WorldWideScience

Sample records for collagen hydrolysate protects

  1. Amino acid composition and functional properties of giant red sea cucumber ( Parastichopus californicus) collagen hydrolysates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zunying; Su, Yicheng; Zeng, Mingyong

    2011-03-01

    Giant red sea cucumber ( Parastichopus californicus) is an under-utilized species due to its high tendency to autolysis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the functional properties of collagen hydrolysates from this species. The degree of hydrolysis (DH), amino acid composition, SDS-PAGE, emulsion activity index (EAI), emulsion stability index (ESI), foam expansion (FE), and foam stability (FS) of hydrolysates were investigated. The effects of pH on the EAI, ESI FE and FS of hydrolysates were also investigated. The results indicated that the β and α 1 chains of the collagen were effectively hydrolyzed by trypsin at 50°c with an Enzyme/Substrate (E/S) ration of 1:20 (w:w). The DH of collagen was up to 17.3% after 3 h hydrolysis with trypsin. The hydrolysates had a molecular weight distribution of 1.1-17 kDa, and were abundant in glycine (Gly), proline (Pro), glutamic acid (Glu), alanine (Ala) and hydroxyproline (Hyp) residues. The hydrolysates were fractionated into three fractions ( 10 kDa), and the fraction of 3-10 kDa exhibited a higher EAI value than the fraction of > 10 kDa ( P 10 kDa had higher FE and FS values than other fractions ( P 10 kDa showed higher FE value, respectively. They are hoped to be utilized as functional ingredients in food and nutraceutical industries.

  2. Hydrolysates of Fish Skin Collagen: An Opportunity for Valorizing Fish Industry Byproducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, María; Vázquez, José Antonio; Pérez-Martín, Ricardo I; Sotelo, Carmen G

    2017-05-05

    During fish processing operations, such as skinning and filleting, the removal of collagen-containing materials can account for up to 30% of the total fish byproducts. Collagen is the main structural protein in skin, representing up to 70% of dry weight depending on the species, age and season. It has a wide range of applications including cosmetic, pharmaceutical, food industry, and medical. In the present work, collagen was obtained by pepsin extraction from the skin of two species of teleost and two species of chondrychtyes with yields varying between 14.16% and 61.17%. The storage conditions of the skins appear to influence these collagen extractions yields. Pepsin soluble collagen (PSC) was enzymatically hydrolyzed and the resultant hydrolysates were ultrafiltrated and characterized. Electrophoretic patterns showed the typical composition of type I collagen, with denaturation temperatures ranged between 23 °C and 33 °C. In terms of antioxidant capacity, results revealed significant intraspecific differences between hydrolysates, retentate, and permeate fractions when using β -Carotene and DPPH methods and also showed interspecies differences between those fractions when using DPPH and ABTS methods. Under controlled conditions, PSC hydrolysates from Prionace glauca , Scyliorhinus canicula , Xiphias gladius, and Thunnus albacares provide a valuable source of peptides with antioxidant capacities constituting a feasible way to efficiently upgrade fish skin biomass.

  3. Bio-mimetic mineralization potential of collagen hydrolysate obtained from chromium tanned leather waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Pradipta; Madhu, S.; Chandra Babu, N.K.; Shanthi, C.

    2015-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) ceramics serve as an alternative to autogenous-free bone grafting by virtue of their excellent biocompatibility. However, chemically synthesized HA lacks the strong load-bearing capacity as required by bone. The bio-mimetic growth of HA crystals on collagen surface provides a feasible solution for synthesizing bone substitutes with the desired properties. This study deals with the utilization of the collagen hydrolysate recovered from leather waste as a substrate for promoting HA crystal growth. Bio-mimetic growth of HA was induced by subjecting the hydrolysate to various mineralization conditions. Parameters that would have a direct effect on crystal growth were varied to determine the optimal conditions necessary. Maximum mineralization was achieved with a combination of 10 mM of CaCl 2 , 5 mM of Na 2 HPO 4 , 100 mM of NaCl and 0.575% glutaraldehyde at a pH of 7.4. The metal–protein interactions leading to formation of HA were identified through Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. The crystal dimensions were determined to be in the nanoscale range by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The size and crystallinity of bio-mimetically grown HA indicate that hydrolysate from leather waste can be used as an ideal alternative substrate for bone growth. - Highlights: • Collagen hydrolysate, extracted from leather industry waste is subjected to biomineralization. • Optimal conditions required for HA growth are identified. • FTIR studies reveal higher Ca−COO − and low C−N stretch with higher HA formation. • AFM and SEM studies reveal nanometer ranged HA crystals

  4. Improvement of skin condition by oral administration of collagen hydrolysates in chronologically aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenbin; Wang, Qing; Wang, Lin; Xu, Weidong; He, Yuanqing; Li, Yunliang; He, Song; Ma, Haile

    2017-07-01

    Collagen hydrolysates (CHs) have been demonstrated to have positive effects on skin photoaging by topical application or oral ingestion. However, there has been little research on their influence on skin chronological aging. In this study, 9-month-old female ICR mice were given normal AIN-93M diets containing CHs (2.5, 5 and 10% w/w) from Nile tilapia scale. After 6 months, the collagen content and antioxidant enzyme (superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase) activities increased significantly (P skin did not change (P > 0.05). The color, luster and quantity of hair were obviously ameliorated. Moreover, the structure of epidermis and dermis, the density and distribution of collagen fibers and the ratio of type I to type III collagen were improved in a dose-dependent manner as shown by histochemical staining. Oral ingestion of CHs increased the collagen content and antioxidant enzyme activities and improved the appearance and structure of skin. These results suggest the potential of CHs as an anti-skin-aging ingredient in nutraceuticals or functional foods. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Use of collagen hydrolysate as a complex nitrogen source for the synthesis of penicillin by Penicillium chrysogenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhartsberger, S; Lafferty, R M; Korneti, L

    1993-09-01

    Optimal conditions for both biomass formation and penicillin synthesis by a strain of Penicillium chrysogenum were determined when using a collagen-derived nitrogen source. Preliminary investigations were carried out in shaken flask cultures employing a planned experimental program termed the Graeco-Latin square technique (Auden et al., 1967). It was initially determined that up to 30% of a conventional complex nitrogen source such as cottonseed meal could be replaced by the collagen-derived nitrogen source without decreasing the productivity with respect to the penicillin yield. In the pilot scale experiments using a 30 l stirred tank type of bioreactor, higher penicillin yields were obtained when 70% of the conventional complex nitrogen source in the form of cottonseed meal was replaced by the collagen hydrolysate. Furthermore, the maximum rate of penicillin synthesis continued for over a longer period when using collagen hydrolysate as a complex nitrogen source. Penicillin synthesis rates were determined using a linear regression.

  6. Effect of collagen hydrolysate in articular pain: a 6-month randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruyère, O; Zegels, B; Leonori, L; Rabenda, V; Janssen, A; Bourges, C; Reginster, J-Y

    2012-06-01

    Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of a food supplement made of collagen hydrolysate 1200 mg/day versus placebo during 6 months, in subjects with joint pain at the lower or upper limbs or at the lumbar spine. Comparative double-blind randomized multicenter study in parallel groups. 200 patients of both genders of at least 50 years old with joint pain assessed as ≥30 mm on a visual analogical scale (VAS). Collagen hydrolysate 1200 mg/day or placebo during 6 months. Comparison of the percentage of clinical responder between the active collagen hydrolysate group and the placebo group after 6 months of study. A responder subject was defined as a subject experiencing a clinically significant improvement (i.e. by 20% or more) in the most painful joint using the VAS score. All analyses were performed using an intent-to-treat procedure. At 6 months, the proportion of clinical responders to the treatment, according to VAS scores, was significantly higher in the collagen hydrolysate (CH) group 51.6%, compared to the placebo group 36.5% (pvs. 39.6%, p=0.53). No significant difference in terms of security and tolerability was observed between the two groups. This study suggests that collagen hydrolysate 1200 mg/day could increase the number of clinical responders (i.e. improvement of at least 20% on the VAS) compared to placebo. More studies are needed to confirm the clinical interest of this food supplement. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Preparation and functional evaluation of collagen oligopeptide-rich hydrolysate from fish skin with the serine collagenolytic protease from Pseudoalteromonas sp. SM9913.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiu-Lan; Peng, Ming; Li, Jing; Tang, Bai-Lu; Shao, Xuan; Zhao, Fang; Liu, Chang; Zhang, Xi-Ying; Li, Ping-Yi; Shi, Mei; Zhang, Yu-Zhong; Song, Xiao-Yan

    2017-11-16

    Although several serine collagenolytic proteases from bacteria were reported, none has been used to prepare bioactive collagen peptides. MCP-01 is the most abundant extracellular protease of deep-sea Pseudoalteromonas sp. SM9913 and is a serine collagenolytic protease with high efficiency on fish collagen hydrolysis. Here, we set up a pilot scale process to ferment SM9913 for extracellular protease production. With SM9913 extracellular protease as a tool, a process to prepare collagen oligopeptide-rich hydrolysate from codfish skin was set up, which was further scaled up to pilot (100 L) and plant (2000 L) levels with yields >66%. The hydrolysates from laboratory-, pilot- and plant-scales had quite similar quality, containing ~95% peptides with molecular weights lower than 3000 Da and approximately 60% lower than 1000 Da, in which collagen oilgopeptides account for approximately 95%. Bioactivity analyses showed that the hydrolysate had moisture-retention ability, antioxidant activity, and promoting effect on cell viability of human dermal fibroblasts. Safety evaluation showed that the hydrolysate was nontoxic and nonirritating to skin. Therefore, SM9913 extracellular protease is a good enzyme to prepare bioactive oligopeptides from fish skin. The results also suggest that the collagen oligopeptides-rich hydrolysate may have potentials in biomedical, functional food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries.

  8. POTENTIAL USE OF COLLAGEN HYDROLYSATES FROM CHAMOIS LEATHER WASTE AS INGREDIENT IN LEATHER FINISHING FORMULATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POPA Emil

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is the obtaining of value-added products from the dust resulted from chamois leather buffering, a solid waste that raises serious disposal problems, due to its physical state and complex chemical composition. Starting from leather waste, an alkaline hydrolysis was performed followed by the chemical modification of the polypeptyde hydrolysate by polycondensation with dispersions of copolymers of vinyl acetate with acrylic esters and reticulation with glutaraldehyde in order to improve its hydrophobicity. The resulted product can be used/was tested as an ingredient in leather finishing formulations, as binder or carrier agent. In this paper, new finishing mixtures were prepared using pigments and obtained polypeptide hydrolysates as a substitute for casein in pigment pastes. By this method, there were obtained two experimental variants of brown and black pigment pastes which were compared to the pigment pastes with casein binder. Natural grain Box bovine leather samples coated with such admixtures were subjected to physico-mechanical resistance tests, in accordance with the standardized methods. Specific tests carried on finished leather – tensile strength, tear resistance, resistance to grain cracking, dry and wet rubbing fastness, flexural fatigue strength test, etc – showed values of this characteristics comparable to those obtained with casein conventional finishing.

  9. Protective effect of gelatin and gelatin hydrolysate from salmon skin on UV irradiation-induced photoaging of mice skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tiejun; Hou, Hu; Lu, Jiaohan; Zhang, Kai; Li, Bafang

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of gelatin (SG) isolated from salmon skin and its hydrolysate (SGH) on photoaging skin, and the mechanism responsible for anti-photoaging. The average molecular weights of SG and SGH were 65 kDa and 873 Da, respectively. The amino acid compositions of SG and SGH were similar. Both of them were abundant in hydrophobic amino acids. Twenty-five peptides were identified from SGH. SG and SGH could improve UV irradiation-induced pathological changes of macroscopical tissue texture and skin morphology. Hydroxyproline content is an indicator of matrix collagen content, SG and SGH could inhibit the decrease of hydroxyproline content in photoaging skin in a dose dependent manner. In addition, SG and SGH could alleviate UV irradiation-induced oxidative damages to skin by increasing the activities of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and catalase (CAT), increasing the content of glutathione (GSH) and decreasing the content of malonaldehyde (MDA). Moreover, SG and SGH could enhance immune regulation system by increasing the thymus index. Thus, the anti-photoaging mechanisms of SG and SGH were by inhibiting the depletion of antioxidant defense components, involving in the synthesis of collagen and enhancing the function of immune system. Besides, SGH showed a better result in protecting skin from photoaging than SG.

  10. Protective Effects of LSGYGP from Fish Skin Gelatin Hydrolysates on UVB-Induced MEFs by Regulation of Oxidative Stress and Matrix Metalloproteinase Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qingyu; Liu, Qiuming; Yuan, Ling; Zhuang, Yongliang

    2018-03-28

    A previous study has shown that tilapia fish skin gelatin hydrolysates inhibited photoaging in vivo, and that, Leu-Ser-Gly-Tyr-Gly-Pro (LSGYGP) identified in the hydrolysate had a high hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. In this study, activities of LSGYGP were further evaluated using ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). UVB irradiation significantly increased the intercellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) activities and decreased the content of collagen in MEFs. LSGYGP reduced the intercellular ROS generation in UVB-induced MEFs. Meanwhile, the decrease of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and the increase of malondiaidehyde (MDA) content were inhibited by LSGYGP. LSGYGP reduced MMP-1 and MMP-9 activities in a dose-dependent manner. Molecular docking simulation indicated that LSGYGP inhibited MMPs activities by docking the active sites of MMP-1 and MMP-9. Furthermore, LSGYGP also affected the intercellular phosphorylation of UVB-induced the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. LSGYGP could protect collagen synthesis in MEFs under UVB irradiation by inhibiting oxidative stress and regulating MMPs activities.

  11. Protective Effects of LSGYGP from Fish Skin Gelatin Hydrolysates on UVB-Induced MEFs by Regulation of Oxidative Stress and Matrix Metalloproteinase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingyu Ma

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A previous study has shown that tilapia fish skin gelatin hydrolysates inhibited photoaging in vivo, and that, Leu-Ser-Gly-Tyr-Gly-Pro (LSGYGP identified in the hydrolysate had a high hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. In this study, activities of LSGYGP were further evaluated using ultraviolet B (UVB-induced mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs. UVB irradiation significantly increased the intercellular reactive oxygen species (ROS production and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs activities and decreased the content of collagen in MEFs. LSGYGP reduced the intercellular ROS generation in UVB-induced MEFs. Meanwhile, the decrease of superoxide dismutase (SOD activity and the increase of malondiaidehyde (MDA content were inhibited by LSGYGP. LSGYGP reduced MMP-1 and MMP-9 activities in a dose-dependent manner. Molecular docking simulation indicated that LSGYGP inhibited MMPs activities by docking the active sites of MMP-1 and MMP-9. Furthermore, LSGYGP also affected the intercellular phosphorylation of UVB-induced the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. LSGYGP could protect collagen synthesis in MEFs under UVB irradiation by inhibiting oxidative stress and regulating MMPs activities.

  12. The scavenging of free radical and oxygen species activities and hydration capacity of collagen hydrolysates from walleye pollock ( Theragra chalcogramma) skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Yongliang; Li, Bafang; Zhao, Xue

    2009-06-01

    Fish skin collagen hydrolysates (FSCH) were prepared from walleye pollock ( Theragra chalcogramma) using a mixture of enzymes, namely trypsin and flavourzyme. The degree of hydrolysis of the skin collagen was 27.3%. FSCH was mainly composed of low-molecular-weight peptides and the relative proportion of <1000Da fraction was 70.6%. Free radical and oxygen species scavenging activities of FSCH were investigated in four model systems, including diphenylpicrylhy-drazyl radical (DPPH), superoxide anion radical, hydroxyl radical and hydrogen peroxide model, and compared with that of a native antioxidant, reduced glutathione (GSH). FSCH was also evaluated by water-absorbing and water-holding capacity. The results showed that FSCH was able to scavenge free radical and oxygen species significantly and to enhance water-absorbing and water-holding capacity remarkably. Therefore, FSCH may have potential applications in the medicine and food industries.

  13. Antioxidative Peptides Derived from Enzyme Hydrolysis of Bone Collagen after Microwave Assisted Acid Pre-Treatment and Nitrogen Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Sun

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the preparation method of antioxidant peptides by enzymatic hydrolysis of bone collagen after microwave assisted acid pre-treatment and nitrogen protection. Phosphoric acid showed the highest ability of hydrolysis among the four other acids tested (hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid and/or citric acid. The highest degree of hydrolysis (DH was 9.5% using 4 mol/L phosphoric acid with a ratio of 1:6 under a microwave intensity of 510 W for 240 s. Neutral proteinase gave higher DH among the four protease tested (Acid protease, neutral protease, Alcalase and papain, with an optimum condition of: (1 ratio of enzyme and substrate, 4760 U/g; (2 concentration of substrate, 4%; (3 reaction temperature, 55 °C and (4 pH 7.0. At 4 h, DH increased significantly (P < 0.01 under nitrogen protection compared with normal microwave assisted acid pre-treatment hydrolysis conditions. The antioxidant ability of the hydrolysate increased and reached its maximum value at 3 h; however DH decreased dramatically after 3 h. Microwave assisted acid pre-treatment and nitrogen protection could be a quick preparatory method for hydrolyzing bone collagen.

  14. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies; Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to collagen hydrolysate and maintenance of joints pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following an application from Gelita AG, submitted via the Competent Authority of Germany, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to collagen hydrolysate and maintenance of joint health...... hydrolysate is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect is “maintenance of joint health”. The target population as proposed by the applicant is physically active people. The Panel considers that the maintenance of joints is a beneficial physiological effect. The applicant provided one narrative review...... was not controlled and no scientific conclusions could be drawn from these studies for the substantiation of the claimed effect. One trial in 147 active student athletes evaluated a total of 15 parameters related to joint pain/discomfort. There were no significant differences between groups for any endpoint when...

  15. Type I collagen gel protects murine fibrosarcoma L929 cells from TNFα-induced cell death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hong-Ju; He, Wen-Qi; Chen, Ling; Liu, Wei-Wei; Xu, Qian; Xia, Ming-Yu; Hayashi, Toshihiko; Fujisaki, Hitomi; Hattori, Shunji; Tashiro, Shin-ichi; Onodera, Satoshi; Ikejima, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Murine fibrosarcoma L929 cells have been used to test efficacy of proinflammatory cytokine TNFα. In the present study, we reported on protective effect of type I collagen gel used as L929 cell culture. L929 cell grew and proliferated well on collagen gel. However, the L929 cells exhibited cobblestone-like morphology which was much different from the spread fusiform shape when cultured on conventional cell dishes as well as the cells tended to aggregate. On conventional cell culture dishes, the cells treated with TNFα became round in shape and eventually died in a necroptotic manner. The cells cultured on collagen gel, however, were completely unaffected. TNFα treatment was reported to induce autophagy in L929 cells on the plastic dish, and therefore we investigated the effect of collagen gel on induction of autophagy. The results indicated that autophagy induced by TNFα treatment was much reduced when the cells were cultured on collagen gel. In conclusion, type I collagen gel protected L929 cell from TNFα-induced cell death. - Highlights: • Collagen gel culture changed the morphology of L929 cells. • L929 cell cultured on collagen gel were resistant to TNFα-induced cell death. • Collagen gel culture inhibited TNFα-induced autophagy in L929 cells

  16. Type I collagen gel protects murine fibrosarcoma L929 cells from TNFα-induced cell death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hong-Ju; He, Wen-Qi; Chen, Ling; Liu, Wei-Wei; Xu, Qian; Xia, Ming-Yu; Hayashi, Toshihiko [China-Japan Research Institute of Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang 110016 (China); Fujisaki, Hitomi; Hattori, Shunji [Nippi Research Institute of Biomatrix, Toride, Ibaraki 302-0017 (Japan); Tashiro, Shin-ichi [Institute for Clinical and Biomedical Sciences, Kyoto 603-8072 (Japan); Onodera, Satoshi [Department of Clinical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Showa Pharmaceutical University, Tokyo 194-8543 (Japan); Ikejima, Takashi, E-mail: ikejimat@vip.sina.com [China-Japan Research Institute of Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2015-02-20

    Murine fibrosarcoma L929 cells have been used to test efficacy of proinflammatory cytokine TNFα. In the present study, we reported on protective effect of type I collagen gel used as L929 cell culture. L929 cell grew and proliferated well on collagen gel. However, the L929 cells exhibited cobblestone-like morphology which was much different from the spread fusiform shape when cultured on conventional cell dishes as well as the cells tended to aggregate. On conventional cell culture dishes, the cells treated with TNFα became round in shape and eventually died in a necroptotic manner. The cells cultured on collagen gel, however, were completely unaffected. TNFα treatment was reported to induce autophagy in L929 cells on the plastic dish, and therefore we investigated the effect of collagen gel on induction of autophagy. The results indicated that autophagy induced by TNFα treatment was much reduced when the cells were cultured on collagen gel. In conclusion, type I collagen gel protected L929 cell from TNFα-induced cell death. - Highlights: • Collagen gel culture changed the morphology of L929 cells. • L929 cell cultured on collagen gel were resistant to TNFα-induced cell death. • Collagen gel culture inhibited TNFα-induced autophagy in L929 cells.

  17. Protective effects against H2O2-induced damage by enzymatic hydrolysates of an edible brown seaweed, sea tangle (Laminaria japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Pyo-Jam; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Lee, Seung-Jae; Park, Sun-Young; Kang, Dong-Soo; Jung, Bok-Mi; Kim, Kui-Shik; Je, Jae-Young; Ahn, Chang-Bum

    2009-02-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysates of Laminaria japonica were evaluated for antioxidative activities using hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and protective effects against H(2)O(2)-induced DNA and cell damage. In addition, activities of antioxidative enzymes, including catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione S-transferase, of the enzymatic hydrolysates from L. japonica were also estimated. L. japonica was first enzymatically hydrolyzed by seven carbohydrases (Dextrozyme, AMG, Promozyme, Maltogenase, Termamyl, Viscozyme, and Celluclast [all from Novo Co., Novozyme Nordisk, Bagsvaerd, Denmark]) and five proteinases (Flavourzyme, Neutrase, Protamex, Alcalase [all from Novo Co.], and pancreatic trypsin). The hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of Promozyme and pancreatic trypsin hydrolysates from L. japonica were the highest as compared to those of the other carbohydrases and proteinases, and their 50% inhibitory concentration values were 1.67 and 317.49 mug/mL, respectively. The pancreatic trypsin hydrolysates of L. japonica exerted a protective effect on H(2)O(2)-induced DNA damage. We also evaluated the protective effect on hydroxyl radical-induced oxidative damage in PC12 cells via propidium iodide staining using a flow cytometer. The AMG and pancreatic trypsin hydrolysates of L. japonica dose-dependently protected PC12 cells against cell death caused by hydroxyl radical-induced oxidative damage. Additionally, we analyzed the activity of antioxidative enzymes such as catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and the phase II biotransformation enzyme glutathione S-transferase in L. japonica-treated cells. The activity of all antioxidative enzymes was higher in L. japonica-treated cells compared with the nontreated cells. These results indicate that enzymatic hydrolysates of L. japonica possess antioxidative activity.

  18. Protective effect of soluble eggshell membrane protein hydrolysate on cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Yang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Soluble eggshell membrane protein (SEP has been proved to hold the antioxidant activity. The functional role of SEP on cardioprotection was investigated in vivo and in vitro. Methods: Rats and cardiomyocytes were pretreated with SP2, a hydrolysate attained from SEP, and then subjected to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R or hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R and hydrogen peroxide, respectively. The measurement of myocardial infarct size, cell apoptosis assay, cell viability assay, and caspase activity assay were performed on rats and cardiomyocytes. Results: The results showed that the treatment of SP2 induced the resistance to I/R or H/R injury on rats and cardiomyocytes as indicated by decreased infarct size and decreased cellular apoptosis. The cardioprotective roles of SP2 were partly resulted from the downregulated expression and activity of caspase-3 in which the effect was similar to the caspase inhibitor, z-VAD-fmk, and could be rescued by caspase activator, PAC-1. Conclusions: This investigation has demonstrated that SP2 attenuated the damage of I/R and H/R on rats and cardiomyocytes by the caspase-dependent pathway. This cardioprotective effect of SP2 suggested a novel therapeutic agent of SEP for ischemic-related heart diseases.

  19. Protective Effect of Pyruvate Against Radiation-Induced Damage in Collagenized Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griko, Y. V.; Yan, Xiaoli

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to high doses of ionizing radiation produces both acute and late effects on the collagenized tissues and have profound effects on wound healing. Because of the crucial practical importance for new radioprotective agents, our study has been focused on evaluation of the efficacy of non-toxic naturally occurring compounds to protect tissue integrity against high-dose gamma radiation. Here, we demonstrate that molecular integrity of collagen may serve as a sensitive biological marker for quantitative evaluation of molecular damage to collagenized tissue and efficacy of radioprotective agents. Increasing doses of gamma radiation (0-50kGy) result in progressive destruction of the native collagen fibrils, which provide a structural framework, strength, and proper milieu for the regenerating tissue. The strategy used in this study involved the thermodynamic specification of all structural changes in collagenized matrix of skin, aortic heart valve, and bone tissue induced by different doses and conditions of g-irradiation. This study describes a simple biophysical approach utilizing the Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) to characterize the structural resistance of the aortic valve matrix exposed to different doses of g-irradiation. It allows us to identify the specific response of each constituent as well as to determine the influence of the different treatments on the characteristic parameters of protein structure. We found that pyruvate, a substance that naturally occurs in the body, provide significant protection (up to 80%) from biochemical and biomechanical damage to the collagenized tissue through the effective targeting of reactive oxygen species. The recently discovered role of pyruvate in the cell antioxidant defense to O2 oxidation, and its essential constituency in the daily human diet, indicate that the administration of pyruvate-based radioprotective formulations may provide safe and effective protection from deleterious effects of ionizing

  20. Protective effect of enzymatic hydrolysates from highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative damage in Chinese hamster lung fibroblast cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senevirathne, Mahinda; Kim, Soo-Hyun; Jeon, You-Jin

    2010-06-01

    Blueberry was enzymatically hydrolyzed using selected commercial food grade carbohydrases (AMG, Celluclast, Termamyl, Ultraflo and Viscozyme) and proteases (Alcalase, Flavourzyme, Kojizyme, Neutrase and Protamex) to obtain water soluble compounds, and their protective effect was investigated against H(2)O(2)-induced damage in Chinese hamster lung fibroblast cell line (V79-4) via various published methods. Both AMG and Alcalase hydrolysates showed higher total phenolic content as well as higher cell viability and ROS scavenging activities, and hence, selected for further antioxidant assays. Both AMG and Alcalase hydrolysates also showed higher protective effects against lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and apoptotic body formation in a dose-dependent fashion. Thus, the results indicated that water soluble compounds obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of blueberry possess good antioxidant activity against H(2)O(2)-induced cell damage in vitro.

  1. Improved physicochemical properties and hepatic protection of Maillard reaction products derived from fish protein hydrolysates and ribose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sung-Yong; Lee, Sanghoon; Pyo, Min Cheol; Jeon, Hyeonjin; Kim, Yoonsook; Lee, Kwang-Won

    2017-04-15

    High amounts of waste products generated from fish-processing need to be disposed of despite their potential nutritional value. A variety of methods, such as enzymatic hydrolysis, have been developed for these byproducts. In the current study, we investigated the physicochemical, biological and antioxidative properties of fish protein hydrolysates (FPH) conjugated with ribose through the Maillard reaction. These glycated conjugates of FPH (GFPH) had more viscous rheological properties than FPH and exhibited higher heat, emulsification and foaming stability. They also protected liver HepG2 cells against t-BHP-induced oxidative stress with enhanced glutathione synthesis in vitro. Furthermore, it was shown that GFPH induced upregulation of phase II enzyme expression, such as that of HO-1 and γ-GCL, via nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and phosphorylation of ERK. Taken together, these results demonstrate the potential of GFPH for use as a functional food ingredient with improved rheological and antioxidative properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Ocular lens availability of glutathione from collagen inserts for protection of eye from radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omer, S.A.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Ocular inserts of glutathione ( G ) were prepared using 1 % collagen solution containing free G ,liposomal G and liposomal G with Concanavalin A ,a specific targeting agent of G to ocular lens. These inserts have to be sterilized for in-vivo ophthalmic application by exposure to U V radiation for 2 hr. using dry ice and acetone for protection of G from thermal degradation. In vitro release characteristics of G (17.0 μ mole) from the prepared inserts were investigated at 37deg C in phosphate buffer pH 7.4 . The results of release data showed that the release of G from inserts were arranged in the following order, free G, liposomal G with or without Concanavalin A. The extent of uptake of G from the collagen inserts by rabbit cornea was also tested. The results of ocular lens availability of G from collagen inserts revealed that a highly significant increase in the uptake of G by ocular lenses,where the percentages drug uptake from the applied doses at T max were 1.12% (p(0.05), 2.12% (p(0.01) and 3.4% (p(0.001) in case of using collagen inserts containing free G, liposomal G and liposomal G with Concanavalin A respectively. That is to say,lipid nature of liposomes together with Concanavlin A improved the penetration of the entrapped hydrophilic G through corneal barrier to the ocular lenses

  3. Troxerutin and Cerebroprotein Hydrolysate Injection Protects Neurovascular Units from Oxygen-Glucose Deprivation and Reoxygenation-Induced Injury In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hóngyi Zhào

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury involves complex events of cellular and molecular processes. Previous studies suggest that a neurovascular unit (NVU acts as an intricate network to maintain the neuronal homeostatic microenvironment. The present study established an NVU model for oxygen-glucose deprivation and reoxygenation (OGD/R damage, trying to target the major components of the NVU using a coculture of rat neurons, astrocytes, and rat brain microvascular endothelial cells (rBMECs to investigate the therapeutic effects of troxerutin and cerebroprotein hydrolysate injections (TCHis. The study observed that OGD/R downregulated the expressions of GAP-43, Claudin-5, and AQP-4 obviously detected by Western blotting and immunocytochemical analysis, respectively, while TCHi ameliorated the effect of OGD/R significantly. Meanwhile, TCHi alleviated the abnormalities of ultrastructure of neurons and rBMECs induced by OGD/R. Furthermore, both levels of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α and cell adhesion molecules (VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 detected by ELISA in NVU supernatant were found elevated significantly through OGD/R, but TCHi ameliorated the trend. In addition, TCHi also mitigated the increase of proapoptotic factors (Bax, p53, and caspase-3 induced by OGD/R in NVU model statistically. All these findings demonstrated that TCHis played a protective role, which was reflected in anti-inflammation, antiapoptosis, and blood–brain barrier maintenance. The results of the study concluded that the NVU is an ideal target and TCHi acts as a neuroprotective agent against cerebral I/R injuries.

  4. Collagen gel protects L929 cells from TNFα-induced death by activating NF-κB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Ju; Li, Meng-Qi; Liu, Wei-Wei; Hayashi, Toshihiko; Fujisaki, Hitomi; Hattori, Shunji; Tashiro, Shin-Ichi; Onodera, Satoshi; Ikejima, Takashi

    2017-09-01

    Type I collagen is one of the most abundant components of extracellular matrix. We previously illustrated that murine fibrosarcoma L929 cells grew well on type I collagen gel and escaped from TNFα-induced cell death. In this study, we investigated the mechanism underlying the protective effect of collagen gel. We used western blot, confocal microscopy, MTT assay and flow cytometry by introducing fluorescence staining to determine the expression levels of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), inhibitory ratio and autophagy. L929 cells on collagen gel showed higher expression of NF-κB in the nucleus. Inhibition of NF-κB with pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate hydrochloride (PDTC) or knockdown by NF-κB-siRNA canceled the protective effect of collagen gel on L929 cells from TNFα-induced death, suggesting for the role of NF-κB in the protection from cell death. We found a new aspect of the effect of PDTC on L929 cells cultured on collagen gel. PDTC alone without TNFα induced apoptosis in the L929 cells cultured on collagen gel but not the cells on plastic dish. The apoptosis induction of the L929 cells cultured on collagen gel with PDTC was repressed by inhibiting autophagy with chloroquine, an autophagy inhibitor, suggesting that autophagy contributes to the death induced by the treatment with PDTC. Possible underlying mechanism of this finding is discussed. NF-κB played an important role in protecting the L929 cells cultured on collagen gel from TNFα-induced death.

  5. Caracterização químico-nutricional de um isolado protéico de soro de leite, um hidrolisado de colágeno bovino e misturas dos dois produtos Chemical-nutritional characterization of a whey protein isolate, a bovine collagen hydrolysate and mixtures of the two products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane La Flor Ziegler

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO:Estudar química e nutricionalmente um isolado protéico de soro de leite bovino, um hidrolisado de colágeno bovino e misturas dos dois produtos visando elevado valor nutritivo e funcional. MÉTODOS: Realizaram-se análises da composição centesimal e do perfil de aminoácidos dos dois materiais protéicos, para cálculo da melhor adequação dos aminoácidos essenciais, com base no perfil recomendado pela Organização Mundial de Saúde. Os índices de valor nutritivo para o isolado de soro de leite, o hidrolisado de colágeno e as misturas foram determinados em ratos, a partir de ensaios de crescimento e de balanço de nitrogênio. Os resultados dos parâmetros nutricionais foram submetidos à análise de variância e ao teste de Tukey para a verificação de diferenças entre médias (pOBJECTIVE:The objective was the chemical and nutritional study of a bovine whey protein isolate, a bovine collagen hydrolysate and mixtures of the two products aiming at high nutritional and functional value. METHODS: Centesimal composition and amino acid analyses were performed on both proteinaceous materials for the calculation of an adequate amino acid profile based on the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization recommendation. The nutritive value indexes for the whey protein isolate, the collagen hydrolysate and mixtures of both proteins were determined in rats through growth assay and nitrogen balance. The experimental parameters from nutritional assays were submitted to analysis of variance and the Tukey test applied for differences among means (p<0.05. RESULTS: The whey protein isolate met all the requirements of the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization reference for essential amino acids while the collagen hydrolysate showed deficiency in all essential amino acids and complete absence of tryptophan. The casein showed higher efficiency than the whey isolate and mixtures of both proteins in promoting

  6. Kaempferol suppresses collagen-induced platelet activation by inhibiting NADPH oxidase and protecting SHP-2 from oxidative inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Su Bin; Jang, Ji Yong; Chae, Yun Hee; Min, Ji Hyun; Baek, Jin Young; Kim, Myunghee; Park, Yunjeong; Hwang, Gwi Seo; Ryu, Jae-Sang; Chang, Tong-Shin

    2015-06-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated upon collagen stimulation act as second messengers to propagate various platelet-activating events. Among the ROS-generating enzymes, NADPH oxidase (NOX) plays a prominent role in platelet activation. Thus, NOX has been suggested as a novel target for anti-platelet drug development. Although kaempferol has been identified as a NOX inhibitor, the influence of kaempferol on the activation of platelets and the underlying mechanism have never been investigated. Here, we studied the effects of kaempferol on NOX activation, ROS-dependent signaling pathways, and functional responses in collagen-stimulated platelets. Superoxide anion generation stimulated by collagen was significantly inhibited by kaempferol in a concentration-dependent manner. More importantly, kaempferol directly bound p47(phox), a major regulatory subunit of NOX, and significantly inhibited collagen-induced phosphorylation of p47(phox) and NOX activation. In accordance with the inhibition of NOX, ROS-dependent inactivation of SH2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase-2 (SHP-2) was potently protected by kaempferol. Subsequently, the specific tyrosine phosphorylation of key components (Syk, Vav1, Btk, and PLCγ2) of collagen receptor signaling pathways was suppressed by kaempferol. Kaempferol also attenuated downstream responses, including cytosolic calcium elevation, P-selectin surface exposure, and integrin-αIIbβ3 activation. Ultimately, kaempferol inhibited platelet aggregation and adhesion in response to collagen in vitro and prolonged in vivo thrombotic response in carotid arteries of mice. This study shows that kaempferol impairs collagen-induced platelet activation through inhibition of NOX-derived ROS production and subsequent oxidative inactivation of SHP-2. This effect suggests that kaempferol has therapeutic potential for the prevention and treatment of thrombovascular diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. FK506 protects against articular cartilage collagenous extra-cellular matrix degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebelt, M; van der Windt, A E; Groen, H C; Sandker, M; Waarsing, J H; Müller, C; de Jong, M; Jahr, H; Weinans, H

    2014-04-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a non-rheumatologic joint disease characterized by progressive degeneration of the cartilage extra-cellular matrix (ECM), enhanced subchondral bone remodeling, activation of synovial macrophages and osteophyte growth. Inhibition of calcineurin (Cn) activity through tacrolimus (FK506) in in vitro monolayer chondrocytes exerts positive effects on ECM marker expression. This study therefore investigated the effects of FK506 on anabolic and catabolic markers of osteoarthritic chondrocytes in 2D and 3D in vitro cultures, and its therapeutic effects in an in vivo rat model of OA. Effects of high and low doses of FK506 on anabolic (QPCR/histochemistry) and catabolic (QPCR) markers were evaluated in vitro on isolated (2D) and ECM-embedded chondrocytes (explants, 3D pellets). Severe cartilage damage was induced unilaterally in rat knees using papain injections in combination with a moderate running protocol. Twenty rats were treated with FK506 orally and compared to twenty untreated controls. Subchondral cortical and trabecular bone changes (longitudinal microCT) and macrophage activation (SPECT/CT) were measured. Articular cartilage was analyzed ex vivo using contrast enhanced microCT and histology. FK506 treatment of osteoarthritic chondrocytes in vitro induced anabolic (mainly collagens) and reduced catabolic ECM marker expression. In line with this, FK506 treatment clearly protected ECM integrity in vivo by markedly decreasing subchondral sclerosis, less development of subchondral pores, depletion of synovial macrophage activation and lower osteophyte growth. FK506 protected cartilage matrix integrity in vitro and in vivo. Additionally, FK506 treatment in vivo reduced OA-like responses in different articular joint tissues and thereby makes Cn an interesting target for therapeutic intervention of OA. Copyright © 2014 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Antiulcerative Activity of Milk Proteins Hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Wilman; Monteiro, Karin Maia; Martínez-Maqueda, Daniel; Ramos, Mercedes; Recio, Isidra; Carvalho, João Ernesto de

    2018-04-01

    Several studies have shown the protective effect of dairy products, especially α-lactalbumin and derived hydrolysates, against induced gastric ulcerative lesions. The mucus strengthening represents an important mechanism in the defense of gastrointestinal mucosa. Previously, a hydrolysate from casein (CNH) and a hydrolysate from whey protein concentrate rich in β-lactoglobulin (WPH) demonstrated a stimulatory activity on mucus production in intestinal goblet cells. The aim of this work was to evaluate the possible antiulcerative activity of these two hydrolysates in an ethanol-induced ulcer model in rats. All tested samples significantly reduced the ulcerative lesions index (ULI), compared with the saline solution, using doses of 300 and 1000 mg kg -1 body weight with decreases up to 66.3% ULI. A dose-response relationship was found for both hydrolysates. The involvement of endogenous sulfhydryl (SH) groups and prostaglandins (PGs) in the antiulcerative activity was evaluated using their blockage. The antiulcerative activity of WPH showed a drastic decrease in presence of N-ethylmaleimide (from 41.4% to 9.2% ULI). However, the CNH antiulcerative properties were not significantly affected. The cytoprotective effect of WPH appears to depend on a PG-mediated mechanism. In conclusion, CNH and WPH demonstrated in vivo antiulcerative properties and represent a promising alternative as protectors of the gastric mucosa.

  9. Royal jelly protects against ultraviolet B-induced photoaging in human skin fibroblasts via enhancing collagen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye Min; Hwang, Eunson; Lee, Kwang Gill; Han, Sang-Mi; Cho, Yunhi; Kim, Sun Yeou

    2011-09-01

    Royal jelly (RJ) is a honeybee product containing proteins, carbohydrates, fats, free amino acids, vitamins, and minerals. As its principal unsaturated fatty acid, RJ contains 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA), which may have antitumor and antibacterial activity and a capacity to stimulate collagen production. RJ has attracted interest in various parts of the world for its pharmacological properties. However, the effects of RJ on ultraviolet (UV)-induced photoaging of the skin have not been reported. In this study we measured the 10-HDA content of RJ by high-performance liquid chromatography and tested the effects of RJ on UVB-induced skin photoaging in normal human dermal fibroblasts. The effects of RJ and 10-HDA on UVB-induced photoaging were tested by measuring procollagen type I, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 after UVB irradiation. The RJ contained about 0.211% 10-HDA. The UVB-irradiated human skin fibroblasts treated with RJ and 10-HDA had increased procollagen type I and TGF-β1 productions, but the level of MMP-1 was not changed. Thus RJ may potentially protect the skin from UVB-induced photoaging by enhancing collagen production.

  10. Inhibitory Compounds in Lignocellulosic Biomass Hydrolysates during Hydrolysate Fermentation Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zha, Y.; Muilwijk, B.; Coulier, L.C.; Punt, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    To compare the composition and performance of various lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates as fermentation media, 8 hydrolysates were generated from a grass-like and a wood biomass. The hydrolysate preparation methods used were 1) dilute acid, 2) mild alkaline, 3) alkaline/peracetic acid, and 4)

  11. Curcumin protects against collagen-induced arthritis via suppression of BAFF production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Gang; Xu, Zhizhen; Huang, Yan; Duan, Xiaojun; Gong, Wei; Zhang, Yan; Fan, Jishan; He, Fengtian

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the anti-Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) effect of curcumin is associated with the regulation of B cell-activating factor belonging to the TNF family (BAFF) production. Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) was induced in DBA/1 J mice by immunization with bovine type II collagen. To investigate the anti-arthritic effect of curcumin in the CIA model, mice were injected intraperitoneally with curcumin (50 mg/kg) on every other day either from day 1 or from day 28 after the first immunization. The clinical severity of arthritis was monitored. BAFF, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interferon-γ (IFNγ) production in serum were measured. Furthermore, the effect of curcumin on IFNγ-induced BAFF expression and transcriptional activation in B lymphocytes was determined by qPCR, Western Blot, and luciferase assay. Finally, IFNγ related signal transducers and activators of transcription 1 (STAT1) signaling in B lymphocytes were studied using Western Blot. Curcumin dramatically attenuated the progression and severity of CIA in DBA/1 J mice, accompanied with decrease of BAFF production in serum and spleen cells as well as decrease of serum IFNγ and IL-6. Treatment of B lymphocytes with curcumin suppressed IFNγ-induced BAFF expression, STAT1 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation, suggesting that curcumin may repress IFNγ-induced BAFF expression via negatively interfering with STAT1 signaling. The results of the present study suggest that suppression of BAFF production may be a novel mechanism by which curcumin improves RA.

  12. Endocytic collagen degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Daniel H.; Jürgensen, Henrik J.; Ingvarsen, Signe Ziir

    2012-01-01

    it crucially important to understand both the collagen synthesis and turnover mechanisms in this condition. Here we show that the endocytic collagen receptor, uPARAP/Endo180, is a major determinant in governing the balance between collagen deposition and degradation. Cirrhotic human livers displayed a marked...... up-regulation of uPARAP/Endo180 in activated fibroblasts and hepatic stellate cells located close to the collagen deposits. In a hepatic stellate cell line, uPARAP/Endo180 was shown to be active in, and required for, the uptake and intracellular degradation of collagen. To evaluate the functional...... groups of mice clearly revealed a fibrosis protective role of uPARAP/Endo180. This effect appeared to directly reflect the activity of the collagen receptor, since no compensatory events were noted when comparing the mRNA expression profiles of the two groups of mice in an array system focused on matrix-degrading...

  13. Protein hydrolysates in sports nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manninen Anssi H

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract It has been suggested that protein hydrolysates providing mainly di- and tripeptides are superior to intact (whole proteins and free amino acids in terms of skeletal muscle protein anabolism. This review provides a critical examination of protein hydrolysate studies conducted in healthy humans with special reference to sports nutrition. The effects of protein hydrolysate ingestion on blood amino acid levels, muscle protein anabolism, body composition, exercise performance and muscle glycogen resynthesis are discussed.

  14. FcγRIIb on myeloid cells rather than on B cells protects from collagen-induced arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz-Elis, A Seda; Ramirez, Javier Martin; Asmawidjaja, Patrick; van der Kaa, Jos; Mus, Anne-Marie; Brem, Maarten D; Claassens, Jill W C; Breukel, Cor; Brouwers, Conny; Mangsbo, Sara M; Boross, Peter; Lubberts, Erik; Verbeek, J Sjef

    2014-06-15

    Extensive analysis of a variety of arthritis models in germline KO mice has revealed that all four receptors for the Fc part of IgG (FcγR) play a role in the disease process. However, their precise cell type-specific contribution is still unclear. In this study, we analyzed the specific role of the inhibiting FcγRIIb on B lymphocytes (using CD19Cre mice) and in the myeloid cell compartment (using C/EBPαCre mice) in the development of arthritis induced by immunization with either bovine or chicken collagen type II. Despite their comparable anti-mouse collagen autoantibody titers, full FcγRIIb knockout (KO), but not B cell-specific FcγRIIb KO, mice showed a significantly increased incidence and severity of disease compared with wild-type control mice when immunized with bovine collagen. When immunized with chicken collagen, disease incidence was significantly increased in pan-myeloid and full FcγRIIb KO mice, but not in B cell-specific KO mice, whereas disease severity was only significantly increased in full FcγRIIb KO mice compared with incidence and severity in wild-type control mice. We conclude that, although anti-mouse collagen autoantibodies are a prerequisite for the development of collagen-induced arthritis, their presence is insufficient for disease development. FcγRIIb on myeloid effector cells, as a modulator of the threshold for downstream Ab effector pathways, plays a dominant role in the susceptibility to collagen-induced arthritis, whereas FcγRIIb on B cells, as a regulator of Ab production, has a minor effect on disease susceptibility. Copyright © 2014 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  15. The Heart Protection Effect of Alcalase Potato Protein Hydrolysate Is through IGF1R-PI3K-Akt Compensatory Reactivation in Aging Rats on High Fat Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Syun Hu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity is high in older adults. Alcalase potato protein hydrolysate (APPH, a nutraceutical food, might have greater benefits and be more economical than hypolipidemic drugs. In this study, serum lipid profiles and heart protective effects were evaluated in high fat diet (HFD induced hyperlipidemia in aging rats treated with APPH (15, 45 and 75 mg/kg/day and probucol (500 mg/kg/day. APPH treatments reduced serum triacylglycerol (TG, total cholesterol (TC, and low density lipoprotein (LDL levels to the normal levels expressed in the control group. Additionally, the IGF1R-PI3K-Akt survival pathway was reactivated, and Fas-FADD (Fas-associated death domain induced apoptosis was inhibited by APPH treatments (15 and 45 mg/kg/day in HFD aging rat hearts. APPH (75 mg/kg/day rather than probucol (500 mg/kg/day treatment could reduce serum lipids without affecting HDL expression. The heart protective effect of APPH in aging rats with hyperlipidemia was through lowering serum lipids and enhancing the activation of the compensatory IGF1R-PI3K-Akt survival pathway.

  16. The Heart Protection Effect of Alcalase Potato Protein Hydrolysate Is through IGF1R-PI3K-Akt Compensatory Reactivation in Aging Rats on High Fat Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei-Syun; Ting, Wei-Jen; Chiang, Wen-Dee; Pai, Peiying; Yeh, Yu-Lan; Chang, Chung-Ho; Lin, Wan-Teng; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity is high in older adults. Alcalase potato protein hydrolysate (APPH), a nutraceutical food, might have greater benefits and be more economical than hypolipidemic drugs. In this study, serum lipid profiles and heart protective effects were evaluated in high fat diet (HFD) induced hyperlipidemia in aging rats treated with APPH (15, 45 and 75 mg/kg/day) and probucol (500 mg/kg/day). APPH treatments reduced serum triacylglycerol (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and low density lipoprotein (LDL) levels to the normal levels expressed in the control group. Additionally, the IGF1R-PI3K-Akt survival pathway was reactivated, and Fas-FADD (Fas-associated death domain) induced apoptosis was inhibited by APPH treatments (15 and 45 mg/kg/day) in HFD aging rat hearts. APPH (75 mg/kg/day) rather than probucol (500 mg/kg/day) treatment could reduce serum lipids without affecting HDL expression. The heart protective effect of APPH in aging rats with hyperlipidemia was through lowering serum lipids and enhancing the activation of the compensatory IGF1R-PI3K-Akt survival pathway. PMID:25950762

  17. Collagenous sprue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soendergaard, Christoffer; Riis, Lene Buhl; Nielsen, Ole Haagen

    2014-01-01

    Collagenous sprue is a rare clinicopathological condition of the small bowel. It is characterised by abnormal subepithelial collagen deposition and is typically associated with malabsorption, diarrhoea and weight loss. The clinical features of collagenous sprue often resemble those of coeliac...... disease and together with frequent histological findings like mucosal thinning and intraepithelial lymphocytosis the diagnosis may be hard to reach without awareness of this condition. While coeliac disease is treated using gluten restriction, collagenous sprue is, however, not improved...... by this intervention. In cases of diet-refractory 'coeliac disease' it is therefore essential to consider collagenous sprue to initiate treatment at an early stage to prevent the fibrotic progression. Here, we report a case of a 78-year-old man with collagenous sprue and present the clinical and histological...

  18. Antioxidative Activity of Tobacco Leaf Protein Hydrolysates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guohua Rao

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Discarded tobacco leaf protein hydrolysate (DTLPH was prepared by enzymatic hydrolysis using papain and then separated using ultrafiltration (UF membranes with molecular mass cut-off (MMCO of 10, 5, 3 and 1 kDa. Four permeate fractions including 10-K, 5-K, 3-K and 1-K (the permeate fractions from 10, 5, 3 and 1 kDa hydrolysate fractions were obtained. The 5-K hydrolysate fraction had high oxidation inhibilitory ratio (42.62 %, which was about twofold higher than the original hydrolysate and as high as that of vitamin E (α-tocopherol. The fractionated hydrolysates were superior to the original hydrolysate in the antioxidative activity tested. Moreover, these separated hydrolysates showed the enhanced functional property. The amino acid composition of 5-K hydrolysate was analyzed and the results show that the high antioxidative activity of 5-K hydrolysate was derived from high content of histidine, methionine, cystine and tryptophan.

  19. Protective effects of a blueberry extract in acute inflammation and collagen-induced arthritis in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueira, Maria-Eduardo; Oliveira, Mónica; Direito, Rosa; Rocha, João; Alves, Paula; Serra, Ana-Teresa; Duarte, Catarina; Bronze, Rosário; Fernandes, Adelaide; Brites, Dora; Freitas, Marisa; Fernandes, Eduarda; Sepodes, Bruno

    2016-10-01

    Here we investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of a blueberry extract in the carrageenan-induced paw edema model and collagen-induced arthritis model, both in rats. Along with the chemical characterization of the phenolic content of the fruits and extract, the antioxidant potential of the extract, the cellular antioxidant activity and the effects over neutrophils' oxidative burst, were studied in order to provide a mechanistic insight for the anti-inflammatory effects observed. The extract significantly inhibited paw edema formation in an acute model the rat. Our results also demonstrate that the standardized extract had pharmacological activity when administered orally in the collagen-induced arthritis model in the rat and was able to significantly reduce the development of clinical signs of arthritis and the degree of bone resorption, soft tissue swelling and osteophyte formation, consequently improving articular function in treated animals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. [Collagen nephritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lago, N R; Bulos, M J; Monserrat, A J

    1997-01-01

    Fibrillar collagen in the glomeruli is considered specific of the nail-patella syndrome. A new nephropathy with diffuse intraglomerular deposition of type III collagen without nail and skeletal abnormalities has been described. We report the case of a 26-year-old woman who presented persistent proteinuria, hematuria, deafness without nail and skeletal abnormalities. The renal biopsy showed focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis by light microscopy. The electron microscopy revealed the presence of massive fibrillar collagen within the mesangial matriz and the basement membrane. This is the first patient reported in our country. We emphasize the usefulness of electron microscopy in the study of glomerular diseases.

  1. Protein Hydrolysates/Peptides in Animal Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCalla, Jeff; Waugh, Terry; Lohry, Eric

    The use of protein hydrolysates as an important nutrient for growth and maintenance has been increasing in animal nutrition. Although animal proteins and protein hydrolysates are widely used however, recently vegetable protein hydrolysates are gaining importance. This chapter reviews the use of protein hydrolysates developed by enzyme hydrolysis and by solid state fermentation process in animal nutrition especially for piglets and compares it with the standard products such as plasma and fishmeal.

  2. Collagen Homeostasis and Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnusson, S Peter; Heinemeier, Katja M; Kjaer, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The musculoskeletal system and its collagen rich tissue is important for ensuring architecture of skeletal muscle, energy storage in tendon and ligaments, joint surface protection, and for ensuring the transfer of muscular forces into resulting limb movement. Structure of tendon is stable...... inactivity or immobilization of the human body will conversely result in a dramatic loss in tendon stiffness and collagen synthesis. This illustrates the importance of regular mechanical load in order to preserve the stabilizing role of the connective tissue for the overall function of the musculoskeletal...

  3. Fermentation of pretreated corncob hemicellulose hydrolysate to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    academicjournal

    single carbon source because the ethanol conversion of glucose was higher than that of xylose. Using parallel fermentation of corncob hemicellulose acid hydrolysate and the artificially prepared hydrolysate, it was found that complex components in the corncob hemicellulose acid hydrolysate probably promoted ethanol ...

  4. SHP-1, a novel peptide isolated from seahorse inhibits collagen release through the suppression of collagenases 1 and 3, nitric oxide products regulated by NF-kappaB/p38 kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, BoMi; Qian, Zhong-Ji; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2010-01-01

    Considerable efforts have been taken to identify natural peptides as potential bioactive substances. In this study, novel peptide (SHP-1) derived from seahorse (Hippocampus, Syngnathidae) hydrolysate was explored for its inhibitory effects on collagen release in arthritis with the investigation of its underlying mechanism of action. The efficacy of SHP-1 was determined on cartilage protective effects such as inhibition of collagen and GAG release. SHP-1 was able to suppress not only the expression of collagenases 1 and 3, but also the production of NO via down-regulation of iNOS. However, it presented an irrelevant effect on the level of GAG release in chondrocytic and osteoblastic cells. Inhibition of collagen release by SHP-1 is associated with restraining the phosphorylation of NF-kappaB and p38 kinase cascade. Therefore, it could be suggested that SHP-1 has a potential to be used in arthritis treatment.

  5. Mixture of residual fish hydrolysate and fish extract hydrolysate to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-06-07

    Jun 7, 2010 ... 42°C. Replacement of nutrient broth-starch with residual fish hydrolysate-starch led to the enzyme production to .... Paddy husk, raw unpolished rice, fertilizers such as ..... Saunders BC (eds) Practical Organic Chemistry. 4th.

  6. 40 CFR 180.1246 - Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the requirement of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1246 Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from... exemption from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of the biochemical pesticide Yeast Extract...

  7. Furfural production from biomass pretreatment hydrolysate using vapor-releasing reactor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu; Chang, Hou-Min; Jameel, Hasan; Park, Sunkyu

    2018-03-01

    Biomass hydrolysate from autohydrolysis pretreatment was used for furfural production considering it is in rich of xylose, xylo-oligomers, and other decomposition products from hemicellulose structure. By using the vapor-releasing reactor system, furfural was protected from degradation by separating it from the reaction media. The maximum furfural yield of 73% was achieved at 200 °C for biomass hydrolysate without the use of the catalyst. This is because the presence of organic acids such as acetic acid in hydrolysate functioned as a catalyst. According to the results in this study, biomass hydrolysate with a vapor-releasing system proves to be efficient for furfural production. The biorefinery process which allows the separation of xylose-rich autohydrolysate from other parts from biomass feedstock also improves the overall application of the biomass. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Eucalyptus globulus extract protects against UVB-induced photoaging by enhancing collagen synthesis via regulation of TGF-β/Smad signals and attenuation of AP-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Bom; Hwang, Eunson; Seo, Seul A; Cho, Jin-Gyeong; Yang, Jung-Eun; Yi, Tae-Hoo

    2018-01-01

    UV irradiation triggers the overproduction of matrix metalloproteinases and collagen degradation, which in turn causes increased pigmentation, dryness, and deep wrinkling of the skin. These chronic symptoms are collectively referred to as photoaging. Eucalyptus globulus is an evergreen tree that is widely used in cosmetics because of its antimicrobial activity. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of 50% ethanol extracts of Eucalyptus globulus on UV-induced photoaging in vitro and in vivo. Normal human dermal fibroblasts were treated with Eucalyptus globulus at concentrations ranging from 1 to 100 μg/mL after UVB or non-UVB irradiation. We found that Eucalyptus globulus suppressed the expression of MMPs and IL-6, but increased the expression of TGF-β1 and procollagen type 1. In addition, Eucalyptus globulus inhibited activation of the AP-1 transcription factor, an inducer of MMPs. Eucalyptus globulus was also found to regulate TGF-β/Smad signaling by reversing the activity of negative Smad regulators. Lastly, in vivo studies showed that topical application of Eucalyptus globulus on UVB-irradiated hairless mice reduced wrinkle formation and dryness by down-regulating MMP-1 and up-regulating expression of elastin, TGF-β1, and procollagen type 1. Taken together, these data suggest that Eucalyptus globulus may be a useful agent in cosmetic products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Safety of protein hydrolysates, fractions thereof and

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gertjan Schaafsma

    2009-01-01

    This paper evaluates the safety for humans with regard to consumption of protein hydrolysates and fractions thereof, including bioactive peptides. The available literature on the safety of protein, protein hydrolysates, fractions thereof and free amino acids on relevant food legislation is reviewed

  10. Actinopyga lecanora Hydrolysates as Natural Antibacterial Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raheleh Ghanbari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Actinopyga lecanora, a type of sea cucumber commonly known as stone fish with relatively high protein content, was explored as raw material for bioactive peptides production. Six proteolytic enzymes, namely alcalase, papain, pepsin, trypsin, bromelain and flavourzyme were used to hydrolyze A. lecanora at different times and their respective degrees of hydrolysis (DH were calculated. Subsequently, antibacterial activity of the A. lecanora hydrolysates, against some common pathogenic Gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus and Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Pseudomonas sp. were evaluated. Papain hydrolysis showed the highest DH value (89.44%, followed by alcalase hydrolysis (83.35%. Bromelain hydrolysate after one and seven hours of hydrolysis exhibited the highest antibacterial activities against Pseudomonas sp., P. aeruginosa and E. coli at 51.85%, 30.07% and 30.45%, respectively compared to the other hydrolysates. Protein hydrolysate generated by papain after 8 h hydrolysis showed maximum antibacterial activity against S. aureus at 20.19%. The potent hydrolysates were further fractionated using RP-HPLC and antibacterial activity of the collected fractions from each hydrolysate were evaluated, wherein among them only three fractions from the bromelain hydrolysates exhibited inhibitory activities against Pseudomonas sp., P. aeruginosa and E. coli at 24%, 25.5% and 27.1%, respectively and one fraction of papain hydrolysate showed antibacterial activity of 33.1% against S. aureus. The evaluation of the relationship between DH and antibacterial activities of papain and bromelain hydrolysates revealed a meaningful correlation of four and six order functions.

  11. Rice bran protein hydrolysates attenuate diabetic nephropathy in diabetic animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonloh, Kampeebhorn; Lee, Eun Soo; Kim, Hong Min; Kwon, Mi Hye; Kim, You Mi; Pannangpetch, Patchareewan; Kongyingyoes, Bunkerd; Kukongviriyapan, Upa; Thawornchinsombut, Supawan; Lee, Eun Young; Kukongviriyapan, Veerapol; Chung, Choon Hee

    2018-03-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is an important microvascular complication of uncontrolled diabetes. The features of DN include albuminuria, extracellular matrix alterations, and progressive renal insufficiency. Rice bran protein hydrolysates (RBPs) have been reported to have antihyperglycemic, lipid-lowering, and anti-inflammatory effects in diabetic rats. Our study was to investigate the renoprotective effects of RBP in diabetic animals and mesangial cultured cells. Eight-week-old male db/m and db/db mice were orally treated with tap water or RBP (100 or 500 mg/kg/day) for 8 weeks. At the end of the experiment, diabetic nephropathy in kidney tissues was investigated for histological, ultrastructural, and clinical chemistry changes, and biomarkers of angiogenesis, fibrosis, inflammation, and antioxidant in kidney were analyzed by Western blotting. Protection against proangiogenic proteins and induction of cytoprotection by RBP in cultured mesangial cells was evaluated. RBP treatment improved insulin sensitivity, decreased elevated fasting serum glucose levels, and improved serum lipid levels and urinary albumin/creatinine ratios in diabetic mice. RBP ameliorated the decreases in podocyte slit pore numbers, thickening of glomerular basement membranes, and mesangial matrix expansion and suppressed elevation of MCP-1, ICAM-1, HIF-1α, VEGF, TGF-β, p-Smad2/3, and type IV collagen expression. Moreover, RBP restored suppressed antioxidant Nrf2 and HO-1 expression. In cultured mesangial cells, RBP inhibited high glucose-induced angiogenic protein expression and induced the expression of Nrf2 and HO-1. RBP attenuates the progression of diabetic nephropathy and restored renal function by suppressing the expression of proangiogenic and profibrotic proteins, inhibiting proinflammatory mediators, and restoring the antioxidant and cytoprotective system.

  12. Changes in vascularization of internal organs in rabbits with experimental atherosclerosis, treated with protein hydrolysate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demireva, K.; Popdimitrov, I.

    1979-01-01

    The vascularization of the internal organs of rabbits with experimental atherosclerosis was studied by the method of Sapirstein with 86 rubidium. Experiments were carried out on male Chinchilla rabbits, fed cholesterol in a dose of 0,2 g/kg of body weight daily for a period of 90 days. Part of the animals were treated with protein hydrolysate in a dose of 5 ml/kg of body weight subcutaneously and the remaining - with physiologic saline. There was reduced vascularization in the heart, kidneys, intestines, liver, adrenals, pancreas and other internal organs in rabbits fed cholestrol and treated with physiologic saline. Administration of protein hydrolysate had protective effect on organ vascularization. Accumulation of 86 rubidium in a large part of the animals was greater than in control group. It is shown that protein hydrolysate amino acids stabilize the endothelial cells and stimulate the local vascularization. (author)

  13. Protein hydrolysates are avoided by herbivores but not by omnivores in two-choice preference tests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin L Field

    Full Text Available The negative sensory properties of casein hydrolysates (HC often limit their usage in products intended for human consumption, despite HC being nutritious and having many functional benefits. Recent, but taxonomically limited, evidence suggests that other animals also avoid consuming HC when alternatives exist.We evaluated ingestive responses of five herbivorous species (guinea pig, mountain beaver, gopher, vole, and rabbit and five omnivorous species (rat, coyote, house mouse, white-footed mouse, and deer mouse; N = 16-18/species using solid foods containing 20% HC in a series of two-choice preference tests that used a non-protein, cellulose-based alternative. Individuals were also tested with collagen hydrolysate (gelatin; GE to determine whether it would induce similar ingestive responses to those induced by HC. Despite HC and GE having very different nutritional and sensory qualities, both hydrolysates produced similar preference score patterns. We found that the herbivores generally avoided the hydrolysates while the omnivores consumed them at similar levels to the cellulose diet or, more rarely, preferred them (HC by the white-footed mouse; GE by the rat. Follow-up preference tests pairing HC and the nutritionally equivalent intact casein (C were performed on the three mouse species and the guinea pigs. For the mice, mean HC preference scores were lower in the HC v C compared to the HC v Cel tests, indicating that HC's sensory qualities negatively affected its consumption. However, responses were species-specific. For the guinea pigs, repeated exposure to HC or C (4.7-h sessions; N = 10 were found to increase subsequent HC preference scores in an HC v C preference test, which was interpreted in the light of conservative foraging strategies thought to typify herbivores.This is the first empirical study of dietary niche-related taxonomic differences in ingestive responses to protein hydrolysates using multiple species under comparable

  14. Modern collagen wound dressings: function and purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleck, Cynthia Ann; Simman, Richard

    2010-09-01

    Collagen, which is produced by fibroblasts, is the most abundant protein in the human body. A natural structural protein, collagen is involved in all 3 phases of the wound-healing cascade. It stimulates cellular migration and contributes to new tissue development. Because of their chemotactic properties on wound fibroblasts, collagen dressings encourage the deposition and organization of newly formed collagen, creating an environment that fosters healing. Collagen-based biomaterials stimulate and recruit specific cells, such as macrophages and fibroblasts, along the healing cascade to enhance and influence wound healing. These biomaterials can provide moisture or absorption, depending on the delivery system. Collagen dressings are easy to apply and remove and are conformable. Collagen dressings are usually formulated with bovine, avian, or porcine collagen. Oxidized regenerated cellulose, a plant-based material, has been combined with collagen to produce a dressing capable of binding to and protecting growth factors by binding and inactivating matrix metalloproteinases in the wound environment. The increased understanding of the biochemical processes involved in chronic wound healing allows the design of wound care products aimed at correcting imbalances in the wound microenvironment. Traditional advanced wound care products tend to address the wound's macroenvironment, including moist wound environment control, fluid management, and controlled transpiration of wound fluids. The newer class of biomaterials and wound-healing agents, such as collagen and growth factors, targets specific defects in the chronic wound environment. In vitro laboratory data point to the possibility that these agents benefit the wound healing process at a biochemical level. Considerable evidence has indicated that collagen-based dressings may be capable of stimulating healing by manipulating wound biochemistry.

  15. Towards an Understanding of How Protein Hydrolysates Stimulate More Efficient Biosynthesis in Cultured Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemensma, André; Babcock, James; Wilcox, Chris; Huttinga, Hans

    In the light of the growing demand for high quality plant-derived hydrolysates (i.e., HyPep™ and UltraPep™ series), Sheffield Bio-Science has developed a new hydrolysate platform that addresses the need for animal-free cell culture medium supplements while also minimizing variability concerns. The platform is based upon a novel approach to enzymatic digestion and more refined processing. At the heart of the platform is a rationally designed animal component-free (ACF) enzyme cocktail that includes both proteases and non-proteolytic enzymes (hydrolases) whose activities can also liberate primary components of the polymerized non-protein portion of the raw material. This enzyme system is added during a highly optimized process step that targets specific enzyme-substrate reactions to expand the range of beneficial nutritional factors made available to cells in culture. Such factors are fundamental to improving the bio-performance of the culture system, as they provide not merely growth-promoting peptides and amino acids, but also key carbohydrates, lipids, minerals, and vitamins that improve both rate and quality of protein expression, and serve to improve culture life due to osmo-protectant and anti-apoptotic properties. Also of significant note is that, compared to typical hydrolysates, the production process is greatly reduced and requires fewer steps, intrinsically yielding a better-controlled and therefore more reproducible product. Finally, the more sophisticated approach to enzymatic digestion renders hydrolysates more amenable to sterile filtration, allowing hydrolysate end users to experience streamlined media preparation and bioreactor supplementation activities. Current and future development activities will evolve from a better understanding of the complex interactions within a handful of key biochemical pathways that impact the growth and productivity of industrially relevant organisms. Presented in this chapter are some examples of the efforts that

  16. Proximal collagenous gastroenteritides:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole Haagen; Riis, Lene Buhl; Danese, Silvio

    2014-01-01

    AIM: While collagenous colitis represents the most common form of the collagenous gastroenteritides, the collagenous entities affecting the proximal part of the gastrointestinal tract are much less recognized and possibly overlooked. The aim was to summarize the latest information through a syste...

  17. Action of trypsin on structural changes of collagen fibres from sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zi-Qiang; Tuo, Feng-Yan; Song, Liang; Liu, Yu-Xin; Dong, Xiu-Ping; Li, Dong-Mei; Zhou, Da-Yong; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2018-08-01

    Trypsin, a representative serine proteinase, was used to hydrolyse the collagen fibres from sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicus) to highlight the role of serine proteinase in the autolysis of sea cucumber. Partial disaggregation of collagen fibres into collagen fibrils upon trypsin treatment occurred. The trypsin treatment also caused a time-dependent release of water-soluble glycosaminoglycans and proteins. Therefore, the degradation of the proteoglycan bridges between collagen fibrils might account for the disaggregation of collagen fibrils. For trypsin-treated collagen fibres (72 h), the collagen fibrils still kept their structural integrity and showed characteristic D-banding pattern, and the dissolution rate of hydroxyproline was just 0.21%. Meanwhile, Fourier transform infrared analysis showed the collagen within trypsin-treated collagen fibres (72 h) still retaining their triple-helical conformation. These results suggested that serine proteinase participated in the autolysis of S. japonicus body wall by damaging the proteoglycan bridges between collagen fibrils and disintegrating the latter. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. 21 CFR 573.200 - Condensed animal protein hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Condensed animal protein hydrolysate. 573.200... ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.200 Condensed animal protein hydrolysate. (a) Identity. The condensed animal protein hydrolysate is produced from the meat byproducts scraped from cured (salted) hides taken...

