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Sample records for colinus cristatus marcadas

  1. Normal xeroradiographic and radiographic anatomy of the bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus), with reference to other galliform species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, B.J.; Smith, S.A.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide a reference for xeroradiographic and conventional radiographic anatomy of the bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) as a representative of the avian order Galliformes. The heads, bodies, wings, and pelvic limbs of four adult birds were radiographed using xeroradiographic and conventional radiographic techniques. Nine xeroradiographs and their corresponding conventional radiographs were selected, and the xeroradiographs labeled to illustrate the normal anatomy of these regions. A xeroradiograph of the tarsometatarsus of the domestic peacock (Pavo cristatus) was also included to demonstrate the metatarsal spur, which is not present in the quail

  2. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT FROM RUMEX CRISTATUS DC

    OpenAIRE

    Sibel KAHRAMAN; Refiye YANARDAG

    2013-01-01

    Plants have been used for many years as a source of traditional medicine to treat various diseases and conditions. R. cristatus DC (Polygonaceae) is widely spread in Turkey and used as both herbal medicine and food. This study examined the antioxidant activities of ethanolic extract of R. cristatus DC using different tests. The antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of R. cristatus leaves was analyzed for total phenolic, flavonoid, ascorbic acid and β-carotene contents, reducing power and ...

  3. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT FROM RUMEX CRISTATUS DC

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    Sibel KAHRAMAN

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants have been used for many years as a source of traditional medicine to treat various diseases and conditions. R. cristatus DC (Polygonaceae is widely spread in Turkey and used as both herbal medicine and food. This study examined the antioxidant activities of ethanolic extract of R. cristatus DC using different tests. The antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of R. cristatus leaves was analyzed for total phenolic, flavonoid, ascorbic acid and β-carotene contents, reducing power and DPPH radical scavenging activity. The results were compared with natural and synthetic antioxidants. The results suggest that consumption of R. cristatus DC can be beneficial effects due to its antioxidant properties

  4. Vision in the peafowl (Aves: Pavo cristatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Nathan S

    2002-12-01

    The visual sense of the Indian blue-shouldered peafowl Pavo cristatus was investigated with respect to the spectral absorption characteristics of the retinal photoreceptors, the spectral transmittance of the ocular media and the topographic distribution of cells in the retinal ganglion cell layer. Microspectrophotometry revealed a single class of rod, four spectrally distinct types of single cone and a single class of double cone. In the case of the single cone types, which contained visual pigments with wavelengths of maximum absorbance (lambda(max)) at 424, 458, 505 and 567 nm, spectral filtering by the ocular media and the different cone oil droplets with which each visual pigment is associated gives predicted peak spectral sensitivities of 432, 477, 537 and 605 nm, respectively. Topographic analysis of retinal ganglion cell distribution revealed a large central area of increased cell density (at peak, 35,609 cells mm(-2)) with a poorly defined visual streak extending nasally. The peafowl has a calculated maximum spatial resolution (visual acuity) in the lateral visual field of 20.6 cycles degrees(-1). These properties of the peafowl eye are discussed with respect to its visual ecology and are compared with those of other closely related species.

  5. Visceral Marek's disease in white-peafowl (Pavo cristatus)

    OpenAIRE

    Blume, G.R.; Cardoso, S.P.; Oliveira, M.L.B.; Matiolli, M.P.; Gómez, S.Y.M.; Reis Júnior, J.L.; Sant'Ana, F.J.F.; Martins, N.R.S.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Marek's disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative disorder caused by Gallid herpesvirus 2 (MDV) that infects mainly domestic gallinaceous birds although wild birds may occasionally be affected. The current report describes the anatomopathological and molecular findings of a case of MD in a white-peafowl (Pavo cristatus). The signs included apathy, hyporexia, and diarrhea. Grossly, 0.5 to 1.5cm in diameter, yellow, soft nodules were observed in the skeletal muscle, lung, kidney, air sacs,...

  6. Distribution of chewing lice upon the polygynous peacock Pavo cristatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, I R; Clark, F; Petrie, M

    1996-04-01

    An opportunistic survey of louse distribution upon the peacock Pavo cristatus was undertaken following a cull of 23 birds from an English zoo. After complete skin and feather dissolution, 2 species of lice were retrieved, Goniodes pavonis and Amyrsidea minuta. The distribution of both louse species could be described by a negative binomial model. The significance of this is discussed in relation to transmission dynamics of lice in the atypical avian mating system found in the peacock, which involves no male parental care.

  7. Unraveling the rapid radiation of crested newts, Triturus cristatus superspecies, using complete mitogenomic sequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wielstra, B.M.; Arntzen, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    Background - The rapid radiation of crested newts (Triturus cristatus superspecies) comprises four morphotypes: 1) the T. karelinii group, 2) T. carnifex - T. macedonicus, 3) T. cristatus and 4) T. dobrogicus. These vary in body build and the number of rib-bearing pre-sacral vertebrae (NRBV). The

  8. Visceral Marek's disease in white-peafowl (Pavo cristatus

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    G.R. Blume

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Marek's disease (MD is a lymphoproliferative disorder caused by Gallid herpesvirus 2 (MDV that infects mainly domestic gallinaceous birds although wild birds may occasionally be affected. The current report describes the anatomopathological and molecular findings of a case of MD in a white-peafowl (Pavo cristatus. The signs included apathy, hyporexia, and diarrhea. Grossly, 0.5 to 1.5cm in diameter, yellow, soft nodules were observed in the skeletal muscle, lung, kidney, air sacs, small intestine, heart, ovary, ventriculus, and proventriculus. Microscopically, numerous atypical round neoplastic cells were noted. The molecular detection of MDV DNA was implemented to amplify part of the meq gene and products were sequenced for the phylogenetic analysis. Template DNA was obtained from tissues of the affected bird and from blood of all the gallinaceous birds of the Zoo. The expected amplicon for the partial amplification of MDV meq gene was obtained and the amplicons were sequenced. Sequences obtained enabled grouping the strain (accession no. KT768121 with MDV serotype 1 strains from the GenBank. Based on the anatomopathological and molecular findings, the diagnosis of MD in a white-peafowl was reached, and to the authors' knowledge, no previous report regarding MD was published in Pavo cristatus.

  9. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Indian peafowl (Pavo cristatus), with phylogenetic analysis in phasianidae.

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    Zhou, Tai-Cheng; Sha, Tao; Irwin, David M; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Pavo cristatus, known as the Indian peafowl, is endemic to India and Sri Lanka and has been domesticated for its ornamental and food value. However, its phylogenetic status is still debated. Here, to clarify the phylogenetic status of P. cristatus within Phasianidae, we analyzed its mitochondrial genome (mtDNA). The complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genome was determined using 34 pairs of primers. Our data show that the mtDNA genome of P. cristatus is 16,686 bp in length. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of P. cristatus was performed along with 22 complete mtDNA genomes belonging to other species in Phasianidae using Bayesian and maximum likelihood methods, where Aythya americana and Anas platyrhynchos were used as outgroups. Our results show that P. critatus has its closest genetic affinity with Pavo muticus and belongs to clade that contains Gallus, Bambusicola and Francolinus.

  10. Parasitismo natural por Synhimantus (Dispharynx) nasuta (Nematoda: Acuariidae) en Pavo real (Pavo cristatus) en cautiverio

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    Gómez-Puerta, Luis A.; Enciso, Marco A.; Rojas, Gianmarco

    2009-01-01

    The nematode Synhimantus (Dispharynx) nasuta (Rudolphi, 1819) Chabaud, 1975 parasiting the proventriculus of two chicks of Common Peafowl (Pavo cristatus Linnaeus, 1758) in captivity from Lima, Peru is described. En el presente trabajo se describe al nematodo Synhimantus (Dispharynx) nasuta (Rudolphi, 1819) Chabaud, 1975 parasitando el proventrículo de dos polluelos de Pavo real (Pavo cristatus Linnaeus, 1758) en cautiverio provenientes de Lima, Perú.

  11. Clinical perspectives of intravenous ketamine anaesthesia in peafowl (Pavo cristatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athar, M; Shakoor, A; Muhammad, G; Sarwar, M N; Chaudhry, N I

    1996-01-01

    A total of 29 peafowl (Pavo cristatus), rectified surgically for infraorbital abscesses (n = 22), lacerated wounds (n = 4), and fractures of tibia (n = 2) and radius (n = 1), were anaesthetized by the intravenous administration of ketamine hydrochloride (Inj. Calypsol, Gedeon Richter, Hungary) in a dose of 15 20 mg/kg body weight. Divided doses (10 mg + 5 mg + 5 mg) were used with an interval of 1-2 min. No premedication was undertaken in any of the birds. Anaesthesia lasted for about 15 min and the birds gained their feet completely after 30 min to 3 hours. The respiration rate was markedly depressed (8-10/min) and the respiratory pattern was deep abdominal. Only a slight increase was observed in the heart rate. Analgesia was incomplete and muscle relaxation was not satisfactory. Mild salivation was also noticed in some of the birds (n = 3). Recovery, although not smooth, was uneventful.

  12. Hypervariable minisatellite DNA sequences in the Indian peafowl Pavo cristatus.

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    Hanotte, O; Burke, T; Armour, J A; Jeffreys, A J

    1991-04-01

    We report here for the first time the large-scale isolation of hypervariable minisatellite DNA sequences from a non-human species, the Indian peafowl (Pavo cristatus). A size-selected genomic DNA fraction, rich in hypervariable minisatellites, was cloned into Charomid 9-36. This library was screened using two multilocus hypervariable probes, 33.6 and 33.15 and also, in a "probe-walking" approach, with five of the peafowl minisatellites initially isolated. Forty-eight positively hybridizing clones were characterized and found to originate from 30 different loci, 18 of which were polymorphic. Five of these variable minisatellite loci were studied further. They all showed Mendelian inheritance. The heterozygosities of these loci were relatively low (range 22-78%) in comparison with those of previously cloned human loci, as expected in view of inbreeding in our semicaptive study population. No new length allele mutations were observed in families and the mean mutation rate per locus is low (less than 0.004, 95% confidence maximum). These loci were also investigated by cross-species hybridization in related taxa. The ability of the probes to detect hypervariable sequences in other species within the same avian family was found to vary, from those probes that are species-specific to those that are apparently general to the family. We also illustrate the potential usefulness of these probes for paternity analysis in a study of sexual selection, and discuss the general application of specific hypervariable probes in behavioral and evolutionary studies.

  13. Infection with Capillaria spp. in cage reared peacocks (Pavus cristatus

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    Dodovski Aleksandar

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In the period of July and August 2009 at the Veterinary Institute, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Skopje clinical and laboratory investigations of two peacocks (Pavus Cristatus male and female old 2, 5 years were performed. Peacocks had history of disease in the previous 3-4 months with clinical signs consisting of white diarrhea, emaciation, apathy, with normal appetite. Peacocks were treated several times with antibiotics without any success. With parasitological examination of the feces with qualitative method of flotation with saturated solution of ZnSO4 (SpG 1.4., mass infestation with eggs of Capillaria spp was established. On the basis of laboratory results therapy with levamisole (Neositol 10% - FM Pharm of the peacocks and thorough disinfection of the holding were recommended. On the basis of laboratory investigations, especially parasitological investigations it can be conclude that this is the first case of isolation of Capillaria spp in peacocks in Republic of Macedonia. Repeated single shot therapy with levamisole has proven effective with no side effects.

  14. Isolation and serological differentiation of a herpesvirus from bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus, L. 1758).

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    Kaleta, E F; Marschall, H J; Glünder, G; Stiburek, B

    1980-01-01

    An infectious agent was isolated from the liver of bobwhite quails (Colinus virginianus, L. 1758). The agent was sensitive to chloroform and its multiplication was inhibited by 5-iodine-2-deoxy-uridine. It passed filters with a pore diameter of 220 nm and more but not 100 nm filters. Electron microscopic examination revealed numerous nucleocapsids with hollow capsomeres and few enveloped particles in the supernatant fluids of infected cultures. The nucleocapsids were calculated to have 162 capsomeres on their surface. Using the plaque reduction method for neutralization tests no serological cross reactions could be detected between the quail isolate and sera against Marek's disease virus, turkey herpes-virus (HV), duck enteritis HV, infectious laryngotracheitis HV, amazon parrot HV, great horned owl HV, eagle owl HV, snowy owl HV, falcon HV, pigeon HV, Lake Victoria Cormorant HV, and stork HV. The isolate from bobwhite quail did only cross-react with antiserum against crane HV. It is concluded that the isolated virus is a member of the avian herpesvirus group and it is proposed to tentatively term it herpesvirus colinum (from Colinus virginianus = bobwhite quail).

  15. The evolution of the adult body form of the crested newt (Triturus cristatus superspecies, Caudata, Salamandridae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vukov, T.D.; Sotiropoulos, K.; Wielstra, B.M.; Dzukic, G.; Kalezic, M.

    2011-01-01

    We characterized the adult body form of the crested newt (Triturus cristatus superspecies) and explored its evolution. From seven morphometric traits, we determined that body size, interlimb distance and head width define the body form. None of the morphometric traits showed a phylogenetic signal.

  16. Effects of foraging mode and season on the energetics of the Marine Iguana, Amblyrhynchus cristatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drent, J; Lichtenbelt, WDV; Wikelski, M

    1, Marine Iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus) inhabiting the rocky shores of the Galapagos Islands apply two foraging strategies, intertidal and subtidal foraging, in a seasonal climate. Effects of both foraging strategy and seasonality on the daily energy expenditure (DEE) were measured using doubly

  17. Nesting habitat requirements and nestling diet in the Mediterranean populations of Crested Tits Lophophanes cristatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atienzar, F.; Barba, E.; Holleman, L.J.M.; Belda, E.J.

    2009-01-01

    Most bird species show specific habitat requirements for breeding and feeding. We studied the pattern of habitat occupation, nestling diet and breeding performance of Crested Tits Lophophanes cristatus in a “typical” (coniferous) and an “atypical” (Holm Oak Quercus ilex) forest in eastern Spain

  18. Parasitismo natural por Synhimantus (Dispharynx nasuta (Nematoda: Acuariidae en Pavo real (Pavo cristatus en cautiverio

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    Luis A. Gómez-Puerta

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se describe al nematodo Synhimantus (Dispharynx nasuta (Rudolphi, 1819 Chabaud, 1975 parasitando el proventrículo de dos polluelos de Pavo real (Pavo cristatus Linnaeus, 1758 en cautiverio provenientes de Lima, Perú.

  19. Potential impact of neonicotinoid use on Northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) in Texas: A historical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertl, Hannah M H; Mora, Miguel A; Brightsmith, Donald J; Navarro-Alberto, Jorge A

    2018-01-01

    The widespread use of neonicotinoid insecticides in recent years has led to increasing environmental concern, including impacts to avian populations. In Texas and across their range, Northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) habitat frequently overlaps cultivated cropland protected by neonicotinoids. To address the effects of neonicotinoid use on bobwhites in Texas, we conducted a historical analysis from 1978-2012 in Texas' ecological regions using quail count data collected from North American Breeding Bird Survey and Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, and neonicotinoid use data from the U.S. Geological Survey. We considered bobwhite abundance, neonicotinoid use, climate, and land-use variables in our analysis. Neonicotinoid use was significantly (pTexas Plains ecological regions in the time periods following neonicotinoid introduction (1994-2003) or after their widespread use (2004-2012). Our analyses suggest that the use of neonicotinoid insecticides may negatively affect bobwhite populations in crop-producing regions of Texas.

  20. Oxyspirura petrowi infection leads to pathological consequences in Northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus

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    Nicholas R. Dunham

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Debilitating ocular diseases are often reported in avian species. By and large, helminth parasites have been overlooked in avian diseases and regarded as inconsequential. The decline of Northern bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus in the Rolling Plains ecoregion of Texas has prompted an investigation of the factors influencing their disappearance. Infection by the eyeworm (Oxyspirura petrowi has been documented in many avian species; however, the effect it has on its host is not well understood. Heavy eyeworm infection has been documented in Northern bobwhites throughout this ecoregion, leading to eye pathology in this host species. The present study further documents and supports the pathological changes associated with O. petrowi in bobwhites.

  1. Identification of shed or plucked origin of Indian peafowl (Pavo cristatus) tail feathers: preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahajpal, Vivek; Goyal, S P

    2008-06-01

    Indian Peafowl (Pavo cristatus) tail covert feathers were studied to investigate the difference between shed and plucked feathers in the context of wildlife offence cases involving the killing of the Indian national bird for the purpose of plucking feathers. Plucked feathers were distinguished from shed feathers by examining their roots under low magnification of a stereoscopic microscope. A chemical test to show the presence of blood on the roots of plucked feathers was used to corroborate the plucked origin of feathers.

  2. Molecular identification of three crested newt species (Triturus cristatus superspecies) by RAPD markers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikulíček, P.; Piálek, Jaroslav

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 2 (2003), s. 201-207 ISSN 0173-5373 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/98/0115; GA ČR GA206/01/0695; GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917; CEZ:MSM 113100004 Keywords : Triturus cristatus * genetic variation Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.417, year: 2003

  3. Mitochondrial phylogeny, taxonomy and biogeography of the silvered langur species group (Trachypithecus cristatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Christian; Nadler, Tilo; Walter, Lutz

    2008-05-01

    With a distribution ranging from mainland Southeast Asia to the Sunda region, the silvered langur species group is the most widely distributed species complex of the genus Trachypithecus. However, the systematic classification of its members and the phylogenetic relationships among them are less understood, leading to different classification schemes and proposed distribution zones. To address these issues, we sequenced a 573 bp long fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene from 115 silvered langurs (68 individuals from known origin). According to our data, five monophyletic clades were detected, which refer to the five taxa auratus, cristatus, germaini, margarita and mauritius. The phylogenetic relationships among them are not well resolved, indicating a radiation-like splitting event, which was estimated to have occurred about 0.95-1.25 mya. Within T. cristatus, two major clades were detected, with one comprising specimens from Sumatra, Borneo and the Natuna archipelago, and the other solely individuals from the Malaysian peninsula. According to our findings, we propose to rank all five taxa as distinct species. While T. auratus, T. germaini, T. margarita and T. mauritius seem to be monotypic, T. cristatus should be split into two subspecies, with the Malaysian form being described as new form here. From a phylogeographic perspective, the species group most likely originated on Java. During the early Pleistocene, its range was expanded to the Malaysian peninsula and to the Southeast Asian mainland. Later on, the Malaysian form colonised further regions of the Sunda region, including Sumatra, Borneo and the Natuna archipelago.

  4. Lead pellet retention time and associated toxicity in northern bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Richard; Holladay, Steven; Jarrett, Timothy; Selcer, Barbara; Meldrum, Blair; Williams, Susan; Tannenbaum, Lawrence; Holladay, Jeremy; Williams, Jamie; Gogal, Robert

    2010-12-01

    Birds are exposed to Pb by oral ingestion of spent Pb shot as grit. A paucity of data exists for retention and clearance of these particles in the bird gastrointestinal tract. In the current study, northern bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) were orally gavaged with 1, 5, or 10 Pb shot pellets, of 2-mm diameter, and radiographically followed over time. Blood Pb levels and other measures of toxicity were collected, to correlate with pellet retention. Quail dosed with either 5 or 10 pellets exhibited morbidity between weeks 1 and 2 and were removed from further study. Most of the Pb pellets were absorbed or excreted within 14 d of gavage, independent of dose. Pellet size in the ventriculus decreased over time in radiographs, suggesting dissolution caused by the acidic pH. Birds dosed with one pellet showed mean blood Pb levels that exceeded 1,300 µg/dl at week 1, further supporting dissolution in the gastrointestinal tract. Limited signs of toxicity were seen in the one-pellet birds; however, plasma δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (d-ALAD) activity was persistently depressed, suggesting possible impaired hematological function. © 2010 SETAC.

  5. A Quantitative PCR Protocol for Detection of Oxyspirura petrowi in Northern Bobwhites (Colinus virginianus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, Whitney M; Parlos, Julie A; Peper, Steven T; Dunham, Nicholas R; Kendall, Ronald J

    2016-01-01

    Oxyspirura petrowi is a parasitic nematode that infects wild birds. This parasite has a broad host range, but has recently been reported in high prevalences from native Galliformes species in the United States. In order to better understand the impact O. petrowi has on wild bird populations, we developed a quantitative PCR protocol to detect infections in wild northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus). We used paired fecal and cloacal swab samples from wild caught and experimentally infected northern bobwhites and matching fecal float data from experimentally infected birds to validate our assay. Overall we detected more positive birds from fecal samples than the paired cloacal swabs and there was strong agreement between the qPCR results from fecal samples and from fecal flotation (84%; κ = 0.69 [0.53-0.84 95% CI]). We also detected O. petrowi DNA in ten replicates of samples spiked with one O. petrowi egg. This qPCR assay is an effective assay to detect O. petrowi infections in wild birds. Our results suggest that fecal samples are the most appropriate sample for detecting infections; although, cloacal swabs can be useful for determining if O. petrowi is circulating in a population.

  6. Cultivable Bacterial Microbiota of Northern Bobwhite (Colinus virginianus): A New Reservoir of Antimicrobial Resistance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hongwen; McKelvey, Jessica; Rollins, Dale; Zhang, Michael; Brightsmith, Donald J.; Derr, James; Zhang, Shuping

    2014-01-01

    The northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) is an ecologically and economically important avian species. At the present time, little is known about the microbial communities associated with these birds. As the first step to create a quail microbiology knowledge base, the current study conducted an inventory of cultivable quail tracheal, crop, cecal, and cloacal microbiota and associated antimicrobial resistance using a combined bacteriology and DNA sequencing approach. A total of 414 morphologically unique bacterial colonies were selected from nonselective aerobic and anaerobic cultures, as well as selective and enrichment cultures. Analysis of the first 500-bp 16S rRNA gene sequences in conjunction with biochemical identifications revealed 190 non-redundant species-level taxonomic units, representing 160 known bacterial species and 30 novel species. The bacterial species were classified into 4 phyla, 14 orders, 37 families, and 59 or more genera. Firmicutes was the most commonly encountered phylum (57%) followed by Actinobacteria (24%), Proteobacteria (17%) and Bacteroidetes (0.02%). Extensive diversity in the species composition of quail microbiota was observed among individual birds and anatomical locations. Quail microbiota harbored several opportunistic pathogens, such as E. coli and Ps. aeruginosa, as well as human commensal organisms, including Neisseria species. Phenotypic characterization of selected bacterial species demonstrated a high prevalence of resistance to the following classes of antimicrobials: phenicol, macrolide, lincosamide, quinolone, and sulphate. Data from the current investigation warrant further investigation on the source, transmission, pathology, and control of antimicrobial resistance in wild quail populations. PMID:24937705

  7. Cultivable bacterial microbiota of northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus: a new reservoir of antimicrobial resistance?

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    Hongwen Su

    Full Text Available The northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus is an ecologically and economically important avian species. At the present time, little is known about the microbial communities associated with these birds. As the first step to create a quail microbiology knowledge base, the current study conducted an inventory of cultivable quail tracheal, crop, cecal, and cloacal microbiota and associated antimicrobial resistance using a combined bacteriology and DNA sequencing approach. A total of 414 morphologically unique bacterial colonies were selected from nonselective aerobic and anaerobic cultures, as well as selective and enrichment cultures. Analysis of the first 500-bp 16S rRNA gene sequences in conjunction with biochemical identifications revealed 190 non-redundant species-level taxonomic units, representing 160 known bacterial species and 30 novel species. The bacterial species were classified into 4 phyla, 14 orders, 37 families, and 59 or more genera. Firmicutes was the most commonly encountered phylum (57% followed by Actinobacteria (24%, Proteobacteria (17% and Bacteroidetes (0.02%. Extensive diversity in the species composition of quail microbiota was observed among individual birds and anatomical locations. Quail microbiota harbored several opportunistic pathogens, such as E. coli and Ps. aeruginosa, as well as human commensal organisms, including Neisseria species. Phenotypic characterization of selected bacterial species demonstrated a high prevalence of resistance to the following classes of antimicrobials: phenicol, macrolide, lincosamide, quinolone, and sulphate. Data from the current investigation warrant further investigation on the source, transmission, pathology, and control of antimicrobial resistance in wild quail populations.

  8. Caecal worm, Aulonocephalus pennula, infection in the northern bobwhite quail, Colinus virginianus

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    Nicholas R. Dunham

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic nematodes that infect quail have been understudied and long been dismissed as a problem in quail management. Within the Rolling Plains ecoregion of Texas, an area that has experienced quail population “boom and bust” cycles and ultimately a general decline, the need to determine why Northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus populations are diminishing has increased in priority. Previously, caecal parasites have been documented to cause inactivity, weight loss, reduced growth, inflammation to the caecal mucosa, and even death. The caecal worm Aulonocephalus pennula is an intestinal nematode parasite that is commonly found within the caecum of quail, as well as many other avian species. In the Rolling Plains ecoregion, A. pennula has been documented to have as high as a 98% prevalence in bobwhite quail samples; however, the effect it has on its host is not well understood. The present study documents A. pennula causes no pathological changes within the caeca of the Northern bobwhite. However, there is concern for disruption of digestion and the possible implications of infection for wild bobwhite quail survival are discussed.

  9. LA TRADUCCIÓN DE LAS EXPRESIONES IDIOMÁTICAS MARCADAS CULTURALMENTE

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    Isabel Negro Alousque

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Language is an integral part of culture. The relationship between language and culture shows particularly in lexis. Idioms belong to the category of culturally-determined lexical units and are thus an obvious source of non-equivalence which cause diffi culties in the translation process. In the present article we fi rst analyse different classes of idioms according to the type of cultural motivation underlying them: areference to customs, historical events, literary works or beliefs; b reference to cultural domains; c presence of a metaphor entrenched in the target culture. We then focus on the different strategies used in the translation of culture-specifi c idioms (literal translation, adaptation or substitution, paraphrase.La lengua es parte integrante de la cultura. La relación entre lengua y cultura se refl eja principalmente en el léxico. Las expresiones idiomáticas constituyen una categoría de unidades léxicas marcadas culturalmente, y son, por tanto, fuente indiscutible de inequivalencias traductológicas que plantean problemas a la hora de ser transvasadas a otra lengua. En este artículo analizamos en primer lugar diferentes clases de expresiones idiomáticas en función del tipo de motivación cultural que está en la raíz de tales idiomatismos: a alusión a costumbres, hechos históricos, obras literarias o creencias; b referencia a ámbitos culturales; c presencia de una metáfora ligada a la cultura meta. A continuación exponemos las diferentes estrategias utilizadas en la traducción de expresiones idiomáticas culturalmente específi cas (traducción literal, adaptación o sustitución, y paráfrasis.

  10. Northern Bobwhite (Colinus virginianus Mitochondrial Population Genomics Reveals Structure, Divergence, and Evidence for Heteroplasmy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvette A Halley

    Full Text Available Herein, we evaluated the concordance of population inferences and conclusions resulting from the analysis of short mitochondrial fragments (i.e., partial or complete D-Loop nucleotide sequences versus complete mitogenome sequences for 53 bobwhites representing six ecoregions across TX and OK (USA. Median joining (MJ haplotype networks demonstrated that analyses performed using small mitochondrial fragments were insufficient for estimating the true (i.e., complete mitogenome haplotype structure, corresponding levels of divergence, and maternal population history of our samples. Notably, discordant demographic inferences were observed when mismatch distributions of partial (i.e., partial D-Loop versus complete mitogenome sequences were compared, with the reduction in mitochondrial genomic information content observed to encourage spurious inferences in our samples. A probabilistic approach to variant prediction for the complete bobwhite mitogenomes revealed 344 segregating sites corresponding to 347 total mutations, including 49 putative nonsynonymous single nucleotide variants (SNVs distributed across 12 protein coding genes. Evidence of gross heteroplasmy was observed for 13 bobwhites, with 10 of the 13 heteroplasmies involving one moderate to high frequency SNV. Haplotype network and phylogenetic analyses for the complete bobwhite mitogenome sequences revealed two divergent maternal lineages (dXY = 0.00731; FST = 0.849; P < 0.05, thereby supporting the potential for two putative subspecies. However, the diverged lineage (n = 103 variants almost exclusively involved bobwhites geographically classified as Colinus virginianus texanus, which is discordant with the expectations of previous geographic subspecies designations. Tests of adaptive evolution for functional divergence (MKT, frequency distribution tests (D, FS and phylogenetic analyses (RAxML provide no evidence for positive selection or hybridization with the sympatric scaled quail

  11. Ascaridiasis in peafowl Pavo cristatus (Phasianidae) due to Ascaridia galli Schrank, 1788.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Marcel; Monteiro, Jomar Patrício; Catenacci, Lilian Silva; de Rodrigues, Maria de Lurdes Azevedo; Sato, Marilia de Carvalho Brasil

    2012-09-01

    Twelve white peafowl (Pavo cristatus) affected by an outbreak of an intestinal disease were referred for more detailed examination at the Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz-BA, Brazil. During the course of the disease, peachicks were severely affected, with enteric signs such as diarrhea plus dehydration, decreased feed intake and progressive weight loss. After examination, 8 of 12 samples (66.6%) presented single or mixed nematode infection and Ascarid eggs were the most frequent finding on fecal examination. Adult peafowl did not present clinical signs even when positive after fecal exam. Morphological analysis, clinical signs, fecal and gross examinations resulted in a diagnosis of ascaridiasis caused by Ascaridia galli Schrank (1788).

  12. The metabolic cost of walking on an incline in the Peacock (Pavo cristatus)

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkinson, Holly; Thavarajah, Nathan; Codd, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Altering speed and moving on a gradient can affect an animal’s posture and gait, which in turn can change the energetic requirements of terrestrial locomotion. Here, the energetic and kinematic effects of locomoting on an incline were investigated in the Indian peacock, Pavo cristatus. The mass-specific metabolic rate of the Indian peacock was elevated on an incline, but this change was not dependent on the angle ascended and the cost of lifting remained similar between the two inclines (+5 a...

  13. Blood gases, biochemistry and haematology of Gal?pagos marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus)

    OpenAIRE

    Lewbart, Gregory A.; Hirschfeld, Maximilian; Brothers, J. Roger; Mu?oz-P?rez, Juan Pablo; Denkinger, Judith; Vinueza, Luis; Garc?a, Juan; Lohmann, Kenneth J.

    2015-01-01

    The marine iguana, Amblyrhynchus cristatus, is an iconic lizard endemic to the Gal?pagos Islands of Ecuador, but surprisingly little information exists on baseline health parameters for this species. We analysed blood samples drawn from 35 marine iguanas captured at three locations on San Crist?bal Island. A portable blood analyser (iSTAT) was used to obtain near-immediate field results for pH, lactate, partial pressure of O2, partial pressure of CO2, bicarbonate (HCO3 ?), percentage O2 satur...

  14. Function of muscle-type lactate dehydrogenase and citrate synthase of the Galápagos marine iguana, Amblyrhynchus cristatus, in relation to temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Peter A; Strothers, Chad M; Mitchell, Mark A

    2008-05-01

    The Galápagos marine iguana, Amblyrhynchus cristatus, is unique among lizards in foraging subtidally, leading to activity across a broad range of ambient temperatures ( approximately 14-40 degrees C). To determine whether the marine iguana shows any biochemical changes consistent with maintaining enzyme function at both warm and cold body temperatures, we examined the function of the aerobic enzyme citrate synthase (CS) and the muscle isoform of the anaerobic enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (A(4)-LDH) in A. cristatus and a confamilial species, Iguana iguana, from 14 to 46 degrees C. We also deduced amino acid sequences from cDNA of each enzyme. In CS, despite two amino acid substitutions, we found no difference in the apparent Michaelis-Menten constant K(m) of oxaloacetate at any temperature, indicating that the substrate affinity of CS in A. cristatus has not adapted to changes in thermal environment. In A(4)-LDH, we used site-directed mutagenesis to show that the substitutions T9A and I283V (A. cristatus --> I. iguana) individually have no effect on kinetics, but together significantly decrease the K(m) of pyruvate and catalytic rate constant (k(cat)) of the A. cristatus ortholog. Thus, our data show that A. cristatus A(4)-LDH has not become cold adapted in response to this species' aquatic foraging behavior, and instead may be consistent with moderate warm adaptation with respect to the I. iguana ortholog.

  15. Temporal pattern of foraging and microhabitat use by Galápagos marine iguanas, Amblyrhynchus cristatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttemer, William A; Dawson, William R

    1993-10-01

    We observed a colony of marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus) on Isla Fernandina, Galápagos, Ecuador, while measuring local micrometeorological and tidal conditions. We found size-related differences in foraging mode, with smaller iguanas feeding intertidally during daytime low tides and larger iguanas feeding subtidally. Despite having greater opportunity, subtidal foragers did not time their foraging bouts or exploit their environment in ways that optimized their period at high body temperature. Instead, the foraging schedule of these iguanas served to maximize their rate of rewarming following emergence from the cool sea. Intertidal feeders, by contrast, showed much greater behavioral flexibility in attempting to exploit their thermal environment. We suggest that size-ordered differences in marine iguana thermoregulatory behavior reflect underlying ontogenetic changes in costs and benefits of thermoregulation due to differences in predator pressure, quantity of food and electrolytes taken at each feeding, mode of foraging, and agonistic tendencies.

  16. Hematologic and plasma biochemical reference values in Indian peafowl (Pavo cristatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samour, Jaime; Naldo, Jesus; Rahman, Habeeb; Sakkir, Mohammed

    2010-06-01

    Blood samples were collected from captive, adult, clinically normal Indian peafowl (Pavo cristatus) for hematologic and plasma biochemical analyses. Hematologic parameters investigated were total red blood cell count, hemoglobin, packed cell volume, fibrinogen, mean cell volume, mean cell hemoglobin, mean cell hemoglobin concentration, total white blood cell count, differential white blood cell count, and thrombocyte count. Plasma biochemical parameters investigated were alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, amylase, aspartate aminotransferase, bile acids, total bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen, calcium, cholesterol, creatinine, creatine kinase, gamma glutamyltransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, glucose, iron, phosphorus, and uric acid, as well as plasma protein electrophoresis. Results were compared with values from studies done in houbara bustards (Chlamydotis undulata), kori bustards (Ardeotis kori), stone curlews (Burhinus oedicnemus), and taxonomically related species, including ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus), red-legged partridges (Alectoris rufa), Kashmir native fowl (Kashmirfavorella), and Bangladesh native, Fayoumi, and Assil fowl (Gallus domesticus).

  17. Antioxidant and antitopoisomerase activities in plant extracts of some Colombian flora from La Marcada Natural Regional Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Niño

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Many plants have been used to treat some diseases and infections since time immemorial, and this potential has been exploited by the pharmaceutical industry in the search of new analgesic, anticarcinogenic and antimicrobial agents, among other active agents. in order to contribute with bioprospection studies on the Colombian flora, 35 extracts from 13 plant species belonging to seven families (Apocynaceae, Cactaceae, Costaceae, Eremolepidaceae, Passifloraceae, Solanaceae and Urticaceae were collected from La Marcada Natural Regional Park (LMNRP, Colombia. Dichloromethane, n-hexane and aqueous-methanol crude extracts were prepared and evaluated for their activity against Saccharomyces cerevisiae RS322N, R52Y and RS321 strains in the yeast mutant assay and their antioxidant capacity through the DPPH test. The dichloromethane extract from Myriocarpa stipitata (Urticaceae showed moderate inhibitory activity against the three S. cerevisiae strains tested. The capacity of the dichloromethane extract from M. stipitata to inhibit the enzyme topoisomerase I and to cause DNA damage was inferred from these results. In the DPPH assay, the n-hexane crude extract from Costus sp. (Costaceae showed good antioxidant activity (48%; in addition, the crude dichloromethane and aqueous-methanol extracts from Rhipsalis micrantha (Cactaceae showed moderate antioxidant activity with percentage of 29 and 21%, respectively. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (3: 1089-1097. Epub 2011 September 01.Desde tiempos inmemoriales, muchas plantas han sido usadas para el tratamiento de varias enfermedades e infecciones, este potencial ha sido explotado por la industria farmacéutica en la búsqueda de nuevos agentes analgésicos, anticancerígenos y antimicrobianos, entre otros. Consientes con esto, se evaluó la actividad de 35 extractos de 13 especies de plantas recolectadas en el Parque Regional Natural La Marcada (PRNLM, Colombia contra las cepas mutadas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae RS322N, R

  18. Looking beyond rare species as umbrella species: Northern Bobwhites (Colinus virginianus) and conservation of grassland and shrubland birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Andrew D.; Elmore, R.D.; Leslie,, David M.; Will, Rodney E.

    2015-01-01

    Changes in land use and land cover throughout the eastern half of North America have caused substantial declines in populations of birds that rely on grassland and shrubland vegetation types, including socially and economically important game birds such as the Northern Bobwhite (Colinus virginianus; hereafter bobwhites). As much attention is focused on habitat management and restoration for bobwhites, they may act as an umbrella species for other bird species with similar habitat requirements. We quantified the relationship of bobwhites to the overall bird community and evaluated the potential for bobwhites to act as an umbrella species for grassland and shrubland birds. We monitored bobwhite presence and bird community composition within 31 sample units on selected private lands in the south-central United States from 2009 to 2011. Bobwhites were strongly associated with other grassland and shrubland birds and were a significant positive predictor for 9 species. Seven of these, including Bell's Vireo (Vireo bell), Dicksissel (Spiza americana), and Grasshopper Sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum), are listed as species of conservation concern. Species richness and occupancy probability of grassland and shrubland birds were higher relative to the overall bird community in sample units occupied by bobwhites. Our results show that bobwhites can act as an umbrella species for grassland and shrubland birds, although the specific species in any given situation will depend on region and management objectives. These results suggest that efficiency in conservation funding can be increased by using public interest in popular game species to leverage resources to meet multiple conservation objectives.

  19. Haemosporidian infection in captive masked bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus ridgwayi), an endangered subspecies of the northern bobwhite quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, M. Andreína; Escalante, Ananias A.; Garner, Michael M.; Bradley, Gregory A.; Aguilar, Roberto F.

    2011-01-01

    The avian haemosporidian parasites (phylum Apicomplexa) are taxonomically diverse and cosmopolitan in distribution; infecting most bird families. Sources of concern are reports of clinical haemosporidian infections in birds kept as part of zoo and aviary collections. Recently, severe and acute mortality episodes have been reported in masked bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus ridgwayi), an endangered subspecies from the American Southwest. Two hundred and five eggs of the captive flock held in Arivaca, Arizona, were hatched at a zoo in the American Southwest. Thirty four sub-adult or adult animals had lesions associated with tissue phases of hemoparasites, especially vasculitis, ventricular leiomyositis and ulcerative pododermatitis. Molecular techniques applied to blood collected from the zoo’s last twelve remaining animals resulted in the detection of a Plasmodium juxtanucleare-like and Haemoproteus sp. parasites. A Raven (Corvus corax), in a contiguous exhibit, was positive for the same Plasmodium juxtanucleare-like parasite, but remained asymptomatic for three years following detection. These findings indicate that other birds in the exhibit within the zoo premises could act as reservoirs. We conclude that haemosporidian infections could be a factor in the demise of the captive masked bobwhite quails housed at the zoo. We suggest that active surveillance for haemoporidian parasites should be incorporated as a precaution to ex-situ conservation efforts of susceptible endangered species. PMID:21726940

  20. The complete mitochondrial genomes of the Galápagos iguanas, Amblyrhynchus cristatus and Conolophus subcristatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Amy; Irisarri, Iker; Vences, Miguel; Steinfartz, Sebastian

    2016-09-01

    The Galápagos iguanas are among the oldest vertebrate lineages on the Galápagos archipelago, and the evolutionary history of this clade is of great interest to biologists. We describe here the complete mitochondrial genomes of the marine iguana, Amblyrhynchus cristatus (Genbank accession number: KT277937) and the land iguana Conolophus subcristatus (Genbank accession number: KT277936). The genomes contain 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs, and two ribosomal RNAs genes, as well as a control region (CR). Both species have an identical gene order, which matches that of Iguana iguana. The CR of both Galápagos iguanas features similar tandem repeats units, which are absent in I. iguana. We present a phylogeny of the Iguanidae based on complete mitochondrial genomes, which confirms the sister-group relationship of Galápagos iguanas. These new mitochondrial genomes constitute an important data source for future exploration of the phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary history of the Galápagos iguanas.

  1. Human disturbance alters endocrine and immune responses in the Galapagos marine iguana (Amblyrhynchus cristatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Susannah S; DeNardo, Dale F.; Greives, Timothy J.; Strand, Christine R.; Demas, Gregory E.

    2010-01-01

    Anthropogenic disturbance is a relevant and widespread facilitator of environmental change and there is clear evidence that it impacts natural populations. While population-level responses to major anthropogenic changes have been well studied, individual physiological responses to mild disturbance can be equally critical to the long-term survival of a species, yet they remain largely unexamined. The current study investigated the impact of seemingly low-level anthropogenic disturbance (ecotourism) on stress responsiveness and specific fitness-related immune measures in different breeding stages of the marine iguana (Amblyrhynchus cristatus). Specifically, we found stress-induced elevations in plasma corticosterone among tourist-exposed populations relative to undisturbed populations. We also found changes in multiple immunological responses associated with stress-related effects of human disturbance, including bacterial killing ability, cutaneous wound healing, and hemolytic complement activity, and the responses varied according to reproductive state. By identifying health-related consequences of human disturbance, this study provides critical insight into the conservation of a well-known species that has a very distinct ecology. The study also broadens the foundation of knowledge needed to understand the global significance of various levels of human disturbance. PMID:20708010

  2. Field-Based Radiographic Imaging of Marine Megafauna: Marine Iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus as a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory A. Lewbart

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Effective conservation of marine megafauna requires a thorough understanding of the ecology, physiology, population dynamics, and health of vulnerable species. Assessing the health of large, mobile marine animals poses particular challenges, in part because the subjects are difficult to capture and restrain, and in part because standard laboratory and diagnostic tools are difficult to apply in a field setting. Radiography is a critically important diagnostic tool used routinely by veterinarians, but it has seldom been possible to image live marine vertebrates in the field. As a first step toward assessing the feasibility of incorporating radiography into studies of vulnerable species in remote locations, we used portable radiographic equipment to acquire the first digital internal images of living marine iguanas, Amblyrhynchus cristatus, an iconic lizard endemic only to the Galápagos Islands of Ecuador. The radiographic machinery was powered by batteries and performed well on a rocky beach environment of an uninhabited island, despite high heat and humidity. The accuracy of radiographic measurements was validated by computing a snout-vent length (SVL using bone dimensions and comparing this to standard measurements of SVL made externally with a tape measure. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using radiography to study animals in remote sites, a technique that may prove useful for a variety of physiological, ecological, and biomechanical studies in which reliable measurements of skeletal and soft-tissue dimensions must be acquired under challenging field conditions. Refinements are discussed that will help the technology reach its full potential in field studies.

  3. Human disturbance alters endocrine and immune responses in the Galapagos marine iguana (Amblyrhynchus cristatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Susannah S; DeNardo, Dale F; Greives, Timothy J; Strand, Christine R; Demas, Gregory E

    2010-11-01

    Anthropogenic disturbance is a relevant and widespread facilitator of environmental change and there is clear evidence that it impacts natural populations. While population-level responses to major anthropogenic changes have been well studied, individual physiological responses to mild disturbance can be equally critical to the long-term survival of a species, yet they remain largely unexamined. The current study investigated the impact of seemingly low-level anthropogenic disturbance (ecotourism) on stress responsiveness and specific fitness-related immune measures in different breeding stages of the marine iguana (Amblyrhynchus cristatus). Specifically, we found stress-induced elevations in plasma corticosterone among tourist-exposed populations relative to undisturbed populations. We also found changes in multiple immunological responses associated with stress-related effects of human disturbance, including bacterial killing ability, cutaneous wound healing, and hemolytic complement activity, and the responses varied according to reproductive state. By identifying health-related consequences of human disturbance, this study provides critical insight into the conservation of a well-known species that has a very distinct ecology. The study also broadens the foundation of knowledge needed to understand the global significance of various levels of human disturbance. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Pharmacokinetics of tramadol hydrochloride and its metabolite O-desmethyltramadol in peafowl (Pavo cristatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Peter A; Cox, Sherry K; Macek, Michael; Tieber, Anne; Junge, Randall E

    2010-12-01

    Tramadol is a centrally acting opiate analgesic that has not been well studied in avian species. Tramadol and its metabolites exert their effects at multiple sites, including opiate (mu, kappa, and delta), adrenergic (alpha-2), and serotonin (5HT) receptors. This multi-receptor mode of action is advantageous for avian patients because the mechanisms for analgesia have not been fully elucidated in all species. The objective of this study was to document the pharmacokinetics of tramadol and its active metabolite O-desmethyltramadol (M1) in common peafowl (Pavo cristatus). Based on results from a pilot animal, six adult peafowl (three male, three female) judged to be clinically healthy based on physical exam and routine bloodwork were selected for this study. Each bird was anesthetized for placement of a jugular catheter, and 7.5 mg/kg tramadol was administered orally via gavage tube. Blood samples were collected just prior to drug administration; at 30 min; and at 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 24, and 34 hr. Plasma levels of tramadol and M1 were measured and the pharmacokinetics for each drug was calculated. Although tramadol was quickly metabolized, plasma levels of M1 remained at or near human analgesic levels for 12-24 hr. Based on these data, tramadol may be a practical option as an orally administered analgesic agent in avian patients. Further studies, including antinociceptive studies, are needed.

  5. Systemic Histomoniasis in a Leucistic Indian Peafowl (Pavo cristatus) from Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelazzo, Mariana de Mello Zanim; Sasse, João Pedro; de Souza, Marielen; Marutani, Victor Hugo Brunaldi; Sampaio Baptista, Ana Angelita; Garcia, João Luis; Alfieri, Amauri Alcindo; Headley, Selwyn Arlington

    2017-09-01

    The pathological and molecular findings associated with Histomonas meleagridis are described in a leucistic Indian peafowl (Pavo cristatus) from Southern Brazil. The most significant gross findings were multifocal necrotizing hepatitis and diphtheric typhlitis. Histopathologic evaluation of the liver, ceca, kidney, spleen, and small intestine revealed systemic histomoniasis (SH) associated with intralesional and intravascular accumulations of histomonad organisms consistent with H. meleagridis. PCR was used to amplify the DNA of H. meleagridis from the liver, ceca, small intestine, spleen, lungs, and kidneys. Direct sequencing and phylogenetic analyses confirmed that the isolate of the flagellated trichomonad identified from this investigation is more phylogenetically related to H. meleagridis than Tetratrichomonas gallinarum, Tritrichomonas foetus, and Dientamoeba fragilis. These results confirmed the occurrence of SH in this peafowl and add to the diagnosis of this disease in birds from Brazil. This report might represent the first complete identification of spontaneous histomoniasis in a peafowl due to pathological and molecular characteristics and one of the few documented cases of SH in non-commercial birds.

  6. The metabolic cost of walking on an incline in the Peacock (Pavo cristatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Holly; Thavarajah, Nathan; Codd, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Altering speed and moving on a gradient can affect an animal's posture and gait, which in turn can change the energetic requirements of terrestrial locomotion. Here, the energetic and kinematic effects of locomoting on an incline were investigated in the Indian peacock, Pavo cristatus. The mass-specific metabolic rate of the Indian peacock was elevated on an incline, but this change was not dependent on the angle ascended and the cost of lifting remained similar between the two inclines (+5 and +7°). Interestingly, the Indian peacock had the highest efficiency when compared to any other previously studied avian biped, despite the presence of a large train. Duty factors were higher for birds moving on an incline, but there was no difference between +5 and +7°. Our results highlight the importance of investigating kinematic responses during energetic studies, as these may enable explanation of what is driving the underlying metabolic differences when moving on inclines. Further investigations are required to elucidate the underlying mechanical processes occurring during incline movement.

  7. Retracted: Molecular Characterization and Biological Activity of Interferon-α in Indian Peafowl (Pavo cristatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongjing; Wang, Yu; Liu, Juanjuan; Shao, Yizhi; Li, Jinglun; Chai, Hongliang; Xing, Mingwei

    2017-08-07

    DNA and Cell Biology (DNA&CB) is officially retracting the paper by Zhao H, Wang Y, Liu J, Shao Y, Li J, Chai H, Xing M, entitled, "Molecular Characterization and Biological activity of Interferon-α in Indian Peafowl (Pavo cristatus)," [Epub ahead of print]; 2017, DOI: 10.1089/dna.2017.3798. The Editor-in-Chief of DNA&CB, Dr. Carol Shoshkes Reiss, was alerted to a discrepancy between the findings in the article by Zhao et al., and those of others, about the absence of expression of ISG15 in chickens. Dr. Reiss requested from the authors a clarification in their observations and inquired about the failure to include relevant citations in the reference section of the paper. Based on the response from the authors, it appeared that they did not have the confidence in the data as they were not able to repeat the experiments, and were also unsure of the molecular probes that were used in the study. Therefore, the Editor has determined that the paper should be officially retracted from DNA and Cell Biology.

  8. Two new species of Eimeria from peacocks (Pavo cristatus) in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoudi, M A

    1988-11-01

    Fifteen fecal samples from peacocks (Pavo cristatus) in Saudi Arabia contained oocysts of Eimeria riyadhae n. sp. in two peacocks and oocysts of E. arabica n. sp. in one peacock. Sporulated oocysts of Eimeria riyadhae are ellipsoidal, 27-30.5 x 20.5-25 (28.8 +/- 1.3 x 22.4 +/- 1.6) micron, with a two-layered wall and bilobed polar body, but without a micropyle or residuum. The sporocysts are ovoid, 11-14.5 x 6.5-8 (13.2 +/- 1.2 x 7.2 +/- 0.6) micron with a thick, knob-like Stieda body and a residuum. Sporulated oocysts of Eimeria arabica are spheroidal, 17.5-21.5 x 17.5-21.5 (19.2 +/- 1.6 x 19.2 +/- 1.6) micron, with a two-layered wall and two refractile polar bodies, but without a micropyle or residuum. The sporocyts are elongate ovoid, 9.5-12 x 4-6.5 (11.2 +/- 0.9 x 5.5 +/- 0.88), with a small crescent-shaped Stieda body. The host bird belongs to the order Galliformis.

  9. CHEMOTHERAPY OF GASTRO-INTESTINAL NAMATODES IN COMMON PEAFOWL (PAVO CRISTATUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ashraf, Faisal Noman Waraich, I.G. Ahmad and K. Pervez

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to find out the prevalence of gastro-intestinal nematodes in common peafowl (Pavo cristatus at Lahore Zoo and to evaluate the comparative efficacy of albendazole, levamisole HCI and oxfendazole. Fifty-two faecal samples of the birds were examined in Medicine Laboratory, College of Veterinary Sciences, Lahore, with direct smear method for the identification of nematode ova. Forty two samples out of 52 were found positive (80.77% for single or mixed infection of Capillaria spp., Ascaridia galliand Heterakis gallinae, and the individual percentages being 59.62, 38.46 and 13.46 respectively. Out of 42 infected birds 40 were chosen for medication and divided into four groups, each consisting of 10 birds (A= treated with albendazole, B=treated with levamisole, C = treated with oxfendazole and group D= untreated control. Faecal samples of experimental birds were examined for counting of eggs per gram of faeces on day '0' (pre-medication. Faecal egg counts were again carried out on day 5 and 10 post-medication and percentage reduction of EPG was calculated. Oxfendazole was found to be the most effective (98.88% among the three anthelmintics, followed by levamisole (97.3% and albendazole (95.60%.

  10. Molecular cloning and functional analysis of peafowl (Pavo cristatus) Toll-like receptor 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, H; Zhang, M; Gao, W; Wu, L; Li, G

    2018-01-01

    In order to clone the peafowl (Pavo cristatus) Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) gene and study its biological function, the peafowl TLR7 coding sequences (CDS) were amplified by PCR of cDNA from the whole spleen of peafowl. The full-length sequence of the peafowl TLR7 gene CDS is 3,141 bp and encodes a 1,046-amino acid protein with a classic TLR composition of 16 leucine-rich repeats (LRR). Insertions of amino acids were found at position 15 of LRR2, LRR5, LRR7, LRR9, LRR11, LRR12, LRR14, and LRR15; and position 10 of LRR11. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis showed that the peafowl TLR7 gene was highly expressed in lymphoid tissues of the spleen, bursa, bone marrow, lung, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). HEK293T cells were transfected with a peafowl TLR7 plasmid, and functional analysis showed that peafowl TLR7 could respond to R848, leading to activation of NF-κB. Following R848 stimulation or Newcastle disease virus infection of peafowl PBMC, the levels of IL-1β, IFN-γ, CCLi2, and TGF-β4 mRNA, assessed by quantitative real-time PCR, increased significantly. Triggering peafowl TLR7 results in upregulation of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, suggesting that peafowl TLR7 plays an important role in the innate immune response. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  11. The metabolic cost of walking on an incline in the Peacock (Pavo cristatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly Wilkinson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Altering speed and moving on a gradient can affect an animal’s posture and gait, which in turn can change the energetic requirements of terrestrial locomotion. Here, the energetic and kinematic effects of locomoting on an incline were investigated in the Indian peacock, Pavo cristatus. The mass-specific metabolic rate of the Indian peacock was elevated on an incline, but this change was not dependent on the angle ascended and the cost of lifting remained similar between the two inclines (+5 and +7°. Interestingly, the Indian peacock had the highest efficiency when compared to any other previously studied avian biped, despite the presence of a large train. Duty factors were higher for birds moving on an incline, but there was no difference between +5 and +7°. Our results highlight the importance of investigating kinematic responses during energetic studies, as these may enable explanation of what is driving the underlying metabolic differences when moving on inclines. Further investigations are required to elucidate the underlying mechanical processes occurring during incline movement.

  12. Incidencia de la hipertransaminemia marcada en un departamento de salud de la comunidad valenciana (período 2002-2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Castillo-Gómez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: La hipertransaminasemia (HT marcada es una situación no infrecuente en la práctica clínica, que suele interpretarse como lesión hepática aguda primaria. Los objetivos del estudio fueron determinar la incidencia, tasa de mortalidad y etiología de la HT marcada en la población general, y su utilidad como indicadora de daño hepático agudo primario. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo los pacientes con HT marcada (ALT >400 U/L atendidos durante un periodo de 2 años en los centros sanitarios del Departamento 11 de la Comunidad Valenciana. Se revisaron las historias clínicas informatizadas y los resultados de los diversos exámenes complementarios efectuados, analizándose diversas variables: diagnóstico clínico y evolución, otros parámetros bioquímicos de función hepática, y marcadores de serología infecciosa y autoinmunidad. Resultados: Se identificaron 414 pacientes con HT marcada (incidencia de 88 casos/100.000 hab./año, de los cuales 73 fallecieron (tasa de mortalidad de 16 fallecidos/100.000 hab/año. De las veinte etiologías encontradas, las más frecuentes fueron la colestasis extrahepática (28,3%, la hepatopatía hipóxica (14,6% y la sepsis (11,9%. El valor predictivo positivo de la HT marcada como indicador de lesión hepática aguda primaria fue del 27,7%. Conclusiones: La HT marcada es una alteración de notable incidencia en la población general y que lleva asociada una elevada tasa de mortalidad. Su etiología es muy diversa, aunque predomina la de origen extrahepático.

  13. Eimeria pavoaegyptica sp. nov. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) in faeces of Indian peacocks, Pavo cristatus Linnaeus, 1758 (Galliformes: Phasianidae) from Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    El-Shahawy,Ismail Saad

    2010-01-01

    Coprological examination of 15 Indian peacocks, Pavo cristatus, revealed the presence of a coccidium species of the genus Eimeria, which apparently represents a previously undescribed species. Sporulation is exogenous and fully developed oocysts of Eimeria pavoaegyptica sp. nov. are ellipsoidal, with a dimension of 15 (13-16) × 12 (10-12.9) μm and with a shape index of 1.25 (1-1.3). The sporulated oocysts have no micropyle but enclose one large rectangular-shaped polar granule and an ooc...

  14. Inicio de la época reproductiva y tiempo de defensa del territorio en machos de Colinus leucopogon (Galliformes: Odontophoridae

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    Luis Sandoval

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Los factores que determinan el inicio de la época reproductiva, y la relación entre el tiempo que un macho de Colinus leucopogon defiende su territorio con el éxito reproductivo del mismo son desconocidos. Por lo tanto aquí se reporta el efecto de variables climáticas sobre el inicio de la época reproductiva, y el efecto de la duración de los machos en su territorio con el éxito de adquirir pareja. También se analiza la relación entre la duración de los machos en su territorio con las características del canto y el territorio. Precipitaciones superiores a 14.3mm en marzo determinaron el inicio de la época reproductiva. Esto favoreció el incremento de alimento y sitios para anidar, lo que podría incrementar el éxito reproductivo de la especie. La duración de los machos dentro de su territorio no se asoció con la adquisición de pareja, debido a que machos que logran emparejarse duraron un tiempo similar en sus territorios, que machos que no se emparejaron. Las características del canto y el territorio tampoco se relacionaron con la duración del macho dentro de su territorio. Por lo tanto esto puede ser otra causa para que no se haya encontrado una relación entre la duración del macho en su territorio con la formación de parejas, ya que las características del canto son las que más influyen en la formación de parejas en esta especie.

