and P. suberosa in orchard where the disease is frequent; and b evaluating the efficiency of chemical (copper oxychloride

  1. Fitness consequences of northward dispersal as possible adaptation to climate change, using experimental translocation of a migratory passerine.

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    Claudia Burger

    Full Text Available Climate change leads to rapid, differential changes in phenology across trophic levels, often resulting in temporal mismatches between predators and their prey. If a species cannot easily adjust its timing, it can adapt by choosing a new breeding location with a later phenology of its prey. In this study, we experimentally investigated whether long-distance dispersal to northern breeding grounds with a later phenology could be a feasible process to restore the match between timing of breeding and peak food abundance and thus improve reproductive success. Here, we report the successful translocation of pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca to natural breeding sites 560 km to the Northeast. We expected translocated birds to have a fitness advantage with respect to environmental phenology, but to potentially pay costs through the lack of other locally adapted traits. Translocated individuals started egg laying 11 days earlier than northern control birds, which were translocated only within the northern site. The number of fledglings produced was somewhat lower in translocated birds, compared to northern controls, and fledglings were in lower body condition. Translocated individuals were performing not significantly different to control birds that remained at the original southern site. The lack of advantage of the translocated individuals most likely resulted from the exceptionally cold spring in which the experiment was carried out. Our results, however, suggest that pied flycatchers can successfully introduce their early breeding phenotype after dispersing to more northern areas, and thus that adaptation through dispersal is a viable option for populations that get locally maladapted through climate change.

  2. Corticosterone metabolites in blue tit and pied flycatcher droppings: Effects of brood size, ectoparasites and temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lobato, E.; Merino, S.; Moreno, J.; Morales, J.; Tomás, G.; Martínez-de la Puente, J.; Osorno, J.L.; Kuchar, A.; Möstl, E.

    2008-01-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis of birds induces the secretion of corticosterone (CORT) as a response to different ecological variables. In this study we tested experimentally if manipulations of brood size or ectoparasitism led to subsequent differences in the concentration of

  3. Does migration of hybrids contribute to post-zygotic isolation in flycatchers?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, Thor; Svedin, Nina; Forsman, Jukka T.; Hjernquist, Marten B.; Qvarnstrom, Anna; Hjernquist, Katherine A. Thuman; Traff, Johan; Klaassen, Marcel

    2007-01-01

    In the face of hybridization, species integrity can only be maintained through post-zygotic isolating barriers (PIBs). PIBs need not only be intrinsic (i.e. hybrid inviability and sterility caused by developmental incompatibilities), but also can be extrinsic due to the hybrid's intermediate

  4. Yolk hormones and sexual conflict over parental investment in the pied flycatcher

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laaksonen, T.; Adamczyk, F.C.A.; Ahola, M.; Möstl, E.; Lessells, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    Female birds might be able to manipulate the parental effort of their male partner through elevated transfer of hormones to the eggs, since these hormones affect many chick traits that males might use as cues for adjusting the level of their investment. We experimentally studied whether female pied

  5. Contaminants in Southwestern Willow Flycatcher Eggs and Prey Items, Arizona, 1998-2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This study documented concentrations and potential effects of organochlorine compounds and metals in addled eggs and potential prey of the endangered southwestern...

  6. Comparison of parasitism level in two sympatric passerines: The pied flycatcher and the great tit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bauchau, V.

    1998-01-01

    Parasites: have negative effects on their hosts and the latter evolve adaptations to reduce the burden of the parasites. This co-evolution profess may result in similar host species in similar habitats, parasitised by similar parasite species, having widely different levels of parasitism. Here I

  7. Biometria testicular, eletroejaculação e características seminais de caititus, Tayassu tajacu Linnaeus, 1758 (Mammalia, Artiodactyla, Tayassuidae mantidos em cativeiro na Amazônia Oriental Testicular biometry, electroejaculation and seminal features of captive collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu Linnaeus, 1758, Artiodactyla, Tayassuidae raised in the Eastern Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Reis Kahwage