  19. Poultry feed based on protein hydrolysate derived from chrome-tanned leather solid waste: creating value from waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Rubina; Pati, Anupama

    2016-04-01

    Leather industry generates huge amount of chrome-containing leather solid waste which creates major environment problems to tanners worldwide. Chrome-tanned leather solid waste is primarily chromium complex of collagen protein. The presence of chromium limits its protein application in animal feed industry. The purified protein hydrolysate with zero chromium could be used in poultry feed. In this study, an attempt has been made to assess performance of poultry with purified protein hydrolysate as a feed derived from chrome-tanned leather waste as partial replacement of soyabean meal as a sole source of protein for growing broiler chickens. Growth study was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding protein hydrolysate on performance and physiochemical characteristics of meat of broiler chickens. Two experimental diets containing various levels of protein hydrolysate (EI-20 % and EII-30 %) were evaluated. The comparative study was performed as control with soyabean meal. Daily feed intake, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio were measured from day 8 to day 35. At the end of the study, birds were randomly selected and slaughtered to evaluate for physiochemical characteristics of meat. Diet had significant effects on feed intake and body weight gain. Birds fed with 20 and 30 % protein hydrolysate consumed 9.5 and 17.5 % higher amount of feed and gained 6.5 and 16.6 % higher than soyabean meal-fed birds. The current study produced evidence that protein hydrolysate can replace up to 75 % of soyabean meal in broiler diets without affecting either growth performance or meat characteristics.

  20. Anti-Inflammatory Effects and Joint Protection in Collagen-Induced Arthritis after Treatment with IQ-1S, a Selective c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase Inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepetkin, Igor A; Kirpotina, Liliya N; Hammaker, Deepa; Kochetkova, Irina; Khlebnikov, Andrei I; Lyakhov, Sergey A; Firestein, Gary S; Quinn, Mark T

    2015-06-01

    c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) participate in many physiologic and pathologic processes, including inflammatory diseases. We recently synthesized the sodium salt of IQ-1S (11H-indeno[1,2-b]quinoxalin-11-one oxime) and demonstrated that it is a high-affinity JNK inhibitor and inhibits murine delayed-type hypersensitivity. Here we show that IQ-1S is highly specific for JNK and that its neutral form is the most abundant species at physiologic pH. Molecular docking of the IQ-1S syn isomer into the JNK1 binding site gave the best pose, which corresponded to the position of cocrystallized JNK inhibitor SP600125 (1,9-pyrazoloanthrone). Evaluation of the therapeutic potential of IQ-1S showed that it inhibited matrix metalloproteinase 1 and 3 gene expression induced by interleukin-1β in human fibroblast-like synoviocytes and significantly attenuated development of murine collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). Treatment with IQ-1S either before or after induction of CIA resulted in decreased clinical scores, and joint sections from IQ-1S-treated CIA mice exhibited only mild signs of inflammation and minimal cartilage loss compared with those from control mice. Collagen II-specific antibody responses were also reduced by IQ-1S treatment. By contrast, the inactive ketone derivative 11H-indeno[1,2-b]quinoxalin-11-one had no effect on CIA clinical scores or collagen II-specific antibody titers. IQ-1S treatment also suppressed proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine levels in joints and lymph node cells. Finally, treatment with IQ-1S increased the number of Foxp3(+)CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells in lymph nodes. Thus, IQ-1S can reduce inflammation and cartilage loss associated with CIA and can serve as a small-molecule modulator for mechanistic studies of JNK function in rheumatoid arthritis. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  1. Pork fat hydrolysed by Staphylococcus xylosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, B. B.; Stahnke, Louise Heller; Zeuthen, Peter

    1993-01-01

    Staphylococcus xylosus is used as a starter culture in the production of fermented sausages. Its ability to hydrolyse pork fat was investigated. Within 15 days of incubation an interaction of bacterial growth, lipase production and lipase activity in a pork fat containing medium caused liberation...

  2. Membrane capacitive deionization for biomass hydrolysate desalination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huyskens, Celine; Helsen, J.; Groot, W.J.; Haan, de A.B.

    2013-01-01

    Biomass hydrolysates are rapidly gaining interest as low-cost non-food renewable feedstocks for fermentation processes. However, since high concentrations of salt such as sodium and potassium can act toxic to microorganisms, there is a need to remove these salts to maintain high biochemical

  3. Sensory Characteristics of Mud Clam (Polymesoda Erosa) Hydrolysate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normah Ismail; Noorasma Mustakim

    2016-01-01

    Mud clam (Polymesoda erosa) was hydrolysed using two different microbial enzymes; alcalase and flavourzyme. The volatile compounds, amino acids and molecular weight associated with umami and bitter taste in mud clam hydrolysate were determined by head space solid phase micro-extraction gas chromatography (HS-SPME-GCMS), High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The characteristics of hydrolysates produced using alcalase and flavourzyme were compared. In total, eighteen, seven and six volatile compounds were identified in the flesh, alcalase hydrolysate and flavourzyme hydrolysate, respectively. 2-piperidinone volatile compound content which is associated with bitterness was 6.79 % in alcalase hydrolysate and 3.78 % in flavourzyme hydrolysate. SDS-PAGE results showed that alcalase hydrolysate contains smaller peptide (<52 kDa) compared to flavourzyme hydrolysate (<126 kDa). In addition, sensory analysis using quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) showed that flavourzyme hydroysate was the least bitter but elicited more umami taste compared to alcalase hydrolysate. Further treatments are still needed to enhance umami taste and to remove bitter taste in mud clam hydrolysate. (author)

  4. Soybean plant growth study conducted using purified protein hydrolysate-based fertilizer made from chrome-tanned leather waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pati, Anupama; Chaudhary, Rubina

    2015-12-01

    Leather processing discharges enormous amount of chrome containing leather solid waste which creates a major disposal problem. Chrome-tanned leather solid waste is a complex of collagen and chromium. The presence of chromium limits protein application in fertilizer industry. The purified protein hydrolysate with zero chromium could be used as a nitrogen source for fertilizer formulation. In this study, an attempt has been made to employ purified protein hydrolysate derived from chrome-tanned leather shavings (CTLS) in formulation of fertilizer. The formulated fertilizer (1–3 t ha(-1)) is employed as nitrogen source in production of soybean. Plant growth study demonstrates that formulated fertilizer dosage 3 t ha(-1) produced similar effects of commercial fertilizer-treated plants. Application of formulated fertilizer yielded higher seed in plant than commercial fertilizer.

  5. Protective effects of methanolic extract of Adhatoda vasica Nees leaf in collagen-induced arthritis by modulation of synovial toll-like receptor-2 expression and release of pro-inflammatory mediators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Adhikary

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available RA associated with oxidative stress and chronic inflammation has been a major health problem among the population worldwide. In this study protective effect of methanolic extract of Adhatoda vasica leaf (AVE was evaluated on Collagen-induced arthritis in male Swiss albino mice. Post oral administration of AVE at 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight doses decreased the arthritic index and footpad swelling. AVE administration diminished pro-inflammatory cytokines in serum and synovial tissues. Reduced chemokines and neutrophil infiltration in synovial tissues after AVE administration dictated its protective effect against RA. Decreased LPO content and SOD activity along with concomitant rise in GSH and CAT activities from liver, spleen and synovial tissues indicated regulation of oxidative stress by AVE. In addition decreased CRP in serum along with suppressed TLR-2 expression in CIA mice after AVE treatment was also observed. Protective effect of AVE in RA is further supported from histopathological studies which showed improvement during bone damage. In conclusion this study demonstrated A. vasica is capable of regulating oxidative stress during CIA and therefore down regulated local and systemic release of pro-inflammatory mediators, which might be linked to mechanism of decreasing synovial TLR-2 expression via downregulating release of its regular endogenous ligands like CRP.

  6. Protein and protein hydrolysates in sports nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loon, Luc J C; Kies, Arie K; Saris, Wim H M

    2007-08-01

    With the increasing knowledge about the role of nutrition in increasing exercise performance, it has become clear over the last 2 decades that amino acids, protein, and protein hydrolysates can play an important role. Most of the attention has been focused on their effects at a muscular level. As these nutrients are ingested, however, it also means that gastrointestinal digestibility and absorption can modulate their efficacy significantly. Therefore, discussing the role of amino acids, protein, and protein hydrolysates in sports nutrition entails holding a discussion on all levels of the metabolic route. On May 28-29, 2007, a small group of researchers active in the field of exercise science and protein metabolism presented an overview of the different aspects of the application of protein and protein hydrolysates in sports nutrition. In addition, they were asked to share their opinions on the future progress in their fields of research. In this overview, an introduction to the workshop and a short summary of its outcome is provided.

  7. Effects of recombinant human collagen VI from Escherichia coli on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-20

    Jul 20, 2011 ... In this study, we reported the cloning and over expression of a gene coding for human collagen peptide. (CP6) in Escherichia coli and investigated the protective effects of CP6 on UVA-irradiated human skin fibroblasts cells. The collagen peptide (CP6) was highly soluble and the expression level was.

  8. Antihypertensive potential of bioactive hydrolysate from edible bird's nest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Ravisangkar; Babji, Abdul Salam; Sani, Norrakiah Abdullah

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study is to determine and compare the proximate composition, the degree of hydrolysis (DH) and the antihypertensive activity of edible bird's nest (EBN) hydrolysates of two different drying methods. Four types of enzymes (alcalase, bromelain, pancreatin and papain) were used in this study and with different hydrolysis time (30, 60, 90, 120, 180 and 240 min). The highest DH for alcalase (79.48 - 84.09%), pancreatine (77.10 - 80.45%) and papain (82.33%) for EBN hydrolysates was produced with alcalase treatment at 60 - 90 min, pancreatine treatment at 30 - 90 min and papain treatment at 90 min. Bromelain generated hydrolysates showed low DH. EBN hydrolysed using alcalase, pancreatin and papain have significantly higher protein content compared to raw EBN and the moisture content of all hydrolysates treatments was significantly lower compared to raw EBN. For antihypertensive assay, freeze dried EBN hydrolysates have higher antihypertensive activity compared to spray dried hydrolysates. The highest antihypertensive activity for freeze dried samples was produced by alcalase, bromelain and pancreatin and in the range of 80.22 - 86.97%. Meanwhile, papain proved to be less effective in producing hydrolysate with antihypertensive ability. In conclusion, EBN hydrolysate prepared by alcalase, bromelain and pancreatin could be classified as a functional food as it showed significant antihypertensive activity.

  9. Bitterness and Physichochemical Properties of Angelwing Clam (Pholas Orientalis) Hydrolysate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normah Ismail; Nurul Fasihah Razak

    2016-01-01

    Protein hydrolysates from angelwing clam were obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis using bromelain. The bitterness of hydrolysates was evaluated based on the degree hydrolysis (DH), sensory analysis, molecular weight distribution and functional group. By using 3 % of enzyme substrate ratio bromelain resulted in high DH value at 12.57 % when angelwing clam was hydrolysed for 2 hours. Sensory analysis showed that angelwing hydrolysate was bitter. Angelwing hydrolysate had molecular weight below 50 kDa. The lower molecular weight indicated that the protein has been degraded into smaller peptide chains which contribute to bitter taste. Moreover, the high peak of amine group in angelwing hydrolysate (3385.6 cm -1 ) suggested that bitterness exists. Angelwing hydrolysate had higher protein content, lower fat content and had good water holding capacity than the flesh. This result suggested that angelwing hydrolysate could be useful as food ingredient even though bitter taste developed after the hydrolysis. Thus, debittering should be considered in order to pave the way for full utilization of angelwing clam hydrolysate as a food ingredient. (author)

  10. Isolation and Characterization of Collagen and Antioxidant Collagen Peptides from Scales of Croceine Croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Acid soluble collagen (ASC from scales of croceine croaker (ASC-C was successfully isolated with the yield of 0.37% ± 0.08% (dry weight basis, and characterized as type I collagen on the basis of amino acid analysis and electrophoretic pattern. The antioxidant hydrolysate of ASC-C (ACH was prepared through a two-stage in vitro digestion (4-h trypsin followed by 4-h pepsin, and three antioxidant peptides (ACH-P1, ACH-P2, and ACH-P3 were further isolated from ACH using ultrafiltration, gel chromatography, and RP-HPLC, and their amino acid sequences were identified as GFRGTIGLVG (ACH-P1, GPAGPAG (ACH-P2, and GFPSG (ACH-P3. ACH-P1, ACH-P2, and ACH-P3 showed good scavenging activities on hydroxyl radical (IC50 0.293, 0.240, and 0.107 mg/mL, respectively, DPPH radical (IC50 1.271, 0.675, and 0.283 mg/mL, respectively, superoxide radical (IC50 0.463, 0.099, and 0.151 mg/mL, respectively, and ABTS radical (IC50 0.421, 0.309, and 0.210 mg/mL, respectively. ACH-P3 was also effectively against lipid peroxidation in the model system. The antioxidant activities of three collagen peptides were due to the presence of hydrophobic amino acid residues within the peptide sequences. The collagen peptides might be used as antioxidant for the therapy of diseases associated with oxidative stress, or reducing oxidative changes during storage.

  11. Collagen Quantification in Tissue Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coentro, João Quintas; Capella-Monsonís, Héctor; Graceffa, Valeria; Wu, Zhuning; Mullen, Anne Maria; Raghunath, Michael; Zeugolis, Dimitrios I

    2017-01-01

    Collagen is the major extracellular protein in mammals. Accurate quantification of collagen is essential in the biomaterials (e.g., reproducible collagen scaffold fabrication), drug discovery (e.g., assessment of collagen in pathophysiologies, such as fibrosis), and tissue engineering (e.g., quantification of cell-synthesized collagen) fields. Although measuring hydroxyproline content is the most widely used method to quantify collagen in biological specimens, the process is very laborious. To this end, the Sircol™ Collagen Assay is widely used due to its inherent simplicity and convenience. However, this method leads to overestimation of collagen content due to the interaction of Sirius red with basic amino acids of non-collagenous proteins. Herein, we describe the addition of an ultrafiltration purification step in the process to accurately determine collagen content in tissues.

  12. Fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates: Inhibition and detoxification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmqvist, E.

    1998-02-01

    The ethanol yield and productivity obtained during fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates is decreased due to the presence of inhibiting compounds, such as weak acids, furans and phenolic compounds produced during hydrolysis. Evaluation of the effect of various biological, physical and chemical detoxification treatments by fermentation assays using Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used to characterise inhibitors. Inhibition of fermentation was decreased after removal of the non-volatile compounds, pre-fermentation by the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei, treatment with the lignolytic enzyme laccase, extraction with ether, and treatment with alkali. Yeast growth in lignocellulosic hydrolysates was inhibited below a certain fermentation pH, most likely due to high concentrations of undissociated weak acids. The effect of individual compounds were studied in model fermentations. Furfural is reduced to furfuryl alcohol by yeast dehydrogenases, thereby affecting the intracellular redox balance. As a result, acetaldehyde accumulated during furfural reduction, which most likely contributed to inhibition of growth. Acetic acid (10 g 1{sup -1}) and furfural (3 g 1{sup -1}) interacted antagonistically causing decreased specific growth rate, whereas no significant individual or interaction effects were detected by the lignin-derived compound 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (2 g 1{sup -1}). By maintaining a high cell mass density in the fermentor, the process was less sensitive to inhibitors affecting growth and to fluctuations in fermentation pH, and in addition the depletion rate of bioconvertible inhibitors was increased. A theoretical ethanol yield and high productivity was obtained in continuous fermentation of spruce hydrolysate when the cell mass concentration was maintained at a high level by applying cell recirculation 164 refs, 16 figs, 5 tabs

  13. Antibacterial activity of papain hydrolysed camel whey and its fractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdel-Hamid, Mahmoud; Goda, Hanan A.; De Gobba, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    Camel whey (ON) was hydrolysed with papain from Carica papaya and fractionated by size exclusion chromatography (SEC). The antibacterial activity of the CW, camel whey hydrolysate (CWH) and the obtained SEC-fractions was assessed using the disc-diffusion method. The CWH exhibited significantly...

  14. Moisture absorption and retention properties, and activity in alleviating skin photodamage of collagen polypeptide from marine fish skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Hu; Li, Bafang; Zhang, Zhaohui; Xue, Changhu; Yu, Guangli; Wang, Jingfeng; Bao, Yuming; Bu, Lin; Sun, Jiang; Peng, Zhe; Su, Shiwei

    2012-12-01

    Collagen polypeptides were prepared from cod skin. Moisture absorption and retention properties of collagen polypeptides were determined at different relative humidities. In addition, the protective effects of collagen polypeptide against UV-induced damage to mouse skin were evaluated. Collagen polypeptides had good moisture absorption and retention properties and could alleviate the damage induced by UV radiation. The action mechanisms of collagen polypeptide mainly involved enhancing immunity, reducing the loss of moisture and lipid, promoting anti-oxidative properties, inhibiting the increase of glycosaminoglycans, repairing the endogenous collagen and elastin protein fibres, and maintaining the ratio of type III to type I collagen. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Edaravone suppresses degradation of type II collagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chen; Liao, Guangjun; Han, Jian; Zhang, Guofeng; Zou, Benguo

    2016-05-13

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease affecting millions of people. The degradation and loss of type II collagen induced by proinflammatory cytokines secreted by chondrocytes, such as factor-α (TNF-α) is an important pathological mechanism to the progression of OA. Edaravone is a potent free radical scavenger, which has been clinically used to treat the neuronal damage following acute ischemic stroke. However, whether Edaravone has a protective effect in articular cartilage hasn't been reported before. In this study, we investigated the chondrocyte protective effects of Edaravone on TNF-α induced degradation of type Ⅱ collagen. And our results indicated that TNF-α treatment resulted in degradation of type Ⅱ collagen, which can be ameliorated by treatment with Edaravone in a dose dependent manner. Notably, it was found that the inhibitory effects of Edaravone on TNF-α-induced reduction of type Ⅱ collagen were mediated by MMP-3 and MMP-13. Mechanistically, we found that Edaravone alleviated TNF-α induced activation of STAT1 and expression of IRF-1. These findings suggest a potential protective effect of Edaravone in OA. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Protein Hydrolysates as Promoters of Non-Haem Iron Absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanan; Jiang, Han; Huang, Guangrong

    2017-01-01

    Iron (Fe) is an essential micronutrient for human growth and health. Organic iron is an excellent iron supplement due to its bioavailability. Both amino acids and peptides improve iron bioavailability and absorption and are therefore valuable components of iron supplements. This review focuses on protein hydrolysates as potential promoters of iron absorption. The ability of protein hydrolysates to chelate iron is thought to be a key attribute for the promotion of iron absorption. Iron-chelatable protein hydrolysates are categorized by their absorption forms: amino acids, di- and tri-peptides and polypeptides. Their structural characteristics, including their size and amino acid sequence, as well as the presence of special amino acids, influence their iron chelation abilities and bioavailabilities. Protein hydrolysates promote iron absorption by keeping iron soluble, reducing ferric iron to ferrous iron, and promoting transport across cell membranes into the gut. We also discuss the use and relative merits of protein hydrolysates as iron supplements. PMID:28617327

  17. Protein Hydrolysates as Promoters of Non-Haem Iron Absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanan Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Iron (Fe is an essential micronutrient for human growth and health. Organic iron is an excellent iron supplement due to its bioavailability. Both amino acids and peptides improve iron bioavailability and absorption and are therefore valuable components of iron supplements. This review focuses on protein hydrolysates as potential promoters of iron absorption. The ability of protein hydrolysates to chelate iron is thought to be a key attribute for the promotion of iron absorption. Iron-chelatable protein hydrolysates are categorized by their absorption forms: amino acids, di- and tri-peptides and polypeptides. Their structural characteristics, including their size and amino acid sequence, as well as the presence of special amino acids, influence their iron chelation abilities and bioavailabilities. Protein hydrolysates promote iron absorption by keeping iron soluble, reducing ferric iron to ferrous iron, and promoting transport across cell membranes into the gut. We also discuss the use and relative merits of protein hydrolysates as iron supplements.

  18. Effect of Protein Hydrolysates on Pancreatic Cancer Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ossum, Carlo G.; Andersen, Lisa Lystbæk; Nielsen, Henrik Hauch

    Effect of Fish Protein Hydrolysates on Pancreatic Cancer Cells Carlo G. Ossum1, Lisa Lystbæk Andersen2, Henrik Hauch Nielsen2, Else K. Hoffmann1, and Flemming Jessen2 1University of Copenhagen, Department of Biology, Denmark, 2Technical University of Denmark (DTU), National Food Institute, Denmark...... hydrolysates obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis on cancer cell proliferation. Skin and belly flap muscle from trout were hydrolysed with the unspecific proteases Alcalase, Neutrase, or UE1 (all from Novozymes, Bagsværd, Denmark) to a hydrolysis degree of 1-15%. The hydrolysates were tested for biological...... activities affecting cell proliferation and ability to modulate caspase activity in pancreatic cancer cells COLO357 and BxPC-3 in vitro. A number of the hydrolysates showed caspase promoting activity; in particular products containing muscle tissue, i.e. belly flap, were able to stimulate caspase activity...

  19. Collagen metabolism in obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, M H; Jensen, L T; Andersen, T

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of obesity, fat distribution and weight loss on collagen turnover using serum concentrations of the carboxyterminal propeptide of type I procollagen (S-PICP) and the aminoterminal propeptide of type III pro-collagen (S-PIIINP) as markers for collagen turnover...... (r = 0.37; P = 0.004), height (r = 0.27; P = 0.04), waist circumference (r = 0.35; P = 0.007), as well as with WHR (r = 0.33; P = 0.01) and was inversely correlated to age (r = -0.40; P = 0.002). Compared with randomly selected controls from a large pool of healthy volunteers, the obese patients had...... restriction (P obesity and associated with body fat distribution, suggesting...

  20. Efficient Absorption of X-Hydroxyproline (Hyp)-Gly after Oral Administration of a Novel Gelatin Hydrolysate Prepared Using Ginger Protease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taga, Yuki; Kusubata, Masashi; Ogawa-Goto, Kiyoko; Hattori, Shunji

    2016-04-13

    Recent studies have reported that oral intake of gelatin hydrolysate has various beneficial effects, such as reduction of joint pain and lowering of blood sugar levels. In this study, we produced a novel gelatin hydrolysate using a cysteine-type ginger protease having unique substrate specificity with preferential peptide cleavage with Pro at the P2 position. Substantial amounts of X-hydroxyproline (Hyp)-Gly-type tripeptides were generated up to 2.5% (w/w) concomitantly with Gly-Pro-Y-type tripeptides (5%; w/w) using ginger powder. The in vivo absorption of the ginger-degraded gelatin hydrolysate was estimated using mice. The plasma levels of collagen-derived oligopeptides, especially X-Hyp-Gly, were significantly high (e.g., 2.3-fold for Glu-Hyp-Gly, p < 0.05) compared with those of the control gelatin hydrolysate, which was prepared using gastrointestinal proteases and did not contain detectable X-Hyp-Gly. This study demonstrated that orally administered X-Hyp-Gly was effectively absorbed into the blood, probably due to the high protease resistance of this type of tripeptide.

  1. Influence of enzymatic hydrolysis and enzyme type on the nutritional and antioxidant properties of pumpkin meal hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venuste, Muhamyankaka; Zhang, Xiaoming; Shoemaker, Charles F; Karangwa, Eric; Abbas, Shabbar; Kamdem, Patrick Eugene

    2013-04-30

    Nutritional and antioxidant properties of pumpkin meal and their hydrolysates prepared by hydrolysis with alcalase, flavourzyme, protamex or neutrase were evaluated. The hydrolysis process significantly increased protein content from 67.07% to 92.22%. All the essential amino acids met the Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations/World Health Organization (WHO/FAO) suggested requirements for children and adults. The amino acid score (AAS) of meal was increased from 65.59 to 73.00 except for flavourzyme (62.97) and protamex (62.50). The Biological Value (BV) was increased from 53.18 to 83.44 except for protamex (40.97). However hydrolysis decreased the Essential Amino Acid/Total Amino Acid ratio (EAA/TAA) from 32.98% to 29.43%. Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER) was comparable to that of good quality protein (1.5) except for flavourzyme hydrolysate which had PER1 = 0.92, PER2 = 1.03, PER3 = 0.38. The in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) increased from 71.32% to 77.96%. Antioxidant activity increased in a dose-dependent manner. At 10 mg mL(-1), the hydrolysates had increased 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazy (DPPH) radical scavenging activities from 21.89% to 85.27%, the reducing power increased from Abs(700nm) 0.21 to 0.48. Metal (Iron) chelating ability was improved from 30.50% to 80.03% at 1 mg mL(-1). Hydrolysates also showed better capabilities to suppress or delay lipid peroxidation in a linoleic acid model system. Different proteases lead to different Degrees of Hydrolysis (DH), molecular weight (MW) distribution, amino acid composition and sequence, which influenced the nutritional properties and antioxidant activities of the hydrolysates. Alcalase was the most promising protease in production of pumpkin protein hydrolysates with improved nutritional quality, while flavourzyme was best in production of hydrolysates with improved antioxidative activity among various assays. These results showed that hydrolysates from by-products of pumpkin oil

  2. [The genetics of collagen diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, J; Maroteaux, P; Frezal, J

    1986-01-01

    Heritable disorders of collagen include Ehler-Danlos syndromes (11 types are actually known), Larsen syndrome and osteogenesis imperfecta. Their clinical, genetic and biochemical features are reviewed. Marfan syndrome is closely related to heritable disorders of collagen.

  3. Ultrafiltration of hemicellulose hydrolysate fermentation broth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresnowati, M. T. A. P.; Desiriani, Ria; Wenten, I. G.

    2017-03-01

    Hemicelulosic material is often used as the main substrate to obtain high-value products such as xylose. The five carbon sugar, xylose, could be further processed by fermentation to produce xylitol. However, not only the hemicellulose hydrolysate fermentation broth contains xylitol, but also metabolite products, residual substances, biomass and mineral salts. Therefore, in order to obtain the end products, various separation processes are required to separate and purify the desired product from the fermentation broth. One of the most promising downstream processing methods of fermentation broth clarification is ultrafiltration due to its potential for energy saving and higher purity. In addition, ultrafiltration membrane has a high performance in separating inhibitory components in the fermentation broth. This paper assesses the influence of operating conditions; including trans-membrane pressure, velocity, pH of the fermentation broth solutions, and also to the xylitol concentration in the product. The challenges of the ultrafiltration process will be pointed out.

  4. Rheology of Heterotypic Collagen Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piechocka, I.K.; van Oosten, A.S.G.; Breuls, R.G.M.; Koenderink, G.H.

    2011-01-01

    Collagen fibrils are the main structural element of connective tissues. In many tissues, these fibrils contain two fibrillar collagens (types I and V) in a ratio that changes during tissue development, regeneration, and various diseases. Here we investigate the influence of collagen composition on

  5. Processing Methods of Alkaline Hydrolysate from Rice Husk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga D. Arefieva

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper devoted to finding processing methods of alkaline hydrolysate produced from rice husk pre-extraction, and discusses alkaline hydrolysate processing schemed and disengagement of some products: amorphous silica of various quality, alkaline lignin, and water and alkaline extraction polysaccharides. Silica samples were characterized: crude (air-dried, burnt (no preliminary water treatment, washed in distilled water, and washed in distilled water and burnt. Waste water parameters upon the extraction of solids from alkaline hydrolysate dropped a few dozens or thousand times depending on the applied processing method. Color decreased a few thousand times, turbidity was virtually eliminated, chemical oxygen demanded about 20–136 times; polyphenols content might decrease 50% or be virtually eliminated. The most prospective scheme obtained the two following solid products from rice husk alkaline hydrolysate: amorphous silica and alkaline extraction polysaccharide. Chemical oxygen demand of the remaining waste water decreased about 140 times compared to the silica-free solution.

  6. Post-exercise ingestion of a carbohydrate and casein hydrolysate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    casein hydrolysate) supplement on perceived muscle soreness and fatigue, in international level Sevens rugby players (n=23) during a pre-season training camp. Methods. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled design was used. Players ...

  7. Sport Nutrition Drinks Based on Octopus Protein Hydrolysate

    OpenAIRE

    Bambang Riyanto; Wini Trilaksani; Rika Lestari

    2017-01-01

    AbstractSport nutrition drinks are well-known in escalating athlete’s performance and endurance. These product developed from whey protein hydrolysates and soybean protein hydrolysates have already been recognized, however expansion from marine product is comparatively rare. Octopus (Octopus cyanea) widely acknowledged containing taurine and rich in amino acids is potential to be developed as ingredient for sport nutrition drink. The aims of this study were to create and characterize sport nu...

  8. Development of Sausages Containing Mechanically Deboned Chicken Meat Hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, S K; Choi, J S; Choi, Y J; Lee, S J; Lee, S Y; Hur, S J

    2015-07-01

    Pork meat sausages were prepared using protein hydrolysates from mechanically deboned chicken meat (MDCM). In terms of the color, compared to the controls before and after storage, the redness (a*) was significantly higher in sausages containing MDCM hydrolysates, ascorbate, and sodium erythorbate. After storage, compared to the other sausage samples, the yellowness (b*) was lower in the sausages containing ascorbate and sodium erythorbate. TBARS was not significantly different among the sausage samples before storage, whereas TBARS and DPPH radical scavenging activities were significantly higher in the sausagescontainingascorbate and sodium erythorbate, compared to the other sausage samples after 4 wk of storage. In terms of sensory evaluation, the color was significantly higher in the sausages containing MDCM hydrolysates, ascorbate, and sodium erythorbate, compared to the other sausage samples after 4 wk of storage. The "off-flavor" and overall acceptability were significantly lower in the sausages containing MDCM hydrolysates than in the other sausage samples. In most of the developed countries, meat from spent laying hens is not consumed, leading toan urgent need for effectively utilization or disposal methods. In this study, sausages were prepared using spent laying hens and protein hydrolysates from mechanically deboned chicken meat. Sausage can be made by spent laying hens hydrolysates, although overall acceptability was lower than those of other sausage samples. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  9. Collagen turnover after tibial fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joerring, S; Krogsgaard, M; Wilbek, H

    1994-01-01

    Collagen turnover after tibial fractures was examined in 16 patients with fracture of the tibial diaphysis and in 8 patients with fracture in the tibial condyle area by measuring sequential changes in serological markers of turnover of types I and III collagen for up to 26 weeks after fracture....... The markers were the carboxy-terminal extension peptide of type I procollagen (PICP), the amino-terminal extension peptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP), and the pyridinoline cross-linked carboxy-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP). The latter is a new serum marker of degradation of type I...... collagen. A group comparison showed characteristic sequential changes in the turnover of types I and III collagen in fractures of the tibial diaphysis and tibial condyles. The turnover of type III collagen reached a maximum after 2 weeks in both groups. The synthesis of type I collagen reached a maximum...

  10. The collagenic architecture of human dura mater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protasoni, Marina; Sangiorgi, Simone; Cividini, Andrea; Culuvaris, Gloria Tiffany; Tomei, Giustino; Dell'Orbo, Carlo; Raspanti, Mario; Balbi, Sergio; Reguzzoni, Marcella

    2011-06-01

    Human dura mater is the most external meningeal sheet surrounding the CNS. It provides an efficient protection to intracranial structures and represents the most important site for CSF turnover. Its intrinsic architecture is made up of fibrous tissue including collagenic and elastic fibers that guarantee the maintenance of its biophysical features. The recent technical advances in the repair of dural defects have allowed for the creation of many synthetic and biological grafts. However, no detailed studies on the 3D microscopic disposition of collagenic fibers in dura mater are available. The authors report on the collagenic 3D architecture of normal dura mater highlighting the orientation, disposition in 3 dimensions, and shape of the collagen fibers with respect to the observed layer. Thirty-two dura mater specimens were collected during cranial decompressive surgical procedures, fixed in 2.5% Karnovsky solution, and digested in 1 N NaOH solution. After a routine procedure, the specimens were observed using a scanning electron microscope. The authors distinguished the following 5 layers in the fibrous dura mater of varying thicknesses, orientation, and structures: bone surface, external median, vascular, internal median, and arachnoid layers. The description of the ultrastructural 3D organization of the different layers of dura mater will give us more information for the creation of synthetic grafts that are as similar as possible to normal dura mater. This description will be also related to the study of the neoplastic invasion.

  11. Controlled self assembly of collagen nanoparticle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papi, Massimiliano; Palmieri, Valentina; Maulucci, Giuseppe; Arcovito, Giuseppe; Greco, Emanuela; Quintiliani, Gianluca; Fraziano, Maurizio; De Spirito, Marco

    2011-11-01

    In recent years carrier-mediated drug delivery has emerged as a powerful methodology for the treatment of various pathologies. The therapeutic index of traditional and novel drugs is enhanced via the increase of specificity due to targeting of drugs to a particular tissue, cell or intracellular compartment, the control over release kinetics, the protection of the active agent, or a combination of the above. Collagen is an important biomaterial in medical applications and ideal as protein-based drug delivery platform due to its special characteristics, such as biocompatibility, low toxicity, biodegradability, and weak antigenicity. While some many attempts have been made, further work is needed to produce fully biocompatible collagen hydrogels of desired size and able to release drugs on a specific target. In this article we propose a novel method to obtain spherical particles made of polymerized collagen surrounded by DMPC liposomes. The liposomes allow to control both the particles dimension and the gelling environment during the collagen polymerization. Furthermore, an optical based method to visualize and quantify each step of the proposed protocol is detailed and discussed.

  12. Antioxidant activity of protein hydrolysates from raw and heat-treated yellow string beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaś, Monika; Jakubczyk, Anna; Szymanowska, Urszula; Materska, Małgorzata; Zielińska, Ewelina

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, legume plants have been considered not only a source of valuable proteins necessary for the proper functioning and growth of the body but also a source of bioactive compounds such as bioactive peptides, that may be beneficial to human health and protect against negative change in food. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of heat treatment on the release of antioxidant peptides obtained by hydrolysis of the yellow string beans protein. The antioxidant properties of the hydrolysates were evaluated through free radical scavenging activities (DPPH and ABTS) and inhibition of iron activities (chelation of Fe2+). The results show that the heat treatment had influence on both increased peptides content and antioxidant activity after pepsin hydrolysis of string bean protein. The peptides content after protein hydrolysis derived from raw and heat treated beans were noted 2.10 and 2.50 mg·ml-1, respectively. The hydrolysates obtained from raw (PHR) and heat treated (PHT) beans showed better antioxidant properties than protein isolates (PIR and PIT). Moreover, the hydrolysates obtained from heat treated beans showed the higher ability to scavenge DPPH• (46.12%) and ABTS+• (92.32%) than obtained from raw beans (38.02% and 88.24%, correspondingly). The IC50 value for Fe2+ chelating ability for pepsin hydrolysates obtained from raw and heat treatment beans were noted 0.81 and 0.19 mg·ml-1, respectively. In conclusion, the results of this study showed that the heat treatment string beans caused increase in the antioxidant activities of peptide-rich hydrolysates.

  13. Attenuation of Renovascular Damage in Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rat by NWT-03, an Egg Protein Hydrolysate with ACE- and DPP4-Inhibitory Activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Yumei; Landheer, S.; Gilst, van W.H.; Amerongen, van A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) are important target enzymes in glycemic control and renovascular protection. Here, we studied the effect of NWT-03, an egg protein hydrolysate with DPP4- and ACE-inhibitory activity, on renovascular damage in Zucker

  14. Attenuation of Renovascular Damage in Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rat by NWT-03, an Egg Protein Hydrolysate with ACE- and DPP4-Inhibitory Activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Yumei; Landheer, Sjoerd; van Gilst, Wiek H.; van Amerongen, Aart; Hammes, Hans-Peter; Henning, Robert H.; Deelman, Leo E.; Buikema, Hendrik

    2012-01-01

    Background: Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) are important target enzymes in glycemic control and renovascular protection. Here, we studied the effect of NWT-03, an egg protein hydrolysate with DPP4- and ACE-inhibitory activity, on renovascular damage in Zucker

  15. Complex Determinants in Specific Members of the Mannose Receptor Family Govern Collagen Endocytosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jürgensen, Henrik J; Johansson, Kristina; Madsen, Daniel H

    2014-01-01

    Members of the well-conserved mannose receptor (MR) protein family have been functionally implicated in diverse biological and pathological processes. Importantly, a proposed common function is the internalization of collagen for intracellular degradation occurring during bone development, cancer...... invasion, and fibrosis protection. This functional relationship is suggested by a common endocytic capability and a candidate collagen-binding domain. Here we conducted a comparative investigation of each member's ability to facilitate intracellular collagen degradation. As expected, the family members u......PARAP/Endo180 and MR bound collagens in a purified system and internalized collagens for degradation in cellular settings. In contrast, the remaining family members, PLA2R and DEC-205, showed no collagen binding activity and were unable to mediate collagen internalization. To pinpoint the structural elements...

  16. Collagen macromolecular drug delivery systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, D.L.

    1988-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine collagen for use as a macromolecular drug delivery system by determining the mechanism of release through a matrix. Collagen membranes varying in porosity, crosslinking density, structure and crosslinker were fabricated. Collagen characterized by infrared spectroscopy and solution viscosity was determined to be pure and native. The collagen membranes were determined to possess native vs. non-native quaternary structure and porous vs. dense aggregate membranes by electron microscopy. Collagen monolithic devices containing a model macromolecule (inulin) were fabricated. In vitro release rates were found to be linear with respect to t 1/2 and were affected by crosslinking density, crosslinker and structure. The biodegradation of the collagen matrix was also examined. In vivo biocompatibility, degradation and 14 C-inulin release rates were evaluated subcutaneously in rats

  17. Collagens - structure, function and biosynthesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Gelse, K; Poschl, E; Aigner, T

    2003-01-01

    The extracellular matrix represents a complex alloy of variable members of diverse protein families defining structural integrity and various physiological functions. The most abundant family is the collagens with more than 20 different collagen types identified so far. Collagens are centrally involved in the formation of fibrillar and microfibrillar networks of the extracellular matrix, basement membranes as well as other structures of the extracellular matrix. This review focuses on the dis...

  18. Extraction of collagen and gelatine from meat industry by-products for food and non food uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokrejs, Pavel; Langmaier, Ferdinand; Mladek, Milan; Janacova, Dagmar; Kolomaznik, Karel; Vasek, Vladimir

    2009-02-01

    Short tendons of slaughtered cattle, which consist of relatively pure collagen, were cleaned of lipoid substances and non-collagen proteins using a commercial enzymatic preparation. Diluted acetic acid was used to separate the acid-soluble collagen (M(N) approximately 300 kDa) for a yield of around 5%. The residue was extracted with water and the extraction conditions were derived to produce gelatine with a gel rigidity of 350-410 degrees Bloom and a yield of 55-60%. Prolonged extraction time, as well as increased extraction temperature, led to a deterioration in the gelatine quality and, therefore, the residue after aqueous extraction was processed by enzymatic hydrolysis into a collagen hydrolysate of M(N) = 500-1000 Da. Such hydrolysates can be utilized in industry as humectants in cosmetic skin-care preparations or as a secondary industrial raw material for producing surfactants of acylamino-carboxy acid type, which are known for their favourable dermatological effects. Apart from a maximum of 7% lipoid substances the proposed procedure produced no further waste so it may be regarded as a 'clean technology'.

  19. Physiological Importance and Mechanisms of Protein Hydrolysate Absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhanghi, Brian M.; Matthews, James C.

    Understanding opportunities to maximize the efficient digestion and assimilation by production animals of plant- and animal-derived protein products is critical for farmers, nutritionists, and feed manufacturers to sustain and expand the affordable production of high quality animal products for human consumption. The challenge to nutritionists is to match gastrointestinal tract load to existing or ­inducible digestive and absorptive capacities. The challenge to feed manufacturers is to develop products that are efficient substrates for digestion, absorption, and/or both events. Ultimately, the efficient absorption of digesta proteins depends on the mediated passage (transport) of protein hydrosylate products as dipeptides and unbound amino acids across the lumen- and blood-facing membranes of intestinal absorptive cells. Data testing the relative efficiency of supplying protein as hydrolysates or specific dipeptides versus as free amino acids, and the response of animals in several physiological states to feeding of protein hydrolysates, are presented and reviewed in this chapter. Next, data describing the transport mechanisms responsible for absorbing protein hydrolysate digestion products, and the known and putative regulation of these mechanisms by their substrates (small peptides) and hormones are presented and reviewed. Several conclusions are drawn regarding the efficient use of protein hydrolysate-based diets for particular physiological states, the economically-practical application of which likely will depend on technological advances in the manufacture of protein hydrolysate products.

  20. Determination of Free-Form and Peptide Bound Pyrraline in the Commercial Drinks Enriched with Different Protein Hydrolysates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhili Liang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Pyrraline, a causative factor for the recent epidemics of diabetes and cardiovascular disease, is also employed as an indicator to evaluate heat damage and formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs in foods. Peptide-enriched drinks (PEDs are broadly consumed worldwide due to rapid rate of absorption and perceived health effects. It can be hypothesized that PED is an important source of pyrraline, especially peptide bound pyrraline (Pep-Pyr. In this study we determined free-form pyrraline (Free-Pyr and Pep-Pyr in drinks enriched with whey protein hydrolysate (WPH, soy protein hydrolysate (SPH and collagen protein hydrolysate (CPH. A detection method was developed using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography with UV-visible detector coupled with tandem mass spectrometry after solid-phase extraction (SPE. The SPE led to excellent recovery rates ranging between 93.2% and 98.5% and a high reproducibility with relative standard deviations (RSD of <5%. The limits of detection and quantification obtained were 30.4 and 70.3 ng/mL, respectively. Pep-Pyr was identified as the most abundant form (above 96 percent of total pyrraline, whereas Free-Pyr was present in a small proportion (less than four percent of total pyrraline. The results indicate that PED is an important extrinsic source of pyrraline, especially Pep-Pyr. As compared with CPH- and SPH-enriched drinks, WPH-enriched drinks contained high content of Pep-Pyr. The Pep-Pyr content is associated with the distribution of peptide lengths and the amino acid compositions of protein in PEDs.

  1. Detoxification of acidic catalyzed hydrolysate of Kappaphycus alvarezii (cottonii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinita, Maria Dyah Nur; Hong, Yong-Ki; Jeong, Gwi-Taek

    2012-01-01

    Red seaweed, Kappaphycus alvarezii, holds great promise for use in biofuel production due to its high carbohydrate content. In this study, we investigated the effect of fermentation inhibitors to the K. alvarezii hydrolysate on cell growth and ethanol fermentation. In addition, detoxification of fermentation inhibitors was performed to decrease the fermentation inhibitory effect. 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural and levulinic acid, which are liberated from acidic hydrolysis, was also observed in the hydrolysate of K. alvarezii. These compounds inhibited ethanol fermentation. In order to remove these inhibitors, activated charcoal and calcium hydroxide were introduced. The efficiency of activated charcoals was examined and over-liming was used to remove the inhibitors. Activated charcoal was found to be more effective than calcium hydroxide to remove the inhibitors. Detoxification by activated charcoal strongly improved the fermentability of dilute acid hydrolysate in the production of bioethanol from K. alvarezii with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The optimal detoxifying conditions were found to be below an activated charcoal concentration of 5%.

  2. Sport Nutrition Drinks Based on Octopus Protein Hydrolysate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Riyanto

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstractSport nutrition drinks are well-known in escalating athlete’s performance and endurance. These product developed from whey protein hydrolysates and soybean protein hydrolysates have already been recognized, however expansion from marine product is comparatively rare. Octopus (Octopus cyanea widely acknowledged containing taurine and rich in amino acids is potential to be developed as ingredient for sport nutrition drink. The aims of this study were to create and characterize sport nutrition drinks based on marine peptides through Octopus protein hydrolyzate. Octopus protein hydrolysate has 77.78±2.69% degree of hydrolysis and 751.02±10.63 mg / 100g taurine. Sports nutrition drinks with the addition of 4% Octopus protein hydrolyzate was acceptable sensory panelists, and the serving size of 600 ml contained taurine 726.06±0.82 mg and detected 17 types of amino acids.

  3. Factors affecting antioxidant activity of soybean meal and caseine protein hydrolysates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korczak, J.

    1998-01-01

    Antioxidative activity of protein hydrolysates was dependent on the raw material, condition of hydrolysis and lipid substrate used in model systems. Soybean meal hydrolysate was more active in lard and in linoleic acid emulsion than caseine hydrolysate, whereas caseine was more active in vegetable oils. Antioxidant activity of evaluated protein hydrolysates in all lipid systems, with or without oxidation catalysts, suggests them as natural food additives for lipid stabilization, thus for improvement of its nutritional value and sensory properties

  4. Lactic Acid Production from Pretreated Hydrolysates of Corn Stover by a Newly Developed Bacillus coagulans Strain

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Ting; Qiao, Hui; Zheng, Zhaojuan; Chu, Qiulu; Li, Xin; Yong, Qiang; Ouyang, Jia

    2016-01-01

    An inhibitor-tolerance strain, Bacillus coagulans GKN316, was developed through atmospheric and room temperature plasma (ARTP) mutation and evolution experiment in condensed dilute-acid hydrolysate (CDH) of corn stover. The fermentabilities of other hydrolysates with B. coagulans GKN316 and the parental strain B. coagulans NL01 were assessed. When using condensed acid-catalyzed steam-exploded hydrolysate (CASEH), condensed acid-catalyzed liquid hot water hydrolysate (CALH) and condensed acid-...

  5. Collagen Conduit Versus Microsurgical Neurorrhaphy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boeckstyns, Michel; Sørensen, Allan Ibsen; Viñeta, Joaquin Fores

    2013-01-01

    To compare repair of acute lacerations of mixed sensory-motor nerves in humans using a collagen tube versus conventional repair.......To compare repair of acute lacerations of mixed sensory-motor nerves in humans using a collagen tube versus conventional repair....

  6. Optimization of Protein Hydrolysate Production Process from Jatropha curcas Cake

    OpenAIRE

    Waraporn Apiwatanapiwat; Pilanee Vaithanomsat; Phanu Somkliang; Taweesiri Malapant

    2009-01-01

    This was the first document revealing the investigation of protein hydrolysate production optimization from J. curcas cake. Proximate analysis of raw material showed 18.98% protein, 5.31% ash, 8.52% moisture and 12.18% lipid. The appropriate protein hydrolysate production process began with grinding the J. curcas cake into small pieces. Then it was suspended in 2.5% sodium hydroxide solution with ratio between solution/ J. curcas cake at 80:1 (v/w). The hydrolysis reactio...

  7. Sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate as a potential feedstock for red pigment production by Monascus ruber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terán Hilares, Ruly; de Souza, Rebeca Andrade; Marcelino, Paulo Franco

    2018-01-01

    condition (7.45 UA490nm). By using SCB hydrolysate-based medium, the highest red pigment production (18.71 AU490nm) was achieved under dark condition and the glucose and cellobiose present in the hydrolysate were metabolized. SCB enzymatic hydrolysate was demonstrated to be a promising carbon source...

  8. Collagencin, an antibacterial peptide from fish collagen: Activity, structure and interaction dynamics with membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ennaas, Nadia; Hammami, Riadh; Gomaa, Ahmed; Bédard, François; Biron, Éric; Subirade, Muriel; Beaulieu, Lucie; Fliss, Ismail

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we first report characterization of collagencin, an antimicrobial peptide identified from fish collagen hydrolysate. The peptide completely inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus at 1.88 mM. Although non-toxic up to 470 μM, collagencin was hemolytic at higher concentrations. The secondary structure of collagencin was mainly composed by β-sheet and β-turn as determined by CD measurements and molecular dynamics. The peptide is likely to form β-sheet structure under hydrophobic environments and interacts with both anionic (phosphatidylglycerol) and zwitterionic (phosphoethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine) lipids as shown with CD spectroscopy and molecular dynamics. The peptide formed several hydrogen bonds with both POPG and POPE lipids and remained at membrane–water interface, suggesting that collagencin antibacterial action follows a carpet mechanism. Collagenous fish wastes could be processed by enzymatic hydrolysis and transformed into products of high value having functional or biological properties. Marine collagens are a promising source of antimicrobial peptides with new implications in food safety and human health. - Highlights: • Collagencin, an antibacterial (G+ & G-) peptide identified from fish collagen hydrolysate. • The peptide completely inhibited the growth of S. aureus at 1.88 mM and non-toxic at 470 μM. • The secondary structure was mainly composed by β-sheet and turn as determined by CD and MD. • Collagencin interacts with both anionic and zwitterionic lipids as shown with CD and MD. • Collagencin antibacterial action probably follows a carpet mechanism.

  9. Collagencin, an antibacterial peptide from fish collagen: Activity, structure and interaction dynamics with membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ennaas, Nadia [STELA Dairy Research Centre, Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods, Université Laval, G1V 0A6 Québec, QC (Canada); Hammami, Riadh, E-mail: riadh.hammami@fsaa.ulaval.ca [STELA Dairy Research Centre, Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods, Université Laval, G1V 0A6 Québec, QC (Canada); Gomaa, Ahmed [STELA Dairy Research Centre, Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods, Université Laval, G1V 0A6 Québec, QC (Canada); Bédard, François; Biron, Éric [Faculty of Pharmacy, Université Laval and Laboratory of Medicinal Chemistry, CHU de Québec Research Centre, G1V 4G2 Québec, QC (Canada); Subirade, Muriel [STELA Dairy Research Centre, Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods, Université Laval, G1V 0A6 Québec, QC (Canada); Beaulieu, Lucie, E-mail: lucie.beaulieu@fsaa.ulaval.ca [STELA Dairy Research Centre, Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods, Université Laval, G1V 0A6 Québec, QC (Canada); Department of Biology, Chemistry and Geography, Université du Québec à Rimouski (UQAR), 300 Allée des Ursulines, Rimouski, QC G5L 3A1 (Canada); Fliss, Ismail, E-mail: ismail.fliss@fsaa.ulaval.ca [STELA Dairy Research Centre, Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods, Université Laval, G1V 0A6 Québec, QC (Canada)

    2016-04-29

    In this study, we first report characterization of collagencin, an antimicrobial peptide identified from fish collagen hydrolysate. The peptide completely inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus at 1.88 mM. Although non-toxic up to 470 μM, collagencin was hemolytic at higher concentrations. The secondary structure of collagencin was mainly composed by β-sheet and β-turn as determined by CD measurements and molecular dynamics. The peptide is likely to form β-sheet structure under hydrophobic environments and interacts with both anionic (phosphatidylglycerol) and zwitterionic (phosphoethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine) lipids as shown with CD spectroscopy and molecular dynamics. The peptide formed several hydrogen bonds with both POPG and POPE lipids and remained at membrane–water interface, suggesting that collagencin antibacterial action follows a carpet mechanism. Collagenous fish wastes could be processed by enzymatic hydrolysis and transformed into products of high value having functional or biological properties. Marine collagens are a promising source of antimicrobial peptides with new implications in food safety and human health. - Highlights: • Collagencin, an antibacterial (G+ & G-) peptide identified from fish collagen hydrolysate. • The peptide completely inhibited the growth of S. aureus at 1.88 mM and non-toxic at 470 μM. • The secondary structure was mainly composed by β-sheet and turn as determined by CD and MD. • Collagencin interacts with both anionic and zwitterionic lipids as shown with CD and MD. • Collagencin antibacterial action probably follows a carpet mechanism.

  10. Abalone Protein Hydrolysates: Preparation, Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme Inhibition and Cellular Antioxidant Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo Yeon; Je, Jae-Young; Hwang, Joung-Youl; Ahn, Chang-Bum

    2015-09-01

    Abalone protein was hydrolyzed by enzymatic hydrolysis and the optimal enzyme/substrate (E/S) ratios were determined. Abalone protein hydrolysates (APH) produced by Protamex at E/S ratio of 1:100 showed angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitory activity with IC50 of 0.46 mg/mL, and APH obtained by Flavourzyme at E/S ratio of 1:100 possessed the oxygen radical absorbance capacity value of 457.6 μM trolox equivalent/mg sample. Flavourzyme abalone protein hydrolysates (FAPH) also exhibited H2O2 scavenging activity with IC50 of 0.48 mg/mL and Fe(2+) chelating activity with IC50 of 2.26 mg/mL as well as high reducing power. FAPH significantly (P<0.05) protected H2O2-induced hepatic cell damage in cultured hepatocytes, and the cell viability was restored to 90.27% in the presence of FAPH. FAPH exhibited 46.20% intracellular ROS scavenging activity and 57.89% lipid peroxidation inhibition activity in cultured hepatocytes. Overall, APH may be useful as an ingredient for functional foods.

  11. Cellulase Production from Spent Lignocellulose Hydrolysates by Recombinant Aspergillus niger▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alriksson, Björn; Rose, Shaunita H.; van Zyl, Willem H.; Sjöde, Anders; Nilvebrant, Nils-Olof; Jönsson, Leif J.

    2009-01-01

    A recombinant Aspergillus niger strain expressing the Hypocrea jecorina endoglucanase Cel7B was grown on spent hydrolysates (stillage) from sugarcane bagasse and spruce wood. The spent hydrolysates served as excellent growth media for the Cel7B-producing strain, A. niger D15[egI], which displayed higher endoglucanase activities in the spent hydrolysates than in standard medium with a comparable monosaccharide content (e.g., 2,100 nkat/ml in spent bagasse hydrolysate compared to 480 nkat/ml in standard glucose-based medium). In addition, A. niger D15[egI] was also able to consume or convert other lignocellulose-derived compounds, such as acetic acid, furan aldehydes, and phenolic compounds, which are recognized as inhibitors of yeast during ethanolic fermentation. The results indicate that enzymes can be produced from the stillage stream as a high-value coproduct in second-generation bioethanol plants in a way that also facilitates recirculation of process water. PMID:19251882

  12. Debittering of Protein Hydrolysates by Lactobacillus LBL-4 Aminopeptidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bozhidar Tchorbanov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Yoghurt strain Lactobacillus LBL-4 cultivated for 8–10 h at pH ~6.0 was investigated as a considerable food-grade source of intracellular aminopeptidase. Cell-free extract manifesting >200 AP U/l was obtained from cells harvested from 1 L culture media. Subtilisin-induced hydrolysates of casein, soybean isolate, and Scenedesmus cell protein with degree of hydrolysis 20–22% incubated at 45∘C for 10 h by 10 AP U/g peptides caused an enlarging of DH up to 40–42%, 46–48%, and 38–40% respectively. The DH increased rapidly during the first 4 h, but gel chromatography studies on BioGel P-2 showed significant changes occurred during 4–10 h of enzyme action when the DH increased gradually. After the digestion, the remained AP activity can be recovered by ultrafiltration (yield 40–50%. Scenedesmus protein hydrolysate with DH 20% was inoculated by Lactobacillus LBL-4 cells, and after 72 h cultivation the DH reached 32%. The protein hydrolysates (DH above 40% obtained from casein and soybean isolate (high Q value demonstrated a negligible bitterness while Scenedesmus protein hydrolysates (low Q value after both treatments were free of bitterness.

  13. Conversion of oligomeric starch, cellulose, hydrolysates or sugars to hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silks, Louis A; Sutton, Andrew; Kim, Jin Kyung; Gordon, John Cameron; Wu, Ruilian; Kimball, David B.

    2017-09-05

    Embodiments of the present invention are directed to the conversion of a source material (e.g., a depolymerized oligosaccharide mixture, a monomeric sugar, a hydrolysate, or a mixture of monomeric sugars) to intermediate molecules containing 7 to 26 contiguous carbon atoms. These intermediates may also be converted to saturated hydrocarbons. Such saturated hydrocarbons are useful as, for example, fuels.

  14. Radiation hydrolysate of tuna cooking juice with enhanced antioxidant properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jong-il; Sung, Nak-Yun; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2012-01-01

    Tuna protein hydrolysates are of increasing interest because of their potential application as a source of bioactive peptides. Large amounts of tuna cooking juice with proteins and extracts are produced during the process of tuna canning, and these cooking juice wastes cause environmental problems. Therefore, in this study, cooking juice proteins were hydrolyzed by irradiation for their utilization as functional additives. The degree of hydrolysis of tuna cooking juice protein increased from 0% to 15.1% at the absorbed doses of 50 kGy. To investigate the antioxidant activity of the hydrolysate, it was performed the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, and the lipid peroxidation inhibitory and superoxide radical scavenging activities were measured. The FRAP values increased from 1470 μM to 1930 μM and IC 50 on superoxide anion was decreased from 3.91 μg/mL to 1.29 μg/mL at 50 kGy. All of the antioxidant activities were increased in the hydrolysate, suggesting that radiation hydrolysis, which is a simple process that does not require an additive catalysts or an inactivation step, is a promising method for food and environmental industries. - Highlights: ► Radiation was applied for the hydrolysis of tuna cooking juice protein. ► The degree of hydrolysis were increased by irradiation and the antioxidant activity of hydrolysate was higher than protein. ► This result suggest that radiation is useful method for the hydrolysis of protein.

  15. Rheological and Functional Properties of Catfish Skin Protein Hydrolysates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catfish skin is an abundant and underutilized resource that can be used as a unique protein source to make fish skin hydrolysates. The objectives of this study were to: isolating soluble and insoluble proteins from hydrolyzed catfish skin and study the chemical and functional properties of the prote...

  16. Selection of lactic acid bacteria able to ferment inulin hydrolysates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavian BASTON

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Eight homofermentative lactic acid bacteria isolates were tested for lactic acid production using chicory and Jerusalem artichoke hydrolysate as substrate. The pH, lactic acid yield and productivity were used to select the best homolactic bacteria for lactic acid production. The selected strains produced lactic acid at maximum yield after 24 hours of fermentation and the productivity was greater at 24 hours of fermentation. From all studied strains, Lb1 and Lb2 showed the best results regarding lactic acid yields andproductivity. After 48 hours of chicory and Jerusalem artichhoke hydrolysates fermentation, from all the studied strains, Lb2 produced the highest lactic acid yield (0.97%. Lb2 produced after 48 hours of fermentation the lowest pH value of 3.45±0.01. Lb2 showed greater lactic acid productivity compared to the other studied lactic acid bacteria, the highest values, 0.13 g·L-1·h-1fromJerusalem artichoke hydrolysate and 0.11g·L-1·h-1 from chicory hydrolysate, being produced after 24 hours of fermentation.

  17. Production of functional protein hydrolysates from Egyptian breeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Production of functional protein hydrolysates from Egyptian breeds of soybean and lupin seeds. AA khalil, SS Mohamed, FS Taha, EN Karlsson. Abstract. Enzymatic hydrolysis is an agro-processing aid that can be utilized in order to improve nutritional quality of protein extracts from many sources. In this study, protein ...

  18. A collagen-binding EGFR antibody fragment targeting tumors with a collagen-rich extracellular matrix

    OpenAIRE

    Hui Liang; Xiaoran Li; Bin Wang; Bing Chen; Yannan Zhao; Jie Sun; Yan Zhuang; Jiajia Shi; He Shen; Zhijun Zhang; Jianwu Dai

    2016-01-01

    Many tumors over-express collagen, which constitutes the physical scaffold of tumor microenvironment. Collagen has been considered to be a target for cancer therapy. The collagen-binding domain (CBD) is a short peptide, which could bind to collagen and achieve the sustained release of CBD-fused proteins in collagen scaffold. Here, a collagen-binding EGFR antibody fragment was designed and expressed for targeting the collagen-rich extracellular matrix in tumors. The antibody fragment (Fab) of ...

  19. Preparation and bioavailability of calcium-chelating peptide complex from tilapia skin hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Qiu, Xujian; Hao, Gengxin; Zhang, Meng; Weng, Wuyin

    2017-11-01

    With the continuous improvement in material life, the generation of fish by-products and the market demand for calcium supplements have been increasing in China. Therefore a calcium-chelating peptide complex (CPC) from tilapia skins was prepared and its effect on calcium (Ca)-deficient mice was investigated. The molecular weight distribution of CPC mainly ranged from 2000 to 180 Da, and its contents of complete amino acids and free amino acids were 85.30 and 8.67% (w/w) respectively. Scanning electron microscopy images and Fourier transform infrared data revealed that Ca crystals were bound with gelatin hydrolysates via interaction between Ca ions and NH/CN groups. When Ca-deficient mice were fed CPC and CaCO 3 respectively for 4 weeks, no significant differences in serum biochemistry or bone mineral density were found. However, the length, weight, Ca content and hydroxyproline content of the femur, Ca absorption and body weight gain of mice fed CPC were significantly higher than those of mice fed CaCO 3 . It is concluded that the prepared CPC could promote bone formation via better bioavailability of Ca and an increase in bone collagen. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Protein hydrolysates and recovery of muscle damage following eccentric exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A whey protein hydrolysate (NatraBoost XR; WPHNB has been shown to speed repair muscle damage. We sought to determine whether this benefit is specific to this hydrolysate to evaluate a marker for quality control. Methods: Three hydrolysates of the same whey protein isolate (WPI were prepared (WPHNB, WPH1 and WPH2. Isometric knee extensor strength was measured in 39 sedentary male participants before and after 100 maximal eccentric contractions of the knee extensors to induce muscle damage. Participants were then randomised to consume 250 ml of flavoured water (FW, n=9, or 250 ml of FW containing 25 g of either NatraBoost XR (n=3, WPH1 (n=9, WPH2 (n=9 or WPI (n=9. Strength was reassessed over the next seven days while the supplements were consumed daily. Fibroblasts were cultured for 48 hr in the presence of the different hydrolysates, WPI, saline or fetal bovine serum to ascertain effects on cell proliferation. Results: Strength was reduced in all treatment groups after eccentric exercise (P<0.001. Strength recovered steadily over 7 days in the FW, WPI, WPH1 and WPH2 treatment groups (P<0.001, with no difference between treatments (P=0.87. WPHNB promoted faster strength recovery compared with the other treatments (P<0.001. Fibroblast proliferation was greater with WPHNB compared with saline, WPI or the other hydrolysates (P<0.001. Conclusions: Promoting recovery from muscle damage seems unique to WPHNB. In vitro fibroblast proliferation may be a useful marker for quality control. It is not clear whether effects on fibroblast proliferation contribute to the in vivo effect of WPHNB on muscle damage.

  1. Production of Lupinus angustifolius protein hydrolysates with improved functional properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Millán, Francisco

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Protein hydrolysates wer e obtained from lupin flour and from the purified globulin α -conglutin, and their functional properties were studied. Hydrolysis with alcalase for 60 minutes yielded degrees of hydrolysis ranging from 4 % to 11 % for lupin flour, and from 4 % to 13% for α -conglutin. Protein solubility, oil absorption, foam capacity and stability, emulsifying activity, and emulsion stability of hydrolysates with 6% degree of hydrolysis were determined and compared with the properties of the original flour. The protein hydrolysates showed better functional properties than the original proteins. Most importantly, the solubility of the α -conglutin and L. angustifolius flour hydrolysates was increased by 43 % and 52 %, respectively. Thus, lupin seed protein hydrolysates have improved functional properties and could be used in the elaboration of a variety of products such as breads, cakes, and salad dressings.Se obtuvieron hidrolizados proteicos de la harina del altramuz y de la globulina α - conglutina purificada y se estudiaron sus propiedades funcionales. La hidrólisis con alcalasa durante 60 minutos produjo hidrolizados con grados de hidrólisis entre el 4 % y el 11 % para la harina y entre el 4 % y el 13 % para la α - conglutina. Se estudió en un hidrolizado con un 6 % de grado de hidrólisis la solubilidad proteica, absorción de aceite, capacidad y estabilidad espumante y actividad y estabilidad emulsificante. Los hidrolizados proteicos mostraron mejores propiedades funcionales que las proteínas originales. Más aún, la solubilidad de los hidrolizados de α - conglutina y la harina se incrementó en un 43 % y 52 % respectivamente. Así pues, hidrolizados de proteínas de semilla de lupino presentan mejores propiedades funcionales y podrían usarse en la elaboración de productos como pan, dulces, salsas o cremas.

  2. Protein Hydrolysates as Hypoallergenic, Flavors and Palatants for Companion Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagodawithana, Tilak W.; Nelles, Lynn; Trivedi, Nayan B.

    Early civilizations have relied upon their good sense and experience to develop and improve their food quality. The discovery of soy sauce centuries ago can now be considered one of the earliest protein hydrolysates made by man to improve palatability of foods. Now, it is well known that such savory systems are not just sources for enjoyment but complex semiotic systems that direct the humans to satisfy the body's protein need for their sustenance. Recent developments have resulted in a wide range of cost effective savory flavorings, the best known of which are autolyzed yeast extracts and hydrolyzed vegetable proteins. New technologies have helped researchers to improve the savory characteristics of yeast extracts through the application of Maillard reaction and by generating specific flavor enhancers through the use of enzymes. An interesting parallel exists in the pet food industry, where a similar approach is taken in using animal protein hydrolysates to create palatability enhancers via Maillard reaction scheme. Protein hydrolysates are also utilized extensively as a source of nutrition to the elderly, young children and immuno-compromised patient population. These hydrolysates have an added advantage in having peptides small enough to avoid any chance of an allergenic reaction which sometimes occur with the consumption of larger sized peptides or proteins. Accordingly, protein hydrolysates are required to have an average molecular weight distribution in the range 800-1,500 Da to make them non-allergenic. The technical challenge for scientists involved in food and feed manufacture is to use an appropriate combination of enzymes within the existing economic constraints and other physical factors/limitations, such as heat, pH, and time, to create highly palatable, yet still nutritious and hypoallergenic food formulations.

  3. Ethanol production from sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate using Pichia stipitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canilha, Larissa; Carvalho, Walter; Felipe, Maria das Graças de Almeida; Silva, João Batista de Almeida e; Giulietti, Marco

    2010-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the ethanol production from the sugars contained in the sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate with the yeast Pichia stipitis DSM 3651. The fermentations were carried out in 250-mL Erlenmeyers with 100 mL of medium incubated at 200 rpm and 30 degrees C for 120 h. The medium was composed by raw (non-detoxified) hydrolysate or by hydrolysates detoxified by pH alteration followed by active charcoal adsorption or by adsorption into ion-exchange resins, all of them supplemented with yeast extract (3 g/L), malt extract (3 g/L), and peptone (5 g/L). The initial concentration of cells was 3 g/L. According to the results, the detoxification procedures removed inhibitory compounds from the hemicellulosic hydrolysate and, thus, improved the bioconversion of the sugars into ethanol. The fermentation using the non-detoxified hydrolysate led to 4.9 g/L ethanol in 120 h, with a yield of 0.20 g/g and a productivity of 0.04 g L(-1) h(-1). The detoxification by pH alteration and active charcoal adsorption led to 6.1 g/L ethanol in 48 h, with a yield of 0.30 g/g and a productivity of 0.13 g L(-1) h(-1). The detoxification by adsorption into ion-exchange resins, in turn, provided 7.5 g/L ethanol in 48 h, with a yield of 0.30 g/g and a productivity of 0.16 g L(-1) h(-1).