  15. Blood gases, biochemistry and haematology of Galápagos marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewbart, Gregory A.; Hirschfeld, Maximilian; Brothers, J. Roger; Muñoz-Pérez, Juan Pablo; Denkinger, Judith; Vinueza, Luis; García, Juan; Lohmann, Kenneth J.

    2015-01-01

    The marine iguana, Amblyrhynchus cristatus, is an iconic lizard endemic to the Galápagos Islands of Ecuador, but surprisingly little information exists on baseline health parameters for this species. We analysed blood samples drawn from 35 marine iguanas captured at three locations on San Cristóbal Island. A portable blood analyser (iSTAT) was used to obtain near-immediate field results for pH, lactate, partial pressure of O2, partial pressure of CO2, bicarbonate (HCO3−), percentage O2 saturation, haematocrit, haemoglobin, sodium, potassium, ionized calcium and glucose. Parameter values affected by temperature were auto-corrected by the iSTAT. Standard laboratory haematology techniques were employed for differential white blood cell counts and haematocrit determination; resulting values were also compared with the haematocrit values generated by the iSTAT. Body temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate and body measurements were also recorded. Body length was positively correlated with several blood chemistry values (HCO3− and glucose) and two haematology parameters (haemoglobin and manually determined haematocrit). A notable finding was the unusually high blood sodium level; the mean value of 178 mg/dl is among the highest known for any reptile. This value is likely to be a conservative estimate because some samples exceeded the maximal value the iSTAT can detect. For haematocrit determination, the iSTAT blood analyser yielded results significantly lower than those obtained with high-speed centrifugation. The values reported in this study provide baseline data that may be useful in comparisons among populations and in detecting changes in health status among marine iguanas affected by natural disturbances or anthropogenic threats. The findings might also be helpful in future efforts to demonstrate associations between specific biochemical parameters and disease. PMID:27293719

  16. Pathological and parasitological aspects of the peacock (Pavo cristatus infection by Tanaisia(Paratanaisiabragai

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    Rafael C. Costa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:Trematodes belonging to the family Eucotylidae, including Tanaisia(ParatanaisiabragaiSantos, 1934are parasites of the kidney and ureter that affect several species of domestic and wild birds. Tanaisia bragaiis considered a low pathogenic parasite, but high worm burdens may determine clinical complications, including signs of apathy, weight loss, diarrhea and death. This paper describes the first report of infection by T. bragai in peacocks (Pavo cristatus, which constitutes a new host record and offers data on the lesions associated to this parasitism, although the degree of pathogenicity and parasite load may be considered mild. These birds did not exhibit clinical signs of parasitism. The macroscopic exam revealed discreet yellow spots on the liver. In the histological sections of the kidney, specimens of T. bragai were found in the collecting ducts, which were markedly dilated, with a thickened wall. Other findings included a mild inflammatory reaction in the wall of the ducts (but sometimes absent, flattening of lining epithelial cells and small, multifocal points of calcification around the collecting ducts. The microscopic examination of the parasites revealed trematodes with an elongated body, well-developed sub terminal oral sucker, pharynx present, short esophagus, cecum somewhat undulating or not, with blind end, testes symmetrical, equatorial, irregular in shape or slightly lobed, vitelline fields extending in both pre-ovarian and post ovarian fields, uterus very long, intercecal or sometimes overlapping the cecum and containing large quantities of eggs. The present findings suggest the need for further diagnostic studies on the prevalence of this trematode in peacocks as well as pathologic studies for the determination of the potential pathogenicity of this parasite in this species of bird. Moreover, infected peacocks could serve as carriers of T. bragai to be transferred to other bird species, thereby contributing to the

  17. Blood gases, biochemistry and haematology of Galápagos marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewbart, Gregory A; Hirschfeld, Maximilian; Brothers, J Roger; Muñoz-Pérez, Juan Pablo; Denkinger, Judith; Vinueza, Luis; García, Juan; Lohmann, Kenneth J

    2015-01-01

    The marine iguana, Amblyrhynchus cristatus, is an iconic lizard endemic to the Galápagos Islands of Ecuador, but surprisingly little information exists on baseline health parameters for this species. We analysed blood samples drawn from 35 marine iguanas captured at three locations on San Cristóbal Island. A portable blood analyser (iSTAT) was used to obtain near-immediate field results for pH, lactate, partial pressure of O2, partial pressure of CO2, bicarbonate (HCO3 (-)), percentage O2 saturation, haematocrit, haemoglobin, sodium, potassium, ionized calcium and glucose. Parameter values affected by temperature were auto-corrected by the iSTAT. Standard laboratory haematology techniques were employed for differential white blood cell counts and haematocrit determination; resulting values were also compared with the haematocrit values generated by the iSTAT. Body temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate and body measurements were also recorded. Body length was positively correlated with several blood chemistry values (HCO3 (-) and glucose) and two haematology parameters (haemoglobin and manually determined haematocrit). A notable finding was the unusually high blood sodium level; the mean value of 178 mg/dl is among the highest known for any reptile. This value is likely to be a conservative estimate because some samples exceeded the maximal value the iSTAT can detect. For haematocrit determination, the iSTAT blood analyser yielded results significantly lower than those obtained with high-speed centrifugation. The values reported in this study provide baseline data that may be useful in comparisons among populations and in detecting changes in health status among marine iguanas affected by natural disturbances or anthropogenic threats. The findings might also be helpful in future efforts to demonstrate associations between specific biochemical parameters and disease.

  18. Sudden death of an Indian peafowl (Pavo cristatus) at a zoo due to non-pigmented Serratia marcescens infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Hun; Park, Sang-Joon; Kwak, Dongmi; Kim, Kyoo-Tae

    2017-12-22

    A 16-year-old female Indian peafowl (Pavo cristatus) died two days after recognition of conjunctivitis in the right eye, anorexia and depression. Gross necropsy revealed a thick pseudomembrane under the eyelid and hydropericardium. Histopathological examination revealed hepatocellular necrosis, sinusoidal and vascular congestion and infiltrated inflammatory cells. Infiltration by inflammatory cells was noted in the epicardium. The lungs had mild interstitial pneumonia with the extensive congestion within the capillaries of the air sacs. Tubular interstitial congestion and necrosis was noted in the kidneys. Bacterial culture and nucleotide sequencing of the inflammatory specimens identified the causative agent as Serratia marcescens, an uncommon bacterium in birds. In summary, this study describes the sudden death of an Indian peafowl due to S. marcescens infection, which is rarely seen in animals.

  19. On the current status of Indian Peafowl Pavo cristatus (Aves: Galliformes: Phasianidae: keeping the common species common

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    K. Ramesh

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available It is ironic that while all efforts to save the Tiger (Panthera tigris are underway, another species of national importance, the Indian Peafowl, (Pavo cristatus is still to receive adequate attention. Illegal trade for train-feathers and mass mortality due to indiscriminate application of pesticides and herbicides in crop-fields are major causes of the recent decline in peafowl numbers. Though there has been increasing concern over the declining peafowl population, it is difficult to arrive at a realistic plan unless the current population size, the rate of decline and the causes of decline are scientifically quantified. Considering the need for conservation initiatives for peafowl, one must look beyond the ‘fire-fighting approach’ towards ‘keeping the common species common’ in order to be efficient with conservation investments and instill greater public participation.

  20. Identification key for chewing lice (Phthiraptera: Amblycera, Ischnocera) infesting the Indian Peafowl (Pavo cristatus) with one new country record and new host record for Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    NASSER, Mohamed; AL-AHMED, Azzam; SHOBRAK, Mohammed; ALDRYHIM, Yousif

    2015-01-01

    The amblyceran and ischnoceran lice removed from the Indian Peafowl (Pavo cristatus L.) collected at the Riyadh bird market, and other specimens available in the King Saud University Museum of Arthropods, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, were identified. Amyrsidea minuta Emerson, a new country record, and Goniodes dissimilis Denny were found infesting the Indian Peafowl in Saudi Arabia. Goniodes dissimilis is recorded for the first time from this bird species, along with Menacanthus stramineus (Nitzs...

  1. Eimeria pavoaegyptica sp. nov. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) in faeces of Indian peacocks, Pavo cristatus Linnaeus, 1758 (Galliformes: Phasianidae) from Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shahawy, Ismail Saad

    2010-12-01

    Coprological examination of 15 Indian peacocks, Pavo cristatus, revealed the presence of a coccidium species of the genus Eimeria, which apparently represents a previously undescribed species. Sporulation is exogenous and fully developed oocysts of Eimeria pavoaegyptica sp. nov. are ellipsoidal, with a dimension of 15 (13-16) × 12 (10-12.9) microm and with a shape index of 1.25 (1-1.3). The sporulated oocysts have no micropyle but enclose one large rectangular-shaped polar granule and an oocyst residuum. The oocysts have a distinct two-layered wall, which is ~approximately1.7 microm thick. The outer layer has a smooth texture; it fills ~¾ of the total thickness and appears bicolored. The sporocysts are boat-shaped, of about 10 (9-11) × 4 (4-4.7) microm; their average shape-index is 2.5 microm with a small pointed Stieda body and a smooth, thin single-layered wall. No substieda body is detected. The sporocysts contain numerous, nearly uniform granular residua. The sporozoites are banana-shaped, 6 × 3 microm and each has two different-sized refractile bodies.

  2. Eimeria pavoaegyptica sp. nov. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae in faeces of Indian peacocks, Pavo cristatus Linnaeus, 1758 (Galliformes: Phasianidae from Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Saad El-Shahawy

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Coprological examination of 15 Indian peacocks, Pavo cristatus, revealed the presence of a coccidium species of the genus Eimeria, which apparently represents a previously undescribed species. Sporulation is exogenous and fully developed oocysts of Eimeria pavoaegyptica sp. nov. are ellipsoidal, with a dimension of 15 (13-16 × 12 (10-12.9 μm and with a shape index of 1.25 (1-1.3. The sporulated oocysts have no micropyle but enclose one large rectangular-shaped polar granule and an oocyst residuum. The oocysts have a distinct two-layered wall, which is ~1.7 μm thick. The outer layer has a smooth texture; it fills ~¾ of the total thickness and appears bicolored. The sporocysts are boat-shaped, of about 10 (9-11 × 4 (4-4.7 μm; their average shape-index is 2.5 μm with a small pointed Stieda body and a smooth, thin single-layered wall. No substieda body is detected. The sporocysts contain numerous, nearly uniform granular residua. The sporozoites are banana-shaped, 6 × 3 μm and each has two different-sized refractile bodies.

  3. Isolation and identification of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H5N1 in peafowl (Pavo cristatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Mahmoud Moussa; Khan, Owais Ahmed; Cattoli, Giovanni; Lu, Huaguang

    2010-03-01

    An outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus subtype H5N1 was first diagnosed in a "backyard" flock of peafowl (Pavo cristatus) raised on palace premises in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in December 3, 2007. The flock consisted of 40 peafowl, and their ages ranged from 3 to 5 years old. Affected birds suffered from depression, anorexia, and white diarrhea. Four dead birds were submitted for HPAI diagnosis at the Central Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory in Riyadh. Brain and liver tissues and tracheal and cloacal swabs were taken from the dead birds and processed for a real-time reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR test and virus isolation in specific-pathogen-free embryonating chicken eggs. The H5N1 subtype of avian influenza virus was isolated from the four dead birds and identified by a real-time RT-PCR before and after egg inoculation. The virus isolates were characterized as HPAI H5N1 virus by sequencing analysis. Phylogenetic comparisons revealed that the H5N1 viruses isolated from peafowl belong to the genetic clade 2.2 according to the World Health Organization nomenclature. The peafowl H5N1 virus falls into 2.2.2 sublineage II and clusters with the H5N1 viruses isolated from poultry in Saudi Arabia in 2007-08.

  4. Uneven frequency of Vibrio alginolyticus-group isolates among different populations of Galápagos marine iguana (Amblyrhynchus cristatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaller, Maria C; Ciambotta, Marco; Sapochetti, Manuela; Migliore, Luciana; Tapia, Whashington; Cedeño, Virna; Gentile, Gabriele

    2010-02-01

    The presence of Vibrio isolates was investigated in cloacal swabs from the Galápagos marine iguana (Amblyrhyncus cristatus). Such unique iguana is endemic to the Galápagos Archipelago, it is listed as vulnerable in the IUCN Red List (2009), and is strictly protected by CITES and Ecuador laws. Our results revealed an uneven isolation frequency of vibrios from animals living in different settings: maximal among the Santa Fe population, scarce at Bahía Tortuga but practically absent in the samples from Puerto Ayora and Plaza Sur. A 16S sequencing confirmed that the isolates belonged to the genus Vibrio, placing them within the V. alginolyticus group; the biochemical identification was, indeed, consistent with V. alginolyticus features. The reason of the observed discrepancy is not clear, but could be either linked to a higher pollution in the inhabited or more touristic places or to differential influence of chemical and physical parameters at a local scale. As V. alginolyticus is an opportunistic pathogen for man and it is known to cause disease in sea-living animals, the ability of these vibrios to enter and persist to a certain extent in the marine iguana gut should be regarded as a risk for health of both the animals and the human personnel involved in monitoring activities. © 2010 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Population status, habitat selection and people's perception on Pavo cristatus (Aves: Phasianidae in Sigur Plateau, the Nilgiris, Tamil Nadu, India

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    Arockianathan Samson

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to estimate the population status, habitat utilisation and threats to the Indian peafowl in Sigur Plateau, Tamil Nadu from November 2016 to March 2017. A total of 1091 individuals of peafowls were recorded in 487 sightings in 1080 km (2.28 ± 0.05 with the encounter rate of 1.01 individuals / km. In Dry Deciduous Forest a total of 570 individuals of peafowls were recorded in 224 sightings in 460 km (2.28 ± 0.05, ER = 1.01 individuals / km. In Dry Thorn Forest a total of 521 individuals of peafowls were recorded in 254 sightings in 620 km (2.05 ± 0.06 ER = 0.84 individuals / km. A total of 19 roosting trees species were identified, all recorded in thorn forest; similarly nine species were recorded in dry deciduous forest. The highest number of roosts were recorded in Tectona grandis (n = 27; the average height of the tree species was 14.46 m and the average Indian peafowl roost height was 11.25. The Indian peafowl has decreased; the reason for invading the human habitation was the loss of food (n = 60. Crop damage by peafowl shows that beans (50% were highly damaged followed by chilly (37%, tomato (5% and ragi (4% and corn (1%. Drivers (n = 25 noted that under some circumstances Pavo cristatus could be killed due to its sudden appearance on the roads.

  6. A draft de novo genome assembly for the northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus reveals evidence for a rapid decline in effective population size beginning in the Late Pleistocene.

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    Yvette A Halley

    Full Text Available Wild populations of northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus; hereafter bobwhite have declined across nearly all of their U.S. range, and despite their importance as an experimental wildlife model for ecotoxicology studies, no bobwhite draft genome assembly currently exists. Herein, we present a bobwhite draft de novo genome assembly with annotation, comparative analyses including genome-wide analyses of divergence with the chicken (Gallus gallus and zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata genomes, and coalescent modeling to reconstruct the demographic history of the bobwhite for comparison to other birds currently in decline (i.e., scarlet macaw; Ara macao. More than 90% of the assembled bobwhite genome was captured within 14,000 unique genes and proteins. Bobwhite analyses of divergence with the chicken and zebra finch genomes revealed many extremely conserved gene sequences, and evidence for lineage-specific divergence of noncoding regions. Coalescent models for reconstructing the demographic history of the bobwhite and the scarlet macaw provided evidence for population bottlenecks which were temporally coincident with human colonization of the New World, the late Pleistocene collapse of the megafauna, and the last glacial maximum. Demographic trends predicted for the bobwhite and the scarlet macaw also were concordant with how opposing natural selection strategies (i.e., skewness in the r-/K-selection continuum would be expected to shape genome diversity and the effective population sizes in these species, which is directly relevant to future conservation efforts.

  7. The relationship between heart rate and rate of oxygen consumption in Galapagos marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus) at two different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Patrick J; Frappell, Peter B; Wang, Tobias; Wikelski, Martin

    2002-07-01

    To enable the use of heart rate (fH) for estimating field metabolic rate (FMR) in free-ranging Galapagos marine iguanas Amblyrhynchus cristatus, we determined the relationships between fH and mass-specific rate of oxygen consumption (sVO2) in seven iguanas before and during exercise on a treadmill and during the post-exercise period. The experiments were conducted at 27 and 35 degrees C, which are the temperatures that represent the lowest and highest average body temperatures of these animals in the field during summer. There were linear and significant relationships between fH and sVO2 at both temperatures (r(2)=0.86 and 0.91 at 27 degrees C and 36 degrees C, respectively). The slopes of the two regression lines did not differ, but there were significant differences in their intercepts. Thus, while heart rate can be used to predict FMR, the effects of temperature on the intercept of the regression must be taken into account when converting fH to sVO2. On the basis of our data, this can be achieved by applying the following formula: sVO2=0.0113fH-0.2983Q(10)((T(b)-27)/10). The increase in sVO2 with elevated body temperature results from an increase in fH, with no significant change in mass-specific oxygen pulse (sO(2) pulse; cardiac stroke volume times the difference in oxygen content between arterial and mixed venous blood). However, during exercise at both temperatures, increases in fH are insufficient to provide all of the additional O(2) required and there are also significant increases in the sO(2) pulses. This creates the situation whereby the same fH at the two temperatures can represent different values of sVO2.

  8. Characterization and evolution of MHC class II B genes in Galápagos marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaberman, Scott; Moreno, Maria A; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2009-08-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules play a key role in the adaptive immune system of vertebrates. Class II B genes appear to evolve in a very different manner in mammals and birds. Orthology is commonly observed among mammal loci, while genes tend to cluster phylogenetically within bird species. Here we present class II B data from a representative of another major group of amniotes, the squamates (i.e. lizards, snakes, amphisbaenians), with the ultimate goal of placing mammalian and avian MHC evolution into a broader context. In this study, eight class II B cDNA sequences were obtained from the Galápagos marine iguana (Amblyrhynchus cristatus) which were divided into five locus groups, Amcr-DAB1 through -DAB5, based on similarities along most of the coding and noncoding portions of the transcribed gene. All marine iguana sequences were monophyletic with respect to class II genes from other vertebrates indicating that they originated from a common ancestral locus after squamates split from other reptiles. The beta-1 domain, which is involved in antigen binding, exhibited signatures of positive selection as well as interlocus gene conversion in both long and short tracts-a pattern also observed in birds and fish, but not in mammals. On the other hand, the beta-2 domain was divergent between gene groups, which is characteristic of mammals. Based on these results, we preliminarily show that squamate class II B genes have been shaped by a unique blend of evolutionary forces that have been observed in differing degrees in other vertebrates.

  9. Pharmacokinetics of butorphanol delivered with an osmotic pump during a seven-day period in common peafowl (Pavo cristatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Meredith M; KuKanich, Butch; Sykes, John M

    2015-12-01

    To determine pharmacokinetics of butorphanol delivered via osmotic pumps in common peafowl (Pavo cristatus) as a method for analgesic administration to avian species. 14 healthy adult male common peafowl. A preliminary experiment was conducted with 2 birds to establish time point and concentration requirements. Then, the remaining 12 birds were anesthetized, and 2 osmotic pumps containing butorphanol (volume, 2 mL; mean dosage, 247 μg/kg/h) were implanted subcutaneously in each bird for 7 days prior to removal. Blood samples were collected before pump implantation (time 0); 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, and 168 hours after pump implantation; and 3 and 6 hours after pump removal. Plasma butorphanol concentrations were measured via liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Plasma concentrations peaked (mean, 106.4 μg/L; range, 61.8 to 133.0 μg/L) at a mean of 39.0 hours, with no evidence of sedation in any bird. After pump removal, butorphanol was rapidly eliminated (half-life, 1.45 hours; range, 1.31 to 1.64 hours; n = 5). Mean clearance per fraction of dose absorbed was 2.89 L/kg/h (range, 2.00 to 5.55 L/kg/h). Mean amount of time the plasma butorphanol concentration was ≥ 60 μg/L was 85.6 hours (range, 3.5 to 155.3 hours). Plasma concentrations of butorphanol in common peafowl were maintained at or above reported efficacious analgesic concentrations. This study established a method for administering analgesics to avian patients without the need for frequent handling or injections. Use of these osmotic pumps may provide options for avian analgesia.

  10. Altered embryonic development in northern bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus induced by pre-incubation oscillatory thermal stresses mimicking global warming predictions.

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    Kelly S Reyna

    Full Text Available Global warming is likely to alter reproductive success of ground-nesting birds that lay eggs normally left unattended for days or even weeks before actual parental incubation, especially in already warm climates. The native North American bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus is such a species, and pre-incubation quail eggs may experience temperatures ≥45°C. Yet, almost nothing is known about embryonic survival after such high pre-incubation temperatures. Freshly laid bobwhite quail eggs were exposed during a 12 day pre-incubation period to one of five thermal regimes: low oscillating temperatures (25-40°C, mean = 28.9°C, high oscillating temperatures (30-45°C, mean = 33.9°C, low constant temperatures (28.85°C, high constant temperatures (mean = 33.9°C, or commercially employed pre-incubation temperatures (20°C. After treatment, eggs were then incubated at a standard 37.5°C to determine subsequent effects on embryonic development rate, survival, water loss, hatching, and embryonic oxygen consumption. Both quantity of heating degree hours during pre-incubation and specific thermal regime (oscillating vs. non-oscillating profoundly affected important aspects of embryo survival and indices of development and growth Pre-incubation quail eggs showed a remarkable tolerance to constant high temperatures (up to 45°C, surviving for 4.5±0.3 days of subsequent incubation, but high oscillating pre-incubation temperature increased embryo survival (mean survival 12.2±1.8 days and led to more rapid development than high constant temperature (maximum 38.5°C, even though both groups experienced the same total heating degree-hours. Oxygen consumption was ~200-300 μl O2.egg.min-1 at hatching in all groups, and was not affected by pre-incubation conditions. Oscillating temperatures, which are the norm for pre-incubation quail eggs in their natural habitat, thus enhanced survival at higher temperatures. However, a 5°C increase in pre

  11. Altered embryonic development in northern bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) induced by pre-incubation oscillatory thermal stresses mimicking global warming predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyna, Kelly S; Burggren, Warren W

    2017-01-01

    Global warming is likely to alter reproductive success of ground-nesting birds that lay eggs normally left unattended for days or even weeks before actual parental incubation, especially in already warm climates. The native North American bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) is such a species, and pre-incubation quail eggs may experience temperatures ≥45°C. Yet, almost nothing is known about embryonic survival after such high pre-incubation temperatures. Freshly laid bobwhite quail eggs were exposed during a 12 day pre-incubation period to one of five thermal regimes: low oscillating temperatures (25-40°C, mean = 28.9°C), high oscillating temperatures (30-45°C, mean = 33.9°C), low constant temperatures (28.85°C), high constant temperatures (mean = 33.9°C), or commercially employed pre-incubation temperatures (20°C). After treatment, eggs were then incubated at a standard 37.5°C to determine subsequent effects on embryonic development rate, survival, water loss, hatching, and embryonic oxygen consumption. Both quantity of heating degree hours during pre-incubation and specific thermal regime (oscillating vs. non-oscillating) profoundly affected important aspects of embryo survival and indices of development and growth Pre-incubation quail eggs showed a remarkable tolerance to constant high temperatures (up to 45°C), surviving for 4.5±0.3 days of subsequent incubation, but high oscillating pre-incubation temperature increased embryo survival (mean survival 12.2±1.8 days) and led to more rapid development than high constant temperature (maximum 38.5°C), even though both groups experienced the same total heating degree-hours. Oxygen consumption was ~200-300 μl O2.egg.min-1 at hatching in all groups, and was not affected by pre-incubation conditions. Oscillating temperatures, which are the norm for pre-incubation quail eggs in their natural habitat, thus enhanced survival at higher temperatures. However, a 5°C increase in pre-incubation temperature

  12. Annotated Draft Genome Assemblies for the Northern Bobwhite (Colinus virginianus and the Scaled Quail (Callipepla squamata Reveal Disparate Estimates of Modern Genome Diversity and Historic Effective Population Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Oldeschulte

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus; hereafter bobwhite and scaled quail (Callipepla squamata populations have suffered precipitous declines across most of their US ranges. Illumina-based first- (v1.0 and second- (v2.0 generation draft genome assemblies for the scaled quail and the bobwhite produced N50 scaffold sizes of 1.035 and 2.042 Mb, thereby producing a 45-fold improvement in contiguity over the existing bobwhite assembly, and ≥90% of the assembled genomes were captured within 1313 and 8990 scaffolds, respectively. The scaled quail assembly (v1.0 = 1.045 Gb was ∼20% smaller than the bobwhite (v2.0 = 1.254 Gb, which was supported by kmer-based estimates of genome size. Nevertheless, estimates of GC content (41.72%; 42.66%, genome-wide repetitive content (10.40%; 10.43%, and MAKER-predicted protein coding genes (17,131; 17,165 were similar for the scaled quail (v1.0 and bobwhite (v2.0 assemblies, respectively. BUSCO analyses utilizing 3023 single-copy orthologs revealed a high level of assembly completeness for the scaled quail (v1.0; 84.8% and the bobwhite (v2.0; 82.5%, as verified by comparison with well-established avian genomes. We also detected 273 putative segmental duplications in the scaled quail genome (v1.0, and 711 in the bobwhite genome (v2.0, including some that were shared among both species. Autosomal variant prediction revealed ∼2.48 and 4.17 heterozygous variants per kilobase within the scaled quail (v1.0 and bobwhite (v2.0 genomes, respectively, and estimates of historic effective population size were uniformly higher for the bobwhite across all time points in a coalescent model. However, large-scale declines were predicted for both species beginning ∼15–20 KYA.

  13. Annotated Draft Genome Assemblies for the Northern Bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) and the Scaled Quail (Callipepla squamata) Reveal Disparate Estimates of Modern Genome Diversity and Historic Effective Population Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldeschulte, David L; Halley, Yvette A; Wilson, Miranda L; Bhattarai, Eric K; Brashear, Wesley; Hill, Joshua; Metz, Richard P; Johnson, Charles D; Rollins, Dale; Peterson, Markus J; Bickhart, Derek M; Decker, Jared E; Sewell, John F; Seabury, Christopher M

    2017-09-07

    Northern bobwhite ( Colinus virginianus ; hereafter bobwhite) and scaled quail ( Callipepla squamata ) populations have suffered precipitous declines across most of their US ranges. Illumina-based first- (v1.0) and second- (v2.0) generation draft genome assemblies for the scaled quail and the bobwhite produced N50 scaffold sizes of 1.035 and 2.042 Mb, thereby producing a 45-fold improvement in contiguity over the existing bobwhite assembly, and ≥90% of the assembled genomes were captured within 1313 and 8990 scaffolds, respectively. The scaled quail assembly (v1.0 = 1.045 Gb) was ∼20% smaller than the bobwhite (v2.0 = 1.254 Gb), which was supported by kmer-based estimates of genome size. Nevertheless, estimates of GC content (41.72%; 42.66%), genome-wide repetitive content (10.40%; 10.43%), and MAKER-predicted protein coding genes (17,131; 17,165) were similar for the scaled quail (v1.0) and bobwhite (v2.0) assemblies, respectively. BUSCO analyses utilizing 3023 single-copy orthologs revealed a high level of assembly completeness for the scaled quail (v1.0; 84.8%) and the bobwhite (v2.0; 82.5%), as verified by comparison with well-established avian genomes. We also detected 273 putative segmental duplications in the scaled quail genome (v1.0), and 711 in the bobwhite genome (v2.0), including some that were shared among both species. Autosomal variant prediction revealed ∼2.48 and 4.17 heterozygous variants per kilobase within the scaled quail (v1.0) and bobwhite (v2.0) genomes, respectively, and estimates of historic effective population size were uniformly higher for the bobwhite across all time points in a coalescent model. However, large-scale declines were predicted for both species beginning ∼15-20 KYA. Copyright © 2017 Oldeschulte et al.

  14. Biochemical and microbiological evidence for fermentative digestion in free-living land iguanas (Conolophus pallidus) and marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus) on the Galápagos archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackie, Roderick I; Rycyk, Mathew; Ruemmler, Rebecca L; Aminov, Rustam I; Wikelski, Martin

    2004-01-01

    Herbivorous lizards are potentially capable of high digestive efficiency, but the presence of an indigenous microbial population has been implied from measurements of activity rather than directly studied. This study is the first to provide direct biochemical and microbiological evidence for fermentative digestion in free-living land iguanas (Conolophus pallidus) and marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus) from the Galapagos archipelago. In marine iguanas, the stomach and large capacious colon contained ca. 32% and 60%, respectively, of the weight of total gut content. Total volatile fatty acid concentration was ca. 150 and 180 mM, respectively, for marine and land iguanas. Molar proportions of acetate, propionate, and butyrate (80.3%, 9.5%, and 3.5%) in land iguana fecal samples were similar to those for marine iguanas. Examination of fecal samples using confocal and transmission electron microscopy, as well as cultivable counts, revealed a dense and diverse population of bacteria, with spores prominent. Total culturable counts of anaerobes (2.22x10(8) g(-1) wet weight of fecal material) outnumbered aerobes on average by a factor of ca. 700. Combined, these results strongly support the contention that these unique herbivorous lizards are largely dependent on the presence and metabolic activities of a resident bacterial population in order to hydrolyze and ferment plant polymers that are indigestible to the host.

  15. Molecular characterization, isolation, pathology and pathotyping of peafowl (Pavo cristatus) origin Newcastle disease virus isolates recovered from disease outbreaks in three states of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desingu, Perumal Arumugam; Singh, Shambhu Dayal; Dhama, Kuldeep; Vinodhkumar, Obli Rajendran; Barathidasan, Rajamani; Malik, Yashpal Singh; Singh, Rajendra; Singh, Raj Kumar

    2016-12-01

    Disease outbreak investigations were carried out in three states of Northern India namely Haryana (Rewari), Uttar Pradesh (Noida) and Delhi, where a total of 110 Indian peafowls (Pavo cristatus) showed sudden onset of nervous signs and died within a period of two weeks during June, 2012. The F (fusion) gene-based RT-PCR detection of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in affected tissues confirmed the presence of the virus. Three NDV isolates were selected (one from each area under investigation) and further characterized. They were found to be of virulent pathotype (velogenic NDV) based on both pathogenicity assays (MDT, ICPI and IVPI) and partial F gene sequence analysis. Additionally, the phylogenetic analysis revealed that the isolates belonged to the genotype VIIi and XIII of class II avian Paramyxovirus serotype1 (APMV-1) and related closely to new emerging sub-genotypes. This is the first report regarding the presence of the fifth panzootic vNDV genotype VIIi from India. In this scenario, extensive epidemiological studies are suggested for surveillance of NDV genotypes in wild birds and poultry flocks of the country along with adopting suitable prevention and control measures.

  16. Complete genome sequence of a velogenic neurotropic avian paramyxovirus 1 isolated from peacocks (Pavo cristatus) in a wildlife park in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, Muhammad; Shabbir, Muhammad Z; Yaqub, Tahir; Shabbir, Muhammad A B; Mukhtar, Nadia; Khan, Muhammad R; Berg, Mikael

    2012-12-01

    Avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 (APMV-1) was isolated from an acute and highly contagious outbreak in peacocks (Pavo cristatus) in a wildlife park in Pakistan. A velogenic neurotropic form of APMV-1 caused a 100% case fatality rate and killed 190 peacocks within a week. Biological and serological characterizations showed features of a velogenic strain of APMV-1, and these results were further confirmed by sequence analysis of the cleavage site in the fusion protein. The complete genome of one of the isolates was sequenced, and phylogenetic analysis was conducted. The analysis showed that this isolate belonged to genotype VII, specifically, to subgenotype VIIa, and clustered closely with isolates characterized from Indonesia in the 1990s. Interestingly, the isolate showed significant differences from previously characterized APMV-1 isolates from commercial and rural chickens in Pakistan. The work presented here is the first complete genome sequence of any APMV-1 isolate from wild birds in the region and therefore highlights the need for increased awareness and surveillance in such bird species.

  17. Cytochrome b based genetic differentiation of Indian wild pig (Sus scrofa cristatus) and domestic pig (Sus scrofa domestica) and its use in wildlife forensics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sandeep Kumar; Kumar, Ajit; Hussain, Syed Ainul; Vipin; Singh, Lalji

    2013-06-01

    The Indian wild pig (Sus scrofa cristatus) is a protected species and listed in the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972. The wild pig is often hunted illegally and sold in market as meat warranting punishment under law. To avoid confusion in identification of these two subspecies during wildlife forensic examinations, we describe genetic differentiation of Indian wild and domestic pigs using a molecular technique. Analysis of sequence generated from the partial fragment (421bp) of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome b (Cyt b) gene exhibited unambiguous (>3%) genetic variation between Indian wild and domestic pigs. We observed nine forensically informative nucleotide sequence (FINS) variations between Indian wild and domestic pigs. The overall genetic variation described in this study is helpful in forensic identification of the biological samples of wild and domestic pigs. It also helped in differentiating the Indian wild pig from other wild pig races. This study indicates that domestic pigs in India are not descendent of the Indian wild pig, however; they are closer to the other wild pig races found in Asia and Europe. Copyright © 2012 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The doubly-labeled water method and food intake surveys: a confrontation O método da água duplamente marcada e pesquisas de ingestão alimentar: um confronto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    France BELLISLE

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Surveys of food intake in humans, following measurements of energy expenditures in free-living persons, obtained by the doubly-labeled water technique, have been severely questioned in recent years. The present article reviews studies performed in both adults and children, comparing energy intake and expenditures in the same individuals. In adults, reported intake is often insufficient to cover minimal energy needs. The typical level of "under-reporting" is about 20%, and it is even higher in obese subjects. Intake data obtained from children are more valid than data from adults. Different survey methods yield differing degrees of agreement between intake and expenditure measurements using the doubly labeled water technique: frequency questionnaires tend to induce over-reporting, whereas the classical 24 hours recall is very susceptible to large under-reporting. Even obese adults can provide accurate reports of their daily food intake if properly trained and motivated. The interpretation of data obtained with the doubly labeled water method should integrate the considerable day-to-day variations observed in human food intake.Pesquisas de ingestão alimentar em seres humanos, seguindo medidas de gastos de energia, obtidas pela técnica da água duplamente marcada, têm sido amplamente questionadas nos últimos anos. Este artigo faz uma revisão de estudos realizados em adultos e crianças, comparando consumo e gastos de energia nos mesmos indivíduos. Em adultos, o consumo relatado é freqüentemente insuficiente para cobrir as necessidades mínimas de energia. O nível típico de sub notificação é de cerca de 20% e chega a percentuais maiores em indivíduos obesos. Dados de consumo obtidos de crianças são mais válidos que dados de adultos. Métodos diferentes de pesquisa produzem graus diferenciados de conformidade entre medidas de consumo e gasto usando a técnica da água duplamente marcada: questionários de freqüência tendem a

  19. Progressive colonization and restricted gene flow shape island-dependent population structure in Galápagos marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snell Howard L

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus inhabit the coastlines of large and small islands throughout the Galápagos archipelago, providing a rich system to study the spatial and temporal factors influencing the phylogeographic distribution and population structure of a species. Here, we analyze the microevolution of marine iguanas using the complete mitochondrial control region (CR as well as 13 microsatellite loci representing more than 1200 individuals from 13 islands. Results CR data show that marine iguanas occupy three general clades: one that is widely distributed across the northern archipelago, and likely spread from east to west by way of the South Equatorial current, a second that is found mostly on the older eastern and central islands, and a third that is limited to the younger northern and western islands. Generally, the CR haplotype distribution pattern supports the colonization of the archipelago from the older, eastern islands to the younger, western islands. However, there are also signatures of recurrent, historical gene flow between islands after population establishment. Bayesian cluster analysis of microsatellite genotypes indicates the existence of twenty distinct genetic clusters generally following a one-cluster-per-island pattern. However, two well-differentiated clusters were found on the easternmost island of San Cristóbal, while nine distinct and highly intermixed clusters were found on youngest, westernmost islands of Isabela and Fernandina. High mtDNA and microsatellite genetic diversity were observed for populations on Isabela and Fernandina that may be the result of a recent population expansion and founder events from multiple sources. Conclusions While a past genetic study based on pure FST analysis suggested that marine iguana populations display high levels of nuclear (but not mitochondrial gene flow due to male-biased dispersal, the results of our sex-biased dispersal tests and the

  20. Progressive colonization and restricted gene flow shape island-dependent population structure in Galápagos marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinfartz, Sebastian; Glaberman, Scott; Lanterbecq, Deborah; Russello, Michael A; Rosa, Sabrina; Hanley, Torrance C; Marquez, Cruz; Snell, Howard L; Snell, Heidi M; Gentile, Gabriele; Dell'Olmo, Giacomo; Powell, Alessandro M; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2009-12-22

    Marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus) inhabit the coastlines of large and small islands throughout the Galápagos archipelago, providing a rich system to study the spatial and temporal factors influencing the phylogeographic distribution and population structure of a species. Here, we analyze the microevolution of marine iguanas using the complete mitochondrial control region (CR) as well as 13 microsatellite loci representing more than 1200 individuals from 13 islands. CR data show that marine iguanas occupy three general clades: one that is widely distributed across the northern archipelago, and likely spread from east to west by way of the South Equatorial current, a second that is found mostly on the older eastern and central islands, and a third that is limited to the younger northern and western islands. Generally, the CR haplotype distribution pattern supports the colonization of the archipelago from the older, eastern islands to the younger, western islands. However, there are also signatures of recurrent, historical gene flow between islands after population establishment. Bayesian cluster analysis of microsatellite genotypes indicates the existence of twenty distinct genetic clusters generally following a one-cluster-per-island pattern. However, two well-differentiated clusters were found on the easternmost island of San Cristóbal, while nine distinct and highly intermixed clusters were found on youngest, westernmost islands of Isabela and Fernandina. High mtDNA and microsatellite genetic diversity were observed for populations on Isabela and Fernandina that may be the result of a recent population expansion and founder events from multiple sources. While a past genetic study based on pure FST analysis suggested that marine iguana populations display high levels of nuclear (but not mitochondrial) gene flow due to male-biased dispersal, the results of our sex-biased dispersal tests and the finding of strong genetic differentiation between islands do

  1. Manejo de conductos radiculares con curvatura marcada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Mario Nuñez Duran

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Las variaciones anatómicas en dientes con conductos que poseen dilaceraciones hacen del tratamiento de endodonciaun reto o una complicación relativa, en donde el clínico debe desarrollar toda su habilidad y el uso de instrumentosespeciales que faciliten u optimicen la terapia de conductos radiculares. La toma de radiografías previas con diferentesangulaciones y el estudio minucioso de ellas, darán una ayuda fundamental para conocer más detalladamente estacomplicación anatómica, que en algunos casos es muy frecuente. El uso de instrumental más flexible y resistentepermite llegar con mayor precisión y seguridad a la parte apical sin que se corra el riesgo de fracturar los instrumentos,limpiándolos y modelándolos en toda su extensión para poder obturarlos de una manera correcta.El uso de limas de menor calibre, precurvadas, permite acceder a la porción dilacerada de la raíz. Este es un métodoeficaz para prevenir la perdida de longitud de trabajo y evitar así las perforaciones de las raíces durante la preparación.Dentro de los errores más comunes durante la instrumentación de los conductos está la perdida de longitud detrabajo, junto con la transportación del foramen apical, ya sea de manera externa o interna. En el presente artículose menciona el uso de nuevas y mejores técnicas usadas para poder evitar este tipo de errores y se muestra un casoclínico del manejo de un molar superior con una curvatura de 40 grados que fue preparado y obturado exitosamentecon el sistema Protaper (Dentsply- maillefer.

  2. Proteles cristatus in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1976-09-25

    Sep 25, 1976 ... important food item in the diet of the aardwolf. Trinervitermes was found to be the most important genus of termite in the faeces from six of the seven localities, whilst other genera of termites, ants, other insects and millipedes mostly occurred as traces in the faeces .. No vertebrate remains or traces of carrion.

  3. Incidences of mortality of Indian peafowl Pavo cristatus due to pesticide poisoning in India and accumulation pattern of chlorinated pesticides in tissues of the same species collected from Ahmedabad and Coimbatore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambirajan, Kanthan; Muralidharan, Subramanian; Manonmani, Subbian; Kirubhanandhini, Venkatachalam; Ganesan, Kitusamy

    2018-03-23

    Incidences of mortality of Indian peafowl Pavo cristatus, the national bird (Schedule I Indian Wild Life Protection Act 1972), are rampant in India. Between January 2011 and March 2017, around 550 peafowl in 35 incidences were reported dead across the country. Due to the non-availability of fresh carcases, poisoning could not be confirmed. Birds which died due to kite string injuries in Ahmedabad (15) and accidents in Coimbatore (5) were tested for residues of chlorinated pesticides, namely hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT), endosulfan, heptachlor, dicofol, dieldrin and cholipyrifos. The liver, kidney and muscle were the tissues considered to document pesticide load. Total load ranged from BDL to 388.2 ng/g. DDT (95%) and HCH (80%) were detected more frequently. DDT (40%) and endosulfan (26%) contributed maximum to the total pesticide load followed by HCH (21%). Pesticide accumulation pattern among the organs was in the order of liver (123.9 ng/g) > kidney (91.9 ng/g) > muscle (19.5 ng/g) with significant difference (p pesticide (149.0 ng/g) than birds from Coimbatore (47.8 ng/g). Although varying levels of chlorinated pesticide were detected, they were below reported toxic limits. Nevertheless, persistence of chlorinated pesticides and poisoning due to modern pesticides across the entire distribution range of Peafowl in India is a cause for concern.

  4. The Metabolism of Tritium-Labelled Epinephrine in Man; Metabolisme de l'Adrenaline Tritiee dans l'Organisme Humain; 041c 0435 0414 ; Metabolismo de la Adrenalina Marcada con Tritio en el Hombre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labrosse, E. H.; Axelrod, J.; Kopin, I. J.; Kety, S. S. [National Institute of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1962-02-15

    limitees par le fait que l'adrenaline marquee avait une activite specifique relativement faible. Le recours a l'adrenaline tritiee (7-{sup 3}H-dl-adrenaline-d-bitartrate) a permis une meilleure recuperation des substances radioactives administrees, et grace a l'activite specifique plus elevee (superieure a 300 microcuries par milligramme) il a ete possible d'isoler de nouveaux metabolites et de determiner leur quantite. Chez 12 sujets males normaux, 92,6 {+-} 7,7% du tritium contenu dans l'adrenaline-3 infusee a ete evacue dans l'urine dans les 54 heures qui ont suivi l'infusion de l'adrenaline tritiee. L'urine contenait les substances tritiees suivantes: adrenaline inchangee, 6,8 {+-} 1,5%; metanephrine libre, 5,2 {+-} 1,1%; glycuronate de metanephrine, 6,0 {+-} 1,5%; sulfate de metanephrine, 29,5 {+-} 9,0%; metoxy-3-hydroxy-4-phenylglycole, 7,1 {+-} 1,4%; acide dihydroxy-3, 4-mandelique libre et conjugue, 1,6 {+-} 0,6%; acide metoxy-3-hydroxy-4-mandelique, 41,2 {+-} 8,4%. Comme le montrent ces experiences et d'autres se rapportant au meme domaine, l'application biologique de l'adrenaline tritiee a permis de mieux comprendre le metabolisme de cette importante hormone de l'organisme humain. (author) [Spanish] Los autores tenian interes en estudiar el metabolismo de la adrenalina en seres humanos normales. Las investigaciones realizadas en animales indicaron algunos ciclos metabolicos posibles, pero las dosis de radiactividad y de aminopirocatequina empleadas eran superiores a las que el ser humano puede soportar sin peligro. Asimismo, los estudios anteriores acerca del metabolismo de esta hormona en el hombre quedaron limitados por la actividad especifica relativamente baja de la adrenalina marcada. El empleo de adrenalina tritiada (d-bitartrato de 7-{sup 3}H-dl-adtenalma) ha permitido recuperar un porcentaje mayor de la radioactividad administrada, y su actividad especifica mas elevada (mas de 300 {mu}curies/mg) ha hecho posible aislar y determinar cuantitativamente

  5. Validade das estimativas de ingestão energética de três métodos de avaliação do consumo alimentar, em relação à água duplamente marcada

    OpenAIRE

    Fernanda Baeza Scagliusi

    2007-01-01

    O gasto energético total (GET) pode ser usado como medida da ingestão energética (IE). Existe um constante sub-relato da IE obtida por métodos de avaliação do consumo alimentar, mas poucos estudos o investigaram em nações em desenvolvimento. Objetivos: a) comparar a validade das estimativas de IE de um questionário de freqüência alimentar, três recordatórios alimentares e um diário alimentar de três dias, segundo a água duplamente marcada; b) determinar a influência da prática de atividade fí...

  6. Diversity of compounds in femoral secretions of Galápagos iguanas (genera: Amblyrhynchus and Conolophus), and their potential role in sexual communication in lek-mating marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, Alejandro; Menke, Markus; Quezada, Galo; Jiménez-Uzcátegui, Gustavo; Schulz, Stefan; Steinfartz, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Chemical signals are widely used in the animal kingdom, enabling communication in various social contexts, including mate selection and the establishment of dominance. Femoral glands, which produce and release waxy secretions into the environment, are organs of central importance in lizard chemical communication. The Galápagos marine iguana ( Amblyrhynchus cristatus ) is a squamate reptile with a lek-mating system. Although the lekking behaviour of marine iguanas has been well-studied, their potential for sexual communication via chemical cues has not yet been investigated. Here we describe the diversity of the lipophilic fraction of males' femoral gland secretions among 11 island populations of marine iguanas, and compare it with the composition of its sister species, the Galápagos land iguana ( Conolophus subcristatus ). We also conducted behavioural observations in marine iguana territorial males in order to explore the possible function of these substances in the context of male dominance in leks. Femoral secretions were analysed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and chromatography with a flame ionisation detector (GC-FID) in order to characterise the lipophilic composition. To understand the potential role of femoral secretions in marine iguana intraspecific communication, territorial males were sampled for their femoral glands and monitored to record their head bob rate-a territorial display behaviour in males-as well as the number of females present in their leks. We found that the gland secretions were composed of ten saturated and unsaturated carboxylic acids ranging in chain length between C 16 and C 24 , as well as three sterols. Cholesterol was the main compound found. Intriguingly, land iguanas have a higher diversity of lipophilic compounds, with structural group of lipids (i.e. aldehydes) entirely absent in marine iguanas; overall the chemical signals of both species were strongly differentiated. Lipid profiles also

  7. Diversity of compounds in femoral secretions of Galápagos iguanas (genera: Amblyrhynchus and Conolophus, and their potential role in sexual communication in lek-mating marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Ibáñez

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Chemical signals are widely used in the animal kingdom, enabling communication in various social contexts, including mate selection and the establishment of dominance. Femoral glands, which produce and release waxy secretions into the environment, are organs of central importance in lizard chemical communication. The Galápagos marine iguana (Amblyrhynchus cristatus is a squamate reptile with a lek-mating system. Although the lekking behaviour of marine iguanas has been well-studied, their potential for sexual communication via chemical cues has not yet been investigated. Here we describe the diversity of the lipophilic fraction of males’ femoral gland secretions among 11 island populations of marine iguanas, and compare it with the composition of its sister species, the Galápagos land iguana (Conolophus subcristatus. We also conducted behavioural observations in marine iguana territorial males in order to explore the possible function of these substances in the context of male dominance in leks. Methods Femoral secretions were analysed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC–MS, and chromatography with a flame ionisation detector (GC-FID in order to characterise the lipophilic composition. To understand the potential role of femoral secretions in marine iguana intraspecific communication, territorial males were sampled for their femoral glands and monitored to record their head bob rate—a territorial display behaviour in males—as well as the number of females present in their leks. Results We found that the gland secretions were composed of ten saturated and unsaturated carboxylic acids ranging in chain length between C16 and C24, as well as three sterols. Cholesterol was the main compound found. Intriguingly, land iguanas have a higher diversity of lipophilic compounds, with structural group of lipids (i.e. aldehydes entirely absent in marine iguanas; overall the chemical signals of both species were strongly

  8. Dissemination of bacteria labeled with technetium-99m after laparotomy and abdominal insufflation with different CO2 pressures on rats Disseminação de bactérias marcadas com tecnécio-99m após laparotomia e insuflação com diferentes pressões de CO2 em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Bettini Pitombo

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To asses the dissemination of bacteria labeled with technetium-99m (99mTc from peritoneal cavity after different surgical procedures. METHODS: Bacteria of the Escherichia coli species labeled with 99mTc were used in a concentration of 10(8 units of colony-makers for ml (UFC/ml and 1ml was inoculated through intra-peritoneal via. Forty-eight rats were divided into four groups: control, laparotomy, pneumoperitoneum with 10mmHg and pneumoperitoneum with 20mmHg of CO2. Procedures were performed 20 min after injection of the inoculum and lasted 30 min. Animals were sacrificed after six hours (Group 1 and 24 hours (Group 2. Samples of blood, liver and spleen were collected for radioactivity counting. RESULTS: After six hours, indirect detection of the bacteria in different organs was uniform in all groups. After 24 hours, a larger detection of technetium was observed in the livers of animals of the group insufflated with 20mmHg of CO2, when compared with those of control group (pOBJETIVO: Avaliar a disseminação de bactérias marcadas com tecnécio-99m (99mTc a partir da cavidade peritoneal após diferentes procedimentos cirúrgicos. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizadas bactérias da espécie Escherichia coli marcadas com 99mTc em uma concentração de10(8 unidades formadoras de colônia por ml (UFC/ml sendo inoculado 1ml por via intra-peritoneal. Quarenta e oito ratos foram divididos em quatro grupos: controle, laparotomia, pneumoperitôneo com 10 mmHg e pneumoperitôneo com 20 mmHg de CO2. Os procedimentos foram realizados 20 minutos após a injeção do inóculo e duraram 30 minutos. Os animais foram sacrificados após seis horas (grupo 1 e 24 horas (grupo 2. Foram coletadas amostras de sangue, fígado e baço para contagem radioativa. RESULTADOS: Após seis horas, a detecção indireta das bactérias nos diferentes órgãos foi uniforme em todos os grupos. Após 24 horas, observou-se uma maior detecção de tecnécio nos fígados dos animais do

  9. Tissue Metabolism of Tritium-Labelled Thyroid Hormones and Thyronine; Sur le Metabolisme Cellulaire d'Hormones Thyroiediennes Marquees par le Tritium; 0422 043a 0430 043d 0435 0432 044b 0439 043c 0414 ; Metabolismo de las Hormonas Tiroideas y de la Tironina Marcadas con {sup 3}H en los Tejidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roche, J.; Nunez, J.; Jacquemin, Cl. [Laboratoire de Biochimie Generale et Comparee, College de France, Paris (France)

    1962-02-15

    . La 3'-hydroxythyronine et la 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine dont la presence illustre la participation de processus d'o-hydroxylation dans le catabolisme des cycles. -3. Les acides thyroacetiques et p-hydroxyphenylacetique dont l'apparition repond au schema general de la degradation des acides a-amines. (author) [Spanish] La eliminacion de yodo de las hormonas tiroideas da origen a yoduros y a tironina (T{sub 0}) que el autor ha caracterizado en cortes de tejido o en un preparado de tiroxinodesyodasa. El autor aporta una prueba directa de este proceso: la 3, 5, 3'-triyodotironina y la 3, 3', 5'-triyodotironina, marcadas, respectivamente, en {alpha}, {beta} y en 3 con {sup 3}H conducen a la formacion de T{sub 0} y de otros compuestos en el rinon. La identificacion de la T{sub 0} como derivado natural de las hormonas tiroideas justificaba el estudio de su metabolismo en los tejidos; el autor incubo T{sub 0}, marcada en 3 y 5 con {sup 3}H, junto con cortes de rinon y de musculo. Por radiocromatografia con contador de centelleo liquido y por autorradiografia logro determinar: 1) Tirosina, cuya formacion constituye una prueba de la ruptura del puente difenileter de la T{sub 0}. 2) 3'-hydroxitironina y 3,4-dihidroxifenilalanina, compuestos cuya presencia indica que en el catabolismo de los cielos intervienen procesos de O-hidroxilacion. 3) Los acidos tiroacetico y p-hidroxifenilacetico, cuya aparicion concuerda con el esquema general de la degradacion de los a-aminoacidos. (author) [Russian] Obeziozhivanie shhitovidnyh gormonov vedet k obrazovaniju iodidov i tironina (T{sub 0}), harakternaja osobennost' kotoryh byla dostignuta na osnovanii tkanevyh razrezov ili prigotovlenija obeznozhennogo tiroksina. Privoditsja neposredst- vennoe dokazatel'stvo jetogo processa: 3,5 i 3's trehiodistym tironinom i 3. 3' i 5 s trehiodistym tironinom mechennyh sootvetstvenno i al'fa i beta luchami i 3 mechennogo tritiem, vedut, mezhdu prochim, k obrazovaniju v pochke tironina. Identifikacija

  10. Keratin homogeneity in the tail feathers of Pavo cristatus and Pavo cristatus mut. alba

    OpenAIRE

    Pabisch, S.; Puchegger, S.; Kirchner, H.O.K.; Weiss, I.M.; Peterlik, H.

    2010-01-01

    The keratin structure in the cortex of peacocks? feathers is studied by X-ray diffraction along the feather, from the calamus to the tip. It changes considerably over the first 5?cm close to the calamus and remains constant for about 1?m along the length of the feather. Close to the tip, the structure loses its high degree of order. We attribute the X-ray patterns to a shrinkage of a cylindrical arrangement of ?-sheets, which is not fully formed initially. In the final structure, the crystall...

  11. Keratin homogeneity in the tail feathers of Pavo cristatus and Pavo cristatus mut. alba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabisch, S; Puchegger, S; Kirchner, H O K; Weiss, I M; Peterlik, H

    2010-12-01

    The keratin structure in the cortex of peacocks' feathers is studied by X-ray diffraction along the feather, from the calamus to the tip. It changes considerably over the first 5 cm close to the calamus and remains constant for about 1m along the length of the feather. Close to the tip, the structure loses its high degree of order. We attribute the X-ray patterns to a shrinkage of a cylindrical arrangement of β-sheets, which is not fully formed initially. In the final structure, the crystalline beta-cores are fixed by the rest of the keratin molecule. The hydrophobic residues of the beta-core are locked into a zip-like arrangement. Structurally there is no difference between the blue and the white bird. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Oral lead bullet fragment exposure in northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Richard; Holladay, Jeremy; Holladay, Steven; Tannenbaum, Lawrence; Selcer, Barbara; Meldrum, Blair; Williams, Susan; Jarrett, Timothy; Gogal, Robert

    2011-11-01

    Lead (Pb) is a worldwide environmental contaminant known to adversely affect multiple organ systems in both mammalian and avian species. In birds, a common route of exposure is via oral ingestion of lead particles. Data are currently lacking for the retention and clearance of Pb bullet fragments in gastrointestinal (GI) tract of birds while linking toxicity with blood Pb levels. In the present study, northern bobwhite quail fed a seed-based diet were orally gavaged with Pb bullet fragments (zero, one or five fragments/bird) and evaluated for rate of fragment clearance, and changes in peripheral blood, renal, immune, and gastrointestinal parameters. Based on radiographs, the majority of the birds cleared or absorbed the fragments by seven days, with the exception of one five-fragment bird which took between 7 and 14 days. Blood Pb levels were higher in males than females, which may be related to egg production in females. In males but not females, feed consumption, body weight gain, packed cell volume (PCV), plasma protein concentration, and δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δ-ALAD) activity were all adversely affected by five Pb fragments. Birds of both sexes that received a single Pb fragment displayed depressed δ-ALAD, suggesting altered hematologic function, while all birds dosed with five bullet fragments exhibited greater morbidity.

