Schepman, S.; Hansen, J.; Putter, I.D. de; Batenburg, R.S.; Bakker, D.H. de
Introduction: Research on collaboration in primary care focuses on specific diseases or types of collaboration. We investigate the effects of such collaboration by bringing together the results of scientific studies. Theory and methods: We conducted a systematic literature review of PubMed, CINAHL,
Beller, Elaine; Clark, Justin; Tsafnat, Guy; Adams, Clive; Diehl, Heinz; Lund, Hans; Ouzzani, Mourad; Thayer, Kristina; Thomas, James; Turner, Tari; Xia, Jun; Robinson, Karen; Glasziou, Paul
Systematic reviews (SR) are vital to health care, but have become complicated and time-consuming, due to the rapid expansion of evidence to be synthesised. Fortunately, many tasks of systematic reviews have the potential to be automated or may be assisted by automation. Recent advances in natural language processing, text mining and machine learning have produced new algorithms that can accurately mimic human endeavour in systematic review activity, faster and more cheaply. Automation tools need to be able to work together, to exchange data and results. Therefore, we initiated the International Collaboration for the Automation of Systematic Reviews (ICASR), to successfully put all the parts of automation of systematic review production together. The first meeting was held in Vienna in October 2015. We established a set of principles to enable tools to be developed and integrated into toolkits.This paper sets out the principles devised at that meeting, which cover the need for improvement in efficiency of SR tasks, automation across the spectrum of SR tasks, continuous improvement, adherence to high quality standards, flexibility of use and combining components, the need for a collaboration and varied skills, the desire for open source, shared code and evaluation, and a requirement for replicability through rigorous and open evaluation.Automation has a great potential to improve the speed of systematic reviews. Considerable work is already being done on many of the steps involved in a review. The 'Vienna Principles' set out in this paper aim to guide a more coordinated effort which will allow the integration of work by separate teams and build on the experience, code and evaluations done by the many teams working across the globe.
Nicholson, Joey; McCrillis, Aileen; Williams, Jeff D
While many librarians have been asked to participate in systematic reviews with researchers, often these researchers are not familiar with the systematic review process or the appropriate role for librarians. The purpose of this study was to identify the challenges and barriers that librarians face when collaborating on systematic reviews. To take a wider view of the whole process of collaborating on systematic reviews, the authors deliberately focused on interpersonal and methodological issues other than searching itself. To characterize the biggest challenges that librarians face while collaborating on systematic review projects, we used a web-based survey. The thirteen-item survey included seventeen challenges grouped into two categories: methodological and interpersonal. Participants were required to indicate the frequency and difficulty of the challenges listed. Open-ended questions allowed survey participants to describe challenges not listed in the survey and to describe strategies used to overcome challenges. Of the 17 challenges listed in the survey, 8 were reported as common by over 40% of respondents. These included methodological issues around having too broad or narrow research questions, lacking eligibility criteria, having unclear research questions, and not following established methods. The remaining challenges were interpersonal, including issues around student-led projects and the size of the research team. Of the top 8 most frequent challenges, 5 were also ranked as most difficult to handle. Open-ended responses underscored many of the challenges included in the survey and revealed several additional challenges. These results suggest that the most frequent and challenging issues relate to development of the research question and general communication with team members. Clear protocols for collaboration on systematic reviews, as well as a culture of mentorship, can help librarians prevent and address these challenges.
Halonen, Jaana I; Atkins, Salla; Hakulinen, Hanna; Pesonen, Sanna; Uitti, Jukka
Employees are major contributors to economic development, and occupational health services (OHS) can have an important role in supporting their health. Key to this is collaboration between employers and OHS. We reviewed the evidence regarding the characteristics of good collaboration between employers and OHS providers that is essential to construct more effective collaboration and services. A systematic review of the factors of good collaboration between employers and OHS providers was conducted. We searched five databases between January 2000 and March 2016 and back referenced included articles. Two reviewers evaluated 639 titles, 63 abstracts and 20 full articles, and agreed that six articles, all on qualitative studies, met the predetermined relevance and publication criteria and were included. Data were extracted by one reviewer and checked by a second reviewer and analysed using thematic analysis. Three themes and nine subthemes related to good collaboration were identified. The first theme included time, space and contract requirements for effective collaboration with three subthemes (i.e., key characteristics): flexible OHS/flexible contracts including tailor-made services accounting for the needs of the employer, geographical proximity of the stakeholders allowing easy access to services, and long-term contracts as collaboration develops over time. The second theme was related to characteristics of the dialogue in effective collaboration that consisted of shared goals, reciprocity, frequent contact and trust. According to the third theme the definition of roles of the stakeholders was important; OHS providers should have competence and knowledge about the workplace, become strategic partners with the employers as well as provide quality services. Although literature regarding collaboration between the employers and OHS providers was limited, we identified several key factors that contribute to effective collaboration. This information is useful in
Jaana I. Halonen
Full Text Available Abstract Background Employees are major contributors to economic development, and occupational health services (OHS can have an important role in supporting their health. Key to this is collaboration between employers and OHS. We reviewed the evidence regarding the characteristics of good collaboration between employers and OHS providers that is essential to construct more effective collaboration and services. Methods A systematic review of the factors of good collaboration between employers and OHS providers was conducted. We searched five databases between January 2000 and March 2016 and back referenced included articles. Two reviewers evaluated 639 titles, 63 abstracts and 20 full articles, and agreed that six articles, all on qualitative studies, met the predetermined relevance and publication criteria and were included. Data were extracted by one reviewer and checked by a second reviewer and analysed using thematic analysis. Results Three themes and nine subthemes related to good collaboration were identified. The first theme included time, space and contract requirements for effective collaboration with three subthemes (i.e., key characteristics: flexible OHS/flexible contracts including tailor-made services accounting for the needs of the employer, geographical proximity of the stakeholders allowing easy access to services, and long-term contracts as collaboration develops over time. The second theme was related to characteristics of the dialogue in effective collaboration that consisted of shared goals, reciprocity, frequent contact and trust. According to the third theme the definition of roles of the stakeholders was important; OHS providers should have competence and knowledge about the workplace, become strategic partners with the employers as well as provide quality services. Conclusion Although literature regarding collaboration between the employers and OHS providers was limited, we identified several key factors that contribute
Aquino, Maria Raisa Jessica Ryc V; Olander, Ellinor K; Needle, Justin J; Bryar, Rosamund M
Interprofessional collaboration between midwives and health visitors working in maternal and child health services is widely encouraged. This systematic review aimed to identify existing and potential areas for collaboration between midwives and health visitors; explore the methods through which collaboration is and can be achieved; assess the effectiveness of this relationship between these groups, and ascertain whether the identified examples of collaboration are in line with clinical guidelines and policy. A narrative synthesis of qualitative and quantitative studies. Fourteen electronic databases, research mailing lists, recommendations from key authors and reference lists and citations of included papers. Papers were included if they explored one or a combination of: the areas of practice in which midwives and health visitors worked collaboratively; the methods that midwives and health visitors employed when communicating and collaborating with each other; the effectiveness of collaboration between midwives and health visitors; and whether collaborative practice between midwives and health visitors meet clinical guidelines. Papers were assessed for study quality. Eighteen papers (sixteen studies) met the inclusion criteria. The studies found that midwives and health visitors reported valuing interprofessional collaboration, however this was rare in practice. Findings show that collaboration could be useful across the service continuum, from antenatal care, transition of care/handover, to postnatal care. Evidence for the effectiveness of collaboration between these two groups was equivocal and based on self-reported data. In relation, multiple enablers and barriers to collaboration were identified. Communication was reportedly key to interprofessional collaboration. Interprofessional collaboration was valuable according to both midwives and health visitors, however, this was made challenging by several barriers such as poor communication, limited resources, and
Hearld, Larry R; Bleser, William K; Alexander, Jeffrey A; Wolf, Laura J
Recent interest in community health collaboratives has been driven by the potential of these types of organizations to solve complex health problems at the local level by bringing together stakeholders that have traditionally operated independently, and often at cross-purposes. Much of the work that is central to the mission of collaboratives can take years to reach fruition, however, and there are a number of challenges to sustaining their activities. In this article, we systematically reviewed the theoretical and empirical literature on health care collaborative sustainability, focusing on definitions and antecedents of sustainability. Given the diversity and fragmentation of this literature, we used this review as a foundation to develop a synthesized definition, conceptual groups of antecedents, and potential research propositions to help guide future research, planning, and practice of sustainable community health collaboratives. © The Author(s) 2015.
Full Text Available The incorporation of Collaborative Work into programming courses has been identified as a potential strategy that could maximize student participation and have a positive impact on learning. In the consulted sources, no study has been found to collect and analyze the results of research on this subject using a systematic method. To try to fill this gap, a systematic literature review was conducted with the aim of summarizing the studies on the use of Collaborative Work as a didactic strategy for teaching/learning programming. Initially, through a search in four (4 databases of scientific publications, 95 studies published in the last five (5 years were obtained. After careful analysis of each one of them, only 40 were found to meet the review requirements. This analysis resulted in the synthesis of eleven (11 Collaborative Learning Techniques (CLT that implement such strategy. Subsequently, they were grouped into 19 common names of strategies found in the documents, i.e. the collaborative strategies or techniques associated with each study. The review also showed a significant amount of contributions from the research community that constitute an important basis for future work. This demonstrates that Collaborative Work is increasingly consolidated as a valid and relevant didactic strategy, not only in programming teaching/learning, but also in other areas of knowledge including computer science.
Sighinolfi, Cecilia; Nespeca, Claudia; Menchetti, Marco; Levantesi, Paolo; Belvederi Murri, Martino; Berardi, Domenico
This is a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the effectiveness of collaborative care compared to Primary Care Physician's (PCP's) usual care in the treatment of depression, focusing on European countries. A systematic review of English and non-English articles, from inception to March 2014, was performed using database PubMed, British Nursing Index and Archive, Ovid Medline (R), PsychINFO, Books@Ovid, PsycARTICLES Full Text, EMBASE Classic+Embase, DARE (Database of Abstract of Reviews of Effectiveness) and the Cochrane Library electronic database. Search term included depression, collaborative care, physician family and allied health professional. RCTs comparing collaborative care to usual care for depression in primary care were included. Titles and abstracts were independently examined by two reviewers, who extracted from the included trials information on participants' characteristics, type of intervention, features of collaborative care and type of outcome measure. The 17 papers included, regarding 15 RCTs, involved 3240 participants. Primary analyses showed that collaborative care models were associated with greater improvement in depression outcomes in the short term, within 3 months (standardized mean difference (SMD) -0.19, 95% CI=-0.33; -0.05; p=0.006), medium term, between 4 and 11 months (SMD -0.24, 95% CI=-0.39; -0.09; p=0.001) and medium-long term, from 12 months and over (SMD -0.21, 95% CI=-0.37; -0.04; p=0.01), compared to usual care. The present review, specifically focusing on European countries, shows that collaborative care is more effective than treatment as usual in improving depression outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Macdonald, Danielle; Snelgrove-Clarke, Erna; Campbell-Yeo, Marsha; Aston, Megan; Helwig, Melissa; Baker, Kathy A
Collaboration has been associated with improved health outcomes in maternity care. Collaborative relationships between midwives and physicians have been a focus of literature regarding collaboration in maternity care. However despite the front line role of nurses in the provision of maternity care, there has not yet been a systematic review conducted about the experiences of midwives and nurses collaborating to provide birthing care. The objective of this review was to identify, appraise and synthesize qualitative evidence on the experiences of midwives and nurses collaborating to provide birthing care.Specifically, the review question was: what are the experiences of midwives and nurses collaborating to provide birthing care? This review considered studies that included educated and licensed midwives and nurses with any length of practice. Nurses who work in labor and delivery, postpartum care, prenatal care, public health and community health were included in this systematic review.This review considered studies that investigated the experiences of midwives and nurses collaborating during the provision of birthing care. Experiences, of any duration, included any interactions between midwives and nurses working in collaboration to provide birthing care.Birthing care referred to: (a) supportive care throughout the pregnancy, labor, delivery and postpartum, (b) administrative tasks throughout the pregnancy, labor, delivery and postpartum, and (c) clinical skills throughout the pregnancy, labor, delivery and postpartum. The postpartum period included the six weeks after delivery.The review considered English language studies that focused on qualitative data including, but not limited to, designs such as phenomenology, grounded theory, ethnography, action research and feminist research.This review considered qualitative studies that explored the experiences of collaboration in areas where midwives and nurses work together. Examples of these areas included: hospitals
Barr, Neil; Vania, Diana; Randall, Glen; Mulvale, Gillian
Objectives Information and communication technology is often lauded as the key to enhancing communication among health care providers. However, its impact on interprofessional collaboration is unclear. The objective of this study was to determine the extent to which it improves communication and, subsequently, enhances interprofessional collaboration in chronic disease management. Methods A systematic review of academic literature using two electronic platforms: HealthSTAR and Web of Science (core collection and MEDLINE). To be eligible for inclusion in the review, articles needed to be peer-reviewed; accessible in English and focused on how technology supports, or might support, collaboration (through enhanced communication) in chronic disease management. Studies were assessed for quality and a narrative synthesis conducted. Results The searches identified 289 articles of which six were included in the final analysis (three used qualitative methods, two were descriptive and one used mixed methods). Various forms of information and communication technology were described including electronic health records, online communities/learning resources and telehealth/telecare. Three themes emerged from the studies that may provide insights into how communication that facilitates collaboration in chronic disease management might be enhanced: professional conflict, collective engagement and continuous learning. Conclusions The success of technology in enhancing collaboration for chronic disease management depends upon supporting the social relationships and organization in which the technology will be placed. Decision-makers should take into account and work toward balancing the impact of technology together with the professional and cultural characteristics of health care teams.
Karam, Marlène; Brault, Isabelle; Van Durme, Thérèse; Macq, Jean
Interprofessional and interorganizational collaboration have become important components of a well-functioning healthcare system, all the more so given limited financial resources, aging populations, and comorbid chronic diseases. The nursing role in working alongside other healthcare professionals is critical. By their leadership, nurses can create a culture that encourages values and role models that favour collaborative work within a team context. To clarify the specific features of conceptual frameworks of interprofessional and interorganizational collaboration in the healthcare field. This review, accordingly, offers insights into the key challenges facing policymakers, managers, healthcare professionals, and nurse leaders in planning, implementing, or evaluating interprofessional collaboration. This systematic review of qualitative research is based on the Joanna Briggs Institute's methodology for conducting synthesis. Cochrane, JBI, CINAHL, Embase, Medline, Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Sociological Abstract, PsycInfo, and ProQuest were searched, using terms such as professionals, organizations, collaboration, and frameworks. Qualitative studies of all research design types describing a conceptual framework of interprofessional or interorganizational collaboration in the healthcare field were included. They had to be written in French or English and published in the ten years between 2004 and 2014. Sixteen qualitative articles were included in the synthesis. Several concepts were found to be common to interprofessional and interorganizational collaboration, such as communication, trust, respect, mutual acquaintanceship, power, patient-centredness, task characteristics, and environment. Other concepts are of particular importance either to interorganizational collaboration, such as the need for formalization and the need for professional role clarification, or to interprofessional collaboration, such as the role of individuals and team identity. Promoting
Wood, Emily; Ohlsen, Sally; Ricketts, Thomas
Collaborative Care is an evidence-based approach to the management of depression within primary care services recommended within NICE Guidance. However, uptake within the UK has been limited. This review aims to investigate the barriers and facilitators to implementing Collaborative Care. A systematic review of the literature was undertaken to uncover what barriers and facilitators have been reported by previous research into Collaborative Care for depression in primary care. The review identified barriers and facilitators to successful implementation of Collaborative Care for depression in 18 studies across a range of settings. A framework analysis was applied using the Collaborative Care definition. The most commonly reported barriers related to the multi-professional approach, such as staff and organisational attitudes to integration, and poor inter-professional communication. Facilitators to successful implementation particularly focussed on improving inter-professional communication through standardised care pathways and case managers with clear role boundaries and key underpinning personal qualities. Not all papers were independent title and abstract screened by multiple reviewers thus limiting the reliability of the selected studies. There are many different frameworks for assessing the quality of qualitative research and little consensus as to which is most appropriate in what circumstances. The use of a quality threshold led to the exclusion of six papers that could have included further information on barriers and facilitators. Although the evidence base for Collaborative Care is strong, and the population within primary care with depression is large, the preferred way to implement the approach has not been identified. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Overbeck, Gritt; Davidsen, Annette Sofie; Kousgaard, Marius Brostrøm
Collaborative care is an increasingly popular approach for improving quality of care for people with mental health problems through an intensified and structured collaboration between primary care providers and health professionals with specialized psychiatric expertise. Trials have shown significant positive effects for patients suffering from depression, but since collaborative care is a complex intervention, it is important to understand the factors which affect its implementation. We present a qualitative systematic review of the enablers and barriers to implementing collaborative care for patients with anxiety and depression. We developed a comprehensive search strategy in cooperation with a research librarian and performed a search in five databases (EMBASE, PubMed, PsycINFO, ProQuest, and CINAHL). All authors independently screened titles and abstracts and reviewed full-text articles. Studies were included if they were published in English and based on the original qualitative data on the implementation of a collaborative care intervention targeted at depression or anxiety in an adult patient population in a high-income country. Our subsequent analysis employed the normalization process theory (NPT). We included 17 studies in our review of which 11 were conducted in the USA, five in the UK, and one in Canada. We identified several barriers and enablers within the four major analytical dimensions of NPT. Securing buy-in among primary care providers was found to be critical but sometimes difficult. Enablers included physician champions, reimbursement for extra work, and feedback on the effectiveness of collaborative care. The social and professional skills of the care managers seemed critical for integrating collaborative care in the primary health care clinic. Day-to-day implementation was also found to be facilitated by the care managers being located in the clinic since this supports regular face-to-face interactions between physicians and care managers
O'Connor, Annette M; Tsafnat, Guy; Gilbert, Stephen B; Thayer, Kristina A; Wolfe, Mary S
The second meeting of the International Collaboration for Automation of Systematic Reviews (ICASR) was held 3-4 October 2016 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. ICASR is an interdisciplinary group whose aim is to maximize the use of technology for conducting rapid, accurate, and efficient systematic reviews of scientific evidence. Having automated tools for systematic review should enable more transparent and timely review, maximizing the potential for identifying and translating research findings to practical application. The meeting brought together multiple stakeholder groups including users of summarized research, methodologists who explore production processes and systematic review quality, and technologists such as software developers, statisticians, and vendors. This diversity of participants was intended to ensure effective communication with numerous stakeholders about progress toward automation of systematic reviews and stimulate discussion about potential solutions to identified challenges. The meeting highlighted challenges, both simple and complex, and raised awareness among participants about ongoing efforts by various stakeholders. An outcome of this forum was to identify several short-term projects that participants felt would advance the automation of tasks in the systematic review workflow including (1) fostering better understanding about available tools, (2) developing validated datasets for testing new tools, (3) determining a standard method to facilitate interoperability of tools such as through an application programming interface or API, and (4) establishing criteria to evaluate the quality of tools' output. ICASR 2016 provided a beneficial forum to foster focused discussion about tool development and resources and reconfirm ICASR members' commitment toward systematic reviews' automation.
Walters, Stephen John; Stern, Cindy; Robertson-Malt, Suzanne
generated consisting of nine headings: organizational settings, support structures, purpose and goals; communication; reflection on process; cooperation; coordination; role interdependence and partnership; relationships; newly created professional activities; and professional flexibility. Among the many instruments that measure collaboration within healthcare settings, the quality of each instrument varies; instruments are designed for specific populations and purposes, and are validated in various settings. Selecting an instrument requires careful consideration of the qualities of each. Therefore, referring to systematic reviews of measurement properties of instruments may be helpful to clinicians or researchers in instrument selection. Systematic reviews of measurement properties of instruments are valuable in aiding in instrument selection. This systematic review may be useful in instrument selection for the measurement of collaboration within healthcare settings with a complex mix of participant types. Evaluating collaboration provides important information on the strengths and limitations of different healthcare settings and the opportunities for continuous improvement via any remedial actions initiated. Development of a tool that can be used to measure collaboration within teams of healthcare professionals and non-professionals is important for practice. The use of different statistical modelling techniques, such as Item Response Theory modelling and the translation of models into Computer Adaptive Tests, may prove useful. Measurement equivalence is an important consideration for future instrument development and validation. Further development of the COSMIN tool should include appraisal for measurement equivalence. Researchers developing and validating measurement tools should consider multi-method research designs.
Vincent C H Chung
Full Text Available CONTEXT: Inteprofessional collaboration (IPC between biomedically trained doctors (BMD and traditional, complementary and alternative medicine practitioners (TCAMP is an essential element in the development of successful integrative healthcare (IHC services. This systematic review aims to identify organizational strategies that would facilitate this process. METHODS: We searched 4 international databases for qualitative studies on the theme of BMD-TCAMP IPC, supplemented with a purposive search of 31 health services and TCAM journals. Methodological quality of included studies was assessed using published checklist. Results of each included study were synthesized using a framework approach, with reference to the Structuration Model of Collaboration. FINDINGS: Thirty-seven studies of acceptable quality were included. The main driver for developing integrative healthcare was the demand for holistic care from patients. Integration can best be led by those trained in both paradigms. Bridge-building activities, positive promotion of partnership and co-location of practices are also beneficial for creating bonding between team members. In order to empower the participation of TCAMP, the perceived power differentials need to be reduced. Also, resources should be committed to supporting team building, collaborative initiatives and greater patient access. Leadership and funding from central authorities are needed to promote the use of condition-specific referral protocols and shared electronic health records. More mature IHC programs usually formalize their evaluation process around outcomes that are recognized both by BMD and TCAMP. CONCLUSIONS: The major themes emerging from our review suggest that successful collaborative relationships between BMD and TCAMP are similar to those between other health professionals, and interventions which improve the effectiveness of joint working in other healthcare teams with may well be transferable to promote better
Results: Of the 17 challenges listed in the survey, 8 were reported as common by over 40% of respondents. These included methodological issues around having too broad or narrow research questions, lacking eligibility criteria, having unclear research questions, and not following established methods. The remaining challenges were interpersonal, including issues around student-led projects and the size of the research team. Of the top 8 most frequent challenges, 5 were also ranked as most difficult to handle. Open-ended responses underscored many of the challenges included in the survey and revealed several additional challenges. Conclusions: These results suggest that the most frequent and challenging issues relate to development of the research question and general communication with team members. Clear protocols for collaboration on systematic reviews, as well as a culture of mentorship, can help librarians prevent and address these challenges. This article has been approved for the Medical Library Association’s Independent Reading Program.
Ulbricht, Catherine; Basch, Ethan; Bent, Steve; Boon, Heather; Corrado, Michelle; Foppa, Ivo; Hashmi, Sadaf; Hammerness, Paul; Kingsbury, Eileen; Smith, Michael; Szapary, Philippe; Vora, Mamta; Weissner, Wendy
Here presented is an evidence-based systematic review including written and statistical analysis of scientific literature, expert opinion, folkloric precedent, history, pharmacology, kinetics/dynamics, interactions, adverse effects, toxicology, and dosing.
Thota, Anilkrishna B; Sipe, Theresa Ann; Byard, Guthrie J; Zometa, Carlos S; Hahn, Robert A; McKnight-Eily, Lela R; Chapman, Daniel P; Abraido-Lanza, Ana F; Pearson, Jane L; Anderson, Clinton W; Gelenberg, Alan J; Hennessy, Kevin D; Duffy, Farifteh F; Vernon-Smiley, Mary E; Nease, Donald E; Williams, Samantha P
To improve the quality of depression management, collaborative care models have been developed from the Chronic Care Model over the past 20 years. Collaborative care is a multicomponent, healthcare system-level intervention that uses case managers to link primary care providers, patients, and mental health specialists. In addition to case management support, primary care providers receive consultation and decision support from mental health specialists (i.e., psychiatrists and psychologists). This collaboration is designed to (1) improve routine screening and diagnosis of depressive disorders; (2) increase provider use of evidence-based protocols for the proactive management of diagnosed depressive disorders; and (3) improve clinical and community support for active client/patient engagement in treatment goal-setting and self-management. A team of subject matter experts in mental health, representing various agencies and institutions, conceptualized and conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis on collaborative care for improving the management of depressive disorders. This team worked under the guidance of the Community Preventive Services Task Force, a nonfederal, independent, volunteer body of public health and prevention experts. Community Guide systematic review methods were used to identify, evaluate, and analyze available evidence. An earlier systematic review with 37 RCTs of collaborative care studies published through 2004 found evidence of effectiveness of these models in improving depression outcomes. An additional 32 studies of collaborative care models conducted between 2004 and 2009 were found for this current review and analyzed. The results from the meta-analyses suggest robust evidence of effectiveness of collaborative care in improving depression symptoms (standardized mean difference [SMD]=0.34); adherence to treatment (OR=2.22); response to treatment (OR=1.78); remission of symptoms (OR=1.74); recovery from symptoms (OR=1.75); quality of
Full Text Available For the treatment of depressive disorders, the framework of collaborative care has been recommended, which showed improved outcomes in the primary care sector. Yet, an earlier literature review did not find sufficient evidence to draw robust conclusions on the cost-effectiveness of collaborative care.To systematically review studies on the cost-effectiveness of collaborative care, compared with usual care for the treatment of patients with depressive disorders in primary care.A systematic literature search in major databases was conducted. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration's tool. Methodological quality of the articles was assessed using the Consensus on Health Economic Criteria (CHEC list. To ensure comparability across studies, cost data were inflated to the year 2012 using country-specific gross domestic product inflation rates, and were adjusted to international dollars using purchasing power parities (PPP.In total, 19 cost-effectiveness analyses were reviewed. The included studies had sample sizes between n = 65 to n = 1,801, and time horizons between six to 24 months. Between 42% and 89% of the CHEC quality criteria were fulfilled, and in only one study no risk of bias was identified. A societal perspective was used by five studies. Incremental costs per depression-free day ranged from dominance to US$PPP 64.89, and incremental costs per QALY from dominance to US$PPP 874,562.Despite our review improved the comparability of study results, cost-effectiveness of collaborative care compared with usual care for the treatment of patients with depressive disorders in primary care is ambiguous depending on willingness to pay. A still considerable uncertainty, due to inconsistent methodological quality and results among included studies, suggests further cost-effectiveness analyses using QALYs as effect measures and a time horizon of at least 1 year.
Varda, Danielle; Shoup, Jo Ann; Miller, Sara
We explored and analyzed how findings from public affairs research can inform public health research and practice, specifically in the area of interorganizational collaboration, one of the most promising practice-based approaches in the public health field. We conducted a systematic review of the public affairs literature by following a grounded theory approach. We coded 151 articles for demographics and empirical findings (n = 258). Three primary findings stand out in the public affairs literature: network structure affects governance, management strategies exist for administrators, and collaboration can be linked to outcomes. These findings are linked to priorities in public health practice. Overall, we found that public affairs has a long and rich history of research in collaborations that offers unique organizational theory and management tools to public health practitioners.
Beat A. Schwendimann
Full Text Available Future workplaces require collaboration skills in which members of different work communities use technologies to solve complex problems. Vocational education and training (VET programs need to meet the challenge to prepare students to be part of a competent workforce. Particularly initial vocational education is under pressure to develop learners’ collaboration skills and abilities. To date, however, no attempt has been made to perform a comprehensive review of the use of computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL technologies across different vocational education settings to account for contextual factors of VET. In this systematic review, 26 published studies were analyzed with respect to their demographics, research methodology, use of technology, and measured outcomes. This review illuminates that research on CSCL still leaves the vocational learning context as an under-represented field of study. At the same time, technologies offer a range of new types of learning possibilities for vocational education. As the direct result of that development, vocational education is increasingly taking place in new technology-enhanced learning settings. Education can benefit from the opportunities of CSCL technologies, but on the other hand, such technologies create new challenges for facilitating vocational learning. Therefore, this review also identifies three topic areas specific to vocational learning (collaborative writing-to-learn, simulations and game-like solutions, and tangible objects and enumerates desirable lines for future research.
Sermondade, N.; Faure, C.; Fezeu, L.; Shayeb, A. G.; Bonde, J. P.; Jensen, T. K.; van Wely, M.; Cao, J.; Martini, A. C.; Eskandar, M.; Chavarro, J. E.; Koloszar, S.; Twigt, J. M.; Ramlau-Hansen, C. H.; Borges, E.; Lotti, F.; Steegers-Theunissen, R. P. M.; Zorn, B.; Polotsky, A. J.; La Vignera, S.; Eskenazi, B.; Tremellen, K.; Magnusdottir, E. V.; Fejes, I.; Hercberg, S.; Lévy, R.; Czernichow, S.
BACKGROUND The global obesity epidemic has paralleled a decrease in semen quality. Yet, the association between obesity and sperm parameters remains controversial. The purpose of this report was to update the evidence on the association between BMI and sperm count through a systematic review with
Full Text Available Computer-supported collaborative learning facilitates the extension of second language acquisition into social practice. Studies on its achievement effects speak directly to the pedagogical notion of treating communicative practice in synchronous computer-mediated communication (SCMC: real-time communication that takes place between human beings via the instrumentality of computers in forms of text, audio and video communication, such as live chat and chatrooms as socially-oriented meaning construction. This review begins by considering the adoption of social interactionist views to identify key paradigms and supportive principles of computer-supported collaborative learning. A special focus on two components of communicative competence is then presented to explore interactional variables in synchronous computer-mediated communication along with a review of research. There follows a discussion on a synthesis of interactional variables in negotiated interaction and co-construction of knowledge from psycholinguistic and social cohesion perspectives. This review reveals both possibilities and disparities of language socialization in promoting intersubjective learning and diversifying the salient use of interactively creative language in computer-supported collaborative learning environments in service of communicative competence.
Ane Helena Valle Versiani
Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVEEvidence-based clinical practice emerged with the aim of guiding clinical issues in order to reduce the degree of uncertainty in decision-making. The Cochrane Collaboration has been developing systematic reviews on randomized controlled trials as high-quality intervention study subjects. Today, physiotherapy methods are widely required in treatments within many fields of healthcare. Therefore, it is extremely important to map out the situation regarding scientific evidence within physiotherapy. The aim of this study was to identify systematic reviews on physiotherapeutic interventions and investigate the scientific evidence and recommendations regarding whether further studies would be needed.TYPE OF STUDY AND SETTINGCross-sectional study conducted within the postgraduate program on Internal Medicine and Therapeutics and at the Brazilian Cochrane Center.METHODSSystematic reviews presenting physiotherapeutic interventions as the main investigation, in the Cochrane Reviews Group, edition 2/2009, were identified and classified.RESULTSOut of the 3,826 reviews, 207 (5.41% that fulfilled the inclusion criteria were selected. Only 0.5% of the reviews concluded that the intervention presented a positive effect and that further studies were not recommended; 45.9% found that there seemed to be a positive effect but recommended further research; and 46.9% found that the evidence was insufficient for clinical practice and suggested that further research should be conducted.CONCLUSIONOnly one systematic review (“Pulmonary rehabilitation for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease” indicated that the intervention tested could be used with certainty that it would be effective. Most of the systematic reviews recommended further studies with greater rigor of methodological quality.
Parker, Adwoa; Scantlebury, Arabella; Booth, Alison; MacBryde, Jillian Catherine; Scott, William J; Wright, Kath; McDaid, Catriona
To identify existing evidence on interagency collaboration between law enforcement, emergency services, statutory services and third sector agencies regarding people with mental ill health. Systematic scoping review. Scoping reviews map particular research areas to identify research gaps. ASSIA, CENTRAL, the Cochrane Library databases, Criminal Justice Abstracts, ERIC, Embase, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PROSPERO and Social Care Online and Social Sciences Citation Index were searched up to 2017, as were grey literature and hand searches. Eligible articles were empirical evaluations or descriptions of models of interagency collaboration between the police and other agencies. Screening and data extraction were undertaken independently by two researchers. Arksey's framework was used to collate and map included studies. One hundred and twenty-five studies were included. The majority of articles were of descriptions of models (28%), mixed methods evaluations of models (18%) and single service evaluations (14%). The most frequently reported outcomes (52%) were 'organisational or service level outcomes' (eg, arrest rates). Most articles (53%) focused on adults with mental ill health, whereas others focused on adult offenders with mental ill health (17.4%). Thirteen models of interagency collaboration were described, each involving between 2 and 13 agencies. Frequently reported models were 'prearrest diversion' of people with mental ill health (34%), 'coresponse' involving joint response by police officers paired with mental health professionals (28.6%) and 'jail diversion' following arrest (23.8%). We identified 13 different interagency collaboration models catering for a range of mental health-related interactions. All but one of these models involved the police and mental health services or professionals. Several models have sufficient literature to warrant full systematic reviews of their effectiveness, whereas others need robust evaluation, by randomised controlled trial where
Scantlebury, Arabella; Booth, Alison; MacBryde, Jillian Catherine; Scott, William J; Wright, Kath
Objective To identify existing evidence on interagency collaboration between law enforcement, emergency services, statutory services and third sector agencies regarding people with mental ill health. Design Systematic scoping review. Scoping reviews map particular research areas to identify research gaps. Data sources and eligibility ASSIA, CENTRAL, the Cochrane Library databases, Criminal Justice Abstracts, ERIC, Embase, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PROSPERO and Social Care Online and Social Sciences Citation Index were searched up to 2017, as were grey literature and hand searches. Eligible articles were empirical evaluations or descriptions of models of interagency collaboration between the police and other agencies. Study appraisal and synthesis Screening and data extraction were undertaken independently by two researchers. Arksey’s framework was used to collate and map included studies. Results One hundred and twenty-five studies were included. The majority of articles were of descriptions of models (28%), mixed methods evaluations of models (18%) and single service evaluations (14%). The most frequently reported outcomes (52%) were ‘organisational or service level outcomes’ (eg, arrest rates). Most articles (53%) focused on adults with mental ill health, whereas others focused on adult offenders with mental ill health (17.4%). Thirteen models of interagency collaboration were described, each involving between 2 and 13 agencies. Frequently reported models were ‘prearrest diversion’ of people with mental ill health (34%), ‘coresponse’ involving joint response by police officers paired with mental health professionals (28.6%) and ‘jail diversion’ following arrest (23.8%). Conclusions We identified 13 different interagency collaboration models catering for a range of mental health-related interactions. All but one of these models involved the police and mental health services or professionals. Several models have sufficient literature to warrant full
Title: Systematic review a method to promote nursing students skills in Evidence Based Practice Background: Department of nursing educate students to practice Evidence Based Practice (EBP), where clinical decisions is based on the best available evidence, patient preference, clinical experience...... and resources available. In order to incorporate evidence in clinical decisions, nursing students need to learn how to transfer knowledge in order to utilize evidence in clinical decisions. The method of systematic review can be one approach to achieve this in nursing education. Method: As an associate lecturer...... I have taken a Comprehensive Systematic Review Training course provide by Center of Clinical Guidelines in Denmark and Jonna Briggs Institute (JBI) and practice in developing a systematic review on how patients with ischemic heart disease experiences peer support. This insight and experience...
Sermondade, N; Faure, C; Fezeu, L; Shayeb, A G; Bonde, J P; Jensen, T K; Van Wely, M; Cao, J; Martini, A C; Eskandar, M; Chavarro, J E; Koloszar, S; Twigt, J M; Ramlau-Hansen, C H; Borges, E; Lotti, F; Steegers-Theunissen, R P M; Zorn, B; Polotsky, A J; La Vignera, S; Eskenazi, B; Tremellen, K; Magnusdottir, E V; Fejes, I; Hercberg, S; Lévy, R; Czernichow, S
BACKGROUND The global obesity epidemic has paralleled a decrease in semen quality. Yet, the association between obesity and sperm parameters remains controversial. The purpose of this report was to update the evidence on the association between BMI and sperm count through a systematic review with meta-analysis. METHODS A systematic review of available literature (with no language restriction) was performed to investigate the impact of BMI on sperm count. Relevant studies published until June 2012 were identified from a Pubmed and EMBASE search. We also included unpublished data (n = 717 men) obtained from the Infertility Center of Bondy, France. Abstracts of relevant articles were examined and studies that could be included in this review were retrieved. Authors of relevant studies for the meta-analysis were contacted by email and asked to provide standardized data. RESULTS A total of 21 studies were included in the meta-analysis, resulting in a sample of 13 077 men from the general population and attending fertility clinics. Data were stratified according to the total sperm count as normozoospermia, oligozoospermia and azoospermia. Standardized weighted mean differences in sperm concentration did not differ significantly across BMI categories. There was a J-shaped relationship between BMI categories and risk of oligozoospermia or azoospermia. Compared with men of normal weight, the odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for oligozoospermia or azoospermia was 1.15 (0.93-1.43) for underweight, 1.11 (1.01-1.21) for overweight, 1.28 (1.06-1.55) for obese and 2.04 (1.59-2.62) for morbidly obese men. CONCLUSIONS Overweight and obesity were associated with an increased prevalence of azoospermia or oligozoospermia. The main limitation of this report is that studied populations varied, with men recruited from both the general population and infertile couples. Whether weight normalization could improve sperm parameters should be evaluated further.
Bager, Palle; Chauhan, Usha; Greveson, Kay
of evidence is needed and the aim of this article was to systematically review the evidence of IBD advice lines. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A broad systematic literature search was performed to identify relevant studies addressing the effect of advice lines. The process of selection of the retrieved studies...... was undertaken in two phases. In phase one, all abstracts were review by two independent reviewers. In phase two, the full text of all included studies were independently reviewed by two reviewers. The included studies underwent quality assessment and data synthesis. RESULTS: Ten published studies and 10...... congress abstracts were included in the review. The studies were heterogeneous both in scientific quality and in the focus of the study. No rigorous evidence was found to support that advice lines improve disease activity in IBD and correspondingly no studies reported worsening in disease activity. Advice...
Pettigrew, Luisa M; Kumpunen, Stephanie; Mays, Nicholas; Rosen, Rebecca; Posaner, Rachel
Over the past decade, collaboration between general practices in England to form new provider networks and large-scale organisations has been driven largely by grassroots action among GPs. However, it is now being increasingly advocated for by national policymakers. Expectations of what scaling up general practice in England will achieve are significant. To review the evidence of the impact of new forms of large-scale general practice provider collaborations in England. Systematic review. Embase, MEDLINE, Health Management Information Consortium, and Social Sciences Citation Index were searched for studies reporting the impact on clinical processes and outcomes, patient experience, workforce satisfaction, or costs of new forms of provider collaborations between general practices in England. A total of 1782 publications were screened. Five studies met the inclusion criteria and four examined the same general practice networks, limiting generalisability. Substantial financial investment was required to establish the networks and the associated interventions that were targeted at four clinical areas. Quality improvements were achieved through standardised processes, incentives at network level, information technology-enabled performance dashboards, and local network management. The fifth study of a large-scale multisite general practice organisation showed that it may be better placed to implement safety and quality processes than conventional practices. However, unintended consequences may arise, such as perceptions of disenfranchisement among staff and reductions in continuity of care. Good-quality evidence of the impacts of scaling up general practice provider organisations in England is scarce. As more general practice collaborations emerge, evaluation of their impacts will be important to understand which work, in which settings, how, and why. © British Journal of General Practice 2018.
Long, Janet C; Cunningham, Frances C; Braithwaite, Jeffrey
Bridges, brokers and boundary spanners facilitate transactions and the flow of information between people or groups who either have no physical or cognitive access to one another, or alternatively, who have no basis on which to trust each other. The health care sector is a context that is rich in isolated clusters, such as silos and professional "tribes," in need of connectivity. It is a key challenge in health service management to understand, analyse and exploit the role of key agents who have the capacity to connect disparate groupings in larger systems. The empirical, peer reviewed, network theory literature on brokerage roles was reviewed for the years 1994 to 2011 following PRISMA guidelines. The 24 articles that made up the final literature set were from a wide range of settings and contexts not just healthcare. Methods of data collection, analysis, and the ways in which brokers were identified varied greatly. We found four main themes addressed in the literature: identifying brokers and brokerage opportunities, generation and integration of innovation, knowledge brokerage, and trust. The benefits as well as the costs of brokerage roles were examined. Collaborative networks by definition, seek to bring disparate groups together so that they can work effectively and synergistically together. Brokers can support the controlled transfer of specialised knowledge between groups, increase cooperation by liaising with people from both sides of the gap, and improve efficiency by introducing "good ideas" from one isolated setting into another.There are significant costs to brokerage. Densely linked networks are more efficient at diffusing information to all their members when compared to sparsely linked groups. This means that while a bridge across a structural hole allows information to reach actors that were previously isolated, it is not the most efficient way to transfer information. Brokers who become the holders of, or the gatekeepers to, specialised knowledge
Lødrup, Anders Bergh; Reimer, Christina; Bytzer, Peter
in getting off acid-suppressive medication and partly explain the increase in long-term use of PPI. A number of studies addressing this issue have been published recently. The authors aimed to systematically review the existing evidence of clinically relevant symptoms caused by acid rebound following PPI...
Christensen, Troels Dreier; Spindler, Karen-Lise Garm; Palshof, Jesper Andreas
to earlier diagnosis and improved survival. Method: In this paper, we describe the incidence as well as characteristics associated with BM based on a systematic review of the current literature, following the PRISMA guidelines. Results: We show that the incidence of BM in CRC patients ranges from 0.6 to 3...
Full Text Available Bio-based businesses are often considered to be sustainable. However, they are also linked to sustainability challenges such as deforestation and soil erosion. Encouraged to exploit innovative solutions and enhance sustainability, organizations engaged in bio-based activities extensively explore collaboration possibilities with external partners. The objective of this paper is to integrate the available knowledge on sustainability of inter-organisational collaborations in bio-based businesses, while considering the three aspects of sustainability: environmental, economic, and social. We collected data from three academic sources—Web of Science, Scopus, and EconLit—and conducted a systematic literature review. The results show the importance of geographical proximity and complementarity in creating sustainability benefits such as reduced emissions, reduced waste, economic synergies, and socio-economic activities. Based on the findings, we have developed a framework that illustrates sustainability benefits and challenges. Interestingly, the studies emphasize sustainability benefits more in emerging than in industrialised economies, especially relating to the social aspects of sustainability. In conclusion, although the scholars have not discussed mitigation of several sustainability challenges in bio-based businesses, such as land use conflicts, they have found evidence of vital sustainability benefits, such as energy availability, lower emissions, improved socio-economic life, and poverty reduction, which are essential in emerging economies.
Computer-supported collaborative learning facilitates the extension of second language acquisition into social practice. Studies on its achievement effects speak directly to the pedagogical notion of treating communicative practice in synchronous computer-mediated communication (SCMC): real-time communication that takes place between human beings…
Computer-supported collaborative learning facilitates the extension of second language acquisition into social practice. Studies on its achievement effects speak directly to the pedagogical notion of treating communicative practice in synchronous computer-mediated communication (SCMC): real-time communication that takes place between human beings via the instrumentality of computers in forms of text, audio and video communication, such as live chat and chatrooms as socially-oriented meaning c...
Cancelliere, C.; Cassidy, J. D.; Li, A.
of interventions for mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI), identify knowledge gaps in the literature, and make recommendations for future research. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health, and SPORTDiscus were searched between 2001 and 2012. Inclusion criteria included...... into 10 articles in this supplement. These reviews present the best available evidence on MTBI prognosis, but more research is needed....... published peer-reviewed articles in English and 5 other languages. References were also identified from relevant reviews and meta-analyses and the bibliographies of eligible articles. STUDY SELECTION: Controlled trials and cohort and case-control studies were selected according to predefined inclusion...
O'Brien, Kelly K; Tynan, Anne-Marie; Nixon, Stephanie A; Glazier, Richard H
People with HIV are living longer with the health-related consequences of HIV, multi-morbidity, and aging. Exercise is a key strategy that may improve or sustain health for people living with HIV. Our aim was to examine the safety and effectiveness of aerobic exercise interventions on immunological, virological, cardiorespiratory, strength, weight, body composition, and psychological outcomes in adults living with HIV. We conducted a systematic review using the Cochrane Collaboration protocol. We searched databases up to April 2013. We included randomized controlled trials comparing aerobic exercise with no exercise or another intervention performed at least three times per week for at least four weeks among adults living with HIV. Two reviewers independently determined study eligibility. Data were extracted from studies that met inclusion criteria using standardized forms. We assessed risk of bias using the Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing risk of bias. Outcomes were analyzed as continuous and meta-analyses conducted using random effects models with Review Manager (RevMan) computer software. Twenty-four studies met inclusion criteria (n = 936 participants at study completion); the majority of participants were men (73 %) and the majority were taking antiretroviral therapy (19/24 included studies). The exercise intervention included aerobic exercise alone (11 studies) or a combination of aerobic and resistive exercise (13 studies) ranging from 5 to 52 weeks. Fifty-eight meta-analyses were performed. Main results indicated statistically significant improvements in selected outcomes of cardiorespiratory status (maximum oxygen consumption, exercise time), strength (chest press, knee flexion), body composition (lean body mass, percent body fat, leg muscle area), depression symptoms, and quality of life (SF-36 questionnaire) among exercisers compared with non-exercisers. No significant differences in change in CD4 count and viral load were found
Grande, Antonio Jose; Silva, Valter; Maddocks, Matthew
BACKGROUND: Cancer cachexia is a complex syndrome characterized by an ongoing loss of skeletal muscle mass and progressive functional impairment. A proactive management approach is recommended, including physical exercise to maintain function via modulation of muscle metabolism, insulin sensitivity and levels of inflammation. The review aimed to determine the safety, acceptability and effectiveness of exercise in adults with cancer cachexia. Secondary aims, subject to the data availability, w...
Grande, Antonio Jose; Silva, Valter; Maddocks, Matthew
Cancer cachexia is a complex syndrome characterized by an ongoing loss of skeletal muscle mass and progressive functional impairment. A proactive management approach is recommended, including physical exercise to maintain function via modulation of muscle metabolism, insulin sensitivity and levels of inflammation. The review aimed to determine the safety, acceptability and effectiveness of exercise in adults with cancer cachexia. Secondary aims, subject to the data availability, were to compare effectiveness according to the characteristics of the study intervention or population. We sought randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in adults meeting international criteria for cancer cachexia, comparing a programme of exercise as a sole or adjunct intervention to usual care or an active control. CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, DARE and HTA, ISI Web of Science, LILACS, PEDro, SciVerse SCOPUS, Biosis Previews PreMEDLINE and Open Grey databases were searched up to June 2014. Two authors independently assessed studies for eligibility. We screened 3154 separate titles and abstracts, and reviewed 16 full-texts. Corresponding authors were contacted to determine if samples met cachexia staging criteria. Most authors did not explore this concept. No trial met review eligibility criteria. We were unable to perform a meta-analysis to determine any effects from exercise intervention. Despite a strong rationale for the use of exercise, there is insufficient evidence to determine safety and effectiveness in patients with cancer cachexia. Findings from ongoing studies are awaited. Assessment of cachexia domains, ideally against international criteria, is required for future trials of exercise and supportive care interventions.
van Tulder, M W; Touray, T; Furlan, A D; Solway, S; Bouter, L M
STUDY DESIGN: A systematic review of randomized and/or double-blinded controlled trials. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The use of muscle relaxants in the management of nonspecific low back pain is controversial. It is not clear if they are effective, and concerns have been raised about the potential
Clarke, J.; van Tulder, M.; Blomberg, S; de Vet, H.C.W.; van der Heijden, G; Bronfort, G.
STUDY DESIGN. Systematic review. OBJECTIVE. To determine if traction is more effective than reference treatments, placebo/sham traction, or no treatment for low back pain (LBP). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA. Various types of traction are used in the treatment of LBP, often in conjunction with other
Momsen, Anne-Mette Hedeager; Hald, Kathrine; Nielsen, Claus Vinther
REVIEW OBJECTIVE/QUESTION: The objective of this review is to identify the effectiveness of expanded cardiac rehabilitation (CR) in patients diagnosed with coronary heart disease (CHD). Specifically, the review question is: What is the effectiveness of expanded CR compared to standard CR in adult...
Borup, H; Kirkeskov, L; Hanskov, Dorte Jessing Agerby
. Conclusions: This review suggests that COPD occurs more often among construction workers than among workers who are not exposed to construction dust. It is not possible to draw any conclusions on specific subgroups as most studies analysed construction workers as one united group. In addition, no potential...
Helgstrand, John Thomas; Berg, Kasper Drimer; Lippert, Solvej
trials have challenged this dogma. The aim of this study was to evaluate how endocrine therapy (ET) affects survival in different clinical settings of PCa. Materials and methods A review of published phase II, III and IV studies evaluating the effect of ET on survival was performed. Results In localized...
Peter A Coventry
Full Text Available Collaborative care is a complex intervention based on chronic disease management models and is effective in the management of depression. However, there is still uncertainty about which components of collaborative care are effective. We used meta-regression to identify factors in collaborative care associated with improvement in patient outcomes (depressive symptoms and the process of care (use of anti-depressant medication.Systematic review with meta-regression. The Cochrane Collaboration Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Group trials registers were searched from inception to 9th February 2012. An update was run in the CENTRAL trials database on 29th December 2013. Inclusion criteria were: randomised controlled trials of collaborative care for adults ≥18 years with a primary diagnosis of depression or mixed anxiety and depressive disorder. Random effects meta-regression was used to estimate regression coefficients with 95% confidence intervals (CIs between study level covariates and depressive symptoms and relative risk (95% CI and anti-depressant use. The association between anti-depressant use and improvement in depression was also explored. Seventy four trials were identified (85 comparisons, across 21,345 participants. Collaborative care that included psychological interventions predicted improvement in depression (β coefficient -0.11, 95% CI -0.20 to -0.01, p = 0.03. Systematic identification of patients (relative risk 1.43, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.81, p = 0.004 and the presence of a chronic physical condition (relative risk 1.32, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.65, p = 0.02 predicted use of anti-depressant medication.Trials of collaborative care that included psychological treatment, with or without anti-depressant medication, appeared to improve depression more than those without psychological treatment. Trials that used systematic methods to identify patients with depression and also trials that included patients with a chronic physical
Sangaleti, Carine; Schveitzer, Mariana Cabral; Peduzzi, Marina; Zoboli, Elma Lourdes Campos Pavone; Soares, Cassia Baldini
During the last decade, teamwork has been addressed under the rationale of interprofessional practice or collaboration, highlighted by the attributes of this practice such as: interdependence of professional actions, focus on user needs, negotiation between professionals, shared decision making, mutual respect and trust among professionals, and acknowledgment of the role and work of the different professional groups. Teamwork and interprofessional collaboration have been pointed out as astrategy for effective organization of health care services as the complexity of healthcare requires integration of knowledge and practices from differente professional groups. This integration has a qualitative dimension that can be identified through the experiences of health professionals and to the meaning they give to teamwork. The objective of this systematic review was to synthesize the best available evidence on the experiences of health professionals regarding teamwork and interprofessional collaboration in primary health care settings. The populations included were all officially regulated health professionals that work in primary health settings: dentistry, medicine, midwifery, nursing, nutrition, occupational therapy, pharmacy, physical education, physiotherapy, psychology, social work and speech therapy. In addition to these professionals, community health workers, nursing assistants, licensed practical nurses and other allied health workers were also included. The phenomena of interest were experiences of health professionals regarding teamwork and interprofessional collaboration in primary health care settings. The context was primary health care settings that included health care centers, health maintenance organizations, integrative medicine practices, integrative health care, family practices, primary care organizations and family medical clinics. National health surgery as a setting was excluded. The qualitative component of the review considered studies that
Systematic reviews, a cornerstone of evidence-based medicine, are not produced quickly enough to support clinical practice. The cost of production, availability of the requisite expertise and timeliness are often quoted as major contributors for the delay. This detailed survey of the state of the art of information systems designed to support or automate individual tasks in the systematic review, and in particular systematic reviews of randomized controlled clinical trials, reveals trends that see the convergence of several parallel research projects. We surveyed literature describing informatics systems that support or automate the processes of systematic review or each of the tasks of the systematic review. Several projects focus on automating, simplifying and/or streamlining specific tasks of the systematic review. Some tasks are already fully automated while others are still largely manual. In this review, we describe each task and the effect that its automation would have on the entire systematic review process, summarize the existing information system support for each task, and highlight where further research is needed for realizing automation for the task. Integration of the systems that automate systematic review tasks may lead to a revised systematic review workflow. We envisage the optimized workflow will lead to system in which each systematic review is described as a computer program that automatically retrieves relevant trials, appraises them, extracts and synthesizes data, evaluates the risk of bias, performs meta-analysis calculations, and produces a report in real time. PMID:25005128
McQuay, H. J; Kalso, Eija; Moore, R. Andrew
"Presents invited papers from the 6th IASP Research Symposium, Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses in Pain, held in Spain in September 2006, organized by the International Collaboration on Evidence...
Flemming, Daniel; Hübner, Ursula
Establishing continuity of care in handovers at changes of shift is a challenging endeavor that is jeopardized by time pressure and errors typically occurring during synchronous communication. Only if the outgoing and incoming persons manage to collaboratively build a common ground for the next steps of care is it possible to ensure a proper continuation. Electronic systems, in particular electronic patient record systems, are powerful providers of information but their actual use might threaten achieving a common understanding of the patient if they force clinicians to work asynchronously. In order to gain a deeper understanding of communication failures and how to overcome them, we performed a systematic review of the literature, aiming to answer the following four research questions: (1a) What are typical errors and (1b) their consequences in handovers? (2) How can they be overcome by conventional strategies and instruments? (3) electronic systems? (4) Are there any instruments to support collaborative grounding? We searched the databases MEDLINE, CINAHL, and COCHRANE for articles on handovers in general and in combination with the terms electronic record systems and grounding that covered the time period of January 2000 to May 2012. The search led to 519 articles of which 60 were then finally included into the review. We found a sharp increase in the number of relevant studies starting with 2008. As could be documented by 20 studies that addressed communication errors, omission of detailed patient information including anticipatory guidance during handovers was the greatest problem. This deficiency could be partly overcome by structuring and systematizing the information, e.g. according to Situation, Background, Assessment and Recommendation schema (SBAR), and by employing electronic tools integrated in electronic records systems as 23 studies on conventional and 22 articles on electronic systems showed. Despite the increase in quantity and quality of the
Protocol for a prospective collaborative systematic review and meta-analysis of individual patient data from randomized controlled trials of vasoactive drugs in acute stroke: The Blood pressure in Acute Stroke Collaboration, stage-3.
Sandset, Else Charlotte; Sanossian, Nerses; Woodhouse, Lisa J; Anderson, Craig; Berge, Eivind; Lees, Kennedy R; Potter, John F; Robinson, Thompson G; Sprigg, Nikola; Wardlaw, Joanna M; Bath, Philip M
Rationale Despite several large clinical trials assessing blood pressure lowering in acute stroke, equipoise remains particularly for ischemic stroke. The "Blood pressure in Acute Stroke Collaboration" commenced in the mid-1990s focussing on systematic reviews and meta-analysis of blood pressure lowering in acute stroke. From the start, Blood pressure in Acute Stroke Collaboration planned to assess safety and efficacy of blood pressure lowering in acute stroke using individual patient data. Aims To determine the optimal management of blood pressure in patients with acute stroke, including both intracerebral hemorrhage and ischemic stroke. Secondary aims are to assess which clinical and therapeutic factors may alter the optimal management of high blood pressure in patients with acute stroke and to assess the effect of vasoactive treatments on hemodynamic variables. Methods and design Individual patient data from randomized controlled trials of blood pressure management in participants with ischemic stroke and/or intracerebral hemorrhage enrolled during the ultra-acute (pre-hospital), hyper-acute (<6 h), acute (<48 h), and sub-acute (<168 h) phases of stroke. Study outcomes The primary effect variable will be functional outcome defined by the ordinal distribution of the modified Rankin Scale; analyses will also be carried out in pre-specified subgroups to assess the modifying effects of stroke-related and pre-stroke patient characteristics. Key secondary variables will include clinical, hemodynamic and neuroradiological variables; safety variables will comprise death and serious adverse events. Discussion Study questions will be addressed in stages, according to the protocol, before integrating these into a final overreaching analysis. We invite eligible trials to join the collaboration.
Aagaard, Thomas; Lund, Hans; Juhl, Carsten Bogh
BACKGROUND: When conducting systematic reviews, it is essential to perform a comprehensive literature search to identify all published studies relevant to the specific research question. The Cochrane Collaborations Methodological Expectations of Cochrane Intervention Reviews (MECIR) guidelines...... of musculoskeletal disorders. METHODS: Data sources were systematic reviews published by the Cochrane Musculoskeletal Review Group, including at least five RCTs, reporting a search history, searching MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, and adding reference- and hand-searching. Additional databases were deemed eligible...... if they indexed RCTs, were in English and used in more than three of the systematic reviews. Relative recall was calculated as the number of studies identified by the literature search divided by the number of eligible studies i.e. included studies in the individual systematic reviews. Finally, cumulative median...
van Sleuwen, Bregje E.; Engelberts, Adèle C.; Boere-Boonekamp, Magdalena M.; Kuis, Wietse; Schulpen, Tom W.J.
Swaddling was an almost universal child-care practice before the 18th century. It is still tradition in certain parts of the Middle East and is gaining popularity in the United Kingdom, the United States, and the Netherlands to curb excessive crying. We have systematically reviewed all articles on
van Sleuwen, Bregje E.; Engelberts, Adele C.; Boere-Boonekamp, Magda M.; Kuis, Wietse; Schulpen, Tom W. J.; L'Hoir, Monique P.
Swaddling was an almost universal child-care practice before the 18th century. It is still tradition in certain parts of the Middle East and is gaining popularity in the United Kingdom, the United States, and the Netherlands to curb excessive crying. We have systematically reviewed all articles on
Lundh, Andreas; Knijnenburg, Sebastiaan L.; Jørgensen, Anders W.; van Dalen, Elvira C.; Kremer, Leontien C. M.