  4. Inhibition of Lipid Peroxidation by Enzymatic Hydrolysates from Wheat Bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanping Cao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat bran, an important by-product of the cereal industry, is rich in potentially health-promoting phenolic compounds. The phenolics are mainly esterified to the cell wall polysaccharides. In our previous paper, wheat bran was destarched and deproteinated by α-amylase, protease and amyloglucosidase successively and further hydrolyzed using Bacillus subtilis xylanases, and the enzymatic hydrolysates from wheat bran (EHWB showed good scavenging activity in vitro. The aim of this study is to further characterize the antioxidant potential of EHWB against various systems, both ex vivo and in vivo, namely, rat liver microsomal lipid peroxidation systems induced by Fe2+/H2O2 and Fe3+-adenosine diphosphate (ADP/dihydronicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH, copper- and 2,2’-azo-bis(2-amidinopropane dihydrochloride (AAPH-induced human low-density lipoprotein (LDL oxidation systems, and alloxan-induced in vivo lipid peroxidation in mice. EHWB inhibited lipid peroxidation in rat liver microsomes induced by Fe2+/H2O2 and Fe3+-ADP/NADPH in a concentration-dependent manner with 90.3 and 87 % inhibition of lipid peroxidation at 50 mg/L, respectively, which were similar to that of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT at 20 mg/L. The antioxidant potential of EHWB at a concentration ranging from 10 to 20 mg/L in the nonenzymatic system was more effective than in the enzymatic system. EHWB strongly inhibited in vitro copper- and AAPH-mediated oxidation of LDL in a concentration- and time-dependent manner with 52.41 and 63.03 % inhibition at 20 mg/L, respectively, which were similar to that of ascorbate at 10 mg/L. EHWB significantly decreased the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS and increased the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, catalase (CAT and superoxide dismutase (SOD in serum and liver of alloxan-treated mice compared with the control. These results demonstrated that EHWB might be efficient in the protection of

  5. PHAGOCYTOSIS AND REMODELING OF COLLAGEN MATRICES

    OpenAIRE

    Abraham, Leah C.; Dice, J Fred.; Lee, Kyongbum; Kaplan, David L.

    2007-01-01

    The biodegradation of collagen and the deposition of new collagen-based extracellular matrices are of central importance in tissue remodeling and function. Similarly, for collagen-based biomaterials used in tissue engineering, the degradation of collagen scaffolds with accompanying cellular infiltration and generation of new extracellular matrix is critical for integration of in vitro grown tissues in vivo. In earlier studies we observed significant impact of collagen structure on primary lun...

  6. Recovery of monosaccharides from lignocellulosic hydrolysates by ion exclusion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodi, Gabriele; Pellegrini, Laura Annamaria; Aliverti, Alessandro; Rivas Torres, Beatriz; Bernardi, Marco; Morbidelli, Massimo; Storti, Giuseppe

    2017-05-05

    The production of sugars from lignocellulosic biomass is the key to a sustainable, renewable chemical industry. Glucose, xylose and other monosaccharides can be easily produced by hydrolyzing cellulose and hemicellulose, the primary polysaccharides in biomass. However, the hydrolysis of biomass generates byproducts that, together with the mineral acid normally added in the hydrolysis step, have to be removed before the downstream conversion processes. In this work, the recovery of monosaccharides from lignocellulosic hydrolysates by means of Ion Exclusion Chromatography (IEC) has been studied. The analyzed process relies on new pretreatment and hydrolysis steps, involving the neutralization of the hydrolysate with sodium hydroxide. The adsorption behavior of the main components involved in the separation has been experimentally investigated. Pulse tests at the high loading encountered in preparative conditions have been performed for a selected group of model components found in the hydrolysates. For all the electrolytes, the retention volume fraction was always between the interparticle porosity and the total column porosity, confirming that ion exclusion was the dominant retention mechanism. On the other hand, sugars eluted before the total column porosity, indicating partial steric exclusion from the resin pores. This observation was then confirmed by size-exclusion experiments with polyethylene glycol standards, from which the distribution coefficient of the studied sugars has been determined. The comparison between the elution profiles of the same sugars in pure form and as a mixture present in the hydrolysate showed differences in both peak shape and retention times. Therefore, an investigation of the influence of the main electrolytes contained in the hydrolysates on sugars adsorption has been performed through the pulse on a plateau method. The electrolytes were found to enhance the sugars retention by promoting their adsorption onto the resin. However

  7. Protective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wessam M. Abdel-Wahab

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Many active ingredients extracted from herbal and medicinal plants are extensively studied for their beneficial effects. Antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging properties of thymoquinone (TQ have been reported. The present study evaluated the possible protective effects of TQ against the toxicity and oxidative stress of sodium fluoride (NaF in the liver of rats. Rats were divided into four groups, the first group served as the control group and was administered distilled water whereas the NaF group received NaF orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 4 weeks, TQ group was administered TQ orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 5 weeks, and the NaF-TQ group was first given TQ for 1 week and was secondly administered 10 mg/kg/day NaF in association with 10 mg/kg TQ for 4 weeks. Rats intoxicated with NaF showed a significant increase in lipid peroxidation whereas the level of reduced glutathione (GSH and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione S-transferase (GST and glutathione peroxidase (GPx were reduced in hepatic tissues. The proper functioning of the liver was also disrupted as indicated by alterations in the measured liver function indices and biochemical parameters. TQ supplementation counteracted the NaF-induced hepatotoxicity probably due to its strong antioxidant activity. In conclusion, the results obtained clearly indicated the role of oxidative stress in the induction of NaF toxicity and suggested hepatoprotective effects of TQ against the toxicity of fluoride compounds.

  8. Effect of Casein Hydrolysates on Yogurt Fermentation and Texture Properties during Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang-Zhong Zhao

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of casein hydrolysates by papain on acidification of the yogurts and growth of probiotic bacteria during yogurt fermentation have been investigated. The viability of probiotic bacteria and texture characteristics of the yogurts during storage at 4 °C have been evaluated. The hydrolysates strongly decreased the fermentation and coagulation time of the yogurts. The post-fermentation acidification was retarded by the hydrolysates. The hydrolysates increased the probiotic counts during initial fermentation stage. The growth of the probiotic organisms decreased at the final stage. Survival of probiotic bacteria was improved by the hydrolysates. The hydrolysates significantly (p<0.05 increased the adhesiveness of the yogurts except for 0.5 % of hydrolysate with degree of hydrolysis of 8.5 %. The sensory evaluation scores of the yogurts were significantly (p<0.05 improved by the hydrolysates after the storage. The effect of casein hydrolysates on fermentation and texture properties was related to the molecular mass of the hydrolysates.

  9. Functional and antioxidant properties of protein hydrolysates obtained from white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorres, J M; Rios, D G; Saggiomo, G; Wasielesky, W; Prentice-Hernandez, C

    2018-02-01

    Protein hydrolysates from white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei ) with different degrees of hydrolysis (DH-10 and 20%) were prepared using the enzymes Alcalase 2.4 L and Protamex. The hydrolysates were evaluated for amino acid composition, solubility, foaming properties, emulsifying and antioxidant activity. All the hydrolysates showed high concentrations of Glutamic Acid, Aspartic acid, Arginine, Glycine, Lysine, Proline. It was found that the increase in the production of negatively charged amino acids was related to increase in DH. The hydrophobic amino acids were higher for hydrolysates obtained with Alcalase (10% DH) and Protamex (20% DH). The results indicated that higher degree of hydrolysis showed positive relation with the protein solubility of the hydrolysates, while negatively influenced foam and emulsification properties. The antioxidant properties presented by the white shrimp protein hydrolysates were influenced by the composition and peptides size. Hydrolysates with higher peptide chain showed the highest antioxidant power for the 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging and reducing power, while hydrolysates with lower peptide chain showed higher antioxidant power for 2,2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline sulfonic acid) radical scavenging. All hydrolysates showed dose-dependent antioxidant activities. Therefore, the results of the present study suggest that white shrimp is a potential source of protein hydrolysates as bioactive ingredients for the use in the formulation of functional foods as well as natural antioxidants in lipid food systems.

  10. Comparison of physicochemical properties of suppositories containing starch hydrolysates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Belniak

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to determine the effect of starch hydrolysates (SH on the physicochemical properties of suppositories. The study was conducted with suppositories with acetaminophen (AAP a typical antipyretic analgesic, as model drug on lipophilic (cocoa butter and hydrophilic base (polyethylene glycol 1500 + 400. The suppositories with and without the addition of SH were examined for physicochemical tests according to European Pharmacopoeia 8th edition (Ph. Eur.: the uniformity of mass of single-dose preparation test, the softening time determination of lipophilic suppositories test, the disintegration of suppositories test, and dissolution test with flow-through apparatus. The results confirm the possibility of using starch hydrolysates as a cheap and safe addition to modify physicochemical properties of suppositories.

  11. Comparison of physicochemical properties of suppositories containing starch hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belniak, Piotr; Świąder, Katarzyna; Szumiło, Michał; Hyla, Aleksandra; Poleszak, Ewa

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this work was to determine the effect of starch hydrolysates (SH) on the physicochemical properties of suppositories. The study was conducted with suppositories with acetaminophen (AAP) a typical antipyretic analgesic, as model drug on lipophilic (cocoa butter) and hydrophilic base (polyethylene glycol 1500 + 400). The suppositories with and without the addition of SH were examined for physicochemical tests according to European Pharmacopoeia 8th edition (Ph. Eur.): the uniformity of mass of single-dose preparation test, the softening time determination of lipophilic suppositories test, the disintegration of suppositories test, and dissolution test with flow-through apparatus. The results confirm the possibility of using starch hydrolysates as a cheap and safe addition to modify physicochemical properties of suppositories.

  12. Uracil in formic acid hydrolysates of deoxyribonucleic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schein, Arnold H.

    1966-01-01

    1. When DNA is hydrolysed with formic acid for 30min. at 175° and the hydrolysate is chromatographed on paper with propan-2-ol–2n-hydrochloric acid, in addition to expected ultraviolet-absorbing spots corresponding to guanine, adenine, cytosine and thymine, an ultraviolet-absorbing region with RF similar to that of uracil can be detected. Uracil was separated from this region and identified by its spectra in acid and alkali, and by its RF in several solvent systems. 2. Cytosine, deoxyribocytidine and deoxyribocytidylic acid similarly treated with formic acid all yielded uracil, as did a mixture of deoxyribonucleotides. 3. Approx. 4% of deoxyribonucleotide cytosine was converted into uracil by the formic acid treatment. ImagesFig. 1. PMID:5949371

  13. Use of Protein Hydrolysates in Industrial Starter Culture Fermentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ummadi, Madhavi (Soni); Curic-Bawden, Mirjana

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been used as starter cultures for fermenting foods long before the importance of microorganisms were recognized. The most important group of LAB are the lactococci, lactobacilli, streptococci, and pediococci. Additionally, bifidobacteria have been included as a probiotic, providing added value to the product. Since the genera involved are so diverse, the nutritional requirements (energy, carbon and nitrogen sources) differ significantly between and within species. Designing an optimum fermentation medium for production of active and vigorous LAB starter cultures and probiotics requires selecting the right raw ingredients, especially protein hydrolysates that can provide adequate nutrients for growth and viability. This chapter attempts to describe the application of various commercial protein hydrolysates used for production of dairy and meat starter cultures, with special emphasis on meeting the nitrogen requirements of industrially important LAB species.

  14. Collagen fibril architecture, domain organization, and triple-helical conformation govern its proteolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perumal, Shiamalee; Antipova, Olga; Orgel, Joseph P R O

    2008-02-26

    We describe the molecular structure of the collagen fibril and how it affects collagen proteolysis or "collagenolysis." The fibril-forming collagens are major components of all mammalian connective tissues, providing the structural and organizational framework for skin, blood vessels, bone, tendon, and other tissues. The triple helix of the collagen molecule is resistant to most proteinases, and the matrix metalloproteinases that do proteolyze collagen are affected by the architecture of collagen fibrils, which are notably more resistant to collagenolysis than lone collagen monomers. Until now, there has been no molecular explanation for this. Full or limited proteolysis of the collagen fibril is known to be a key process in normal growth, development, repair, and cell differentiation, and in cancerous tumor progression and heart disease. Peptide fragments generated by collagenolysis, and the conformation of exposed sites on the fibril as a result of limited proteolysis, regulate these processes and that of cellular attachment, but it is not known how or why. Using computational and molecular visualization methods, we found that the arrangement of collagen monomers in the fibril (its architecture) protects areas vulnerable to collagenolysis and strictly governs the process. This in turn affects the accessibility of a cell interaction site located near the cleavage region. Our observations suggest that the C-terminal telopeptide must be proteolyzed before collagenase can gain access to the cleavage site. Collagenase then binds to the substrate's "interaction domain," which facilitates the triple-helix unwinding/dissociation function of the enzyme before collagenolysis.

  15. Lack of collagen XVIII/endostatin exacerbates immune-mediated glomerulonephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamano, Yuki; Okude, Takashi; Shirai, Ryota; Sato, Ikumi; Kimura, Ryota; Ogawa, Makoto; Ueda, Yoshihiko; Yokosuka, Osamu; Kalluri, Raghu; Ueda, Shiro

    2010-09-01

    Collagen XVIII is a component of the highly specialized extracellular matrix associated with basement membranes of epithelia and endothelia. In the normal kidney, collagen XVIII is distributed throughout glomerular and tubular basement membranes, mesangial matrix, and Bowman's capsule. Proteolytic cleavage within its C-terminal domain releases the fragment endostatin, which has antiangiogenic properties. Because damage to the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) accompanies immune-mediated renal injury, we investigated the role of collagen XVIII/endostatin in this disorder. We induced anti-GBM glomerulonephritis in collagen XVIII alpha1-null and wild-type mice and compared the resulting matrix accumulation, inflammation, and capillary rarefaction. Anti-GBM disease upregulated collagen XVIII/endostatin expression within the GBM and Bowman's capsule of wild-type mice. Collagen XVIII/endostatin-deficient mice developed more severe glomerular and tubulointerstitial injury than wild-type mice. Collagen XVIII/endostatin deficiency altered matrix remodeling, enhanced the inflammatory response, and promoted capillary rarefaction and vascular endothelial cell damage, but did not affect endothelial proliferation. Supplementing collagen XVIII-deficient mice with exogenous endostatin did not affect the progression of anti-GBM disease. Taken together, these results suggest that collagen XVIII/endostatin preserves the integrity of the extracellular matrix and capillaries in the kidney, protecting against progressive glomerulonephritis.

  16. Comparison of physicochemical properties of suppositories containing starch hydrolysates

    OpenAIRE

    Piotr Belniak; Katarzyna Świąder; Michał Szumiło; Aleksandra Hyla; Ewa Poleszak

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to determine the effect of starch hydrolysates (SH) on the physicochemical properties of suppositories. The study was conducted with suppositories with acetaminophen (AAP) a typical antipyretic analgesic, as model drug on lipophilic (cocoa butter) and hydrophilic base (polyethylene glycol 1500?+?400). The suppositories with and without the addition of SH were examined for physicochemical tests according to European Pharmacopoeia 8th edition (Ph. Eur.): the uniform...

  17. Enhanced stabilization of collagen by furfural.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakra, Rachita; Kiran, Manikantan Syamala; Usha, Ramamoorthy; Mohan, Ranganathan; Sundaresan, Raja; Korrapati, Purna Sai

    2014-04-01

    Furfural (2-furancarboxaldehyde), a product derived from plant pentosans, has been investigated for its interaction with collagen. Introduction of furfural during fibril formation enhanced the thermal and mechanical stability of collagen. Collagen films treated with furfural exhibited higher denaturation temperature (Td) (pFurfural and furfural treated collagen films did not have any cytotoxic effect. Rheological characterization showed an increase in shear stress and shear viscosity with increasing shear rate for treated collagen. Circular dichroism (CD) studies indicated that the furfural did not have any impact on triple helical structure of collagen. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of furfural treated collagen exhibited small sized porous structure in comparison with untreated collagen. Thus this study provides an alternate ecologically safe crosslinking agent for improving the stability of collagen for biomedical and industrial applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Radiation hydrolysate of tuna cooking juice with enhanced antioxidant properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jong-il; Sung, Nak-Yun; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2012-08-01

    Tuna protein hydrolysates are of increasing interest because of their potential application as a source of bioactive peptides. Large amounts of tuna cooking juice with proteins and extracts are produced during the process of tuna canning, and these cooking juice wastes cause environmental problems. Therefore, in this study, cooking juice proteins were hydrolyzed by irradiation for their utilization as functional additives. The degree of hydrolysis of tuna cooking juice protein increased from 0% to 15.1% at the absorbed doses of 50 kGy. To investigate the antioxidant activity of the hydrolysate, it was performed the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, and the lipid peroxidation inhibitory and superoxide radical scavenging activities were measured. The FRAP values increased from 1470 μM to 1930 μM and IC50 on superoxide anion was decreased from 3.91 μg/mL to 1.29 μg/mL at 50 kGy. All of the antioxidant activities were increased in the hydrolysate, suggesting that radiation hydrolysis, which is a simple process that does not require an additive catalysts or an inactivation step, is a promising method for food and environmental industries.

  19. Antioxidant properties of Australian canola meal protein hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alashi, Adeola M; Blanchard, Christopher L; Mailer, Rodney J; Agboola, Samson O; Mawson, A John; He, Rong; Girgih, Abraham; Aluko, Rotimi E

    2014-03-01

    Antioxidant activities of canola protein hydrolysates (CPHs) and peptide fractions prepared using five proteases and ultrafiltration membranes (1, 3, 5, and 10kDa) were investigated. CPHs had similar and adequate quantities of essential amino acids. The effective concentration that scavenged 50% (EC50) of the ABTS(+) was greatest for the <1kDa pancreatin fraction at 10.1μg/ml. CPHs and peptide fractions scavenged DPPH(+) with most of the EC50 values being <1.0mg/ml. Scavenging of superoxide radical was generally weak, except for the <1kDa pepsin peptide fraction that had a value of 51%. All CPHs inhibited linoleic acid oxidation with greater efficiency observed for pepsin hydrolysates. The oxygen radical absorbance capacity of Alcalase, chymotrypsin and pepsin hydrolysates was found to be better than that of glutathione (GSH) (p<0.05). These results show that CPHs have the potential to be used as bioactive ingredients in the formulation of functional foods against oxidative stress. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Functional properties of tropical banded cricket (Gryllodes sigillatus) protein hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Felicia G; Jones, Owen G; O'Haire, Marguerite E; Liceaga, Andrea M

    2017-06-01

    Recently, the benefits of entomophagy have been widely discussed. Due to western cultures' reluctance, entomophagy practices are leaning more towards incorporating insects into food products. In this study, whole crickets (Gryllodes sigillatus) were hydrolyzed with alcalase at 0.5, 1.5, and 3.0% (w/w) for 30, 60, and 90min. Degree of hydrolysis (DH), amino acid composition, solubility, emulsion and foaming properties were evaluated. Hydrolysis produced peptides with 26-52% DH compared to the control containing no enzyme (5% DH). Protein solubility of hydrolysates improved (p30% soluble protein at pH 3 and 7 and 50-90% at alkaline pH, compared with the control. Emulsion activity index ranged from 7 to 32m 2 /g, while foamability ranged from 100 to 155% for all hydrolysates. These improved functional properties demonstrate the potential to develop cricket protein hydrolysates as a source of functional alternative protein in food ingredient formulations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Low serum biotin in Japanese children fed with hydrolysate formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yasuhiro; Wakabayashi, Kenji; Ogawa, Eishin; Kodama, Hiroko; Mimaki, Masakazu

    2016-09-01

    Given that nutritional biotin deficiency in Japanese infants has been reported, a straightforward method for estimating biotin level is needed. The biotin content in infant formula, breast milk, and the sera of infants fed with various types of formula were measured using avidin-binding assay. A commercially available ELISA kit was used for the measurement of biotin in 54 types of formula, including hydrolysate formulas for milk allergy, as well as in breast milk and in the sera of 27 infants fed with these formulas. The biotin content reached the recommended value in only five formulas. All of the hydrolysate formulas and more than half of the special formulas contained biotin biotin was low in infants fed only with the hydrolysate formulas, and one of them had alopecia related to biotin deficiency. While many were asymptomatic, infants fed with formulas lacking biotin are at risk of developing symptomatic disease. The addition of biotin to breast milk substitutes was finally approved in the middle of 2014, however pediatricians in Japan should still be vigilant with regard to nutritional biotin deficiency in infants for the time being. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  2. Bioactive L acidissima protein hydrolysates using Box-Behnken design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonawane, Sachin K; Arya, Shalini S

    2017-07-01

    This study examines the extraction and hydrolysis of proteins using single factor and Box-Behnken Design (BBD). From single factor tests, optimised extraction parameters were 1% alkali concentration, 40 °C temperature, 60 min time, and 1:20 solid to alkali ratio. Under these conditions; 924.31 mg/g of total protein was obtained from Limonia acidissima (L acidissima). The maximum degree of hydrolysis was 39.82% at pH 2, enzyme to substrate ratio 2.5% (w/w), and hydrolysis time was 42.41 min using BBD design. L acidissima seed protein hydrolysate showed 32.94% DPPH and 88.18% of ABTS activity at concentration of 100 µg/ml and 1 mg/ml, respectively. Reducing power of 0.16 and metal chelating activity of 87.39% was obtained from 5 mg/ml protein hydrolysates. This implied that L acidissima seed protein hydrolysate could be utilised in protein rich product or as protein supplements.

  3. Bitterness in sodium caseinate hydrolysates: role of enzyme preparation and degree of hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Dara; Nongonierma, Alice B; FitzGerald, Richard J

    2017-10-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis of sodium caseinate (NaCas) may lead to the development of bitterness. Careful selection of hydrolysis conditions (i.e. enzyme preparation and duration) yielding different degrees of hydrolysis (DH) may aid in the development of low bitterness. Eighteen NaCas hydrolysates were generated with four enzyme preparations (Alcalase 2.4L, Prolyve 1000, FlavorPro Whey and pepsin) to different DH values. Hydrolysate bitterness score, assessed using a trained panel (ten assessors), generally increased at higher DH values for Alcalase, Prolyve and pepsin hydrolysates. However, all FlavorPro Whey hydrolysates (DH 0.38-10.62%) displayed low bitterness score values ( 0.05). Enzyme preparation and DH affect the bitterness of NaCas hydrolysates. The results are relevant for the generation of NaCas hydrolysates with reduced bitterness. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Electricity generation by microbial fuel cells fuelled with wheat straw hydrolysate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Anders; Poulsen, Finn Willy; Angelidaki, Irini

    2011-01-01

    Electricity production from microbial fuel cells fueled with hydrolysate produced by hydrothermal treatment of wheat straw can achieve both energy production and domestic wastewater purification. The hydrolysate contained mainly xylan, carboxylic acids, and phenolic compounds. Power generation...... in 95% degradation of the xylan and glucan. The study demonstrates that lignocellulosic hydrolysate can be used for co-treatment with domestic wastewater for power generation in microbial fuel cells....... density with the hydrolysate was higher than the one with only xylan (120 mW m−2) and carboxylic acids as fuel. The higher power density can be caused by the presence of phenolic compounds in the hydrolysates, which could mediate electron transport. Electricity generation with the hydrolysate resulted...

  5. [Biophysical principles of collagen cross-linking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spörl, E; Raiskup-Wolf, F; Pillunat, L E

    2008-02-01

    The reduced mechanical stability of the cornea in keratoconus or in keratectasia after Lasik may be increased by photooxidative cross-linking of corneal collagen. The biophysical principles are compiled for the safe and effective application of this new treatment method. The setting of the therapy parameters should be elucidated from the absorption behaviour of the cornea. The safety of the method for the endothelium cells and the lens will be discussed. The induced cross-links are shown to be the result of changes in the physico-chemical properties of the cornea. To reach a high absorption of the irradiation energy in the cornea, riboflavin of a concentration of 0.1% and UV light of a wavelength of 370 nm, corresponding to the relative maximum of absorption of riboflavin, were used. An irradiance of 3 mW/cm(2) and an irradiation time of 30 min lead to an increase of the mechanical stiffness. The endothelium cells will be protected due to the high absorption within the cornea, that means the damaging threshold of the endothelium cells will not be reached in a 400 microm thick stroma. As evidence for cross-links we can consider the increase of the biomechanical stiffness, the increased resistance against enzymatic degradation, a higher shrinkage temperature, a lower swelling rate and an increased diameter of collagen fibres. The therapy parameters were tested experimentally and have been proven clinically in the corneal collagen cross-linking. These parameters should be respected to reach a safe cross-linking effect without damage of the adjacent tissues.

  6. Fracture mechanics of collagen fibrils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Rene B; Mulder, Hindrik; Kovanen, Vuokko

    2013-01-01

    Tendons are important load-bearing structures, which are frequently injured in both sports and work. Type I collagen fibrils are the primary components of tendons and carry most of the mechanical loads experienced by the tissue, however, knowledge of how load is transmitted between and within...... fibrils is limited. The presence of covalent enzymatic cross-links between collagen molecules is an important factor that has been shown to influence mechanical behavior of the tendons. To improve our understanding of how molecular bonds translate into tendon mechanics, we used an atomic force microscopy...... technique to measure the mechanical behavior of individual collagen fibrils loaded to failure. Fibrils from human patellar tendons, rat-tail tendons (RTTs), NaBH₄ reduced RTTs, and tail tendons of Zucker diabetic fat rats were tested. We found a characteristic three-phase stress-strain behavior in the human...

  7. Bioconversion of corn stover hydrolysate to ethanol by a recombinant yeast strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Jing; Xia, Liming

    2010-12-15

    Three corn stover hydrolysates, enzymatic hydrolysates prepared from acid and alkaline pretreatments separately and hemicellulosic hydrolysate prepared from acid pretreatment, were evaluated in composition and fermentability. For enzymatic hydrolysate from alkaline pretreatment, ethanol yield on fermentable sugars and fermentation efficiency reached highest among the three hydrolysates; meanwhile, ethanol yield on dry corn stover reached 0.175 g/g, higher than the sum of those of two hydrolysates from acid pretreatment. Fermentation process of the enzymatic hydrolysate from alkaline pretreatment was further investigated using free and immobilized cells of recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae ZU-10. Concentrated hydrolysate containing 66.9 g/L glucose and 32.1 g/L xylose was utilized. In the fermentation with free cells, 41.2 g/L ethanol was obtained within 72 h with an ethanol yield on fermentable sugars of 0.416 g/g. Immobilized cells greatly enhanced the ethanol productivity, while the ethanol yield on fermentable sugars of 0.411 g/g could still be reached. Repeated batch fermentation with immobilized cells was further attempted up to six batches. The ethanol yield on fermentable sugars maintained above 0.403 g/g with all glucose and more than 92.83% xylose utilized in each batch. These results demonstrate the feasibility and efficiency of ethanol production from corn stover hydrolysates. (author)

  8. Bioactive Peptides from Cartilage Protein Hydrolysate of Spotless Smoothhound and Their Antioxidant Activity In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Tao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the experiment, crude proteins from spotless smoothhound (Mustelus griseus, cartilages were isolated by HCl-Guanidine buffer, and its hydrolysate was prepared using trypsin at pH 8.0, 40 °C with a total enzyme dose of 2.5%. Subsequently, three antioxidant peptides were purified from the hydrolysate using membrane ultrafiltration, anion-exchange chromatography, gel filtration chromatography, and reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The amino acid sequences of isolated peptides were identified as Gly-Ala-Glu-Arg-Pro (MCPE-A; Gly-Glu-Arg-Glu-Ala-Asn-Val-Met (MCPE-B; and Ala-Glu-Val-Gly (MCPE-C with molecular weights of 528.57, 905.00, and 374.40 Da, respectively, using protein amino acid sequence analyzer and mass spectrum. MCPE-A, MCPE-B and MCPE-C exhibited good scavenging activities on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals (DPPH• (EC50 3.73, 1.87, and 2.30 mg/mL, respectively, hydroxyl radicals (HO• (EC50 0.25, 0.34, and 0.06 mg/mL, respectively, 2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid radicals (ABTS+• (EC50 0.10, 0.05, and 0.07 mg/mL, respectively and superoxide anion radicals ( O 2 − • (EC50 0.09, 0.33, and 0.18 mg/mL, respectively. MCPE-B showed similar inhibiting ability on lipid peroxidation with butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT in a linoleic acid model system. Furthermore, MCPE-A, MCPE-B, and MCPE-C could protect H2O2-induced HepG2 cells from oxidative stress by decreasing the content of malonaldehyde (MDA and increasing the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, and glutathione reductase (GSH-Rx. Glu, Gly, Met, and Pro in their sequences and low molecular weight could be attributed to the antioxidant activities of three isolated peptides. These results suggested that GAERP (MCPE-A, GEREANVM (MCPE-B, and AEVG (MCPE-C from cartilage protein hydrolysate of spotless smoothhound might serve as potential antioxidants and be used in the pharmaceutical and

  9. Collagen crosslinks in chondromalacia of the patella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Väätäinen, U; Kiviranta, I; Jaroma, H; Arokosi, J; Tammi, M; Kovanen, V

    1998-02-01

    The aim of the study was to determine collagen concentration and collagen crosslinks in cartilage samples from chondromalacia of the patella. To study the extracellular matrix alterations associated to chondromalacia, we determined the concentration of collagen (hydroxyproline) and its hydroxylysylpyridinoline and lysylpyridinoline crosslinks from chondromalacia foci of the patellae in 12 patients and 7 controls from apparently normal cadavers. The structure of the collagen network in 8 samples of grades II-IV chondromalacia was examined under polarized light microscopy. The full-thickness cartilage samples taken with a surgical knife from chondromalacia lesions did not show changes in collagen, hydroxylysylpyridinoline and lysylpyridinoline concentration as compared with the controls. Polarized light microscopy showed decreased birefringence in the superficial cartilage of chondromalacia lesions, indicating disorganization or disappearance of collagen fibers in this zone. It is concluded that the collagen network shows gradual disorganization with the severity of chondromalacia lesion of the patella without changes in the concentration or crosslinks of collagen.

  10. Immobilization of collagen peptide on dialdehyde bacterial cellulose nanofibers via covalent bonds for tissue engineering and regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen XX

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Xiaoxiao Wen,1 Yudong Zheng,1 Jian Wu,2 Lu-Ning Wang,1 Zhenya Yuan,1 Jiang Peng,3 Haoye Meng3 1School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 2Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Soochow, People’s Republic of China; 3Institute of Orthopedics, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Bacterial cellulose (BC is an alternative nanostructured biomaterial to be utilized for a wide range of biomedical applications. Because of its low bioactivity, which restricted its practical application, collagen and collagen hydrolysate were usually composited into BC. It is necessary to develop a new method to generate covalent bonds between collagen and cellulose to improve the immobilization of collagen on BC. This study describes a facile dialdehyde BC/collagen peptide nanocomposite. BC was oxidized into dialdehyde bacterial cellulose (DBC by regioselective oxidation, and then composited with collagen peptide (Col-p via covalent bonds to form Schiff’s base type compounds, which was demonstrated by the results of microstructures, contact angle, Col-p content, and peptide-binding ratio. The peptide-binding ratio was further affected by the degree of oxidation, pH value, and zeta potential. In vitro desorption measurement of Col-p suggested a controlled release mechanism of the nanocomposite. Cell tests indicated that the prepared DBC/Col-p composite was bioactive and suitable for cell adhesion and attachment. This work demonstrates that the DBC/Col-p composite is a promising material for tissue engineering and regeneration. Keywords: bacterial cellulose, dialdehyde cellulose, collagen peptide, composite materials, cytoactivity 

  11. Phagocytosis of Collagen Fibrils by Fibroblasts In Vivo is Independent of the uPARAP/Endo180 Receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sprangers, Sara; Behrendt, Niels; Engelholm, Lars

    2017-01-01

    electron microscopy (TEM), we found that fibroblasts in the periosteum of tibia and calvaria, as well as in the periodontal ligament of molar and incisor, phagocytosed collagen fibrils independently of uPARAP. Quantification of phagocytosed collagen in the periodontal ligament of uPARAP-deficient mice...... cleavage products probably occurs through fundamentally different pathways. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  12. Building blocks of Collagen based biomaterial devices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Building blocks of Collagen based biomaterial devices. Collagen as a protein. Collagen in tissues and organs. Stabilizing and cross linking agents. Immunogenicity. Hosts (drugs). Controlled release mechanisms of hosts. Biodegradability, workability into devices ...

  13. Chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells in a leakproof collagen sponge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Guoping; Akahane, Daisuke; Kawazoe, Naoki; Yamamoto, Katsuyuki; Tateishi, Tetsuya

    2008-01-01

    A three-dimensional culture of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in a porous scaffold has been developed as a promising strategy for cartilage tissue engineering. The chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs derived from human bone marrow was studied by culturing the cells in a novel scaffold constructed of leakproof collagen sponge. All the surfaces of the collagen sponge except the top were wrapped with a membrane that has pores smaller than the cells to protect against cell leakage during cell seeding. The cells adhered to the collagen, distributed evenly, and proliferated to fill the spaces in the sponge. Cell seeding efficiency was greater than 95%. The MSCs cultured in the collagen sponge in the presence of TGF-β3 and BMP6 expressed a high level of genes encoding type II and type X collagen, sox9, and aggrecan. Histological examination by HE staining indicated that the differentiated cells showed a round morphology. The extracellular matrices were positively stained by safranin O and toluidine blue. Immunostaining with anti-type II collagen and anti-cartilage proteoglycan showed that type II collagen and cartilage proteoglycan were detected around the cells. These results suggest the chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs when cultured in the collagen sponge in the presence of TGF-β3 and BMP6

  14. Study of HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibition Activity of the Hydrolyzed Product of Snakehead Fish (Channa striata) Skin Collagen with 50 kDa Collagenase from Bacillus licheniformis F11.4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virginia, Agnes; Rachmawati, Heni; Riani, Catur; Retnoningrum, Debbie S

    2016-01-01

    Bioactive peptides produced from enzymatic hydrolysis fibrous protein have been proven to have several biological activities. Previous study showed that the hydrolysis product of snakehead fish skin collagen with 26 kDa collagenase from Bacillus licheniformis F11.4 showed HMG-CoA (HMGR) inhibition activity. The aim of this research was to determine the ability of the hydrolysis product produced from snakehead fish skin collagen hydrolysed by 50 kDa collagenase from B. licheniformis F11.4 in inhibiting HMGR activity. Snakehead fish skin collagen was extracted using an acid method and collagenase was produced from B. licheniformis F11.4 using half-strength Luria Bertani (LB) medium containing 5% collagen. Crude collagenase was concentrated and fractionated using the DEAE Sephadex A-25 column eluted with increasing gradient concentrations of NaCl. Collagen, collagenase, and fractions were analyzed using SDS-PAGE and collagenolytic activity was analyzed by the zymography method. Collagenase with 50 kDa molecular weight presented in fraction one was used to hydrolyze the collagen. The reaction was done in 18 hours at 50°C. The hydrolysis product using 3.51 μg collagen and 9 ng collagenase showed 25.8% inhibition activity against pravastatin. This work shows for the first time that the hydrolysis product of snakehead fish skin collagen and 50 kDa collagenase from B. licheniformis F11.4 has potential as an anticholesterol agent.

  15. The influence of brewers' yeast addition on lactic acid fermentation of brewers' spent grain hydrolysate by Lactobacillus rhamnosus

    OpenAIRE

    Pejin, Jelena; Radosavljević, Miloš; Kocić-Tanackov, Sunčica; Đukić-Vuković, Aleksandra; Mladenović, Dragana; Mojović, Ljiljana

    2015-01-01

    In this study brewers' spent grain (BSG) hydrolysate was produced using optimal conditions. Hydrolysates were used for lactic acid fermentation by Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469. The aim of this study was to evaluate possibilities of the BSG hydrolysate utilization as a substrate for lactic acid fermentation as well as the effect of dry brewers' yeast (1.0, 3.0, and 5.0 %) addition in hydrolysate on lactic acid fermentation parameters (L-(+)-lactic acid and reducing sugars concentration an...

  16. FTIR spectra of whey and casein hydrolysates in relation to their functional properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ven, van der C.; Muresan, S.; Gruppen, H.; Bont, D.B.A.; Merck, K.B.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2002-01-01

    Mid-infrared spectra of whey and casein hydrolysates were recorded using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Multivariate data analysis techniques were used to investigate the capacity of FTIR spectra to classify hydrolysates and to study the ability of the spectra to predict bitterness,

  17. Nutritional evaluation of caseins and whey proteins and their hydrolysates from Protamex*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindayikengera, Séverin; Xia, Wen-shui

    2006-01-01

    Whey protein concentrate (WPC 80) and sodium caseinate were hydrolyzed by Protamex to 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% degree of hydrolysis (DH). WPC 80, sodium caseinate and their hydrolysates were then analyzed, compared and evaluated for their nutritional qualities. Their chemical composition, protein solubility, amino acid composition, essential amino acid index (EAA index), biological value (BV), nutritional index (NI), chemical score, enzymic protein efficiency ratio (E-PER) and in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) were determined. The results indicated that the enzymatic hydrolysis of WPC 80 and sodium caseinate by Protamex improved the solubility and IVPD of their hydrolysates. WPC 80, sodium caseinate and their hydrolysates were high-quality proteins and had a surplus of essential amino acids compared with the FAO/WHO/UNU (1985) reference standard. The nutritive value of WPC 80 and its hydrolysates was superior to that of sodium caseinate and its hydrolysates as indicated by some nutritional parameters such as the amino acid composition, chemical score, EAA index and predicted BV. However, the E-PER was lower for the WPC hydrolysates as compared to unhydrolyzed WPC 80 but sodium caseinate and its hydrolysates did not differ significantly. The nutritional qualities of WPC 80, sodium caseinate and their hydrolysates were good and make them appropriate for food formulations or as nutritional supplements. PMID:16421963

  18. Comparison of Neuroprotective and Cognition-Enhancing Properties of Hydrolysates from Soybean, Walnut, and Peanut Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzhi Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrolysates were prepared from soybean, walnut, and peanut protein by papain, respectively. Their amino acid compositions and molecular weight distributions, the effects of various hydrolysates on H2O2-induced injury PC12 cells, and cognition of mice were investigated, respectively. Results showed that the three hydrolysates were dominated by the peptides with 1–3 KDa with large amount of neurotrophic amino acids. All the hydrolysates exhibited much stronger inhibitory activity against H2O2-induced toxicity than cerebrolysin, and soy protein hydrolysate showed the highest activity. Moreover, the hydrolysates also could reduce the rate of nonviable apoptotic cells at the concentration of 2 mg/mL. The test of animal’s cognition indicated that three hydrolysates could present partly better effect of improving recurred memory ability of normal mice and consolidated memory ability of anisodine-treated mice than piracetam. Therefore, soybean, walnut, and peanut protein hydrolysates were recommended as a potential food raw material for prevention or treatment of neurodegenerative disorders.

  19. Succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes using hydrolysates of spent yeast cells and corn fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ke-Quan; Li, Jian; Ma, Jiang-Feng; Jiang, Min; Wei, Ping; Liu, Zhong-Min; Ying, Han-Jie

    2011-01-01

    The enzymatic hydrolysate of spent yeast cells was evaluated as a nitrogen source for succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes NJ113, using corn fiber hydrolysate as a carbon source. When spent yeast cell hydrolysate was used directly as a nitrogen source, a maximum succinic acid concentration of 35.5 g/l was obtained from a glucose concentration of 50 g/l, with a glucose utilization of 95.2%. Supplementation with individual vitamins showed that biotin was the most likely factor to be limiting for succinic acid production with spent yeast cell hydrolysate. After supplementing spent yeast cell hydrolysate and 90 g/l of glucose with 150 μg/l of biotin, cell growth increased 32.5%, glucose utilization increased 37.6%, and succinic acid concentration was enhanced 49.0%. As a result, when biotin-supplemented spent yeast cell hydrolysate was used with corn fiber hydrolysate, a succinic acid yield of 67.7% was obtained from 70.3 g/l of total sugar concentration, with a productivity of 0.63 g/(l h). Our results suggest that biotin-supplemented spent yeast cell hydrolysate may be an alternative nitrogen source for the efficient production of succinic acid by A. succinogenes NJ113, using renewable resources. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Enzymatic protein hydrolysates from high pressure-pretreated isolated pea proteins have better antioxidant properties than similar hydrolysates produced from heat pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girgih, Abraham T; Chao, Dongfang; Lin, Lin; He, Rong; Jung, Stephanie; Aluko, Rotimi E

    2015-12-01

    Isolated pea protein (IPP) dispersions (1%, w/v) were pretreated with high pressure (HP) of 200, 400, or 600 MPa for 5 min at 24 °C or high temperature (HT) for 30 min at 100 °C prior to hydrolysis with 1% (w/w) Alcalase. HP pretreatment of IPP at 400 and 600 MPa levels led to significantly (P40%) oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC) of hydrolysates. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, superoxide radical and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of pea protein hydrolysates were also significantly (PProtein hydrolysates from HT IPP showed no ORAC, superoxide or hydroxyl scavenging activity but had significantly (Pprotein hydrolysates had weaker antioxidant properties than glutathione but overall, the HP pretreatment was superior to HT pretreatment in facilitating enzymatic release of antioxidant peptides from IPP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Glycosylation of type II collagen is of major importance for T cell tolerance and pathology in collagen-induced arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bäcklund, Johan; Treschow, Alexandra; Bockermann, Robert

    2002-01-01

    Type II collagen (CII) is a candidate cartilage-specific autoantigen, which can become post-translationally modified by hydroxylation and glycosylation. T cell recognition of CII is essential for the development of murine collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) and also occurs in rheumatoid arthritis (RA......). The common denominator of murine CIA and human RA is the presentation of an immunodominant CII-derived glycosylated peptide on murine Aq and human DR4 molecules, respectively. To investigate the importance of T cell recognition of glycosylated CII in CIA development after immunization with heterologous CII......, we treated neonatal mice with different heterologous CII-peptides (non-modified, hydroxylated and galactosylated). Treatment with the galactosylated peptide (galactose at position 264) was superior in protecting mice from CIA. Protection was accompanied by a reduced antibody response to CII...

  2. Fractionation and identification of novel antioxidant peptides from buffalo and bovine casein hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shazly, Ahmed Behdal; He, Zhiyong; El-Aziz, Mahmoud Abd; Zeng, Maomao; Zhang, Shuang; Qin, Fang; Chen, Jie

    2017-10-01

    Buffalo and bovine caseins were hydrolysed by alcalase and trypsin to produce novel antioxidant peptides. The casein hydrolysates were purified using ultrafiltration (UF) and further characterized by RP-HPLC. The fractions produced higher antioxidant activities were identified for their peptides using LC MS/MS. All UF-VI (MWcasein (UF-VI with 54.84-fold purification) showed higher antioxidant activity than that obtained by trypsin. Trypsin hydrolysate contained high amount of hydrophobic amino acids while alcalase hydrolysate consisted mainly of Ser, Arg, Ala and Leu. The antioxidant peptides identified by LC MS/MS were RELEE, MEDNKQ and TVA, EQL in buffalo casein hydrolysates produced by trypsin and alcalase, respectively. Mechanism and reaction pathways of selected antioxidant peptides with ABTS were proposed. Conclusively, buffalo casein provided antioxidant peptides similar to bovine, suggesting that buffalo casein is a novel source of antioxidant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Detoxification of furfural residues hydrolysate for butanol fermentation by Clostridium saccharobutylicum DSM 13864.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jin-Jun; Han, Rui-Zhi; Xu, Guo-Chao; Gong, Lei; Xing, Wan-Ru; Ni, Ye

    2018-07-01

    The toxicity of furfural residues (FRs) hydrolysate is a major obstacle in its application. This work focused on the detoxification of FRs hydrolysate and its application in butanol fermentation. Combination of activated carbon and resin 717 was appropriate for the detoxification of hydrolysate. Mixed sterilization of FRs hydrolysate and corn steep liquor (CSL) was better than the separate ones, since proteins in CSL could adsorb and remove toxic components during sterilization. The results further confirmed that simultaneous sterilization of activated carbon + resin and fermentation medium was more efficient for detoxification and butanol production, in which 76.4% of phenolic compounds and 99.3% of Maillard reaction products were removed, 8.48 g/L butanol and 12.61 g/L total solvent were obtained. This study provides feasible and economic approaches for the detoxification of FRs hydrolysate and its application in butanol production. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Collagens--structure, function, and biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelse, K; Pöschl, E; Aigner, T

    2003-11-28

    The extracellular matrix represents a complex alloy of variable members of diverse protein families defining structural integrity and various physiological functions. The most abundant family is the collagens with more than 20 different collagen types identified so far. Collagens are centrally involved in the formation of fibrillar and microfibrillar networks of the extracellular matrix, basement membranes as well as other structures of the extracellular matrix. This review focuses on the distribution and function of various collagen types in different tissues. It introduces their basic structural subunits and points out major steps in the biosynthesis and supramolecular processing of fibrillar collagens as prototypical members of this protein family. A final outlook indicates the importance of different collagen types not only for the understanding of collagen-related diseases, but also as a basis for the therapeutical use of members of this protein family discussed in other chapters of this issue.

  5. Collagen cross linking: Current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas K Rao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Keratoconus is a common ectatic disorder occurring in more than 1 in 1,000 individuals. The condition typically starts in adolescence and early adulthood. It is a disease with an uncertain cause and its progression is unpredictable, but in extreme cases, vision deteriorates and can require corneal transplant surgery. Corneal collagen cross-linking (CCL with riboflavin (C3R is a recent treatment option that can enhance the rigidity of the cornea and prevent disease progression. Since its inception, the procedure has evolved with newer instrumentation, surgical techniques, and is also now performed for expanded indications other than keratoconus. With increasing experience, newer guidelines regarding optimization of patient selection, the spectrum of complications and their management, and combination procedures are being described. This article in conjunction with the others in this issue, will try and explore the uses of collagen cross-linking (CXL in its current form.

  6. Antioxidant, immunomodulatory and antiproliferative effects of gelatin hydrolysate from unicorn leatherjacket skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnjanapratum, Supatra; O'Callaghan, Yvonne C; Benjakul, Soottawat; O'Brien, Nora

    2016-07-01

    The in vitro cellular bioactivities including, antioxidant, immunomodulatory and antiproliferative effects of a gelatin hydrolysate (GH) prepared from unicorn leatherjacket skin, using partially purified glycyl endopeptidase, were investigated in order to optimize the use of fish skin waste products as functional food ingredients. GH under the tested concentrations (750-1500 µg mL(-1) ) protected against H2 O2 -induced DNA damage in U937 cells. GH also protected against the H2 O2 -induced reduction in cellular antioxidant enzyme activities, superoxide dismutase and catalase, in HepG2 cells. GH demonstrated immunomodulatory potential by reducing pro-inflammatory cytokine (interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-1β) production and nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Cell proliferation in human colon cancer (Caco-2) cells was significantly reduced in a dose-dependent manner following incubation with GH. These results indicate that GH has several bioactivities which support its potential as a promising functional food ingredient with various health benefits. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Short communication: Tryptic β-casein hydrolysate modulates enteric nervous system development in primary culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossais, F; Clawin-Rädecker, I; Lorenzen, P C; Klempt, M

    2017-05-01

    The intestinal tract of the newborn is particularly sensitive to gastrointestinal disorders, such as infantile diarrhea or necrotizing colitis. Perinatal development of the gut also encompasses the maturation of the enteric nervous system (ENS), a main regulator of intestinal motility and barrier functions. It was recently shown that ENS maturation can be enhanced by nutritional factors to improve intestinal maturation. Bioactivity of milk proteins is often latent, requiring the release of bioactive peptides from inactive native proteins. Several casein-derived hydrolysates presenting immunomodulatory properties have been described recently. Furthermore, accumulating data indicate that milk-derived hydrolysate can enhance gut maturation and enrichment of milk formula with such hydrolysates has recently been proposed. However, the capability of milk-derived bioactive hydrolysate to target ENS maturation has not been analyzed so far. We, therefore, investigated the potential of a recently described tryptic β-casein hydrolysate to modulate ENS growth parameters in an in vitro model of rat primary culture of ENS. Rat primary cultures of ENS were incubated with a bioactive tryptic β-casein hydrolysate and compared with untreated controls or to cultures treated with native β-casein or a Prolyve β-casein hydrolysate (Lyven, Colombelles, France). Differentiation of enteric neurons and enteric glial cells, and establishment of enteric neural network were analyzed using immunohistochemistry and quantitative PCR. Effect of tryptic β-casein hydrolysate on bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP)/Smad pathway, an essential regulator of ENS development, was further assessed using quantitative PCR and immunochemistry. Tryptic β-casein hydrolysate stimulated neurite outgrowth and simultaneously modulated the formation of enteric ganglia-like structures, whereas native β-casein or Prolyve β-casein hydrolysate did not. Additionally, treatment with tryptic bioactive

  8. Comparison of the colloidal stability, bioaccessibility and antioxidant activity of corn protein hydrolysate and sodium caseinate stabilized curcumin nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong-Hui; Yuan, Yang; Yang, Xiao-Quan; Wang, Jin-Mei; Guo, Jian; Lin, Yuan

    2016-07-01

    The aims of this work were to construct corn protein hydrolysate (CPH)-based curcumin nanoparticles (Cur NPs) and to compare the colloidal stability, bioaccessibility and antioxidant activity of the Cur NPs stabilized CPH and sodium caseinate (NaCas) respectively. The results indicated that Cur solubility could be considerably improved after the Cur NPs fabrication. The spectroscopy results demonstrated that the solubilization of Cur should be attributed to its complexation with CPH or NaCas. The Cur NPs exhibited good colloidal stability after 1 week's storage but showed smaller (40 nm) size in CPH than in NaCas (100 nm). After lyophilization, the Cur NPs powders showed good rehydration properties and chemical stability, and compared with NaCas, the size of Cur NPs stabilized by CPH was still smaller. Additionally, the Cur NPs exhibited higher chemical stability against the temperature compared with free Cur, and the CPH could protect Cur from degradation more efficiently. Comparing with NaCas, the Cur NPs stabilized by CPH exhibited better bioaccessibility and antioxidant activity. This study demonstrated that CPH may be better than NaCas in Cur NPs fabrication and it opens up the possibility of using hydrophobic protein hydrolysate to construct the NPs delivery system.

  9. An evaluation of the antiaging properties of strawberry hydrolysate treatment enriched with L-ascorbic acid applied with microneedle mesotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markiewicz, Agata; Zasada, Malwina; Erkiert-Polguj, Anna; Wieckowska-Szakiel, Marzena; Budzisz, Elzbieta

    2018-04-16

    Mature skin is characterized by a loss of elasticity, hyperpigmentation, and dehydration. L-ascorbic acid stimulates the synthesis of collagen type I, inhibits melanogenesis, and helps to maintain correct skin hydration. Combining microneedle mesotherapy with the application of preparations rich in vitamin C results in better therapeutic effects due to the improved absorption of active substances. The study evaluates the effectiveness of the application of strawberry hydrolysate enriched with L-ascorbic acid using microneedle mesotherapy. Seventeen volunteers aged 45-70 years underwent a series of four microneedle mesotherapy treatments with vitamin C serum, performed every 10 days. The 20% L-ascorbic acid solution (pH = 3.5) was prepared immediately before application. After the treatment, the participants gave a subjective assessment of the effectiveness. Cutometer ® was used to measure skin elasticity and firmness, Corneometer ® to measure skin hydration, and Mexameter ® skin tone. The results of the survey showed improvements in skin hydration and elasticity. In vivo studies confirmed the effectiveness of serum and the impact of the active substance on skin firmness and elasticity, the degree of hydration and skin tone. Microneedling with vitamin C improves skin tone, hydratation and firmness, and decreases the visibility of hyperpigmentation. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Collagen fibrillogenesis: fibronectin, integrins, and minor collagens as organizers and nucleators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadler, Karl E; Hill, Adele; Canty-Laird, Elizabeth G

    2008-10-01

    Collagens are triple helical proteins that occur in the extracellular matrix (ECM) and at the cell-ECM interface. There are more than 30 collagens and collagen-related proteins but the most abundant are collagens I and II that exist as D-periodic (where D = 67 nm) fibrils. The fibrils are of broad biomedical importance and have central roles in embryogenesis, arthritis, tissue repair, fibrosis, tumor invasion, and cardiovascular disease. Collagens I and II spontaneously form fibrils in vitro, which shows that collagen fibrillogenesis is a selfassembly process. However, the situation in vivo is not that simple; collagen I-containing fibrils do not form in the absence of fibronectin, fibronectin-binding and collagen-binding integrins, and collagen V. Likewise, the thin collagen II-containing fibrils in cartilage do not form in the absence of collagen XI. Thus, in vivo, cellular mechanisms are in place to control what is otherwise a protein self-assembly process. This review puts forward a working hypothesis for how fibronectin and integrins (the organizers) determine the site of fibril assembly, and collagens V and XI (the nucleators) initiate collagen fibrillogenesis.

  11. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of lecithin free egg yolk protein preparation hydrolysates obtained with digestive enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Zambrowicz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT:Several biological activities have now been associated with egg protein- derived peptides, including antihypertensive, antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, anticancer and antioxidantactivities, highlighting the importance of these biopeptides in human health, and disease prevention and treatment. Special attention has been given to peptides with antioxidant and antimicrobial activities as a new source of natural preservatives in food industry. In this study, the antioxidant properties of the egg-yolk protein by-product (YP hydrolysates were evaluated based on their radical scavenging capacity (DPPH, Fe2+chelating effect and ferric reducing power (FRAP. Furthermore, antimicrobial properties of obtained hydrolysates against Bacillus species were studied. The degrees (DHs of hydrolysis for 4h hydrolysates were: 19.1%, 13.5% and 13.0%, for pepsin, chymotrypsin and trypsin, respectively. Pepsin was the most effective in producing the free amino groups (1410.3 μmolGly/g. The RP-HPLC profiles of the protein hydrolysates showed differences in the hydrophobicity of the generated peptides.Trypsin hydrolysate obtained after 4h reaction demonstrated the strongest DPPH free radical scavenging activity (0.85 µmol Troloxeq/mg. Trypsin and chymotrypsin hydrolysates obtained after 4h reaction exhibited 4 times higher ferric reducing capacity than those treated bypepsin. The hydrolysis products obtained from YP exhibited significant chelating activity. The 4h trypsin hydrolysate exhibited weak antimicrobial activity against B. subtilis B3; B. cereus B512; B. cereus B 3p and B. laterosporum B6.

  12. Antioxidant activities of red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) protein hydrolysates as influenced by thermolysin and alcalase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daud, Nur'Aliah; Babji, Abdul Salam; Yusop, Salma Mohamad

    2013-11-01

    The hydrolysis process was performed on fish meat from Red Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) by enzymes thermolysin and alcalase under optimum conditions. The hydrolysis was performed from 0 - 4 hours at 37°C. Hydrolysates after 2 hours incubation with thermolysin and alcalase had degree of hydrolysis of 76.29 % and 63.49 %, respectively. The freeze dried protein hydrolysate was tested for peptide content and characterized with respect to amino acid composition. The result of increased peptide content in Red Tilapia (O. Niloticus) hydrolysates obtained was directly proportional to the increase activities of different proteolytic enzymes. The result of amino acid composition showed that the sample used contained abundant Gly, Ala, Asp, Glu, Lys and Leu in residues or peptide sequences. Both enzymatic hydrolysates were tested for anti-oxidant activity with DPPH and ABTS assay. Alcalase yielded higher anti-oxidative activity than Thermolysin hydrolysates after 1 hour incubation, but both enzymes hydrolysates showed a significant decrease of anti-oxidant activity after 2 hours of incubation. Hydrolysates from Red Tilapia may contribute as a health promoting ingredient in functional foods to reduce oxidation stress caused by accumulated free radicals.

  13. Collagen proteins exchange O with demineralisation and gelatinisation reagents and also with atmospheric moisture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Holstein, Isabella; von Tersch, Matthew; Coutu, Ashley N; Penkman, Kirsty E H; Makarewicz, Cheryl A; Collins, Matthew J

    2018-01-23

    The oxygen isotope composition of collagen proteins is a potential indicator of adult residential location, useful for provenancing in ecology, archaeology and forensics. In acidic solution, proteins can exchange O from carboxylic acid moieties with reagent O. This study investigated whether this exchange occurs during demineralisation and gelatinisation preparation of bone/ivory collagen. EDTA and HCl demineralisation or gelatinisation reagents were made up in waters with different δ 18 O values, and were used to extract collagen from four skeletal tissue samples. Aliquots of extracted collagen were exposed to two different atmospheric waters, at 120°C and ambient temperature, and subsequently dried in a vacuum oven at 40°C or by freeze drying. Sample δ 18 O values were measured by HT/EA pyrolysis-IRMS using a zero-blank autosampler. Collagen samples exchanged O with both reagent waters and atmospheric water, which altered sample δ 18 O values. Exchange with reagent waters occurred in all extraction methods, but was greater at lower pH. Damage to the collagen samples during extraction increased O exchange. The nature of exchange of O with atmospheric water depended on the temperature of exposure: kinetic fractionation of O was identified at 120°C but not at ambient temperature. Exchange was difficult to quantify due to high variability of δ 18 O value between experimental replicates. Studies of δ 18 O values in collagen proteins should avoid extraction methods using acid solutions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. Complete Histological Resolution of Collagenous Sprue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh J Freeman

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A 65-year-old woman developed a watery diarrhea syndrome with collagenous colitis. Later, weight loss and hypoalbuminemia were documented. This prompted small bowel biopsies that showed pathological changes of collagenous sprue. An apparent treatment response to a gluten-free diet and prednisone resulted in reduced diarrhea, weight gain and normalization of serum albumin. Later repeated biopsies from multiple small and large bowel sites over a period of over three years, however, showed reversion to normal small intestinal mucosa but persistent collagenous colitis. These results indicate that collagenous inflammatory disease may be a far more extensive process in the gastrointestinal tract than is currently appreciated. Moreover, collagenous colitis may be a clinical signal that occult small intestinal disease is present. Finally, collagenous sprue may, in some instances, be a completely reversible small intestinal disorder.

  15. A novel functional role of collagen glycosylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jürgensen, Henrik J; Madsen, Daniel H; Ingvarsen, Signe

    2011-01-01

    Collagens make up the most abundant component of interstitial extracellular matrices and basement membranes. Collagen remodeling is a crucial process in many normal physiological events and in several pathological conditions. Some collagen subtypes contain specific carbohydrate side chains......, the function of which is poorly known. The endocytic collagen receptor urokinase plasminogen activator receptor-associated protein (uPARAP)/Endo180 plays an important role in matrix remodeling through its ability to internalize collagen for lysosomal degradation. uPARAP/Endo180 is a member of the mannose...... receptor protein family. These proteins all include a fibronectin type II domain and a series of C-type lectin-like domains, of which only a minor part possess carbohydrate recognition activity. At least two of the family members, uPARAP/Endo180 and the mannose receptor, interact with collagens...

  16. Chemical composition and immunomodulatory effects of enzymatic protein hydrolysates from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) egg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalamaiah, M; Hemalatha, R; Jyothirmayi, T; Diwan, Prakash V; Bhaskarachary, K; Vajreswari, A; Ramesh Kumar, R; Dinesh Kumar, B

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to prepare protein hydrolysates from underutilized common carp (Cyprinus carpio) egg and to investigate their immunomodulatory effects in vivo. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) egg (roe) was hydrolysed by pepsin, trypsin, and Alcalase. Chemical composition (proximate, amino acid, mineral and fatty acid compositions) and molecular mass distribution of the three hydrolysates were determined. The carp egg protein hydrolysates (CEPHs) were evaluated for their immunomodulatory effects in BALB/c mice. CEPHs (0.25, 0.5 and 1 g/kg body weight) were orally administered daily to female BALB/c mice (4-6 wk, 18-20 g) for a period of 45 d. After 45 d, mice were sacrificed and different tissues were collected for the immunologic investigations. The three hydrolysates contained high protein content (64%-73%) with all essential amino acids, and good proportion of ω-3 fatty acids, especially docosahexaenoic acid. Molecular mass analysis of hydrolysates confirmed the conversion of large-molecular-weight roe proteins into peptides of different sizes (5-90 kDa). The three hydrolysates significantly enhanced the proliferation of spleen lymphocytes. Pepsin hydrolysate (0.5 g/kg body weight) significantly increased the splenic natural killer cell cytotoxicity, mucosal immunity (secretory immunoglobulin A) in the gut and level of serum immunoglobulin A. Whereas Alcalase hydrolysate induced significant increases in the percentages of CD4+ and CD8+ cells in spleen. The results demonstrate that CEPHs are able to improve the immune system and further reveal that different CEPHs may exert differential influences on the immune function. These results indicate that CEPHs could be useful for several applications in the health food, pharmaceutical, and nutraceutical industries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of radiation on rat skin collagen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogami, Akira

    1980-01-01

    I. Albino male rats were exposed for 16 weeks to ultraviolet light (UVL) which has principle emission at 305 nm. There were no significant changes between control and UVL-exposed skins in the total hydroxyproline content. However, a little increase of citrate-soluble collagen, a little decrease of insoluble collagen and a decrease of aldehyde content in soluble collagen were observed with UVL exposure. Total acid glycosaminoglycan in skin increased 30% or more from control. These results show that the effect of UVL on rat skin in vivo was merely inflammation phenomenon and that the 'aging' process of skin was not caused in our experimental conditions. II. The effects of radiation on the solubility of rat skin collagen were examined under various conditions. 1) When intact rats were exposed to a single dose of radiation from 43 kVp X-ray source, the solubility in skin collagen did not change at 4,000 R dosage, while in irradiation of 40,000 R a decreased solubility in collagen was observed. When rats were given 400 R a week for 12 weeks, there was no changes in the solubility of collagen during experimental period. 2) In vitro exposure to skins, an irradiation of 40,000 R from 43 kVp X-ray source caused a decrease in the solubility of collagen. While an irradiation of 40,000 R of dosage from 200 kVp X-ray source resulted in the increase in soluble collagen and the decrease in insoluble collagen. 3) When intact rats were given a single dose of 40,000 R from 60 Co- gamma -ray, insoluble collagen decreased in both young and adult rats. Similar changes in collagen solubility were observed in vitro gamma -irradiation. (author)

  18. Alginate-Collagen Fibril Composite Hydrogel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Baniasadi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We report on the synthesis and the mechanical characterization of an alginate-collagen fibril composite hydrogel. Native type I collagen fibrils were used to synthesize the fibrous composite hydrogel. We characterized the mechanical properties of the fabricated fibrous hydrogel using tensile testing; rheometry and atomic force microscope (AFM-based nanoindentation experiments. The results show that addition of type I collagen fibrils improves the rheological and indentation properties of the hydrogel.

  19. Beneficial effects of protein hydrolysates in exercise and sports nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, J; Jiang, B; Li, K; Shen, W; Tang, J L

    2017-01-01

    Protein hydrolysates (PH) are rich sources of proteins that supply the need of exercising muscles. PHs are enriched in di- and tripeptides and are better than free amino acids or intact proteins when muscle anabolic effect is considered. Digestion, absorption and muscle uptake of amino acids are faster and more efficient when PH is ingested in comparison to the respective intact protein. PHs not only enhance endurance in high intensity exercise regimen, but also help in faster post-exercise recovery of muscle by promoting glycogen synthesis, although the latter effect requires more convincing evidence. PHs have been shown to exhibit insulinotrophic effect as it enhances the secretion of insulin and the hormone, in turn, exerts muscle anabolic effect.

  20. Evaluation of physicochemical and antioxidant properties of peanut protein hydrolysate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Tang

    Full Text Available Peanut protein and its hydrolysate were compared with a view to their use as food additives. The effects of pH, temperature and protein concentration on some of their key physicochemical properties were investigated. Compared with peanut protein, peanut peptides exhibited a significantly higher solubility and significantly lower turbidity at pH values 2-12 and temperature between 30 and 80°C. Peanut peptide showed better emulsifying capacity, foam capacity and foam stability, but had lower water holding and fat adsorption capacities over a wide range of protein concentrations (2-5 g/100 ml than peanut protein isolate. In addition, peanut peptide exhibited in vitro antioxidant properties measured in terms of reducing power, scavenging of hydroxyl radical, and scavenging of DPPH radical. These results suggest that peanut peptide appeared to have better functional and antioxidant properties and hence has a good potential as a food additive.

  1. Fermentative performance of bacteria and yeasts in lignocellulose hydrolysates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsson, Lisbeth; Hahn-Haegerdal, B. (Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Applied Microbiology)

    1993-01-01

    The sugar consumption rates and the product formation of yeasts (Saccharomyces cidri NCYC 775, S. cerevisiae NCYC 1047, S.cerevisiae ATCC 4132) and bacteria (Lactobacillus brevis DSM 20054, Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis ATCC 19435, Escherichia coli ATCC 11303, Zymomonas mobilis ATCC 31821) were investigated in spent sulphite liquor and an enzymatic hydrolysate of steam-pretreated Salix caprea at different pH values in order to elucidate the suitability of the organisms with respect to future genetic engineering approaches. The possible inhibitory action of the two substrates on the investigated microorganisms was also considered. S.cerevisiae emerged as one of the better candidates, owing to its fast sugar consumption rate and efficient ethanol production. (author)

  2. Routes towards Novel Collagen-Like Biomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian V. Golser

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Collagen plays a major role in providing mechanical support within the extracellular matrix and thus has long been used for various biomedical purposes. Exemplary, it is able to replace damaged tissues without causing adverse reactions in the receiving patient. Today’s collagen grafts mostly are made of decellularized and otherwise processed animal tissue and therefore carry the risk of unwanted side effects and limited mechanical strength, which makes them unsuitable for some applications e.g., within tissue engineering. In order to improve collagen-based biomaterials, recent advances have been made to process soluble collagen through nature-inspired silk-like spinning processes and to overcome the difficulties in providing adequate amounts of source material by manufacturing collagen-like proteins through biotechnological methods and peptide synthesis. Since these methods also open up possibilities to incorporate additional functional domains into the collagen, we discuss one of the best-performing collagen-like type of proteins, which already have additional functional domains in the natural blueprint, the marine mussel byssus collagens, providing inspiration for novel biomaterials based on collagen-silk hybrid proteins.

  3. High resolution imaging of collagen organisation and synthesis using a versatile collagen specific probe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerboom, R.A.; Krahn - Nash, K.; Megens, R.T.A.; Zandvoort, van M.; Merkx, M.; Bouten, C.V.C.

    2007-01-01

    Collagen is the protein primarily responsible for the load-bearing properties of tissues and collagen architecture is one of the main determinants of the mechanical properties of tissues. Visualisation of changes in collagen three-dimensional structure is essential in order to improve our

  4. Laser welding and collagen crosslinks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiser, K.M.; Last, J.A. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Medicine; Small, W. IV; Maitland, D.J.; Heredia, N.J.; Da Silva, L.B.; Matthews, D.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-02-20

    Strength and stability of laser-welded tissue may be influenced, in part, by effects of laser exposure on collagen crosslinking. We therefore studied effects of diode laser exposure (805 nm, 1-8 watts, 30 seconds) + indocyanine green dye (ICG) on calf tail tendon collagen crosslinks. Effect of ICG dye alone on crosslink content prior to laser exposure was investigated; unexpectedly, we found that ICG-treated tissue had significantly increased DHLNL and OHP, but not HLNL. Laser exposure after ICG application reduced elevated DHLNL and OHP crosslink content down to their native levels. The monohydroxylated crosslink HLNL was inversely correlated with laser output (p<0.01 by linear regression analysis). DHLNL content was highly correlated with content of its maturational product, OHP, suggesting that precursor-product relations are maintained. We conclude that: (1)ICG alone induces DHLNL and OHP crosslink formation; (2)subsequent laser exposure reduces the ICG-induced crosslinks down to native levels; (3)excessive diode laser exposure destroys normally occurring HLNL crosslinks.

  5. Dissipation of the Herbicide Benzobicyclon Hydrolysate in a Model California Rice Field Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Katryn L; Gladfelder, Joshua J; Quigley, Lindsay L; Ball, David B; Tjeerdema, Ronald S

    2017-10-25

    The herbicide benzobicyclon (BZB; 3-(2-chloro-4-(methylsulfonyl)benzoyl)-2-phenylthiobicyclo[3.2.1]oct-2-en-4-one) has recently been approved for use on California rice fields by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA). Hydrolysis of BZB rapidly forms the active compound, benzobicyclon hydrolysate (BH), whose fate is currently not well understood. A model California rice soil was used to determine BH soil dissipation. The pK a and aqueous solubility were also determined, as experimental values are not currently available. Sorption data indicate BH does not bind tightly, or irreversibly, with this soil. Flooding resulted in decreased BH loss, indicating anaerobic microbes are less likely to transform BH compared to aerobic microorganisms. Temperature increased dissipation, while autoclaving decreased BH loss. Overall, dissipation was slow regardless of treatment. Further investigation is needed to elucidate the exact routes of loss in soil, though BH is expected to dissipate slowly in flooded rice field soil.