  13. Marcação de fitomassa de cana-de-açúcar com aplicação de solução de uréia marcada com15N Sugarcane phytomass labeling with application of 15N-urea solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Faroni

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar três métodos de aplicação de solução de uréia marcada com15N (15N-uréia : pulverização foliar, injeção na base do colmo e imersão radicular, a fim de se definir qual seria o mais eficiente na marcação de fitomassa de cana-de-açúcar. O experimento foi instalado na Estação Experimental Apta - Pólo Regional Centro Sul, em Piracicaba, SP. A cana-de-açúcar, variedade SP80 3280, foi plantada em vasos preenchidos com aproximadamente 120 dm³ de Neossolo Quartzarênico de textura arenosa. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. A fitomassa de cana-de-açúcar dos três tratamentos, no 11º mês de desenvolvimento, não diferiu estatisticamente, e suas abundâncias de 15N foram superiores à natural, tendo-se verificado a seguinte ordem decrescente de marcação com 15N: parte aérea > rizoma > rizomas+raízes na camada de 0,0-0,2 m > raízes na camada de 0,2-0,4 m > raízes em profundidade maior que 0,4 m. Entre os métodos de aplicação de 15N-uréia, a injeção na base de colmos é o de mais fácil execução, o mais efetivo na marcação da fitomassa e o que apresentou a maior recuperação do traçador (96%. A aplicação foliar é comparável à injeção, somente na marcação e na recuperação do traçador no sistema radicular.The objective of this research was to compare three methods of 15N-urea solutions application: spray on leaf, injection in the plant base stem and root immersion, in order to define the most efficient labeling sugarcane phytomass with 15N method. The experiment was carried out at APTA - Pólo Regional Centro Sul, in Piracicaba, SP, Brazil, and the sugarcane variety SP80 3280 was planted in pots filled out with approximately 120 dm³ of a Typic Quartzipsamment soil. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with four replicates. There were no difference between the methods in the plant parts dry

  14. Re-evaluation of the taxonomy of the Mitis group of the genus Streptococcus based on whole genome phylogenetic analyses, and proposed reclassification of Streptococcus dentisani as Streptococcus oralis subsp. dentisani comb. nov., Streptococcus tigurinus as Streptococcus oralis subsp. tigurinus comb. nov., and Streptococcus oligofermentans as a later synonym of Streptococcus cristatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Anders; Scholz, Christian F P; Kilian, Mogens

    2016-11-01

    The Mitis group of the genus Streptococcus currently comprises 20 species with validly published names, including the pathogen S. pneumoniae. They have been the subject of much taxonomic confusion, due to phenotypic overlap and genetic heterogeneity, which has hampered a full appreciation of their clinical significance. The purpose of this study was to critically re-examine the taxonomy of the Mitis group using 195 publicly available genomes, including designated type strains for phylogenetic analyses based on core genomes, multilocus sequences and 16S rRNA gene sequences, combined with estimates of average nucleotide identity (ANI) and in silico and in vitro analyses of specific phenotypic characteristics. Our core genomic phylogenetic analyses revealed distinct clades that, to some extent, and from the clustering of type strains represent known species. However, many of the genomes have been incorrectly identified adding to the current confusion. Furthermore, our data show that 16S rRNA gene sequences and ANI are unsuitable for identifying and circumscribing new species of the Mitis group of the genus Streptococci. Based on the clustering patterns resulting from core genome phylogenetic analysis, we conclude that S. oligofermentans is a later synonym of S. cristatus. The recently described strains of the species Streptococcus dentisani includes one previously referred to as 'S. mitis biovar 2'. Together with S. oralis, S. dentisani and S. tigurinus form subclusters within a coherent phylogenetic clade. We propose that the species S. oralis consists of three subspecies: S. oralis subsp. oralis subsp. nov., S. oralis subsp. tigurinus comb. nov., and S. oralis subsp. dentisani comb. nov.

  15. Pathologic and molecular characterization of histomoniasis in peafowl ( Pavo cristatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Lorelei L; Beckstead, Robert B; Hayes, Jeffrey R; Rissi, Daniel R

    2017-03-01

    Histomonas meleagridis is a flagellate protozoan organism that can cause severe necrotizing typhlitis and hepatitis in gallinaceous birds. Peafowl ( Pavo spp.) have been shown to be susceptible to histomoniasis in experimental settings, but there are few reports of natural histomoniasis in this species. A retrospective study of the archived cases at 2 veterinary diagnostic laboratories in the United States yielded 5 cases of peafowl with gross and histologic findings characteristic of histomoniasis. Lesions included bilateral, transmural fibrinonecrotic typhlitis and multifocal necrotizing hepatitis with associated trophozoites morphologically consistent with H. meleagridis. There was no evidence of Heterakis gallinarum infestation in the studied cases. DNA was extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded liver and ceca from all 5 cases and was analyzed using multiple sets of primers with subsequent sequencing and genotyping. Four samples were positive for H. meleagridis, and 1 sample was positive for both H. meleagridis and Tetratrichomonas gallinarum. These results confirm that peafowl develop clinical disease similar to that described previously in other gallinaceous birds infected by H. meleagridis. The role of T. gallinarum remains unknown and further research is necessary to elucidate its role, if any, in the pathogenesis of the observed lesions.

  16. Safety of fenbendazole in common peafowl (Pavo cristatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar, Sajid; Abbas, Seema; Khan, Muhammad Irfan; Nisa, Qamarun; Younus, Muhammad; Aqil, Kiran; Qayyum, Rizwan; Yaqoob, Muhammad; Ali, Asif; Yaseen, Muhammad Asif; Shah, Muhammad Ali

    2018-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to find out the safety levels of fenbendazole in common peafowl. This bird, raised on aviaries and zoos, can be severely parasitized with Ascaridia galli (enteric worms) and Syngamus trachea (gapeworm) along with other parasitic worms. Fenbendazole is a highly effective benzimidazole-class anthelmintic in animals. The objective of this work was to provide target animal safety data in young peafowl and to demonstrate reproductive safety in adult birds. During the experimental study, diets containing fenbendazole at 0, 100, 200 and 300 ppm were fed for 21 days (three times the normal treatment duration). Data for feed consumption, feed conversion rate, and body weights were recorded for each bird in each group. Drug concentrations in different tissues of birds were determined to correlate concentrations with clinical observations, clinical pathology, and histologic findings. There were no morbidities or mortalities after study day 21. Additionally, there were no statistically significant treatment-related differences among above mentioned parameters. Analysis of fenbendazole concentrations in kidney, liver, leg/thigh, and breast muscle and skin with associated fat revealed that, even at the highest dose level used and with no feed withdrawal, fenbendazole concentrations were relatively low in these tissues. These findings indicate that fenbendazole has a relatively wide margin of safety in young peafowl and that the proposed dose of 100 ppm in the feed for 7 consecutive days is well within the margin of safety. In the reproductive safety study, five breeder peafowl farms fed fendbendazole at 100ppm for 7 days and collected data on hatching percentage of peahen eggs before and after treatment. Reproductive performance in peahen was not adversely affected.

  17. The peacock's train (Pavo cristatus and Pavo cristatus mut. alba) II. The molecular parameters of feather keratin plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Ingrid M; Schmitt, Karl P; Kirchner, Helmut O K

    2011-06-01

    Thermal activation analysis of plastic deformation of peacock tail feathers, by temperature changes and stress relaxation, gave for the keratin cortex an activation enthalpy of 1.78 ± 0.89 eV and an activation volume of 0.83 ± 0.13 nm³, for both the blue and the white subspecies. These values suggest that breaking of electrostatic bonds is responsible for plasticity in feather keratin. These might be bonds between keratin and nonkeratinous matrix or keratin-keratin cross-links. The mechanical properties of the rachis cortex are surprisingly uniform along the length of the feathers. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  18. The peacock's train (Pavo cristatus and Pavo cristatus mut. alba) I. structure, mechanics, and chemistry of the tail feather coverts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Ingrid M; Kirchner, Helmut O K

    2010-12-01

    The feathers in the train of the peacock serve not for flying but for sexual display. They are long, slender beams loaded in bending by their own weight. An outer circular conical shell, the cortex, is filled by a closed foam of 7.6% relative density, the medulla, both of feather keratin. Outer diameter and thickness of the cortex decrease linearly from the body toward the tip. This self-similar geometry leads to a division of labor. The cortex (longitudinal Young's modulus 3.3 GPa, transverse modulus 1 GPa) provides 96% of the longitudinal strength and bending rigidity of the feather. The medulla (Young's modulus 10 MPa) provides 96% of the transverse compressive rigidity. Fracture stress of the cortex, both longitudinal and transverse, is 120 MPa. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  19. Preparation of C{sup 14}-labelled tetrazolium salts and tracer study of the tetrazene-formazan rearrangement; Preparation de sels de tetrazolium marques au carbone-14 et etude de la transposition tetrazene-formazan, au moyen d'indicateurs radioactifs; Izgotovlenie mechennykh C{sup 14} solej tetrazosoedinenij i issledovanie pri pomoshchi indikatorov peregruppirovok tetrazona-formazana; Preparacion de sales de tetrazolio marcadas con {sup 14}C y estudio de la transposicion tetraceno-formazan con ayuda de trazadores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marton, Joseph; Meisel, Julia [Central Research Institute for Chemistry of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary); Gosztonyi, Thomas [Institute of Organic Chemical Technology, Technical University, Budapest (Hungary)

    1962-03-15

    etre isole dans des conditions appropriees. On a etudie cette transformation en utilisant du benzaldehyde-phenylhydrazone marque au carbone-14, et l'on a pu verifier ainsi qu'il s'agit d'une reaction intramoleculaire. (author) [Spanish] Partiendo del benzaldehido-(1-{sup 14}C), el autor ha sintetizado el TTC-(5-{sup 14}C), el NT-(5, 5'-di-{sup 14}C) (neotetrazolio) y el BT- (5, 5'-di-{sup 14}C) (azul de tetrazolio). Las sales de mono- o ditetrazolio se obtienen con buen rendimiento y se logran productos de elevada actividad especifica. El autor determino la pureza de las muestras por cromatografia sobre papel. En las sales de ditetrazolio encontro algunas impurezas, que consiguio determinar cuantitativamente; asimismo establecio algunas caracteristicas de sus estructuras. Por otra parte, elaboro un metodo para obtener sales de ditetrazolio marcadas con {sup 14}C de elevada pureza. En la sintesis del formazan, el precursor de la sal de tetrazolio, se obtiene un producto intermedio inestable cuya estructura es similar a la del tetraceno. Este compuesto sufre una rapida transposicion en medio alcalino para dar lugar al formazan. Es posible aislar el producto intermedio si se trabaja en condiciones adecuadas. El autor estudia la transposicion utilizando la fenilhidrazona del benzaldehido marcado con {sup 14}C, y ha podido comprobar que se trata de una reaccion intramolecular. (author) [Russian] Iskhodya iz benzal'degida - [1-C{sup 14}] udalos' izgotovit' [5-C{sup 14}]-TTC, [5,5'di-C{sup 14}]-NT (neoterazolij) [5,5'di-C{sup 14}]-BT (sinij tetrazolij). Vykhody kak dlya monotetrazoliya, tak i dlya ditetrazoliya dostatochno znachitel'ny i produkty mogut byt' polucheny s bol'shoj udel'noj aktivnost'yu. Stepen' chistoty obraztsov byla issledovana pri pomoshchi khromatograficheskoj bumagi. V solyakh ditetrazoliya bylo obnaruzheno nekotoroe kolichestvo primesej, chto pozvolilo vyvesti zaklyucheniya otnositel'no ikh struktury i kolichestva. Byl vyrabotan metod mechennykh C{sup 14

  20. Diagnosis of Intracranial Lesions by Gamma-Encephalography using Human Serum Albumin Labelled with Iodine-131; Diagnostic des lesions intracraniennes par la gamma-encephalographie a l'aide de la serumalbumine humaine marquee a l'iode 131; Diagnoz vnutricherepnykh povrezhdenij putem gamma-ehntsefalografii pri pomoshchi mechenoj iodom-131 albuminovoj syvorotki cheloveka; Diagnostico de las lesiones intracraneanas por gammaencefalografia mediante sero- albumina humana marcada con yodo-131

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Planiol, Therese [Institut National d' Hygiene, Paris (France)

    1959-07-01

    'hyperactivite gamma durable. Celles qui ont echappe a l'examen sont pour moitie des tumeurs des hemispheres, pour moitie des tumeurs de la fosse posterieure et des pinealomes. Les abces, les hematomes, les anevrysmes cirsoides ont ete detectes. Les accidents cerebro-vasculaire s ont engendre dans un tiers des cas des anomalies: la moitie de ces graphiques anormaux ont un aspect particulier aux ramollissements (ou thromboses), dont le diagnostic peut ainsi etre evoque; les autres ressemblent aux graphiques tumoraux, la seule difference etant la disparition des anomalies en quelques semaines, en cas d'accident vasculaire; les deux tiers de ces lesions s'accompagnent d'un gamma-encephalogramm e negatif. Les anevrysmes arteriels, les foyers epileptogenes non tumoraux, les affections diverses purement neurologiques ont donne, dans 96% des cas, des resultats normaux. L'exploration cerebrale par la radio-albumine peut apporter des informations precieuses, non seulement sur la presence d'une lesion neuro-chirurgical e et sur la localisation exacte, mais aussi au point de vue de sa nature. En particulier, elle donne de grandes probabilites en faveur soit d'un meningiome, soit d'un glioblastome, soit de metastases. Ces possibilites, jointes aux renseignements concernant le diagnostic positif et topographique, lui conferent un interet particulier parmi les methodes de diagnostic neurologique. La gamma-encephalographie s'annonce en outre comme un des moyens les plus surs pour deceler les recidives et suivre les effets d'une therapeutique, medioale ou radiotherapique. (author) [Spanish] Se ha reconocido a 600 enfermos mediante seroalbumina marcada con yodo-131; la radiactividad se midio dos veces, a saber, 2 y 24 horas despues de la inyeccion de la sustancia radiactiva, con un contador de centelleo colocado en contacta con el craneo. En 150 de los 175 tumores intracraneanos examinados se ha observado un foco de hiperactividad gamma duradero. La mitad de los tumores que no se han detectado en el

  1. Dietary toxicity of soluble and insoluble molybdenum to northern bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Jennifer M; Lambert, Charles E; Zyskowski, Justin A; Engfehr, Cheryl L; Fletcher, Oscar J; Clark, Shanna L; Tiwary, Asheesh; Gulde, Cynthia M; Sample, Bradley E

    2016-03-01

    Limited data are available on the effects of molybdenum (Mo) on avian wildlife, which impairs evaluation of ecological exposure and risk. While Mo is an essential trace nutrient in birds, little is known of its toxicity to birds exposed to molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), the predominant form found in molybdenite ore. The chemical form and bioavailability of Mo is important in determining its toxicity. Avian toxicity tests typically involve a soluble form of Mo, such as sodium molybdate dihydrate (SMD, Na2MoO4·2H2O); however MoS2 is generally insoluble, with low bioaccessibility under most environmental conditions. The current study monitored survival and general health (body weight and food consumption) of 9-day old northern bobwhite exposed to soluble Mo (SMD) and ore-related Mo (MoS2) in their diet for 30 days. Toxicity and bioavailability (e.g. tissue distribution) of the two Mo forms were compared. Histopathology evaluations and serum, kidney, liver, and bone tissue sample analyses were conducted. Copper, a nutrient integrally associated with Mo toxicity, was also measured in the diet and tissue. No treatment-related mortality occurred and no treatment-related lesions were recorded for either Mo form. Tissue analyses detected increased Mo concentrations in serum, kidney, liver, and bone tissues following exposure to SMD, with decreasing concentrations following a post-exposure period. For the soluble form, a No-Observed-Adverse-Effect Concentration (NOAEC) of 1200 mg Mo as SMD/kg feed (134 mg SMD/kg body weight/day) was identified based on body weight and food consumption. No adverse effects were observed in birds exposed to MoS2 at the maximum dose of 5000 mg MoS2/kg feed (545 mg MoS2/kg body weight/day). These results show that effects associated with MoS2, the more environmentally prevalent and less bioavailable Mo form, are much less than those observed for SMD. These data should support more realistic representations of exposure and risks to avian receptors from environmental Mo.

  2. Tritium-Labelled Thymidine (H{sup 3}TDR): Its Somatic Toxicity and Use in the Study of Growth Rates and Potentials in Normal and Malignant Tissue of Man and Animals; La Thymidine Tritiee ({sup 3}HTDR), sa Toxicite Somatique et son Emploi dans l'etude du Taux et du Potentiel de Croissance des Tissus Normaux et Malins chez l'Homme et chez les Animaux; 041c 0435 0447 0414 ; Timidina Marcada con Tritio ({sup 3}HTDR): Toxicidad Somatica y Empleo en el Estudio de las Velocidades de Crecimiento en Tejidos Normales y Malignos del Hombre y de los Animales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cronkite, E. P.; Fliedner, T. M.; Killmann, S. A.; Rubini, J. R. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, Long Island, NY (United States)

    1962-02-15

    energia, permite obtener autorradiogramas (ARG) de elevada resolucion. La {sup 3}HTDR es quimicamente estable, marca el acido desoxirribonucleico (ADN) y no experimenta intercambio ulterior. El ADN solo es diluido por nuevo ADN en el momento de producirse las duplicaciones cromosomaticas. Por tanto, la intensidad de la marcacion disminuye a medida que tienen lugar las sucesivas divisiones celulares. Al parecer, el comportamiento de la poblacion marcada es compatible con el modelo Taylor-Woods-Hughes (TWH) de duplicacion cromosomatica. La intuicion sugiere que el ADN adquiere radiotoxicidad cuando se le incorporan elementos radiactivos. Se ha estudiado la toxicidad en relacion con las propiedades del tritio y la influencia de la duplicacion cromosomatica (modelo TWH), y empiricamente en testiculos y linfocitos de mamiferos. Despues de administrar dosis suficientes para poder realizar estudios autorradiograficos en serie, no se han observado radiolesiones ni perturbaciones en la proliferacion celular. Hasta la fecha se han estudiado, tanto en el hombre como en animales, la hematopoyesis normal, leucemias agudas y cronicas, mieloma multiple y determinados tumores solidos. Se ha reunido una serie de datos sobre la fraccion de las celulas marcadas y la velocidad de disminucion de la intensidad de la marcacion. En la memoria se presentan esos datos. Su interpretacion resulta complicada a consecuencia de las restricciones impuestas por la identificacion citologica y de la determinacion de limites morfologicos entre fases sucesivas de la proliferacion celular pasando de la celula originaria a la progenie que no sufre division, asi como de nuestra incapacidad para determinar si una celuia que no este en estado de mitosis o en fase de sintesis de ADN conserva su capacidad para volver a dividirse. En la memoria se examinan los aspectos teorico y practico de estos problemas. Se ha establecido provisionalmente que la velocidad de crecimiento correspondiente a algunos conjuntos

  3. Un método cuantitativo para analizar redes neuronales marcadas por histoquímica para acetilcolinesterasa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz H. Camargo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available El análisis cualitativo de las redes neuronales por histoquímica enzimática se usa comúnmente en los estudios morfológicos tradicionales. Una limitante de este tipo de estudios consiste en la dificultad de obtener resultados cuantitativos. Este artículo presenta dos técnicas originales de procesamiento de imágenes para realizar estudios cuantitativos y un análisis comparativo entre ellas. Los resultados preliminares presentados permiten verificar la utilidad de la metodología aplicada.

  4. The preparation of glucose uniformly labelled with carbon-14; Preparacion de glucosa uniformemente marcada con carbono-14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, M D; Suarez, C; Rodrigo, M E

    1978-07-01

    The plant, (Zea mais, L) and culture conditions for an optimum production of glucose has been chosen. To achieve the labelling of glucose, photosynthesis and carboxylation are carried on, under an artificial atmosphere of 14CO{sub 2} produced from 14{sup C}-barium carbonate. Following photosynthesis the sugars are extracted, and then the extract purified by several methods. The purified glucose is finally, degraded and the specific radioactivity is determined in each of its carbon atoms. (Author) 37 refs.

  5. Foraging strategies of the Galapagos Marine Iguana (Amblyrhynchus Cristatus): adapting behavioral rules to ontogenetic size change

    OpenAIRE

    Wikelski, Martin; Trillmich, Fritz

    1994-01-01

    Ontogenetic development in reptiles entails major changes in size-related foraging options. We studied the changes in foraging behavior of marine iguanas. In this species, size increases about twenty- to hundredfold from hatching to full adult size. The foraging strategy of marine iguanas was studied at Miedo on Santa Fe Island in the Galapagos archipelago During low tide, large marine iguanas (>250 mm snout vent length (SVL)) foraged more in the lower intertidal than small ones (

  6. Pathotyping of a Newcastle disease virus isolated from peacock (Pavo cristatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayarani, K; Muthusamy, S; Tirumurugaan, K G; Sakthivelan, S M; Kumanan, K

    2010-03-01

    This report describes Newcastle disease in peacock and the isolation and characterization of the virus. The virus had an intracerbral pathogenicity index of 1.71 and mean death time of 47 h. The isolate had multiple basic amino acids at the fusion protein cleavage site sequence ((110)GGRRQRRFIG(119)) with a phenylalanine at residue 117. Biological and molecular characterization revealed that the virus is velogenic. Phylogenetic analysis placed the isolate in genotype II.

  7. Characterization of extraintestinal Escherichia coli isolated from a peacock (Pavo cristatus) with colisepticemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Nicolle Lima; Tejkowski, Thiago Moreira; de Oliveira, Aline Luisa; de Brito, Benito Guimarães; Horn, Fabiana

    2012-06-01

    Extraintestinal infections by avian pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli (APEC) are commonly reported in poultry, but there is little information on infections by APEC in other bird species. Here we report on the characterization of extraintestinal E. coli isolated from a domesticated peacock, from the south of Brazil, that died of colisepticemia. Necropsy examination revealed congested liver, hypertrophied kidneys, peritonitis, severe typhlitis suggestive of coligranuloma, pneumonia, and airsacculitis--typical signs of colisepticemia. The isolates from lungs, kidney, heart, intestine, liver, and bone marrow all harbored the same virulence-associated factors (iucD, colV, iss, mat, fimC, ompA, traT crl, csgA vgrG, and hcp), yielded the same band pattern in amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis, and were allocated to the Escherichia coli Reference Collection group B1. The isolates were resistant to bacitracin, trimethoprim, and tetracycline, but displayed slight differences in their resistance to other antimicrobials. The isolates also differed in their virulence in 1-day-old chickens, but none displayed high virulence in vivo. We conclude that the peacock died of colisepticemia after it was infected with an extraintestinal E. coli strain of low virulence that nevertheless harbored virulence factors generally associated with APEC. This study represents the first characterization of an APEC isolated from a nonpoultry bird species.

  8. Pathological and molecular studies of the renal trematode Paratanaisia bragai in Indian peafowls (Pavo cristatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asok Kumar, M; Kumar, Deepak; Palanivelu, Munuswamy; Annamalai, Latchumikanthan; Mathesh, Karikalan; Singh, Rajendra; Sharma, Anil Kumar; Dhama, Kuldeep

    2018-03-26

    Endoparasitic diseases are commonly encountered in free-ranging birds. Although not all endoparasites cause disease, persistent infection with large numbers of parasites almost always affects normal physiological functions, leading to deleterious effects on the host. This paper describes the anatomopathological alterations caused by the renal trematode Paratanaisia bragai in Indian peafowl (n = 3) and examines the phylogeny of these and related parasites. Peafowl from forests in and around the Bareilly region, Uttar Pradesh, India, were necropsied, and microscopic and molecular investigations were performed. The peafowl were confirmed to be infected with P. bragai. Significant gross pathological lesions suggested nephrosis, and microscopic findings indicated a mild-to-moderate degree of nephrosis caused by the parasites in the tissue. The parasites were identified as P. bragai by histomorphological analysis of adult and eggs in the ureters, and the identification was confirmed by PCR and phylogenetic analysis. Nucleotide sequencing of the PCR products from the renal trematodes recovered from Indian peafowl revealed a close association with P. bragai from Columbiformes in the United Kingdom and Spain. The pathology and molecular epidemiology of parasitic diseases affecting peafowl is not well understood in India. This is the first report from India and the second report worldwide to document P. bragai infection in peafowl.

  9. Endoparasitic infections in Indian peacocks (Pavo cristatus) of Veterinary College Campus, Mathura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Amit Kumar; Sudan, Vikrant; Shanker, Daya; Kumar, Pradeep

    2013-04-01

    A survey was made to determine the prevalence of endoparasites in free range blue peacocks living in and around the premises of College of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry, Mathura. Faecal samples of peacocks were collected randomly and brought to the divisional laboratory for faecal sample examination. During the coprological examination, eggs and oocysts of cestodes and coccidia belonging to Eimeria and Isospora species were identified, respectively based on the morphology and micrometry of these parasitic stages. The present study has generated an important data regarding the else while parasitologically neglected national bird of India.

  10. [Foreign-body related esophagus obstruction in a peacock (Pavo cristatus L. 1758)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krautwald, M E; Schildger, B

    1986-01-01

    A coil of metal wire was diagnosed by X-ray closely to the heartbasis in an eight-year-old peacock. Described are anesthesia and successful surgical removal of the coiled wire which had partially pierced the wall of the oesophagus. Means of post-surgical drug and dietetic therapy are discussed.

  11. Survey of peafowl (Pavo cristatus) for potential pathogens at three Michigan zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollamby, Simon; Sikarskie, James G; Stuht, John

    2003-12-01

    Blood samples collected from 31 free-roaming peafowl from three zoos in Michigan were tested serologically. Antibody titers were present against avian adenovirus and Bordetella avium in 19.3% and 61.3% of the samples, respectively. Serum plate agglutination tests were positive for Mycoplasma meleagridis and Mycoplasma synoviae in 3.2% and 38.7% of the samples, respectively. All birds were seronegative for avian influenza, Newcastle disease virus, West Nile virus, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Salmonella pullorum, Salmonella typhimurium, and Giardia sp. No parasites were seen in blood smears. Cloacal swabs were cultured for anaerobic, aerobic, and microaerophilic bacteria. Clostridium perfringens type A and Escherichia coli were cultured most frequently from 64.5% and 29% of the samples, respectively, whereas Salmonella sp. and Campylobacter sp. were not isolated. Fecal samples contained moderate numbers of ascarid and Capillaria sp. ova and coccidian oocysts. Female biting lice (Goniodes gigas) were identified on three birds.

  12. Detection and molecular characterization of Newcastle disease virus in peafowl (Pavo cristatus) in Haryana State, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Aman; Maan, Sushila; Mahajan, Nand Kishore; Rana, Virender Pratap; Jindal, Naresh; Batra, Kanisht; Ghosh, Arnab; Mishra, Shiv Kumar; Kapoor, Sanjay; Maan, Narender Singh

    2013-12-01

    Present study was undertaken to investigate the cause of deaths of peafowls in Haryana State. In total, 145 birds were sick and 28 birds were reported dead during July to September 2012. Some of the sick birds were showing signs of shaking of heads, torticollis and paresis. Blood and cloacal swab samples from sick birds along with brain and intestinal tissues from dead birds were collected for further investigation. Although post-mortem examination showed no typical lesions of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) yet raised HI tires against NDV in some serum samples and clinical signs indicated the presence of NDV. One of the brain tissues (NDV/IND2012/01) from the field case was processed and adapted to Vero cell line for virus isolation. The fusion (F) gene based nested RT-PCR (RT-nPCR) confirmed the presence of NDV in all field samples and cell culture isolate. Sequencing of the partial F gene amplicons (216 bp) using the PCR primers as sequencing primers confirmed the PCR results. The deduced amino acid sequences of partial F gene were found to have the amino acid motif (111)GRRQKR/F(117) in the fusion protein cleavage site (FPCS). This amino acid motif is indicative of the velogenic nature of these NDVs. Phylogenetic studies have shown that the virus belonged to class II genotype VII very closely related to virus isolates originated from outbreaks in Western Europe, Israel, Indonesia, Taiwan and India. Phylogenetic grouping of the virus and sequence of FPCS is indicative of pathogenic potential of virus strain circulating in peacocks in Haryana.

  13. Complete Genome Sequence of a Newcastle Disease Virus Isolated from Wild Peacock (Pavo cristatus) in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khulape, Sagar A; Gaikwad, Satish S; Chellappa, Madhan Mohan; Mishra, Bishnu Prasad; Dey, Sohini

    2014-06-05

    We report here the complete genome sequence of a Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolated from a wild peacock. Phylogenetic analysis showed that it belongs to genotype II, class II of NDV strains. This study helps to understand the ecology of NDV strains circulating in a wild avian host of this geographical region during the outbreak of 2012 in northwest India. Copyright © 2014 Khulape et al.

  14. Isolation of avian infectious bronchitis coronavirus from domestic peafowl (Pavo cristatus) and teal (Anas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shengwang; Chen, Jianfei; Chen, Jinding; Kong, Xiangang; Shao, Yuhao; Han, Zongxi; Feng, Li; Cai, Xuehui; Gu, Shoulin; Liu, Ming

    2005-03-01

    Coronavirus-like viruses, designated peafowl/China/LKQ3/2003 (pf/CH/LKQ3/03) and teal/China/LDT3/2003 (tl/CH/LDT3/03), were isolated from a peafowl and a teal during virological surveillance in Guangdong province, China. Partial genomic sequence analysis showed that these isolates had the S-3-M-5-N gene order that is typical of avian coronaviruses. The spike, membrane and nucleocapsid protein genes of pf/CH/LKQ3/03 had >99 % identity to those of the avian infectious bronchitis coronavirus H120 vaccine strain (Massachusetts serotype) and other Massachusetts serotype isolates. Furthermore, when pf/CH/LKQ3/03 was inoculated experimentally into chickens (specific-pathogen-free), no disease signs were apparent. tl/CH/LDT3/03 had a spike protein gene with 95 % identity to that of a Chinese infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) isolate, although more extensive sequencing revealed the possibility that this strain may have undergone recombination. When inoculated into chickens, tl/CH/LDT3/03 resulted in the death of birds from nephritis. Taken together, this information suggests that pf/CH/LKQ3/03 might be a revertant, attenuated vaccine IBV strain, whereas tl/CH/LDT3/03 is a nephropathogenic field IBV strain, generated through recombination. The replication and non-pathogenic nature of IBV in domestic peafowl and teal under field conditions raises questions as to the role of these hosts as carriers of IBV and the potential that they may have to transmit virus to susceptible chicken populations.

  15. Cutaneous form of pox infection among captive peafowl (Pavo cristatus) chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ahrar; Yousaf, Arfan; Khan, M Zargham; Siddique, Muhammad; Gul, S Tehseen; Mahmood, Fazal

    2009-02-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the epidemiology and lesions of avian pox in captive peafowl chicks. Overall values of morbidity, mortality and case fatality were 45.2%, 27.1% and 60.0%, respectively. The chicks of 9 to 12 weeks of age showed a significantly (P<0.001) higher prevalence rate than other age groups. The morbidity and mortality due to avian pox in peafowl chicks was significantly (P<0.001) reduced when kept in mosquito-proof cages and hatched under broody chicken hens. Morbidity due to poxvirus infection on the peafowl farm was 82%, 26% and 12% in successive years. This reduction might have been the result of the introduction of mosquito-proof nets after year 1, although this was not the subject of a controlled experiment. All of the peafowl chicks suffering from dry pox showed pustular and nodular lesions on eye lids, beak, legs and toes. Distribution of lesions in different body parts varied significantly (P<0.023). Lesion diameters were less than 1 cm (59.73%), 1 to 2 cm (23.75%) and more than 2 cm (16.87%). Histopathological studies revealed extensive proliferation of subdermal connective tissue and infiltration of heterophils and macrophages. The keratinocytes showed degenerative changes in the form of cytoplasmic vacuolation, ballooning and hyper-chromatic nuclei. Eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusions (Bollinger bodies) in keratinocytes were consistently present. It was concluded that avian pox rendered high morbidity, mortality and case fatality in peafowl chicks.

  16. Use of Pavo cristatus feather extract for the better management of snakebites: neutralization of inflammatory reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murari, Satish K; Frey, Felix J; Frey, Brigitte M; Gowda, There V; Vishwanath, Bannikuppe S

    2005-06-03

    In Indian traditional medicine, peacock feather in the form of ash (Bhasma) or water extract are used against snakebite and to treat various problems associated with lungs. This study was aimed to evaluate the water extract of peacock feather (PCF) against the local tissue damage caused due to snakebite. PCF water extract showed inhibition towards phospholipase A2 enzyme activity from snake venom (Naja naja and Vipera russelii), inflammatory fluids (synovial, pleural, ascites) and normal serum in a dose-dependent manner. Hyaluronidase and proteases are other major enzymes in snake venoms responsible for local tissue damage. PCF water extract inhibited hyaluronidase and proteolytic enzyme activities from Vipera russelii, Naja naja and Trimeresurus malabaricus venom. The active principle is a hydrophilic molecule easily extractable in water or polar solvents. PCF water extract gave positive results for the presence of protein and secondary metabolites like carotenoids and steroids. Analysis of metal ions revealed that iron is the major ion (> 20-fold). Other metal ions detected in smaller amount are copper, chromium, zinc and nickel. The least amount of ion detected is gold. Co-injection of PCF water extract with snake venom and inflammatory PLA2 enzymes neutralize the edema inducing activity of all the PLA2 enzymes studied. Since it inhibits hyaluronidase and proteases enzyme activity from snake venom PCF water extract is a powerful neutralizing agent, which has therapeutic application against venom toxicity.

  17. The ontogenetic origins of skull shape disparity in the Triturus cristatus group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvijanović, Milena; Ivanović, Ana; Kalezić, Miloš L; Zelditch, Miriam L

    2014-09-01

    Comparative studies of ontogenies of closely related species provide insights into the mechanisms responsible for morphological diversification. Using geometric morphometrics, we investigated the ontogenetic dynamics of postlarval skull shape and disparity in three closely related crested newt species. The skull shapes of juveniles just after metamorphosis (hereafter metamorphs) and adult individuals were sampled by landmark configurations that describe the shape of the dorsal and ventral side of the newt skull, and analyzed separately. The three species differ in skull size and shape in metamorphs and adults. The ontogenies of dorsal and ventral skull differ in the orientation but not lengths of the ontogenetic trajectories. The disparity of dorsal skull shape increases over ontogeny, but that of ventral skull shape does not. Thus, modifications of ontogenetic trajectories can, but need not, increase the disparity of shape. In species with biphasic life-cycles, when ontogenetic trajectories for one stage can be decoupled from those of another, increases and decreases in disparity are feasible, but our results show that they need not occur. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Can microsatellite markers resolve phylogenetic relationships between closely related crested newt species (Triturus cristatus superspecies)?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikulíček, P.; Crnobrnja-Isailović, J.; Piálek, Jaroslav

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 4 (2007), s. 467-474 ISSN 0173-5373 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/01/0695; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : crested newt * microsatelitte markers Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.929, year: 2007

  19. Application of the {beta}-Decay of Te{sup 132} for the Preparation of I{sup 132} -Labelled Molecules; Application de la Desintegration {sup 132}Te {beta}{sup -} -> {sup 132}I a la preparation de Molecules Marquees; ИСПОЛЬЗОВАНИЕ {beta}-РАСПАДА Te{sup 132} - J{sup 132} ДЛЯ ПОЛУЧЕНИЯ МЕЧЕНЫХ МОЛЕКУЛ; Preparacion de Moleculas Marcadas Aplicando la Desintegracion {sup 132}Te {beta}{sup -} {sup 132}I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adloff, J. -P.; Adloff-Bacher, M. [Departement de Chimie Nucleaire, Centre de Recherches Nucleaires, Strasbourg (France)

    1963-03-15

    la brusque variation de la charge nucleaire au cours de la desintegration,ainsi que de la conversion interne du rayonnement y succedant l'emission {beta}. L'iode-132 doit se former au sein du systeme a marquer: la forme chimique la plus appropriee du compose parent est le tetrachlorure de tellure-132, soluble dans un certain nombre de liquides organiques. Plusieurs systemes ont ainsi ete etudies (hydrocarbures aromatiques et derives, alcools, etc.). Apres un contactdequelques heures, la solution organique est analysee par chromatographie en phase gazeuse et les differents composes, marques par radiosynthese, sont separes par distillation en presenced'entraineurs. Les produits marques peuvent etre le resultat de reactions d'echanges isotopiques ou de substitution et fragmentation. L'emploi d'un milieu organique convenable permet dans certains cas un marquage pratiquement specifique. (author) [Spanish] El corlo periodo de semidesintegracion del yodo-132 (T{sub 1/2} = 2,30 h), que justifica su interes en biologia, medicina y como indicador radiactivo entrana no obstante un inconveniente grave cuando se trata de sintetizar moleculas marcadas. Los autores demuestran que es posible sacar provecho de la reactividad quimica del yodo 'naciente' formado por desintegracion del teluro-132 para preparar rapidamente moleculas marcadas de elevada actividad especifica. Esta reactividad se debe a la energia de excitacion del yodo, causada por la brusca variacion de la carga nuclear durante la desintegracion, asi como por la conversion interna de las radiaciones y que suceden a la emision {beta}. El yodo-132 tiene que formarse dentro del sistema que se desea marcar; la forma quimica mas adecuada del compuesto madre es el tetracloruro de teluro-132, soluble en algunos liquidos organicos. De este modo se han estudiado varios sistemas (hidrocarburos aromaticos y sus derivados, alcoholes, etc. ...). Despues de un contacto de algunas horas, la solucion organica se analiza por cromatografia

  20. La metamorfosis de la educación a distancia en América Latina. Una nueva fase marcada por el ingreso de proveedores internacionales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Rama

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo analiza la dinámica de las transformaciones acontecidas en los últimos años en la educación superior a distancia en América Latina y el Caribe y los ejes de crecimiento de la cobertura. Sobre  un enfoque comparado regional caracteriza sus diversas etapas e identifica su aporte a su expansión, con ciclos marcados por las tecnologías e impulsos públicos y privados y, ahora, internacionales. En este contexto se analiza la irrupción de una nueva fase de esta modalidad a distancia caracterizada por una dinámica internacionalizada. Se estudian las formas en las cuales se produce la internacionalización de la educación a distancia, que se realiza no dominantemente como educación transfronteriza sino como movilidad e ingreso de instituciones externas en los sistemas universitarios locales de los países de la región. La evolución de la educación a distancia muestra el continuo cambio desde el modelo semipresencial tradicional hacia una dinámica virtualizada, que al tiempo que introduce nuevas formas de funcionamiento, expande la cobertura y consolida instituciones con mayores escalas, y que también facilita dinámicas internacionales caracterizadas por la nueva presencia, por alianza y por compra, de nuevos proveedores internacionales.

  1. Histórias de vida marcadas por humilhação, assédio moral e adoecimento no trabalho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanderléia de Lurdes Dal Castel Schlindwein

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo discutir o relato de vivências de humilhação e de sofrimento de trabalhadoras que participaram de um grupo terapêutico com histórias de adoecimento no trabalho. O estudo de caráter qualitativo propôs-se desenvolver encontros em grupo fundamentado na proposta de Barros (1997 na constituição de grupos terapêuticos como dispositivo analítico. A discussão fundamenta-se nos relatos de trabalhadoras com histórias de humilhação, constrangimento e sentimentos nutridos de ressentimento vivenciados no trabalho. A análise das histórias de vida no trabalho mostra que, no caso dessas trabalhadoras, as habilidades, a criatividade e a dedicação ao trabalho foram sendo obstruídas pelas situações desqualificantes da submissão à chefia e da falta de autonomia, situações que levaram a uma maior exposição aos riscos de adoecimento no trabalho. Com a capacidade produtiva limitada, a trabalhadora torna-se alvo frequente de situações de humilhação e constrangimento - compondo um quadro de assédio moral no trabalho.

  2. Translocação de bactérias marcadas com Tc99 na icterícia obstrutiva em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alencar Suelene Suassuna Silvestre de

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudo realizado com o objetivo de avaliar a translocação bacteriana (TB do tubo gastrointestinal para órgãos viscerais na icterícia obstrutiva. Quatro grupos de ratos foram estudados: grupo I (n=10 ligadura do colédoco, grupo II (n=10 controle ou "sham operation", grupo III (n=12 ligadura do colédoco e gavagem com 99mTc-Escherichia coli e grupo IV (n=5 controle ou "sham operation" e gavagem com 99mTc-E.coli. Usando técnica asséptica e sob anestesia com pentobarbital sódico (20mg/kg, os animais foram submetidos à laparotomia e nos ratos dos grupos I e III foi realizada ligadura do colédoco com fio de seda nº 000. Nos ratos dos grupos II e IV foi feita apenas a manipulação do colédoco com pinça de Adison. Após sete dias, os animais dos grupos I e II foram mortos e ressecados fígado, baço, linfonodos mesentéricos e pulmões para exame microbiológico (meios Agar-sangue e Agar Mac Conkey e exame histopatológico (coloração H.E. e Tricrômico de Masson por análise morfométrica. Nos animais dos grupos III e IV, após sete dias, foi administrada por via oral (gavagem 99mTc-E.coli e após 24h, os ratos de ambos os grupos foram mortos e seus órgãos retirados para contagem da radioatividade em cintilador automático Gama, modelo ANSR (ABBOT. O nível médio de bilirrubina, nos grupos ictéricos, foi significantemente maior do que o do grupo controle. O estudo microbiológico revelou maior incidência de bactérias translocadas no grupo I, comparada ao controle (p< 0,05. Os resultados não mostraram diferença significante na captação da 99mTc-E.coli entre os dois grupos. Porém, a análise das interações grupo x órgão mostrou diferença entre os grupos ictérico e controle para os órgãos: fígado e pulmão. Os dados permitem concluir que em ratos ictéricos por ligadura do colédoco ocorreu TB detectável por exame microbiológico. Não ocorreu TB com 99mTc-E. coli no modelo proposto.

  3. Retention of albumin labelled with I-125 in the bio mineral hydroxyapatite; Retencion de albumina marcada con I-125 en el biomineral hidroxiapatita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badillo A, V.E.; Bugarin C, A. [UAZ, Cipres 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico); Monroy G, F. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    The demands of materials for the health in the entire world, especially of the odontological and traumatological sectors make every time to be but studied the hydroxyapatite (HAP) and their biocompatibility with the alive beings. The hydroxyapatite is considered as one of the inorganic exchangers by excellence, for what the fixation of ions and molecules have been widely studied and at the moment it is one of the materials of greater acceptance like implant. The surface of the material of implant is in intimate contact with the live tissue and its biocompatibility is determined in great measure by those surface properties of the bio material, which have a direct effect in the cellular response of the material. After administering the implant, the proteins are immediately adsorbed in the surface of the bio mineral. Specifically, the proteins of the blood are considered as key pieces to determine the acceptance of implants in alive beings. The adsorption of proteins it depends on the physicochemical properties of the material as well as of the environment composition. The surface properties of the HAP are relevant in the adsorption mechanisms of the proteins. In this work, it is reported the adsorption of the labelled with I-125 albumin protein and in function of two important physicochemical parameters: the pH value of the of the solution and the chemical nature of the solution; to see the influence of this last, its were studied three electrolytes NaF, NaCl and NaH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}. The existence of the active sites of hydroxyapatite surface, it is key piece in the interpretation of the fixation of the albumin protein in function also of their acid-base properties. (Author)

  4. Eimeria tenella: host specificity in gallinaceous birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetterling, J M

    1976-02-01

    Eight species representing 8 genera of gallinaceous birds were used: Alectoris graeca; Colinus virginianus; Coturnix coturnix; Gallus gallus; Meleagris gallopavo; Numidia meleagris; Pavo cristatus; Phasianus colchicus. Three week-old birds were dosed with sporulated oocysts of Eimeria tenella Beltsville strain. At 4, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120 and 144, and 168 hr after inoculation, 1-3 infected birds and uninoculated controls of each species were killed by cardiac exsanguination. Pieces of intestines were fixed and examined for stages of E. tenella as stained paraffin sections or indirect fluorescent antibody preparations. Oocyst counts were made in droppings collected for the first 6 days of the patent period. Sporozoites were found in the lamina propria of some birds of 5 species at 4 hr postinoculation, but no stages were found thereafter except in the breeds of G. gallus and A. gracea. At 144 and 168 hr postinoculation, a few macrogametes were found in the ceca of 2 A. gracea, but no oocysts were found in the feces. No statistical difference was found between the number of oocysts produced/bird in the breeds of G. gallus examined. It is evident from these observations the E. tenella did not complete its life cycle in several close phylogenetic relatives of G. gallus, even though in other studies this parasite was found to complete its life cycle in cell cultures derived from the same birds.

  5. Characterization of a Nonclassical Class I MHC Gene in a Reptile, the Galápagos Marine Iguana (Amblyrhynchus cristatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaberman, Scott; Du Pasquier, Louis; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2008-01-01

    Squamates are a diverse order of vertebrates, representing more than 7,000 species. Yet, descriptions of full-length major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes in this group are nearly absent from the literature, while the number of MHC studies continues to rise in other vertebrate taxa. The lack of basic information about MHC organization in squamates inhibits investigation into the relationship between MHC polymorphism and disease, and leaves a large taxonomic gap in our understanding of amniote MHC evolution. Here, we use both cDNA and genomic sequence data to characterize a class I MHC gene (Amcr-UA) from the Galápagos marine iguana, a member of the squamate subfamily Iguaninae. Amcr-UA appears to be functional since it is expressed in the blood and contains many of the conserved peptide-binding residues that are found in classical class I genes of other vertebrates. In addition, comparison of Amcr-UA to homologous sequences from other iguanine species shows that the antigen-binding portion of this gene is under purifying selection, rather than balancing selection, and therefore may have a conserved function. A striking feature of Amcr-UA is that both the cDNA and genomic sequences lack the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains that are necessary to anchor the class I receptor molecule into the cell membrane, suggesting that the product of this gene is secreted and consequently not involved in classical class I antigen-presentation. The truncated and conserved character of Amcr-UA lead us to define it as a nonclassical gene that is related to the few available squamate class I sequences. However, phylogenetic analysis placed Amcr-UA in a basal position relative to other published classical MHC genes from squamates, suggesting that this gene diverged near the beginning of squamate diversification. PMID:18682845

  6. Genetic impact of a severe El Niño event on Galápagos marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinfartz, Sebastian; Glaberman, Scott; Lanterbecq, Deborah; Marquez, Cruz; Rassmann, Kornelia; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2007-12-12

    The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a major source of climatic disturbance, impacting the dynamics of ecosystems worldwide. Recent models predict that human-generated rises in green-house gas levels will cause an increase in the strength and frequency of El Niño warming events in the next several decades, highlighting the need to understand the potential biological consequences of increased ENSO activity. Studies have focused on the ecological and demographic implications of El Niño in a range of organisms, but there have been few systematic attempts to measure the impact of these processes on genetic diversity in populations. Here, we evaluate whether the 1997-1998 El Niño altered the genetic composition of Galápagos marine iguana populations from eleven islands, some of which experienced mortality rates of up to 90% as a result of El Niño warming. Specifically, we measured the temporal variation in microsatellite allele frequencies and mitochondrial DNA diversity (mtDNA) in samples collected before (1991/1993) and after (2004) the El Niño event. Based on microsatellite data, only one island (Marchena) showed signatures of a genetic bottleneck, where the harmonic mean of the effective population size (N(e)) was estimated to be less than 50 individuals during the period between samplings. Substantial decreases in mtDNA variation between time points were observed in populations from just two islands (Marchena and Genovesa). Our results suggests that, for the majority of islands, a single, intense El Niño event did not reduce marine iguana populations to the point where substantial neutral genetic diversity was lost. In the case of Marchena, simultaneous changes to both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA variation may also be the result of a volcanic eruption on the island in 1991. Therefore, studies that seek to evaluate the genetic impact of El Niño must also consider the confounding or potentially synergistic effect of other environmental and biological forces shaping populations.

  7. Genetic impact of a severe El Niño event on Galápagos marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Steinfartz

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO is a major source of climatic disturbance, impacting the dynamics of ecosystems worldwide. Recent models predict that human-generated rises in green-house gas levels will cause an increase in the strength and frequency of El Niño warming events in the next several decades, highlighting the need to understand the potential biological consequences of increased ENSO activity. Studies have focused on the ecological and demographic implications of El Niño in a range of organisms, but there have been few systematic attempts to measure the impact of these processes on genetic diversity in populations. Here, we evaluate whether the 1997-1998 El Niño altered the genetic composition of Galápagos marine iguana populations from eleven islands, some of which experienced mortality rates of up to 90% as a result of El Niño warming. Specifically, we measured the temporal variation in microsatellite allele frequencies and mitochondrial DNA diversity (mtDNA in samples collected before (1991/1993 and after (2004 the El Niño event. Based on microsatellite data, only one island (Marchena showed signatures of a genetic bottleneck, where the harmonic mean of the effective population size (N(e was estimated to be less than 50 individuals during the period between samplings. Substantial decreases in mtDNA variation between time points were observed in populations from just two islands (Marchena and Genovesa. Our results suggests that, for the majority of islands, a single, intense El Niño event did not reduce marine iguana populations to the point where substantial neutral genetic diversity was lost. In the case of Marchena, simultaneous changes to both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA variation may also be the result of a volcanic eruption on the island in 1991. Therefore, studies that seek to evaluate the genetic impact of El Niño must also consider the confounding or potentially synergistic effect of other environmental and biological forces shaping populations.

  8. Ecological and evolutionary influences on body size and shape in the Galápagos marine iguana (Amblyrhynchus cristatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiari, Ylenia; Glaberman, Scott; Tarroso, Pedro; Caccone, Adalgisa; Claude, Julien

    2016-07-01

    Oceanic islands are often inhabited by endemic species that have undergone substantial morphological evolutionary change due to processes of multiple colonizations from various source populations, dispersal, and local adaptation. Galápagos marine iguanas are an example of an island endemic exhibiting high morphological diversity, including substantial body size variation among populations and sexes, but the causes and magnitude of this variation are not well understood. We obtained morphological measurements from marine iguanas throughout their distribution range. These data were combined with genetic and local environmental data from each population to investigate the effects of evolutionary history and environmental conditions on body size and shape variation and sexual dimorphism. Our results indicate that body size and shape are highly variable among populations. Sea surface temperature and island perimeter, but not evolutionary history as depicted by phylogeographic patterns in this species, explain variation in body size among populations. Conversely, evolutionary history, but not environmental parameters or island size, was found to influence variation in body shape among populations. Finally, in all populations except one, we found strong sexual dimorphism in body size and shape in which males are larger, with higher heads than females, while females have longer heads than males. Differences among populations suggest that plasticity and/or genetic adaptation may shape body size and shape variation in marine iguanas. This study will help target future investigations to address the contribution of plasticity versus genetic adaptation on size and shape variation in marine iguanas.

  9. Characterization and Sequencing of a Genotype XII Newcastle Disease Virus Isolated from a Peacock (Pavo cristatus) in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumbe, Ana; Izquierdo-Lara, Ray; Tataje-Lavanda, Luis; Figueroa, Aling; Segovia, Karen; Gonzalez, Rosa; Cribillero, Giovana; Montalvan, Angela; Fernández-Díaz, Manolo; Icochea, Eliana

    2015-07-30

    Here, we report the first complete sequence and biological characterization of a Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolated from a peacock in South America (NDV/peacock/Peru/2011). This isolate, classified as genotype XII in class II, highlights the need for increased surveillance of noncommercial avian species. Copyright © 2015 Chumbe et al.

  10. Characterization of a nonclassical class I MHC gene in a reptile, the Galápagos marine iguana (Amblyrhynchus cristatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Glaberman

    Full Text Available Squamates are a diverse order of vertebrates, representing more than 7,000 species. Yet, descriptions of full-length major histocompatibility complex (MHC genes in this group are nearly absent from the literature, while the number of MHC studies continues to rise in other vertebrate taxa. The lack of basic information about MHC organization in squamates inhibits investigation into the relationship between MHC polymorphism and disease, and leaves a large taxonomic gap in our understanding of amniote MHC evolution. Here, we use both cDNA and genomic sequence data to characterize a class I MHC gene (Amcr-UA from the Galápagos marine iguana, a member of the squamate subfamily Iguaninae. Amcr-UA appears to be functional since it is expressed in the blood and contains many of the conserved peptide-binding residues that are found in classical class I genes of other vertebrates. In addition, comparison of Amcr-UA to homologous sequences from other iguanine species shows that the antigen-binding portion of this gene is under purifying selection, rather than balancing selection, and therefore may have a conserved function. A striking feature of Amcr-UA is that both the cDNA and genomic sequences lack the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains that are necessary to anchor the class I receptor molecule into the cell membrane, suggesting that the product of this gene is secreted and consequently not involved in classical class I antigen-presentation. The truncated and conserved character of Amcr-UA lead us to define it as a nonclassical gene that is related to the few available squamate class I sequences. However, phylogenetic analysis placed Amcr-UA in a basal position relative to other published classical MHC genes from squamates, suggesting that this gene diverged near the beginning of squamate diversification.

  11. Differences in number and distribution of striatal calbindin medium spiny neurons between a vocal-learner (Melopsittacus undulatus and a non-vocal learner bird (Colinus virginianus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena eGarcia-Calero

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Striatal projecting neurons, known as medium spiny neurons (MSNs, segregate into two compartments called matrix and striosome in the mammalian striatum. The matrix domain is characterized by the presence of calbindin immunopositive (CB+ MSNs, not observed in the striosome subdivision. The existence of a similar CB+ MSN population has recently been described in two striatal structures in male zebra finch (a vocal learner bird: the striatal capsule and the Area X, a nucleus implicated in song learning. Female zebra finches show a similar pattern of CB+ MSNs than males in the developing striatum but loose these cells in juveniles and adult stages. In the present work we analyzed the existence and allocation of CB+MSNs in the striatal domain of the vocal learner bird budgerigar (representative of psittaciformes order and the non-vocal learner bird quail (representative of galliformes order. We studied the co-localization of CB protein with FoxP1, a transcription factor expressed in vertebrate striatal MSNs. We observed CB+ MSNs in the medial striatal domain of adult male and female budgerigars, although this cell type was missing in the potentially homologous nucleus for Area X in budgerigar. In quail, we observed CB+ cells in the striatal domain at developmental and adult stages but they did not co-localize with the MSN marker FoxP1. We also described the existence of the CB+ striatal capsule in budgerigar and quail and compared these results with the CB+ striatal capsule observed in juvenile zebra finches. Together, these results point out important differences in CB+MSN distribution between two representative species of vocal learner and non-vocal learner avian orders (respectively the budgerigar and the quail, but also between close vocal learner bird families.

  12. Fluctuating asymmetry in Bobwhite quail chicks (Colinus virginianus) does not follow a predictable dose-response relationship following maternal exposure to four different herbicides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knopper, Loren D.; Mineau, Pierre

    2004-01-01

    Most biomonitoring studies that have investigated the relationship between fluctuating asymmetry (FA) and anthropogenic stressors have measured organisms from polluted ecosystems and compared them to organisms at reference sites. What has received little attention is whether FA follows a dose-response relationship with stress, a key criterion of a useful biomarker. Using chicks from currently mandated avian reproductive tests we tested whether a composite index of FA (FA C ), was related to the dose or duration of exposure of their parents to one of four different herbicides, and if FA C was indeed a more sensitive marker of stress than standard reproductive endpoints measured from this test. We found no consistent relationship between FA C and dose or duration of herbicide exposure in any of the four studies. Exposure to one of the four pesticides did result in significant reproductive toxicity but this was not accompanied or foreshadowed by higher levels of FA C . Our results do not support the hypothesis that FA is a reliable general biomarker of pesticide exposure

  13. Study of biodistribution of lipidic nanospheres charged with cis-diaminedichloroplatinum (II) and labelled with radioactive nuclei of Indium-111; Estudio de biodistribucion de nanoesferas lipidicas cargadas con cis-diaminodicloroplatino (II) y marcadas con nucleos radioactivos de Indio-111

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez R, V.; Juarez O, C.; Medina L, A. [Unidad de Investigacion Biomedica en Cancer INCAN-UNAM, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Perez C, E.; Garcia L, P. [Instituto nacional de cancerologia, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    The general objective of the study was to evaluate the lipidic nanospheres biodistribution charged with cis-diaminedichloroplatinum (II) (cis-DDP) and labelled with radioactive nuclei of Indium-111 (Lip-Cis-in-111) in Wistar rats and in a tumoral model of CaCu. The conclusions were: 1. The system Lip-Cis-in-111 it presents a very fast elimination probably, to a fast recognition response of the reticuloendothelial system (RES). 2. It is planned to make modifications to the formulation to increase the quantity of the hydrophilic polymer (PEG), so that its time of residence in the blood is bigger and allow a bigger accumulation in the tumor. (Author)

  14. Utilization of C-14 settled urease for diagnosing Campylobacter Pylori in the stomach. Utilizacao de ureia marcada com carbono quatorze para diagnostico da presenca do Campylobacter Pylori no estomago

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chausson, Y; Coelho, L G.V. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    1990-01-01

    A new method for diagnosing the Campylobacter Pylori in the stomach is described, using C-14 settled urease. Campylobacter Pylori is now being considered the most probable causative agent of antral chronic gastritis, pepitic ulcer and non-ulcerous dyspepsia. The technique is based on ingestion of the tracer, its recovery by exhalation in etanol hyamine solution, followed by counting and dates evaluation. The test was applied to forty two voluntary male and female patients, after their written acquiescence. Their ages varied from 19 to 62 years old. Thirty of the results were positive and twelve negative. All of them were comproved by microbiological (cultura) and hystologycal studies of gastric biopsy gotten by gastroscopy. They were performed at the Gastroentherology Departament of the 'Hospital das Clinicas' that belongs to the Federal University of Minas Gerais. Repetitivity of the breath test was confirmed by repetition of the results in five positive patients and five negative ones. (author).