Background: To ensure evidence-based decision making in pediatric oncology systematic reviews are necessary. The objective of our study was to evaluate the methodological quality of all currently existing systematic reviews in pediatric oncology. Methods: We identified eligible systematic reviews
Stephens, Martin L; Betts, Kellyn; Beck, Nancy B; Cogliano, Vincent; Dickersin, Kay; Fitzpatrick, Suzanne; Freeman, James; Gray, George; Hartung, Thomas; McPartland, Jennifer; Rooney, Andrew A; Scherer, Roberta W; Verloo, Didier; Hoffmann, Sebastian
The Evidence-based Toxicology Collaboration hosted a workshop on "The Emergence of Systematic Review and Related Evidence-based Approaches in Toxicology," on November 21, 2014 in Baltimore, Maryland. The workshop featured speakers from agencies and organizations applying systematic review approaches to questions in toxicology, speakers with experience in conducting systematic reviews in medicine and healthcare, and stakeholders in industry, government, academia, and non-governmental organizations. Based on the workshop presentations and discussion, here we address the state of systematic review methods in toxicology, historical antecedents in both medicine and toxicology, challenges to the translation of systematic review from medicine to toxicology, and thoughts on the way forward. We conclude with a recommendation that as various agencies and organizations adapt systematic review methods, they continue to work together to ensure that there is a harmonized process for how the basic elements of systematic review methods are applied in toxicology. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology.
Walton, David M; Carroll, Linda J; Kasch, Helge; Sterling, Michele; Verhagen, Arianne P; MacDermid, Joy C; Gross, Anita; Santaguida, P. Lina; Carlesso, Lisa
Given the challenges of chronic musculoskeletal pain and disability, establishing a clear prognosis in the acute stage has become increasingly recognized as a valuable approach to mitigate chronic problems. Neck pain represents a condition that is common, potentially disabling, and has a high rate of transition to chronic or persistent problems. As a field of research, prognosis in neck pain has stimulated several empirical primary research papers, and a number of systematic reviews. As part of the International Consensus on Neck (ICON) project, we sought to establish the general state of knowledge in the area through a structured, systematic review of systematic reviews (overview). An exhaustive search strategy was created and employed to identify the 13 systematic reviews (SRs) that served as the primary data sources for this overview. A decision algorithm for data synthesis, which incorporated currency of the SR, risk of bias assessment of the SRs using AMSTAR scoring and consistency of findings across SRs, determined the level of confidence in the risk profile of 133 different variables. The results provide high confidence that baseline neck pain intensity and baseline disability have a strong association with outcome, while angular deformities of the neck and parameters of the initiating trauma have no effect on outcome. A vast number of predictors provide low or very low confidence or inconclusive results, suggesting there is still much work to be done in this field. Despite the presence of multiple SR and this overview, there is insufficient evidence to make firm conclusions on many potential prognostic variables. This study demonstrates the challenges in conducting overviews on prognosis where clear synthesis critieria and a lack of specifics of primary data in SR are barriers. PMID:24115971
Baker, Kathy A; Weeks, Susan Mace
Systematic review is an invaluable tool for the practicing clinician. A well-designed systematic review represents the latest and most complete information available on a particular topic or intervention. This article highlights the key elements of systematic review, what it is and is not, and provides an overview of several reputable organizations supporting the methodological development and conduct of systematic review. Important aspects for evaluating the quality of a systematic review are also included. Copyright © 2014 American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Barnard, K. D.; Lloyd, C. E.; Skinner, T. C.
mixed results, with one study reporting quality of life benefits and one reporting no evidence of quality of life benefits. Conclusions: There is conflicting evidence reported in the various studies on the quality of life benefits of CSII in Type 1 diabetes. Existing research is flawed, making......Aim: To review systematically the published literature addressing whether continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) provides any quality of life benefits to people with Type 1 diabetes. Methods: Electronic databases and published references were searched and a consultation with two...
McDougall, John A; Ferucci, Elizabeth D; Glover, Janis; Fraenkel, Liana
To identify and summarize the published and gray literature on the use of telemedicine for the diagnosis and management of inflammatory and/or autoimmune rheumatic disease. We performed a registered systematic search (CRD42015025382) for studies using MEDLINE (1946 to July 2015), Embase (1974 to July 2015), Web of Science (1900 to July 2015), and Scopus (1946 to July 2015) databases. We included studies that demonstrated the use of telemedicine for diagnosis and/or management of inflammatory/autoimmune rheumatic disease. Following data extraction, we performed a descriptive analysis. Our literature search identified 1,468 potentially eligible studies. Of these studies, 20 were ultimately included in this review. Studies varied significantly in publication type, quality of evidence, and the reporting of methods. Most demonstrated a high risk of bias. Rheumatoid arthritis was the most commonly studied rheumatic disease (42% of patients). Studies demonstrated conflicting results regarding the effectiveness of telemedicine (18 found it effective, 1 found it effective but possibly harmful, and 1 found it ineffective). A limited number of studies included some component of a cost analysis (n = 6; 16% of patients); all of these found telemedicine to be cost-effective. Studies identified by this systematic review generally found telemedicine to be effective for the diagnosis and management of autoimmune/inflammatory rheumatic disease; however, there is limited evidence to support this conclusion. Further studies are needed to determine the best uses of telemedicine for the diagnosis and management of these conditions. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.
Fagerlund, Anders; Lewin, Richard; Rufolo, Guglielmo; Elander, Anna; Santanelli di Pompeo, Fabio; Selvaggi, Gennaro
Gynecomastia is a common medical problem presenting in nearly a third of the male population. Treatment for gynecomastia can be either pharmacological or surgical. Patients with gynecomastia often experience affected quality-of-life. The aim of this systematic review was to analyze the quality of evidence of the current literature in relation to different treatment modalities and Quality-of-Life in patients with gynecomastia. A systematic search of the literature was performed in PubMed, Medline, Scopus, The Cochrane Library, and SveMed+ in accordance with the PRISMA statement. All searches were undertaken between September-November 2014. The PICOS (patients, intervention, comparator, outcomes, and study design) approach was used to specify inclusion criteria. Methodological quality was graded according to MINORS. Quality of evidence was rated according to GRADE. Data from the included studies were extracted based on study characteristics, participants specifics, type of intervention/treatment, and type of outcome measures into data extraction forms. A total of 134 abstracts were identified in the literature search. Seventeen studies met inclusion criteria, 14 concerning treatment and three concerning Quality-of-Life. All studies were non-randomised with a high risk of bias and very low quality of evidence according to GRADE. Several different surgical methods have been described with good results, minimal scars, and various levels of complications. Traditional surgical excision of glandular tissue combined with liposuction provides most consistent results and a low rate of complications. Pubertal gynecomastia may safely be managed by pharmacological anti-oestrogen treatment.
Iridologists claim to be able to diagnose medical conditions through abnormalities of pigmentation in the iris. This technique is popular in many countries. Therefore it is relevant to ask whether it is valid. To systematically review all interpretable tests of the validity of iridology as a diagnostic tool. DATA SOURCE AND EXTRACTION: Three independent literature searches were performed to identify all blinded tests. Data were extracted in a predefined, standardized fashion. Four case control studies were found. The majority of these investigations suggests that iridology is not a valid diagnostic method. The validity of iridology as a diagnostic tool is not supported by scientific evaluations. Patients and therapists should be discouraged from using this method.
DiSilvestro, Kevin J; Tjoumakaris, Fotios P; Maltenfort, Mitchell G; Spindler, Kurt P; Freedman, Kevin B
The number of systematic reviews published in the orthopaedic literature has increased, and these reviews can help guide clinical decision making. However, the quality of these reviews can affect the reader's ability to use the data to arrive at accurate conclusions and make clinical decisions. To evaluate the methodological and reporting quality of systematic reviews and meta-analyses in the sports medicine literature to determine whether such reviews should be used to guide treatment decisions. The hypothesis was that many systematic reviews in the orthopaedic sports medicine literature may not follow the appropriate reporting guidelines or methodological criteria recommended for systematic reviews. Systematic review. All clinical sports medicine systematic reviews and meta-analyses from 2009 to 2013 published in The American Journal of Sports Medicine (AJSM), The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery (JBJS), Arthroscopy, Sports Health, and Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy (KSSTA) were reviewed and evaluated for level of evidence according to the guidelines from the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine, for reporting quality according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement, and for methodological quality according to the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) tool. Analysis was performed by year and journal of publication, and the levels of evidence included in the systematic reviews were also analyzed. A total of 200 systematic reviews and meta-analyses were identified over the study period. Of these, 53% included evidence levels 4 and 5 in their analyses, with just 32% including evidence levels 1 and 2 only. There were significant differences in the proportion of articles with high levels of evidence (P Systematic reviews and meta-analyses in orthopaedics sports medicine literature relied on evidence levels 4 and 5 in 53% of studies over the 5-year study period. Overall, PRISMA and
Cooke, B; Ernst, E
Aromatherapy is becoming increasingly popular; however there are few clear indications for its use. To systematically review the literature on aromatherapy in order to discover whether any clinical indication may be recommended for its use, computerised literature searches were performed to retrieve all randomised controlled trials of aromatherapy from the following databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, British Nursing Index, CISCOM, and AMED. The methodological quality of the trials was assessed using the Jadad score. All trials were evaluated independently by both authors and data were extracted in a pre-defined, standardised fashion. Twelve trials were located: six of them had no independent replication; six related to the relaxing effects of aromatherapy combined with massage. These studies suggest that aromatherapy massage has a mild, transient anxiolytic effect. Based on a critical assessment of the six studies relating to relaxation, the effects of aromatherapy are probably not strong enough for it to be considered for the treatment of anxiety. The hypothesis that it is effective for any other indication is not supported by the findings of rigorous clinical trials. PMID:10962794
Dudden, Rosalind F; Protzko, Shandra L
While the role of the librarian as an expert searcher in the systematic review process is widely recognized, librarians also can be enlisted to help systematic review teams with other challenges. This article reviews the contributions of librarians to systematic reviews, including communicating methods of the review process, collaboratively formulating the research question and exclusion criteria, formulating the search strategy on a variety of databases, documenting the searches, record keeping, and writing the search methodology. It also discusses challenges encountered such as irregular timelines, providing education, communication, and learning new technologies for record keeping. Rewards include building relationships with researchers, expanding professional expertise, and receiving recognition for contributions to health care outcomes.
The goal for this workshop is to receive scientific input regarding approaches for different steps within a systematic review, such as evaluating individual studies, synthesizing evidence within a particular discipline, etc.
Brettle, Alison; Maden-Jenkins, Michelle; Anderson, Lucy; McNally, Rosalind; Pratchett, Tracey; Tancock, Jenny; Thornton, Debra; Webb, Anne
Previous systematic reviews have indicated limited evidence and poor quality evaluations of clinical librarian (CL) services. Rigorous evaluations should demonstrate the value of CL services, but guidance is needed before this can be achieved. To undertake a systematic review which examines models of CL services, quality, methods and perspectives of clinical librarian service evaluations. Systematic review methodology and synthesis of evidence, undertaken collaboratively by a group of 8 librarians to develop research and critical appraisal skills. There are four clear models of clinical library service provision. Clinical librarians are effective in saving health professionals time, providing relevant, useful information and high quality services. Clinical librarians have a positive effect on clinical decision making by contributing to better informed decisions, diagnosis and choice of drug or therapy. The quality of CL studies is improving, but more work is needed on reducing bias and providing evidence of specific impacts on patient care. The Critical Incident Technique as part of a mixed method approach appears to offer a useful approach to demonstrating impact. This systematic review provides practical guidance regarding the evaluation of CL services. It also provides updated evidence regarding the effectiveness and impact of CL services. The approach used was successful in developing research and critical appraisal skills in a group of librarians. © 2010 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2010 Health Libraries Group.
Westgate, Martin J; Lindenmayer, David B
The need for robust evidence to support conservation actions has driven the adoption of systematic approaches to research synthesis in ecology. However, applying systematic review to complex or open questions remains challenging, and this task is becoming more difficult as the quantity of scientific literature increases. We drew on the science of linguistics for guidance as to why the process of identifying and sorting information during systematic review remains so labor intensive, and to provide potential solutions. Several linguistic properties of peer-reviewed corpora-including nonrandom selection of review topics, small-world properties of semantic networks, and spatiotemporal variation in word meaning-greatly increase the effort needed to complete the systematic review process. Conversely, the resolution of these semantic complexities is a common motivation for narrative reviews, but this process is rarely enacted with the rigor applied during linguistic analysis. Therefore, linguistics provides a unifying framework for understanding some key challenges of systematic review and highlights 2 useful directions for future research. First, in cases where semantic complexity generates barriers to synthesis, ecologists should consider drawing on existing methods-such as natural language processing or the construction of research thesauri and ontologies-that provide tools for mapping and resolving that complexity. These tools could help individual researchers classify research material in a more robust manner and provide valuable guidance for future researchers on that topic. Second, a linguistic perspective highlights that scientific writing is a rich resource worthy of detailed study, an observation that can sometimes be lost during the search for data during systematic review or meta-analysis. For example, mapping semantic networks can reveal redundancy and complementarity among scientific concepts, leading to new insights and research questions. Consequently
Straus Sharon E
Full Text Available Abstract A study conducted by Lai and colleagues, published this week in BMC Medicine, suggests that more guidance might be required for interpreting systematic review (SR results. In the study by Lai and colleagues, positive (or favorable results were influential in changing participants' prior beliefs about the interventions presented in the systematic review. Other studies have examined the relationship between favorable systematic review results and the publication of systematic reviews. An international registry may decrease the number of unpublished systematic reviews and will hopefully decrease redundancy, increase transparency, and increase collaboration within the SR community. In addition, using guidance from the Preferred Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA: http://www.prisma-statement.org/ Statement and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE: http://www.gradeworkinggroup.org/ approach can also be used to improve the interpretation of systematic reviews. In this commentary, we highlight important methodological issues related to the conduct and reporting of systematic reviews and also present our own guidance on interpreting systematic reviews. Please see Research article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/9/30/.
Salles, Léia Fortes; Silva, Maria Júlia Paes
This study is a literature review about Iridology/Irisdiagnose in the period from 1970 to 2005. The objective was to identify the worldwide scientific publications (articles) in this field and the opinions about the method. Twenty-five articles were found, four of them from Brazilian authors. About the category, 1 was literature review, 12 research studies and 12 updates, historical reviews or editorials. The countries that have contributed more with the studies were Brazil and Russia. Fifteen of those are in favor of the method and 10 are against it. In conclusion, it is necessary to develop more studies inside the methodological rigor, once Iridology brings hope to preventive medicine.
Lundh, Andreas; Knijnenburg, Sebastiaan L; Jørgensen, Anders W; van Dalen, Elvira C; Kremer, Leontien C M
To ensure evidence-based decision making in pediatric oncology systematic reviews are necessary. The objective of our study was to evaluate the methodological quality of all currently existing systematic reviews in pediatric oncology. We identified eligible systematic reviews through a systematic search of the literature. Data on clinical and methodological characteristics of the included systematic reviews were extracted. The methodological quality of the included systematic reviews was assessed using the overview quality assessment questionnaire, a validated 10-item quality assessment tool. We compared the methodological quality of systematic reviews published in regular journals with that of Cochrane systematic reviews. We included 117 systematic reviews, 99 systematic reviews published in regular journals and 18 Cochrane systematic reviews. The average methodological quality of systematic reviews was low for all ten items, but the quality of Cochrane systematic reviews was significantly higher than systematic reviews published in regular journals. On a 1-7 scale, the median overall quality score for all systematic reviews was 2 (range 1-7), with a score of 1 (range 1-7) for systematic reviews in regular journals compared to 6 (range 3-7) in Cochrane systematic reviews (pmethodological flaws leading to a high risk of bias. While Cochrane systematic reviews were of higher methodological quality than systematic reviews in regular journals, some of them also had methodological problems. Therefore, the methodology of each individual systematic review should be scrutinized before accepting its results.
Linares-Espinós, E; Hernández, V; Domínguez-Escrig, J L; Fernández-Pello, S; Hevia, V; Mayor, J; Padilla-Fernández, B; Ribal, M J
The objective of evidence-based medicine is to employ the best scientific information available to apply to clinical practice. Understanding and interpreting the scientific evidence involves understanding the available levels of evidence, where systematic reviews and meta-analyses of clinical trials are at the top of the levels-of-evidence pyramid. The review process should be well developed and planned to reduce biases and eliminate irrelevant and low-quality studies. The steps for implementing a systematic review include (i) correctly formulating the clinical question to answer (PICO), (ii) developing a protocol (inclusion and exclusion criteria), (iii) performing a detailed and broad literature search and (iv) screening the abstracts of the studies identified in the search and subsequently of the selected complete texts (PRISMA). Once the studies have been selected, we need to (v) extract the necessary data into a form designed in the protocol to summarise the included studies, (vi) assess the biases of each study, identifying the quality of the available evidence, and (vii) develop tables and text that synthesise the evidence. A systematic review involves a critical and reproducible summary of the results of the available publications on a particular topic or clinical question. To improve scientific writing, the methodology is shown in a structured manner to implement a systematic review. Copyright © 2018 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
O'Mara-Eves, Alison; Thomas, James; McNaught, John; Miwa, Makoto; Ananiadou, Sophia
The large and growing number of published studies, and their increasing rate of publication, makes the task of identifying relevant studies in an unbiased way for inclusion in systematic reviews both complex and time consuming. Text mining has been offered as a potential solution: through automating some of the screening process, reviewer time can be saved. The evidence base around the use of text mining for screening has not yet been pulled together systematically; this systematic review fills that research gap. Focusing mainly on non-technical issues, the review aims to increase awareness of the potential of these technologies and promote further collaborative research between the computer science and systematic review communities. Five research questions led our review: what is the state of the evidence base; how has workload reduction been evaluated; what are the purposes of semi-automation and how effective are they; how have key contextual problems of applying text mining to the systematic review field been addressed; and what challenges to implementation have emerged? We answered these questions using standard systematic review methods: systematic and exhaustive searching, quality-assured data extraction and a narrative synthesis to synthesise findings. The evidence base is active and diverse; there is almost no replication between studies or collaboration between research teams and, whilst it is difficult to establish any overall conclusions about best approaches, it is clear that efficiencies and reductions in workload are potentially achievable. On the whole, most suggested that a saving in workload of between 30% and 70% might be possible, though sometimes the saving in workload is accompanied by the loss of 5% of relevant studies (i.e. a 95% recall). Using text mining to prioritise the order in which items are screened should be considered safe and ready for use in 'live' reviews. The use of text mining as a 'second screener' may also be used cautiously
Pandolfino, John E; Gawron, Andrew J
Achalasia significantly affects patients' quality of life and can be difficult to diagnose and treat. To review the diagnosis and management of achalasia, with a focus on phenotypic classification pertinent to therapeutic outcomes. Literature review and MEDLINE search of articles from January 2004 to February 2015. A total of 93 articles were included in the final literature review addressing facets of achalasia epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes. Nine randomized controlled trials focusing on endoscopic or surgical therapy for achalasia were included (734 total patients). A diagnosis of achalasia should be considered when patients present with dysphagia, chest pain, and refractory reflux symptoms after an endoscopy does not reveal a mechanical obstruction or an inflammatory cause of esophageal symptoms. Manometry should be performed if achalasia is suspected. Randomized controlled trials support treatments focused on disrupting the lower esophageal sphincter with pneumatic dilation (70%-90% effective) or laparoscopic myotomy (88%-95% effective). Patients with achalasia have a variable prognosis after endoscopic or surgical myotomy based on subtypes, with type II (absent peristalsis with abnormal pan-esophageal high-pressure patterns) having a very favorable outcome (96%) and type I (absent peristalsis without abnormal pressure) having an intermediate prognosis (81%) that is inversely associated with the degree of esophageal dilatation. In contrast, type III (absent peristalsis with distal esophageal spastic contractions) is a spastic variant with less favorable outcomes (66%) after treatment of the lower esophageal sphincter. Achalasia should be considered when dysphagia is present and not explained by an obstruction or inflammatory process. Responses to treatment vary based on which achalasia subtype is present.
Rodrigo Pinheiro Araldi
Full Text Available Abstract In the last decades, a group of viruses has received great attention due to its relationship with cancer development and its wide distribution throughout the vertebrates: the papillomaviruses. In this article, we aim to review some of the most relevant reports concerning the use of bovines as an experimental model for studies related to papillomaviruses. Moreover, the obtained data contributes to the development of strategies against the clinical consequences of bovine papillomaviruses (BPV that have led to drastic hazards to the herds. To overcome the problem, the vaccines that we have been developing involve recombinant DNA technology, aiming at prophylactic and therapeutic procedures. It is important to point out that these strategies can be used as models for innovative procedures against HPV, as this virus is the main causal agent of cervical cancer, the second most fatal cancer in women.
Guimarães, Helena; Fonseca, Cecília; Gonzalez, Carla; Pinto-Correia, Teresa
This article describes how a research institute went about reviewing the relationship between its members and external research partners in engaging in collaborative research. A systematization of experiences (SE) process was implemented to enable such review and draw implications for the institute's strategy regarding research into the…
Cancelliere, Carol; Hincapié, Cesar A; Keightley, Michelle; Godbolt, Alison K; Côté, Pierre; Kristman, Vicki L; Stålnacke, Britt-Marie; Carroll, Linda J; Hung, Ryan; Borg, Jörgen; Nygren-de Boussard, Catharina; Coronado, Victor G; Donovan, James; Cassidy, J David
To synthesize the best available evidence on prognosis after sport concussion. MEDLINE and other databases were searched (2001-2012) with terms including "craniocerebral trauma" and "sports." Reference lists of eligible articles were also searched. Randomized controlled trials and cohort and case-control studies were selected according to predefined criteria. Studies had to have a minimum of 30 concussion cases. Eligible studies were critically appraised using a modification of the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) criteria. Two reviewers independently reviewed and extracted data from accepted studies into evidence tables. Evidence was synthesized qualitatively according to modified SIGN criteria, and studies were categorized as exploratory or confirmatory based on the strength of their design and evidence. After 77,914 records were screened, 52 articles were eligible for this review, and 24 articles (representing 19 studies) with a low risk of bias were accepted. Our findings are based on exploratory studies of predominantly male football players at the high school, collegiate, and professional levels. Most athletes recover within days to a few weeks, and American and Australian professional football players return to play quickly after mild traumatic brain injury. Delayed recovery appears more likely in high school athletes, in those with a history of previous concussion, and in those with a higher number and duration of postconcussion symptoms. The evidence concerning sports concussion course and prognosis is very preliminary, and there is no evidence on the effect of return-to-play guidelines on prognosis. Our findings have implications for further research. Well-designed, confirmatory studies are urgently needed to understand the consequences of sport concussion, including recurrent concussion, across different athletic populations and sports. Copyright © 2014 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights
Homeopathy remains one of the most controversial subjects in therapeutics. This article is an attempt to clarify its effectiveness based on recent systematic reviews. Electronic databases were searched for systematic reviews/meta-analysis on the subject. Seventeen articles fulfilled the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Six of them related to re-analyses of one landmark meta-analysis. Collectively they implied that the overall positive result of this meta-analysis is not supported by a critical analysis of the data. Eleven independent systematic reviews were located. Collectively they failed to provide strong evidence in favour of homeopathy. In particular, there was no condition which responds convincingly better to homeopathic treatment than to placebo or other control interventions. Similarly, there was no homeopathic remedy that was demonstrated to yield clinical effects that are convincingly different from placebo. It is concluded that the best clinical evidence for homeopathy available to date does not warrant positive recommendations for its use in clinical practice. PMID:12492603
Bronstein, Israel; Montgomery, Paul
Nearly one-quarter of the refugees worldwide are children. There have been numerous studies reporting their levels of psychological distress. The aim of this paper is to review systematically and synthesize the epidemiological research concerning the mental health of refugee children residing in Western countries. A Cochrane Collaboration style…
Lundh, Andreas; Knijnenburg, Sebastiaan L; Jørgensen, Anders W
BACKGROUND: To ensure evidence-based decision making in pediatric oncology systematic reviews are necessary. The objective of our study was to evaluate the methodological quality of all currently existing systematic reviews in pediatric oncology. METHODS: We identified eligible systematic reviews...... through a systematic search of the literature. Data on clinical and methodological characteristics of the included systematic reviews were extracted. The methodological quality of the included systematic reviews was assessed using the overview quality assessment questionnaire, a validated 10-item quality...... assessment tool. We compared the methodological quality of systematic reviews published in regular journals with that of Cochrane systematic reviews. RESULTS: We included 117 systematic reviews, 99 systematic reviews published in regular journals and 18 Cochrane systematic reviews. The average methodological...
Full Text Available Up to 15% of the reproductive population is infertile, and 3 to 5% of these cases are caused by uterine dysfunction. This abnormality generally leads women to consider surrogacy or adoption. Uterine transplantation, although still experimental, may be an option in these cases. This systematic review will outline the recommendations, surgical aspects, immunosuppressive drugs and reproductive aspects related to experimental uterine transplantation in women.
Remschmidt, Cornelius; Wichmann, Ole; Harder, Thomas
There is a growing body of evidence on the risks and benefits of influenza vaccination in various target groups. Systematic reviews are of particular importance for policy decisions. However, their methodological quality can vary considerably. To investigate the methodological quality of systematic reviews on influenza vaccination (efficacy, effectiveness, safety) and to identify influencing factors. A systematic literature search on systematic reviews on influenza vaccination was performed, using MEDLINE, EMBASE and three additional databases (1990-2013). Review characteristics were extracted and the methodological quality of the reviews was evaluated using the assessment of multiple systematic reviews (AMSTAR) tool. U-test, Kruskal-Wallis test, chi-square test, and multivariable linear regression analysis were used to assess the influence of review characteristics on AMSTAR-score. Fourty-six systematic reviews fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Average methodological quality was high (median AMSTAR-score: 8), but variability was large (AMSTAR range: 0-11). Quality did not differ significantly according to vaccination target group. Cochrane reviews had higher methodological quality than non-Cochrane reviews (p=0.001). Detailed analysis showed that this was due to better study selection and data extraction, inclusion of unpublished studies, and better reporting of study characteristics (all p<0.05). In the adjusted analysis, no other factor, including industry sponsorship or journal impact factor had an influence on AMSTAR score. Systematic reviews on influenza vaccination showed large differences regarding their methodological quality. Reviews conducted by the Cochrane collaboration were of higher quality than others. When using systematic reviews to guide the development of vaccination recommendations, the methodological quality of a review in addition to its content should be considered. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background As every healthcare intervention carries some risk of harm, clinical decision making needs to be supported by a systematic assessment of the balance of benefit to harm. A systematic review that considers only the favourable outcomes of an intervention, without also assessing the adverse effects, can mislead by introducing a bias favouring the intervention. Much of the current guidance on systematic reviews is directed towards the evaluation of effectiveness; but this differs in important ways from the methods used in assessing the safety and tolerability of an intervention. A detailed discussion of why, how and when to include adverse effects in a systematic review, is required. Methods This discussion paper, which presupposes a basic knowledge of systematic review methodology, was developed by consensus among experienced reviewers, members of the Adverse Effects Subgroup of The Cochrane Collaboration, and supplemented by a consultation of content experts in reviews methodology, as well as those working in drug safety. Results A logical framework for making decisions in reviews that incorporate adverse effects is provided. We explore situations where a comprehensive investigation of adverse effects is warranted and suggest strategies to identify practicable and clinically useful outcomes. The advantages and disadvantages of including observational and experimental study designs are reviewed. The consequences of including separate studies for intended and unintended effects are explained. Detailed advice is given on designing electronic searches for studies with adverse effects data. Reviewers of adverse effects are given general guidance on the assessment of study bias, data collection, analysis, presentation and the interpretation of harms in a systematic review. Conclusion Readers need to be able to recognize how strategic choices made in the review process determine what harms are found, and how the findings may affect
Nortvig, Anne-Mette; Christiansen, René Boyer
This literature review seeks to outline the state of the art regarding collaboration between educational institutions on Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) launched in Europe and in the US for the past 10 years. The review explores enablers and barriers that influence national institutional MOOC...... collaboration, and looks into how existing knowledge about institutional collaboration on e-learning can be used in MOOC collaboration. The review is based on a literature search in databases and on snowballing techniques. It concludes that collaboration on MOOCs can be advantageous in terms of ensuring quality...... loss of their own national branding and the teachers’ hesitancy or passive resistance to new educational platforms and formats....
Full Text Available Taru Tervo,1 Anna Nordström2 1Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine, Floorball Research and Development Center, Umeå School of Sport Sciences, 2Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine, Umeå School of Sport Sciences, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden Background: The purpose of this study was to comprehensively review the scientific research on floorball at the competitive and recreational levels according to field of study. Methods: Full articles containing original data on floorball that had been published in English in peer-reviewed journals were considered for inclusion. Results: Of 75 articles screened, 19 were included in this systematic review. One article each was identified in the fields of sports management and sports psychology, and the remaining 17 articles were in the field of sports medicine. Injury epidemiology in floorball players was the most thoroughly examined topic of research. To date, no research has been performed on the incidence of floorball-related injury, or any aspect of the sport, in children and adolescents. Conclusion: Collaborative research among sports science disciplines is needed to identify strategies to reduce the incidence of injury and enhance the performance of licensed floorball players. Despite the increasing popularity of floorball in recent years, surprisingly little research has examined this sport. Keywords: floorball, unihockey, review
Jose Antonio Garbino
Full Text Available The authors proposed a systematic review on the current concepts of primary neural leprosy by consulting the following online databases: MEDLINE, Lilacs/SciELO, and Embase. Selected studies were classified based on the degree of recommendation and levels of scientific evidence according to the “Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine”. The following aspects were reviewed: cutaneous clinical and laboratorial investigations, i.e. skin clinical exam, smears, and biopsy, and Mitsuda's reaction; neurological investigation (anamnesis, electromyography and nerve biopsy; serological investigation and molecular testing, i.e. serological testing for the detection of the phenolic glycolipid 1 (PGL-I and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR; and treatment (classification criteria for the definition of specific treatment, steroid treatment, and cure criteria.
Fischer, H.B.; Simanski, C.J.; Sharp, C.
The PROSPECT Working Group, a collaboration of anaesthetists and surgeons, conducts systematic reviews of postoperative pain management for different surgical procedures (http://www.postoppain.org). Evidence-based consensus recommendations for the effective management of postoperative pain are th...
Full Text Available Abstract Systematic reviews have become increasingly critical to informing healthcare policy; however, they remain a time-consuming and labor-intensive activity. The extraction of data from constituent studies comprises a significant portion of this effort, an activity which is often needlessly duplicated, such as when attempting to update a previously conducted review or in reviews of overlapping topics. In order to address these inefficiencies, and to improve the speed and quality of healthcare policy- and decision-making, we have initiated the development of the Systematic Review Data Repository, an open collaborative Web-based repository of systematic review data. As envisioned, this resource would serve as both a central archive and data extraction tool, shared among and freely accessible to organizations producing systematic reviews worldwide. A suite of easy-to-use software tools with a Web frontend would enable researchers to seamlessly search for and incorporate previously deposited data into their own reviews, as well as contribute their own. In developing this resource, we identified a number of technical and non-technical challenges, as well as devised a number of potential solutions, including proposals for systems and software tools to assure data quality, stratify and control user access effectively and flexibly accommodate all manner of study data, as well as means by which to govern and foster adoption of this new resource. Herein we provide an account of the rationale and development of the Systematic Review Data Repository thus far, as well as outline its future trajectory.
Maynard, Brandy R.; Dell, Nathaniel A.
Aim: This study examines use and impacts of systematic reviews produced by the Campbell Collaboration's Social Welfare Coordinating Group (SWCG) on practice, policy, and research. Methods: A mixed-method research design was used to examine impacts of 52 systematic reviews published by the SWCG. We conducted author surveys and retrieved multiple…
Bearman, Margaret; Smith, Calvin D.; Carbone, Angela; Slade, Susan; Baik, Chi; Hughes-Warrington, Marnie; Neumann, David L.
Systematic review methodology can be distinguished from narrative reviews of the literature through its emphasis on transparent, structured and comprehensive approaches to searching the literature and its requirement for formal synthesis of research findings. There appears to be relatively little use of the systematic review methodology within the…
Little is known about the barriers, facilitators and interventions that impact on systematic review uptake. The objective of this study was to identify how uptake of systematic reviews can be improved.
Harris, Joshua D; Quatman, Carmen E; Manring, M M; Siston, Robert A; Flanigan, David C
The role of evidence-based medicine in sports medicine and orthopaedic surgery is rapidly growing. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses are also proliferating in the medical literature. To provide the outline necessary for a practitioner to properly understand and/or conduct a systematic review for publication in a sports medicine journal. Review. The steps of a successful systematic review include the following: identification of an unanswered answerable question; explicit definitions of the investigation's participant(s), intervention(s), comparison(s), and outcome(s); utilization of PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses) guidelines and PROSPERO registration; thorough systematic data extraction; and appropriate grading of the evidence and strength of the recommendations. An outline to understand and conduct a systematic review is provided, and the difference between meta-analyses and systematic reviews is described. The steps necessary to perform a systematic review are fully explained, including the study purpose, search methodology, data extraction, reporting of results, identification of bias, and reporting of the study's main findings. Systematic reviews or meta-analyses critically appraise and formally synthesize the best existing evidence to provide a statement of conclusion that answers specific clinical questions. Readers and reviewers, however, must recognize that the quality and strength of recommendations in a review are only as strong as the quality of studies that it analyzes. Thus, great care must be used in the interpretation of bias and extrapolation of the review's findings to translation to clinical practice. Without advanced education on the topic, the reader may follow the steps discussed herein to perform a systematic review. © 2013 The Author(s).
Full Text Available Anne CM Pelzer,1 Frank MMA van der Heijden,2 Erik den Boer3 1Department of Psychiatry, Reinier van Arkel, ‘s-Hertogenbosch, 2Department of Psychiatry, Vincent van Gogh Institute for Psychiatry, Venlo, 3Department of Psychiatry, GGzE, Eindhoven, the Netherlands Objective: To investigate the evidence-based treatment of catatonia in adults. The secondary aim is to develop a treatment protocol. Materials and methods: A systematic review of published treatment articles (case series, cohort or randomized controlled studies which examined the effects of particular interventions for catatonia and/or catatonic symptoms in adult populations and used valid outcome measures was performed. The articles for this review were selected by searching the electronic databases of the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE and PSYCHINFO. Results: Thirty-one articles met the inclusion criteria. Lorazepam and electroconvulsive therapy (ECT proved to be the most investigated treatment interventions. The response percentages in Western studies varied between 66% and 100% for studies with lorazepam, while in Asian and Indian studies, they were 0% and 100%. For ECT, the response percentages are 59%–100%. There does not seem to be evidence for the use of antipsychotics in catatonic patients without any underlying psychotic disorder. Conclusion: Lorazepam and ECT are effective treatments for which clinical evidence is found in the literature. It is not possible to develop a treatment protocol because the evidence for catatonia management on the basis of the articles reviewed is limited. Stringent treatment studies on catatonia are warranted. Keywords: review, catatonia, therapeutics, electroconvulsive therapy, benzodiazepines, lorazepam, ECT
Nortvig, Anne-Mette; Christiansen, René B.
This literature review seeks to outline the state of the art regarding collaboration between educational institutions on Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) launched in Europe and in the US for the past 10 years. The review explores enablers and barriers that influence national institutional MOOC collaboration, and looks into how existing…
Katharina F Mueller
Full Text Available Systematic reviews of preclinical studies, in vivo animal experiments in particular, can influence clinical research and thus even clinical care. Dissemination bias, selective dissemination of positive or significant results, is one of the major threats to validity in systematic reviews also in the realm of animal studies. We conducted a systematic review to determine the number of published systematic reviews of animal studies until present, to investigate their methodological features especially with respect to assessment of dissemination bias, and to investigate the citation of preclinical systematic reviews on clinical research.Eligible studies for this systematic review constitute systematic reviews that summarize in vivo animal experiments whose results could be interpreted as applicable to clinical care. We systematically searched Ovid Medline, Embase, ToxNet, and ScienceDirect from 1st January 2009 to 9th January 2013 for eligible systematic reviews without language restrictions. Furthermore we included articles from two previous systematic reviews by Peters et al. and Korevaar et al.The literature search and screening process resulted in 512 included full text articles. We found an increasing number of published preclinical systematic reviews over time. The methodological quality of preclinical systematic reviews was low. The majority of preclinical systematic reviews did not assess methodological quality of the included studies (71%, nor did they assess heterogeneity (81% or dissemination bias (87%. Statistics quantifying the importance of clinical research citing systematic reviews of animal studies showed that clinical studies referred to the preclinical research mainly to justify their study or a future study (76%.Preclinical systematic reviews may have an influence on clinical research but their methodological quality frequently remains low. Therefore, systematic reviews of animal research should be critically appraised before
Full Text Available Nádia Nara Rolim Lima,1 Vânia Barbosa do Nascimento,1 Sionara Melo Figueiredo de Carvalho,1 Luiz Carlos de Abreu,1,3 Modesto Leite Rolim Neto,2 Aline Quental Brasil,2 Francisco Telésforo Celestino Junior,2 Gislene Farias de Oliveira,2 Alberto Olavo Advíncula Reis3 1Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências da Saúde, Faculdade de Medicina do ABC, Santo André, São Paulo, Brazil; 2Departamento de Medicina. Universidade Federal do Ceará, UFC, Barbalha, Ceará, Brazil; 3Departamento de Saúde Materno Infantil, Faculdade de Saúde Pública, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Abstract: As an important public health issue, childhood depression deserves special attention, considering the serious and lasting consequences of the disease to child development. Taking this into consideration, the present study was based on the following question: what practical contributions to clinicians and researchers does the current literature on childhood depression have to offer? The objective of the present study was to conduct a systematic review of articles regarding childhood depression. To accomplish this purpose, a systematic review of articles on childhood depression, published from January 1, 2010 to November 24, 2012, on MEDLINE and SciELO databases was carried out. Search terms were “depression” (medical subject headings [MeSH], “child” (MeSH, and "childhood depression" (keyword. Of the 180 retrieved studies, 25 met the eligibility criteria. Retrieved studies covered a wide range of aspects regarding childhood depression, such as diagnosis, treatment, prevention and prognosis. Recent scientific literature regarding childhood depression converge to, directly or indirectly, highlight the negative impacts of depressive disorders to the children's quality of life. Unfortunately, the retrieved studies show that childhood depression commonly grows in a background of vulnerability and poverty, where individual and familiar needs
Stepan, L; Shaw, C-K L; Oue, S
Temporomandibular disorder poses a diagnostic challenge to otolaryngologists as orofacial pain, headache and otology symptoms are very common in temporomandibular disorder, and mimic a number of otolaryngological conditions. Missed diagnosis of temporomandibular disorder can lead to unnecessary investigation and treatment, resulting in further patient suffering. To review the current literature and propose management pathways for otolaryngologists to correctly differentiate temporomandibular disorder from other otolaryngological conditions, and to initiate effective treatment for temporomandibular disorder in collaboration with other health professionals. A systematic review using PubMed and Medline databases was conducted, and data on temporomandibular disorder in conjunction with otolaryngological symptoms were collected for analysis. Of 4155 potential studies, 33 were retrieved for detailed evaluation and 12 met the study criteria. There are questionnaires, examination techniques and radiological investigations presented in the literature to assist with distinguishing between otolaryngological causes of symptoms and temporomandibular disorder. Simple treatment can be initiated by the otolaryngologist. Initial temporomandibular disorder treatment steps can be undertaken by the otolaryngologist, with consideration of referral to dentists, oral and maxillofacial surgeons, or physiotherapists if simple pharmacological treatment or temporomandibular disorder exercise fails.
The collaborative economy matches people online who want to share assets and services. This Policy Contribution - i) discusses how the collaborative economy can be defined; ii) provides an overview of evidence about its potential benefits for European economies and the impact of specific platforms in the sectors of their operation; iii) illustrates the criteria that enable professional and non-professional services offered through collaborative platforms to be distinguished; iv) recommends pr...
van de Belt, Tom H; Grajales III, Francisco J; Eysenbach, Gunther; Aubin, Karine; Gold, Irving; Gagnon, Marie-Pierre; Kuziemsky, Craig E; Turgeon, Alexis F; Poitras, Julien; Faber, Marjan J; Kremer, Jan A.M; Heldoorn, Marcel; Bilodeau, Andrea; Légaré, France
The rapid rise in the use of collaborative writing applications (eg, wikis, Google Documents, and Google Knol) has created the need for a systematic synthesis of the evidence of their impact as knowledge translation (KT) tools in the health care sector and for an inventory of the factors that affect their use. While researchers have conducted systematic reviews on a range of software-based information and communication technologies as well as other social media (eg, virtual communities of practice, virtual peer-to-peer communities, and electronic support groups), none have reviewed collaborative writing applications in the medical sector. The overarching goal of this project is to explore the depth and breadth of evidence for the use of collaborative writing applications in health care. Thus, the purposes of this scoping review will be to (1) map the literature on collaborative writing applications; (2) compare the applications’ features; (3) describe the evidence of each application’s positive and negative effects as a KT intervention in health care; (4) inventory and describe the barriers and facilitators that affect the applications’ use; and (5) produce an action plan and a research agenda. A six-stage framework for scoping reviews will be used: (1) identifying the research question; (2) identifying relevant studies within the selected databases (using the EPPI-Reviewer software to classify the studies); (3) selecting studies (an iterative process in which two reviewers search the literature, refine the search strategy, and review articles for inclusion); (4) charting the data (using EPPI-Reviewer’s data-charting form); (5) collating, summarizing, and reporting the results (performing a descriptive, numerical, and interpretive synthesis); and (6) consulting knowledge users during three planned meetings. Since this scoping review concerns the use of collaborative writing applications as KT interventions in health care, we will use the Knowledge to Action
Wilson, Jefferson R.; Tetreault, Lindsay A.; Kwon, Brian K.; Arnold, Paul M.; Mroz, Thomas E.; Shaffrey, Christopher; Harrop, James S.; Chapman, Jens R.; Casha, Steve; Skelly, Andrea C.; Holmer, Haley K.; Brodt, Erika D.; Fehlings, Michael G.
Study Design: Systematic review. Objective: To conduct a systematic review and synthesis of the literature to assess the comparative effectiveness, safety, and cost-effectiveness of early (≤24 hours) versus late decompression (>24 hours) in adults with acute spinal cord injury (SCI). Methods: A systematic search was conducted of Medline, EMBASE, the Cochrane Collaboration Library, and Google Scholar to identify studies published through November 6, 2014. Studies published in any language, in ...
Udina, Marc; Foulon, Hubert; Valdés, Manuel; Bhattacharyya, Sagnik; Martín-Santos, Rocío
Dhat syndrome is a widely recognized clinical condition often seen on the Indian subcontinent that is characterized by a preoccupation with semen loss in urine and other symptoms such as fatigue or depressed mood. Although it has been considered to be a culture-bound syndrome, it may also be regarded as a distinct manifestation of depression or another medical illness. The purpose of this paper was to carry out a systematic review on Dhat syndrome. A review of the literature published up until February 2012 was conducted using the key words [Dhat syndrome] or [semen-loss anxiety] or [semen-loss syndrome]. We included only original studies. The majority of studies reported patients from the Indian subcontinent. There was a high degree of heterogeneity among the studies. Dhat was a common condition in young people from certain cultures and origins. Depressive and anxiety symptoms were common, including fatigue, sleepiness, and sexual dysfunction. Good clinical engagement, social support, and sexual education were useful in some cases. Given the high rate of comorbid depressive symptoms, antidepressant has been used. In an increasingly globalized world, clinicians must be able to properly diagnose and treat patients from other cultures, who may report symptoms that are influenced by their beliefs, culture, or place of origin. Dhat may be a common manifestation of a depressive or anxiety disorder in certain cultures. Further research is needed to improve our understanding of this condition, to clarify its nosologic status, and to offer appropriate treatment to affected individuals. Copyright © 2013 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jéssica Suellen Sena
Full Text Available SUMMARY Objective: To analyze the epidemiological profile, risk factors in the workplace environment and prevention methods for professionals at risk of skin cancer. Method: A systematic review of articles on occupational skin cancer, published in the Lilacs, Scielo, Medline and Cochrane Library from January 1st, 2008, to December 31st, 2013, was performed. The search included the following terms: “neoplasias cutâneas” (DeCS, “exposição ocupacional” (DeCS, “epidemiologia” (DeCS as well as the keyword “prevenção”, and their equivalents in English. Results: After analyzing the titles and summaries of articles, the search strategy resulted in 83 references, of which 22 articles met the eligibility criteria. Discussion: We found that sun exposure is the main occupational risk factor for skin cancer, causing outdoor workers to be the most vulnerable to developing occupational skin cancer. Professionals with low levels of education and European descent are at increased risk of developing this cancer. Conclusion: Outdoor workers are more vulnerable to developing occupational skin cancer, estimating that professionals with low level of education and European descent are at increased risk of developing this cancer. Therefore, companies need to invest more in the health of workers by providing protective equipment and thus preventing occupational skin cancer.
Golder, Su; Loke, Yoon K; Zorzela, Liliane
Research indicates that the methods used to identify data for systematic reviews of adverse effects may need to differ from other systematic reviews. To compare search methods in systematic reviews of adverse effects with other reviews. The search methodologies in 849 systematic reviews of adverse effects were compared with other reviews. Poor reporting of search strategies is apparent in both systematic reviews of adverse effects and other types of systematic reviews. Systematic reviews of adverse effects are less likely to restrict their searches to MEDLINE or include only randomised controlled trials (RCTs). The use of other databases is largely dependent on the topic area and the year the review was conducted, with more databases searched in more recent reviews. Adverse effects search terms are used by 72% of reviews and despite recommendations only two reviews report using floating subheadings. The poor reporting of search strategies in systematic reviews is universal, as is the dominance of searching MEDLINE. However, reviews of adverse effects are more likely to include a range of study designs (not just RCTs) and search beyond MEDLINE. © 2014 Crown Copyright.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cost-Effectiveness Analysis (CEA has been promoted as an important research methodology for determining the efficiency of healthcare technology and guiding medical decision-making. Our aim was to characterize the collaborative patterns of CEA conducted over the past two decades in Spain. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A systematic analysis was carried out with the information obtained through an updated comprehensive literature review and from reports of health technology assessment agencies. We identified CEAs with outcomes expressed as a time-based summary measure of population health (e.g. quality-adjusted life-years or disability-adjusted life-years, conducted in Spain and published between 1989 and 2011. Networks of coauthorship and institutional collaboration were produced using PAJEK software. One-hundred and thirty-one papers were analyzed, in which 526 authors and 230 institutions participated. The overall signatures per paper index was 5.4. Six major groups (one with 14 members, three with 7 members and two with 6 members were identified. The most prolific authors were generally affiliated with the private-for-profit sector (e.g. consulting firms and the pharmaceutical industry. The private-for-profit sector maintains profuse collaborative networks including public hospitals and academia. Collaboration within the public sector (e.g. healthcare administration and primary care was weak and fragmented. CONCLUSIONS: This empirical analysis reflects critical practices among collaborative networks that contributed substantially to the production of CEA, raises challenges for redesigning future policies and provides a framework for similar analyses in other regions.
EPA hosted an event to examine the systematic review process for development and applications of methods for different types of evidence (epidemiology, animal toxicology, and mechanistic). The presentations are also available.
Systematic reviews are valuable tools for staying abreast of evolving nutrition and aging -related topics, formulating dietary guidelines, establishing nutrient reference intakes, formulating clinical practice guidance, evaluating health claims, and setting research agendas. Basic steps of conductin...
... is addressing this gap, summarizing the best available primary research on digital ... Systematic reviews are used to appraise relevant research and synthesize ... The health sciences field uses them widely to inform studies and evaluate ...
Van der Wees Philip
Full Text Available Abstract Clinical practice and public health guidelines are important tools for translating research findings into practice with the aim of assisting health practitioners as well as patients and consumers in health behavior and healthcare decision-making. Numerous programs for guideline development exist around the world, with growing international collaboration to improve their quality. One of the key features in developing trustworthy guidelines is that recommendations should be based on high-quality systematic reviews of the best available evidence. The review process used by guideline developers to identify and grade relevant evidence for developing recommendations should be systematic, transparent and unbiased. In this paper, we provide an overview of current international developments in the field of practice guidelines and methods to develop guidelines, with a specific focus on the role of systematic reviews. The Guidelines International Network (G-I-N aims to stimulate collaboration between guideline developers and systematic reviewers to optimize the use of available evidence in guideline development and to increase efficiency in the guideline development process. Considering the significant benefit of systematic reviews for the guideline community, the G-I-N Board of Trustees supports the international prospective register of systematic reviews (PROSPERO initiative. G-I-N also recently launched a Data Extraction Resource (GINDER to present and share data extracted from individual studies in a standardized template. PROSPERO and GINDER are complementary tools to enhance collaboration between guideline developers and systematic reviewers to allow for alignment of activities and a reduction in duplication of effort.
Van der Wees, Philip; Qaseem, Amir; Kaila, Minna; Ollenschlaeger, Guenter; Rosenfeld, Richard
Clinical practice and public health guidelines are important tools for translating research findings into practice with the aim of assisting health practitioners as well as patients and consumers in health behavior and healthcare decision-making. Numerous programs for guideline development exist around the world, with growing international collaboration to improve their quality. One of the key features in developing trustworthy guidelines is that recommendations should be based on high-quality systematic reviews of the best available evidence. The review process used by guideline developers to identify and grade relevant evidence for developing recommendations should be systematic, transparent and unbiased. In this paper, we provide an overview of current international developments in the field of practice guidelines and methods to develop guidelines, with a specific focus on the role of systematic reviews. The Guidelines International Network (G-I-N) aims to stimulate collaboration between guideline developers and systematic reviewers to optimize the use of available evidence in guideline development and to increase efficiency in the guideline development process. Considering the significant benefit of systematic reviews for the guideline community, the G-I-N Board of Trustees supports the international prospective register of systematic reviews (PROSPERO) initiative. G-I-N also recently launched a Data Extraction Resource (GINDER) to present and share data extracted from individual studies in a standardized template. PROSPERO and GINDER are complementary tools to enhance collaboration between guideline developers and systematic reviewers to allow for alignment of activities and a reduction in duplication of effort.
Woolacott Nerys F
Full Text Available Abstract Background Balanced decisions about health care interventions require reliable evidence on harms as well as benefits. Most systematic reviews focus on efficacy and randomised trials, for which the methodology is well established. Methods to systematically review harmful effects are less well developed and there are few sources of guidance for researchers. We present our own recent experience of conducting systematic reviews of harmful effects and make suggestions for future practice and further research. Methods We described and compared the methods used in three systematic reviews. Our evaluation focused on the review question, study designs and quality assessment. Results One review question focused on providing information on specific harmful effects to furnish an economic model, the other two addressed much broader questions. All three reviews included randomised and observational data, although each defined the inclusion criteria differently. Standard methods were used to assess study quality. Various practical problems were encountered in applying the study design inclusion criteria and assessing quality, mainly because of poor study design, inadequate reporting and the limitations of existing tools. All three reviews generated a large volume of work that did not yield much useful information for health care decision makers. The key areas for improvement we identified were focusing the review question and developing methods for quality assessment of studies of harmful effects. Conclusions Systematic reviews of harmful effects are more likely to yield information pertinent to clinical decision-making if they address a focused question. This will enable clear decisions to be made about the type of research to include in the review. The methodology for assessing the quality of harmful effects data in systematic reviews requires further development.
Martin-Misener, Ruth; Valaitis, Ruta; Wong, Sabrina T; Macdonald, Marjorie; Meagher-Stewart, Donna; Kaczorowski, Janusz; O-Mara, Linda; Savage, Rachel; Austin, Patricia
The purpose of this scoping literature review was to determine what is known about: 1) structures and processes required to build successful collaborations between primary care (PC) and public health (PH); 2) outcomes of such collaborations; and 3) markers of their success. Collaboration between PC and PH is believed to enable more effective individual and population services than what might be achieved by either alone. The study followed established methods for a scoping literature review and was guided by a framework that identifies systemic, organizational and interactional determinants for collaboration. The review was restricted to articles published between 1988 and 2008. Published quantitative and qualitative primary studies, evaluation research, systematic and other types of reviews, as well as descriptive accounts without an explicit research design, were included if they addressed either the structures or processes to build collaboration or the outcomes or markers of such collaboration, and were published in English. The combined search strategy yielded 6125 articles of which 114 were included. Systemic-level factors influencing collaboration included: government involvement, policy and fit with local needs; funding and resource factors, power and control issues; and education and training. Lack of a common agenda; knowledge and resource limitations; leadership, management and accountability issues; geographic proximity of partners; and shared protocols, tools and information sharing were influential at the organizational level. Interpersonal factors included having a shared purpose; philosophy and beliefs; clear roles and positive relationships; and effective communication and decision-making strategies. Reported benefits of collaboration included: improved chronic disease management; communicable disease control; and maternal child health. More research is needed to explore the conditions and contexts in which collaboration between PC and PH makes most
Hoffmann, Sebastian; de Vries, Rob B M; Stephens, Martin L; Beck, Nancy B; Dirven, Hubert A A M; Fowle, John R; Goodman, Julie E; Hartung, Thomas; Kimber, Ian; Lalu, Manoj M; Thayer, Kristina; Whaley, Paul; Wikoff, Daniele; Tsaioun, Katya
Systematic reviews, pioneered in the clinical field, provide a transparent, methodologically rigorous and reproducible means of summarizing the available evidence on a precisely framed research question. Having matured to a well-established approach in many research fields, systematic reviews are receiving increasing attention as a potential tool for answering toxicological questions. In the larger framework of evidence-based toxicology, the advantages and obstacles of, as well as the approaches for, adapting and adopting systematic reviews to toxicology are still being explored. To provide the toxicology community with a starting point for conducting or understanding systematic reviews, we herein summarized available guidance documents from various fields of application. We have elaborated on the systematic review process by breaking it down into ten steps, starting with planning the project, framing the question, and writing and publishing the protocol, and concluding with interpretation and reporting. In addition, we have identified the specific methodological challenges of toxicological questions and have summarized how these can be addressed. Ultimately, this primer is intended to stimulate scientific discussions of the identified issues to fuel the development of toxicology-specific methodology and to encourage the application of systematic review methodology to toxicological issues.
Thompson, Jenna; Davis, Jacqueline; Mazerolle, Lorraine
The wide variety of readily available electronic media grants anyone the freedom to retrieve published references from almost any area of research around the world. Despite this privilege, keeping up with primary research evidence is almost impossible because of the increase in professional publishing across disciplines. Systematic reviews are a…
Protocol for a systematic review and individual patient data meta-analysis of prognostic factors of foot ulceration in people with diabetes: the international research collaboration for the prediction of diabetic foot ulcerations (PODUS).
Crawford, Fay; Anandan, Chantelle; Chappell, Francesca M; Murray, Gordon D; Price, Jacqueline F; Sheikh, Aziz; Simpson, Colin R; Maxwell, Martin; Stansby, Gerard P; Young, Matthew J; Abbott, Caroline A; Boulton, Andrew J M; Boyko, Edward J; Kastenbauer, Thomas; Leese, Graham P; Monami, Matteo; Monteiro-Soares, Matilde; Rith-Najarian, Stephen J; Veves, Aristidis; Coates, Nikki; Jeffcoate, William J; Leech, Nicola; Fahey, Tom; Tierney, Jayne
Diabetes-related lower limb amputations are associated with considerable morbidity and mortality and are usually preceded by foot ulceration. The available systematic reviews of aggregate data are compromised because the primary studies report both adjusted and unadjusted estimates. As adjusted meta-analyses of aggregate data can be challenging, the best way to standardise the analytical approach is to conduct a meta-analysis based on individual patient data (IPD).There are however many challenges and fundamental methodological omissions are common; protocols are rare and the assessment of the risk of bias arising from the conduct of individual studies is frequently not performed, largely because of the absence of widely agreed criteria for assessing the risk of bias in this type of review. In this protocol we propose key methodological approaches to underpin our IPD systematic review of prognostic factors of foot ulceration in diabetes.Review questions;1. What are the most highly prognostic factors for foot ulceration (i.e. symptoms, signs, diagnostic tests) in people with diabetes?2. Can the data from each study be adjusted for a consistent set of adjustment factors?3. Does the model accuracy change when patient populations are stratified according to demographic and/or clinical characteristics? MEDLINE and EMBASE databases from their inception until early 2012 were searched and the corresponding authors of all eligible primary studies invited to contribute their raw data. We developed relevant quality assurance items likely to identify occasions when study validity may have been compromised from several sources. A confidentiality agreement, arrangements for communication and reporting as well as ethical and governance considerations are explained.We have agreement from the corresponding authors of all studies which meet the eligibility criteria and they collectively possess data from more than 17000 patients. We propose, as a provisional analysis plan, to use a
Hasan, Haroon; Muhammed, Taaha; Yu, Jennifer; Taguchi, Kelsi; Samargandi, Osama A; Howard, A Fuchsia; Lo, Andrea C; Olson, Robert; Goddard, Karen
The objective of our study was to evaluate the methodological quality of systematic reviews and meta-analyses in Radiation Oncology. A systematic literature search was conducted for all eligible systematic reviews and meta-analyses in Radiation Oncology from 1966 to 2015. Methodological characteristics were abstracted from all works that satisfied the inclusion criteria and quality was assessed using the critical appraisal tool, AMSTAR. Regression analyses were performed to determine factors associated with a higher score of quality. Following exclusion based on a priori criteria, 410 studies (157 systematic reviews and 253 meta-analyses) satisfied the inclusion criteria. Meta-analyses were found to be of fair to good quality while systematic reviews were found to be of less than fair quality. Factors associated with higher scores of quality in the multivariable analysis were including primary studies consisting of randomized control trials, performing a meta-analysis, and applying a recommended guideline related to establishing a systematic review protocol and/or reporting. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses may introduce a high risk of bias if applied to inform decision-making based on AMSTAR. We recommend that decision-makers in Radiation Oncology scrutinize the methodological quality of systematic reviews and meta-analyses prior to assessing their utility to inform evidence-based medicine and researchers adhere to methodological standards outlined in validated guidelines when embarking on a systematic review. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cook, Carly N; Possingham, Hugh P; Fuller, Richard A
Systematic reviews comprehensively summarize evidence about the effectiveness of conservation interventions. We investigated the contribution to management decisions made by this growing body of literature. We identified 43 systematic reviews of conservation evidence, 23 of which drew some concrete conclusions relevant to management. Most reviews addressed conservation interventions relevant to policy decisions; only 35% considered practical on-the-ground management interventions. The majority of reviews covered only a small fraction of the geographic and taxonomic breadth they aimed to address (median = 13% of relevant countries and 16% of relevant taxa). The likelihood that reviews contained at least some implications for management tended to increase as geographic coverage increased and to decline as taxonomic breadth increased. These results suggest the breadth of a systematic review requires careful consideration. Reviews identified a mean of 312 relevant primary studies but excluded 88% of these because of deficiencies in design or a failure to meet other inclusion criteria. Reviews summarized on average 284 data sets and 112 years of research activity, yet the likelihood that their results had at least some implications for management did not increase as the amount of primary research summarized increased. In some cases, conclusions were elusive despite the inclusion of hundreds of data sets and years of cumulative research activity. Systematic reviews are an important part of the conservation decision making tool kit, although we believe the benefits of systematic reviews could be significantly enhanced by increasing the number of reviews focused on questions of direct relevance to on-the-ground managers; defining a more focused geographic and taxonomic breadth that better reflects available data; including a broader range of evidence types; and appraising the cost-effectiveness of interventions. © 2013 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley
Cardenas-Claros, Monica S.; Gruba, Paul A.