  6. Safety assessment of Maillard reaction products of chicken bone hydrolysate using Sprague-Dawley rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Zhi Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Maillard reaction products of chicken bone hydrolysate (MRPB containing 38% protein, which is a derived product from chicken bone, is usually used as a flavor enhancer or food ingredient. In the face of a paucity of reported data regarding the safety profile of controversial Maillard reaction products, the potential health effects of MRPB were evaluated in a subchronic rodent feeding study. Methods: Sprague–Dawley rats (SD, 5/sex/group were administered diets containing 9, 3, 1, or 0% of MRPB derived from chicken bone for 13 weeks. Results: During the 13-week treatment period, no mortality occurred, and no remarkable changes in general condition and behavior were observed. The consumption of MRPB did not have any effect on body weight or feed and water consumption. At the same time, there was no significant increase in the weights of the heart, liver, lung, kidney, spleen, small intestine, and thymus in groups for both sexes. Serological examination showed serum alanine aminotransferase in both sexes was decreased significantly, indicating liver cell protection. No treatment-related histopathological differences were observed between the control and test groups. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, the addition of 9% MRPB in the diet had no adverse effect on both male and female SD rats during the 90-day observation. Those results would provide useful information on the safety of a meaty flavor enhancer from bone residue as a byproduct of meat industry.

  7. Gross and true ileal digestible amino acid contents of several animal body proteins and their hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, J; Chong, B; Rutherfurd, S M; Wilkinson, B; Singh, H; Moughan, P J

    2013-07-01

    Amino acid compositions of ovine muscle, ovine myofibrillar protein, ovine spleen, ovine liver, bovine blood plasma, bovine blood globulins and bovine serum albumin and the amino acid compositions and in vivo (laboratory rat) true ileal amino acid digestibilities of hydrolysates (sequential hydrolysis with Neutrase, Alcalase and Flavourzyme) of these protein sources were determined. True ileal amino acid digestibility differed (Pprotein hydrolysates. The ovine myofibrillar protein and liver hydrolysates were the most digestible, with a mean true ileal digestibility across all amino acids of 99%. The least digestible protein hydrolysate was bovine serum albumin with a comparable mean true ileal digestibility of 93%. When the digestible amino acid contents were expressed as proportions relative to lysine, considerable differences, across the diverse protein sources, were found in the pattern of predicted absorbed amino acids. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Identifying inhibitory compounds in lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates using an exometabolomics approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zha, Y.; Westerhuis, J.A.; Muilwijk, B.; Overkamp, K.M.; Nijmeijer, B.M.; Coulier, L.; Smilde, A.K.; Punt, P.J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Inhibitors are formed that reduce the fermentation performance of fermenting yeast during the pretreatment process of lignocellulosic biomass. An exometabolomics approach was applied to systematically identify inhibitors in lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates.Results: We studied the

  9. Ethanol production from marine algal hydrolysates using Escherichia coli KO11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nag-Jong; Li, Hui; Jung, Kwonsu; Chang, Ho Nam; Lee, Pyung Cheon

    2011-08-01

    Algae biomass is a potential raw material for the production of biofuels and other chemicals. In this study, biomass of the marine algae, Ulva lactuca, Gelidium amansii,Laminaria japonica, and Sargassum fulvellum, was treated with acid and commercially available hydrolytic enzymes. The hydrolysates contained glucose, mannose, galactose, and mannitol, among other sugars, at different ratios. The Laminaria japonica hydrolysate contained up to 30.5% mannitol and 6.98% glucose in the hydrolysate solids. Ethanogenic recombinant Escherichia coli KO11 was able to utilize both mannitol and glucose and produced 0.4g ethanol per g of carbohydrate when cultured in L. japonica hydrolysate supplemented with Luria-Bertani medium and hydrolytic enzymes. The strategy of acid hydrolysis followed by simultaneous enzyme treatment and inoculation with E. coli KO11 could be a viable strategy to produce ethanol from marine alga biomass. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Identifying inhibitory compounds in lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates using an exometabolomics approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zha, Y.; Westerhuis, J.A.; Muilwijk, B.; Overkamp, K.M.; Nijmeijer, B.M.; Coulier, L.; Smilde, A.K.; Punt, P.J.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Inhibitors are formed that reduce the fermentation performance of fermenting yeast during the pretreatment process of lignocellulosic biomass. An exometabolomics approach was applied to systematically identify inhibitors in lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates. RESULTS: We studied the

  11. The hypolipidemic effect and antithrombotic activity of Mucuna pruriens protein hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera Chalé, Francisco; Ruiz Ruiz, Jorge Carlos; Betancur Ancona, David; Acevedo Fernández, Juan José; Segura Campos, Maira Rubi

    2016-01-01

    Hydrolysates and peptide fractions (PF) obtained from M. pruriens protein concentrates with commercial and digestive enzymatic systems were studied for their hypolipidemic and antithrombotic activities. Hydrolysates obtained with Pepsin-Pancreatin (PP) and their peptide fractions inhibited cholesterol micellar solubility with a maximum value of 1.83% in PP. Wistar rats were used to evaluate the hypolipidemic effect of hydrolysates and PF. The higher reductions of cholesterol and triglyceride levels were exhibited by PP and both peptide fractions 10 kDa from both hydrolysates showed the maximum antithrombotic activity with values of 33.33% for PF > 10 kDa from AF and 31.72% for PF > 10 kDa from PP. The results suggest that M. pruriens bioactive peptides with the hypolipidemic effect and antithrombotic activity might be utilized as nutraceuticals.

  12. Production of xylitol from corn cob hydrolysate through acid and enzymatic hydrolysis by yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardawati, Efri; Andoyo, R.; Syukra, K. A.; Kresnowati, MTAP; Bindar, Y.

    2018-03-01

    The abundance of corn production in Indonesia offers the potential for its application as the raw material for biorefinery process. The hemicellulose content in corn cobs can be considered to be used as a raw material for xylitol production. The purpose of this research was to study the effect of hydrolysis methods for xylitol production and the effect of the hydrolyzed corn cobs to produce xylitol through fermentation. Hydrolysis methods that would be evaluated were acid and enzymatic hydrolysis. The result showed that the xylitol yield of fermented solution using enzymatic hydrolysates was 0.216 g-xylitol/g-xylose, which was higher than the one that used acid hydrolysates, which was 0.100 g-xylitol/g-xylose. Moreover, the specific growth rate of biomass in fermentation using enzymatic hydrolysates was also higher than the one that used acid hydrolysates, 0.039/h compared to 0.0056/h.

  13. Xylitol production by Debaryomyces hansenii and Candida guilliermondii from rapeseed straw hemicellulosic hydrolysate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    López-Linares, Juan Carlos; Romero, Inmaculada; Cara, Cristobal

    2018-01-01

    This study evaluated the possibility of using rapeseed straw hemicellulosic hydrolysate as a fermentation medium for xylitol production. Two yeast strains, namely Debaryomyces hansenii and Candida guilliermondii, were used for this bioconversion process and their performance to convert xylose...

  14. Effect of Porcine Collagen Peptides on the Rheological and Sensory Properties of Ice Cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liying; Kim, Jae-Hyeong; Jo, Yeon-Ji; Min, Sang-Gi; Chun, Ji-Yeon

    2015-01-01

    The effects of low molecular-weight collagen peptides derived from porcine skin were investigated on the physicochemical and sensorial properties of chocolate ice cream. Collagen peptides less than 1 kDa in weight were obtained by sub-critical water hydrolysis at a temperature of 300℃ and a pressure of 80 bar. Ice cream was then prepared with gelatin powder and porcine skin hydrolysate (PSH) stabilizers mixed at seven different ratios (for a total of 0.5 wt%). There was no significant difference in color between the resulting ice cream mixtures. The increase in apparent viscosity and shear thinning of the ice cream was more moderate with PSH added than with gelatin. Moreover, the samples containing more than 0.2 wt% PSH had enhanced melting resistance, while the mixture with 0.2 wt% PSH had the lowest storage modulus at -20℃ and the second highest loss modulus at 10℃, indicating that this combination of hydrocolloids leads to relatively softer and creamier chocolate ice cream. Among the seven types of ice creams tested, the mixture with 0.2 wt% PSH and 0.3 wt% gelatin had the best physicochemical properties. However, in sensory evaluations, the samples containing PSH had lower chocolate flavor scores and higher off-flavor scores than the sample prepared with just 0.5 wt% gelatin due to the strong off-flavor of PSH.

  15. Purification of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Peptide Derived From Kacang Goat Meat Protein Hydrolysate

    OpenAIRE

    Jamhari, J; Yusiati, L.M; Suryanto, E; Cahyanto, M.N; Erwanto, Y; Muguruma, M

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) inhibitorypeptide derived from Kacang goat meat protein hydrolysate. Kacang goat meat loin section washydrolyzed with pepsin, trypsin and chymotrypsin. Protein hydrolysate of Kacang goat meat was thentested the protein concentration and ACE inhibitory activity. ACE inhibitory peptide of the proteinhydrolysate was purified through several steps of purification by column SEP-PAK Plus C18 Cartridgeand RP-HPLC usi...

  16. Effects of pretreatment methods for hazelnut shell hydrolysate fermentation with Pichia Stipitis to ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Yeşim; Eken-Saraçoğlu, Nurdan

    2010-11-01

    In this study, we investigated the use of hazelnut shell as a renewable and low cost lignocellulosic material for bioethanol production for the first time. High lignin content of hazelnut shell is an important obstacle for such a biotransformation. Biomass hydrolysis with acids yields reducing sugar with several inhibitors which limit the fermentability of sugars. The various conditioning methods for biomass and hydrolysate were performed to overcome the toxicity and their effects on the subsequent fermentation of hazelnut shell hydrolysate by Pichia stipitis were evaluated with shaking flasks experiments. Hazelnut shells hydrolysis with 0.7M H(2)SO(4) yielded 49 gl(-1) total reducing sugars and fermentation inhibitors in untreated hydrolysate. First, it was shown that several hydrolysate detoxification methods were solely inefficient in achieving cell growth and ethanol production in the fermentation of hazelnut shell hydrolysates derived from non-delignified biomass. Next, different pretreatments of hazelnut shells were considered for delignification and employed before hydrolysis in conjunction with hydrolysate detoxification to improve alcohol fermentation. Among six delignification methods, the most effective pretreatment regarding to ethanol concentration includes the treatment of shells with 3% (w/v) NaOH at room temperature, which was integrated with sequential hydrolysate detoxification by overliming and then treatment with charcoal twice at 60 degrees C. This treatment brought about a total reduction of 97% in furans and 88.4% in phenolics. Almost all trialed treatments caused significant sugar loss. Under the best assayed conditions, ethanol concentration of 16.79gl(-1) was reached from a hazelnut shell hyrolysate containing initial 50g total reducing sugar l(-1) after partial synthetic xylose supplementation. This value is equal to 91.25% of ethanol concentration that was obtained from synthetic d-xylose under same conditions. The present study

  17. Acetone-butanol fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates for the butanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozova, Tatyana; Semyonov, Sergey

    2017-11-01

    It is known that the use of lignocellulosic hydrolysates reduces the production cost of biofuel such as biobutanol and bioethanol. But for the most successful application of the hydrolysates for the biofuel production, it is necessary to apply an inexpensive and effective detoxification method and to use of cost-effective growth factors. In the present study, we evaluated the use of an acid hydrolysate of spruce and an enzymatic hydrolysate of miscanthus cellulose for the biobutanol production. To remove inhibitors from the hydrolysates, we applied the traditional physicochemical method with overliming and the biodetoxification method based on the use of the specially adapted activated sludge. Calcium hydroxide (150 g/L) was used for the neutralization. The biological method of detoxification of lignocellulosic hydrolysates was carried out under non-sterile conditions at room temperature by the specially adapted activated sludge of the urban wastewater treatment plants. The acetone-butanol fermentation was carried out by a strain of bacteria Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824. The treatment by overliming removed 84-85 % and 83-86% of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) and furfural from the hydrolysates respectively. Using the method of biodetoxification the content of furfural decreased by 98% and concentration of 5-HMF - by 97-99%. In the present study as an inexpensive source of growth substances for the fermentation of the hydrolysates it has been suggested to use decantate of the brewer's spent grain. The obtained results showed that the brewer's spent grain can be used in the biofuel production as efficiently as the synthetic growth substances.

  18. Whey or Casein Hydrolysate with Carbohydrate for Metabolism and Performance in Cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosthuyse, T; Carstens, M; Millen, A M E

    2015-07-01

    The protein type most suitable for ingestion during endurance exercise is undefined. This study compared co-ingestion of either 15 g/h whey or casein hydrolysate with 63 g/h fructose: maltodextrin (0.8:1) on exogenous carbohydrate oxidation, exercise metabolism and performance. 2 h postprandial, 8 male cyclists ingested either: carbohydrate-only, carbohydrate-whey hydrolysate, carbohydrate-casein hydrolysate or placebo-water in a crossover, double-blind design during 2 h of exercise at 60%W max followed by a 16-km time trial. Data were evaluated by magnitude-based inferential statistics. Exogenous carbohydrate oxidation, measured from (13)CO2 breath enrichment, was not substantially influenced by co-ingestion of either protein hydrolysate. However, only co-ingestion of carbohydrate-casein hydrolysate substantially decreased (98% very likely decrease) total carbohydrate oxidation (mean±SD, 242±44; 258±47; 277±33 g for carbohydrate-casein, carbohydrate-whey and carbohydrate-only, respectively) and substantially increased (93% likely increase) total fat oxidation (92±14; 83±27; 73±19 g) compared with carbohydrate-only. Furthermore, only carbohydrate-casein hydrolysate ingestion resulted in a faster time trial (-3.6%; 90% CI: ±3.2%) compared with placebo-water (95% likely benefit). However, neither protein hydrolysate enhanced time trial performance when compared with carbohydrate-only. Under the conditions of this study, ingesting carbohydrate-casein, but not carbohydrate-whey hydrolysate, favourably alters metabolism during prolonged moderate-strenuous cycling without substantially altering cycling performance compared with carbohydrate-only. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. IMPACT OF ADULTERATION WITH GLUCOSE, FRUCTOSE AND HYDROLYSED INULIN SYRUP ON HONEY PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

    OpenAIRE

    Sorina ROPCIUC; Mircea OROIAN; Vlad OLARIU

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of the adulteration with glucose, fructose, hydrolysed inulin syrup on honey physico-chemical properties (pH, aw, electrical conductivity (EC), water activity and colour parameters (L*, a*, b*, chroma)) of three honey samples of different botanical origins (acacia, tilia and polyfloral). The honeys were adulterated in different percentages (10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% respectively) with glucose, fructose and hydrolysed inulin syrup. The moistu...

  20. Xylitol Production from Eucalyptus Wood Hydrolysates in Low-Cost Fermentation Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Diz

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Several aspects concerning the bioconversion of xylose-containing hydrolysates (obtained from Eucalyptus wood into xylitol were assessed. Debaryomyces hansenii yeast strains were adapted to fermentation media (obtained either by prehydrolysis or autohydrolysis- posthydrolysis of wood supplemented with low-cost nutrients. Media containing up to 80 g/L xylose were efficiently fermented when the hydrolysates were detoxified by charcoal adsorption and supplemented with corn steep liquor.

  1. Recombinant gelatin and collagen from methylotrophic yeasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, de E.C.

    2002-01-01

    Based on its structural role and compatibility within the human body, collagen is a commonly used biomaterial in medical applications, such as cosmetic surgery, wound treatment and tissue engineering. Gelatin is in essence denatured and partly degraded collagen and is,

  2. Biomimetic soluble collagen purified from bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Ana Marina; Gentile, Piergiorgio; Sartori, Susanna; Pagliano, Cristina; Cabrele, Chiara; Chiono, Valeria; Ciardelli, Gianluca

    2012-11-01

    Type I collagen has been extensively exploited as a biomaterial for biomedical applications and drug delivery; however, small molecular alterations occurring during the isolation procedure and its interaction with residual bone extracellular matrix molecules or proteins might affect the overall material biocompatibility and performance. The aim of the current work is to study the potential alterations in collagen properties and organization associated with the absence of proteoglycans, which mimic pathological conditions associated with age-related diseases. A new approach for evaluating the effect of proteoglycans on the properties of isolated type I collagen from the bone matrix is described. Additional treatment with guanidine hydrochloride was introduced to remove residual proteoglycans from the collagen matrix. The properties of the isolated collagen with/without guanidine hydrochloride treatment were investigated and compared with a commercial rabbit collagen as control. We demonstrate that the absence of proteoglycans in the isolated type I collagen affects its thermal properties, the extraction into its native structure, and its ability to hydrate and self-assemble into fibers. The fine control and tuning of all these features, linked to the absence of non-collagenous proteins as proteoglycans, offer the possibility of designing new strategies and biomaterials with advanced biomimetic properties aimed at regenerating bone tissue in the case of fragility and/or defects. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Experimental resin cements containing bioactive fillers reduce matrix metalloproteinase-mediated dentin collagen degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, Raquel; Yamauti, Monica; Sauro, Salvatore; Watson, Thimoty F; Toledano, Manuel

    2012-09-01

    Collagen dentin matrix may represent a suitable scaffold to be remineralized in the presence of bioactive materials. The purpose of this study was to determine if experimental resin cements containing bioactive fillers may modulate matrix metalloproteinase-mediated collagen degradation of etched dentin. Human dentin beams demineralized using 10% phosphoric acid or 0.5 mol/L EDTA were infiltrated with the following experimental resins: (1) unfilled resin, (2) resin with Bioglass 45S5 particles (Sylc; OSspray Ltd, London, UK), and (3) resin with β-tricalcium phosphate-modified calcium silicate cement (HCAT-β) particles. The filler/resin ratio was 40/60 wt%. The specimens were stored in artificial saliva, and the determination of C-terminal telopeptide (ICTP) was performed by radioimmunoassay after 24 hours, 1 week, and 4 weeks. Scanning electron microscopic analysis of dentin surfaces after 4 weeks of storage was also executed. Collagen degradation was prominent both in phosphoric acid and EDTA-treated dentin. Resin infiltration strongly reduced the MMP activity in demineralized dentin. Resin-containing Bioglass 45S5 particles exerted higher and more stable protection of collagen at all tested dentin states and time points. HCAT-β induced collagen protection from MMPs only in EDTA-treated specimens. Dentin remineralization was achieved when dentin was infiltrated with the resin cements containing bioactive fillers. MMP degradation of dentin collagen is strongly reduced in resin-infiltrated dentin. The inclusion of Bioglass 45S5 particles exerted an additional protection of collagen during dentin remineralization. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Chondroitin Sulfate Perlecan Enhances Collagen Fibril Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, A. J.; Johnson, A. E.; Mörgelin, M.

    2006-01-01

    in collagen type II fibril assembly by perlecan-null chondrocytes. Cartilage perlecan is a heparin sulfate or a mixed heparan sulfate/chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan. The latter form binds collagen and accelerates fibril formation in vitro, with more defined fibril morphology and increased fibril diameters...... produced in the presence of perlecan. Interestingly, the enhancement of collagen fibril formation is independent on the core protein and is mimicked by chondroitin sulfate E but neither by chondroitin sulfate D nor dextran sulfate. Furthermore, perlecan chondroitin sulfate contains the 4,6-disulfated...... disaccharides typical for chondroitin sulfate E. Indeed, purified glycosaminoglycans from perlecan-enriched fractions of cartilage extracts contain elevated levels of 4,6-disulfated chondroitin sulfate disaccharides and enhance collagen fibril formation. The effect on collagen assembly is proportional...

  5. Lactic Acid Production from Pretreated Hydrolysates of Corn Stover by a Newly Developed Bacillus coagulans Strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ting; Qiao, Hui; Zheng, Zhaojuan; Chu, Qiulu; Li, Xin; Yong, Qiang; Ouyang, Jia

    2016-01-01

    An inhibitor-tolerance strain, Bacillus coagulans GKN316, was developed through atmospheric and room temperature plasma (ARTP) mutation and evolution experiment in condensed dilute-acid hydrolysate (CDH) of corn stover. The fermentabilities of other hydrolysates with B. coagulans GKN316 and the parental strain B. coagulans NL01 were assessed. When using condensed acid-catalyzed steam-exploded hydrolysate (CASEH), condensed acid-catalyzed liquid hot water hydrolysate (CALH) and condensed acid-catalyzed sulfite hydrolysate (CASH) as substrates, the concentration of lactic acid reached 45.39, 16.83, and 18.71 g/L by B. coagulans GKN316, respectively. But for B. coagulans NL01, only CASEH could be directly fermented to produce 15.47 g/L lactic acid. The individual inhibitory effect of furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), vanillin, syringaldehyde and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (pHBal) on xylose utilization by B. coagulans GKN316 was also studied. The strain B. coagulans GKN316 could effectively convert these toxic inhibitors to the less toxic corresponding alcohols in situ. These results suggested that B. coagulans GKN316 was well suited to production of lactic acid from undetoxified lignocellulosic hydrolysates. PMID:26863012

  6. Production of hydrolysate from processed Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus residues and assessment of its antioxidant activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Miotto BERNARDI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this work was to produce protein hydrolysates from by-products of the Nile tilapia fileting process, and to assess the effects of different hydrolysis times on the antioxidant activity of the hydrolysed animal-based protein, in free form and incorporated into a food matrix. Gutted tilapia heads and carcasses were hydrolysed by Alcalase® for different hydrolysis times producing six hydrolysates. The protein content, degree of hydrolysis, reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, and antioxidant activity by the ORAC, FRAP and TEAC methods were analysed. Three mini-hamburger formulations were produced and the lipidic oxidation of mini-hamburger was determined by TBARS. The protein contained in the residue was completely recovered in the process. The hydrolysates varied in their degree of hydrolysis, but presented similar levels of antioxidant activity. In the mini-hamburgers the hydrolysate was capable of delaying oxidation after 7 days of storage. Hydrolysis of tilapia processing by-products produced peptides may be used in the formulation of functional foods.

  7. Detoxification of Corncob Acid Hydrolysate with SAA Pretreatment and Xylitol Production by Immobilized Candida tropicalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Li-Hong; Tang, Yong; Liu, Yun

    2014-01-01

    Xylitol fermentation production from corncob acid hydrolysate has become an attractive and promising process. However, corncob acid hydrolysate cannot be directly used as fermentation substrate owing to various inhibitors. In this work, soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA) pretreatment was employed to reduce the inhibitors in acid hydrolysate. After detoxification, the corncob acid hydrolysate was fermented by immobilized Candida tropicalis cell to produce xylitol. Results revealed that SAA pretreatment showed high delignification and efficient removal of acetyl group compounds without effect on cellulose and xylan content. Acetic acid was completely removed, and the content of phenolic compounds was reduced by 80%. Furthermore, kinetic behaviors of xylitol production by immobilized C. tropicalis cell were elucidated from corncob acid hydrolysate detoxified with SAA pretreatment and two-step adsorption method, respectively. The immobilized C. tropicalis cell showed higher productivity efficiency using the corncob acid hydrolysate as fermentation substrate after detoxification with SAA pretreatment than by two-step adsorption method in the five successive batch fermentation rounds. After the fifth round fermentation, about 60 g xylitol/L fermentation substrate was obtained for SAA pretreatment detoxification, while about 30 g xylitol/L fermentation substrate was obtained for two-step adsorption detoxification. PMID:25133211

  8. Detoxification of Corncob Acid Hydrolysate with SAA Pretreatment and Xylitol Production by Immobilized Candida tropicalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Hong Deng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Xylitol fermentation production from corncob acid hydrolysate has become an attractive and promising process. However, corncob acid hydrolysate cannot be directly used as fermentation substrate owing to various inhibitors. In this work, soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA pretreatment was employed to reduce the inhibitors in acid hydrolysate. After detoxification, the corncob acid hydrolysate was fermented by immobilized Candida tropicalis cell to produce xylitol. Results revealed that SAA pretreatment showed high delignification and efficient removal of acetyl group compounds without effect on cellulose and xylan content. Acetic acid was completely removed, and the content of phenolic compounds was reduced by 80%. Furthermore, kinetic behaviors of xylitol production by immobilized C. tropicalis cell were elucidated from corncob acid hydrolysate detoxified with SAA pretreatment and two-step adsorption method, respectively. The immobilized C. tropicalis cell showed higher productivity efficiency using the corncob acid hydrolysate as fermentation substrate after detoxification with SAA pretreatment than by two-step adsorption method in the five successive batch fermentation rounds. After the fifth round fermentation, about 60 g xylitol/L fermentation substrate was obtained for SAA pretreatment detoxification, while about 30 g xylitol/L fermentation substrate was obtained for two-step adsorption detoxification.

  9. Improvement of the fermentability of oxalic acid hydrolysates by detoxification using electrodialysis and adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, So-Yeon; Trinh, Ly Thi Phi; Lee, Hong-Joo; Lee, Jae-Won

    2014-01-01

    A two-step detoxification process consisting of electrodialysis and adsorption was performed to improve the fermentability of oxalic acid hydrolysates. The constituents of the hydrolysate differed significantly between mixed hardwood and softwood. Acetic acid and furfural concentrations were high in the mixed hardwood, whereas 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) concentration was relatively low compared with that of the mixed softwood. The removal efficiency of acetic acid reached 100% by electrodialysis (ED) process in both hydrolysates, while those of furfural and HMF showed very low, due to non-ionizable properties. Most of the remaining inhibitors were removed by XAD-4 resin. In the mixed hardwood hydrolysate without removal of the inhibitors, ethanol fermentation was not completed. Meanwhile, both ED-treated hydrolysates successfully produced ethanol with 0.08 and 0.15 g/Lh ethanol productivity, respectively. The maximum ethanol productivity was attained after fermentation with 0.27 and 0.35 g/Lh of detoxified hydrolysates, which were treated by ED, followed by XAD-4 resin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Antioxidative activities of hydrolysates from edible birds nest using enzymatic hydrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Nurul Nadia; Babji, Abdul Salam; Ayub, Mohd Khan

    2015-09-01

    Edible bird's nest protein hydrolysates (EBN) were prepared via enzymatic hydrolysis to investigate its antioxidant activity. Two types of enzyme (alcalase and papain) were used in this study and EBN had been hydrolysed with different hydrolysis time (30, 60, 90 and 120 min). Antioxidant activities in EBN protein hydrolysate were measured using DPPH, ABTS+ and Reducing Power Assay. From this study, increased hydrolysis time from 30 min to 120 min contributed to higher DH, as shown by alcalase (40.59%) and papain (24.94%). For antioxidant assay, EBN hydrolysed with papain showed higher scavenging activity and reducing power ability compared to alcalase. The highest antioxidant activity for papain was at 120 min hydrolysis time with ABTS (54.245%), DPPH (49.78%) and Reducing Power (0.0680). Meanwhile for alcalase, the highest antioxidant activity was at 30 min hydrolysis time. Even though scavenging activity for EBN protein hydrolysates were high, the reducing power ability was quite low as compared to BHT and ascorbic Acid. This study showed that EBN protein hydrolysate with alcalase and papain treatments potentially exhibit high antioxidant activity which have not been reported before.

  11. Lactic Acid Production from Pretreated Hydrolysates of Corn Stover by a Newly Developed Bacillus coagulans Strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ting; Qiao, Hui; Zheng, Zhaojuan; Chu, Qiulu; Li, Xin; Yong, Qiang; Ouyang, Jia

    2016-01-01

    An inhibitor-tolerance strain, Bacillus coagulans GKN316, was developed through atmospheric and room temperature plasma (ARTP) mutation and evolution experiment in condensed dilute-acid hydrolysate (CDH) of corn stover. The fermentabilities of other hydrolysates with B. coagulans GKN316 and the parental strain B. coagulans NL01 were assessed. When using condensed acid-catalyzed steam-exploded hydrolysate (CASEH), condensed acid-catalyzed liquid hot water hydrolysate (CALH) and condensed acid-catalyzed sulfite hydrolysate (CASH) as substrates, the concentration of lactic acid reached 45.39, 16.83, and 18.71 g/L by B. coagulans GKN316, respectively. But for B. coagulans NL01, only CASEH could be directly fermented to produce 15.47 g/L lactic acid. The individual inhibitory effect of furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), vanillin, syringaldehyde and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (pHBal) on xylose utilization by B. coagulans GKN316 was also studied. The strain B. coagulans GKN316 could effectively convert these toxic inhibitors to the less toxic corresponding alcohols in situ. These results suggested that B. coagulans GKN316 was well suited to production of lactic acid from undetoxified lignocellulosic hydrolysates.

  12. Lactic Acid Production from Pretreated Hydrolysates of Corn Stover by a Newly Developed Bacillus coagulans Strain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Jiang

    Full Text Available An inhibitor-tolerance strain, Bacillus coagulans GKN316, was developed through atmospheric and room temperature plasma (ARTP mutation and evolution experiment in condensed dilute-acid hydrolysate (CDH of corn stover. The fermentabilities of other hydrolysates with B. coagulans GKN316 and the parental strain B. coagulans NL01 were assessed. When using condensed acid-catalyzed steam-exploded hydrolysate (CASEH, condensed acid-catalyzed liquid hot water hydrolysate (CALH and condensed acid-catalyzed sulfite hydrolysate (CASH as substrates, the concentration of lactic acid reached 45.39, 16.83, and 18.71 g/L by B. coagulans GKN316, respectively. But for B. coagulans NL01, only CASEH could be directly fermented to produce 15.47 g/L lactic acid. The individual inhibitory effect of furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF, vanillin, syringaldehyde and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (pHBal on xylose utilization by B. coagulans GKN316 was also studied. The strain B. coagulans GKN316 could effectively convert these toxic inhibitors to the less toxic corresponding alcohols in situ. These results suggested that B. coagulans GKN316 was well suited to production of lactic acid from undetoxified lignocellulosic hydrolysates.

  13. Collagen cross-linking in thin corneas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prema Padmanabhan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Collagen cross-linking (CXL has become the standard of care for progressive keratoconus, after numerous clinical studies have established its efficacy and safety in suitably selected eyes. The standard protocol is applicable in eyes which have a minimum corneal thickness of 400 μm after epithelial debridement. This prerequisite was stipulated to protect the corneal endothelium and intraocular tissues from the deleterious effect of ultraviolet-A (UVA radiation. However, patients with keratoconus often present with corneal thickness of less than 400 μm and could have otherwise benefited from this procedure. A few modifications of the standard procedure have been suggested to benefit these patients without a compromise in safety. Transepithelial cross-linking, pachymetry-guided epithelial debridement before cross-linking, and the use of hypoosmolar riboflavin are some of the techniques that have been attempted. Although clinical data is limited at the present time, these techniques are worth considering in patients with thin corneas. Further studies are needed to scientifically establish their efficacy and safety.

  14. Hydrolyzed collagen interferes with in vitro photoprotective effectiveness of sunscreens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela D'Almeida Peres

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The chronological skin aging is a progressive and natural process with genetic and physiological changes. However, ultraviolet (UV radiation may accelerate the oxidative stress, generating carcinogenesis and photoaging. Natural compounds and their applications are considered a trend in the cosmetic market. The protein-based film-forming compounds play an important role, once it collaborates for the better distribution of sunscreens on the skin. Here we investigated the in vitro photoprotective effectiveness of sunscreens containing the hydrolyzed collagen associated with UVA, UVB and/or inorganic filters. Sunscreens were developed with octocrylene (7.5%, butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane (avobenzone (3.0% and/or titanium dioxide (5.0%, associated or not with the hydrolyzed collagen (3.0%. In vitro photoprotective effectiveness was determined in a Labsphere(r UV2000S by the establishment of the sun protection factor (SPF and critical wavelength (nm values. Physicochemical and organoleptic characteristics were also assayed. The hydrolyzed collagen subjectively improved the formulation sensory characteristics. However, this bioactive compound led to a decrease of the SPF values of the photoprotective formulations containing octocrylene alone and octocrylene + butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane + TiO2. This inadequate interaction may be considered during the development of new sunscreens intended to contain protein-based components.

  15. Dextran derivatives modulate collagen matrix organization in dermal equivalent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Laetitia; Lebreton-Decoster, Corinne; Godeau, Gaston; Coulomb, Bernard; Jozefonvicz, Jacqueline

    2006-01-01

    Dextran derivatives can protect heparin binding growth factor implied in wound healing, such as transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2). The first aim of this study was to investigate the effect of these compounds on human dermal fibroblasts in culture with or without TGF-beta1. Several dextran derivatives obtained by substitution of methylcarboxylate (MC), benzylamide (B) and sulphate (Su) groups were used to determine the effects of each compound on fibroblast growth in vitro. The data indicate that sulphate groups are essential to act on the fibroblast proliferation. The dextran derivative LS21 DMCBSu has been chosen to investigate its effect on dermal wound healing process. Fibroblasts cultured in collagenous matrices named dermal equivalent were treated with the bioactive polymer alone or associated to TGF-beta1 or FGF-2. Cross-sections of dermal equivalent observed by histology or immunohistochemistry, demonstrated that the bioactive polymer accelerates the collagen matrices organization and stimulates the human type-III collagen expression. This bioactive polymer induces apoptosis of myofibroblast, property which may be beneficial in treatment of hypertrophic scar. Culture media analyzed by zymography and Western blot showed that this polymer significantly increases the secretion of zymogen and active form of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), involved in granulation tissue formation. These data suggest that this bioactive polymer has properties which may be beneficial in the treatment of wound healing.

  16. Corrected: The influence of brewers' yeast addition on lactic acid fermentation of brewers' spent grain hydrolysate by Lactobacillus rhamnosus

    OpenAIRE

    Pejin, Jelena; Radosavljević, Miloš; Kocić-Tanackov, Sunčica; Đukić-Vuković, Aleksandra; Mladenović, Dragana; Mojović, Ljiljana

    2016-01-01

    Brewers' spent grain (BSG) hydrolysates were used for lactic acid (LA) fermentation by Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469. The aim of this study was to evaluate possibilities of the BSG hydrolysate utilization as a substrate for LA fermentation as well as the effect of dry brewers' yeast addition in hydrolysate on lactic acid fermentation parameters (L-(+)-LA and reducing sugar concentration and number of viable cell-viability). Very high L. rhamnosus ATCC 7469 cell viability was achieved in a...

  17. Gelatin hydrolysates from farmed Giant catfish skin using alkaline proteases and its antioxidative function of simulated gastro-intestinal digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketnawa, Sunantha; Martínez-Alvarez, Oscar; Benjakul, Soottawat; Rawdkuen, Saroat

    2016-02-01

    This work aims to evaluate the ability of different alkaline proteases to prepare active gelatin hydrolysates. Fish skin gelatin was hydrolysed by visceral alkaline-proteases from Giant catfish, commercial trypsin, and Izyme AL®. All antioxidant activity indices of the hydrolysates increased with increasing degree of hydrolysis (Pfish skin, could serve as a potential source of functional food ingredients for health promotion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Nonlinear optical response of the collagen triple helix and second harmonic microscopy of collagen liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniset-Besseau, A.; De Sa Peixoto, P.; Duboisset, J.; Loison, C.; Hache, F.; Benichou, E.; Brevet, P.-F.; Mosser, G.; Schanne-Klein, M.-C.

    2010-02-01

    Collagen is characterized by triple helical domains and plays a central role in the formation of fibrillar and microfibrillar networks, basement membranes, as well as other structures of the connective tissue. Remarkably, fibrillar collagen exhibits efficient Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) and SHG microscopy proved to be a sensitive tool to score fibrotic pathologies. However, the nonlinear optical response of fibrillar collagen is not fully characterized yet and quantitative data are required to further process SHG images. We therefore performed Hyper-Rayleigh Scattering (HRS) experiments and measured a second order hyperpolarisability of 1.25 10-27 esu for rat-tail type I collagen. This value is surprisingly large considering that collagen presents no strong harmonophore in its amino-acid sequence. In order to get insight into the physical origin of this nonlinear process, we performed HRS measurements after denaturation of the collagen triple helix and for a collagen-like short model peptide [(Pro-Pro-Gly)10]3. It showed that the collagen large nonlinear response originates in the tight alignment of a large number of weakly efficient harmonophores, presumably the peptide bonds, resulting in a coherent amplification of the nonlinear signal along the triple helix. To illustrate this mechanism, we successfully recorded SHG images in collagen liquid solutions by achieving liquid crystalline ordering of the collagen triple helices.

  19. The Mineral–Collagen Interface in Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The interface between collagen and the mineral reinforcement phase, carbonated hydroxyapatite (cAp), is essential for bone’s remarkable functionality as a biological composite material. The very small dimensions of the cAp phase and the disparate natures of the reinforcement and matrix are essential to the material’s performance but also complicate study of this interface. This article summarizes what is known about the cAp-collagen interface in bone and begins with descriptions of the matrix and reinforcement roles in composites, of the phases bounding the interface, of growth of cAp growing within the collagen matrix, and of the effect of intra- and extrafibrilar mineral on determinations of interfacial properties. Different observed interfacial interactions with cAp (collagen, water, non-collagenous proteins) are reviewed; experimental results on interface interactions during loading are reported as are their influence on macroscopic mechanical properties; conclusions of numerical modeling of interfacial interactions are also presented. The data suggest interfacial interlocking (bending of collagen molecules around cAp nanoplatelets) and water-mediated bonding between collagen and cAp are essential to load transfer. The review concludes with descriptions of areas where new research is needed to improve understanding of how the interface functions. PMID:25824581

  20. Age Increases Monocyte Adhesion on Collagen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaji, Samira; Zondler, Lisa; Kleinjan, Fenneke; Nolte, Ulla; Mulaw, Medhanie A.; Danzer, Karin M.; Weishaupt, Jochen H.; Gottschalk, Kay-E.

    2017-05-01

    Adhesion of monocytes to micro-injuries on arterial walls is an important early step in the occurrence and development of degenerative atherosclerotic lesions. At these injuries, collagen is exposed to the blood stream. We are interested whether age influences monocyte adhesion to collagen under flow, and hence influences the susceptibility to arteriosclerotic lesions. Therefore, we studied adhesion and rolling of human peripheral blood monocytes from old and young individuals on collagen type I coated surface under shear flow. We find that firm adhesion of monocytes to collagen type I is elevated in old individuals. Pre-stimulation by lipopolysaccharide increases the firm adhesion of monocytes homogeneously in older individuals, but heterogeneously in young individuals. Blocking integrin αx showed that adhesion of monocytes to collagen type I is specific to the main collagen binding integrin αxβ2. Surprisingly, we find no significant age-dependent difference in gene expression of integrin αx or integrin β2. However, if all integrins are activated from the outside, no differences exist between the age groups. Altered integrin activation therefore causes the increased adhesion. Our results show that the basal increase in integrin activation in monocytes from old individuals increases monocyte adhesion to collagen and therefore the risk for arteriosclerotic plaques.

  1. Cosmetic Potential of Marine Fish Skin Collagen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana L. Alves

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Many cosmetic formulations have collagen as a major component because of its significant benefits as a natural humectant and moisturizer. This industry is constantly looking for innovative, sustainable, and truly efficacious products, so marine collagen based formulations are arising as promising alternatives. A solid description and characterization of this protein is fundamental to guarantee the highest quality of each batch. In the present study, we present an extensive characterization of marine-derived collagen extracted from salmon and codfish skins, targeting its inclusion as component in cosmetic formulations. Chemical and physical characterizations were performed using several techniques such as sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE, Fourier Transformation Infrared (FTIR spectroscopy rheology, circular dichroism, X-ray diffraction, humidity uptake, and a biological assessment of the extracts regarding their irritant potential. The results showed an isolation of type I collagen with high purity but with some structural and chemical differences between sources. Collagen demonstrated a good capacity to retain water, thus being suitable for dermal applications as a moisturizer. A topical exposure of collagen in a human reconstructed dermis, as well as the analysis of molecular markers for irritation and inflammation, exhibited no irritant potential. Thus, the isolation of collagen from fish skins for inclusion in dermocosmetic applications may constitute a sustainable and low-cost platform for the biotechnological valorization of fish by-products.

  2. Evaluation of human collagen biomaterials in the healing of colonic anastomoses in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutter, D; Aprahamian, M; Tiollier, J; Sonzini, P; Marescaux, J

    1997-04-01

    To investigate the ability of human collagen biomaterials to secure colonic anastomoses in dogs and to evaluate the biocompatibility of anastomotic protection patches (APP). Experimental open study. Experimental research centre, France. 21 mongrel dogs randomised into three groups of 7 each. Standard transverse colonic end-to-end anastomoses were secured with two-layer oxidised collagen I + III sponge covered with thin crosslinked collagen IV film (APP 1) glued around the suture (n = 7); two-layer oxidised collagen I + III sponge covered with thin non-crosslinked collagen I + III film patch (APP 2) (n = 7); or sealed by fibrin sealant (n = 7), which acted as a controls. Gross examination, radiological control (barium enemas), and microscopic examination on day 35 postoperatively. Gross clinical and radiological examinations on day 35 showed normal wound healing in all but one dog in which the anastomoses had occluded by day 16. There was significantly less stricturing with the APP 2 patch (p < 0.05 compared with the controls). Microscopic examination showed complete absorption of the APP 2 patches as well as quicker mucosal and extracellular matrix repair than controls. The APP 1 patch gave the best healing of the muscular layer but did not reduce anastomosis stricturing, and was not totally absorbed. Collagen supporting devices do not alter healing of the large bowel. Encircling patches do not increase the number of adhesions or the rate of anastomotic stricturing and a thin fibrillar collagen I + III dense layer may even improve it. The speed of absorption of the patch depends on the type of dense collagen film. These results argue for a prospective clinical evaluation in humans.

  3. Improved Functional Characteristics of Whey Protein Hydrolysates in Food Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeewanthi, Renda Kankanamge Chaturika; Lee, Na-Kyoung; Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2015-01-01

    This review focuses on the enhanced functional characteristics of enzymatic hydrolysates of whey proteins (WPHs) in food applications compared to intact whey proteins (WPs). WPs are applied in foods as whey protein concentrates (WPCs), whey protein isolates (WPIs), and WPHs. WPs are byproducts of cheese production, used in a wide range of food applications due to their nutritional validity, functional activities, and cost effectiveness. Enzymatic hydrolysis yields improved functional and nutritional benefits in contrast to heat denaturation or native applications. WPHs improve solubility over a wide range of pH, create viscosity through water binding, and promote cohesion, adhesion, and elasticity. WPHs form stronger but more flexible edible films than WPC or WPI. WPHs enhance emulsification, bind fat, and facilitate whipping, compared to intact WPs. Extensive hydrolyzed WPHs with proper heat applications are the best emulsifiers and addition of polysaccharides improves the emulsification ability of WPHs. Also, WPHs improve the sensorial properties like color, flavor, and texture but impart a bitter taste in case where extensive hydrolysis (degree of hydrolysis greater than 8%). It is important to consider the type of enzyme, hydrolysis conditions, and WPHs production method based on the nature of food application. PMID:26761849

  4. Evaluation of cotton stalk hydrolysate for xylitol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapcı, Burcu; Akpinar, Ozlem; Bolukbasi, Ufuk; Yilmaz, Levent

    2016-07-03

    Cotton stalk is a widely distributed and abundant lignocellulosic waste found in Turkey. Because of its rich xylose content, it can be a promising source for the production of xylitol. Xylitol can be produced by chemical or biotechnological methods. Because the biotechnological method is a simple process with great substrate specificity and low energy requirements, it is more of an economic alternative for the xylitol production. This study aimed to use cotton stalk for the production of xylitol with Candida tropicalis Kuen 1022. For this purpose, the combined effects of different oxygen concentration, inoculum level and substrate concentration were investigated to obtain high xylitol yield and volumetric xylitol production rate. Candida tropicalis Kuen 1022 afforded different concentrations of xylitol depending on xylose concentration, inoculum level, and oxygen concentration. The optimum xylose, yeast concentration, and airflow rate for cotton stalk hydrolysate were found as 10.41 g L(-1), 0.99 g L(-1), and 1.02 vvm, respectively, and under these conditions, xylitol yield and volumetric xylitol production rate were obtained as 36% and 0.06 g L(-1) hr(-1), respectively. The results of this study show that cotton stalk can serve as a potential renewable source for the production of xylitol.

  5. Association of collagen architecture with glioblastoma patient survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pointer, Kelli B; Clark, Paul A; Schroeder, Alexandra B; Salamat, M Shahriar; Eliceiri, Kevin W; Kuo, John S

    2017-06-01

    OBJECTIVE Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most malignant primary brain tumor. Collagen is present in low amounts in normal brain, but in GBMs, collagen gene expression is reportedly upregulated. However, to the authors' knowledge, direct visualization of collagen architecture has not been reported. The authors sought to perform the first direct visualization of GBM collagen architecture, identify clinically relevant collagen signatures, and link them to differential patient survival. METHODS Second-harmonic generation microscopy was used to detect collagen in a GBM patient tissue microarray. Focal and invasive GBM mouse xenografts were stained with Picrosirius red. Quantitation of collagen fibers was performed using custom software. Multivariate survival analysis was done to determine if collagen is a survival marker for patients. RESULTS In focal xenografts, collagen was observed at tumor brain boundaries. For invasive xenografts, collagen was intercalated with tumor cells. Quantitative analysis showed significant differences in collagen fibers for focal and invasive xenografts. The authors also found that GBM patients with more organized collagen had a longer median survival than those with less organized collagen. CONCLUSIONS Collagen architecture can be directly visualized and is different in focal versus invasive GBMs. The authors also demonstrate that collagen signature is associated with patient survival. These findings suggest that there are collagen differences in focal versus invasive GBMs and that collagen is a survival marker for GBM.

  6. Characterization of Genipin-Modified Dentin Collagen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko Nagaoka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Application of biomodification techniques to dentin can improve its biochemical and biomechanical properties. Several collagen cross-linking agents have been reported to strengthen the mechanical properties of dentin. However, the characteristics of collagen that has undergone agent-induced biomodification are not well understood. The objective of this study was to analyze the effects of a natural cross-linking agent, genipin (GE, on dentin discoloration, collagen stability, and changes in amino acid composition and lysyl oxidase mediated natural collagen cross-links. Dentin collagen obtained from extracted bovine teeth was treated with three different concentrations of GE (0.01%, 0.1%, and 0.5% for several treatment times (0–24 h. Changes in biochemical properties of NaB3H4-reduced collagen were characterized by amino acid and cross-link analyses. The treatment of dentin collagen with GE resulted in a concentration- and time-dependent pigmentation and stability against bacterial collagenase. The lysyl oxidase-mediated trivalent mature cross-link, pyridinoline, showed no difference among all groups while the major divalent immature cross-link, dehydro-dihydroxylysinonorleucine/its ketoamine in collagen treated with 0.5% GE for 24 h, significantly decreased compared to control (P< 0.05. The newly formed GE-induced cross-links most likely involve lysine and hydroxylysine residues of collagen in a concentration-dependent manner. Some of these cross-links appear to be reducible and stabilized with NaB3H4.

  7. Development toward rapid and efficient screening for high performance hydrolysate lots in a recombinant monoclonal antibody manufacturing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ying; Pierce, Karisa M

    2012-07-01

    Plant-derived hydrolysates are widely used in mammalian cell culture media to increase yields of recombinant proteins and monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). However, these chemically varied and undefined raw materials can have negative impact on yield and/or product quality in large-scale cell culture processes. Traditional methods that rely on fractionation of hydrolysates yielded little success in improving hydrolysate quality. We took a holistic approach to develop an efficient and reliable method to screen intact soy hydrolysate lots for commercial recombinant mAb manufacturing. Combined high-resolution (1) H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and partial least squares (PLS) analysis led to a prediction model between product titer and NMR fingerprinting of soy hydrolysate with cross-validated correlation coefficient R(2) of 0.87 and root-mean-squared-error of cross-validation RMSECV% of 11.2%. This approach screens for high performance hydrolysate lots, therefore ensuring process consistency and product quality in the mAb manufacturing process. Furthermore, PLS analysis was successful in discerning multiple markers (DL-lactate, soy saccharides, citrate and succinate) among hydrolysate components that positively and negatively correlate with titer. Interestingly, these markers correlate to the metabolic characteristics of some strains of taxonomically diverse lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Thus our findings indicate that LAB strains may exist during hydrolysate manufacturing steps and their biochemical activities may attribute to the titer enhancement effect of soy hydrolysates. Copyright © 2012 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  8. The effect of different protein hydrolysate/carbohydrate mixtures on postprandial glucagon and insulin responses in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claessens, M; Calame, W; Siemensma, A D; van Baak, M A; Saris, W H M

    2009-01-01

    To study the effect of four protein hydrolysates from vegetable (pea, gluten, rice and soy) and two protein hydrolysates from animal origin (whey and egg) on glucagon and insulin responses. Eight healthy normal-weight male subjects participated in this study. The study employed a repeated-measures design with Latin square randomization and single-blind trials. Protein hydrolysates used in this study (pea, rice, soy, gluten, whey and egg protein hydrolysate) consisted of 0.2 g hydrolysate per kg body weight (bw) and 0.2 g maltodextrin per kg bw and were compared to maltodextrin alone. Postprandial plasma glucose, glucagon, insulin and amino acids were determined over 2 h. All protein hydrolysates induced an enhanced insulin secretion compared to maltodextrin alone and a correspondingly low plasma glucose response. A significant difference was observed in area under the curve (AUC) for plasma glucagon between protein hydrolysates and the maltodextrin control drink (Pprotein hydrolysate induced the lowest glucagon response. High amino-acid-induced glucagon response does not necessarily go together with low insulin response. Protein hydrolysate source affects AUC for glucagon more profoundly than for insulin, although the protein load used in this study seemed to be at lower level for significant physiological effects.

  9. Effect of nitrogen source concentration on curdlan production by Agrobacterium sp. ATCC 31749 grown on prairie cordgrass hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Thomas P

    2016-01-01

    The effect of nitrogen source concentration on the production of the polysaccharide curdlan by the bacterium Agrobacterium sp. ATCC 31749 from hydrolysates of prairie cordgrass was examined. The highest curdlan concentrations were produced by ATCC 31749 when grown on a medium containing a solids-only hydrolysate and the nitrogen source ammonium phosphate (2.2 mM) or on a medium containing a complete hydrolysate and 3.3 mM ammonium phosphate. The latter medium sustained a higher level of bacterial curdlan production than the former medium after 144 hr. Biomass production by ATCC 31749 was highest after 144 hr when grown on a medium containing a solids-only hydrolysate and 2.2 or 8.7 mM ammonium phosphate. On the medium containing the complete hydrolysate, biomass production by ATCC 31749 was highest after 144 hr when 3.3 mM ammonium phosphate was present. Bacterial biomass production after 144 hr was greater on the complete hydrolysate medium compared to the solids-only hydrolysate medium. Curdlan yield produced by ATCC 31749 after 144 hr from the complete hydrolysate medium containing 3.3 mM ammonium phosphate was higher than from the solids-only hydrolysate medium containing 2.2 mM ammonium phosphate.

  10. Fibrous mini-collagens in hydra nematocysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holstein, T W; Benoit, M; Herder, G V; David, C N; Wanner, G; Gaub, H E

    1994-07-15

    Nematocysts (cnidocysts) are exocytotic organelles found in all cnidarians. Here, atomic force microscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy reveal the structure of the nematocyst capsule wall. The outer wall consists of globular proteins of unknown function. The inner wall consists of bundles of collagen-like fibrils having a spacing of 50 to 100 nanometers and cross-striations at intervals of 32 nanometers. The fibrils consist of polymers of "mini-collagens," which are abundant in the nematocysts of Hydra. The distinct pattern of mini-collagen fibers in the inner wall can provide the tensile strength necessary to withstand the high osmotic pressure (15 megapascals) in the capsules.

  11. Biostimulant action of a plant-derived protein hydrolysate produced through enzymatic hydrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe eColla

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the biostimulant action (hormone like activity, nitrogen uptake, and growth stimulation of a plant-derived protein hydrolysate by means of two laboratory bioassays: a corn (Zea mays L. coleoptile elongation rate test (experiment 1, a rooting test on tomato cuttings (experiment 2; and two greenhouse experiments: a dwarf pea (Pisum sativum L. growth test (experiment 3, and a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. nitrogen uptake trial (experiment 4. Protein hydrolysate treatments of corn caused an increase in coleoptile elongation rate when compared to the control, in a dose-dependent fashion, with no significant differences between the four concentrations tested (0.375, 0.75, 1.5, and 3.0 ml/L, and inodole-3-acetic acid (IAA treatment. The auxin-like effect of the protein hydrolysate on corn has been also observed in the rooting experiment of tomato cuttings. The shoot, root dry weight, root length, and root area were significantly higher by 21%, 35%, 24%, and 26%, respectively in tomato treated plants with the protein hydrolysate at 6 ml/L than untreated plants. In experiment 3, the application of the protein hydrolysate at all doses (0.375, 0.75, 1.5, and 3.0 ml/L significantly increased the shoot length of the giberellin (GA-deficient dwarf pea plants by an average value of 33% in comparison with the control treatment. Increasing the concentration of the protein hydrolysate from 0 to 10 ml/L increased the total dry biomass, SPAD index, and leaf nitrogen content by 20.5%, 15% and 21.5%, respectively. Thus the application of plant-derived protein hydrolysate containing amino acids and small peptides elicited a hormone-like activity, enhanced nitrogen uptake and consequently crop performances.

  12. Nitroxides are more efficient inhibitors of oxidative damage to calf skin collagen than antioxidant vitamins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venditti, Elisabetta; Scirè, Andrea; Tanfani, Fabio; Greci, Lucedio; Damiani, Elisabetta

    2008-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species generated upon UV-A exposure appear to play a major role in dermal connective tissue transformations including degradation of skin collagen. Here we investigate on oxidative damage to collagen achieved by exposure to (i) UV-A irradiation and to (ii) AAPH-derived radicals and on its possible prevention using synthetic and natural antioxidants. Oxidative damage was identified through SDS-PAGE, circular dichroism spectroscopy and quantification of protein carbonyl residues. Collagen (2 mg/ml) exposed to UV-A and to AAPH-derived radicals was degraded in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Upon UV-A exposure, maximum damage was observable at 730 kJ/m2 UV-A, found to be equivalent to roughly 2 h of sunshine, while exposure to 5 mM AAPH for 2 h at 50 degrees C lead to maximum collagen degradation. In both cases, dose-dependent protection was achieved by incubation with muM concentrations of nitroxide radicals, where the extent of protection was shown to be dictated by their structural differences whereas the vitamins E and C proved less efficient inhibitors of collagen damage. These results suggest that nitroxide radicals may be able to prevent oxidative injury to dermal tissues in vivo alternatively to commonly used natural antioxidants.

  13. Lack of collagen VI promotes neurodegeneration by impairing autophagy and inducing apoptosis during aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cescon, Matilde; Chen, Peiwen; Castagnaro, Silvia; Gregorio, Ilaria; Bonaldo, Paolo

    2016-05-01

    Collagen VI is an extracellular matrix (ECM) protein with a broad distribution in different tissues and mostly deposited at the close periphery of the cell surface. Previous studies revealed that collagen VI protects neurons from the toxicity of amyloid-βpeptides and from UV-induced damage. However, the physiological role of this protein in the central nervous system (CNS) remains unknown. Here, we established primary neural cultures from murine cortex and hippocampus, and carried out in vitro and in vivo studies in wild-type and collagen VI null (Col6a1-/-) mice. Col6a1-/- neural cultures displayed an increased incidence of spontaneous apoptosis and higher vulnerability to oxidative stress, accompanied by altered regulation of autophagy with increased p62 protein levels and decreased LC3 lipidation. Analysis of brain sections confirmed increased apoptosis and abnormal regulation of autophagy in the CNS of collagen VI-deficient animals. To investigate the in vivo physiological consequences of these CNS defects, we carried out functional studies and found that motor and memory task performances were impaired in aged Col6a1-/-mice. These findings indicate that lack of collagen VI leads to spontaneous apoptosis and defective autophagy in neural cells, and point at a protective role for this ECM protein in the CNS during physiological aging.

  14. Fetal Abdominal Wall Repair with a Collagen Biomatrix in an Experimental Sheep Model for Gastroschisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, Luc A. J.; Eggink, Alex J.; Hulsbergen-van de Kaa, Christina A.; van den Berg, Paul P.; van Kuppevelt, Toin H.; van Moerkerk, Herman T. B.; Crevels, A. Jane; Lotgering, Fred K.; Feitz, Wout F. J.; Wijnen, Rene M. H.

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the regeneration of the abdominal wall using a dual- layer collagen biomatrix, and the protective effect on the bowel of fetal abdominal wall repair in a fetal sheep model for gastroschisis. In 14 fetal lambs, the abdominal wall was opened at 79 days' gestation, creating a

  15. A New Kind of Biomaterials-Bullfrog Skin Collagen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He LI; Bai Ling LIU; Hua Lin CHEN; Li Zhen GAO

    2003-01-01

    Pepsin-soluble collagen was prepared from bullfrog skin and partially characterized. This study revealed interesting differences, such as molecular weight, amino acid composition, denaturation temperature (Td), in the frog skin collagen when compared to the known vertebrate collagens. This study gives hints that bullfrog skin can be a potential, safe alternative source of collagen from cattle for use in various fields.

  16. Protease-activatable collagen targeting based on protein cyclization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breurken, M.; Lempens, E.H.M.; Merkx, M.

    2010-01-01

    Threading collagen through a protein needle: The collagen-binding protein CNA35 operates by wrapping itself around the collagen triple helix. By connecting the N and C termini through an MMP recognition sequence, a dual-specific MMP-sensitive collagen-targeting ligand is obtained that can be used

  17. Collagen based Biomaterials from CLRI: An Inspiration from the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Collagen-based Smart Biomaterials · Smart materials: As smart people see them · Some Biomaterials based on Collagen in Human Health care · Questions of Value to this presentation ... Collagen based biomaterials · COLLAGEN IN VISION CARE · Slide 57 · Bandage lens: A smart device · Work at CLRI: In summary.

  18. Chitosan: collagen sponges. In vitro mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Virginia da C.A.; Silva, Gustavo M.; Plepis, Ana Maria G.

    2011-01-01

    The regeneration of bone tissue is a problem that affects many people and scaffolds for bone tissue growth has been widely studied. The aim of this study was the in vitro mineralization of chitosan, chitosan:native collagen and chitosan:anionic collagen sponges. The sponges were obtained by lyophilization and mineralization was made by soaking the sponges in alternating solutions containing Ca 2+ and PO 4 3- . The mineralization was confirmed by infrared spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray and X-ray diffraction observing the formation of phosphate salts, possibly a carbonated hydroxyapatite since Ca/P=1.80. The degree of mineralization was obtained by thermogravimetry calculating the amount of residue at 750 deg C. The chitosan:anionic collagen sponge showed the highest degree of mineralization probably due to the fact that anionic collagen provides additional sites for interaction with the inorganic phase. (author)

  19. The minor collagens in articular cartilage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Yunyun; Sinkeviciute, Dovile; He, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Articular cartilage is a connective tissue consisting of a specialized extracellular matrix (ECM) that dominates the bulk of its wet and dry weight. Type II collagen and aggrecan are the main ECM proteins in cartilage. However, little attention has been paid to less abundant molecular components......, especially minor collagens, including type IV, VI, IX, X, XI, XII, XIII, and XIV, etc. Although accounting for only a small fraction of the mature matrix, these minor collagens not only play essential structural roles in the mechanical properties, organization, and shape of articular cartilage, but also...... fulfil specific biological functions. Genetic studies of these minor collagens have revealed that they are associated with multiple connective tissue diseases, especially degenerative joint disease. The progressive destruction of cartilage involves the degradation of matrix constituents including...

  20. Glycine functionalized alumina nanoparticles stabilize collagen in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Al2O3 nanoparticles thereby suggesting ... 1. Introduction. Collagen is a naturally occurring skin protein in animal tis- ... easily adsorb on the surface of the nanoparticles and amino .... [19,23], agglomeration is prevented by the electrostatic.

  1. Properties of Chitosan-Laminated Collagen Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lazić

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to determine physical, mechanical and barrier properties of chitosan-laminated collagen film. Commercial collagen film, which is used for making collagen casings for dry fermented sausage production, was laminated with chitosan film layer in order to improve the collagen film barrier properties. Different volumes of oregano essential oil per 100 mL of filmogenic solution were added to chitosan film layer: 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 mL to optimize water vapour barrier properties. Chitosan layer with 0.6 or 0.8 % of oregano essential oil lowered the water vapour transmission rate to (1.85±0.10·10–6 and (1.78±0.03·10–6 g/(m2·s·Pa respectively, compared to collagen film ((2.51±0.05·10–6 g/(m2·s·Pa. However, chitosan-laminated collagen film did not show improved mechanical properties compared to the collagen one. Tensile strength decreased from (54.0±3.8 MPa of the uncoated collagen film to (36.3±4.0 MPa when the film was laminated with 0.8 % oregano essential oil chitosan layer. Elongation at break values of laminated films did not differ from those of collagen film ((18.4±2.7 %. Oxygen barrier properties were considerably improved by lamination. Oxygen permeability of collagen film was (1806.8±628.0·10–14 cm3/(m·s·Pa and values of laminated films were below 35·10–14 cm3/(m·s·Pa. Regarding film appearance and colour, lamination with chitosan reduced lightness (L and yellowness (+b of collagen film, while film redness (+a increased. These changes were not visible to the naked eye.

  2. Collagen Accumulation in Osteosarcoma Cells lacking GLT25D1 Collagen Galactosyltransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Stephan; Hennet, Thierry

    2016-08-26

    Collagen is post-translationally modified by prolyl and lysyl hydroxylation and subsequently by glycosylation of hydroxylysine. Despite the widespread occurrence of the glycan structure Glc(α1-2)Gal linked to hydroxylysine in animals, the functional significance of collagen glycosylation remains elusive. To address the role of glycosylation in collagen expression, folding, and secretion, we used the CRISPR/Cas9 system to inactivate the collagen galactosyltransferase GLT25D1 and GLT25D2 genes in osteosarcoma cells. Loss of GLT25D1 led to increased expression and intracellular accumulation of collagen type I, whereas loss of GLT25D2 had no effect on collagen secretion. Inactivation of the GLT25D1 gene resulted in a compensatory induction of GLT25D2 expression. Loss of GLT25D1 decreased collagen glycosylation by up to 60% but did not alter collagen folding and thermal stability. Whereas cells harboring individually inactivated GLT25D1 and GLT25D2 genes could be recovered and maintained in culture, cell clones with simultaneously inactive GLT25D1 and GLT25D2 genes could be not grown and studied, suggesting that a complete loss of collagen glycosylation impairs osteosarcoma cell proliferation and viability. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. Collagen XII myopathy with rectus femoris atrophy and collagen XII retention in fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witting, Nanna; Krag, Thomas; Werlauff, Ulla

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Mutation in the collagen XII gene (COL12A1) was recently reported to induce Bethlem myopathy. We describe a family affected by collagen XII-related myopathy in 3 generations. METHODS: Systematic interview, clinical examination, skin biopsies, and MRI of muscle were used. RESULTS...... affection and abnormal collagen XII retention in fibroblasts. MRI disclosed a selective wasting of the rectus femoris muscle. DISCUSSION: COL12A1 mutations should be considered in patients with a mild Bethlem phenotype who present with selective wasting of the rectus femoris, absence of the outside......-in phenomenon on MRI, and abnormal collagen XII retention in fibroblasts. Muscle Nerve, 2018....

  4. Imaging Prostate Cancer Microenvironment by Collagen Hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    diagnosis, staging, and treatment of numerous connective tissue disorders and diseases. Standard antibody staining methods that rely on epitopes of a...CMP can be used to detect mechanical damage to collagen in tendon which could be used for diagnostic and therapeutics of musculoskeletal injury which...13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The major goal of the proposed work is to develop new PCa imaging methods based on the collagen mimetic peptide

  5. Oriented collagen fibers direct tumor cell intravasation

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Weijing

    2016-09-24

    In this work, we constructed a Collagen I-Matrigel composite extracellular matrix (ECM). The composite ECM was used to determine the influence of the local collagen fiber orientation on the collective intravasation ability of tumor cells. We found that the local fiber alignment enhanced cell-ECM interactions. Specifically, metastatic MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells followed the local fiber alignment direction during the intravasation into rigid Matrigel (∼10 mg/mL protein concentration).

  6. Production of pullulan from raw potato starch hydrolysates by a new strain of Auerobasidium pullulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shengjun; Lu, Mingsheng; Chen, Jing; Fang, Yaowei; Wu, Leilei; Xu, Yan; Wang, Shujun

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, hydrolysis of potato starch with marine cold-adapted α-amylase and pullulan production from the hydrolysates by a new strain of Auerobasidium pullulans isolated from sea mud were conducted. The hydrolysis conditions were optimized as follows: reaction time 2h, pH 6.5, temperature 20°C, and α-amylase amount 12 U/g. Under these optimum hydrolysis conditions, the DE value of the potato starch hydrolysates reached to 49.56. The potato starch hydrolysates consist of glucose, maltose, isomaltose, maltotriose, and trace of other maltooligosaccharides with degree of polymerization ranged 4-7. The maximum production of pullulan at 96 h from the hydrolysate of potato starch was 36.17 g/L, which was higher than those obtained from glucose (22.07 g/L, p<0.05) and sucrose (31.42 g/L, p<0.05). Analysis of the high performance liquid chromatography of the hydrolysates of the pullulan product with pullulanase indicated that the main composition is maltotriose, thus confirming the pullulan structure of this pullulan product. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate as a potential feedstock for red pigment production by Monascus ruber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terán Hilares, Ruly; de Souza, Rebeca Andrade; Marcelino, Paulo Franco; da Silva, Silvio Silvério; Dragone, Giuliano; Mussatto, Solange I; Santos, Júlio César

    2018-04-15

    Sugarcane bagasse (SCB) hydrolysate could be an interesting source for red pigment production by Monascus ruber Tieghem IOC 2225. The influence of different wavelength of light-emitting diode (LED) at 250 μmol.m -2 .s -1 of photon flux density on red pigment production by M. ruber in glucose-based medium was evaluated. Then, SCB hydrolysate was used as carbon source under the previously selected light incidence conditions. In glucose-based medium, the highest pigment production was achieved in fermentation assisted with orange LED light (8.28 UA 490nm ), white light (8.26 UA 490nm ) and under dark condition (7.45 UA 490nm ). By using SCB hydrolysate-based medium, the highest red pigment production (18.71 AU 490nm ) was achieved under dark condition and the glucose and cellobiose present in the hydrolysate were metabolized. SCB enzymatic hydrolysate was demonstrated to be a promising carbon source for high thermal stability red pigment production (activation energy of 10.5 kcal.mol -1 ), turning an interesting alternative for implementation in biorefineries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Antioxidant activities of bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea) protein hydrolysates and their membrane ultrafiltration fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arise, Abimbola K; Alashi, Adeola M; Nwachukwu, Ifeanyi D; Ijabadeniyi, Oluwatosin A; Aluko, Rotimi E; Amonsou, Eric O

    2016-05-18

    In this study, the bambara protein isolate (BPI) was digested with three proteases (alcalase, trypsin and pepsin), to produce bambara protein hydrolysates (BPHs). These hydrolysates were passed through ultrafiltration membranes to obtain peptide fractions of different sizes (fractions were investigated for antioxidant activities. The membrane fractions showed that peptides with sizes 3 kDa. This is in agreement with the result obtained for the ferric reducing power, metal chelating and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities where higher molecular weight peptides exhibited better activity (p fractions. However, for all the hydrolysates, the low molecular weight peptides were more effective diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavengers but not superoxide radicals when compared to the bigger peptides. In comparison with glutathione (GSH), BPHs and their membrane fractions had better (p fractions that did not show any metal chelating activity. However, the 5-10 kDa pepsin hydrolysate peptide fractions had greater (88%) hydroxyl scavenging activity than GSH, alcalase and trypsin hydrolysates (82%). These findings show the potential use of BPHs and their peptide fraction as antioxidants in reducing food spoilage or management of oxidative stress-related metabolic disorders.