  15. The Inactivation of Escherichia Coli Bacteria Labelled with Tritiated Thymidine; Inactivation de Bacteries Escherichia Coli Marquees par la Thymidine Tritiee; 0418 043d 0414 ; Inactivacion de Escherichia Coli Marcada con Timidina Tritiada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apelgot, Sonia [Institut du Radium, Laboratoire Curie, Paris (France)

    1962-02-15

    Bacteria of the strain B{sup 3}{sub 1} thy {sup -}/Sr, which required thymine and are streptomycin-resistant, had their DNA labelled with tritiated thymidine. The radioactivity measurements were made with a liquid scintillation counting system, with two photomultipliers mounted in coincidence. Under these conditions, the efficiency of the measures was 4.5% and the background 130 counts/min. The radioactive bacteria were kept in sealed tubes either at 0 Degree-Sign C or at - 196 Degree-Sign C and their survival studied. These experiments showed that the radioactive bacteria are inactivated exponentially as a function of the number of tritium atoms disintegrated. The inactivation is temperature dependent. In both cases the killing efficiency per nuclear transmutation was determined and found as very low. The number of ion pairs generated by the {beta}-particles emitted as a consequence of the transmutation of H{sup 3} was evaluated and found quite comparable with the one found in the case of X-rays. The suicide caused by the H{sup 3} disintegrations seems to be directly linked with the ionizations produced by the {beta}-particles inside the bacterial DNA. (author) [French] Des bacteries de la souche B{sup 3}{sub 1} thy {sup -}/Sr, exigeantes en thymine et resistantes a la streptomycine, ont ete marquees dans leur ADN par la thymidine tritiee. Les mesures de radioactivite ont ete faites avec un detecteur a scintillation en milieu liquide comprenant deux photomultiplicateurs montes en coiencidence. Dans nos conditions, l'efficacite des mesures a ete de 4,5% et le mouvement propre de 130 coups/min. Les bacteries radioactives ont ete conservees en ampoules scellees soit a 0 Degree-Sign C soit a - 196 Degree-Sign C, et la survie etudiee. Ces experiences ont montre que les bacteries sont inactivees exponentiellement en fonction du nombre d'atomes de tritium desintegres. L'inactivation depend de la temperature a laquelle elles sont conservees. Le calcul montre que l'efficacite de chaque atome desintegre pour tuer une bacterie est tres faible. Le calcul du nombre de paires d'ions crees, a l'inactivation, dans la bacterie par les particules {beta} emises au cours de la transmutation des atomes de {sup 3}H montre que ce nombre est comparable a celui laisse dans le cas des rayons X. Il semble que le suicide provoque par les desintegrations de {sup 3}H soit lie directement, a - 196 Degree-Sign C, a l'ionisation produite, dans l'ADN bacterien, par des particules {beta} emises, et a 0 Degree-Sign C, a la transmutation des atomes de {sup 3}H elle-meme. (author) [Spanish] tritiada. Se ha marcado con timidina tritiada el acido desoxirribonucleico de bacterias de la cepa B; thy {sup -}/Sr, que requieren timidina y son resistentes a la estreptomicina. Las mediciones de radiactividad se efectuaron con un contador de centelleador liquido, provisto de dos fotomultiplicadores montados en coincidencia. En las condiciones experimentales utilizadas, el rendimiento de recuento fue del 4,5% y la actividad de fondo, de 130 impulsos por minuto. Las bacterias radiactivas se guardaron a 0 Degree-Sign C y a - 196 Degree-Sign C en ampollas soldadas y se estudio su supervivencia. Los experimentos demuestran que las bacterias radiactivas son inactivadas exponencialmente, en funcion del numero de atomos de tritio que se desintegran. La inactivacion depende tambien de la temperatura. En ambos casos, se determino el efecto letal por transmutacion nuclear comprobandose que es muy debil. Se calculo el numero de pares ionicos generados por las particulas beta emitidas a consecuencia de la transmutacion del {sup 3}H y se observo que es comparable al obtenido en el caso de los rayos X. La muerte, causada por las desintegraciones del {sup 3}H, parece estar directamente relacionada con a ionizacion producida por las particulas beta en el acido desoxirribonucleico de las bacterias. (author) [Russian] Bakterii shtamma B{sup 3}{sub 1} thy{sup -}/Sr, nuzhdajushhiesja v timine i stojkie k strepto- micinu, byli markirovany v ih DNK timidinom, mechennym tritiem. Izmerenie radioaktivnosti bylo sdelano pri pomoshhi zhidkogo scintilljacionnogo detek- tora s dvumja fotoumnozhiteljami sovpadenij. V dannyh uslovijah jeffektivnost' izmerenij ravnjalas' 5,5%, a fon - 130 kjuri/mol'. Radioaktivnye bakterii sohranjalis' v zapechatnanyh ampulah libo pri tem- perature 0 Degree-Sign C, libo pri temperature - 196 Degree-Sign C, i izuchalos' ih dal'nejshee sosto- janie. Jeti opyty pokazali, chto bakterii inaktivirujutsja funkcional'no v zavisi- mosti ot chisla rasshheplennyh atomov tritija. Inaktivacija zavisit ot tem- peratzgry, v kotoroj oni soderzhalis'. Vychislenie pokazyvaet, chto zffektiv nost' kazhdogo rasshheplennogo atoma dlja umershhvlenija bakterij ochen' neznachi- tel'na. Vychislenie kolichestva par sozdannyh pri inaktivacii ionov v bak- terii ispushhennymi beta-chasticami, poluchennymi vo vremja transmutacii atomov tritija, pokazyvaet, chto ono sravnimo s kolichestvom v sluchae s iks-luchami. Kazhetsja, chto vymiranie, vyzvannoe raspadom trutija, dolzhno byt' prjamo svjazano s proizvedinnoj ionzaciej v bakterial'noj DNK ispushhennymi beta- chasticami. (author)

  16. Dissemination of bacteria labeled with technetium-99m after laparotomy and abdominal insufflation with different CO2 pressures on rats; Disseminacao de bacterias marcadas com tecnecio-99m apos laparotomia e insuflacao com diferentes pressoes de CO2 em ratos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitombo, Marcos Bettini; Faria, Clarice Abreu dos Santos Albuquerque de; Steinbruck, Klaus [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Medicina]. E-mail: mpitombo@urbi.com.br; Bernardo, Luciana Camargo; Bernardo Filho, Mario[Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes (IBRAG). Lab. de Radiofarmacia Experimental

    2008-01-15

    Purpose: To asses the dissemination of bacteria labeled with technetium-99m (99mTc) from peritoneal cavity after different surgical procedures. Methods: Bacteria of the Escherichia coli species labeled with 99mTc were used in a concentration of 108 units of colony-makers for ml (UFC/ml) and 1 ml was inoculated through intra-peritoneal via. Forty-eight rats were divided into four groups: control, laparotomy, pneumoperitoneum with 10 mmHg and pneumoperitoneum with 20 mmHg of CO2. Procedures were performed 20 min after injection of the inoculum and lasted 30 min. Animals were sacrificed after six hours (Group 1) and 24 hours (Group 2). Samples of blood, liver and spleen were collected for radioactivity counting. Results: After six hours, indirect detection of the bacteria in different organs was uniform in all groups. After 24 hours, a larger detection of technetium was observed in the livers of animals of the group insufflated with 20 mmHg of CO2, when compared with those of control group (p<0.01). The other groups did not present statistically significant variations. Conclusions: The use of a higher intra-abdominal pressure was associated with a higher bacterial dissemination to the liver. The application of lower intra-abdominal pressures may be associated with a lower dissemination of the infectious status during laparoscopic approach of peritonitis status. (author)

  17. Characterisation of peacock (Pavo cristatus) mitochondrial 12S rRNA sequence and its use in differentiation from closely related poultry species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, M; Das, D K; Dhara, A; Swarup, D; Yadav, M P; Gupta, P K

    2007-04-01

    1. Poaching of peacocks, the national bird of India, is illegal. People kill this beautiful pheasant bird for tail feathers and mix the meat with chicken or turkey. Differentiation of the meat of these species is essential in order to address the ambiguity about the origin of the sample. 2. The present study was carried out to investigate the use of polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) of mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene for identification of these species. 3. Peacock mitochondrial 12S rRNA partial gene was amplified using universal primers, cloned and characterised. It was found to be 446 nucleotides long. 4. Sequence analysis revealed 86.8 and 84.1% similarity with reported turkey and chicken sequences, respectively. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis showed that the peacock is much closer to the turkey than the chicken. 5. PCR-RFLP of 446 bp amplicon using commonly available restriction enzymes AluI and Sau3AI produced a differential pattern for identifying these poultry species unambiguously.

  18. Hybridization between three crested newt species (Triturus cristatus superspecies) in the Czech Republic and Slovakia: comparison of nuclear markers and mitochondrial DNA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikulíček, Peter; Horák, Aleš; Zavadil, V.; Kautman, J.; Piálek, Jaroslav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 61, 3-4 (2012), s. 202-218 ISSN 0139-7893 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/01/0695 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : hybrid zone * introgression * mtDNA * microsatellites * RAPD * Salamandridae Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.494, year: 2012

  19. Vertebrate host specificity and experimental vectors of Plasmodium (Novyella) kempi sp. n. from the eastern wild turkey in Iowa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, B M; Barnes, H J; Rowley, W A

    1983-07-01

    Vertebrate host specificity, experimental laboratory vectors, and a description of Plasmodium (Novyella) kempi sp. n. from eastern wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo silvestris Vieillot) in Iowa are presented. Plasmodium kempi is infective for domestic turkeys, bobwhites (Colinus virginianus), chukars (Alectoris graeca), guinea fowl (Numida meleagris), peacocks (Pavo cristatus), and canaries (Serinus canaria), produces a transient infection in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and domestic geese (Anser anser), but will not infect ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus), pigeons (Columba livia), Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix), leghorn white chickens (Gallus gallus), or starlings (Sturnus vulgaris). Oocysts and (or) sporozoites were recovered from 68% (84/124) and 98% (60/61) of the Culex pipiens pipiens and C. tarsalis examined, respectively. Oocysts developed faster and sporozoites invaded the salivary glands sooner in C. tarsalis (6 days) than in C. p. pipiens (7 days). Culex tarsalis transmitted P. kempi more effectively than C. p. pipiens, although both species were capable of transmitting the parasite by natural feeding. Oocysts developed and sporozoites also were produced in C. restuans, but its ability to transmit the parasite was not determined. Aedes aegypti (Rockefeller strain) and A. triseriatus were refractive to P. kempi. Plasmodium kempi produces trophozoites with large refractile globules and fine cytoplasmic extensions, mature schizonts in the form of a condensed fan containing four to eight nuclei (usually 5), and elongate gametocytes with irregular borders. All stages are confined almost exclusively to mature erythrocytes, with no effect on host cell size or position of host cell nucleus. Plasmodium kempi is most similar morphologically to P. (Novyella) hexamerium and P. (Novyella) vaughani. It differs from P. hexamerium in having large refractile globules in trophozoites and immature schizonts, an inability to infect starlings, an absence of

  20. A cytochemical study of histones in the muscular cells of Triturus cristatus limbs in normal regeneration of limbs irradiated by X-rays, of irradiated limbs in which the regenerative power is restored by cartilage implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desselle, J.-C.

    1976-01-01

    The muscular cells of regenerating limbs and of limbs in which regenerative power is restored, show an important decrease in the amount of cytophotometrically detected histones. This decrease is owing to the arginine rich fraction and to the lysine rich fraction. The muscular cells of irradiated limbs show a decrease in the amount of histones. This decrease is owing only to the arginine rich fraction and continues after the thirtieth day of irradiation and amputation [fr

  1. Study of the flight range and ideal density of the africanized honeybees, Apis mellifera L., 1758 (Hymenoptera: Apidae) labelled with {sup 32} P on an apple orchard; Estudo do raio de acao e densidade ideal de abelhas africanizadas, Apis mellifera L., 1758 (Hymenoptera: Apidae) marcadas com {sup 32} P em pomar de maca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paranhoa, B A.J.

    1990-06-01

    The ideal density, the flight range, the choice for any flight direction, the influence of temperature and relative humidity of air about the honeybee`s activity, Apis mellifera L.. 1758 (Hymenoptera: Apidae) were studied in an apple orchard, utilizing nuclear techniques. Five hives, with 35,000 bees each, were labelled with syrup (50%) content (2,5 {mu}Ci {sup 32} P/ml) and taken one by one, every two days to the blossomed orchard. A circumference area of 100 m diameter (0,8 ha) W staked each 10 m from the center to the limit (50 m), making a cross, pointing out to North, South, East and West. The honeybees were collected on apple flowers, during 5 minutes in each stake, at 10:00 a.m. and 12:30 p.m. (author).

  2. Radio Column Chromatographic Assay of H{sup 3}-Labelled Substances; Analyse par radiochromatographie en colonne, de substances marquees par le tritium; Radiokhromatograficheskoe ispytanie mechennykh tritiem veshchestv na kolonke; Analisis por radiocromatografia en columna de sustancias marcadas con {sup 3}H

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scharpenseel, H W; Menke, K H [Institute of Soil Science and Institute of Animal Husbandry, Bonn University, Bonn (Germany)

    1962-01-15

    Combined radio-chromatographic investigations of H{sup 3}-labelled substances are an integral part of the majority of biochemical experiments with H{sup 3}-labelled compounds. H{sup 3}-radio paper chromatography yields, in a scanner with a windowless flow counter, a counting efficiency of 0,5 -1,5%, depending largely on the thickness of the paper and the self-absorption of the labelled compound. The radio gas chromatography of tritiated compounds presents no major problem. Successful use is being made of a combination of a gas chromatograph with a flow ionization chamber and vibrating reed electrometer, a system originated by K. E. Wilzbach and P. Riessz, and improved by H. Dutton, L. Mason and L. Blair. Through the use of ''Teflon'' and silicone-rubber for the insulating parts of the flow ion chamber, it can be operated at close to 300{sup o}C. Radio column chromatography with tritium holds little promise, when the column effluent is spread out as a shallow layer and slowly passes under a windowless flow counter or a scintillation counter, as was successfully tried with C{sup 14}. Liquid scintillation spectrometry is likely to be the chosen method. Essentially, there are two different approaches feasible. These have been compared: 1. The column effluent is passed through a coil of plastic scintillator tubing, which is wound around a ''Plexiglas'' cylinder and placed in a bath of silicone oil in a light pipe with TiO{sub 2}-reflector. Similarly, the HP-containing effluent can be directed through a test vial, filled - very much as in Steinberg's method - with plastic scintillator beads. These two approaches, that operate highly satisfactorily in the case of C{sup 14}, offer low counting efficiencies of less than 1% for H{sup 3} due to the unfavourable surface to volume ratio. 2. The column effluent is combined 1:30 with a mixture of 3:2 toluene/ethanol by the action of a magnet-vibrator before being assayed while passing through a K{sup 40}-free glass - coiled between the analyser- and monitor-phototubes. In order to ensure a laminar flow and constantly mixed volume ratio, dose-pumps are lised for the supply of buffer on the column and of the 30-fold volume of toluene/ethanol. The counting efficiency for H{sup 3} averages 2.5-4% for'coils spreading over the whole diameter of the phototubes. 3. The aqeous column effluent is led through an anthracene-filled glass tube and the H{sup 3} counted with close to l{sup o}/o efficiency. (author) [French] Dans la majorite des cas, les recherches radiochromatographique s combinees portant sur des substances marquees par {sup 3}H font partie integrante des experiences biochimiques utilisant des composes trities. Avec un ensemble comprenant un compteur a balayage continu sans fenetre, le comptage du tritium par radiochromatographi e sur papier est d'un rendement de 0,5 a 1,5%, qui depend dans une large mesure de l'epaisseur du papier et de l'autoabsorption dans le compose marque. La radiochromatographie en phase gazeuse des composes trities ne presente pas davantage de difficultes serieuses. On utilise avec succes un ensemble de chromatographic en phase gazeuse comportant une chambre d'ionisation a courant et un electrometre a lame vibrante - concu par K. E. Wilzbach et P. Riesz et perfectionne par H. Dutton, L. Mason et L. Blair. Grace a l'emploi de ''Teflon'' et de caoutchouc de silicones pour les elements isolants de la chambre d'ionisation, cet ensemble peut fonctionner a des temperatures voisines de 300{sup o}C. Avec le tritium, la radiochromatographi e en colonne donne des resultats mediocres, si le liquide sortant de la colonne se repand en une couche mince et passe lentement sous un compteur a balayage continu sans fenetre ou un compteur a scintillations, alors que le meme procede a donne d'excellente resultats avec le carbone-14. Aussi est-il probable que l'on adoptera la spectrometrie a scintillations en phase liquide. Elle comporte essentiellement deux procedes differents, que les auteurs ont compares: 1. Le liquide sortant de la colonne passe a travers un tube scintillateur en matiere plastique, enroule en spirale autour d'un cylindre en ''Plexiglas'' et place dans un bain d'huile de silicone, dans un guide de lumiere avec reflecteurs en TiO{sub 2}. Ou encore, le liquide tritie sortant de la colonne passe par un flacon rempli d'un scintillateur en matiere plastique sous forme de perles, comme dans la methode de Steinberg. Ces deux variantes, qui donnent des resultats tres satisfaisants pour le carbone-14, ont un rendement de comptage inferieur a 1% pour le tritium, par suite du rapport defavorable entre la surface et le volume. 2. Avant d'etre analyse, le liquide sortant de la colonne est melange, dans la proportion de 1 a 30, avec du toluene/ethanol 3:2 au moyen d'un agitateur magnetique; ensuite, on fait passer ce melange dans un serpentin en verre exempt de potassium-40, entre le phototube d'analyse et celui de controle. Afin d'assurer un ecoulement laminaire et un rapport constant de volume entre les substances melangees, des pompes de dosage sont utilisees pour ajouter une substance-tampon a la colonne et pour maintenir le rapport 1:30 du melange en volume. Le rendement de comptage de {sup 3}H est de 2,5 a 4% en moyenne, lorsque la spirale couvre tout le diametre du phototube. 3. Le liquide aqueux sortant de la colonne passe par un tube en verre rempli d'anthracene, et le tritium est compte a 1% pres. (author) [Spanish] En la mayoria de los casos, las determinaciones radiocromatograficas combinadas de compuestos tritiados forman parte integrante de los experimentos bioquimicos con compuestos marcados con {sup 3}H. Al emplear aparatos de exploracion con contadores de flujo sin ventana, la radiocromatografi a sobre papel de los compuestos tritiados da rendimientos de recuento del 0,5 al 1,5%, segun el espesor del papel y la autoabsorcion en el compuesto marcado. La radiocromatografi a en fase gaseosa de dichos compuestos tampoco presenta problemas serios. Se emplea con exito la cromatografia en fase gaseosa, combinada con la aplicacion de una camara de ionizacion de flujo y un electrometro de lengueeta vibratoria. Se trata de un sistema ideado por K. E. Wilzbach y P. Riessz, y mejorado por H. Dutton, L. Mason y L. Blair, que puede utilizarse a temperaturas hasta de 300{sup o}C si se emplean ''Teflon'' y siliconas para las partes aislantes de la camara de ionizacion. La radiocromatografi a en columna de los compuestos tritiados no ofrece perspectivas favorables si se emplea el metodo, tan eficaz en el caso del {sup 14}C, que consiste en extender el efluente en una capa de poco espesor que se hace pasar lentamente por debajo de un contador de flujo sin ventana o de un contador de centelleo. Probablemente se terminara por adoptar como metodo de trabajo la espectrometria de centelleo del liquido. Fundamentalment e existen dos manetas de operar, que el autor ha comparado: 1. El efluente de la columna se hace circular por un tubo de material plastico centelleador arrollado en espiral alrededor de un cilindro de ''Plexiglas'' que se coloca en un bano de aceite de silicona contenido en una guia optica con reflector de Ti0{sub 2}. Tambien se puede hacer pasar el efluente conteniendo tritio por un frasco relleno con cuentas de un centelleador de material plastico, como en el metodo de Steinberg. Las dos variantes dan excelentes resultados en el caso del {sup 14}C, pero en el del {sup 3}H el rendimiento de recuento es inferior al 1% debido a que la razon superficie/volumen es desfavorable. 2. Por medio de un agitador magnetico se mezcla el efluente de la columna en la proporcion 1:30 con tolueno/etanol 3:2; seguidamente se analiza esta mezcla haciendola circular por un serpetin de vidrio, exento de {sup 40}K, situada entre el fototubo analizador y el de control. La solucion tampon se anade por medio de bombas dosificadoras, igual que el volumen necesario de la mezcla tolueno/ etanol, y con ello se aseguran un flujo laminar y una proporcion constante en la mezcla final. El rendimiento de recuento del {sup 3}H cuando el serpentin abarca todo el diametro de los fototubos oscila en general entre 2,5 y 4%. 3. El efluente acuoso de la columna se hace pasar por un tubo de vidrio relleno de antraceno y el recuento del {sup 3}H se efectua con un rendimiento del orden del 1 por ciento. (author) [Russian] Kombinirovannye radiokhromatograficheskie issledovaniya mechennykh tritiem veshchestv yavlyayutsya neot{sup e}mlemoj chast'yu bolytsinstva biokhimicheskikh ehksperimentov, provodimykh s mechennymi tritiem soedineniyami. Vykhod H{sup 3}-radiokhromatogrammy na bumage v razvertyvayushchem ustrojstve s potochnym schetchikom bez okoshka s ehffektivnost'yu otscheta v 0,5-1,5% v znachitel'noj stepeni zavisit ot tolshchiny bumagi i samopogloshcheniya mechenogo soedineniya. Ne predstavlyaet takzhe bol'shikh problem gazovaya radiokhromatografiya. Uspeshno primenyaetsya kombinatsiya gazovoj khromatogrammy s potochnoj ionizatsionnoj kameroj i ehlektrometrom s vibriruyushchim yazychkomsistema, razrabotannaya K. EH. VIL'TSBAKHOM i P. RISS i usovershestvovannaya G. DATTONOM, L. MASONOM i L. BLEORM, kotoraya pri ispol'zovanii teflona (Teflon) i kreministoj reziny dlya insolyatsionnykh (insolating) chastej potochnoj ionnoj kamery mozhet funktsionirovat ' pri temperature blizkoj k 300{sup o}C. Radiokhromatografiya na kolonke s tritiem yavlyaetsya maloobeshchayushchej, kogda ehflyuent kolonki razbrasyvaetsya melkim sloem i medlenno prokhodit pod potochnym schetchikom bez okoshka ili pod stsintillyatsionnym schetchikom, kak ehto uspeshno bylo provedeno s C{sup 14}. Spektrometriya zhidkostnoj stsintillyatsii yavlyaetsya udachnym metodom dlya vybora. Po sushchestvu imeetsya dva razlichnykh podkhoda, sravnenie kotorykh privoditsya nizhe: 1. EHflyuent kolonki prokhodit cherez obmotku truboprovoda plastikovogo stsintillyatora. Truboprovod namatyvaetsya na tsilindr iz pleksiglasa i ustanavlivaetsya v vannochku s kreministym maslom v svetovoj trube s reflektorom TiO{sub 2}. Podobnym obrazom ehflyuent s soderzhaniem H{sup 3} mozhno napravit' cherez issleduemuyu ampulu, napolnennuyu - podobno tomu kak ehto delaetsya po metodu SHTEJNBERGA, - plastikovymi sharikami stsintillyatora. EHti dva podkhoda, okazavshiesya vpolne udovletvoritel'nymi v sluchae s C{sup 14}, imeyut nizkuyu ehffektivnost' scheta dlya tritiya, t.e. menee 1%, iz-za neblagopriyatnoj poverkhnosti v otnoshenii ob{sup e}mnogo sootnosheniya. 2. EHflyuent kolonki ob{sup e}dinyaetsya pri sootnoshenii 1:30 so smes'yu toluol/ehtanol v sootnoshenii 3:2 pri pomoshchi magnitnogo vibratora eshche do ispytaniya, t.e. vo vremya prokhozhdeniya cherez steklyannyj sosud iz K{sup 40} mezhdu fototrubkami analizatora i monitora. Dlya obespecheniya laminarnogo potoka i postoyanno smeshannogo : ob{sup e}mnogo sootnosheniya primenyayutsya dozirovochnye nassoy po sozdaniyu na kolonke amortizatora i 30-fold ob{sup e}ma toluola/ehtanola . EHffektiv- noet' scheta tritiya kolebletsya v srednem ot 2,5 do 4% dlya katushek, rasprostranyayushchikhsya po vsemu diametru fototrubok. 3. EHflyuent vodyanoj kolonkhi propuskhaetsya cherez napolnennyj antratsenom stekhlyannyj sosud, i podschet H{sup 3} proizvoditsv s tochnost'yu, bliskhoj 1%. (author)

  3. Application of the efficiency tracing method to the liquid scintillation metrology of 3H and 14C dual-labelled samples; Aplicacion del metodo de la figura de merito a la metrologia por centelleo liquido de muestras doblemente marcadas con 3H y 14C.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin-Casallo, M. T.; Los Arcos, J. M.; Grau, A.

    1989-07-01

    Two calculation procedures have been tested for the application of the efficiency tracing method to the activity determination of 3H and 14C dual- -labelled samples in the liquid scintillation metrology. A procedure Ieads to the statement of a linear equations system as a function of the quenching parameter, while the other one uses a least-square algorithm to fit the total count rate against the quenching parameter. The first procedure is strongly sensitive to the statistical uncertainty on the partial efficiencies and produces discrepancies which may reach more than 100% compared to the real values. The second procedure leads to more reliable results, showing discrepancies between 0.1% and 0.6% for the 3H activity and between 0.6% and 5% for the 14C activity, as that the efficiency tracing method can be applied to the metro- logy of dual-labelled samples of 3H and 14C by means of this procedure. (Author) 7 refs.

  4. 131/123 iodine labeled benzamides for the detection of melanomas and metastases. Synthesis, labeling, animal experiences and preliminary clinical studies; Benzamidas marcadas con 131/123 iodo para deteccion de melanomas y metastasis. Sintesis, marcacion, estudio en animales y primeros estudios clinicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pozzi, Oscar R; Edreira, Martin M; Castiglia, Silvia G [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Ezeiza (Argentina). Dept. de Radioquimica; Zarlenga, Ana C; Arashiro, Jorge G; Parma, P [Instituto de Oncologia Angel H. Roffo, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Soroa, Victoria E [Hospital Clinicas Jose de San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    1999-07-01

    Radioiodine labeled benzamides are being studied as radiopharmaceuticals for the detection of melanomas and metastases. With this purpose the synthesis and labeling of N-(2-diethylaminoethyl)-3-[{sup 131}I]-4-methoxybenzamide (IMBA) has been carried out. Tissue distribution of the labeled compound has been studied in C 57 mice, showing a fast renal excretion. The labeled benzamide was also injected in mice with previously induced subcutaneous melanomas and lung metastases using B 16-F0 murine melanoma cells. The tumors show a good uptake of the labeled benzamide. The melanoma/other tissues uptake ratio is suitable for scintigraphic detection. Clinical studies in patients are under way. (author)

  5. Labelling, biodistribution and compartmental analysis of N-acetylcysteine labelled with Tc-99m. Comparative investigation with with {sup 99m} Tc-MIBI in an in vivo tumoral model; Estudo de marcacao, biodistribuicao e analise compartimental da N-acetil cisteina marcada com Tc-99m. Investigacao comparativa com MIBI-{sup 99m}Tc em modelo tumoral in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faintuch, Bluma Linkowski

    1997-07-01

    Labelling and biodistribution studies were done with two different ligands, respectively Methoxy isobutyl isonitrile (MIBI) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC), employing Tc-99m as a tracer. The main objective was to assess the pharmacokinetic properties of the second substance, aiming at its possible application in cancer diagnosis. To this purpose an in vivo investigation was done using healthy and tumor-bearing rats with experimental cancer. Images of tumor-bearing rats registered in a scintillation camera indicated that with {sup 99m} Tc-MIBI none of the two selected times was adequate for visualization of the cancer mass. In contrast, {sup 99m} Tc-NAC permitted clear identification of the humor, four hours after injection. The results have demonstrated that {sup 99m} Tc-NAC is a radiopharmaceutical with affinity for cancer tissue and promising for further investigation concerning imaging diagnosis of tumors. (author)

  6. Apparent seed digestibility and germination of seeds after passage through the digestive system of northern bobwhite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limited information is available regarding the digestibility or germination of seed after the passage through the digestive system of northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus), especially of plants associated with the sand sagebrush (Artemisia filifolia)-mixed prairie community. Thus, our objectives...

  7. CONCOMITANT HELMINTHIC AND ENTERO-PROTOZOAL INFESTATION IN INDIAN PEAFOWL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Dutta

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Concomitant infestation of Ascaridia spp. along with Raillietina spp. and Emeria spp. has been identified in Indian Peafowl (Pavo cristatus of Ramnabagan Mini Zoo, Burdwan, West Bengal, India.

  8. Comparison between 67-gallium citrate of exametazine-T-99m labelled leucocites and the DTPA-indio-111 labelled G immunoglobuline in the diagnosis of bone and articular infections; Comparacion del citrato de galio-67 de los leucocitos marcados con exametazina-tecnecio-99m y de la inmunoglobulina G marcada con DTPA-indio-111 en el diagnostico de infecciones oseas y articulares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Paulo Alberto de Lima [Departamento de Ciencias Basicas da Saude. Universidade Federal da Paraiba. Campina Grande (Brazil); Martin-Comin, Josep; Roca, Manel; Ricart, Ivone; Castell, Manuel; Mora, Jaume; Puchal, Rafael; Ramos, Miguel [Servicio de Medicina Nuclear, Hospital Princeps d' Espanya. Universidad de Barcelona. Feixa Llarga s/n, 08907. Barcelona (Spain)

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the ability of 67-Gallium citrate (67Ga), 99m-Tc labelled leucocytes (99mTc-WBC) and 111-In-labelled immunoglobulin G (111In-IgG) scintigraphy in bone and joint infections diagnosis. Fifty-six patients were studied. For all patients a bone scan using 99mTc-MDP was indicated. The patients were randomized allocated for 67Ga (Group 1 - 22 patients) or simultaneous administration 99mTc-labelled leucocytes and 111In-IgG.(Group 2 - 34 patients) study. For the groups 1 and 2 were confirmed respectively 12/26 y 11/34 septic lesions. The 67Ga scintigraphy showed 6 true-positive, 9 true-negative, 5 false-positive and 6 false-negative. With 99mTc-WBC, the respective values were 8, 18, 5 and 3. With 111In-IgG, the figures were 7, 17, 6 and 4, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 50%, 64,3% and 57,7% respectively for the 67Ga, 72,7%, 78,2% and 76,4% respectively for 99mTc-WBC and 63,6%, 73,9% and 70,6% respectively for 111In-IgG. In this study, the labelled leucocytes scintigraphy showed more accurate than 67Ga and 111In-IgG scans for the diagnosis of bone and joint infections. However, the obtained results were less reliable for the diagnosis of occult sepsis in the patients with joint prosthesis (Au)

  9. The Treatment of Cancer by a Radioactive Drug: Tritium-Labelled Tetra-Sodium 2-Methyl-1:4-Naphthaquinol Diphosphate; Traitement du Cancer par un Remede Radioactif: Le Diphosphate Tetrasodique de Methyl-2 Naphtoquinone-1,4 Tritie; 041b 0435 0447 0435 043d 0414 ; Tratamiento del Cancer con la Sal Tetrasodica del Acido 2-Metil-1,4-Naftoquinon Difosforico Marcada con Tritio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrian, D. H.; Marshall, Barbara; Mitchell, J. S.; Simon-Reuss, I. [Department of Radiotherapeutics, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    1962-02-15

    The action of tetra-sodium 2-methyl-1: 4-naphthaquinoI diphosphate (''Synkavit''-Roche Products) as a radiosensitizer will be reviewed together with earlier methods of labelling this and similar molecules. The synthesis of this compound labelled with tritium has been accomplished so as to yield a radiochemically pure drug of specific activity 28 c/mmole (1 atom of tritium/molecule). It will be shown that this compound enters the living cell very rapidly both in-vivo and in-vitro and that cultures of malignant cells incorporate the label to a much greater extent than cultures of normal cells under identical conditions. Preliminary investigations on the use of this drug on patients with advanced, and often otherwise, refractory, malignant conditions will be described; uptake by the bone marrow is less than by the tumour, sometimes by a factor of 5. (author) [French] Les auteurs examinent l'action du diphosphate tetrasodique de methyl-2- naphtoquinone-1,4 ('Synkavit'-Produits Roche) comme radiosensibilisateur, ainsi que les methodes plus anciennes de marquage de ces molecules et de molecules analogues. On a fait la synthese de ce compose marque au tritium, de facon a obtenir un produit pharmaceutique radiochimiquement pur, dont l'activite specifique est de 28 curies par millimole (1 atome de tritium par molecule). Les auteurs demontrent que ce compose penetre tres rapidement dans la cellule vivante, tant in vivo qu'in vitro, et que les cultures de cellules malignes fixent l'indicateur dans une mesure beaucoup plus large que ne le feront les cellules normales dans les memes conditions. Les auteurs exposent les resultats de recherches preliminaires sur l'emploi de ce remede pour soigner des malades atteints de tumeurs malignes avancees et souvent refractaires a tout autre traitement. L'absorption par la moelle osseuse est inferieure, parfois de 5 fois, a l'absorption par la tumeur. (author) [Spanish] Los autores describen la accion radiosensibilizadora de la sal tetrasodica del acido 2-metil-l,4-naftoquinon-difosforico (''Synkavit'' Roche), asi como algunos de los metodos que se han empleado para marcar este y otros compuestos analogos. Sintetizaron el compuesto tritiado en forma de obtener una substancia radioquimicamente pura de 28 c/mmol (1 atomo de tritio por molecula) de actividad especifica. Demuestran que este producto penetra muy rapidamente en las celulas vivas, tanto in vivo como in vitro y que, en igualdad de condiciones los cultivos de celulas malignas incorporan en grado mucho mayor el compuesto marcado que los cultivos de celulas normales. Describen las investigaciones preliminares del empleo clinico de ese producto en casos avanzados de tumores malignos que suelen ser refractarios a otros tratamientos, observandose que la medula osea absorbe menor cantidad del compuesto que el tumor (en algunas ocasiones, hasta cinco veces menos). (author) [Russian] Dejstvie tetrasoda - 2-metil-1: 4- naftagidrohinondifosfata (Sinkavit - proizvodstvo Roshe) v kachestve radio- senitajzera obsuzhdaetsja narjadu s bolee rannimi metodami mechenija jetih i podob- nyh molekul. Sintez jetogo soedinenija, mechennogo tritiem, byl sdelan dlja togo, chtoby polu- chit' radiohimicheskoe chistoe lekarstvo s udel'noj aktivnost'ju v 28 kjuri/mil- limol' (odin atom tritija na molekulu). Budet pokazano, chto jeto soedinenie bystro vhodit v zhivuju kletku kak v este- stvennyh, tak i i laboratornyh uslovijah i chto kul'tury zlokachestvennyh kletok pogloshhajut mechenye atomy v gorazdo bol'shem ob{sup e}me, chem kul'tury normal'nyh kletok pri teh zhe uslovijah. Budut opisany predvaritel'nye issledovanija primenenija jetogo lekarstva na pacientah, imejushhih zlokachestvennye opuholi i nahodjashhihsja v tjazhelom ili neizlechimom sostojanii; usvoenie kostnym na kojefficient 5 mozgom nizhe, chem usvoenie opuhol'ju. (author)

  10. Measurements of {sup 131}I-Labelled Triiodothyronine Uptake by a Resin as a Means of Diagnosing Iodine-Basedow Produced by Intramuscular Administration of Iodized Oil in an Area of Endemic Goitre; Utilidad de la Prueba de la Captacion de Triyodotironina Marcada con {sup 131}I por Resina en el Diagnostico de Yod-Basedow Producido por la Administracion Intramuscular de Aceite Yodado, en una Area de Bocio Endemico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fierro-Benitez, R.; Ramirez, I. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Escuela Politecnica Nacional y Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Central, Quito (Ecuador)

    1970-02-15

    The authors gave intramuscular injections of iodized oil with a view to studying its prophylactic effects on endemic goitre and related defects (such as endemic cretinism) in isolated areas where more traditional techniques have serious limitations. This system had been tried earlier in New Guinea, where the results showed a reduction in the prevalence of goitre and proved the technique to be both safe and practical. However, because of the remoteness of the population in question it was impossible to continue the observations and no information was obtained regarding the effectiveness of iodized oil in reducing the incidence of defects associated with endemic goitre, Ecuador's program, involving studies of the whole population of two rural communities in the Andes, was begun in March 1966. The final control check came three years later. Ethiodol (37% iodized oil, 450 mg iodine per cm{sup 3}, obtained from Fougera, Hicksville, Long Island, N.Y. United States of America) was injected intramuscularly, 2 cm{sup 3} being administered to subjects 12 years of age and older and proportionately smaller doses to younger children. The ethiodol produced extensive changes in the physiological behaviour of the thyroid. {sup 131}I uptake was depressed for six months and afterwards remained normal. Similarly, BEI and T{sub 4} returned to and stayed at normal levels from the very first control checks onwards, which indicated that even during the first few months the thyroid glands of these subjects were maintaining a normal capacity to secrete thyronines, i.e. that they were not exhibiting the effect described by Wolff and Chaikoff, PBI and BII maintained high livels in all the controls. Urinary excretion of iodine followed a double exponential path: calculations indicated that the subjects would still be excreting significant amounts five years after the injection. Six months after injection there was an unequivocal diagnosis of Iodine-Basedow in three older women with large nodular goitres. Among the indices which proved useful for this diagnosis were BEI, T{sub 4}, BMR and, among the various tests with radioiodine (uptake, conversion ratio, PBI %/1/d, urinary excretion, saliva/total plasma, saliva/PBI, salivary clearance, KSCN suppression test) only the measurements of T{sub 3} - {sup 131}I uptake by resin. (author) [Spanish] Les autores efectuaron la administracion intramuscular de aceite yodado con el fin de estudiar sus efectos profilacticos sobre el bocio endemico y defectos asociados, tales como el cretinismo endemico, etc., en areas en las que por su aislamiento, etc,, los metodos tradicionales ofrecen serias limitaciones. Este sistema se us6 en Nueva Guinea; los resultados alli obtenidos indicaron que el metodo redujo la prevalencia del bocio y que su ejecucion era segura y practica. Mas, dado lo remoto del lugar, fue imposible continuar las observaciones y no hubo informacion en cuanto a la efectividad del aceite yodado en reducir la incidencia de los defectos acociados con la endemia. El programa se inicio en Ecuador en Marzo 1966 en la poblacion total de dos comunidades rurales de la region andina. El ultimo control se efectuo tres anos despues. Se inyecto ethiodol (37% de aceite yodado; cada cm3 con un contenido de 450 mg de yodo; Fougera, Hicksville, L.I., N. Y. EE. UU.) por via intramuscular: 2 cm{sup 3} a los sujetos de 12 anos de edad en adelante, y dosis proporcionalmente menores a los mas jovenes. El ethiodol produjo cambios profundos en el comportamiento fisiologico de la tiroides. La captacion de I se deprimio durante 6 meses, para luego mantenerse normal. Igualmente, y desde los primeros controles, el BEI y la T{sub 4} se tornaron y mantuvieron normales, lo cual demostro que inclusive durante los primeros meses la glandula mantenia una capacidad normal para elaborar tironinas, es decir en ellas no se produjo el efecto descrito por Wolff y Chaikoff. El PBI y BII se mantuvieron altos en todos los controles. La excrecion urinaria de yodo siguio un doble recorrido exponencial: se calculo que cantidades significativas seguirian excretandose hasta cinco anos luego de la inyeccion. Seis meses despues de la inyeccion, en tres mujeres ancianas con bocios nodulares grandes se verifico un diagnostico incuestionable de Yod-Basedow. Fueron utiles para el diagnostico el BEI, T{sub 4}, BMR, y de entre las pruebas con Ral (captacion, relacion de conversion, PBI%/1/d, excresion urinaria, saliva/plasma total, saliva/PBI, clearance salivar, test de supresion con KSCN) tan solo la captacion de T{sub 3} -{sup 131}I por resina. (author)

  11. Radioautography in the Study of Radioisotopically-Tagged Substances in Insect Control; L'autoradiographie dans l'etude de substances marquees au moy en de radioisotopes utilisees dans la lutte contre les insectes; Primenenie radioavtografii pri izuchenii substantsij, mechennykh radioizotopami, v bor'be s nasekomymi; La autorradiografia en el estudio de las sustancias marcadas con radioisotopos utilizadas en la lucha contra los insectos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joftes, D. L. [New England Deaconess Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    1963-09-15

    In return for a relatively small expenditure of effort, the newer, simplified techniques of radioautography offer great sensitivity and precision at the microscopic level in many phases of the investigations of singly or doubly radioisotopically-tagged insecticides: e.g., uptake, translocation, metabolism and determination of residues in insects, plants and animals. The physiology and biochemistry of irradiated Insects are other phases which can be studied by radioautography. Radiation effects on the generative organs, especially, are being studied with tritiated thymidine. Whereas counting techniques yield gross information on the presence and quantity of radioisotopes, radioautography can provide information on actual sites of deposition in tissues or even parts of cells. This resolution is available on ordinary permanent histological preparations, in contrast to counting techniques in which accuracy of counting demands the destruction of the sample. Standard radioautography is especially useful for conveniently following fractional microcurie amounts of very weak emitters such as radiocarbon (C{sup 14)} and tritium (H{sup 3}), as opposed to the very expensive, highly sophisticated apparatus which is required for counting techniques when very weak emitters are employed. The technique places no restriction on the isotope used for labelling, since even the radiation from tritium and C{sup 14} will register on the nuclear emulsion. In fact, tritium and C{sup 14} (which are desirable since nearly every insecticide will contain carbon and hydrogen) have the advantage of yielding high-resolution radioautograms and have long half-lives, so that if very long exposure times are necessary, there would be no difficulty. Long exposure times may be required since only tiny amounts of radioactivity, even of high-specific-activity insecticides, can be expected to be taken up. It is necessary to be certain that the insecticides are tagged at such a point in the molecule that the radioactive tag remains bound to the moiety which it is desired to study. Once the insecticide has been taken up or administered, the specimen preparation follows standard histological techniques of fixation, embedding, cutting and attaching to glass slides. The tissues can then be deparaffinized and hydrated and are then ready for application of the nuclear emulsion. If the radioactive compounds in the tissues are in a soluble state, freeze-drying techniques can be used to prevent loss or mobilization of the radioisotope. Dry-emulsion can be used for these preparations. Staining can be done either before or after application of die nuclear emulsion, depending on the nature of the stain desired. In general, it is preferable to stain after the emulsion has been applied and photographically processed. With sufficiently energetic isotopes, whole mounts of plants or plant parts can be radioautographed, in which case histological preparation can be eliminated; the part to be radioautographed is simply compressed with the film in a plant press or other suitable device. The most convenient method of applying nuclear emulsions to histological preparations is to dip them into melted bulk emulsion in the dark and then clean the bottom of the slide. The slides are then placed in a dark chamber, in a dry, inert atmosphere and allowed to expose for a time which must be empirically determined. At the expiration of this period, the slides are photographically processed and thoroughly washed and coverslips are mounted. The slides are then ready for study just as regular histological specimens at all magnifications. A slight upward adjustment of the focus brings into view the radioautographic pattern which can be thus easily studied in relation to the tissue. The recommended techniques and the simple, generally available laboratory equipment required are described. (author) [French] Les nouvelles techniques simplifiees d'autoradiographie - d'une application relativement facile - sont tres sensibles et precises au niveau microscopique dans de nombreuses phases des recherches sur les insecticides marques au moyen de un ou deux radioindicateurs: recherches sur l'absorption, la translocation, le metabolisme et les residus chez les insectes, les vegetaux et les animaux. L'autoradiographie peut aussi servir a etudier la physiologie et la biochimie d'insectes irradies. On etudie notamment les effets des rayonnements sur les organes reproducteurs au moyen de thymidine tritiee. Alors que les methodes de comptage fournissent des renseignements approximatifs sur la presence et la quantite de radioisotopes, l'autoradiographie permet d'obtenir des donnees sur l'emplacement exact du depot dans les tissus, voire dans des parties de cellules. Cette determination peut se faire sur des preparations histologiques normales permanentes, alors que les methodes de comptage impliquent la destruction de l'echantillon pour obtenir des resultats exacts. L'autoradiographie courante est particulierement utile pour suivre des quantites de l'ordre d'une fraction de microcurie d'emetteurs tres faibles tels que le radiocarbone ({sup 14}C) et le tritium ({sup 3}H) ; le comptage des memes emetteurs exige des appareils tres couteux et hautement perfectionnes. L'autoradiographie n'exclut l'usage d'aucun radioisotope pour le marquage puisque meme les rayonnements de {sup 3}H et de {sup 14}C impressionnent l'emulsion nucleaire. En fait, {sup 3}H et {sup 14}C (qui sont particulierement interessants du fait que tous les insecticides contiennent du carbone et de l'hydrogene) ont l'avantage de donner des autoradiogrammes a haute resolution et d'avoir de longues periodes; il s'ensuit qu'il n'y a pas de difficultes lorsqu'un tres long temps d'exposition est necessaire. C'est souvent le cas, parce que meme pour des insecticides ayant une forte activite specifique, les quantites de radioactivite que l'on peut esperer absorber sont generalement tres faibles. Il faut veiller a ce que l'insecticide soit marque en un point de la molecule tel que le radioindicateur demeure lie a la portion que l'on desire etudier. Une fois que l'insecticide a ete absorbe ou administre, on prepare les echantillons en appliquant les methodes histologiques courantes: fixation, enrobage, decoupage et pose sur lamelle de verre. Les tissus sont ensuite deparaffines et hydrates; ils sont alors prets pour l'application de l'emulsion nucleaire. Si les composes radioactifs se trouvent a l'etat soluble dans les tissus, on peut faire appel, aux methodes de dessication par congelation pour eviter toute perte ou tout mouvement du radioisotope* Des films a emulsion seche peuvent etre utilises pour ces preparations. La coloration peut etre faite avant ou apres application de l'emulsion nucleaire, selon la nature de la couleur desiree. Il est preferable, en general, que la coloration intervienne apres l'application et le traitement photographique de l'emulsion. Si l'on utilise des radioisotopes ayant une energie suffisante, on peut proceder a l'autoradiographie de plantes entieres ou de parties de plantes, et supprimer ainsi la preparation histologiquee; la partie a autoradiographier est simplement comprimee avec le film dans une presse ou dans tout autre appareil approprie. La methode la plus pratique pour appliquer les emulsions nucleaires aux preparations histologiques consiste a plonger l'echantillon dans une emulsion fondue et a nettoyer ensuite la partie inferieure de la lamelle. Les lamelles sont ensuite placees en chambre noire, dans une atmosphere seche et inerte, et exposees pendant une duree qui doit etre determinee empiriquement. Apres quoi, elles font l'objet d'un traitement photographique, sont soigneusement lavees et revetues d'une protection. On peut alors les etudier comme des echantillons histologiques normaux, avec le grossissement voulu. Un leger deplacement du foyer vers le haut permet de voir l'autoradiographie, que l'on peut ainsi facilement etudier en regard du tissu. Le memoire decrit en detail les methodes recommandees ainsi que le materiel necessaire, qui est simple et dont disposent generalement les laboratoires. (author) [Spanish] Las nuevas tecnicas autorradiograficas simplificadas requieren cierto esfuerzo pero permiten obtener una gran sensibilidad y exactitud al nivel microscopico en el estudio de los insecticidas marcados con uno o dos radioisotopos, y, en particular, en el de la absorcion, traslocacion, metabolismo y determinacion de residuos en plantas, insectos y los animales.' Con ellas se pueden estudiar tambien la fisiologia y la bioquimica de los insectos irradiados. Se estan investigando con timidina tritiada los efectos de las radiaciones sobre los organos reproductores. Las tecnicas de recuento dan informacion general sobre la presencia y la cantidad de los radioisotopos, mientras que la autorradiografia proporciona datos sobre el lugar exacto de fijacion en los tejidos e incluso en partes de la celula. Este poder de resolucion se alcanza con preparados histologicos ordinarios que pueden conservarse, contrariamente a lo que sucede con las tecnicas de recuento que exigen, si se quiere lograr mayor exactitud, la destruccion de la muestra. La autorradiografia corriente es particularmente util para analizar por metodos muy sencillos fracciones de microcurie de emisores muy debiles como el radiocarbono ( {sup 14}C) y el tritio ({sup 3}H), mientras que las tecnicas de recuento requieren en estos casos un instrumental muy complicado y costoso. Esta tecnica no impone limitacion alguna en cuanto a los isotopos que pueden emplearse como indicadores, porque la emulsion nuclear registra incluso las radiaciones del tritio y del {sup 14}C. En realidad, el tritio y el {sup 14}C (que son convenientes puesto que casi todos los insecticidas contienen carbono o hidrogeno) tienen la ventaja de dar autorradiografias'de elevado poder de resolucion y, como son de periodo largo, permiten tiempos de exposicion muy prolongados. Estos tiempos de exposicion pueden resultar necesarios debido a las pequenas cantidades de radiactividad que se absorben incluso empleando insecticidas de elevada actividad especifica. Es preciso cerciorarse de que el insecticida este marcado en un punto tal de la molecula que el atomo trazador permanezca ligado a la parte que se desea estudiar. Una vez absorbido o administrado el insecticida, la preparacion de las muestras se efectua siguiendo las tecnicas histologicas corrientes de fijacion, inclusion, microtomia.y colocacion sobre portaobjetos. Seguidamente se elimina la parafina y se hidratan los tejidos, que quedan asi preparados para la aplicacion de la emulsion nuclear. Si los compuestos radiactivos del tejido se encuentran en estado soluble, se pueden emplear tecnicas de liofilizacion para evitar las perdidas y el desplazamiento de los radioisotopos. Para estos preparados pueden utilizarse peliculas de emulsion seca. El tinte puede efectuarse antes o despues de aplicar la emulsion nuclear, segun el tipo de coloracion que se desee obtener. En general es preferible efectuar la operacion despues de haber aplicado y revelado la emulsion. Si se emplean isotopos de energia suficiente, es posible autorradiografiar plantas enteras o partes de plantas, en cuyo caso se evita la preparacion histologica; la parte que se desee autorradiografiar se comprime con la pelicula en una prensa o en otro dispositivo adecuado. El metodo mas conveniente para aplicar las emulsiones nucleares a los preparados histologicos consiste en introducirlas en la emulsion fundida y limpiar despues el reverso del portaobjetos; evidentemente esta operacion tiene que efectuarse en la oscuridad. Los preparados se colocan en una camara oscura, de atmosfera seca e inerte, y se exponen durante un tiempo que se determina empiricamente. Transcurrido este tiempo, la emulsion se revela, se lava cuidadosamente y se colocan los cubreobjetos. Los portaobjetos pueden entonces estudiarse en cualquier ampliacion, como loe preparados histologicos corrientes. Un ligero desplazamiento ascendente del foco pone de relieve los detalles de la autorradiografia que, de este modo, se puede estudiar en relacion con el tejido. En la memoria se describen en detalle las tecnicas recomendadas y el sencillo equipo necesario, que suele encontrarse en todos los laboratorios. (author) [Russian] Pri otnositel'no nebol'shikh zatratakh truda bolee novye,uproshchenie metody radioavtografii obespechivayut bol'shuyu chuvstvitel'nost' i tochnost' na mikroskopicheskom urovne vo mnogikh fazakh issledovanij odnokratno i dvukhkratno mechennykh radioizotopami insektitsidov, naprimer pri issledovanii pogloshcheniya, peremeshcheniya, metabolizma i opredelenii ostatkov insektitsidov v rasteniyakh, u nasekomykh i tavotnykh. Fiziologiya i biokhimiya obluchennykh nasekomykh yavlyayutsya drugimi oblastyami primeneniya radioavtografii. Vozdejstvie oblucheniya, osobenno na generativnye organy, izuchaetsya s pomoshch'yu mechennogo tritiem timidina. V to vremya kak metody scheta dayut mnogo informatsii o nalichii i kolichestve radioizotopov, s pomoshch'yu radioavtografii mozhno poluchit' dannye o fakticheskikh mestakh ikh otlozheniya v tkanyakh ili dazhe v chastyakh kletok. Poluchenie takoj razreshayushchej sposobnosti vozmozhno na obychnykh postoyannykh gistologicheskikh preparatakh, v to vremya kak pri primenenii metodov scheta dlya polucheniya tochnogo rezul'tata trebuetsya razrushenie obraztsa. Standartnaya radioavtografiya osobenno udobna dlya proslezhivaniya malykh kolichestv izotopov, sostavlyayushchikh doli mikrokyuri, ochen' slabykh izluchatelej, takikh, kak radioaktivnyj uglerod (C{sup 14}) i tritij (H{sup 3}), togda kak dlya rabot s ochen' slabymi izluchatelyami s primeneniem metodov scheta trebuyutsya ochen' dorogie i slozhnye pribory. Metod ne imeet ogranichenij v otnoshenii izotopov, primenyaemykh dlya mecheniya, tak kak dazhe izlucheniya tritiya i C''1''4 budut fiksirovat'sya na yadernoj fotoehmul'sii. Dejstvitel'no, tritij i C''1''4 (kotorye zhelatel'ny, poskol'ku pochti kazhdyj insektitsid budet soderzhat' uglerod i vodorod) imeyut to preimushchestvo, chto dayut radioavtogrammy s vysokoj razreshayushchej sposobnost'yu i imeyut bol'shoj period poluraspada i poehtomu ne voznikaet trudnostej v tekh sluchayakh, kogda neobkhodim ochen' dlitel'nyj srok ehkspozitsii. Prodolzhitel'naya ehkspozitsiya mozhet potrebovat'sya, kogda predpolagaetsya nalichie ochen' nebol'shikh kolichestv radioaktivnykh veshchestv dazhe pri vysokoj udel'noj aktivnosti insektitsida. Neobkhodimo byt' uverennym v tom, chto insektitsid popadaet v tu chast' molekuly, gde radioaktivnyj indikator ostaetsya svyazannym s toj polovinoj, kotoruyu zhelatel'no izuchit'. Posle togo kak insektitsid pogloshchen ili vveden, podgotovka preparata osushchestvlyaetsya obychnymi gistologicheskimi metodami fiksatsii, zalivki, prigotovleniya srezov i nalozheniya na predmetnoe steklo. Zatem tkani mogut byt' deparafinirovany i gidratirovany, posle chego oni gotovy dlya pokrytiya yadernoj fotoehmul'siej. Esli radioaktivnye,sostavlyayushchie v tkanyakh nakhodyatsya v rastvorimom sostoyanii, to dlya izbezhaniya poteri ili mobilizatsii radioizotopa mogut byt' primeneny metody sushki zamorazhivaniem. Dlya takikh preparatov mozhno primenyat' sukhie ehmul'sionnye plenki. Okraska mozhet proizvodit'sya kak do, tak i posle primeneniya yadernoj fotoehmul'sii, v zavisimosti ot kharaktera trebuyushchejsya okraski. V obshchem, predpochtitel'nee okrashivat' posle togo, kak fotoehmul'siya nanesena i proyavlena. Pri primenenii izotopov s dostatochnoj ehnergiej izlucheniya radioaatografirovaniyu mogut podvergnut'sya rasteniya ili ikh chasti tselikom, i v ehtom sluchae gistologicheskaya obrabotka mozhet byt' isklyuchena; ta chast', kotoraya dolzhna podvergnut'sya radioavtografii, prizhimaetsya k plenke v presse dlya rastitel'nykh obraztsov ili v drugom, prigodnom dlya ehtogo ustrojstve. Naibolee udobnym metodom primeneniya yadernykh fotoehmul'sij dlya gistolicheskikh preparatov yavlyaetsya pogruzhenie ikh v rasplavlennuyu massu fotoehmul'sii v temnote i zatem ochistka nizhnej poverkhnosti predmetnogo stekla. Posle ehtogo predmetnye stekla pomeshchayutsya v temnuyu kameru s sukhoj inertnoj atmosferoj i vyderzhivayutsya tam v techenie vremeni, opredelyaemogo ehmpiricheski. Zatem predmetnye stekla proyavlyayutsya, tshchatel'no promyvayutsya, i na nikh nadevayutsya zashchitnye stekla. Posle ehtogo predmetnye stekla gotovy dlya issledovaniya, tochno tak zhe, kak obychnye gistologicheskie preparaty pri vsekh uvelicheniyakh. Neznachitel'noe smeshchenie fokusa vverkh vvodit v pole zreniya radioavtograficheskij obrazets, kotoryj mozhet byt' takim obrazom legko izuchen pri sravnenii s tkan'yu. Daetsya podrobnoe opisanie metodov i neobkhodimogo laboratornogo oborudovaniya. (author)

  12. Preparation and characterization of a hetero functional system of gold nanoparticles labeled with {sup 99m}Tc and conjugated to the sequence Arg-Gly-Asp for detection in vivo of angio genesis and evaluation of their toxicity in Hyalella aztec; Preparacion y caracterizacion de un sistema heterofuncional de nanoparticulas de oro marcadas con Tecnecio-99m y conjugadas a la secuencia Arg-Gly-Asp para la deteccion in vivo de angiogenesis y la evaluacion de su toxicidad en Hyalella azteca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales A, E.