This paper is a systematic review of research investigating help options in the different language skills in computer-assisted language learning (CALL). In this review, emerging themes along with is-sues affecting help option research are identified and discussed. We argue that help options in CALL are application resources that do not only seem…
Leeflang, Mariska M G; Deeks, Jonathan J; Gatsonis, Constantine
More and more systematic reviews of diagnostic test accuracy studies are being published, but they can be methodologically challenging. In this paper, the authors present some of the recent developments in the methodology for conducting systematic reviews of diagnostic test accuracy studies....... Restrictive electronic search filters are discouraged, as is the use of summary quality scores. Methods for meta-analysis should take into account the paired nature of the estimates and their dependence on threshold. Authors of these reviews are advised to use the hierarchical summary receiver...
Saan, Marieke C; Boeije, Hennie R; Sattoe, Jane N T; Bal, Marjolijn I; Missler, Marjolein; van Wesel, Floryt
The use of stakeholders in systematic reviews is increasingly valued, but their influence on the systematicity of the review is often unclear. The aim of this study was to describe some of the processes of involvement of stakeholders and to demonstrate a Tool for Recording and Accounting for Stakeholder Involvement (TRASI). We demonstrate the TRASI in two worked examples. In one project, the reviewers collaborated with the end-user and an expert during the literature search. In the other project, experts were consulted to generate keywords before searching the literature. In the first project, disagreements about keywords to identify studies for the research topic were solved by informal discussion. In the second project, difficulties arose in reaching agreement between experts and reviewers about the core construct and the meaningful keywords associated with it. The TRASI aids researchers to systematically and transparently account for the decisions taken. The TRASI supports information specialists and librarians to shape the search strategy to match the objectives of the review. We propose the TRASI as a first step in resolving the challenges of detecting and reconstructing stakeholder influences. Potential new applications of the TRASI are discussed. © 2015 Health Libraries Group.
Filges, Trine; Andersen, Ditte; Jørgensen, Anne-Marie Klint
Objectives: This review evaluates the evidence on the effects of functional family therapy (FFT) on drug abuse reduction for young people in treatment for nonopioid drug use. Data and Analysis: We followed Campbell Collaboration guidelines to conduct a systematic review of randomized and nonrandomized trials. Results: The search yielded two…
Performance of the 2012 Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics classification criteria versus the 1997 American College of Rheumatology classification criteria in adult and juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus. A systematic review and meta-analysis.
Hartman, Esther A R; van Royen-Kerkhof, Annet; Jacobs, Johannes W G; Welsing, Paco M J; Fritsch-Stork, Ruth D E
To evaluate the performance in classifying systemic lupus erythematosus by the 2012 Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics criteria (SLICC'12), versus the revised American College of Rheumatology criteria from 1997 (ACR'97) in adult and juvenile SLE patients. A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed and Embase for studies comparing SLICC'12 and ACR'97 with clinical diagnosis. A meta-analysis was performed to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of SLICC'12 and ACR'97. To assess classification earlier in the disease by either set, sensitivity and specificity were compared for patients with disease duration <5years. Sensitivity and specificity of individual criteria items were also assessed. In adult SLE (nine studies: 5236 patients, 1313 controls), SLICC'12 has higher sensitivity (94.6% vs. 89.6%) and similar specificity (95.5% vs. 98.1%) compared to ACR'97. For juvenile SLE (four studies: 568 patients, 339 controls), SLICC'12 demonstrates higher sensitivity (99.9% vs. 84.3%) than ACR'97, but much lower specificity (82.0% vs. 94.1%). SLICC'12 classifies juvenile SLE patients earlier in disease course. Individual items contributing to diagnostic accuracy are low complement, anti-ds DNA and acute cutaneous lupus in SLICC'12, and the immunologic and hematologic disorder in ACR'97. Based on sensitivity and specificity SLICC'12 is best for adult SLE. Following the view that higher specificity, i.e. avoidance of false positives, is preferable, ACR'97 is best for juvenile SLE even if associated with lower sensitivity. Our results on the contribution of the individual items of SLICC'12 and ACR´97 may be of value in future efforts to update classification criteria. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Manuel, Celie; Jørgensen, Anne-Marie Klint
produced for TrygFonden and the Danish Crime Prevention Council TrygFonden and The Danish Crime Prevention Council have entered into an ambitious collaboration. The objective of this collaboration is to reduce crime and increase the feeling of security in Denmark by engaging citizens and creating new......This review centers on evaluations of youth crime prevention interventions published between 2008 and 2012. The aim of the review is to bring forward the newest information to supplement existing knowledge about crime preventive methods targeting youth. The review lists 56 studies, all targeting 12......-17 year olds, using experimental or quasi-experimental research designs and focusing on effects in terms of disruptive or criminal behavior. The review provides detailed descriptions of all identified studies, and the characteristics and effectiveness of the interventions is analyzed. This report has been...
Boluyt, Nicole; Tjosvold, Lisa; Lefebvre, Carol; Klassen, Terry P.; Offringa, Martin
OBJECTIVE: To determine the sensitivity and precision of existing search strategies for retrieving child health systematic reviews in MEDLINE using PubMed. DESIGN: Filter (diagnostic) accuracy study. We identified existing search strategies for systematic reviews, combined them with a filter that
Systematic reviews of systematic reviews identify good quality reviews of earlier studies of medical conditions. This article describes a systematic review of systematic reviews performed to investigate factors that might influence the risk of rupture of an intracranial aneurysm. It exemplifies the technique of this type of research and reports the finding of a specific study. The annual incidence of subarachnoid haemorrhage resulting from the rupture of intracranial aneurysms is estimated to be nine per 100,000. A large proportion of people who have this bleed, will die or remain dependent on the care of others for some time. Reliable knowledge about the risks of subarachnoid haemorrhage in different populations will help in planning, screening and prevention strategies and in predicting the prognosis of individual patients. If the necessary data were available in the identified reviews, an estimate for the numerical relationship between a particular characteristic and the risk of subarachnoid haemorrhage was included in this report. The identification of eligible systematic reviews relied mainly on the two major bibliographic databases of the biomedical literature: PubMed and EMBASE. These were searched in 2006, using specially designed search strategies. Approximately 2,000 records were retrieved and each of these was checked carefully against the eligibility criteria for this systematic review. These criteria required that the report be a systematic review of studies assessing the risk of subarachnoid haemorrhage in patients known to have an unruptured intracranial aneurysm or of studies that had investigated the characteristics of people who experienced a subarachnoid haemorrhage without previously being known to have an unruptured aneurysm. Reports which included more than one systematic review were eligible and each of these reviews was potentially eligible. The quality of each systematic review was assessed. In this review, 16 separate reports were
O?Mara-Eves, Alison; Thomas, James; McNaught, John; Miwa, Makoto; Ananiadou, Sophia
Background The large and growing number of published studies, and their increasing rate of publication, makes the task of identifying relevant studies in an unbiased way for inclusion in systematic reviews both complex and time consuming. Text mining has been offered as a potential solution: through automating some of the screening process, reviewer time can be saved. The evidence base around the use of text mining for screening has not yet been pulled together systematically; this systematic...
dos Reis, Paula Elaine Diniz; Silveira, Renata Cristina de Campos Pereira; Vasques, Christiane Inocêncio; de Carvalho, Emilia Campos
This study presents a systematic review for evaluating effective pharmacological actions for the treatment of phlebitis stemming from infusion therapy. The studies reviewed were categorized according to the type of therapeutic approach proposed by the author and by the level of evidence presented. The review found that topical nitroglycerin and notoginseny were more effective in the reduction of the inflammatory process when compared with other proposed alternatives. Nevertheless, the development of research related to possible alternatives for the treatment of phlebitis is important.
Reliability and validity of clinical tests to assess the anatomical integrity of the cervical spine in adults with neck pain and its associated disorders: Part 1-A systematic review from the Cervical Assessment and Diagnosis Research Evaluation (CADRE) Collaboration.
Lemeunier, Nadège; da Silva-Oolup, S; Chow, N; Southerst, D; Carroll, L; Wong, J J; Shearer, H; Mastragostino, P; Cox, J; Côté, E; Murnaghan, K; Sutton, D; Côté, P
To determine the reliability and validity of clinical tests to assess the anatomical integrity of the cervical spine in adults with neck pain and its associated disorders. We updated the systematic review of the 2000-2010 Bone and Joint Decade Task Force on Neck Pain and its Associated Disorders. We also searched the literature to identify studies on the reliability and validity of Doppler velocimetry for the evaluation of cervical arteries. Two independent reviewers screened and critically appraised studies. We conducted a best evidence synthesis of low risk of bias studies and ranked the phases of investigations using the classification proposed by Sackett and Haynes. We screened 9022 articles and critically appraised 8 studies; all 8 studies had low risk of bias (three reliability and five validity Phase II-III studies). Preliminary evidence suggests that the extension-rotation test may be reliable and has adequate validity to rule out pain arising from facet joints. The evidence suggests variable reliability and preliminary validity for the evaluation of cervical radiculopathy including neurological examination (manual motor testing, dermatomal sensory testing, deep tendon reflexes, and pathological reflex testing), Spurling's and the upper limb neurodynamic tests. No evidence was found for doppler velocimetry. Little evidence exists to support the use of clinical tests to evaluate the anatomical integrity of the cervical spine in adults with neck pain and its associated disorders. We found preliminary evidence to support the use of the extension-rotation test, neurological examination, Spurling's and the upper limb neurodynamic tests.
Which interventions are cost-effective for the management of whiplash-associated and neck pain-associated disorders? A systematic review of the health economic literature by the Ontario Protocol for Traffic Injury Management (OPTIMa) Collaboration.
van der Velde, Gabrielle; Yu, Hainan; Paulden, Mike; Côté, Pierre; Varatharajan, Sharanya; Shearer, Heather M; Wong, Jessica J; Randhawa, Kristi; Southerst, Danielle; Mior, Silvano; Sutton, Deborah; Jacobs, Craig; Taylor-Vaisey, Anne
Whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) and neck pain and associated disorders (NAD) are prevalent conditions that impact society and impose a significant economic burden on health-care systems. Health economic evidence on WAD and NAD interventions has been sparse: only three economic evaluations of interventions for NAD were identified by the Bone and Joint Decade 2000-2010 Task Force on Neck Pain and Its Associated Disorders (NPTF). An updated overview is needed to inform health-care policy and guidelines. This study aimed to determine the cost-effectiveness of interventions for grades I-III WAD and NAD in children and adults. Systematic review of health economic literature, best-evidence synthesis. We systematically searched CINAHL, the Cochrane economic databases (Health Technology Assessment, NHS Economic Evaluation Database), EconLit, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Tufts CEA Registry from 2000 to 2015 for economic evaluations of WAD and NAD interventions. We appraised relevant evaluations using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network Methodology Criteria for Economic Evaluations. We extracted data, including mean costs (standardized to 2013 Canadian dollars [CAD]) and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), from studies with adequate methodological quality. We recalculated cost-effectiveness statistics based on the standardized currency using a willingness-to-pay of CAD $50,000 per additional QALY. Funding was provided by the Ministry of Finance. Our search identified 1,616 citations. Six studies fulfilled our selection criteria, including three studies previously reviewed by the NPTF. Structured education appears cost-effective for adults with WAD. For adults with NAD, acupuncture added to routine medical care; manual therapy; multimodal care that includes manual therapy; advice and exercise; and psychological care using cognitive-behavioral therapy appear cost-effective. In contrast, adding manual therapy or diathermy to advice and exercise; multimodal
Mayo-Wilson, Evan; Ng, Sueko Matsumura; Chuck, Roy S; Li, Tianjing
Systematic reviews should inform American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO) Preferred Practice Pattern® (PPP) guidelines. The quality of systematic reviews related to the forthcoming Preferred Practice Pattern® guideline (PPP) Refractive Errors & Refractive Surgery is unknown. We sought to identify reliable systematic reviews to assist the AAO Refractive Errors & Refractive Surgery PPP. Systematic reviews were eligible if they evaluated the effectiveness or safety of interventions included in the 2012 PPP Refractive Errors & Refractive Surgery. To identify potentially eligible systematic reviews, we searched the Cochrane Eyes and Vision United States Satellite database of systematic reviews. Two authors identified eligible reviews and abstracted information about the characteristics and quality of the reviews independently using the Systematic Review Data Repository. We classified systematic reviews as "reliable" when they (1) defined criteria for the selection of studies, (2) conducted comprehensive literature searches for eligible studies, (3) assessed the methodological quality (risk of bias) of the included studies, (4) used appropriate methods for meta-analyses (which we assessed only when meta-analyses were reported), (5) presented conclusions that were supported by the evidence provided in the review. We identified 124 systematic reviews related to refractive error; 39 met our eligibility criteria, of which we classified 11 to be reliable. Systematic reviews classified as unreliable did not define the criteria for selecting studies (5; 13%), did not assess methodological rigor (10; 26%), did not conduct comprehensive searches (17; 44%), or used inappropriate quantitative methods (3; 8%). The 11 reliable reviews were published between 2002 and 2016. They included 0 to 23 studies (median = 9) and analyzed 0 to 4696 participants (median = 666). Seven reliable reviews (64%) assessed surgical interventions. Most systematic reviews of interventions for
Ghogomu, Elizabeth A T; Maxwell, Lara J; Buchbinder, Rachelle
The Cochrane Musculoskeletal Group (CMSG), one of 53 groups of the not-for-profit, international Cochrane Collaboration, prepares, maintains, and disseminates systematic reviews of treatments for musculoskeletal diseases. It is important that authors conducting CMSG reviews and the readers of our...... reviews be aware of and use updated, state-of-the-art systematic review methodology. One hundred sixty reviews have been published. Previous method guidelines for systematic reviews of interventions in the musculoskeletal field published in 2006 have been substantially updated to incorporate...... using network metaanalysis. Method guidelines specific to musculoskeletal disorders are provided by CMSG editors for various aspects of undertaking a systematic review. These method guidelines will help improve the quality of reporting and ensure high standards of conduct as well as consistency across...
Spencer, Angela J.; Eldredge, Jonathan D.
Objective What roles do librarians and information professionals play in conducting systematic reviews? Librarians are increasingly called upon to be involved in systematic reviews, but no study has considered all the roles librarians can perform. This inventory of existing and emerging roles aids in defining librarians’ systematic reviews services. Methods For this scoping review, the authors conducted controlled vocabulary and text-word searches in the PubMed; Library, Information Science & Technology Abstracts; and CINAHL databases. We separately searched for articles published in the Journal of the European Association for Health Information and Libraries, Evidence Based Library and Information Practice, the Journal of the Canadian Heath Libraries Association, and Hypothesis. We also text-word searched Medical Library Association annual meeting poster and paper abstracts. Results We identified 18 different roles filled by librarians and other information professionals in conducting systematic reviews from 310 different articles, book chapters, and presented papers and posters. Some roles were well known such as searching, source selection, and teaching. Other less documented roles included planning, question formulation, and peer review. We summarize these different roles and provide an accompanying bibliography of references for in-depth descriptions of these roles. Conclusion Librarians play central roles in systematic review teams, including roles that go beyond searching. This scoping review should encourage librarians who are fulfilling roles that are not captured here to document their roles in journal articles and poster and paper presentations. PMID:29339933
Gomersall, Judith Streak; Jadotte, Yuri Tertilus; Xue, Yifan; Lockwood, Suzi; Riddle, Dru; Preda, Alin
In 2012, a working group was established to review and enhance the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) guidance for conducting systematic review of evidence from economic evaluations addressing a question(s) about health intervention cost-effectiveness. The objective is to present the outcomes of the working group. The group conducted three activities to inform the new guidance: review of literature on the utility/futility of systematic reviews of economic evaluations and consideration of its implications for updating the existing methodology; assessment of the critical appraisal tool in the existing guidance against criteria that promotes validity in economic evaluation research and two other commonly used tools; and a workshop. The debate in the literature on the limitations/value of systematic review of economic evidence cautions that systematic reviews of economic evaluation evidence are unlikely to generate one size fits all answers to questions about the cost-effectiveness of interventions and their comparators. Informed by this finding, the working group adjusted the framing of the objectives definition in the existing JBI methodology. The shift is away from defining the objective as to determine one cost-effectiveness measure toward summarizing study estimates of cost-effectiveness and informed by consideration of the included study characteristics (patient, setting, intervention component, etc.), identifying conditions conducive to lowering costs and maximizing health benefits. The existing critical appraisal tool was included in the new guidance. The new guidance includes the recommendation that a tool designed specifically for the purpose of appraising model-based studies be used together with the generic appraisal tool for economic evaluations assessment to evaluate model-based evaluations. The guidance produced by the group offers reviewers guidance for each step of the systematic review process, which are the same steps followed in JBI reviews of other
Shen, Nelson; Sockalingam, Sanjeev; Abi Jaoude, Alexxa; Bailey, Sharon M; Bernier, Thérèse; Freeland, Alison; Hawa, Aceel; Hollenberg, Elisa; Woldemichael, Bethel; Wiljer, David
The collaborative care model is an approach providing care to those with mental health and addictions disorders in the primary care setting. There is a robust evidence base demonstrating its clinical and cost-effectiveness in comparison with usual care; however, the transitioning to this new paradigm of care has been difficult. While there are efforts to train and prepare healthcare professionals, not much is known about the current state of collaborative care training programmes. The objective of this scoping review is to understand how widespread these collaborative care education initiatives are, how they are implemented and their impacts. The scoping review methodology uses the established review methodology by Arksey and O'Malley. The search strategy was developed by a medical librarian and will be applied in eight different databases spanning multiple disciplines. A two-stage screening process consisting of a title and abstract scan and a full-text review will be used to determine the eligibility of articles. To be included, articles must report on an existing collaborative care education initiative for healthcare providers. All articles will be independently assessed for eligibility by pairs of reviewers, and all eligible articles will be abstracted and charted in duplicate using a standardised form. The extracted data will undergo a 'narrative review' or a descriptive analysis of the contextual or process-oriented data and simple quantitative analysis using descriptive statistics. Research ethics approval is not required for this scoping review. The results of this scoping review will inform the development of a collaborative care training initiative emerging from the Medical Psychiatry Alliance, a four-institution philanthropic partnership in Ontario, Canada. The results will also be presented at relevant national and international conferences and published in a peer-reviewed journal. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in
Abstract Background Hundreds of studies of maternity care interventions have been published, too many for most people involved in providing maternity care to identify and consider when making decisions. It became apparent that systematic reviews of individual studies were required to appraise, summarise and bring together existing studies in a single place. However, decision makers are increasingly faced by a plethora of such reviews and these are likely to be of variable quality and scope, with more than one review of important topics. Systematic reviews (or overviews) of reviews are a logical and appropriate next step, allowing the findings of separate reviews to be compared and contrasted, providing clinical decision makers with the evidence they need. Methods The methods used to identify and appraise published and unpublished reviews systematically, drawing on our experiences and good practice in the conduct and reporting of systematic reviews are described. The process of identifying and appraising all published reviews allows researchers to describe the quality of this evidence base, summarise and compare the review\\'s conclusions and discuss the strength of these conclusions. Results Methodological challenges and possible solutions are described within the context of (i) sources, (ii) study selection, (iii) quality assessment (i.e. the extent of searching undertaken for the reviews, description of study selection and inclusion criteria, comparability of included studies, assessment of publication bias and assessment of heterogeneity), (iv) presentation of results, and (v) implications for practice and research. Conclusion Conducting a systematic review of reviews highlights the usefulness of bringing together a summary of reviews in one place, where there is more than one review on an important topic. The methods described here should help clinicians to review and appraise published reviews systematically, and aid evidence-based clinical decision-making.
Is multimodal care effective for the management of patients with whiplash-associated disorders or neck pain and associated disorders? A systematic review by the Ontario Protocol for Traffic Injury Management (OPTIMa) Collaboration.
Sutton, Deborah A; Côté, Pierre; Wong, Jessica J; Varatharajan, Sharanya; Randhawa, Kristi A; Yu, Hainan; Southerst, Danielle; Shearer, Heather M; van der Velde, Gabrielle M; Nordin, Margareta C; Carroll, Linda J; Mior, Silvano A; Taylor-Vaisey, Anne L; Stupar, Maja
Little is known about the effectiveness of multimodal care for individuals with whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) and neck pain and associated disorders (NAD). To update findings of the Bone and Joint Decade 2000-2010 Task Force on Neck Pain and Its Associated Disorders and evaluate the effectiveness of multimodal care for the management of patients with WAD or NAD. Systematic review and best-evidence synthesis. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs), cohort studies, and case-control studies. Self-rated recovery, functional recovery (eg, disability, return to activities, work, or school), pain intensity, health-related quality of life, psychological outcomes (eg, depression, fear), or adverse events. We systematically searched five electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials) from 2000 to 2013. RCTs, cohort, and case-control studies meeting our selection criteria were eligible for critical appraisal. Random pairs of independent reviewers critically appraised eligible studies using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network criteria. Scientifically admissible studies were summarized using evidence tables and synthesized following best-evidence synthesis principles. We retrieved 2,187 articles, and 23 articles were eligible for critical appraisal. Of those, 18 articles from 14 different RCTs were scientifically admissible. There were a total of 31 treatment arms, including 27 unique multimodal programs of care. Overall, the evidence suggests that multimodal care that includes manual therapy, education, and exercise may benefit patients with grades I and II WAD and NAD. General practitioner care that includes reassurance, advice to stay active, and resumption of regular activities may be an option for the early management of WAD grades I and II. Our synthesis suggests that patients receiving high-intensity health care tend to experience poorer outcomes than those who receive fewer
This article is a review of relevant literature on collaborative, standards-based music learning. The review is organized as follows: (a) historical perspective, (b) collaborative music learning, (c) collaboration and creating, (d) collaboration and performing, (e) collaboration and responding, and (f) conclusions. In an effort to bridge the gap…
Thompson, Cassandra; Schabrun, Siobhan; Romero, Rick; Bialocerkowski, Andrea; Marshall, Paul
Ankle sprains are a significant clinical problem. Researchers have identified a multitude of factors contributing to the presence of recurrent ankle sprains including deficits in balance, postural control, kinematics, muscle activity, strength, range of motion, ligament laxity and bone/joint characteristics. Unfortunately, the literature examining the presence of these factors in chronic ankle instability (CAI) is conflicting. As a result, researchers have attempted to integrate this evidence using systematic reviews to reach conclusions; however, readers are now faced with an increasing number of systematic review findings that are also conflicting. The overall aim of this review is to critically appraise the methodological quality of previous systematic reviews and pool this evidence to identify contributing factors to CAI. A systematic review will be conducted on systematic reviews that investigate the presence of various deficits identified in CAI. Databases will be searched using pre-determined search terms. Reviews will then be assessed for inclusion based on the set eligibility criteria. Two independent reviewers will assess the articles for inclusion before evaluating the methodological quality and presence of bias of the included studies; any disagreements will be resolved by discussion between reviewers to reach consensus or by a third reviewer. Data concerning the specific research question, search strategy, inclusion/exclusion criteria, population, method and outcomes will be extracted. Findings will be analysed with respect to the methodological quality of the included reviews. It is expected that this review will clarify the cause of contradicting findings in the literature and facilitate future research directions. PROSPERO CRD42016032592 .
Andersen, C.L.; Hasselbalch, H.C.; Kristensen, T.K.
of the cell has been described and its fascinating biology has only recently been depicted. We here give a review of systemic mastocytosis in regards to cell biology, diagnostic approaches and clinical practice. METHODS: A search was made in PubMed in August 2011 entering the keywords: mastocytosis, (systemic...
Rodermond, E.; Kruttschnitt, C.; Slotboom, A.; Bijleveld, C.C.J.H.
To examine whether, and if so how, male-based theories of desistance also apply to female offenders, this article reviews 44 studies on female desistance. Where available, gender differences in desistance are considered. Having children and supportive relationships is found to be important for
Pollock, Alex; Campbell, Pauline; Struthers, Caroline; Synnot, Anneliese; Nunn, Jack; Hill, Sophie; Goodare, Heather; Watts, Chris; Morley, Richard
Researchers are expected to actively involve stakeholders (including patients, the public, health professionals, and others) in their research. Although researchers increasingly recognise that this is good practice, there is limited practical guidance about how to involve stakeholders. Systematic reviews are a research method in which international literature is brought together, using carefully designed and rigorous methods to answer a specified question about healthcare. We want to investigate how researchers have involved stakeholders in systematic reviews, and how involvement has potentially affected the quality and impact of reviews. We plan to bring this information together by searching and reviewing the literature for reports of stakeholder involvement in systematic reviews. This paper describes in detail the methods that we plan to use to do this. After carrying out comprehensive searches for literature, we will: 1. Provide an overview of identified reports, describing key information such as types of stakeholders involved, and how. 2. Pick out reports of involvement which include detailed descriptions of how researchers involved people in a systematic review and summarise the methods they used. We will consider who was involved, how people were recruited, and how the involvement was organised and managed. 3. Bring together any reports which have explored the effect, or impact, of involving stakeholders in a systematic review. We will assess the quality of these reports, and summarise their findings. Once completed, our review will be used to produce training resources aimed at helping researchers to improve ways of involving stakeholders in systematic reviews. Background There is an expectation for stakeholders (including patients, the public, health professionals, and others) to be involved in research. Researchers are increasingly recognising that it is good practice to involve stakeholders in systematic reviews. There is currently a lack of evidence
Garla, Bharath Kumar; Satish, G; Divya, K T
To review uses of finance in dentistry. A search of 25 electronic databases and World Wide Web was conducted. Relevant journals were hand searched and further information was requested from authors. Inclusion criteria were a predefined hierarchy of evidence and objectives. Study validity was assessed with checklists. Two reviewers independently screened sources, extracted data, and assessed validity. Insurance has come of ages and has become the mainstay of payment in many developed countries. So much so that all the alternative forms of payment which originated as an alternative to fee for service now depend on insurance at one point or the other. Fee for service is still the major form of payment in many developing countries including India. It is preferred in many instances since the payment is made immediately.
Tugwell, Peter; Robinson, Vivian; Grimshaw, Jeremy; Santesso, Nancy
Proven effective interventions exist that would enable all countries to meet the Millennium Development Goals. However, uptake and use of these interventions in the poorest populations is at least 50% less than in the richest populations within each country. Also, we have recently shown that community effectiveness of interventions is lower for the poorest populations due to a "staircase" effect of lower coverage/access, worse diagnostic accuracy, less provider compliance and less consumer adherence. We propose an evidence-based framework for equity-oriented knowledge translation to enhance community effectiveness and health equity. This framework is represented as a cascade of steps to assess and prioritize barriers and thus choose effective knowledge translation interventions that are tailored for relevant audiences (public, patient, practitioner, policy-maker, press and private sector), as well as the evaluation, monitoring and sharing of these strategies. We have used two examples of effective interventions (insecticide-treated bednets to prevent malaria and childhood immunization) to illustrate how this framework can provide a systematic method for decision-makers to ensure the application of evidence-based knowledge in disadvantaged populations. Future work to empirically validate and evaluate the usefulness of this framework is needed. We invite researchers and implementers to use the cascade for equity-oriented knowledge translation as a guide when planning implementation strategies for proven effective interventions. We also encourage policy-makers and health-care managers to use this framework when deciding how effective interventions can be implemented in their own settings.
Mònica Bulló; Patricia López-Uriarte; Patricia Casas-Agustench; Nancy Babio; Jordi Salas-Salvadó
Nuts and oxidation: a systematic review In recent years, nuts have received special attention because of their potential role in preventing cardiovascular disease. Because nuts are very rich in total fat that can potentially be oxidized and their skins contain several antioxidants, studies have been conducted to evaluate the potential effect of nut consumption on oxidative stress. This review evaluates the in vitro and in vivo studies conducted in animals or humans to analyze the effect of...
Kamhieh, Y; Fox, H
The role of tranexamic acid in the management of epistaxis remains unclear. There is uncertainty about its safety and about the contraindications for its use. We performed a systematic review of the use of systemic and topical tranexamic acid in epistaxis and a comparative review of its use in other specialties. This review assesses and summarises the existing evidence for the efficacy and safety of tranexamic acid in the management of epistaxis. Systematic review. MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched for 'epistaxis' and equivalent MESH terms, combined with the Boolean operator 'OR' and 'tranexamic acid'. The Cochrane library and society guidelines were reviewed for evidence regarding the use of tranexamic acid in other specialties. All five relevant RCTs were included in the review and were evaluated according to the recommendations of the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews. Three RCTS pertained to spontaneous epistaxis; of these, one trial found no benefit of oral tranexamic acid in acute epistaxis, one trial found no significant benefit of topical tranexamic acid, but the largest of the trials showed significant benefit of topical tranexamic acid in acute epistaxis management. Two RCTs examined oral tranexamic acid for prophylaxis of recurrent epistaxes in patients with hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia; both showed significant reduction in severity and frequency. Tranexamic acid, as a WHO 'essential medicine', is a powerful, readily available tool, the use of which in epistaxis has been limited by uncertainty over its efficacy and its safety profile. This systematic review summarises the existing evidence and extrapolates from the wealth of data for other specialties to address the clinical question - does TXA have a role in epistaxis management? © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Ray-Barruel, Gillian; Polit, Denise F; Murfield, Jenny E; Rickard, Claire M
Rationale, aims and objectives Phlebitis is a common and painful complication of peripheral intravenous cannulation. The aim of this review was to identify the measures used in infusion phlebitis assessment and evaluate evidence regarding their reliability, validity, responsiveness and feasibility. Method We conducted a systematic literature review of the Cochrane library, Ovid MEDLINE and EBSCO CINAHL until September 2013. All English-language studies (randomized controlled trials, prospecti...
Følstad, Asbjørn; Kvale, Knut
Purpose – Customer journeys has become an increasingly important topic in service management and design. The study reviews customer journey terminology and approaches within the research literature prior to 2013, mainly from the fields of design, management, and marketing. Design/methodology/approach - The study was conducted as a systematic literature review. Searches in Google Scholar, Scopus, Web of Knowledge, ACM Digital Library, and ScienceDirect identified 45 papers for analysis. The pa...
French, David P; Cameron, Elaine; Benton, Jack S; Deaton, Christi; Harvie, Michelle
The assessment and communication of disease risk that is personalised to the individual is widespread in healthcare contexts. Despite several systematic reviews of RCTs, it is unclear under what circumstances that personalised risk estimates promotes change in four key health-related behaviours: smoking, physical activity, diet and alcohol consumption. The present research aims to systematically identify, evaluate and synthesise the findings of existing systematic reviews. This systematic review of systematic reviews followed published guidance. A search of four databases and two-stage screening procedure with good reliability identified nine eligible systematic reviews. The nine reviews each included between three and 15 primary studies, containing 36 unique studies. Methods of personalising risk feedback included imaging/visual feedback, genetic testing, and numerical estimation from risk algorithms. The reviews were generally high quality. For a broad range of methods of estimating and communicating risk, the reviews found no evidence that risk information had strong or consistent effects on health-related behaviours. The most promising effects came from interventions using visual or imaging techniques and with smoking cessation and dietary behaviour as outcomes, but with inconsistent results. Few interventions explicitly used theory, few targeted self-efficacy or response efficacy, and a limited range of Behaviour Change Techniques were used. Presenting risk information on its own, even when highly personalised, does not produce strong effects on health-related behaviours or changes which are sustained. Future research in this area should build on the existing knowledge base about increasing the effects of risk communication on behaviour.
Vroomen, PCAJ; de Krom, MCTFM; Slofstra, PD; Knottnerus, JA
Most patients with sciatica (often caused by disc herniations) are managed conservatively at first. The natural course seems to be favorable. The additional value of many conservative therapies remains controversial. Because a systematic review of the conservative treatment of sciatica is lacking,
Tumours rarely metastasise to the pancreas. While surgical resection of such metastases is believed to confer a survival benefit, there is limited data to support such management. We present a systematic review of case series of pancreatic metastasectomy and analysis of survival outcomes.
Coenen, Maraike A; Eggink, Hendriekje; Tijssen, M.A.; Spikman, Jacoba
Background and aim: Cognitive impairments have been established as part of the non-motor phenomenology of adult dystonia. In childhood dystonia, the extent of cognitive impairments is less clear. This systematic review aims at presenting an overview over the existing literature to elucidate the
We systematically reviewed the available literature and meta-analyzed the data which was specialized in Down syndrome (DS) diagnosis with proteomic techniques. Pubmed, EBSCOhost and ScienceDirect searches for relevant articles published from inception until July 2010 were obtained and ten articles were selected.
Hoogeveen, Eelke J.; Jansma, Johan; Ren, Yijin
INTRODUCTION: Corticotomy and dental distraction have been proposed as effective and safe methods to shorten orthodontic treatment duration in adolescent and adult patients. A systematic review was performed to evaluate the evidence supporting these claims. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane
Staniford, Leanne J.; Breckon, Jeff D.; Copeland, Robert J.
Childhood obesity trends have increased dramatically over the past three decade's. The purpose of this quantitative systematic review is to provide an update of the evidence, illustrating the efficacy of childhood obesity treatment, considering whether treatment fidelity has been measured and/or reported and whether this related to the treatment…
Dhami, S.; Panesar, S. S.; Roberts, G.; Muraro, A.; Worm, M.; Bilo, M. B.; Cardona, V.; Dubois, A. E. J.; DunnGalvin, A.; Eigenmann, P.; Fernandez-Rivas, M.; Halken, S.; Lack, G.; Niggemann, B.; Rueff, F.; Santos, A. F.; Vlieg-Boerstra, B.; Zolkipli, Z. Q.; Sheikh, A.
To establish the effectiveness of interventions for the acute and long-term management of anaphylaxis, seven databases were searched for systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials, quasi-randomized controlled trials, controlled clinical trials, controlled before-after studies and interrupted
Anthony I. Cognato
The systematic history of the southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann, is reviewed. Morphological, biological, karyological, and molecular data clearly define and diagnose the species limits of D. frontalis. More complete phylogenetic analysis and characterization of population genetic variation will further clarify the evolutionary history of the D....
Azar, Farbod Ebadifard; Azami-Aghdash, Saber; Pournaghi-Azar, Fatemeh; Mazdaki, Alireza; Rezapour, Aziz; Ebrahimi, Parvin; Yousefzadeh, Negar
Due to extensive literature in the field of lung cancer and their heterogeneous results, the aim of this study was to systematically review of systematic reviews studies which reviewed the cost-effectiveness of various lung cancer screening and treatment methods. In this systematic review of systematic reviews study, required data were collected searching the following key words which selected from Mesh: "lung cancer", "lung oncology", "lung Carcinoma", "lung neoplasm", "lung tumors", "cost- effectiveness", "systematic review" and "Meta-analysis". The following databases were searched: PubMed, Cochrane Library electronic databases, Google Scholar, and Scopus. Two reviewers (RA and A-AS) evaluated the articles according to the checklist of "assessment of multiple systematic reviews" (AMSTAR) tool. Overall, information of 110 papers was discussed in eight systematic reviews. Authors focused on cost-effectiveness of lung cancer treatments in five systematic reviews. Targeted therapy options (bevacizumab, Erlotinib and Crizotinib) show an acceptable cost-effectiveness. Results of three studies failed to show cost-effectiveness of screening methods. None of the studies had used the meta-analysis method. The Quality of Health Economic Studies (QHES) tool and Drummond checklist were mostly used in assessing the quality of articles. Most perspective was related to the Payer (64 times) and the lowest was related to Social (11times). Most cases referred to Incremental analysis (82%) and also the lowest point of referral was related to Discounting (in 49% of the cases). The average quality score of included studies was calculated 9.2% from 11. Targeted therapy can be an option for the treatment of lung cancer. Evaluation of the cost-effectiveness of computerized tomographic colonography (CTC) in lung cancer screening is recommended. The perspective of the community should be more taken into consideration in studies of cost-effectiveness. Paying more attention to the topic of
Papadiochou, Sofia; Emmanouil, Ioannis; Papadiochos, Ioannis
Denture adhesives have been the objective of scientific research for over half a century. Although they are used by denture wearers worldwide, investigations of their effectiveness and biocompatibility have led to controversial conclusions. The purpose of this study was to review the literature data with regard to the effectiveness and biocompatibility of denture adhesives as well as the attitudes of both patients and dental professionals toward these materials. An electronic search of English peer-reviewed dental literature in the Medline database was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness and biocompatibility of denture adhesives. There was no limitation in publication year, so the search included all the available scientific evidence included in that particular database until March 2014. Specific inclusion criteria were used for the selection of the appropriate articles. A manual search of the citations of the obtained articles followed to extend the electronic search. A full text review was carried out for only 32 articles. Of the 32 articles, 21 examined the efficacy of denture adhesives in terms of retention and stability and masticatory performance, 6 evaluated the issue of the biocompatibility of denture adhesives, and 5 presented the attitudes of either professionals or patients toward these materials. The majority of clinical studies supported the fact that denture adhesives enhance the retention, stability, and masticatory performance of a removable prosthesis. In terms of biocompatibility, long-term in vivo studies to investigate potential harmful effects were lacking. Patients are satisfied with denture adhesives that meet their needs. Copyright © 2015 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hanschmidt, Franz; Linde, Katja; Hilbert, Anja; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G; Kersting, Anette
Although stigma has been identified as a potential risk factor for the well-being of women who have had abortions, little attention has been paid to the study of abortion-related stigma. A systematic search of the databases Medline, PsycArticles, PsycInfo, PubMed and Web of Science was conducted; the search terms were "(abortion OR pregnancy termination) AND stigma * ." Articles were eligible for inclusion if the main research question addressed experiences of individuals subjected to abortion stigma, public attitudes that stigmatize women who have had abortions or interventions aimed at managing abortion stigma. To provide a comprehensive overview of this issue, any study published by February 2015 was considered. The search was restricted to English- and German-language studies. Seven quantitative and seven qualitative studies were eligible for inclusion. All but two dated from 2009 or later; the earliest was from 1984. Studies were based mainly on U.S. samples; some included participants from Ghana, Great Britain, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, Peru and Zambia. The majority of studies showed that women who have had abortions experience fear of social judgment, self-judgment and a need for secrecy. Secrecy was associated with increased psychological distress and social isolation. Some studies found stigmatizing attitudes in the public. Stigma appeared to be salient in abortion providers' lives. Evidence of interventions to reduce abortion stigma was scarce. Most studies had limitations regarding generalizability and validity. More research, using validated measures, is needed to enhance understanding of abortion stigma and thereby reduce its impact on affected individuals. Copyright © 2016 by the Guttmacher Institute.
Nijhuis, B. J. G.; Reinders-Messelink, H. A.; de Blecourt, A. C. E.; Olijve, W. G.; Groothoff, J. W.; Nakken, H.; Postema, K.; Postuma, K.
Objective: To explicate the complex process of team collaboration and identify salient elements of team collaboration in paediatric rehabilitation. Data sources: After an initial search to define key features of team collaboration a systematic search on team collaboration and the key features was
... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Systematic review for declassification. 1045.43 Section... Systematic review for declassification. (a) The Secretary shall ensure that RD documents, and the DoD shall... Classification (and with the DoD for FRD) to ensure the systematic review of RD and FRD documents. (c) Review of...
Rhinehart, Marilyn; Barlow, Rhonda; Shafer, Stu; Hassur, Debby
The Curriculum Online Review System (CORS) at Johnson County Community College (JCCC) uses SharePoint as a Web platform for the JCCC Curriculum Proposals Process. The CORS application manages proposals throughout the approval process using collaboration tools and workflows to notify all stakeholders. This innovative new program has changed the way…
Full Text Available Familial hyperekplexia, also called startle disease, is a rare neurological disorder characterized by excessive startle responses to noise or touch. It can be associated with serious injury from frequent falls, apnea spells, and aspiration pneumonia. Familial hyperekplexia has a heterogeneous genetic background with several identified causative genes; it demonstrates both dominant and recessive inheritance in the α1 subunit of the glycine receptor (GLRA1, the β subunit of the glycine receptor and the presynaptic sodium and chloride-dependent glycine transporter 2 genes. Clonazepam is an effective medical treatment for hyperekplexia. Here, we report genetically confirmed familial hyperekplexia patients presenting early adult cautious gait. Additionally, we review clinical features, mode of inheritance, ethnicity and the types and locations of mutations of previously reported hyperekplexia cases with a GLRA1 gene mutation.
Corry, Margarita; While, Alison; Neenan, Kathleen; Smith, Valerie
To evaluate the effectiveness of interventions to support caregivers of people with selected chronic conditions. Informal caregivers provide millions of care hours each week contributing to significant healthcare savings. Despite much research evaluating a range of interventions for caregivers, their impact remains unclear. A systematic review of systematic reviews of interventions to support caregivers of people with selected chronic conditions. The electronic databases of PubMed, CINAHL, British Nursing Index, PsycINFO, Social Science Index (January 1990-May 2014) and The Cochrane Library (Issue 6, June 2014), were searched using Medical Subject Heading and index term combinations of the keywords caregiver, systematic review, intervention and named chronic conditions. Papers were included if they reported a systematic review of interventions for caregivers of people with chronic conditions. The methodological quality of the included reviews was independently assessed by two reviewers using R-AMSTAR. Data were independently extracted by two reviewers using a pre-designed data extraction form. Narrative synthesis of review findings was used to present the results. Eight systematic reviews were included. There was evidence that education and support programme interventions improved caregiver quality of life. Information-giving interventions improved caregiver knowledge for stroke caregivers. Education, support and information-giving interventions warrant further investigation across caregiver groups. A large-scale funded programme for caregiver research is required to ensure that studies are of high quality to inform service development across settings. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Richardson, Ann; Potter, John; Paterson, Margaret; Harding, Thomas; Tyler-Merrick, Gaye; Kirk, Ray; Reid, Kate; McChesney, Jane
To carry out a systematic review of recent research into the effects of workplace design, comparing individual with shared workspaces, on the health of employees. The research question was "Does workplace design (specifically individual offices compared with shared workspaces) affect the health of workers?" A literature search limited to articles published between 2000 and 2017 was undertaken. A systematic review was carried out, and the findings of the reviewed studies grouped into themes according to the primary outcomes measured in the studies. The literature search identified 15 relevant studies addressing health effects of shared or open-plan offices compared with individual offices. Our systematic review found that, compared with individual offices, shared or open-plan office space is not beneficial to employees' health, with consistent findings of deleterious effects on staff health, wellbeing and productivity. Our findings are also consistent with those of earlier reviews. These findings have public health implications for the New Zealand workforce. Decisions about workplace design should include weighing the short-term financial benefits of open-plan or shared workspaces against the significant harms, including increased sickness absence, lower job satisfaction and productivity, and possible threats to recruitment and retention of staff.
Halter, Mary; Pelone, Ferruccio; Boiko, Olga; Beighton, Carole; Harris, Ruth; Gale, Julia; Gourlay, Stephen; Drennan, Vari
Nurse turnover is an issue of concern in health care systems internationally. Understanding which interventions are effective to reduce turnover rates is important to managers and health care organisations. Despite a plethora of reviews of such interventions, strength of evidence is hard to determine. We aimed to review literature on interventions to reduce turnover in nurses working in the adult health care services in developed economies. We conducted an overview (systematic review of systematic reviews) using the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts, CINAHL plus and SCOPUS and forward searching. We included reviews published between 1990 and January 2015 in English. We carried out parallel blinded selection, extraction of data and assessment of bias, using the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews. We carried out a narrative synthesis. Despite the large body of published reviews, only seven reviews met the inclusion criteria. These provide moderate quality review evidence, albeit from poorly controlled primary studies. They provide evidence of effect of a small number of interventions which decrease turnover or increase retention of nurses, these being preceptorship of new graduates and leadership for group cohesion. We highlight that a large body of reviews does not equate with a large body of high quality evidence. Agreement as to the measures and terminology to be used together with well-designed, funded primary research to provide robust evidence for nurse and human resource managers to base their nurse retention strategies on is urgently required.
Luís Carlos Machado Júnior
Full Text Available Objective: this study aimed to review the literature regarding late preterm births (34 weeks to 36 weeks and 6 days of gestation in its several aspects. Sources: the MEDLINE, LILACS, and Cochrane Library databases were searched, and the references of the articles retrieved were also used, with no limit of time. Data synthesis: numerous studies showed a recent increase in late preterm births. In all series, late preterm comprised the majority of preterm births. Studies including millions of births showed a strong association between late preterm birth and neonatal mortality. A higher mortality in childhood and among young adults was also observed. Many studies found an association with several neonatal complications, and also with long-term disorders and sequelae: breastfeeding problems, cerebral palsy, asthma in childhood, poor school performance, schizophrenia, and young adult diabetes. Some authors propose strategies to reduce late preterm birth, or to improve neonatal outcome: use of antenatal corticosteroids, changes in some of the guidelines for early delivery in high-risk pregnancies, and changes in neonatal care for this group. Conclusions: numerous studies show greater mortality and morbidity in late preterm infants compared with term infants, in addition to long-term disorders. More recent studies evaluated strategies to improve the outcomes of these neonates. Further studies on these strategies are needed.
Van Camp, L S C; Sabbe, B G C; Oldenburg, J F E
Cognitive insight is the ability to re-evaluate thoughts and beliefs in order to make thoughtful conclusions. It differs from clinical insight, as it focuses on more general metacognitive processes. Therefore, it could be relevant to diverse disorders and non-clinical subjects. There is a growing body of research on cognitive insight in individuals with and without psychosis. This review has summarised the current state of the art regarding this topic. We conclude that while cognitive insight in its current form seems valid for use in individuals with psychosis, it is less so for individuals without psychosis. Additionally, higher cognitive insight not always leads to better psychological functioning. For instance, higher levels of self-reflection are often associated with depressive mood. We therefore recommend the sub-components of cognitive insight to be studied separately. Also, it is unclear what position cognitive insight takes within the spectrum of metacognitive processes and how it relates to other self-related concepts that have been defined previously in literature. Combining future and past research on cognitive insight and its analogue concepts will help in the formation of a uniform definition that fits all subjects discussed here. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Full Text Available Francesco Cerritelli,1–3 Eleonora Lacorte,4 Nuria Ruffini,1 Nicola Vanacore4 1Clinical-based Human Research Department, Centre for Osteopathic Medicine Collaboration, 2Department of Neuroscience, Imaging and Clinical Sciences, 3ITAB – Institute for Advanced Biomedical Technologies, G. D’Annunzio University of Chieti, Pescara, 4National Centre for Epidemiology, Surveillance and Health Promotion, National Institute of Health, Rome, Italy Objective: This systematic review aimed to assess the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and tolerability of osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT in patients with headache. Background: Migraine is one of the most common and disabling medical conditions. It affects more than 15% of the general population, causing high global socioeconomic costs, and the currently available treatment options are inadequate.Methods: We systematically reviewed all available studies investigating the use of OMT in patients with migraine and other forms of headache.Results: The search of literature produced six studies, five of which were eligible for review. The reviewed papers collectively support the notion that patients with migraine can benefit from OMT. OMT could most likely reduce the number of episodes per month as well as drug use. None of the included studies, however, was classified as low risk of bias according to the Cochrane Collaboration’s tool for assessing risk of bias.Conclusion: The results from this systematic review show a preliminary low level of evidence that OMT is effective in the management of headache. However, studies with more rigorous designs and methodology are needed to strengthen this evidence. Moreover, this review suggests that new manual interventions for the treatment of acute migraine are available and developing. Keywords: osteopathic manipulative treatment, tension type headache, pain, migraine, disability
Sanchis, Joaquin; Gich, Ignasi; Pedersen, Søren
in these outcomes over these 40 years and when partitioned into years 1 to 20 and years 21 to 40. Analyses were conducted in accordance with recommendations from Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses and Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology. Results Data...... A systematic search for articles reporting direct observation of inhaler technique by trained personnel covered the period from 1975 to 2014. Outcomes were the nature and frequencies of the three most common errors; the percentage of patients demonstrating correct, acceptable, or poor technique; and variations...
Seaton, Cherisse L; Holm, Nikolai; Bottorff, Joan L; Jones-Bricker, Margaret; Errey, Sally; Caperchione, Cristina M; Lamont, Sonia; Johnson, Steven T; Healy, Theresa
To explore published empirical literature in order to identify factors that facilitate or inhibit collaborative approaches for health promotion using a scoping review methodology. A comprehensive search of MEDLINE, CINAHL, ScienceDirect, PsycINFO, and Academic Search Complete for articles published between January 2001 and October 2015 was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. To be included studies had to: be an original research article, published in English, involve at least 2 organizations in a health promotion partnership, and identify factors contributing to or constraining the success of an established (or prior) partnership. Studies were excluded if they focused on primary care collaboration or organizations jointly lobbying for a cause. Data extraction was completed by 2 members of the author team using a summary chart to extract information relevant to the factors that facilitated or constrained collaboration success. NVivo 10 was used to code article content into the thematic categories identified in the data extraction. Twenty-five studies across 8 countries were identified. Several key factors contributed to collaborative effectiveness, including a shared vision, leadership, member characteristics, organizational commitment, available resources, clear roles/responsibilities, trust/clear communication, and engagement of the target population. In general, the findings were consistent with previous reviews; however, additional novel themes did emerge.
Thomas, Roger E; Ornstein, Jodie
to identify all studies of Karate injuries and assess injury rates, types, location, and causes. Six electronic and four grey literature databases were searched. Two reviewers independently assessed titles/abstracts, abstracted data and assessed risk-of-bias with the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Average injury rates/1000AE (AE = athletic-encounter) and/1000minutesAE, injury location and type weighted by study size were calculated. In competitions rates of injury/1000AE and/1000 minutesAE were similar for males (111.4/1000AE, 75.4/1000 minAE) and females (105.8/1000AE, 72.8/1000 minAE). Location of injury rates/1000AE for males were 44.0 for head/neck, 11.9 lower extremities, 8.1 torso and 5.4 upper extremities and were similar for females: 41.2 head/neck, 12.4 lower extremities, 9.1 torso and 6.3 upper extremities. Injury rates varied widely by study. Rates/1000AE for type of injury were contusions/abrasions/lacerations/bruises/tooth avulsion for males (68.1) and females (30.4); hematomas/bleeding/epistaxis males (11.4) and females (12.1); strains/sprains males (3.5) and females (0.1); dislocations males (2.9) and females (0.9); concussions males (2.5) and females (3.9); and fractures males (2.9) and females (1.4). Punches were a more common mechanism of injury for males (59.8) than females (40.8) and kicks similar (males 19.7, females 21.7). Weighted averages were not calculated for weight class or belt colour because there were too few studies. Nineteen injury surveys reported annual injury rates from 30% to rates ten times higher but used different reporting methods. Studies provided no data to explain wide rate ranges. Studies need to adopt one injury definition, one data-collection form, and collect comprehensive data for each study for both training and competitions. More data are needed to measure the effect of weight, age and experience on injuries, rates and types of injury during training, and for competitors with high injury rates. RCTs are needed of
Luís Carlos Machado, Júnior
Full Text Available Objective: this study aimed to review the literature regarding late preterm births (34 weeks to 36 weeks and 6 days of gestation in its several aspects. Sources: the MEDLINE, LILACS, and Cochrane Library databases were searched, and the references of the articles retrieved were also used, with no limit of time. Data synthesis: numerous studies showed a recent increase in late preterm births. In all series, late preterm comprised the majority of preterm births. Studies including millions of births showed a strong association between late preterm birth and neonatal mortality. A higher mortality in childhood and among young adults was also observed. Many studies found an association with several neonatal complications, and also with long-term disorders and sequelae: breastfeeding problems, cerebral palsy, asthma in childhood, poor school performance, schizophrenia, and young adult diabetes. Some authors propose strategies to reduce late preterm birth, or to improve neonatal outcome: use of antenatal corticosteroids, changes in some of the guidelines for early delivery in high-risk pregnancies, and changes in neonatal care for this group. Conclusions: numerous studies show greater mortality and morbidity in late preterm infants compared with term infants, in addition to long-term disorders. More recent studies evaluated strategies to improve the outcomes of these neonates. Further studies on these strategies are needed. Resumo: Objetivo: revisar a literatura sobre prematuridade tardia (nascimentos de 34 semanas a 36 semanas e seis dias em seus vários aspectos. Fonte dos dados: buscas nas bases MEDLINE, LILACS e Biblioteca Cochrane, sem limite de tempo, e nas referências bibliográficas dos artigos encontrados. Síntese dos dados: muitos estudos mostram aumento na taxa de prematuridade tardia nos últimos anos. Em todas as séries, os prematuros tardios correspondem à maioria dos nascimentos prematuros. Estudos envolvendo análises de milhões de
Meulen, N. van der; Jansen, J.; Dulmen, S. van; Bensing, J.; Weert, J. van
This systematic review investigates which interventions are effective to improve recall of medical information in cancer patients. A literature research was done in PubMed, PsychINFO, CINAHL and Cochrane Library, following the guidelines of the Cochrane Collaboration. The methodological quality of
Is exercise effective for the management of neck pain and associated disorders or whiplash-associated disorders? A systematic review by the Ontario Protocol for Traffic Injury Management (OPTIMa) Collaboration.
Southerst, Danielle; Nordin, Margareta C; Côté, Pierre; Shearer, Heather M; Varatharajan, Sharanya; Yu, Hainan; Wong, Jessica J; Sutton, Deborah A; Randhawa, Kristi A; van der Velde, Gabrielle M; Mior, Silvano A; Carroll, Linda J; Jacobs, Craig L; Taylor-Vaisey, Anne L
In 2008, the Neck Pain Task Force (NPTF) recommended exercise for the management of neck pain and whiplash-associated disorders (WAD). However, no evidence was available on the effectiveness of exercise for Grade III neck pain or WAD. Moreover, limited evidence was available to contrast the effectiveness of various types of exercises. To update the findings of the NPTF on the effectiveness of exercise for the management of neck pain and WAD grades I to III. Systematic review and best evidence synthesis. Studies comparing the effectiveness of exercise to other conservative interventions or no intervention. Outcomes of interest included self-rated recovery, functional recovery, pain intensity, health-related quality of life, psychological outcomes, and/or adverse events. We searched eight electronic databases from 2000 to 2013. Eligible studies were critically appraised using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network criteria. The results of scientifically admissible studies were synthesized following best-evidence synthesis principles. We retrieved 4,761 articles, and 21 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were critically appraised. Ten RCTs were scientifically admissible: nine investigated neck pain and one addressed WAD. For the management of recent neck pain Grade I/II, unsupervised range-of-motion exercises, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and acetaminophen, or manual therapy lead to similar outcomes. For recent neck pain Grade III, supervised graded strengthening is more effective than advice but leads to similar short-term outcomes as a cervical collar. For persistent neck pain and WAD Grade I/II, supervised qigong and combined strengthening, range-of-motion, and flexibility exercises are more effective than wait list. Additionally, supervised Iyengar yoga is more effective than home exercise. Finally, supervised high-dose strengthening is not superior to home exercises or advice. We found evidence that supervised qigong, Iyengar yoga, and combined
Lester, Soraya; Lawrence, Cayleigh; Ward, Catherine L
Many children across the world are exposed to school violence, which undermines their right to education and adversely affects their development. Studies of interventions for school violence suggest that it can be prevented. However, this evidence base is challenging to navigate. We completed a systematic review of interventions to reduce four types of school violence: (a) peer violence; (b) corporal punishment; (c) student-on-teacher violence and (d) teacher-on-student violence. Reviewers independently searched databases and journals. Included studies were published between 2005 and 2015; in English; considered school-based interventions for children and measured violence as an outcome. Many systematic reviews were found, thus we completed a systematic review of systematic reviews. Only systematic reviews on interventions for intimate partner violence (IPV) and peer aggression were found. These reviews were generally of moderate quality. Research on both types of violence was largely completed in North America. Only a handful of programmes demonstrate promise in preventing IPV. Cognitive behavioral, social-emotional and peer mentoring/mediation programmes showed promise in reducing the levels of perpetration of peer aggression. Further research needs to determine the long-term effects of interventions, potential moderators and mediators of program effects, program effects across different contexts and key intervention components.