  9. Biodegradable alternative for removing toxic compounds from sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysates for valorization in biorefineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Fernandes, T; Santos, J C; Hasmann, F; Rodrigues, R C L B; Izario Filho, H J; Felipe, M G A

    2017-11-01

    Among the major challenges for hemicellulosic hydrolysate application in fermentative processes, there is the presence of toxic compounds generated during the pretreatment of the biomass, which can inhibit microbial growth. Therefore, the development of efficient, biodegradable and cost-effective detoxification methods for lignocellulosic hydrolysates is crucial. In this work, two tannin-based biopolymers (called A and B) were tested in the detoxification of sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate for subsequent fermentation by Candida guilliermondii. The effects of biopolymer concentration, pH, temperature, and contact time were studied using a 2 4 experimental design for both biopolymers. Results revealed that the biopolymer concentration and the pH were the most significant factors in the detoxification step. Biopolymer A removed phenolics, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, and nickel from the hydrolysate more efficiently than biopolymer B, while biopolymer B was efficient to remove chromium at 15% (v/v). Detoxification enhanced the fermentation of sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate, and the biopolymers showed different influences on the process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Casein Hydrolysate with Glycemic Control Properties: Evidence from Cells, Animal Models, and Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Elaine; Flynn, Sarah; Whelan, Helena; Nongonierma, Alice B; Holton, Thérèse A; Robinson, Aisling; Egan, Thelma; Cagney, Gerard; Shields, Denis C; Gibney, Eileen R; Newsholme, Philip; Gaudel, Celine; Jacquier, Jean-Christophe; Noronha, Nessa; FitzGerald, Richard J; Brennan, Lorraine

    2018-05-02

    Evidence exists to support the role of dairy derived proteins whey and casein in glycemic management. The objective of the present study was to use a cell screening method to identify a suitable casein hydrolysate and to examine its ability to impact glycemia related parameters in an animal model and in humans. Following screening for the ability to stimulate insulin secretion in pancreatic beta cells, a casein hydrolysate was selected and further studied in the ob/ob mouse model. An acute postprandial study was performed in 62 overweight and obese adults. Acute and long-term supplementation with the casein hydrolysate in in vivo studies in mice revealed a glucose lowering effect and a lipid reducing effect of the hydrolysate (43% reduction in overall liver fat). The postprandial human study revealed a significant increase in insulin secretion ( p = 0.04) concomitant with a reduction in glucose ( p = 0.03). The area under the curve for the change in glucose decreased from 181.84 ± 14.6 to 153.87 ± 13.02 ( p = 0.009). Overall, the data supports further work on the hydrolysate to develop into a functional food product.

  11. Determination of Optimum Condition of Leucine Content in Beef Protein Hydrolysate using Response Surface Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti Roha Ab Mutalib; Zainal Samicho; Noriham Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the optimum condition of leucine content in beef hydrolysate. Beef hydrolysate was prepared by enzymatic hydrolysis using bromelain enzyme produced from pineapple peel. Parameter conditions such as concentration of bromelain, hydrolysis temperature and hydrolysis time were assessed to obtain the optimum leucine content of beef hydrolysate according to experimental design which was recommended by response surface methodology (RSM). Leucine content in beef hydrolysate was determined using AccQ. Tag amino acid analysis method using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The condition of optimum leucine content was at bromelain concentration of 1.38 %, hydrolysis temperature of 42.5 degree Celcius and hydrolysis time of 31.59 hours with the predicted leucine content of 26.57 %. The optimum condition was verified with the leucine value obtained was 26.25 %. Since there was no significant difference (p>0.05) between the predicted and verified leucine values, thus it indicates that the predicted optimum condition by RSM can be accepted to predict the optimum leucine content in beef hydrolysate. (author)

  12. Cucurbitaceae Seed Protein Hydrolysates as a Potential Source of Bioactive Peptides with Functional Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Ozuna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Seeds from Cucurbitaceae plants (squashes, pumpkins, melons, etc. have been used both as protein-rich food ingredients and nutraceutical agents by many indigenous cultures for millennia. However, relatively little is known about the bioactive components (e.g., peptides of the Cucurbitaceae seed proteins (CSP and their specific effects on human health. Therefore, this paper aims to provide a comprehensive review of latest research on bioactive and functional properties of CSP isolates and hydrolysates. Enzymatic hydrolysis can introduce a series of changes to the CSP structure and improve its bioactive and functional properties, including the enhanced protein solubility over a wide range of pH values. Small-sized peptides in CSP hydrolysates seem to enhance their bioactive properties but adversely affect their functional properties. Therefore, medium degrees of hydrolysis seem to benefit the overall improvement of bioactive and functional properties of CSP hydrolysates. Among the reported bioactive properties of CSP isolates and hydrolysates, their antioxidant, antihypertensive, and antihyperglycaemic activities stand out. Therefore, they could potentially substitute synthetic antioxidants and drugs which might have adverse secondary effects on human health. CSP isolates and hydrolysates could also be implemented as functional food ingredients, thanks to their favorable amino acid composition and good emulsifying and foaming properties.

  13. Peroxiredoxin II is an antioxidant enzyme that negatively regulates collagen-stimulated platelet function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Ji Yong; Wang, Su Bin; Min, Ji Hyun; Chae, Yun Hee; Baek, Jin Young; Yu, Dae-Yeul; Chang, Tong-Shin

    2015-05-01

    Collagen-induced platelet signaling is mediated by binding to the primary receptor glycoprotein VI (GPVI). Reactive oxygen species produced in response to collagen have been found to be responsible for the propagation of GPVI signaling pathways in platelets. Therefore, it has been suggested that antioxidant enzymes could down-regulate GPVI-stimulated platelet activation. Although the antioxidant enzyme peroxiredoxin II (PrxII) has emerged as having a role in negatively regulating signaling through various receptors by eliminating H2O2 generated upon receptor stimulation, the function of PrxII in collagen-stimulated platelets is not known. We tested the hypothesis that PrxII negatively regulates collagen-stimulated platelet activation. We analyzed PrxII-deficient murine platelets. PrxII deficiency enhanced GPVI-mediated platelet activation through the defective elimination of H2O2 and the impaired protection of SH2 domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase 2 (SHP-2) against oxidative inactivation, which resulted in increased tyrosine phosphorylation of key components for the GPVI signaling cascade, including Syk, Btk, and phospholipase Cγ2. Interestingly, PrxII-mediated antioxidative protection of SHP-2 appeared to occur in the lipid rafts. PrxII-deficient platelets exhibited increased adhesion and aggregation upon collagen stimulation. Furthermore, in vivo experiments demonstrated that PrxII deficiency facilitated platelet-dependent thrombus formation in injured carotid arteries. This study reveals that PrxII functions as a protective antioxidant enzyme against collagen-stimulated platelet activation and platelet-dependent thrombosis. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to a combination of lycopene, proanthocyanidins, vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium and beta-carotene and contribution to normal collagen formation (ID 1669) and protection, of the skin from UV-induced damage (ID 1669) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to a combination of lycopene, proanthocyanidins, vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium and beta-carotene and contribution to normal collagen formation and protection of the skin from UV-induced damage. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States...... in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly from stakeholders. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claim is a combination of lycopene, proanthocyanidins, vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium, and beta-carotene. The Panel...... considers that the combination of lycopene, proanthocyanidins, vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium, and beta-carotene is sufficiently characterised....

  15. Collagen Fibrils: Nature's Highly Tunable Nonlinear Springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriotis, Orestis G; Desissaire, Sylvia; Thurner, Philipp J

    2018-03-21

    Tissue hydration is well known to influence tissue mechanics and can be tuned via osmotic pressure. Collagen fibrils are nature's nanoscale building blocks to achieve biomechanical function in a broad range of biological tissues and across many species. Intrafibrillar covalent cross-links have long been thought to play a pivotal role in collagen fibril elasticity, but predominantly at large, far from physiological, strains. Performing nanotensile experiments of collagen fibrils at varying hydration levels by adjusting osmotic pressure in situ during atomic force microscopy experiments, we show the power the intrafibrillar noncovalent interactions have for defining collagen fibril tensile elasticity at low fibril strains. Nanomechanical tensile tests reveal that osmotic pressure increases collagen fibril stiffness up to 24-fold in transverse (nanoindentation) and up to 6-fold in the longitudinal direction (tension), compared to physiological saline in a reversible fashion. We attribute the stiffening to the density and strength of weak intermolecular forces tuned by hydration and hence collagen packing density. This reversible mechanism may be employed by cells to alter their mechanical microenvironment in a reversible manner. The mechanism could also be translated to tissue engineering approaches for customizing scaffold mechanics in spatially resolved fashion, and it may help explain local mechanical changes during development of diseases and inflammation.

  16. Casein Glycomacropeptide Hydrolysates Exert Cytoprotective Effect against Cellular Oxidative Stress by Up-Regulating HO-1 Expression in HepG2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiange Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is considered as an important mediator in the progression of metabolic disorders. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential hepatoprotective effects and mechanisms of bovine casein glycomacropeptide hydrolysates (GHP on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2-induced oxidative damage in HepG2 cells. Results showed that GHP significantly blocked H2O2-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS generation and cell viability reduction in a dose-dependent manner. Further, GHP concentration-dependently induced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 expression and increased nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 nuclear translocation. Moreover, pretreatment of GHP increased the activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2, which were shown to contribute to Nrf2-mediated HO-1 expression. Taken together, GHP protected HepG2 cells from oxidative stress by activation of Nrf2 and HO-1 via p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 signaling pathways. Our findings indicate that bovine casein glycomacropeptide hydrolysates might be a potential ingredient in the treatment of oxidative stress-related disorders and further studies are needed to investigate the protective effects in vivo.

  17. Collagen as potential cell scaffolds for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annuar, N; Spier, R E

    2004-05-01

    Selections of collagen available commercially were tested for their biocompatibility as scaffold to promote cell growth in vitro via simple collagen fast test and cultivation of mammalian cells on the selected type of collagen. It was found that collagen type C9791 promotes the highest degree of aggregation as well as cells growth. This preliminary study also indicated potential use of collagen as scaffold in engineered tissue.

  18. Peptides from Fish By-product Protein Hydrolysates and Its Functional Properties: an Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora-Sillero, Juan; Gharsallaoui, Adem; Prentice, Carlos

    2018-04-01

    The inadequate management of fish processing waste or by-products is one of the major problems that fish industry has to face nowadays. The mismanagement of this raw material leads to economic loss and environmental problems. The demand for the use of these by-products has led to the development of several processes in order to recover biomolecules from fish by-products. An efficient way to add value to fish waste protein is protein hydrolysis. Protein hydrolysates improve the functional properties and allow the release of peptides of different sizes with several bioactivities such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, antihypertensive, anti-inflammatory, or antihyperglycemic among others. This paper reviews different methods for the production of protein hydrolysates as well as current research about several fish by-products protein hydrolysates bioactive properties, aiming the dual objective: adding value to these underutilized by-products and minimizing their negative impact on the environment.

  19. Potential Use of Gelidium amansii Acid Hydrolysate for Lactic Acid Production by Lactobacillus rhamnosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Soo Jang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Galactose and glucose are the main monosaccharides produced from the saccharification of Gelidium amansii. They were hydrolysed with 3 % (by volume H2SO4 at 140 °C for 5 min and obtained at concentrations of 19.60 and 10.21 g/L, respectively. G. amansii hydrolysate (5 %, by mass per volume was used as a substrate for L(+-lactic acid production by Lactobacillus rhamnosus. The maximum lactic acid yield (YP/S was 42.03 % with optical purity of 84.54 %. Lactic acid produced from G. amansii hydrolysate can be applicable, among others, for the production of lactic acid esters, like ethyl or methyl lactate, and disinfectant in seaweed cultivation.

  20. Transglutaminase-treated conjugation of sodium caseinate and corn fiber gum hydrolysate: Interfacial and dilatational properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Selig, Michael J; Yadav, Madhav P; Yin, Lijun; Abbaspourrad, Alireza

    2018-05-01

    This study compliments previous work where peroxidase was successfully used to crosslink corn fiber gum (CFG) with bovine serum albumin and improve CFG's emulsifying properties. Herein, an alternative type of enzyme, transglutaminase, was used to prepare conjugates of CFG and sodium caseinate. Additionally, the CFG was partially hydrolyzed by sulfuric acid and its crosslinking pattern with caseinate was evaluated. The interfacial crosslinking degree between caseinate and CFG increased after hydrolysis according to high performance size exclusion chromatography. The equilibrium interfacial tension of CFG hydrolysate-caseinate conjugate was lower than that of CFG-caseinate conjugate as the rearrangement rate of the CFG hydrolysate-caseinate conjugate was higher. The dilatational modulus of CFG hydrolysate decreased from that of CFG. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Pretreatment and fermentation strategies to overcome the toxicity of acetic acid in hemicellulosic hydrolysates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mussatto, Solange I.

    Acetic acid is one of the most important toxic compounds present in hemicellulosic hydrolysates. In order to overcome this problem, several strategies were studied for both biomass pretreatment and fermentation steps. Biomass deacetylation by mild alkaline pretreatment or using high pressure CO2...... where acetic acid can also be integrated as a valuable final product. For the fermentation step, it is well known that hemicellulosic hydrolysates usually need to be detoxified prior use as fermentation medium in order to improve the performance of the microorganism to convert sugars in the product...... of interest. Although detoxification improves the fermentability of hydrolysates, this additional step adds cost and complexity to the process and generates extra waste products. In this sense, the adaptation of the fermenting microorganism to increased concentrations of acetic acid can be considered...

  2. Gastric emptying, gastric secretion and enterogastrone response after administration of milk proteins or their peptide hydrolysates in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calbet, Jose A L; Holst, Jens Juul

    2004-01-01

    peptide hydrolysate (WHY) or casein hydrolysate (CAHY). All solutions were matched for volume (600 mL), nitrogen content (9.3 g/L), energy density (1069-1092 kJ/L), osmolality (288-306 mosmol/kg), pH (6.9-7.0) and temperature (37 degrees C). RESULTS: Solutions were emptied at similar rates, with mean half...

  3. Antioxidant Activity of Fish Protein Hydrolysates in in vitro Assays and in Oil-in-Water Emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farvin, Sabeena; Andersen, Lisa Lystbæk; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    The aim of this study was to screen different protein hydrolysates with respect to their antioxidative properties in order to select the most promising extracts for further evaluation in oil-in-water emulsions. Three fractions of protein hydrolysates (Crude, >5kDa and 5kDa, 3-5kDa and...

  4. Interfacial properties of whey protein and whey protein hydrolysates and their influence on O/W emulsion stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schroder, A.J.; Berton-Carabin, C.C.; Venema, P.; Cornacchia, L.

    2017-01-01

    Protein hydrolysates are commonly used in high-tolerance or hypoallergenic formulae. The relation between the physicochemical properties of hydrolysed proteins (i.e., size, molecular weight distribution, charge, hydrophobicity), and their emulsifying properties is not fully understood. In this work,

  5. Industrial scale chromatographic separation of valuable compounds from biomass hydrolysates and side streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saari, P.

    2011-06-15

    Carbohydrates are composed of a number of various monosaccharides, glucose being the most abundant. Some of the monosaccharides are valuable compounds used in the food and pharmaceutical industries. They can be separated from biomass hydrolysates e.g. by chromatographic methods. In this thesis, chromatographic separation of valuable compounds using ion exchange resins was studied on an industrial scale. Of special interest were rare monosaccharides in biomass hydrolysates. A novel chromatographic separation process was developed for fucose, starting from pre-processed spent sulfite liquor. The core of the process consists of three chromatographic separations with different types of ion exchange resins. Chromatographic separation of galactose was tested with three biomass hydrolysates; lactose, gum arabic and hemicellulose hydrolysates. It was demonstrated that also galactose can be separated from complex carbohydrate mixtures. A recovery process for arabinose from citrus pectin liquid residual and for mannose from wood pulp hydrolysate were also developed and experimentally verified. In addition to monosaccharides, chromatographic separation of glycinebetaine from vinasse was examined with a hydrogen form weak acid cation exchange resin. The separation involves untypical peak formation depending, for example, on the pH and the cation composition. The retention mechanism was found to be hydrogen bonding between glycinebetaine and the resin. In the experimental part, all four resin types - strong acid cation, strong base anion, weak acid cation and weak base anion exchange resins - were used. In addition, adsorption equilibria data of seven monosaccharides and sucrose were measured with the resins in sodium and sulfate forms because such data have been lacking. It was found out that the isotherms of all sugars were linear under industrial conditions. A systematic method for conceptual process design and sequencing of chromatographic separation steps were developed

  6. Antihypertensive and cardioprotective effects of the dipeptide isoleucine-tryptophan and whey protein hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, M; Kopaliani, I; Jannasch, A; Mund, C; Todorov, V; Henle, T; Deussen, A

    2015-12-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors are treatment of choice in hypertensive patients. Clinically used inhibitors exhibit a structural similarity to naturally occurring peptides. This study evaluated antihypertensive and cardioprotective effects of ACE-inhibiting peptides derived from food proteins in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Isoleucine-tryptophan (in vitro IC50 for ACE = 0.7 μm), a whey protein hydrolysate containing an augmented fraction of isoleucine-tryptophan, or captopril was given to spontaneously hypertensive rats (n = 60) over 14 weeks. Two further groups, receiving either no supplement (Placebo) or intact whey protein, served as controls. Systolic blood pressure age-dependently increased in the Placebo group, whereas the blood pressure rise was effectively blunted by isoleucine-tryptophan, whey protein hydrolysate and captopril (-42 ± 3, -38 ± 5, -55 ± 4 mm Hg vs. Placebo). At study end, myocardial mass was lower in isoleucine-tryptophan and captopril groups but only partially in the hydrolysate group. Coronary flow reserve (1 μm adenosine) was improved in isoleucine-tryptophan and captopril groups. Plasma ACE activity was significantly decreased in isoleucine-tryptophan, hydrolysate and captopril groups, but in aortic tissue only after isoleucine-tryptophan or captopril treatment. This was associated with lowered expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2. Following isoleucine-tryptophan and captopril treatments, gene expression of renin was significantly increased indicating an active feedback within renin-angiotensin system. Whey protein hydrolysate and isoleucine-tryptophan powerfully inhibit plasma ACE resulting in antihypertensive effects. Moreover, isoleucine-tryptophan blunts tissue ACE activity, reduces matrix metalloproteinase-2 activity and improves coronary flow reserve. Thus, whey protein hydrolysate and particularly isoleucine-tryptophan may serve as innovative food additives with the goal of attenuating

  7. Percutaneous removal of pulmonary artery emboli with hydrolyser catheter in pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacoursiere, L.; Millward, S.; Veinot, J.P.; Labinaz, M.

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the Hydrolyser catheter for per,cutaneous treatment of massive pulmonary embolism in pigs. Twelve pigs, each weighing between 55 kg and 89 kg, were used. Radio-opaque 9 cm x 0.8 cm and 4.5 cm x 0.8 cm clots, produced by mixing pig blood with iodinated contrast agent in vacutainers, were injected via the jugular vein until central pulmonary embolism (main and proximal lobar arteries) was obtained with significant systemic and pulmonary hemodynamic modifications. From a femoral approach, the 7-French Hydrolyser thrombectomy catheter was run over a 0.025-inch (0.64-mm) guide wire to remove the pulmonary emboli. Hemodynamic, gasometric and angiographic monitoring was performed before and after treatment. The procedure's safety and completeness of emboli removal was assessed by cardiopulmonary autopsy. Three of the 12 pigs died during embolization. Thrombectomy was therefore performed in 9, and central emboli could be obtained in 7 of the 9. The Hydrolyser could be manipulated only in central pulmonary arteries and could aspirate only central emboli in 5 of the 7 pigs that had them. Despite minimal angiographic improvement seen in these 5, there was no significant hemodynamic and gasometric improvement after treatment. The procedure induced an increase in free hemoglobin blood levels. Autopsies revealed an average of 2 endothelial injuries per pig (mainly adherent endocardial thrombi) in both nontreated (n = 3) and Hydrolyser-treated (n = 9) groups. The Hydrolyser thrombectomy catheter can be promptly positioned and easily steered in central pulmonary arteries. It can be used to partially remove central emboli, but not peripheral pulmonary emboli. Most of the injuries observed may not have been strictly related to Hydrolyser use. The pig might not be a suitable animal model for treatment of massive pulmonary embolism. (author)

  8. Fibroblast Activation Protein (FAP) Accelerates Collagen Degradation and Clearance from Lungs in Mice*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ming-Hui; Zhu, Qiang; Li, Hui-Hua; Ra, Hyun-Jeong; Majumdar, Sonali; Gulick, Dexter L.; Jerome, Jacob A.; Madsen, Daniel H.; Christofidou-Solomidou, Melpo; Speicher, David W.; Bachovchin, William W.; Feghali-Bostwick, Carol; Puré, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a disease characterized by progressive, unrelenting lung scarring, with death from respiratory failure within 2–4 years unless lung transplantation is performed. New effective therapies are clearly needed. Fibroblast activation protein (FAP) is a cell surface-associated serine protease up-regulated in the lungs of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis as well as in wound healing and cancer. We postulate that FAP is not only a marker of disease but influences the development of pulmonary fibrosis after lung injury. In two different models of pulmonary fibrosis, intratracheal bleomycin instillation and thoracic irradiation, we find increased mortality and increased lung fibrosis in FAP-deficient mice compared with wild-type mice. Lung extracellular matrix analysis reveals accumulation of intermediate-sized collagen fragments in FAP-deficient mouse lungs, consistent with in vitro studies showing that FAP mediates ordered proteolytic processing of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-derived collagen cleavage products. FAP-mediated collagen processing leads to increased collagen internalization without altering expression of the endocytic collagen receptor, Endo180. Pharmacologic FAP inhibition decreases collagen internalization as expected. Conversely, restoration of FAP expression in the lungs of FAP-deficient mice decreases lung hydroxyproline content after intratracheal bleomycin to levels comparable with that of wild-type controls. Our findings indicate that FAP participates directly, in concert with MMPs, in collagen catabolism and clearance and is an important factor in resolving scar after injury and restoring lung homeostasis. Our study identifies FAP as a novel endogenous regulator of fibrosis and is the first to show FAP's protective effects in the lung. PMID:26663085

  9. Collagen-binding peptidoglycans inhibit MMP mediated collagen degradation and reduce dermal scarring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Stuart

    Full Text Available Scarring of the skin is a large unmet clinical problem that is of high patient concern and impact. Wound healing is complex and involves numerous pathways that are highly orchestrated, leaving the skin sealed, but with abnormal organization and composition of tissue components, namely collagen and proteoglycans, that are then remodeled over time. To improve healing and reduce or eliminate scarring, more rapid restoration of healthy tissue composition and organization offers a unique approach for development of new therapeutics. A synthetic collagen-binding peptidoglycan has been developed that inhibits matrix metalloproteinase-1 and 13 (MMP-1 and MMP-13 mediated collagen degradation. We investigated the synthetic peptidoglycan in a rat incisional model in which a single dose was delivered in a hyaluronic acid (HA vehicle at the time of surgery prior to wound closure. The peptidoglycan treatment resulted in a significant reduction in scar tissue at 21 days as measured by histology and visual analysis. Improved collagen architecture of the treated wounds was demonstrated by increased tensile strength and transmission electron microscopy (TEM analysis of collagen fibril diameters compared to untreated and HA controls. The peptidoglycan's mechanism of action includes masking existing collagen and inhibiting MMP-mediated collagen degradation while modulating collagen organization. The peptidoglycan can be synthesized at low cost with unique design control, and together with demonstrated preclinical efficacy in reducing scarring, warrants further investigation for dermal wound healing.

  10. A collagen-binding EGFR antibody fragment targeting tumors with a collagen-rich extracellular matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hui; Li, Xiaoran; Wang, Bin; Chen, Bing; Zhao, Yannan; Sun, Jie; Zhuang, Yan; Shi, Jiajia; Shen, He; Zhang, Zhijun; Dai, Jianwu

    2016-02-17

    Many tumors over-express collagen, which constitutes the physical scaffold of tumor microenvironment. Collagen has been considered to be a target for cancer therapy. The collagen-binding domain (CBD) is a short peptide, which could bind to collagen and achieve the sustained release of CBD-fused proteins in collagen scaffold. Here, a collagen-binding EGFR antibody fragment was designed and expressed for targeting the collagen-rich extracellular matrix in tumors. The antibody fragment (Fab) of cetuximab was fused with CBD (CBD-Fab) and expressed in Pichia pastoris. CBD-Fab maintained antigen binding and anti-tumor activity of cetuximab and obtained a collagen-binding ability in vitro. The results also showed CBD-Fab was mainly enriched in tumors and had longer retention time in tumors in A431 s.c. xenografts. Furthermore, CBD-Fab showed a similar therapeutic efficacy as cetuximab in A431 xenografts. Although CBD-Fab hasn't showed better therapeutic effects than cetuximab, its smaller molecular and special target may be applicable as antibody-drug conjugates (ADC) or immunotoxins.

  11. Adherence, proliferation and collagen turnover by human fibroblasts seeded into different types of collagen sponges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelkoop, E.; de Vries, H. J.; Ruuls, L.; Everts, V.; Wildevuur, C. H.; Westerhof, W.

    1995-01-01

    We describe an in vitro model that we have used to evaluate dermal substitutes and to obtain data on cell proliferation, the rate of degradation of the dermal equivalent, contractibility and de novo synthesis of collagen. We tested three classes of collagenous materials: (1) reconstituted

  12. Fluorescently labaled collagen binding proteins allow specific visualization of collagen in tissues and live cell culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krahn, K.B.N.; Bouten, C.V.C.; Tuijl, van S.; Zandvoort, van M.; Merkx, M.

    2006-01-01

    Visualization of the formation and orientation of collagen fibers in tissue engineering experiments is crucial for understanding the factors that determine the mechanical properties of tissues. In this study, collagen-specific fluorescent probes were developed using a new approach that takes

  13. ADHERENCE, PROLIFERATION AND COLLAGEN TURNOVER BY HUMAN FIBROBLASTS SEEDED INTO DIFFERENT TYPES OF COLLAGEN SPONGES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MIDDELKOOP, E; DEVRIES, HJC; RUULS, L; EVERTS, [No Value; WILDEVUUR, CHR; WESTERHOF, W

    We describe an in vitro model that we have used to evaluate dermal substitutes and to obtain data on cell proliferation, the rate of degradation of the dermal equivalent, contractibility and de novo synthesis of collagen. We tested three classes of collagenous materials: (1) reconstituted

  14. Pepsin Egg White Hydrolysate Ameliorates Obesity-Related Oxidative Stress, Inflammation and Steatosis in Zucker Fatty Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Garcés-Rimón

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of the administration of egg white hydrolysates on obesity-related disorders, with a focus on lipid metabolism, inflammation and oxidative stress, in Zucker fatty rats. Obese Zucker rats received water, pepsin egg white hydrolysate (750 mg/kg/day or Rhizopus aminopeptidase egg white hydrolysate (750 mg/kg/day for 12 weeks. Lean Zucker rats received water. Body weight, solid and liquid intakes were weekly measured. At the end of the study, urine, faeces, different organs and blood samples were collected. The consumption of egg white hydrolysed with pepsin significantly decreased the epididymal adipose tissue, improved hepatic steatosis, and lowered plasmatic concentration of free fatty acids in the obese animals. It also decreased plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and reduced oxidative stress. Pepsin egg white hydrolysate could be used as a tool to improve obesity-related complications.

  15. Lactic acid production on brewers' spent grain hydrolysate by lactobacillus Rhamnosus and Lactobacillus fermentum

    OpenAIRE

    Pejin, Jelena; Mojović, Ljiljana; Kocić-Tanackov, Sunčica; Radosavljević, Miloš; Đukić-Vuković, Aleksandra; Nikolić, Svetlana

    2014-01-01

    Brewers' spent grain (BSG) is the major by-product of the brewing industry, representing around 85% of the total by-products generated. Per 100 L of beer produced 20 kg of brewer's spent grain are obtained. BSG is a lignocellulosic material and due to its high content of protein and fibre, it can also serve as a raw material in biotechnology i.e. in lactic acid production. In this study brewer's spent grain hydrolysate was produced using optimal conditions. Hydrolysates were used for lactic a...

  16. Bioactivity of Cod and Chicken Protein Hydrolysates before and after in vitro Gastrointestinal Digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamnik, Polona; Istenič, Katja; Wulff, Tune

    2017-01-01

    , where values of cod and chicken were (95.5±1.2) and (90.5±0.7) %, respectively. Neither species nor digestion had any effect on cellular metabolic energy. At proteome level, digested hydrolysates gave again significantly stronger responses than undigested counterparts; cod peptides here also gave...... somewhat stronger response than chicken peptides. The knowledge of the action of food protein hydrolysates and their digests within live cells, also at proteome level, is important for further validation of their activity in higher eukaryotes to develop new products, such as in this case chicken and cod...... muscle-derived peptides as functional ingredients....

  17. Culture of bovine articular chondrocytes in funnel-like collagen-PLGA hybrid sponges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Hongxu; Ko, Young-Gwang; Kawazoe, Naoki; Chen Guoping

    2011-01-01

    Three-dimensional porous scaffolds play an important role in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Structurally, these porous scaffolds should have an open and interconnected porous architecture to facilitate a homogeneous cell distribution. Moreover, the scaffolds should be mechanically strong to support new tissue formation. We developed a novel type of funnel-like collagen sponge using embossing ice particulates as a template. The funnel-like collagen sponges could promote the homogeneous cell distribution, ECM production and chondrogenesis. However, the funnel-like collagen sponges deformed during cell culture due to their weak mechanical strength. To solve this problem, we reinforced the funnel-like collagen sponges with a knitted poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) mesh by hybridizing these two types of materials. The hybrid scaffolds were used to culture bovine articular chondrocytes. The cell adhesion, distribution, proliferation and chondrogenesis were investigated. The funnel-like structure promoted the even cell distribution and homogeneous ECM production. The PLGA knitted mesh protected the scaffold from deformation during cell culture. Histological and immunohistochemical staining and cartilaginous gene expression analyses revealed the cartilage-like properties of the cell/scaffold constructs after in vivo implantation. The hybrid scaffold, composed of a funnel-like collagen sponge and PLGA mesh, would be a useful tool for cartilage tissue engineering.

  18. Probing Endogenous Collagen by Laser Induced Autofluorescence in Burn Wound Biopsies- A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, Vijendra; Acharya, Anusha; Rao, Bola Sadashiva Satish; Rathnakar, Bharath; Kumar, Pramod; Guddattu, Vasudeva; Mahato, Krishna Kishore

    2018-04-19

    The focus of the current study was to interrogate the predictive potential of laser-induced autofluorescence (LIAF) by objectively assessing collagen synthesis in burn wound granulation tissues ex vivo. Prior grafting, granulation tissues (20 samples) following burn injury were collected from 17 subjects of age range 18- 60 years with patient/donor consent and the corresponding autofluorescence spectra were recorded at 325 nm He-Cd laser (≈ 2 mW) excitations. The resulting endogenous collagen intensity from the above tissue samples was computed by normalizing the NADH levels. In addition, the hydroxyproline content was also estimated biochemically from the same granulation tissues. A comparative assessment of both LIAF and biochemical estimations for endogenous collagen by hydroxyproline resulted in strong positive correlation among them. The above relevant observations suggest that LIAF is equally informative as that of biochemical estimations, in evaluating endogenous collagen content in wound granulation tissues. Thus, it can be concluded that LIAF has the predictive potential, as a non-invasive objective tool to measure the endogenous collagen levels in wound biopsy tissues and provide complementary data conducive for making clinical decisions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Culture of bovine articular chondrocytes in funnel-like collagen-PLGA hybrid sponges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Hongxu; Ko, Young-Gwang; Kawazoe, Naoki; Chen Guoping, E-mail: Guoping.Chen@nims.go.jp [Tissue Regeneration Materials Unit, International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (MANA), National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan)

    2011-08-15

    Three-dimensional porous scaffolds play an important role in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Structurally, these porous scaffolds should have an open and interconnected porous architecture to facilitate a homogeneous cell distribution. Moreover, the scaffolds should be mechanically strong to support new tissue formation. We developed a novel type of funnel-like collagen sponge using embossing ice particulates as a template. The funnel-like collagen sponges could promote the homogeneous cell distribution, ECM production and chondrogenesis. However, the funnel-like collagen sponges deformed during cell culture due to their weak mechanical strength. To solve this problem, we reinforced the funnel-like collagen sponges with a knitted poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) mesh by hybridizing these two types of materials. The hybrid scaffolds were used to culture bovine articular chondrocytes. The cell adhesion, distribution, proliferation and chondrogenesis were investigated. The funnel-like structure promoted the even cell distribution and homogeneous ECM production. The PLGA knitted mesh protected the scaffold from deformation during cell culture. Histological and immunohistochemical staining and cartilaginous gene expression analyses revealed the cartilage-like properties of the cell/scaffold constructs after in vivo implantation. The hybrid scaffold, composed of a funnel-like collagen sponge and PLGA mesh, would be a useful tool for cartilage tissue engineering.

  20. Preventive effect of feeding high-risk infants a casein hydrolysate formula or an ultrafiltrated whey hydrolysate formula. A prospective, randomized, comparative clinical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A; Hansen, L G

    1993-01-01

    In a prospective study of a 1-year birth cohort of 158 high-risk infants the effect of feeding breastmilk, a casein hydrolysate (Nutramigen) or a new ultrafiltrated whey hydrolysate (Profylac) on the development of cow milk protein allergy/intolerance (CMPA/CMPI) was assessed and compared. All...... the infants had biparental or severe single atopic predisposition, the latter combined with cord blood IgE > or = 0.5 kU/L. At birth all infants were randomized to Nutramigen or Profylac, which was used when breastfeeding was insufficient or not possible during the first 6 months of life. During the same...... period this regimen was combined with avoidance of solid foods and cow milk protein. All mothers had unrestricted diets and were encouraged to do breastfeeding only. Moreover, avoidance of daily exposure to tobacco smoking, furred pets and dust-collecting materials in the bedroom was advised. The infants...

  1. Changes in guinea-pig dermal collagen during development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuttleworth, C.A.; Forrest, L.

    1975-01-01

    Guinea-pig dermis was digested with pepsin and the solubilized collagen molecules separated by differential salt precipitation at pH 7.5. Differences in subunit composition and amino acid analysis were noted between type I and type III collagen. Incorporation of radioactive proline into the developing foetus enabled isolation of labelled type I and type III collagens. Comparison of the specific activity of the isolated collagen molecules showed that type III collagen had a high specific activity in the early stages of foetal development, which decreased dramatically during foetal development. The specific activity of pepsin-solubilized type I collagen remained fairly constant during foetal development. (orig.) [de

  2. Biophysical behavior of Scomberoides commersonianus skin collagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolli, Nagamalleswari; Joseph, K Thomas; Ramasami, T

    2002-06-01

    Some biophysical characteristics of the skin collagen from Scomberoides commersonianus were measured and compared to those of rat tail tendon. Stress-strain data indicate that the strain at break as well as the tensile strength of the fish skin without scales increased significantly. The maximum tension in case of rat skin is at least a factor of two higher than that observed in fish skin. The much lower hydrothermal isometric tension measurements observed in fish skin are attributable to a lesser number of heat stable crosslinks. Stress relaxation measurements in the fish skin indicate that more than one relaxation process may be involved in the stabilization of collagenous matrix. The observed differences in the biophysical behavior of fish skin may well arise from combination of changes in extent of hydroxylation of proline in collagen synthesis, hydrogen bond network and fibril orientation as compared to rat tail tendon.

  3. Collagenous gastritis in the pediatric age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Rosell-Camps

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Collagenous gastritis (CG is an uncommon condition known in the pediatric age. It is characterized by the presence of subepithelial collagen bands (> 10 μm associated with lymphoplasmacytic infiltration of the stomach's lamina propria. Symptoms manifested by patients with CG may be common with many other disorders. It typically manifests with epigastralgia, vomiting, and iron deficiency during pre-adolescence. This condition's pathophysiology remains unclear. In contrast to adults, where association with collagenous colitis and other autoimmune conditions is more common, pediatric involvement is usually confined to the stomach. Drugs of choice include proton pump inhibitors and corticoids. A case is reported of a 12-year-old girl with abdominal pain and ferritin deficiency who was diagnosed with CG based on gastric biopsy and experienced a favorable outcome.

  4. Distinct characteristics of mandibular bone collagen relative to long bone collagen: relevance to clinical dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Takashi; Tokutomi, Kentaro; Sasaki, Michiko; Katafuchi, Michitsuna; Mizumachi, Emiri; Sato, Hironobu

    2014-01-01

    Bone undergoes constant remodeling throughout life. The cellular and biochemical mechanisms of bone remodeling vary in a region-specific manner. There are a number of notable differences between the mandible and long bones, including developmental origin, osteogenic potential of mesenchymal stem cells, and the rate of bone turnover. Collagen, the most abundant matrix protein in bone, is responsible for determining the relative strength of particular bones. Posttranslational modifications of collagen, such as intermolecular crosslinking and lysine hydroxylation, are the most essential determinants of bone strength, although the amount of collagen is also important. In comparison to long bones, the mandible has greater collagen content, a lower amount of mature crosslinks, and a lower extent of lysine hydroxylation. The great abundance of immature crosslinks in mandibular collagen suggests that there is a lower rate of cross-link maturation. This means that mandibular collagen is relatively immature and thus more readily undergoes degradation and turnover. The greater rate of remodeling in mandibular collagen likely renders more flexibility to the bone and leaves it more suited to constant exercise. As reviewed here, it is important in clinical dentistry to understand the distinctive features of the bones of the jaw.

  5. Distinct Characteristics of Mandibular Bone Collagen Relative to Long Bone Collagen: Relevance to Clinical Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Matsuura

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone undergoes constant remodeling throughout life. The cellular and biochemical mechanisms of bone remodeling vary in a region-specific manner. There are a number of notable differences between the mandible and long bones, including developmental origin, osteogenic potential of mesenchymal stem cells, and the rate of bone turnover. Collagen, the most abundant matrix protein in bone, is responsible for determining the relative strength of particular bones. Posttranslational modifications of collagen, such as intermolecular crosslinking and lysine hydroxylation, are the most essential determinants of bone strength, although the amount of collagen is also important. In comparison to long bones, the mandible has greater collagen content, a lower amount of mature crosslinks, and a lower extent of lysine hydroxylation. The great abundance of immature crosslinks in mandibular collagen suggests that there is a lower rate of cross-link maturation. This means that mandibular collagen is relatively immature and thus more readily undergoes degradation and turnover. The greater rate of remodeling in mandibular collagen likely renders more flexibility to the bone and leaves it more suited to constant exercise. As reviewed here, it is important in clinical dentistry to understand the distinctive features of the bones of the jaw.

  6. Methane production from acid hydrolysates of Agave tequilana bagasse: evaluation of hydrolysis conditions and methane yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arreola-Vargas, Jorge; Ojeda-Castillo, Valeria; Snell-Castro, Raúl; Corona-González, Rosa Isela; Alatriste-Mondragón, Felipe; Méndez-Acosta, Hugo O

    2015-04-01

    Evaluation of diluted acid hydrolysis for sugar extraction from cooked and uncooked Agave tequilana bagasse and feasibility of using the hydrolysates as substrate for methane production, with and without nutrient addition, in anaerobic sequencing batch reactors (AnSBR) were studied. Results showed that the hydrolysis over the cooked bagasse was more effective for sugar extraction at the studied conditions. Total sugars concentration in the cooked and uncooked bagasse hydrolysates were 27.9 g/L and 18.7 g/L, respectively. However, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural was detected in the cooked bagasse hydrolysate, and therefore, the uncooked bagasse hydrolysate was selected as substrate for methane production. Interestingly, results showed that the AnSBR operated without nutrient addition obtained a constant methane production (0.26 L CH4/g COD), whereas the AnSBR operated with nutrient addition presented a gradual methane suppression. Molecular analyses suggested that methane suppression in the experiment with nutrient addition was due to a negative effect over the archaeal/bacterial ratio. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. De hydrolyse van vet bij de kaasrijping in verband met de smaak van kaas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stadhouders, J.J.

    1956-01-01

    Fatty acids are important as constituents of cheese flavour. In cheese made from raw milk, milk lipase probably hydrolyses cheese fat to some extent, but cheese made from aseptically drawn milk shows no piquant flavour.
    It was established that during ripening no active lipase was formed inside

  8. Production and functional characterisation of antioxidative hydrolysates from corn protein via enzymatic hydrolysis and ultrafiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Kequan; Sun, Shi; Canning, Corene

    2012-12-01

    Corn protein was hydrolysed by three microbial proteases and further separated by sequential ultra-filtration to 12 hydrolysate fractions which were investigated for free radical scavenging capacity and chelating activity. The oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of the hydrolysates varied significantly between 65.6 and 191.4μmoles Trolox equivalents (TE)/g dried weight with a small peptide fraction (NP-F3) produced by neutral protease (NP) possessing the highest antioxidant activity. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH()) scavenging activities of the hydrolysate fractions also varied significantly between 18.4 and 38.7μmoles TE/g. Two fractions (AP-F2 and AP-F3) produced by alkaline protease (AP) showed the strongest activity. However, no significant difference was detected on the chelating activity of the fractions. NP-F3, AP-F2, and AP-F3 were incorporated into ground beef to determine their effects on lipid oxidation during 15-day storage period. NP-F3 was the only fraction that inhibited lipid oxidation at both 250 and 500μg/g levels by as much as 52.9%. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Safety evaluation of an IPP tripeptide-containing milk protein hydrolysate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ponstein-Simarro Doorten, A.Y.; Wiel, J.A.G. van de; Jonker, D.

    2009-01-01

    Tensguard™ is a milk protein hydrolysate containing the lactotripeptide IPP. It is derived from cow's milk, which is present in the human diet and has a safe history of consumption. The final Tensguard™ product, a supplement or a functional food ingredient, is intended for use by people who want to

  10. SOYBEAN AND CASEIN HYDROLYSATES INDUCE GRAPEVINE IMMUNE RESPONSES AND RESISTANCE AGAINST PLASMOPARA VITICOLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihed eLachhab

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Plasmopara viticola, the causal agent of grapevine downy mildew, is one of the most devastating grape pathogen in Europe and North America. Although phytochemicals are used to control pathogen infections, the appearance of resistant strains and the concern for possible adverse effects on environment and human health are increasing the search for alternative strategies. In the present investigation, we successfully tested two protein hydrolysates from soybean (soy and casein (cas to trigger grapevine resistance against P. viticola. On Vitis vinifera cv. Marselan plants, the application of soy and cas reduced the infected leaf surface by 76 and 63%, as compared to the control, respectively. Since both hydrolysates might trigger the plant immunity, we investigated their ability to elicit grapevine defence responses. On grapevine cell suspensions, a different free cytosolic calcium signature was recorded for each hydrolysate, whereas a similar transient phosphorylation of two MAP kinases of 45 and 49 kDa was observed. These signalling events were followed by transcriptome reprogramming, including the up-regulation of defence genes encoding pathogenesis-related (PR proteins and the stilbene synthase enzyme responsible for the biosynthesis of resveratrol, the main grapevine phytoalexin. Liquid chromatography analyses confirmed the production of resveratrol and its dimer metabolites, δ- and ε-viniferins. Overall, soy effects were more pronounced as compared to the cas one. Both hydrolysates proved to act as elicitors to enhance grapevine immunity against pathogen attack.

  11. Characterization of Peptides Found in Unprocessed and Extruded Amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus Pepsin/Pancreatin Hydrolysates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Montoya-Rodríguez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to characterize peptides found in unprocessed amaranth hydrolysates (UAH and extruded amaranth hydrolysates (EAH and to determine the effect of the hydrolysis time on the profile of peptides produced. Amaranth grain was extruded in a single screw extruder at 125 °C of extrusion temperature and 130 rpm of screw speed. Unprocessed and extruded amaranth flour were hydrolyzed with pepsin/pancreatin enzymes following a kinetic at 10, 25, 60, 90, 120 and 180 min for each enzyme. After 180 min of pepsin hydrolysis, aliquots were taken at each time during pancreatin hydrolysis to characterize the hydrolysates by MALDI-TOF/MS-MS. Molecular masses (MM (527, 567, 802, 984, 1295, 1545, 2034 and 2064 Da of peptides appeared consistently during hydrolysis, showing high intensity at 10 min (2064 Da, 120 min (802 Da and 180 min (567 Da in UAH. EAH showed high intensity at 10 min (2034 Da and 120 min (984, 1295 and 1545 Da. Extrusion produced more peptides with MM lower than 1000 Da immediately after 10 min of hydrolysis. Hydrolysis time impacted on the peptide profile, as longer the time lower the MM in both amaranth hydrolysates. Sequences obtained were analyzed for their biological activity at BIOPEP, showing important inhibitory activities related to chronic diseases. These peptides could be used as a food ingredient/supplement in a healthy diet to prevent the risk to develop chronic diseases.

  12. Production and characterization of cowpea protein hydrolysate with optimum nitrogen solubility by enzymatic hydrolysis using pepsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mune Mune, Martin Alain; Minka, Samuel René

    2017-06-01

    Cowpea is a source of low-cost and good nutritional quality protein for utilization in food formulations in replacement of animal proteins. Therefore it is necessary that cowpea protein exhibits good functionality, particularly protein solubility which affects the other functional properties. The objective of this study was to produce cowpea protein hydrolysate exhibiting optimum solubility by the adequate combination of hydrolysis parameters, namely time, solid/liquid ratio (SLR) and enzyme/substrate ratio (ESR), and to determine its functional properties and molecular characteristics. A Box-Behnken experimental design was used for the experiments, and a second-order polynomial to model the effects of hydrolysis time, SLR and ESR on the degree of hydrolysis and nitrogen solubility index. The optimum hydrolysis conditions of time 208.61 min, SLR 1/15 (w/w) and ESR 2.25% (w/w) yielded a nitrogen solubility of 75.71%. Protein breakdown and the peptide profile following enzymatic hydrolysis were evaluated by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and size exclusion chromatography. Cowpea protein hydrolysate showed higher oil absorption capacity, emulsifying activity and foaming ability compared with the concentrate. The solubility of cowpea protein hydrolysate was adequately optimized by response surface methodology, and the hydrolysate showed adequate functionality for use in food. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Drench application of fish-derived protein hydrolysates affects lettuce growth, chlorophyll content, and gas exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of biostimulants to enhance crop production has gained considerable momentum because of its contribution to agroecological sustainability. Protein hydrolysates (PHs) are an important group of plant biostimulants that have received increasing attention in recent years due to their positive ef...

  14. Impact of Power Ultrasound on Antihypertensive Activity, Functional Properties, and Thermal Stability of Rapeseed Protein Hydrolysates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asif Wali

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of power ultrasound pretreatments on the degree of hydrolysis (DH, angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitory activity, amino acid composition, surface hydrophobicity, protein solubility, and thermal stability of ACE inhibition of rapeseed protein hydrolysates were evaluated. Ultrasonic pretreatments before enzymolysis in terms of power and exposure time increased the DH and ACE inhibitory activities over the control (without sonication. In this study, maximum DH 22.07% and ACE inhibitory activity 72.13% were achieved at 600 W and 12 min pretreatment. Compared to the hydrolysates obtained without sonication, the amino acid profile of ultrasound pretreated hydrolysates showed significant changes particularly in the proline content and hydrophobic amino acids with an increased rate of 2.47% and 6.31%, respectively. Ultrasound pretreatment (600 watts, 12 min improved functional properties of protein hydrolysates over control by enhancing surface hydrophobicity and solubility index with an increased rate of 130.76% and 34.22%. Moreover, the stability test showed that the ACE inhibitory activity remains stable against heat treatments. However, extensive heat, prolonged heating time, and alkaline conditions were not in the favor of stability test, while under mild heat and acidic conditions their ACE inhibitory activities were not significantly different from unheated samples.

  15. Enzymatic hydrolysis of Grass Carp fish skin hydrolysates able to promote the proliferation of Streptococcus thermophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Nan; Qin, Mei; Feng, Yu-Ying; Chen, Jian-Kang; Song, Yi-Shan

    2017-09-01

    The promotion effect on proliferation of Streptococcus thermophilus by enzymatic hydrolysates of aquatic products was firstly studied. The effect of influencing factors of the hydrolysis on the growth of S. thermophilus was investigated. Grass Carp fish skin was hydrolysed to peptides by enzymatic hydrolysis using protease ProteAX, and for the S. thermophilus growth, the optimal enzymatic hydrolysis conditions were temperature of 60 °C, initial pH of 9.0, enzyme concentration of 10 g kg -1 , hydrolysis time of 80 min, and ratio of material to liquid of 1:2. The Grass Carp fish skin hydrolysate (GCFSH) prepared under the optimum conditions was fractionated to five fragments (GCFSH 1, GCFSH 2, GCFSH 3, GCFSH 4, GCFSH 5) according to molecular weight sizes, in which the fragments GCFSH 4 and GCFSH 5, with molecular weights of less than 1000 Da, significantly promoted the growth of S. thermophilus. The hydrolysis process of Grass Carp fish skin can be simplified, and the peptides with molecular weights below 1000 Da in the hydrolysates are the best nitrogen source for proliferation of S. thermophilus. This work can provide a fundamental theoretical basis for the production of multi-component functional foods, especially in milk drinks or yogurt. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Xylitol production from DEO hydrolysate of corn stover by Pichia stipitis YS-30

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rita C.L.B. Rodrigues; William R. Kenealy; Thomas W. Jeffries

    2011-01-01

    Corn stover that had been treated with vapor-phase diethyl oxalate released a mixture of mono-and oligosaccharides consisting mainly of xylose and glucose. Following overliming and neutralization, a D-xylulokinase mutant of Pichia stipitis, FPL-YS30 (xyl3 -Ä1), converted the stover hydrolysate into xylitol. This research examined the effects of phosphoric or gluconic...

  17. Fermented inulin hydrolysate by Bifidobacterium breve as cholesterol binder in functional food application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanie, Hakiki; Susilowati, Agustine; Maryati, Yati

    2017-01-01

    Inulin hydrolysate is a result of inulin hydrolysis by inulinase enzyme of Scopulariopsis sp.-CBS1 fungi isolated from dahlia tuber skin in the formation of fructooligosaccharides (FOS) as dietary fiber. Inulin hydrolysate fermented by Bifidobacterium breve has a potential as cholesterol binder in digestive system due to dietary fiber content in inulin. This study was conducted to evaluate the best cholesterol binding capacity by the variation of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) culture concentration of 10%, 20% and 30% (v/v), respectively. Fermentation process were conducted with inulin hydrolysate concentration of 25% (w/v), skim milk 7,5% (w/v) and various LAB culture concentration at 40 °C for 0, 12, 24, 36 and 48 hours. The results showed that the variation of LAB culture concentrations affect the cholesterol binding ability in fermented inulin hydrolysate. The fermentation process with 10% LAB culture concentration at 40°C for 48 hours resulted in the highest cholesterol binding capacity (CBC) of 13,69 mg/g at pH 7and 14,44 mg/g at pH 2 with composition of total acids of 0,787%, soluble dietary fiber of 0,396%, insoluble dietary fiber of 5,47%, total solids of 14,476%, total sugars of 472,484 mg/mL, reducing sugar of 92 mg/mL and total plate count (TPC) of 7,278 log CFU/mL, respectively.

  18. Succinic acid production from acid hydrolysate of corn fiber by Actinobacillus succinogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kequan; Jiang, Min; Wei, Ping; Yao, Jiaming; Wu, Hao

    2010-01-01

    Dilute acid hydrolysate of corn fiber was used as carbon source for the production of succinic acid by Actinobacillus succinogenes NJ113. The optimized hydrolysis conditions were obtained by orthogonal experiments. When corn fiber particles were of 20 mesh in size and treated with 1.0% sulfuric acid at 121 degrees C for 2 h, the total sugar yield could reach 63.3%. It was found that CaCO(3) neutralization combined with activated carbon adsorption was an effective method to remove fermentation inhibitors especially furfural that presented in the acid hydrolysate of corn fiber. Only 5.2% of the total sugar was lost, while 91.9% of furfural was removed. The yield of succinic acid was higher than 72.0% with the detoxified corn fiber hydrolysate as the carbon source in anaerobic bottles or 7.5 L fermentor cultures. It was proved that the corn fiber hydrolysate could be an alternative to glucose for the production of succinic acid by A. succinogenes NJ113.

  19. Identification of dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitory peptides from mare whey protein hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, J J; Wang, Q; Du, M; Ji, X M; Mao, X Y

    2017-09-01

    Inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) activity is a promising strategy for treatment of type 2 diabetes. In the current study, DPP-IV inhibitory peptides were identified from mare whey protein hydrolysates obtained by papain. The results showed that all the mare whey protein hydrolysates obtained at various hydrolysis durations possessed more potent DPP-IV inhibitory activity compared with intact whey protein. The 4-h hydrolysates showed the greatest DPP-IV inhibitory activity with half-maximal inhibitory concentration of 0.18 mg/mL. The 2 novel peptides from 4-h hydrolysate fractions separated by successive chromatographic steps were characterized by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. The novel peptides Asn-Leu-Glu-Ile-Ile-Leu-Arg and Thr-Gln-Met-Val-Asp-Glu-Glu-Ile-Met-Glu-Lys-Phe-Arg, which corresponded to β-lactoglobulin 1 f(71-77) and β-lactoglobulin 1 f(143-155), demonstrated DPP-IV inhibitory activity with half-maximal inhibitory concentrations of 86.34 and 69.84 μM, respectively. The DPP-IV inhibitory activity of the 2 peptides was retained or even improved after simulated gastrointestinal digestion in vitro. Our findings indicate that mare whey protein-derived peptides may possess potential as functional food ingredients in the management of type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparison of the aggregation behavior of soy and bovine whey protein hydrolysates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, B.J.H.; Alting, A.C.; Gruppen, H.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Soy-derived proteins (soy protein isolate, glycinin, and ß-conglycinin) and bovine whey-derived proteins (whey protein isolate, ¿-lactalbumin, ß-lactoglobulin) were hydrolyzed using subtilisin Carlsberg, chymotrypsin, trypsin, bromelain, and papain. The (in)solubility of the hydrolysates

  1. Raw mechanically separated chicken meat and salmon protein hydrolysate as protein sources in extruded dog food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjernsbekk, M. T.; Tauson, A. H.; Kraugerud, O. F.

    2017-01-01

    Protein quality was evaluated for mechanically separated chicken meat (MSC) and salmon protein hydrolysate (SPH), and for extruded dog foods where MSC or SPH partially replaced poultry meal (PM). Apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) in the protein...

  2. Antioxidative, DPP-IV and ACE inhibiting peptides from fish protein hydrolysed with intestinal proteases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falkenberg, Susan Skanderup; Stagsted, Jan; Nielsen, Henrik Hauch

    amino groups, antioxidative capacity by ABTS (2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonicacid)), DPP-IV and ACE inhibiting activity. Degree of hydrolysis (DH) of hydrolysates was approximately 13% and 10% for belly flap and skin respectively. No clear difference was observed in DH between pancreatin...

  3. Preparation of antioxidant enzymatic hydrolysates from honeybee-collected pollen using plant enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinova, Margarita D; Tchorbanov, Bozhidar P

    2011-01-09

    Enzymatic hydrolysates of honeybee-collected pollen were prepared using food-grade proteinase and aminopeptidases entirely of plant origin. Bromelain from pineapple stem was applied (8 mAU/g substrate) in the first hydrolysis stage. Aminopeptidase (0.05 U/g substrate) and proline iminopeptidase (0.03 U/g substrate) from cabbage leaves (Brassica oleracea var. capitata), and aminopeptidase (0.2 U/g substrate) from chick-pea cotyledons (Cicer arietinum L.) were involved in the additional hydrolysis of the peptide mixtures. The degree of hydrolysis (DH), total phenolic contents, and protein contents of these hydrolysates were as follows: DH (about 20-28%), total phenolics (15.3-27.2 μg/mg sample powder), and proteins (162.7-242.8 μg/mg sample powder), respectively. The hydrolysates possessed high antiradical scavenging activity determined with DPPH (42-46% inhibition). The prepared hydrolysates of bee-collected flower pollen may be regarded as effective natural and functional dietary food supplements due to their remarkable content of polyphenol substances and significant radical-scavenging capacity with special regard to their nutritional-physiological implications.

  4. Preparation of Antioxidant Enzymatic Hydrolysates from Honeybee-Collected Pollen Using Plant Enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita D. Marinova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Enzymatic hydrolysates of honeybee-collected pollen were prepared using food-grade proteinase and aminopeptidases entirely of plant origin. Bromelain from pineapple stem was applied (8 mAU/g substrate in the first hydrolysis stage. Aminopeptidase (0.05 U/g substrate and proline iminopeptidase (0.03 U/g substrate from cabbage leaves (Brassica oleracea var. capitata, and aminopeptidase (0.2 U/g substrate from chick-pea cotyledons (Cicer arietinum L. were involved in the additional hydrolysis of the peptide mixtures. The degree of hydrolysis (DH, total phenolic contents, and protein contents of these hydrolysates were as follows: DH (about 20–28%, total phenolics (15.3–27.2 μg/mg sample powder, and proteins (162.7–242.8 μg/mg sample powder, respectively. The hydrolysates possessed high antiradical scavenging activity determined with DPPH (42–46% inhibition. The prepared hydrolysates of bee-collected flower pollen may be regarded as effective natural and functional dietary food supplements due to their remarkable content of polyphenol substances and significant radical-scavenging capacity with special regard to their nutritional-physiological implications.

  5. Protein Hydrolysates from Non-bovine and Plant Sources Replaces Tryptone in Microbiological Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Yamini; Patel, Shifa; Pasupuleti, Vijai K.; Meganathan, R.

    Tryptone (pancreatic digest of casein) is a common ingredient in laboratory and fermentation media for growing wild-type and genetically modified microorganisms. Many of the commercially manufactured products such as human growth hormone, antibiotics, insulin, etc. are produced by recombinant strains grown on materials derived from bovine sources. With the emergence of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) and the consequent increase in Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations, elimination of materials of bovine origin from fermentation media is of paramount importance. To achieve this objective, a number of protein hydrolysates derived from non-bovine animal and plant sources were evaluated. Tryptone in Luria-Bertani (LB) broth was replaced with an equal quantity of alternate protein hydrolysates. Four of the six hydrolysates (one animal and three from plants) were found to efficiently replace the tryptone present in LB-medium as measured by growth rate and growth yield of a recombinant Escherichia coli strain. In addition, we have determined plasmid stability, inducibility and activity of the plasmid encoded β-galactosidase in the recombinant strain grown in the presence of various protein hydrolysates.

  6. Inhibition of ice crystal growth in ice cream mix by gelatin hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damodaran, Srinivasan

    2007-12-26

    The inhibition of ice crystal growth in ice cream mix by gelatin hydrolysate produced by papain action was studied. The ice crystal growth was monitored by thermal cycling between -14 and -12 degrees C at a rate of one cycle per 3 min. It is shown that the hydrolysate fraction containing peptides in the molecular weight range of about 2000-5000 Da exhibited the highest inhibitory activity on ice crystal growth in ice cream mix, whereas fractions containing peptides greater than 7000 Da did not inhibit ice crystal growth. The size distribution of gelatin peptides formed in the hydrolysate was influenced by the pH of hydrolysis. The optimum hydrolysis conditions for producing peptides with maximum ice crystal growth inhibitory activity was pH 7 at 37 degrees C for 10 min at a papain to gelatin ratio of 1:100. However, this may depend on the type and source of gelatin. The possible mechanism of ice crystal growth inhibition by peptides from gelatin is discussed. Molecular modeling of model gelatin peptides revealed that they form an oxygen triad plane at the C-terminus with oxygen-oxygen distances similar to those found in ice nuclei. Binding of this oxygen triad plane to the prism face of ice nuclei via hydrogen bonding appears to be the mechanism by which gelatin hydrolysate might be inhibiting ice crystal growth in ice cream mix.

  7. Enhanced acetone-butanol-ethanol production from lignocellulosic hydrolysates by using starchy slurry as supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming; Kuittinen, Suvi; Vepsäläinen, Jouko; Zhang, Junhua; Pappinen, Ari

    2017-11-01

    This study aims to improve acetone-butanol-ethanol production from the hydrolysates of lignocellulosic material by supplementing starchy slurry as nutrients. In the fermentations of glucose, xylose and the hydrolysates of Salix schwerinii, the normal supplements such as buffer, minerals, and vitamins solutions were replaced with the barley starchy slurry. The ABE production was increased from 0.86 to 14.7g/L by supplementation of starchy slurry in the fermentation of xylose and the utilization of xylose increased from 29% to 81%. In the fermentations of hemicellulosic and enzymatic hydrolysates from S. schwerinii, the ABE yields were increased from 0 and 0.26 to 0.35 and 0.33g/g sugars, respectively. The results suggested that the starchy slurry supplied the essential nutrients for ABE fermentation. The starchy slurry as supplement could improve the ABE production from both hemicellulosic and cellulosic hydrolysate of lignocelluloses, and it is particularly helpful for enhancing the utilization of xylose from hemicelluloses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Simulated Moving Bed Chromatography: Separation and Recovery of Sugars and Ionic Liquid from Biomass Hydrolysates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caes, Benjamin R.; Van Oosbree, Thomas R.; Lu, Fachuang; Ralph, John; Maravelias, Christos T.

    2015-01-01

    Simulated moving bed chromatography, a continuous separation method, enables the nearly quantitative recovery of sugar products and ionic liquid solvent from chemical hydrolysates of biomass. The ensuing sugars support microbial growth, and the residual lignin from the process is intact. PMID:23939991

  9. Isoprene Production on Enzymatic Hydrolysate of Peanut Hull Using Different Pretreatment Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumeng Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study is about the use of peanut hull for isoprene production. In this study, two pretreatment methods, hydrogen peroxide-acetic acid (HPAC and popping, were employed prior to enzymatic hydrolysis, which could destroy the lignocellulosic structure and accordingly improve the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis. It is proven that the isoprene production on enzymatic hydrolysate with HPAC pretreatment is about 1.9-fold higher than that of popping pretreatment. Moreover, through High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC analysis, the amount and category of inhibitors such as formic acid, acetic acid, and HMF were assayed and were varied in different enzymatic hydrolysates, which may be the reason leading to a decrease in isoprene production during fermentation. To further increase the isoprene yield, the enzymatic hydrolysate of HPAC was detoxified by activated carbon. As a result, using the detoxified enzymatic hydrolysate as the carbon source, the engineered strain YJM21 could accumulate 297.5 mg/L isoprene, which accounted for about 90% of isoprene production by YJM21 fermented on pure glucose (338.6 mg/L. This work is thought to be the first attempt on isoprene production by E. coli using peanut hull as the feedstock. More importantly, it also shows the prospect of peanut hull to be considered as an alternative feedstock for bio-based chemicals or biofuels production due to its easy access and high polysaccharide content.

  10. Production of arapaima protein hydrolysate using Aspergillus flavo-furcatis protease and pancreatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia de Carvalho Paiva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The processing of arapaima (Arapaima gigas generates a lot of residues that can be used for the development of new products of industrial interest. This study aimed at evaluating the production of protein hydrolysates from arapaima residues using Aspergillus flavo-furcatis protease and commercial pancreatin, as well as characterizing their nutritional and microbiological qualities. The raw material used was meat mechanically separated from arapaima carcasses (MMSA. Two products were developed: a protein hydrolysate of arapaima using a commercial enzyme (PHACE and another one using microbial enzyme (PHAME. The MMSA and the hydrolysates were analyzed for chemical composition, microbiological quality, degree of hydrolysis, digestibility and amino acid profile. The results showed that the PHACE protein content was 73.47 %. This value was significantly higher, when compared to the PHAME (58.03 %. However, both products showed high digestibility values, absence of microbial contaminants and reduced lipid content. Among the enzymes used, pancreatin was the most efficient one in the preparation of the final product, which showed essential amino acids content higher than the requirements for human adults. The hydrolysate developed using A. flavo-furcatis enzymes presented essential amino acids score lower than 1.0, being tryptophan the most limiting one.

  11. Xylose utilizing zymomonas mobilis with improved ethanol production in biomass hydrolysate medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caimi, Perry G; Hitz, William D; Stieglitz, Barry; Viitanen, Paul V

    2013-07-02

    Xylose-utilizing, ethanol producing strains of Zymomonas mobilis with improved performance in medium comprising biomass hydrolysate were isolated using an adaptation process. Independently isolated strains were found to have independent mutations in the same coding region. Mutation in this coding may be engineered to confer the improved phenotype.

  12. Hypocholesterolaemic and antioxidant activities of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) protein hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yust, María del Mar; Millán-Linares, María del Carmen; Alcaide-Hidalgo, Juan María; Millán, Francisco; Pedroche, Justo

    2012-07-01

    Some dietary proteins possess biological properties which make them potential ingredients of functional or health-promoting foods. Many of these properties are attributed to bioactive peptides that can be released by controlled hydrolysis using exogenous proteases. The aim of this work was to test the improvement of hypocholesterolaemic and antioxidant activities of chickpea protein isolate by means of hydrolysis with alcalase and flavourzyme. All hydrolysates tested exhibited better hypocholesterolaemic activity when compared with chickpea protein isolate. The highest cholesterol micellar solubility inhibition (50%) was found after 60 min of treatment with alcalase followed by 30 min of hydrolysis with flavourzyme. To test antioxidant activity of chickpea proteins three methods were used: β-carotene bleaching method, reducing power and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging effect since antioxidant activity of protein hydrolysates may not be attributed to a single mechanism. Chickpea hydrolysates showed better antioxidant activity in all assays, especially reducing power and DPPH scavenging effect than chickpea protein isolate. The results of this study showed the good potential of chickpea protein hydrolysates as bioactive ingredients. The highest bioactive properties could be obtained by selecting the type of proteases and the hydrolysis time. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Maillard reaction products of rice protein hydrolysates with mono-, oligo- and polysaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice protein, a byproduct of rice syrup production, is abundant but, its lack of functionality prevents its wide use as a food ingredient. Maillard reaction products of (MRPs) hydrolysates from the limited hydrolysis of rice protein (LHRP) and various mono-, oligo- and polysaccharides were evaluat...

  14. Immune responses to implanted human collagen graft in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quteish, D.; Dolby, A.E.

    1991-01-01

    Immunity to collagen implants may be mediated by cellular and humoral immune responses. To examine the possibility of such immunological reactivity and crossreactivity to collagen, 39 Sprague-Dawley rats (female, 10 weeks old, approximately 250 g wt) were implanted subcutaneously at thigh sites with crosslinked, freeze-dried human placental type I collagen grafts (4x4x2 mm) which had been irradiated (520 Gray) or left untreated. Blood was obtained by intracardiac sampling prior to implantation or from normal rats, and at various times afterwards when the animals were sacrificed. The sera from these animals were examined for circulating antibodies to human, bovine and rat tail (type I) collagens by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Also, the lymphoblastogenic responses of spleen lymphocytes from the irradiated collagen-implanted animals were assessed in culture by measuring thymidine uptake with autologous and normal rat sera in the presence of human bovine type I collagens. Implantation of the irradiated and non-irradiated collagen graft in rats led to a significant increase in the level of circulating antibodies to human collagen. Also antibody to bovine and rat tail collagens was detectable in the animals implanted with irradiated collagen grafts but at a lower level than the human collagen. There was a raised lymphoblastogenic response to both human and bovine collagens. The antibody level and lymphoblastogenesis to the tested collagens gradually decreased towards the end of the post-implantation period. (author)

  15. Application of high rate, high temperature anaerobic digestion to fungal thermozyme hydrolysates from carbohydrate wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, C; O'Reilly, C; McLaughlin, L; Gilleran, G; Tuohy, M; Colleran, E

    2009-05-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the feasibility of using a two-step, fully biological and sustainable strategy for the treatment of carbohydrate rich wastes. The primary step in this strategy involves the application of thermostable enzymes produced by the thermophilic, aerobic fungus, Talaromyces emersonii, to carbohydrate wastes producing a liquid hydrolysate discharged at elevated temperatures. To assess the potential of thermophilic treatment of this hydrolysate, a comparative study of thermophilic and mesophilic digestion of four sugar rich thermozyme hydrolysate waste streams was conducted by operating two high rate upflow anaerobic hybrid reactors (UAHR) at 37 degrees C (R1) and 55 degrees C (R2). The operational performance of both reactors was monitored from start-up by assessing COD removal efficiencies, volatile fatty acid (VFA) discharge and % methane of the biogas produced. Rapid start-up of both R1 and R2 was achieved on an influent composed of the typical sugar components of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW). Both reactors were subsequently challenged in terms of volumetric loading rate (VLR) and it was found that a VLR of 9 gCOD l(-1)d(-1) at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 1 day severely affected the thermophilic reactor with instability characterised by a build up of volatile fatty acid (VFA) intermediates in the effluent. The influent to both reactors was changed to a simple glucose and sucrose-based influent supplied at a VLR of 4.5 gCOD l(-1)d(-1) and HRT of 2 days prior to the introduction of thermozyme hydrolysates. Four unique thermozyme hydrolysates were subsequently supplied to the reactors, each for a period of 10 HRTs. The applied hydrolysates were derived from apple pulp, bread, carob powder and cardboard, all of which were successfully and comparably converted by both reactors. The % total carbohydrate removal by both reactors was monitored during the application of the sugar rich thermozyme

  16. Chemical structure, comparison antioxidant capacity and separation antioxidant of hen, duck and quail egg white protein hydrolysate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatah, A.; Meihu, M.; Ning, Q.; Setiani, B. E.; Bintoro, V. P.