    2012-07-01

    Integrin s play critical roles in many physiological processes including angio genesis and also contribute to pathological events such as tumor invasion and metastasis. The {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3} integrin is expressed in normal endothelial cells but it is over-expressed in the tumor neo vasculature. Peptides based on the Arginine-Glycine-Aspartic acid (RGD) sequence have been reported as molecules with high affinity and selectivity for the {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3} integrin. Recent studies have demonstrated that conjugating peptides to gold nanoparticles (AuNP) produces biocompatible and stable multifunctional systems with target-specific molecular recognition due to multivalent effects produced by multiple simultaneous interactions between peptides and their receptors. The first aim of this research was to prepare a m ultimeric system of {sup 99m}Tc labeled gold particles conjugated to c[RGDfK(C)] and to evaluate its biological behavior as a potential radiopharmaceutical for molecular imaging of {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3} tumor expression. Hidrazinonicotinamide-G GC (HYNIC-G GC) and C[RGDfK(C)] peptides were synthesized and conjugated to AuNP (20 nm) by means of spontaneous reaction of the thiol groups of cysteine. The nano conjugate was characterized by transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform-infrared, Ultraviolet-vis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. To obtain {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-G GC-AuNP-c[RGDfK(C)], the {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-G GC radio peptide was first prepared and added to the AuNP solution followed by c[RGDfK(C)]. Radiochemical purity (Rp) was determined by size-exclusion HPLC and I TLC-Sg analyses. In vitro binding studies were carried out in {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3} receptor-positive C6 glioma cancer cells. Biodistribution studies were accomplished in athymic mice with C6-induced tumors with blocked and non blocked receptors, and images were obtained using a micro-SPECT/CT. Transmission electron microscopy and spectroscopy techniques demonstrated that AuNP were functionalized with peptides. Rp was 96 {+-} 2% without post-labeling purification. {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-G GC-AuNP-RGD showed specific recognition for {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3} integrin s expressed in C6 cells, and 3 h after i.p. administration in mice, the tumor uptake was 8.18 {+-} 0.57% Id/g. Micro-SPECT/CT images showed evident tumor uptake. {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-G GC-AuNP-RGD demonstrates properties suitable for use as a new target-specific agent for molecular imaging of tumor {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3} expression. the second aim of this research was to determine the eco toxicological risk, measured by oxidative stress induction in Hyalella aztec, of the well-characterized multifunctional RGD-AuNP system (Tc-HYNIC-G GC-AuNP-c[RGDfK(C)]). In acute toxicological studies, a median lethal concentration of 1.83 cm{sup 2} per milliliter of medium was established for the Tc-HYNIC-G GC-AuNP-c[RGDfK(C)] conjugate. Tests assessing the effects of oxidative stress such as lipo peroxidation and protein carbonyl protein content suggest that this nano conjugate does not induces changes in oxidative markers because the activity of antioxidant defenses including catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase do not show an increase related to oxidative stress imbalance. Due to the chain length and steric effect of the peptides attached to gold nanoparticles by Au-S bonds, the Tc-HYNIC-G GC-AuNP-C[RGDfK(C)] complex does not react with intracellular glutathione or thiol-proteins and, therefore, does not induce increases in reactive oxygen species. Therefore, Tc-HYNIC-G GC-AuNP-c[RGDfK(C)] (20 nm) is a new chemically stable diagnostic pharmaceutical that does not induce eco toxicity measured by the oxidative stress induction in Hyalella aztec after complete radionuclide decay. This study suggests that Hyalella aztec is a suitable model animal for environmental toxicology studies of nanoparticles. (Author)

  13. Winter food habits and preferences of northern bobwhites in east Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald R. Dietz; R. Montague Whiting; Nancy E. Koerth

    2009-01-01

    During late winter, 1994 and 1995, we investigated food habits and preferences of northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus; hereafter, bobwhites) collected on forested lands in east Texas. Crops for bobwhites were collected from areas under 3 management regimes, namely intensively managed for bobwhites (QMA) (i.e., tree basal area reduced...

  14. Notas a la gaviota libertada en el campo, 31 de enero de 1951

    OpenAIRE

    Valverde Gómez, José Antonio, 1926-2003

    2008-01-01

    Notas a la Gaviota reidora (Larus ridibundus) libertada en el campo, cerca del Puente Colgante de Valladolid, el 31 de enero de 1951. Incluye observaciones de patos domésticos y Pavos reales (Pavo cristatus), y un pequeño esquema del enclave observado. Notes to the Common Black-headed Gull (Larus ridibundus) released in the field, near the Puente Colgante of Valladolid, the 31st of January of 1951. Observations of domestic ducks and Indian Peafowls (Pavo cristatus) and a little map of the ...

  15. Plants of an Eucalyptus clone damaged by Scolytidae and Platypodidae (Coleoptera Plantas de Eucalyptus atacadas por Scolytidae e Platypodidae (Coleoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Cola Zanuncio

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Species of Scolytidae and Platypodidae were evaluated in a plantation using a clone of Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Wood disks with galleries were taken from 15 eucalyptus trees between 0.5 and 1.5 m height. After collection, all trees attacked were burned. Woodborers obtained from these disks were identified as Premnobius cavipennis, Premnobius ambitiosus, Dryocoetoides cristatus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae and Euplatypus parallelus (Coleoptera: Platypodidae. This is the first report of D. cristatus, a Brazilian native species, damaging eucalyptus, which shows its adaptation to this plant.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o ataque de Scolytidae e Platypodidae em talhão de clone Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla na região de Montes Claros, Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Discos de madeira com galerias desses insetos foram retirados de 15 árvores de eucalipto entre 0,5 e 1,5 m de altura. Após a coleta deste material, as árvores atacadas foram queimadas. Os indivíduos da ordem Coleoptera obtidos desses discos foram identificados como Premnobius cavipennis, Premnobius ambitiosus e Dryocoetoides cristatus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae e Euplatypus parallelus (Coleoptera: Platypodidae. O ataque de D. cristatus, espécie nativa do Brasil, ao eucalipto ainda não havia sido relatado, o que mostra sua adaptação a essa planta.

  16. Applying an Avian Index of Biological Integrity to Assess and Monitor Arid and Semi-arid Riparian Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    e.g., foraging or reproduction behavior). Measurement of the IHD. The purpose of the IHD is to establish a gradient of human disturbance that may...sparverius Resident Insectivore Ground Hawk PIF 2A Non-Dependent Native Cavity Domestic Peacock Pavo cristatus Resident Granivore Ground Captive

  17. Fatal Syngamus trachea Infection in a Barn Owl (Tyto alba) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in a Pea fowl (Pavo cristatus) ZooPrint Journal 18(9):1204. TARELLO, W. (2008). Efficacy of ivermectins against intestinal capillariosis in falcons Parasite 15(2):. 171-174. WELTE, S.C. and KIRKPATRICK, C.E.. (1986) Syngamiasis injuvenile American robins (Turdus migratorius) with a note on prevalence of other faecal ...

  18. Note on the smaller mammals of the Hester Malan Nature Reserve ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORDER CARNIVORA. FAMILY PROTELIDAE. Prote/es cristatus. Aardwolf/ Maanhaarjakkals. This species is rarely seen because of its nocturnal habits. Their middens were located in an area of about 100 ha in the Reserve. Their meat is regarded as a delicacy by people in surrounding areas which probably limits numbers.

  19. Intestinal protozoan parasites with zoonotic potential in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marietto-Gonçalves, G A; Fernandes, T M; Silva, R J; Lopes, R S; Andreatti Filho, R L

    2008-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of potentially zoonotic intestinal protozoan infections in exotic and wildlife Brazilian birds. Fecal samples from 207 birds of 45 species were examined. Infections by Balantidium sp., Entamoeba sp., and Blastocystis sp. were observed in 17 individuals (8.2%) of Gnorimopsar chopi, Oryzoborus angolensis, Sporophila caerulescens, Ramphastos toco, Aratinga leucophtalmus, and Pavo cristatus.

  20. Notes on Movement by the Black-Backed Jackal and the Aardwolf in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This information was sought to try and establish the potential range of the jackal before any attempts are made to develop more sophisticated tracking devices such as telemetry. During the preliminary study some aardwolves Proteles cristatus were caught and a few of these animals yielded incidental information on ...

  1. Biosorption of Cadmium from Aqueous Solutions Using A local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cadmium (Cd) (II) resistant strain of a marine fungus, named Aspergillus cristatus was isolated from heavy metals polluted area in the Mediterranean Sea, Alexandria, Egypt during autumn, 2009. It could tolerate up to 100 mg l–1. Optimization of culture conditions for production of fungal biomass fortifying maximum Cd (II) ...

  2. Reduced mortality among young endangered masked bobwhite quail fed oxytetracycline-supplemented diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine the effect of oxytetracycline-supplemented diets on mortality of young endangered masked bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus ridgwayi). Inclusion of oxytetracycline at 200 g per ton in the feed for 6 weeks resulted in a marked, significant reduction in mortality of young masked bobwhite quail raised in captivity. Including the antibiotic in feed during the first week of life reduced mortality as effectively as feeding it for a longer period.

  3. Threatened Vertebrate Species Occurring or Believed to Occur in the Floodplains of the Mississippi River between Cairo, Illinois, and Minneapolis, Minnesota, and of the Illinois Waterway between Grafton, Illinois, and Chicago, Illinois,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    heterophylla), and black willow (Salix nigra), with swamp white oak ( Quercus bicolor) and pin oak (p. valustri3) also important. Skorepa and Ozment (1968...of its original prairie habitat has seen destroyed. GREAT PLAINS RAT SNAKE Elaphe guttata emoryi (Baird and Girard) (Ill. -Rare) The Great Plains Rat...forficatus 119 F Clemmys guttata 41, 117 Elaphe guttata emoryi 49, 118 Cnemidophorus sexlineatus 43, 44, 117 Elassoma zonatum. 27, 114 Colinus virginianus

  4. ASPEK ZOONOTIK PARASIT NEMATODA PADA KERA DAN BINATANG MENGERAT DI BENGKULU, SUMATERA. INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Untung S.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Twentyfive monkeys and 481 rats were examined for parasitic nematodes in Bengkulu, nine species of nematode were found infecting these animals. Five of filarían nematodes, i.e. Brugia malayi, Brugia pahangi, Dirofilaria magnilarvatum and Edesonfilaria malayensis were infecting monkeys and one speciesTBreinlia booliati, was found infecting rats. Three species of gastrointestinal helminths, i.e. Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis and Oestophagomomum spp were found in monkeys; a lung worm, Angiostrongylus cantonensis, was found in rats. The most important nematode species is B. malayi, which was found in Presbytis cristatus (36.8 % and in Macaca fascicularis (20.0 %. T. trichiura was found in R. cristatus (47.9 % and A. cantonensis in Rattus argentiventer (4.0 % and Rattus tiomanicus (2.9%.

  5. Diplocephalus komposchi n. sp., a new species of erigonine spider (Araneae, Linyphiidae) from Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milasowszky, Norbert; Bauder, Julia; Hepner, Martin

    2017-05-16

    The erigonine cladistic analyses of Hormiga (2000) and Miller & Hormiga (2004) demonstrated unambiguous support for a sister-taxon relationship between the genera Diplocephalus and Savignia. These genera, in addition to others, are commonly placed in the Savignia-group. Although the Savignia-group is not monophyletic as it was originally circumscribed by Millidge (1977), it contains a monophyletic core of genera that has been supported in various cladistic analyses, starting with Hormiga (2000). According to the most recent phylogenetic study (Frick et al. 2010), a clade within the Savignia-group included Diplocephalus along with Araeoncus, Dicymbium, Erigonella, Glyphesis and Savignia. Frick et al. (2010) included three Diplocephalus species - cristatus, latifrons and picinus - in their cladistic analyses. While D. latifrons and D. picinus were found to be the most basal species of the Savignia-group, D. cristatus was the most distal one.

  6. Skin swabs with FTA® cards as a dry storage source for amphibian DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, A; Hide, G; Jehle, R

    2018-01-01

    Amphibians are the most endangered group of vertebrates, and conservation measures increasingly rely on information drawn from genetic markers. The present study explores skin swabs with Whatman FTA® cards as a method to retrieve PCR-amplifiable amphibian DNA. Swabs from ten adult great crested newts (Triturus cristatus) were used to compare FTA® card-based protocols with tissue sampling based on toe clips. PCR success rates were measured for seven microsatellite markers and one mtDNA marker ...

  7. Cryptococcus neoformans var neoformans isolated from droppings of captive birds in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irokanulo, E O; Makinde, A A; Akuesgi, C O; Ekwonu, M

    1997-04-01

    The yeast, Cryptococcus neoformans, was found in apparently healthy birds at the Jos Wildlife Park and Zoo in Jos, Nigeria. Cryptococcus neoformans var neoformans was isolated from feces of four captive bird species. Five isolates belonged to serotype A while two were serotype D. Serotype A of C. neoformans was isolated from a white face duck (Dendrocygna viduata), eagle owl (Bubo africanus cinerascene) and peacock (Pavo cristatus). The other two (serotype D), were isolated from a spotted eagle owl.

  8. Variation in zooplankton prey distribution determines marine foraging distributions of breeding Cassin's Auklet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, Douglas F.; Mackas, David L.; Welch, David W.; Boyd, W. Sean; Ryder, John L.; Galbraith, Moira; Hedd, April; Morgan, Ken; O'Hara, Patrick D.

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the causal basis for patterns of seabird foraging distributions during breeding we integrated data from ship-board seabird and zooplankton surveys, aerial radio telemetry, and colony-based research programs. We examined the marine distributions of Cassin's Auklet (Ptychoramphus aleuticus) breeding on Triangle Island, in the Northeast Pacific off the coast of B.C., Canada using surveys conducted in 1999, 2000, and 2001. Concurrently, we sampled zooplankton at 16 stations along a cross shelf transect in the vicinity of Triangle Island. In 1999 and 2000, when populations of the preferred copepod prey Neocalanus cristatus were available at deep-water stations (1000-2000 m), the majority of the auklets were concentrated SW of the colony 40-75 km offshore and parallel to, but 35 -50 km beyond the shelf break in deep water (1200-2000 m). Birds did not fly farther out to sea to where prey was five times more abundant when N. cristatus could be found at lower abundance levels, closer to the colony. In 2001, N. cristatus were virtually absent at the deep-water stations, likely as a result of massive salp (family Salpidae) aggregations which may have consumed and displaced the seabirds' preferred prey. We demonstrate that while birds were still able to locate and provision chicks with N. cristatus in 2001, they had to forage farther away from the colony in order to do so. Our telemetry results are generally consistent with analyses of at-sea distributions of Cassin's Auklets derived from ship-board surveys (1990-2010) both of which have contributed to the design of the proposed Scott Islands marine National Wildlife Area, the first of its kind in Canada.

  9. Noise pollution has limited effects on nocturnal vigilance in peahens

    OpenAIRE

    Yorzinski, Jessica L.; Hermann, Fredrick S.

    2016-01-01

    Natural environments are increasingly exposed to high levels of noise pollution. Noise pollution can alter the behavior of animals but we know little about its effects on antipredator behavior. We therefore investigated the impact of noise pollution on vigilance behavior and roost selection in an avian species, peafowl (Pavo cristatus), that inhabits urban environments. Captive peahens were exposed to noise pollution at night and their vigilance levels and roost selections were monitored. The...

  10. Thermoregulatory postures limit antipredator responses in peafowl

    OpenAIRE

    Jessica L. Yorzinski; Jennifer Lam; Rachel Schultz; Melissa Davis

    2018-01-01

    Many animals inhabit environments where they experience temperature fluctuations. One way in which animals can adjust to these temperature changes is through behavioral thermoregulation. However, we know little about the thermal benefits of postural changes and the costs they may incur. In this study, we examined the thermoregulatory role of two postures, the head-tuck and leg-tuck posture, in peafowl (Pavo cristatus) and evaluated whether the head-tuck posture imposes a predation cost. The h...

  11. Life-history and ecological distribution of chameleons (Reptilia, Chamaeleonidae) from the rain forests of Nigeria: conservation implications

    OpenAIRE

    Akani, G. C.; Ogbalu, O. K.; Luiselli, L.

    2001-01-01

    Five species of chameleons were observed in the continuous forest zone of southern Nigeria: Chamaeleo gracilis gracilis Hallowell, 1842, Chamaeleo owenii Gray, 1831, Chamaeleo cristatus Stutchbury, 1837, Chamaeleo wiedersheimi Nieden, 1910, and Rhampholeon spectrum (Bucholz 1874). Many original locality records are presented for each species. One species is apparently rare and confined to montane habitats (C. wiedersheimi), another species is relatively common and its habitat is generalist (C...

  12. Influence of protein level and supplemental methionine in practical rations for young endangered masked bobwhite quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine the protein requirement of young endangered masked Bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus ridgwayi). Five practical starting rations containing 24 to 32% protein were fed alone and supplemented with methionine for 5 weeks. Supplemental methionine significantly improved growth of quail fed diets containing 24 and 26% protein. Increasing the protein level improved growth of quail fed unsupplemented diets but did not do so when diets contained supplemental methionine. A methionine-supplemented ration containing 24% protein appeared adequate for supporting rapid growth of masked Bobwhite quail.

  13. Phylogenomic and MALDI-TOF MS analysis of Streptococcus sinensis HKU4T reveals a distinct phylogenetic clade in the genus Streptococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Jade L L; Huang, Yi; Tse, Herman; Chen, Jonathan H K; Tang, Ying; Lau, Susanna K P; Woo, Patrick C Y

    2014-10-20

    Streptococcus sinensis is a recently discovered human pathogen isolated from blood cultures of patients with infective endocarditis. Its phylogenetic position, as well as those of its closely related species, remains inconclusive when single genes were used for phylogenetic analysis. For example, S. sinensis branched out from members of the anginosus, mitis, and sanguinis groups in the 16S ribosomal RNA gene phylogenetic tree, but it was clustered with members of the anginosus and sanguinis groups when groEL gene sequences used for analysis. In this study, we sequenced the draft genome of S. sinensis and used a polyphasic approach, including concatenated genes, whole genomes, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry to analyze the phylogeny of S. sinensis. The size of the S. sinensis draft genome is 2.06 Mb, with GC content of 42.2%. Phylogenetic analysis using 50 concatenated genes or whole genomes revealed that S. sinensis formed a distinct cluster with Streptococcus oligofermentans and Streptococcus cristatus, and these three streptococci were clustered with the "sanguinis group." As for phylogenetic analysis using hierarchical cluster analysis of the mass spectra of streptococci, S. sinensis also formed a distinct cluster with S. oligofermentans and S. cristatus, but these three streptococci were clustered with the "mitis group." On the basis of the findings, we propose a novel group, named "sinensis group," to include S. sinensis, S. oligofermentans, and S. cristatus, in the Streptococcus genus. Our study also illustrates the power of phylogenomic analyses for resolving ambiguities in bacterial taxonomy. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  14. Investigation of histone H4 hyperacetylation dynamics in the 5S rRNA genes family by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlibașa, Liliana; Suciu, Ilinca

    2015-12-01

    Oogenesis is a critical event in the formation of female gamete, whose role in development is to transfer genomic information to the next generation. During this process, the gene expression pattern changes dramatically concomitant with genome remodelling, while genomic information is stably maintained. The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of H4 acetylation of the oocyte and somatic 5S rRNA genes in Triturus cristatus, using chromatin immunoprecipitation assay (ChIP). Our findings suggest that some epigenetic mechanisms such as histone acetylation could be involved in the transcriptional regulation of 5S rRNA gene families.

  15. [Susceptibility of birds other than chickens to infectious laryngotracheitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbink, F W

    1985-06-01

    Susceptibility to infectious laryngotracheitis virus was studied in peafowl (Pavo cristatus), various species of pheasant (Phasianus colchicus, Lophura swinhoeii, Lophophorus impejanus), guinea-fowl (Numida meleagris), canaries (Serinus canaria), budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) and Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnic japonica). Apart from clinical observations, experiments were evaluated in terms of histopathology, immunofluorescence, serology and recovery of virus. Only peafowl and pheasants were found to be susceptible, pheasants responding more strongly than chickens to ocular vaccination and intratracheal inoculation. The other species were found to be refractory.

  16. New records of lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) from domestic and ornamental birds from Chile

    OpenAIRE

    González-Acuña, D; Lara, J; Cicchino, A

    2009-01-01

    Por medio del examen del plumaje de aves domésticas y ornamentales en Chile se reconfirma la presencia de los phthiraptera Menopon gallinae, Goniodes gigas, Goniocotes gallinae y Menacanthus stramineus en la gallina doméstica, Gallus gallus domesticus y se registra además por primera vez en el país la especie Menacanthus pallidulus. En aves ornamentales se registran en pavo, Meleagris gallipavo, la especie M. stramineus, en pavo real, Pavo cristatus las especies Goniodes pavonis y Amrysidea m...

  17. Nuevos registros de piojos (Insecta: Phthiraptera) en aves domésticas y ornamentales en Chile New records of lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) from domestic and ornamental birds from Chile

    OpenAIRE

    D González-Acuña; J Lara; A Cicchino

    2009-01-01

    Por medio del examen del plumaje de aves domésticas y ornamentales en Chile se reconfirma la presencia de los phthiraptera Menopon gallinae, Goniodes gigas, Goniocotes gallinae y Menacanthus stramineus en la gallina doméstica, Gallus gallus domesticus y se registra además por primera vez en el país la especie Menacanthus pallidulus. En aves ornamentales se registran en pavo, Meleagris gallipavo, la especie M. stramineus, en pavo real, Pavo cristatus las especies Goniodes pavonis y Amrysidea m...

  18. Gipuzkoan hegazti habigile batzuen lehen aipamenak eta beste aipamen interesgarri batzuk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLANO, M., VAZQUEZ, J., AIERBE, T.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Como resultado del trabajo de campo realizado estos últimos años, se da cuenta por primera vez de la presencia como aves nidificantes en Gipuzkoa de Fulica atra, Policeps cristatus, Tachybaptus ruficollis, Riparia riparia, Falco subbuteo, Asio otus, Aquila chysaëtos, Circaetus Gallicus y Drycopus martius. Además, se recogen datos de unas cuantas especies muy poco conocidas en esta provincia : Accipiter gentilis, Hieraëtus pennatus, Milvus migrans, Bubo bubo, Motacilla flava, Monticola solitarius and Certthia familiaris.

  19. Entre muitas histórias: comentários ao texto da autora Maria Isabel Barreno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivete Lara Camargos Walty

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available O texto da autora Maria Isabel Barreno aqui apresentado é ele próprio um mapa de vários caminhos, ou fragmentos de mapas, nós de um hipertexto, escritura marcada pela subjetividade autoral em suas diversas possibilidades

  20. Revisão dos gêneros Prionolopha e Securigera (Orthoptera, Romaleidae, Romaleinae Revision of the genera Prionolopha and Securigera (Orthoptera, Romaleidae, Romaleinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney Moraes de Vasconcellos

    Full Text Available Realizamos a revisão dos gêneros Prionolopha Stål, 1873 e Securigera Bolívar, 1909, baseada no exame da morfologia externa de machos e fêmeas, espermateca e complexo fálico. Consideramos Prionolopha daguerrei Liebermann, 1935 e P. evoneoi Piza, 1981 sinônimos de P. serrata (Linnaeus, 1758. Transferimos Alcamenes cristatus Bruner, 1906 para o gênero Securigera Bolívar, 1909. Incluímos figuras de cada espécie e o mapa de distribuição geográfica.A revision of the genera Prionolopha Stål, 1873 and Securigera Bolívar, 1909 based on the examination of the external morphology of male and female and the spermathecae and phallic complex is given. Prionolopha daguerrei Liebermann, 1935 and P. evoneoi Piza, 1981 are considered synonyms of P. serrata (Linnaeus, 1758. Alcamenes cristatus Bruner, 1906 is transfered to genus Securigera Bolívar, 1909. Illustrations of each species and a map of the geographical distribution are also included.

  1. Similar local and landscape processes affect both a common and a rare newt species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denoël, Mathieu; Perez, Amélie; Cornet, Yves; Ficetola, Gentile Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Although rare species are often the focus of conservation measures, more common species may experience similar decline and suffer from the same threatening processes. We tested this hypothesis by examining, through an information-theoretic approach, the importance of ecological processes at multiple scales in the great crested newt Triturus cristatus, regionally endangered and protected in Europe, and the more common smooth newt, Lissotriton vulgaris. Both species were similarly affected by the same processes, i.e. suitability of aquatic and terrestrial components of their habitat at different scales, connectivity among breeding sites, and the presence of introduced fish. T. cristatus depended more on water depth and aquatic vegetation than L. vulgaris. The results show that environmental pressures threaten both common and rare species, and therefore the more widespread species should not be neglected in conservation programs. Because environmental trends are leading to a deterioration of aquatic and terrestrial habitat features required by newt populations, populations of the common species may follow the fate of the rarest species. This could have substantial conservation implications because of the numerical importance of common species in ecosystems and because commonness could be a transient state moving towards rarity. On the other hand, in agreement with the umbrella species concept, targeting conservation efforts on the most demanding species would also protect part of the populations of the most common species.

  2. Hormonal responses and tolerance to cold of female quail following parathion ingestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, B.A.; Sileo, L.; Scanes, C.G.

    1982-01-01

    Thirty-week-old female bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus), maintained at 26 + 1?C, were provided diets containing 0,25, or 100 ppm parathion ad libitum. After 10 days, birds were exposed to mild cold (6 + 1?C) for 4,8, 12, 24, or 48 hr. Brain acetylcholinesterase activity was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner in birds receiving 25 and 100 ppm parathion. Body weight, egg production, and plasma luteinizing hormone and progesterone concentrations were reduced in birds receiving 100 ppm parathion compared with other groups. Cold exposure did not alter plasma corticosterone levels in the 0- and 25-ppm parathion groups, but a two- to five fold elevation of plasma corticosterone was observed in birds fed 100 ppm parathion. These findings indicate that (i) short-term ingestion of parathion can impair reproduction possibly by altering gonadotropin or steroid secretion, and (ii) tolerance to cold may be reduced following ingestion of this organophosphate.

  3. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Eimeria innocua (Eimeriidae, Coccidia, Apicomplexa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafeez, Mian Abdul; Vrba, Vladimir; Barta, John Robert

    2016-07-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Eimeria innocua KR strain (Eimeriidae, Coccidia, Apicomplexa) was sequenced. This coccidium infects turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo), Bobwhite quails (Colinus virginianus), and Grey partridges (Perdix perdix). Genome organization and gene contents were comparable with other Eimeria spp. infecting galliform birds. The circular-mapping mt genome of E. innocua is 6247 bp in length with three protein-coding genes (cox1, cox3, and cytb), 19 gene fragments encoding large subunit (LSU) rRNA and 14 gene fragments encoding small subunit (SSU) rRNA. Like other Apicomplexa, no tRNA was encoded. The mitochondrial genome of E. innocua confirms its close phylogenetic affinities to Eimeria dispersa.

  4. Comparative reproductive and physiological responses of northern bobwhite and scaled quail to water deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliano, W.M.; Patino, R.; Lutz, R.S.

    1998-01-01

    We compared reproductive and physiological responses of captive female northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) and scaled quail (Callipepla squamata) under control and water deprivation conditions. Scaled quail required less food and water to reproduce successfully under control conditions than northern bobwhite. Additionally, in scaled quail, serum osmolality levels and kidney mass were unaffected by water deprivation, whereas in northern bobwhite, serum osmolality levels increased and kidney mass declined. This finding indicates that scaled quail may have osmoregulatory abilities superior to those of northern bobwhite. Under control conditions, northern bobwhite gained more body mass and produced more but smaller eggs than scaled quail. Under water deprivation conditions, northern bobwhite lost more body mass but had more laying hens with a higher rate of egg production than scaled quail. Our data suggest that northern bobwhite allocated more resources to reproduction than to body maintenance, while scaled quail apparently forego reproduction in favor of body maintenance during water deprivation conditions.

  5. Extreme climatic events constrain space use and survival of a ground-nesting bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Evan P; Elmore, R Dwayne; Fuhlendorf, Samuel D; Davis, Craig A; Dahlgren, David K; Orange, Jeremy P

    2017-05-01

    Two fundamental issues in ecology are understanding what influences the distribution and abundance of organisms through space and time. While it is well established that broad-scale patterns of abiotic and biotic conditions affect organisms' distributions and population fluctuations, discrete events may be important drivers of space use, survival, and persistence. These discrete extreme climatic events can constrain populations and space use at fine scales beyond that which is typically measured in ecological studies. Recently, a growing body of literature has identified thermal stress as a potential mechanism in determining space use and survival. We sought to determine how ambient temperature at fine temporal scales affected survival and space use for a ground-nesting quail species (Colinus virginianus; northern bobwhite). We modeled space use across an ambient temperature gradient (ranging from -20 to 38 °C) through a maxent algorithm. We also used Andersen-Gill proportional hazard models to assess the influence of ambient temperature-related variables on survival through time. Estimated available useable space ranged from 18.6% to 57.1% of the landscape depending on ambient temperature. The lowest and highest ambient temperature categories (35 °C, respectively) were associated with the least amount of estimated useable space (18.6% and 24.6%, respectively). Range overlap analysis indicated dissimilarity in areas where Colinus virginianus were restricted during times of thermal extremes (range overlap = 0.38). This suggests that habitat under a given condition is not necessarily a habitat under alternative conditions. Further, we found survival was most influenced by weekly minimum ambient temperatures. Our results demonstrate that ecological constraints can occur along a thermal gradient and that understanding the effects of these discrete events and how they change over time may be more important to conservation of organisms than are average and broad

  6. Efectos del olvido dirigido con el método de las palabras: una comparación entre pruebas directas e indirectas de memoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliano Díez

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente estudio se analizaron los efectos del olvido dirigido en pruebas directas (reconocimiento y recuerdo e indirectas (categorización y detección de letras. Los resultados mostraron que las palabras marcadas para aprender se recordaban mejor y se reconocían más rápido y con mayor precisión que las marcadas para olvidar. Este patrón de resultados se replicó con la prueba de categorización. Sin embargo, no se encontró olvido dirigido en la prueba de detección de letras. Los resultados se discuten en función de la hipótesis basada en el repaso diferencial como mecanismo implicado en el olvido dirigido con el método de las palabras.

  7. Cumbre de Viena: energía, polarización y búsqueda de liderazgos

    OpenAIRE

    Bermúdez, Ángel; Soriano, Juan Pablo

    2006-01-01

    La IV Cumbre Unión Europea – América Latina y el Caribe (UE-ALC), celebrada en Viena los días 11, 12 y 13 de mayo, estuvo marcada por una creciente polarización interna latinoamericana, por los problemas europeos para definir un liderazgo sobre el futuro del proyecto de integración y por la crisis global de energía.

  8. Creencias, prácticas y actitudes de mujeres embarazadas frente a las infecciones urinarias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Édgar Castro F.

    2008-01-01

    Resultados: la investigación permitió conocer el impacto que tiene el saber cultural sobre la práctica consciente del autocuidado durante la etapa de la gestación. Así mismo, la resistencia marcada hacia el uso o tratamiento con antibióticos, por pensar en los efectos dañinos que estos medicamentos pueden causar en el bebé.

  9. Podredumbre radical bacteriana del alcaucil en Mendoza (Argentina)

    OpenAIRE

    Soto, José Alfredo; Puglia, María Carolina

    2002-01-01

    En alcauciles (Cynara scolymus L.) de la variedad Bleek cultivados en Coquimbito (Mendoza, Argentina) se observó marcada detención del crecimiento y atraso en la formación de las inflorescencias. Las plantas sanas tenían aprox. 1 m de altura mientras las enfermas no llegaban a 30 cm. Las hojas más externas manifestaban clorosis y leve marchitez con posterior necrosis. Se realizaron aislamientos en APG de...

  10. Recomanacions per al control de la brucel·losi a Catalunya

    OpenAIRE

    Ariza Cardenal, Javier; Esteban, E.; Foz, A. (Amadeu), 1913-1993; Díaz, R.; Mora, R.; Ollé, J.; Rodríguez-Torres, A.; Segura i Benedicto, Andreu

    1987-01-01

    La brucel·losi humana es coneix al nostre país també amb els noms de febre de Malta i, en ocasions, de febre ondulant i de melitocòccia. Tanmateix, l'expressió brucel·losi ofereix nombrosos avantatges i hi ha una marcada tendència a incrementar-ne l'ús, per la qual cosa utilitzarem exclusivament aquesta denominació.

  11. Estudio de las características de los morteros con adiciones provenientes de neumáticos fuera de uso (NFUs).

    OpenAIRE

    Gualdrón Pernía, Karla Andreina

    2011-01-01

    La creciente evolución de las sociedades y grandes ciudades, ha estado marcada por el desarrollo de industrias que intentan satisfacer las necesidades de los habitantes, entre estas se encuentra la industria automotriz, evolucionando notoriamente en los últimos 100 años, y provocando una serie de consecuencias e impactos medioambientales, muchas veces irreparables. Junto con la industria automotriz crece exponencialmente la de neumáticos, ocasionando la generación incontrolada de residuos ...

  12. Políticas educacionais contemporâneas: tecnologias, imaginários e regimes éticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Manuela Alves Garcia

    2010-01-01

    marcadas por la necesidad de justicia e igualdad social. Concluye que el discurso de las reformas y de promoción de la calidad de la educación, viene siendo tomado como préstamo para justificar el movimiento de reorganización del Estado brasileño en bases gerenciales, no modificando sustancialmente las condiciones de desigualdad de educación entre los jóvenes oriundos de diferentes clases sociales.

  13. Ambiente psicologico en las organizaciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damarcy Cortés Baracaldo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available El talento humano en las organizaciones se ha convertido en las ultimas decadas en un recurso que se administra de acuerdo al estilo de liderazgo del jefe, lo que implica una marcada relación hacia la tarea, hacia las relaciones con el personal o una combinación de estas dos, que desencadenan en un ambiente psicológico exclusive en cada organización.

  14. Entrenamiento de fuerza para la salud

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz Cervera, Vicente

    1996-01-01

    Este artículo describe de manera breve y clara los efectos del entrenamiento de fuerza sobre la salud, al mismo tiempo da pautas para la realización y programación de los entrenamientos de fuerza para la salud en distintas edades. Se muestran las diferentes variables del entrenamiento de la fuerza junto con ejemplos de entrenamientos, basándose en las pautas marcadas en la revisión bibliográfica descrita.

  15. “Matrices de aprendizaje” emancipadoras. OVNI (Observatorio de Video no Identificado) y el videoactivismo

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez Blanco, María Palmar

    2017-01-01

    Partiendo de la premisa de que no estamos solos ante una crisis económica sino ante una crisis planetaria y de civilización marcada por la desaparición de los derechos humanos y los derechos de la naturaleza, este ensayo revisa el concepto de colonialidad del saber o “colonialismo interno” (Rivera Cusicanqui) junto al de matriz del aprendizaje capitalista como estructura instituyente tanto de una psique colonizadora como de una subalterna y de las rela...

  16. Ensino agrícola e influência norte-americana no Brasil (1945-1961

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    Sonia Regina de Mendonça

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo trata das redefinições sofridas pelo Ensino Agrícola no Brasil, a partir da conjuntura marcada pelo fim da II Guerra Mundial/Guerra Fria, quando inúmeros acordos de "cooperação técnica" seriam firmados entre os governos brasileiro e estadunidense, objetivando "recuperar" seu novo público-alvo: o trabalhador rural adulto e analfabeto.

  17. MAPPING THE REGION OF INSTABILITY FOR ADIABATIC PACKED BED REACTORS USING A HOMOTOPY CONTINUATION METHOD

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    JUAN PABLO GUTIÉRREZ HERNANDEZ

    2010-01-01

    gas de síntesis, y la oxidación de SO2. Las ecuaciones son parametrizadas y resueltas de acuerdo a un método de continuación por homotopía. Los resultados demuestran que la concentración de inertes y la presión tienen marcada influencia sobre el tamaño de la región de inestabilidad.

  18. Aplicación tópica de la Curcuma longa L. en patologías cutáneas crónicas e inflamatorias. Psoriasis (Parte II

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    Juan de J. García Martín

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available La psoriasis es una dermatitis crónica de etiología desconocida. Clínicamente se caracteriza por unas lesiones populosas, sobre máculas eritemato-escamosas. La mayoría de éstas lesiones se desencadenan por alteraciones de la proliferación celular, estas vienen marcadas por mecanismos inmunológicos y genéticos.

  19. Società Italiani Uniti: do triunfo à decadência. A emergência do fascismo

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    Rosane Siqueira Teixeira

    Full Text Available O presente artigo apresenta parte do resultado da pesquisa realizada sobre a Società Italiani Uniti, uma associação italiana marcada pela emergência do fascismo, que existiu em Araraquara (SP entre os anos de 1920 e 1941. Pretende-se traçar a sua trajetória, do triunfo à decadência, discutindo suas funções, coesão e consenso.

  20. Diversidad de macroalgas asociada con un manto de rodolitos tropical de Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Amado-Filho, GM; Maneveldt, GW; Pereira-Filho, GH; Manso, RCC; Bahia, RG.; Barros-Barreto, MB; Guimarães, SMPB

    2010-01-01

    Se describen las poblaciones de las macroalgas submareales predominantemente tropicales que crecen sobre rodolitos entre 4 y 18 m de profundidad en la parte sur del estado de Espirito Santo (Brasil). Muestreos cualitativos y cuantitativos revelaron comunidades ricas en especies de algas, incluyendo 167 especies. Tres especies de rodofitas son nuevas adiciones a la flora marina de Brasil (Lithothamnion muelleri, Scinaia aborealis y Mesophyllum engelhartii). Las marcadas diferencias estacionale...

  1. Life-history and ecological distribution of chameleons (Reptilia, Chamaeleonidae from the rain forests of Nigeria: conservation implications

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    Akani, G. C.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Five species of chameleons were observed in the continuous forest zone of southern Nigeria: Chamaeleo gracilis gracilis Hallowell, 1842, Chamaeleo owenii Gray, 1831, Chamaeleo cristatus Stutchbury, 1837, Chamaeleo wiedersheimi Nieden, 1910, and Rhampholeon spectrum (Bucholz 1874. Many original locality records are presented for each species. One species is apparently rare and confined to montane habitats (C. wiedersheimi, another species is relatively common and its habitat is generalist (C. gracilis, and the other three species are vulnerable and limited to specific micro-habitats. Female R. spectrum had clutch sizes of two eggs each and exhibited a prolonged reproductive season with oviposition likely occurring during the late phase of the dry season. Females of both C. cristatus (clutch sizes: 11-14 eggs and C. owenii (clutch sizes: 15-19 eggs have a shorter reproductive season with oviposition occurring most probably at the interphase between the end of the wet season and the onset of the dry season, and female C. gracilis (clutch sizes: 14-23 eggs appeared to exhibit two distinct oviposition periods (one at the interphase between the end of the wet season and the onset of the dry season, and one at the peak phase of the dry season. Diets of four sympatric species of chameleons consisted almost exclusively of arthropods. There were significant inter-group differences at either intra-specific level (with the females of the two best studied species, i.e. R. spectrum and C. gracilis, having a wider food niche breadth than males or inter-specific level (with a continuum of dietary specialization from the less generalist (C. cristatus to the more generalist (C. gracilis. However, ‘thread-trailing’ experiments indicated that activity patterns of Nigerian chameleons were relatively similar among species. The overall abundance of chameleons (as estimated from the number of specimens observed in the time unit of field effort was relatively

  2. Marine iguanas die from trace oil pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikelski, Martin; Wong, Vanessa; Chevalier, Brett; Rattenborg, Niels; Snell, Howard L

    2002-06-06

    An oil tanker ran aground on the Galapagos island of San Cristóbal on 17 January 2001, spilling roughly three million litres of diesel and bunker oil. The slick started to spread westwards and was dispersed by strong currents, so only a few marine animals were killed immediately as a result. Here we draw on the long-term data sets gathered before the spill to show that a population of marine iguanas (Amblyrhychus cristatus) on Sante Fe island suffered a massive 62% mortality in the year after the accident, due to a small amount of residual oil contamination in the sea. Another population on the more remote island of Genovesa was unaffected.

  3. Small mammals of the Addo Elephant National Park

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    P. Swanepoel

    1975-07-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the small mammals of the Addo Elephant National Park resulted in a checklist, as well as information on relative numbers, distribution within the Park, reproductive activity, sex ratios, and body measurements. Forty mammals species occur in the Park, while three re-introduced species probably do not occur any longer. Of the 40 species 28 are considered small mammals comprising 13 rodent, eight carnivore, two shrew, two bat, one primate and one lagomorph species, as well as the aardvark: Crociduraflavescens, C. cyanea infumata, Rousettus aegyptiacus, Eptesicus capensis, Cercopithecus pygerythrus, Canis mesomelas, Ictonyx striatus, Poecilogale albinucha, Genetta sp., Herpestes pulverulentus, Suricata suricatta, Proteles cristatus, Felis caracal, Orycteropus afer, Lepus saxatilis, Cryptomys hottentotus, Hystrix africae-australis, Pedetes capensis, Graphiurus murinus, Aethomys namaquensis, Praomys natalensis, Rhabdomys pumilio, Mus minutoides, Rattus rattus, Saccostomys campestris, Desmodillus auricularis, Otomys irroratus and 0. unisulcatus.

  4. SURGICAL RECTIFICATION OF THREAD-ASSOCIATED GLOSSOPTOSIS IN PEAFOWLS

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    M. Athar, A. Shakoor, G. Muhammad, M.N. Asi, and M. Saqib

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Domesticated and/or caged peafowls (Pavo cristatus and other fancy birds suffer from a variety of disease conditions due to unnatural habitat and suboptimal managemental practices. The present article scribes glossoptosis (downward displacement of tongue in four juvenile peafowls caused by kite-flying read wrapped around the base of tongue and terminating somewhere in the lower gastrointestinal tract. The condition was characterized by difficulty in swallowing, chronic inappetance, gasping and a fading body condition. Severing of the proximal part of thread through crop and then unwinding it from the base .the tongue affected an instant relief. As far as could be ascertained, the condition under reference has not been reported heretofore in birds especially in peafowls.

  5. Plasma uric acid, creatinine, and urea nitrogen concentrations after whole blood administration via the gastrointestinal tract in domestic pigeons (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Julie; Hoover, John P; Payton, Mark E

    2007-06-01

    To determine if blood administered to pigeons by gavage tube would simulate gastrointestinal hemorrhage in a noncarnivorous avian model, be digested in the gastrointestinal tract, and subsequently alter concentrations of plasma urea nitrogen, creatinine, or uric acid, blood from common peacocks (Pavo cristatus) was administered by gavage tube to 5 healthy domestic pigeons (Columba livia) at doses of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, and 8.0 ml/kg. No significant difference in plasma concentrations of urea nitrogen, creatinine, or uric acid was seen 4-6 hours after gavage. The findings did not support or rule out the presence of gastrointestinal blood in pigeons as a model for hemorrhage in noncarnivorous avian species.

  6. Plasmodium durae Herman from the introduced common peafowl in northern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, M

    1978-02-01

    Plasmodium (Giovannolaia) durae Herman was originally described from Kenya, the type host being the common turkey, Meleagris gallopavo Linnaeus. There are no field records of this association outside of Africa, where the parasite, herein reported from another introduced and domesticated bird (the common peafowl, Pavo cristatus Linnaeus), was recently listed from 2 native Phasianidae of the genus Francolinus. The justification for the present identification is submitted against background data concerning malaria parasites from turkeys and other Galliformes in Africa and elsewhere, and restraint is urged in describing yet more "new species" of avian Plasmodium belonging to morphologically close taxa within Novyella and Giovannolaia. A near relative of P. durae, Plasmodium dissanaikei de Jong, is transferred from the former subgenus to the latter one.

  7. Comparative efficacy and pathogenicity of keratinophilic soil fungi against Culex quinquefasciatus larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Suman Sundar; Prakash, Soam

    2010-09-01

    Out of seven fungal species belonging to four genera isolated from pond and wallow soils using feathers of Pavo cristatus as bait, four species viz., Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Chrysosporium pseudomerdarium and Trichophyton ajelloi were most frequent. Chrysosporium and Trichophyton spp. were more pathogenic on Culex quinquefasciatus larvae than Aspergillus and Penicillium. The bioefficacy tests conducted as per the protocol of World Health Organization and the LC(50) values calculated by the Probit analysis showed that 3(rd)-instar C. quinquefasciatus were more susceptible to the conidia of above fungi. Highest mortality was observed in the larvae of C. quinquefasciatus when exposed to T. ajelloi. The density of fungal conidia was greatest on the ventral brush, palmate hair and anal region of the mosquito larvae after exposing for 72 hours. The potentiality of these fungi for use in the control of C. quinquefasciatus is discussed which can be exploited as a suitable biocontrol agent in the tropics.

  8. [Leukosis in captive wild birds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loupal, G

    1984-10-01

    Among 2589 captive wild birds, examined between 1974 and 1983, we found leukosis in 26 birds belonging to 13 different species and five orders. We diagnosed lymphoid leukosis in 11 birds (two Melopsittacus undulatus, two Psittacus erithacus one Platycerus eximius, one Columba livia, one Streptopelia decaocto, one Polyplectron bicalcaratum, one Pavo cristatus, one Aptenodytes patachonia and one finch, species unknown), myeloid leukosis in 14 (nine Melopsittacus undulatus, two Agapomis personata fischeri, two Urgeainthus bengalus and one Neophemia pulchella) and stem cell leukosis in one bird (Serinus canaria). Among the cases with lymphoid leukosis we distinguished between lymphoblastic (four cases) and prolymphocytic forms (seven). Myeloid leukosis was subdivided into poorly differentiated (12 cases) and well differentiated myeloblastosis (two).

  9. Noise pollution has limited effects on nocturnal vigilance in peahens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L. Yorzinski

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Natural environments are increasingly exposed to high levels of noise pollution. Noise pollution can alter the behavior of animals but we know little about its effects on antipredator behavior. We therefore investigated the impact of noise pollution on vigilance behavior and roost selection in an avian species, peafowl (Pavo cristatus, that inhabits urban environments. Captive peahens were exposed to noise pollution at night and their vigilance levels and roost selections were monitored. The vigilance levels of peahens were unaffected by exposure to noise pollution within trials. Furthermore, the peahens exhibited no preference for roosting farther or closer to noise pollution. Interestingly, predators often avoided the experimental area during nights with noise pollution, which could explain why vigilance rates were higher overall during control compared to noise trials. The results suggest that peahens’ perception of risk is not drastically impacted by noise pollution but longer-term studies will be necessary to assess any chronic effects.

  10. Maynard Smith: amplifying the reasons for signal reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, D G C

    2006-03-21

    One of the many questions to which John Maynard Smith contributed was that of why most animal signals are reliable. He initially rejected the "handicap" argument but gradually accepted it, a process I briefly describe. This episode illustrated his preference for mathematical models over verbal ones, and the generosity with which he could change his mind. Even after accepting that some signals are reliable because of their strategic costs, he argued for a pluralistic approach to signal reliability. Signal complexity was a developing interest when he died. Signals usually involve several components, some of which appear to amplify other signal components. The terms "amplifier" and "index" require more thought to reduce the scope for semantic confusion. I conclude by describing Maynard Smith's fascination with peacocks Pavo cristatus.

  11. Eye blinking in an avian species is associated with gaze shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorzinski, Jessica L

    2016-08-30

    Even when animals are actively monitoring their environment, they lose access to visual information whenever they blink. They can strategically time their blinks to minimize information loss and improve visual functioning but we have little understanding of how this process operates in birds. This study therefore examined blinking in freely-moving peacocks (Pavo cristatus) to determine the relationship between their blinks, gaze shifts, and context. Peacocks wearing a telemetric eye-tracker were exposed to a taxidermy predator (Vulpes vulpes) and their blinks and gaze shifts were recorded. Peacocks blinked during the majority of their gaze shifts, especially when gaze shifts were large, thereby timing their blinks to coincide with periods when visual information is already suppressed. They inhibited their blinks the most when they exhibited high rates of gaze shifts and were thus highly alert. Alternative hypotheses explaining the link between blinks and gaze shifts are discussed.

  12. Pox infection among captive peacocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Falluji, M M; Tantawi, H H; Al-Bana, A; Al-Sheikhly, S

    1979-10-01

    An outbreak of avian pox was detected among captive peacocks (Pavo cristatus) at Baghdad Zoological Park during spring, 1978. A total of 45 of the 60 birds in the aviary developed pox lesions around the beaks and eyes. Morbidity was 75% and mortality was 13%. A virus isolated from the skin lesions produced large plaques on the chorioallantoic membrane of developing chicken embryos and induced cytopathic effect characteristic for pox viruses in chicken embryo cell cultures. The virus neither haemagglutinated nor haemadsorbed to chicken erythrocytes. It was ether resistant and chloroform sensitive. Chickens inoculated with the virus by scarification developed localized pox-like lesions, while turkeys had only transient swelling of feather follicles at the site of inoculation. Virus partially purified with Genetron 113 was precipitated by antisera to fowlpox and pigeon pox viruses.

  13. Trends of some wintering waterbirds in Lazio (1993-2006

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    Massimo Brunelli

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the 90s, censuses of wintering waterfowl have been carried out in the main wetlands of Lazio. We analysed the trends of 31 species in the 1993-2006 period (base year 1993 by means of TRIM (Trends and Indices Monitoring data software (Model 3. Among the species regularly recorded in the region, Ardea alba, Ardea cinerea, Bubulcus ibis and Anser anser showed a strong increase; Podiceps cristatus, Nycticorax nycticorax, Egretta garzetta, Phoenicopterus ruber, Anas penelope, Anas strepera, Anas crecca, Anas platyrhynchos, Anas clypeata, Netta rufina, Aythya ferina, Aythya nyroca, Circus aeruginosus, Fulica atra, Pluvialis apricaria and Vanellus vanellus showed a moderate increase; Gavia arctica, Tachybaptus ruficollis, Podiceps nigricollis, Phalacrocorax carbo, Aythya fuligula and Numenius arquata resulted “stable”; Botaurus stellaris, Tadorna tadorna, Anas acuta, Pluvialis squatarola and Calidris alpina showed an uncertain trend. The trends for most species are similar to those recorded at a national level.

  14. A Comparative Study of Growth Patterns in Crested Langurs and Vervet Monkeys

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    Debra R. Bolter

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The physical growth patterns of crested langurs and vervet monkeys are investigated for several unilinear dimensions. Long bone lengths, trunk height, foot length, epiphyseal fusion of the long bones and the pelvis, and cranial capacity are compared through six dental growth stages in male Trachypithecus cristatus (crested langurs and Cercopithecus aethiops (vervet monkeys. Results show that the body elements of crested langurs mature differently than those of vervets. In some dimensions, langurs and vervets grow comparably, in others vervets attain adult values in advance of crested langurs, and in one feature the langurs are accelerated. Several factors may explain this difference, including phylogeny, diet, ecology, and locomotion. This study proposes that locomotor requirements affect differences in somatic growth between the species.

  15. Noise pollution has limited effects on nocturnal vigilance in peahens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorzinski, Jessica L; Hermann, Fredrick S

    2016-01-01

    Natural environments are increasingly exposed to high levels of noise pollution. Noise pollution can alter the behavior of animals but we know little about its effects on antipredator behavior. We therefore investigated the impact of noise pollution on vigilance behavior and roost selection in an avian species, peafowl ( Pavo cristatus ), that inhabits urban environments. Captive peahens were exposed to noise pollution at night and their vigilance levels and roost selections were monitored. The vigilance levels of peahens were unaffected by exposure to noise pollution within trials. Furthermore, the peahens exhibited no preference for roosting farther or closer to noise pollution. Interestingly, predators often avoided the experimental area during nights with noise pollution, which could explain why vigilance rates were higher overall during control compared to noise trials. The results suggest that peahens' perception of risk is not drastically impacted by noise pollution but longer-term studies will be necessary to assess any chronic effects.

  16. Thermoregulatory postures limit antipredator responses in peafowl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorzinski, Jessica L; Lam, Jennifer; Schultz, Rachel; Davis, Melissa

    2018-01-05

    Many animals inhabit environments where they experience temperature fluctuations. One way in which animals can adjust to these temperature changes is through behavioral thermoregulation. However, we know little about the thermal benefits of postural changes and the costs they may incur. In this study, we examined the thermoregulatory role of two postures, the head-tuck and leg-tuck posture, in peafowl ( Pavo cristatus ) and evaluated whether the head-tuck posture imposes a predation cost. The heads and legs of peafowl are significantly warmer when the birds exhibit these postures, demonstrating that these postures serve an important thermoregulatory role. In addition, the birds are slower to respond to an approaching threat when they display the head-tuck posture, suggesting that a thermoregulatory posture can limit antipredator behavior. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. Thermoregulatory postures limit antipredator responses in peafowl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L. Yorzinski

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Many animals inhabit environments where they experience temperature fluctuations. One way in which animals can adjust to these temperature changes is through behavioral thermoregulation. However, we know little about the thermal benefits of postural changes and the costs they may incur. In this study, we examined the thermoregulatory role of two postures, the head-tuck and leg-tuck posture, in peafowl (Pavo cristatus and evaluated whether the head-tuck posture imposes a predation cost. The heads and legs of peafowl are significantly warmer when the birds exhibit these postures, demonstrating that these postures serve an important thermoregulatory role. In addition, the birds are slower to respond to an approaching threat when they display the head-tuck posture, suggesting that a thermoregulatory posture can limit antipredator behavior.

  18. New Carcharhiniform Sharks (Chondrichthyes, Elasmobranchii) from the Early to Middle Eocene of Seymour Island, Antarctic Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelbrecht, Andrea; Mörs, Thomas; Reguero, Marcelo A.; Kriwet, Jürgen

    2018-01-01

    Seymour Island, Antarctic Peninsula, is known for its wealth of fossil remains. This island provides one of the richest fossiliferous Paleogene sequences in the world. Chondrichthyans seemingly dominate this Eocene marine fauna and offer a rare insight into high-latitude faunas during the Palaeogene. So far, only a few isolated teeth of carcharhinid sharks have been reported from Seymour Island. Bulk sampling in the well-exposed La Meseta and Submeseta formations yielded new and abundant chondrichthyan material, including numerous teeth of carcharhinid and triakid sharks. Here, we present a reevaluation of the previously described carcharhinid remains and a description of new taxa: Meridiogaleus cristatus, gen. et sp. nov., Kallodentis rythistemma, gen. et sp. nov., Abdounia richteri, sp. nov., and Abdounia mesetae, sp. nov. The carcharhiniforms Mustelus sp. and Galeorhinus sp. are reported based on rare material, whereas teeth previously assigned to Scoliodon represent a nomen dubium. PMID:29551850

  19. Malófagos (Phthiraptera, Amblycera, Ischnocera em aves cativas no sudeste do Brasil Chewing lice (Phthiraptera, Amblycera, Ischnocera on captive birds in southeastern Brazil

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    Salete Oliveira da Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram identificadas 12 espécies de malófagos no Parque Zoológico Municipal Quinzinho de Barros, Sorocaba e Fundação Jardim Zoológico, Rio de Janeiro. Ciconiphilus pectiniventris em Cygnus atratus (Anseriformes, Anatidae; Kurodaia sp. em Buteo albicaudatus (Falconiformes, Accipitridae; Degeeriella sp. em Falco sparverius (Falconiformes, Falconidae; Colpocephalum sp. e Goniocotes parviceps em Pavo cristatus (Galliformes, Phasianidae; Goniodes pavonis em Rhea americana (Rheiformes, Rheidae; Colpocephalum cristatae e Heptapsogaster sp. em Cariama cristata (Gruiformes, Cariamidae; Austrophilopterus cancellosus em Ramphastos dicolorus (Piciformes, Ramphastidae; Strigiphilus crucigerus em Otus choliba (Strigiformes, Strigidae; Kurodaia sp. em Rhinoptynx clamator (Strigiformes, Strigidae e Colpocephalum pectinatum em Speotyto cunicularia (Strigiformes, Strigidae. As relações parasito hospedeiros em Strigiformes são novas no Brasil.Twelve chewing lice species were identified in Parque Zoológico Municipal Quinzinho de Barros, Sorocaba and Fundação Jardim Zoológico, Rio de Janeiro. The parasites found were: Ciconiphilus pectiniventris in Cygnus atratus (Anseriformes, Anatidae; Kurodaia sp. in Buteo albicaudatus (Falconiformes, Accipitridae; Degeeriella sp. in Falco sparverius (Falconiformes, Falconidae; Colpocephalum sp. and Goniocotes parviceps in Pavo cristatus (Galliformes, Phasianidae; Goniodes pavonis in Rhea americana (Rheiformes, Rheidae; Colpocephalum cristatae and Heptapsogaster sp. in Cariama cristata (Gruiformes, Cariamidae; Austrophilopterus cancellosus in Ramphastos dicolorus (Piciformes, Ramphastidae; Strigiphilus crucigerus in Otus choliba (Strigiformes, Strigidae; Kurodaia sp. in Rhinoptynx clamator (Strigiformes, Strigidae and Colpocephalum pectinatum in Speotyto cunicularia (Strigiformes, Strigidae. The host-lice relationships are new in Strigiformes in Brazil.