Cohen, A K; Rai, M; Rehkopf, D H; Abrams, B
Although previous systematic reviews considered the relationship between socioeconomic status and obesity, almost 200 peer-reviewed articles have been published since the last review on that topic, and this paper focuses specifically on education, which has different implications. The authors systematically review the peer-reviewed literature from around the world considering the association between educational attainment and obesity. Databases from public health and medicine, education, psychology, economics, and other social sciences were searched, and articles published in English, French, Portuguese and Spanish were included. This paper includes 289 articles that report on 410 populations in 91 countries. The relationship between educational attainment and obesity was modified by both gender and the country's economic development level: an inverse association was more common in studies of higher-income countries and a positive association was more common in lower-income countries, with stronger social patterning among women. Relatively few studies reported on lower-income countries, controlled for a comprehensive set of potential confounding variables and/or attempted to assess causality through the use of quasi-experimental designs. Future research should address these gaps to understand if the relationship between educational attainment and obesity may be causal, thus supporting education policy as a tool for obesity prevention. © 2013 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.
Farid-Kapadia, Mufiza; Askie, Lisa; Hartling, Lisa; Contopoulos-Ioannidis, Despina; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Soll, Roger; Moher, David; Offringa, Martin
Background Systematic reviews are key tools to enable decision making by healthcare providers and policymakers. Despite the availability of the evidence based Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA-2009 and PRISMA-P 2015) statements that were developed to improve the transparency and quality of reporting of systematic reviews, uncertainty on how to deal with pediatric-specific methodological challenges of systematic reviews impairs decision-making in child ...
Peinemann, Frank; Tushabe, Doreen Allen; Kleijnen, Jos
Background A systematic review may evaluate different aspects of a health care intervention. To accommodate the evaluation of various research questions, the inclusion of more than one study design may be necessary. One aim of this study is to find and describe articles on methodological issues concerning the incorporation of multiple types of study designs in systematic reviews on health care interventions. Another aim is to evaluate methods studies that have assessed whether reported effects differ by study types. Methods and Findings We searched PubMed, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and the Cochrane Methodology Register on 31 March 2012 and identified 42 articles that reported on the integration of single or multiple study designs in systematic reviews. We summarized the contents of the articles qualitatively and assessed theoretical and empirical evidence. We found that many examples of reviews incorporating multiple types of studies exist and that every study design can serve a specific purpose. The clinical questions of a systematic review determine the types of design that are necessary or sufficient to provide the best possible answers. In a second independent search, we identified 49 studies, 31 systematic reviews and 18 trials that compared the effect sizes between randomized and nonrandomized controlled trials, which were statistically different in 35%, and not different in 53%. Twelve percent of studies reported both, different and non-different effect sizes. Conclusions Different study designs addressing the same question yielded varying results, with differences in about half of all examples. The risk of presenting uncertain results without knowing for sure the direction and magnitude of the effect holds true for both nonrandomized and randomized controlled trials. The integration of multiple study designs in systematic reviews is required if patients should be informed on the many facets of patient relevant issues of health care
He, Weiling; Tu, Jian; Huo, Zijun; Li, Yuhuang; Peng, Jintao; Qiu, Zhenwen; Luo, Dandong; Ke, Zunfu; Chen, Xinlin
To evaluate methodological quality and the extent of concordance among meta-analysis and/or systematic reviews on surgical interventions for gastric cancer (GC). A comprehensive search of PubMed, Medline, EMBASE, the Cochrane library and the DARE database was conducted to identify the reviews comparing different surgical interventions for GC prior to April 2014. After applying included criteria, available data were summarized and appraised by the Oxman and Guyatt scale. Fifty six reviews were included. Forty five reviews (80.4%) were well conducted, with scores of adapted Oxman and Guyatt scale ≥ 14. The reviews differed in criteria for avoiding bias and assessing the validity of the primary studies. Many primary studies displayed major methodological flaws, such as randomization, allocation concealment, and dropouts and withdrawals. According to the concordance assessment, laparoscopy-assisted gastrectomy (LAG) was superior to open gastrectomy, and laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy was superior to open distal gastrectomy in short-term outcomes. However, the concordance regarding other surgical interventions, such as D1 vs. D2 lymphadenectomy, and robotic gastrectomy vs. LAG were absent. Systematic reviews on surgical interventions for GC displayed relatively high methodological quality. The improvement of methodological quality and reporting was necessary for primary studies. The superiority of laparoscopic over open surgery was demonstrated. But concordance on other surgical interventions was rare, which needed more well-designed RCTs and systematic reviews.
There has recently been interest in applying the techniques of systematic review to bioethics literature. In this paper, I identify the three models of systematic review proposed to date in bioethics: systematic reviews of empirical bioethics research, systematic reviews of normative bioethics literature, and systematic reviews of reasons. I argue that all three types yield information useful to scholarship in bioethics, yet they also face significant challenges particularly in relation to terminology and time. Drawing on my recent experience conducting a systematic review, I suggest that complete comprehensiveness may not always be an appropriate goal of a literature review in bioethics, depending on the research question. In some cases, all the relevant ideas may be captured without capturing all the relevant literature. I conclude that systematic reviews in bioethics have an important role to play alongside the traditional broadbrush approach to reviewing literature in bioethics.
... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Systematic review for declassification. 403.6..., AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 403.6 Systematic review for declassification... permanent retention will be subject to systematic declassification review by the Archivist in accordance...
... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Systematic review for declassification. 2400.20... SECURITY PROGRAM Declassification and Downgrading § 2400.20 Systematic review for declassification. (a) Permanent records. Systematic review is applicable only to those classified records, and presidential papers...
Dugdill, L; Brettle, A; Hulme, C; McCluskey, S; Long, AF
Purpose – This paper aims to report a synopsis of a recent systematic review of the literature regarding the effectiveness of workplace physical activity interventions, commissioned by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE). \\ud \\ud Design/methodology/approach – A search for English-language papers published between 1996 and 2007 was conducted using 12 relevant databases and associated grey literature. Search protocols and analysis regarding study quality as recommen...
Forsyth, SR; Malone, RE
INTRODUCTION: Video games are played by a majority of adolescents, yet little is known about whether and how video games are associated with smoking behavior and attitudes. This systematic review examines research on the relationship between video games and smoking. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, psycINFO, and Web of Science through August 20, 2014. Twenty-four studies met inclusion criteria. Studies were synthesized qualitatively in four domains: the prevalence and incidence of smoking imager...
Denise Catricala Bution; Amanda Muglia Wechsler
Emotional Dependency is a disorder characterized by addictive behaviors in romantic relationships. However, there is still controversy about whether this dependency should be considered pathological, as well as its appropriate denomination and the symptoms that would define it. This paper presents a systematic evaluation of the literature on emotional dependency, reviewing all the indexed articles in Scielo, CAPES, and Scholar Google databases, published between 2000 and 2014. After careful a...
Batbaatar, Enkhjargal; Dorjdagva, Javkhlanbayar; Luvsannyam, Ariunbat; Savino, Matteo Mario; Amenta, Pietro
A large number of studies have addressed the detection of patient satisfaction determinants, and the results are still inconclusive. Furthermore, it is known that contradicting evidence exists across patient satisfaction studies. This article is the second part of a two-part series of research with a goal to review a current conceptual framework of patient satisfaction for further operationalisation procedures. The aim of this work was to systematically identify and review evidence regarding determinants of patient satisfaction between 1980 and 2014, and to seek the reasons for contradicting results in relationships between determinants and patient satisfaction in the literature to design a further robust measurement system for patient satisfaction. This systematic review followed the guidelines of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statement. The search was conducted in PubMed, CINAHL, and Scopus in October 2014. Studies published in full in peer reviewed journals between January 1980 and August 2014 and in the English language were included. We included 109 articles for the synthesis. We found several number of determinants of patient satisfaction investigated in a wide diversity of studies. However, study results were varied due to no globally accepted formulation of patient satisfaction and measurement system. Health care service quality indicators were the most influential determinants of patient satisfaction across the studies. Among them, health providers' interpersonal care quality was the essential determinant of patient satisfaction. Sociodemographic characteristics were the most varied in the review. The strength and directions of associations with patient satisfaction were found inconsistent. Therefore, person-related characteristics should be considered to be the potential determinants and confounders simultaneously. The selected studies were not able to show all potential characteristics which may have had
Angela J. Spencer
Results: We identified 18 different roles filled by librarians and other information professionals in conducting systematic reviews from 310 different articles, book chapters, and presented papers and posters. Some roles were well known such as searching, source selection, and teaching. Other less documented roles included planning, question formulation, and peer review. We summarize these different roles and provide an accompanying bibliography of references for in-depth descriptions of these roles. Conclusion: Librarians play central roles in systematic review teams, including roles that go beyond searching. This scoping review should encourage librarians who are fulfilling roles that are not captured here to document their roles in journal articles and poster and paper presentations. This article has been approved for the Medical Library Association’s Independent Reading Program.
Mota, Vitor Gomes; Markman Filho, Brivaldo
Doppler echocardiography (Echo) is a non-invasive method of excellent accuracy to screen portopulmonary hypertension (PPH) and to assess intrapulmonary shunts (IPS) in chronic liver disease (CLD). In the past decade, Echo proved to play a fundamental role in the diagnosis of cirrhotic cardiomyopathy (CCM). To perform a systematic review of relevant articles on the subject 'Echo in CLD'. In November 2011, a systematic review was performed in the PubMed, LILACS and SciELO databases, and the characteristics of the studies selected were reported. The search based on descriptors and free terms obtained 204 articles (179 in Pubmed, 21 in LILACS, and 1 in SciELO). Of those 204 articles, 22 were selected for systematic review. A meta-analysis could not be performed because of the heterogeneity of the articles. Echo should be part of CLD stratification for screening PPH, IPS and CCM, because, most of the time, such complications are diagnosed only when patients are already waiting for a liver transplant.
Dixon, Brian E; Whipple, Elizabeth C; Lajiness, John M; Murray, Michael D
To explore the ability of an integrated health information infrastructure to support outcomes research. A systematic review of articles published from 1983 to 2012 by Regenstrief Institute investigators using data from an integrated electronic health record infrastructure involving multiple provider organisations was performed. Articles were independently assessed and classified by study design, disease and other metadata including bibliometrics. A total of 190 articles were identified. Diseases included cognitive, (16) cardiovascular, (16) infectious, (15) chronic illness (14) and cancer (12). Publications grew steadily (26 in the first decade vs. 100 in the last) as did the number of investigators (from 15 in 1983 to 62 in 2012). The proportion of articles involving non-Regenstrief authors also expanded from 54% in the first decade to 72% in the last decade. During this period, the infrastructure grew from a single health system into a health information exchange network covering more than 6 million patients. Analysis of journal and article metrics reveals high impact for clinical trials and comparative effectiveness research studies that utilised data available in the integrated infrastructure. Integrated information infrastructures support growth in high quality observational studies and diverse collaboration consistent with the goals for the learning health system. More recent publications demonstrate growing external collaborations facilitated by greater access to the infrastructure and improved opportunities to study broader disease and health outcomes. Integrated information infrastructures can stimulate learning from electronic data captured during routine clinical care but require time and collaboration to reach full potential. © 2015 Health Libraries Group.
Lavallée, Mathieu; Robillard, Pierre-N.; Mirsalari, Reza
Reviewers performing systematic literature reviews require understanding of the review process and of the knowledge domain. This paper presents an iterative approach for conducting systematic literature reviews that addresses the problems faced by reviewers who are novices in one or both levels of understanding. This approach is derived from…
Mikton, Christopher; Butchart, Alexander
To synthesize recent evidence from systematic and comprehensive reviews on the effectiveness of universal and selective child maltreatment prevention interventions, evaluate the methodological quality of the reviews and outcome evaluation studies they are based on, and map the geographical distribution of the evidence. A systematic review of reviews was conducted. The quality of the systematic reviews was evaluated with a tool for the assessment of multiple systematic reviews (AMSTAR), and the quality of the outcome evaluations was assessed using indicators of internal validity and of the construct validity of outcome measures. The review focused on seven main types of interventions: home visiting, parent education, child sex abuse prevention, abusive head trauma prevention, multi-component interventions, media-based interventions, and support and mutual aid groups. Four of the seven - home-visiting, parent education, abusive head trauma prevention and multi-component interventions - show promise in preventing actual child maltreatment. Three of them - home visiting, parent education and child sexual abuse prevention - appear effective in reducing risk factors for child maltreatment, although these conclusions are tentative due to the methodological shortcomings of the reviews and outcome evaluation studies they draw on. An analysis of the geographical distribution of the evidence shows that outcome evaluations of child maltreatment prevention interventions are exceedingly rare in low- and middle-income countries and make up only 0.6% of the total evidence base. Evidence for the effectiveness of four of the seven main types of interventions for preventing child maltreatment is promising, although it is weakened by methodological problems and paucity of outcome evaluations from low- and middle-income countries.
Caird, Jenny; Sutcliffe, Katy; Kwan, Irene; Dickson, Kelly; Thomas, James
When swift, accurate appraisal of evidence is required to inform policy concerning broad research questions, and budgetary constraints limit the employment of large research teams, researchers face a significant challenge which is sometimes met by reviewing existing systematic reviews. In this paper we highlight the challenges inherent in the…
Supper, I; Catala, O; Lustman, M; Chemla, C; Bourgueil, Y; Letrilliart, L
The epidemiological transition calls for redefining the roles of the various professionals involved in primary health care towards greater collaboration. We aimed to identify facilitators of, and barriers to, interprofessional collaboration in primary health care as perceived by the actors involved, other than nurses. Systematic review using synthetic thematic analysis of qualitative research. Articles were retrieved from Medline, Web of science, Psychinfo and The Cochrane library up to July 2013. Quality and relevance of the studies were assessed according to the Dixon-Woods criteria. The following stakeholders were targeted: general practitioners, pharmacists, mental health workers, midwives, physiotherapists, social workers and receptionists. Forty-four articles were included. The principal facilitator of interprofessional collaboration in primary care was the different actors' common interest in collaboration, perceiving opportunities to improve quality of care and to develop new professional fields. The main barriers were the challenges of definition and awareness of one another's roles and competences, shared information, confidentiality and responsibility, team building and interprofessional training, long-term funding and joint monitoring. Interprofessional organization and training based on appropriate models should support collaboration development. The active participation of the patient is required to go beyond professional boundaries and hierarchies. Multidisciplinary research projects are recommended. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Cohen, Alison K.; Rai, Manisha; Rehkopf, David H.; Abrams, Barbara
Background Although previous systematic reviews considered the relationship between socioeconomic status and obesity, almost 200 peer-reviewed articles have been published since the last review on that topic, and this paper focuses specifically on education, which has different implications. Methods The authors systematically review the peer-reviewed literature from around the world considering the association between educational attainment and obesity. Databases from public health and medicine, education, psychology, economics, and other social sciences were searched, and articles published in English, French, Portuguese, and Spanish were included. Results This paper includes 289 articles that report on 410 populations in 91 countries. The relationship between educational attainment and obesity was modified by both gender and the country's economic development level: an inverse association was more common in studies of higher-income countries and a positive association was more common in lower-income countries, with stronger social patterning among women. Relatively few studies reported on lower-income countries, controlled for a comprehensive set of potential confounding variables, and/or attempted to assess causality through the use of quasi-experimental designs. Conclusions Future research should address these gaps to understand if the relationship between educational attainment and obesity may be causal, thus supporting education policy as a tool for obesity prevention. PMID:23889851
Lindberg, Per; Vingård, Eva
The purpose of this study was to systematically review the scientific literature and search for indicators of healthy work environments. A number of major national and international databases for scientific publication were searched for research addressing indicators of healthy work environments. Altogether 19,768 publications were found. After excluding duplicates, non-relevant publications, or publications that did not comply with the inclusion criteria 24 peer-reviewed publications remained to be included in this systematic review. Only one study explicitly addressing indicators of healthy work environments was found. That study suggested that the presence of stress management programs in an organization might serve as indicator of a 'good place to work', as these organizations were more likely to offer programs that encouraged employee well-being, safety and skill development than those without stress management programs. The other 23 studies either investigated employee's views of what constitute a healthy workplace or were guidelines for how to create such a workplace. Summarizing, the nine most pronounced factors considered as important for a healthy workplace that emerged from these studies were, in descending order: collaboration/teamwork: growth and development of the individual; recognition; employee involvement; positive, accessible and fair leader; autonomy and empowerment; appropriate staffing; skilled communication; and safe physical work.
Fisch, S; Brinkhaus, B; Teut, M
Although hypnosis and hypnotherapy have become more popular in recent years, the evidence for hypnosis to influence perceived stress is unclear. In this systematic review we searched and evaluated randomized clinical studies investigating the effect of hypnosis on perceived stress reduction and coping. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, the Database of Abstracts of Review of Effects, EMBASE, Medline, PsycINFO, PSYNDEX and PubMed were systematically screened from their inception until December 2015 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) reporting about hypnosis or hypnotherapy for stress reduction in healthy participants. Risk of Bias was assessed according the Cochrane Collaboration recommendations. Nine RCTs with a total of 365 participants met the inclusion criteria and were included in this review. Most included participants were medical students, predominantly female (n = 211). Mean age of participants ranged in most studies between 20 and 25 years, in three studies the mean ages were between 30 and 42 years. Perceived stress was measured by a wide range of psychological questionnaires including Face Valid Stress Test, Stress Thermometer, and immunological data was collected. All nine included studies used explorative designs and showed a high risk of bias. Six out of nine studies reported significant positive effects of hypnosis for stress reduction in the main outcome parameter compared to control groups (3 active controls, 3 no therapy controls). Immunological outcomes were assessed in six studies, the results were inconclusive. Due to exploratory designs and high risk of bias, the effectiveness of hypnosis or hypnotherapy in stress reduction remains still unclear. More high quality clinical research is urgently needed.
Spineli, Loukia M.; Pandis, Nikolaos; Salanti, Georgia
Objectives: The purpose of the study was to provide empirical evidence about the reporting of methodology to address missing outcome data and the acknowledgement of their impact in Cochrane systematic reviews in the mental health field. Methods: Systematic reviews published in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews after January 1, 2009 by…
Hundreds of studies of maternity care interventions have been published, too many for most people involved in providing maternity care to identify and consider when making decisions. It became apparent that systematic reviews of individual studies were required to appraise, summarise and bring together existing studies in a single place. However, decision makers are increasingly faced by a plethora of such reviews and these are likely to be of variable quality and scope, with more than one review of important topics. Systematic reviews (or overviews) of reviews are a logical and appropriate next step, allowing the findings of separate reviews to be compared and contrasted, providing clinical decision makers with the evidence they need.
S. Cecilia Tapia-Siles
Full Text Available Prosthetics is an important field in engineering due to the large number of amputees worldwide and the associated problems such as limited functionality of the state of the art. An important functionality of the human hand is its capability of adjusting the stiffness of the joints depending on the currently performed task. For the development of new technology it is important to understand the limitations of existing resources. As part of our efforts to develop a variable stiffness grasper for developing countries a systematic review was performed covering technology of body powered and myoelectric hand prosthesis. Focus of the review is readiness of prosthetic hands regarding their capability of controlling the stiffness of the end effector. Publications sourced through three different digital libraries were systematically reviewed on the basis of the PRISMA standard. We present a search strategy as well as the PRISMA assessment of the resulting records which covered 321 publications. The records were assessed and the results are presented for the ability of devices to control their joint stiffness. The review indicates that body powered prosthesis are preferred to myoelectric hands due to the reduced cost, the simplicity of use and because of their inherent ability to provide feedback to the user. Stiffness control was identified but has not been fully covered in the current state of the art. In addition we summarise the identified requirements on prosthetic hands as well as related information which can support the development of new prosthetics.
Somogyi, Balvinder K; Barker, Melanie; MacLean, Calvin; Grischkan, Pamela
Over the last century, Inuit have experienced rapid social changes that have greatly impacted their way of life, health, and intergenerational traditions. Although there is a growing body of research concerning Inuit youth, relatively little is known about elderly Inuit. In an effort to bridge this knowledge gap, a systematic review of peer-reviewed journal articles was conducted. This review identified a dearth of research on older Inuit, and highlighted limitations in service provision to this primarily rural and isolated population. Implications for policy and practice and recommendations for future research are also discussed.
Matthews, Melissa A; Horacek, Tanya M
The nutritional quality of food and beverage products sold in vending machines has been implicated as a contributing factor to the development of an obesogenic food environment. How comprehensive, reliable, and valid are the current assessment tools for vending machines to support or refute these claims? A systematic review was conducted to summarize, compare, and evaluate the current methodologies and available tools for vending machine assessment. A total of 24 relevant research studies published between 1981 and 2013 met inclusion criteria for this review. The methodological variables reviewed in this study include assessment tool type, study location, machine accessibility, product availability, healthfulness criteria, portion size, price, product promotion, and quality of scientific practice. There were wide variations in the depth of the assessment methodologies and product healthfulness criteria utilized among the reviewed studies. Of the reviewed studies, 39% evaluated machine accessibility, 91% evaluated product availability, 96% established healthfulness criteria, 70% evaluated portion size, 48% evaluated price, 52% evaluated product promotion, and 22% evaluated the quality of scientific practice. Of all reviewed articles, 87% reached conclusions that provided insight into the healthfulness of vended products and/or vending environment. Product healthfulness criteria and complexity for snack and beverage products was also found to be variable between the reviewed studies. These findings make it difficult to compare results between studies. A universal, valid, and reliable vending machine assessment tool that is comprehensive yet user-friendly is recommended. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wiysonge, Charles Shey; Kamadjeu, Raoul; Tsague, Landry
Health research serves to answer questions concerning health and to accumulate facts (evidence) required to guide healthcare policy and practice. However, research designs vary and different types of healthcare questions are best answered by different study designs. For example, qualitative studies are best suited for answering questions about experiences and meaning; cross-sectional studies for questions concerning prevalence; cohort studies for questions regarding incidence and prognosis; and randomised controlled trials for questions on prevention and treatment. In each case, one study would rarely yield sufficient evidence on which to reliably base a healthcare decision. An unbiased and transparent summary of all existing studies on a given question (i.e. a systematic review) tells a better story than any one of the included studies taken separately. A systematic review enables producers and users of research to gauge what a new study has contributed to knowledge by setting the study's findings in the context of all previous studies investigating the same question. It is therefore inappropriate to initiate a new study without first conducting a systematic review to find out what can be learnt from existing studies. There is nothing new in taking account of earlier studies in either the design or interpretation of new studies. For example, in the 18th century James Lind conducted a clinical trial followed by a systematic review of contemporary treatments for scurvy; which showed fruits to be an effective treatment for the disease. However, surveys of the peer-reviewed literature continue to provide empirical evidence that systematic reviews are seldom used in the design and interpretation of the findings of new studies. Such indifference to systematic reviews as a research function is unethical, unscientific, and uneconomical. Without systematic reviews, limited resources are very likely to be squandered on ill-conceived research and policies. In order to
Roda, G; Narula, N; Pinotti, R
and meta-analysis of epidemiological studies reporting on extension of ulcerative colitis to determine frequency of disease extension in patients with limited ulcerative colitis at diagnosis. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature search to identify studies on disease extension of ulcerative colitis...... (UC) and predictors of disease progression. RESULTS: Overall, 41 studies were eligible for systematic review but only 30 for meta-analysis. The overall pooled frequency of UC extension was 22.8% with colonic extension being 17.8% at 5 years and 31% at 10 years. Extension was 17.8% (95% CI 11...... in patients from North America (37.8%) than from Europe (19.6%) (Pmeta-analysis, approximately one quarter of patients with limited UC extend over time with most extension occurring during the first 10 years. Rate of extension depends on age at diagnosis and geographic origin...
Manikas, Konstantinos; Hansen, Klaus Marius
A software ecosystem is the interaction of a set of actors on top of a common technological platform that results in a number of software solutions or services. Arguably, software ecosystems are gaining importance with the advent of, e.g., the Google Android, Apache, and Salesforce.com ecosystems....... However, there exists no systematic overview of the research done on software ecosystems from a software engineering perspective. We performed a systematic literature review of software ecosystem research, analyzing 90 papers on the subject taken from a gross collection of 420. Our main conclusions...... are that while research on software ecosystems is increasing (a) there is little consensus on what constitutes a software ecosystem, (b) few analytical models of software ecosystems exist, and (c) little research is done in the context of real-world ecosystems. This work provides an overview of the field, while...
Rockers, Peter C; Feigl, Andrea B; Røttingen, John-Arne; Fretheim, Atle; de Ferranti, David; Lavis, John N; Melberg, Hans Olav; Bärnighausen, Till
At present, there exists no widely agreed upon set of study-design selection criteria for systematic reviews of health systems research, except for those proposed by the Cochrane Collaboration's Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) review group (which comprises randomized controlled trials, controlled clinical trials, controlled before-after studies, and interrupted time series). We conducted a meta-review of the study-design selection criteria used in systematic reviews available in the McMaster University's Health Systems Evidence or the EPOC database. Of 414 systematic reviews, 13% did not indicate any study-design selection criteria. Of the 359 studies that described such criteria, 50% limited their synthesis to controlled trials and 68% to some or all of the designs defined by the EPOC criteria. Seven out of eight reviews identified at least one controlled trial that was relevant for the review topic. Seven percent of the reviews included either no or only one relevant primary study. Our meta-review reveals reviewers' preferences for restricting synthesis to controlled experiments or study designs that comply with the EPOC criteria. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the current practices regarding study-design selection in systematic reviews of health systems research as well as alternative approaches. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Cycling with any form of limb amputation has progressed from an activity of leisure or rehabilitation to elite level competition as part of the Paralympic Games programme. While it is often proposed that research into sport with an amputation can be extremely limited, this study intended to identify the volume, type and historical strategy in this area. This study comprises a documented systematic literature review of cycling undertaken with any form of limb amputation. This study used four online search engines to identify relevant peer-reviewed literature. These included SPORTDiscus, CINAHL, Scopus and MEDLINE. Google Scholar was also used as a secondary source. The initial results were then subjected to a set of pre-defined inclusion criteria. The resulting publications were then analysed for content and thematic commonality. The review identified 20 articles which met pre-defined inclusion criteria. The identified peer-reviewed publications were dated from the period 2004 to 2014. Three clear themes emerged from the historical research. There was both a paucity of peer-reviewed literature with respect to cycling with an amputation and the design of adaptive or assistive technology to replace limb loss. However, publications have been rising substantially over the last 5 years. This review study established the historical strategy and content of cycling with an amputation and identified the existing research themes. This will assist in summarising the current level of knowledge and help signpost such work in the future. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2015.
Schünemann Holger J
Full Text Available Abstract Objective To systematically review the medical literature to assess the effect of geriatric educational games on the satisfaction, knowledge, beliefs, attitudes and behaviors of health care professionals. Methods We conducted a systematic review following the Cochrane Collaboration methodology including an electronic search of 10 electronic databases. We included randomized controlled trials (RCT and controlled clinical trials (CCT and excluded single arm studies. Population of interests included members (practitioners or students of the health care professions. Outcomes of interests were participants' satisfaction, knowledge, beliefs, attitude, and behaviors. Results We included 8 studies evaluating 5 geriatric role playing games, all conducted in United States. All studies suffered from one or more methodological limitations but the overall quality of evidence was acceptable. None of the studies assessed the effects of the games on beliefs or behaviors. None of the 8 studies reported a statistically significant difference between the 2 groups in terms of change in attitude. One study assessed the impact on knowledge and found non-statistically significant difference between the 2 groups. Two studies found levels of satisfaction among participants to be high. We did not conduct a planned meta-analysis because the included studies either reported no statistical data or reported different summary statistics. Conclusion The available evidence does not support the use of role playing interventions in geriatric medical education with the aim of improving the attitudes towards the elderly.
Dasteh Goli N.*BSc
Full Text Available Abstract Aims: Intellectual disability is a condition characterised by the inability of a person to undertake normal psychological activities. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the intellectual disability in children and discuss the implications of different environmental and genetic factors, which describe particular categories of intellectual disable cases. Information & Methods: This systematic review was performed in 2014 by searching the existing literature in PubMed database in the scope of “intellectual disability in children”. 38 articles written from 1987 to 2014 were selected and surveyed for review. Findings: The prevalence of ID in the general population is estimated to be approximately 1%. ID disorder is multi-causal, encompassing all factors that interfere with brain development and functioning. Causes usually are classified according to the time of the insult, as prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal or acquired. Some causes, such as environmental toxins or endocrine disorders, may act at multiple times. Others, such as genetic disorders, have different manifestations during postnatal development. The outcome for ID is variable and depends upon the aetiology, associated conditions, and environmental and social factors. The goals of management of ID are to strengthen areas of reduced function, minimize extensive deterioration in mental cognitive and adaptability, and lastly, to promote optimum or normal functioning of the individuals in their community. Conclusion: Prominent features of ID include significant failures in both intellectual functioning and adaptive behaviour, which comprises daily social and practical life skills, commencing earlier in life.
Muñoz-Ortego, Juan; Solans-Domènech, Maite; Carrion, Carme
Acupuncture is a medical procedure with a very wide range of indications according to the WHO. However the indications require robust scientific evidence to support them. We have conducted a systematic review (2010-2015) in order to define in which pathologies acupuncture can be an effective strategy, STRICTA criteria that aim to set up acupuncture clinical trials standard criteria were defined in 2010. Only systematic reviews and meta-analyses of good or very good methodological quality according to SIGN criteria were selected. Its main objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of acupuncture in the management of any disease. Most of the final 31 selected reviews focus on chronic pain-related diseases, mainly in the disciplines of Neurology, Orthopaedics and Rheumatology. Current evidence supports the use of acupuncture in the treatment of headaches, migraines, back pain, cervical pain and osteoarthritis. The remaining pathologies still require further good quality studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Picard, Martin; McEwen, Bruce S
Mitochondria are multifunctional life-sustaining organelles that represent a potential intersection point between psychosocial experiences and biological stress responses. This article provides a systematic review of the effects of psychological stress on mitochondrial structure and function. A systematic review of the literature investigating the effects of psychological stress on mitochondrial function was conducted. The review focused on experimentally controlled studies allowing us to draw causal inference about the effect of induced psychological stress on mitochondria. A total of 23 studies met the inclusion criteria. All studies involved male laboratory animals, and most demonstrated that acute and chronic stressors influenced specific facets of mitochondrial function, particularly within the brain. Nineteen studies showed significant adverse effects of psychological stress on mitochondria and four found increases in function or size after stress. In humans, only six observational studies were available, none with experimental designs, and most only measured biological markers that do not directly reflect mitochondrial function, such as mitochondrial DNA copy number. Overall, evidence supports the notion that acute and chronic stressors influence various aspects of mitochondrial biology, and that chronic stress exposure can lead to molecular and functional recalibrations among mitochondria. Limitations of current animal and human studies are discussed. Maladaptive mitochondrial changes that characterize this subcellular state of stress are termed mitochondrial allostatic load. Prospective studies with sensitive measures of specific mitochondrial outcomes will be needed to establish the link between psychosocial stressors, emotional states, the resulting neuroendocrine and immune processes, and mitochondrial energetics relevant to mind-body research in humans.
van Enst, W.A.
Evidence-Based Medicine is the integration of best research evidence with clinical expertise and patient values. Systematic reviews have become the cornerstone of evidence-based medicine, which is reflected in the position systematic reviews have in the pyramid of evidence-based medicine. Systematic
King, Michelle L.
This article explores collaboration between library media educators and regular classroom teachers. The article focuses on the context of the issue, positions on the issue, the impact of collaboration, and how to implement effective collaboration into the school system. Various books and professional journals are used to support conclusions…
Vondráčková, Petra; Gabrhelík, Roman
Background and aims Out of a large number of studies on Internet addiction, only a few have been published on the prevention of Internet addiction. The aim of this study is provide a systematic review of scientific articles regarding the prevention of Internet addiction and to identify the relevant topics published in this area of interest. Methods The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines were adopted. The EBSCO, ProQuest Central, and PubMed databases were searched for texts published in English and Spanish between January 1995 and April 2016. A total of 179 original texts were obtained. After de-duplication and topic-relevance review, 108 texts were systematically classified and subjected to descriptive analysis and subsequent content analysis. Results The results of the content analysis yielded the following thematic areas: (a) target groups, (b) the improvement of specific skills, (c) program characteristics, and (d) environmental interventions. Discussion and conclusion Literature on the prevention of Internet addiction is scarce. There is an urgent need to introduce and implement new interventions for different at-risk populations, conduct well-designed research, and publish data on the effectiveness of these interventions. Developing prevention interventions should primarily target children and adolescents at risk of Internet addiction but also parents, teachers, peers, and others who are part of the formative environment of children and adolescents at risk of Internet addiction. Newly designed interventions focused on Internet addiction should be rigorously evaluated and the results published.
Sambunjak, Dario; Straus, Sharon E; Marusić, Ana
Mentoring, as a partnership in personal and professional growth and development, is central to academic medicine, but it is challenged by increased clinical, administrative, research, and other educational demands on medical faculty. Therefore, evidence for the value of mentoring needs to be evaluated. To systematically review the evidence about the prevalence of mentorship and its relationship to career development. MEDLINE, Current Contents, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PsycINFO, and Scopus databases from the earliest available date to May 2006. We identified all studies evaluating the effect of mentoring on career choices and academic advancement among medical students and physicians. Minimum inclusion criteria were a description of the study population and availability of extractable data. No restrictions were placed on study methods or language. The literature search identified 3640 citations. Review of abstracts led to retrieval of 142 full-text articles for assessment; 42 articles describing 39 studies were selected for review. Of these, 34 (87%) were cross-sectional self-report surveys with small sample size and response rates ranging from 5% to 99%. One case-control study nested in a survey used a comparison group that had not received mentoring, and 1 cohort study had a small sample size and a large loss to follow-up. Less than 50% of medical students and in some fields less than 20% of faculty members had a mentor. Women perceived that they had more difficulty finding mentors than their colleagues who are men. Mentorship was reported to have an important influence on personal development, career guidance, career choice, and research productivity, including publication and grant success. Mentoring is perceived as an important part of academic medicine, but the evidence to support this perception is not strong. Practical recommendations on mentoring in
Caruso, Rosario; Magon, Arianna; Baroni, Irene; Dellafiore, Federica; Arrigoni, Cristina; Pittella, Francesco; Ausili, Davide
Aim To summarize, critically review, and interpret the evidence related to the systematic reviews on health literacy (HL) amongst type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods The methodology for this study consisted of a systematic review of systematic reviews, using the PRISMA statement and flowchart to select studies, and searching on PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus, and Cochrane. The search covered the period between January 2006 and June 2016. Results From the 115 identified record by the queries, only six systematic reviews were included, following a quality evaluation using AMSTAR. The included systematic reviews content was analyzed by the independent work of two authors, using a narrative synthesis approach. The findings of this study (i.e., main themes) are areas of consensus and gaps in knowledge. Areas of consensus are HL definition, HL measurement tools, and the relationship between T2DM patient knowledge (or literacy) and his/her HL. The gaps in knowledge were the assessment of the relations between HL and health outcomes and self-efficacy, the gender differences, the effectiveness of interventions to improve HL, the cost-effectiveness study of interventions to improve HL, and the understanding of the influence of organizational environment on HL. Conclusion This review provides a current state of knowledge to address clinical practice and research proposals. HL could be useful to personalize patients' follow-up and it should be routinely assessed in its three dimensions (i.e. functional, interactive and critical) to enhance patients' ability to cope with clinical recommendations. Future research should be mainly aimed to test the effectiveness of evidence-based interventions to improve HL amongst T2DM patients.
Kimer, N; Krag, A; Møller, Søren
BACKGROUND: Rifaximin is recommended for prevention of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). The effects of rifaximin on overt and minimal HE are debated. AIM: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) on rifaximin for HE. METHODS: We performed electronic...... and manual searches, gathered information from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Home Page, and obtained unpublished information on trial design and outcome measures from authors and pharmaceutical companies. Meta-analyses were performed and results presented as risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence...
Bjørn, Maya Xania; Perdawood, Sharaf Karim
of the dissection. We aimed to evaluate the literature on TaTME. METHODS: We performed a systematic search of the literature in the PubMed and Embase databases. Both authors assessed the studies. All publications on TaTME were included with the exception of review articles. RESULTS: A total of 29 studies (336...... the potential advantages seem to be related to a bulky mesorectum in the male pelvis. The preliminary results are encouraging and the most serious complication is urethral injury. The oncological results are acceptable, although the follow-up is short. CONCLUSION: TaTME is a feasible approach for mid and low...
Oliveira, Crystian B; Elkins, Mark R; Lemes, Ítalo Ribeiro; de Oliveira Silva, Danilo; Briani, Ronaldo V; Monteiro, Henrique Luiz; Azevedo, Fábio Mícolis de; Pinto, Rafael Zambelli
Systematic reviews provide the best evidence about the effectiveness of healthcare interventions. Although systematic reviews are conducted with explicit and transparent methods, discrepancies might occur between the protocol and the publication. To estimate the proportion of systematic reviews of physical therapy interventions that are registered, the methodological quality of (un)registered systematic reviews and the prevalence of outcome reporting bias in registered systematic reviews. A random sample of 150 systematic reviews published in 2015 indexed on the PEDro database. We included systematic reviews written in English, Italian, Portuguese and Spanish. A checklist for assessing the methodological quality of systematic reviews tool was used. Relative risk was calculated to explore the association between meta-analysis results and the changes in the outcomes. Twenty-nine (19%) systematic reviews were registered. Funding and publication in a journal with an impact factor higher than 5.0 were associated with registration. Registered systematic reviews demonstrated significantly higher methodological quality (median=8) than unregistered systematic reviews (median=5). Nine (31%) registered systematic reviews demonstrated discrepancies between protocol and publication with no evidence that such discrepancies were applied to favor the statistical significance of the intervention (RR=1.16; 95% CI: 0.63-2.12). A low proportion of systematic reviews in the physical therapy field are registered. The registered systematic reviews showed high methodological quality without evidence of outcome reporting bias. Further strategies should be implemented to encourage registration. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação em Fisioterapia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Scholten, R. J. P. M.; Clarke, M.; Hetherington, J.
The Cochrane Collaboration is an international, not-for-profit organisation that aims to help people make well-informed decisions about health care by preparing, maintaining and promoting the accessibility of systematic reviews of the effects of health-care interventions. Cochrane systematic reviews
Wang, Mei-Yeh; Tsai, Pei-Shan; Lee, Pi-Hsia; Chang, Wen-Yin; Yang, Che-Ming
This paper is a report of a systematic review to evaluate the efficacy of reflexology in any condition. Anecdotal evidence has shown potential benefits of reflexology in a variety of health conditions. However, the efficacy of reflexology has yet to be determined. Cochrane library, PubMed, MEDLINE, EBM review, ProQuest Medical Bundle and SCOPUS databases were searched using the following medical subject headings or key words: reflexology, foot reflexotherapy, reflexological treatment, foot massage and zone therapy. Chinese articles were searched through the Chinese electronic periodical services and Wangfane database. The publication date was limited from 1996 to 2007. Studies were selected if they were written in English or Chinese, used a controlled clinical trial design, used reflexology as a stand-alone modality, and reported such outcomes as symptoms relief, quality of life and patients' perceptions of reflexology. Study quality was reviewed based on the evidence rating system of the United States Preventive Services Task Force, and studies with the evidence rating of II-2 fair or above were included in this review. Among the five studies suitable for review, there was only one report of a statistically significant treatment effect. Among the 12 outcome variables examined, the treatment effect size for urinary symptoms was large, whereas the effect size for other conditions was negligible. There is no evidence for any specific effect of reflexology in any conditions, with the exception of urinary symptoms associated with multiple sclerosis. Routine provision of reflexology is therefore not recommended.
The NRC Systematic Evaluation Program is currently making an assessment of the seismic design safety of 11 older nuclear power plant facilities. The general review philosophy and review criteria relative to seismic input, structural response, and equipment functionability are presented, including the rationale for the development of these guidelines considering the significant evolution of seismic design criteria since these plants were originally licensed. Technical approaches thought more realistic in light of current knowledge are utilized. Initial findings for plants designed to early seismic design procedures suggest that with minor exceptions, these plants possess adequate seismic design margins when evaluated against the intent of current criteria. However, seismic qualification of electrical equipment has been identified as a subject which requires more in-depth evaluation
Silva, Alexandre Emidio Ribeiro; Menezes, Ana Maria Baptista; Demarco, Flávio Fernando; Vargas-Ferreira, Fabiana; Peres, Marco Aurélio
Identifying, through a systematic literature review, evidence of a possible association between obesity and dental caries. A search of articles published between 2005 and January 2012 was performed in the Medline/PubMed, LILACS and Web of Science databases. The quality of scientific evidence of the selected articles was assessed by the items proposed for observational studies in the Downs & Black instrument. Initially, 537 references were found; after checking the titles and abstracts by two independent researchers, twenty-eight articles were selected for complete reading. Ten of them that assessed the primary and/or permanent dentition observed a positive association between obesity and dental caries and one study found an inverse association. According to the Downs & Black classification, thirteen articles with good scientific evidence were found. The present review did not find sufficient evidence regarding the association between obesity and dental caries, and it did not clarify the possible role of diet and other possible effect modifiers on this association.
Full Text Available Purpose. The present study aimed to examine the current methods employed to assess anticipation in soccer players as well as to elicit the main findings of recent studies. Methods. The study was carried out in systematic review form and its sample comprised nine scientific papers published in academic journals. Only the studies involving soccer players (professionals and amateurs, except goalkeepers were included in this review. Results and conclusions. We observed that most of the studies employed video footage obtained from soccer matches, which are occluded at a given point for study participants to quickly and precisely elicit the positions of opponents, teammates and the ball as well as anticipate actions (dribbling, shooting, passing from surrounding players (teammates and opponents. In addition, the studies compared the performance of players from both high and low competitive levels in anticipation tasks.
Results: The original search yielded 239 articles, of which 52 articles described human cases. After following the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 32 studies describing 310 cases (151 females, 175 children of human poisoning with amitraz were included in this systematic review. The most commonly reported clinical features of amitraz poisoning were altered sensorium, miosis, hyperglycaemia, bradycardia, vomiting, respiratory failure, hypotension and hypothermia. Amitraz poisoning carried a good prognosis with only six reported deaths (case fatality rate, 1.9%. Nearly 20 and 11.9 per cent of the patients required mechanical ventilation and inotropic support, respectively. The role of decontamination methods, namely, gastric lavage and activated charcoal was unclear. Interpretation & conclusions: Our review shows that amitraz is an important agent for accidental or suicidal poisoning in both adults and children. It has a good prognosis with supportive management.
Filges, Trine; Andersen, Ditte; Jørgensen, Anne-Marie Klint
Purpose: This review evaluates the evidence of the effects of multidimensional family therapy (MDFT) on drug use reduction in young people for the treatment of nonopioid drug use. Method: We followed Campbell Collaboration guidelines to conduct a systematic review of randomized and nonrandomized trials. Meta-analytic methods were used to…
Choong, Miew Keen; Galgani, Filippo; Dunn, Adam G; Tsafnat, Guy
Snowballing involves recursively pursuing relevant references cited in the retrieved literature and adding them to the search results. Snowballing is an alternative approach to discover additional evidence that was not retrieved through conventional search. Snowballing's effectiveness makes it best practice in systematic reviews despite being time-consuming and tedious. Our goal was to evaluate an automatic method for citation snowballing's capacity to identify and retrieve the full text and/or abstracts of cited articles. Using 20 review articles that contained 949 citations to journal or conference articles, we manually searched Microsoft Academic Search (MAS) and identified 78.0% (740/949) of the cited articles that were present in the database. We compared the performance of the automatic citation snowballing method against the results of this manual search, measuring precision, recall, and F1 score. The automatic method was able to correctly identify 633 (as proportion of included citations: recall=66.7%, F1 score=79.3%; as proportion of citations in MAS: recall=85.5%, F1 score=91.2%) of citations with high precision (97.7%), and retrieved the full text or abstract for 490 (recall=82.9%, precision=92.1%, F1 score=87.3%) of the 633 correctly retrieved citations. The proposed method for automatic citation snowballing is accurate and is capable of obtaining the full texts or abstracts for a substantial proportion of the scholarly citations in review articles. By automating the process of citation snowballing, it may be possible to reduce the time and effort of common evidence surveillance tasks such as keeping trial registries up to date and conducting systematic reviews.
Santaguida, Pasqualina; Oremus, Mark; Walker, Kathryn; Wishart, Laurie R; Siegel, Karen Lohmann; Raina, Parminder
A "review of reviews" was undertaken to assess methodological issues in studies evaluating nondrug rehabilitation interventions in stroke patients. MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched from January 2000 to January 2008 within the stroke rehabilitation setting. Electronic searches were supplemented by reviews of reference lists and citations identified by experts. Eligible studies were systematic reviews; excluded citations were narrative reviews or reviews of reviews. Review characteristics and criteria for assessing methodological quality of primary studies within them were extracted. The search yielded 949 English-language citations. We included a final set of 38 systematic reviews. Cochrane reviews, which have a standardized methodology, were generally of higher methodological quality than non-Cochrane reviews. Most systematic reviews used standardized quality assessment criteria for primary studies, but not all were comprehensive. Reviews showed that primary studies had problems with randomization, allocation concealment, and blinding. Baseline comparability, adverse events, and co-intervention or contamination were not consistently assessed. Blinding of patients and providers was often not feasible and was not evaluated as a source of bias. The eligible systematic reviews identified important methodological flaws in the evaluated primary studies, suggesting the need for improvement of research methods and reporting. Copyright Â© 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Da Gama, Alana; Fallavollita, Pascal; Teichrieb, Veronica; Navab, Nassir
Interactive systems are being developed with the intention to help in the engagement of patients on various therapies. Amid the recent technological advances, Kinect™ from Microsoft (Redmond, WA) has helped pave the way on how user interaction technology facilitates and complements many clinical applications. In order to examine the actual status of Kinect developments for rehabilitation, this article presents a systematic review of articles that involve interactive, evaluative, and technical advances related to motor rehabilitation. Systematic research was performed in the IEEE Xplore and PubMed databases using the key word combination "Kinect AND rehabilitation" with the following inclusion criteria: (1) English language, (2) page number >4, (3) Kinect system for assistive interaction or clinical evaluation, or (4) Kinect system for improvement or evaluation of the sensor tracking or movement recognition. Quality assessment was performed by QualSyst standards. In total, 109 articles were found in the database research, from which 31 were included in the review: 13 were focused on the development of assistive systems for rehabilitation, 3 in evaluation, 3 in the applicability category, 7 on validation of Kinect anatomic and clinical evaluation, and 5 on improvement techniques. Quality analysis of all included articles is also presented with their respective QualSyst checklist scores. Research and development possibilities and future works with the Kinect for rehabilitation application are extensive. Methodological improvements when performing studies on this area need to be further investigated.
Full Text Available The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the role of enteral nutrition in dementia. The prevalence of dementia is predicted to rise worldwide partly due to an aging population. People with dementia may experience both cognitive and physical complications that impact on their nutritional intake. Malnutrition and weight loss in dementia correlates with cognitive decline and the progress of the disease. An intervention for long term eating difficulties is the provision of enteral nutrition through a Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy tube to improve both nutritional parameters and quality of life. Enteral nutrition in dementia has traditionally been discouraged, although further understanding of physical, nutritional and quality of life outcomes are required. The following electronic databases were searched: EBSCO Host, MEDLINE, PubMed, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Google Scholar for publications from 1st January 2008 and up to and including 1st January 2014. Inclusion criteria included the following outcomes: mortality, aspiration pneumonia, pressure sores, nutritional parameters and quality of life. Each study included separate analysis for patients with a diagnosis of dementia and/or neurological disease. Retrospective and prospective observational studies were included. No differences in mortality were found for patients with dementia, without dementia or other neurological disorders. Risk factors for poor survival included decreased or decreasing serum albumin levels, increasing age or over 80 years and male gender. Evidence regarding pneumonia was limited, although did not impact on mortality. No studies explored pressure sores or quality of life.
Introduction Supply of medicine as a strategic product in any health system is a top priority. Pharmaceutical companies, a major player of the drug supply chain, are subject to many risks. These risks disrupt the supply of medicine in many ways such as their quantity and quality and their delivery to the right place and customers and at the right time. Therefore risk identification in the supply process of pharmaceutical companies and mitigate them is highly recommended. Objective In this study it is attempted to investigate pharmaceutical supply chain risks with perspective of manufacturing companies. Methods Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science bibliographic databases and Google scholar scientific search engines were searched for pharmaceutical supply chain risk management studies with 6 different groups of keywords. All results found by keywords were reviewed and none-relevant articles were excluded by outcome of interests and researcher boundaries of study within 4 steps and through a systematic method. Results Nine articles were included in the systematic review and totally 50 main risks based on study outcome of interest extracted which classified in 7 categories. Most of reported risks were related to supply and supplier issues. Organization and strategy issues, financial, logistic, political, market and regulatory issues were in next level of importance. Conclusion It was shown that the majority of risks in pharmaceutical supply chain were internal risks due to processes, people and functions mismanagement which could be managed by suitable mitigation strategies. PMID:24355166
Aouad, Phillip; Hay, Phillipa; Soh, Nerissa; Touyz, Stephen
This systematic review is an evaluation of the empirical literature relating to the disordered eating behaviour Chew and Spit (CHSP). Current theories postulate that CHSP is a symptom exhibited by individuals with recurrent binge eating and Bulimia Nervosa. The review aimed to identify and critically assess studies that have examined the distribution of CHSP behaviour, its relationship to eating disorders, its physical and psychosocial consequences and treatment. A systematic database search with broad inclusion criteria, dated to January 2016 was conducted. Data were extracted by two authors and papers appraised for quality using a modified Downs and Black Quality Index. Nine studies met the inclusion criteria. All were of clinical samples and majority (n = 7) were of low quality. The pathological action of chewing food but not swallowing was reported more often in those with restrictive type eating disorders, such as Anorexia Nervosa, than binge eating type disorders. CHSP also was reported to be an indicator of overall severity of an eating disorder and to appear more often in younger individuals. No studies of treatment were found. Conclusions were limited due to the low quality and small numbers of studies based on clinical samples only. Further research is needed to address gaps in knowledge regarding the physiological, psychological, social, socioeconomic impact and treatment for those engaging in CHSP.
Full Text Available Studies on dry ports as nodes in multimodal transport have been expanded to decrease the mounting congestion on seaports. The principal objective of this study is to inspect how dry port researches have been conducted from different perspective. This paper tries to recap the existing researches that aimed to study dry port concept via a systematic review, to present a general overview of the researches on our relevant region and propose a classification for these researches. This paper present a systematic review of dry port that looks to illustrate the progress of researches on this area between 1986 and 2015, collecting researches on dry port concept and analyzing the main characteristics of the dry port development and their contribution to the multimodal transport. The results indicated that most dry port studies considerate the strategic level and concentrate in the Asian continent. Studies regarding other decision levels and continents have to be developed in further researches. Although the existing studies make a contribution in dry port concept, they allow gaps in terms of operational and tactical decision levels considering their limited geographical region.
Jaberidoost, Mona; Nikfar, Shekoufeh; Abdollahiasl, Akbar; Dinarvand, Rassoul
Supply of medicine as a strategic product in any health system is a top priority. Pharmaceutical companies, a major player of the drug supply chain, are subject to many risks. These risks disrupt the supply of medicine in many ways such as their quantity and quality and their delivery to the right place and customers and at the right time. Therefore risk identification in the supply process of pharmaceutical companies and mitigate them is highly recommended. In this study it is attempted to investigate pharmaceutical supply chain risks with perspective of manufacturing companies. Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science bibliographic databases and Google scholar scientific search engines were searched for pharmaceutical supply chain risk management studies with 6 different groups of keywords. All results found by keywords were reviewed and none-relevant articles were excluded by outcome of interests and researcher boundaries of study within 4 steps and through a systematic method. Nine articles were included in the systematic review and totally 50 main risks based on study outcome of interest extracted which classified in 7 categories. Most of reported risks were related to supply and supplier issues. Organization and strategy issues, financial, logistic, political, market and regulatory issues were in next level of importance. It was shown that the majority of risks in pharmaceutical supply chain were internal risks due to processes, people and functions mismanagement which could be managed by suitable mitigation strategies.
Chang, Sun Ju; Choi, Suyoung; Kim, Se-An; Song, Misoon
Purpose: This study systematically reviewed research on behavioral interventions based on the information-motivation-behavioral skills (IMB) model to investigate specific intervention strategies that focus on information, motivation, and behavioral skills and to evaluate their effectiveness for people with chronic diseases. Methods: A systematic review was conducted in accordance with the guidelines of both the National Evidence-based Healthcare Collaborating Agency and Im and Chang. A lit...
Sugimoto-Matsuda, Jeanelle J; Braun, Kathryn L
Youth violence remains a serious public health issue nationally and internationally. The social ecological model has been recommended as a framework to design youth violence prevention initiatives, requiring interventions at the micro-, meso-, exo-, and macro-levels. However, documentation of interventions at the macro-level, particularly those that address policy issues, is limited. This study examines a recommendation in the literature that formalized collaborations play a vital role in stimulating macro-level policy change. The purpose of this systematic literature review is to examine existing youth violence prevention collaborations and evaluate their policy-related outcomes. The search found 23 unique collaborations focused on youth violence prevention. These were organized into three groups based on the "catalyst" for action for the collaboration-internal (momentum began within the community), external (sparked by an external agency), or policy (mandated by law). Findings suggest that internally catalyzed collaborations were most successful at changing laws to address youth violence, while both internally and externally catalyzed collaborations successfully attained policy change at the organizational level. A conceptual model is proposed, describing a potential pathway for achieving macro-level change via collaboration. Recommendations for future research and practice are suggested, including expansion of this study to capture additional collaborations, investigation of macro-level changes with a primary prevention focus, and improvement of evaluation, dissemination, and translation of macro-level initiatives.
Manriquez, Juan; Cataldo, Karina; Harz, Isidora
Disseminating information derived from systematic reviews is a fundamental step for translating evidence into practice. To determine which features of dermatological SR are associated with systematic review dissemination, using citation rates as an indicator. Dermatological systematic reviews published between 2008 and 2012 were obtained from Scopus, the ISI Web of Sciences and the Cochrane Skin Group. Bibliometric data of every systematic review were collected and analyzed. A total of 320 systematic reviews were analyzed. Univariable analysis showed that the journal impact factor, number of authors, and total references cited were positively associated with the number of citations. There was a significant difference in the median number of citations with regard to the corresponding author's country, type of skin disease, type of funding, and presence of international collaboration. Cochrane reviews were significantly associated with a lower number of citations. Multivariable analysis found that the number of authors, number of references cited and the corresponding author from United Kingdom were independently correlated with many citations. Cochrane systematic reviews tended to be independently associated with a lower number of citations. Citation number to systematic reviews may be improving by increasing the number of authors, especially collaborative authors, and the number of cited references. The reasons for the association of Cochrane SRs with fewer citations should be addressed in future studies.
Manriquez, Juan; Cataldo, Karina; Harz, Isidora
BACKGROUND Disseminating information derived from systematic reviews is a fundamental step for translating evidence into practice. OBJECTIVE To determine which features of dermatological SR are associated with systematic review dissemination, using citation rates as an indicator. METHODS Dermatological systematic reviews published between 2008 and 2012 were obtained from Scopus, the ISI Web of Sciences and the Cochrane Skin Group. Bibliometric data of every systematic review were collected and analyzed. RESULTS A total of 320 systematic reviews were analyzed. Univariable analysis showed that the journal impact factor, number of authors, and total references cited were positively associated with the number of citations. There was a significant difference in the median number of citations with regard to the corresponding author's country, type of skin disease, type of funding, and presence of international collaboration. Cochrane reviews were significantly associated with a lower number of citations. Multivariable analysis found that the number of authors, number of references cited and the corresponding author from United Kingdom were independently correlated with many citations. Cochrane systematic reviews tended to be independently associated with a lower number of citations. CONCLUSIONS Citation number to systematic reviews may be improving by increasing the number of authors, especially collaborative authors, and the number of cited references. The reasons for the association of Cochrane SRs with fewer citations should be addressed in future studies. PMID:26560209
Karamitri, Ioanna; Talias, Michael A; Bellali, Thalia
Knowledge is an intangible asset in Organizations, and provides a comparative advantage to those who possess it. Hospitals are complex organizations with unique characteristics because of the heterogeneity of health professionals' orientation, the composite networking and the decision-making processes. A deeper understanding of knowledge management (KM) could streamline productivity and coordinate the use of resources more efficient. We conducted a systematic literature search of peer-reviewed papers that described key elements of KM using three databases (Medline, Cinahl and Health Source: nursing/academic edition) for a 10-year period (1/1/2004-25/11/2014). The included articles were subjected to qualitative content analysis. We retrieved 604 articles of which 20 articles were eligible for analysis. Most of the studies (n=13) used a qualitative methodology. The total sample size was 2155 participants. The key elements that arose were as follows: perceptions of KM, synthesis, dissemination, collaboration, means of KM and leadership. Moreover, this study identified barriers for KM implementation, like time restrictions and limited skills. Healthcare managers ought to cultivate a knowledge environment, operate as role models, provide the tools for KM and reward people who act as knowledge brokers. Opportunities for collaboration and knowledge sharing should be encouraged. Successful KM should be patient-centered to gain its maximum value. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Mishra, Sunil Kumar; Chowdhary, Ramesh; Chrcanovic, Bruno Ramos; Brånemark, Per-Ingvar
Replacement of lost teeth has significant functional and psychosocial effects. The capability of osseointegrated dental implants to transmit a certain amount of sensibility is still unclear. The phenomenon of developing a certain amount of tactile sensibility through osseointegrated dental implants is called osseoperception. The aim of this article is to evaluate the available literature to find osseoperception associated with dental implants. To identify suitable literature, an electronic search was performed using Medline and PubMed database. Articles published in English and articles whose abstract is available in English were included. The articles included in the review were based on osseoperception, tactile sensation, and neurophysiological mechanoreceptors in relation to dental implants. Articles on peri-implantitis and infection-related sensitivity were not included. Review articles without the original data were excluded, although references to potentially pertinent articles were noted for further follow-up. The phenomenon of osseoperception remains a matter of debate, so the search strategy mainly focused on articles on osseoperception and tactile sensibility of dental implants. This review presents the histological, neurophysiological, and psychophysical evidence of osseoperception and also the role of mechanoreceptors in osseoperception. The literature on osseoperception in dental implants is very scarce. The initial literature search resulted in 90 articles, of which 81 articles that fulfilled the inclusion criteria were included in this systematic review. Patients restored with implant-supported prostheses reported improved tactile and motor function when compared with patients wearing complete dentures. © 2016 by the American College of Prosthodontists.