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudos relacionados à obtenção e avaliação de sêmen de Tayassu tajacu são escassos, sendo necessárias pesquisas a respeito. Os objetivos do estudo foram avaliar a biometria testicular de caititus adultos cativos, testar a eficiência da eletroejaculação para obtenção de sêmen e avaliar suas características seminais ao longo do ano. Procedeu-se à eletroejaculação em oito animais adultos e as amostras de sêmen colhidas foram avaliadas quanto às características físicas e morfológicas. Os animais tinham testículo esquerdo com 3,8 ± 0,4 cm X 2,6 ± 0,3 cm e 2,3 ± 0,2 de consistência, e testículo direito com 3,8 ± 0,5 cm X 2,7 ± 0,3 cm e 2,3 ± 0,2 de consistência. A taxa de sucesso nas colheitas foi de 75,21%. O sêmen possuiu: volume 0,81 ± 0,86 mL, concentração 137,44 ± 153 x 106 sptz mL-1, pH 7,92 ± 0,73, motilidade 52,66 ± 28,79%, vigor 2,2 ± 0,8, integridade de membrana plasmática 55,84 ± 28,55%, defeitos maiores 22,87 ± 12,93%, defeitos menores 9,11 ± 5,88% e defeitos totais 31,52 ± 13,81%. Os animais apresentaram simetria testicular, a eletroejaculação se mostrou eficiente para a obtenção de ejaculados em caititus e as flutuações observadas na produção seminal não foram suficientes para caracterizá-los como animais de reprodução sazonal.Research development in semen collection and sperm evaluation of Tayassu tajacu are necessary. The aims of this research were to evaluate testicular biometry of captive collared peccaries, test electroejaculation for semen collection and evaluate seminal characteristics during the year. Eight animals were submitted to electroejaculation and semen samples were evaluated according their physical and morphological characteristics. Left testicles measured 3.8 ± 0.4 cm X 2.6 ± 0.3 cm and presented 2.3 ± 0.2 of consistence, while right testicles were 3.8 ± 0.5 cm X 2.7 ± 0.3 cm and presented 2.3 ± 0.2 of consistence. Success rate on semen collections

  8. Induction of murine NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin requires the CNC (cap 'n' collar) basic leucine zipper transcription factor Nrf2 (nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2): cross-interaction between AhR (aryl hydrocarbon receptor) and Nrf2 signal transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qiang; Kinneer, Krista; Bi, Yongyi; Chan, Jefferson Y; Kan, Yuet Wai

    2004-01-01

    TCDD (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo- p -dixoin) induces phase II drug-metabolizing enzyme NQO1 [NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase; EC 1.6.99.2; DT-diaphorase] in a wide range of mammalian tissues and cells. Here, we analysed the molecular pathway mediating NQO1 induction by TCDD in mouse hepatoma cells. Inhibition of protein synthesis with CHX (cycloheximide) completely blocks induction of NQO1 by TCDD as well as the basal expression and induction by phenolic antioxidant tBHQ (2-t-butylbenzene-1,4-diol), implicating a labile factor in NQO1 mRNA expression. The inhibition is both time- and concentration-dependent, requires inhibition of protein synthesis, and occurs at a transcriptional level. Inhibition of NQO1 transcription by CHX correlates with a rapid reduction of the CNC bZip (cap 'n' collar basic leucine zipper) transcription factor Nrf2 (nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2) through the 26 S proteasome pathway. Moreover, blocking Nrf2 degradation with proteasome inhibitor MG132 increases the amount of Nrf2 and superinduces NQO1 in the presence of TCDD or tBHQ. Finally, genetic experiments using AhR (aryl hydrocarbon receptor)-, Arnt (aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator)- or Nrf2-deficient cells reveal that, while induction of NQO1 by TCDD depends on the presence of AhR and Arnt, the basal and inducible expression of NQO1 by either TCDD or tBHQ requires functional Nrf2. The findings demonstrate a novel role of Nrf2 in the induction of NQO1 by TCDD and provide new insights into the mechanism by which Nrf2 regulates the induction of phase II enzymes by both phenolic antioxidants and AhR ligands.

  9. Paternidad extra pareja y variación genética individual: implicaciones en la eficacia biológica del papamoscas cerrojillo, Ficedula hypoleuca

    OpenAIRE

    Canal, David

    2012-01-01

    Las técnicas moleculares han revolucionado la forma de entender la ecología animal en general, y la de aves en particular. Su aplicación reveló la existencia de paternidad extra-pareja (EPP; de sus siglas en inglés) en aves, un descubrimiento considerado como el más importante en el campo de los sistemas de emparejamiento aviar de las últimas décadas. Hoy, se sabe que en más del 70% de las especies de aves estudiadas existe paternidad extra pareja (poligamia genética) pero los mecanismos que ...