  20. Patterns of Assemblage Structure Indicate a Broader Conservation Potential of Focal Amphibians for Pond Management.

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    Elin Soomets

    Full Text Available Small freshwater ponds host diverse and vulnerable biotic assemblages but relatively few conspicuous, specially protected taxa. In Europe, the amphibians Triturus cristatus and Pelobates fuscus are among a few species whose populations have been successfully restored using pond restoration and management activities at the landscape scale. In this study, we explored whether the ponds constructed for those two target species have wider conservation significance, particularly for other species of conservation concern. We recorded the occurrence of amphibians and selected aquatic macro-invertebrates (dragonflies; damselflies; diving beetles; water scavenger beetles in 66 ponds specially constructed for amphibians (up to 8 years post construction and, for comparison, in 100 man-made ponds (created by local people for cattle or garden watering, peat excavation, etc. and 65 natural ponds in Estonia. We analysed nestedness of the species assemblages and its dependence on the environment, and described the co-occurrence patterns between the target amphibians and other aquatic species. The assemblages in all ponds were significantly nested, but the environmental determinants of nestedness and co-occurrence of particular species differed among pond types. Constructed ponds were most species-rich irrespective of the presence of the target species; however, T. cristatus was frequent in those ponds and rare elsewhere, and it showed nested patterns in every type of pond. We thus conclude that pond construction for the protected amphibians can serve broader habitat conservation aims in the short term. However, the heterogeneity and inconsistent presence of species of conservation concern observed in other types of ponds implies that long-term perspectives on pond management require more explicit consideration of different habitat and biodiversity values. We also highlight nestedness analysis as a tool that can be used for the practical task of selecting focal

  1. Life history tactics shape amphibians' demographic responses to the North Atlantic Oscillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayuela, Hugo; Joly, Pierre; Schmidt, Benedikt R; Pichenot, Julian; Bonnaire, Eric; Priol, Pauline; Peyronel, Olivier; Laville, Mathias; Besnard, Aurélien

    2017-11-01

    Over the last three decades, climate abnormalities have been reported to be involved in biodiversity decline by affecting population dynamics. A growing number of studies have shown that the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) influences the demographic parameters of a wide range of plant and animal taxa in different ways. Life history theory could help to understand these different demographic responses to the NAO. Indeed, theory states that the impact of weather variation on a species' demographic traits should depend on its position along the fast-slow continuum. In particular, it is expected that NAO would have a higher impact on recruitment than on adult survival in slow species, while the opposite pattern is expected occur in fast species. To test these predictions, we used long-term capture-recapture datasets (more than 15,000 individuals marked from 1965 to 2015) on different surveyed populations of three amphibian species in Western Europe: Triturus cristatus, Bombina variegata, and Salamandra salamandra. Despite substantial intraspecific variation, our study revealed that these three species differ in their position on a slow-fast gradient of pace of life. Our results also suggest that the differences in life history tactics influence amphibian responses to NAO fluctuations: Adult survival was most affected by the NAO in the species with the fastest pace of life (T. cristatus), whereas recruitment was most impacted in species with a slower pace of life (B. variegata and S. salamandra). In the context of climate change, our findings suggest that the capacity of organisms to deal with future changes in NAO values could be closely linked to their position on the fast-slow continuum. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Corrección quirúrgica del estrabismo en 2 pacientes con el síndrome de Moebius

    OpenAIRE

    Arias Díaz, Alejandro; Bernal Reyes, Neisy; Méndez Sánchez, Teresita de Jesús; Hernández Santos, Lourdes Rita; Naranjo Fernández, Rosa María; Hernández Ruíz, Lázaro Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Se presentan las características oftalmológicas y clínicas de 2 pacientes (una mujer y un hombre) con diagnóstico de síndrome de Moebius. Esta entidad por lo general bilateral, de causa multifactorial, se caracteriza por marcada esotropía, con gran limitación de la abducción, y otras alteraciones faciales. Se presentan 2 casos clínicos a los que se les realizó corrección quirúrgica.

  3. Didactopatogenia (Enfermedades generadas por la mala enseñanza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Cukier

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Se plantea el desarrollo de enfermedades generadas por la mala enseñanza. Se cuestiona el papel que cumplen las instituciones educativas al avalar a educadores con personalidad narcisista que inducen a estas enfermedades. Se describen las características de estos educadores, sus principales defensas y las interacciones didactopatogénicas que se establecen entre el educador y el educando, generando transformación pasivo/activo, tabú del pensamiento, saber enciclopédico, recuerdos póstumos, trastornos de conducta, distracción, y agresividad marcada. Se discute, también, el concepto del educador y sus dobles.

  4. A francofilia neo-realista da Vértice no Pós-Guerra

    OpenAIRE

    Carmo, Carina Infante do

    2010-01-01

    Em tempos de Pós-Guerra e de crise do salazarismo, um número especial da revista Vértice dedicada à França, em Dezembro de 1946, dá-nos sinal do poder interventivo da frente cultural neo-realista, marcada pela adesão ao antifascismo e ao marxismo. Se a França é tomada como modelo pelo seu legado racionalista, revolucionário e de resistência ao nazismo, este número significa bem mais do que um gesto de francofilia: é uma afirmação no campo cultural (e, concomitantemente, no campo p...

  5. Memória e verdade em curso na Colômbia: o lugar destinado às vítimas

    OpenAIRE

    Motta (PPGCEPPAC/UnB), Maria Carolina Carvalho; Silva (UnB), Meire Cristina Cabral de Araújo

    2014-01-01

    O presente artigo tem por objetivo analisar o direito à verdade e à memória enquanto parâmetro da Justiça de Transição a ser implementada nas sociedades marcadas por conflitos violentos. Foi neste sentido que o contexto colombiano foi escolhido para esta análise, visto que este país, atualmente, presencia um debate sobre a validade das políticas públicas destinadas a pacificar os conflitos armados internos. A Ley de Justicia y Paz é o foco principal da análise e com seus termos legais se deba...

  6. Influencia de Gregorio de Nisa sobre Juan Escoto Eriúgena: Aproximación a partir del Periphyseon

    OpenAIRE

    Pachas, José Antonio

    2004-01-01

    A partir de los cinco libros del Periphyseon el autor intenta un acercamiento entre el pensamiento de Juan Escoto Eriúgena y Gregorio de Nisa, buscando sobre todo las principales influencias del segundo sobre el primero. Encuentra una plataforma de amplia base común entre ambos pensadores, marcada principalmente por un tipo de pensamiento circular según el esquema: procesión y retorno. Sin embargo, es notoria la influencia del Niseno sobre el Carolingio, principalmente cuando se trata de plan...

  7. La masificación de la educación y la búsqueda de igualdad, justicia y equidad sociales en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faustino Peña

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Con la implementación de la masificación educativa, referirse a la importancia de la educación por parte de la sociedad, los organismos internacionales, la normatividad, los planes nacionales de desarrollo y los planes decenales, se convirtió en un asunto recurrente. Sin embargo, su desarrollo no ha logrado disminuir las desigualdades, inequidades e injusticias sociales. El Estado colombiano la ha afrontado con políticas públicas marcadas por el vaivén y la improvisación, lo cual ha dificultado el objetivo de la igualdad, justicia y equidad sociales.

  8. Spec, IP ou deslocado?: Prós e contras das duas análises dos sujeitos pré-verbais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COSTA João

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available O objectivo deste artigo é apresentar argumentos que mostram que as duas análises dos sujeitos pré-verbais em Português Europeu, como movidos para Spec, IP ou deslocados à esquerda, não se excluem necessariamente. São apresentados vários argumentos mostrando que, em frases declarativas simples contextualmente não-marcadas, a análise tradicional, de acordo com a qual os sujeitos são deslocados para Spec, IP, não encontra alguns problemas identificados para a análise alternativa.

  9. Proyecto de inversión, desarrollo económico y plan estratégico de marketing de un paradero restaurante de carne de pollo en la vía Latacunga Salcedo Ambato

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez, Pamela; Illapa, Luis; Vásquez, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    El presente proyecto es de inversión, desarrollo económico y plan estratégico de marketing de un paradero restaurante en la vía Latacunga Salcedo Ambato. Este estudio permite establecer una alternativa de progreso mediante la creación de un paradero, contribuyendo al crecimiento del sector mediante la generación de empleo. Por otro lado es importante señalar que existe una marcada tendencia por parte del Gobierno Nacional, Ministerio de Turismo y demás entidades gubernamentales sabiendo los b...

  10. Empolgação com Copa freia protestos nas redes sociais no Brasil e no mundo

    OpenAIRE

    Zarko, Raphael

    2014-01-01

    Depois da Copa das Confederações de 2013 serem marcadas pelas manifestações contrárias à realização e gastos excessivos para o Mundial do Brasil – tanto nas ruas quanto na internet -, a impressão de que houve uma queda nos protestos da Copa do Mundo do Brasil se confirma com uma ampla pesquisa nas redes sociais. Em monitoramento de mais de 11 milhões de mensagens de Twitter no Brasil e no mundo, o número de menções a protestos é de apenas 17 mil – percentualmente, significa dizer que apenas 0...

  11. Grupos de comunicación, poder y democracia en la era digital. principales estrategias y negocios en nuevas tecnologías

    OpenAIRE

    García-Prieto, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Tras una época marcada por la conformación de grandes conglomerados de la comunicación no siempre con resultados positivos para las compañías, la era digital ha traído consigo un cambio de estrategia en los grupos mediáticos con un denominador común: la apuesta por la expansión global a través del sector digital. Esta directriz supone la introducción de nuevos sectores de negocio en el seno de los grupos de comunicación y el establecimiento de nuevas alianzas estratégicas, lo q...

  12. Acceso exclusionario y racista a la vivienda formal e informal en las áreas centrales de Santiago e Iquique

    OpenAIRE

    Contreras Gatica, Yasna; Ala-Louko, Veera; Labbé, Gricel

    2015-01-01

    La inmigración latinoamericana hacia Chile ha recobrado fuerza en los últimos años, imprimiendo una serie de cambios al menos en los espacios centrales donde muchos inmigrantes inician el proyecto migratorio. En su condición de inmigrante pobre, desplazado de sus localidades por guerras, conflictos civiles, inseguridad, o bien en su afán de progreso, arriban a sitios que hoy imponen nuevas fronteras simbólicas y materiales marcadas por formas exclusionarias y raciales de acceso a la vivienda ...

  13. Acceso exclusionario y racista a la vivienda formal e informal en las áreas centrales de Santiago e Iquique

    OpenAIRE

    Contreras Gatica, Yasna; Ala-Louko, Veera; Labbé, Gricel

    2016-01-01

    La inmigración latinoamericana hacia Chile ha recobrado fuerza en los últimos años, imprimiendo una serie de cambios al menos en los espacios centrales donde muchos inmigrantes inician el proyecto migratorio. En su condición de inmigrante pobre, desplazado de sus localidades por guerras, conflictos civiles, inseguridad, o bien en su afán de progreso, arriban a sitios que hoy imponen nuevas fronteras simbólicas y materiales marcadas por formas exclusionarias y raciales de acceso a la vivienda ...

  14. Una vida con una válvula: vivencias de una joven operada de corazón

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Correa Rodríguez

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available La informante del relato es una joven que tuvo que ser sometida a una intervención quirúrgica a corazón abierto. Este relato biográfico presenta sus vivencias, sentimientos y experiencias a lo largo del proceso, abarcando desde sus estancias hospitalarias, manejo de la enfermedad y situación actual. El objetivo del relato es describir el significado las experiencias relacionadas con la enfermedad que ha desarrollado la joven en las distintas etapas de su vida. Es una historia marcada por el enorme amor que siente hacia sus padres que la han apoyado en todo momento.

  15. Contribución del ferrocarril a la mejora de la oferta en el transporte de mercancías Europa – Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Borda, David

    2011-01-01

    Es por todos conocido el hecho de que en los últimos años han aumentado sustancialmente las industrias y las nuevas tecnologías. Por consiguiente se ha aumentado también la producción, que esta marcada en la mayoría de los casos por el efecto de la globalización. La globalización tiende, entre otras cosas, a trasladar la producción a lugares donde los costes sean menores, por esta razón, actualmente son muchas las empresas europeas que fabrican sus productos en países Asiáticos. Princ...

  16. Desarrollo aplicación web y móvil para reservas en comedores

    OpenAIRE

    Blázquez Bea, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Este trabajo trata sobre el desarrollo de una “Start Up” de base tecnológica desde la universidad. La empresa creada comercializará un servicio software para comedores y restaurantes. La actualidad está marcada por la economía, y en estos momentos nos encontramos con una tasa de paro general del 26,7%, en ingenierías (la UPM) es del 31,2%. El sector de las TIC se salva por el momento (en informática la tasa de paro es del 4,8%), aunque el trabajo en muchos casos es precario y las opo...

  17. Revitalização de brownfields : da aplicação do princípio da função socioambiental da propriedade ao gerenciamento de áreas contaminadas ou suspeitas de contaminação

    OpenAIRE

    Mattei, Juliana Flávia

    2010-01-01

    Como efeito negativo da sociedade marcada pelo desenvolvimento industrial a qualquer preço, especialmente decorrente do revés processo histórico de desativação de indústrias, surgiram no espaço urbano extensas áreas abandonadas suspeitas ou efetivamente contaminadas. Estas áreas são denominadas brownfields, e podem ser encontradas em praticamente todos os países industrializados ou em processo intenso de industrialização, em qualquer dos Continentes. Mostra-se relevante perceber a situação at...

  18. DISCRIMINACION ETNICA EN RELATOS DE LA EXPERIENCIA ESCOLAR MAPUCHE EN PANGUIPULLI (CHILE)

    OpenAIRE

    Poblete S,María Pía

    2003-01-01

    El propósito de este artículo es indagar en las percepciones y valoraciones de la experiencia escolar en un contexto interétnico. Presentamos información proveniente de 30 relatos sobre la educación y la experiencia escolar de personas mapuches de la precordillera de la Comuna de Panguipulli. Los resultados nos muestran que las experiencias en la escuela estuvieron marcadas por la discriminación étnica en la mayoría de los entrevistados. La discriminación se vivió en la interacción con profes...

  19. La gestión educativa (ge) en la educación básica y media oficial de Manizales : un análisis desde las teorías administrativas y organizacionales = educational management in primary and secondary school Manizales : an analysis from the administrative and organizational theories

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez Cardona , Carmen Adriana

    2012-01-01

    La presente investigación tiene como propósito: 1) Determinar cuáles son las teorías organizacionales y administrativas presentes en el quehacer del directivo docente; 2) Determinar la relación de dichas teorías con la calidad de la educación y 3) Proponer lineamientos desde las teorías organizacionales y administrativas para el mejoramiento de la calidad de la educación. Con los resultados obtenidos, se evidencia una marcada influencia de las teorías organizacionales y administrativas...

  20. Descentralizar, contractualizar: el nuevo marco de la gobernanza multiniveles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Arturo de la Torre Sendoya

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo propone un análisis de la trayectoria inicial de la descentralización en Colombia marcada por la afirmación del ámbito local a través de la noción de autonomía, y una reflexión prospectiva en la nueva etapa que se abre con el posconflicto, en la que se impone una gobernanza territorial multiniveles más inclusiva para el buen manejo del desarrollo regional utilizando el nuevo instrumento de acción pública, Contrato Plan.

  1. Procrastinación académica en estudiantes de educación en Lenguas, Literatura y Comunicación: Características, modos y factores

    OpenAIRE

    Tarazona Pérez, Filomeno; Romero Acuña, Juan Nicanor; Aliaga Contreras, Isabel Margarita; Veliz Rodríguez, Marita Fabiola

    2016-01-01

    Se realizó una investigación básica con diseño descriptivo simple con el propósito de determinar el grado, modo, características y factores de la procrastinación académica en estudiantes de Lenguas, Literatura y Comunicación de la Facultad de Educación de la Universidad Nacional del Centro del Perú en una muestra poblacional de 169 estudiantes varones y mujeres de los semestres II, IV, VI, VIII y X matriculados en el semestre 2015 II. Se observaba tendencia marcada de los estudiantes a dejar ...

  2. THE LABEL IS THE BEER: THE INNOVATIVE LANGUAGE OF LABELS OF THE CONTEMPORARY CRAFT BEERS

    OpenAIRE

    JADER MATTOS DE AGUIAR

    2016-01-01

    Esta dissertação é o resultado de uma pesquisa sobre a linguagem dos rótulos de cervejas artesanais. Observou-se que circulam, ao mesmo tempo, no mercado brasileiro, cervejas que utilizam no design dos rótulos uma linguagem tradicional, marcada por um estilo que vem se repetindo ao longo do tempo e outras que não aderem à conservação desse padrão, assumindo uma linguagem inovadora. Trabalhamos sob a hipótese de que um rótulo inovador, ao contrário do tradicional, é caracteri...

  3. La intrusión de Cerro Redondo (Pérmico Inferior, Cordillera Ibérica, Zaragoza): reconstrucción 3D y modelo de emplazamiento

    OpenAIRE

    Majarena Serrano, Urbez; Gil Imaz, Andrés; Lago San José, Marceliano; Galé, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    La intrusión subvolcánica de Cerro Redondo (Cordillera Ibérica, Zaragoza), de edad Pérmico Inferior, muestra una composición dactíca, una naturaleza calcoalcalina y se caracteriza por presentar una marcada estructuración interna determinada por un bandeado subvertical y d e espaciado variable (1-25 cm), que se encuentra afectado por numerosos pliegues d e flujo magmático de distinta escala (desde centimétrica hasta hectométrica). El estudio cartográfico y de la anisotropia de la susceptib...

  4. A migrante e o xamã: agentes transculturadores em dois romances italianos contemporâneos The migrant and the shaman: transcultural agents in two contemporary italian novels

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Maria Chiarini

    2012-01-01

    A proposta deste trabalho é evidenciar a função transculturadora exercida por trabalhadoras migrantes na Itália contemporânea, vista como espaço da diáspora, nos romances Apri le porte all'alba (1999), de Elena Gianini Belotti, e L'indecenza (2008), de Elvira Seminara. Essas personagens sociais - participantes de trocas interculturais e intercorporais - vêm se tornando personagens literárias e, embora reduzidas a não-pessoas ou marcadas por um pretenso núcleo étnico essencial, ativam as força...

  5. Robótica educacional

    OpenAIRE

    Ortolan, Ivonete Terezinha

    2003-01-01

    Dissertação ( mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro Tecnológico. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciência da Computação. A sociedade atual esta marcada por uma existência inequivocamente voltada para a digitalização de praticamente todos os segmentos, seja em termos científicos, profissionais e culturais. Este processo de mudança configura-se como o alicerce da chamada sociedade do conhecimento ou globalizada.

  6. Construcción social de género en el cancionero infantil español

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascual y Cabo, D.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente estudio se analiza la construcción social de género a través del contenido de 51 canciones infantiles de la tradición popular española. Con la Etnosintaxis como marco teórico, pretendo analizar la relación bidireccional que existe entre la lengua y la sociedad centrándome en las diferencias de género dentro del ámbito español actual. Los resultados obtenidos evidencian una separación marcada que refleja, al menos de forma parcial, la desigualdad social en que vivimos.

  7. La reorganización y la oposición del PCE al franquismo, (1939-1946)

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Rodríguez, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    En el proceso y desarrollo histórico del PCE durante el primer franquismo tuvieron lugar diferentes reestructuraciones y luchas clandestinas protagonizadas por miles de militantes que integraron la organización comunista en aquellos años, muchos de ellos fueron encarcelados y algunos ejecutados por las autoridades franquistas. El origen de la resistencia antifranquista tuvo lugar incluso antes de la finalización de la guerra civil española y estuvo marcada por la desunión entre las distintas ...

  8. Sistema urbano y comercio en la comunidad autónoma de Galicia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro López Gónzalez

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo posee una doble vertiente. En primer lugar, pretende realizar un breve repaso de los trabajos de distintos geógrafos sobre la red urbana gallega. En segundo lugar, ofrece una interpretación personal sobre la base de determinadas variables como el equipamiento y la cuota comercial. De este análisis destacamos dos elementos: su marcada bipolaridad y el relativo vacío en el estrato de núcleos medianos, realidades responsables de cierto desequilibrio.

  9. En torno a Baltasar Gracian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Miramón

    1959-09-01

    Full Text Available En lo general los clásicos castellanos invitan a la soledad y a la contemplación mística. Cuando se sume uno en la lectura de Teresa o de los Luises, ¿no es verdad que place hacerlo lejos del mundo, en un lugar apacible y sereno, en una casa amplia y solariega en la que las horas, -marcadas por un reloj viejo-, van cayendo en la sensibilidad lentamente, casi sin ser notadas, extrahumanas, sin que dejen en el espíritu más que una vaga noción de tiempo y lugar?

  10. El monólogo de Quentin Compson en « The Sound and the Fury»: entre el recuerdo y el olvido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María MANZANAS CALVO

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Es en la mañana del 2 de junio de 1910 cuando Quentin Compson recae en la existencia de dos formas de tiempo. Su tempo amorfo y subjetivo, su «temporalidad » 2, se ve interrumpido por el ritmo insistente del reloj, o lo que es lo mismo, por la «cronología» convencional. Quentin despierta así a otra forma de tiempo, marcada y segmentada por las manecillas del reloj: «/( it was between seven and eight o'clock and then I was in time again, hearing the watch»

  11. Desarrollo de un Marco Tecnocultural para una SocioTecnología de la Información y Cultura, con aplicación en el ámbito de la Educación Superior para la formación de infoprofesionales.

    OpenAIRE

    Fumero Reverón, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    La intensa relación de las infotecnologías con el ámbito educativo no es algo nuevo. Ha ido pasando por diferentes etapas marcadas por uno u otro modelo para el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje: tele-enseñanza o educación a distancia, Computer-Based Learning (CBL), E-Learning, Blended Learning o B-Learning son algunos de ellos. En cada caso se han incorporando diferentes tecnologías, desde las cintas magnéticas de audio y vídeo hasta los portátiles, las tabletas y las pizarras electrónica...

  12. Jogos digitais e aprendizagem

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, Lynn; Neves, Isa Beatriz; Souza, Josemar Rodrigues de

    2012-01-01

    Los juegos electrónicos se constituyen en los más significativos elementos de la cultura de simulación, marcada por formas de pensamiento no lineares que involucran negociaciones, abren caminos para diferentes estilos cognoscitivos y emocionáis, en los cuales los gamers pueden experimentar distintas situaciones que demandan el ejercicio continuado de habilidades cognoscitivas como: tomada de decisión, planificación, anticipación, resolución de problemas, entre otras. La inmersión en esos locu...

  13. Los desórdenes depresivos mentales desde la óptica de la medicina tradicional china en occidente

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez Monje, Marlon Javier

    2015-01-01

    Los síndromes depresivos mentales, diagnosticados o no, constituyen un padecimiento frecuente que afecta los sistemas de salud y será la segunda causa de discapacidad en 2020. La depresión en un padecimiento en el que la persona presenta un estado de animo bajo por causas diversas (Biológicas y Socioambientales) pero con efectos y predisposición individual, que se sostiene en un rango de tiempo y en el que predominan la tristeza desde una intensidad leve hasta una marcada desesperación. Se ...

  14. Representación de la raza en la publicidad : análisis de "El País Semanal", 1997-2003

    OpenAIRE

    Izquierdo Iranzo, Patricia

    2004-01-01

    El paso de España de país emisor a país receptor de inmigrantes ha propiciado su consideración como nueva sociedad multicultural desde mediados de la década de los noventa. La nueva configuración plantea ineludiblemente la relación del endogrupo y el exogrupo marcada, entre otros aspectos, por las representaciones que las instituciones recrean sobre el otro. Entre todas las fuentes creadoras y reproductoras de imágenes sociales, nos fijamos, dada su función de mediadora, en la estructura medi...

  15. Papel del frijol negro Phaseolus vulgaris en el estado nutricional de la población guatemalteca

    OpenAIRE

    Serrano, José; Goñi, Isabel

    2004-01-01

    RESUMEN. En Guatemala existe un fenómeno de superposición epidemiológica, en el que coexisten problemas de salud propios de países desarrollados con otros característicos de poblaciones en vías de desarrollo. Se observan deficiencias marcadas en algunos macronutrientes tales como hierro y vitamina A. en simultaneidad con enfermedades crónicas como diabetes tipo II o enfermedades cardiovasculares. Se conoce muy bien la importancia del frijol negro (Phaseolus vulgaris) en la dieta habitual de G...

  16. Del cerebro a la palma de la mano: el viaje de la memoria en el siglo XXI.

    OpenAIRE

    Canavilhas, João; Kolankowska, Małgorzata

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo del artículo es buscar relaciones entre el desarrollo de los smartphones y la memoria. En la primera parte se presentan las características de la época posmoderna, marcada por la aceleración y la liquidez de las relaciones interpersonales, así como la idea de la sociedad en red. A continuación se explica el concepto de la memoria en diferentes contextos: biológico, sociológico y periodístico. Se pone hincapié en los estudios de la memoria colectiva, digital, globita...

  17. Subtitulación inversa de un documental científico divulgativo

    OpenAIRE

    Jobst Soler, Angelo

    2017-01-01

    La importancia del estudio del campo traductológico sigue siendo un tema candente y que presenta una amplia variedad de reflexiones teóricas. Mediante este análisis de carácter interdisciplinario sobre las disciplinas de la traducción audiovisual, la traducción inversa y la traducción científico-técnica se pretende mostrar tanto las estrategias a seguir para realizar una traducción inversa o científica (equivalencia, adaptación, traducción literal, etc.) como las convenciones marcadas en el c...

  18. Responsabilidad civil derivada de la inclusión indebida en un registro de morosos

    OpenAIRE

    Lagunas Reyes, Lucia

    2014-01-01

    El presente trabajo se aborda con motivo de la reciente Sentencia del Tribunal Supremo (Sala de lo Civil) núm. 176/2013, de 6 marzo. Avanzando en la línea marcada por sentencias precedentes, el Tribunal Supremo declara que “la inclusión de datos personales en un registro de morosos por una deuda dudosa vulnera el derecho al honor”. La citada sentencia del Tribunal Supremo asume como propia la doctrina del Tribunal Supremo ya consolidada, según la cual la inclusión incorrecta de datos en u...

  19. Prevalencia del juanete de sastre y quinto dedo adducto varo en el baile flamenco profesional. Prevalence of tailor's bunion and fifth toe adductus varus in professional flamenco dancing.

    OpenAIRE

    Nadia Salti; Gabriel Domínguez; Pedro V. Munuera; José Manuel Castillo; Cristina Algaba

    2013-01-01

    El Juanete de Sastre es una deformidad adquirida que afecta al quinto metatarsiano y quinto dedo del pie. Se caracteriza por una prominencia lateral en la cabeza del quinto metatarsiano, con una marcada desviación medial del quinto dedo y una desviación lateral del V metatarsiano. De origen multifactorial, hablamos de una etiología micro traumática influida por posturas viciosas en dinámica, estática o sedente, por la influencia del calzado y la presencia de alteraciones biomecánicas de la ex...

  20. Enfermedad laboral relacionada a trastornos del sueño por alteración del ritmo circadiano (tsrc). a propósito de un caso

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Bermúdez

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: Los ritmos biológicos se ajustan a ciclos ambientales como la luz y la oscuridad, la mayoría de estos ritmos se mantienen con un caracter circadiano. El hecho de haberse adaptado a un planeta con características periódicas tan marcadas seguramente imprimió en el genoma de los organismos mas primitivos mecanismos cronobiológicos tan exitosos que se han mantenido hasta nuestros días. La desincronizacion del ritmo de sueño-vigilia que sucede en los trabajadores nocturnos y en turno...

  1. Residencia en Jacarépaguá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Affonso E. Reidy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available En las proximidades de Río de Janeiro, y enclavada en una zona residencial, poblada de árboles, se encuentra esta vivienda. Como fue construida en un terreno de marcada pendiente, se ha aprovechado el desnivel para procurar un movimiento de planos, airoso y ágil, a la vez que para elevar unos pilotes lisos sobre los que apoya el forjado de la zona representativa, de modo que resulta como un mirador avanzado sobre las copas de la masa verde, las montañas y el mar, al fondo.

  2. ¿Oficios de tinieblas? Castellanos y Glantz frente al machismo nacional del culturalismo mexicanista / Offices of Tenebrae? Castellanos and Glantz versus the national “machismo” of the “culturalismo mexicanista”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Zabalgoitia Herrera

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Tomando como punto de partida el entrecruce entre nacionalismo y género, este artículo busca redimensionar las escrituras de Rosario Castellanos y Margo Glantz como dos instancias que trastocan, niegan o deconstruyen la historiografía machista mexicana. Ésta habría sido amparada por la inteligencia de lo mexicano, Samuel Ramos y Octavio Paz, principalmente. A este respecto, la intención del texto no es tanto la propuesta de una lectura feminista del nacionalismo, aunque sí la insistencia en marcadas voces femeninas ante el machismo de lo que llamamos “culturalismo mexicanista”.

  3. Serotipificación y susceptibilidad antibacteriana de cepas de Pseudomonas aeruginosa aisladas de pacientes quemados infectados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniel Moya

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Se aislaron 11 cepas de Pseudomonas aeruginosa en 10 pacientes quemados que se encontraban hospitalizados y se les realizó tipificación serológica y antibiotipia para determinar los serotipos más frecuentes en este tipo de pacientes. Los serotipos de mayor frecuencia de aislamiento fueron el O4 y el O5. Observamos una marcada resistencia frente a los antibióticos: carbenicilina (81,8% y la azlocilina (72,7%.

  4. Trabajo femenino y brecha de ingresos por género en Venezuela.

    OpenAIRE

    Genny Zuñiga; María Beatriz Orlando

    2001-01-01

    Este trabajo estudia la situación de la mujer en el mercado de trabajo venezolano en cuanto a su participación y el nivel de ingreso laboral obtenido. En la evolución de la participación de la mujer en el mercado de trabajo destaca la importancia de la edad, situación conyugal, nivel educativo, fecundidad y área de residencia como factores determinantes de la misma. Existen diferencias de ingreso medio entre hombres y mujeres, favorables a los primeros, que son más marcadas en el sector infor...

  5. Automóveis autónomos em Portugal: a perspetiva do consumidor numa indústria em mudança

    OpenAIRE

    Júlio, Carlos Filipe Salazar Teixeira

    2017-01-01

    Dissertação de mestrado em Economia Industrial e da Empresa A indústria automóvel encontra-se numa era disruptiva, marcada pela massificação do automóvel e o desenvolvimento de novos produtos para o mercado, nomeadamente o conceito de automóveis autónomos. Estes veículos têm como objetivo automatizar algumas das tarefas dos condutores para que, numa fase final do desenvolvimento da tecnologia, operem sem necessidade de intervenção humana. A introdução desta inovação, torna essencial conhec...

  6. Memoria, testimonio, autoficción. Narrativas de infancia en dictadura

    OpenAIRE

    Arfuch, Leonor

    2015-01-01

    El presente artículo enfrenta vida y ficción como formas de pensar la subjetividad contem-poránea. Para ello, la autora consagra un corpus de voces femeninas marcadas por una infancia atravesada por la dictadura. Todas estas narrativas concentran re-veladoras reflexiones sobre la memoria, el testimonio y autoficción como formas de problematizar lo político y social desde el filtro de lo personal. Palabras clave: Memoria, autoficción, testimonio, dictadura, subjetvidad, infancia, mujeres. T...

  7. Caminhos comoventes: Concretismo, neoconcretismo e arte contemporânea no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otavio Leonidio

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available O artigo problematiza os nexos existentes entre modernismo, concretismo, neoconcretismo e arte contemporânea no Brasil, abordados aqui a partir da análise de uma obra específica – a performance Symbebeko, da artista Juliana Notari, ocorrida em março de 2011 no vão-livre do Museu de Arte Moderna do Rio de Janeiro/MAM. Defende-se a tese de que, em contraste com narrativas mais ou menos canônicas, a passagem do moderno ao contemporâneo é marcada, no Brasil, por compromissos e contradições inusitadas e por vezes surpreendentes.

  8. Vivências compartilhadas de filhos separados pela hanseníase no RN a luz da história oral de vida

    OpenAIRE

    Cabral, Ana Michele de Farias

    2013-01-01

    Várias epidemias marcaram a vida das pessoas e coletividades, em todos os períodos históricos, sendo um dos principais exemplos a hanseníase, doença infecto-contagiosa, marcada pelo estigma, preconceito e exclusão social. No passado, o isolamento compulsório dos pacientes portadores de hanseníase causou sérios problemas sociais e psicológicos, resultando no afastamento e na ruptura total ou parcial do vínculo familiar. Os filhos privados desse convívio, retirados muitas vezes de forma desuman...

  9. Educación Superior de la Ingeniería Industrial en el Perú: propuesta de un modelo educativo desde las competencias

    OpenAIRE

    Palma Lama, Francisco Martin

    2016-01-01

    El objetivo del presente trabajo de investigación es diseñar un Modelo de Educación que permita formar ingenieros industriales en Perú que sean capaces de enfrentar los retos modernos de fuerte y sostenido crecimiento económico y social. Las necesidades que se han generado a lo largo de los últimos años llevan a identificar que una gran carencia es el poco dominio del concepto, naturaleza y gestión de un proyecto y la marcada ausencia de habilidades humanas y funcionales al momento de ejercer...

  10. ¿A dónde van los que quieren salir adelante? : el perfil de los estudiantes de las nuevas universidades privadas en Lima: el caso de la Universidad César Vallejo.

    OpenAIRE

    Seclén Neyra, Eloy

    2013-01-01

    El presente informe de tesis abordará el fenómeno de las nuevas universidades privadas, surgidas en nuestro país durante la década de los noventa. Este incremento de alternativas para acceder a la educación superior ha generado un sentido común de avance significativo en cuanto a las oportunidades de movilidad social para los jóvenes de clase media que acceden a aquellas. Sin embargo, observamos que este incremento cuantitativo ha ocasionado más bien una segmentación muy marcada del mercado p...

  11. Las negociaciones en el proceso penal: del procedimiento inquisitivo a la prisionización masiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio César Montañez Ruiz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación plantea la problemática de la prisionización masiva que generan las negociaciones en el sistema procesal penal de tendencia acusatoria, con marcada influencia norteamericana; aquí se sostiene que ese mecanismo, mediante el cual la Fiscalía busca la declaratoria masiva de culpabilidad de los imputados en plan de descongestionar el sistema represivo penal, tiene las caraterísticas más inquisitivas de un sistema de enjuiciamiento penal.

  12. EL (MUY) NUEVO TRAJE DEL EMPERADOR: EL LIBRO-ALBUM EN LA LIJ ACTUAL

    OpenAIRE

    cabrera, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Los textos literarios para niños han existido desde tiempos inmemoriales, aunque su presencia en el imaginario de la literatura universal esté marcada por las compilaciones de textos de raíz folclórica, registradas primero en Francia, a finales del siglo XVII, de la mano de Charles Perrault y luego en Alemania a mediados del XIX, por medio de los hermanos Grimm. El hito que suponen estas colecciones constituye, en lo concreto, un marco para las dinámicas y prácticas escriturales de quienes or...

  13. Una vida con una válvula: vivencias de una joven operada de corazón

    OpenAIRE

    María Correa Rodríguez; José Antonio Gutiérrez Romero; Juan Manuel Martínez Guerrero

    2013-01-01

    La informante del relato es una joven que tuvo que ser sometida a una intervención quirúrgica a corazón abierto. Este relato biográfico presenta sus vivencias, sentimientos y experiencias a lo largo del proceso, abarcando desde sus estancias hospitalarias, manejo de la enfermedad y situación actual. El objetivo del relato es describir el significado las experiencias relacionadas con la enfermedad que ha desarrollado la joven en las distintas etapas de su vida. Es una historia marcada por el e...

  14. Convergence in cranial proportions in New and Old World primates: a craniofunctional analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Rocatti, Guido; Pucciarelli, Héctor Mario; Muñe, María Cristina; Pérez, Sergio Iván

    2014-01-01

    Los humanos modernos han sido caracterizados por una morfología craneana extremadamente lobulada, considerada como una respuesta al aumento significativo en el tamaño del cerebro, que los diferencia de manera marcada del resto de los Primates. Otras especies, como algunos clados de platirrinos, cambiaron independientemente a lo largo de su historia evolutiva y alcanzaron valores elevados de tamaño relativo del cerebro. Este aumento del tamaño del cerebro ofrece una oportunidad para estudiar a...

  15. Convergencia en las proporciones craneanas entre primates del nuevo y el viejo mundo: un análisis craneofuncional

    OpenAIRE

    Rocatti, Guido; Pucciarelli, Héctor Mario; Muñe, María Cristina; Pérez, Sergio Iván

    2014-01-01

    Los humanos modernos han sido caracterizados por una morfología craneana extremadamente lobulada, considerada como una respuesta al aumento significativo en el tamaño del cerebro, que los diferencia de manera marcada del resto de los Primates. Otras especies, como algunos clados de platirrinos, cambiaron independientemente a lo largo de su historia evolutiva y alcanzaron valores elevados de tamaño relativo del cerebro. Este aumento del tamaño del cerebro ofrece una oportunidad para estudiar a...

  16. Presentación de bazo errante o wandering spleen e intercomunicación toracoabdominal de tejido conectivo en macho canino mestizo de 4 años - Presentation of wandering spleen and wandering spleen and intercom thoracoabdominal of connective tissue in male mongrel dog 4 years

    OpenAIRE

    Arango Henriet, Michel Alonso; Aguirre García, Miguel Alejandro

    2010-01-01

    ResumenPaciente canino mestizo de 4 años de edad que llega a consulta a la clínica veterinaria los Galgos Premium por inapetencia, presentando una macidez marcada en la región gástrica, mesogástrica y flanco izquierdo.AbstracMongrel canine patient 4 years of ag who arrived at the veterinary clinic consultation for Greyhounds Premium by inappetence, presenting a marked macidez in the gastric region, and mesogástric left flank, with presence of fluid in the abdominal cavity and paraclinical cha...

  17. Cuerpos invadidos : cuerpo y corporalidad en algunos relatos de Antonio Di Benedetto

    OpenAIRE

    Varela, Fabiana Inés

    2007-01-01

    Mundo Animal (1953) es una colección de cuentos que inicia la carrera literaria del narrador mendocino, Antonio Di Benedetto. Libro de difícil ubicación genérica, tiene una marcada intencionalidad ética que el mismo autor señala de modo explícito. Es además, evidente la filiación kafkianas de muchas de estas historias. Esta relación se observa, especialmente, en el clima fuertemente onírico y opresivo tanto para los personajes como para los lectores, en el escaso interés por la realidad circu...

  18. Uso de una aplicación móvil para aumentar la motivación del alumnado en formulación y nomenclatura química

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, J.; Grueso, E.; Trujillo-Cayado, L.A.

    2016-01-01

    El aprendizaje de la formulación y nomenclatura química a nivel universitario resulta cada vez menos estimulante para los estudiantes de primer curso, que además poseen marcadas deficiencias tanto en el nivel inicial de conocimientos como en las destrezas asociadas a dicha materia. Esto hecho trae como consecuencia problemas de motivación y de interés por la asignatura y, más concretamente, porlas clases de seminarios. Con el fin de mejorar la participación en clase de seminarios de formulaci...

  19. Los asháninkas y la violencia de las correrías durante y después de la época del caucho*

    OpenAIRE

    Espinosa, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    A lo largo de los siglos, el pueblo asháninka ha enfrentado diversos episodios de violencia, algunos de los cuales han afectado de manera especial la historia y la identidad de este pueblo. Uno de estos momentos fue el de la colonización de la región de la Selva Central peruana, a fines del siglo XIX, marcada por la extracción del caucho y el cultivo de café en grandes haciendas. Esta época se caracterizó, además, por ser particularmente violenta, sobre todo debido a las continuas correrías q...

  20. Adopción internacional: un estudio con el test proyectivo Pata Negra

    OpenAIRE

    Ballús Barnils, Elisabeth; Pérez Testor, Carles

    2013-01-01

    En España, y especialmente en Cataluña, la primera década del siglo XXI ha estado marcada por un incremento excepcional de las adopciones internacionales, configurando así un nuevo modelo de familia y una nueva realidad social. Desde la perspectiva de la salud mental, se inicia ahora una etapa post-adoptiva muy necesitada de investigaciones teóricas y empíricas. Con este trabajo, queremos acercarnos a la realidad interna del niño adoptado utilizando el test proyectivo Pat...

  1. Capacitación política para mujeres: género y cambio social en la Argentina actual

    OpenAIRE

    Maffía, Diana Helena; Kuschnir, Clara; Archenti, Nélida; Clementi, Hebe; Feijoó, María del Carmen; García Frinchaboy, Mónica; González, Carmen; Heller, Lidia; Henault, Mirta

    1994-01-01

    Los artículos que componen este libro recogen en gran parte el contenido del “Programa Interdisciplinario de Formación Política para Mujeres”, desarrollado durante 1992 en el Museo Roca, con auspicio del Centro de Estudios Avanzados de la Universidad de Buenos Aires. El proyecto de realizar un programa de capacitación que reuniera mujeres académicas y mujeres políticas, de diversas disciplinas y vertientes ideológicas, con una marcada perspectiva de género, surgió mientras se discutía la ley ...

  2. Editorial

    OpenAIRE

    Clara Zarza

    2015-01-01

    La representación del mundo del artista, sus espacios privados, las personas de su entorno, así como su propio autorretrato, tiene una larga tradición en las artes visuales. Sin embargo, la utilización de material personal como estrategia artística, su identificación con el género autobiográfico y la aceptación de este por el mundo del arte institucionalizado han venido marcadas por las prácticas que se desarrollaron en los años 1960, 1970 y 1980, fundamentalmente por aquellas ligadas a los m...

  3. Chile y la Guerra. 1933-1943

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Luis Gaete

    2011-01-01

    La primera mitad del siglo XX estuvo marcada por dos acontecimientos que cambiaron para siempre la estructura internacional, la cual se destacaba por diversos factores, como la exacerbación de los nacionalismos, la búsqueda del poder económico y territorial, por las ideologías que buscaban imperar de diversos Estados, entre varios otros. Estos procesos históricos son conocidos como las “Guerras Mundiales”, que provocaron tales consecuencias que a partir de la segunda mitad del siglo pasado po...

  4. Orientación al mercado y desempeño organizativo en los clústeres de servicios de salud

    OpenAIRE

    Amezquita Salazar, Juan Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Adam y Savigny (2012) plantean que la salud y otros sistemas sociales han sido descritos como sistemas adaptativos complejos, que se ajustan de manera dinámica, y a veces impredecibles, a los cambios dentro del propio sistema o en el contexto en el que operan. Esto ha llevado a que el sector de la salud, en su dinámica de crecimiento y búsqueda de competitividad, siga la tendencia que ha sido marcada desde un principio por las empresas de fabricación de bienes, buscando organizarse en concent...

  5. Agenda digital: e-Servicios sociales

    OpenAIRE

    Munuera Gómez, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    Se presentan las líneas marcadas por la Agenda Digital Europea que pueden incorporarse en el sistema público de servicios sociales a través de la utilización de las Tecnologías de la Información y las Comunicaciones (TIC). Los objetivos marcados en sus planes pretenden mejorar las relaciones de los ciudadanos con las diferentes administraciones públicas. Los sistemas de protección social (seguridad social, educación, sanidad y empleo) han iniciado este proceso alcanzado grandes mejoras en ...

  6. A Revolução Mexicana na obra Biografia del Poder de Enrique Krauze

    OpenAIRE

    Cleverson Rodrigues Silva

    2010-01-01

    A Revolução Mexicana de 1910, foi marcada pela luta por Justiça Social e Reforma Agrária. Muitos personagens destacaram-se e foram alçados à categoria de heróis e baluartes da Revolução.  É neste cenário que Enri...

  7. TERRITORIALIDADES SUPERPUESTAS, SOBERANÍA EN DISPUTA: LECCIONES EMPÍRICAS DESDE AMÉRICA LATINA

    OpenAIRE

    John Agnew; Ulrich Oslender

    2010-01-01

    Debates recientes en geografía política han cuestionado la soberanía idealizada del Estado-nación como rígidamente vinculada a la noción de una territorialidad transparente marcada en el espacio por fronteras establecidas. La soberanía no necesita asumir esta forma particular. En este artículo proponemos la noción de «territorialidades superpuestas» para analizar la intersección de fuentes de autoridad territorial, diferentes de la autoridad del Estado-nación. Examinaremos cómo la disputa del...

  8. Narrativas de la postmemoria en Argentina y Chile: la casa revisitada

    OpenAIRE

    Logie, Ilse; Willem, Bieke

    2016-01-01

    En los últimos años han ido surgiendo, tanto en Argentina como en Chile, narrativas autobiográficas sobre las respectivas dictaduras escritas por la generación de los ‘hijos’ (término que no se refiere exclusivamente a los vínculos parentales, sino también a los hijos simbólicos, cuya infancia o adolescencia estuvo marcada por la experiencia dictatorial). Esta literatura se distingue de la producción anterior por formular una respuesta matizada a la herencia de los 70 (y los 80) y por cuestio...

  9. The X-ray view of the ionization cone in NGC 5252

    OpenAIRE

    Matteo Guainazzi; Stefano Bianchi; Massimo Cappi; Mauro Dadina; Giuseppe Malaguti

    2008-01-01

    Presentamos los resultados de las observaciones realizadas con Chandra en rayos-X suaves del espectacular cono de ionización de la galaxia cercana Seyfert-2 NGC5252. Como se observa invariablemente en los AGN oscurecidos, la emisión de rayos-X suaves exhibe una marcada coincidencia en morfología con el cono de gas ionizado trazado por el HST en las imágenes de O[III]. Imágenes resueltas en energía y espectroscopía de alta resolución sugieren que el gas emitido en rayos-X es fotoio...

  10. El espacio ciudadano: integración/exclusión en el imaginario y la realidad ateniense del siglo VI a.c.

    OpenAIRE

    Valdés Guía, Miriam

    2003-01-01

    RESUMEN: El s. VI en Atenas es un momento crucial para la definición y delimitación ciudadana que se realiza al mismo tiempo que una separación tajante entre esclavos-mercancía y ciudadanos. Las medidas legislativas de Solón en este sentido se ven refrendadas, también en época de los pisistrátidas, por una organización y jerarquización del espacio de la ciudad, especialmente el agora (marcada por rituales purificatorios de entrada a la misma) y los gimnasios. Asimismo se produce y se busca en...

  11. [Culto a María Santísima y ordenaciones del rezo del Santo Rosario en las parroquias de Salamanca, aprobados por su Obispo Francisco Calderón de la Barca.

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    "No ha avido en el mundo hombre de sangre cristiana que no creyera [...]" Impreso 2 h. Papel 210x305mm. Conservación mala: hs. muy deterioradas, manchas abundantes, dobleces marcadas, oxidación, bordes envejecidos. Texto en: Castellano. Letra bastarda. Párr. num.: 1-10. Vivas Moreno, Agustín. “Fondos documentales del Archivo Histórico de la Universidad de Salamanca. La colección de Papeles Varios: análisis descriptivo, tesauro y gestión documental automatizada”. Tesis...

  12. PABLO CARDOSO: UN GIRO ÉTICO Y POLÍTICO DE SU ESTÉTICA

    OpenAIRE

    Suárez Moreno, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    PABLO CARDOSO: AN ETHICAL AND POLITICAL SPIN OF HIS AESTHETICResumen: Pablo Cardoso (Cuenca, 1965), artista contemporáneo cuya excelsa obra estuvo hasta ahora marcada por el escepticismo y una estética contemplativa, adopta un giro ético y político que, sin adherir a tesis alguna de ningún partido ni movimiento políticos, revela las contradicciones de la lógica del capital, particularmente del modelo extractivista, que contamina, agrede y destruye muchas formas de vida. Este giro ético y polí...

  13. Previsivelmente incoerente: Uma análise preliminar da política externa de Donald Trump

    OpenAIRE

    Vinha, Luís da

    2017-01-01

    A eleição de Donald Trump tomou o mundo de surpresa. Trump venceu as eleições presidenciais americanas apresentando um programa de política externa com um forte sentimento de afiliação nacional. Muitos estados aliados e comentadores estão preocupados com o facto de que Trump possa encetar uma inversão temporária do internacionalismo tradicional americano ou mesmo hipotecar a ordem liberal global. Os primeiros meses da presidência Trump evidenciam uma política externa marcada pela incoerência....

  14. O ensino de enfermagem psiquiátrica e saúde mental: um olhar a partir dos programas das disciplinas La enseñanza de la enfermería psiquiátrica y la salud mental: una mirada a través de los programas de la materia Psychiatrc nursing teaching and mental health: an analysis based on courses programs

    OpenAIRE

    Luciane Prado Kantorski; Graciette Borges da Silva

    2000-01-01

    O presente artigo aborda o ensino de enfermagem psiquiátrica e saúde mental nos cursos de graduação em enfermagem das universidades públicas do Rio Grande do Sul. Utiliza-se como instrumento fundamentalmente os programas das disciplinas da área, sendo os dados complementados com o depoimento de professores e alunos dos cursos. As disciplinas da área são marcadas pelo enfoque do normal e do patológico no transcorrer do ciclo vital, centradas na psicopatologia e na instituição psiquiátrica.El p...

  15. O ensino de enfermagem psiquiátrica e saúde mental: um olhar a partir dos programas das disciplinas

    OpenAIRE

    Kantorski, Luciane Prado; Silva, Graciette Borges da

    2000-01-01

    O presente artigo aborda o ensino de enfermagem psiquiátrica e saúde mental nos cursos de graduação em enfermagem das universidades públicas do Rio Grande do Sul. Utiliza-se como instrumento fundamentalmente os programas das disciplinas da área, sendo os dados complementados com o depoimento de professores e alunos dos cursos. As disciplinas da área são marcadas pelo enfoque do normal e do patológico no transcorrer do ciclo vital, centradas na psicopatologia e na instituição psiquiátrica. ...

  16. ¿Crisis económica y mayor eficiencia? Análisis de las emisiones GEI del transporte por carretera en España

    OpenAIRE

    Sobrino Vazquez, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    En las últimas décadas, la actividad de transporte en España ha aumentado significativamente, y muy notablemente el transporte por carretera. Esto ha provocado algunos problemas energéticos y medioambientales tales como las inestabilidades en el suministro del petróleo o las emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero (GEI) precursoras del calentamiento global. Sin embargo, en los últimos años España ha venido marcada por la crisis económica, afectando al transporte por carretera. El presente es...

  17. Evolución de la legislación audiovisual en la Unión Europea en el entorno digital: los contenidos se independizan del soporte

    OpenAIRE

    Beceiro, Sagrario

    2012-01-01

    Desde la publicación, en el año 1989, de la primera Directiva Televisión sin fronteras (TSF) en Europa, la legislación sobre contenidos audiovisuales (programas y servicios) en el ámbito de la Unión Europea (UE) ha estado marcada por emergentes directrices políticas (liberalismo, desregulación y re-regulación) y avatares de la evolución del mercado. En la búsqueda del equilibrio legislativo, aspirando a no quedar rezagada ni adelantarse respecto a los acontecimientos del sector, la Directiva ...

  18. Movimentos turísticos

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Policarpo

    1997-01-01

    Os movimentos turísticos são um dos eixos centrais do relacionamento entre povos, culturas e países. O turista é simultaneamente importador e exportador de bens e de influências. O turismo pode ser definido como a procura colectiva da alteridade social, marcada pelo prazer, pela diversão e descompressão, centrada na abertura e na descoberta do "Mundo" e do "outro". Ao longo dos tempos foram as "mirabilia" da natureza, da História e do sobrenatural que mobilizaram os homens a viajar na des...

  19. Antimilitaristas y libertarias : La postura de las mujeres anarquistas ante el militarismo

    OpenAIRE

    Manzoni, Gisela

    2009-01-01

    La historia del siglo XX ha estado marcada por un sinnúmero de conflictos armados. Su saldo en vidas es incalculable, las pérdidas materiales exorbitantes, han ocasionado desplazamientos de poblaciones, aniquilamientos culturales y la destrucción de buena parte de nuestro planeta. Dos Guerras Mundiales, una Guerra Fría y una montonera de conflictos menores entre dos países, entre más de dos, o en el interior de ellos, han atravesado al mundo en esos años. En su mayoría, no han afectado de ...

  20. Striking resilience of an island endemic bird to a severe perturbation: the case of the Gran Canaria blue chaffinch

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno, A. C.; Carrascal, L. M.; Delgado, A.; Suárez, V.; Seoane, J.

    2018-01-01

    Marcada resiliencia de una especie de ave insular endémica después de una perturbación intensa: el caso del pinzón azul de Gran Canaria Son pocos los datos disponibles sobre la tendencia demográfica de las especies en peligro de extinción en zonas de protección especial y su capacidad de recuperarse de perturbaciones catastróficas. Se estudia la tendencia demográfica del pinzón azul de Gran Canaria (Fringilla polatzeki), un especialista de hábitat endémico de las Islas Canarias, restrin...

  1. Propuesta de Acción Horizontal de Igualdad de Género en el CSIC

    OpenAIRE

    Presidencia del CSIC

    2009-01-01

    El CSIC manifiesta su voluntad de poner en práctica actuaciones específicas que aseguren la equidad real y efectiva de oportunidades entre hombres y mujeres dentro de la Institución. Estas actuaciones seguirán las directrices marcadas por la estrategia Marco Comunitaria de “Transversalidad en Medidas de Género” (TMG) (gendermainstreaming) así como las medidas para favorecer la igualdad entre mujeres y hombres recogidas en el acuerdo del Consejo de Ministros de 4 de marzo de 2005 (B.O.E. 8 ...

  2. ADAPTABILIDAD DE LAS FAMILIAS AGRÍCOLAS ANTE PRESIONES ECONÓMICAS Y ECOLÓGICAS: UN CASO DE CAFÉ DE ALTURA EN LEÓN CORTÉS, COSTA RICA

    OpenAIRE

    Valenciano Salazar, Jorge Andrey

    2012-01-01

    Resumen Los medios de vida de las familias productoras de café de altura están ligados a la finca. Esta relación tan marcada (familia – finca) los hace vulnerables a presiones externas que alteran el funcionamiento cotidiano interno de la unidad productiva. Dentro de estas presiones externas se encuentran los bajos precios, efectos climáticos y plagas en el cafetal. El artículo busca identificar los impactos que ejercen dichas presiones sobre los medios de vida de las familias cafetaleras ...

  3. Discurso, silenciamento e alteração material no filme Deus e Brasileiro

    OpenAIRE

    Erich Lie Ginach

    2005-01-01

    Resumo: Esta pesquisa, tomando como referencial teórico a Análise de Discurso de linha materialista, com o filme Deus é Brasileiro se dispôs a trazer para a prática analítica a materialidade do cinema, tendo como enfoque cenas nas quais é regular a concomitância entre intervenções divinas e alterações fílmicas atravessadas de silenciamentos. Nesses trechos do enredo, Deus entra em contato direto com os humanos, produzindo intervenções de diferentes ordens. As alterações fílmicas aí marcadas s...

  4. Prueba de sensibilidad antimicrobiana de cepas de salmonella grupo D (móviles e inmóviles) aisladas de ponedoras comerciales en Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    J. Mantilla; M. Pulido; J. Jaime

    2010-01-01

    Las infecciones originadas por bacterias del género Salmonella son una de las principales causas de pérdidas económicas en la industria avícola, se caracterizan generalmente por la presentación de cuadros diarreicos y septicémicos que llevan a las aves a una marcada disminución en la producción y a la muerte. En Colombia, debido al efecto negativo que produce Salmonella spp. en las aves, y con el objetivo de poder controlar la enfermedad, se utiliza una gran variedad de productos antimicrobia...

  5. Prueba de sensibilidad antimicrobiana de cepas de salmonella grupo d (móviles e inmóviles) aisladas de ponedoras comerciales en colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Mantilla, J.; Pulido, M.; Jaime, J.