Full Text Available The present article aims to review the available literature on match analysis in adult male Volleyball. Specific key words "performance analysis", "match analysis", "game analysis", "notational analysis", "tactical analysis", "technical analysis", "outcome" and "skills" were used to search relevant databases (PubMed, Web of Science, SportDiscus, Academic Search Complete and the International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport. The research was conducted according to PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta analyses guidelines. Of 3407 studies initially identified, only 34 were fully reviewed, and their outcome measures extracted and analyzed. Studies that fit all inclusion criteria were organized into two levels of analysis, according to their research design (comparative or predictive and depending on the type of variables analyzed (skills and their relationship with success, play position and match phase. Results show that from a methodological point of view, comparative studies where currently complemented with some predictive studies. This predictive approach emerged with the aim to identify the relationship between variables, considering their possible interactions and consequently its effect on team performance, contributing to a better understanding of Volleyball game performance through match analysis. Taking into account the limitations of the reviewed studies, future research should provide comprehensive operational definitions for the studied variables, using more recent samples, and consider integrating the player positions and match phase contexts into the analysis of Volleyball.
Full Text Available Cutaneous pseudolymphoma (CPL is a reactive polyclonal T- or B-cell lymphoproliferative process. CPL may appear as localized or disseminated skin lesions. While most cases of CPL are idiopathic, they may also occur as a response to, for example, contact dermatitis, arthropod reactions, and bacterial infections. CPL can be classified based on its clinical features, but all variants have similar histopathological patterns of either predominantly B-cell infiltrates, T-cell infiltrates, or mixed T/B-cell infiltrates. The prognosis of CPL is good, but the underlying disease process should be taken into account. If an antigenic stimulus is identified, it should be removed. In patients with idiopathic CPL, a close follow-up control strategy should be adopted. The aim of this systematic review is to summarize all reported treatments for CPL. The review was based on articles from the PubMed database, using the query “skin pseudolymphoma treatment”, English and German, about “human” subjects, and published between 1990 and 2015 documenting adequate treatment and/or aetiology. Mainly individual case reports and small case series were found. Treatment options include topical and intralesional agents, systemic agents, and physical modalities. The final part of the review proposes a treatment algorithm for CPL according to each aetiology, based on the literature of the last 25 years. Future research should focus on randomized controlled trials and studies on long-term outcomes, which were not identified in the current review.
Tawalbeh, Loai I; Ahmad, Muayyad M
Social support is a key nursing variable. No review has yet systematically assessed the effectiveness of the personal resource questionnaire (PRQ) as a measure of perceived social support. This article reviewed nine previous studies that used the PRQ (Brandt & Weinert, 1981). Completed studies were identified through searches of indexes that included PubMed, the Cumulative Index for Nursing and EBSCO host, and Ovid. Studies that reported PRQ scores, sample descriptions, and sample sizes and that tested the relationship between the PRQ and study variables were included in the present review. Three other studies were included that did not report on PRQ correlations with other health variables. The included studies addressed a variety of health problems and different population in different settings. Cronbach's alphas for the included studies ranged from .87 to .93, supporting the internal consistency of the PRQ. Hypothesized relationships between the PRQ and study variables including health promotion behavior, self-care behavior, self-efficacy, self-esteem, stress, depression, loneliness, pain, and disability were supported, providing positive evidence for PRQ construct validity. Included studies used the PRQ to address disparate populations in terms of age, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, and educational background. This review found the PRQ to be a reliable and valid tool for measuring perceived social support across a wide range of populations. Further studies are necessary to examine the relationship between social support and selected demographics among populations with different cultural backgrounds.
Joseph G L Lee
Full Text Available Research on the health of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT populations can provide important information to address existing health inequalities. Finding existing research in LGBT health can prove challenging due to the plethora of terminology used. We sought to describe existing search strategies and to identify more comprehensive LGBT search terminology. We iteratively created a search string to identify systematic reviews and meta-analyses about LGBT health and implemented it in Embase, PubMed/MEDLINE, and PsycINFO databases on May 28-29, 2015. We hand-searched the journal LGBT Health. Inclusion criteria were: systematic reviews and meta-analyses that addressed LGBT health, used systematic searching, and used independent coders for inclusion. The published search terminology in each record and search strings provided by authors on request were cross-referenced with our original search to identify additional terminology. Our search process identified 19 systematic reviews meeting inclusion criteria. The number of search terms used to identify LGBT-related records ranged from 1 to 31. From the included studies, we identified 46 new search terms related to LGBT health. We removed five search terms as inappropriate and added five search terms used in the field. The resulting search string included 82 terms. There is room to improve the quality of searching and reporting in LGBT health systematic reviews. Future work should attempt to enhance the positive predictive value of LGBT health searches. Our findings can assist LGBT health reviewers in capturing the diversity of LGBT terminology when searching.
Systematic reviews with meta-analysis represent the gold standard for conducting reliable and transparent reviews of the literature. The purpose of this article is threefold: (a) to address why and when it is worthwhile to conduct a systematic review with meta-analysis, covering advantages of this
Hong, C.H.L.; Hu, S.; Haverman, T.M.; Stokman, M.; Napeñas, J.J.; Bos-den Braber, J.; Gerber, E.; Geuke, M.; Vardas, E.; Waltimo, T.; Jensen, S.B.; Saunders, D.P.
Introduction: This systematic review aims to update on the prevalence of odontogenic-related infections and the efficacy of dental strategies in preventing dental-related complications in cancer patients since the 2010 systematic review. Review method: A literature search was conducted in the
Hong, Catherine H L; Hu, Shijia; Haverman, Thijs; Stokman, Monique; Napeñas, Joel J; Braber, Jacolien Bos-den; Gerber, Erich; Geuke, Margot; Vardas, Emmanouil; Waltimo, Tuomas; Jensen, Siri Beier; Saunders, Deborah P
INTRODUCTION: This systematic review aims to update on the prevalence of odontogenic-related infections and the efficacy of dental strategies in preventing dental-related complications in cancer patients since the 2010 systematic review. REVIEW METHOD: A literature search was conducted in the
Howard, John; Piacentino, John; MacMahon, Kathleen; Schulte, Paul
Evaluation of scientific evidence is critical in developing recommendations to reduce risk. Healthcare was the first scientific field to employ a systematic review approach for synthesizing research findings to support evidence-based decision-making and it is still the largest producer and consumer of systematic reviews. Systematic reviews in the field of occupational safety and health are being conducted, but more widespread use and adoption would strengthen assessments. In 2016, NIOSH asked RAND to develop a framework for applying the traditional systematic review elements to the field of occupational safety and health. This paper describes how essential systematic review elements can be adapted for use in occupational systematic reviews to enhance their scientific quality, objectivity, transparency, reliability, utility, and acceptability. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
Sorensen, Jesper Roed; Winther, Kristian Hillert; Bonnema, Steen Joop; Godballe, Christian; Hegedüs, Laszlo
Hypothyroidism has been associated with increased pulmonary morbidity and overall mortality. A systematic review was conducted to identify the prevalence and underlying mechanisms of respiratory problems among patients with thyroid insufficiency. PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched for relevant literature from January 1950 through January 2015 with the following study eligibility criteria: English-language publications; adult subclinical or overt hypothyroid patients; intervention, observational, or retrospective studies; and respiratory manifestations. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses statement was followed, and Cochrane's risk of bias tool was used. A total of 1699 papers were screened by two independent authors for relevant titles. Of 109 relevant abstracts, 28 papers underwent full-text analyses, of which 22 were included in the review. Possible mechanisms explaining respiratory problems at multiple physiological levels were identified, such as the ventilator control system, diaphragmatic muscle function, pulmonary gas exchange, goiter caused upper airway obstruction, decreased capacity for energy transduction, and reduced glycolytic activity. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome was found among 30% of newly diagnosed patients with overt hypothyroidism, and demonstrated reversibility following treatment. The evidence for or against a direct effect on pulmonary function was ambiguous. However, each of the above-mentioned areas was only dealt with in a limited number of studies. Therefore, it is not possible to draw any strong conclusions on any of these themes. Moreover, most studies were hampered by considerable risk of bias due for example to small numbers of patients, lack of control groups, randomization and blinding, and differences in body mass index, sex, and age between subjects and controls. Mechanistic data linking hypothyroidism and respiratory function are at best limited. This area of research is therefore
Marchiano, Emily; Chin, Oliver Y; Fang, Christina H; Park, Richard Chan; Baredes, Soly; Eloy, Jean Anderson
Adenoid cystic carcinoma is a malignant minor salivary gland tumor that represents laryngeal tumors. The submucosal location of laryngeal adenoid cystic carcinoma (LACC) results in delayed presentation. Here, we present the first systematic review of reported cases of LACC to determine trends in presentation, diagnostic and treatment modalities, and patient outcome. PubMed, Web of Science, MEDLINE, and EMBASE databases. A search of the above databases was done to identify articles reporting cases of LACC. The variables included in the analysis were patient demographics, presenting symptoms, tumor location, imaging, treatment, follow-up time, recurrence, and outcome. A total of 50 articles and 120 cases were included in the review. The most common presenting symptom was dyspnea (48.8%), followed by hoarseness (43.9%). LACC arose most frequently from the subglottis (56.7%). At presentation, 14.6% (13 of 89) of patients had regional disease. The average follow-up time was 54.0 months. At follow-up, distant metastasis was reported in 30 cases (33.3%). Surgery alone (43.3%) and surgery with radiotherapy (43.3%) were used most frequently and resulted in 57.1% and 55.3% of patients alive with no evidence disease at follow-up, respectively. LACC was most often located in the subglottis. Patients commonly presented with dyspnea and hoarseness. In this systematic review, surgery with radiotherapy and surgery alone were the most commonly employed treatment modalities, and both resulted in slightly more than 50% of patients alive with no evidence of disease at follow-up. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.
Fourman, Matthew M; Saber, Alan A
Obesity is a nationwide epidemic, and the only evidence-based, durable treatment of this disease is bariatric surgery. This field has evolved drastically during the past decade. One of the latest advances has been the increased use of robotics within this field. The goal of our study was to perform a systematic review of the recent data to determine the safety and efficacy of robotic bariatric surgery. The setting was the University Hospitals Case Medical Center (Cleveland, OH). A PubMed search was performed for robotic bariatric surgery from 2005 to 2011. The inclusion criteria were English language, original research, human, and bariatric surgical procedures. Perioperative data were then collected from each study and recorded. A total of 18 studies were included in our review. The results of our systematic review showed that bariatric surgery, when performed with the use of robotics, had similar or lower complication rates compared with traditional laparoscopy. Two studies showed shorter operative times using the robot for Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, but 4 studies showed longer operative times in the robotic arm. In addition, the learning curve appears to be shorter when robotic gastric bypass is compared with the traditional laparoscopic approach. Most investigators agreed that robotic laparoscopic surgery provides superior imaging and freedom of movement compared with traditional laparoscopy. The application of robotics appears to be a safe option within the realm of bariatric surgery. Prospective randomized trials comparing robotic and laparoscopic outcomes are needed to further define the role of robotics within the field of bariatric surgery. Longer follow-up times would also help elucidate any long-term outcomes differences with the use of robotics versus traditional laparoscopy. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery. All rights reserved.
Shemilt, Ian; Mugford, Miranda; Drummond, Michael; Eisenstein, Eric; Mallender, Jacqueline; McDaid, David; Vale, Luke; Walker, Damian
Provision of evidence on costs alongside evidence on the effects of interventions can enhance the relevance of systematic reviews to decision-making. However, patterns of use of economics methods alongside systematic review remain unclear. Reviews of evidence on the effects of interventions are published by both the Cochrane and Campbell Collaborations. Although it is not a requirement that Cochrane or Campbell Reviews should consider economic aspects of interventions, many do. This study aims to explore and describe approaches to incorporating economics methods in a selection of Cochrane systematic reviews in the area of health promotion and public health, to help inform development of methodological guidance on economics for reviewers. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews was searched using a search strategy for potential economic evaluation studies. We included current Cochrane reviews and review protocols retrieved using the search that are also identified as relevant to health promotion or public health topics. A reviewer extracted data which describe the economics components of included reviews. Extracted data were summarised in tables and analysed qualitatively. Twenty-one completed Cochrane reviews and seven review protocols met inclusion criteria. None incorporate formal economic evaluation methods. Ten completed reviews explicitly aim to incorporate economics studies and data. There is a lack of transparent reporting of methods underpinning the incorporation of economics studies and data. Some reviews are likely to exclude useful economics studies and data due to a failure to incorporate search strategies tailored to the retrieval of such data or use of key specialist databases, and application of inclusion criteria designed for effectiveness studies. There is a need for consistency and transparency in the reporting and conduct of the economics components of Cochrane reviews, as well as regular dialogue between Cochrane reviewers and economists to
COOK, CARLY N; POSSINGHAM, HUGH P; FULLER, RICHARD A
Systematic reviews comprehensively summarize evidence about the effectiveness of conservation interventions. We investigated the contribution to management decisions made by this growing body of literature. We identified 43 systematic reviews of conservation evidence, 23 of which drew some concrete conclusions relevant to management. Most reviews addressed conservation interventions relevant to policy decisions; only 35% considered practical on-the-ground management interventions. The majority of reviews covered only a small fraction of the geographic and taxonomic breadth they aimed to address (median = 13% of relevant countries and 16% of relevant taxa). The likelihood that reviews contained at least some implications for management tended to increase as geographic coverage increased and to decline as taxonomic breadth increased. These results suggest the breadth of a systematic review requires careful consideration. Reviews identified a mean of 312 relevant primary studies but excluded 88% of these because of deficiencies in design or a failure to meet other inclusion criteria. Reviews summarized on average 284 data sets and 112 years of research activity, yet the likelihood that their results had at least some implications for management did not increase as the amount of primary research summarized increased. In some cases, conclusions were elusive despite the inclusion of hundreds of data sets and years of cumulative research activity. Systematic reviews are an important part of the conservation decision making tool kit, although we believe the benefits of systematic reviews could be significantly enhanced by increasing the number of reviews focused on questions of direct relevance to on-the-ground managers; defining a more focused geographic and taxonomic breadth that better reflects available data; including a broader range of evidence types; and appraising the cost-effectiveness of interventions. Contribuciones de las Revisiones Sistemáticas a las
Lewis, Cara C; Stanick, Cameo F; Martinez, Ruben G; Weiner, Bryan J; Kim, Mimi; Barwick, Melanie; Comtois, Katherine A
Identification of psychometrically strong instruments for the field of implementation science is a high priority underscored in a recent National Institutes of Health working meeting (October 2013). Existing instrument reviews are limited in scope, methods, and findings. The Society for Implementation Research Collaboration Instrument Review Project's objectives address these limitations by identifying and applying a unique methodology to conduct a systematic and comprehensive review of quantitative instruments assessing constructs delineated in two of the field's most widely used frameworks, adopt a systematic search process (using standard search strings), and engage an international team of experts to assess the full range of psychometric criteria (reliability, construct and criterion validity). Although this work focuses on implementation of psychosocial interventions in mental health and health-care settings, the methodology and results will likely be useful across a broad spectrum of settings. This effort has culminated in a centralized online open-access repository of instruments depicting graphical head-to-head comparisons of their psychometric properties. This article describes the methodology and preliminary outcomes. The seven stages of the review, synthesis, and evaluation methodology include (1) setting the scope for the review, (2) identifying frameworks to organize and complete the review, (3) generating a search protocol for the literature review of constructs, (4) literature review of specific instruments, (5) development of an evidence-based assessment rating criteria, (6) data extraction and rating instrument quality by a task force of implementation experts to inform knowledge synthesis, and (7) the creation of a website repository. To date, this multi-faceted and collaborative search and synthesis methodology has identified over 420 instruments related to 34 constructs (total 48 including subconstructs) that are relevant to implementation
Forsyth, Susan R; Malone, Ruth E
Video games are played by a majority of adolescents, yet little is known about whether and how video games are associated with smoking behavior and attitudes. This systematic review examines research on the relationship between video games and smoking. We searched MEDLINE, psycINFO, and Web of Science through August 20, 2014. Twenty-four studies met inclusion criteria. Studies were synthesized qualitatively in four domains: the prevalence and incidence of smoking imagery in video games (n = 6), video game playing and smoking behavior (n = 11), video game addiction and tobacco addiction (n = 5) and genre-specific game playing and smoking behavior (n = 3). Tobacco content was present in a subset of video games. The literature is inconclusive as to whether exposure to video games as a single construct is associated with smoking behavior. Four of five studies found an association between video game addiction and smoking. For genre-specific game playing, studies suggest that the type of game played affected association with smoking behavior. Research on how playing video games influences adolescents' perceptions of smoking and smoking behaviors is still in its nascence. Further research is needed to understand how adolescents respond to viewing and manipulating tobacco imagery, and whether engaging in game smoking translates into changes in real-world attitudes or behavior. Smoking imagery in video games may contribute to normalizing adolescent smoking. A large body of research has shown that smoking imagery in a variety of media types contributes to adolescent smoking uptake and the normalization of smoking behavior, and almost 90% of adolescents play video games, yet there has never been a published systematic review of the literature on this important topic. This is the first systematic review to examine the research on tobacco and video games.We found that tobacco imagery is indeed present in video games, the relationship between video game playing and smoking
Stefani, Laura; Galanti, Giorgio; Padulo, Johnny; Bragazzi, Nicola L.; Maffulli, Nicola
Sexual activity before competition has been considered as a possible cause for reduced performance since ancient Greece and Rome. Recently, the hypothesis that optimal sport performance could be influenced by a variety of factors including sexual activity before competition has been investigated. However, few scientific data are available, with the exception of anecdotal reports of individual experiences. The present systematic review focused on the current scientific evidence on the effects of sexual activity on sport performance regardless of sport type. Data were obtained following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, using PubMed/MEDLINE, ISI/Web of Science, the Cochrane Collaboration Database, Cochrane Library, Evidence Database (PEDro), Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) Search review, National Guidelines, ProQuest, and Scopus, all searched from inception further, to broaden the search, no time filter nor language restriction have been applied. Also, the gray literature was mined using Google Scholar. Only relevant scientific articles reporting outcomes of athletic performance after sexual activity were considered. The impact of sexual activity before a sport competition is still unclear, but most studies generally seem to exclude a direct impact of sexual activity on athletic aerobic and strength performance. The most important aspect seems to be the interval from the time of the sports competition that affects negatively the performance if it is shorter than 2 h. There are possible negative effects from some possible concurrent wrong behaviors such as smoking or alcohol abuse. There are no investigations about the effect of masturbation in this context. There is a need to clarify the effects of sexual activity on competition performance. The present evidence suggests that sexual activity the day before competition does not exert any negative impact on performance, even though high-quality, randomized
McInnes, Susan; Peters, Kath; Bonney, Andrew; Halcomb, Elizabeth
To identify facilitators and barriers influencing collaboration and teamwork between general practitioners and nurses working in general (family) practice. Internationally, a shortage of doctors entering and remaining in general practice and an increasing burden of chronic disease has diversified the nurse's role in this setting. Despite a well-established general practice nursing workforce, little attention has been paid to the ways doctors and nurses collaborate in this setting. Integrative literature review. CINAHL, Scopus, Web of Life, Cochrane Library, Joanna Briggs Institute Library of Systematic Reviews and Trove (dissertation and theses) were searched for papers published between 2000 and May 2014. This review was informed by the approach of Whittemore and Knafl (2005). All included papers were assessed for methodological quality. Findings were extracted, critically examined and grouped into themes. Eleven papers met the inclusion criteria. Thematic analysis revealed three themes common to the facilitators of and barriers to collaboration and teamwork between GPs in general practice: (1) roles and responsibilities; (2) respect, trust and communication; and (3) hierarchy, education and liability. This integrative review has provided insight into issues around role definition, communication and organizational constraints which influence the way nurses and general practitioners collaborate in a team environment. Future research should investigate in more detail the ways doctors and nurses work together in general practice and the impact of collaboration on nursing leadership and staff retention. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Evans, W Douglas; Blitstein, Jonathan; Hersey, James C; Renaud, Jeanette; Yaroch, Amy L
Brands build relationships between consumers and products, services, or lifestyles by providing beneficial exchanges and adding value to their objects. Brands can be measured through associations that consumers hold for products and services. Public health brands are the associations that individuals hold for health behaviors, or lifestyles that embody multiple health behaviors. We systematically reviewed the literature on public health brands; developed a methodology for describing branded health messages and campaigns; and examined specific branding strategies across a range of topic areas, campaigns, and global settings. We searched the literature for published studies on public health branding available through all relevant, major online publication databases. Public health branding was operationalized as any manuscripts in the health, social science, and business literature on branding or brands in health promotion marketing. We developed formalized decision rules and applied them in identifying articles for review. We initially identified 154 articles and reviewed a final set of 37, 10 from Africa, Australia, and Europe. Branded health campaigns spanned most of the major domains of public health and numerous communication strategies and evaluation methodologies. Most studies provided clear information on planning, development, and evaluation of the branding effort, while some provided minimal information. Branded health messages typically are theory based, and there is a body of evidence on their behavior change effectiveness, especially in nutrition, tobacco control, and HIV/AIDS. More rigorous research is needed, however, on how branded health messages impact specific populations and behaviors.
Bertha, Eszter A; Balázs, Judit
In adolescence, the number of depressive symptoms is rising notably. Individuals may have relevant depressive symptoms without meeting the full criteria of a major depressive episode (MDE), a condition referred to as subthreshold depression (sD). This article presents a review on adolescent sD examining the prevalence, the quality of life (QoL), the risk of developing MDE, and preventive programs available for adolescents living with sD. A systematic literature search from the year of the introduction of Diagnostic and Statistic Manual for Mental Disorders Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) until 2012 (18 years) was conducted with a special focus on adolescent sD. Data from 27 studies were included into this review. The results show high prevalence of sD among adolescents, with a negative impact on QoL, and provide evidence that sD is a significant risk indicator of later MDE; therefore, individuals with sD represent good targets for preventive interventions. Our review highlights the fact that sD is a significant health problem among adolescents indeed, and adolescents with sD could be a subgroup of youth, who need further help to reduce their clinically significant depressive symptoms for the successful prevention of a later MDE.
Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to characterize and clarify the relationships between the various cognitive domains affected in COPD patients and the disease itself, as well as to determine the prevalence of impairment in the various cognitive domains in such patients. To that end, we performed a systematic review using the following databases: PubMed, Scopus, and ScienceDirect. We included articles that provided information on cognitive impairment in COPD patients. The review of the findings of the articles showed a significant relationship between COPD and cognitive impairment. The most widely studied cognitive domains are memory and attention. Verbal memory and learning constitute the second most commonly impaired cognitive domain in patients with COPD. The prevalence of impairment in visuospatial memory and intermediate visual memory is 26.9% and 19.2%, respectively. We found that cognitive impairment is associated with the profile of COPD severity and its comorbidities. The articles reviewed demonstrated that there is considerable impairment of the cognitive domains memory and attention in patients with COPD. Future studies should address impairments in different cognitive domains according to the disease stage in patients with COPD.
Torres-Sánchez, Irene; Rodríguez-Alzueta, Elisabeth; Cabrera-Martos, Irene; López-Torres, Isabel; Moreno-Ramírez, Maria Paz; Valenza, Marie Carmen
The objectives of this study were to characterize and clarify the relationships between the various cognitive domains affected in COPD patients and the disease itself, as well as to determine the prevalence of impairment in the various cognitive domains in such patients. To that end, we performed a systematic review using the following databases: PubMed, Scopus, and ScienceDirect. We included articles that provided information on cognitive impairment in COPD patients. The review of the findings of the articles showed a significant relationship between COPD and cognitive impairment. The most widely studied cognitive domains are memory and attention. Verbal memory and learning constitute the second most commonly impaired cognitive domain in patients with COPD. The prevalence of impairment in visuospatial memory and intermediate visual memory is 26.9% and 19.2%, respectively. We found that cognitive impairment is associated with the profile of COPD severity and its comorbidities. The articles reviewed demonstrated that there is considerable impairment of the cognitive domains memory and attention in patients with COPD. Future studies should address impairments in different cognitive domains according to the disease stage in patients with COPD.
Johnston, Kathryn; Wattie, Nick; Schorer, Jörg; Baker, Joseph
Talent identification (TID) programs are an integral part of the selection process for elite-level athletes. While many sport organizations utilize TID programs, there does not seem to be a clear set of variables that consistently predict future success. This review aims to synthesize longitudinal and retrospective studies examining differences between performance variables in highly skilled and less-skilled athletes in elite-level sport. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were used to identify relevant studies (N = 20). There was a clear overrepresentation of studies that (1) examined physical profiles of athletes (60%); (2) focused on male samples (65%); (3) examined athletes between the ages of 10 and 20 years (60%); and (4) were published between the years 2010 and 2015 (65%). On closer examination, there was a high degree of variability in the factors that were found to discriminate between skilled and less-skilled individuals. Findings from this review highlight how little is known about TID in elite sport and emphasize the need for greater diversity in TID research.
Villani, Daniela; Carissoli, Claudia; Triberti, Stefano; Marchetti, Antonella; Gilli, Gabriella; Riva, Giuseppe
Emotion regulation (ER) supports multiple individual functions and promotes mental health and wellbeing. Among the tools that may be used to help people in managing their affective states, videogames are reaching attention and are showing positive effects. Yet, little is known about their effectiveness. This study aims to assess the amount and quality of studies investigating the effects and modalities of the use of videogames for ER. A systematic literature search according to PRISMA guidelines was performed. Subsequently, according to expert advice other few studies have been added. Twenty-three studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review; they can be categorized into three groups, namely (1) cross-sectional and qualitative studies, (2) experimental studies investigating the effects of videogame experience on ER and (3) ER intervention with serious games. Discussion of the reviewed studies highlights that frequent gaming with commercial games offers more opportunities for ER improvement (related to gameplay and enjoyment of fictional properties) than limited-time experiences, such as those supported by bespoke serious games. This research area is still in its infancy and findings need to be interpreted with caution; furthermore, future reviews are encouraged to include clinical populations. Videogames offer several opportunities for ER and a challenge for educational and psychological interventions.
Clarissa Pinto Pizarro de Freitas
Full Text Available The present study aimed to realize a systematic review of publications about personal growth initiative. A literature review was realized in Bireme, Index Psi, LILACS, PePSIC, Pubmed - Publisher's Medlme, Wiley Online Library, PsycINFO, OneFile, SciVerse ScienceDirect, ERIC, Emerald Journals, PsycARTICLES - American Psychological Association, Directory of Open Access Journals - DOAJ, SAGE Journals, SpringerLink, PLoS, IngentaConnect, IEEE Journals & Magazines and SciELO databases. The literature review was performed from December of 2014 to January of 2015, without stipulating date limits for the publication of the articles. It was found 53 studies, excluded seven, and analyzed 46 researches. The studies aimed to investigate the psychometric properties of personal growth initiative scale and personal growth initiative scale II. The relations of personal initiative growth and others constructs were also evaluated. Furthermore the studies investigated the impact of interventions to promote personal growth initiative. Results of these studies showed that personal growth initiative was positively related to levels of well-being, selfesteem and others positive dimensions, and negatively to anxiety, depression and others negative factors.
van der Valk, J P M; Dubois, A E J; Gerth van Wijk, R; Wichers, H J; de Jong, N W
Recent studies on cashew nut allergy suggest that the prevalence of cashew nut allergy is increasing. Cashew nut consumption by allergic patients can cause severe reactions, including anaphylaxis. This review summarizes current knowledge on cashew nut allergy to facilitate timely clinical recognition and to promote awareness of this emerging food allergy amongst clinicians. The goal of this study is to present a systematic review focused on the clinical aspects of allergy to cashew nut including the characteristics of cashew nut, the prevalence, allergenic components, cross-reactivity, diagnosis and management of cashew nut allergy. The literature search yielded 255 articles of which 40 met our selection criteria and were considered to be relevant for this review. The 40 articles included one prospective study, six retrospective studies and seven case reports. The remaining 26 papers were not directly related to cashew nut allergy. The literature suggests that the prevalence of cashew nut allergy is increasing, although the level of evidence for this is low. A minimal amount of cashew nut allergen may cause a severe allergic reaction, suggesting high potency comparable with other tree nuts and peanuts. Cashew allergy is clearly an underestimated important healthcare problem, especially in children. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
McGrath, Trevor A.; Alabousi, Mostafa; Skidmore, Becky; Korevaar, Daniël A.; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.; Moher, David; Thombs, Brett; McInnes, Matthew D. F.
This study is to perform a systematic review of existing guidance on quality of reporting and methodology for systematic reviews of diagnostic test accuracy (DTA) in order to compile a list of potential items that might be included in a reporting guideline for such reviews: Preferred Reporting Items
The effectiveness of manual therapy for the management of musculoskeletal disorders of the upper and lower extremities: a systematic review by the Ontario Protocol for Traffic Injury Management (OPTIMa) Collaboration.
Southerst, Danielle; Yu, Hainan; Randhawa, Kristi; Côté, Pierre; D'Angelo, Kevin; Shearer, Heather M; Wong, Jessica J; Sutton, Deborah; Varatharajan, Sharanya; Goldgrub, Rachel; Dion, Sarah; Cox, Jocelyn; Menta, Roger; Brown, Courtney K; Stern, Paula J; Stupar, Maja; Carroll, Linda J; Taylor-Vaisey, Anne
Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) of the upper and lower extremities are common in the general population and place a significant burden on the health care system. Manual therapy is recommended by clinical practice guidelines for the management of these injuries; however, there is limited evidence to support its effectiveness. The purpose of our review was to investigate the effectiveness of manual therapy in adults or children with MSDs of the upper or lower extremity. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), cohort studies, and case-control studies evaluating the effectiveness of manual therapy were eligible. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from 1990 to 2015. Paired reviewers screened studies for relevance and critically appraised relevant studies using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network criteria. Studies with low risk of bias were synthesized following best-evidence synthesis principles. Where available, we computed mean changes between groups, relative risks and 95 % CI. We screened 6047 articles. Seven RCTs were critically appraised and three had low risk of bias. For adults with nonspecific shoulder pain of variable duration, cervicothoracic spinal manipulation and mobilization in addition to usual care may improve self-perceived recovery compared to usual care alone. For adults with subacromial impingement syndrome of variable duration, neck mobilization in addition to a multimodal shoulder program of care provides no added benefit. Finally, for adults with grade I-II ankle sprains of variable duration, lower extremity mobilization in addition to home exercise and advice provides greater short-term improvements in activities and function over home exercise and advice alone. No studies were included that evaluated the effectiveness of manual therapy in children or for the management of other extremity injuries in adults. The current evidence on the effectiveness of manual therapy
Full Text Available Background: Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR is a psychotherapeutic approach that has demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD through several randomized controlled trials (RCT. Solid evidence shows that traumatic events can contribute to the onset of severe mental disorders and can worsen their prognosis. The aim of this systematic review is to summarize the most important findings from RCT conducted in the treatment of comorbid traumatic events in psychosis, bipolar disorder, unipolar depression, anxiety disorders, substance use disorders, and chronic back pain.Methods: Using PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Scopus, we conducted a systematic literature search of RCT studies published up to December 2016 that used EMDR therapy in the mentioned psychiatric conditions.Results: RCT are still scarce in these comorbid conditions but the available evidence suggests that EMDR therapy improves trauma-associated symptoms and has a minor effect on the primary disorders by reaching partial symptomatic improvement.Conclusions: EMDR therapy could be a useful psychotherapy to treat trauma-associated symptoms in patients with comorbid psychiatric disorders. Preliminary evidence also suggests that EMDR therapy might be useful to improve psychotic or affective symptoms and could be an add-on treatment in chronic pain conditions.
Eichenberg, Christiane; Schott, Markus
In the evolving digital age, media applications are increasingly playing a greater role in the field of psychotherapy. While the Internet is already in the phase of being established when it comes to the care of mental disorders, experimentation is going on with other modern media such as serious games. A serious game is a game in which education and behavior change is the goal, alongside with entertainment. The objective of the present article was to provide a first empirical overview of serious games applied to psychotherapy and psychosomatic rehabilitation. Therefore, a systematic literature search, including the terms "serious game" or "computer game" and "psychotherapy" or "rehabilitation" or "intervention" or "mental disorders" in the databases Medline and PsycINFO, was performed. Subsequently, an Internet search was conducted to identify studies not published in journals. Publications not providing empirical data about effectiveness were excluded. On the basis of this systematic literature review, the results of N = 15 studies met inclusion criteria. They utilized primarily cognitive behavioral techniques and can be useful for treating a range of mental disorders. Serious games are effective both as a stand-alone intervention or part of psychotherapy and appeal to patients independent of age and sex. Included serious games proved to be an effective therapeutic component. Nonetheless, findings are not conclusive and more research is needed to further investigate the effectiveness of serious games for psychotherapeutic purposes.
AbdAleati, Naziha S; Mohd Zaharim, Norzarina; Mydin, Yasmin Othman
Many people use religious beliefs and practices to cope with stressful life events and derive peace of mind and purpose in life. The goal of this paper was to systematically review the recent psychological literature to assess the role of religion in mental health outcomes. A comprehensive literature search was conducted using medical and psychological databases on the relationship between religiosity and mental health. Seventy-four articles in the English and Arabic languages published between January 2000 and March 2012 were chosen. Despite the controversial relationship between religion and psychiatry, psychology, and medical care, there has been an increasing interest in the role which spirituality and religion play in mental health. The findings of past research showed that religion could play an important role in many situations, as religious convictions and rules influence the believer's life and health care. Most of the past literature in this area reported that there is a significant connection between religious beliefs and practices and mental health.
Lawrence, Ryan E; Oquendo, Maria A; Stanley, Barbara
Although religion is reported to be protective against suicide, the empirical evidence is inconsistent. Research is complicated by the fact that there are many dimensions to religion (affiliation, participation, doctrine) and suicide (ideation, attempt, completion). We systematically reviewed the literature on religion and suicide over the last 10 years (89 articles) with a goal of identifying what specific dimensions of religion are associated with specific aspects of suicide. We found that religious affiliation does not necessarily protect against suicidal ideation, but does protect against suicide attempts. Whether religious affiliation protects against suicide attempts may depend on the culture-specific implications of affiliating with a particular religion, since minority religious groups can feel socially isolated. After adjusting for social support measures, religious service attendance is not especially protective against suicidal ideation, but does protect against suicide attempts, and possibly protects against suicide. Future qualitative studies might further clarify these associations.
Soole, Rebecca; Kõlves, Kairi; De Leo, Diego
The objective of this study was to provide a review of studies on suicide in children aged 14 years and younger. Articles were identified through a systematic search of Scopus, MEDLINE, and PsychINFO. Key words were "children, suicide, psychological autopsy, and case-study." Additional articles were identified through manual search of reference lists and discussion with colleagues. Fifteen published articles were identified, 8 psychological autopsy studies (PA), and 7 retrospective case-study series. Suicide incidence and gender asymmetry increases with age. Hanging is the most frequent method. Lower rates of psychopathology are evident among child suicides compared to adolescents. Previous suicide attempts were an important risk factor. Children were less likely to consume alcohol prior to suicide. Parent-child conflicts were the most common precipitant.
Full Text Available Granuloma faciale is an uncommon benign chronic dermatosis characterized by reddish-brown to violaceous asymptomatic plaques appearing predominantly on the face. The pathogenesis of granuloma faciale remains unclear, and it is frequently unresponsive to therapy. This systematic review aims to summarize all recent publications on the management of granuloma faciale. The publications are mainly individual case reports, small case series and a few retrospective studies. Treatment options included topical, intralesional and systemic corticosteroids, topical pimecrolimus and tacrolimus, topical and systemic dapsone, systemic hydroxychloroquine, clofazimine, and tumour necrosis factor-alpha inhibitors. More invasive therapies using lasers as well as cryosurgery and surgery were also reported. Topical glucocorticosteroids and tacrolimus remain treatments of first choice, possibly supplemented by topical dapsone.
Solera, Javier; Solís García Del Pozo, Julián
Pulmonary involvement is a rare, focal complication of human brucellosis. The aim of this review is to describe clinical and radiologic features, treatment administered and clinical course of these patients. Areas covered: We conducted a systematic search of scientific reports of brucellosis with pulmonary involvement published from January 1985 to July 2016. Four main patterns of disease were observed: pneumonia, pleural effusion, nodules and interstitial pattern. Cough and fever were the most common symptoms. Brucella spp. culture was obtained from blood (50%) or pleural fluid. Treatment is based on the same antibiotics and combinations of antibiotics as for patients with acute no complicated brucellosis. The most frequent antimicrobial combination was doxycycline and rifampin for six weeks. The clinical course was favorable in most reports, and mortality was remarkably low (Brucellosis from other pulmonary infections, such as tuberculosis, sometimes posed an added diagnostic challenge.
Lauren J Stockman
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The SARS outbreak of 2002-2003 presented clinicians with a new, life-threatening disease for which they had no experience in treating and no research on the effectiveness of treatment options. The World Health Organization (WHO expert panel on SARS treatment requested a systematic review and comprehensive summary of treatments used for SARS-infected patients in order to guide future treatment and identify priorities for research. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In response to the WHO request we conducted a systematic review of the published literature on ribavirin, corticosteroids, lopinavir and ritonavir (LPV/r, type I interferon (IFN, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG, and SARS convalescent plasma from both in vitro studies and in SARS patients. We also searched for clinical trial evidence of treatment for acute respiratory distress syndrome. Sources of data were the literature databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, BIOSIS, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL up to February 2005. Data from publications were extracted and evidence within studies was classified using predefined criteria. In total, 54 SARS treatment studies, 15 in vitro studies, and three acute respiratory distress syndrome studies met our inclusion criteria. Within in vitro studies, ribavirin, lopinavir, and type I IFN showed inhibition of SARS-CoV in tissue culture. In SARS-infected patient reports on ribavirin, 26 studies were classified as inconclusive, and four showed possible harm. Seven studies of convalescent plasma or IVIG, three of IFN type I, and two of LPV/r were inconclusive. In 29 studies of steroid use, 25 were inconclusive and four were classified as causing possible harm. CONCLUSIONS: Despite an extensive literature reporting on SARS treatments, it was not possible to determine whether treatments benefited patients during the SARS outbreak. Some may have been harmful. Clinical trials should be designed to validate a standard protocol for dosage
Bamba, Ravinder; Malhotra, Gautam; Bueno, Reuben A; Thayer, Wesley P; Shack, R Bruce
Ring avulsion injuries can range from soft tissue injury to complete amputation. Grading systems have been developed to guide treatment, but there is controversy with high-grade injuries. Traditionally, advanced ring injuries have been treated with completion amputation, but there is evidence that severe ring injuries can be salvaged. The purpose of this systematic review was to pool the current published data on ring injuries. A systematic review of the English literature published from 1980 to 2015 in PubMed and MEDLINE databases was conducted to identify patients who underwent treatment for ring avulsion injuries. Twenty studies of ring avulsion injuries met the inclusion criteria. There were a total of 572 patients reported with ring avulsion injuries. The Urbaniak class breakdown was class I (54 patients), class II (204 patients), and class III (314 patients). The average total arc of motion (TAM) for patients with a class I injury was 201.25 (n = 40). The average 2-point discrimination was 5.6 (n = 10). The average TAM for patients with a class II injury undergoing microsurgical revascularization was 187.0 (n = 114), and the average 2-point discrimination was 8.3 (n = 40). The average TAM for patients with a class III injury undergoing microsurgical revascularization was 168.2 (n = 170), and the average 2-point discrimination was 10.5 (n = 97). Ring avulsion injuries are commonly classified with the Urbaniak class system. Outcomes are superior for class I and II injuries, and there are select class III injuries that can be treated with replantation. Shared decision making with patients is imperative to determine whether replantation is appropriate.
Sandahl, Sheryl S
Nurses are important members of a patient's interprofessional health care team. A primary goal of nursing education is to prepare nursing professionals who can work collaboratively with other team members for the benefit of the patient. Collaborative learning strategies provide students with opportunities to learn and practice collaboration. Collaborative testing is a collaborative learning strategy used to foster knowledge development, critical thinking in decision-making, and group processing skills. This article reviews the theoretical basis for collaborative learning and research on collaborative testing in nursing education.
Jakobsen, Janus Christian; Wetterslev, Jorn; Winkel, Per
BACKGROUND: Thresholds for statistical significance when assessing meta-analysis results are being insufficiently demonstrated by traditional 95% confidence intervals and P-values. Assessment of intervention effects in systematic reviews with meta-analysis deserves greater rigour. METHODS......: Methodologies for assessing statistical and clinical significance of intervention effects in systematic reviews were considered. Balancing simplicity and comprehensiveness, an operational procedure was developed, based mainly on The Cochrane Collaboration methodology and the Grading of Recommendations...... Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) guidelines. RESULTS: We propose an eight-step procedure for better validation of meta-analytic results in systematic reviews (1) Obtain the 95% confidence intervals and the P-values from both fixed-effect and random-effects meta-analyses and report the most...
Straus, Sharon E; Straus, Christine; Tzanetos, Katina
To review systematically the evidence about what factors influence the decision to choose or not choose a career in academic medicine. A systematic review of relevant literature from 1990 to May 2005. Searches of The Cochrane Library, Medline (using Ovid and PubMed) from 1990 to May 2005, and EMBASE from 1990 to May 2005 were completed to identify relevant studies that explored the influential factors. Additional articles were identified from searching the bibliographies of retrieved articles. We attempted to identify studies that included residents, fellows, or staff physicians. No restrictions were placed on the study methodologies identified and all articles presenting empirical evidence were retrieved. For cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies, minimum inclusion criteria were the presence of defined groups, and the ability to extract relevant data. For surveys that involved case series, minimum inclusion criteria were a description of the population, and the availability of extractable data. Minimum inclusion criteria for qualitative studies were descriptions of the sampling strategy and methods. The search identified 251 abstracts; 25 articles were included in this review. Completion of an MD with a graduate degree or fellowship program is associated with a career in academic medicine. Of the articles identified in this review, this finding is supported by the highest quality of evidence. Similarly, the completion of research and publication of this research in medical school and residency are associated with a career in academic medicine. The desire to teach, conduct research, and the intellectual stimulation and challenge provided in academia may also persuade people to choose this career path. The influence of a role model or a mentor was reported by physicians to impact their decision making. Trainees' interest in academic medicine wanes as they progress through their residency. In order to revitalize academic medicine, we must engage trainees
Guyatt Gordon H
Full Text Available Abstract Background In March 2003, the United States invaded Iraq. The subsequent number, rates, and causes of mortality in Iraq resulting from the war remain unclear, despite intense international attention. Understanding mortality estimates from modern warfare, where the majority of casualties are civilian, is of critical importance for public health and protection afforded under international humanitarian law. We aimed to review the studies, reports and counts on Iraqi deaths since the start of the war and assessed their methodological quality and results. Methods We performed a systematic search of 15 electronic databases from inception to January 2008. In addition, we conducted a non-structured search of 3 other databases, reviewed study reference lists and contacted subject matter experts. We included studies that provided estimates of Iraqi deaths based on primary research over a reported period of time since the invasion. We excluded studies that summarized mortality estimates and combined non-fatal injuries and also studies of specific sub-populations, e.g. under-5 mortality. We calculated crude and cause-specific mortality rates attributable to violence and average deaths per day for each study, where not already provided. Results Thirteen studies met the eligibility criteria. The studies used a wide range of methodologies, varying from sentinel-data collection to population-based surveys. Studies assessed as the highest quality, those using population-based methods, yielded the highest estimates. Average deaths per day ranged from 48 to 759. The cause-specific mortality rates attributable to violence ranged from 0.64 to 10.25 per 1,000 per year. Conclusion Our review indicates that, despite varying estimates, the mortality burden of the war and its sequelae on Iraq is large. The use of established epidemiological methods is rare. This review illustrates the pressing need to promote sound epidemiologic approaches to determining
Physical activity (PA) is associated with numerous health-related benefits among adults with chronic diseases and the general population. As the benefits are dose-dependent, this review aims to establish the PA levels of adults with spondyloarthritis and to compare these to the general population. Electronic databases (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, MEDLINE\\/PubMed, PEDro, AMED, CINAHL) were systematically searched from inception to May 2014 using medical subject headings and keywords. This was supplemented by searching conference abstracts and hand-searching reference lists of included studies. Eligible studies were randomized controlled trials and observational studies of adults with SpA in which free-living PA or energy expenditure levels were measured. Subjects less than 18 years or with juvenile-onset SpA were excluded. Outcomes included objective and self-report measurements. Two reviewers independently screened studies for inclusion and assessed methodological quality using the Cochrane risk of bias tool and the RTI item bank. From the 2,431 records reviewed, nine studies involving 2,972 participants were included. This review focused on qualitative synthesis. Meta-analyses were not undertaken due to differences in study design, measurement tools, and participant characteristics. This heterogeneity, coupled with the risk of bias inherent in the included observational studies, limits the generalizability of findings. Objective measurements suggest PA levels may be lower among adults with spondyloarthritis than in healthy population controls. Self-reported PA and self-reported rates of adherence to PA recommendations varied largely across studies; higher disease activity was associated with lower self-reported PA levels. Physical activity levels may be lower in adults with axial spondyloarthritis, with higher disease activity associated with lower PA levels.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In contemporary medical research, randomised controlled trials are seen as the gold standard for establishing treatment effects where it is ethical and practical to conduct them. In palliative care such trials are often impractical, unethical, or extremely difficult, with multiple methodological problems. We review the utility of Cochrane reviews in informing palliative care practice. Methods Published reviews in palliative care registered with the Cochrane Pain, Palliative and Supportive Care Group as of December 2007 were obtained from the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, issue 1, 2008. We reviewed the quality and quantity of primary studies available for each review, assessed the quality of the review process, and judged the strength of the evidence presented. There was no prior intention to perform any statistical analyses. Results 25 published systematic reviews were identified. Numbers of included trials ranged from none to 54. Within each review, included trials were heterogeneous with respect to patients, interventions, and outcomes, and the number of patients contributing to any single analysis was generally much lower than the total included in the review. A variety of tools were used to assess trial quality; seven reviews did not use this information to exclude low quality studies, weight analyses, or perform sensitivity analysis for effect of low quality. Authors indicated that there were frequently major problems with the primary studies, individually or in aggregate. Our judgment was that the reviewing process was generally good in these reviews, and that conclusions were limited by the number, size, quality and validity of the primary studies. We judged the evidence about 23 of the 25 interventions to be weak. Two reviews had stronger evidence, but with limitations due to methodological heterogeneity or definition of outcomes. No review provided strong evidence of no effect. Conclusion Cochrane reviews
Tanguay, C; Guérin, A; Bussières, J-F
The pharmacists' role is varied and numerous articles evaluate the outcomes of pharmaceutical interventions. The main objectives of this study were to establish the characteristics of systematic reviews about pharmacists' interventions that were published in the last five years. A literature search was performed on Pubmed for French and English articles published between 01-01-2008 and 31-05-2013. Systematic reviews that presented the role, the interventions and the impact of pharmacists were selected by two research assistants. A total of 46 systematic reviews was identified, amongst which one third (n=15/46, 33 %) were meta-analyses. A quarter of systematic reviews did not evaluate the quality of included articles (n=13/46, 28 %). Twelve themes were identified. A median [min-max] of 16 [2-298] articles was included per systematic review. The most frequent pharmaceutical activities were patient counseling (n=41 systematic reviews), patient chart review (n=29), pharmacotherapy evaluation (n=27) and recommendations (n=26). The least frequent activities were teaching others than patients (n=12) and medical rounds participation (n=7). Many elements can influence the completion of pharmacy practice research projects; however, there exists no link between the presence of systematic reviews and the importance of pharmacists in a given healthcare program. This study presents the characteristics of 46 systematic reviews about pharmacists interventions published since 2008. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Linde, K.; ter Riet, G.; Hondras, M.; Vickers, A.; Saller, R.; Melchart, D.
OBJECTIVE: To provide a comprehensive collection and a summary of systematic reviews of clinical trials on herbal medicines. METHODS: Potentially relevant reviews were searched through the register of the Cochrane Complementary Medicine Field, the Cochrane Library, Medline, and bibliographies of
Background: This is a systematic review on trauma/injury incidents which has ... searches for trauma/injuries from peer-reviewed literature and websites from 1960 ... included study design, methodology, risk factors, and other study variables.
The amount of available biomedical information is vast and growing. Natural limitations of the way clinicians and researchers approach this treasure trove of information comprise difficulties locating the information, and once located, cognitive biases may lead to inappropriate use of the information. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses represent important tools in the information age to improve knowledge and action. Systematic reviews represent a census approach to identifying literature to avoid non-response bias. They are a necessary prelude to producing combined quantitative summaries of associations or treatment effects. Meta-analysis comprises the arithmetical techniques for producing combined summaries from individual study reports. Careful, thoughtful and rigorous use of these tools is likely to enhance knowledge and action. Use of standard guidelines, such as the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines, or embedding these activities within collaborative groups such as the Cochrane Collaboration, are likely to lead to more useful systematic review and meta-analysis reporting. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Oliver, Sandy; Bangpan, Mukdarut; Stansfield, Claire; Stewart, Ruth
Systematic reviews of research are increasingly recognised as important for informing decisions across policy sectors and for setting priorities for research. Although reviews draw on international research, the host institutions and countries can focus attention on their own priorities. The uneven capacity for conducting research around the world raises questions about the capacity for conducting systematic reviews. A rapid appraisal was conducted of current capacity and capacity strengthening activities for conducting systematic reviews in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). A systems approach to analysis considered the capacity of individuals nested within the larger units of research teams, institutions that fund, support, and/or conduct systematic reviews, and systems that support systematic reviewing internationally. International systematic review networks, and their support organisations, are dominated by members from high-income countries. The largest network comprising a skilled workforce and established centres is the Cochrane Collaboration. Other networks, although smaller, provide support for systematic reviews addressing questions beyond effective clinical practice which require a broader range of methods. Capacity constraints were apparent at the levels of individuals, review teams, organisations, and system wide. Constraints at each level limited the capacity at levels nested within them. Skills training for individuals had limited utility if not allied to opportunities for review teams to practice the skills. Skills development was further constrained by language barriers, lack of support from academic organisations, and the limitations of wider systems for communication and knowledge management. All networks hosted some activities for strengthening the capacities of individuals and teams, although these were usually independent of core academic programmes and traditional career progression. Even rarer were efforts to increase demand for
Lim, Michelle H; Gleeson, John F M; Alvarez-Jimenez, Mario; Penn, David L
The aim of the review is to understand the relationships between loneliness and related psychological and social factors in individuals with psychosis. Loneliness is poorly understood in people with psychosis. Given the myriad of social challenges facing individuals with psychosis, these findings can inform psychosocial interventions that specifically target loneliness in this vulnerable group. We adhered to the PRISMA guidelines and systematically reviewed empirical studies that measured loneliness either as a main outcome or as an associated variable in individuals with psychosis. A total of ten studies examining loneliness in people diagnosed with a psychotic disorder were examined. Heterogeneity in the assessment of loneliness was found, and there were contradictory findings on the relationship between loneliness and psychotic symptomatology. In individuals with psychosis, loneliness may be influenced by psychological and social factors such as increased depression, psychosis, and anxiety, poor social support, poor quality of life, more severe internalised stigma and perceived discrimination, and low self-esteem. The relationship between loneliness and psychosis remains poorly understood due to a lack of rigorous studies. Although having strong social relationships is crucial to facilitate recovery from serious mental illness, psychosocial interventions that specifically target loneliness in individuals with psychosis are lacking and sorely needed. Interventions targeting loneliness in those with psychosis will also need to account for additional barriers associated with psychosis (e.g., social skill deficits, impoverished social networks, and negative symptoms).
Tessier, Annie; Beaulieu, Marie-Dominique; Mcginn, Carrie Anna; Latulippe, Renée
The ageing of the population and the increasing need for long-term care services are global issues. Some countries have adapted homecare programs by introducing an intervention called reablement, which is aimed at optimizing independence. The effectiveness of reablement, as well as its different service models, was examined. A systematic literature review was conducted using MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO and EBM Reviews to search from 2001 to 2014. Core characteristics and facilitators of reablement implementation were identified from international experiences. Ten studies comprising a total of 14,742 participants (including four randomized trials, most of excellent or good quality) showed a positive impact of reablement, especially on health-related quality of life and service utilization. The implementation of reablement was studied in three regions, and all observed a reduction in healthcare service utilization. Considering its effectiveness and positive impact observed in several countries, the implementation of reablement is a promising avenue to be pursued by policy makers. Copyright © 2016 Longwoods Publishing.
Alderman, Katarzyna; Turner, Lyle R; Tong, Shilu
Floods are the most common type of disaster globally, responsible for almost 53,000 deaths in the last decade alone (23:1 low- versus high-income countries). This review assessed recent epidemiological evidence on the impacts of floods on human health. Published articles (2004-2011) on the quantitative relationship between floods and health were systematically reviewed. 35 relevant epidemiological studies were identified. Health outcomes were categorized into short- and long-term and were found to depend on the flood characteristics and people's vulnerability. It was found that long-term health effects are currently not well understood. Mortality rates were found to increase by up to 50% in the first year post-flood. After floods, it was found there is an increased risk of disease outbreaks such as hepatitis E, gastrointestinal disease and leptospirosis, particularly in areas with poor hygiene and displaced populations. Psychological distress in survivors (prevalence 8.6% to 53% two years post-flood) can also exacerbate their physical illness. There is a need for effective policies to reduce and prevent flood-related morbidity and mortality. Such steps are contingent upon the improved understanding of potential health impacts of floods. Global trends in urbanization, burden of disease, malnutrition and maternal and child health must be better reflected in flood preparedness and mitigation programs. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Alexandre Emidio Ribeiro Silva
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE Identifying, through a systematic literature review, evidence of a possible association between obesity and dental caries. METHODS A search of articles published between 2005 and January 2012 was performed in the Medline/PubMed, LILACS and Web of Science databases. The quality of scientific evidence of the selected articles was assessed by the items proposed for observational studies in the Downs & Black instrument. RESULTS Initially, 537 references were found; after checking the titles and abstracts by two independent researchers, twenty-eight articles were selected for complete reading. Ten of them that assessed the primary and/or permanent dentition observed a positive association between obesity and dental caries and one study found an inverse association. According to the Downs & Black classification, thirteen articles with good scientific evidence were found. CONCLUSIONS The present review did not find sufficient evidence regarding the association between obesity and dental caries, and it did not clarify the possible role of diet and other possible effect modifiers on this association.
Ray-Barruel, Gillian; Polit, Denise F; Murfield, Jenny E; Rickard, Claire M
Phlebitis is a common and painful complication of peripheral intravenous cannulation. The aim of this review was to identify the measures used in infusion phlebitis assessment and evaluate evidence regarding their reliability, validity, responsiveness and feasibility. We conducted a systematic literature review of the Cochrane library, Ovid MEDLINE and EBSCO CINAHL until September 2013. All English-language studies (randomized controlled trials, prospective cohort and cross-sectional) that used an infusion phlebitis scale were retrieved and analysed to determine which symptoms were included in each scale and how these were measured. We evaluated studies that reported testing the psychometric properties of phlebitis assessment scales using the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) guidelines. Infusion phlebitis was the primary outcome measure in 233 studies. Fifty-three (23%) of these provided no actual definition of phlebitis. Of the 180 studies that reported measuring phlebitis incidence and/or severity, 101 (56%) used a scale and 79 (44%) used a definition alone. We identified 71 different phlebitis assessment scales. Three scales had undergone some psychometric analyses, but no scale had been rigorously tested. Many phlebitis scales exist, but none has been thoroughly validated for use in clinical practice. A lack of consensus on phlebitis measures has likely contributed to disparities in reported phlebitis incidence, precluding meaningful comparison of phlebitis rates. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Thys, Erik; Sabbe, Bernard; De Hert, Marc
The possible link between creativity and psychopathology has been a long-time focus of research up to the present day. However, the research results in this field are heterogeneous and contradictory. Links between creativity and specific psychiatric disorders have been confirmed and refuted in different studies. This disparity is partly explained by the methodological challenges peculiar to this field. In this systematic review of the literature from 1950, research articles in the field of creativity and psychopathology are presented, focusing on the methodology and results of the collected studies. This review confirms the methodological problems and the heterogeneity of the study designs and results. The assessment of psychopathology, but more so of creativity, remains a fundamental challenge. On the whole, study results cautiously confirm an association between creativity and both bipolar disorder and schizotypy. The research on creativity and psychopathology is hampered by serious methodological problems. Study results are to be interpreted with caution and future research needs more methodological rigor. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Full Text Available Objective. This systematic review aimed to assess the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture for lateral epicondylitis (LE. Methods. Seven databases and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform Search Portal were searched to identify relevant studies. The data were extracted and assessed by two independent authors, and Review Manager Software (V.5.3 was used for data synthesis with effect estimate presented as standard mean difference (SMD and mean difference (MD with a 95% confidence interval. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE was used to assess the level of evidence. Results. Four RCTs with 309 participants were included with poor methodological quality. Participants who received acupuncture and acupuncture plus moxibustion with material insulation were likely to have an improvement in elbow functional status and/or myodynamia. The overall quality rated by GRADE was from very low to low. Two studies reported that the needle pain would be the main reason for the dropout. Conclusion. For the small number of included studies with poor methodological quality, no firm conclusion can be drawn regarding the effect of acupuncture of elbow functional status and myodynamia for LE. This trial is registered with CRD42015016199.