    2018-01-01

    Amino acid linkages as proteins are nutritional substance which important for diet intake. Purification protein procesing undergo heating procedure process followed by additional of proteolytic enzymes or acid had been resulting in protein hydrolysates. A protein hydrolysate describe as many free amino acids bound together through a complex mixture of peptides. Egg white protein hydrolysates is one of subject interested to study for human health or industry product. The objectives of the research are to determine and identification the antioxidant derived from egg white hydrolysate protein. Identification of chemical structure of albumen and albumen protein hydrolysate was examine using IR Spectrophotometry. While comparison of antioxidant capacity and antioxidant separation egg albumen was also investigate using FTIR method (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy). Hen, duck and quail albumen egg white and on hydrolisate form were used as research materials. The results were showing that different time and enzyme of hydrolysis were not influence at secondary structure of hydrolysate albumen protein. Phytochemical content such as alcohol and hydroxyl compound which have potential as functional group of antioxidant were detected in all of the samples. Their results of radical scavenging activities samples hydrolyzed by pepsin were respectively 89.40%, 50.25% and 85.13%. Whereas the radical scavenging activities of hydrolysates hydrolyzed by papain were 72.85%, 61% and 76.45% respectively.

  17. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORY ACTIVITY OF HYDROLYSATE OF MEAT PROTEIN OF INDONESIAN LOCAL LIVESTOCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jamhari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to investigate the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE inhibitoryactivity of hydrolysate in meat protein of Bali cattle, Kacang goat, native chicken, and local duck. Themeats of Bali cattle, Kacang goat, native chicken, and local duck were used in this study. The meatswere ground using food processor added with aquadest to obtain meat extract. The meat extracts werethen hydrolyzed using protease enzymes to obtain hydrolysate of meat protein. Protein concentration ofmeat extract and hydrolysate of meat protein were determined, and were confirmed by sodium dodecylsulfate - poly acrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. ACE inhibitory activity of hydrolysate ofmeat protein derived from Bali cattle, Kacang goat, native chicken, and local duck was also determined.The results showed that protein concentration of hydrolysate of meat protein of Bali cattle, Kacang goat,native chicken, and local duck meat was significantly higher than their meat extracts. SDS-PAGEanalysis indicated that hydrolysate of meat protein of Bali cattle, Kacang goat, native chicken, and localduck had more peptides with lower molecular weight, compared to their meat extracts. Hydrolysate ofmeat protein of Bali cattle, Kacang goat, native chicken, and local duck had potencies in inhibiting ACEactivity, so it will potentially reduce blood pressure.

  18. Protein hydrolysates from the alga Chlorella vulgaris 87/1 with potentialities in immuno nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, Humberto J; Carrillo, Olimpia; Almarales, Angel; Bermudez, Rosa C; Alonso, Maria E; Borges, Leonardo; Quintana, Maria M; Fontaine, Roberto; Llaurado, Gabriel; Hernandez, Martha

    2009-01-01

    Chlorella vulgaris (Chlorophyta, Chlorophyceae) has received a particular attention in the programmes of microalgae utilisation in biotechnology. Enzymatic hydrolysis of cell proteins represents a very promising method to increase protein digestibility and thus, for obtaining hydrolysates with improved nutritional and functional properties. However, this technology has been little approached and the biological evaluation of hydrolysates has had a strictly nutritional nature. The design of hydrolysis conditions that combined for the first time, the use of C.vulgaris 87/1 treated with ethanol and pancreatin at pH values of 7.5-8.0, led to a product with a degree of hydrolysis of 20-22% and yields of 50-55%, characterised by a high digestibility (97.2%) and nitrogen solubility over a wide pH range (2.0-10.0). Hydrolysis curves were fitted to an exponential model, common to many food proteins. The bulk of the product dry matter consists of soluble peptides and free amino acids (47.7%) with three main peptides of molecular masses between 2 and 5 kDa. The oral administration of Chlorella hydrolysate (500 mg/kg) to undernourished Balb/c mice provided benefits in terms of liver protein metabolism and the induction of anabolic processes in gut mucosa. The hydrolysate also enhanced the immunological recovery, as judged by the stimulation of haemopoiesis, monocyte macrophage system activation, as well as humoral and cell mediated immune functions, like T-dependent antibody response and the reconstitution of delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response. These results represent the first findings in the world concerning the immunomodulating effects of a microalgae protein hydrolysate. (author)

  19. Inhibition of α-Amylases by Condensed and Hydrolysable Tannins: Focus on Kinetics and Hypoglycemic Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Gabriel Kato

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to compare the in vitro inhibitory effects on the salivary and pancreatic α-amylases and the in vivo hypoglycemic actions of the hydrolysable tannin from Chinese natural gall and the condensed tannin from Acacia mearnsii. The human salivary α-amylase was more strongly inhibited by the hydrolysable than by the condensed tannin, with the concentrations for 50% inhibition (IC50 being 47.0 and 285.4 μM, respectively. The inhibitory capacities of both tannins on the pancreatic α-amylase were also different, with IC50 values being 141.1 μM for the hydrolysable tannin and 248.1 μM for the condensed tannin. The kinetics of the inhibition presented complex patterns in that for both inhibitors more than one molecule can bind simultaneously to either the free enzyme of the substrate-complexed enzyme (parabolic mixed inhibition. Both tannins were able to inhibit the intestinal starch absorption. Inhibition by the hydrolysable tannin was concentration-dependent, with 53% inhibition at the dose of 58.8 μmol/kg and 88% inhibition at the dose of 294 μmol/kg. For the condensed tannin, inhibition was not substantially different for doses between 124.4 μmol/kg (49% and 620 μmol/kg (57%. It can be concluded that both tannins, but especially the hydrolysable one, could be useful in controlling the postprandial glycemic levels in diabetes.

  20. Antimicrobial potential for the combination of bovine lactoferrin or its hydrolysate with lactoferrin-resistant probiotics against foodborne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, P-W; Jheng, T T; Shyu, C-L; Mao, F C

    2013-03-01

    Previous reports have shown that several probiotic strains can resist the antibacterial activity of bovine lactoferrin (bLf), but the results are inconsistent. Moreover, a portion of orally administered apo-bLf is digested in vivo by pepsin to yield bLf hydrolysate, which produces stronger antibacterial activity than that observed with apo-bLf. However, whether bLf hydrolysate affects the growth of probiotic strains is unclear. Therefore, various probiotic strains in Taiwan were collected and evaluated for activity against apo-bLf and bLf hydrolysate in vitro. Thirteen probiotic strains were evaluated, and the growth of Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356, Lactobacillus salivarius ATCC 11741, Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 53103, Bifidobacterium longum ATCC 15707, and Bifidobacterium lactis BCRC 17394 were inhibited by both apo-bLf and bLf hydrolysate. The growth of 8 strains were not affected by apo-bLf and bLf hydrolysate, including L. rhamnosus ATCC 7469, Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 23272, Lactobacillus fermentum ATCC 11739, Lactobacillus coryniformis ATCC 25602, L. acidophilus BCRC 14065, Bifidobacterium infantis ATCC 15697, Bifidobacterium bifidum ATCC 29521, and Pediococcus acidilactici ATCC 8081. However, apo-bLf and its hydrolysate inhibited the growth of foodborne pathogens, including Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, and Enterococcus faecalis. Moreover, the supernatants produced by L. fermentum, B. lactis, and B. longum inhibited the growth of most pathogens. Importantly, a combination of apo-bLf or bLf hydrolysate with the supernatants of cultures of the organisms described above showed synergistic or partially synergistic effects against the growth of most of the selected pathogens. In conclusion, several probiotic strains are resistant to apo-bLf and bLf hydrolysate, warranting clinical studies to evaluate the antimicrobial potential for the combination of apo-bLf or its hydrolysate with specific probiotics. Copyright

  1. Study of collagen metabolism after β radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yinghui; Xulan; Wu Shiliang; Zhang Xueguang; Chen Liesong

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the change of collagen metabolism and it's regulation after β radiation. Method: The animal model of β radiation injury was established by the β radiation produced by the linear accelerator; and irradiated NIH 3T3 cells were studied. In the experiment the contents of total collagen, collagen type I and type III were measured. The activity of MMPs-1 was tested. The contents of TGF-β 1 , IL-6 were also detected. Results: After exposure to β radiation, little change was found in the content of total collagen, but the content of collagen I decreased and the content of collagen III, MMPs-1 activity increased; the expression of TGF-β 1 , IL-6 increased. Conclusion: The changes in the metabolism of collagen play an important role in the irradiated injury of the skin; TGF-β 1 and IL-6 may be essential in the regulation of the collagen metabolism

  2. Carbohydrate particles as protein carriers and scaffolds: physico-chemical characterization and collagen stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peres, Ivone; Rocha, Sandra; Loureiro, Joana A.; Carmo Pereira, Maria do; Ivanova, Galya; Coelho, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    The preservation of protein properties after entrapping into polymeric matrices and the effects of drying the emulsions still remains uncertain and controversial. Carbohydrate particles were designed and prepared by homogenization of gum arabic and maltodextrin mixture, with collagen hydrolysate (CH) followed by spray-drying. The encapsulation of CH in the carbohydrate matrix was achieved with an efficiency of 85 ± 2 %. The morphology and the size of the particles, before (40–400 nm) and after spray-drying (<20 μm), were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. Measurements of the nuclear relaxation times and application of diffusion ordered spectroscopy, obtained through pulsed field gradient NMR experiments, have been performed to determine the structure of the CH–polysaccharide conjugates and to clarify the mechanism of CH immobilization in the polysaccharide matrix. In vitro release profiles in ultrapure water and in cellular medium reveal that the diffusion rate of CH from the polymeric matrix to the dialysis solution decreases in average 30–50 % over time, compared to free CH molecules. In cellular medium at 37 °C, the complete release of CH from the particles is achieved only after 24 h, demonstrating a significant decrease in the CH mass transfer process when compared with free CH. The findings of this study outline the ability of gum arabic/maltodextrin matrices to entrap and preserve CH original properties after the spray-drying process and support the potential of the polymeric scaffold for protein delivery and tissue engineering.

  3. Carbohydrate particles as protein carriers and scaffolds: physico-chemical characterization and collagen stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peres, Ivone; Rocha, Sandra; Loureiro, Joana A.; Carmo Pereira, Maria do [University of Porto, LEPAE, Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering (Portugal); Ivanova, Galya [Universidade do Porto, REQUIMTE, Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Ciencias (Portugal); Coelho, Manuel, E-mail: mcoelho@fe.up.pt [University of Porto, LEPAE, Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering (Portugal)

    2012-09-15

    The preservation of protein properties after entrapping into polymeric matrices and the effects of drying the emulsions still remains uncertain and controversial. Carbohydrate particles were designed and prepared by homogenization of gum arabic and maltodextrin mixture, with collagen hydrolysate (CH) followed by spray-drying. The encapsulation of CH in the carbohydrate matrix was achieved with an efficiency of 85 {+-} 2 %. The morphology and the size of the particles, before (40-400 nm) and after spray-drying (<20 {mu}m), were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. Measurements of the nuclear relaxation times and application of diffusion ordered spectroscopy, obtained through pulsed field gradient NMR experiments, have been performed to determine the structure of the CH-polysaccharide conjugates and to clarify the mechanism of CH immobilization in the polysaccharide matrix. In vitro release profiles in ultrapure water and in cellular medium reveal that the diffusion rate of CH from the polymeric matrix to the dialysis solution decreases in average 30-50 % over time, compared to free CH molecules. In cellular medium at 37 Degree-Sign C, the complete release of CH from the particles is achieved only after 24 h, demonstrating a significant decrease in the CH mass transfer process when compared with free CH. The findings of this study outline the ability of gum arabic/maltodextrin matrices to entrap and preserve CH original properties after the spray-drying process and support the potential of the polymeric scaffold for protein delivery and tissue engineering.

  4. Radiolytic and enzymatic dimerization of tyrosyl residues in insulin, ribonuclease, papain and collagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boguta, G; Dancewicz, A M [Institute of Nuclear Research, Warsaw (Poland)

    1983-03-01

    Insulin ribonuclease, papain and collagen solutions saturated with nitrogen, N/sub 2/O or air were irradiated with doses of 10 to 640 Gy of gamma rays. Protein solutions were also oxidized enzymatically in a system of horse-radish peroxidase: hydrogen peroxide. Column chromatography (Sephadex G-75 or Sephacryl S-200) of treated protein solutions revealed that they contain protein molecular aggregates. Nitrogen saturation of solution before irradiation was most favourable for radiation-induced aggregation of proteins. Fluorescence analysis of protein solutions resulted in detection of dityrosyl structures in irradiated as well as in enzymatically oxidized proteins. Concentration of dityrosine in proteins studied was determined fluorimetrically in their hydrolysates separated on BioGel P-2 column. In irradiated proteins, dityrosine was present almost exclusively in their aggregated forms. In proteins oxidized enzymatically, dityrosine was also present in fractions containing apparently unchanged protein. Mechanisms which could account for differences in the yield of dityrosine formation in radiolysis and in enzymatic oxidation of proteins are suggested.

  5. Radiolytic and enzymatic dimerization of tyrosyl residues in insulin, ribonuclease, papain and collagen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boguta, G.; Dancewicz, A.M.

    1983-01-01

    Insulin ribonuclease, papain and collagen solutions saturated with nitrogen, N 2 O or air were irradiated with doses of 10 to 640 Gy of gamma rays. Protein solutions were also oxidized enzymatically in a system of horse-radish peroxidase: hydrogen peroxide. Column chromatography (Sephadex G-75 or Sephacryl S-200) of treated protein solutions revealed that they contain protein molecular aggregates. Nitrogen saturation of solution before irradiation was most favourable for radiation-induced aggregation of proteins. Fluorescence analysis of protein solutions resulted in detection of dityrosyl structures in irradiated as well as in enzymatically oxidized proteins. Concentration of dityrosine in proteins studied was determined fluorimetrically in their hydrolysates separated on BioGel P-2 column. In irradiated proteins, dityrosine was present almost exclusively in their aggregated forms. In proteins oxidized enzymatically, dityrosine was also present in fractions containing apparently unchanged protein. Mechanisms which could account for differences in the yield of dityrosine formation in radiolysis and in enzymatic oxidation of proteins are suggested. (author)

  6. Immunosuppression by fractionated total lymphoid irradiation in collagen arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCune, W.J.; Buckley, J.A.; Belli, J.A.; Trentham, D.E.

    1982-01-01

    Treatments with fractionated total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) and cyclophosphamide were evaluated for rats injected with type II collagen. Preadministration of TLI and repeated injections of cyclophosphamide suppressed the severity of arthritis and lowered antibody titers to collagen significantly. TLI initiated at the onset of collagen arthritis decreased humoral and cellular responses to collagen but did not affect the severity of arthritis. These data demonstrate that both TLi and cyclophosphamide are immunosuppressive in an experimentally inducible autoimmune disease

  7. Measurement of skeletal muscle collagen breakdown by microdialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, B F; Ellis, D; Robinson, M M

    2011-01-01

    Exercise increases the synthesis of collagen in the extracellular matrix of skeletal muscle. Breakdown of skeletal muscle collagen has not yet been determined because of technical limitations. The purpose of the present study was to use local sampling to determine skeletal muscle collagen breakdown...... collagen breakdown 17–21 h post-exercise, and our measurement of OHP using GC–MS was in agreement with traditional assays....

  8. Collagen gene interactions and endurance running performance

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to complete any of the individual components (3.8 km swim, 180 km bike or 42.2 km run) of the 226 km event. The major ... may affect normal collagen fibrillogenesis and alter the mechanical properties of ... using a XP Thermal Cycler (Block model XP-G, BIOER Technology Co.,. Japan). ..... New insights into the function of.

  9. Multiscale structure and mechanics of collagen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amuasi, H.E.

    2012-01-01

    While we are 70% water, in a very real sense collagen is the stuff we are made of. It is the most abundant protein in multicellular organisms, such as ourselves, making up roughly 25% of our total protein content. If you have ever wondered how the human body holds together all its different parts in

  10. Peroxidase enzymes regulate collagen extracellular matrix biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeNichilo, Mark O; Panagopoulos, Vasilios; Rayner, Timothy E; Borowicz, Romana A; Greenwood, John E; Evdokiou, Andreas

    2015-05-01

    Myeloperoxidase and eosinophil peroxidase are heme-containing enzymes often physically associated with fibrotic tissue and cancer in various organs, without any direct involvement in promoting fibroblast recruitment and extracellular matrix (ECM) biosynthesis at these sites. We report herein novel findings that show peroxidase enzymes possess a well-conserved profibrogenic capacity to stimulate the migration of fibroblastic cells and promote their ability to secrete collagenous proteins to generate a functional ECM both in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistic studies conducted using cultured fibroblasts show that these cells are capable of rapidly binding and internalizing both myeloperoxidase and eosinophil peroxidase. Peroxidase enzymes stimulate collagen biosynthesis at a post-translational level in a prolyl 4-hydroxylase-dependent manner that does not require ascorbic acid. This response was blocked by the irreversible myeloperoxidase inhibitor 4-amino-benzoic acid hydrazide, indicating peroxidase catalytic activity is essential for collagen biosynthesis. These results suggest that peroxidase enzymes, such as myeloperoxidase and eosinophil peroxidase, may play a fundamental role in regulating the recruitment of fibroblast and the biosynthesis of collagen ECM at sites of normal tissue repair and fibrosis, with enormous implications for many disease states where infiltrating inflammatory cells deposit peroxidases. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Reduced collagen accumulation after major surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, L N; Kallehave, F; Karlsmark, T

    1996-01-01

    .01)). This decline was significantly higher in the six patients who had a postoperative infection (median 3.02 (range -0.06 to 6.14) versus 0.36 (range -1.56 to 12.60) micrograms/cm, P = 0.02). This study shows that major surgery is associated with impairment of subcutaneous collagen accumulation in a test wound...

  12. Immunoadsorption for collagen and rheumatic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaji, Ken

    2017-10-01

    The field of therapeutics has seen remarkable progress in the recent years, which has made mainstream drug treatment possible for collagen and rheumatic diseases. However, treatment of intractable cases where drug effectiveness is poor is a challenge. Furthermore, organ damage, concurrent illnesses or allergic reactions make adequate drug therapy impossible. For such cases, therapeutic apheresis is very significant, and it is important how this should be valued related to drug therapies. Therapeutic apheresis for collagen and rheumatic diseases involves the removal of factors that cause and exacerbate the disease; the aim of immunoadsorption, in particular, is to improve the clinical condition of patients with autoimmune disease by selectively removing pathogenic immune complexes and autoantibodies from their plasma. Immunoadsorption, in particular, unlike plasma exchange and DFPP, utilizes a high-affinity column that selectively removes autoantibodies and immune complexes, leaving other plasma components intact. There is no need to replenish fresh frozen plasma or blood products such as albumin and gamma globulin preparations. Immunoadsorption is thus superior in terms of safety, as the risk of infection or allergic reaction relating to these preparations can be avoided. We anticipate future investigations of application of synchronized therapy using drugs and therapeutic apheresis, most notably immunoadsorption, in combination to treat intractable clinical conditions such as collagen and rheumatic diseases. In this paper, our discussion includes the indications for immunoadsorption such as collagen and rheumatic diseases, the relevant conditions and types, as well as the latest understanding related to methods and clinical efficacy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Collagen-induced arthritis in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bevaart, Lisette; Vervoordeldonk, Margriet J.; Tak, Paul P.

    2010-01-01

    Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in mice is an animal model for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and can be induced in DBA/1 and C57BL/6 mice using different protocols. The CIA model can be used to unravel mechanisms involved in the development of arthritis and is frequently used to study the effect of new

  14. The degree of collagen crosslinks in medical collagen membranes determined by water absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braczko, M.; Tederko, A.; Grzybowski, J.

    1994-01-01

    Collagen membranes were crosslinked by using three agents: glutaraldehyde, hexametylenediisocyanate, and UV irradiation. The increasing concentrations of above chemical agents or longer time of UV exposition resulted in the higher cross-links degree and in the decrease of collagen membranes swelling (measured as water absorption), their elasticity and mechanical resistance. According to American standards, the degree of collagen biomaterial cross-links is determined by measuring of the digestion time by pepsin. However, that method is very time-consuming. In our study, we have that a simple, linear regression between logarithm of digestion time by pepsin exists and it was identical for all three cross-linking agents used. We have concluded that determination of water absorption can be an alternative, simple and fast method for examination of collagen membrane cross-links degree. (author). 16 refs, 7 figs, 1 tab

  15. Corneal collagen crosslinking for keratoconus. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Bikbov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Photochemical crosslinking is widely applied in ophthalmology. Its biochemical effect is due to the release of singlet oxygen that promotes anaerobic photochemical reaction. Keratoconus is one of the most common corneal ectasia affecting 1 in 250 to 250 000 persons. Currently, the rate of iatrogenic ectasia following eximer laser refractive surgery increases due to biomechanical weakening of the cornea. Morphologically and biochemically, ectasia is characterized by corneal layers thinning, contact between the stroma and epithelium resulting from Bowman’s membrane rupture, chromatin fragmentation in keratocyte nuclei, phagocytosis, abnormal staining and arrangement of collagen fibers, enzyme system disorders, and keratocyte apoptosis. In corneal ectasia, altered enzymatic processes result in the synthesis of abnormal collagen. Collagen packing is determined by the activity of various extracellular matrix enzymes which bind amines and aldehydes of collagen fiber amino acids. In the late stage, morphological changes of Descemet’s membrane (i.e., rupture and detachment develop. Abnormal hexagonal-shaped keratocytes and their apoptosis are the signs of endothelial dystrophy. The lack of analogs in domestic ophthalmology encouraged the scientists of Ufa Eye Research Institute to develop a device for corneal collagen crosslinking. The parameters of ultraviolet (i.e., wavelength, exposure time, power to achieve the desired effect were identified. The specifics of some photosensitizers in the course of the procedure were studied. UFalink, a device for UV irradiation of cornea, and photosensitizer Dextralink were developed and adopted. Due to the high risk of endothelial damage, this treatment is contraindicated in severe keratoconus (CCT less than 400 microns. Major effects of corneal collagen crosslinking are the following: Young’s modulus (modulus of elasticity increase by 328.9 % (on average, temperature tolerance increase by 5

  16. Collagen derived serum markers in carcinoma of the prostate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudnicki, M; Jensen, L T; Iversen, P

    1995-01-01

    Three new collagen markers deriving from the collagenous matrix, e.g. carboxyterminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PICP), carboxy-terminal pyridinoline cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP), and aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP) were used for the diagnose...

  17. Collagen targeting using multivalent protein-functionalized dendrimers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breurken, M.; Lempens, E.H.M.; Temming, R.P.; Helms, B.A.; Meijer, E.W.; Merkx, M.

    2011-01-01

    Collagen is an attractive marker for tissue remodeling in a variety of common disease processes. Here we report the preparation of protein dendrimers as multivalent collagen targeting ligands by native chemical ligation of the collagen binding protein CNA35 to cysteine-functionalized dendritic

  18. Molecular crowding of collagen: a pathway to produce highly-organized collagenous structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeidi, Nima; Karmelek, Kathryn P; Paten, Jeffrey A; Zareian, Ramin; DiMasi, Elaine; Ruberti, Jeffrey W

    2012-10-01

    Collagen in vertebrate animals is often arranged in alternating lamellae or in bundles of aligned fibrils which are designed to withstand in vivo mechanical loads. The formation of these organized structures is thought to result from a complex, large-area integration of individual cell motion and locally-controlled synthesis of fibrillar arrays via cell-surface fibripositors (direct matrix printing). The difficulty of reproducing such a process in vitro has prevented tissue engineers from constructing clinically useful load-bearing connective tissue directly from collagen. However, we and others have taken the view that long-range organizational information is potentially encoded into the structure of the collagen molecule itself, allowing the control of fibril organization to extend far from cell (or bounding) surfaces. We here demonstrate a simple, fast, cell-free method capable of producing highly-organized, anistropic collagen fibrillar lamellae de novo which persist over relatively long-distances (tens to hundreds of microns). Our approach to nanoscale organizational control takes advantage of the intrinsic physiochemical properties of collagen molecules by inducing collagen association through molecular crowding and geometric confinement. To mimic biological tissues which comprise planar, aligned collagen lamellae (e.g. cornea, lamellar bone or annulus fibrosus), type I collagen was confined to a thin, planar geometry, concentrated through molecular crowding and polymerized. The resulting fibrillar lamellae show a striking resemblance to native load-bearing lamellae in that the fibrils are small, generally aligned in the plane of the confining space and change direction en masse throughout the thickness of the construct. The process of organizational control is consistent with embryonic development where the bounded planar cell sheets produced by fibroblasts suggest a similar confinement/concentration strategy. Such a simple approach to nanoscale

  19. Natural protection against harmful oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Michelle

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Although still not conclusive, the studies described indicate that topically applied vitamin E can provide protection against ultraviolet radiation when applied alone or in combination with other antioxidants. The general consensus is that, although less stable than the tocopherol esters when used in cosmetic systems, the alcohol form of alpha-tocopherol is the most effective topically-applied skin protectant. Increased UV protection potentially reduces the risk of skin cancer. However, the debate continues regarding the skin’s ability to hydrolyse ester forms of alpha-tocopherol, which are used commercially because of their greater stability during processing and over time in these products. Further research is therefore needed in order to provide more definitive data on what potential benefits or possible disadvantages may be associated with use of the ester forms in these topical applications.

  20. uPARAP/Endo180 is essential for cellular uptake of collagen and promotes fibroblast collagen adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelholm, Lars H; List, Karin; Netzel-Arnett, Sarah

    2003-01-01

    The uptake and lysosomal degradation of collagen by fibroblasts constitute a major pathway in the turnover of connective tissue. However, the molecular mechanisms governing this pathway are poorly understood. Here, we show that the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor-associated protein (u......, these cells had diminished initial adhesion to a range of different collagens, as well as impaired migration on fibrillar collagen. These studies identify a central function of uPARAP/Endo180 in cellular collagen interactions....

  1. Novel Peptide with Specific Calcium-Binding Capacity from Schizochytrium sp. Protein Hydrolysates and Calcium Bioavailability in Caco-2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xixi Cai

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Peptide-calcium can probably be a suitable supplement to improve calcium absorption in the human body. In this study, a specific peptide Phe-Tyr (FY with calcium-binding capacity was purified from Schizochytrium sp. protein hydrolysates through gel filtration chromatography and reversed phase HPLC. The calcium-binding capacity of FY reached 128.77 ± 2.57 μg/mg. Results of ultraviolet spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, and infrared spectroscopy showed that carboxyl groups, amino groups, and amido groups were the major chelating sites. FY-Ca exhibited excellent thermal stability and solubility, which were beneficial to be absorbed and transported in the basic intestinal tract of the human body. Moreover, the calcium bioavailability in Caco-2 cells showed that FY-Ca could enhance calcium uptake efficiency by more than three times when compared with CaCl2, and protect calcium ions against dietary inhibitors, such as tannic acid, oxalate, phytate, and Zn2+. Our findings further the progress of algae-based peptide-calcium, suggesting that FY-Ca has the potential to be developed as functionally nutraceutical additives.

  2. A Specific Peptide with Calcium-Binding Capacity from Defatted Schizochytrium sp. Protein Hydrolysates and the Molecular Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xixi; Yang, Qian; Lin, Jiaping; Fu, Nanyan; Wang, Shaoyun

    2017-03-29

    Marine microorganisms have been proposed as a new kind of protein source. Efforts are needed in order to transform the protein-rich biological wastes left after lipid extraction into value-added bio-products. Thus, the utilization of protein recovered from defatted Schizochytrium sp. by-products presents an opportunity. A specific peptide Tyr-Leu (YL) with calcium-binding capacity was purified from defatted Schizochytrium sp. protein hydrolysates through gel filtration chromatography and RP-HPLC. The calcium-binding activity of YL reached 126.34 ± 3.40 μg/mg. The calcium-binding mechanism was investigated through ultraviolet, fluorescence and infrared spectroscopy. The results showed that calcium ions could form dative bonds with carboxyl oxygen atoms and amino nitrogen atoms as well as the nitrogen and oxygen atoms of amide bonds. YL-Ca exhibited excellent thermal stability and solubility, which was beneficial for its absorption and transport in the basic intestinal tract of the human body. Moreover, the cellular uptake of calcium in Caco-2 cells showed that YL-Ca could enhance calcium uptake efficiency and protect calcium ions against precipitation caused by dietary inhibitors such as tannic acid, oxalate, phytate and metal ions. The findings indicate that the by-product of Schizochytrium sp. is a promising source for making peptide-calcium bio-products as algae-based functional supplements for human beings.

  3. A Specific Peptide with Calcium-Binding Capacity from Defatted Schizochytrium sp. Protein Hydrolysates and the Molecular Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xixi Cai

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Marine microorganisms have been proposed as a new kind of protein source. Efforts are needed in order to transform the protein-rich biological wastes left after lipid extraction into value-added bio-products. Thus, the utilization of protein recovered from defatted Schizochytrium sp. by-products presents an opportunity. A specific peptide Tyr-Leu (YL with calcium-binding capacity was purified from defatted Schizochytrium sp. protein hydrolysates through gel filtration chromatography and RP-HPLC. The calcium-binding activity of YL reached 126.34 ± 3.40 μg/mg. The calcium-binding mechanism was investigated through ultraviolet, fluorescence and infrared spectroscopy. The results showed that calcium ions could form dative bonds with carboxyl oxygen atoms and amino nitrogen atoms as well as the nitrogen and oxygen atoms of amide bonds. YL-Ca exhibited excellent thermal stability and solubility, which was beneficial for its absorption and transport in the basic intestinal tract of the human body. Moreover, the cellular uptake of calcium in Caco-2 cells showed that YL-Ca could enhance calcium uptake efficiency and protect calcium ions against precipitation caused by dietary inhibitors such as tannic acid, oxalate, phytate and metal ions. The findings indicate that the by-product of Schizochytrium sp. is a promising source for making peptide-calcium bio-products as algae-based functional supplements for human beings.

  4. Characteristic antioxidant activity and comprehensive flavor compound profile of scallop (Chlamys farreri) mantle hydrolysates-ribose Maillard reaction products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jia-Run; Yan, Jia-Nan; Sun, Shi-Guang; Tang, Yue; Shang, Wen-Hui; Li, Ao-Ting; Guo, Xiao-Kun; Du, Yi-Nan; Wu, Hai-Tao; Zhu, Bei-Wei; Xiong, Youling L

    2018-09-30

    The objective of the present study was to improve the utilization of scallop (Chlamys farreri) byproducts by using Maillard reaction. Scallop mantle hydrolysates (SMHs) were prepared using neutrase then reacted with ribose. Thirty-four peptides were identified from SMHs by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS, and the abundance of Asp and Lys suggested the strong Maillard reactivity. The formation of Schiff's base as well as modification of amide I, II and III bands in Maillard reaction products (MRPs) was confirmed by ultraviolet-visible, fluorescence, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Thirty volatile compounds were produced by the reaction of SMHs with ribose. Moreover, MRPs with enhanced radical scavenging and anti-linoleic acid peroxidation activities over SMHs promoted the survival and reduced the DNA damage of HepG2 cells treated with hydrogen peroxide. These results suggest that SMHs-ribose MRPs can be potentially used as food antioxidant for suppressing of lipid oxidation or protecting of cell from oxidative damage. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Characterization of Animal By-Product Hydrolysates to Be Used as Healthy and Bioactive Ingredients in Food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Trine Desiree

    The world meat production and consumption has increased rapidly over the last couple of decades, due to population and income growth. In contrast to the meat, the consumption of animal by-products has been declining, leaving large amounts of by-products underutilized. As many by-products are highly...... nutritious as well as being good sources of protein, they represent interesting substrates for the generation of bioactive hydrolysates and peptides. Different porcine and bovine by-products were hydrolysed with a mixture consisting of Alcalase®and Protamex, and tested in relation to antioxidant capacity...... and their “meat factor” effect, i.e. their ability to enhance in vitro iron availability. Hydrolysates of different animal by-products displayed antioxidant capacities as observed by several assays intended to test different antioxidant mechanisms. The radical scavenging capacity of the hydrolysates was found...

  6. Conversion of C6 and C5 sugars in undetoxified wet exploded bagasse hydrolysates using Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis CBS6054

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biswas, Rajib; Uellendahl, Hinrich; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2013-01-01

    Sugarcane bagasse is a potential feedstock for cellulosic ethanol production, rich in both glucan and xylan. This stresses the importance of utilizing both C6 and C5 sugars for conversion into ethanol in order to improve the process economics. During processing of the hydrolysate degradation...... products such as acetate, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and furfural are formed, which are known to inhibit microbial growth at higher concentrations. In the current study, conversion of both glucose and xylose sugars into ethanol in wet exploded bagasse hydrolysates was investigated without detoxification...... using Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis CBS6054, a native xylose utilizing yeast strain. The sugar utilization ratio and ethanol yield (Yp/s) ranged from 88-100% and 0.33-0.41 ± 0.02 g/g, respectively, in all the hydrolysates tested. Hydrolysate after wet explosion at 185°C and 6 bar O2, composed...

  7. On the role of type IX collagen in the extracellular matrix of cartilage: type IX collagen is localized to intersections of collagen fibrils

    OpenAIRE

    1986-01-01

    The tissue distribution of type II and type IX collagen in 17-d-old chicken embryo was studied by immunofluorescence using polyclonal antibodies against type II collagen and a peptic fragment of type IX collagen (HMW), respectively. Both proteins were found only in cartilage where they were co-distributed. They occurred uniformly throughout the extracellular matrix, i.e., without distinction between pericellular, territorial, and interterritorial matrices. Tissues that undergo endochondral bo...

  8. In-situ Damage Assessment of Collagen within Ancient Manuscripts Written on Parchment: A Polarized Raman Spectroscopy Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütz, R.; Rabin, I.; Hahn, O.; Fratzl, P.; Masic, A.

    2010-08-01

    The collection generally known as Qumran scrolls or Dead Sea Scrolls (DSS) comprises some 900 highly fragmented manuscripts (mainly written on parchment) from the Second Temple period. In the years since their manufacture the writing materials have undergone serious deterioration due to a combination of natural ageing and environmental effects. Therefore, understanding quantitatively state of conservation of such manuscripts is a challenging task and a deep knowledge of damage pathways on all hierarchical levels (from molecular up to macroscopic) results of fundamental importance for a correct protection and conservation strategy. However, the degradation of parchments is very complex and not well understood process. Parchment is a final product of processing of animal skin and consist mainly of type I collagen, which is the most abundant constituent of the dermal matrix. Collagen molecule is built by folding of three polypeptide α-chains into a right-handed triple helix. Every α-chain is made by a repetitive sequence of (Gly-X-Y)n, where X and Y are often proline and hydroxyproline. Parallel and staggered collagen triple helices associate into fibrils, which than assemble into fibers. Deterioration of parchment is caused by chemical changes due to gelatinization, oxidation and hydrolysis of the collagen chains, promoted by several factors, summarized as biological and microbiological (bacteria, fungi etc.), heat, light, humidity and pollutants (1, 2). In this work we have focused on studying the collagen within parchments on two different levels of organization (molecular and fibrilar) by applying polarized Raman spectroscopic technique. Beside spectral information related to chemical bonding, polarization anisotropy of some collagen bands (i.e. amide I) has been used to explore organization of collagen on higher levels (three-dimensional arrangement of the triple-helix molecules and their alignment within a fibril of collagen). To this aim we have compared

  9. Study of collagen metabolism and regulation after β radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yinghui; Xu Lan; Wu Shiliang; Qiu Hao; Jiang Zhi; Tu Youbin; Zhang Xueguang

    2001-01-01

    The animal model of β radiation injury was established by the β radiation produced by the linear accelerator; and irradiated NIH 3T3 cells were studied. In the experiment the contents of total collagen, collagen type I and type III were measured. The activity of MMPs-1 were tested. The contents of TGF-β 1 , IL-6 were also detected. The results showed that after exposure to β radiation, little change was found in the content of total collagen, but the content of collagen I decreased and the content of collagen III, MMPs-1 activity increased; the expression of TGF-β 1 , IL-6 increased. The results suggest that changes in the metabolism of collagen play an important role in the irradiated injury of the skin; TGF-β 1 , IL-6 may be essential in the regulation of the collagen metabolism

  10. Type V Collagen is Persistently Altered after Inguinal Hernia Repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, L; Henriksen, N A; Juhl, P

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Hernia formation is associated with alterations of collagen metabolism. Collagen synthesis and degradation cause a systemic release of products, which are measurable in serum. Recently, we reported changes in type V and IV collagen metabolisms in patients with inguinal...... elective cholecystectomy served as controls (n = 10). Whole venous blood was collected 35-55 months after operation. Biomarkers for type V collagen synthesis (Pro-C5) and degradation (C5M) and those for type IV collagen synthesis (P4NP) and degradation (C4M2) were measured by a solid-phase competitive...... assay. RESULTS: The turnover of type V collagen (Pro-C5/C5M) was slightly higher postoperatively when compared to preoperatively in the inguinal hernia group (P = 0.034). In addition, the results revealed a postoperatively lower type V collagen turnover level in the inguinal hernia group compared...

  11. Demineralized dentin matrix composite collagen material for bone tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianan; Yang, Juan; Zhong, Xiaozhong; He, Fengrong; Wu, Xiongwen; Shen, Guanxin

    2013-01-01

    Demineralized dentin matrix (DDM) had been successfully used in clinics as bone repair biomaterial for many years. However, particle morphology of DDM limited it further applications. In this study, DDM and collagen were prepared to DDM composite collagen material. The surface morphology of the material was studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM). MC3T3-E1 cells responses in vitro and tissue responses in vivo by implantation of DDM composite collagen material in bone defect of rabbits were also investigated. SEM analysis showed that DDM composite collagen material evenly distributed and formed a porous scaffold. Cell culture and animal models results indicated that DDM composite collagen material was biocompatible and could support cell proliferation and differentiation. Histological evaluation showed that DDM composite collagen material exhibited good biocompatibility, biodegradability and osteoconductivity with host bone in vivo. The results suggested that DDM composite collagen material might have a significant clinical advantage and potential to be applied in bone and orthopedic surgery.

  12. Study of collagen metabolism and regulation after {beta} radiation injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yinghui, Zhou; Lan, Xu; Shiliang, Wu; Hao, Qiu; Zhi, Jiang; Youbin, Tu; Xueguang, Zhang [Suzhou Medical College (China)

    2001-04-01

    The animal model of {beta} radiation injury was established by the {beta} radiation produced by the linear accelerator; and irradiated NIH 3T3 cells were studied. In the experiment the contents of total collagen, collagen type I and type III were measured. The activity of MMPs-1 were tested. The contents of TGF-{beta}{sub 1}, IL-6 were also detected. The results showed that after exposure to {beta} radiation, little change was found in the content of total collagen, but the content of collagen I decreased and the content of collagen III, MMPs-1 activity increased; the expression of TGF-{beta}{sub 1}, IL-6 increased. The results suggest that changes in the metabolism of collagen play an important role in the irradiated injury of the skin; TGF-{beta}{sub 1}, IL-6 may be essential in the regulation of the collagen metabolism.

  13. LARP6 Meets Collagen mRNA: Specific Regulation of Type I Collagen Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujie Zhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Type I collagen is the most abundant structural protein in all vertebrates, but its constitutive rate of synthesis is low due to long half-life of the protein (60–70 days. However, several hundred fold increased production of type I collagen is often seen in reparative or reactive fibrosis. The mechanism which is responsible for this dramatic upregulation is complex, including multiple levels of regulation. However, posttranscriptional regulation evidently plays a predominant role. Posttranscriptional regulation comprises processing, transport, stabilization and translation of mRNAs and is executed by RNA binding proteins. There are about 800 RNA binding proteins, but only one, La ribonucleoprotein domain family member 6 (LARP6, is specifically involved in type I collagen regulation. In the 5′untranslated region (5’UTR of mRNAs encoding for type I and type III collagens there is an evolutionally conserved stem-loop (SL structure; this structure is not found in any other mRNA, including any other collagen mRNA. LARP6 binds to the 5′SL in sequence specific manner to regulate stability of collagen mRNAs and their translatability. Here, we will review current understanding of how is LARP6 involved in posttranscriptional regulation of collagen mRNAs. We will also discuss how other proteins recruited by LARP6, including nonmuscle myosin, vimentin, serine threonine kinase receptor associated protein (STRAP, 25 kD FK506 binding protein (FKBP25 and RNA helicase A (RHA, contribute to this process.

  14. Stromal matrix metalloprotease-13 knockout alters Collagen I structure at the tumor-host interface and increases lung metastasis of C57BL/6 syngeneic E0771 mammary tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Seth W; Schueckler, Jill M; Burke, Kathleen; Arcuri, Giuseppe L; Brown, Edward B

    2013-09-05

    Matrix metalloproteases and collagen are key participants in breast cancer, but their precise roles in cancer etiology and progression remain unclear. MMP13 helps regulate collagen structure and has been ascribed largely harmful roles in cancer, but some studies demonstrate that MMP13 may also protect against tumor pathology. Other studies indicate that collagen's organizational patterns at the breast tumor-host interface influence metastatic potential. Therefore we investigated how MMP13 modulates collagen I, a principal collagen subtype in breast tissue, and affects tumor pathology and metastasis in a mouse model of breast cancer. Tumors were implanted into murine mammary tissues, and their growth analyzed in Wildtype and MMP13 KO mice. Following extraction, tumors were analyzed for collagen I levels and collagen I macro- and micro-structural properties at the tumor-host boundary using immunocytochemistry and two-photon and second harmonic generation microscopy. Lungs were analyzed for metastases counts, to correlate collagen I changes with a clinically significant functional parameter. Statistical analyses were performed by t-test, analysis of variance, or Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney tests as appropriate. We found that genetic ablation of host stromal MMP13 led to: 1. Increased mammary tumor collagen I content, 2. Marked changes in collagen I spatial organization, and 3. Altered collagen I microstructure at the tumor-host boundary, as well as 4. Increased metastasis from the primary mammary tumor to lungs. These results implicate host MMP13 as a key regulator of collagen I structure and metastasis in mammary tumors, thus making it an attractive potential therapeutic target by which we might alter metastatic potential, one of the chief determinants of clinical outcome in breast cancer. In addition to identifying stromal MMP13 is an important regulator of the tumor microenvironment and metastasis, these results also suggest that stromal MMP13 may protect against breast

  15. Angiotensin-I Converting Enzyme (ACE Inhibitory and Anti-Oxidant Activities of Sea Cucumber (Actinopyga lecanora Hydrolysates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raheleh Ghanbari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, food protein-derived hydrolysates have received considerable attention because of their numerous health benefits. Amongst the hydrolysates, those with anti-hypertensive and anti-oxidative activities are receiving special attention as both activities can play significant roles in preventing cardiovascular diseases. The present study investigated the angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE inhibitory and anti-oxidative activities of Actinopyga lecanora (A. lecanora hydrolysates, which had been prepared by alcalase, papain, bromelain, flavourzyme, pepsin, and trypsin under their optimum conditions. The alcalase hydrolysate showed the highest ACE inhibitory activity (69.8% after 8 h of hydrolysis while the highest anti-oxidative activities measured by 2,2-diphenyl 1-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging (DPPH (56.00% and ferrous ion-chelating (FIC (59.00% methods were exhibited after 24 h and 8 h of hydrolysis, respectively. The ACE-inhibitory and anti-oxidative activities displayed dose-dependent trends, and increased with increasing protein hydrolysate concentrations. Moreover, strong positive correlations between angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE inhibitory and anti-oxidative activities were also observed. This study indicates that A. lecanora hydrolysate can be exploited as a source of functional food owing to its anti-oxidant as well as anti-hypertension functions.

  16. Kinetic modeling of batch fermentation for Populus hydrolysate tolerant mutant and wild type strains of Clostridium thermocellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linville, Jessica L; Rodriguez, Miguel; Mielenz, Jonathan R; Cox, Chris D

    2013-11-01

    The extent of inhibition of two strains of Clostridium thermocellum by a Populus hydrolysate was investigated. A Monod-based model of wild type (WT) and Populus hydrolysate tolerant mutant (PM) strains of the cellulolytic bacterium C. thermocellum was developed to quantify growth kinetics in standard media and the extent of inhibition to a Populus hydrolysate. The PM was characterized by a higher growth rate (μmax=1.223 vs. 0.571 h(-1)) and less inhibition (KI,gen=0.991 vs. 0.757) in 10% v/v Populus hydrolysate compared to the WT. In 17.5% v/v Populus hydrolysate inhibition of PM increased slightly (KI,gen=0.888), whereas the WT was strongly inhibited and did not grow in a reproducible manner. Of the individual inhibitors tested, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid was the most inhibitory, followed by galacturonic acid. The PM did not have a greater ability to detoxify the hydrolysate than the WT. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Identification of furfural as a key toxin in lignocellulosic hydrolysates and evolution of a tolerant yeast strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heer, Dominik; Sauer, Uwe

    2008-01-01

    Summary The production of fuel ethanol from low‐cost lignocellulosic biomass currently suffers from several limitations. One of them is the presence of inhibitors in lignocellulosic hydrolysates that are released during pre‐treatment. These compounds inhibit growth and hamper the production of ethanol, thereby affecting process economics. To delineate the effects of such complex mixtures, we conducted a chemical analysis of four different real‐world lignocellulosic hydrolysates and determined their toxicological effect on yeast. By correlating the potential inhibitor abundance to the growth‐inhibiting properties of the corresponding hydrolysates, we identified furfural as an important contributor to hydrolysate toxicity for yeast. Subsequently, we conducted a targeted evolution experiment to improve growth behaviour of the half industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain TMB3400 in the hydrolysates. After about 300 generations, representative clones from these evolved populations exhibited significantly reduced lag phases in medium containing the single inhibitor furfural, but also in hydrolysate‐supplemented medium. Furthermore, these strains were able to grow at concentrations of hydrolysates that effectively killed the parental strain and exhibited significantly improved bioconversion characteristics under industrially relevant conditions. The improved resistance of our evolved strains was based on their capacity to remain viable in a toxic environment during the prolonged, furfural induced lag phase. PMID:21261870

  18. Chitosan mediated enhancement of hydrolysable tannin in Phyllanthus debilis Klein ex Willd via plant cell suspension culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    V, Malayaman; N, Sisubalan; R P, Senthilkumar; S, Sheik Mohamed; R, Ranjithkumar; M, Ghouse Basha

    2017-11-01

    Phyllanthus debilis Klein ex Willd. is wild medicinal plant used in the traditional system of medicine. This plant has been actively used for hepatoprotection and to cure many diseases including jaundice and so on; which leads to complete extinction of this particular species. Therefore, the chitosan mediated cost effective cell suspension method has been developed for the production of hydrolysable tannin. The hydrolysable tannins are the main therapeutically active constituents with antioxidant, anticancer, and antimicrobial properties. An in vitro cell suspension culture was optimized by adding chitosan for production of hydrolysable tannin. According to the growth kinetics, a maximum biomass of 4.46±0.06g fresh cell weight and 1.33±0.04g dry cell weight were obtained from the optimal suspension medium consisted of MS medium+0.5mgL -1 BAP+1.5mgL -1 NAA. Chitosan was treated at the stationary phase which leads to the highest accumulation of hydrolysable tannin compared to the untreated control. Hydrolysable tannin was observed and compared using HPLC at the Rt of 4.91 in both chitosan treated and untreated cells. This is the first ever report where use of chitosan has been done to enhance the production of the hydrolysable tannin in P. debilis using cell suspension culture technique. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Imaging collagen type I fibrillogenesis with high spatiotemporal resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamov, Dimitar R; Stock, Erik; Franz, Clemens M; Jähnke, Torsten; Haschke, Heiko

    2015-01-01

    Fibrillar collagens, such as collagen type I, belong to the most abundant extracellular matrix proteins and they have received much attention over the last five decades due to their large interactome, complex hierarchical structure and high mechanical stability. Nevertheless, the collagen self-assembly process is still incompletely understood. Determining the real-time kinetics of collagen type I formation is therefore pivotal for better understanding of collagen type I structure and function, but visualising the dynamic self-assembly process of collagen I on the molecular scale requires imaging techniques offering high spatiotemporal resolution. Fast and high-speed scanning atomic force microscopes (AFM) provide the means to study such processes on the timescale of seconds under near-physiological conditions. In this study we have applied fast AFM tip scanning to study the assembly kinetics of fibrillar collagen type I nanomatrices with a temporal resolution reaching eight seconds for a frame size of 500 nm. By modifying the buffer composition and pH value, the kinetics of collagen fibrillogenesis can be adjusted for optimal analysis by fast AFM scanning. We furthermore show that amplitude-modulation imaging can be successfully applied to extract additional structural information from collagen samples even at high scan rates. Fast AFM scanning with controlled amplitude modulation therefore provides a versatile platform for studying dynamic collagen self-assembly processes at high resolution. - Highlights: • Continuous non-invasive time-lapse investigation of collagen I fibrillogenesis in situ. • Imaging of collagen I self-assembly with high spatiotemporal resolution. • Application of setpoint modulation to study the hierarchical structure of collagen I. • Observing real-time formation of the D-banding pattern in collagen I

  20. Imaging collagen type I fibrillogenesis with high spatiotemporal resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stamov, Dimitar R, E-mail: stamov@jpk.com [JPK Instruments AG, Bouchéstrasse 12, 12435 Berlin (Germany); Stock, Erik [JPK Instruments AG, Bouchéstrasse 12, 12435 Berlin (Germany); Franz, Clemens M [DFG-Center for Functional Nanostructures (CFN), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Wolfgang-Gaede-Strasse 1a, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Jähnke, Torsten; Haschke, Heiko [JPK Instruments AG, Bouchéstrasse 12, 12435 Berlin (Germany)

    2015-02-15

    Fibrillar collagens, such as collagen type I, belong to the most abundant extracellular matrix proteins and they have received much attention over the last five decades due to their large interactome, complex hierarchical structure and high mechanical stability. Nevertheless, the collagen self-assembly process is still incompletely understood. Determining the real-time kinetics of collagen type I formation is therefore pivotal for better understanding of collagen type I structure and function, but visualising the dynamic self-assembly process of collagen I on the molecular scale requires imaging techniques offering high spatiotemporal resolution. Fast and high-speed scanning atomic force microscopes (AFM) provide the means to study such processes on the timescale of seconds under near-physiological conditions. In this study we have applied fast AFM tip scanning to study the assembly kinetics of fibrillar collagen type I nanomatrices with a temporal resolution reaching eight seconds for a frame size of 500 nm. By modifying the buffer composition and pH value, the kinetics of collagen fibrillogenesis can be adjusted for optimal analysis by fast AFM scanning. We furthermore show that amplitude-modulation imaging can be successfully applied to extract additional structural information from collagen samples even at high scan rates. Fast AFM scanning with controlled amplitude modulation therefore provides a versatile platform for studying dynamic collagen self-assembly processes at high resolution. - Highlights: • Continuous non-invasive time-lapse investigation of collagen I fibrillogenesis in situ. • Imaging of collagen I self-assembly with high spatiotemporal resolution. • Application of setpoint modulation to study the hierarchical structure of collagen I. • Observing real-time formation of the D-banding pattern in collagen I.

  1. Collagen markers in peritoneal dialysis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graff, J; Joffe, P; Fugleberg, S

    1995-01-01

    Possible relationships between the dialysate-to-plasma creatinine equilibration ratio (D/Pcreatinine 4 hour), duration of peritoneal dialysis treatment, number of peritonitis episodes, and mass appearance rates of three connective tissue markers [carboxyterminal propeptide of type I procollagen...... (PICP), aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP), and carboxyterminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP)] were studied in 19 nondiabetic peritoneal dialysis patients. The absence of correlation between the mass appearance rates of the markers and the duration of dialysis treatment...... as well as the number of peritonitis episodes supports the concept that peritoneal dialysis does not cause persistent changes in the deposition and degradation rates of collagen. A correlation between the D/Pcreatinine 4 hr and the PICP mass appearance rates was found. Since it is unlikely...

  2. Optimization of process parameters for the production of collagen peptides from fish skin (Epinephelus malabaricus) using response surface methodology and its characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hema, G S; Joshy, C G; Shyni, K; Chatterjee, Niladri S; Ninan, George; Mathew, Suseela

    2017-02-01

    The study optimized the hydrolysis conditions for the production of fish collagen peptides from skin of Malabar grouper ( Epinephelus malabaricus ) using response surface methodology. The hydrolysis was done with enzymes pepsin, papain and protease from bovine pancreas. Effects of process parameters viz: pH, temperature, enzyme substrate ratio and hydrolysis time of the three different enzymes on degree of hydrolysis were investigated. The optimum response of degree of hydrolysis was estimated to be 10, 20 and 28% respectively for pepsin, papain and protease. The functional properties of the product developed were analysed which showed changes in the properties from proteins to peptides. SDS-PAGE combined with MALDI TOF method was successfully applied to determine the molecular weight distribution of the hydrolysate. The electrophoretic pattern indicated that the molecular weights of peptides formed due to hydrolysis were nearly 2 kDa. MALDI TOF spectral analysis showed the developed hydrolysate contains peptides having molecular weight in the range below 2 kDa.

  3. Studies on the conversion of cellulose hydrolysate into citric acid by Aspergillus niger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manonmani, H.K.; Sreekantiah, K.R.

    1987-06-01

    The production of citric acid by Aspergillus niger (16) was studied using enzymatic hydrolysate of alkali-treated bagasse by solid state fermentation. Saccharification and fermentations were carried out sequentially as well as simultaneously. Conditions for optimum citric acid production using cellulose hydrolysate medium were: sugar concentration: 7% (w/w); NaNO/sub 3/; 400 mg/N/sub 2//l medium; KH/sub 2/PO/sub 4/:/0.1%/l medium; ethanol: 3% (v/w); 1 ml of 1 x 10 squared m fluoroacetate and coconut oil: 3% (v/w). Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation was not found to be suitable for citric acid production. 44% conversion of total reducing sugars to citric acid was obtained in 72 hours fermentation by sequential process with the above mentioned parameters. (Refs. 15).

  4. Separation of FFA from Partially Hydrogenated Soybean Oil Hydrolysate by Means of Membrane Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jala, Ram Chandra Reddy; Guo, Zheng; Xu, Xuebing

    2011-01-01

    Different types of commercial porous and non-porous polymeric membranes have been investigated for their capabilities to separate free fatty acids (FFA) from hydrolysate of partially hydrogenated soybean oil. A regenerated cellulose (RC, PLAC) membrane exhibited the most prominent difference...... in rejection between FFA and glycerides and the highest flux (27 kg h−1 m−2) in hydrolysate ethanol solution. The results also showed that, besides the pore size of membrane, the membrane flux depended largely on the property matching between membrane and solvent, as observed (40 kg h−1 m−2) flux was achieved...... with methanol but no flux detected with hexane for PLAC. The polyvinyl alcohol (PVA, NTR-729 HF) and Polyamide (PA, NTR-759HR) membranes gave the second and third highest flux (10.1 and 5.7 kg h−1 m−2, respectively), where solute rejections for NTR-759HR were 95.9% for triacylglycerols (TG), 83...

  5. Upgrading of straw hydrolysate for production of hydrogen and phenols in a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Anders; Marzorati, Massimo; Boon, Nico

    2011-01-01

    In a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC), hydrolysate produced by hydrothermal treatment of wheat straw was used for hydrogen production during selective recovery of phenols. The average H2 production rate was 0.61 m3 H2/m3 MEC·day and equivalent to a rate of 0.40 kg COD/m3 MEC·day. The microbial...... the energy content in the consumed compounds and the cell voltage of 0.7 V. The highest hydrogen production was equivalent to 0.8 kg COD/m3 MEC·day and was obtained at pH 7–8 and 25°C. Accumulation of 53% w/v phenolic compounds in the liquor was obtained by stepwise addition of the hydrolysate during...

  6. Replacement of mechanically deboned chicken meat with its protein hydrolysate in mortadella-type sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Pasqualin Cavalheiro

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mortadella-type sausage manufactured using mechanically deboned chicken meat were reformulated replacing MDCM with increasing amounts of MDCM protein hydrolysates (10%, 20%, and 30%, and their physicochemical, microbiological, and sensorial characteristics were evaluated for 60 days of storage at 4 °C. The higher substitutions resulted in sausages more susceptible to lipid oxidation with higher TBARS values during storage; however, these values were lower than the organoleptic perception threshold. The sausages were darker and less red, with lower lightness (L* and redness (a* values than those of the control treatment. They had soft texture, which was evidenced by both the instrumental and sensory analysis. Therefore, the formulation containing 10% of MDCM protein hydrolysates proved to be the most suitable for mortadella-type sausage elaboration.

  7. Improvement of ACE inhibitory activity of casein hydrolysate by Maillard reaction with xylose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Xu; Meng, Jun; Lu, Rong-Rong

    2015-01-01

    The Maillard reaction is widely used to improve the functional properties or biological activities of food. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the Maillard reaction on angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity in a casein hydrolysate-xylose system. Two-step hydrolysis was used to prepare casein ACE inhibitory peptides. Maillard reaction products (MRPs) were prepared by heating hydrolyzed casein with xylose at pH 8.0, 110 °C for up to 16 h. The results showed that the content of free amino group decreased (P Maillard reaction (P reaction in the MRPs. The study shows that the Maillard reaction under appropriate conditions can improve the ACE inhibitory activity of casein hydrolysate effectively. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Imaging Prostate Cancer Microenvironment by Collagen Hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    of collagen II remodeling in Rheumatoid arthritis and other cartilage-related diseases or wound repair. We did observe trends in the CMP...proteins in vitro and in vivo has been prepared and submitted to Molecular Pharmaceutics . What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to...or care of human subjects, vertebrate animals, biohazards, and/or select agents Nothing to report. PRODUCTS Journal publications: Lucas L

  9. Collagen Fiber Orientation in Primate Long Bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warshaw, Johanna; Bromage, Timothy G; Terranova, Carl J; Enlow, Donald H

    2017-07-01

    Studies of variation in orientation of collagen fibers within bone have lead to the proposition that these are preferentially aligned to accommodate different kinds of load, with tension best resisted by fibers aligned longitudinally relative to the load, and compression best resisted by transversely aligned fibers. However, previous studies have often neglected to consider the effect of developmental processes, including constraints on collagen fiber orientation (CFO), particularly in primary bone. Here we use circularly polarized light microscopy to examine patterns of CFO in cross-sections from the midshaft femur, humerus, tibia, radius, and ulna in a range of living primate taxa with varied body sizes, phylogenetic relationships and positional behaviors. We find that a preponderance of longitudinally oriented collagen is characteristic of both periosteal primary and intracortically remodeled bone. Where variation does occur among groups, it is not simply understood via interpretations of mechanical loads, although prioritized adaptations to tension and/or shear are considered. While there is some suggestion that CFO may correlate with body size, this relationship is neither consistent nor easily explicable through consideration of size-related changes in mechanical adaptation. The results of our study indicate that there is no clear relationship between CFO and phylogenetic status. One of the principle factors accounting for the range of variation that does exist is primary tissue type, where slower depositing bone is more likely to comprise a larger proportion of oblique to transverse collagen fibers. Anat Rec, 300:1189-1207, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Calcaneal Tendon Collagen Fiber Morphometry and Aging

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hadraba, Daniel; Janáček, Jiří; Filová, Eva; Lopot, F.; Paesen, R.; Fanta, O.; Jarman, A.; Nečas, A.; Ameloot, M.; Jelen, K.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 5 (2017), s. 1040-1047 ISSN 1431-9276 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-14758S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1309; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015062 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 ; RVO:68378041 Keywords : collagen * aging * crimp * fiber orientation * tendon Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology; BO - Biophysics (UEM-P) OBOR OECD: Developmental biology; Biophysics (UEM-P) Impact factor: 1.891, year: 2016

  11. Starch and starch hydrolysates are favorable carbon sources for bifidobacteria in the human gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Songling; Ren, Fazheng; Zhao, Liang; Jiang, Lu; Hao, Yanling; Jin, Junhua; Zhang, Ming; Guo, Huiyuan; Lei, Xingen; Sun, Erna; Liu, Hongna

    2015-03-01

    Bifidobacteria are key commensals in human gut, and their abundance is associated with the health of their hosts. Although they are dominant in infant gut, their number becomes lower in adult gut. The changes of the diet are considered to be main reason for this difference. Large amounts of whole-genomic sequence data of bifidobacteria make it possible to elucidate the genetic interpretation of their adaptation to the nutrient environment. Among the nutrients in human gut, starch is a highly fermentable substrate and can exert beneficial effects by increasing bifidobacteria and/or being fermented to short chain fatty acids. In order to determine the potential substrate preference of bifidobacteria, we compared the glycoside hydrolase (GH) profiles of a pooled-bifidobacterial genome (PBG) with a representative microbiome (RM) of the human gut. In bifidobacterial genomes, only 15% of GHs contained signal peptides, suggesting their weakness in utilization of complex carbohydrate, such as plant cell wall polysaccharides. However, compared with other intestinal bacteria, bifidobacteiral genomes encoded more GH genes for degrading starch and starch hydrolysates, indicating that they have genetic advantages in utilizing these substrates. Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum BBMN68 isolated from centenarian's faeces was used as a model strain to further investigate the carbohydrate utilization. The pathway for degrading starch and starch hydrolysates was the only complete pathway for complex carbohydrates in human gut. It is noteworthy that all of the GH genes for degrading starch and starch hydrolysates in the BBMN68 genome were conserved in all studied bifidobacterial strains. The in silico analyses of BBMN68 were further confirmed by growth experiments, proteomic and real-time quantitative PCR (RT-PCR) analyses. Our results demonstrated that starch and starch hydrolysates were the most universal and favorable carbon sources for bifidobacteria. The low amount of these

  12. Effect of whey protein hydrolysate on performance and recovery of top-class orienteering runners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette; Bangsbo, Jens; Jensen, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    This trial aimed to examine the effect of whey protein hydrolysate intake before and after exercise sessions on endurance performance and recovery in elite orienteers during a training camp. Eighteen elite orienteers participated in a randomized controlled intervention trial during a 1-week...... a strenuous 1-week training camp. The results indicate that protein supplementation in conjunction with each exercise session facilitates the recovery from strenuous training in elite orienteers....

  13. Corncob hydrolysate, an efficient substrate for Monascus pigment production through submerged fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhongxin; Yin, Zheng; Hu, Xiaoqing

    2014-01-01

    Monascus pigment has traditionally been produced by the fermentation of Monascus using rice powder or glucose as a culture substrate. Submerged fermentation can produce stable Monascus pigment yield and control the accumulation of the by-product, citrinin, which can then be more easily removed. To reduce the cost of Monascus submerged fermentation, the feasibility of corncob hydrolysate as an alternative substrate was investigated. Results showed that, when compared with a conventional glucose medium, the corncob hydrolysate medium produced an equivalent pigment yield without stimulating citrinin accumulation. Furthermore, the corncob hydrolysate medium and cultivation conditions were optimized to enhance pigment production and decrease citrinin synthesis. When Monascus sp. was cultured under dark conditions in the presence of caprylic acid, pigment production was increased to 25.8 ± 0.8 UA500 /mL, which was higher than that achieved in a glucose medium (24.0 ± 0.9 UA500 /mL), and those obtained in previously reported Monascus submerged fermentations using the same yield unit; on the other hand, citrinin accumulation was decreased to 26.2 ± 1.9 µg/L, which was significantly lower than that generated in the glucose control (44.3 ± 2.2 µg/L) and in those previously reported fermentations. Thus, corncob hydrolysate was proved to be an efficient alternative substrate for Monascus pigment production through submerged fermentation, which showed significant advantages over a conventional glucose substrate. © 2014 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Nutritional evaluation of caseins and whey proteins and their hydrolysates from Protamex*

    OpenAIRE

    Sindayikengera, Séverin; Xia, Wen-shui

    2006-01-01

    Whey protein concentrate (WPC 80) and sodium caseinate were hydrolyzed by Protamex to 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% degree of hydrolysis (DH). WPC 80, sodium caseinate and their hydrolysates were then analyzed, compared and evaluated for their nutritional qualities. Their chemical composition, protein solubility, amino acid composition, essential amino acid index (EAA index), biological value (BV), nutritional index (NI), chemical score, enzymic protein efficiency ratio (E-PER) and in vitro protein d...

  15. Study of Anti-Fatigue Effect in Rats of Ferrous Chelates Including Hairtail Protein Hydrolysates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saibo Huang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The ability of ferrous chelates including hairtail protein hydrolysates to prevent and reduce fatigue was studied in rats. After hydrolysis of hairtail surimi with papain, the hairtail protein hydrolysates (HPH were separated into three groups by range of relative molecular weight using ultrafiltration membrane separation. Hairtail proteins were then chelated with ferrous ions, and the antioxidant activity, the amino acid composition and chelation rate of the three kinds of ferrous chelates including hairtail protein hydrolysates (Fe-HPH were determined. Among the three groups, the Fe-HPH chelate showing the best conditions was selected for the anti-fatigue animal experiment. For it, experimental rats were randomly divided into seven groups. Group A was designated as the negative control group given distilled water. Group B, the positive control group, was given glutathione. Groups C, D and E were designated as the Fe-HPH chelate treatment groups and given low, medium, and high doses, respectively. Group F was designated as HPH hydrolysate treatment group, and Group G was designated as FeCl2 treatment group. The different diets were orally administered to rats for 20 days. After that time, rats were subjected to forced swimming training after 1 h of gavage. Rats given Fe-FPH chelate had higher haemoglobin regeneration efficiency (HRE, longer exhaustive swimming time and higher SOD activity. Additionally, Fe-FPH chelate was found to significantly decrease the malondialdehyde content, visibly enhance the GSH-Px activity in liver and reduce blood lactic acid of rats. Fe-HPH chelate revealed an anti-fatigue effect, similar to or better than the positive control substance and superior to HPH or Fe when provided alone.

  16. Production and characterisation of whey protein hydrolysate having antioxidant activity from cheese whey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athira, Syamala; Mann, Bimlesh; Saini, Prerna; Sharma, Rajan; Kumar, Rajesh; Singh, Ashish Kumar

    2015-11-01

    Cheese whey is a rich by-product in nutritional terms, possessing components with high biological value, excellent functional properties, and an inert flavour profile. In the present study, mozzarella cheese whey was ultra-filtrated to remove lactose and mineral. The retentate was hydrolysed with food-grade enzyme alcalase and the hydrolysis conditions (pH, temperature and time) were optimised for maximum antioxidant activity using response surface methodology. Whey protein hydrolysed for 8 h at pH 9 and 55 °C showed a maximum antioxidant activity of 1.18 ± 0.015 µmol Trolox mg(-1) protein. The antioxidant peptides were further enriched by ultra-filtration through a 3 kDa membrane. Seven peptides - β-Lg f(123-131), β-Lg f(122-131), β-Lg f(124-131), β-Lg f(123-134), β-Lg f(122-131), β-Lg f(96-100) and β-Lg f(94-100) - were identified by LC-MS/MS in the 3 kDa permeate of the hydrolysate. The incorporation of whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) in lemon whey drink (5-10 g L(-1)) increased the antioxidant activity from 76% to 90% as compared to control. Hydrolysis of ultra-filtrated retentate of whey can be an energy- and cost-effective method for the direct production of WPH from whey compared to the industrial production of WPH from whey protein concentrate. This study suggests that WPH with good nutritional and biological properties can be effectively used in health-promoting foods as a biofunctional ingredient. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Production of Fish Hydrolysates Protein From Waste of Fish Carp (Cyprinus Carpio) by Enzymatic Hydrolysis

    OpenAIRE

    Saputra, Dede; Nurhayati, Tati

    2016-01-01

    Fish Protein Hydrolysates (FPH) is the mixed products of polypeptide, dipeptides, and amino acid. It can be produced from materials that contained of protein by acid reaction, base reaction or enzymatic hydrolysis. The objectives of this study were to study the production of FPH from fish carp meat at post rigor phase and viscera by enzymatic hydrolysis, to determine the specific activity of papain enzyme, and to determine the solubility of FPH. Capacity of fish hydrolyzing can be identified ...