    2010-01-01

    Las infecciones originadas por bacterias del género Salmonella son una de las principales causas de pérdidas económicas en la industria avícola, se caracterizan generalmente por la presentación de cuadros diarreicos y septicémicos que llevan a las aves a una marcada disminución en la producción y a la muerte. En Colombia, debido al efecto negativo que produce Salmonella spp. en las aves, y con el objetivo de poder controlar la enfermedad, se utiliza una gran variedad de product...

  6. Percepción del estrés competitivo y cultura en futbolistas profesionales de Brasil y Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    M. Regina F. Brand\\u00E3o; Hiram Vald\\u00E9s Casal; Alfonso Antonio Machado; Ana Ramires

    2006-01-01

    El objetivo del presente estudio fue comparar jugadores de fútbol con diferentes perspectivas culturales y similar nivel de experiencia, en la percepción del estrés. Fueron evaluados 18 jugadores Brasileños de la Selección Nacional Brasileña, y 20 jugadores Portugueses de la Selección Nacional Portuguesa, con una media de edad de 26,69 + 4,1 y 26,05 + 2,3 años respectivamente, mediante el Inventario de Estrés en Fútbol. Aparece una tendencia resulta muy marcada, los ítems que son evaluados co...

  7. O pensamento corporativo em Miguel Reale: leituras do fascismo italiano no integralismo brasileiro

    OpenAIRE

    Bertonha,João Fábio

    2013-01-01

    O jurista Miguel Reale se destacou no movimento integralista brasileiro por vários motivos. Em primeiro lugar, pelo cuidado especial com que se dedicou à questão da organização do futuro Estado integralista. Em segundo, pela sua preocupação social, de atingir os operários e resolver a chamada 'questão social' a partir da reorganização do Estado e da aplicação da doutrina corporativista. E, por fim, pela sua formação, tanto pessoal como educacional, a qual foi muito marcada pela cultura italia...

  8. Síntesis de compuestos organoselénicos derivados del hidroxitirosol. Determinación de su actividad como antioxidantes

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Carretero, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Texto completo descargado desde Teseo 1. Introducción Los polifenoles son una amplia familia de compuestos que se encuentran, entre otros alimentos, en la fruta, la verdura, el vino, el té, el cacao y el aceite de oliva virgen extra y que muestran una marcada actividad antioxidante, que se traduce en una contrastada actividad en la prevención de enfermedades cardiovasculares, cáncer, enfermedades neurodegenerativas, diabetes u osteoporosis . Uno de los polifenoles más efectivos como ...

  9. Bajo un sol desconocido: László Hudec, Antonin Raymond y la construcción de la arquitectura moderna en Asia Oriental

    OpenAIRE

    Anghel, Anamaría Andreea

    2015-01-01

    La arquitectura es un reflejo directo de la cultura, siempre cambiando, con el fin de adaptarse a las necesidades de la época. La sociedad china sufrió cambios inesperados, a lo largo de los fines del siglo XIX y principios del XX, marcada por las invasiones de los poderes occidentales, La Primera y La Segunda Guerras Mundiales, rebeliones, derrumbes de viejos regímenes y de la fundación de la Nueva China en 1949. En comparación con China, Japón se enfrenta a constantes problemas de terremoto...

  10. La formación de profesores y la educación intercultural en la universidad pública del Caribe colombiano : el caso de la Facultad de Educación de la Universidad del Atlántico

    OpenAIRE

    Castro Suárez, Celmira

    2016-01-01

    Programa de Doctorado en Desigualdades e Intervención Social El estudio de la interculturalidad y su relación con lo educativo reviste hoy un gran interés en el mundo académico, sobre todo en un país como Colombia, caracterizado por una sociedad con una rica diversidad cultural; además posee unas marcadas desigualdades sociales, así como graves problemas de exclusión de amplios sectores de la sociedad que aún permanecen en situaciones de pobreza y falta de acceso a una educación de calidad...

  11. Estimación del potencial de energías renovables en el estado de Sonora

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Luis Taddei Bringas; María de los Ángeles Navarrete Hinojosa; Pablo Daniel Taddei Arriola; Rafael Cabanillas López.

    2016-01-01

    La etapa de uso de combustibles fósiles está llegando a su fin, debido principalmente a la escasez y problemas de contaminación que originan. En la actualidad existe una marcada tendencia en aprovechar las fuentes renovables de energía, por su bajo impacto ambiental y menor emisión de gases de efecto invernadero (GEI), lo cual contribuye a independizar las políticas energéticas locales de las del mercado global, basadas en la supremacía petrolera. Para obtener el mayor provecho de las energía...

  12. Estereotipos de género: la perpetuación del poder sexista en los tribunales argentinos

    OpenAIRE

    Defago,María Angélica Peñas

    2015-01-01

    El campo jurídico es una arena de luchas marcada por las tensiones que se dan en torno a los contenidos escritos de las leyes, así como por la posterior lectura que de éstos hagan diversos actores sociales y políticos. Dentro de estos fenómenos de tensión, los tribunales se constituyen, cada vez más, en foros de arduos debates en torno a intentar asentar legitimidad política y social de determinadas configuraciones genéricas y/o sexuales. A través de este trabajo, intentaremos identificar cóm...

  13. Epilepsia e arte: relação, interação ou conseqüência = Epilepsy and art: relation, interaction or consequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan, Richard Lester

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Este artigo tem como objetivo revisar estudos envolvendo epilepsia e arte, mostrando o sofrimento, alegria, criações e adversidades destes com a epilepsia. Métodos: Revisão bibliográfica (Medline, Lilacs, selecionando aspectos sobre epilepsia e arte. Conclusão: O texto discorre sobre a vida e obras de grandes nomes da arte que tiveram suas vidas marcadas e influenciadas pela epilepsia; e suas manifestações sociais, psíquicas e físicas

  14. Vigilancia de serotipos en infecciones invasivas por Haemophilus influenzae en la Argentina en la era de la vacuna conjugada contra el serotipo b durante el período 2005-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Efron, Adriana M.; Moscoloni, María A.; Reijtman, Vanesa R.; Regueira, Mabel

    2013-01-01

    La introducción de la vacuna contra Haemophilus influenzae tipo b en los programas de inmunización de muchos países produjo una reducción marcada en la incidencia de enfermedad invasiva causada por este serotipo y en su portación y un incremento de otros tipos capsulares y de aislamientos no capsulados. Se estudiaron 313 aislamientos de H. influenzae recuperados de sitio estéril, provenientes de pacientes pediátricos y adultos con enfermedad invasiva atendidos en 90 hospitales de la Red Nacio...

  15. Incidencia de los tipos y formas de comunicación en la formación de valores sobre sexualidad : estudio sobre las pedagogías comunicativas en los Colegios Católicos de Quito

    OpenAIRE

    Bedoya Guerrero, Patricia

    2003-01-01

    La sexualidad es un tema que en la actualidad todavía parece manejarse como un tabú. Para ello han contribuido: la marcada exacerbación que se da en los medios de comunicación, y la constante fetichización del sexo, al igual que los cambios de mentalidad provocados por el avance d las ciencias y de las tecnologías. Los medios, las represiones, las informaciones veladas parecen enfrentarse con la abundante proliferación informativa respecto al sexo y la sexualidad que circula en cualqu...

  16. Las madres de Plaza de Mayo: à memória do sangue, o legado ao revés

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Fernanda Garbero de Aragão Ponzio

    2009-01-01

    O contexto da Argentina da década de setenta é o cenário de personagens e narrativas que emergem do medo e permanecem, até os dias atuais, em posições de resistência e enfrentamento. Nessa paisagem marcada pela opressão do Estado militar, nascem as Madres de Plaza de Mayo, originadas pela tragédia do desaparecimento forçado de seus filhos. Investidas pela maternidade, elas rompem com a esfera privada para desestabilizar a esfera pública e questionar a memória de um país maculad...

  17. Análisis y determinación de política de reclutamiento y selección de personal comercial en ENTRÓPICO, SL.

    OpenAIRE

    GARCÍA HERRERO, LAURA

    2016-01-01

    [ES] El trabajo consistirá principalmente en un estudio de la política de reclutamiento utilizada por Innovasem Ingenieros hasta el momento, en el caso de los comerciales, analizando los posibles fallos en el proceso actual. Identificando las características que poseen los empleados que se han incorporado con éxito en el trabajo logrando los objetivos propuestos, así como el personal que no ha cumplido las expectativas marcadas para el puesto. Además de implantar un nuevo sistema de recl...

  18. El lenguaje en la era digital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Vergara Silva

    1998-02-01

    Con base en la interrelación entre lenguaje y pensamiento se plantea el papel fundamental que el lenguaje ocupa en el modelo económico, educativo y cultural generado por la aparición de la era digital o era del conocimiento. en este artículo se evidencian los retos que genera una era marcada por un esquema digital en el desarrollo y uso de habilidades comunicativas tanto en la docencia superior como en el ejercicio profesional eficiente.

  19. Al principio, el fin: “The End” en el preludio de Apocalypse Now

    OpenAIRE

    García Escrivá, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    El desarrollo creativo de Apocalypse Now (Francis Ford Coppola, 1979) estuvo caracterizado por una revisión constante del guión, un rodaje anormalmente extenso y accidentado y una postproducción muy laboriosa y en absoluto convencional. Todo ello propició una marcada metamorfosis respecto del proyecto original de John Milius, inicialmente sustentado en la novela El corazón de las tinieblas de Joseph Conrad y en una serie de ingredientes bélicos tratados desde un prisma psicodélico (Cowie, 200...

  20. Desafios da radiodifusão sonora na convergência multimídia: o segmento musical jovem

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Artur Ferraretto; UCS/RS

    2008-01-01

    Este texto faz uma reflexão sobre as origens, o desenvolvimento e as perspectivas do segmento musical jovem nas emissoras de rádio. Parte do papel histórico do veículo na constituição, de início, da categoria social representada pela juventude e, na seqüência, no tratamento desse como público consumidor. Chega-se, assim, ao momento atual, um cenário de multiplicidade de ofertas marcada pela presença da internet e...

  1. El manejo de la información en la construcción de la realidad: algunos elementos para pensar la ley de identidad de género en los medios de comunicación

    OpenAIRE

    Robledo, Juan Pablo; Esparza, María Virginia

    2014-01-01

    La realidad de la comunidad travesti, transexual y transgénero de la Argentina está marcada por la persecución, la exclusión y la marginación. Históricamente, veremos como el “otro” o diferente respecto al sexo y género fue patologizado y excluido, frente a la “normalidad” de la heterosexualidad. Gracias al avance de movimientos sociales, activistas y militantes a favor de un marco jurídico más igualitario, el 9 de mayo de 2012, se logró sancionar la Ley de Identidad de Género en la...

  2. Sustentabilidade na moda e o consumo consciente

    OpenAIRE

    Araújo, Mariana Bezerra Moraes de; Broega, A. C.; Ribeiro, Silvana Mota

    2014-01-01

    ISBN 978-84-697-0700-5 O presente artigo tem como objetivo fazer uma reflexão sobre a importância da sustentabilidade no âmbito da moda e o aparecimento de um novo consumidor, mais consciente e preocupado com os problemas da humanidade. Neste trabalho, será discutida a dicotomia existente entre a sustentabilidade e a moda, marcada pela efemeridade e por produtos com um ciclo de vida limitado, onde prevalece a indústria Fast Fashion. Paralelamente, observa-se o surgimento de uma nova verten...

  3. Marketin experiencial: revolución de fidelización

    OpenAIRE

    Cano García, Aura Lorena

    2012-01-01

    Actualmente en Colombia sólo existen dos tiendas por departamento, Falabella y La Polar. Ambas ofrecen productos similares a precios análogos, por lo cual este proyecto busca desarrollar una estrategia de fidelización del cliente, utilizando una novedosa tendencia del marketing, el marketing experiencial, que permitan que Falabella cree una marcada diferenciación estableciendo relaciones a lo largo del tiempo con los clientes. El marco del proyecto es la industria del retail, por lo que in...

  4. CLIMATERIO Y POSTMENOPAUSIA: ASPECTOS EDUCATIVOS A CONSIDERAR SEGUN LA ETAPA DEL PERIODO

    OpenAIRE

    ARAYA GUTIERREZ,ALEJANDRA; URRUTIA SOTO,MARIA TERESA; CABIESES VALDES,BALTICA

    2006-01-01

    El periodo del climaterio es una etapa de transición en la vida de la mujer caracterizada por cambios físicos, psicológicos y sociales. Es una etapa dinámica marcada por la repercusión de los cambios hormonales, principalmente por la paulatina disminución de los estrógenos. La presente revisión bibliográfica describe las características generales del periodo, cambios que ocurren y aspectos a educar en las mujeres durante el climaterio y la postmenopausia, con el propósito de dar una visión ac...

  5. Terapia floral como medio de transformación psíquica y orgánica en una paciente con síndrome de Down

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Gay Muguercia

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Se describe el caso clínico de una paciente de 23 años de edad, con síndrome de Down, quien presentaba retraimiento, miedo, marcada tartamudez, obesidad, hipertensión arterial e hipercolesterolemia, para lo cual se le indicó terapia floral. Se le realizaron los exámenes físicos y complementarios pertinentes y fue evaluada a los 21, 45 y 90 días. Finalmente, se lograron transformaciones emocionales orgánicas y físicas, de manera que se observó un cambio significativo en su comportamiento

  6. Tenosinovitis por virus Chikungunya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Seijo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta a la consulta un hombre proveniente de la República Dominicana con una tenosinovitis del extensor del dedo medio derecho; en la convalecencia inmediata, segunda curva febril luego de 48 horas de permanecer asintomático de una enfermedad febril aguda, y marcada astenia, exantema pruriginoso, poliartralgias con impotencia funcional y rigidez articular generalizada. Los exámenes bioquímicos no aportaron datos de interés para el diagnóstico. La serología para virus dengue fue negativa. La detección de IgM y de anticuerpos neutralizantes para virus Chikungunya (CHIKV fueron positivos.

  7. Reflexões acerca da emergência de um Cine-tv: o hibridismo como marca de um cinema brasileiro contemporâneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guidotti, Flávia

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo aponta algumas peculiaridades de um cinema brasileiro contemporâneo cuja produção é marcada pelo cruzamento com a televisão. O estudo parte do princípio que o resultado dessa produção envolve aspectos relacionados com o uso de ferramentas e técnicas comuns às duas linguagens, com a migração de profissionais de um campo para o outro, num contexto específico da economia política de produção e distribuição do cinema brasileiro

  8. Desterritorializando e reterritorializando um shtetl nos trópicos. Leitura do romance A guerra no Bom Fim, de Moacyr Scliar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya Lani

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A noção de fronteira, vista como um limite fixo, imóvel, vem dando lugar no discurso da pós-modernidade a espaços itinerantes em que se destacam relações identitárias transitórias, fluidas, errantes, marcadas pela pluralidade das travessias culturais. Apoiando-nos no conceito de desterritorialização/reterritorialização criado por Gilles Deleuze e reavaliado por Néstor García Canclini, o presente artigo analisa as diferentes etapas de tal processo no romance A guerra no Bom Fim (1972, de Moacyr Scliar.

  9. Nosocomios higienistas: el caso Florence Nightingale

    OpenAIRE

    Castro Molina, Francisco Javier

    2013-01-01

    Los impresionantes cambios surgidos tras el inicio de la Revolución Industrial ayudaron a que de manera reiterada se buscaran soluciones a los diferentes problemas que se sucedían, uno tras de otro, como resultado del hacinamiento y las modificaciones sociopolíticas y económicas. Los avances en el campo de la ciencia, y en particular en las ciencias de la salud, fueron innumerables, estableciéndose en la sociedad una preocupación marcada por solucionar los problemas de las clases más desfavor...

  10. La transformación de los medios forestales en el Norte de Argentina. Implicaciones sociales y ambientales.

    OpenAIRE

    Cuadra, Dante Edin

    2016-01-01

    En el Norte de Argentina se encuentran las mayores extensiones de bosques nativos del país. Se trata de un ámbito subtropical con marcadas variaciones pluviométricas, resultantes de la dinámica atmosférica, los tipos y disposiciones del relieve y la distancia al mar, factores que han posibilitado el desarrollo de formaciones vegetales diferenciadas como las selvas de riberas y mesetas en el Este, los bosques húmedos y xerófilos en el centro y las selvas serranas en el Oeste. Las primeras ...

  11. DE LA REPRESENTACIÓN CULTURAL DE LA OTREDAD A LA MATERIALIZACIÓN DE LA DIFERENCIA: ARQUEOLOGÍA CONTEMPORÁNEA DE LA DOMESTICIDAD ENTRE LOS VAQUEIROS D'ALZADA Y LOS MARAGATOS (ESPAÑA)

    OpenAIRE

    González Álvarez, David; González, Pablo Alonso

    2014-01-01

    Este estudio analiza procesos contemporáneos de cambio cultural en dos áreas rurales del Noroeste de España. Ambas estuvieron habitadas por grupos sociales con una marcada identidad cultural que ha dejado su impronta en la cultura material: los vaqueiros d'alzada y los maragatos. Mediante una metodología arqueológica se analizan las casas de tres pueblos en cada caso de estudio, desvelando cómo la materialidad juega un papel fundamental en los procesos de cambio cultural. En líneas generales,...

  12. Crecimiento económico y demanda por educación superior en el Perú: un estudio para el período 2004-2006

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, Juan F.; Casavilca, Pedro; Lizarzaburu, Rose

    2010-01-01

    En el Perú, la reciente expansión económica parece haber alentado una mayor demanda por educación superior. Sin embargo, el promedio enmascara marcadas diferencias entre grupos de gasto y un potencial sesgo antipobre. Construimos un modelo teórico sencillo que predice una relación positiva entre esta demanda, la dotación del hogar y la prima de salarios. El acceso al crédito, por su parte, reduce la importancia de la dotación y también alienta la demanda por educación si su retorno es alto. E...

  13. El espacio social de la ciencia y la tecnología: su aplicación a la biotecnología

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz, Emilio

    2006-01-01

    Al iniciar el segundo semestre de la sección “La biotecnología en el espejo”, considero interesante introducir una subsección que bajo el rótulo “Espacio social de la biotecnología” permita ir contemplando reflejos e imágenes que muestra la biotecnología en relación con la compleja dinámica social en que se ve envuelta y que viene marcada por las reacciones de la sociedad y las regulaciones y normativas establecidas por sus representantes. Estos temas gozan de creciente importancia para el de...

  14. Aprovechamiento de energía, cinemática y estabilidad en la marcha de un paciente con amputación transfemoral sin abordaje de rehabilitación

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel Fábrica; Iliana Peña; Valentina Silva-Pereyra; Virginia Ramos-Arim

    2018-01-01

    Introducción. Los pacientes con amputación de miembros inferiores presentan marcadas asimetrías en la marcha, las cuales pueden aumentar cuando no se cumple con un adecuado proceso de rehabilitación, comprometiendo los objetivos fundamentales de la marcha e incrementando factores de riesgo. Objetivo. Analizar el grado de aprovechamiento de energía mecánica, la estabilidad dinámica y las variables cinemáticas de interés clínico en la marcha de un paciente con amputación transfemoral que no...

  15. Lipoproteínas e inflamação na esclerose múltipla

    OpenAIRE

    Cascais, Maria João Coelho Melo

    2010-01-01

    Preâmbulo Os processos inflamatórios induzem alterações marcadas do metabolismo das lipoproteínas plasmáticas e estas, por sua vez, regulam as reacções imunitárias. Dadas as muitas relações existentes entre imunidade inata e adquirida e o metabolismo das lipoproteínas, investigámos neste trabalho a sua possível relevância para a compreensão da Esclerose Múltipla (EM), uma doença neuroinflamatória e neurodegenrativa do Sistema Nervoso Central (SNC). Como será evidente ao l...

  16. Uso de materiales alternativos en la construcción del galpón montes alpha

    OpenAIRE

    Casanova, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Hoy, en el sector industrial, existe una tendencia muy marcada hacia las construcciones de rápida ejecución, situación que está plenamente fundamentada por: los ingresos que se dejan de percibir en una industria durante los días de paralización, o lo que es peor, las enormes pérdidas causadas por los días de improductividad de los equipos. Considerando los objetivos de los propietarios en este tipo de construcciones como: el tiempo de ejecución y el costo de los proyectos, se ha g...

  17. Avances en sistemas analíticos de vanguardia-retaguardia basados en el empleo de nuevos materiales obtenidos de la combinación de líquidos iónicos con nanotubo de carbono

    OpenAIRE

    Polo Luque, M.D.

    2013-01-01

    En los últimos años, se ha desarrollado una marcada tendencia hacia la creación, optimización y mejora de nuevos materiales, que han sido incorporados y utilizados en una amplia variedad de procesos analíticos. En este sentido, la mayor atención se ha centrado en la creación de nuevos nanomateriales. Desde su descubrimiento en 1991 [1] los nanotubos de carbono (CNTs), así como sus derivados híbridos se han ido incorporando, gracias a sus excelentes propiedades, a multitud de aplicaciones en d...

  18. Influence of dietary protein and excess methionine on choline needs for young bobwhite quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    Experiments were conducted with young Bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) to investigate the effect of differing dietary protein levels and nondetrimental amounts of excess methionine on choline needs. Growth and feed consumption of quail fed an adequate (27.3%) protein purified diet supplemented with 2000 mg/kg of choline were unaffected by increasing the level of excess methionine to 1.75%; however, greater amounts (2.0%, 2.25%) of excess methionine depressed growth (P less than .01), reduced feed consumption (P less than .01), and decreased feed utilization (P less than .05). Quail fed a purified diet containing 13.85% protein and 515 mg/kg of choline grew poorly. Growth was unaffected by additional choline in this diet. Growth was suboptimal among quail fed purified diets containing adequate or high (41.55%) levels of protein in which choline was limiting; however, a high level of protein did not in itself affect performance. Growth was improved by supplemental choline in these diets. Growth of quail fed purified diets with up to 1.35% excess methionine which were limiting (531 mg/kg) in choline was less than that of groups fed 2000 mg/kg of added dietary choline (P less than .01); however, excess methionine did not significantly influence growth of quail fed choline-deficient diets. These experiments indicate that neither high dietary protein nor excess methionine, fed at non-growth-depressing levels, increases dietary choline needs for young Bobwhite quail.

  19. Studies on the protein and sulfur amino acid requirements of young bobwhite quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted with purified diets to examine the influence of protein level and to estimate the sulfur amino acid (S.A.A.) requirement of young Bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus). These studies demonstrated (I) that 26% protein was sufficient for rapid growth when the diet was supplemented with methionine; (2) that diets containing higher levels of protein (29.3% and 31.3%) failed to support satisfactory growth unless they contained supplemental methionine; and (3) that young Bobwhite quail require no more than 1.0% sulfur-containing amino acids for optimal growth and efficiency of feed utilization. A fifth experiment was conducted to examine the protein and S.A.A. requirements of young Bobwhite quail using practical rations and to compare results with those obtained with purified diets. Diets containing 24%, 26% and 28% protein were supplied with and without supplemental methionine in a five week study. Results showed significant growth responses to protein and supplemental methionine. Responses showed that Bobwhite quail require no more than 26% protein for maximum growth and efficiency of feed utilization when the S.A.A. level of the diet was approximately 1.0%. The results were in close agreement with those obtained with purified diets. These findings define more precisely than had been known the quantitative requirements of young Bobwhite quail for protein and for the S.A.A. necessary for optimal growth.

  20. Detection of Genetic Relationship in the Tree of Life of Some Quail Through Molecular Markers Analyses

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    Lamiaa Elsayed Mokhtar Deef

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Quail is an important and interesting group of galliform birds. The Common quail (Coturnix coturnix; the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica; the Panda quail (Coturnix japonica; the Dotted white quail (Coturnix japonica and the Bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus were used in this study. PCR-RFLP and SDS-proteins were performed to reveal the genetic characterization and genetic relationship of the studied quails. Analysis of fragments generated by digestion of PCR product with restriction enzyme NlaIII recorded highly polymorphic restriction profiles. There is a wide intraspecific COI, SEMA3E and TLX genes variability among the studied quails. Protein bands varied from10 to 18 between quails with minimum number of bands were in the Dotted white quail (10 bands and the maximum were in the Japanese quail (18 bands as measured by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The Dotted white quail revealed the lowest similarity to the Bobwhite with a coefficient of 0.18 while The similarity coefficients between the Common quail and each one of the other quails were 0.67, 0.62, 0.45 and 0.42 for the Japanese, Panda, Dotted white and the Bobwhite quails, respectively. The results indicate that, PCR-RFLP and protein analyses are good techniques to evaluate genetic characterization and genetic relationship of these quails.

  1. Host specificity of turkey and chicken Eimeria: controlled cross-transmission studies and a phylogenetic view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrba, Vladimir; Pakandl, Michal

    2015-03-15

    Protozoan parasites of the Eimeria genus have undergone extensive speciation and are now represented by a myriad of species that are specialised to different hosts. These species are highly host-specific and usually parasitise single host species, with only few reported exceptions. Doubts regarding the strict host specificity were frequent in the original literature describing coccidia parasitising domestic turkeys. The availability of pure characterised lines of turkey and chicken Eimeria species along with the recently developed quantitative PCR identification of these species allowed to investigate the issue of host specificity using well-controlled cross-transmission experiments. Seven species of gallinaceous birds (Gallus gallus, Meleagris gallopavo, Alectoris rufa, Perdix perdix, Phasianus colchicus, Numida meleagris and Colinus virginianus) were inoculated with six species and strains of turkey Eimeria and six species of chicken coccidia and production of oocysts was monitored. Turkey Eimeria species E. dispersa, E. innocua and E. meleagridis could complete their development in the hosts from different genera or even different families. Comparison of phylogenetic positions of these Eimeria species according to 18S rDNA and COI showed that the phylogeny cannot explain the observed patterns of host specificity. These findings suggest that the adaptation of Eimeria parasites to foreign hosts is possible and might play a significant role in the evolution and diversification of this genus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Lake states change fishery regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Oosten, John

    1935-01-01

    Following methods described by Louis Bureau (1911, 1913) in France,tabulations were made (1) of the ages at which captivity-reared bob-white quail (Colinus virginianus) dropped their juvenal remiges, and (2) the rates at which post-juvenal replxcement primaries grew. These were arranged so as to permit the determination of age in healthv birds from one to five months of age. The degree of individual variation was much greater than that found by Bureau, however. and limits accuracy in age determination after the 10th week..... The post-juvenal wing molt began on the birds' 28th day and ended when the quail were 146 to 154 days old.The post-juvenal body molt was found to take place largely between the 70th and 100th days. The juvenal rectrices were renewed from the 62nd to the 122nd days, the new feathers being as long as their longest coverts when the birds were 116 days old. The color of the tarsi varied from pink, at 32 days of age, to straw color at 60 days, and yellow-gray from 83 to 180 days. At six months, the color of the beak was identical with that of adults.....Unlike several other game bird species, the flexibility of the lower jaw was not an accurate index to age in bob-whites older than 11 weeks. Rigor mortis and freezing were found to hinder the testing of this criterion.

  3. Age determination in juvenile bobwhite quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrides, G.A.; Nestler, R.B.

    1943-01-01

    Following methods described by Louis Bureau (1911, 1913) in France,tabulations were made (1) of the ages at which captivity-reared bob-white quail (Colinus virginianus) dropped their juvenal remiges, and (2) the rates at which post-juvenal replxcement primaries grew. These were arranged so as to permit the determination of age in healthv birds from one to five months of age. The degree of individual variation was much greater than that found by Bureau, however. and limits accuracy in age determination after the 10th week..... The post-juvenal wing molt began on the birds' 28th day and ended when the quail were 146 to 154 days old.The post-juvenal body molt was found to take place largely between the 70th and 100th days. The juvenal rectrices were renewed from the 62nd to the 122nd days, the new feathers being as long as their longest coverts when the birds were 116 days old. The color of the tarsi varied from pink, at 32 days of age, to straw color at 60 days, and yellow-gray from 83 to 180 days. At six months, the color of the beak was identical with that of adults.....Unlike several other game bird species, the flexibility of the lower jaw was not an accurate index to age in bob-whites older than 11 weeks. Rigor mortis and freezing were found to hinder the testing of this criterion.

  4. Avian response to bottomland hardwood reforestation: the first 10 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twedt, D.J.; Wilson, R.R.; Henne-Kerr, J.L.; Grosshuesch, D.A.

    2002-01-01

    Bttomland hardwood forests were planted on agricultural fields in Mississippi and Louisiana using either predominantly Quercus species (oaks) or Populus deltoides (eastern cottonwood). We assessed avian colonization of these reforested sites between 2 and 10 years after planting. Rapid vertical growth of cottonwoods (circa 2 - 3 m / yr) resulted in sites with forest structure that supported greater species richness of breeding birds, increased Shannon diversity indices, and supported greater territory densities than on sites planted with slower-growing oak species. Grassland birds (Spiza americana [Dickcissel], and Sturnella magna [Eastern Meadowlark]) were indicative of species breeding on oak-dominated reforestation # 10 years old. Agelaius phoeniceus (Red-winged Blackbird) and Colinus virginianus (Northern Bobwhite) characterized cottonwood reforestation # 4 years old, whereas 14 species of shrub-scrub birds (e.g., Passerina cyanea [Indigo Bunting]) and early-successional forest birds (e.g., Vireo gilvus [Warbling Vireo]) typified cottonwood reforestation 5 to 9 years after planting. Rates of daily nest survival did not differ between reforestation strategies. Nest parasitism increased markedly in older cottonwood stands, but was overwhelmed by predation as a cause of nest failure. Based on Partners in Flight prioritization scores and territory densities, the value of cottonwood reforestation for avian conservation was significantly greater than that of oak reforestation during their first 10 years. Because of benefits conferred on breeding birds, we recommend reforestation of bottomland hardwoods include a high proportion of fast-growing, early successional species such as cottonwood.

  5. Eyeworm infections of Oxyspirura petrowi, Skrjabin, 1929 (Spirurida: Thelaziidae), in species of quail from Texas, New Mexico and Arizona, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, N R; Kendall, R J

    2017-07-01

    Northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) and Scaled quail (Callipepla squamata) have been declining steadily throughout much of their historical range over the past few decades. Even the Rolling Plains of Texas, historically rich with wild quail and one of the last remaining quail strongholds, has been suffering a population decline, most notably since 2010. Gambel's quail (Callipepla gambelii) have also been experiencing their own decline throughout their respective range, but not as significant as that of other species of quail. Eyeworms (Oxyspirura petrowi) in quail have been recognized for years but not thoroughly studied until recently. New research reveals that O. petrowi infection can cause inflammation, oedema, and cellular damage to the eye of the quail host. The objective of this research was to better understand the prevalence of the eyeworm infection in different quail species, expand on known distribution, and determine if there is a relationship between location and species infected with eyeworms. Northern bobwhite, Scaled quail and Gambel's quail were hunter-donated from one county within Texas, New Mexico and Arizona, and examined for the prevalence, mean abundance and mean intensity of eyeworm infection from November 2013 to February 2014. Quail from every location were found to have individuals with a varying degree of eyeworm infection. This is the first study to document eyeworm infection in Gambel's quail and in quail in New Mexico and Arizona, and reports the highest eyeworm infection found in Northern bobwhite and Scaled quail.

  6. Effects of the mosquito larvicide GB-1111 on mallard and bobwhite embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, W.H.

    2000-01-01

    Golden Bear Oil or GB-1111 is a petroleum distillate that is used throughout the United States as a larvicide for mosquito pupae. The oil forms a barrier at the air-water interface, which suffocates air-breathing insects. There are few published studies on non-target effects of GB-1111 but the product label warns that ?GB-1111 is toxic to fish and other aquatic organisms.? Fertile eggs of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) were incubated in the laboratory, and treated on days 4 or 11 of incubation with external applications equivalent to either 0, 1/3, 1, 3, or 10 times the maximum rate (5 gal/A) of field application of GB-1111. Hatching success was significantly reduced in mallards treated on day 4 or day 11 at 3 and 10 times the maximum field application, with a calculated approximate LD50 of 1.9 times the maximum field application. Most mortality occurred within a week of treatment. Hatching success of bobwhite was only reduced at the highest level of treatment. Other effects at this level in bobwhite included a significant increase in incidence of abnormal embryos/ hatchlings, lower body and liver weights of hatchlings and a two-fold increase in hepatic microsomal P450-associated monooxygenase activity (EROD) in hatchlings. Recommended rates of field application of GB-1111 are potentially toxic to mallard embryos, especially under conditions of larvicide drift or spray overlap, but unlikely to impair the survival or development of bobwhite embryos.

  7. Acute toxicity of four anticholinesterase insecticides to American kestrels, eastern screech-owls and northern bobwhites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Sparling, D.W.

    1991-01-01

    American kestrels (Falco sparverius), eastern screech-owls (Otus asio), and northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus) were given single acute oral doses of four widely diverse anticholinesterase pesticides: EPN, fenthion, carbofuran, and monocrotophos. LD50s, based on birds that died within 5 d of dosage, were computed for each chemical in each species. Sex differences in the sensitivity of northern bobwhites in reproductive condition were examined. American kestrels were highly sensitive to all chemicals tested (LD50s 0.6--4.0 mg/kg). Eastern screech-owls were highly tolerant to EPN (LD50 274 mg/kg) but sensitive to the remaining chemicals (LD50s 1.5-3.9 mg/kg). Northern bobwhites were highly sensitive to monocrotophos (LD50 0.8 mg/kg) and less sensitive to the remaining chemicals (LD50s 4.6--31 mg/kg). Female bobwhites (LD50 3.1 mg/kg) were more sensitive to fenthion than males (LD50 7.0 mg/kg). Mean percent depression of brain cho[inesterase (ChE) of birds that died on the day of dosing exceeded 65% for all chemicals in all species. The response of one species to a given pesticide should not be used to predict the sensitivity of other species to the same pesticide. The need for research on several topics is discussed

  8. Lethal and behavioral effects of chlordimeform in bobwhite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, W J; Heinz, G H; Schuler, C A

    1985-07-01

    The 7-day LC50 of chlordimeform to bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) chicks was 2835 ppm (95% CI = 2169-3705 ppm). Bobwhite chicks fed 1000 ppm (approximately LC4) chlordimeform for 7 days ate less, weighed less, travelled farther from a fright stimulus in an avoidance test, and had significantly more groups make greater than or equal to 10 light beam interruptions in an open-field test at 8 days of age than bobwhite fed 0, 1, 10, or 100 ppm chlordimeform (P less than or equal to 0.05). Groups fed 100 ppm (P less than or equal to 0.05) and 1000 ppm (P = 0.11) for 7 days crossed more often from the shallow to deep side of a visual cliff at 8 days of age than birds fed lesser concentrations of chlordimeform. Bobwhites were retested at 15 days of age, after being fed untreated diets for 7 days following the chlordimeform diets. The 1000 ppm group still travelled greater distances in the avoidance test (P less than or equal to 0.05). But open-field and visual cliff performances were similar to controls and other treatment groups. Chlordimeform concentrations causing behavioral aberrations in bobwhite were appreciably higher than environmental concentrations following field applications of chlordimeform.

  9. WATERMARK RESISTENTE EN EL DOMINIO DE LAS FRECUENCIAS DE IMÁGENES DIGITALES PARA SU AUTENTICACIÓN SEGURA MEDIANTE AUTÓMATAS CELULARES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Fátima Huallpa Vargas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presenta el desarrollo de un procedimiento de autenticación de imágenes digitales combinando diversos métodos relacionados con watermarks (marcas de agua digitales y métodos de cifrado, con el fin de proteger los derechos de autor de imágenes digitales. Para que este procedimiento sea robusto, imperceptible y resistente a diferentes ataques intencionales o no intencionales se trabaja en el dominio de las frecuencias de la imagen utilizando la Transformada Discreta del Coseno (Discrete Cosine Transform, DCT. Para agregar mayor nivel de protección y seguridad a la imagen marcada, se cifra el mensaje insertado a partir de una clave del autor empleando el método de Autómatas Celulares. El mensaje insertado es resistente a la compresión JPEG, a los ruidos y filtros gaussiano y salt-and-pepper. La extracción del mensaje se realiza a partir de la imagen marcada para lo cual se hace uso estricto de la clave del autor para verificar la autenticidad del mismo.

  10. SEGUNDO CENTENARIO DE LA INDEPENDENCIA

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    Gustavo Malagón Londoño

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    La Academia Nacional de Medicina, no podía eximirse de hacer una celebración solemne del Segundo Centenario de la Independencia, lo cual tiene plena explicación por ser de su ámbito dos temas fundamentales: la salud y la educación que tuvieron marcada incidencia en los dos siglos transcurridos, y muy marcada en el más reciente. Los temas de salud y educación ofrecieron características históricas dignas de guardar en la memoria. La facultad de ciencias naturales de Mutis y su actividad destacada en el ejercicio y enseñanza de la medicina con asocio especialmente valioso de Miguel de Isla, marcaron el punto de referencia para el manejo de la salud a partir de las primeras décadas del siglo XIX.

    El sabio Mutis inyectó a la formación del médico los primeros tintes de modernización por su afinidad con los intelectuales ilustrados, contra la tradición de la Corona aferrada al escolasticismo obscurantista y a los métodos de control sobre las finanzas de los hospitales que llevaba a extremos como el de que fueran administrados con exclusividad por las comunidades religiosas.

  11. De las Otras al No(sotras: encuentros, tensiones y retos en el tejido de articulaciones entre colectivos de mujeres migradas y feministas locales en el País Vasco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gandarías Goikoetxea, Itziar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Las fracturas generadas por la actual transformación geopolítica constituye nuevas clases de servidumbre de género que cristalizan con violencia en determinadas corporeidades; unas servidumbres que interpelan las lecturas feministas de la realidad y que demandan de renovados tejidos y texturas feministas para actuar y analizar frente a estas configuraciones. Bajo el trasfondo de las recientes perspectivas interseccionales y post-coloniales, este texto explora las experiencias, dificultades y posibilidades de articulación entre posiciones de sujeto marcadas y producidas dentro del actual contexto post-colonial. A partir de producciones narrativas con colectivos de mujeres migradas, autóctonas y/o feministas, se identifican los actuales y potenciales puntos de articulación y tensión entre sus prácticas y proyectos de acción política; narraciones que ofrecen escenarios de articulaciones posibles que permiten un desplazamiento de fronteras y ejes de diferenciación entre posiciones marcadas geopolíticamente a nivel global y subjetivadas localmente por discursos post-coloniales.

  12. EL PROGRAMA DE ECONOMIA DE LA UNIVERSIDAD DE NARIÑO FRENTE A LOS EXAMENES DE COMPETENCIAS ACADEMICAS DE LA EDUCACION SUPERIOR –ECAES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Martínez Betancourt

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available En el mundo de hoy, caracterizado por la marcada competencia en todos los sectores de la sociedad, las instituciones de educación públicas y privadas no son la excepción., razón por la cual la evaluación se ha convertido en un requisito indispensable, no solo para hacer una retrospectiva, sino y, especialmente, para superar deficiencias y potenciar fortalezas; más aún, si la competencia está relacionada con el conocimiento, hoy puesto en subasta por la globalizada economía de mercado como factor determinante de la competitividad. Mucho se ha escrito sobre la falta de vinculación entre la Universidad y la sociedad, que según algunos estudiosos se refleja en la baja calidad y el autismo de la primera, y de las marcadas exigencias y falta de compromisos de la segunda con aquella; sobre la proliferación de “universidades de garaje”; sobre la privatización de la educación publica superior, que apenas alcanza un 30%, mientras que el 70% restante corresponde a la privada.

  13. Diverticulosis del colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Salazar Sánchez

    1949-07-01

    Full Text Available Historia Clínica. L. M. C. natural de Suaita, de 36 años de edad, comerciante de profesión, consulta por dolores abdominales y fenómenos dispépticos; narra entre sus antecedentes el haber sufrido durante 20 años de una litiasis biliar, cuyas manifestaciones cedieron al serle practicada la colecistectomía hace 6 años: fue apendicitomizaclo hace 10 años: los demás antecedentes carecen de importancia. Desde hace tres años presenta marcada anorexia, cólicos iguales él los que se presentaban antes de ser operado, vómitos, estados ictéricos pasajeros, agrieras y marcada costipación. Se trata de un enfermo brevilíneo, obeso, cuyo examen clínico revela la presencia de un marcado meteorismo abdominal, sin que haya puntos dolorosos, tumefacciones, vísceras palpables ni ninguna otra anomalía. Dados sus antecedentes quirúrgicos, se hace el diagnóstico de colangitis crónica, instituyéndose en consecuencia un régimen dietético adecuado y la terapéutica médica correspondiente (colagogos, desinfectantes biliares, metionina, colina, etc al mismo tiempo que se ordena un examen coprológico y uno radiológico de vías divestivas y biliares.

  14. Comedia y Barroco. Narrativas del cuerpo en los círculos teatrales libertinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Nelson Musich

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Nuestro análisis se centrará en las narrativas del cuerpo que se dejan entrever en dos producciones teatrales cómicas: en Le pédant joué (1654 de Cyrano de Bergerac y en Le malade imaginaire (1673 de Molière. Habiendo seleccionado el género cómico-satírico por su carácter irreverente que solapa bajo la risa la crítica (y en ella otra retórica sobre los cuerpos y escogiendo esta dupla de dramaturgos debido a su, reiteradamente marcada, pertenencia al grupo de los libertinos o librepensadores. La presente investigación parte de pensar que las condiciones políticas en las que se escribieron las piezas teatrales (fines inmediatos de la Fronda y plena consolidación del modelo absolutista con Luis XIV conjugadas con la peculiar construcción de la mirada de estos dramaturgos libertinos, como capaces de hablar desde una presunta lejanía y en algunos casos neutralidad, nos posibilitan encontrar otras contemplaciones y concepciones sobre los cuerpos en su proceso de producción social. Concepciones que en medio de una época marcada a fuego por la pertenencia estamentaria (estamentos en pleno proceso de redelimitación se organizan en narrativas y críticas sociopolíticas, inaugurando una proto-sociología.

  15. BALANÇO DE ENERGIA E FLUXO DE CO2: ANÁLISE DOS DADOS COLETADOS NO CERRADO DA FLORESTA ESTADUAL DE ASSIS, ESTADO DE SÃO PAULO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Xavier Fernandes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Com base em dados climatológicos e de fluxo de energia, o presente trabalho analisa o comportamento microclimático observado em um importante remanescente de cerrado, no interior do estado de São Paulo. A sazonalidade climática é bem marcada, na área de estudo, com dois períodos climáticos (um seco e outro chuvoso. A vegetação apresenta sua fisiologia em função da disponibilidade hídrica e das condições térmicas locais, podendo-se observar marcada alteração da paisagem em função da maior ou menor presença de radiação solar. Diante das discussões em torno das mudanças climáticas em escala global, entender o papel dos ecossistemas neste processo tem ganhado atenção de pesquisadores, inclusive geógrafos.

  16. Fasciolosis: presentación de dos casos Fascioliasis. A two-case report

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    Marilín González Tielves

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: La fasciolosis continua siendo una zoonosis de aparición frecuente. La frecuencia de la infección humana se ha subestimado en los últimos años, no obstante, aun se reportan casos y pequeños brotes de evolución variable, asociados a la ingestión de verduras o agua contaminadas. Caso Clínico: se presentaron dos casos con eosinofilia marcada, con manifestaciones clínicas y antecedente epidemiológico de consumir berro de origen silvestre. Se demuestra la importancia del antecedente epidemiológico en la confirmación de los casos. Conclusiones: la clínica referida, eosinofilia marcada y el antecedente epidemiológico de consumo de berro u otras verduras que puedan estar contaminadas, resultan elementos de vital relevancia para establecer un diagnóstico oportuno de esta enfermedad.Base: Fascioliasis is a zoonosis that maintains its frequent onset. The rate of recurrence of the human infection has been underestimated in the last years; however case reports remain and only some onsets of variable evolution associated with the consumption of vegetables or contaminated waters are reported. Clinical Case: two cases presenting a marked eosinophilia and the epidemiological history of watercress consumption and/or other potentially contaminated vegetables are crucial elements to be considered to establish the appropriate diagnosis of this disease.

  17. Biografias silenciadas: um percurso semiótico do herói em Lima Barreto e Theodoro Sampaio

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    Cassia Vanessa Batalha

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Na tentativa de trazer à tona uma discussão acerca da contribuição dos negros na construção da identidade nacional brasileira, este trabalho analisa o percurso semiótico de duas personalidades: Lima Barreto e Theodoro Sampaio. O primeiro destacou-se na área da literatura e o segundo, na geografia. A trajetória do homem negro no Brasil foi marcada pela luta de forças, traduzida no desequilíbrio entre os sujeitos, marcada pelo discurso da intolerância e pela reprodução de preconceitos – presentes na educação escolar e cujo combate tem sido realizado por meio de políticas educacionais e legislação própria. A semiótica greimasiana serve de arcabouço teórico por meio do qual discutimos o percurso narrativo do herói negro, com vistas a desvelar sua luta e tornar visível sua identidade histórica e cultural em meio a uma história construída pelo pensamento europeizado.

  18. Diurnal and nocturnal differences in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function in Galápagos marine iguanas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, L Michael; Wikelski, Martin

    2006-01-15

    Temporal modulation of the stress response is a ubiquitous characteristic of animals. Here, we investigate possible mechanisms underlying daily changes in corticosterone release in an ectotherm model system. Earlier work indicated that free-living Galápagos marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus) have lower corticosterone concentrations during the night than during the day. This could result from: (i) a lower circadian secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) as seen in mammals; (ii) from an increase in corticosterone negative feedback; or (iii) reflect lower metabolic activity during the night when core body temperature falls (from 35 degrees C during the day to as low as 21 degrees C during the night). To begin to distinguish between these three possibilities, exogenous ACTH was used to compare diel differences in adrenocortical tissue responsiveness, and dexamethasone was used to compare diel differences in the efficacy of corticosterone negative feedback. Low levels of exogenous ACTH (30 IU/kg body weight) potently stimulated both daytime and nighttime corticosterone release. Dexamethasone (1 mg/kg) inhibited only daytime, but not nighttime endogenous corticosterone release. Because the response to ACTH was similar between day and night we suggest that a simple lowering of core body temperature cannot explain the nighttime reduction in corticosterone release. However, the failure of negative feedback at night suggests that the response is not equivalent to the controlled downregulation seen in mammals.

  19. Are hotshots always hot? A longitudinal study of hormones, behavior, and reproductive success in male marine iguanas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitousek, Maren N; Rubenstein, Dustin R; Nelson, Karin N; Wikelski, Martin

    2008-07-01

    Polygynous lek-mating systems are characterized by high reproductive skew, with a small number of males gaining a disproportionate share of copulations. In lekking species, where female choice drives male mating success and patterns of reproductive skew, female preferences for 'good genes' should lead to preferred males having high reproductive success in all years. Here we investigate whether these 'hotshot' males have steroid hormone patterns that are consistent over time (between two mating seasons), and whether hormone levels consistently predict display behavior. We test these questions in the Galápagos marine iguana (Amblyrhynchus cristatus), a lekking vertebrate with high male reproductive skew. We found that male mating success and testosterone levels were not consistent across years. The most successful males showed an inverse relationship in copulation success between years. Similarly, territorial males that had high testosterone in one year had low levels in the next. Across years, testosterone was strongly associated with head-bob display, suggesting that this steroid plays a key role in mate attraction. These results suggest that female marine iguanas are not choosing the same 'hotshot' males in every year, but instead base their reproductive decisions on male behavioral traits that are hormonally mediated and variable across years. By using testosterone to regulate their costly display behaviors male marine iguanas appear to have a mechanism that allows them to adjust their reproductive effort depending on extrinsic and/or intrinsic factors.

  20. Island tameness: an altered cardiovascular stress response in Galápagos marine iguanas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitousek, Maren N; Romero, L Michael; Tarlow, Elisa; Cyr, Nicole E; Wikelski, Martin

    2010-03-30

    Island tameness is a widely documented phenomenon in which island species, particularly those that have evolved with no or few natural predators, show a greatly reduced behavioral response when faced with unfamiliar predators. This insufficient anti-predator response has led to widespread population declines among many island species exposed to novel predators, and has become a serious conservation problem. Despite its prevalence, the underlying physiology of island tameness is not known. Here we report that although Galápagos marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus) initiated flight from an evolutionarily recent and unfamiliar potential predator (humans), they failed to show the cardiovascular stress response that facilitates successful escape, even after a prior capture experience. In contrast, when approached by a native predator (the Galápagos hawk; Buteo galapagoensis), marine iguanas show markedly increased heart rate independent of initiating escape movement. The secretion of catecholamines appears to be central to the initiation of escape behavior: naïve animals remotely injected with epinephrine immediately increased flight initiation distance, whereas those injected with corticosterone did not. Our results provide the first evidence that muted escape behavior in predator-naïve species is indicative of both a cognitive deficit in recognizing potential predators and a catecholamine deficit in response. Understanding how the response to predators differs in predator-naïve species could enable the design of maximally effective techniques for inducing an anti-predator response in these vulnerable species. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Stress physiology as a predictor of survival in Galapagos marine iguanas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, L Michael; Wikelski, Martin

    2010-10-22

    Although glucocorticoid hormones are considered important physiological regulators for surviving adverse environmental stimuli (stressors), evidence for such a role is sparse and usually extrapolated from glucocorticoid effects under laboratory, short-term and/or non-emergency conditions. Galápagos marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus) provide an excellent model for determining the ultimate function of a glucocorticoid response because susceptibility to starvation induced by El Niño conditions is essentially their only major natural stressor. In a prospective study, we captured 98 adult male marine iguanas and assessed four major components of their glucocorticoid response: baseline corticosterone titres; corticosterone responses to acute stressors (capture and handling); the maximal capacity to secrete corticosterone (via adrenocorticotropin injection); and the ability to terminate corticosterone responses (negative feedback). Several months after collecting initial measurements, weak El Niño conditions affected the Galápagos and 23 iguanas died. The dead iguanas were typified by a reduced efficacy of negative feedback (i.e. poorer post-stress suppression of corticosterone release) compared with surviving iguanas. We found no prior differences between dead and alive iguanas in baseline corticosterone concentrations, responses to acute stressors, nor in capacity to respond. These data suggest that a greater ability to terminate a stress response conferred a survival advantage during starvation.

  2. Species-specific evolution of class I MHC genes in iguanas (order: Squamata; subfamily: Iguaninae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaberman, Scott; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2008-07-01

    Over the last few decades, the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) has emerged as a model for understanding the influence of natural selection on genetic diversity in populations as well as for investigating the genetic basis of host resistance to pathogens. However, many vertebrate taxa remain underrepresented in the field of MHC research, preventing its application to studies of disease, evolution, and conservation genetics in these groups. This is particularly true for squamates, which are by far the most diversified order of non-avian reptiles but have not been the subject of any recent MHC studies. In this paper, we present MHC class I complementary DNA data from three squamate species in the subfamily Iguaninae (iguanas): the Galápagos marine iguana (Amblyrhynchus cristatus), the Galápagos land iguana (Conolophus subcristatus), and the green iguana (Iguana iguana). All sequences obtained are related to the few published class I genes from other squamates. There is evidence for multiple loci in each species, and the conserved alpha-3 domain appears to be evolving in a species-specific manner. Conversely, there is some indication of shared polymorphism between species in the peptide-binding alpha-1 and alpha-2 domains, suggesting that these two regions have different phylogenetic histories. The great similarity between alpha-3 sequences in marine iguanas in particular suggests that concerted evolution is acting to homogenize class I loci within species. However, while less likely, the data are also compatible with a birth and death model of evolution.

  3. Corticosterone suppresses immune activity in territorial Galápagos marine iguanas during reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Silke; Martin, Lynn B; Wikelski, Martin; Romero, L Michael; Kalko, Elisabeth K V; Vitousek, Maren N; Rödl, Thomas

    2005-04-01

    Individuals that display elaborate sexually selected characters often show reduced immune function. According to the immunocompetence handicap hypothesis, testosterone (T) is responsible for this result as it drives the development and maintenance of sexual characters and causes immunosuppression. But glucocorticoids also have strong influences on immune function and may also be elevated in reproductively active males. Here, we compared immune activity using the phytohemagglutinin (PHA) skin test in three discrete groups of male marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus): territorials, satellites, and bachelors. Males of these three reproductive phenotypes had indistinguishable T concentrations during the height of the breeding season, but their corticosterone (cort) concentrations, body condition and hematocrit were significantly different. Territorial males, the animals with the most elaborate sexual ornaments and behaviors, had lower immune responses and body condition but higher cort concentrations and hematocrit than satellites or bachelors. To test directly cort's immunosuppressive role, we elevated cort by either restraining animals or additionally injecting cort and compared their PHA swelling response with the response of free-roaming animals. Such experimental elevation of cort significantly decreased immune activity in both restrained and cort-injected animals. Our data show that cort can induce immunosuppression, but they do not support the immunocompetence handicap hypothesis in its narrow sense because T concentrations were not related to immunosuppression.

  4. Hybridization masks speciation in the evolutionary history of the Galápagos marine iguana

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Amy; Rodríguez, Ariel; Vences, Miguel; Orozco-terWengel, Pablo; García, Carolina; Trillmich, Fritz; Gentile, Gabriele; Caccone, Adalgisa; Quezada, Galo; Steinfartz, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    The effects of the direct interaction between hybridization and speciation—two major contrasting evolutionary processes—are poorly understood. We present here the evolutionary history of the Galápagos marine iguana (Amblyrhynchus cristatus) and reveal a case of incipient within-island speciation, which is paralleled by between-island hybridization. In-depth genome-wide analyses suggest that Amblyrhynchus diverged from its sister group, the Galápagos land iguanas, around 4.5 million years ago (Ma), but divergence among extant populations is exceedingly young (less than 50 000 years). Despite Amblyrhynchus appearing as a single long-branch species phylogenetically, we find strong population structure between islands, and one case of incipient speciation of sister lineages within the same island—ostensibly initiated by volcanic events. Hybridization between both lineages is exceedingly rare, yet frequent hybridization with migrants from nearby islands is evident. The contemporary snapshot provided by highly variable markers indicates that speciation events may have occurred throughout the evolutionary history of marine iguanas, though these events are not visible in the deeper phylogenetic trees. We hypothesize that the observed interplay of speciation and hybridization might be a mechanism by which local adaptations, generated by incipient speciation, can be absorbed into a common gene pool, thereby enhancing the evolutionary potential of the species as a whole. PMID:26041359

  5. Genomic fingerprinting and serotyping of Salmonella from Galápagos iguanas demonstrates island differences in strain diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Emily; Cann, Isaac K O; Mackie, Roderick I

    2011-04-01

    Salmonella carriage patterns in wild and captive reptiles suggest that both geographical proximity and host ecological differences may determine bacterial diversity among reptile populations. In this study, we explore the relative importance of these factors on Salmonella diversity in free-living Galápagos iguanas. We isolated Salmonella enterica from marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus) and land iguanas (Conolophus subcristatus and C. pallidus) living on two islands (Plaza Sur and Santa Fe). We evaluated Salmonella population patterns using genomic fingerprints, sequence typing and serotyping. Rep-PCR fingerprinting revealed significant grouping of isolates by iguana population. Island residence had the strongest effect on isolate similarity, but a smaller divergence among Salmonella isolates from different iguana ecotypes (land versus marine) was detected within each island. In contrast, sequence typing detected a marginal difference in isolate genotypes between islands. Sequence types corresponded strongly to serotype identity, with both islands hosting a unique serovar pool. Our findings suggest that both geographical location and host ecotype differences (either from within host strain selection or from differences in habitat use) contribute to Salmonella population patterns in the Galápagos Islands. © 2010 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. High costs of female choice in a lekking lizard.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maren N Vitousek

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Although the cost of mate choice is an essential component of the evolution and maintenance of sexual selection, the energetic cost of female choice has not previously been assessed directly. Here we report that females can incur high energetic costs as a result of discriminating among potential mates. We used heart rate biologging to quantify energetic expenditure in lek-mating female Galápagos marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus. Receptive females spent 78.9+/-23.2 kJ of energy on mate choice over a 30-day period, which is equivalent to approximately (3/4 of one day's energy budget. Females that spent more time on the territories of high-quality, high-activity males displayed greater energetic expenditure on mate choice, lost more mass, and showed a trend towards producing smaller follicles. Choosy females also appear to face a reduced probability of survival if El Niño conditions occur in the year following breeding. These findings indicate that female choice can carry significant costs, and suggest that the benefits that lek-mating females gain through mating with a preferred male may be higher than previously predicted.