Rachel M Lee
Full Text Available Toxocariasis is an important neglected tropical disease that can manifest as visceral or ocular larva migrans, or covert toxocariasis. All three forms pose a public health problem and cause significant morbidity in areas of high prevalence. To determine the burden of toxocariasis in North America, we conducted a systematic review of the literature following PRISMA guidelines. We found 18 articles with original prevalence, incidence, or case data for toxocariasis. Prevalence estimates ranged from 0.6% in a Canadian Inuit community to 30.8% in Mexican children with asthma. Commonly cited risk factors included: African-American race, poverty, male sex, and pet ownership or environmental contamination by animal feces. Increased prevalence of Toxocara spp. infection was linked in a group of case control studies conducted in Mexico to several high risk groups including waste pickers, asthmatic children, and inpatient psychiatry patients. Further research is needed to determine the true current burden of toxocariasis in North America; however the prevalence estimates gathered in this review suggest that the burden of disease is significant.
Schoenberg, Poppy L A; David, Anthony S
Biofeedback potentially provides non-invasive, effective psychophysiological interventions for psychiatric disorders. The encompassing purpose of this review was to establish how biofeedback interventions have been used to treat select psychiatric disorders [anxiety, autistic spectrum disorders, depression, dissociation, eating disorders, schizophrenia and psychoses] to date and provide a useful reference for consultation by clinicians and researchers planning to administer a biofeedback treatment. A systematic search of EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and WOK databases and hand searches in Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, and Journal of Neurotherapy, identified 227 articles; 63 of which are included within this review. Electroencephalographic neurofeedback constituted the most investigated modality (31.7%). Anxiety disorders were the most commonly treated (68.3%). Multi-modal biofeedback appeared most effective in significantly ameliorating symptoms, suggesting that targeting more than one physiological modality for bio-regulation increases therapeutic efficacy. Overall, 80.9% of articles reported some level of clinical amelioration related to biofeedback exposure, 65.0% to a statistically significant (p biofeedback interventions within mainstream psychiatry.
Yang, Lin; Sahlqvist, Shannon; McMinn, Alison; Griffin, Simon J; Ogilvie, David
To determine what interventions are effective in promoting cycling, the size of the effects of interventions, and evidence of any associated benefits on overall physical activity or anthropometric measures. Systematic review. Published and unpublished reports in any language identified by searching 13 electronic databases, websites, reference lists, and existing systematic reviews, and papers identified by experts in the field. Review methods Controlled "before and after" experimental or observational studies of the effect of any type of intervention on cycling behaviour measured at either individual or population level. Twenty five studies (of which two were randomised controlled trials) from seven countries were included. Six studies examined interventions aimed specifically at promoting cycling, of which four (an intensive individual intervention in obese women, high quality improvements to a cycle route network, and two multifaceted cycle promotion initiatives at town or city level) were found to be associated with increases in cycling. Those studies that evaluated interventions at population level reported net increases of up to 3.4 percentage points in the population prevalence of cycling or the proportion of trips made by bicycle. Sixteen studies assessing individualised marketing of "environmentally friendly" modes of transport to interested households reported modest but consistent net effects equating to an average of eight additional cycling trips per person per year in the local population. Other interventions that targeted travel behaviour in general were not associated with a clear increase in cycling. Only two studies assessed effects of interventions on physical activity; one reported a positive shift in the population distribution of overall physical activity during the intervention. Community-wide promotional activities and improving infrastructure for cycling have the potential to increase cycling by modest amounts, but further controlled
Borkowski, Donna; McKinstry, Carol; Cotchett, Matthew; Williams, Cylie; Haines, Terry
Research evidence is required to guide optimal allied health practice and inform policymakers in primary health care. Factors that influence a positive research culture are not fully understood, and nor is the impact of a positive research culture on allied health professionals. The aim of this systematic review was to identify factors that affect allied health research culture and capacity. An extensive search of 11 databases was conducted in June 2015. Studies were included if they were published in English, had full-text availability and reported research findings relating to allied health professions. Study quality was evaluated using the McMaster Critical Review Forms. Fifteen studies were eligible for inclusion. A meta-analysis was not performed because of heterogeneity between studies. Allied health professionals perceive that their individual research skills are lower in comparison to their teams and organisation. Motivators for conducting research for allied health professionals include developing skills, increasing job satisfaction and career advancement. Barriers include a lack of time, limited research skills and other work roles taking priority. Multilayered strategies, such as collaborations with external partners and developing research leadership positions, aimed at addressing barriers and enablers, are important to enhance allied health research culture and capacity.
Geaney, F; Kelly, C; Greiner, B A; Harrington, J M; Perry, I J; Beirne, P
To evaluate the effectiveness of workplace dietary modification interventions alone or in combination with nutrition education on employees' dietary behaviour, health status, self-efficacy, perceived health, determinants of food choice, nutrition knowledge, co-worker support, job satisfaction, economic cost and food-purchasing patterns. Data sources included PubMed, Medline, Embase, Psych Info., Web of Knowledge and Cochrane Library (November 2011). This review was guided by the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) statement. Studies were randomised controlled trials and controlled studies. Interventions were implemented for at least three months. Cochrane Collaboration's risk of bias tool measured potential biases. Heterogeneity precluded meta-analysis. Results were presented in a narrative summary. Six studies conducted in Brazil, the USA, Netherlands and Belgium met the inclusion criteria. Four studies reported small increases in fruit and vegetable consumption (≤half serving/day). These studies involved workplace dietary modifications and three incorporated nutrition education. Other outcomes reported included health status, co-worker support, job satisfaction, perceived health, self-efficacy and food-purchasing patterns. All studies had methodological limitations that weakened confidence in the results. Limited evidence suggests that workplace dietary modification interventions alone and in combination with nutrition education increase fruit and vegetable intakes. These interventions should be developed with recommended guidelines, workplace characteristics, long-term follow-up and objective outcomes for diet, health and cost. © 2013.
Noba, Claudio; Mello-Moura, Anna Carolina Volpi; Gimenez, Thais; Tedesco, Tamara Kerber; Moura-Netto, Cacio
The purpose of this study is to perform a systematic review on the use of lasers in oral surgery for bone healing. Selection of articles was carried out by two evaluators in Pubmed and Web of Science databases for published articles and OpenGray for gray literature. Search strategy was developed based on the PICO Question "Does the use of lasers after oral surgery improve bone healing?". Eligibility criteria were: being on laser; evaluate bone healing; involve oral surgery; do not be about implant, periodontics, orthodontics, osteonecrosis or radiotherapy, nor revisions, clinical cases, etc. Data were collected from each article in a structured spreadsheet and a descriptive analysis was performed. Risk assessment of bias of the articles was carried out through the tool elaborated by the Cochrane collaboration. A total of 827 potentially relevant references were identified. No articles were found in OpenGray. Eleven articles met the eligibility criteria and were included in the systematic review. Most of studies were in vivo and in jaw, being conducted with low-power lasers which were applied immediately after the surgical procedure of extraction. Neoformation and bone density were the outcomes of choice and there was a tendency of increase in bone density, neoformation, regeneration, mineralization, or bone condensation when laser was applied. Regarding the bias risk assessment, studies were not clear in reporting most of the parameters. Low-power laser therapy seems to reduce time of bone healing in oral surgery, although there are no defined protocols and the level of evidence is still considered weak.
Bender, R.; Bunce, C.; Clarke, M.
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this paper is to describe the problem of multiple comparisons in systematic reviews and to provide some guidelines on how to deal with it in practice. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: We describe common reasons for multiplicity in systematic reviews, and present some examples...
Townsend, Whitney A; Anderson, Patricia F; Ginier, Emily C; MacEachern, Mark P; Saylor, Kate M; Shipman, Barbara L; Smith, Judith E
The project identified a set of core competencies for librarians who are involved in systematic reviews. A team of seven informationists with broad systematic review experience examined existing systematic review standards, conducted a literature search, and used their own expertise to identify core competencies and skills that are necessary to undertake various roles in systematic review projects. The team identified a total of six competencies for librarian involvement in systematic reviews: "Systematic review foundations," "Process management and communication," "Research methodology," "Comprehensive searching," "Data management," and "Reporting." Within each competency are the associated skills and knowledge pieces (indicators). Competence can be measured using an adaptation of Miller's Pyramid for Clinical Assessment, either through self-assessment or identification of formal assessment instruments. The Systematic Review Competencies Framework provides a standards-based, flexible way for librarians and organizations to identify areas of competence and areas in need of development to build capacity for systematic review integration. The framework can be used to identify or develop appropriate assessment tools and to target skill development opportunities.
... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Systematic review guidelines. 1312.10... Declassification of National Security Information § 1312.10 Systematic review guidelines. The EOP Security Officer will prepare and keep current such guidelines as are required by Executive Order 12958 for the...
Jansen, Sofie; Bhangu, Jaspreet; de Rooij, Sophia; Daams, Joost; Kenny, Rose Anne; van der Velde, Nathalie
Objective: Cardiovascular disorders are recognized as risk factors for falls in older adults. The aim of this systematic review was to identify cardiovascular disorders that are associated with falls, thus providing angles for optimization of fall-preventive care. Design: Systematic review. Data
Farmer, Nicole; Touchton-Leonard, Katherine; Ross, Alyson
Objectives: Cooking interventions are used in therapeutic and rehabilitative settings; however, little is known about the influence of these interventions on psychosocial outcomes. This systematic review examines the research evidence regarding the influence of cooking interventions on psychosocial outcomes. Methods: A systematic review of the…
Jul 22, 2015 ... were: the article should be a systematic review and/or ... 7. The scientific quality of the included studies should be assessed and ... steps to conduct a systematic review as follows: 1. .... All authors contributed to the writing of.
Whitney A. Townsend
Conclusions: The Systematic Review Competencies Framework provides a standards-based, flexible way for librarians and organizations to identify areas of competence and areas in need of development to build capacity for systematic review integration. The framework can be used to identify or develop appropriate assessment tools and to target skill development opportunities.
Saan, M.; Boeije, H.; Sattoe, J.; Bal, M.; Missler, M.A.; van Wesel, F.
Objectives: The use of stakeholders in systematic reviews is increasingly valued, but their influence on the systematicity of the review is often unclear. The aim of this study was to describe some of the processes of involvement of stakeholders and to demonstrate a Tool for Recording and Accounting
Baussano, Iacopo; Williams, Brian G; Nunn, Paul; Beggiato, Marta; Fedeli, Ugo; Scano, Fabio
Transmission of tuberculosis (TB) in prisons has been reported worldwide to be much higher than that reported for the corresponding general population. A systematic review has been performed to assess the risk of incident latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and TB disease in prisons, as compared to the incidence in the corresponding local general population, and to estimate the fraction of TB in the general population attributable (PAF%) to transmission within prisons. Primary peer-reviewed studies have been searched to assess the incidence of LTBI and/or TB within prisons published until June 2010; both inmates and prison staff were considered. Studies, which were independently screened by two reviewers, were eligible for inclusion if they reported the incidence of LTBI and TB disease in prisons. Available data were collected from 23 studies out of 582 potentially relevant unique citations. Five studies from the US and one from Brazil were available to assess the incidence of LTBI in prisons, while 19 studies were available to assess the incidence of TB. The median estimated annual incidence rate ratio (IRR) for LTBI and TB were 26.4 (interquartile range [IQR]: 13.0-61.8) and 23.0 (IQR: 11.7-36.1), respectively. The median estimated fraction (PAF%) of tuberculosis in the general population attributable to the exposure in prisons for TB was 8.5% (IQR: 1.9%-17.9%) and 6.3% (IQR: 2.7%-17.2%) in high- and middle/low-income countries, respectively. The very high IRR and the substantial population attributable fraction show that much better TB control in prisons could potentially protect prisoners and staff from within-prison spread of TB and would significantly reduce the national burden of TB. Future studies should measure the impact of the conditions in prisons on TB transmission and assess the population attributable risk of prison-to-community spread. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.
McGibbon, Katie E; Pyne, D B; Shephard, M E; Thompson, K G
Pacing strategy, or how energy is distributed during exercise, can substantially impact athletic performance and is considered crucial for optimal performance in many sports. This is particularly true in swimming given the highly resistive properties of water and low mechanical efficiency of the swimming action. The aim of this systematic review was to determine the pacing strategies utilised by competitive swimmers in competition and their reproducibility, and to examine the impact of different pacing strategies on kinematic, metabolic and performance variables. This will provide valuable and practical information to coaches and sports science practitioners. The databases Web of Science, Scopus, SPORTDiscus and PubMed were searched for published articles up to 1 August 2017. A total of 23 studies examining pool-based swimming competitions or experimental trials in English-language and peer-reviewed journals were included in this review. In short- and middle-distance swimming events maintenance of swimming velocity is critical, whereas in long-distance events a low lap-to-lap variability and the ability to produce an end spurt in the final lap(s) are key. The most effective strategy in the individual medley (IM) is to conserve energy during the butterfly leg to optimise performance in subsequent legs. The pacing profiles of senior swimmers remain relatively stable irrespective of opponents, competition stage or type, and performance time. Implementing event-specific pacing strategies should benefit the performance of competitive swimmers. Given differences between swimmers, there is a need for greater individualisation when considering pacing strategy selection across distances and strokes.
Kowalczuk, Marcin; Adamich, John; Simunovic, Nicole; Farrokhyar, Forough; Ayeni, Olufemi R
As the body of literature on femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) continues to grow, clinicians turn to systematic reviews to remain current with the best available evidence. The quality of systematic reviews in the FAI literature is currently unknown. The goal of this study was to assess the quality of the reporting of systematic reviews addressing FAI over the last 11 years (2003-2014) and to identify the specific methodological shortcomings and strengths. A search of the electronic databases, MEDLINE, EMBASE and PubMed, was performed to identify relevant systematic reviews. Methodological quality was assessed by two reviewers using the revised assessment of multiple systematic reviews (R-AMSTAR) scoring tool. An intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) with 95 % confidence intervals (CI) was used to determine agreement between reviewers on R-AMSTAR quality scores. A total of 22 systematic reviews were assessed for methodological quality. The mean consensus R-AMSTAR score across all studies was 26.7 out of 40.0, indicating fair methodological quality. An ICC of 0.931, 95 % CI 0.843-0.971 indicated excellent agreement between reviewers during the scoring process. The systematic reviews addressing FAI are generally of fair methodological quality. Use of tools such as the R-AMSTAR score or PRISMA guidelines while designing future systematic reviews can assist in eliminating methodological shortcomings identified in this review. These shortcomings need to be kept in mind by clinicians when applying the current literature to their patient populations and making treatment decisions. Systematic reviews of highest methodological quality should be used by clinicians when possible to answer clinical questions.
Fernandes, Silke; Jit, Mark; Bozzani, Fiammetta; Griffiths, Ulla K; Scott, J Anthony G; Burchett, Helen E D
SYSVAC is an online bibliographic database of systematic reviews and systematic review protocols on vaccines and immunisation compiled by the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine and hosted by the World Health Organization (WHO) through their National Immunization Technical Advisory Groups (NITAG) resource centre (www.nitag-resource.org). Here the development of the database and a bibliometric review of its content is presented, describing trends in the publication of policy-relevant systematic reviews on vaccines and immunisation from 2008 to 2016. Searches were conducted in seven scientific databases according to a standardized search protocol, initially in 2014 with the most recent update in January 2017. Abstracts and titles were screened according to specific inclusion criteria. All included publications were coded into relevant categories based on a standardized protocol and subsequently analysed to look at trends in time, topic, area of focus, population and geographic location. After screening for inclusion criteria, 1285 systematic reviews were included in the database. While in 2008 there were only 34 systematic reviews on a vaccine-related topic, this increased to 322 in 2016. The most frequent pathogens/diseases studied were influenza, human papillomavirus and pneumococcus. There were several areas of duplication and overlap. As more systematic reviews are published it becomes increasingly time-consuming for decision-makers to identify relevant information among the ever-increasing volume available. The risk of duplication also increases, particularly given the current lack of coordination of systematic reviews on vaccine-related questions, both in terms of their commissioning and their execution. The SYSVAC database offers an accessible catalogue of vaccine-relevant systematic reviews with, where possible access or a link to the full-text. SYSVAC provides a freely searchable platform to identify existing vaccine-policy-relevant systematic
Lau, Francis; Kuziemsky, Craig; Price, Morgan; Gardner, Jesse
The purpose of this review is to consolidate existing evidence from published systematic reviews on health information system (HIS) evaluation studies to inform HIS practice and research. Fifty reviews published during 1994-2008 were selected for meta-level synthesis. These reviews covered five areas: medication management, preventive care, health conditions, data quality, and care process/outcome. After reconciliation for duplicates, 1276 HIS studies were arrived at as the non-overlapping corpus. On the basis of a subset of 287 controlled HIS studies, there is some evidence for improved quality of care, but in varying degrees across topic areas. For instance, 31/43 (72%) controlled HIS studies had positive results using preventive care reminders, mostly through guideline adherence such as immunization and health screening. Key factors that influence HIS success included having in-house systems, developers as users, integrated decision support and benchmark practices, and addressing such contextual issues as provider knowledge and perception, incentives, and legislation/policy.
Bragaru, Mihail; Dekker, Rienk; Geertzen, Jan H B; Dijkstra, Pieter U
Amputation of a limb may have a negative impact on the psychological and physical well-being, mobility and social life of individuals with limb amputations. Participation in sports and/or regular physical activity has a positive effect on the above mentioned areas in able-bodied individuals. Data concerning participation in sports or regular physical activity together with its benefits and risks for individuals with limb amputations are scarce. No systematic review exists that addresses a wide range of outcomes such as biomechanics, cardiopulmonary function, psychology, sport participation and sport injuries. Therefore, the aim of this article is to systematically review the literature about individuals with limb amputations and sport participation. MEDLINE (PubMed), EMBASE, CINAHL® and SportDiscus® were searched without time or language restrictions using free text words and MeSH terms. The last search date was 31 March 2010. Books, internet sites and references of included papers were checked for papers relevant to the topic under review. Papers were included if the research topic concerned sports and a minimum of ten individuals with limb amputations were part of the study population. Papers were excluded if they included individuals with amputations of body parts other than upper or lower limbs or more distal than the wrist or ankle, or if they consisted of case reports, narrative reviews, books, notes or letters to the editor. Title, abstract and full-text assessments were performed by two independent observers following a list of preset criteria. Of the 3689 papers originally identified, 47 were included in the review. Most of the included studies were older than 10 years and had cross-sectional designs. Study participants were generally younger and often had more traumatic amputations than the general population of individuals with limb amputations. Heterogeneity in population characteristics, intervention types and main outcomes made data pooling
White, Angela; Kavanagh, David; Stallman, Helen; Klein, Britt; Kay-Lambkin, Frances; Proudfoot, Judy; Drennan, Judy; Connor, Jason; Baker, Amanda; Hines, Emily; Young, Ross
There has been a significant increase in the availability of online programs for alcohol problems. A systematic review of the research evidence underpinning these programs is timely. Our objective was to review the efficacy of online interventions for alcohol misuse. Systematic searches of Medline, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and Scopus were conducted for English abstracts (excluding dissertations) published from 1998 onward. Search terms were: (1) Internet, Web*; (2) online, computer*; (3) alcohol*; and (4) E\\effect*, trial*, random* (where * denotes a wildcard). Forward and backward searches from identified papers were also conducted. Articles were included if (1) the primary intervention was delivered and accessed via the Internet, (2) the intervention focused on moderating or stopping alcohol consumption, and (3) the study was a randomized controlled trial of an alcohol-related screen, assessment, or intervention. The literature search initially yielded 31 randomized controlled trials (RCTs), 17 of which met inclusion criteria. Of these 17 studies, 12 (70.6%) were conducted with university students, and 11 (64.7%) specifically focused on at-risk, heavy, or binge drinkers. Sample sizes ranged from 40 to 3216 (median 261), with 12 (70.6%) studies predominantly involving brief personalized feedback interventions. Using published data, effect sizes could be extracted from 8 of the 17 studies. In relation to alcohol units per week or month and based on 5 RCTs where a measure of alcohol units per week or month could be extracted, differential effect sizes to posttreatment ranged from 0.02 to 0.81 (mean 0.42, median 0.54). Pre-post effect sizes for brief personalized feedback interventions ranged from 0.02 to 0.81, and in 2 multi-session modularized interventions, a pre-post effect size of 0.56 was obtained in both. Pre-post differential effect sizes for peak blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) ranged from 0.22 to 0.88, with a mean effect size of 0.66. The available
PURPOSE: Hirschsprung\\'s disease is characterised by the congenital absence of ganglion cells beginning in the distal rectum and extending proximally for varying distances. \\'Zonal aganglionosis\\' is a phenomenon involving a zone of aganglionosis occurring within normally innervated intestine. \\'Skip segment\\' Hirschsprung\\'s disease (SSHD) involves a \\'skip area\\' of normally ganglionated intestine, surrounded proximally and distally by aganglionosis. While Hirschsprung\\'s disease is believed to be the result of incomplete craniocaudal migration of neural crest-derived cells, the occurrence of SSHD has no clear embryological explanation. The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review of SSHD, reported in the literature between 1954 and 2009, in order to determine the clinical characteristics of this rare entity and its significance. METHODS: The first reported case of SSHD was published in 1954. A systematic review of SSHD cases in the literature, from 1954 to 2009, was carried out using the electronic database \\'Pubmed\\'. Detailed information was recorded regarding the age, gender, presenting symptoms and location of the skip segment in each patient. RESULTS: 24 cases of SSHD have been reported in the literature to date. 18\\/24 (75%) of these cases were males and 6\\/24 (25%) were females. Of these, 22\\/24 (92%) were cases of total colonic aganglionosis (TCA), and 2\\/24 (8%) were rectosigmoid Hirschsprung\\'s disease. Of the 22 TCA cases, 9 (41%) had a skip segment in the transverse colon, 6 (27%) in the ascending colon, 2 (9%) in the caecum and 5 (23%) had multiple skip segments. In both rectosigmoid Hirschsprung\\'s disease cases, the skip segment was in the sigmoid colon. Overall, the length of the skip segment was variable, with the entire transverse colon ganglionated in some cases. CONCLUSION: SSHD occurs predominantly in patients with TCA. The existence of a skip area of normally innervated colon in TCA may influence surgical
Strzelczyk, Adam; Reese, Jens Peter; Dodel, Richard; Hamer, Hajo M
The objective of this review was to overview published cost-of-illness (COI) studies of epilepsy and their methodological approaches. Epilepsy imposes a substantial burden on individuals and society as a whole. The mean prevalence of epilepsy is estimated at 0.52% in Europe, 0.68% in the US, and peaks up to 1.5% in developing countries. Estimation of the economic burden of epilepsy is of pivotal relevance to enable a rational distribution of healthcare resources. This is especially so with the introduction of the newer antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), the marketing of vagal-nerve stimulators and the resurgence of new surgical treatment options, which have the potential to considerably increase the costs of treating epilepsy.A systematic literature review was performed to identify studies that evaluated direct and indirect costs of epilepsy. Using a standardized assessment form, information on the study design, methodological framework and data sources were extracted from each publication and systematically reported. We identified 22 studies worldwide on costs of epilepsy. The majority of the studies reflected the costs of epilepsy in Europe (three studies each for the UK and Italy, one study each for Germany, the Netherlands, Switzerland, France and the EU) and the US (four studies), but studies were also available from India (two), Hong Kong, Oman, Burundi, Chile and Mexico. The studies utilized different frameworks to evaluate costs. All used a bottom-up approach; however, only 12 studies (55%) evaluated direct as well as indirect costs. The range for the mean annual direct costs lay between 40 International Dollar purchasing power parities (PPP-$) in rural Burundi and PPP-$4748 (adjusted to 2006 values) in a German epilepsy centre. Recent studies suggest AEDs are becoming the main contributor to direct costs. The mean indirect costs ranged between 12% and 85% of the total annual costs. Epilepsy is a cost-intensive disorder. A reliable comparison of the different COI
Full Text Available Abstract Background Systematic reviews provide clinical practice recommendations that are based on evaluation of primary evidence. When systematic reviews with the same aims have different conclusions, it is difficult to ascertain which review reported the most credible and robust findings. Methods This study examined five systematic reviews that have investigated the effectiveness of Pilates exercise in people with chronic low back pain. A four-stage process was used to interpret findings of the reviews. This process included comparison of research questions, included primary studies, and the level and quality of evidence of systematic reviews. Two independent reviewers assessed the level of evidence and the methodological quality of systematic reviews, using the National Health and Medical Research Council hierarchy of evidence, and the Revised Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews respectively. Any disagreements were resolved by a third researcher. Results A high level of consensus was achieved between the reviewers. Conflicting findings were reported by the five systematic reviews regarding the effectiveness of Pilates in reducing pain and disability in people with chronic low back pain. Authors of the systematic reviews included primary studies that did not match their questions in relation to treatment or population characteristics. A total of ten primary studies were identified across five systematic reviews. Only two of the primary studies were included in all of the reviews due to different inclusion criteria relating to publication date and status, definition of Pilates, and methodological quality. The level of evidence of reviews was low due to the methodological design of the primary studies. The methodological quality of reviews varied. Those which conducted a meta-analysis obtained higher scores. Conclusion There is inconclusive evidence that Pilates is effective in reducing pain and disability in people with chronic low back
Background Systematic reviews provide clinical practice recommendations that are based on evaluation of primary evidence. When systematic reviews with the same aims have different conclusions, it is difficult to ascertain which review reported the most credible and robust findings. Methods This study examined five systematic reviews that have investigated the effectiveness of Pilates exercise in people with chronic low back pain. A four-stage process was used to interpret findings of the reviews. This process included comparison of research questions, included primary studies, and the level and quality of evidence of systematic reviews. Two independent reviewers assessed the level of evidence and the methodological quality of systematic reviews, using the National Health and Medical Research Council hierarchy of evidence, and the Revised Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews respectively. Any disagreements were resolved by a third researcher. Results A high level of consensus was achieved between the reviewers. Conflicting findings were reported by the five systematic reviews regarding the effectiveness of Pilates in reducing pain and disability in people with chronic low back pain. Authors of the systematic reviews included primary studies that did not match their questions in relation to treatment or population characteristics. A total of ten primary studies were identified across five systematic reviews. Only two of the primary studies were included in all of the reviews due to different inclusion criteria relating to publication date and status, definition of Pilates, and methodological quality. The level of evidence of reviews was low due to the methodological design of the primary studies. The methodological quality of reviews varied. Those which conducted a meta-analysis obtained higher scores. Conclusion There is inconclusive evidence that Pilates is effective in reducing pain and disability in people with chronic low back pain. This is due to the small
Wells, Cherie; Kolt, Gregory S; Marshall, Paul; Hill, Bridget; Bialocerkowski, Andrea
Systematic reviews provide clinical practice recommendations that are based on evaluation of primary evidence. When systematic reviews with the same aims have different conclusions, it is difficult to ascertain which review reported the most credible and robust findings. This study examined five systematic reviews that have investigated the effectiveness of Pilates exercise in people with chronic low back pain. A four-stage process was used to interpret findings of the reviews. This process included comparison of research questions, included primary studies, and the level and quality of evidence of systematic reviews. Two independent reviewers assessed the level of evidence and the methodological quality of systematic reviews, using the National Health and Medical Research Council hierarchy of evidence, and the Revised Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews respectively. Any disagreements were resolved by a third researcher. A high level of consensus was achieved between the reviewers. Conflicting findings were reported by the five systematic reviews regarding the effectiveness of Pilates in reducing pain and disability in people with chronic low back pain. Authors of the systematic reviews included primary studies that did not match their questions in relation to treatment or population characteristics. A total of ten primary studies were identified across five systematic reviews. Only two of the primary studies were included in all of the reviews due to different inclusion criteria relating to publication date and status, definition of Pilates, and methodological quality. The level of evidence of reviews was low due to the methodological design of the primary studies. The methodological quality of reviews varied. Those which conducted a meta-analysis obtained higher scores. There is inconclusive evidence that Pilates is effective in reducing pain and disability in people with chronic low back pain. This is due to the small number and poor methodological
Full Text Available Chronic pain is common, often widespread and has a substantial impact on health and quality of life. The relationship between chronic pain and mortality is unclear. This systematic review aimed to identify and evaluate evidence for a relationship between chronic pain and mortality.A search of ten electronic databases including EMBASE and MEDLINE was conducted in March 2012, and updated until March 2014. Observational studies investigating the association between chronic or widespread pain (including fibromyalgia and mortality were included. Risk of bias was assessed and a meta-analysis was undertaken to quantify heterogeneity and pool results. A narrative review was undertaken to explore similarities and differences between the included studies.Ten studies were included in the review. Three reported significant associations between chronic or widespread pain and mortality in unadjusted results. In adjusted analyses, four studies reported a significant association. The remaining studies reported no statistically significant association. A meta-analysis showed statistically significant heterogeneity of results from studies using comparable outcome measures (n = 7(I2 = 78.8% and a modest but non-significant pooled estimate (MRR1.14,95%CI 0.95-1.37 for the relationship between chronic pain and all-cause mortality. This association was stronger when analysis was restricted to studies of widespread pain (n = 5,I2 = 82.3% MRR1.22(95%CI 0.93-1.60. The same pattern was observed with deaths from cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Heterogeneity is likely to be due to differences in study populations, follow-up time, pain phenotype, methods of analysis and use of confounding factors.This review showed a mildly increased risk of death in people with chronic pain, particularly from cancer. However, the small number of studies and methodological differences prevented clear conclusions from being drawn. Consistently applied definitions of
Petkovic, Jennifer; Welch, Vivian; Tugwell, Peter
Systematic reviews are important for decision-makers. They offer many potential benefits but are often written in technical language, are too long, and do not contain contextual details which makes them hard to use for decision-making. There are many organizations that develop and disseminate derivative products, such as evidence summaries, from systematic reviews for different populations or subsets of decision-makers. This systematic review will assess the effectiveness of systematic review summaries on increasing policymakers' use of systematic review evidence and to identify the components or features of these summaries that are most effective. We will include studies of policy-makers at all levels as well as health-system managers. We will include studies examining any type of "evidence summary," "policy brief," or other products derived from systematic reviews that present evidence in a summarized form. The primary outcomes are the following: (1) use of systematic review summaries decision-making (e.g., self-reported use of the evidence in policy-making, decision-making) and (2) policy-maker understanding, knowledge, and/or beliefs (e.g., changes in knowledge scores about the topic included in the summary). We will conduct a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), non-randomized controlled trials (NRCTs), controlled before-after studies (CBA), and interrupted time series (ITS) studies. The results of this review will inform the development of future systematic review summaries to ensure that systematic review evidence is accessible to and used by policy-makers making health-related decisions.
Full Text Available In countries with low tuberculosis (TB incidence, immigrants from higher incidence countries represent the major pool of individuals with latent TB infection (LTBI. The antenatal period represents an opportunity for immigrant women to access the medical system, and hence for potential screening and treatment of LTBI. However, such screening and treatment during pregnancy remains controversial.In order to further understand the prevalence, natural history, screening and management of LTBI in pregnancy, we conducted a systematic literature review addressing the screening and treatment of LTBI, in pregnant women without known HIV infection.A systematic review of 4 databases (Embase, Embase Classic, Medline, Cochrane Library covering articles published from January 1st 1980 to April 30th 2014. Articles in English, French or Spanish with relevant information on prevalence, natural history, screening tools, screening strategies and treatment of LTBI during pregnancy were eligible for inclusion. Articles were excluded if (1 Full text was not available (2 they were case series or case studies (3 they focused exclusively on prevalence, diagnosis and treatment of active TB (4 the study population was exclusively HIV-infected.Of 4,193 titles initially identified, 208 abstracts were eligible for review. Of these, 30 articles qualified for full text review and 22 were retained: 3 cohort studies, 2 case-control studies, and 17 cross-sectional studies. In the USA, the estimated prevalence of LTBI ranged from 14 to 48% in women tested, and tuberculin skin test (TST positivity was associated with ethnicity. One study suggested that incidence of active TB was significantly increased during the 180 days postpartum (Incidence rate ratio, 1.95 (95% CI 1.24-3.07. There was a high level of adherence with both skin testing (between 90-100% and chest radiography (93-100%.. In three studies from low incidence settings, concordance between TST and an interferon
Hicks, Angel Mier; DeRosa, Antonio; Raj, Micheal; Do, Richard; Yu, Kenneth H; Lowery, Maeve A; Varghese, Anna; O'Reilly, Eileen M
Within gastrointestinal malignancies, primary hepatocellular carcinoma and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) are frequently associated with visceral thromboses (VT). Thrombus formation in the portal (PVT), mesenteric (MVT), or splenic vein (SVT) system leads to portal hypertension and intestinal ischemia. VT in PDAC may convey a risk of increased distal thrombosis and poses therapeutic uncertainty regarding the role of anticoagulation. An increasing number of reports describe VT associated with PDAC. It is possible that early diagnosis of these events may help reduce morbidity and speculatively improve oncologic outcomes. To perform a systematic review to study PVT, MVT, and SVT associated with PDAC, and to provide a comprehensive review. Medline/PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Scopus, and the Cochrane Library. Data Extraction and Assessment: Two blinded independent observers extracted and assessed the studies for diagnosis of PVT, MVT, and SVT in PDAC. Studies were restricted to English-language literature published between 2007 and 2016. Eleven articles were identified. Five case reports and 7 retrospective studies were found, with a total of 127 patients meeting the inclusion criteria. The mean age at diagnosis was 64 years. PVT was found in 35% (n = 46), SVT in 52% (n = 65), and MVT in 13% (n = 15). Mean follow-up time was 26 months. Only 3 of the selected articles studied the impact of anticoagulation in VT. All patients with nonvisceral thrombosis (eg, deep-vein thrombosis, pulmonary emboli) were therapeutically treated; in contrast, patients with VT only rarely received treatment. VT in PDAC is a frequent finding at diagnosis or during disease progression. Evidence to guide treatment choices is limited, and current management is based on inferred experience from nononcologic settings. Anticoagulation appears to be safe in VT, with most of the large studies recommending a careful assessment for patients at a high risk of bleeding. Copyright © 2017
Cone, Eugene B.; Dalton, Stewart S.; Van Noord, Megan; Tracy, Elizabeth T.; Rice, Henry E.; Routh, Jonathan C.
Purpose Wilms tumor is the most common childhood renal malignancy and the fourth most common childhood cancer. Many biomarkers have been studied but there has been no comprehensive summary. We systematically reviewed the literature on biomarkers in Wilms Tumor with the objective of quantifying the prognostic implication of the presence of individual tumor markers. Methods We searched for English language studies from 1980–2015 performed on children with Wilms Tumor under 18 years old with prognostic data. The protocol was conducted as per PRISMA guidelines. Two reviewers abstracted data in duplicate using a standard evaluation form. We performed descriptive statistics, then calculated relative risks and 95% confidence intervals for markers appearing in multiple level 2 or 3 studies. Results 40 studies were included examining 32 biomarkers in 7381 Wilms patients. Studies had a median of 61 patients with 24 biomarker positive patients per study, and a median follow-up of 68.4 months. Median percent of patients in Stage 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 were 28.5%, 26.4%, 24.5%, 14.1%, and 1.7%, with 10.2% anaplasia. The strongest negative prognostic association was loss of heterozygosity on 11p15, with a risk of recurrence of 5.00, although loss of heterozygosity on 1p and gain of function on 1q were also strongly linked to increased recurrence (2.93 and 2.86 respectively). Conclusions Several tumor markers are associated with an increased risk of recurrence or a decreased risk of overall survival in Wilms Tumor. These data suggest targets for development of diagnostic tests and potential therapies. PMID:27259655
Catana, Dragos; Koziarz, Alex; Cenic, Aleksa; Nath, Siddharth; Singh, Sheila; Almenawer, Saleh A; Kachur, Edward
A variety of subdural pathologies that may mimic hematomas are reported in the literature. We aimed to identify the atypical clinical and radiologic presentations of subdural masses that may mimic subdural hematomas. A systematic review of MEDLINE and Embase was conducted independently by 2 reviewers to identify articles describing subdural hematoma mimickers. We also present a patient from our institution with a subdural pathology mimicking a subdural hematoma. We analyzed patient clinical presentations, underlying pathologies, radiologic findings, and clinical outcomes. We included 43 articles totaling 48 patients. The mean ± SD patient age was 55.7 ± 16.8 years. Of the 45 cases describing patient history, 13 patients (27%) had a history of trauma. The underlying pathologies of the 48 subdural collections were 10 metastasis (21%), 14 lymphoma (29%), 7 sarcoma (15%), 4 infectious (8%), 4 autoimmune (8%), and 9 miscellaneous (19%). Findings on computed tomography (CT) scan were 18 hyperdense (41%), 11 hypodense (25%), 9 isodense (20%), 3 isodense/hyperdense (7%), and 3 hypodense/isodense (7%). Thirty-four patients (71%) were treated surgically; among these patients, 65% had symptom resolution. Neither the pathology (P = 0.337) nor the management strategy (P = 0.671) was correlated with improved functional outcomes. Identification of atypical history and radiologic features should prompt further diagnostic tests, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), to elucidate the proper diagnosis, given that certain pathologies may be managed nonsurgically. A subdural collection that is hyperdense on CT scan and hyperintense on T2-weighted MRI, along with a history of progressive headache with no trauma, may raise the suspicion of an atypical subdural pathology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tofte, Josef N; CarlLee, Tyler L; Holte, Andrew J; Sitton, Sean E; Weinstein, Stuart L
A systematic review. The aim of this study was to provide an evidence-based recommendation for when and how to employ imaging studies when diagnosing back pain thought to be caused by spondylolysis in pediatric patients. Spondylolysis is a common structural cause of back pain in pediatric patients. The radiologic methods and algorithms used to diagnose spondylolysis are inconsistent among practitioners. A literature review was performed in PubMed and Cochrane databases using the search terms "spondylolysis," "pediatric," "adolescent," "juvenile," "young," "lumbar," "MRI," "bone scan," "CT," and "SPECT." After inclusion criteria were applied, 13 articles pertaining to diagnostic imaging of pediatric spondylolysis were analyzed. Ten papers included sensitivity calculations for comparing imaging performance. The average sensitivity of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with computed tomography (CT) as the standard of reference was 81.4%. When compared with single-photon emission CT (SPECT), the average sensitivity of CT was 85% and the sensitivity of MRI was 80%. Thirteen studies made a recommendation as to how best to perform diagnostic imaging of patients with clinically suspected spondylolysis. When compared with two-view plain films, bone scans had seven to nine times the effective radiation dose, while four-view plain films and CT were approximately double. Of the diagnostic methods examined, MRI was the most expensive followed by CT, bone scan, four-view plain films, and two-view plain films. Due to their efficacy, low cost, and low radiation exposure, we find two-view plain films to be the best initial study. With unusual presentations or refractory courses, practitioners should pursue advanced imaging. MRI should be used in early diagnosis and CT in more persistent courses. However, the lack of rigorous studies makes it difficult to formulate concrete recommendations. 3.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Systematic reviews (SRs should be up to date to maintain their importance in informing healthcare policy and practice. However, little guidance is available about when and how to update SRs. Moreover, the updating policies and practices of organizations that commission or produce SRs are unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The objective was to describe the updating practices and policies of agencies that sponsor or conduct SRs. An Internet-based survey was administered to a purposive non-random sample of 195 healthcare organizations within the international SR community. Survey results were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The completed response rate was 58% (n = 114 from across 26 countries with 70% (75/107 of participants identified as producers of SRs. Among responders, 79% (84/107 characterized the importance of updating as high or very-high and 57% (60/106 of organizations reported to have a formal policy for updating. However, only 29% (35/106 of organizations made reference to a written policy document. Several groups (62/105; 59% reported updating practices as irregular, and over half (53/103 of organizational respondents estimated that more than 50% of their respective SRs were likely out of date. Authors of the original SR (42/106; 40% were most often deemed responsible for ensuring SRs were current. Barriers to updating included resource constraints, reviewer motivation, lack of academic credit, and limited publishing formats. Most respondents (70/100; 70% indicated that they supported centralization of updating efforts across institutions or agencies. Furthermore, 84% (83/99 of respondents indicated they favoured the development of a central registry of SRs, analogous to efforts within the clinical trials community. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Most organizations that sponsor and/or carry out SRs consider updating important. Despite this recognition, updating practices are not regular, and many organizations lack
Allana Alexandre Cardoso
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Movement is a fundamental element of dance, and the dancer’s body is the raw material through which the art of dance is expressed; for this, it demands the utmost discipline in the pursuit of technical and artistic excellence. To meet the professional demands, dancers are subjected to strenuous training routines, which can lead to the development of injuries in this environment. The objective was to examine the etiology, main affected segments, prevalence, and instruments used to evaluate the lesions in studies with professional dancers and/or in comparison with similar populations. We selected articles published in the last decade in the databases BIREME, LILACS, MEDLINE EBSCO, WEB OF SCIENCE, SCOPUS (Elsevier, and PubMed, with cross-sectional, observational cohort and case control design published in Portuguese, English, or Spanish. Systematic reviews, case studies, dissertations, theses, book chapters, cross-referenced articles, and studies published outside of the last decade were not included. The search used combinations of the terms “dancing* and athletic injuries* and musculoskeletal* and pain*”. A principal investigator and two reviewers conducted the survey and analyzed all the potentially relevant articles, initially by the abstract and title. Twelve articles were included, with 1,149 participants (965 professional dancers of classical ballet, modern dance, contemporary dance, and breakdance, 104 amateur dancers, and 80 elite athletes. Nine studies found simultaneous lesions with emphasis on the foot and ankle (n=4, upper and lower limbs lesions (n=4 and lower and upper limb joints (n=1. Other studies have found lesions in the anterior cruciate ligament (n=3. There was no agreement regarding the instruments for detecting lesions in professional, pre-professional, and amateur dancers. There was a prevalence of studies aimed at classical ballet modality, evidencing a higher frequency of lower limb involvement in
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite abundant bereavement care options, consensus is lacking regarding optimal care for bereaved persons. Methods We conducted a systematic review, searching MEDLINE, PsychINFO, CINAHL, EBMR, and other databases using the terms (bereaved or bereavement and (grief combined with (intervention or support or counselling or therapy and (controlled or trial or design. We also searched citations in published reports for additional pertinent studies. Eligible studies had to evaluate whether the treatment of bereaved individuals reduced bereavement-related symptoms. Data from the studies was abstracted independently by two reviewers. Results 74 eligible studies evaluated diverse treatments designed to ameliorate a variety of outcomes associated with bereavement. Among studies utilizing a structured therapeutic relationship, eight featured pharmacotherapy (4 included an untreated control group, 39 featured support groups or counselling (23 included a control group, and 25 studies featured cognitive-behavioural, psychodynamic, psychoanalytical, or interpersonal therapies (17 included a control group. Seven studies employed systems-oriented interventions (all had control groups. Other than efficacy for pharmacological treatment of bereavement-related depression, we could identify no consistent pattern of treatment benefit among the other forms of interventions. Conclusions Due to a paucity of reports on controlled clinical trails, no rigorous evidence-based recommendation regarding the treatment of bereaved persons is currently possible except for the pharmacologic treatment of depression. We postulate the following five factors as impeding scientific progress regarding bereavement care interventions: 1 excessive theoretical heterogeneity, 2 stultifying between-study variation, 3 inadequate reporting of intervention procedures, 4 few published replication studies, and 5 methodological flaws of study design.
Full Text Available Background: Injuries are the second greatest cause of mortality in Iran. Information about the epidemiological pattern of injuries is effective in decision-making. In this regard, the aim of the current study is to elaborate on the epidemiology of injuries in Iran through a systematic review. Methods: Required data were collected searching the following key words and their Persian equivalents; trauma, injury, accident, epidemiology, prevalence, Pattern, etiology, risk factors and Iran. The following databases were searched: Google Scholar, PubMed, Scopus, MagIran, Iranian scientific information database (SID and Iran Medex. Some of the relevant journals and web sites were searched manually. The lists of references from the selected articles were also investigated. We have also searched the gray literature and consulted some experts. Results: Out of 2747 retrieved articles, 25 articles were finally included in the review. A total of 3234481 cases have been investigated. Mean (SD age among these cases was 30 (17.4 years. Males comprised 75.7% of all the patients. Only 31.1% of patients were transferred to hospital by ambulance. The most common mechanism of injuries was road traffic accidents (50.1%, followed by falls (22.3%. In road traffic accidents, motorcyclists have accounted for the majority of victims (45%. Roads were the most common accident scene for the injuries (57.5%. The most common injuries were to the head and neck. (47.3%. The mean (SD Injury Severity Score (ISS was 8.1(8.6%. The overall case-fatality proportion was 3.8% and 75% of all the mortalities related to road traffic accidents. Conclusions: The main priorities in reducing the burden of injuries include: the young, male target group, improving pre-hospital and ambulance services, preventing road traffic accidents, improving road safety and the safety of motorcyclists (compulsory helmet use, safer vehicles, dedicated motorcycle lanes.
Shenkin, Susan D; Harrison, Jennifer K; Wilkinson, Tim; Dodds, Richard M; Ioannidis, John P A
Systematic reviews and meta-analyses are increasingly common. This article aims to provide guidance for people conducting systematic reviews relevant to the healthcare of older people. An awareness of these issues will also help people reading systematic reviews to determine whether the results will influence their clinical practice. It is essential that systematic reviews are performed by a team which includes the required technical and clinical expertise. Those performing reviews for the first time should ensure they have appropriate training and support. They must be planned and performed in a transparent and methodologically robust way: guidelines are available. The protocol should be written-and if possible published-before starting the review. Geriatricians will be interested in a table of baseline characteristics, which will help to determine if the studied samples or populations are similar to their patients. Reviews of studies of older people should consider how they will manage issues such as different age cut-offs; non-specific presentations; multiple predictors and outcomes; potential biases and confounders. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses may provide evidence to improve older people's care, or determine where new evidence is required. Newer methodologies, such as meta-analyses of individual level data, network meta-analyses and umbrella reviews, and realist synthesis, may improve the reliability and clinical utility of systematic reviews. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society.
Marcelo do Amaral Ferreira
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: A systematic review on nickel-titanium wires was performed. The strategy was focused on Entrez-PubMed-OLDMEDLINE, Scopus and BioMed Central from 1963 to 2008. METHODS: Papers in English and French describing the behavior of these wires and laboratorial methods to identify crystalline transformation were considered. A total of 29 papers were selected. RESULTS: Nickel-titanium wires show exceptional features in terms of elasticity and shape memory effects. However, clinical applications request a deeper knowledge of these properties in order to allow the professional to use them in a rational manner. In addition, the necessary information regarding each alloy often does not correspond to the information given by the manufacturer. Many alloys called "superelastic" do not present this effect; they just behave as less stiff alloys, with a larger springback if compared to the stainless steel wires. CONCLUSIONS: Laboratory tests are the only means to observe the real behavior of these materials, including temperature transition range (TTR and applied tensions. However, it is also possible to determine in which TTR these alloys change the crystalline structure.
Pennisi, Paola; Tonacci, Alessandro; Tartarisco, Gennaro; Billeci, Lucia; Ruta, Liliana; Gangemi, Sebastiano; Pioggia, Giovanni
Social robotics could be a promising method for Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) treatment. The aim of this article is to carry out a systematic literature review of the studies on this topic that were published in the last 10 years. We tried to address the following questions: can social robots be a useful tool in autism therapy? We followed the PRISMA guidelines, and the protocol was registered within PROSPERO database (CRD42015016158). We found many positive implications in the use of social robots in therapy as for example: ASD subjects often performed better with a robot partner rather than a human partner; sometimes, ASD patients had, toward robots, behaviors that TD patients had toward human agents; ASDs had a lot of social behaviors toward robots; during robotic sessions, ASDs showed reduced repetitive and stereotyped behaviors and, social robots manage to improve spontaneous language during therapy sessions. Therefore, robots provide therapists and researchers a means to connect with autistic subjects in an easier way, but studies in this area are still insufficient. It is necessary to clarify whether sex, intelligence quotient, and age of participants affect the outcome of therapy and whether any beneficial effects only occur during the robotic session or if they are still observable outside the clinical/experimental context. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Sawin, Erika Metzler; Sobel, Linda L; Annan, Sandra L; Schminkey, Donna L
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a global public health and criminal justice concern with significant impacts; especially high rates are seen among rural Hispanic American (HA) communities, the fastest growing population in the United States. They experience additional barriers to care including extreme poverty, lesser education, gender norms, and language and immigration issues. A systematic literature review was conducted using Cooper's framework to identify evidence supporting associations between interventions and prevention, reduction, and elimination of IPV among rural HA women. Searches conducted on databases including CINAHL, PubMed, Medline, Women's Studies International, MedicLatina, and JSTOR used the MeSH terms Hispanic Americans (Latino/a and Hispanic), domestic violence, and intimate partner violence. Selected studies were published between January 1, 2000, and January 1, 2014. Of the 617 yielded articles, only 6 met the inclusion criteria. Of these, none closely examined rurality or provided valid and reliable measures of outcomes, instead reporting program descriptions and suggested interventions. We identify key findings to guide program, screening, and tool development. Our study identifies a gap in knowledge, research, and effective practices and issues a call for action to create evidence-based tools to prevent, reduce, and eliminate IPV in these underserved populations.
Sara Mota Borges Bottino
Full Text Available Cyberbullying is a new form of violence that is expressed through electronic media and has given rise to concern for parents, educators and researchers. In this paper, an association between cyberbullying and adolescent mental health will be assessed through a systematic review of two databases: PubMed and Virtual Health Library (BVS. The prevalence of cyberbullying ranged from 6.5% to 35.4%. Previous or current experiences of traditional bullying were associated with victims and perpetrators of cyberbullying. Daily use of three or more hours of Internet, web camera, text messages, posting personal information and harassing others online were associated with cyberbullying. Cybervictims and cyberbullies had more emotional and psychosomatic problems, social difficulties and did not feel safe and cared for in school. Cyberbullying was associated with moderate to severe depressive symptoms, substance use, ideation and suicide attempts. Health professionals should be aware of the violent nature of interactions occurring in the virtual environment and its harm to the mental health of adolescents.
Baccari, Ivana Oliveira Preto; Campos, Rosana Teresa Onocko; Stefanello, Sabrina
The concept of recovery has been described in papers as a state of psychic, physical and social recuperation of day-to-day functions. The scope of this article is to analyze the concepts of the term in different research methodologies and the paradigmatic evolution of the recovery concept. Systematic bibliographical research was conducted in the Pubmed database using the words "recovery + schizophrenia" limited to freely available full papers published in the previous two years. Nineteen papers were analyzed. The majority of the papers sought associations between characteristic data and recovery; few papers discussed the concept in a way to distinguish it from other words like cure or rehabilitation. Recovery as a state in which people with severe mental illness can feel like the creators of their own itinerary tend to be found in qualitative studies and in bibliographic reviews in which the meaning of recovery is not related to the lack of symptoms and tends to prioritize how participative the life of an individual can be despite the disease. Some quantitative studies detect this conceptual difference. In qualitative research there is an increase in the concept of recovery and in ways of promoting it.
Castelló-Botía, I; Wanden-Berghe, C; Sanz-Valero, J
The nutritional registries are data bases through which we obtain the information to understand the nutrition of populations. Several main nutrition societies of the world have these types of registries, outstanding the NADYA (Home artificial and Ambulatory nutrition) group in Spain. The object of this study is to determine by means of a systematic review, the existent scientific production in the international data bases referred to nutritional support registries. Descriptive transversal study of the results of a critical bibliographic research done in the bioscience data bases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library, ISI (Web of Sciences), LILACS, CINHAL. A total of 20 original articles related to nutritional registries were found and recovered. Eleven registries of eight countries were identified: Australia, Germany, Italy, Japan, Spain, Sweden, United Status and United Kingdom. The Price Index was of 65% and all the articles were published in the last 20 years. The Price Index highlights the innovativeness of this practice. The articles related to nutritional support are heterogeneous with respect to data and population, which exposes this as a limitation for a combined analysis.
Chacón, Fernando; Gutiérrez, Gema; Sauto, Verónica; Vecina, María L; Pérez, Alfonso
The objective of this research study was to conduct a systematic review of the research on volunteers using Clary et al.’s VFI (1998). A total of 48 research studies including 67 independent samples met eligibility criteria. The total sample of the studies analyzed ranged from 20375 to 21988 participants, depending on the motivation analyzed. The results show that the Values factor obtained the highest mean score, both overall and in each type of volunteering, whereas the lowest scores were for the Career and Enhancement factors. Studies conducted with samples with a mean age under 40 years obtain higher scores on Career and Understanding scales when compared to studies in older samples. The group of studies with less than 50% women yield higher mean scores on the Social scale than studies with more than 50% women in the sample. All the scales show reliability coefficients between .78 and .84. Only eight of the articles provide data on the reliability of the scale with a mean value of .90. Of the 26 studies that performed factor analysis, 18 confirmed the original structure of six factors.
Full Text Available Ginsenoside Rk1 (G-Rk1 is a unique component created by processing the ginseng plant (mainly Sung Ginseng (SG at high temperatures. The aim of our study was to systematically review the pharmacological effects of G-Rk1. We utilized and manually searched eight databases to select in vivo and in vitro original studies that provided information about biological, pharmaceutical effects of G-Rk1 and were published up to July 2017 with no restriction on language or study design. Out of the 156 papers identified, we retrieved 28 eligible papers in the first skimming phase of research. Several articles largely described the G-Rk1 anti-cancer activity investigating “cell viability”, “cell proliferation inhibition”, “apoptotic activity”, and “effects of G-Rk1 on G1 phase and autophagy in tumor cells” either alone or in combination with G-Rg5. Others proved that it has antiplatelet aggregation activities, anti-inflammatory effects, anti-insulin resistance, nephroprotective effect, antimicrobial effect, cognitive function enhancement, lipid accumulation reduction and prevents osteoporosis. In conclusion, G-Rk1 has a significant anti-tumor effect on liver cancer, melanoma, lung cancer, cervical cancer, colon cancer, pancreatic cancer, gastric cancer, and breast adenocarcinoma against in vitro cell lines. In vivo experiments are further warranted to confirm these effects.
Noel Torres Júnior
Full Text Available Through the method of Systematic Review of Literature (SRL, this study conducted an analysis of productivity in services. For this purpose, fourteen journals of Operations Management and Scielo database were consulted. The studies were analyzed with respect to six criteria for classification: i type of study, ii investigated business sector, iii affiliation of authors, iv prevailing methodological approach, v themes, e vi methods used in comparative analyzes of performance. It was found that the greatest amount of work used the modeling approach to assess the productivity, particularly by linear programming methodology - Data Analysis Envelopment (DEA. It was observed that the vast majority of authors are academic, there are few publications of researchers from companies or that have both types of researchers. The study identified four recurring themes in the articles. Then, some studies have focused on the establishment of productivity indicators and their analysis over time, comparing the performance of different firms or industries. Other studies have identified the characteristics and difficulties of measuring productivity in services in relation to manufacturing companies. Different studies have proposed indicators to measure productivity in services. Finally, in light of the main textbooks on operation's management and service literature, this study identified key strategies and methods for improving productivity in services. It was found that the theme productivity in services is a promising research topic.
Haddaway, Neal R; Bilotta, Gary S
The volume of scientific literature continues to expand and decision-makers are faced with increasingly unmanageable volumes of evidence to assess. Systematic reviews (SRs) are powerful tools that aim to provide comprehensive, transparent, reproducible and updateable summaries of evidence. SR methods were developed, and have been employed, in healthcare for more than two decades, and they are now widely used across a broad range of topics, including environmental management and social interventions in crime and justice, education, international development, and social welfare. Despite these successes and the increasing acceptance of SR methods as a 'gold standard' in evidence-informed policy and practice, misconceptions still remain regarding their applicability. The aim of this article is to separate fact from fiction, addressing twelve common misconceptions that can influence the decision as to whether a SR is the most appropriate method for evidence synthesis for a given topic. Through examples, we illustrate the flexibility of SR methods and demonstrate their suitability for addressing issues on environmental health and chemical risk assessment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ngo, Jennifer; Holroyd-Leduc, Jayna M
dementia is a highly prevalent acquired cognitive disorder that interferes with activities of daily living, relationships and quality of life. Recognition and effective management strategies are necessary to provide comprehensive care for these patients and their families. High-quality clinical practice guidelines can improve the quality and consistency of care in all aspects of dementia diagnosis and management by clarifying interventions supported by sound evidence and by alerting clinicians to interventions without proven benefit. we aimed to offer a synthesis of existing practice recommendations for the diagnosis and management of dementia, based upon moderate-to-high quality dementia guidelines. we performed a systematic search in EMBASE and MEDLINE as well as the grey literature for guidelines produced between 2008 and 2013. thirty-nine retrieved practice guidelines were included for quality appraisal by the Appraisal of Guidelines Research and Evaluation II (AGREE-II) tool, performed by two independent reviewers. From the 12 moderate-to-high quality guidelines included, specific practice recommendations for the diagnosis and/or management of any aspect of dementia were extracted for comparison based upon the level of evidence and strength of recommendation. there was a general agreement between guidelines for many practice recommendations. However, direct comparisons between guidelines were challenging due to variations in grading schemes. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Tabassum, Sadia; Adnan, Samira; Khan, Farhan Raza
The aim of this systematic review was to assess the gingival retraction methods in terms of the amount of gingival retraction achieved and changes observed in various clinical parameters: gingival index (GI), plaque index (PI), probing depth (PD), and attachment loss (AL). Data sources included three major databases, PubMed, CINAHL plus (Ebsco), and Cochrane, along with hand search. Search was made using the key terms in different permutations of gingival retraction* AND displacement method* OR technique* OR agents OR material* OR medicament*. The initial search results yielded 145 articles which were narrowed down to 10 articles using a strict eligibility criteria of including clinical trials or experimental studies on gingival retraction methods with the amount of tooth structure gained and assessment of clinical parameters as the outcomes conducted on human permanent teeth only. Gingival retraction was measured in 6/10 studies whereas the clinical parameters were assessed in 5/10 studies. The total number of teeth assessed in the 10 included studies was 400. The most common method used for gingival retraction was chemomechanical. The results were heterogeneous with regards to the outcome variables. No method seemed to be significantly superior to the other in terms of gingival retraction achieved. Clinical parameters were not significantly affected by the gingival retraction method. © 2016 by the American College of Prosthodontists.