  10. You mob my owl, I'll mob yours: birds play tit-for-tat game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krama, Tatjana; Vrublevska, Jolanta; Freeberg, Todd M.; Kullberg, Cecilia; Rantala, Markus J.; Krams, Indrikis

    2012-01-01

    Reciprocity is fundamental to cooperative behaviour and has been verified in theoretical models. However, there is still limited experimental evidence for reciprocity in non-primate species. Our results more decisively clarify that reciprocity with a tit-for-tat enforcement strategy can occur among breeding pied flycatchers Ficedula hypoleuca separate from considerations of byproduct mutualism. Breeding pairs living in close proximity (20–24 m) did exhibit byproduct mutualism and always assisted in mobbing regardless of their neighbours' prior actions. However, breeding pairs with distant neighbours (69–84 m) either assisted or refused to assist in mobbing a predatory owl based on whether or not the distant pair had previously helped them in their own nest defense against the predator. Clearly, these birds are aware of their specific spatial security context, remember their neighbours' prior behaviour, and choose a situation-specific strategic course of action, which could promote their longer-term security, a capacity previously thought unique to primates. PMID:23150772

  11. The increased risk of predation enhances cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krams, Indrikis; Bērziņš, Arnis; Krama, Tatjana; Wheatcroft, David; Igaune, Kristīne; Rantala, Markus J.

    2010-01-01

    Theory predicts that animals in adverse conditions can decrease individual risks and increase long-term benefits by cooperating with neighbours. However, some empirical studies suggest that animals often focus on short-term benefits, which can reduce the likelihood that they will cooperate with others. In this experimental study, we tested between these two alternatives by evaluating whether increased predation risk (as a correlate of environmental adversity) enhances or diminishes the occurrence of cooperation in mobbing, a common anti-predator behaviour, among breeding pied flycatchers Ficedula hypoleuca. We tested whether birds would join their mobbing neighbours more often and harass a stuffed predator placed near their neighbours' nests more intensely in areas with a higher perceived risk of predation. Our results show that birds attended mobs initiated by their neighbours more often, approached the stuffed predator significantly more closely, and mobbed it at a higher intensity in areas where the perceived risk of predation was experimentally increased. In such high-risk areas, birds also were more often involved in between-pair cooperation. This study demonstrates the positive impact of predation risk on cooperation in breeding songbirds, which might help in explaining the emergence and evolution of cooperation. PMID:19846454

  12. The excuse principle can maintain cooperation through forgivable defection in the Prisoner's Dilemma game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krams, Indrikis; Kokko, Hanna; Vrublevska, Jolanta; Āboliņš-Ābols, Mikus; Krama, Tatjana; Rantala, Markus J.

    2013-01-01

    Reciprocal altruism describes a situation in which an organism acts in a manner that temporarily reduces its fitness while increasing another organism's fitness, but there is an ultimate fitness benefit based on an expectation that the other organism will act in a similar manner at a later time. It creates the obvious dilemma in which there is always a short-term benefit to cheating, therefore cooperating individuals must avoid being exploited by non-cooperating cheaters. This is achieved by following various decision rules, usually variants of the tit-for-tat (TFT) strategy. The strength of TFT, however, is also its weakness—mistakes in implementation or interpretation of moves, or the inability to cooperate, lead to a permanent breakdown in cooperation. We show that pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) use a TFT with an embedded ‘excuse principle’ to forgive the neighbours that were perceived as unable to cooperate during mobbing of predators. The excuse principle dramatically increases the stability of TFT-like behavioural strategies within the Prisoner's Dilemma game. PMID:23864603

  13. No evidence for pre-copulatory sexual selection on sperm length in a passerine bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifjeld, Jan T; Laskemoen, Terje; Kleven, Oddmund; Pedersen, A Tiril M; Lampe, Helene M; Rudolfsen, Geir; Schmoll, Tim; Slagsvold, Tore

    2012-01-01

    There is growing evidence that post-copulatory sexual selection, mediated by sperm competition, influences the evolution of sperm phenotypes. Evidence for pre-copulatory sexual selection effects on sperm traits, on the other hand, is rather scarce. A recent paper on the pied flycatcher, Ficedula hypoleuca, reported phenotypic associations between sperm length and two sexually selected male traits, i.e. plumage colour and arrival date, thus invoking pre-copulatory sexual selection for longer sperm. We were unable to replicate these associations with a larger data set from the same and two additional study populations; sperm length was not significantly related to either male plumage colour or arrival date. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in sperm length between populations despite marked differences in male plumage colour. We also found some evidence against the previously held assumption of longer sperm being qualitatively superior; longer sperm swam at the same speed as shorter sperm, but were less able to maintain speed over time. We argue that both empirical evidence and theoretical considerations suggest that the evolution of sperm morphology is not primarily associated with pre-copulatory sexual selection on male secondary sexual traits in this or other passerine bird species. The relatively large between-male variation in sperm length in this species is probably due to relaxed post-copulatory sexual selection.