  18. Sensory and aromatic characteristics of tongue sole by-products hydrolysates (Cynoglossus senegalensis)

    OpenAIRE

    Sylla, K. S. B.; Berge, Jean-pascal; Prost, Carole; Musabyemariya, B.; Seydi, Mg

    2009-01-01

    Tongue sole by-products coming from fish-filleting plant were hydrolyzed by Protamex® protease. To identify the future application of hydrolysates, a sensory analysis was carried out.The sensory profile was performed with a jury of 14 specialized judges.11 profiles were found by this panel of tasting. In addition, the aromatic characterization revealed that 57 molecules are responsible for these odours described in sensory analysis.The description of these aromatic compounds opens potentia...

  19. The uncertainty evaluation of measurement for uranium in UF_6 hydrolysate by potentiometric titration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Haiying; Cheng Ruoyu; Meng Xiujun

    2014-01-01

    Based on the building of mathematical model, this paper analyzed the origin of component of indeterminacy of which the measurement result for uranium in uranium hexafluoride hydrolysate by potentiometric titration, also each uncertainty was calculated and the expanded uncertainty was given. By evaluation the result of the uranium concentration is that: (158.88 + 1.22) mgU/mL, K = 2, P = 95%. (authors)

  20. Inulin hydrolysis by inulinase immobilized covalently on magnetic nanoparticles prepared with wheat gluten hydrolysates

    OpenAIRE

    Homa Torabizadeh; Asieh Mahmoudi

    2018-01-01

    Inulinase can produce a high amount of fructose syrup from inulin in a one-step enzymatic process. Inulinase from Aspergillus niger was immobilized covalently on Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles functionalized with wheat gluten hydrolysates (WGHs). Wheat gluten was enzymatically hydrolyzed by two endopeptidases Alcalase and Neutrase and related nanoparticles were prepared by desolvation method. Magnetite nanoparticles were coated with WGHs nanoparticles and then inulinase was immobilized onto it ...

  1. Chemical Stabilisation of Collagen as a Biomimetic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gordon Paul

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Collagen is the most abundant protein in animals and because of its high mechanical strength and good resistance to degradation has been utilized in a wide range of products in industry whilst its low antigenicity has resulted in its widespread use in medicine. Collagen products can be purified from fibres, molecules reconstituted as fibres or from specific recombinant polypeptides with preferred properties. A common feature of all these biomaterials is the need for stable chemical cross-linking to control the mechanical properties and the residence time in the body, and to some extent the immunogenicity of the device. This can be achieved by a number of different cross-linking agents that react with specific amino acid residues on the collagen molecule imparting individual biochemical, thermal and mechanical characteristics to the biomaterial. In this review we have summarised the major techniques for testing these characteristics and the mechanisms involved in the variety of cross-linking reactions to achieve particular properties..

  2. Effects of orally administered fumonisin B₁ (FB₁), partially hydrolysed FB₁, hydrolysed FB₁ and N-(1-deoxy-D-fructos-1-yl) FB₁ on the sphingolipid metabolism in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Irene; Nagl, Veronika; Schwartz-Zimmermann, Heidi Elisabeth; Varga, Elisabeth; Schwarz, Christiane; Slavik, Veronika; Reisinger, Nicole; Malachová, Alexandra; Cirlini, Martina; Generotti, Silvia; Dall'Asta, Chiara; Krska, Rudolf; Moll, Wulf-Dieter; Berthiller, Franz

    2015-02-01

    Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is a Fusarium mycotoxin frequently occurring in maize-based food and feed. Alkaline processing like nixtamalisation of maize generates partially and fully hydrolysed FB1 (pHFB1 and HFB1) and thermal treatment in the presence of reducing sugars leads to formation of N-(1-deoxy-D-fructos-1-yl) fumonisin B1 (NDF). The toxicity of these metabolites, in particular their effect on the sphingolipid metabolism, is either unknown or discussed controversially. We produced high purity FB1, pHFB1a+b, HFB1 and NDF and fed them to male Sprague Dawley rats for three weeks. Once a week, urine and faeces samples were collected over 24 h and analysed for fumonisin metabolites as well as for the sphinganine (Sa) to sphingosine (So) ratio by validated LC-MS/MS based methods. While the latter was significantly increased in the FB1 positive control group, the Sa/So ratios of the partially and fully hydrolysed fumonisins were indifferent from the negative control group. Although NDF was partly cleaved during digestion, the liberated amounts of FB1 did not raise the Sa/So ratio. These results show that the investigated alkaline and thermal processing products of FB1 were, at the tested concentrations, non-toxic for rats, and suggest that according food processing can reduce fumonisin toxicity for humans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Characterization and identification of novel antidiabetic and anti-obesity peptides from camel milk protein hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgil, Priti; Kamal, Hina; Yuen, Gan Chee; Maqsood, Sajid

    2018-09-01

    In-vitro inhibitory properties of peptides released from camel milk proteins against dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV), porcine pancreatic α-amylase (PPA), and porcine pancreatic lipase (PPL) were studied. Results revealed that upon hydrolysis by different enzymes, camel milk proteins displayed dramatic increase in inhibition of DPP-IV and PPL, but slight improvement in PPA inhibition was noticed. Peptide sequencing revealed a total of 20 and 3 peptides for A9 and B9 hydrolysates respectively, obtained the score of 0.8 or more on peptide ranker and were categorized as potential DPP-IV inhibitory peptides. KDLWDDFKGL in A9 and MPSKPPLL in B9 were identified as most potent PPA inhibitory peptide. For PPL inhibition only 7 and 2 peptides qualified as PPL inhibitory peptides from hydrolysates A9 and B9, respectively. The present study report for the first time PPA and PPL inhibitory and only second for DPP-IV inhibitory potential of protein hydrolysates from camel milk. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Selective separation and concentration of antihypertensive peptides from rapeseed protein hydrolysate by electrodialysis with ultrafiltration membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Rong; Girgih, Abraham T; Rozoy, Elodie; Bazinet, Laurent; Ju, Xing-Rong; Aluko, Rotimi E

    2016-04-15

    Rapeseed protein isolate was subjected to alcalase digestion to obtain a protein hydrolysate that was separated into peptide fractions using electrodialysis with ultrafiltration membrane (EDUF) technology. The EDUF process (6h duration) led to isolation of three peptide fractions: anionic (recovered in KCl-1 compartment), cationic (recovered in KCl-2 compartment), and those that remained in the feed compartment, which was labeled final rapeseed protein hydrolysate (FRPH). As expected the KCl-1 peptides were enriched in negatively-charged (43.57%) while KCl-2 contained high contents of positively-charged (28.35%) amino acids. All the samples inhibited angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and renin activities in dose-dependent manner with original rapeseed protein hydrolysate having the least ACE-inhibitory IC50 value of 0.0932±0.0037 mg/mL while FRPH and KCl-2 had least renin-inhibitory IC50 values of 0.47±0.05 and 0.55±0.06 mg/mL, respectively. Six hours after oral administration (100 mg/kg body weight) to spontaneously hypertensive rats, the FRPH produced the maximum systolic blood pressure reduction of -51 mmHg. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. PURIFICATION OF ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORY PEPTIDE DERIVED FROM KACANG GOAT MEAT PROTEIN HYDROLYSATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jamhari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify the Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE inhibitorypeptide derived from Kacang goat meat protein hydrolysate. Kacang goat meat loin section washydrolyzed with pepsin, trypsin and chymotrypsin. Protein hydrolysate of Kacang goat meat was thentested the protein concentration and ACE inhibitory activity. ACE inhibitory peptide of the proteinhydrolysate was purified through several steps of purification by column SEP-PAK Plus C18 Cartridgeand RP-HPLC using a Cosmosil column 5PE-SM, 4.6 x 250 mm. The sequence of amino acid of ACEinhibitory peptide was identified by amino acid sequencer. The results showed that amino acidssequence of ACE inhibitory peptide derived from protein hydrolysate of Kacang goat meat was leu-thrglu-ala-pro-leu-asn-pro-lys-ala-arg- asn-glu-lys. It had a molecular weight (MW of 1581 and occurredat the position of 20th to 33rd residues of b-actin of goat meat protein (Capra hircus. The ACE inhibitoryactivity (IC50 of the peptide was 190 mg/mL or 120 mM.

  6. Comparison of non-volatile umami components in chicken soup and chicken enzymatic hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Yan; Yang, Xiao; Ding, Qi; Zhang, Yu-Yu; Sun, Bao-Guo; Chen, Hai-Tao; Sun, Ying

    2017-12-01

    Umami taste is an important part to the taste of chicken. To isolate and identify non-volatile umami compounds, fractions from chicken soup and hydrolysate were prepared and analyzed. Amino acids were analyzed by amino acid analyzer. Organic acids and nucleotides were determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography. Separation procedures utilizing ultrafiltration, Sephadex G-15 and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography were used to isolate umami taste peptides. Combined with sensory evaluation and LC-Q-TOF-MS, the amino acid sequences of 12 oligopeptides were determined. The amount of taste compounds was higher in chicken enzymatic hydrolysate than that of chicken soup. Eight oligopeptides from chicken enzymatic hydrolysate were identified, including Ala-Asp, Ala-Met, His-Ser, Val-Glu, Ala-Glu, Asp-Ala-Gly, Glu-Asp and Ala-Glu-Ala. Four oligopeptides from chicken soup were identified, including Val-Thr, Ala-His, Ala-Phe and Thr-Glu. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of Wheat Gluten Hydrolysate and Its Ultrafiltration Fractions on Dough Properties and Bread Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouming Zhao

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Two fractions (50-K and permeate from a proteolytic hydrolysate (degree of hydrolysis, DH=3.8 % of wheat gluten were separated using ultrafiltration (UF membrane with molecular mass cut-off of 50 kDa. The effects of the wheat gluten hydrolysate (WGH and its UF fractions on the mixing behaviour and viscoelastic properties of wheat dough were presented. The WGH and its UF fractions modified the mixing properties of dough. The addition of these fractions improved the viscoelastic characteristics of wheat dough. A significant (p<0.05 effect of 50-K fraction on these characteristics of wheat dough was observed. After adding these fractions, the bread was considered acceptable by the sensory panel. Also, 50-K fraction resulted in significant (p<0.05 increase in the crumb firmness, while the bread made with wheat flour with WGH and permeate (P fraction showed softer crumbs compared to that of wheat flour. Moreover, these fractions had anti-staling properties for bread during storage. Hence, the wheat gluten hydrolysate and its UF fractions are the products with promising potential in the baking products.

  8. Ethanol production from lignocellulosic hydrolysates using engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae harboring xylose isomerase-based pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Ja Kyong; Um, Youngsoon; Woo, Han Min; Kim, Kyoung Heon; Lee, Sun-Mi

    2016-06-01

    The efficient co-fermentation of glucose and xylose is necessary for the economically feasible bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. Even with xylose utilizing Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the efficiency of the lignocellulosic ethanol production remains suboptimal mainly due to the low conversion yield of xylose to ethanol. In this study, we evaluated the co-fermentation performances of SXA-R2P-E, a recently engineered isomerase-based xylose utilizing strain, in mixed sugars and in lignocellulosic hydrolysates. In a high-sugar fermentation with 70g/L of glucose and 40g/L of xylose, SXA-R2P-E produced 50g/L of ethanol with an yield of 0.43gethanol/gsugars at 72h. From dilute acid-pretreated hydrolysates of rice straw and hardwood (oak), the strain produced 18-21g/L of ethanol with among the highest yield of 0.43-0.46gethanol/gsugars ever reported. This study shows a highly promising potential of a xylose isomerase-expressing strain as an industrially relevant ethanol producer from lignocellulosic hydrolysates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of Hypotensive and Antihypertensive Effects of Velvet Bean (Mucuna pruriens L.) Hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chel-Guerrero, Luis; Galicia-Martínez, Saulo; Acevedo-Fernández, Juan José; Santaolalla-Tapia, Jesus; Betancur-Ancona, David

    2017-01-01

    Hypertension could cause significant worldwide health problems that affect 15-20% of all adults; according to National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, about 29% of the adult population in the United States are hypertensive. Recent research has shown that peptides derived from the hydrolysis of food proteins can decrease blood pressure. This study was carried out to evaluate the hypotensive and antihypertensive potential of Mucuna pruriens protein hydrolysates in in vitro and in vivo models. M. pruriens protein concentrate was prepared by wet fractionation and enzymatically hydrolyzed using Alcalase ® , Flavourzyme ® , and the sequential system Alcalase-Flavourzyme at different times (5-120 min). The biological potential was measured in vitro based on the IC 50 value as well as in vivo effect, measuring the systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure in normotensive and antihypertensive Wistar-Kyoto rats by the tail-cuff method. Hydrolysis of M. pruriens protein concentrates with commercial enzymes generated extensive hydrolysates with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE-I) inhibitory activity (IC 50 : 0.589-0.993 mg/mL) and hypotensive (SBP: 0.6-47.43%, DBP: 1.94-43.47%) and antihypertensive (SBP: 8.84-27.29% DBP: 16.1-29.37%) effect. These results indicate that Mucuna pruriens protein hydrolysate (MPPH) could be used as a functional ingredient to prevent blood pressure increase.

  10. Sequential recycling of enzymatic lipid-extracted hydrolysate in fermentations with a thraustochytrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowrey, Joshua; Armenta, Roberto E; Brooks, Marianne S

    2016-06-01

    This study extends the findings of prior studies proposing and validating nutrient recycling for the heterotrophic microalgae, Thraustochytrium sp. (T18), grown in optimized fed-batch conditions. Sequential nutrient recycling of enzymatically-derived hydrolysate in fermentors succeeded at growing the tested thraustochytrid strain, with little evidence of inhibition or detrimental effects upon culture health. The average maximum biomass obtained in the recycled hydrolysate was 63.68±1.46gL(-1) in 90h the first recycle followed by 65.27±1.15gL(-1) in 90h in the subsequent recycle of the same material. These compared to 58.59gL(-1) and 64.92gL(-1) observed in fresh media in the same time. Lipid production was slightly impaired, however, with a maximum total fatty acid content of 62.2±0.30% in the recycled hydrolysate compared to 69.4% in fresh control media. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Enteral Tube Feeding Nutritional Protein Hydrolysate Production Under Different Factors By Enzymatic Hydrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen ThiQuynhHoa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hydrolysis of proteins involves the cleavage of peptide bonds to give peptides of varying sizes and amino acid composition. There are a number of types of hydrolysis enzymatic acid or alkali hydrolysis. Chemical hydrolysis is difficult to control and reduces the nutritional quality of products destroying L-form amino acids and producing toxic substances such as lysino-alanine. Enzymatic hydrolysis works without destructing amino acids and by avoiding the extreme temperatures and pH levels required for chemical hydrolysis the nutritional properties of the protein hydrolysates remain largely unaffected. In this research we investigate the fat removal and protein hydrolysis from pork meat to produce the enteral tube feeding nutritional protein hydrolysate for patient. Our results are as follows meat moisture 75.1 protein 22.6 lipid 1.71 ash 0.5 vitamin B1 1.384mg100g n hexantreatment at 80oCin 45 minutes and drying 30 minutes in 90oC.Viscosity of the hydrolysate is very low 2.240 0.092 cPand high degree of hydrolysis 31.390 0.138 . The final protein powder has balance nutritional components and acid amines low microorganisms which are safety for human consumption.

  12. Fish protein hydrolysates: proximate composition, amino acid composition, antioxidant activities and applications: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalamaiah, M; Dinesh Kumar, B; Hemalatha, R; Jyothirmayi, T

    2012-12-15

    The fish processing industry produces more than 60% by-products as waste, which includes skin, head, viscera, trimmings, liver, frames, bones, and roes. These by-product wastes contain good amount of protein rich material that are normally processed into low market-value products, such as animal feed, fish meal and fertilizer. In view of utilizing these fish industry wastes, and for increasing the value to several underutilised fish species, protein hydrolysates from fish proteins are being prepared by several researchers all over the world. Fish protein hydrolysates are breakdown products of enzymatic conversion of fish proteins into smaller peptides, which normally contain 2-20 amino acids. In recent years, fish protein hydrolysates have attracted much attention of food biotechnologists due to the availability of large quantities of raw material for the process, and presence of high protein content with good amino acid balance and bioactive peptides (antioxidant, antihypertensive, immunomodulatory and antimicrobial peptides). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Fish skin gelatin hydrolysates produced by visceral peptidase and bovine trypsin: Bioactivity and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketnawa, Sunantha; Benjakul, Soottawat; Martínez-Alvarez, Oscar; Rawdkuen, Saroat

    2017-01-15

    The peptidase from the viscera of farmed giant catfish was used for producing gelatin hydrolysates (HG) and compared with those produced from commercial bovine trypsin (HB). The degree of hydrolysis (DH) observed suggests that proteolytic cleavage rapidly occurred within the first 120min of incubation, and there was higher DH in HG than in HB. HG demonstrated the highest ACE-inhibitory activity, DPPH, ABTS radical scavenging activity, and FRAP. HB showed the highest FRAP activity. The DPPH radical scavenging activity of HG was quite stable over the pH range of 1-11, but it increased slightly when the heating duration time reached 240min at 100°C. The ACE-inhibitory activity of HG showed the highest stability at a pH of 7, and it remained very stable at 100°C for over 15-240min. The visceral peptidase from farmed giant catfish could be an alternative protease for generating protein hydrolysates with desirable bioactivities. The resulting hydrolysates showed good stability, making them potential functional ingredients for food formulations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Ethanol fermentation from lignocellulosic hydrolysate by a recombinant xylose- and cellooligosaccharide-assimilating yeast strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katahira, Satoshi; Fukuda, Hideki [Kobe Univ. (Japan). Div. of Molecular Science; Mizuike, Atsuko; Kondo, Akihiko [Kobe Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Science and Engineering

    2006-10-15

    The sulfuric acid hydrolysate of lignocellulosic biomass, such as wood chips, from the forest industry is an important material for fuel bioethanol production. In this study, we constructed a recombinant yeast strain that can ferment xylose and cellooligosaccharides by integrating genes for the intercellular expressions of xylose reductase and xylitol dehydrogenase from Pichia stipitis, and xylulokinase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and a gene for displaying ss-glucosidase from Aspergillus acleatus on the cell surface. In the fermentation of the sulfuric acid hydrolysate of wood chips, xylose and cellooligosaccharides were completely fermented after 36 h by the recombinant strain, and then about 30 g/l ethanol was produced from 73 g/l total sugar added at the beginning. In this case, the ethanol yield of this recombinant yeast was much higher than that of the control yeast. These results demonstrate that the fermentation of the lignocellulose hydrolysate is performed efficiently by the recombinant Saccharomyces strain with abilities for xylose assimilation and cellooligosaccharide degradation. (orig.)

  15. Biorefinery production of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate using waste office paper hydrolysate as feedstock for microbial fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelamegam, Annamalai; Al-Battashi, Huda; Al-Bahry, Saif; Nallusamy, Sivakumar

    2018-01-10

    Waste paper, a major fraction of municipal solid waste, has a potential to serve as renewable feedstock for the biorefineries of fuels, chemicals and materials due to rich in cellulose and abundant at low cost. This study evaluates the possibility of waste office paper (WOP) to serve as a potential feedstock for the biorefinery production of poly (3-hydroxybutyrate). In this study, the WOP was pretreated, enzymatically saccharified and the hydrolysate was used for PHB production. The hydrolysate mainly consists of glucose (22.70g/L) and xylose (1.78g/L) and the corresponding sugar yield was about 816mg/g. Ammonium sulphate and C/N ratio 20 were identified as most favorable for high yield of PHB. The batch fermentation of Cupriavidus necator using the pretreated WOP hydrolysate resulted in cell biomass, PHB production and PHB content of 7.74g/L, 4.45g/L and 57.52%, respectively. The volumetric productivity and yield achieved were 0.061g/L/h and 0.210g/g sugar, respectively. The results suggested that WOP could be a potential alternative feedstock for the biorefinery production of bioplastics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Pichia stipitis xylose reductase helps detoxifying lignocellulosic hydrolysate by reducing 5-hydroxymethyl-furfural (HMF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Röder Anja

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pichia stipitis xylose reductase (Ps-XR has been used to design Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains that are able to ferment xylose. One example is the industrial S. cerevisiae xylose-consuming strain TMB3400, which was constructed by expression of P. stipitis xylose reductase and xylitol dehydrogenase and overexpression of endogenous xylulose kinase in the industrial S. cerevisiae strain USM21. Results In this study, we demonstrate that strain TMB3400 not only converts xylose, but also displays higher tolerance to lignocellulosic hydrolysate during anaerobic batch fermentation as well as 3 times higher in vitro HMF and furfural reduction activity than the control strain USM21. Using laboratory strains producing various levels of Ps-XR, we confirm that Ps-XR is able to reduce HMF both in vitro and in vivo. Ps-XR overexpression increases the in vivo HMF conversion rate by approximately 20%, thereby improving yeast tolerance towards HMF. Further purification of Ps-XR shows that HMF is a substrate inhibitor of the enzyme. Conclusion We demonstrate for the first time that xylose reductase is also able to reduce the furaldehyde compounds that are present in undetoxified lignocellulosic hydrolysates. Possible implications of this newly characterized activity of Ps-XR on lignocellulosic hydrolysate fermentation are discussed.

  17. Bioethanol and lipid production from the enzymatic hydrolysate of wheat straw after furfural extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandenburg, Jule; Poppele, Ieva; Blomqvist, Johanna; Puke, Maris; Pickova, Jana; Sandgren, Mats; Rapoport, Alexander; Vedernikovs, Nikolajs; Passoth, Volkmar

    2018-05-26

    This study investigates biofuel production from wheat straw hydrolysate, from which furfural was extracted using a patented method developed at the Latvian State Institute of Wood Chemistry. The solid remainder after furfural extraction, corresponding to 67.6% of the wheat straw dry matter, contained 69.9% cellulose of which 4% was decomposed during the furfural extraction and 26.3% lignin. Enzymatic hydrolysis released 44% of the glucose monomers in the cellulose. The resulting hydrolysate contained mainly glucose and very little amount of acetic acid. Xylose was not detectable. Consequently, the undiluted hydrolysate did not inhibit growth of yeast strains belonging to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lipomyces starkeyi, and Rhodotorula babjevae. In the fermentations, average final ethanol concentrations of 23.85 g/l were obtained, corresponding to a yield of 0.53 g ethanol per g released glucose. L. starkeyi generated lipids with a rate of 0.08 g/h and a yield of 0.09 g per g consumed glucose. R. babjevae produced lipids with a rate of 0.18 g/h and a yield of 0.17 per g consumed glucose. In both yeasts, desaturation increased during cultivation. Remarkably, the R. babjevae strain used in this study produced considerable amounts of heptadecenoic, α,- and γ-linolenic acid.

  18. Impact of thermal pretreatment and MSW origin on composition and hydrolysability in a sugar platform biorefinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaurs, L. P.; Heaven, S.; Banks, C. J.

    2018-03-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) is a widely available large volume source of lignocellulosic material containing a waste paper/cardboard mixture which can be converted into fermentable sugars via cellulolytic enzyme hydrolysis in a sugar platform biorefinery. Thermal pretreatments are generally applied to MSW to facilitate the extraction of the lignocellulosic material from recyclable materials (plastics, metals etc.) and improve the paper pulp conversion to sugars. Applying high temperature might enhance food waste solubilisation but may collapse cellulose fibre decreasing its hydrolysability. Low temperature pre-treatment will reduce the energy demand but might result in highly contaminated pulp. Preliminary results showed that the enzymatic hydrolysis performances were dependent on the MSW origins. Using 8 different samples, the impact of thermal pretreatment and MSW origin on pulp composition and hydrolysability was assessed in this work. Low pre-treatment temperature produced pulp which contained less lignocellulosic material but which hydrolysed to a higher degree than MSW treated at high temperatures. High temperature pre-treatment could have exposed more of the inhibiting lignin to cellulase. This information would have a significant economic impact on a commercial plant as expensive autoclave could be advantageously replaced by a cheaper process. Glucan conversions were also found to vary depending on the region, the recycling rate possibly because of the lower recycling rate resulting in the use of less paper additive in the material or the difference in paper production technology (chemical VS mechanical pulping). This could also be explained by the differences in paper composition.

  19. Recycling of lipid-extracted hydrolysate as nitrogen supplementation for production of thraustochytrid biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowrey, Joshua; Armenta, Roberto E; Brooks, Marianne S

    2016-08-01

    Efficient resource usage is important for cost-effective microalgae production, where the incorporation of waste streams and recycled water into the process has great potential. This study builds upon emerging research on nutrient recycling in thraustochytrid production, where waste streams are recovered after lipid extraction and recycled into future cultures. This research investigates the nitrogen flux of recycled hydrolysate derived from enzymatic lipid extraction of thraustochytrid biomass. Results indicated the proteinaceous content of the recycled hydrolysate can offset the need to supply fresh nitrogen in a secondary culture, without detrimental impact upon the produced biomass. The treatment employing the recycled hydrolysate with no nitrogen addition accumulated 14.86 g L(-1) of biomass in 141 h with 43.3 % (w/w) lipid content compared to the control which had 9.26 g L(-1) and 46.9 % (w/w), respectively. This improved nutrient efficiency and wastewater recovery represents considerable potential for enhanced resource efficiency of commercial thraustochytrid production.

  20. In vivo determination of arterial collagen synthesis in atherosclerotic rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opsahl, W.P.; DeLuca, D.J.; Ehrhart, L.A.

    1986-01-01

    Collagen and non-collagen protein synthesis rates were determined in vivo in tissues from rabbits fed a control or atherogenic diet supplemented with 2% peanut oil and 0.25% cholesterol for 4 months. Rabbits received a bolus intravenous injection of L-[ 3 H]-proline (1.0 mCi/kg) and unlabeled L-proline (7 mmoles/kg) in 0.9% NaCl. Plasma proline specific activity decreased only 20% over 5 hr and was similar to the specific activity of free proline in tissues. Thoracic aortas from atherosclerotic rabbits exhibited raised plaques covering at least 75% of the surface. Thoracic intima plus a portion of the media (TIM) was separated from the remaining media plus adventitia (TMA). Dry delipidated weight, total collagen content, and collagen as a percent of dry weight were increased significantly in the TIM of atherosclerotic rabbits. Collagen synthesis rates and collagen synthesis as a percent of total protein synthesis were likewise increased both in the TIM and in the abdominal aortas. No differences from controls either in collagen content or collagen synthesis rates were observed in the TMA, lung or skin. These results demonstrate for the first time in vivo that formation of atherosclerotic plaques is associated with increased rates of collagen synthesis. Furthermore, as previously observed with incubations in vitro, collagen synthesis was elevated to a greater extent than noncollagen protein synthesis in atherosclerotic aortas from rabbits fed cholesterol plus peanut oil

  1. Hyaluronan in aged collagen matrix increases prostate epithelial cell proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damodarasamy, Mamatha; Vernon, Robert B.; Chan, Christina K.; Plymate, Stephen R.; Wight, Thomas N.

    2015-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) of the prostate, which is comprised primarily of collagen, becomes increasingly disorganized with age, a property that may influence the development of hyperplasia and cancer. Collageous ECM extracted from the tails of aged mice exhibits many characteristics of collagen in aged tissues, including the prostate. When polymerized into a 3-dimensional (3D) gel, these collagen extracts can serve as models for the study of specific cell-ECM interactions. In the present study, we examined the behaviors of human prostatic epithelial cell lines representing normal prostate epithelial cells (PEC), benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH-1), and adenocarcinoma (LNCaP) cultured in contact with 3D gels made from collagen extracts of young and aged mice. We found that proliferation of PEC, BPH-1, and LNCaP cells were all increased by culture on aged collagen gels relative to young collagen gels. In examining age-associated differences in the composition of the collagen extracts, we found that aged and young collagen had a similar amount of several collagen-associated ECM components, but aged collagen had a much greater content of the glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan (HA) than young collagen. The addition of HA (of similar size and concentration to that found in aged collagen extracts) to cells placed in young collagen elicited significantly increased proliferation in BPH-1 cells, but not in PEC or LNCaP cells, relative to controls not exposed to HA. Of note, histochemical analyses of human prostatic tissues showed significantly higher expression of HA in BPH and prostate cancer stroma relative to stroma of normal prostate. Collectively, these results suggest that changes in ECM involving increased levels of HA contribute to the growth of prostatic epithelium with aging. PMID:25124870

  2. Collagen Structural Hierarchy and Susceptibility to Degradation by Ultraviolet Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabotyagova, Olena S; Cebe, Peggy; Kaplan, David L

    2008-12-01

    Collagen type I is the most abundant extracellular matrix protein in the human body, providing the basis for tissue structure and directing cellular functions. Collagen has complex structural hierarchy, organized at different length scales, including the characteristic triple helical feature. In the present study, the relationship between collagen structure (native vs. denatured) and sensitivity to UV radiation was assessed, with a focus on changes in primary structure, changes in conformation, microstructure and material properties. A brief review of free radical reactions involved in collagen degradation is also provided as a mechanistic basis for the changes observed in the study. Structural and functional changes in the collagens were related to the initial conformation (native vs. denatured) and the energy of irradiation. These changes were tracked using SDS-PAGE to assess molecular weight, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to study changes in the secondary structure, and atomic force microscopy (AFM) to characterize changes in mechanical properties. The results correlate differences in sensitivity to irradiation with initial collagen structural state: collagen in native conformation vs. heat-treated (denatured) collagen. Changes in collagen were found at all levels of the hierarchical structural organization. In general, the native collagen triple helix is most sensitive to UV-254nm radiation. The triple helix delays single chain degradation. The loss of the triple helix in collagen is accompanied by hydrogen abstraction through free radical mechanisms. The results received suggest that the effects of electromagnetic radiation on biologically relevant extracellular matrices (collagen in the present study) are important to assess in the context of the state of collagen structure. The results have implications in tissue remodeling, wound repair and disease progression.

  3. Binding of collagens to an enterotoxigenic strain of Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visai, L.; Speziale, P.; Bozzini, S.

    1990-01-01

    An enterotoxigenic strain of Escherichia coli, B34289c, has been shown to bind the N-terminal region of fibronectin with high affinity. We now report that this strain also binds collagen. The binding of 125I-labeled type II collagen to bacteria was time dependent and reversible. Bacteria expressed a limited number of collagen receptors (2.2 x 10(4) per cell) and bound collagen with a Kd of 20 nM. All collagen types tested (I to V) as well as all tested cyanogen bromide-generated peptides [alpha 1(I)CB2, alpha 1(I)CB3, alpha 1(I)CB7, alpha 1(I)CB8, and alpha 2(I)CB4] were recognized by bacterial receptors, as demonstrated by the ability of these proteins to inhibit the binding of 125I-labeled collagen to bacteria. Of several unlabeled proteins tested in competition experiments, fibronectin and its N-terminal region strongly inhibited binding of the radiolabeled collagen to E. coli cells. Conversely, collagen competed with an 125I-labeled 28-kilodalton fibronectin fragment for bacterial binding. Collagen bound to bacteria could be displaced by excess amounts of either unlabeled fibronectin or its N-terminal fragment. Similarly, collagen could displace 125I-labeled N-terminal peptide of fibronectin bound to the bacterial cell surface. Bacteria grown at 41 degrees C or in the presence of glucose did not express collagen or fibronectin receptors. These results indicate the presence of specific binding sites for collagen on the surface of E. coli cells and furthermore that the collagen and fibronectin binding sites are located in close proximity, possibly on the same structure

  4. Collagenous colitis: histopathology and clinical course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, J S; Barnett, J L; Pelke, T; Appelman, H D

    1997-01-01

    Collagenous colitis is a chronic diarrheal disease characterized by a normal or near-normal mucosa endoscopically and microscopic inflammation in the lamina propria, surface epithelial injury and a thick subepithelial collagen layer. The symptoms of collagenous colitis vary in duration and intensity, and long periods of remission have been described, but long-term follow-up data are limited. Our goal was to determine the natural clinical history of collagenous colitis and to determine whether there was a relationship between histopathologic changes and course of disease. Cases were identified at the University of Michigan Hospitals using surgical pathology records before 1992. All charts, including medical records from other hospitals, were reviewed, and a telephone interview was conducted with each locatable patient (pt). Biopsy specimens were reviewed by two pathologists for degree of collagen layer thickness, epithelial damage, and inflammation. There were 31 patients (26 F, 5 M) with a mean age of 66 yr (range 33-83) and a mean duration of symptoms of 5.4 yr at the time of diagnosis. Of the 31 patients, 18 (56%) had some form of arthritis, and 22 (71%) were using NSAIDS regularly at the time of diagnosis. Follow-up interviews were conducted at least 2 yr after diagnosis (mean 3.5 yr, range 2-5 yr) with 27 of 31 patients (3 could not be located, 1 died). Two definable groups of patients were identified: (1) those with either spontaneous or treatment-related symptom resolution (63%), and (2) those with ongoing or intermittent symptoms requiring at least intermittent therapy (37%). There was no significant difference between the two groups with regard to sex, age, associated diseases, and use of medications. Patients with symptom resolution (mean duration 3.1 yr) had been treated with antidiarrheals (6), sulfasalazine (3), discontinuation of NSAIDS (3), reversal of jejunoilial bypass (1), or nothing (4). Those with ongoing symptoms experienced a wide range of

  5. The Cooperative Effect of Genistein and Protein Hydrolysates on the Proliferation and Survival of Osteoblastic Cells (hFOB 1.19

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Chum salmon skin gelatin, de-isoflavoned soy protein, and casein were hydrolyzed at two degrees of hydrolysis. Genistein, the prepared hydrolysates, and genistein-hydrolysate combinations were assessed for their proliferative and anti-apoptotic effects on human osteoblasts (hFOB 1.19 to clarify potential cooperative effects between genistein and these hydrolysates in these two activities. Genistein at 2.5 μg/L demonstrated the highest proliferative activity, while the higher dose of genistein inhibited cell growth. All hydrolysates promoted osteoblast proliferation by increasing cell viability to 102.9%–131.1%. Regarding etoposide- or NaF-induced osteoblast apoptosis, these hydrolysates at 0.05 g/L showed both preventive and therapeutic effects against apoptosis. In the mode of apoptotic prevention, the hydrolysates decreased apoptotic cells from 32.9% to 15.2%–23.7% (etoposide treatment or from 23.6% to 14.3%–19.6% (NaF treatment. In the mode of apoptotic rescue, the hydrolysates lessened the extent of apoptotic cells from 15.9% to 13.0%–15.3% (etoposide treatment or from 13.3% to 10.9%–12.7% (NaF treatment. Gelatin hydrolysates showed the highest activities among all hydrolysates in all cases. All investigated combinations (especially the genistein-gelatin hydrolysate combination had stronger proliferation, apoptotic prevention, and rescue than genistein itself or their counterpart hydrolysates alone, suggesting that genistein cooperated with these hydrolysates, rendering greater activities in osteoblast proliferation and anti-apoptosis.

  6. ISOCT study of collagen crosslinking of collagen in cancer models (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spicer, Graham; Young, Scott T.; Yi, Ji; Shea, Lonnie D.; Backman, Vadim

    2016-03-01

    The role of extracellular matrix modification and signaling in cancer progression is an increasingly recognized avenue for the progression of the disease. Previous study of field effect carcinogenesis with Inverse Spectroscopic Optical Coherence Tomography (ISOCT) has revealed pronounced changes in the nanoscale-sensitive mass fractal dimension D measured from field effect tissue when compared to healthy tissue. However, the origin of this difference in tissue ultrastructure in field effect carcinogenesis has remained poorly understood. Here, we present findings supporting the idea that enzymatic crosslinking of the extracellular matrix is an effect that presents at the earliest stages of carcinogenesis. We use a model of collagen gel with crosslinking induced by lysyl oxidase (LOXL4) to recapitulate the difference in D previously reported from healthy and cancerous tissue biopsies. Furthermore, STORM imaging of this collagen gel model verifies the morphologic effects of enzymatic crosslinking at length scales as small as 40 nm, close to the previously reported lower length scale sensitivity threshold of 35 nm for ISOCT. Analysis of the autocorrelation function from STORM images of collagen gels and subsequent fitting to the Whittle-Matérn correlation function shows a similar effect of LOXL4 on D from collagen measured with ISOCT and STORM. We extend this to mass spectrometric study of tissue to directly measure concentrations of collagen crosslink residues. The validation of ISOCT as a viable tool for non-invasive rapid quantification of collagen ultrastructure lends it to study other physiological phenomena involving ECM restructuring such as atherosclerotic plaque screening or cervical ripening during pregnancy.

  7. Impact of ultrafiltration and nanofiltration of an industrial fish protein hydrolysate on its bioactive properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picot, Laurent; Ravallec, Rozenn; Fouchereau-Péron, Martine; Vandanjon, Laurent; Jaouen, Pascal; Chaplain-Derouiniot, Maryse; Guérard, Fabienne; Chabeaud, Aurélie; Legal, Yves; Alvarez, Oscar Martinez; Bergé, Jean-Pascal; Piot, Jean-Marie; Batista, Irineu; Pires, Carla; Thorkelsson, Gudjon; Delannoy, Charles; Jakobsen, Greta; Johansson, Inez; Bourseau, Patrick

    2010-08-30

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that in vitro controlled enzymatic hydrolysis of fish and shellfish proteins leads to bioactive peptides. Ultrafiltration (UF) and/or nanofiltration (NF) can be used to refine hydrolysates and also to fractionate them in order to obtain a peptide population enriched in selected sizes. This study was designed to highlight the impact of controlled UF and NF on the stability of biological activities of an industrial fish protein hydrolysate (FPH) and to understand whether fractionation could improve its content in bioactive peptides. The starting fish protein hydrolysate exhibited a balanced amino acid composition, a reproducible molecular weight (MW) profile, and a low sodium chloride content, allowing the study of its biological activity. Successive fractionation on UF and NF membranes allowed concentration of peptides of selected sizes, without, however, carrying out sharp separations, some MW classes being found in several fractions. Peptides containing Pro, Hyp, Asp and Glu were concentrated in the UF and NF retentates compared to the unfractionated hydrolysate and UF permeate, respectively. Gastrin/cholecystokinin-like peptides were present in the starting FPH, UF and NF fractions, but fractionation did not increase their concentration. In contrast, quantification of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-like peptides demonstrated an increase in CGRP-like activities in the UF permeate, relative to the starting FPH. The starting hydrolysate also showed a potent antioxidant and radical scavenging activity, and a moderate angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-1 inhibitory activity, which were not increased by UF and NF fractionation. Fractionation of an FPH using membrane separation, with a molecular weight cut-off adapted to the peptide composition, may provide an effective means to concentrate CGRP-like peptides and peptides enriched in selected amino acids. The peptide size distribution observed after UF and NF fractionation

  8. Comparative study on the antioxidant activity of peptides from pearl oyster ( Pinctada martensii) mantle type V collagen and tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus) scale type I collagen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Guanghua; Zhang, Xueying; Dong, Zhenghua; Shen, Xuanri

    2017-12-01

    In this study, Pearl oyster mantle type V collagen (POMC) and tilapia scale type I collagen (TSC) were extracted and hydrolyzed by various proteases in order to obtain peptides. The antioxidant activity of the peptides was investigated by DPPH, hydroxyl radical scavenging experiments and a dynamic digestion model in vitro. The results show that there are significant differences in amino acid composition between POMC and TSC. The collagen peptides obtained from pearl oyster mantle (POMCP) by treating with alkaline protease exhibited higher antioxidant activity than that from tilapia scale (TSCP) treated with papaya protease, and both of them showed greater DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity than other peptides. After being separated via Sephadex G-25 chromatography, the M1 fraction isolated from POMCP, and the S1 fraction from TSCP with which both had higher molecular weights showed the strongest antioxidant activity than other fractions, and the M1 fraction exhibited stronger antioxidant activity than the S1 fraction in scavenging free-radicals and protecting cells from the oxidation damage. Furthermore, after treating the dynamic digestion system model in vitro, the DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity of the M1 fraction increased slightly. These results suggest that POMCP exhibits stronger antioxidant activity than TSCP, which means that PMOP may be a good candidate to be a potential natural antioxidant in the food-processing industry.

  9. Purification and Characterization of Antioxidant Peptide from Sunflower Protein Hydrolysate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi-Qun Zheng

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower proteins were hydrolyzed with Flavourzyme for the production of antioxidant peptide. DEAE-Sepharose Fast Flow, Sephadex G-25 gel filtration chromatography and reversed-phase HPLC were consecutively employed to purify a novel sunflower antioxidant peptide, and the ability to inhibit the autoxidation of pyrogallol was expressed as the antioxidative activity of the peptide. The amino acid sequence was identified as Ala-Cys-Ala-His-Asp-Lys-Val by a Q-Tof2 mass spectrometer. This novel peptide exhibited a high antioxidative activity of 79.42 U/mL, which is expected to protect against oxidative damage in living systems in relation to aging and carcinogenesis. Higher antioxidative activities were presumed mainly due to the presence of hydrophobic amino acids in its sequence.

  10. Asporin competes with decorin for collagen binding, binds calcium and promotes osteoblast collagen mineralization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalamajski, Sebastian; Aspberg, Anders; Lindblom, Karin

    2009-01-01

    , but not by biglycan. We demonstrate that the polyaspartate domain binds calcium and regulates hydroxyapatite formation in vitro. In the presence of asporin, the number of collagen nodules, and mRNA of osteoblastic markers Osterix and Runx2, were increased. Moreover, decorin or the collagen-binding asporin fragment...... biomineralization activity. We also show that asporin can be expressed in Escherichia coli (Rosetta-gami) with correctly positioned cysteine bridges, and a similar system can possibly be used for the expression of other SLRPs (small LRR proteoglycans/proteins)....

  11. Type XII and XIV collagens mediate interactions between banded collagen fibers in vitro and may modulate extracellular matrix deformability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, T; McDonough, A M; Bruns, R R; Burgeson, R E

    1994-11-11

    Type XII and XIV collagens are very large molecules containing three extended globular domains derived from the amino terminus of each alpha chain and an interrupted triple helix. Both collagens are genetically and immunologically unique and have distinct distributions in many tissues. These collagens localize near the surface of banded collagen fibrils. The function of the molecules is unknown. We have prepared a mixture of native type XII and XIV collagens that is free of contaminating proteins by electrophoretic criteria. In addition, we have purified the collagenase-resistant globular domains of type XII or XIV collagens (XII-NC-3 or XIV-NC-3). In this study, we have investigated the effect of intact type XII and XIV and XII-NC-3 or XIV-NC-3 on the interactions between fibroblasts and type I collagen fibrils. We find that both type XII and XIV collagens promote collagen gel contraction mediated by fibroblasts, even in the absence of serum. The activity is present in the NC-3 domains. The effect is dose-dependent and is inhibited by denaturation. The effect of type XII NC-3 is inhibited by the addition of anti-XII antiserum. To elucidate the mechanism underlying this phenomenon, we examined the effect of XII-NC-3 or XIV-NC-3 on deformability of collagen gels by centrifugal force. XII-NC-3 or XIV-NC-3 markedly promotes gel compression after centrifugation. The effect is also inhibited by denaturation, and the activity of type XII-NC3 is inhibited by the addition of anti-XII antiserum. The results indicate that the effect of XII-NC-3 or XIV-NC-3 on collagen gel contraction by fibroblasts is not due to activation of cellular events but rather results from the increase in mobility of hydrated collagen fibrils within the gel. These studies suggest that collagen types XII and XIV may modulate the biomechanical properties of tissues.

  12. Attenuation of renovascular damage in Zucker diabetic fatty rat by NWT-03, an egg protein hydrolysate with ACE- and DPP4-inhibitory Activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumei Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4 and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE are important target enzymes in glycemic control and renovascular protection. Here, we studied the effect of NWT-03, an egg protein hydrolysate with DPP4- and ACE-inhibitory activity, on renovascular damage in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF rats. Comparisons were made to rats treated with vildagliptin (VIL, included as a positive control for the effect of DPP4 inhibition. METHODS: ZDF rats received NWT-03 (1 g/kg/day or VIL (3 mg/kg/day from 10 to 25 weeks of age. Metabolic and renal functions were assessed; the kidney was removed for histological analysis of glomerulosclerosis and expression of pro-inflammatory/fibrotic markers (RT-PCR and Western blotting; and the aorta was removed for studies of endothelium-dependent relaxation (EDR. FINDINGS: Hyperinsulinemic ZDF rats typically developed signs of type-2 diabetes and renovascular damage, as evidenced by albuminuria, glomerulosclerosis, and impaired EDR. Neither NWT-03 nor VIL improved metabolic parameters; for VIL, this was despite a 5-fold increase in glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1 levels. NWT-03 and VIL both reduced renal interleukin (Il-1β/Il-13 mRNA expression and glomerulosclerosis. However, only NWT-03 additionally decreased renal tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α mRNA and P22(phox protein expression, reduced albuminuria, and restored aortic EDR. Indomethacin added to the organ bath instantly improved aortic EDR, indicating a role for cyclooxygenase (COX-derived contractile prostanoids in opposing relaxation in ZDF rats. This indomethacin effect was reduced by NWT-03, but not by VIL, and coincided with decreased renal COX-1/2 protein expression. CONCLUSION AND INTERPRETATION: Long-term supplementation with the egg protein hydrolysate NWT-03 attenuated renovascular damage in this preclinical rat model of type 2 diabetes. A comparison to the DPP4-inhibitor VIL suggests that the effects of NWT-03 were related to both

  13. Mineralized Collagen: Rationale, Current Status, and Clinical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Ye Qiu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a review of the rationale for the in vitro mineralization process, preparation methods, and clinical applications of mineralized collagen. The rationale for natural mineralized collagen and the related mineralization process has been investigated for decades. Based on the understanding of natural mineralized collagen and its formation process, many attempts have been made to prepare biomimetic materials that resemble natural mineralized collagen in both composition and structure. To date, a number of bone substitute materials have been developed based on the principles of mineralized collagen, and some of them have been commercialized and approved by regulatory agencies. The clinical outcomes of mineralized collagen are of significance to advance the evaluation and improvement of related medical device products. Some representative clinical cases have been reported, and there are more clinical applications and long-term follow-ups that currently being performed by many research groups.

  14. The non-phagocytic route of collagen uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Daniel H; Ingvarsen, Signe; Jürgensen, Henrik J

    2011-01-01

    The degradation of collagens, the most abundant proteins of the extracellular matrix, is involved in numerous physiological and pathological conditions including cancer invasion. An important turnover pathway involves cellular internalization and degradation of large, soluble collagen fragments......, generated by initial cleavage of the insoluble collagen fibers. We have previously observed that in primary mouse fibroblasts, this endocytosis of collagen fragments is dependent on the receptor urokinase plasminogen activator receptor-associated protein (uPARAP)/Endo180. Others have identified additional...... mechanisms of collagen uptake, with different associated receptors, in other cell types. These receptors include β1-integrins, being responsible for collagen phagocytosis, and the mannose receptor. We have now utilized a newly developed monoclonal antibody against uPARAP/Endo180, which down...

  15. Collagen synthesis in human musculoskeletal tissues and skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babraj, J A; Cuthbertson, D J R; Smith, K

    2005-01-01

    We have developed a direct method for the measurement of human musculoskeletal collagen synthesis on the basis of the incorporation of stable isotope-labeled proline or leucine into protein and have used it to measure the rate of synthesis of collagen in tendon, ligament, muscle, and skin....... In postabsorptive, healthy young men (28 +/- 6 yr) synthetic rates for tendon, ligament, muscle, and skin collagen were 0.046 +/- 0.005, 0.040 +/- 0.006, 0.016 +/- 0.002, and 0.037 +/- 0.003%/h, respectively (means +/- SD). In postabsorptive, healthy elderly men (70 +/- 6 yr) the rate of skeletal muscle collagen...... synthesis is greater than in the young (0.023 +/- 0.002%/h, P collagen are similar to those of mixed skeletal muscle protein in the postabsorptive state, whereas the rate for muscle collagen synthesis is much lower in both young and elderly men...

  16. The decorin sequence SYIRIADTNIT binds collagen type I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalamajski, Sebastian; Aspberg, Anders; Oldberg, Ake

    2007-01-01

    Decorin belongs to the small leucine-rich repeat proteoglycan family, interacts with fibrillar collagens, and regulates the assembly, structure, and biomechanical properties of connective tissues. The decorin-collagen type I-binding region is located in leucine-rich repeats 5-6. Site......-directed mutagenesis of this 54-residue-long collagen-binding sequence identifies Arg-207 and Asp-210 in leucine-rich repeat 6 as crucial for the binding to collagen. The synthetic peptide SYIRIADTNIT, which includes Arg-207 and Asp-210, inhibits the binding of full-length recombinant decorin to collagen in vitro....... These collagen-binding amino acids are exposed on the exterior of the beta-sheet-loop structure of the leucine-rich repeat. This resembles the location of interacting residues in other leucine-rich repeat proteins....

  17. Collagen derived serum markers in carcinoma of the prostate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudnicki, M; Jensen, L T; Iversen, P

    1995-01-01

    Three new collagen markers deriving from the collagenous matrix, e.g. carboxyterminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PICP), carboxy-terminal pyridinoline cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP), and aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP) were used for the diagnose......, ICTP, and PICP did not differ between these two groups. In patients with metastatic prostatic cancer all five markers were increased compared to the level measured in patients with localized cancer (p

  18. Metal stabilization of collagen and de novo designed mimetic peptides

    OpenAIRE

    Parmar, Avanish S.; Xu, Fei; Pike, Douglas H.; Belure, Sandeep V.; Hasan, Nida F.; Drzewiecki, Kathryn E.; Shreiber, David I.; Nanda, Vikas

    2015-01-01

    We explore the design of metal binding sites to modulate triple-helix stability of collagen and collagen-mimetic peptides. Globular proteins commonly utilize metals to connect tertiary structural elements that are well separated in sequence, constraining structure and enhancing stability. It is more challenging to engineer structural metals into fibrous protein scaffolds, which lack the extensive tertiary contacts seen in globular proteins. In the collagen triple helix, the structural adjacen...

  19. Von Willebrand protein binds to extracellular matrices independently of collagen.

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, D D; Urban-Pickering, M; Marder, V J

    1984-01-01

    Von Willebrand protein is present in the extracellular matrix of endothelial cells where it codistributes with fibronectin and types IV and V collagen. Bacterial collagenase digestion of endothelial cells removed fibrillar collagen, but the pattern of fibronectin and of von Willebrand protein remained undisturbed. Exogenous von Willebrand protein bound to matrices of different cells, whether rich or poor in collagen. von Willebrand protein also decorated the matrix of cells grown in the prese...

  20. Collagenous gastritis: a morphologic and immunohistochemical study of 40 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnason, Thomas; Brown, Ian S; Goldsmith, Jeffrey D; Anderson, William; O'Brien, Blake H; Wilson, Claire; Winter, Harland; Lauwers, Gregory Y

    2015-04-01

    Collagenous gastritis is a rare condition defined histologically by a superficial subepithelial collagen layer. This study further characterizes the morphologic spectrum of collagenous gastritis by evaluating a multi-institutional series of 40 patients (26 female and 14 male). The median age at onset was 16 years (range 3-89 years), including 24 patients (60%) under age 18. Twelve patients (30%) had associated celiac disease, collagenous sprue, or collagenous colitis. Hematoxylin and eosin slides were reviewed in biopsies from all patients and tenascin, gastrin, eotaxin, and IgG4/IgG immunohistochemical stains were applied to a subset. The distribution of subepithelial collagen favored the body/fundus in pediatric patients and the antrum in adults. There were increased surface intraepithelial lymphocytes (>25 lymphocytes/100 epithelial cells) in five patients. Three of these patients had associated celiac and/or collagenous sprue/colitis, while the remaining two had increased duodenal lymphocytosis without specific etiology. An eosinophil-rich pattern (>30 eosinophils/high power field) was seen in 21/40 (52%) patients. Seven patients' biopsies demonstrated atrophy of the gastric corpus mucosa. Tenascin immunohistochemistry highlighted the subepithelial collagen in all 21 specimens evaluated and was a more sensitive method of collagen detection in biopsies from two patients with subtle subepithelial collagen. No increased eotaxin expression was identified in 16 specimens evaluated. One of the twenty-three biopsies tested had increased IgG4-positive cells (100/high power field) with an IgG4/IgG ratio of 55%. In summary, collagenous gastritis presents three distinct histologic patterns including a lymphocytic gastritis-like pattern, an eosinophil-rich pattern, and an atrophic pattern. Eotaxin and IgG4 were not elevated enough to implicate these pathways in the pathogenesis. Tenascin immunohistochemistry can be used as a sensitive method of collagen detection.

  1. Variation in the Helical Structure of Native Collagen

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-24

    notochord were obtained in previous studies [4,10,20–22]. The scaled amplitudes of the central, meridional section of each data set were used to...including helical, structure) from rat tail tendon (collagen type I) and lamprey notochord (collagen type II) show several common features (Figure 5). Of...also a possible consequence of the type II collagen notochord samples being stretched, perhaps to a greater extant then the type I tendon samples to aid

  2. Collagen type IV at the fetal-maternal interface

    OpenAIRE

    Oefner, C M; Sharkey, A; Gardner, L; Critchley, H; Oyen, M; Moffett, A

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Extracellular matrix proteins play a crucial role in influencing the invasion of trophoblast cells. However the role of collagens and collagen type IV (col-IV) in particular at the implantation site is not clear. Methods Immunohistochemistry was used to determine the distribution of collagen types I, III, IV and VI in endometrium and decidua during the menstrual cycle and the first trimester of pregnancy. Expression of col-IV alpha chains during the reproductive cycle ...

  3. Stromal matrix metalloprotease-13 knockout alters Collagen I structure at the tumor-host interface and increases lung metastasis of C57BL/6 syngeneic E0771 mammary tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, Seth W; Schueckler, Jill M; Burke, Kathleen; Arcuri, Giuseppe L; Brown, Edward B

    2013-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteases and collagen are key participants in breast cancer, but their precise roles in cancer etiology and progression remain unclear. MMP13 helps regulate collagen structure and has been ascribed largely harmful roles in cancer, but some studies demonstrate that MMP13 may also protect against tumor pathology. Other studies indicate that collagen’s organizational patterns at the breast tumor-host interface influence metastatic potential. Therefore we investigated how MMP13 modulates collagen I, a principal collagen subtype in breast tissue, and affects tumor pathology and metastasis in a mouse model of breast cancer. Tumors were implanted into murine mammary tissues, and their growth analyzed in Wildtype and MMP13 KO mice. Following extraction, tumors were analyzed for collagen I levels and collagen I macro- and micro-structural properties at the tumor-host boundary using immunocytochemistry and two-photon and second harmonic generation microscopy. Lungs were analyzed for metastases counts, to correlate collagen I changes with a clinically significant functional parameter. Statistical analyses were performed by t-test, analysis of variance, or Wilcoxon-Mann–Whitney tests as appropriate. We found that genetic ablation of host stromal MMP13 led to: 1. Increased mammary tumor collagen I content, 2. Marked changes in collagen I spatial organization, and 3. Altered collagen I microstructure at the tumor-host boundary, as well as 4. Increased metastasis from the primary mammary tumor to lungs. These results implicate host MMP13 as a key regulator of collagen I structure and metastasis in mammary tumors, thus making it an attractive potential therapeutic target by which we might alter metastatic potential, one of the chief determinants of clinical outcome in breast cancer. In addition to identifying stromal MMP13 is an important regulator of the tumor microenvironment and metastasis, these results also suggest that stromal MMP13 may protect against

  4. Release of antibiotics from collagen dressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzybowski, J; Antos-Bielska, M; Ołdak, E; Trafny, E A

    1997-01-01

    Our new collagen dressing has been developed recently. Three types (A, B, and C) of the dressing were prepared in this study. Each type contained bacitracin, neomycin or colistin. The antibiotic was input into: i. collagen sponge (CS)--type A, ii. layer of limited hydrophobicity (LLH)--type B, and iii. into both CS and LLH layers--type C. The final concentration of the antibiotic that resulted from the loading level was 2 mg/cm2 for the dressings of type A and B and 4 mg/cm2 for the dressing of type C. The antibiotics were then extracted from the pieces of dressings for two days through dialysis membrane. Susceptibility of 54 bacterial strains (S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter) isolated from burn wounds were tested to the three antibiotics used for preparation of the dressings. The results of the study evidenced that efficiency of released of antibiotics into the extracts depended on the kind of antibiotic and on the type of dressing. The concentration of the antibiotics proved to be much higher than MIC90 values of the bacterial isolates tested in respect to their susceptibility. The dressing containing mixture of the three antibiotics in two layers--CS and LLH is now considered as potentially effective for care of infected wounds. It may be useful for the treatment of infected wounds or for profilaxis of contaminated wounds, ensuring: i. sufficient antimicrobial activity in wound, and ii. optimal wound environment for the presence of collagenic biomaterial on the damaged tissue.

  5. ELECTRICAL AND THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF A COLLAGEN SOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaromír Štancl

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on measurements of the electrical properties, the specific heat capacity and the thermal conductivity of a collagen solution (7.19% mass fraction of native bovine collagen in water. The results of our experiments show that specific electrical conductivity of collagen solution is strongly dependent on temperature. The transition region of collagen to gelatin has been observed from the measured temperature dependence of specific electrical conductivity, and has been confirmed by specific heat capacity measurements by a differential scanning calorimetry.

  6. Marine-derived collagen biomaterials from echinoderm connective tissues

    KAUST Repository

    Ferrario, Cinzia; Leggio, Livio; Leone, Roberta; Di Benedetto, Cristiano; Guidetti, Luca; Coccè , Valentina; Ascagni, Miriam; Bonasoro, Francesco; La Porta, Caterina A.M.; Candia Carnevali, M. Daniela; Sugni, Michela

    2016-01-01

    The use of marine collagens is a hot topic in the field of tissue engineering. Echinoderms possess unique connective tissues (Mutable Collagenous Tissues, MCTs) which can represent an innovative source of collagen to develop collagen barrier-membranes for Guided Tissue Regeneration (GTR). In the present work we used MCTs from different echinoderm models (sea urchin, starfish and sea cucumber) to produce echinoderm-derived collagen membranes (EDCMs). Commercial membranes for GTR or soluble/reassembled (fibrillar) bovine collagen substrates were used as controls. The three EDCMs were similar among each other in terms of structure and mechanical performances and were much thinner and mechanically more resistant than the commercial membranes. Number of fibroblasts seeded on sea-urchin membranes were comparable to the bovine collagen substrates. Cell morphology on all EDCMs was similar to that of structurally comparable (reassembled) bovine collagen substrates. Overall, echinoderms, and sea urchins particularly, are alternative collagen sources to produce efficient GTR membranes. Sea urchins display a further advantage in terms of eco-sustainability by recycling tissues from food wastes.

  7. Collagen-Induced Arthritis: A model for Murine Autoimmune Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrosimone, K M; Jin, M; Poston, B; Liu, P

    2015-10-20

    Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) is a common autoimmune animal model used to study rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The development of CIA involves infiltration of macrophages and neutrophils into the joint, as well as T and B cell responses to type II collagen. In murine CIA, genetically susceptible mice (DBA/1J) are immunized with a type II bovine collagen emulsion in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA), and receive a boost of type II bovine collagen in incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA) 21 days after the first injection. These mice typically develop disease 26 to 35 days after the initial injection. C57BL/6J mice are resistant to arthritis induced by type II bovine collagen, but can develop arthritis when immunized with type II chicken collagen in CFA, and receive a boost of type II chicken collagen in IFA 21 days after the first injection. The concentration of heat-killed Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37RA (MT) in CFA also differs for each strain. DBA/1J mice develop arthritis with 1 mg/ml MT, while C57BL/6J mice require and 3-4 mg/ml MT in order to develop arthritis. CIA develops slowly in C57BL/6J mice and cases of arthritis are mild when compared to DBA/1J mice. This protocol describes immunization of DBA/1J mice with type II bovine collagen and the immunization of C57BL/6J mice with type II chicken collagen.

  8. Collagen-Induced Arthritis: A model for Murine Autoimmune Arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Pietrosimone, K. M.; Jin, M.; Poston, B.; Liu, P.

    2015-01-01

    Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) is a common autoimmune animal model used to study rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The development of CIA involves infiltration of macrophages and neutrophils into the joint, as well as T and B cell responses to type II collagen. In murine CIA, genetically susceptible mice (DBA/1J) are immunized with a type II bovine collagen emulsion in complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA), and receive a boost of type II bovine collagen in incomplete Freund’s adjuvant (IFA) 21 days aft...

  9. Degradation of type IV collagen by neoplastic human skin fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheela, S.; Barrett, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    An assay for the degradation of type IV (basement membrane) collagen was developed as a biochemical marker for neoplastic cells from chemically transformed human skin fibroblasts. Type IV collagen was isolated from basement membrane of Syrian hamster lung and type I collagen was isolated from rat tails; the collagens were radioactively labelled by reductive alkylation. The abilities of normal (KD) and chemically transformed (Hut-11A) human skin fibroblasts to degrade the collagens were studied. A cell-associated assay was performed by growing either normal or transformed cells in the presence of radioactively labelled type IV collagen and measuring the released soluble peptides in the medium. This assay also demonstrated that KD cells failed to synthesize an activity capable of degrading type IV collagen whereas Hut-11A cells degraded type IV collagen in a linear manner for up to 4 h. Human serum at very low concentrations, EDTA and L-cysteine inhibited the enzyme activity, whereas protease inhibitors like phenylmethyl sulfonyl fluoride, N-ethyl maleimide or soybean trypsin inhibitor did not inhibit the enzyme from Hut-11A cells. These results suggest that the ability to degrade specifically type IV collagen may be an important marker for neoplastic human fibroblasts and supports a role for this collagenase in tumor cell invasion

  10. Stabilization and anomalous hydration of collagen fibril under heating.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasun G Gevorkian

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Type I collagen is the most common protein among higher vertebrates. It forms the basis of fibrous connective tissues (tendon, chord, skin, bones and ensures mechanical stability and strength of these tissues. It is known, however, that separate triple-helical collagen macromolecules are unstable at physiological temperatures. We want to understand the mechanism of collagen stability at the intermolecular level. To this end, we study the collagen fibril, an intermediate level in the collagen hierarchy between triple-helical macromolecule and tendon. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: When heating a native fibril sample, its Young's modulus decreases in temperature range 20-58°C due to partial denaturation of triple-helices, but it is approximately constant at 58-75°C, because of stabilization by inter-molecular interactions. The stabilization temperature range 58-75°C has two further important features: here the fibril absorbs water under heating and the internal friction displays a peak. We relate these experimental findings to restructuring of collagen triple-helices in fibril. A theoretical description of the experimental results is provided via a generalization of the standard Zimm-Bragg model for the helix-coil transition. It takes into account intermolecular interactions of collagen triple-helices in fibril and describes water adsorption via the Langmuir mechanism. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We uncovered an inter-molecular mechanism that stabilizes the fibril made of unstable collagen macromolecules. This mechanism can be relevant for explaining stability of collagen.

  11. Discoidin Domain Receptor 1 Mediates Myosin-Dependent Collagen Contraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno M. Coelho

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Discoidin domain receptor 1 (DDR1 is a tyrosine kinase collagen adhesion receptor that mediates cell migration through association with non-muscle myosin IIA (NMIIA. Because DDR1 is implicated in cancer fibrosis, we hypothesized that DDR1 interacts with NMIIA to enable collagen compaction by traction forces. Mechanical splinting of rat dermal wounds increased DDR1 expression and collagen alignment. In periodontal ligament of DDR1 knockout mice, collagen mechanical reorganization was reduced >30%. Similarly, cultured cells with DDR1 knockdown or expressing kinase-deficient DDR1d showed 50% reduction of aligned collagen. Tractional remodeling of collagen was dependent on DDR1 clustering, activation, and interaction of the DDR1 C-terminal kinase domain with NMIIA filaments. Collagen remodeling by traction forces, DDR1 tyrosine phosphorylation, and myosin light chain phosphorylation were increased on stiff versus soft substrates. Thus, DDR1 clustering, activation, and interaction with NMIIA filaments enhance the collagen tractional remodeling that is important for collagen compaction in fibrosis.

  12. Thrombolytic therapy of acute myocardial infarction alters collagen metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, N B; Hansen, S S; Jensen, L T

    1994-01-01

    The objective of the study was to monitor collagen metabolism after thrombolytic therapy. Sequential measurements of serum aminoterminal type-III procollagen propeptide (S-PIIINP) and carboxyterminal type-I procollagen propeptide (S-PICP) were made in 62 patients suspected of acute myocardial.......05). A less pronounced S-PIIINP increase was noted with tissue-plasminogen activator than with streptokinase. Thrombolytic therapy induces collagen breakdown regardless of whether acute myocardial infarction is confirmed or not. With confirmed acute myocardial infarction collagen metabolism is altered...... for at least 6 months. Furthermore, fibrin-specific and nonspecific thrombolytic agents appear to affect collagen metabolism differently....

  13. Tendon collagen synthesis declines with immobilization in elderly humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dideriksen, Kasper; Boesen, Anders P; Reitelseder, Søren

    2017-01-01

    -80 yr) were randomly assigned to NSAIDs (ibuprofen 1,200 mg/day; Ibu) or placebo (Plc). One lower limb was immobilized in a cast for 2 wk and retrained for 6 wk. Tendon collagen protein synthesis, mechanical properties, size, expression of genes related to collagen turnover and remodeling, and signal...... intensity (from magnetic resonance imaging) were investigated. Tendon collagen synthesis decreased (P ... immobilization in both groups, whereas scleraxis mRNA decreased with inactivity in the Plc group only (P collagen protein synthesis decreased after 2 wk of immobilization, whereas tendon stiffness and modulus were only marginally reduced, and NSAIDs had no influence upon this...

  14. Collagen metabolism in obesity: the effect of weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, M H; Jensen, L T; Andersen, T

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of obesity, fat distribution and weight loss on collagen turnover using serum concentrations of the carboxyterminal propeptide of type I procollagen (S-PICP) and the aminoterminal propeptide of type III pro-collagen (S-PIIINP) as markers for collagen turnover...... an increased turnover of type III collagen related to obesity in general and to abdominal obesity in particular. S-PIIINP levels decreases during weight loss in obese subjects, whereas S-PICP levels seems un-related to obesity and weight loss....

  15. The collagen receptor uPARAP/Endo180

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelholm, Lars H; Ingvarsen, Signe; Jürgensen, Henrik J

    2009-01-01

    The uPAR-associated protein (uPARAP/Endo180), a type-1 membrane protein belonging to the mannose receptor family, is an endocytic receptor for collagen. Through this endocytic function, the protein takes part in a previously unrecognized mechanism of collagen turnover. uPARAP/Endo180 can bind...... and internalize both intact and partially degraded collagens. In some turnover pathways, the function of the receptor probably involves an interplay with certain matrix-degrading proteases whereas, in other physiological processes, redundant mechanisms involving both endocytic and pericellular collagenolysis seem...... in collagen breakdown seems to be involved in invasive tumor growth Udgivelsesdato: 2009...

  16. Marine-derived collagen biomaterials from echinoderm connective tissues

    KAUST Repository

    Ferrario, Cinzia

    2016-03-31

    The use of marine collagens is a hot topic in the field of tissue engineering. Echinoderms possess unique connective tissues (Mutable Collagenous Tissues, MCTs) which can represent an innovative source of collagen to develop collagen barrier-membranes for Guided Tissue Regeneration (GTR). In the present work we used MCTs from different echinoderm models (sea urchin, starfish and sea cucumber) to produce echinoderm-derived collagen membranes (EDCMs). Commercial membranes for GTR or soluble/reassembled (fibrillar) bovine collagen substrates were used as controls. The three EDCMs were similar among each other in terms of structure and mechanical performances and were much thinner and mechanically more resistant than the commercial membranes. Number of fibroblasts seeded on sea-urchin membranes were comparable to the bovine collagen substrates. Cell morphology on all EDCMs was similar to that of structurally comparable (reassembled) bovine collagen substrates. Overall, echinoderms, and sea urchins particularly, are alternative collagen sources to produce efficient GTR membranes. Sea urchins display a further advantage in terms of eco-sustainability by recycling tissues from food wastes.