Hajimonfarednejad, Mahdie; Ostovar, Mohadeseh; Raee, Mohammad Javad; Hashempur, Mohammad Hashem; Mayer, Johannes Gottfried; Heydari, Mojtaba
Cinnamon, from the genus Cinnamomum and Lauraceae family, has been used as a popular spice for thousands of years around the world. Many studies have shown therapeutic effects of cinnamon including its antimicrobial, antiviral, antifungal, antioxidant, antitumor, antihypertensive, antilipemic, antidiabetic, gastroprotective, and immunomodulatory effects. Due to popular use of cinnamon and several human reports on adverse events associated with short or long term use of cinnamon, we aimed to systematically review its human reports of adverse event. Databases including Medline, Scopus, Science Direct, Embase, PubMed Central and Google scholar were searched using the key words "cinnamon" or "cinnamomum" for clinical trials, case reports and case series. Also spontaneous reports about adverse effects of cinnamon were collected from five national and international spontaneous reporting schemes. Thirty eight clinical trials were found, five of them reported adverse events. Twenty case reports and seven case series, as well as, spontaneous reports including 160 adverse events were also included. The most frequent adverse events were gastrointestinal disorders and allergic reactions which were self-limiting in the majority of cases. The available data suggests that despite the safety of cinnamon use as a spice and/or flavoring agent, its use may be associated with significant adverse effects in medicinal uses with larger doses or longer duration of use and should be clinically monitored. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.
Hugo Fabiano Fernandes Novaes
Full Text Available Objective To conduct a systematic review on single scrotal incision orchiopexy. Materials and Methods A search was performed using Pubmed, through which 16 articles were selected out of a total of 133. The following conditions were considered exclusion criteria: other surgical methods such as an inguinal procedure or a laparoscopic approach, retractile testes, or patients with previous testicular or inguinal surgery. Results A total of 1558 orchiopexy surgeries initiated with a transcrotal incision were analyzed. Patients' ages ranged between 5 months and 21 years. Thirteen studies used high scrotal incisions, and low scrotal incisions were performed in the remainder of the studies. In 55 cases (3.53%, there was a need for inguinal incision. Recurrence was observed in 9 cases, testicular atrophy in 3, testicular hypotrophy in 2, and surgical site infections in 13 cases. High efficacy rates were observed, varying between 88% and 100%. Conclusions Single scrotal incision orchiopexy proved to be an effective technique and is associated with low rates of complications.
Bottino, Sara Mota Borges; Bottino, Cássio M C; Regina, Caroline Gomez; Correia, Aline Villa Lobo; Ribeiro, Wagner Silva
Cyberbullying is a new form of violence that is expressed through electronic media and has given rise to concern for parents, educators and researchers. In this paper, an association between cyberbullying and adolescent mental health will be assessed through a systematic review of two databases: PubMed and Virtual Health Library (BVS). The prevalence of cyberbullying ranged from 6.5% to 35.4%. Previous or current experiences of traditional bullying were associated with victims and perpetrators of cyberbullying. Daily use of three or more hours of Internet, web camera, text messages, posting personal information and harassing others online were associated with cyberbullying. Cybervictims and cyberbullies had more emotional and psychosomatic problems, social difficulties and did not feel safe and cared for in school. Cyberbullying was associated with moderate to severe depressive symptoms, substance use, ideation and suicide attempts. Health professionals should be aware of the violent nature of interactions occurring in the virtual environment and its harm to the mental health of adolescents.
O'Callaghan, Clare; Bonde, Lars Ole; Rickson, Daphne
This paper describes the kinds of literature reviews found in music therapy writings and offers ideas for authors preparing literature reviews related to their clinical practice and research. It includes a description of systematic review and lists samples of literature reviews and systematic...
Verkaik, R.; Weert, J.C.M. van; Francke, A.L.
OBJECTIVES: This systematic review seeks to establish the extent of scientific evidence for the effectiveness of 13 psychosocial methods for reducing depressed, aggressive or apathetic behaviors in people with dementia. METHODS: The guidelines of the Cochrane Collaboration were followed. Using a
Verkaik, R.; van Weert, J.C.M.; Francke, A.L.
OBJECTIVES: This systematic review seeks to establish the extent of scientific evidence for the effectiveness of 13 psychosocial methods for reducing depressed, aggressive or apathetic behaviors in people with dementia. METHODS: The guidelines of the Cochrane Collaboration were followed. Using a
Aleman, Alicia; Tomasso, Giselle; Cafferata, María Luisa; Colomar, Mercedes; Betran, Ana Pilar
It is critical to increase the uptake of interventions proven to be effective to improve maternal and perinatal outcomes. Supply kits have been suggested to be a feasible strategy designed to ensure timely availability and effective follow-up of care. We conducted a systematic review to summarize the evidence on the uptake, effectiveness and safety of supply kits for maternal care. MEDLINE, the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register, Campbell Collaboration, Lilacs, Embase and unpublished studies were searched. Studies that reported the efficacy, safety and use of supply kits for maternal healthcare were eligible. Participants were pregnant women or in childbirth. Supply kits were defined as a collection of medicines, supplies or instruments packaged together with the aim of conducting a healthcare task. Two reviewers independently performed the screening, data extraction, and methodological and quality assessment. 24 studies were included: 4 of them were systematic reviews and 20 primary studies. Eighteen studies evaluated a so-called "clean delivery kit". In all but two studies, the kits were used by more than half of the participants. A meta-analysis was deemed inappropriate due to the heterogeneity in study design, in the components of the interventions implemented, in the content of the kits, and in outcomes. Nine studies assessed neonatal outcomes and found statistically significant reductions in cord infection, sepsis and tetanus-related mortality in the intervention group. Three studies showed evidence of reduced neonatal mortality (OR 0.52, 0.60 and 0.71) with statistically significant confidence intervals in all cases. Four studies reported odd ratios for maternal mortality, but only one showed evidence of a statistically significant decrease in this outcome but it was ascribed to hand washing prior to childbirth and not with the use of kits. This review suggests potential benefits in the use of supply kits to improve maternal and
Hirbod-Mobarakeh, Armin; Gordan, Hesam Addin; Zahiri, Zahra; Mirshahvalad, Mohammad; Hosseinverdi, Sima; Rini, Brian I; Rezaei, Nima
Renal cell cancer (RCC) is the tenth most common malignancy in adults. In recent years, several approaches of active and passive immunotherapy have been studied extensively in clinical trials of patients with RCC. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the clinical efficacy of various approaches of specific immunotherapy in patients with RCC. We searched Medline, Scopus, CENTRAL, TRIP, DART, OpenGrey and ProQuest without any language filter through to 9 October 2015. One author reviewed search results for irrelevant and duplicate studies and two other authors independently extracted data from the studies. We collated study findings and calculated a weighted treatment effect across studies using Review Manager (version 5.3. Copenhagen: The Nordic Cochrane Centre, the Cochrane Collaboration). We identified 14 controlled studies with 4013 RCC patients after excluding irrelevant and duplicate studies from 11,319 references retrieved from a literature search. Overall, five autologous tumor cell vaccines, one peptide-based vaccine, one virus-based vaccine and one dendritic cell (DC)-based vaccine were studied in nine controlled studies of active specific immunotherapies. A total of three passive immunotherapies including autologous cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells, auto lymphocyte therapy (ALT) and autologous lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells were studied in four controlled studies. The clinical efficacy of tumor lysate-pulsed DCs, with CIK cells was studied in one controlled trial concurrently. The overall quality of studies was fair. Meta-analysis of seven studies showed that patients undergoing specific immunotherapy had significantly higher overall survival (OS) than those in the control group [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.72; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.58-0.89, p = 0.003]. In addition, a meta-analysis of four studies showed that there was a significant difference in progression-free survival (PFS) between patients undergoing specific immunotherapy
Mogollon, Jaime Andres; Boivin, Catherine; Philippe, Kadhel; Turcotte, Stéphane; Lemieux, Simone; Blanchet, Claudine; Bujold, Emmanuel; Dodin, Sylvie
Previous studies have been limited in reporting the association between chocolate consumption, measured by interviewer-administered questionnaire or serum theobromine, a biomarker for cocoa, and risk of preeclampsia, and have showed somewhat conflicting results. A systematic review of observational and experimental studies will be carried out. We will examine PubMed, Embase, and the entire Cochrane Library. Studies of chocolate consumption compared or not with placebo or low flavanol chocolate during pregnancy will be evaluated to investigate the effect of chocolate consumption in pregnant women on the risk of preeclampsia or pregnancy-induced hypertension. Screening for inclusion, data extraction, and quality assessment will be performed independently by two reviewers in consultation with a third reviewer. Validity of the studies will be ascertained by using the Cochrane Collaboration's tool. Relative risk of preeclampsia will be the primary measure of treatment effect. Heterogeneity will be explored by subgroup analysis according to confounding factors and bias. This systematic review will contribute to establish the current state of knowledge concerning the possible association between chocolate consumption and prevention of preeclampsia. Furthermore, it will justify if additional experimental trials are necessary to better evaluate the benefits of chocolate consumption on the risk of preeclampsia. This systematic review has been registered in the PROSPERO international prospective register of systematic reviews. The registration number is: CRD42013005338.
Cheston, Christine C; Flickinger, Tabor E; Chisolm, Margaret S
The authors conducted a systematic review of the published literature on social media use in medical education to answer two questions: (1) How have interventions using social media tools affected outcomes of satisfaction, knowledge, attitudes, and skills for physicians and physicians-in-training? and (2) What challenges and opportunities specific to social media have educators encountered in implementing these interventions? The authors searched the MEDLINE, CINAHL, ERIC, Embase, PsycINFO, ProQuest, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and Scopus databases (from the start of each through September 12, 2011) using keywords related to social media and medical education. Two authors independently reviewed the search results to select peer-reviewed, English-language articles discussing social media use in educational interventions at any level of physician training. They assessed study quality using the Medical Education Research Study Quality Instrument. Fourteen studies met inclusion criteria. Interventions using social media tools were associated with improved knowledge (e.g., exam scores), attitudes (e.g., empathy), and skills (e.g., reflective writing). The most commonly reported opportunities related to incorporating social media tools were promoting learner engagement (71% of studies), feedback (57%), and collaboration and professional development (both 36%). The most commonly cited challenges were technical issues (43%), variable learner participation (43%), and privacy/security concerns (29%). Studies were generally of low to moderate quality; there was only one randomized controlled trial. Social media use in medical education is an emerging field of scholarship that merits further investigation. Educators face challenges in adapting new technologies, but they also have opportunities for innovation.
Full Text Available Due to the fact that geospatial information technology is considered necessary for disaster risk management (DRM, the need for more effective collaborations between providers and end users in data delivery is increasing. This paper reviews the following: (i schemes of disaster risk management and collaborative data operation in DRM; (ii geospatial information technology in terms of applications to the schemes reviewed; and (iii ongoing practices of collaborative data delivery with the schemes reviewed. This paper concludes by discussing the future of collaborative data delivery and the progress of the technologies.
Qalehsari, Mojtaba Qanbari; Khaghanizadeh, Morteza; Ebadi, Abbas
Lifelong learning is an expectation in the professional performance of nurses, which is directly related to the success of students in nursing schools. In spite of the considerable attention paid to this issue, lifelong learning strategies are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to clarify lifelong learning strategies of nursing students with respect to international experience. In this systematic review, an extensive investigation was carried out using Persian and English studies in Pub Med, ProQuest, Cochrane, Ovid, Scopus, Web of Science, SID, and Iran Doc using the following keywords: lifelong learning, self-directed learning, lifelong learning model, continuing education, nursing education, and lifelong program. Finally, 22 articles published from 1994 to 2016 were selected for the final analysis. Data extracted from the selected articles was summarized and classified based on the research questions. In this study, 8 main themes, namely intellectual and practical independence, collaborative (cooperative) learning, researcher thinking, persistence in learning, need-based learning, learning management, suitable learning environment, and inclusive growth, were extracted from the article data. Having identified and clarified lifelong learning strategies in nursing, it is recommended to use the research findings in the programs and teaching systems of nursing schools. Use of strategies of lifelong learning will led to increased quality of education, development of nursing competency and finally, increased quality of patient care.
Williams, A; Biffen, A; Pilkington, N; Arrick, L; Williams, R J; Smith, M E; Smith, M; Birchall, J
The management of epistaxis requires an understanding of haematological factors that may complicate its treatment. This systematic review includes six distinct reviews examining the evidence supporting epistaxis-specific management strategies relating to warfarin, direct oral anticoagulants, heparin, antiplatelet agents, tranexamic acid and transfusion. A systematic review of the literature was performed using a standardised methodology and search strategy. Limited numbers of articles were identified in each systematic review, with level 1 evidence only regarding the use of tranexamic acid. No studies met the inclusion criteria within the heparin, direct oral anticoagulants or transfusion systematic reviews. Many studies were limited by small sample sizes and significant risk of bias. The management of major bleeding and transfusion practice is well documented in national guidance from multiple sources. The guidelines include advice on anticoagulants, antiplatelet agents and tranexamic acid. In the absence of more specific evidence, these guidelines should be applied in the management of epistaxis.
Mandala, Mahender Arjun
A cornerstone of design and design education is frequent situated feedback. With increasing class sizes, and shrinking financial and human resources, providing rich feedback to students becomes increasingly difficult. In the field of writing, web-based peer review--the process of utilizing equal status learners within a class to provide feedback to each other on their work using networked computing systems--has been shown to be a reliable and valid source of feedback in addition to improving student learning. Designers communicate in myriad ways, using the many languages of design and combining visual and descriptive information. This complex discourse of design intent makes peer reviews by design students ambiguous and often not helpful to the receivers of this feedback. Furthermore, engaging students in the review process itself is often difficult. Teams can complement individual diversity and may assist novice designers collectively resolve complex task. However, teams often incur production losses and may be impacted by individual biases. In the current work, we look at utilizing a collaborative team of reviewers, working collectively and synchronously, in generating web based peer reviews in a sophomore engineering design class. Students participated in a cross-over design, conducting peer reviews as individuals and collaborative teams in parallel sequences. Raters coded the feedback generated on the basis of their appropriateness and accuracy. Self-report surveys and passive observation of teams conducting reviews captured student opinion on the process, its value, and the contrasting experience they had conducting team and individual reviews. We found team reviews generated better quality feedback in comparison to individual reviews. Furthermore, students preferred conducting reviews in teams, finding the process 'fun' and engaging. We observed several learning benefits of using collaboration in reviewing including improved understanding of the assessment
Leibovici, Leonard; Paul, Mical; Garner, Paul
Antibiotics are among the most important interventions in healthcare. Resistance of bacteria to antibiotics threatens the effectiveness of treatment. Systematic reviews of antibiotic treatments often do not address resistance to antibiotics even when data are available in the original studies....... This omission creates a skewed view, which emphasizes short-term efficacy and ignores the long-term consequences to the patient and other people. We offer a framework for addressing antibiotic resistance in systematic reviews. We suggest that the data on background resistance in the original trials should...... controlled trials or systematic reviews....
Fitzstevens, John L; Smith, Kelsey C; Hagadorn, James I; Caimano, Melissa J; Matson, Adam P; Brownell, Elizabeth A
Human milk-associated microbes are among the first to colonize the infant gut and may help to shape both short- and long-term infant health outcomes. We performed a systematic review to characterize the microbiota of human milk. Relevant primary studies were identified through a comprehensive search of PubMed (January 1, 1964, to June 31, 2015). Included studies were conducted among healthy mothers, were written in English, identified bacteria in human milk, used culture-independent methods, and reported primary results at the genus level. Twelve studies satisfied inclusion criteria. All varied in geographic location and human milk collection/storage/analytic methods. Streptococcus was identified in human milk samples in 11 studies (91.6%) and Staphylococcus in 10 (83.3%); both were predominant genera in 6 (50%). Eight of the 12 studies used conventional ribosomal RNA (rRNA) polymerase chain reaction (PCR), of which 7 (87.5%) identified Streptococcus and 6 (80%) identified Staphylococcus as present. Of these 8 studies, 2 (25%) identified Streptococcus and Staphylococcus as predominant genera. Four of the 12 studies used next-generation sequencing (NGS), all of which identified Streptococcus and Staphylococcus as present and predominant genera. Relative to conventional rRNA PCR, NGS is a more sensitive method to identify/quantify bacterial genera in human milk, suggesting the predominance of Streptococcus and Staphylococcus may be underestimated in studies using older methods. These genera, Streptococcus and Staphylococcus, may be universally predominant in human milk, regardless of differences in geographic location or analytic methods. Primary studies designed to evaluate the effect of these 2 genera on short- and long-term infant outcomes are warranted.
Burns, E.M.; Rigby, E.; Mamidanna, R.; Bottle, A.; Aylin, P.; Ziprin, P.; Faiz, O.D.
Introduction Routinely collected data sets are increasingly used for research, financial reimbursement and health service planning. High quality data are necessary for reliable analysis. This study aims to assess the published accuracy of routinely collected data sets in Great Britain. Methods Systematic searches of the EMBASE, PUBMED, OVID and Cochrane databases were performed from 1989 to present using defined search terms. Included studies were those that compared routinely collected data sets with case or operative note review and those that compared routinely collected data with clinical registries. Results Thirty-two studies were included. Twenty-five studies compared routinely collected data with case or operation notes. Seven studies compared routinely collected data with clinical registries. The overall median accuracy (routinely collected data sets versus case notes) was 83.2% (IQR: 67.3–92.1%). The median diagnostic accuracy was 80.3% (IQR: 63.3–94.1%) with a median procedure accuracy of 84.2% (IQR: 68.7–88.7%). There was considerable variation in accuracy rates between studies (50.5–97.8%). Since the 2002 introduction of Payment by Results, accuracy has improved in some respects, for example primary diagnoses accuracy has improved from 73.8% (IQR: 59.3–92.1%) to 96.0% (IQR: 89.3–96.3), P= 0.020. Conclusion Accuracy rates are improving. Current levels of reported accuracy suggest that routinely collected data are sufficiently robust to support their use for research and managerial decision-making. PMID:21795302
Sayegh, Eli T; Strauch, Robert J
The optimal management of olecranon bursitis is ill-defined. The purposes of this review were to systematically evaluate clinical outcomes for aseptic versus septic bursitis, compare surgical versus nonsurgical management, and examine the roles of corticosteroid injection and aspiration in aseptic bursitis. The English-language literature was searched using PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Physiotherapy Evidence Database, Allied and Complementary Medicine, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Analyses were performed for clinical resolution and complications after treatment of aseptic and/or septic olecranon bursitis. Twenty-nine studies containing 1278 patients were included. Compared with septic bursitis, aseptic bursitis was associated with a significantly higher overall complication rate (p = 0.0108). Surgical management was less likely to clinically resolve septic or aseptic bursitis (p = 0.0476), and demonstrated higher rates of overall complications (p = 0.0117), persistent drainage (p = 0.0194), and bursal infection (p = 0.0060) than nonsurgical management. Corticosteroid injection for aseptic bursitis was associated with increased overall complications (p = 0.0458) and skin atrophy (p = 0.0261). Aspiration did not increase the risk of bursal infection for aseptic bursitis. Based primarily on level IV evidence, nonsurgical management of olecranon bursitis is significantly more effective and safer than surgical management. The clinical course of aseptic bursitis appears to be more complicated than that of septic bursitis. Corticosteroid injection is associated with significant risks without improving the outcome of aseptic bursitis. Therapeutic IV.
Lopez, Laureen M; Hiller, Janet E; Grimes, David A
Contraceptive education is generally considered a standard component of postpartum care, but the effectiveness is seldom examined. Two-thirds of postpartum women may have unmet needs for contraception, and many adolescents become pregnant again within a year of giving birth. Women may prefer to discuss contraception prenatally or after hospital discharge. The objective of this systematic review was to assess the effects of educational interventions for postpartum mothers about contraceptive use. We searched computerized databases for randomized controlled trials that evaluated the effectiveness of postpartum contraceptive education. The intervention must have started within 1 month after delivery. The Mantel-Haenszel odds ratio was calculated with 95% confidence interval for the dichotomous outcomes. Eight trials met the inclusion criteria. Of 4 short-term interventions, 1 did not have sufficient data and 1 was statistically underpowered. The remaining 2 showed a positive effect on contraceptive use. Of 4 multifaceted programs, 2 showed fewer pregnancies or births among adolescents in the experimental group that had enhanced services, and 1 structured home-visiting program showed more contraceptive use. The effective interventions were conducted in Australia, Nepal, Pakistan, and the United States. Postpartum education about contraception led to more contraception use and fewer unplanned pregnancies. Short-term interventions were limited by self-reported outcomes or showing no effect for many comparisons. The longer-term programs were promising and not necessarily more costly than usual care. Health care providers can determine if 1 of these interventions suits their setting and level of resources. Obstetricians & Gynecologist, Family Physicians. After completing this educational activity, the participant should be better able to assess the importance of assessing delivery methods when examining intervention quality, evaluate the evidence from randomized trials on
Rafael Miranda Tassitano
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to systematically review the Brazilian literature on the prevalence of obesity and associated factors in adolescents. The literature search was carried out in the electronic databases Pubmed and Bireme, using the keywords: obesity, overweight, BMI, adolescents and Brazil. The following inclusion criteria were considered: Brazilian adolescents, BMI-based obesity estimates, publication until 2007, and adequate methodology. After the examination of titles, abstracts and full texts, 27 papers fulfilled our inclusion criteria. For describing the studies, the following variables were used: type of survey, design, age range, sample size, place of data collection. For evaluating the evidence, the following indicators were used: methods used, independent variables studied, statistical analyses employed, and cut-off used for defining obesity. Most studies used cross-sectional designs (77.7% and were carried out through home interviews (51.7%. Only one study used a nationally-based sample and three used regional-based samples (Northeast and Southeast. Regardless the design, place, type of survey, age range and cut-off used, the prevalence of obesity tended to be higher in the following groups: adolescents living in the Southeast region, living in urban areas, from high socioeconomic level and from private schools. In terms of behavioral determinants of obesity, the paucity of prospective studies and the difficulties of adequately measuring physical activity and food consumption, make the results less clear. Although the number of studies has increased, it is still necessary to stimulate surveys in the North, Southeast and Mideast regions. Prospective studies are also necessary, in order to evaluate the association between obesity and behavioral exposures.
Rafael Miranda Tassitano
Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2009v11n4p449 The purpose of this study was to systematically review the Brazilian literature on the prevalence of obesity and associated factors in adolescents. The literature search was carried out in the electronic databases Pubmed and Bireme, using the keywords: obesity, overweight, BMI, adolescents and Brazil. The following inclusion criteria were considered: Brazilian adolescents, BMI-based obesity estimates, publication until 2007, and adequate methodology. After the examination of titles, abstracts and full texts, 27 papers fulfilled our inclusion criteria. For describing the studies, the following variables were used: type of survey, design, age range, sample size, place of data collection. For evaluating the evidence, the following indicators were used: methods used, independent variables studied, statistical analyses employed, and cut-off used for defining obesity. Most studies used cross-sectional designs (77.7% and were carried out through home interviews (51.7%. Only one study used a nationally-based sample and three used regional-based samples (Northeast and Southeast. Regardless the design, place, type of survey, age range and cut-off used, the prevalence of obesity tended to be higher in the following groups: adolescents living in the Southeast region, living in urban areas, from high socioeconomic level and from private schools. In terms of behavioral determinants of obesity, the paucity of prospective studies and the difficulties of adequately measuring physical activity and food consumption, make the results less clear. Although the number of studies has increased, it is still necessary to stimulate surveys in the North, Southeast and Mideast regions. Prospective studies are also necessary, in order to evaluate the association between obesity and behavioral exposures.
Stöckl, Heidi; Dekel, Bianca; Morris-Gehring, Alison; Watts, Charlotte; Abrahams, Naeemah
This study aims to describe child homicide perpetrators and estimate their global and regional proportion to inform prevention strategies to reduce child homicide mortality worldwide. A systematic review of 9431 studies derived from 18 databases led to the inclusion of 126 studies after double screening. All included studies reported a number or proportion of child homicides perpetrators. 169 countries and homicide experts were surveyed in addition. The median proportion for each perpetrator category was calculated by region and overall and by age groups and sex. Data were obtained for 44 countries. Overall, parents committed 56.5% (IQR 23.7-69.6) of child homicides, 58.4% (0.0-66.7) of female and 46.8% (14.1-63.8) of male child homicides. Acquaintances committed 12.6% (5.9-31.3) of child homicides. Almost a tenth (9.2% (IQR 0.0-21.9) of child homicides had missing information on the perpetrator. The largest proportion of parental homicides of children was found in high-income countries (64.2%; 44.7-71.8) and East Asia and Pacific Region (61.7%; 46.7-78.6). Parents committed the majority (77.8% (61.5-100.0)) of homicides of children under the age of 1 year. For adolescents, acquaintances were the main group of homicide perpetrators (36.9%, 6.6-51.8). There is a notable lack of studies from low-income and middle-income countries and children above the age of 1 year. Children face the highest risk of homicide by parents and someone they know. Increased investment into the compilation of routine data on child homicide, and the perpetrators of this homicide is imperative for understanding and ultimately reducing child homicide mortality worldwide. PROSPERO registration number: CRD42015030125.
Negro, A; Delaruelle, Z; Ivanova, T A; Khan, S; Ornello, R; Raffaelli, B; Terrin, A; Reuter, U; Mitsikostas, D D
This systematic review summarizes the existing data on headache and pregnancy with a scope on clinical headache phenotypes, treatment of headaches in pregnancy and effects of headache medications on the child during pregnancy and breastfeeding, headache related complications, and diagnostics of headache in pregnancy. Headache during pregnancy can be both primary and secondary, and in the last case can be a symptom of a life-threatening condition. The most common secondary headaches are stroke, cerebral venous thrombosis, subarachnoid hemorrhage, pituitary tumor, choriocarcinoma, eclampsia, preeclampsia, idiopathic intracranial hypertension, and reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome. Migraine is a risk factor for pregnancy complications, particularly vascular events. Data regarding other primary headache conditions are still scarce. Early diagnostics of the disease manifested by headache is important for mother and fetus life. It is especially important to identify "red flag symptoms" suggesting that headache is a symptom of a serious disease. In order to exclude a secondary headache additional studies can be necessary: electroencephalography, ultrasound of the vessels of the head and neck, brain MRI and MR angiography with contrast ophthalmoscopy and lumbar puncture. During pregnancy and breastfeeding the preferred therapeutic strategy for the treatment of primary headaches should always be a non-pharmacological one. Treatment should not be postponed as an undermanaged headache can lead to stress, sleep deprivation, depression and poor nutritional intake that in turn can have negative consequences for both mother and baby. Therefore, if non-pharmacological interventions seem inadequate, a well-considered choice should be made concerning the use of medication, taking into account all the benefits and possible risks.
Systematic reviews aide the analysis and dissemination of evidence, using rigorous and transparent methods to generate empirically attained answers to focused research questions. Identifying all evidence relevant to the research questions is an essential component, and challenge, of systematic reviews. Gray literature, or evidence not published in commercial publications, can make important contributions to a systematic review. Gray literature can include academic papers, including theses and dissertations, research and committee reports, government reports, conference papers, and ongoing research, among others. It may provide data not found within commercially published literature, providing an important forum for disseminating studies with null or negative results that might not otherwise be disseminated. Gray literature may thusly reduce publication bias, increase reviews' comprehensiveness and timeliness, and foster a balanced picture of available evidence. Gray literature's diverse formats and audiences can present a significant challenge in a systematic search for evidence. However, the benefits of including gray literature may far outweigh the cost in time and resource needed to search for it, and it is important for it to be included in a systematic review or review of evidence. A carefully thought out gray literature search strategy may be an invaluable component of a systematic review. This narrative review provides guidance about the benefits of including gray literature in a systematic review, and sources for searching through gray literature. An illustrative example of a search for evidence within gray literature sources is presented to highlight the potential contributions of such a search to a systematic review. Benefits and challenges of gray literature search methods are discussed, and recommendations made. © 2017 Chinese Cochrane Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Systematic reviews aid the analysis and dissemination of evidence, using rigorous and transparent methods to generate empirically attained answers to focused research questions. Identifying all evidence relevant to the research questions is an essential component, and challenge, of systematic reviews. Grey literature, or evidence not published in commercial publications, can make important contributions to a systematic review. Grey literature can include academic papers, including theses and dissertations, research and committee reports, government reports, conference papers, and ongoing research, among others. It may provide data not found within commercially published literature, providing an important forum for disseminating studies with null or negative results that might not otherwise be disseminated. Grey literature may thusly reduce publication bias, increase reviews' comprehensiveness and timeliness and foster a balanced picture of available evidence. Grey literature's diverse formats and audiences can present a significant challenge in a systematic search for evidence. However, the benefits of including grey literature may far outweigh the cost in time and resource needed to search for it, and it is important for it to be included in a systematic review or review of evidence. A carefully thought out grey literature search strategy may be an invaluable component of a systematic review. This narrative review provides guidance about the benefits of including grey literature in a systematic review, and sources for searching through grey literature. An illustrative example of a search for evidence within grey literature sources is presented to highlight the potential contributions of such a search to a systematic review. Benefits and challenges of grey literature search methods are discussed, and recommendations made. © 2017 Chinese Cochrane Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Southern Africa continue to report cases of late stage syphilis, including tabes dorsalis and neurosyphilis, in association with ocular disease.This is the first systematic review of the literature on neurosyphilis in Africa since the beginning of the HIV epidemic. Neurosyphilis continues to be reported as a manifestation of both early and late syphilis, but the methodological quality of the majority of the included studies was poor. Future well-designed prospective studies are needed to better delineate the incidence and clinical spectrum of neurosyphilis in Africa and to better define interactions with HIV in this setting.
Marks, Michael; Jarvis, Joseph N; Howlett, William; Mabey, David C W
to report cases of late stage syphilis, including tabes dorsalis and neurosyphilis, in association with ocular disease. This is the first systematic review of the literature on neurosyphilis in Africa since the beginning of the HIV epidemic. Neurosyphilis continues to be reported as a manifestation of both early and late syphilis, but the methodological quality of the majority of the included studies was poor. Future well-designed prospective studies are needed to better delineate the incidence and clinical spectrum of neurosyphilis in Africa and to better define interactions with HIV in this setting.
Roehrs, Alex; da Costa, Cristiano André; Righi, Rodrigo da Rosa; de Oliveira, Kleinner Silva Farias
Information and communication technology (ICT) has transformed the health care field worldwide. One of the main drivers of this change is the electronic health record (EHR). However, there are still open issues and challenges because the EHR usually reflects the partial view of a health care provider without the ability for patients to control or interact with their data. Furthermore, with the growth of mobile and ubiquitous computing, the number of records regarding personal health is increasing exponentially. This movement has been characterized as the Internet of Things (IoT), including the widespread development of wearable computing technology and assorted types of health-related sensors. This leads to the need for an integrated method of storing health-related data, defined as the personal health record (PHR), which could be used by health care providers and patients. This approach could combine EHRs with data gathered from sensors or other wearable computing devices. This unified view of patients' health could be shared with providers, who may not only use previous health-related records but also expand them with data resulting from their interactions. Another PHR advantage is that patients can interact with their health data, making decisions that may positively affect their health. This work aimed to explore the recent literature related to PHRs by defining the taxonomy and identifying challenges and open questions. In addition, this study specifically sought to identify data types, standards, profiles, goals, methods, functions, and architecture with regard to PHRs. The method to achieve these objectives consists of using the systematic literature review approach, which is guided by research questions using the population, intervention, comparison, outcome, and context (PICOC) criteria. As a result, we reviewed more than 5000 scientific studies published in the last 10 years, selected the most significant approaches, and thoroughly surveyed the health
Background An exponential increase in the number of systematic reviews published, and constrained resources for new reviews, means that there is an urgent need for guidance on explicitly and transparently integrating existing reviews into new systematic reviews. The objectives of this paper are: 1) to identify areas where existing guidance may be adopted or adapted, and 2) to suggest areas for future guidance development. Methods We searched documents and websites from healthcare focused systematic review organizations to identify and, where available, to summarize relevant guidance on the use of existing systematic reviews. We conducted informational interviews with members of Evidence-based Practice Centers (EPCs) to gather experiences in integrating existing systematic reviews, including common issues and challenges, as well as potential solutions. Results There was consensus among systematic review organizations and the EPCs about some aspects of incorporating existing systematic reviews into new reviews. Current guidance may be used in assessing the relevance of prior reviews and in scanning references of prior reviews to identify studies for a new review. However, areas of challenge remain. Areas in need of guidance include how to synthesize, grade the strength of, and present bodies of evidence composed of primary studies and existing systematic reviews. For instance, empiric evidence is needed regarding how to quality check data abstraction and when and how to use study-level risk of bias assessments from prior reviews. Conclusions There remain areas of uncertainty for how to integrate existing systematic reviews into new reviews. Methods research and consensus processes among systematic review organizations are needed to develop guidance to address these challenges. PMID:24956937
Posadzki, Paul; AlBedah, Abdullah M N; Khalil, Mohamed M K; AlQaed, Meshari S
The aim of this article is to summarize and critically evaluate the evidence from systematic reviews (SRs) of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for lowering blood lipid levels (BLL). Eight electronic databases were searched until March 2016. Additionally, all the retrieved references were inspected manually for further relevant papers. Systematic reviews were considered eligible, if they included patients of any age and/or gender with elevated blood lipid levels using any type of CAM. We used the Oxman and AMSTAR criteria to critically appraise the methodological quality of the included SRs. Twenty-seven SRs were included in the analyses. The majority of the SRs were of high methodological quality (mean Oxman score=4.81, SD=4.88; and the mean AMSTAR score=7.22, SD=3.38). The majority of SRs (56%) arrived at equivocal conclusions (of these 8 were of high quality); 7 SRs (37%) arrived at positive conclusions (of these 6 were of high quality), and 2 (7%) arrived at negative conclusions (both were of high quality). There was conflicting evidence regarding the effectiveness of garlic; and promising evidence for yoga. To conclude, the evidence from SRs evaluating the effectiveness of CAM in lowering BLL is predominantly equivocal and confusing. Several limitations exist, such as variety of doses and preparations, confounding effects of diets and lifestyle factors, or heterogeneity of the primary trials among others. Copyright Â© 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Leibovici, Leonard; Soares-Weiser, Karla; Paul, Mical; Goldberg, Elad; Herxheimer, Andrew; Garner, Paul
Microorganisms resistant to antibiotic drugs are a threat to the health and chances of survival of patients. Systematic reviews on antibiotic drugs that ignore the topic of resistance present readers with a skewed view, emphasizing short-term efficacy or effectiveness while ignoring long-term consequences. To examine whether systematic reviews of antibiotic treatment consider resistance; if not, to find out whether data on resistance were reported in the original trials; and based on that, to offer a framework for taking resistance into account in systematic reviews. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (the Cochrane Library, 2001, issue 2); and MEDLINE, 1996-2000. (i) Systematic reviews or meta-analyses of antimicrobial therapy, published during 1996-2000. (ii) Randomized, controlled trials abstracted in systematic reviews that addressed a topic highly relevant to antibiotic resistance. We examined each systematic review, and each article, to see whether the implications of resistance were discussed; and whether data on resistance were collected. Out of 111 systematic reviews, only 44 (40%) discussed resistance. Ten reviews (9%) planned or performed collection of data on the response of patients with susceptible or resistant isolates. In 22 systematic reviews (20%), collection of data on induction of resistance was planned or performed. The topic of 41 reviews was judged highly relevant to resistance, and these reviews extracted data from 337 articles, out of which we retrieved 279 articles (83%). In 201 (72%) articles, resistance was discussed or data pertaining to it were collected. Ninety-seven articles (35%) gave actual data on resistance of pathogens to the study drugs, 71 articles (25%) data on efficacy of antibiotic drugs in patients with susceptible and resistant pathogens, and 55 articles (20%) provided data on infection or colonization with resistant strains during treatment. Most systematic reviews on antibiotic treatment ignored the issue of
Lai, Allen Y
Collaborative capacity serves for organizations as the capacity to collaborate with other network players. Organizational capacity matters as collaboration outcomes usually go beyond single-shot implementation efforts or a single-minded focus on either the vertical dimension of program or the horizontal component. This review article explores organizational collaborative capacities from the perspective of public management, in particular, network theory. By applying the 5 attributes of network theory-interdependence, membership, resources, information, and learning-to the explanation of collaborative capacity in fighting pandemic crises, I argue in some ways organizational collaborative capacity is very much like an organization in its own right. Studying collaborative capacity in the battle against pandemics facilitate our understanding of multisectoral collaboration in technical, political, and institutional dimensions, and greatly advances the richness of capacity vocabulary in pandemic response and preparedness.
Thomas, James; Noel-Storr, Anna; Marshall, Iain; Wallace, Byron; McDonald, Steven; Mavergames, Chris; Glasziou, Paul; Shemilt, Ian; Synnot, Anneliese; Turner, Tari; Elliott, Julian
New approaches to evidence synthesis, which use human effort and machine automation in mutually reinforcing ways, can enhance the feasibility and sustainability of living systematic reviews. Human effort is a scarce and valuable resource, required when automation is impossible or undesirable, and includes contributions from online communities ("crowds") as well as more conventional contributions from review authors and information specialists. Automation can assist with some systematic review tasks, including searching, eligibility assessment, identification and retrieval of full-text reports, extraction of data, and risk of bias assessment. Workflows can be developed in which human effort and machine automation can each enable the other to operate in more effective and efficient ways, offering substantial enhancement to the productivity of systematic reviews. This paper describes and discusses the potential-and limitations-of new ways of undertaking specific tasks in living systematic reviews, identifying areas where these human/machine "technologies" are already in use, and where further research and development is needed. While the context is living systematic reviews, many of these enabling technologies apply equally to standard approaches to systematic reviewing. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Printz, Trine; Rosenberg, Tine; Godballe, Christian
literature on test-retest accuracy of the automated voice range profile assessment. Study design: Systematic review. Data sources: PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library, ComDisDome, Embase, and CINAHL (EBSCO). Methods: We conducted a systematic literature search of six databases from 1983 to 2016. The following...
Anderson, Michael J.; Browning, William M.; Urband, Christopher E.; Kluczynski, Melissa A.; Bisson, Leslie J.
Background: There has been a substantial increase in the amount of systematic reviews and meta-analyses published on the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). Purpose: To quantify the number of systematic reviews and meta-analyses published on the ACL in the past decade and to provide an overall summary of this literature. Study Design: Systematic review; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: A systematic review of all ACL-related systematic reviews and meta-analyses published between January 2004 and September 2014 was performed using PubMed, MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Database. Narrative reviews and non-English articles were excluded. Results: A total of 1031 articles were found, of which 240 met the inclusion criteria. Included articles were summarized and divided into 17 topics: anatomy, epidemiology, prevention, associated injuries, diagnosis, operative versus nonoperative management, graft choice, surgical technique, fixation methods, computer-assisted surgery, platelet-rich plasma, rehabilitation, return to play, outcomes assessment, arthritis, complications, and miscellaneous. Conclusion: A summary of systematic reviews on the ACL can supply the surgeon with a single source for the most up-to-date synthesis of the literature. PMID:27047983
Torres Torres, Mercedes; Adams, Clive E
Systematic reviews are a key part of healthcare evaluation. They involve important painstaking but repetitive work. A major producer of systematic reviews, the Cochrane Collaboration, employs Review Manager (RevMan) programme-a software which assists reviewers and produces XML-structured files. This paper describes an add-on programme (RevManHAL) which helps auto-generate the abstract, results and discussion sections of RevMan-generated reviews in multiple languages. The paper also describes future developments for RevManHAL. RevManHAL was created in Java using NetBeans by a programmer working full time for 2 months. The resulting open-source programme uses editable phrase banks to envelop text/numbers from within the prepared RevMan file in formatted readable text of a chosen language. In this way, considerable parts of the review's 'abstract', 'results' and 'discussion' sections are created and a phrase added to 'acknowledgements'. RevManHAL's output needs to be checked by reviewers, but already, from our experience within the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group (200 maintained reviews, 900 reviewers), RevManHAL has saved much time which is better employed thinking about the meaning of the data rather than restating them. Many more functions will become possible as review writing becomes increasingly automated.
Systematic reviews represent a rigorous and transparent approach of synthesizing scientific evidence that minimizes bias. They evolved within the medical community to support development of clinical and public health practice guidelines, set research agendas and formulate scientific consensus state...
A systematic literature review of Burgers' equation with recent advances ... Research Article Volume 90 Issue 6 June 2018 Article ID 69 ... Burgers' equation is well documented in the literature, a detailed literature survey indicates that gaps still ...
Keeping our heads above water: A systematic review of fatal drowning in South Africa. ... identify gaps in the current knowledge base and priority intervention areas. ... A total of 13 published research articles and 27 reports obtained through a ...
Background: Metabolomics is a promising tool of cardiovascular biomarker discovery. We systematically reviewed the literature on comprehensive metabolomic profiling in association with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods and Results: We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE from inception to Janua...
Bartels, R.H.M.A.; van Tulder, M.W.; Moojen, W.A.
BACKGROUND: Cervical spondylotic myelopathy is frequently encountered in neurosurgical practice. The posterior surgical approach includes laminectomy and laminoplasty.OBJECTIVE: To perform a systematic review evaluating the effectiveness of posterior laminectomy compared with posterior laminoplasty...
.... Systematic reviews identify, select, assess, and synthesize the findings of similar but separate studies, and can help clarify what is known and not known about the potential benefits and harms...
Farzan, N.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/412501929; Vijverberg, S.J.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/325847460; Arets, H.G.M.; Raaijmakers, J.A.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072763299; van der Zee, A.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/255164688
BACKGROUND Pharmacogenetics studies of anti-inflammatory medication of asthma have expanded rapidly in recent decades, but the clinical value of their findings remains limited. OBJECTIVE To perform a systematic review of pharmacogenomics and pharmacogenetics of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and
Research and Evidence, Afya Research Africa, Nairobi ... this pathophysiology and observation of the results thereafter (1). However ... on the utilization of systematic reviews by practicing .... when researchers have access to individual patient.
Martin, W.J.J.M.; Forouzanfar, T.
Objective. Controversy exists about the effectiveness of anticonvulsants for the management of orofacial pain disorders. To ascertain appropriate therapies, a systematic review was conducted of existing randomized controlled trials. Study design. Trials were identified from PubMed, Cochrane, and
Ranjan, Ajenthen; Penninga, E; Jelsig, Am
This systematic review investigated the inheritance of the classical chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) including polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythemia (ET), primary myelofibrosis (PMF) and chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). Sixty-one articles were included and provided 135...
Meijer, Anna; Roseman, Michelle; Milette, Katherine; Coyne, James C.; Stefanek, Michael E.; Ziegelstein, Roy C.; Arthurs, Erin; Leavens, Allison; Palmer, Steven C.; Stewart, Donna E.; de Jonge, Peter; Thombs, Brett D.
Background: Several practice guidelines recommend screening for depression in cancer care, but no systematic reviews have examined whether there is evidence that depression screening benefits cancer patients. The objective was to evaluate the potential benefits of depression screening in cancer
Systematic review of team Nigeria's performance in olympic games: Causes, concerns, and remediation strategies. ... Participation and winning medals in Olympic Games have become a veritable avenue ... AJOL African Journals Online.
Background: A systematic review was conducted of randomized trials of workplace weight management interventions, including trials with dietary, physical activity, environmental, behavioral and incentive based components. Main outcomes were defined as change in weight-related measures. Methods: Key w...
Groller, Karen D
Education plays a key role in adherence to lifestyle modifications after weight loss surgery (WLS). Education given before and after surgery may decrease weight recidivism rates and improve outcomes. The purpose of this systematic review was to analyze educational practices in bariatric centers. The Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health and PubMed databases were searched in May 2016 for English-language, peer-reviewed studies about WLS patient education practices from 1999 to 2016. Publications were: (1) rated with the Advancing Research and Clinical Practice through Close Collaboration levels of evidence hierarchy (see Melnyk's pryamid [http://guides.lib.umich.edu/c.php?g=282802&p=1888246]) and (2) analyzed according to surgical phase, curriculum, program delivery, and educator. Twenty-four publications met the study criteria. Evidence ratings for preoperative (n = 16) and postoperative studies (n = 8) were levels I to III (n = 5) and IV to VII (n = 17). Two publications were not ratable. Preoperative and postoperative education programs varied in curriculum, teaching methods, and educator. Topics varied in depth. Commonalities were surgical procedure, nutrition, activity, and psychosocial behaviors. Preoperative education was mostly provided in small groups, whereas individual sessions were used postoperatively. Lecture and discussion provided by myriad of healthcare experts from multiple disciplines were typical in both phases. Written or web-based aides supported learning needs in both phases. WLS patient education varied by curriculum and dose and commonly used passive learning methods (e.g., traditional lecture style instruction with minimal engagement from learners). Results shared can inform future bariatric education programs and accreditation standard development (e.g., Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery Accreditation and Quality Improvement Program patient education standards). Additional study is needed, but existing evidence can guide improvements
Jurdi, Sandra; Montaner, Jorge; Garcia-Sanjuan, Fernando; Jaen, Javier; Nacher, Vicente
Children in hospital are subjected to multiple negative stimuli that may hinder their development and social interactions. Although game technologies are thought to improve children's experience in hospital, there is a lack of information on how they can be used effectively. This paper presents a systematic review of the literature on the existing approaches in this context to identify gaps for future research. A total of 1305 studies were identified, of which 75 were thoroughly analyzed according to our review protocol. The results show that the most common approach is to design mono-user games with traditional computers or monitor-based video consoles, which serve as a distractor or a motivator for physical rehabilitation for primary school children undergoing fearful procedures such as venipuncture, or those suffering chronic, neurological, or traumatic diseases/injures. We conclude that, on the one hand, game technologies seem to present physical and psychological benefits to pediatric patients, but more research is needed on this. On the other hand, future designers of games for pediatric hospitalization should consider: 1. The development for kindergarten patients and adolescents, 2. Address the psychological impact caused by long-term hospitalization, 3. Use collaboration as an effective game strategy to reduce patient isolation, 4. Have purposes other than distraction, such as socialization, coping with emotions, or fostering physical mobility, 5. Include parents/caregivers and hospital staff in the game activities; and 6. Exploit new technological artifacts such as robots and tangible interactive elements to encourage intrinsic motivation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Robinson, Karen A; Chou, Roger; Berkman, Nancy D; Newberry, Sydne J; Fu, Rongwei; Hartling, Lisa; Dryden, Donna; Butler, Mary; Foisy, Michelle; Anderson, Johanna; Motu'apuaka, Makalapua; Relevo, Rose; Guise, Jeanne-Marie; Chang, Stephanie
As time and cost constraints in the conduct of systematic reviews increase, the need to consider the use of existing systematic reviews also increases. We developed guidance on the integration of systematic reviews into new reviews. A workgroup of methodologists from Evidence-based Practice Centers developed consensus-based recommendations. Discussions were informed by a literature scan and by interviews with organizations that conduct systematic reviews. Twelve recommendations were developed addressing selecting reviews, assessing risk of bias, qualitative and quantitative synthesis, and summarizing and assessing body of evidence. We provide preliminary guidance for an efficient and unbiased approach to integrating existing systematic reviews with primary studies in a new review. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nurmatov, Ulugbek; Dhami, Sangeeta; Arasi, Stefania; Roberts, Graham; Pfaar, Oliver; Muraro, Antonella; Ansotegui, Ignacio J; Calderon, Moises; Cingi, Cemal; Durham, Stephen; van Wijk, Roy Gerth; Halken, Susanne; Hamelmann, Eckard; Hellings, Peter W; Jacobsen, Lars; Knol, Edward; Larenas-Linnemann, Desiree; Lin, Sandra Y; Maggina, Vivian; Oude Elberink, J Hanneke N G; Pajno, Giovanni Battista; Panwankar, Ruby; Pastorello, Elideanna; Pitsios, Constantinos; Rotiroti, Giuseppina; Timmermans, Frans; Tsilochristou, Olympia; Varga, Eva-Maria; Wilkinson, Jamie; Williams, Andrew; Worm, Margitta; Zhang, Luo; Sheikh, Aziz
Background: The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) is developing Guidelines on Allergen Immunotherapy (AIT) for Allergic Rhinoconjunctivitis (ARC). To inform the development of recommendations, we sought to critically assess the systematic review evidence on the
Lefebvre, Carol; Glanville, Julie; Wieland, L Susan; Coles, Bernadette; Weightman, Alison L
The Cochrane Collaboration was established in 1993, following the opening of the UK Cochrane Centre in 1992, at a time when searching for studies for inclusion in systematic reviews was not well-developed. Review authors largely conducted their own searches or depended on medical librarians, who often possessed limited awareness and experience of systematic reviews. Guidance on the conduct and reporting of searches was limited. When work began to identify reports of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for inclusion in Cochrane Reviews in 1992, there were only approximately 20,000 reports indexed as RCTs in MEDLINE and none indexed as RCTs in Embase. No search filters had been developed with the aim of identifying all RCTs in MEDLINE or other major databases. This presented The Cochrane Collaboration with a considerable challenge in identifying relevant studies.Over time, the number of studies indexed as RCTs in the major databases has grown considerably and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) has become the best single source of published controlled trials, with approximately 700,000 records, including records identified by the Collaboration from Embase and MEDLINE. Search filters for various study types, including systematic reviews and the Cochrane Highly Sensitive Search Strategies for RCTs, have been developed. There have been considerable advances in the evidence base for methodological aspects of information retrieval. The Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions now provides detailed guidance on the conduct and reporting of searches. Initiatives across The Cochrane Collaboration to improve the quality inter alia of information retrieval include: the recently introduced Methodological Expectations for Cochrane Intervention Reviews (MECIR) programme, which stipulates 'mandatory' and 'highly desirable' standards for various aspects of review conduct and reporting including searching, the development of Standard Training
Almeida, Renato Santos de; Bourliataux-Lajoinie, Stephane; Martins, Mônica
Patient satisfaction surveys can be an interesting way to improve quality and discuss the concept of patient-centered care. This study aimed to conduct a systematic review of the validated patient satisfaction measurement instruments applied in healthcare. The systematic review searched the MEDLINE/PubMed, LILACS, SciELO, Scopus and Web of Knowledge. The search strategy used the terms: "Patient Satisfaction" AND "Patient centered care" AND "Healthcare survey OR Satisfaction questionnaire" AND...
Bolland, Mark J; Leung, William; Tai, Vicky; Bastin, Sonja; Gamble, Greg D; Grey, Andrew; Reid, Ian R
Objective To examine the evidence underpinning recommendations to increase calcium intake through dietary sources or calcium supplements to prevent fractures. Design Systematic review of randomised controlled trials and observational studies of calcium intake with fracture as an endpoint. Results from trials were pooled with random effects meta-analyses. Data sources Ovid Medline, Embase, PubMed, and references from relevant systematic reviews. Initial searches undertaken in July 2013 and upd...
Meszaros, Gergely; Horvath, Lili Olga; Balazs, Judit
Background During the last decade there is a growing scientific interest in nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI). The aim of the current paper was to review systematically the literature with a special focus on the associations between self-injurious behaviours and externalizing psychopathology. An additional aim was to review terminology and measurements of self-injurious behaviour and the connection between self-injurious behaviours and suicide in the included publications. Methods A systematic l...