  14. Mate choice and imprinting in birds studied by cross-fostering in the wild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slagsvold, Tore; Hansen, Bo T; Johannessen, Lars E; Lifjeld, Jan T

    2002-07-22

    Sexual-selection theories generally assume that mating preferences are heritable traits. However, there is substantial evidence that the rearing environment may be important for the development of mating preferences, indicating that they may be learnt, or modified by experience. The relative importance of such sexual imprinting across species remains largely unexplored. Here, we report results of a large-scale cross-fostering experiment in the wild in which nestling birds were raised by parents of a different species. We show that resulting sexual imprinting may have a negative effect on pairing success in one species (the great tit, Parus major), but not in two other species (the blue tit, P. caeruleus and the pied flycatcher, Ficedula hypoleuca). A remarkable variation thus seems to exist, even between species that are congeneric and have similar breeding ecologies. The cross-fostering resulted in heterospecific pairings between the two tit species (female blue tit breeding with male great tit), which has never, to our knowledge, been previously documented. However, the chicks fledging from these nests were all blue tit.

  15. Avifaunal diversity and bird community responses to man-made habitats in St. Coombs Tea Estate, Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Dananjaya Kottawa-Arachchi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A survey on birds was conducted at St. Coombs Tea Estate, Talawakelle, Sri Lanka with the objective of assessing the avifaunal diversity of a given tea plantation ecosystem. Bird populations were sampled in man-made habitats such as home garden, wetland, tea plantation, Eucalyptus plantation and small scale reservoir. Hundred-and-twenty counts were made for each habitat and in addition, activities of birds, feeding habits and food recourses were also observed. A total of 87 species, including 11 endemic and 11 migrant species of birds, was recorded, which included one globally threatened species, Kashmir Flycatcher Ficedula subrubra and 16 nationally threatened species. A majority of the bird species were observed in home gardens (75%, followed by reservoirs (57%, wetlands (48%, tea plantations (43% and in Eucalyptus plantations (23%. Home gardens support bird diversity while the species richness of endemic bird species increases thereby enabling these findings to be used as guidelines in long term conservational practices. Several conservation measures such as increasing plant diversity, introduction of shade trees and prevention of fire are recommended to conserve and enhance avifaunal diversity in tea plantations.

  16. First report of Anthracnose/collar rot caused by Colletotrichum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During the month of March 2011, the incidence of anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum dematium on statice grown as ornamental plants at Ayub Agricultural Research Institute Faisalabad, Pakistan, was recorded. The characteristic symptoms were first, brownish spots on leaves and branches, and then drying of branches ...

  17. 75 FR 54912 - Drill Pipe and Drill Collars From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ... green tubes suitable for drill pipe), without regard to the specific chemistry of the steel (i.e... specified in II (C) of the Commission's Handbook on Electronic Filing Procedures, 67 FR 68168, 68173...

  18. Modelling Occupational Choice in Blue-Collar Labor Markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Mary L.; Leppel, Karen

    1994-01-01

    Presents rational, adaptive, and naive expectations models of the occupational choice of students in vocational and technical schools, using regression techniques. No single model outperformed the other two. Students were responsive to opportunity cost but not necessarily to level of demand. Student choice appears to be influenced by parental…

  19. Blue Collar & Beyond: Resumes for Skilled Trades & Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Yana

    This book, which is designed for individuals in skilled trades and service occupations, contains 132 sample resumes for occupations in the following occupational categories: automotive and heavy equipment; construction and maintenance; customer service; hotel, restaurant, and food service; office; trades; warehouse, manufacturing, and electronics;…

  20. Physiological studies of Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc. causing collar rot of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MUTHUKUMAR

    2013-12-04

    Dec 4, 2013 ... mycelial dry weight which was followed by exposing the pathogen to pH 6.0. Among the ... tions are known in many fungal pathogens and as such ..... Soil texture, root lesion nematodes and yield of peppermint (Mentha piperita). J. Herbs. Spices Med. Plants 6: 1-8. Singh AK, Srivastava RK, Kumar S (1999).