  17. Fabrication of homobifunctional crosslinker stabilized collagen for biomedical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakra, Rachita; Kiran, Manikantan Syamala; Sai, Korrapati Purna

    2015-01-01

    Collagen biopolymer has found widespread application in the field of tissue engineering owing to its excellent tissue compatibility and negligible immunogenicity. Mechanical strength and enzymatic degradation of the collagen necessitates the physical and chemical strength enhancement. One such attempt deals with the understanding of crosslinking behaviour of EGS (ethylene glycol-bis (succinic acid N-hydroxysuccinimide ester)) with collagen to improve the physico-chemical properties. The incorporation of a crosslinker during fibril formation enhanced the thermal and mechanical stability of collagen. EGS crosslinked collagen films exhibited higher denaturation temperature (T d ) and the residue left after thermogravimetric analysis was about 16  ±  5.2%. Mechanical properties determined by uniaxial tensile tests showed a threefold increase in tensile strength and Young’s modulus at higher concentration (100 μM). Water uptake capacity reduced up to a moderate extent upon crosslinking which is essential for the transport of nutrients to the cells. Cell viability was found to be 100% upon treatment with 100 μM EGS whereas only 30% viability could be observed with glutaraldehyde. Rheological studies of crosslinked collagen showed an increase in shear stress and shear viscosity at 37 °C. Crosslinking with EGS resulted in the formation of a uniform fibrillar network. Trinitrobenzene sulfonate (TNBS) assay confirmed that EGS crosslinked collagen by forming a covalent interaction with ε-amino acids of collagen. The homobifunctional crosslinker used in this study enhanced the effectiveness of collagen as a biomaterial for biomedical application. (paper)

  18. Small-bowel permeability in collagenous colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildt, Signe; Madsen, Jan L; Rumessen, Jüri J

    2006-01-01

    Collagenous colitis (CC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease that affects the colon. However, some patients with CC present with accompanying pathologic small-bowel manifestations such as coeliac disease, defects in bile acid absorption and histopathologic changes in small-intestinal biopsies......, indicating that CC is a pan-intestinal disease. In small-intestinal disease, the intestinal barrier function may be impaired, and the permeability of the small intestine altered. The purpose of this research was to study small-bowel function in patients with CC as expressed by intestinal permeability....

  19. Prediction of collagen orientation in articular cartilage by a collagen remodeling algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilson, W.; Driessen, N.J.B.; Donkelaar, van C.C.; Ito, K.

    2006-01-01

    Tissue engineering is a promising method to treat damaged cartilage. So far it has not been possible to create tissue-engineered cartilage with an appropriate structural organization. It is envisaged that cartilage tissue engineering will significantly benefit from knowledge of how the collagen

  20. Comparison of thermal properties of fish collagen and bovine collagen in the temperature range 298-670K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauza-Włodarczyk, Marlena; Kubisz, Leszek; Mielcarek, Sławomir; Włodarczyk, Dariusz

    2017-11-01

    The increased interest in fish collagen is a consequence of the risk of exposure to Creutzfeld-Jacob disease (CJD) and the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), whose occurrence is associated with prions carried by bovine collagen. Collagen is the main biopolymer in living organisms and the main component of the skin and bones. Until the discovery of the BSE, bovine collagen had been widely used. The BSE epidemic increased the interest in new sources of collagen such as fish skin collagen (FSC) and its properties. Although the thermal properties of collagen originating from mammals have been well described, less attention has been paid to the thermal properties of FSC. Denaturation temperature is a particularly important parameter, depending on the collagen origin and hydration level. In the reported experiment, the free water and bound water release processes along with thermal denaturation process were studied by means of the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Measurements were carried out using a DSC 7 instrument (Elmer-Perkin), in the temperature range 298-670K. The study material was FSC derived by acidic hydration method. The bovine Achilles tendon (BAT) collagen type I was used as the control material. The thermograms recorded revealed both, exothermic and endothermic peaks. For both materials, the peaks in the temperature range of 330-360K were assigned to the release of free water and bound water. The denaturation temperatures of FSC and BAT collagen were determined as 420K and 493K, respectively. Thermal decomposition process was observed at about 500K for FSC and at about 510K for BAT collagen. These results show that FSC is less resistant to high temperature than BAT collagen. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Production of Transglutaminase by Streptoverticillium ladakanum NRRL-3191 Grown on Media Made from Hydrolysates of Sorghum Straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simón J. Téllez-Luis

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to elucidate the suitability of the biotechnological production of transglutaminase by Streptoverticillium ladakanum NRRL-3191 grown on media made from hydrolysates of sorghum straw. Transglutaminase activity was determined in fermentations on sorghum straw hydrolysates and commercial xylose with initial xylose 10, 20 or 30 g/L. Using media containing commercial xylose 20 g/L, transglutaminase activity up to 0.282 U/mL was obtained in 96 h. Using neutralized, charcoal-treated hydrolysates of sorghum straw with xylose 30 g/L sterilized in autoclave at 121 °C, up to 0.155 U/mL was obtained in 96 h. However, when the sterilization was performed by filtration, using the same hydrolysates with xylose 20 g/L, up to 0.348 U/mL was obtained in 72 h. It was demonstrated that hydrolysates of sorghum straw are suitable media for transglutaminase production by Streptoverticillium ladakanum.

  2. Relationships between the structure of wheat gluten and ACE inhibitory activity of hydrolysate: stepwise multiple linear regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanyan; Ma, Haile; Wang, Bei; Qu, Wenjuan; Wali, Asif; Zhou, Cunshan

    2016-08-01

    Ultrasound pretreatment of wheat gluten (WG) before enzymolysis can improve the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity of the hydrolysates by alerting the structure of substrate proteins. Establishment of a relationship between the structure of WG and ACE inhibitory activity of the hydrolysates to judge the end point of the ultrasonic pretreatment is vital. The results of stepwise multiple linear regression (MLR) showed that the contents of free sulfhydryl, α-helix, disulfide bond, surface hydrophobicity and random coil were significantly correlated to ACE Inhibitory activity of the hydrolysate, with the standard partial regression coefficients were 3.729, -0.676, -0.252, 0.022 and 0.156, respectively. The R(2) of this model was 0.970. External validation showed that the stepwise MLR model could well predict the ACE inhibitory activity of hydrolysate based on the content of free sulfhydryl, α-helix, disulfide bond, surface hydrophobicity and random coil of WG before hydrolysis. A stepwise multiple linear regression model describing the quantitative relationships between the structure of WG and the ACE Inhibitory activity of the hydrolysates was established. This model can be used to predict the endpoint of the ultrasonic pretreatment. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Casein Hydrolysates by Lactobacillus brevis and Lactococcus lactis Proteases: Peptide Profile Discriminates Strain-Dependent Enzyme Specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bounouala, Fatima Zohra; Roudj, Salima; Karam, Nour-Eddine; Recio, Isidra; Miralles, Beatriz

    2017-10-25

    Casein from ovine and bovine milk were hydrolyzed with two extracellular protease preparations from Lactobacillus brevis and Lactococcus lactis. The hydrolysates were analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS for peptide identification. A strain-dependent peptide profile could be observed, regardless of the casein origin, and the specificity of these two proteases could be computationally ascribed. The cleavage pattern yielding phenylalanine, leucine, or tyrosine at C-terminal appeared both at L. lactis and Lb. brevis hydrolysates. However, the cleavage C-terminal to lysine was favored with Lb. brevis protease. The hydrolysates showed ACE-inhibitory activity with IC 50 in the 16-70 μg/mL range. Ovine casein hydrolysates yielded greater ACE-inhibitory activity. Previously described antihypertensive and opioid peptides were found in these ovine and bovine casein hydrolysates and prediction of the antihypertensive activity of the sequences based on quantitative structure and activity relationship (QSAR) was performed. This approach might represent a useful classification tool regarding health-related properties prior to further purification.

  4. Enhanced lipid production with undetoxified corncob hydrolysate by Rhodotorula glutinis using a high cell density culture strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yating; Wang, Yanping; Liu, Hongjuan; Zhang, Jian'an

    2015-03-01

    In recent years, energy crisis and environmental issues such as greenhouse effect, global warming, etc. has roused peoples' concern. Biodiesel, as renewable energy, has attracted much attention to deal with such problems. This work studied the lipid production by Rhodotorula glutinis with undetoxified corncob hydrolysate. The results indicated that R. glutinis had high tolerance to the inhibitors in corncob hydrolysate and it could utilize undetoxified corncob hydrolysate directly for lipid production. The cell grew well with undetoxified hydrolysate in the batch culture of 5L fermentor with the optimized C/N ratio of 75, lipid titer and lipid content reached 5.5g/L and 36.4%, respectively. High cell density culture with two-stage nitrogen feeding strategy was studied to enhance the lipid production, biomass, lipid concentration and lipid content of 70.8, 33.5g/L and 47.2% were obtained. The results indicated the potential application for lipid production by R. glutinis with corncob hydrolysate directly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Production of butanol (a biofuel) from agricultural residues: Part II - Use of corn stover and switchgrass hydrolysates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qureshi, Nasib; Saha, Badal C.; Hector, Ronald E.; Dien, Bruce; Iten, Loren; Bowman, Michael J.; Cotta, Michael A. [United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Agricultural Research Service (ARS), National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research (NCAUR), Bioenergy Research, 1815 N. University Street, Peoria, IL 61604 (United States); Hughes, Stephen; Liu, Siqing [USDA-ARS-NCAUR, Renewable Product Technology, 1815 N. University Street, Peoria, IL 61604 (United States); Sarath, Gautam [USDA-ARS, Grain, Forage, and Bioenergy Research Unit, University of Nebraska, 314 Biochemistry Hall, East Campus, Lincoln, NE 68583 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    Acetone butanol ethanol (ABE) was produced from hydrolysed corn stover and switchgrass using Clostridium beijerinckii P260. A control experiment using glucose resulted in the production of 21.06 g L{sup -1} total ABE. In this experiment an ABE yield and productivity of 0.41 and 0.31 g L{sup -1} h{sup -1} was achieved, respectively. Fermentation of untreated corn stover hydrolysate (CSH) exhibited no growth and no ABE production; however, upon dilution with water (two fold) and wheat straw hydrolysate (WSH, ratio 1:1), 16.00 and 18.04 g L{sup -1} ABE was produced, respectively. These experiments resulted in ABE productivity of 0.17-0.21 g L{sup -1} h{sup -1}. Inhibitors present in CSH were removed by treating the hydrolysate with Ca(OH){sub 2} (overliming). The culture was able to produce 26.27 g L{sup -1} ABE after inhibitor removal. Untreated switchgrass hydrolysate (SGH) was poorly fermented and the culture did not produce more than 1.48 g L{sup -1} ABE which was improved to 14.61 g L{sup -1}. It is suggested that biomass pretreatment methods that do not generate inhibitors be investigated. Alternately, cultures resistant to inhibitors and able to produce butanol at high concentrations may be another approach to improve the current process. (author)

  6. Molecular characterization of gluten hydrolysing Bacillus sp. and their efficacy and biotherapeutic potential as probiotics using Caco-2 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashmi, B S; Gayathri, D

    2017-09-01

    To isolate and characterize indigenous gluten hydrolysing bacteria from wheat sourdough and curd samples and further evaluation of their probiotic potentiality. Indigenous gluten hydrolysing isolates GS 33, GS 143, GS 181 and GS 188 were identified as Bacillus sp. by molecular-typing methods and studied extensively for their functional and probiotic attributes. All the tested isolates could survive at pH 2 and toxicity of 0·3% bile and also exhibited cell surface hydrophobicity and autoaggregation phenotype. The isolates were adhered strongly to Caco-2 cells and coaggregated with Escherichia coli MTCC 433 and Listeria monocytogenes MTCC 1143 preventing pathogen invasion into Caco-2 cells in vitro. In addition, the minimum inhibitory concentration of selected antibiotics for all the investigated gluten hydrolysing isolates was within the breakpoint values as recommended by the European Food Safety Authority. The indigenous high intensity gluten hydrolysing bacteria exhibited high resistance to gastric and pancreatic stress and possessed antibacterial, aggregation, adhesion and pathogen exclusion properties, and as a potential probiotics, either alone or in consortium would be useful in the development of gluten-free wheat foods. Exploring new indigenous gluten hydrolysing bacteria from wheat sourdough and curd samples would be beneficial in developing gluten-free wheat foods using potential indigenous probiotics. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. Fed-batch production of green coconut hydrolysates for high-gravity second-generation bioethanol fermentation with cellulosic yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Jimmy; Demeke, Mekonnen M; Van de Velde, Miet; Foulquié-Moreno, Maria R; Kerstens, Dorien; Sels, Bert F; Verplaetse, Alex; Fernandes, Antonio Alberto Ribeiro; Thevelein, Johan M; Fernandes, Patricia Machado Bueno

    2017-11-01

    The residual biomass obtained from the production of Cocos nucifera L. (coconut) is a potential source of feedstock for bioethanol production. Even though coconut hydrolysates for ethanol production have previously been obtained, high-solid loads to obtain high sugar and ethanol levels remain a challenge. We investigated the use of a fed-batch regime in the production of sugar-rich hydrolysates from the green coconut fruit and its mesocarp. Fermentation of the hydrolysates obtained from green coconut or its mesocarp, containing 8.4 and 9.7% (w/v) sugar, resulted in 3.8 and 4.3% (v/v) ethanol, respectively. However, green coconut hydrolysate showed a prolonged fermentation lag phase. The inhibitor profile suggested that fatty acids and acetic acid were the main fermentation inhibitors. Therefore, a fed-batch regime with mild alkaline pretreatment followed by saccharification, is presented as a strategy for fermentation of such challenging biomass hydrolysates, even though further improvement of yeast inhibitor tolerance is also needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Identification of Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Peptides Derived from Enzymatic Hydrolysates of Razor Clam Sinonovacula constricta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitory activity of razor clam hydrolysates produced using five proteases, namely, pepsin, trypsin, alcalase, flavourzyme and proteases from Actinomucor elegans T3 was investigated. Flavourzyme hydrolysate showed the highest level of degree of hydrolysis (DH (45.87% followed by A. elegans T3 proteases hydrolysate (37.84% and alcalase (30.55%. The A. elegans T3 proteases was observed to be more effective in generating small peptides with ACE-inhibitory activity. The 3 kDa membrane permeate of A. elegans T3 proteases hydrolysate showed the highest ACE-inhibitory activity with an IC50 of 0.79 mg/mL. After chromatographic separation by Sephadex G-15 gel filtration and reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography, the potent fraction was subjected to MALDI/TOF-TOF MS/MS for identification. A novel ACE-inhibitory peptide (VQY was identified exhibiting an IC50 of 9.8 μM. The inhibitory kinetics investigation by Lineweaver-Burk plots demonstrated that the peptide acts as a competitive ACE inhibitor. The razor clam hydrolysate obtained by A. elegans T3 proteases could serve as a source of functional peptides with ACE-inhibitory activity for physiological benefits.

  9. Ameloblasts express type I collagen during amelogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaraf-Weill, N; Gasse, B; Silvent, J; Bardet, C; Sire, J Y; Davit-Béal, T

    2014-05-01

    Enamel and enameloid, the highly mineralized tooth-covering tissues in living vertebrates, are different in their matrix composition. Enamel, a unique product of ameloblasts, principally contains enamel matrix proteins (EMPs), while enameloid possesses collagen fibrils and probably receives contributions from both odontoblasts and ameloblasts. Here we focused on type I collagen (COL1A1) and amelogenin (AMEL) gene expression during enameloid and enamel formation throughout ontogeny in the caudate amphibian, Pleurodeles waltl. In this model, pre-metamorphic teeth possess enameloid and enamel, while post-metamorphic teeth possess enamel only. In first-generation teeth, qPCR and in situ hybridization (ISH) on sections revealed that ameloblasts weakly expressed AMEL during late-stage enameloid formation, while expression strongly increased during enamel deposition. Using ISH, we identified COL1A1 transcripts in ameloblasts and odontoblasts during enameloid formation. COL1A1 expression in ameloblasts gradually decreased and was no longer detected after metamorphosis. The transition from enameloid-rich to enamel-rich teeth could be related to a switch in ameloblast activity from COL1A1 to AMEL synthesis. P. waltl therefore appears to be an appropriate animal model for the study of the processes involved during enameloid-to-enamel transition, especially because similar events probably occurred in various lineages during vertebrate evolution.

  10. Postnatal development of collagen structure in ovine articular cartilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kranenbarg Sander

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Articular cartilage (AC is the layer of tissue that covers the articulating ends of the bones in diarthrodial joints. Across species, adult AC shows an arcade-like structure with collagen predominantly perpendicular to the subchondral bone near the bone, and collagen predominantly parallel to the articular surface near the articular surface. Recent studies into collagen fibre orientation in stillborn and juvenile animals showed that this structure is absent at birth. Since the collagen structure is an important factor for AC mechanics, the absence of the adult Benninghoff structure has implications for perinatal AC mechanobiology. The current objective is to quantify the dynamics of collagen network development in a model animal from birth to maturity. We further aim to show the presence or absence of zonal differentiation at birth, and to assess differences in collagen network development between different anatomical sites of a single joint surface. We use quantitative polarised light microscopy to investigate properties of the collagen network and we use the sheep (Ovis aries as our model animal. Results Predominant collagen orientation is parallel to the articular surface throughout the tissue depth for perinatal cartilage. This remodels to the Benninghoff structure before the sheep reach sexual maturity. Remodelling of predominant collagen orientation starts at a depth just below the future transitional zone. Tissue retardance shows a minimum near the articular surface at all ages, which indicates the presence of zonal differentiation at all ages. The absolute position of this minimum does change between birth and maturity. Between different anatomical sites, we find differences in the dynamics of collagen remodelling, but no differences in adult collagen structure. Conclusions The collagen network in articular cartilage remodels between birth and sexual maturity from a network with predominant orientation parallel to the

  11. Antioxidant and Anti-aging Activities of Silybum Marianum Protein Hydrolysate in Mice Treated with D-galactose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shu Yun; Jiang, Ning; Tu, Jie; Yang, Jing; Zhou, Yue

    2017-09-01

    In the present study, we investigated the antioxidant and anti-aging effects of Silybum marianum protein hydrolysate (SMPH) in D-galactose-treated mice. D-galactose (500 mg/kg body weight) was intraperitoneally injected daily for 7 weeks to accelerate aging, and SMPH (400, 800, 1,200 mg/kg body weight, respectively) was simultaneously administered orally. The antioxidant and anti-aging effects of SMPH in the liver and brain were measured by biochemical assays. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was performed to study the ultrastructure of liver mitochondri. SMPH decreased triglyceride and cholesterol levels in the D-galactose-treated mice. It significantly elevated the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), which were suppressed by D-galactose. Monoamine oxidase (MAO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels as well as the concentrations of caspase-3 and 8-OHdG in the liver and brain were significantly reduced by SMPH. Moreover, it increased Bcl-2 levels in the liver and brain. Furthermore, SMPH significantly attenuated D-galactose-induced liver mitochondrial dysfunction by improving the activities of Na+-K+-ATPase and Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase as well as mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and fluidity. TEM showed that the degree of liver mitochondrial damage was significantly decreased by SMPH. The results indicated that SMPH protects against D-galactose-induced accelerated aging in mice through its antioxidant and anti-aging activities. Copyright © 2017 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  12. Long-Term Fungal Inhibition by Pisum sativum Flour Hydrolysate during Storage of Wheat Flour Bread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavecchia, Anna; Gramaglia, Valerio; Gobbetti, Marco

    2015-01-01

    In order to identify antifungal compounds from natural sources to be used as ingredients in the bakery industry, water/salt-soluble extracts (WSE) from different legume flour hydrolysates obtained by the use of a fungal protease were assayed against Penicillium roqueforti DPPMAF1. The agar diffusion assays allowed the selection of the pea (Pisum sativum) hydrolysate as the most active. As shown by the hyphal radial growth rate, the WSE had inhibitory activity towards several fungi isolated from bakeries. The MIC of the WSE was 9.0 mg/ml. Fungal inhibition was slightly affected by heating and variations in pH. The antifungal activity was attributed to three native proteins (pea defensins 1 and 2 and a nonspecific lipid transfer protein [nsLTP]) and a mixture of peptides released during hydrolysis. The three proteins have been reported previously as components of the defense system of the plant. Five peptides were purified from WSE and were identified as sequences encrypted in leginsulin A, vicilin, provicilin, and the nsLTP. To confirm antifungal activity, the peptides were chemically synthesized and tested. Freeze-dried WSE were used as ingredients in leavened baked goods. In particular, breads made by the addition of 1.6% (wt/wt) of the extract and fermented by baker's yeast or sourdough were characterized for their main chemical, structural, and sensory features, packed in polyethylene bags, stored at room temperature, and compared to controls prepared without pea hydrolysate. Artificially inoculated slices of a bread containing the WSE did not show contamination by fungi until at least 21 days of storage and behaved like the bread prepared with calcium propionate (0.3%, wt/wt). PMID:25862230

  13. Identification of odor volatile compounds and deodorization of Paphia undulata enzymatic hydrolysate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Deke; Chen, Xin; Chen, Hua; Cai, Bingna; Wan, Peng; Zhu, Xiaolian; Sun, Han; Sun, Huili; Pan, Jianyu

    2016-12-01

    Unfavorable fishy odour is an inevitable problem in aquatic products. In the present study, headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) analysis of volatiles from untreated samples and three deodorized samples (under the optimal conditions) of Paphia undulata enzymatic hydrolysate revealed that the compounds contributing to the distinctive odor were 1-octen-3-ol, n-hexanal, n-heptanal, 2,4-heptadienal, and 2,4-decadienal, whereas n-pentanal, n-octanal, n-octanol, benzaldehyde, 2-ethylfuran and 2-pentylfuran were the main contributors to the aromatic flavor. The deodorizing effects of activated carbon (AC) adsorption, yeast extract (YE) masking and tea polyphenol (TP) treatment on a P. undulata enzymatic hydrolysate were investigated using orthogonal experiments with sensory evaluation as the index. The following optimized deodorization conditions were obtained: AC adsorption (35 mg mL-1, 80°C, 40 min), YE masking (7 mg mL-1, 45°C, 30 min) and TP treatment (0.4 mg mL-1, 40°C, 50 min). AC adsorption effectively removed off-flavor volatile aldehydes and ketones. YE masking modified the odor profile by increasing the relative contents of aromatic compounds and decreasing the relative contents of aldehydes and ketones. The TP treatment was not effective in reducing the odor score, but it significantly reduced the relative content of aldehydes while increasing that of alkanes. It is also notable that TP effectively suppressed trimethylamine (TMA) formation in a P. undulate hydrolysate solution for a period of 72 h.

  14. Centrifugal partition chromatography in a biorefinery context: Separation of monosaccharides from hydrolysed sugar beet pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, David P; Cárdenas-Fernández, Max; Hewitson, Peter; Ignatova, Svetlana; Lye, Gary J

    2015-09-11

    A critical step in the bioprocessing of sustainable biomass feedstocks, such as sugar beet pulp (SBP), is the isolation of the component sugars from the hydrolysed polysaccharides. This facilitates their subsequent conversion into higher value chemicals and pharmaceutical intermediates. Separation methodologies such as centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) offer an alternative to traditional resin-based chromatographic techniques for multicomponent sugar separations. Highly polar two-phase systems containing ethanol and aqueous ammonium sulphate are examined here for the separation of monosaccharides present in hydrolysed SBP pectin: l-rhamnose, l-arabinose, d-galactose and d-galacturonic acid. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was selected as an effective phase system modifier improving monosaccharide separation. The best phase system identified was ethanol:DMSO:aqueous ammonium sulphate (300gL(-1)) (0.8:0.1:1.8, v:v:v) which enabled separation of the SBP monosaccharides by CPC (200mL column) in ascending mode (upper phase as mobile phase) with a mobile phase flow rate of 8mLmin(-1). A mixture containing all four monosaccharides (1.08g total sugars) in the proportions found in hydrolysed SBP was separated into three main fractions; a pure l-rhamnose fraction (>90%), a mixed l-arabinose/d-galactose fraction and a pure d-galacturonic acid fraction (>90%). The separation took less than 2h demonstrating that CPC is a promising technique for the separation of these sugars with potential for application within an integrated, whole crop biorefinery. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Accelerated shelf-life testing of quality loss for a commercial hydrolysed hen egg white powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Qinchun; Rocca-Smith, Jeancarlo R; Schoenfuss, Tonya C; Labuza, Theodore P

    2012-11-15

    In recent years, due to the specific health benefits associated with bioactive peptides and the reduction of protein allergenicity by enzymatic hydrolysis, the utilisation of protein hydrolysates in functional foods and beverages for both protein supplementation and clinical use has significantly increased. However, few studies have explored the moisture-induced effects on food protein hydrolysates, and the resulting changes in the structure and texture of the food matrix as well as the loss in functional properties of bioactive peptides during storage. The main purpose of this study is to determine the influence of water activity (a(w)) on the storage quality of a commercial spray-dried hydrolysed hen egg white powder (HEW). During storage at 45 °C for two months at different a(w)s (0.05-0.79), the selected physicochemical properties of the HEW samples were analysed. Overall, the effect of a(w) on the colour change of HEW at 45 °C for one month was similar to that of HEW after four months at 23 °C due to the presence of a small amount of glucose in HEW. Several structural changes occurred at a(w)s from 0.43 to 0.79 including agglomeration, stickiness and collapse. Kinetic analysis showed a first-order hyperbolic model fit for the change in the L(∗) value, the total colour difference (ΔE(∗)) and the fluorescence intensity (FI). There was a high correlation between colour change and fluorescence, as expected for the Maillard reaction. The reduction in the remaining free amino groups was about 5% at a(w) 0.50 and 6% at a(w) 0.79 after one month storage. In summary, during storage, the Maillard reaction and/or its resulting products could decrease the nutritional value and the quality of HEW. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The ability of fruit and vegetable enzyme system to hydrolyse ester bonds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Mironowicz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The pulp of potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum, topinambur (Helianthus tuberosus and apples (Malus silvestris can hydrolyse totally, or almost totally, ester bonds in phenyl, α- and β-naphthyl, benzyl and cinnamyl acetates. In methyl 4-acetoxy-3-metoxybenzoate and methyl 2,5-diacetoxybenzoate as well as testosterone propionate and 16,17-acetonide of 21-acetoxy-6-fluoro-16α,17β,21-trihydroxy-4-pregnen-3,20-dione, the hydrolysis is selective towards the substrate and the bioreagent. In contrast, ethyl benzoate and cinnamate are resistant to hydrolysis.

  17. Effects of hydrolysed casein, intact casein and intact whey protein on energy expenditure and appetite regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Line Quist; Lorenzen, Janne Kunchel; Gomes, Sisse

    2014-01-01

    Casein and whey differ in amino acid composition and in the rate of absorption; however, the absorption rate of casein can be increased to mimic that of whey by exogenous hydrolysis. The objective of the present study was to compare the effects of hydrolysed casein (HC), intact casein (IC......) and intact whey (IW) on energy expenditure (EE) and appetite regulation, and thereby to investigate the influence of amino acid composition and the rate of absorption. In the present randomised cross-over study, twenty-four overweight and moderately obese young men and women consumed three isoenergetic...

  18. Cellulose with a High Fractal Dimension Is Easily Hydrolysable under Acid Catalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Díaz

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption of three diverse amino acids couples onto the surface of microcrystalline cellulose was studied. Characterisation of modified celluloses included changes in the polarity and in roughness. The amino acids partially break down the hydrogen bonding network of the cellulose structure, leading to more reactive cellulose residues that were easily hydrolysed to glucose in the presence of hydrochloric acid or tungstophosphoric acid catalysts. The conversion of cellulose and selectivity for glucose was highly dependent on the self-assembled amino acids adsorbed onto the cellulose and the catalyst.

  19. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy with photosensitizer in ethanol improves oxidative status and gingival collagen in a short-term in periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillusky, Fernanda Maia; Barcelos, Raquel Cristine Silva; Vey, Luciana Taschetto; Barin, Luisa Machado; de Mello Palma, Victor; Maciel, Roberto Marinho; Kantorski, Karla Zanini; Bürger, Marilise Escobar; Danesi, Cristiane Cademartori

    2017-09-01

    This study evaluated the antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) effects using the methylene blue (MB) in ethanol 20% on systemic oxidative status and collagen content from gingiva of rats with periodontitis. Rats were divided into five experimental groups: NC (negative control; no periodontitis); PC (positive control; periodontitis without any treatment); SRP (periodontitis and scaling and root planing), aPDT I (periodontitis and SRP+aPDT+MB solubilized in water), and aPDT II (periodontitis and SRP+aPDT+MB solubilized in ethanol 20%). After 7days of removal of the ligature, the periodontal treatments were performed. At 7/15/30days, gingival tissue was removed for morphometric analysis. The erythrocytes were used to evaluate systemic oxidative status. PC group showed higher lipoperoxidation levels at 7/15/30days. aPDT indicated a protective influence in erythrocytes at 15days observed by the elevation in levels of systemic antioxidant defense. aPDT II group was the only one that restored the total collagen area in 15days, and recovered the type I collagen area at the same time point. aPDT as an adjunct to the SRP can induce the systemic protective response against oxidative stress periodontitis-induced and recover the gingival collagen, thus promoting the healing periodontal, particularly when the MB is dissolved in ethanol 20%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. High-yield production of mannitol by Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides CTCC G123 from chicory-derived inulin hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Gu, Lei; Cheng, Chao; Zhu, Junru; Wu, Hao; Ma, Jiangfeng; Dong, Weiliang; Kong, Xiangping; Jiang, Min; Ouyang, Pingkai

    2017-08-01

    Chicory is an agricultural plant with considerable potential as a carbohydrate substrate for low-cost production of biochemicals. In this work, the production of mannitol by Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides CTCC G123 from chicory-derived inulin hydrolysate was investigated. The bioconversion process initially suffered from the leakage of fructose to the phosphoketolase pathway, resulting in a low mannitol yield. When inulin hydrolysate was supplemented with glucose as a substrate for mannitol production in combination with aeration induction and nicotinic acid induced redox modulation strategies, the mannitol yield greatly improved. Under these conditions, significant improvement in the glucose consumption rate, intracellular NADH levels and mannitol dehydrogenase specific activity were observed, with mannitol production increasing from 64.6 to 88.1 g/L and overall yield increase from 0.69 to 0.94 g/g. This work demonstrated an efficient method for the production of mannitol from inulin hydrolysate with a high overall yield.

  1. Efficient production of 2,3-butanediol from corn stover hydrolysate by using a thermophilic Bacillus licheniformis strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lixiang; Li, Kun; Wang, Kai; Chen, Chao; Gao, Chao; Ma, Cuiqing; Xu, Ping

    2014-10-01

    In this study, a thermophilic Bacillus licheniformis strain X10 was newly isolated for 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD) production from lignocellulosic hydrolysate. Strain X10 could utilize glucose and xylose simultaneously without carbon catabolite repression. In addition, strain X10 possesses high tolerance to fermentation inhibitors including furfural, vanillin, formic acid, and acetic acid. In a fed-batch fermentation, 74.0g/L of 2,3-BD was obtained from corn stover hydrolysate, with a productivity of 2.1g/Lh and a yield of 94.6%. Thus, this thermophilic B. licheniformis strain is a candidate for the development of efficient industrial production of 2,3-BD from corn stover hydrolysate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Elastin hydrolysate derived from fish enhances proliferation of human skin fibroblasts and elastin synthesis in human skin fibroblasts and improves the skin conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiratsuchi, Eri; Nakaba, Misako; Yamada, Michio

    2016-03-30

    Recent studies have shown that certain peptides significantly improve skin conditions, such as skin elasticity and the moisture content of the skin of healthy woman. This study aimed to investigate the effects of elastin hydrolysate on human skin. Proliferation and elastin synthesis were evaluated in human skin fibroblasts exposed to elastin hydrolysate and proryl-glycine (Pro-Gly), which is present in human blood after elastin hydrolysate ingestion. We also performed an ingestion test with elastin hydrolysate in humans and evaluated skin condition. Elastin hydrolysate and Pro-Gly enhanced the proliferation of fibroblasts and elastin synthesis. Maximal proliferation response was observed at 25 ng mL(-1) Pro-Gly. Ingestion of elastin hydrolysate improved skin condition, such as elasticity, number of wrinkles, and blood flow. Elasticity improved by 4% in the elastin hydrolysate group compared with 2% in the placebo group. Therefore, elastin hydrolysate activates human skin fibroblasts and has beneficial effects on skin conditions. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Preparation and characterization of porous crosslinked collagenous matrices containing bioavailable chondroitin sulphate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieper, J.S.; Oosterhof, A.; Dijkstra, Pieter J.; Veerkamp, J.H.; van Kuppevelt, T.H.

    1999-01-01

    Porous collagen matrices with defined physical, chemical and biological characteristics are interesting materials for tissue engineering. Attachment of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) may add to these characteristics and valorize collagen. In this study, porous type I collagen matrices were crosslinked

  4. Effect of Mechanical Stretching of the Skin on Collagen Fibril ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stabilization of collagen fibres during development and through growth to maturation has now become fairly documented. In vitro effect of mechanical stretching of ratsf skin on oxidative deamination of ε-NH2-groups of lysine and hydroxylysine, and functional properties of its type . collagen were studied. Experiments were ...

  5. Electrophoretic mobility patterns of collagen following laser welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Lawrence S.; Moazami, Nader; Pocsidio, Joanne O.; Oz, Mehmet C.; LoGerfo, Paul; Treat, Michael R.

    1991-06-01

    Clinical application of laser vascular anastomosis in inhibited by a lack of understanding of its mechanism. Whether tissue fusion results from covalent or non-covalent bonding of collagen and other structural proteins is unknown. We compared electrophoretic mobility of collagen in laser treated and untreated specimens of rat tail tendon (>90% type I collagen) and rabbit aorta. Welding was performed, using tissue shrinkage as the clinical endpoint, using the 808 nm diode laser (power density 14 watts/cm2) and topical indocyanine green dye (max absorption 805 nm). Collagen was extracted with 8 M urea (denaturing), 0.5 M acetic acid (non-denaturing) and acetic acid/pepsin (cleaves non- helical protein). Mobility patterns on gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) after urea or acetic acid extraction were identical in the lasered and control tendon and vessel (confirmed by optical densitometry), revealing no evidence of formation of novel covalent bonds. Alpha and beta band intensity was diminished in pepsin incubated lasered specimens compared with controls (optical density ratio 0.00 +/- 9 tendon, 0.65 +/- 0.12 aorta), indicating the presence of denatured collagen. With the laser parameters used, collagen is denatured without formation of covalent bonds, suggesting that non-covalent interaction between denatured collagen molecules may be responsible for the weld. Based on this mechanism, welding parameters can be chosen which produce collagen denaturation without cell death.

  6. Changes in collagen synthesis and degradation during skeletal muscle growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurent, G.J.; McAnulty, R.J.; Gibson, J.

    1985-01-01

    The changes in collagen metabolism during skeletal muscle growth were investigated by measuring rates of synthesis and degradation during stretch-induced hypertrophy of the anterior latissimus dorsi muscle of the adult chicken (Gallus domesticus). Synthesis rates were obtained from the uptake of tritiated proline injected intravenously with a flooding dose of unlabeled proline. Degradation of newly synthesized and ''mature'' collagen was estimated from the amount of hydroxyproline in the free pool as small molecular weight moieties. In normal muscle, the synthesis rate was 1.1 +/- 0.3%/day, with 49 +/- 7% of the newly produced collagen degraded rapidly after synthesis. During hypertrophy there was an increase of about fivefold in the rate of synthesis (P less than 0.01), a 60% decrease in the rate of degradation of newly synthesized collagen (P less than 0.02), and an increase of about fourfold in the amount of degradation of mature collagen (P less than 0.01). These results suggest an important role for degradative as well as synthetic processes in the regulation of collagen mass. They indicate that enhanced degradation of mature collagen is required for muscle growth and suggest a physiological role for the pathway whereby in normal muscle, a large proportion of newly produced collagen is rapidly degraded

  7. Chitosan Cross-linked Reconstituted Amniotic Collagen Membrane ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Chitosan Cross-linked Reconstituted Amniotic Collagen Membrane – An Excellent Cell Substratum. The KERATINOCYTE proliferation and Differentiation into multiple layers is due to the presence of type - IV collagen in the amnion. Cultured FIBROBLASTS had good ...

  8. The collagen microfibril model, a tool for biomaterials scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal hides, a major byproduct of the meat industry, are a rich source of collagen, a structural protein of the extracellular matrix that gives strength and form to the skin, tendons and bones of mammals. The structure of fibrous collagen, a long triple helix that self-associates in a staggered arr...

  9. Postnatal development of collagen structure in ovine articular cartilage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turnhout, van M.C.; Schipper, H.; Engel, B.; Buist, W.; Kranenbarg, S.; Leeuwen, van J.L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Articular cartilage (AC) is the layer of tissue that covers the articulating ends of the bones in diarthrodial joints. Across species, adult AC shows an arcade-like structure with collagen predominantly perpendicular to the subchondral bone near the bone, and collagen predominantly

  10. Postnatal development of collagen structure in ovine articular cartilage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turnhout, van M.C.; Schipper, H.; Engel, B.; Buist, W.; Kranenbarg, S.; Leeuwen, van J.L.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Articular cartilage (AC) is the layer of tissue that covers the articulating ends of the bones in diarthrodial joints. Across species, adult AC shows an arcade-like structure with collagen predominantly perpendicular to the subchondral bone near the bone, and collagen predominantly

  11. Collagen levels are normalized after decompression of experimentally obstructed colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehn, Martin; Ågren, Sven Per Magnus; Syk, I

    2011-01-01

    Our aim was to define the dynamics in collagen concentrations in the large bowel wall following decompression of experimental obstruction.......Our aim was to define the dynamics in collagen concentrations in the large bowel wall following decompression of experimental obstruction....

  12. Fish collagen is an important panallergen in the Japanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Y; Akiyama, H; Huge, J; Kubota, H; Chikazawa, S; Satoh, T; Miyake, T; Uhara, H; Okuyama, R; Nakagawara, R; Aihara, M; Hamada-Sato, N

    2016-05-01

    Collagen was identified as a fish allergen in early 2000s. Although its allergenic potential has been suggested to be low, risks associated with collagen as a fish allergen have not been evaluated to a greater extent. In this study, we aimed to clarify the importance of collagen as a fish allergen. Our results showed that 50% of Japanese patients with fish allergy had immunoglobulin E (IgE) against mackerel collagen, whereas 44% had IgE against mackerel parvalbumin. IgE inhibition assay revealed high cross-reactivity of mackerel collagen to 22 fish species (inhibition rates: 87-98%). Furthermore, a recently developed allergy test demonstrated that collagen triggered IgE cross-linking on mast cells. These data indicate that fish collagen is an important and very common panallergen in fish consumed in Japan. The high rate of individuals' collagen allergy may be attributable to the traditional Japanese custom of raw fish consumption. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Preparation and structure characterization of soluble bone collagen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, G-25 gel chromatography, X-diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to analyze soluble collagen peptides chelating calcium. Collagen peptide hydrolysis can be divided into four components using G-25 gel chromatography.

  14. Penta-fibrillar assembly: A Building block collagen based materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    There is a smartness in the way the penta-fibrils behave in collagen based biomaterials. It is one of the intriguing nano material with a size of about 4 nano meter diagonal size. There are several intermolecular forces that participate in the penta fibrillar assembly, which derive importance in smart behavior of collagen.

  15. Collagenous colitis as a possible cause of toxic megacolon.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzgerald, S C

    2009-03-01

    Collagenous colitis is a microscopic colitis characterized by normal appearing colonic mucosa on endoscopy. It is regarded as a clinically benign disease which rarely results in serious complications. We report a case of toxic megacolon occurring in a patient with collagenous colitis. This is the first reported case of toxic megacolon occurring in this subset of patients.

  16. Effect of Abalone Hydrolysates Encapsulated by Double Emulsion on the Physicochemical and Sensorial Properties of Fresh Cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, HeeJeong; Kim, Soo-Jin; Lee, Sang-Yoon; Choi, Mi-Jung

    2017-01-01

    The intake of dietary salt through food now exceeds current nutritional recommendations and is thought to have negative effects on human health, such as the increasing prevalence of hypertension. This study was performed to investigate whether W 1 /O/W 2 double emulsions can be used to enhance the saltiness of cheese without increasing the salt content (W 1 is distilled water or 1% abalone hydrolysate, and W 2 is 1% NaCl or 1% abalone hydrolysate + 1% NaCl solution). We also investigated the effect of adding abalone hydrolysate to the double emulsion as a saltiness enhancer. The cheeses were physico-chemically evaluated to determine curd yield, pH value, moisture content, color, texture, salt release rate, and sensory properties. No significant differences were observed in curd yield, pH value, moisture content, lightness, or redness between the cheeses made with and without the double emulsion. However, in the evaluation of salt release rate, fresh cheese made with double emulsion (W 1 = distilled water, W 2 = 1% NaCl + 1% abalone hydrolysate) was detected earlier than the control or the other treatments. In the sensory evaluation, fresh cheese made with the double emulsion showed higher scores for saltiness and overall preference than the control or the other treatments. We concluded that abalone hydrolysate encapsulated in a double emulsion (W 1 is water and W 2 is abalone hydrolysate and NaCl solution) could enhance the saltiness of fresh cheese while maintaining the same salt concentration, without altering its physical properties.

  17. Collagen synthesis in CBA mouse heart after total thoracic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, J.C.; Parkins, C.S.; Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton

    1988-01-01

    CBA mice were irradiated to the whole thorax with single doses of 240 kVp X-rays in the dose range 8-16 Gy. Collagen and total protein synthesis rates in the heart were measured at 2-monthly intervals using a radio-isotope incorporation techniques. Doses of 10 Gy or greater caused a slight increase in collagen synthesis, followed by significantly reduced collagen synthesis by 16 weeks or longer after treatment. The depression in synthesis appeared correspondingly earlier with increasing dose. Total protein synthesis in heart followed similar patterns although changes were not statistically significant, indicating that the changes reflected alterations to collagen synthesis specifally, and not protein synthesis in geneal. Total hydroxyproline measurements showed no significant changes in heart collagen at any time as a result of X-irradiation. 18 refs.; 7 figs

  18. Second-harmonic generation imaging of collagen in ancient bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, B; McIntosh, D; Fildes, T; Smith, L; Hargrave, F; Islam, M; Thompson, T; Layfield, R; Scott, D; Shaw, B; Burrell, C L; Gonzalez, S; Taylor, S

    2017-12-01

    Second-harmonic generation imaging (SHG) captures triple helical collagen molecules near tissue surfaces. Biomedical research routinely utilizes various imaging software packages to quantify SHG signals for collagen content and distribution estimates in modern tissue samples including bone. For the first time using SHG, samples of modern, medieval, and ice age bones were imaged to test the applicability of SHG to ancient bone from a variety of ages, settings, and taxa. Four independent techniques including Raman spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, radiocarbon dating protocols, and mass spectrometry-based protein sequencing, confirm the presence of protein, consistent with the hypothesis that SHG imaging detects ancient bone collagen. These results suggest that future studies have the potential to use SHG imaging to provide new insights into the composition of ancient bone, to characterize ancient bone disorders, to investigate collagen preservation within and between various taxa, and to monitor collagen decay regimes in different depositional environments.

  19. Second-harmonic generation imaging of collagen in ancient bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Thomas

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Second-harmonic generation imaging (SHG captures triple helical collagen molecules near tissue surfaces. Biomedical research routinely utilizes various imaging software packages to quantify SHG signals for collagen content and distribution estimates in modern tissue samples including bone. For the first time using SHG, samples of modern, medieval, and ice age bones were imaged to test the applicability of SHG to ancient bone from a variety of ages, settings, and taxa. Four independent techniques including Raman spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, radiocarbon dating protocols, and mass spectrometry-based protein sequencing, confirm the presence of protein, consistent with the hypothesis that SHG imaging detects ancient bone collagen. These results suggest that future studies have the potential to use SHG imaging to provide new insights into the composition of ancient bone, to characterize ancient bone disorders, to investigate collagen preservation within and between various taxa, and to monitor collagen decay regimes in different depositional environments.

  20. Collagen matrix as a tool in studying fibroblastic cell behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanta, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Type I collagen is a fibrillar protein, a member of a large family of collagen proteins. It is present in most body tissues, usually in combination with other collagens and other components of extracellular matrix. Its synthesis is increased in various pathological situations, in healing wounds, in fibrotic tissues and in many tumors. After extraction from collagen-rich tissues it is widely used in studies of cell behavior, especially those of fibroblasts and myofibroblasts. Cells cultured in a classical way, on planar plastic dishes, lack the third dimension that is characteristic of body tissues. Collagen I forms gel at neutral pH and may become a basis of a 3D matrix that better mimics conditions in tissue than plastic dishes.

  1. Stability and cellular responses to fluorapatite-collagen composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Byung-Ho; Kim, Hae-Won; Lee, Su-Hee; Bae, Chang-Jun; Koh, Young-Hag; Kong, Young-Min; Kim, Hyoun-Ee

    2005-06-01

    Fluorapatite (FA)-collagen composites were synthesized via a biomimetic coprecipitation method in order to improve the structural stability and cellular responses. Different amounts of ammonium fluoride (NH4F), acting as a fluorine source for FA, were added to the precipitation of the composites. The precipitated composites were freeze-dried and isostatically pressed in a dense body. The added fluorine was incorporated nearly fully into the apatite structure (fluoridation), and a near stoichiometric FA-collagen composite was obtained with complete fluoridation. The freeze-dried composites had a typical biomimetic network, consisting of collagen fibers and precipitates of nano-sized apatite crystals. The human osteoblast-like cells on the FA-collagen composites exhibited significantly higher proliferation and differentiation (according to alkaline phosphatase activity) than those on the hydroxyapatite-collagen composite. These enhanced osteoblastic cell responses were attributed to the fluorine release and the reduced dissolution rate.

  2. Cervical Collagen Concentration within Fifteen Months after Delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundtoft, Iben; Uldbjerg, Niels; Sommer, Steffe

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Cervical collagen concentration decreases during pregnancy. The increased risk of preterm birth following a short interpregnancy interval may be explained by an incomplete remodeling of the cervix. The objective of this study was to describe the changes in cervical collagen concentration...... over 15 months following delivery. METHODS: The collagen concentrations were determined in cervical biopsies obtained from 15 women at 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 months after delivery. RESULTS: The mean cervical collagen concentrations were 50, 59, 63, 65, and 65 % of dry weight (SD 4.2 – 6.5). This increase...... was statistically significant until month 9, but not between months 9 and 12. CONCLUSIONS: Low collagen concentrations in the uterine cervix may contribute to the association between a short interpregnancy interval and preterm birth....

  3. Comparison of Nitrogen Bioaccessibility from Salmon and Whey Protein Hydrolysates using a Human Gastrointestinal Model (TIM-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bomi Framroze

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The TIM-1 system is a computer-controlled multi-compartmental dynamic model that closely simulates in vivo gastrointestinal tract digestion in humans. During digestion, the compounds released from meal matrix by gastric and intestinal secretions (enzymes are progressively absorbed through semipermeable membranes depending on their molecular weight. These absorbed (dialysed compounds are considered as bioaccessible, which means that they can be theoretically absorbed by the small intestine in the body. Methods: Salmon protein hydrolysate (SPH, whey protein hydrolysates extensively (WPHHigh or weakly (WPH-Low hydrolysed, non-hydrolysed whey protein isolate (WPI and mixtures of WPI:SPH (90:10, 80:20 were digested in TIM-1 using the conditions for a fast gastrointestinal transit that simulate the digestion of a liquid meal in human adults. During digestion (2 hours, samples were collected in intestinal compartments (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum and in both jejunal and ileal dialysates to determine their nitrogen content. All the products were compared in terms of kinetics of nitrogen absorption through the semipermeable membranes (bioaccessible nitrogen and nitrogen distribution throughout the intestinal compartments at the end of the 2 hour digestion. Results: After a 2 h-digestion in TIM-1, SPH was the protein substrate from which the highest amount of nitrogen (67.0% becomes available for the small intestine absorption. WPH-High had the second highest amount (56.0% of bioaccessible nitrogen while this amount decreased to 38.5–42.2% for the other protein substrates. The high nitrogen bioaccessibility of SPH is consistent with its richness in low molecular weight peptides (50% < 1000 Da. Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that SPH provides a higher proportion of bioaccessible nitrogen to a healthy adult compared to all forms of whey proteins, including extensively hydrolysed whey protein hydrolysate. The substitution of

  4. Production of a novel wheat gluten hydrolysate containing dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitory tripeptides using ginger protease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taga, Yuki; Hayashida, Osamu; Kusubata, Masashi; Ogawa-Goto, Kiyoko; Hattori, Shunji

    2017-09-01

    Wheat gluten is a Pro-rich protein complex comprising glutenins and gliadins. Previous studies have reported that oral intake of enzymatic hydrolysates of gluten has beneficial effects, such as suppression of muscle injury and improvement of hepatitis. Here, we utilized ginger protease that preferentially cleaves peptide bonds with Pro at the P 2 position to produce a novel type of wheat gluten hydrolysate. Ginger protease efficiently hydrolyzed gluten, particularly under weak acidic conditions, to peptides with an average molecular weight of ginger protease can be used as a functional food for patients with type 2 diabetes.

  5. Mechanical response of collagen molecule under hydrostatic compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saini, Karanvir; Kumar, Navin

    2015-01-01

    Proteins like collagen are the basic building blocks of various body tissues (soft and hard). Collagen molecules find their presence in the skeletal system of the body where they bear mechanical loads from different directions, either individually or along with hydroxy-apatite crystals. Therefore, it is very important to understand the mechanical behavior of the collagen molecule which is subjected to multi-axial state of loading. The estimation of strains of collagen molecule along different directions resulting from the changes in hydrostatic pressure magnitude, can provide us new insights into its mechanical behavior. In the present work, full atomistic simulations have been used to study global (volumetric) as well as local (along different directions) mechanical properties of the hydrated collagen molecule which is subjected to different hydrostatic pressure magnitudes. To estimate the local mechanical properties, the strains of collagen molecule along its longitudinal and transverse directions have been acquired at different hydrostatic pressure magnitudes. In spite of non-homogeneous distribution of atoms within the collagen molecule, the calculated values of local mechanical properties have been found to carry the same order of magnitude along the longitudinal and transverse directions. It has been demonstrated that the values of global mechanical properties like compressibility, bulk modulus, etc. as well as local mechanical properties like linear compressibility, linear elastic modulus, etc. are functions of magnitudes of applied hydrostatic pressures. The mechanical characteristics of collagen molecule based on the atomistic model have also been compared with that of the continuum model in the present work. The comparison showed up orthotropic material behavior for the collagen molecule. The information on collagen molecule provided in the present study can be very helpful in designing the future bio-materials.

  6. Mechanisms of lamellar collagen formation in connective tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazanfari, Samaneh; Khademhosseini, Ali; Smit, Theodoor H

    2016-08-01

    The objective of tissue engineering is to regenerate functional tissues. Engineering functional tissues requires an understanding of the mechanisms that guide the formation and evolution of structure in the extracellular matrix (ECM). In particular, the three-dimensional (3D) collagen fiber arrangement is important as it is the key structural determinant that provides mechanical integrity and biological function. In this review, we survey the current knowledge on collagen organization mechanisms that can be applied to create well-structured functional lamellar tissues and in particular intervertebral disc and cornea. Thus far, the mechanisms behind the formation of cross-aligned collagen fibers in the lamellar structures is not fully understood. We start with cell-induced collagen alignment and strain-stabilization behavior mechanisms which can explain a single anisotropically aligned collagen fiber layer. These mechanisms may explain why there is anisotropy in a single layer in the first place. However, they cannot explain why a consecutive collagen layer is laid down with an alternating alignment. Therefore, we explored another mechanism, called liquid crystal phasing. While dense concentrations of collagen show such behavior, there is little evidence that the conditions for liquid crystal phasing are actually met in vivo. Instead, lysyl aldehyde-derived collagen cross-links have been found essential for correct lamellar matrix deposition. Furthermore, we suggest that supra-cellular (tissue-level) shear stress may be instrumental in the alignment of collagen fibers. Understanding the potential mechanisms behind the lamellar collagen structure in connective tissues will lead to further improvement of the regeneration strategies of functional complex lamellar tissues. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Mechanical response of collagen molecule under hydrostatic compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Karanvir; Kumar, Navin

    2015-04-01

    Proteins like collagen are the basic building blocks of various body tissues (soft and hard). Collagen molecules find their presence in the skeletal system of the body where they bear mechanical loads from different directions, either individually or along with hydroxy-apatite crystals. Therefore, it is very important to understand the mechanical behavior of the collagen molecule which is subjected to multi-axial state of loading. The estimation of strains of collagen molecule along different directions resulting from the changes in hydrostatic pressure magnitude, can provide us new insights into its mechanical behavior. In the present work, full atomistic simulations have been used to study global (volumetric) as well as local (along different directions) mechanical properties of the hydrated collagen molecule which is subjected to different hydrostatic pressure magnitudes. To estimate the local mechanical properties, the strains of collagen molecule along its longitudinal and transverse directions have been acquired at different hydrostatic pressure magnitudes. In spite of non-homogeneous distribution of atoms within the collagen molecule, the calculated values of local mechanical properties have been found to carry the same order of magnitude along the longitudinal and transverse directions. It has been demonstrated that the values of global mechanical properties like compressibility, bulk modulus, etc. as well as local mechanical properties like linear compressibility, linear elastic modulus, etc. are functions of magnitudes of applied hydrostatic pressures. The mechanical characteristics of collagen molecule based on the atomistic model have also been compared with that of the continuum model in the present work. The comparison showed up orthotropic material behavior for the collagen molecule. The information on collagen molecule provided in the present study can be very helpful in designing the future bio-materials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  8. Mechanical response of collagen molecule under hydrostatic compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saini, Karanvir, E-mail: karans@iitrpr.ac.in; Kumar, Navin

    2015-04-01

    Proteins like collagen are the basic building blocks of various body tissues (soft and hard). Collagen molecules find their presence in the skeletal system of the body where they bear mechanical loads from different directions, either individually or along with hydroxy-apatite crystals. Therefore, it is very important to understand the mechanical behavior of the collagen molecule which is subjected to multi-axial state of loading. The estimation of strains of collagen molecule along different directions resulting from the changes in hydrostatic pressure magnitude, can provide us new insights into its mechanical behavior. In the present work, full atomistic simulations have been used to study global (volumetric) as well as local (along different directions) mechanical properties of the hydrated collagen molecule which is subjected to different hydrostatic pressure magnitudes. To estimate the local mechanical properties, the strains of collagen molecule along its longitudinal and transverse directions have been acquired at different hydrostatic pressure magnitudes. In spite of non-homogeneous distribution of atoms within the collagen molecule, the calculated values of local mechanical properties have been found to carry the same order of magnitude along the longitudinal and transverse directions. It has been demonstrated that the values of global mechanical properties like compressibility, bulk modulus, etc. as well as local mechanical properties like linear compressibility, linear elastic modulus, etc. are functions of magnitudes of applied hydrostatic pressures. The mechanical characteristics of collagen molecule based on the atomistic model have also been compared with that of the continuum model in the present work. The comparison showed up orthotropic material behavior for the collagen molecule. The information on collagen molecule provided in the present study can be very helpful in designing the future bio-materials.

  9. Uniform spatial distribution of collagen fibril radii within tendon implies local activation of pC-collagen at individual fibrils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutenberg, Andrew D.; Brown, Aidan I.; Kreplak, Laurent

    2016-08-01

    Collagen fibril cross-sectional radii show no systematic variation between the interior and the periphery of fibril bundles, indicating an effectively constant rate of collagen incorporation into fibrils throughout the bundle. Such spatially homogeneous incorporation constrains the extracellular diffusion of collagen precursors from sources at the bundle boundary to sinks at the growing fibrils. With a coarse-grained diffusion equation we determine stringent bounds, using parameters extracted from published experimental measurements of tendon development. From the lack of new fibril formation after birth, we further require that the concentration of diffusing precursors stays below the critical concentration for fibril nucleation. We find that the combination of the diffusive bound, which requires larger concentrations to ensure homogeneous fibril radii, and lack of nucleation, which requires lower concentrations, is only marginally consistent with fully processed collagen using conservative bounds. More realistic bounds may leave no consistent concentrations. Therefore, we propose that unprocessed pC-collagen diffuses from the bundle periphery followed by local C-proteinase activity and subsequent collagen incorporation at each fibril. We suggest that C-proteinase is localized within bundles, at fibril surfaces, during radial fibrillar growth. The much greater critical concentration of pC-collagen, as compared to fully processed collagen, then provides broad consistency between homogeneous fibril radii and the lack of fibril nucleation during fibril growth.

  10. Goodpasture's autoimmune disease - A collagen IV disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedchenko, Vadim; Richard Kitching, A; Hudson, Billy G

    2018-05-12

    Goodpasture's (GP) disease is an autoimmune disorder characterized by the deposition of pathogenic autoantibodies in basement membranes of kidney and lung eliciting rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis and pulmonary hemorrhage. The principal autoantigen is the α345 network of collagen IV, which expression is restricted to target tissues. Recent discoveries include a key role of chloride and bromide for network assembly, a novel posttranslational modification of the antigen, a sulfilimine bond that crosslinks the antigen, and the mechanistic role of HLA in genetic susceptibility and resistance to GP disease. These advances provide further insights into molecular mechanisms of initiation and progression of GP disease and serve as a basis for developing of novel diagnostic tools and therapies for treatment of Goodpasture's disease. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Subclinical pulmonary involvement in collagen vascular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dansin, E.; Wallaert, B.; Jardin, M.R.; Remy, J.; Hatron, P.Y.; Tonnel, A.B.

    1990-01-01

    A recruitment of immune and inflammatory cells into alveolar spaces has been reported in patients with collagen vascular diseases (CVD) and a normal chest radiograph. These findings defined the concept of subclinical alveolitis (SCA). To determine whether SCA may be associated with CT signs of interstitial lung disease (ILD), the authors of this paper compared bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) findings and high-resolution (HRCT) scans in 36 patients with CVD and normal chest radiographs (systemic sclerosis [SS, n = 21], rheumatoid arthritis [RA, n = 9], primary Sjogren's syndrome [PS, n = 6]). HRCT scans were obtained in supine and prone positions. Results of BAL revealed SCA in 17/36 patients (47%); lymphocyte SCA in 4/36 (24%); neutrophil SCA in 7/36 (41%); and mixed SCA in 6/36 (35%)

  12. Cutaneous collagenous vasculopathy: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinjal Deepak Rambhia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous collagenous vasculopathy (CCV is a distinct, rare, and underdiagnosed condition. We report a case of CCV in a 50-year-old woman presenting as asymptomatic, erythematous to hyperpigmented nonblanchable macules over both the lower extremities. The clinical differential diagnosis of the lesions was pigmented purpuric dermatoses (Schamberg's purpura and cutaneous small vessel vasculitis. Histology of the lesions revealed dilated superficial dermal vessels with abundant pink hyaline material in the vessel wall, which stained with periodic acid Schiff stain. The patient was diagnosed as CCV. This condition remains largely underdiagnosed and is commonly mistaken for pigmented purpuric dermatosis or generalized essential telangiectasia. Emphasis on the differentiation of CCV from its clinical and histological mimicks is made.

  13. Corneal collagen crosslinking and pigment dispersion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaHood, Benjamin R; Moore, Sacha

    2017-03-01

    We describe the case of a keratoconus patient with pigment dispersion syndrome (PDS) who was treated for progressive corneal ectasia with corneal collagen crosslinking (CXL). Pigment dispersion syndrome has been shown to have associated morphologic changes of the corneal endothelium. Corneal CXL has the potential to cause toxicity to the corneal endothelium, and adjacent pigment might increase the likelihood of damage. In this case, the presence of PDS had no detrimental effect on the outcome of treatment, and no complications were observed at 12 months follow-up, indicating that it may be safe to perform corneal CXL in the setting of PDS. This is an important observation as the number of indications for corneal CXL grows. Copyright © 2017 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. High-strength mineralized collagen artificial bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zhi-Ye; Tao, Chun-Sheng; Cui, Helen; Wang, Chang-Ming; Cui, Fu-Zhai

    2014-03-01

    Mineralized collagen (MC) is a biomimetic material that mimics natural bone matrix in terms of both chemical composition and microstructure. The biomimetic MC possesses good biocompatibility and osteogenic activity, and is capable of guiding bone regeneration as being used for bone defect repair. However, mechanical strength of existing MC artificial bone is too low to provide effective support at human load-bearing sites, so it can only be used for the repair at non-load-bearing sites, such as bone defect filling, bone graft augmentation, and so on. In the present study, a high strength MC artificial bone material was developed by using collagen as the template for the biomimetic mineralization of the calcium phosphate, and then followed by a cold compression molding process with a certain pressure. The appearance and density of the dense MC were similar to those of natural cortical bone, and the phase composition was in conformity with that of animal's cortical bone demonstrated by XRD. Mechanical properties were tested and results showed that the compressive strength was comparable to human cortical bone, while the compressive modulus was as low as human cancellous bone. Such high strength was able to provide effective mechanical support for bone defect repair at human load-bearing sites, and the low compressive modulus can help avoid stress shielding in the application of bone regeneration. Both in vitro cell experiments and in vivo implantation assay demonstrated good biocompatibility of the material, and in vivo stability evaluation indicated that this high-strength MC artificial bone could provide long-term effective mechanical support at human load-bearing sites.

  15. Clostridium species strain BOH3 tolerates and transforms inhibitors from horticulture waste hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yu; He, Jianzhong

    2017-08-01

    Conversion of lignocellulosic hydrolysate to biofuels is impeded by the toxic effects of inhibitors that are generated during pretreatment and hydrolysis processes. Here we describe a wild-type Clostridium sp. strain BOH3 with high tolerance to the lignocellulose-derived inhibitors and its capability to transform these inhibitors. Strain BOH3 is capable of tolerating over 60 mM furfural, 60 mM hydroxymethylfurfural, and 6.6 mM vanillin, respectively, and is able to convert 53.74 ± 0.37 mM furfural into furfuryl alcohol within 90 h. The high furfural tolerance and its biotransformation by strain BOH3, which is correlated to the high transcription levels of two short-chain dehydrogenase/reductases, enable strain BOH3 to produce 5.15 ± 0.52 g/L butanol from dilute sulfuric acid pretreated horticultural waste hydrolysate (HWH) that bypassed the detoxification step. The capability of strain BOH3 to produce butanol from un-detoxified HWH lays the foundation of cost-effective biofuel production from lignocellulosic materials.

  16. Identification of novel dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) inhibitory peptides in camel milk protein hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nongonierma, Alice B; Paolella, Sara; Mudgil, Priti; Maqsood, Sajid; FitzGerald, Richard J

    2018-04-01

    Nine novel dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) inhibitory peptides (FLQY, FQLGASPY, ILDKEGIDY, ILELA, LLQLEAIR, LPVP, LQALHQGQIV, MPVQA and SPVVPF) were identified in camel milk proteins hydrolysed with trypsin. This was achieved using a sequential approach combining liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), qualitative/quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) and confirmatory studies with synthetic peptides. The most potent camel milk protein-derived DPP-IV inhibitory peptides, LPVP and MPVQA, had DPP-IV half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC 50 ) of 87.0 ± 3.2 and 93.3 ± 8.0 µM, respectively. DPP-IV inhibitory peptide sequences identified within camel and bovine milk protein hydrolysates generated under the same hydrolysis conditions differ. This was linked to differences in enzyme selectivity for peptide bond cleavage of camel and bovine milk proteins as well as dissimilarities in their amino acid sequences. Camel milk proteins contain novel DPP-IV inhibitory peptides which may play a role in the regulation of glycaemia in humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Purification and Identification of Antioxidant Peptides from Enzymatic Hydrolysate of Spirulina platensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jie; Hu, Yuanliang; Xue, Mingxiong; Dun, Yaohao; Li, Shenao; Peng, Nan; Liang, Yunxiang; Zhao, Shumao

    2016-07-28

    The aim of this study was to isolate antioxidant peptides from an enzymatic hydrolysate of Spirulina platensis. A novel antioxidant peptide was obtained by ultrafiltration, gel filtration chromatography, and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, with the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay used to measure the antioxidant activity, and the sequence was determined to be Pro-Asn-Asn (343.15 Da) by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. This peptide was synthesized to confirm its antioxidant properties, and it exhibited 81.44 ± 0.43% DPPH scavenging activity at 100 µg/ml, which was similar to that of glutathione (82.63 ± 0.56%). Furthermore, the superoxide anion and hydroxyl free-radical scavenging activities and the SOD activity of the peptide were 47.84 ± 0.49%, 54.01 ± 0.82%, and 12.55 ± 0.75%, respectively, at 10 mg/ml. These results indicate that S. platensis is a good source of antioxidant peptides, and that its hydrolysate may have important applications in the pharmaceutical and food industries.

  18. Targeted separation of antibacterial peptide from protein hydrolysate of anchovy cooking wastewater by equilibrium dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wenting; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Li; Qian, Haifeng; Qi, Xiguang

    2015-02-01

    Anchovy (Engraulis japonicus) cooking wastewater (ACWW) is a by-product resulted from the production of boiled-dried anchovies in the seafood processing industry. In this study, the protein hydrolysate of ACWW (ACWWPH) was found to have antimicrobial activity after enzymatic hydrolysis with Protamex. For the targeted screening of antibacterial peptides, liposomes constructed from Staphylococcus aureus membrane lipids were used in an equilibrium dialysis system. The hydrolysate was further purified by liposome equilibrium dialysis combined with high performance liquid chromatography. The purified antimicrobial peptide (ACWWP1) was determined to be GLSRLFTALK, with a molecular weight of 1104.6622Da. The peptide exhibited no haemolytic activity up to a concentration of 512μg/ml. It displayed a dose-dependent bactericidal effect in reconstituted milk. The change in cell surface hydrophobicity and membrane-permeable action of the purified ACWWP1 may have contributed to the antibacterial effect. This study suggests that liposome equilibrium dialysis can be used for the targeted screening of antimicrobial peptides. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Biohydrogen production in the suspended and attached microbial growth systems from waste pastry hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wei; Hu, Yunyi; Li, Shiyi; Li, Feifei; Tang, Junhong

    2016-10-01

    Waste pastry was hydrolyzed by glucoamylase and protease which were obtained from solid state fermentation of Aspergillus awamori and Aspergillus oryzae to produce waste pastry hydrolysate. Then, the effects of hydraulic retention times (HRTs) (4-12h) on hydrogen production rate (HPR) in the suspended microbial growth system (continuous stirred tank reactor, CSTR) and attached microbial growth system (continuous mixed immobilized sludge reactor, CMISR) from waste pastry hydrolysate were investigated. The maximum HPRs of CSTR (201.8mL/(h·L)) and CMISR (255.3mL/(h·L)) were obtained at HRT of 6h and 4h, respectively. The first-order reaction could be used to describe the enzymatic hydrolysis of waste pastry. The carbon content of the waste pastry remained 22.8% in the undigested waste pastry and consumed 77.2% for carbon dioxide and soluble microbial products. To our knowledge, this is the first study which reports biohydrogen production from waste pastry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Antioxidant activity of pea protein hydrolysates produced by batch fermentation with lactic acid bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisavljević Nemanja S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nine Lactobacillus strains known for surface proteinase activity were chosen from our collection and tested for their ability to grow in pea seed protein-based medium, and to hydrolyze purified pea proteins in order to produce peptides with antioxidant (AO activity. Two strains, Lactobacillus rhamnosus BGT10 and Lactobacillus zeae LMG17315, exhibited strong proteolytic activity against pea proteins. The AO activity of the pea hydrolysate fraction, MW <10 kDa, obtained by the fermentation of purified pea proteins with Lactobacillus rhamnosus BGT10, was tested by standard spectrophotometric assays (DPPH, ABTS, Fe3+-reducing capacity and the recently developed direct current (DC polarographic assay. The low molecular weight fraction of the obtained hydrolysate was separated using ion exchange chromatography, while the AO activity of eluted fractions was determined by means of a sensitive DC polarographic assay without previous concentration of samples. Results revealed that the fraction present in low abundance that contained basic peptides possessed the highest antioxidant activity. Based on the obtained results, it can be concluded that Lactobacillus rhamnosus BGT10 should be further investigated as a candidate strain for large-scale production of bioactive peptides from legume proteins. [Projekat Ministartsva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173005 i br. 173026