Schneider, Kathryn J; Leddy, John J; Guskiewicz, Kevin M; Seifert, Tad; McCrea, Michael; Silverberg, Noah D; Feddermann-Demont, Nina; Iverson, Grant L; Hayden, Alix; Makdissi, Michael
The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the evidence regarding rest and active treatment/rehabilitation following sport-related concussion (SRC). Systematic review. MEDLINE (OVID), CINAHL (EbscoHost), PsycInfo (OVID), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (OVID), SPORTDiscus (EbscoHost), EMBASE (OVID) and Proquest DissertationsandTheses Global (Proquest) were searched systematically. Studies were included if they met the following criteria: (1) original research; (2) reported SRC as the diagnosis; and (3) evaluated the effect of rest or active treatment/rehabilitation. Review articles were excluded. Twenty-eight studies met the inclusion criteria (9 regarding the effects of rest and 19 evaluating active treatment). The methodological quality of the literature was limited; only five randomised controlled trials (RCTs) met the eligibility criteria. Those RCTs included rest, cervical and vestibular rehabilitation, subsymptom threshold aerobic exercise and multifaceted collaborative care. A brief period (24-48 hours) of cognitive and physical rest is appropriate for most patients. Following this, patients should be encouraged to gradually increase activity. The exact amount and duration of rest are not yet well defined and require further investigation. The data support interventions including cervical and vestibular rehabilitation and multifaceted collaborative care. Closely monitored subsymptom threshold, submaximal exercise may be of benefit. PROSPERO 2016:CRD42016039570. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Amaral, Tiago Nardi; Peres, Fernando Augusto; Lapa, Aline Tamires; Marques-Neto, João Francisco; Appenzeller, Simone
To perform a systematic review of neurologic involvement in Systemic sclerosis (SSc) and Localized Scleroderma (LS), describing clinical features, neuroimaging, and treatment. We performed a literature search in PubMed using the following MeSH terms, scleroderma, systemic sclerosis, localized scleroderma, localized scleroderma "en coup de sabre", Parry-Romberg syndrome, cognitive impairment, memory, seizures, epilepsy, headache, depression, anxiety, mood disorders, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D), SF-36, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), neuropsychiatric, psychosis, neurologic involvement, neuropathy, peripheral nerves, cranial nerves, carpal tunnel syndrome, ulnar entrapment, tarsal tunnel syndrome, mononeuropathy, polyneuropathy, radiculopathy, myelopathy, autonomic nervous system, nervous system, electroencephalography (EEG), electromyography (EMG), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Patients with other connective tissue disease knowingly responsible for nervous system involvement were excluded from the analyses. A total of 182 case reports/studies addressing SSc and 50 referring to LS were identified. SSc patients totalized 9506, while data on 224 LS patients were available. In LS, seizures (41.58%) and headache (18.81%) predominated. Nonetheless, descriptions of varied cranial nerve involvement and hemiparesis were made. Central nervous system involvement in SSc was characterized by headache (23.73%), seizures (13.56%) and cognitive impairment (8.47%). Depression and anxiety were frequently observed (73.15% and 23.95%, respectively). Myopathy (51.8%), trigeminal neuropathy (16.52%), peripheral sensorimotor polyneuropathy (14.25%), and carpal tunnel syndrome (6.56%) were the most frequent peripheral nervous system involvement in SSc. Autonomic neuropathy involving cardiovascular and gastrointestinal systems was regularly described
Banerjee, Kushal; Mathie, Robert T; Costelloe, Céire; Howick, Jeremy
The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and effectiveness of homeopathic intervention in the treatment of seasonal or perennial allergic rhinitis (AR). Randomized controlled trials evaluating all forms of homeopathic treatment for AR were included in a systematic review (SR) of studies published up to and including December 2015. Two authors independently screened potential studies, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias. Primary outcomes included symptom improvement and total quality-of-life score. Treatment effect size was quantified as mean difference (continuous data), or by risk ratio (RR) and odds ratio (dichotomous data), with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Meta-analysis was performed after assessing heterogeneity and risk of bias. Eleven studies were eligible for SR. All trials were placebo-controlled except one. Six trials used the treatment approach known as isopathy, but they were unsuitable for meta-analysis due to problems of heterogeneity and data extraction. The overall standard of methods and reporting was poor: 8/11 trials were assessed as "high risk of bias"; only one trial, on isopathy for seasonal AR, possessed reliable evidence. Three trials of variable quality (all using Galphimia glauca for seasonal AR) were included in the meta-analysis: nasal symptom relief at 2 and 4 weeks (RR = 1.48 [95% CI 1.24-1.77] and 1.27 [95% CI 1.10-1.46], respectively) favored homeopathy compared with placebo; ocular symptom relief at 2 and 4 weeks also favored homeopathy (RR = 1.55 [95% CI 1.33-1.80] and 1.37 [95% CI 1.21-1.56], respectively). The single trial with reliable evidence had a small positive treatment effect without statistical significance. A homeopathic and a conventional nasal spray produced equivalent improvements in nasal and ocular symptoms. The low or uncertain overall quality of the evidence warrants caution in drawing firm conclusions about intervention effects. Use of either Galphimia glauca or a homeopathic nasal spray
Murphy, Hamadi; Schroeder, Gregory D; Shi, Weilong J; Kepler, Christopher K; Kurd, Mark F; Fleischman, Andrew N; Kandziora, Frank; Chapman, Jens R; Benneker, Lorin M; Vaccaro, Alexander R
Traumatic spondylolisthesis of the axis, is a common cervical spine fracture; however, to date there is limited data available to guide the treatment of these injuries. The purpose of this review is to provide an evidence-based analysis of the literature and clinical outcomes associated with the surgical and nonsurgical management of hangman's fractures. A systematic literature search was conducted using PubMed (MEDLINE) and Scopus (EMBASE, MEDLINE, COMPENDEX) for all articles describing the treatment of hangman's fractures in 2 or more patients. Risk of nonunion, mortality, complications, and treatment failure (defined as the need for surgery in the nonsurgically managed patients and the need for revision surgery for any reason in the surgically managed patients) was compared for operative and nonoperative treatment methods using a generalized linear mixed model and odds ratio analysis. Overall, 25 studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in our quantitative analysis. Bony union was the principal outcome measure used to assess successful treatment. All studies included documented fracture union and were included in statistical analyses. The overall union rate for 131 fractures treated nonsurgically was 94.14% [95% confidence interval (CI), 76.15-98.78]. The overall union rate for 417 fractures treated surgically was 99.35% (95% CI, 96.81-99.87). Chance of nonunion was lower in those patients treated surgically (odds ratio, 0.12; 95% CI, 0.02-0.71). There was not a significant difference in mortality between patients treated surgically (0.16%; 95% CI, 0.01%-2.89%) and nonsurgically (1.04%; 95% CI, 0.08%-11.4%) (odds ratio, 0.15; 95% CI, 0.01-2.11). Treatment failure was less likely in the surgical treatment group (0.12%; 95% CI, 0.01%-2.45%) than the nonsurgical treatment group (0.71%; 95% CI, 0.28%-15.75%) (odds ratio 0.07; 95% CI, 0.01-0.56). Hangman's fractures are common injuries, and surgical treatment leads to an increase in the rate of
Hanson-Abromeit, Deanna; Sena Moore, Kimberly
Music therapists are challenged to present evidence on the efficacy of music therapy treatment and incorporate the best available research evidence to make informed healthcare and treatment decisions. Higher standards of evidence can come from a variety of sources including systematic reviews. To define and describe a range of research review methods using examples from music therapy and related literature, with emphasis on the systematic review. In addition, the authors provide a detailed overview of methodological processes for conducting and reporting systematic reviews in music therapy. The systematic review process is described in five steps. Step 1 identifies the research plan and operationalized research question(s). Step 2 illustrates the identification and organization of the existing literature related to the question(s). Step 3 details coding of data extracted from the literature. Step 4 explains the synthesis of coded findings and analysis to answer the research question(s). Step 5 describes the strength of evidence evaluation and results presentation for practice recommendations. Music therapists are encouraged to develop and conduct systematic reviews. This methodology contributes to review outcome credibility and can determine how information is interpreted and used by clinicians, clients or patients, and policy makers. A systematic review is a methodologically rigorous research method used to organize and evaluate extant literature related to a clinical problem. Systematic reviews can assist music therapists in managing the ever-increasing literature, making well-informed evidence based practice and research decisions, and translating existing music-based and nonmusic based literature to clinical practice and research development. © the American Music Therapy Association 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Haddaway, Neal R; Collins, Alexandra M; Coughlin, Deborah; Kohl, Christian
Systematic reviews and maps should be based on the best available evidence, and reviewers should make all reasonable efforts to source and include potentially relevant studies. However, reviewers may not be able to consider all existing evidence, since some data and studies may not be publicly available. Including non-public studies in reviews provides a valuable opportunity to increase systematic review/map comprehensiveness, potentially mitigating negative impacts of publication bias. Studies may be non-public for many reasons: some may still be in the process of being published (publication can take a long time); some may not be published due to author/publisher restrictions; publication bias may make it difficult to publish non-significant or negative results. Here, we consider what forms these non-public studies may take and the implications of including them in systematic reviews and maps. Reviewers should carefully consider the advantages and disadvantages of including non-public studies, weighing risks of bias against benefits of increased comprehensiveness. As with all systematic reviews and maps, reviewers must be transparent about methods used to obtain data and avoid risks of bias in their synthesis. We make tentative suggestions for reviewers in situations where non-public data may be present in an evidence base. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Farid-Kapadia, Mufiza; Askie, Lisa; Hartling, Lisa; Contopoulos-Ioannidis, Despina; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Soll, Roger; Moher, David; Offringa, Martin
Systematic reviews are key tools to enable decision making by healthcare providers and policymakers. Despite the availability of the evidence based Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA-2009 and PRISMA-P 2015) statements that were developed to improve the transparency and quality of reporting of systematic reviews, uncertainty on how to deal with pediatric-specific methodological challenges of systematic reviews impairs decision-making in child health. In this paper, we identify methodological challenges specific to the design, conduct and reporting of pediatric systematic reviews, and propose a process to address these challenges. One fundamental decision at the outset of a systematic review is whether to focus on a pediatric population only, or to include both adult and pediatric populations. Both from the policy and patient care point of view, the appropriateness of interventions and comparators administered to pre-defined pediatric age subgroup is critical. Decisions need to be based on the biological plausibility of differences in treatment effects across the developmental trajectory in children. Synthesis of evidence from different trials is often impaired by the use of outcomes and measurement instruments that differ between trials and are neither relevant nor validated in the pediatric population. Other issues specific to pediatric systematic reviews include lack of pediatric-sensitive search strategies and inconsistent choices of pediatric age subgroups in meta-analyses. In addition to these methodological issues generic to all pediatric systematic reviews, special considerations are required for reviews of health care interventions' safety and efficacy in neonatology, global health, comparative effectiveness interventions and individual participant data meta-analyses. To date, there is no standard approach available to overcome this problem. We propose to develop a consensus-based checklist of essential items which
Hoare, C; Li Wan Po, A; Williams, H
Atopic eczema is the commonest inflammatory skin disease of childhood, affecting 15-20% of children in the UK at any one time. Adults make up about one-third of all community cases. Moderate-to-severe atopic eczema can have a profound effect on the quality of life for both sufferers and their families. In addition to the effects of intractable itching, skin damage, soreness, sleep loss and the social stigma of a visible skin disease, other factors such as frequent visits to doctors, special clothing and¿the need to constantly apply messy topical applications all add to the burden of disease. The cause of atopic eczema is unknown, though a genetic pre-disposition and a combination of allergic and non-allergic factors appear to be important in determining disease expression. Treatment of atopic eczema in the UK is characterised by a profusion of treatments aimed at disease control. The evidential basis of these treatments is often unclear. Most people with atopic eczema are managed in primary care where the least research has been done. The objectives of this scoping review are two-fold. To produce an up-to-date coverage 'map' of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of treatments of atopic eczema. To assist in making treatment recommendations by summarising the available RCT evidence using qualitative and quantitative methods. Data sources included electronic searching of MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Controlled Clinical Trials Register, the Cochrane Skin Group specialised register of trials, hand-searching of atopic eczema conference proceedings, follow-up of references in retrieved articles, contact with leading researchers and requests to relevant pharmaceutical companies. Only RCTs of therapeutic agents used in the prevention and treatment of people with atopic eczema of any age were considered for inclusion. Only studies where a physician diagnosed atopic eczema or atopic dermatitis were included. Data extraction was conducted by two observers onto abstraction
Full Text Available Roger E Thomas Department of Family Medicine, G012 Health Sciences Center, University of Calgary Medical School, Calgary, AB, Canada Purpose: To review the safety and immunogenicity of yellow fever vaccines. Literature search: The Cochrane Library (including the Cochrane CENTRAL Register of Controlled Trials, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and the NHS Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects; MEDLINE; EMBASE; BIOSIS Previews; Global Health; CAB Abstracts; and the Lilacs Database of Latin American and Caribbean literature were searched for individual studies and systematic reviews through January 1, 2015. Results: Six yellow fever vaccines are currently produced, and they are effective against all seven yellow fever virus strains. There is a 99.2% homology of the genome sequences of the six current vaccines. Four systematic reviews identified very small numbers of serious adverse events. A systematic review (updated of all published cases identified 133 serious adverse events that met the Brighton Collaboration criteria: 32 anaphylactic, 42 neurologic (one death, 57 viscerotropic (25 deaths, and two of both neurologic and viscerotropic SAEs. The Sanofi Pasteur Global Pharmacovigilance database reported 276 million doses of Stamaril™ distributed worldwide and identified 12 reports of yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD, 24 of yellow fever vaccine-associated neurologic disease (YEL-AND, and 33 reports of anaphylaxis (many already published. The Biomanguinhos manufacturer's database reported 110 million doses distributed worldwide between 1999 and 2009, and the rate of YEL-AND was estimated at 0.084/100,000 doses distributed and YEL-AVD at 0.02/100,000 doses distributed. Conclusion: Reports of serious adverse events are mostly from travelers from developed countries, and there is likely serious underreporting for developing countries. On the basis of the published reports, the yellow fever vaccines are
Meyhoff, T S; Møller, M H; Hjortrup, P B
sequential analysis of randomised clinical trials comparing different strategies to obtain separation in fluid volumes or balances during resuscitation of adult patients with sepsis. We will systematically search the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index, BIOSIS and Epistemonikos...... for relevant literature. We will follow the recommendations by the Cochrane Collaboration and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statement. The risk of systematic errors (bias) and random errors will be assessed, and the overall quality of evidence will be evaluated...
Paul Stephen Cullis
Full Text Available Our objective was to evaluate quality of conduct and reporting of published systematic reviews and meta-analyses in paediatric surgery. We also aimed to identify characteristics predictive of review quality.Systematic reviews summarise evidence by combining sources, but are potentially prone to bias. To counter this, the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA was published to aid in reporting. Similarly, the Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR measurement tool was designed to appraise methodology. The paediatric surgical literature has seen an increasing number of reviews over the past decade, but quality has not been evaluated.Adhering to PRISMA guidelines, we performed a systematic review with a priori design to identify systematic reviews and meta-analyses of interventions in paediatric surgery. From 01/2010 to 06/2016, we searched: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, Web of Science, Google Scholar, reference lists and journals. Two reviewers independently selected studies and extracted data. We assessed conduct and reporting using AMSTAR and PRISMA. Scores were calculated as the sum of reported items. We also extracted author, journal and article characteristics, and used them in exploratory analysis to determine which variables predict quality.112 articles fulfilled eligibility criteria (53 systematic reviews; 59 meta-analyses. Overall, 68% AMSTAR and 56.8% PRISMA items were reported adequately. Poorest scores were identified with regards a priori design, inclusion of structured summaries, including the grey literature, citing excluded articles and evaluating bias. 13 reviews were pre-registered and 6 in PRISMA-endorsing journals. The following predicted quality in univariate analysis:, word count, Cochrane review, journal h-index, impact factor, journal endorses PRISMA, PRISMA adherence suggested in author guidance, article mentions PRISMA
Hirst, Jennifer A; Howick, Jeremy; Aronson, Jeffrey K; Roberts, Nia; Perera, Rafael; Koshiaris, Constantinos; Heneghan, Carl
Randomization, allocation concealment, and blind outcome assessment have been shown to reduce bias in human studies. Authors from the Collaborative Approach to Meta Analysis and Review of Animal Data from Experimental Studies (CAMARADES) collaboration recently found that these features protect against bias in animal stroke studies. We extended the scope the work from CAMARADES to include investigations of treatments for any condition. We conducted an overview of systematic reviews. We searched Medline and Embase for systematic reviews of animal studies testing any intervention (against any control) and we included any disease area and outcome. We included reviews comparing randomized versus not randomized (but otherwise controlled), concealed versus unconcealed treatment allocation, or blinded versus unblinded outcome assessment. Thirty-one systematic reviews met our inclusion criteria: 20 investigated treatments for experimental stroke, 4 reviews investigated treatments for spinal cord diseases, while 1 review each investigated treatments for bone cancer, intracerebral hemorrhage, glioma, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, and treatments used in emergency medicine. In our sample 29% of studies reported randomization, 15% of studies reported allocation concealment, and 35% of studies reported blinded outcome assessment. We pooled the results in a meta-analysis, and in our primary analysis found that failure to randomize significantly increased effect sizes, whereas allocation concealment and blinding did not. In our secondary analyses we found that randomization, allocation concealment, and blinding reduced effect sizes, especially where outcomes were subjective. Our study demonstrates the need for randomization, allocation concealment, and blind outcome assessment in animal research across a wide range of outcomes and disease areas. Since human studies are often justified based on results from animal studies, our results suggest that unduly biased animal
Haddaway, N R; Woodcock, P; Macura, B; Collins, A
Review articles can provide valuable summaries of the ever-increasing volume of primary research in conservation biology. Where findings may influence important resource-allocation decisions in policy or practice, there is a need for a high degree of reliability when reviewing evidence. However, traditional literature reviews are susceptible to a number of biases during the identification, selection, and synthesis of included studies (e.g., publication bias, selection bias, and vote counting). Systematic reviews, pioneered in medicine and translated into conservation in 2006, address these issues through a strict methodology that aims to maximize transparency, objectivity, and repeatability. Systematic reviews will always be the gold standard for reliable synthesis of evidence. However, traditional literature reviews remain popular and will continue to be valuable where systematic reviews are not feasible. Where traditional reviews are used, lessons can be taken from systematic reviews and applied to traditional reviews in order to increase their reliability. Certain key aspects of systematic review methods that can be used in a context-specific manner in traditional reviews include focusing on mitigating bias; increasing transparency, consistency, and objectivity, and critically appraising the evidence and avoiding vote counting. In situations where conducting a full systematic review is not feasible, the proposed approach to reviewing evidence in a more systematic way can substantially improve the reliability of review findings, providing a time- and resource-efficient means of maximizing the value of traditional reviews. These methods are aimed particularly at those conducting literature reviews where systematic review is not feasible, for example, for graduate students, single reviewers, or small organizations. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.
Hahné, Susan J M; Charlett, André; Purcell, Bernadette; Samuelsson, Susanne; Camaroni, Ivonne; Ehrhard, Ingrid; Heuberger, Sigrid; Santamaria, Maria; Stuart, James M
OBJECTIVE: To review the evidence for effectiveness of treatment with antibiotics before admission in reducing case fatality from meningococcal disease. DESIGN: Systematic review. DATA SOURCES: Cochrane register of trials and systematic reviews, database of abstracts of reviews of effectiveness,
Full Text Available Abstract Background Provision of evidence on costs alongside evidence on the effects of interventions can enhance the relevance of systematic reviews to decision-making. However, patterns of use of economics methods alongside systematic review remain unclear. Reviews of evidence on the effects of interventions are published by both the Cochrane and Campbell Collaborations. Although it is not a requirement that Cochrane or Campbell Reviews should consider economic aspects of interventions, many do. This study aims to explore and describe approaches to incorporating economics methods in a selection of Cochrane systematic reviews in the area of health promotion and public health, to help inform development of methodological guidance on economics for reviewers. Methods The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews was searched using a search strategy for potential economic evaluation studies. We included current Cochrane reviews and review protocols retrieved using the search that are also identified as relevant to health promotion or public health topics. A reviewer extracted data which describe the economics components of included reviews. Extracted data were summarised in tables and analysed qualitatively. Results Twenty-one completed Cochrane reviews and seven review protocols met inclusion criteria. None incorporate formal economic evaluation methods. Ten completed reviews explicitly aim to incorporate economics studies and data. There is a lack of transparent reporting of methods underpinning the incorporation of economics studies and data. Some reviews are likely to exclude useful economics studies and data due to a failure to incorporate search strategies tailored to the retrieval of such data or use of key specialist databases, and application of inclusion criteria designed for effectiveness studies. Conclusion There is a need for consistency and transparency in the reporting and conduct of the economics components of Cochrane reviews, as
intergrating simulations and diverse collaborative activities, enhance productivity, generate products, faster, automation, integration, multiple...required. Identifiers, such as equipment model designation, trade name, military project code name, geographic location may also be included. If
Geertzen, Jan H. B.; Van Es, Corine G.; Dijkstra, Pieter U.
Purpose. To systematically examine the state of research on sexuality and amputees. Methods. A total of five publication databases were searched: Pubmed, Cinahl, Embase, Psychinfo and Recall. Results. A total of 11 eligible studies was found. The studies were characterised by a diversity of study
Full Text Available In nature, shooting mechanisms are used for a variety of purposes, including prey capture, defense, and reproduction. This review offers insight into the working principles of shooting mechanisms in fungi, plants, and animals in the light of the specific functional demands that these mechanisms fulfill.We systematically searched the literature using Scopus and Web of Knowledge to retrieve articles about solid projectiles that either are produced in the body of the organism or belong to the body and undergo a ballistic phase. The shooting mechanisms were categorized based on the energy management prior to and during shooting.Shooting mechanisms were identified with projectile masses ranging from 1·10-9 mg in spores of the fungal phyla Ascomycota and Zygomycota to approximately 10,300 mg for the ballistic tongue of the toad Bufo alvarius. The energy for shooting is generated through osmosis in fungi, plants, and animals or muscle contraction in animals. Osmosis can be induced by water condensation on the system (in fungi, or water absorption in the system (reaching critical pressures up to 15.4 atmospheres; observed in fungi, plants, and animals, or water evaporation from the system (reaching up to -197 atmospheres; observed in plants and fungi. The generated energy is stored as elastic (potential energy in cell walls in fungi and plants and in elastic structures in animals, with two exceptions: (1 in the momentum catapult of Basidiomycota the energy is stored in a stalk (hilum by compression of the spore and droplets and (2 in Sphagnum energy is mainly stored in compressed air. Finally, the stored energy is transformed into kinetic energy of the projectile using a catapult mechanism delivering up to 4,137 J/kg in the osmotic shooting mechanism in cnidarians and 1,269 J/kg in the muscle-powered appendage strike of the mantis shrimp Odontodactylus scyllarus. The launch accelerations range from 6.6g in the frog Rana pipiens to 5,413,000g in
Laura E. Chess
Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical heterogeneity can be defined as differences in participant characteristics, types or timing of outcome measurements and intervention characteristics. Clinical heterogeneity in systematic reviews has the possibility to significantly affect statistical heterogeneity leading to inaccurate conclusions and misled decision making. The aim of this study is to identify to what extent investigators are assessing clinical heterogeneity in both Cochrane and non-Cochrane systematic reviews. Methods The most recent 100 systematic reviews from the top five journals in medicine—JAMA, Archives of Internal Medicine, British Medical Journal, The Lancet, and PLOS Medicine—and the 100 most recently published and/or updated systematic reviews from Cochrane were collected. Various defined items of clinical heterogeneity were extracted from the included reviews. Investigators used chi-squared tests, logarithmic modeling and linear regressions to determine if the presence of such items served as a predictor for clinical heterogeneity when comparing Cochrane to non-Cochrane reviews. Extracted variables include number of studies, number of participants, presence of quantitative synthesis, exploration of clinical heterogeneity, heterogeneous characteristics explored, basis and methods used for investigating clinical heterogeneity, plotting/visual aids, author contact, inferences from clinical heterogeneity investigation, reporting assessment, and the presence of a priori or post-hoc analysis. Results A total of 317 systematic reviews were considered, of which 199 were in the final analysis. A total of 81 % of Cochrane reviews and 90 % of non-Cochrane reviews explored characteristics that are considered aspects of clinical heterogeneity and also described the methods they planned to use to investigate the influence of those characteristics. Only 1 % of non-Cochrane reviews and 8 % of Cochrane reviews explored the clinical
Setia, Maninder Singh
Systematic reviews and meta-analysis have become an important of biomedical literature, and they provide the "highest level of evidence" for various clinical questions. There are a lot of studies - sometimes with contradictory conclusions - on a particular topic in literature. Hence, as a clinician, which results will you believe? What will you tell your patient? Which drug is better? A systematic review or a meta-analysis may help us answer these questions. In addition, it may also help us understand the quality of the articles in literature or the type of studies that have been conducted and published (example, randomized trials or observational studies). The first step it to identify a research question for systematic review or meta-analysis. The next step is to identify the articles that will be included in the study. This will be done by searching various databases; it is important that the researcher should search for articles in more than one database. It will also be useful to form a group of researchers and statisticians that have expertise in conducting systematic reviews and meta-analysis before initiating them. We strongly encourage the readers to register their proposed review/meta-analysis with PROSPERO. Finally, these studies should be reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis checklist.
Lawson, Tony; Çakmak, Melek; Gündüz, Müge; Busher, Hugh
The aim of the present study is to conduct a systematic review research which focuses on research studies into the school practicum. In order to identify the main issues and also to provide a contemporary picture of practicum, 114 studies published on the topic are reviewed and analysed in terms of: (i) aims, (ii) main participants, (iii)…
Alnahdi, Ghaleb Hamad
A systematic review of the literature related to instructional strategies to improve reading skills for students with intellectual disabilities was conducted. Studies reviewed were within three categories; early reading approaches, comprehensive approaches, and one method approach. It was concluded that students with intellectual disabilities are…
Andersen, L P H; Werner, M U; Rosenberg, J
We systematically reviewed randomised controlled trials of peri-operative melatonin. We included 24 studies of 1794 participants that reported eight peri-operative outcomes: anxiety; analgesia; sleep quality; oxidative stress; emergence behaviour; anaesthetic requirements; steal induction......%, respectively. Qualitative reviews suggested the melatonin improved sleep quality and emergence behaviour, and might be capable of reducing oxidative stress and anaesthetic requirements....
This article presents a systematic review of school-based cyberbullying prevention and intervention programs. Research presenting empirical evidence about the effectiveness of a school-based cyberbullying prevention or intervention program published before August 2016 was searched. Seventeen studies were obtained and reviewed. The findings showed…
G. Reurink (Gustaaf); G.J. Goudswaard (Gert Jan); M.H. Moen (Maaike); A. Weir (Adam); J.A.N. Verhaar (Jan); J.L. Tol (Johannes)
textabstractBackground: Injection therapies are widely used for muscle injuries. As there is only limited evidence of their efficacy, physicians should be aware of the potential harmful effects of these injected preparations. Objectives: The purpose of this review was to systematically review the
Reurink, Gustaaf; Goudswaard, Gert Jan; Moen, Maarten H.; Weir, Adam; Verhaar, Jan A. N.; Tol, Johannes L.
Injection therapies are widely used for muscle injuries. As there is only limited evidence of their efficacy, physicians should be aware of the potential harmful effects of these injected preparations. The purpose of this review was to systematically review the literature on the myotoxic effects of
Long, Kristin A.; Marsland, Anna L.
This systematic review integrates qualitative and quantitative research findings regarding family changes in the context of childhood cancer. Twenty-eight quantitative, 42 qualitative, and one mixed-method studies were reviewed. Included studies focused on family functioning, marital quality, and/or parenting in the context of pediatric cancer,…
Rensink, Marijke; Schuurmans, Marieke; Lindeman, Eline; Hafsteinsdottir, Thora
Task-oriented training in rehabilitation after stroke: systematic review. This paper is a report of a review conducted to provide an overview of the evidence in the literature on task-oriented training of stroke survivors and its relevance in daily nursing practice. Stroke is the second leading
Pas, Haiko I. M. F. L.; Winters, Marinus; Haisma, Hidde J.; Koenis, Martinus J. J.; Tol, Johannes L.; Moen, Maarten H.
Objective Stem cell injection for knee osteoarthritis (KOA) is an emerging new therapy, and we aimed to review its evidence of efficacy. Design Systematic review. Eligibility criteria Criteria for eligibility were randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and non-RCT on the efficacy of stem cell
Durl, James; Dietrich, Timo; Pang, Bo; Potter, Leigh-Ellen; Carter, Lewis
Background: The resurgence of interest in virtual reality (VR) in recent years has been exciting for health educators and researchers, yet little is known about VR's effectiveness. This systematic literature review aims to provide an overview of the prevalence of VR in alcohol studies and assess its effectiveness. Methods: Peer-reviewed articles…
Davies, Dan; Jindal-Snape, Divya; Collier, Chris; Digby, Rebecca; Hay, Penny; Howe, Alan
This paper reports on a systematic review of 210 pieces of educational research, policy and professional literature relating to creative environments for learning in schools, commissioned by Learning and Teaching Scotland (LTS). Despite the volume of academic literature in this field, the team of six reviewers found comparatively few empirical…
Politicians use a variety of expectations to justify the delegation of public services to public, semi-public or private organizations. This article reveals expectations of delegation, as well as its correlates. Empirical evidence is drawn from a systematic review of 250 peer-reviewed articles
Quynh, Nga Le Thi; Groot, Wim; Tomini, Sonila M.; Tomini, Florian
This study provides a systematic review of empirical evidence on the labour supply effects of health insurance. The outcomes in the 63 studies reviewed include labour supply in terms of hours worked and the probability of employment, self-employment and the level of economic formalisation. One of
McDaniel Peters, B. Caitlin; Wood, Wendy
This systematic mapping review mapped current knowledge of equine-assisted interventions for people with autism to help guide future practice and research. Thirty-three studies including children and adolescents with autism, 3 of which confirmed diagnoses, were reviewed. Five types of equine-assisted activities were identified across 25 studies,…
Hong, Catherine H L; Hu, Shijia; Haverman, Thijs
INTRODUCTION: This systematic review aims to update on the prevalence of odontogenic-related infections and the efficacy of dental strategies in preventing dental-related complications in cancer patients since the 2010 systematic review. REVIEW METHOD: A literature search was conducted in the dat....../treatment protocols. The use of chlorhexidine, fluoride mouth rinses as well as composite resin, resin-modified glass ionomer cement (GIC), and amalgam restorations over conventional GIC in post head and neck radiation patients who are compliant fluoride users is recommended....
Saconato, Humberto; Prado, Gilmar Fernandes do; Puga, Maria Eduarda dos Santos; Atallah, Alvaro Nagib
It has been estimated that 50 million people worldwide suffer from epilepsy and around 30% will not achieve adequate control over the disease. The aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of oxcarbazepine for refractory partial or generalized epilepsy. Systematic review. A search was conducted in the PubMed, Lilacs, EMBASE and CENTRAL databases. Studies were analyzed using the Cochrane Collaboration methodology. Four randomized clinical trials of medium to poor methodological quality were included. Among the adult patients, the chances that they would obtain a 50% reduction in seizure frequency were greater after using oxcarbazepine at doses of 600 mg (relative risk, RR 2.11; 95% confidence interval, CI 1.32 to 3.35), 1,200 mg (RR 3.24; 95% CI 2.11 to 4.98) and 2,400 mg (RR 3.83; 95% CI 2.59 to 5.97). Among the children, the response in the group using oxcarbazepine was also greater (RR 2.11; 95% CI 1.32 to 3.35). The oxcarbazepine doses of 1,200 mg (RR 17.59; 95% CI 2.37 to 130.35) and 2,400 mg (RR 25.41; 95% CI 6.26 to 103.10) were effective for keeping patients probably free from seizures, but the dose of 600 mg was not. There was no significant difference between oxcarbazepine and carbamazepine for controlling the crises. There is moderate evidence indicating that oxcarbazepine is effective as an alternative treatment for partial or generalized epilepsy in children and adults who were refractory to previous treatment.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Fragile X syndrome (FXS is considered the most common cause of inherited mental retardation. Affected people have mental impairment that can include Attention Deficit and/or Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD, autism disorder, and speech and behavioural disorders. Several pharmacological interventions have been proposed to treat those impairments. Methods Systematic review of the literature and summary of the evidence from clinical controlled trials that compared at least one pharmacological treatment with placebo or other treatment in individuals with diagnosis of FXS syndrome and assessed the efficacy and/or safety of the treatments. Studies were identified by a search of PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Databases using the terms fragile X and treatment. Risk of bias of the studies was assessed by using the Cochrane Collaboration criteria. Results The search identified 276 potential articles and 14 studies satisfied inclusion criteria. Of these, 10 studies on folic acid (9 with crossover design, only 1 of them with good methodological quality and low risk of bias did not find in general significant improvements. A small sample size trial assessed dextroamphetamine and methylphenidate in patients with an additional diagnosis of ADHD and found some improvements in those taking methylphenidate, but the length of follow-up was too short. Two studies on L-acetylcarnitine, showed positive effects and no side effects in patients with an additional diagnosis of ADHD. Finally, one study on patients with an additional diagnosis of autism assessed ampakine compound CX516 and found no significant differences between treatment and placebo. Regarding safety, none of the studies that assessed that area found relevant side effects, but the number of patients included was too small to detect side effects with low incidence. Conclusion Currently there is no robust evidence to support recommendations on pharmacological treatments in patients with
Various treatment modalities are available for cutaneous lichen planus. Pubmed, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, and Health Technology Assessment Database were searched for all the systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials related to cutaneous lichen planus. Two systematic reviews and nine relevant randomized controlled trials were identified. Acitretin, griseofulvin, hydroxychloroquine and narrow band ultraviolet B are demonstrated to be effective in the treatment of cutaneous lichen planus. Sulfasalazine is effective, but has an unfavorable safety profile. KH1060, a vitamin D analogue, is not beneficial in the management of cutaneous lichen planus. Evidence from large scale randomized trials demonstrating the safety and efficacy for many other treatment modalities used to treat cutaneous lichen planus is simply not available.
Wine, Osnat; Ambrose, Sarah; Campbell, Sandy; Villeneuve, Paul J.; Burns, Katharina Kovacs; Vargas, Alvaro Osornio
In a collaborative research process, the participation of interdisciplinary researchers and multi-sectoral stakeholders supports the co-creation, translation, and exchange of new knowledge. Following a scoping review methodology, we explored the collaborative research processes in the specific context of environment and human health research.…
The aim of this study was to outline how search strategies can be systematic, to examine how the searches in recent systematic reviews in prosthodontic and implant-related journals were structured, and to determine whether the search strategies used in those articles were systematic. A total of 103 articles published as systematic reviews and indexed in Medline between January 2013 and May 2016 were identified from eight prosthodontic and implant journals and reviewed. The search strategies were considered systematic when they met the following criteria: (1) more than one electronic database was searched, (2) more than one searcher was clearly involved, (3) both text words and indexing terms were clearly included in the search strategy, (4) a hand search of selected journals or reference lists was undertaken, (5) gray research was specifically sought, and (6) the articles were published in English and at least one other language. The data were tallied and qualitatively assessed. The majority of articles reported on implants (54%), followed by tooth-supported fixed prosthodontics (13%). A total of 23 different electronic resources were consulted, including Medline (by 100% of articles), the Cochrane Library (52%), and Embase (37%). The majority consulted more than one electronic resource (71%), clearly included more than one searcher (73%), and employed a hand search of either selected journals or reference lists (86%). Less than half used both text words and indexing terms to identify articles (42%), while 15% actively sought gray research. Articles published in languages other than English were considered in 63 reviews, but only 14 had no language restrictions. Of the 103 articles, 5 completed search strategies that met all 6 criteria, and a further 12 met 5 criteria. Two articles did not fulfill any of the criteria. More than 95% of recent prosthodontic and implant review articles published in the selected journals failed to use search strategies that were
Spearing, Natalie M; Connelly, Luke B
There is a common perception that injury compensation has a negative impact on health status, and systematic reviews supporting this thesis have been used to influence policy and practice decisions. This study evaluates the quality of the empirical evidence of a negative correlation between injury compensation and health outcomes, based on systematic reviews involving both verifiable and non-verifiable injuries. Systematic meta-review (a "review of reviews"). PubMED, CINAHL, EMBASE, PEDro, PsycInfo, EconLit, Lexis, ABI/INFORM, The Cochrane Library, and the AHRQ EPC were searched from the date of their inception to August 2008, and hand searches were conducted. Selection criteria were established a priori. Included systematic reviews examined the impact of compensation on health, involved adults, were published in English and used a range of outcome measures. Two investigators independently applied standard instruments to evaluate the methodological quality of the included reviews. Data on compensation scheme design (i.e., the intervention) and outcome measures were also extracted. Eleven systematic reviews involving verifiable and non-verifiable injuries met the inclusion criteria. Nine reviews reported an association between compensation and poor health outcomes. All of them were affected by the generally low quality of the primary (observational) research in this field, the heterogeneous nature of compensation laws (schemes) and legal processes for seeking compensation, and the difficulties in measuring compensation in relation to health. Notwithstanding the limitations of the research in this field, one higher quality review examining a single compensation process and relying on primary studies using health outcome (rather than proxy) measures found strong evidence of no association between litigation and poor health following whiplash, challenging the general belief that legal processes have a negative impact on health status. Moves to alter scheme design and
Oliver, Kathryn; Rees, Rebecca; Brady, Louca-Mai; Kavanagh, Josephine; Oliver, Sandy; Thomas, James
Background: Arguments supporting the involvement of users in research have even more weight when involving the public in systematic reviews of research. We aimed to explore the potential for public involvement in systematic reviews of observational and qualitative studies. Methods: Two consultative workshops were carried out with a group of young…
Wu, Xi Vivien; Chan, Yah Shih; Tan, Kimberlyn Hui Shing; Wang, Wenru
Nurse preceptors guide students to integrate theory into practice, teach clinical skills, assess clinical competency, and enhance problem solving skills. Managing the dual roles of a registered nurse and preceptor poses tremendous challenges to many preceptors. Online learning is recognized as an effective learning approach for enhancing nursing knowledge and skills. The systematic review aims to review and synthesise the online learning programs for preceptors. A systematic review was designed based on the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Programs. Articles published between January 2000 and June 2016 were sought from six electronic databases: CINAHL, Medline OVID, PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, and Web of Science. All papers were reviewed and quality assessment was performed. Nine studies were finally selected. Data were extracted, organized and analysed using a narrative synthesis. The review identified five overarching themes: development of the online learning programs for nurse preceptors, major contents of the programs, uniqueness of each program, modes of delivery, and outcomes of the programs. The systematic review provides insightful information on educational programs for preceptors. At this information age, online learning offers accessibility, convenience, flexibility, which could of great advantage for the working adults. In addition, the online platform provides an alternative for preceptors who face challenges of workload, time, and support system. Therefore, it is paramount that continuing education courses need to be integrated with technology, increase the flexibility and responsiveness of the nursing workforce, and offer alternative means to take up courses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Boeckstyns, Michel E H
was to review the literature on second, third and fourth generation implants. METHODS: The review was conducted according to the PRISMA-guidelines. A search was made using a protocolled strategy and well-defined criteria in PubMed, in the Cochrane Library and by screening reference lists. RESULTS: 37...
Toliver-Smith, Andrea; Gentry, Betholyn
The authors reviewed the literature regarding linguistic variations seen in American Sign Language. These variations are influenced by region and culture. Features of spoken languages have also influenced sign languages as they intersected, e.g., Black ASL has been influenced by African American English. A literature review was conducted to…
Viksveen, Petter; Bjønness, Stig Erlend; Berg, Siv Hilde; Cardenas, Nicole Elizabeth; Game, Julia Rose; Aase, Karina; Storm, Marianne
User involvement has become a growing importance in healthcare. The United Nations state that adolescents have a right to be heard, and user involvement in healthcare is a legal right in many countries. Some research provides an insight into the field of user involvement in somatic and mental healthcare for adults, but little is known about user involvement in adolescents' mental healthcare, and no overview of the existing research evidence exists. The aim of this systematic review is to provide an overview of existing research reporting on experiences with and the effectiveness and safety issues associated with user involvement for adolescents' mental healthcare at the individual and organisational level. A systematic literature search and assessment of published research in the field of user involvement in adolescents' mental healthcare will be carried out. Established guidelines will be used for data extraction (Cochrane Collaboration guidelines, Strengthening the Reporting of Observational studies in Epidemiology and Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP)), critical appraisal (Cochrane Collaboration guidelines and Pragmatic-Explanatory Continuum Indicator Summary) and reporting of results (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses, Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials and CASP). Confidence in the research evidence will be assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach. Adolescents are included as coresearchers for the planning and carrying out of this systematic review. This systematic review will provide an overview of the existing research literature and thereby fill a knowledge gap. It may provide various stakeholders, including decision-makers, professionals, individuals and their families, with an overview of existing knowledge in an underexplored field of research. Ethics approval is not required for this systematic review as we are not collecting primary data. The results
Bath, Philip M.W.; Gray, Laura J.
Background Systematic reviews followed by ameta-analysis are carried out in medical research to combine the results of two or more related studies. Stroke trials have struggled to show beneficial effects and meta-analysis should be used more widely throughout the research process to either speed up the development of useful interventions, or halt more quickly research with hazardous or ineffective interventions. Summary of review. This review summarises the clinical research process an...
Campbell, Jared M; Bateman, Emma; Peters, Micah Dj; Bowen, Joanne M; Keefe, Dorothy M; Stephenson, Matthew D
Fluoropyrimidine (FU) and platinum-based chemotherapies are greatly complicated by their associated toxicities. This umbrella systematic review synthesized all systematic reviews that investigated associations between germline variations and toxicity, with the aim of informing personalized medicine. Systematic reviews are important in pharmacogenetics where false positives are common. Four systematic reviews were identified for FU-induced toxicity and three for platinum. Polymorphisms of DPYD and TYMS, but not MTHFR, were statistically significantly associated with FU-induced toxicity (although only DPYD had clinical significance). For platinum, GSTP1 was found to not be associated with toxicity. This umbrella systematic review has synthesized the best available evidence on the pharmacogenetics of FU and platinum toxicity. It provides a useful reference for clinicians and identifies important research gaps.
Zhang, Alexis Ceecee; MacIsaac, Richard J; Roberts, Leslie; Kamel, Jordan; Craig, Jennifer P; Busija, Lucy; Downie, Laura E
Damage to peripheral nerves occurs in a variety of health conditions. Preserving nerve integrity, to prevent progressive nerve damage, remains a clinical challenge. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are implicated in the development and maintenance of healthy nerves and may be beneficial for promoting peripheral nerve health. The aim of this systematic review is to assess the effects of oral omega-3 PUFA supplementation on peripheral nerve integrity, including both subjective and objective measures of peripheral nerve structure and/or function. A systematic review of randomised controlled trials that have evaluated the effects of omega-3 PUFA supplementation on peripheral nerve assessments will be conducted. Comprehensive electronic database searches will be performed in Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), US National Institutes of Health Clinical Trials Registry and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform. The title, abstract and keywords of identified articles will be assessed for eligibility by two reviewers. Full-text articles will be obtained for all studies judged as eligible or potentially eligible; these studies will be independently assessed by two reviewers to determine eligibility. Disagreements will be resolved by consensus. Risk of bias assessment will be performed using the Cochrane Collaboration risk of bias tool to appraise the quality of included studies. If clinically meaningful, and there are a sufficient number of eligible studies, a meta-analysis will be conducted and a summary of findings table will be provided. This is a systematic review that will involve the analysis of previously published data, and therefore ethics approval is not required. A manuscript reporting the results of this systematic review will be published in a peer-reviewed journal and may also be presented at relevant scientific conferences. CRD42018086297. © Article author(s) (or their employer
Considerable progress has been made in the European Fast Reactor R and D Collaboration during 1988. In parallel with the technical achievements, 1988 has been notable for the determination and willingness to adapt and improve the various structures and procedures in the organization of the European Collaboration. Three important agreements on EFR were signed in Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany on 16 February 1989: Industrial agreement, as a basis for planning, design, future construction and marketing of EFR; R and D agreement on the content and extent of R and D support for EFR design; SERENA-FASTEC agreement on know-how pool and royalties. (author). 1 tab
Mahady, Suzanne E; Schlub, Timothy; Bero, Lisa; Moher, David; Tovey, David; George, Jacob; Craig, Jonathan C
Systematic reviews are an integral component of evidence-based health care. However, little is known on how well they report the potential harms of interventions. We assessed the reporting of harms in recently published systematic reviews of interventions relevant to clinical gastroenterology. We identified all systematic reviews of randomized trials of gastroenterology interventions published from 2008 to 2012 in highly cited gastroenterology and general medical journals. We adapted the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials guidelines for harms and assessed qualitative and quantitative parameters of harms reporting. Regression analyses determined predictors of more comprehensive harms reporting. In total, 78 systematic reviews were identified, with 72 published in gastroenterology journals and six in general medical journals. Overall, one in three systematic reviews (26/78, 33%) did not refer to harms of the intervention anywhere in the article. Less than half of the studies included adverse events as an outcome measure, and data on absolute rates of adverse events were only provided in 28%. Most (65%) did not include any figures or tables on adverse event; however, all included these on efficacy outcomes (mean, 3 and range, 1-7). Regression analyses indicated that the use of reporting guidelines was significantly associated with better harms reporting (P = 0.04). The reporting of harms in gastroenterology systematic reviews is largely inadequate and highly asymmetrical compared with the reporting of benefits. We suggest that review authors routinely assess both efficacy and harms outcomes of an intervention and that reporting guidelines specifically targeting harms reporting be developed. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nadeem, Erum; Olin, S Serene; Hill, Laura Campbell; Hoagwood, Kimberly Eaton; Horwitz, Sarah McCue
Policy makers have increasingly turned to learning collaboratives (LCs) as a strategy for improving usual care through the dissemination of evidence-based practices. The purpose of this review was to characterize the state of the evidence for use of LCs in mental health care. A systematic search of major academic databases for peer-reviewed articles on LCs in mental health care generated 421 unique articles across a range of disciplines; 28 mental health articles were selected for full-text review, and 20 articles representing 16 distinct studies met criteria for final inclusion. Articles were coded to identify the LC components reported, the focus of the research, and key findings. Most of the articles included assessments of provider- or patient-level variables at baseline and post-LC. Only one study included a comparison condition. LC targets ranged widely, from use of a depression screening tool to implementation of evidence-based treatments. Fourteen crosscutting LC components (for example, in-person learning sessions, phone meetings, data reporting, leadership involvement, and training in quality improvement methods) were identified. The LCs reviewed reported including, on average, seven components, most commonly in-person learning sessions, plan-do-study-act cycles, multidisciplinary quality improvement teams, and data collection for quality improvement. LCs are being used widely in mental health care, although there is minimal evidence of their effectiveness and unclear reporting in regard to specific components. Rigorous observational and controlled research studies on the impact of LCs on targeted provider- and patient-level outcomes are greatly needed.
Ramírez, Valeria; Hach, Maria; López, Rodrigo
. Consequently, considerable variation in the understanding of aggressive periodontitis can be anticipated. AIM: To systematically asses, the definitions of aggressive periodontitis reported in original periodontal research. METHODS: A systematic review of original research on aggressive periodontitis published.......7% of the publications no information is provided as to how the cases were defined. Many combinations of criteria for case definition were found. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed significant heterogeneity in the understanding and use of the term aggressive periodontitis in original research and poor documentation...
Shepherd, Jonathan; Frampton, Geoff K; Pickett, Karen; Wyatt, Jeremy C
To investigate methods and processes for timely, efficient and good quality peer review of research funding proposals in health. A two-stage evidence synthesis: (1) a systematic map to describe the key characteristics of the evidence base, followed by (2) a systematic review of the studies stakeholders prioritised as relevant from the map on the effectiveness and efficiency of peer review 'innovations'. Standard processes included literature searching, duplicate inclusion criteria screening, study keyword coding, data extraction, critical appraisal and study synthesis. A total of 83 studies from 15 countries were included in the systematic map. The evidence base is diverse, investigating many aspects of the systems for, and processes of, peer review. The systematic review included eight studies from Australia, Canada, and the USA, evaluating a broad range of peer review innovations. These studies showed that simplifying the process by shortening proposal forms, using smaller reviewer panels, or expediting processes can speed up the review process and reduce costs, but this might come at the expense of peer review quality, a key aspect that has not been assessed. Virtual peer review using videoconferencing or teleconferencing appears promising for reducing costs by avoiding the need for reviewers to travel, but again any consequences for quality have not been adequately assessed. There is increasing international research activity into the peer review of health research funding. The studies reviewed had methodological limitations and variable generalisability to research funders. Given these limitations it is not currently possible to recommend immediate implementation of these innovations. However, many appear promising based on existing evidence, and could be adapted as necessary by funders and evaluated. Where feasible, experimental evaluation, including randomised controlled trials, should be conducted, evaluating impact on effectiveness, efficiency and quality.
Frampton, Geoff K.; Pickett, Karen; Wyatt, Jeremy C.
Objective To investigate methods and processes for timely, efficient and good quality peer review of research funding proposals in health. Methods A two-stage evidence synthesis: (1) a systematic map to describe the key characteristics of the evidence base, followed by (2) a systematic review of the studies stakeholders prioritised as relevant from the map on the effectiveness and efficiency of peer review ‘innovations’. Standard processes included literature searching, duplicate inclusion criteria screening, study keyword coding, data extraction, critical appraisal and study synthesis. Results A total of 83 studies from 15 countries were included in the systematic map. The evidence base is diverse, investigating many aspects of the systems for, and processes of, peer review. The systematic review included eight studies from Australia, Canada, and the USA, evaluating a broad range of peer review innovations. These studies showed that simplifying the process by shortening proposal forms, using smaller reviewer panels, or expediting processes can speed up the review process and reduce costs, but this might come at the expense of peer review quality, a key aspect that has not been assessed. Virtual peer review using videoconferencing or teleconferencing appears promising for reducing costs by avoiding the need for reviewers to travel, but again any consequences for quality have not been adequately assessed. Conclusions There is increasing international research activity into the peer review of health research funding. The studies reviewed had methodological limitations and variable generalisability to research funders. Given these limitations it is not currently possible to recommend immediate implementation of these innovations. However, many appear promising based on existing evidence, and could be adapted as necessary by funders and evaluated. Where feasible, experimental evaluation, including randomised controlled trials, should be conducted, evaluating impact
Archambault, P.M.; Belt, T.H. van de; Grajales, F.J., 3rd; Faber, M.J.; Kuziemsky, C.E.; Gagnon, S.; Bilodeau, A.; Rioux, S.; Nelen, W.L.D.M.; Gagnon, M.P.; Turgeon, A.F.; Aubin, K.; Gold, I.; Poitras, J.; Eysenbach, G.; Kremer, J.A.M.; Legare, F.
BACKGROUND: Collaborative writing applications (eg, wikis and Google Documents) hold the potential to improve the use of evidence in both public health and health care. The rapid rise in their use has created the need for a systematic synthesis of the evidence of their impact as knowledge
Schoenberg, P.L.; David, A.S.
Biofeedback potentially provides non-invasive, effective psychophysiological interventions for psychiatric disorders. The encompassing purpose of this review was to establish how biofeedback interventions have been used to treat select psychiatric disorders [anxiety, autistic spectrum disorders,
Pearson, Alan; White, Heath; Bath-Hextall, Fiona; Salmond, Susan; Apostolo, Joao; Kirkpatrick, Pamela
There are an increasing number of published single-method systematic reviews that focus on different types of evidence related to a particular topic. As policy makers and practitioners seek clear directions for decision-making from systematic reviews, it is likely that it will be increasingly difficult for them to identify 'what to do' if they are required to find and understand a plethora of syntheses related to a particular topic.Mixed-methods systematic reviews are designed to address this issue and have the potential to produce systematic reviews of direct relevance to policy makers and practitioners.On the basis of the recommendations of the Joanna Briggs Institute International Mixed Methods Reviews Methodology Group in 2012, the Institute adopted a segregated approach to mixed-methods synthesis as described by Sandelowski et al., which consists of separate syntheses of each component method of the review. Joanna Briggs Institute's mixed-methods synthesis of the findings of the separate syntheses uses a Bayesian approach to translate the findings of the initial quantitative synthesis into qualitative themes and pooling these with the findings of the initial qualitative synthesis.
Casey, Daniel Aj
Amusia, a music-specific agnosia, is a disorder of pitch interval analysis and pitch direction change recognition which results in a deficit in musical ability. The full range of aetiological factors which cause this condition is unknown, as is each cause's frequency. The objective of this study was to identify all causes of amusia, and to measure each of their frequencies. systematic review was conducted by search of multiple databases for articles related to the aetiology of amusic auditory dysfunction. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines for reporting of systematic reviews were followed, utilizing the PRISMA checklist and PRISMA flowchart methodology. Retrospective medical database review. evidence yielded from the systematic review process. The initial search protocol identified 5723 articles. Application of a classification review filter and exclusion of irrelevant or duplicates led to the initial identification of 56 relevant studies which detailed 301 patients. However, these studies were of poor quality. Because of this, synthesis and statistical analysis were not appropriate. Although initially a large number of relevant studies were identified, and might point in future to potential diagnostic categories, it was not appropriate to synthesise and analyse them due to poor quality, considerable heterogeneity and small numbers. This suggests that large, high quality studies focussed directly on understanding the aetiology of amusia are required.
Moat, Kaelan A; Lavis, John N; Wilson, Mike G; Røttingen, John-Arne; Bärnighausen, Till
Systematic reviews are increasingly being viewed as important sources of information for policymakers who need to make decisions on different aspects of the health system, often under tight time constraints and with many factors competing for their attention. Unfortunately, a number of misconceptions, or 'myths', stand in the way of promoting their use. The belief that systematic review topics are not relevant to health systems policymaking, that they cannot be found quickly, and that they are not available in formats that are useful for policymakers are but three examples of such myths. This paper uses evidence drawn mainly from Health Systems Evidence, a continuously updated repository of syntheses of health systems research, to counter these and nine other common myths, with the aim of changing the constraining beliefs associated with them, while improving the prospects for the use of systematic reviews in health system policymaking.
Baldasseroni, A; Olimpi, Nadia; Bonaccorsi, G
The authors carried out a systematic review of the effectiveness of workplace safety interventions, as a part of a wider project funded by CCM, Centre for Disease Control. Several electronic bibliographic databases were checked, using a standardized string selection. The string contained the following four items: the intervention; job features; type of injury; efficacy/effectiveness. Of the various databases consulted, Web of Science was the most efficient. Overall 5531 articles were selected. After reading the title and abstract, 4695 were excluded and eventually 35 systematic reviews were selected, which synthesized 769 original articles. The main topics of the selected systematic reviews were: certain sectors (building industry, agriculture, health care); personal protective equipment; work organization and prevention management at plant level; evaluation of prevention policies by national and regional authorities. A clear need for multiple bibliographical data-base search emerged at the end of this study.
Lee, Myeong Soo; Choi, Jiae; Posadzki, Paul; Ernst, Edzard
Aromatherapy is the therapeutic use of essential oil from herbs, flowers, and other plants. The aim of this overview was to provide an overview of systematic reviews evaluating the effectiveness of aromatherapy. We searched 12 electronic databases and our departmental files without restrictions of time or language. The methodological quality of all systematic reviews was evaluated independently by two authors. Of 201 potentially relevant publications, 10 met our inclusion criteria. Most of the systematic reviews were of poor methodological quality. The clinical subject areas were hypertension, depression, anxiety, pain relief, and dementia. For none of the conditions was the evidence convincing. Several SRs of aromatherapy have recently been published. Due to a number of caveats, the evidence is not sufficiently convincing that aromatherapy is an effective therapy for any condition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Smith, Shelley L.
This article includes a brief rationale and review of the literature on peer review of teaching (PRT). Based on that literature review, it offers a proposal for an optimal formative review process that results in a teaching portfolio that would reflect a faculty member's efforts and successes in a critically reflective PRT process, and contributes…
Catalan-Matamoros, Daniel; Peñafiel-Saiz, Carmen
Taking into account that a key determinant in public approval of vaccinations is how the media constructs and frames messages about vaccination programmes, our aim is to review communication studies exploring media coverage of vaccines within traditional media venues. Using a registered protocol (PROSPERO: 42017072849), a systematic review was conducted that searched in three international electronic databases (PubMed, Scopus, and the International Bibliography of Social Science) for articles published between 2007 and 2017 following content-analysis methods. The characteristics and outcomes were systematically identified and described. The search yielded 24 eligible studies that were further analysed in the review. Media coverage of vaccines has been largely studied during the last decade. Findings revealed that 62% ( n = 15) of studies analysed the human papillomavirus vaccine, 87% ( n = 21) examined newspapers, and 62% ( n = 15) examined North American media. In relation to media content analyses, 75% found negative messages on vaccines and 83% identified a lack of accurate information. This systematic review suggests an agenda for further research. There is a significant need to analyse other types of traditional media beyond newspapers. Future studies should focus on other geographical areas such as low-income countries and on analysing visual materials and digital media. We found that negative messages and inaccurate information are common in media coverage on vaccines; therefore, further research focusing on these topics is needed. Officials in public health organizations should develop a close collaboration with the media to improve public communication on vaccines.
Over 20 years ago, Robert J. Barak and Barbara E. Breier suggested incorporating a regular assessment of the entire program review system into the review schedule in order to ensure that the system itself is as efficient and effective as the programs under review. Barak and Breier's seminal book on the goals and processes of program review has…
Kanewala, Upulee; Bieman, James M.
Context Scientific software plays an important role in critical decision making, for example making weather predictions based on climate models, and computation of evidence for research publications. Recently, scientists have had to retract publications due to errors caused by software faults. Systematic testing can identify such faults in code. Objective This study aims to identify specific challenges, proposed solutions, and unsolved problems faced when testing scientific software. Method We conducted a systematic literature survey to identify and analyze relevant literature. We identified 62 studies that provided relevant information about testing scientific software. Results We found that challenges faced when testing scientific software fall into two main categories: (1) testing challenges that occur due to characteristics of scientific software such as oracle problems and (2) testing challenges that occur due to cultural differences between scientists and the software engineering community such as viewing the code and the model that it implements as inseparable entities. In addition, we identified methods to potentially overcome these challenges and their limitations. Finally we describe unsolved challenges and how software engineering researchers and practitioners can help to overcome them. Conclusions Scientific software presents special challenges for testing. Specifically, cultural differences between scientist developers and software engineers, along with the characteristics of the scientific software make testing more difficult. Existing techniques such as code clone detection can help to improve the testing process. Software engineers should consider special challenges posed by scientific software such as oracle problems when developing testing techniques. PMID:25125798
Kanewala, Upulee; Bieman, James M
Scientific software plays an important role in critical decision making, for example making weather predictions based on climate models, and computation of evidence for research publications. Recently, scientists have had to retract publications due to errors caused by software faults. Systematic testing can identify such faults in code. This study aims to identify specific challenges, proposed solutions, and unsolved problems faced when testing scientific software. We conducted a systematic literature survey to identify and analyze relevant literature. We identified 62 studies that provided relevant information about testing scientific software. We found that challenges faced when testing scientific software fall into two main categories: (1) testing challenges that occur due to characteristics of scientific software such as oracle problems and (2) testing challenges that occur due to cultural differences between scientists and the software engineering community such as viewing the code and the model that it implements as inseparable entities. In addition, we identified methods to potentially overcome these challenges and their limitations. Finally we describe unsolved challenges and how software engineering researchers and practitioners can help to overcome them. Scientific software presents special challenges for testing. Specifically, cultural differences between scientist developers and software engineers, along with the characteristics of the scientific software make testing more difficult. Existing techniques such as code clone detection can help to improve the testing process. Software engineers should consider special challenges posed by scientific software such as oracle problems when developing testing techniques.
Naaktgeboren, Christiana A.; van Enst, Wynanda A.; Ochodo, Eleanor A.; de Groot, Joris A. H.; Hooft, Lotty; Leeflang, Mariska M.; Bossuyt, Patrick M.; Moons, Karel G. M.; Reitsma, Johannes B.
To examine how authors explore and report on sources of heterogeneity in systematic reviews of diagnostic accuracy studies. A cohort of systematic reviews of diagnostic tests was systematically identified. Data were extracted on whether an exploration of the sources of heterogeneity was undertaken,
Lowe, Sonya S; Tan, Maria; Faily, Joan; Watanabe, Sharon M; Courneya, Kerry S
Progressive, incurable cancer is associated with increased fatigue, increased muscle weakness, and reduced physical functioning, all of which negatively impact quality of life. Physical activity has demonstrated benefits on cancer-related fatigue and physical functioning in early-stage cancer patients; however, its impact on these outcomes in end-stage cancer has not been established. The aim of this systematic review is to determine the potential benefits, harms, and effects of physical activity interventions on quality of life outcomes in advanced cancer patients. A systematic review of peer-reviewed literature on physical activity in advanced cancer patients will be undertaken. Empirical quantitative studies will be considered for inclusion if they present interventional or observational data on physical activity in advanced cancer patients. Searches will be conducted in the following electronic databases: CINAHL; CIRRIE Database of International Rehabilitation Research; Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR); Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE); Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); EMBASE; MEDLINE; PEDro: the Physiotherapy Evidence Database; PQDT; PsycInfo; PubMed; REHABDATA; Scopus; SPORTDiscus; and Web of Science, to identify relevant studies of interest. Additional strategies to identify relevant studies will include citation searches and evaluation of reference lists of included articles. Titles, abstracts, and keywords of identified studies from the search strategies will be screened for inclusion criteria. Two independent reviewers will conduct quality appraisal using the Effective Public Health Practice Project Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies (EPHPP) and the Cochrane risk of bias tool. A descriptive summary of included studies will describe the study designs, participant and activity characteristics, and objective and patient-reported outcomes. This systematic review will summarize the current
Leandro Fornias Machado de Rezende
Full Text Available 1 To synthesize the current observational evidence for the association between sedentary behavior and health outcomes using information from systematic reviews. 2 To assess the methodological quality of the systematic reviews found.Medline; Excerpta Medica (Embase; PsycINFO; and Web of Science were searched for reviews published up to September 2013. Additional publications were provided by Sedentary Behaviour Research Network members. The methodological quality of the systematic reviews was evaluated using recommended standard criteria from AMSTAR. For each review, improper use of causal language in the description of their main results/conclusion was evaluated. Altogether, 1,044 review titles were identified, 144 were read in their entirety, and 27 were included. Based on the systematic