  7. Effect of tidal cycle and food intake on the baseline plasma corticosterone rhythm in intertidally foraging marine iguanas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodley, Sarah K; Painter, Danika L; Moore, Michael C; Wikelski, Martin; Romero, L Michael

    2003-06-15

    In most species, plasma levels of baseline glucocorticoids such as corticosterone (B) have a circadian rhythm. This rhythm can be entrained by both photoperiod and food intake and is related to aspects of energy intake and metabolism. Marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus) offer a unique opportunity to better understand the relative importance of the light:dark cycle versus food intake in influencing the rhythm in baseline B in a natural system. Compared to other species, food intake is not as strictly determined by the phase of the light:dark cycle. Animals feed in the intertidal zone so feeding activity is heavily influenced by the tidal cycle. We measured baseline plasma B levels in free-living iguanas over several 24-h periods that varied in the timing of low tide/foraging activity. We found that baseline B levels were higher during the day relative to night. However, when low tide occurred during the day, baseline B levels dropped coincident with the timing of low tide. Whether the baseline B rhythm (including the drop during foraging) is an endogenous rhythm with a circatidal component, or is simply a result of feeding and associated physiological changes needs to be tested. Together, these data suggest that the baseline B rhythm in marine iguanas is influenced by the tidal cycle/food intake as well as the light:dark cycle.

  8. Dental microwear texture analysis of late Pliocene Procynocephalus subhimalayanus (Primates: Cercopithecidae) of the Upper Siwaliks, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Frank L'Engle; Holmes, Noelle A.

    2012-09-01

    Late Pliocene Procynocephalus subhimalayanus from the Upper Siwaliks, India is known from only three specimens. The dietary proclivities of this taxon have implications for reconstructing the paleoecology of the Upper Siwaliks. The dental microwear texture properties of Procynocephalus are compared to those from extant tropical forest primates including Alouatta palliata (n = 11), Cebus apella (n = 13), Gorilla gorilla (n = 9), Lophocebus albigena (n = 15) and Trachypithecus cristatus (n = 12). Dental microwear textures are generated by scanning the surface enamel of Facet 9 using white-light confocal microscopy at 100x. Four variables were extracted from scale-sensitive fractal analysis, and the data were ranked before ANOVA with post-hoc tests of significance and multivariate analyses were performed. Procynocephalus clusters closest to Lophocebus, Cebus and some Gorilla specimens suggesting hard-object feeding characterized a portion of its diet. The dental microwear texture of Procynocephalus supports interpretations of widespread grasslands of the Late Pliocene Kansal Formation (Pinjor zone). The extreme enamel complexity characterizing Procynocephalus may derive from consumption of underground storage organs, or other foods with high grit loads. Foods consumed near ground level carry a heavy load of abrasive minerals possibly contributing to greater enamel surface complexity and textural fill volume.

  9. Alfred Russel Wallace and the destruction of island life: the Iguana tragedy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutschera, Ulrich; Kleinhans, Simon

    2013-12-01

    The Galápagos Islands (Ecuador) are usually associated with the explorations and theoretical deductions of Charles Robert Darwin (1809-1882), but Alfred Russel Wallace (1823-1913) also investigated these islands and published several reports on the living world of this unique archipelago. In contrast to Darwin, Wallace described the destruction of natural ecosystems by humans and foresaw the resulting extinction of species. Here, we outline two case studies pertinent to Wallace's prediction. First, we summarize the behavior of the predator-naive marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus) on the Galápagos Islands, which are threatened by feral dogs and cats imported by humans. We also describe the unique life cycle of the spiny-tailed iguana (Ctenosaura bakeri) from the island of Utila (Honduras), a rare species whose populations are declining because of habitat destructions. In contrast to these threatened, endemic island species, the Green iguana (Iguana iguana) is still widely distributed, although, as a result of de-forestation, in some areas of South America local populations have disappeared. We conclude that Wallace was correct in his prediction that, because of human activities, numerous species of animals and plants will be driven to extinction, notably on islands.

  10. Hybridization masks speciation in the evolutionary history of the Galápagos marine iguana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Amy; Rodríguez, Ariel; Vences, Miguel; Orozco-terWengel, Pablo; García, Carolina; Trillmich, Fritz; Gentile, Gabriele; Caccone, Adalgisa; Quezada, Galo; Steinfartz, Sebastian

    2015-06-22

    The effects of the direct interaction between hybridization and speciation-two major contrasting evolutionary processes--are poorly understood. We present here the evolutionary history of the Galápagos marine iguana (Amblyrhynchus cristatus) and reveal a case of incipient within--island speciation, which is paralleled by between-island hybridization. In-depth genome-wide analyses suggest that Amblyrhynchus diverged from its sister group, the Galápagos land iguanas, around 4.5 million years ago (Ma), but divergence among extant populations is exceedingly young (less than 50,000 years). Despite Amblyrhynchus appearing as a single long-branch species phylogenetically, we find strong population structure between islands, and one case of incipient speciation of sister lineages within the same island--ostensibly initiated by volcanic events. Hybridization between both lineages is exceedingly rare, yet frequent hybridization with migrants from nearby islands is evident. The contemporary snapshot provided by highly variable markers indicates that speciation events may have occurred throughout the evolutionary history of marine iguanas, though these events are not visible in the deeper phylogenetic trees. We hypothesize that the observed interplay of speciation and hybridization might be a mechanism by which local adaptations, generated by incipient speciation, can be absorbed into a common gene pool, thereby enhancing the evolutionary potential of the species as a whole. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  11. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. from fecal samples of birds kept in captivity in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Alex Akira; Simões, Daniel Castendo; Antunes, Rômulo Godik; da Silva, Deuvânia Carvalho; Meireles, Marcelo Vasconcelos

    2009-12-03

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium species and genotypes in birds kept in captivity in Brazil. A total of 966 samples from 18 families of birds was collected and stored in 5% potassium dichromate solution at 4 degrees C until processing. Oocysts were purified in Sheather sugar solution following extraction of genomic DNA. Molecular analyses were performed using nested-PCR for amplification of fragments of the 18S subunit of rRNA gene and of the actin gene. Amplification of Cryptosporidium DNA fragments was obtained in 47 (4.86%) samples. Sequencing of amplified fragments and phylogenetic analyses allowed the identification of Cryptosporidium baileyi in a black vulture (Coragyps atratus), a domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) and a saffron finch (Sicalis flaveola); Cryptosporidium galli in canaries (Serinus canaria), a cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus) and lesser seed-finches (Oryzoborus angolensis); Cryptosporidium meleagridis in a domestic chicken (G. g. domesticus); Cryptosporidium parvum in a cockatiel (N. hollandicus); Cryptosporidium avian genotype I in a canary (S. canaria) and an Indian peafowl (Pavo cristatus); Cryptosporidium avian genotype II in ostriches (Struthio camelus) and Cryptosporidium avian genotype III in a cockatiel (N. hollandicus) and a peach-faced lovebird (Agapornis roseicolis).

  12. [Molecular cloning of activin betaA subunit mature peptide from peafowl and its application in taxonomy and phylogeny].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Fang-Dong; Tong, Xin-Xin; Yue, Bi-Song

    2005-03-01

    The sequences of activin gene betaA subunit mature peptide have been amplified from white peafowl, blue peafowl (pavo cristatus) and green peafowl (pavo muticus) genomic DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with a pair of degenerate primers. The target fragments were cloned into the vector pMD18-T and sequenced. The length of activin gene betaA subunit mature peptide is 345bp, which encoded a peptide of 115 amino acid residues. Sequence analysis of activin gene betaA subunit mature peptide demonstrated that the identity of nucleotide is 98.0% between blue peaflowl and green peafowl, and the identity of that is 98.8% between blue peaflowl and white peafow. Sequences comparison in NCBI revealed that the sequences of activin gene betaA subunit mature peptides of different species are highly conserved during evolution process. In addition, the restriction enzyme map of activins is high similar between white peafowl and blue peafowl. Phylogenetic tree was constructed with Mega 2 and Clustalxldx software. The result showed that white peafowl has a closer relationship to blue peafowl than to green peafowl. Considered the nucleotide differences of peafowls' activin gene betaA subunit mature peptides, a highly conserved region, we supported that white peafowl was derived from blue peafowl, and it is more possible the hybrid but just the product of color mutation, or maybe as a subspecies of Pavo genus.

  13. Artificial light pollution increases nocturnal vigilance in peahens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L. Yorzinski

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Artificial light pollution is drastically changing the sensory environments of animals. Even though many animals are now living in these changed environments, the effect light pollution has on animal behavior is poorly understood. We investigated the effect of light pollution on nocturnal vigilance in peahens (Pavo cristatus. Captive peahens were exposed to either artificial lighting or natural lighting at night. We employed a novel method to record their vigilance behavior by attaching accelerometers to their heads and continuously monitoring their large head movements. We found that light pollution significantly increases nocturnal vigilance in peahens. Furthermore, the birds faced a trade-off between vigilance and sleep at night: peahens that were more vigilant spent less time sleeping. Given the choice, peahens preferred to roost away from high levels of artificial lighting but showed no preference for roosting without artificial lighting or with low levels of artificial lighting. Our study demonstrates that light pollution can have a substantial impact on animal behavior that can potentially result in fitness consequences.

  14. The elaborate plumage in peacocks is not such a drag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askew, Graham N

    2014-09-15

    One of the classic examples of an exaggerated sexually selected trait is the elaborate plumage that forms the train in male peafowl Pavo cristatus (peacock). Such ornaments are thought to reduce locomotor performance as a result of their weight and aerodynamic drag, but this cost is unknown. Here, the effect that the train has on take-off flight in peacocks was quantified as the sum of the rates of change of the potential and kinetic energies of the body (P(CoM)) in birds with trains and following the train's removal. There was no significant difference between P(CoM) in birds with and without a train. The train incurs drag during take-off; however, while this produces a twofold increase in parasite drag, parasite power only accounts for 0.1% of the total aerodynamic power. The train represented 6.9% of body weight and is expected to increase induced power. The absence of a detectable effect on take-off performance does not necessarily mean that there is no cost associated with possessing such ornate plumage; rather, it suggests that given the variation in take-off performance per se, the magnitude of any effect of the train has little meaningful functional relevance. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. Selective attention in peacocks during assessment of rival males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorzinski, Jessica L; Patricelli, Gail L; Bykau, Siarhei; Platt, Michael L

    2017-03-15

    Males in many species compete intensely for access to females. In order to minimize costly interactions, they can assess their rivals' competitive abilities by evaluating traits and behaviors. We know little about how males selectively direct their attention to make these assessments. Using Indian peafowl ( Pavo cristatus ) as a model system, we examined how males visually assess their competitors by continuously tracking the gaze of freely moving peacocks during the mating season. When assessing rivals, peacocks selectively gazed toward the lower display regions of their rivals, including the lower eyespot and fishtail feathers, dense feathers, body and wings. Their attention was modified based on the rivals' behavior such that they spent more time looking at rivals when rivals were shaking their wings and moving. The results indicate that peacocks selectively allocate their attention during rival assessment. The gaze patterns of males assessing rivals were largely similar to those of females evaluating mates, suggesting that some male traits serve a dual function in both intra- and intersexual selection. However, males spent more time than females looking at the upper eyespots and this could indicate that the upper eyespots function more in close-up rival assessment than mate choice. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  16. Variation in the peacock's train shows a genetic component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, Marion; Cotgreave, Peter; Pike, Thomas W

    2009-01-01

    Female peafowl (Pavo cristatus) show a strong mating preference for males with elaborate trains. This, however, poses something of a paradox because intense directional selection should erode genetic variation in the males' trains, so that females will no longer benefit by discriminating among males on the basis of these traits. This situation is known as the 'lek paradox', and leads to the theoretical expectation of low heritability in the peacock's train. We used two independent breeding experiments, involving a total of 42 sires and 86 of their male offspring, to estimate the narrow sense heritabilities of male ornaments and other morphometric traits. Contrary to expectation, we found significant levels of heritability in a trait known to be used by females during mate choice (train length), while no significant heritabilities were evident for other, non-fitness related morphological traits (tarsus length, body weight or spur length). This study adds to the building body of evidence that high levels of additive genetic variance can exist in secondary sexual traits under directional selection, but further emphasizes the main problem of what maintains this variation.

  17. Through their eyes: selective attention in peahens during courtship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorzinski, Jessica L; Patricelli, Gail L; Babcock, Jason S; Pearson, John M; Platt, Michael L

    2013-08-15

    Conspicuous, multicomponent ornamentation in male animals can be favored by female mate choice but we know little about the cognitive processes females use to evaluate these traits. Sexual selection may favor attention mechanisms allowing the choosing females to selectively and efficiently acquire relevant information from complex male display traits and, in turn, may favor male display traits that effectively capture and hold female attention. Using a miniaturized telemetric gaze-tracker, we show that peahens (Pavo cristatus) selectively attend to specific components of peacock courtship displays and virtually ignore other, highly conspicuous components. Females gazed at the lower train but largely ignored the head, crest and upper train. When the lower train was obscured, however, females spent more time gazing at the upper train and approached the upper train from a distance. Our results suggest that peahens mainly evaluate the lower train during close-up courtship but use the upper train as a long-distance attraction signal. Furthermore, we found that behavioral display components (train rattling and wing shaking) captured and maintained female attention, indicating that interactions between display components may promote the evolution of multicomponent displays. Taken together, these findings suggest that selective attention plays a crucial role in sexual selection and likely influences the evolution of male display traits.

  18. Classification of peacock feather reflectance using principal component analysis similarity factors from multispectral imaging data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, José M; Díaz, José A; Vukusic, Pete

    2015-04-20

    Iridescent structural colors in biology exhibit sophisticated spatially-varying reflectance properties that depend on both the illumination and viewing angles. The classification of such spectral and spatial information in iridescent structurally colored surfaces is important to elucidate the functional role of irregularity and to improve understanding of color pattern formation at different length scales. In this study, we propose a non-invasive method for the spectral classification of spatial reflectance patterns at the micron scale based on the multispectral imaging technique and the principal component analysis similarity factor (PCASF). We demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach and its component methods by detailing its use in the study of the angle-dependent reflectance properties of Pavo cristatus (the common peacock) feathers, a species of peafowl very well known to exhibit bright and saturated iridescent colors. We show that multispectral reflectance imaging and PCASF approaches can be used as effective tools for spectral recognition of iridescent patterns in the visible spectrum and provide meaningful information for spectral classification of the irregularity of the microstructure in iridescent plumage.

  19. Offspring sex ratio is related to paternal train elaboration and yolk corticosterone in peafowl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Thomas W; Petrie, Marion

    2005-06-22

    Several recent experimental studies have provided strong evidence for the ability of birds to manipulate the sex ratio of their offspring prior to laying. Using a captive population of peafowl (Pavo cristatus), we tested experimentally the effects of paternal attractiveness on offspring sex ratio, and related sex ratio deviations to egg-yolk concentrations of testosterone, 17beta-estradiol and corticosterone. When females were mated to males whose attractiveness had been experimentally reduced by removing prominent eyespot feathers from their trains, they produced significantly more female offspring, had significantly higher yolk corticosterone concentrations and tended to have lower levels of yolk testosterone than when mated to the same males with their full complement of feathers. Concentrations of 17beta-estradiol did not vary consistently with sex ratio biases. These findings add to the small number of studies providing experimental evidence that female birds can control the primary sex ratio of their offspring in response to paternal attractiveness, and highlight the possibility that corticosterone and perhaps testosterone are involved in the sex manipulation process in birds.

  20. Karyotypic evolution in the Galliformes: an examination of the process of karyotypic evolution by comparison of the molecular cytogenetic findings with the molecular phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibusawa, M; Nishibori, M; Nishida-Umehara, C; Tsudzuki, M; Masabanda, J; Griffin, D K; Matsuda, Y

    2004-01-01

    To define the process of karyotypic evolution in the Galliformes on a molecular basis, we conducted genome-wide comparative chromosome painting for eight species, i.e. silver pheasant (Lophura nycthemera), Lady Amherst's pheasant (Chrysolophus amherstiae), ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), turkey (Meleagris gallopavo), Western capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus), Chinese bamboo-partridge (Bambusicola thoracica) and common peafowl (Pavo cristatus) of the Phasianidae, and plain chachalaca (Ortalis vetula) of the Cracidae, with chicken DNA probes of chromosomes 1-9 and Z. Including our previous data from five other species, chicken (Gallus gallus), Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) and blue-breasted quail (Coturnix chinensis) of the Phasianidae, guinea fowl (Numida meleagris) of the Numididae and California quail (Callipepla californica) of the Odontophoridae, we represented the evolutionary changes of karyotypes in the 13 species of the Galliformes. In addition, we compared the cytogenetic data with the molecular phylogeny of the 13 species constructed with the nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene, and discussed the process of karyotypic evolution in the Galliformes. Comparative chromosome painting confirmed the previous data on chromosome rearrangements obtained by G-banding analysis, and identified several novel chromosome rearrangements. The process of the evolutionary changes of macrochromosomes in the 13 species was in good accordance with the molecular phylogeny, and the ancestral karyotype of the Galliformes is represented. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  1. Experimental Inoculation of BFDV-Positive Budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus with Two Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Ledwoń

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Beak and feather disease virus- (BFDV- positive (naturally infected but clinically healthy budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus were inoculated with two isolates of Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium isolated from naturally infected golden pheasant (Chrysolophus pictus and peafowl (Pavo cristatus. During a period of more than two months after inoculation, samples of cloacal and crop swabs, faeces, and blood were obtained for BFDV and Mycobacterium avium testing with PCR. Birds were euthanized nine weeks after inoculation. All infected budgerigars developed signs typical of mycobacteriosis, but more advanced clinical and pathological changes were visible in the group infected with the pheasant isolate. Only a few cloacal and crop swab samples were positive for Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium despite advanced pathological changes in the internal organs. In the groups infected with mycobacterium isolates the frequency of BFDV-positive samples was higher than in the control group. In the infected groups the frequency of BFDV was substantially higher in the cloacal swabs of birds inoculated with the pheasant isolate than in the peafowl-isolate-infected group.

  2. Eye and head movements shape gaze shifts in Indian peafowl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorzinski, Jessica L; Patricelli, Gail L; Platt, Michael L; Land, Michael F

    2015-12-01

    Animals selectively direct their visual attention toward relevant aspects of their environments. They can shift their attention using a combination of eye, head and body movements. While we have a growing understanding of eye and head movements in mammals, we know little about these processes in birds. We therefore measured the eye and head movements of freely behaving Indian peafowl (Pavo cristatus) using a telemetric eye-tracker. Both eye and head movements contributed to gaze changes in peafowl. When gaze shifts were smaller, eye movements played a larger role than when gaze shifts were larger. The duration and velocity of eye and head movements were positively related to the size of the eye and head movements, respectively. In addition, the coordination of eye and head movements in peafowl differed from that in mammals; peafowl exhibited a near-absence of the vestibulo-ocular reflex, which may partly result from the peafowl's ability to move their heads as quickly as their eyes. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. Experimental inoculation of BFDV-positive budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) with two Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledwoń, Aleksandra; Sapierzyński, Rafał; Augustynowicz-Kopeć, Ewa; Szeleszczuk, Piotr; Kozak, Marcin

    2014-01-01

    Beak and feather disease virus- (BFDV-) positive (naturally infected) but clinically healthy budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) were inoculated with two isolates of Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium isolated from naturally infected golden pheasant (Chrysolophus pictus) and peafowl (Pavo cristatus). During a period of more than two months after inoculation, samples of cloacal and crop swabs, faeces, and blood were obtained for BFDV and Mycobacterium avium testing with PCR. Birds were euthanized nine weeks after inoculation. All infected budgerigars developed signs typical of mycobacteriosis, but more advanced clinical and pathological changes were visible in the group infected with the pheasant isolate. Only a few cloacal and crop swab samples were positive for Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium despite advanced pathological changes in the internal organs. In the groups infected with mycobacterium isolates the frequency of BFDV-positive samples was higher than in the control group. In the infected groups the frequency of BFDV was substantially higher in the cloacal swabs of birds inoculated with the pheasant isolate than in the peafowl-isolate-infected group.

  4. Correlations between heterozygosity and measures of genetic similarity: implications for understanding mate choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, S C; Hale, M L; Petrie, M

    2006-03-01

    There is currently considerable interest in testing the effects of genetic compatibility and heterozygosity on animal mate preferences. Evidence for either effect is rapidly accumulating, although results are not always clear-cut. However, correlations between mating preferences and either genetic similarity or heterozygosity are usually tested independently, and the possibility that similarity and heterozygosity may be confounded has rarely been taken into account. Here we show that measures of genetic similarity (allele sharing, relatedness) may be correlated with heterozygosity, using data from 441 human individuals genotyped at major loci in the major histocompatibility complex, and 281 peafowl (Pavo cristatus) individuals genotyped at 13 microsatellite loci. We show that average levels of allele sharing and relatedness are each significantly associated with heterozygosity in both humans and peafowl, that these relationships are influenced by the level of polymorphism, and that these similarity measures may correlate with heterozygosity in qualitatively different ways. We discuss the implications of these inter-relationships for interpretation of mate choice studies. It has recently become apparent that mating preferences for 'good genes' and 'compatible genes' may introduce discordant choice amongst individuals, since the optimal mate for one trait may not be optimal for the other, and our results are consistent with this idea. The inter-relationship between these measures of genetic quality also carries implications for the way in which mate choice studies are designed and interpreted, and generates predictions that can be tested in future research.

  5. Traditional knowledge on zootherapeutic uses by the Saharia tribe of Rajasthan, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahawar, Madan Mohan; Jaroli, D P

    2007-06-05

    The present zootherapeutic study describes the traditional knowledge related to the use of different animals and animal-derived products as medicines by the Saharia tribe reside in the Shahabad and Kishanganj Panchayat Samiti's of Baran district of Rajasthan, India. A field survey was conducted from April to June 2006 by performing interview through structured questionnaire with 21 selected respondents, who provided information regarding use of animals and their products in folk medicine. A total of 15 animal species were recorded and they are used for different ethnomedical purposes, including cough, asthma, tuberculosis, paralysis, earache, herpes, weakness, muscular pain etc. The zootherapeutic knowledge was mostly based on domestic animals, but some protected species like the peacock (Pavo cristatus,), hard shelled turtle (Kachuga tentoria), sambhar (Cervus unicolor) were also mentioned as medicinal resources. We would suggest that this kind of neglected traditional knowledge should be included into the strategies of conservation and management of faunistic resources. Further studies are required for experimental validation to confirm the presence of bioactive compounds in these traditional remedies and also to emphasize more sustainable use of these resources.

  6. Traditional knowledge on zootherapeutic uses by the Saharia tribe of Rajasthan, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroli DP

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present zootherapeutic study describes the traditional knowledge related to the use of different animals and animal-derived products as medicines by the Saharia tribe reside in the Shahabad and Kishanganj Panchayat Samiti's of Baran district of Rajasthan, India. A field survey was conducted from April to June 2006 by performing interview through structured questionnaire with 21 selected respondents, who provided information regarding use of animals and their products in folk medicine. A total of 15 animal species were recorded and they are used for different ethnomedical purposes, including cough, asthma, tuberculosis, paralysis, earache, herpes, weakness, muscular pain etc. The zootherapeutic knowledge was mostly based on domestic animals, but some protected species like the peacock (Pavo cristatus,, hard shelled turtle (Kachuga tentoria, sambhar (Cervus unicolor were also mentioned as medicinal resources. We would suggest that this kind of neglected traditional knowledge should be included into the strategies of conservation and management of faunistic resources. Further studies are required for experimental validation to confirm the presence of bioactive compounds in these traditional remedies and also to emphasize more sustainable use of these resources.

  7. Peafowl antipredator calls encode information about signalers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorzinski, Jessica L

    2014-02-01

    Animals emit vocalizations that convey information about external events. Many of these vocalizations, including those emitted in response to predators, also encode information about the individual that produced the call. The relationship between acoustic features of antipredator calls and information relating to signalers (including sex, identity, body size, and social rank) were examined in peafowl (Pavo cristatus). The "bu-girk" antipredator calls of male and female peafowl were recorded and 20 acoustic parameters were automatically extracted from each call. Both the bu and girk elements of the antipredator call were individually distinctive and calls were classified to the correct signaler with over 90% and 70% accuracy in females and males, respectively. Females produced calls with a higher fundamental frequency (F0) than males. In both females and males, body size was negatively correlated with F0. In addition, peahen rank was related to the duration, end mean frequency, and start harmonicity of the bu element. Peafowl antipredator calls contain detailed information about the signaler and can potentially be used by receivers to respond to dangerous situations.

  8. Inventory of the pool frog, newt and gulyxne in Forsmark 2012; Inventering av goelgroda, stoerre vattensalamander och gulyxne i Forsmark 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collinder, Per [Ekologigruppen AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-01-15

    On assignment from the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB), Ekologigruppen AB carried out inventories of species populations during the summer of 2012. Species included in the study are described in three separate chapters of this report. The three species were pool frog Rana lessonae, great crested newt Triturus cristatus, and fen orchid Liparis loeselii. SKB will follow up the development of the local populations. Inventory of pool frogs are already a follow-up on a study carried out in 2011. Concern for these species is due to their protection within the EU system of species and habitat protection. Construction of the planned depository for used nuclear fuel will involve redirection of groundwater, which could potentially drain these wetlands. The three species pool frog, great crested newt and fen orchid are inventoried by well-documented procedures, which will allow repletion of the study at the same locals and according to the same methods during consequent years. The inventories are not complete in the sense that they would give number of individuals in a local population. Rather, the result should be regarded as an index for comparison and monitoring.

  9. The detection of great crested newts year round via environmental DNA analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Helen C; Baker, Claire A; Gardner, David S; Maddison, Ben C; Gough, Kevin C

    2017-07-26

    Analysis of environmental DNA (eDNA) is a method that has been used for the detection of various species within water bodies. The great crested newt (Triturus cristatus) has a short eDNA survey season (mid-April to June). Here we investigate whether this season could be extended into other months using the current methodology as stipulated by Natural England. Here we present data to show that in monthly water samples taken from two ponds (March 2014-February 2015) we were able to detect great crested newt DNA in all months in at least one of the ponds. Similar levels of great crested newt eDNA (i.e. highly positive identification) were detected through the months of March-August, suggesting it may be possible to extend the current survey window. In order to determine how applicable these observations are for ponds throughout the rest of the UK, further work in multiple other ponds over multiple seasons is suggested. Nevertheless, the current work clearly demonstrates, in two ponds, the efficacy and reproducibility of eDNA detection for determining the presence of great crested newts.

  10. Anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies in captive animals in Paraíba State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Brasil

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this survey was to verify the occurrence of anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies in captive animals in the Parque Zoobotânico Arruda Câmara, João Pessoa, Paraíba State, Northeastern Brazil. Blood samples were collected from 49 animals: 26 mammals of the species Sapajus libidinosus, Cebus flavius, Saimiri sciureu, Coendu sp., Pseudalopex vetulus, Leopardus pardalis, Leopardus tigrinus, Galactitis vitata, Eira barbara, Nasua nasua, Tayassu tajacu and Ratus norvegicus; 10 birds of the species Penelope jacucaca, Pavo cristatus, Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus, Ara chlorothpterus, Pionites leucogaster, Polyborus plancus, Geranoaetus melanoleucus and Urubitinga urubitinga; and 13 reptiles of the species Caiman latirostris, Paleosuchus trigonatus, Caiman crocodilus, Tupinabis merinae, Tupinambis teguixin, Boa constrictor, Corallus hortulanus, Python molurus, Bufocephala vanderhaegei, Geochelone denticulata and Geochelone carboraria. Sera were examined by the microscopic agglutination teste (MAT using 24 serovars as antigens and cut-off point of 1:100. One ocelot (Leopardo pardalis presented positive reaction for the Icterohaemorrhagiae serovar with titer of 100, however, it did not show any clinical sign of the infection. Sinantropic rodents are the main reservoirs of this serovar, which suggests the need of maintenance and continuous evaluation of rodent control programs.

  11. Dietary proclivities of Paranthropus robustus from Swartkrans, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L’Engle Williams Frank

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pleistocene Paranthropus robustus fossils from Swartkrans have yielded stable isotope values suggesting some foraging on C4 plants possibly including underground storage organs. Dental microwear texture analysis on P. robustus (SK 6, SK 34 and SK 47 from Swartkrans Member 1 is performed to examine whether tooth surface damage from mastication agrees with prior dietary inferences from carbon isotopes. There is considerable variation in textural characteristics among the P. robustus specimens. Specifically, adult SK 34 stands apart from the two subadult specimens, SK 6 and SK 47, suggesting life history could be reflected in patterns of dental microwear texture characteristics, although seasonality and availability of fallback foods may also explain the variation observed in P. robustus. The fossils all exhibit elevated surface texture complexity, resembling the values for Lophocebus albigena and Cebus apella, and to a lesser extent, Pan troglodytes. Paranthropus robustus is dissimilar to primary folivores, such as Trachypithecus cristatus or folivore- frugivores such as Alouatta palliata suggesting leaves comprised very little of its diet. The textural fill volume of P. robustus differs from that observed in extant primates from tropical forests indicating extreme durophagy, perhaps a function of differences in habitat. Ingestion of extraneous grit on the underground parts of plants and from terrestrial resources, perhaps as fallback foods or as dietary staples, may account for these enamel textural properties and may help explain the mixed C3/C4 isotopic signal in P. robustus.

  12. Brominated flame retardants and organochlorine pollutants in aquatic and terrestrial predatory birds of Belgium: levels, patterns, tissue distribution and condition factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaspers, V.L.B.; Covaci, A.; Voorspoels, S.; Dauwe, T.; Eens, M.; Schepens, P.

    2006-01-01

    Liver and muscle samples from 7 species of aquatic and terrestrial predatory birds from Flanders (Belgium) were analysed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). PCBs were the predominant compounds in our samples, which showed highest concentrations in the liver of barn owl (Tyto alba) and sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus) (up to 1000 μg/g lipid weight). PBDEs could be determined in most samples at lower concentrations than PCBs (up to 64 μg/g lipid in sparrowhawk liver). Sparrowhawks had the highest levels of hexachlorobenzene, DDTs and PBDEs. In contrast, kestrels (Falco tinnunculus) had relatively low levels of most measured organochlorines. BDE 47 was the most abundant congener in heron (Ardea cinerea) and grebe (Podiceps cristatus), while BDE 47, 99 and 153 were equally important in the terrestrial species. BDE 183 and BDE 209 were only measured in the terrestrial birds. These results indicate that terrestrial birds may be more exposed to higher brominated BDE congeners than aquatic species. - Aquatic and terrestrial predatory birds show different accumulation profiles of PBDEs

  13. Parotocinclus arandai, a new species of hypoptopomatine catfish (Siluriformes: Loricariidae from the upper rios Jucuruçu and Buranhém, States of Bahia and Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Maria Sarmento-Soares

    Full Text Available Parotocinclus arandai, new species of the hypoptopomatine catfish, is described from small creeks in the upper rios Jucuruçu and Buranhém basins, at the border of Brazilian States of Bahia and Minas Gerais. Parotocinclus arandai is distinguished from all congeners from the Atlantic coastal basins of southeastern and eastern Brazil, except Parotocinclus bahiensis, by having the branched rays and interradial membranes of the pectoral and pelvic fins unpigmented in ventral view. The new species is distinguished from most Parotocinclus species, by having a small eye, 14.8-19.3 mm HL (except P. maculicauda and P. planicauda and by the presence of a tuft of hypertrophied odontodes on the supraoccipital (except P. cristatus and P. cesarpintoi. Parotocinclus arandai is further distinguished by having an abdomen extensively naked, with a mosaic of few rounded platelets of irregular size and distributed over the pre-anal region (except P. bahiensis, P. minutus, P. spilosoma, P. cearensis, P. cesarpintoi and P. prata. A detailed comparison with congeners on eastern Brazil hydrographical region is provided, and information on the species habitat is given.

  14. First report of Rhabdias (Nematoda: Rhabdiasoidea from lungs of montane chameleons in Cameroon: description of two new species and notes on biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lhermitte-Vallarino N.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The lung nematodes of the genus Rhabdias parasitic in chameleons were previously only known from east Africa and Madagascar. Two new species are described from Cameroon: i Rhabdias okuensis n. sp., type-host Chamaeleo (Trioceros quadricornis gracilior, from Mont Oku, is frequent; it resembles R. jarki from Burundi, with a short buccal capsule and a long, thin oesophagus, and is distinguished by its large cervical vesicle and cephalic characters (mouth aperture, papillae. The female parasites are hermaphroditic (spermatozoa identified and they pierce the lung wall and induce lesions, as R. jarki. In the same locality, another chameleon, C. (T. w. wiedersheimi also harbours R. okuensis, as demonstrated with the 12S rDNA and coxI gene sequences. ii R. cristati n. sp., type-host C. (T. cristatus, from Mount Cameroon, is described from one heavily infected specimen; it resembles R. chamaeleonis from East Africa, and is distinguished by the large buccal capsule and the thick apex of the intestine. The free-living phase, studied in R. okuensis, presents characters of other Rhabdias from chameleons: heterogony, development of larvae through matricidal endotoky, infective larval stages with a thick, rounded caudal extremity, exuvium transformed into a thick cuticular sheeth. Each free-living female produces one larva, as in other African Rhabdias, whereas the female of R. gemellipara, a parasite of a Malagasy chameleon, produces two larvae.

  15. Inventory of the pool frog, newt and gulyxne in Forsmark 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collinder, Per

    2013-01-01

    On assignment from the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB), Ekologigruppen AB carried out inventories of species populations during the summer of 2012. Species included in the study are described in three separate chapters of this report. The three species were pool frog Rana lessonae, great crested newt Triturus cristatus, and fen orchid Liparis loeselii. SKB will follow up the development of the local populations. Inventory of pool frogs are already a follow-up on a study carried out in 2011. Concern for these species is due to their protection within the EU system of species and habitat protection. Construction of the planned depository for used nuclear fuel will involve redirection of groundwater, which could potentially drain these wetlands. The three species pool frog, great crested newt and fen orchid are inventoried by well-documented procedures, which will allow repletion of the study at the same locals and according to the same methods during consequent years. The inventories are not complete in the sense that they would give number of individuals in a local population. Rather, the result should be regarded as an index for comparison and monitoring

  16. Relationship between the ability of oral streptococci to interact with platelet glycoprotein Ibalpha and with the salivary low-molecular-weight mucin, MG2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Christopher; Douglas, Charles William Ian

    2006-12-01

    The oral streptococci Streptococcus sanguinis, Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus oralis are common aetiological agents of infective endocarditis, and their ability to adhere to and induce the aggregation of platelets is thought to be a virulence trait. The platelet glycoprotein GPIbalpha has been implicated as the adhesion receptor for S. sanguinis and S. gordonii, but it is not known if this is the case for S. oralis and other species. The aim of this study was to determine the GPIbalpha-interactive capability of a range of oral streptococci and to determine the relationship between this capability and their ability to interact with the salivary constituents that they would encounter in their normal habitat. All platelet-adhesive S. sanguinis strains and most S. gordonii strains adhered in a GPIbalpha-dependent manner, but strains of S. oralis, Streptococcus cristatus, Streptococcus parasanguinis and Streptococcus mitis had no direct affinity for platelets. Those strains that were able to bind GPIbalpha also bound to the low-molecular-weight submandibular salivary mucin, MG2, and this interaction was sialic acid-dependent. The data suggest that S. sanguinis and S. gordonii may be efficient colonizers of platelet vegetations because of their adaptation to recognize sialylated salivary mucins. In contrast, S. oralis does not interact with platelets and so is likely to colonize vegetations through an as yet unidentified mechanism.

  17. Twelve invertebrate and eight fish species new to the marine fauna of Madeira, and a discussion of the zoogeography of the area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtz, Peter

    1998-06-01

    The benthic ctenophore Vallicula multiformis, a large undescribed flatworm species of the genus Pseudoceros, the prosobranch gastropod Tonna maculosa, the opisthobranch gastropods Placida cf. dendritica, Caloria elegans, Aeolidiella sanguinea, Janolus cristatus, the decapod Balssia gasti, the sea urchin Schizaster canaliferus and the tunicates Clavelina lepadiformis, Clavelina dellavallei and Pycnoclavella taureanensis are recorded from Madeira for the first time. This is the first record of a platyctenid ctenophore in the eastern Atlantic. The teleost fishes Pomatoschistus pictus, Vaneaugobius canariensis, Chromogobius sp., Nerophis ophidion, Hippocampus hippocampus, Acanthocybium solandri, Sphyraena viridensis and Sphyraena barracuda are recorded from Madeira for the first time. The presence of the sea-hare Aplysia dactylomela at Madeira is confirmed; the species has increased tremendously in abundance in the last four years. The crocodile fish Grammoplites gruveli can occasionally be found in the mantle cavity of cuttlefish ( Sepia officinalis) sold at the fish market of Funchal, but does not originate from Madeiran waters. An analysis of 100 new records from the coastal fauna of Madeira shows that, while predominantly of lusitanian, mediterranean and mauritanian affinity, Madeira’s shallow water fauna contains a large component of tropical species.

  18. ORNITHOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS ON THE VÂLCELE BASIN DURING FEBRUARY 2013 – JANUARY 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Mestecăneanu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper are showed the results of the researches performed during February 2013 – January 2014 on the avifauna from the Vâlcele Basin. The 65 observed species belong to 13 orders, Passeriformes being the richest (33 species. Anseriformes and Charadriiformes (each with 7 species were the best represented among the wetland birds. 5 species (Podiceps cristatus, Phalacrocorax carbo, Anas platyrhynchos, Fulica atra, and Larus argentatus cachinnans/michahellis were euconstant and 2 species (Anas platyrhynchos and Fulica atra were eudominant. Anas platyrhynchos counted most individuals in a month in December; in July were no individuals. Fulica atra had the most number in September; it was absent in May. For the Vâlcele Basin avicoenose, Anseriformes and Gruiformes were the overdominat orders and, inside the Anseriformes order, Anas platyrhynchos was overdominant species. 7 species (Egretta alba, Nycticorax nycticorax, Ciconia ciconia, Chlidonias hybridus, Alcedo atthis, Picus canus, and Lanius collurio are in the Annex I of the Birds Directive.

  19. Species identification by conservation practitioners using online images: accuracy and agreement between experts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail E. Austen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Emerging technologies have led to an increase in species observations being recorded via digital images. Such visual records are easily shared, and are often uploaded to online communities when help is required to identify or validate species. Although this is common practice, little is known about the accuracy of species identification from such images. Using online images of newts that are native and non-native to the UK, this study asked holders of great crested newt (Triturus cristatus licences (issued by UK authorities to permit surveying for this species to sort these images into groups, and to assign species names to those groups. All of these experts identified the native species, but agreement among these participants was low, with some being cautious in committing to definitive identifications. Individuals’ accuracy was also independent of both their experience and self-assessed ability. Furthermore, mean accuracy was not uniform across species (69–96%. These findings demonstrate the difficulty of accurate identification of newts from a single image, and that expert judgements are variable, even within the same knowledgeable community. We suggest that identification decisions should be made on multiple images and verified by more than one expert, which could improve the reliability of species data.

  20. Selective attention in peacocks during predator detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorzinski, Jessica L; Platt, Michael L

    2014-05-01

    Predation can exert strong selective pressure on the evolution of behavioral and morphological traits in birds. Because predator avoidance is key to survival and birds rely heavily on visual perception, predation may have shaped avian visual systems as well. To address this question, we examined the role of visual attention in antipredator behavior in peacocks (Pavo cristatus). Peacocks were exposed to a model predator while their gaze was continuously recorded with a telemetric eye-tracker. We found that peacocks spent more time looking at and made more fixations on the predator compared to the same spatial location before the predator was revealed. The duration of fixations they directed toward conspecifics and environmental features decreased after the predator was revealed, indicating that the peacocks were rapidly scanning their environment with their eyes. Maximum eye movement amplitudes and amplitudes of consecutive saccades were similar before and after the predator was revealed. In cases where conspecifics detected the predator first, peacocks appeared to learn that danger was present by observing conspecifics' antipredator behavior. Peacocks were faster to detect the predator when they were fixating closer to the area where the predator would eventually appear. In addition, pupil size increased after predator exposure, consistent with increased physiological arousal. These findings demonstrate that peacocks selectively direct their attention toward predatory threats and suggest that predation has influenced the evolution of visual orienting systems.

  1. Hypercarnivory, durophagy or generalised carnivory in the Mio-Pliocene hyaenids of South Africa?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Hartstone-Rose

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Carnivorans, the members of the order Carnivora, exhibit wide dietary diversity – from overwhelmingly herbivorous species (like the giant and red pandas to species that specialise in the consumption of flesh (like the hypercarnivorous felids. Throughout the evolution of this order, many craniodental forms have emerged and gone extinct – notably the sabretooth felids that existed until the late Pleistocene. However, one carnivoran lineage, remarkable for its extreme masticatory adaptations, persists – the bone-cracking hyaenids. Three of the four extant members of this family (Crocuta crocuta, Hyaena hyaena and Parahyaena brunnea are among the most durophagous mammals to have ever lived. The fourth extant hyaenid – the aardwolf (Proteles cristatus – also exhibits impressive, although wholly different, masticatory adaptations as one of the most derived mammalian insectivores. How and when did the level of durophagy evident in extant bone-cracking hyenas evolve, and how do Mio-Pliocene hyenas compare to the extant members of the order in terms of their own dietary specialisations? An examination of the premolars of the Mio-Pliocene hyaenids from Langebaanweg, South Africa suggests that modern levels of durophagy appeared relatively recently. Results from an analysis of dental radii-of-curvature and premolar intercuspid notches suggest that these hyenas were neither bone crackers nor flesh specialists, but were dietary generalists.

  2. Spizaetus hawk-eagles as predators of arboreal colobines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fam, S D; Nijman, V

    2011-04-01

    The predation pressure put on primates by diurnal birds of prey differs greatly between continents. Africa and South America have specialist raptors (e.g. crowned hawk-eagle Stephanoaetus coronatus and harpy eagle Harpia harpyja) whereas in Asia the only such specialist's (Philippine eagle Pithecophaga jefferyi) distribution is largely allopatric with primates. The almost universal absence of polyspecific groups in Asia (common in Africa and South America) may indicate reduced predation pressure. As such there is almost no information on predation pressures on primates in Asia by raptors. Here we report successful predation of a juvenile banded langur Presbytis femoralis (~2 kg) by a changeable hawk-eagle Spizaetus cirrhatus. The troop that was attacked displayed no signs of being alarmed, and no calls were made before the event. We argue that in insular Southeast Asia, especially, large Spizaetus hawk-eagles (~2 kg) are significant predators of arboreal colobines. Using data on the relative size of sympatric Spizaetus hawk-eagles and colobines we make predictions on where geographically we can expect the highest predation pressure (Thai-Malay Peninsula) and which colobines are least (Nasalis larvatus, Trachypithecus auratus, P. thomasi) and most (P. femoralis, T. cristatus) affected.

  3. Amphibian recovery after a decrease in acidic precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolmen, Dag; Finstad, Anders Gravbrøt; Skei, Jon Kristian

    2018-04-01

    We here report the first sign of amphibian recovery after a strong decline due to acidic precipitation over many decades and peaking around 1980-90. In 2010, the pH level of ponds and small lakes in two heavily acidified areas in southwestern Scandinavia (Aust-Agder and Østfold in Norway) had risen significantly at an (arithmetic) average of 0.14 since 1988-89. Parallel with the general rise in pH, amphibians (Rana temporaria, R. arvalis, Bufo bufo, Lissotriton vulgaris, and Triturus cristatus) had become significantly more common: the frequency of amphibian localities rose from 33% to 49% (n = 115), and the average number of amphibian species per locality had risen from 0.51 to 0.88. In two other (reference) areas, one with better buffering capacity (Telemark, n = 21) and the other with much less input of acidic precipitation (Nord-Trøndelag, n = 106), there were no significant changes in pH or amphibians.

  4. Comparing GIS-based habitat models for applications in EIA and SEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gontier, Mikael; Moertberg, Ulla; Balfors, Berit

    2010-01-01

    Land use changes, urbanisation and infrastructure developments in particular, cause fragmentation of natural habitats and threaten biodiversity. Tools and measures must be adapted to assess and remedy the potential effects on biodiversity caused by human activities and developments. Within physical planning, environmental impact assessment (EIA) and strategic environmental assessment (SEA) play important roles in the prediction and assessment of biodiversity-related impacts from planned developments. However, adapted prediction tools to forecast and quantify potential impacts on biodiversity components are lacking. This study tested and compared four different GIS-based habitat models and assessed their relevance for applications in environmental assessment. The models were implemented in the Stockholm region in central Sweden and applied to data on the crested tit (Parus cristatus), a sedentary bird species of coniferous forest. All four models performed well and allowed the distribution of suitable habitats for the crested tit in the Stockholm region to be predicted. The models were also used to predict and quantify habitat loss for two regional development scenarios. The study highlighted the importance of model selection in impact prediction. Criteria that are relevant for the choice of model for predicting impacts on biodiversity were identified and discussed. Finally, the importance of environmental assessment for the preservation of biodiversity within the general frame of biodiversity conservation is emphasised.

  5. Artificial light pollution increases nocturnal vigilance in peahens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorzinski, Jessica L; Chisholm, Sarah; Byerley, Sydney D; Coy, Jeanee R; Aziz, Aisyah; Wolf, Jamie A; Gnerlich, Amanda C

    2015-01-01

    Artificial light pollution is drastically changing the sensory environments of animals. Even though many animals are now living in these changed environments, the effect light pollution has on animal behavior is poorly understood. We investigated the effect of light pollution on nocturnal vigilance in peahens (Pavo cristatus). Captive peahens were exposed to either artificial lighting or natural lighting at night. We employed a novel method to record their vigilance behavior by attaching accelerometers to their heads and continuously monitoring their large head movements. We found that light pollution significantly increases nocturnal vigilance in peahens. Furthermore, the birds faced a trade-off between vigilance and sleep at night: peahens that were more vigilant spent less time sleeping. Given the choice, peahens preferred to roost away from high levels of artificial lighting but showed no preference for roosting without artificial lighting or with low levels of artificial lighting. Our study demonstrates that light pollution can have a substantial impact on animal behavior that can potentially result in fitness consequences.

  6. Síndrome diencéfalico como causa de desnutrición severa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor Báez Segurola

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available El síndrome diencefálico es un complejo de síntomas y signos causados por disfunción de esta área del encéfalo caracterizado por una marcada desnutrición aun cuando la ingesta calórica es normal. Se presentan dos casos, el primero de ellos una niña de 13 meses de edad con antecedentes de un fallo de medro a partir del tercer mes de vida, que ingresó en este servicio para el estudio de una desnutrición proteico energética severa que presentó en el transcurso de su evolución un apetito inestable y al mes de ingresada un evento paroxístico. Se le realizó resonancia magnética nuclear y se comprobó imagen hipodensa, redondeada, que medía aproximadamente 3 x 3 cm en región supraselar; fue intervenida quirúrgicamente en 2 ocasiones, se realizó exéresis del tumor, y se confirmó anatomopatológicamente un astrocitoma pilocítico de bajo grado. El segundo paciente, un lactante que ingresó con el diagnóstico confirmado de tumor intracraneal para estudio, semejante al caso presentado anteriormente, mostraba una marcada desnutrición proteico energética, se le realizó tomografía axial computarizada en la que se pudo apreciar una extensa masa tumoral supraselar con dilatación del sistema ventricular. Durante su evolución presentó marcada anorexia con pérdida de peso progresiva, por lo que se realizó gastrostomía. A los 59 días falleció como consecuencia de una pancitopenia, y la necropsia concluyó: astrocitoma pilocítico de bajo grado.

  7. Consuming fire ants reduces northern bobwhite survival and weight gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, P.E.; Allen, Craig R.; Birge, Hannah E.

    2014-01-01

    Northern bobwhite quail, Colinus virginianus (L.) (Galliformes: Odontophoridae), population declines are well documented, but pinpointing the reasons for these decreases has proven elusive. Bobwhite population declines are attributed primarily to loss of habitat and land use changes. This, however, does not entirely explain population declines in areas intensively managed for bobwhites. Although previous research demonstrates the negative impact of red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta Buren) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) on northern bobwhites, the mechanisms underlying this effect are largely unknown. To meet the protein demands of early growth and development, bobwhite chicks predominantly consume small insects, of which ants are a substantial proportion. Fire ants alter ant community dynamics by often reducing native ant diversity and abundance while concurrently increasing the abundance of individuals. Fire ants have negative effects on chicks, but they are also a large potential protein source, making it difficult to disentangle their net effect on bobwhite chicks. To help investigate these effects, we conducted a laboratory experiment to understand (1) whether or not bobwhites consume fire ants, and (2) how the benefits of this consumption compare to the deleterious impacts of bobwhite chick exposure to fire ants. Sixty bobwhite chicks were separated into two groups of 30; one group was provided with starter feed only and the second group was provided with feed and fire ants. Bobwhite chicks were observed feeding on fire ants. Chicks that fed on fire ants had reduced survival and weight gain. Our results show that, while fire ants increase potential food sources for northern bobwhite, their net effect on bobwhite chicks is deleterious. This information will help inform land managers and commercial bobwhite rearing operations.

  8. Factors influencing methionine toxicity in young bobwhite quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    Young Bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) were fed low and adequate protein purified diets with and without excess methionine to evaluate factors affecting methionine toxicity. Growth of quail fed an adequate protein (27%) diet, without supplemental glycine, was depressed by 1.75% and 2.25% excess methionine. Supplemental glycine (.3%) alleviated growth depression caused by 2.25% excess methionine. Quail fed 1.75% and 2.25% excess methionine developed signs of toxicity characterized by weakness, a lowered, outstretched neck when moving, and ataxia. In addition, quail would fall on their sides when disturbed and spin with their heads retracted. These conditions were transient in nature. Growth of quail fed a low protein (18.9%) diet was depressed by 1% and 1.5% excess methionine and DL-homocystine. Quail fed 1% and 1.5% excess methionine in this diet also developed signs of toxicity, the incidence of which was greater and the duration longer than occurred with quail fed adequate protein. Supplementing a low protein (20.15%) diet with .3% or .6% glycine or threonine or a combination of these amino acids did not alleviate growth depression caused by 1.5% excess methionine; however, 2% and 3% supplemental glycine were somewhat effective. Supplements of glycine (2%, 3%) and threonine (1%) completely reversed growth depression from 1% excess methionine but did not influence growth of controls, indicating that both amino acids counteract methionine toxicity. Both glycine and threonine alone improved growth by about the same extent in diets with 1% or 1.5% excess methionine; however, these amino acids alleviated less than 30% of the growth depression resulting from 1.5% excess methionine. The effectiveness of glycine in alleviating methionine toxicity in a low protein diet was decreased, and hemoglobin levels were depressed with 1.5% excess methionine compared to less amounts.

  9. Beneficial Insect Borders Provide Northern Bobwhite Brood Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorman, Christopher E.; Plush, Charles J.; Orr, David B.; Reberg-Horton, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Strips of fallow vegetation along cropland borders are an effective strategy for providing brood habitat for declining populations of upland game birds (Order: Galliformes), including northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus), but fallow borders lack nectar-producing vegetation needed to sustain many beneficial insect populations (e.g., crop pest predators, parasitoids, and pollinator species). Planted borders that contain mixes of prairie flowers and grasses are designed to harbor more diverse arthropod communities, but the relative value of these borders as brood habitat is unknown. We used groups of six human-imprinted northern bobwhite chicks as a bioassay for comparing four different border treatments (planted native grass and prairie flowers, planted prairie flowers only, fallow vegetation, or mowed vegetation) as northern bobwhite brood habitat from June-August 2009 and 2010. All field border treatments were established around nine organic crop fields. Groups of chicks were led through borders for 30-min foraging trials and immediately euthanized, and eaten arthropods in crops and gizzards were measured to calculate a foraging rate for each border treatment. We estimated arthropod prey availability within each border treatment using a modified blower-vac to sample arthropods at the vegetation strata where chicks foraged. Foraging rate did not differ among border treatments in 2009 or 2010. Total arthropod prey densities calculated from blower-vac samples did not differ among border treatments in 2009 or 2010. Our results showed plant communities established to attract beneficial insects should maximize the biodiversity potential of field border establishment by providing habitat for beneficial insects and young upland game birds. PMID:24376759

  10. Aflatoxin contamination in corn sold for wildlife feed in texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Nicholas R; Peper, Steven T; Downing, Carson D; Kendall, Ronald J

    2017-05-01

    Supplemental feeding with corn to attract and manage deer is a common practice throughout Texas. Other species, including northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus), are commonly seen feeding around supplemental deer feeders. In many cases, supplemental feeding continues year-round so feed supply stores always have supplemental corn in stock. Fluctuating weather and improper storage of corn can lead to and/or amplify aflatoxin contamination. Due to the recent decline of bobwhites throughout the Rolling Plains ecoregion of Texas, there has been interest in finding factors such as toxins that could be linked to their decline. In this study, we purchased and sampled supplemental corn from 19 locations throughout this ecoregion to determine if aflatoxin contamination was present in individual bags prior to being dispersed to wildlife. Of the 57 bags sampled, 33 bags (approximately 58%) contained aflatoxin with a bag range between 0.0-19.91 parts per billion (ppb). Additionally, three metal and three polypropylene supplemental feeders were each filled with 45.4 kg of triple cleaned corn and placed in an open field to study long-term aflatoxin buildup. Feeders were sampled every 3 months from November 2013-November 2014. Average concentration of aflatoxin over the year was 4.08 ± 2.53 ppb (±SE) in metal feeders, and 1.43 ± 0.89 ppb (±SE) in polypropylene feeders. The concentration of aflatoxins is not affected by the type of feeder (metal vs polypropylene), the season corn was sampled, and the location in the feeder (top, middle, bottom) where corn is sampled. It is unlikely that corn used in supplemental feeders is contributing to the bobwhite decline due to the low levels of aflatoxin found in purchased corn and long-term storage of corn used in supplemental feeders.

  11. Influence of olfactory and visual cover on nest site selection and nest success for grassland-nesting birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Dillon T; Elmore, R Dwayne; Fuhlendorf, Samuel D; Loss, Scott R

    2017-08-01

    Habitat selection by animals is influenced by and mitigates the effects of predation and environmental extremes. For birds, nest site selection is crucial to offspring production because nests are exposed to extreme weather and predation pressure. Predators that forage using olfaction often dominate nest predator communities; therefore, factors that influence olfactory detection (e.g., airflow and weather variables, including turbulence and moisture) should influence nest site selection and survival. However, few studies have assessed the importance of olfactory cover for habitat selection and survival. We assessed whether ground-nesting birds select nest sites based on visual and/or olfactory cover. Additionally, we assessed the importance of visual cover and airflow and weather variables associated with olfactory cover in influencing nest survival. In managed grasslands in Oklahoma, USA, we monitored nests of Northern Bobwhite ( Colinus virginianus ), Eastern Meadowlark ( Sturnella magna ), and Grasshopper Sparrow ( Ammodramus savannarum ) during 2015 and 2016. To assess nest site selection, we compared cover variables between nests and random points. To assess factors influencing nest survival, we used visual cover and olfactory-related measurements (i.e., airflow and weather variables) to model daily nest survival. For nest site selection, nest sites had greater overhead visual cover than random points, but no other significant differences were found. Weather variables hypothesized to influence olfactory detection, specifically precipitation and relative humidity, were the best predictors of and were positively related to daily nest survival. Selection for overhead cover likely contributed to mitigation of thermal extremes and possibly reduced detectability of nests. For daily nest survival, we hypothesize that major nest predators focused on prey other than the monitored species' nests during high moisture conditions, thus increasing nest survival on these

  12. A Ground-Nesting Galliform's Response to Thermal Heterogeneity: Implications for Ground-Dwelling Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, J Matthew; Davis, Craig A; Elmore, R Dwayne; Fuhlendorf, Samuel D

    2015-01-01

    The habitat selection choices that individuals make in response to thermal environments influence both survival and reproduction. Importantly, the way that organisms behaviorally respond to thermal environments depends on the availability and juxtaposition of sites affording tolerable or preferred microclimates. Although, ground nesting birds are especially susceptible to heat extremes across many reproductive stages (i.e., breeding, nesting, brood rearing), the mechanistic drivers of nest site selection for these species are not well established from a thermal perspective. Our goal was to assess nest site selection relative to the configuration of the thermal landscape by quantifying thermal environments available to a ground-nesting bird species inhabiting a climatically stressful environment. Using northern bobwhite (Colinus virginanus) as a model species, we measured black bulb temperature (Tbb) and vegetation parameters at 87 nests, 87 paired sites and 205 random landscape sites in Western Oklahoma during spring and summer 2013 and 2014. We found that thermal space within the study area exhibited differences in Tbb of up to 40°C during peak diurnal heating, resulting in a diverse thermal landscape available to ground-nesting birds. Within this thermally heterogeneous landscape, nest sites moderated Tbb by more than 12°C compared to random landscape sites. Furthermore, successful nests remained on average 6°C cooler than unsuccessful nests on days experiencing ambient temperatures ≥ 39°C. Models of future Tbb associated with 2080 climate change projections indicate that nesting bobwhites will face substantially greater Tbb throughout the landscape for longer durations, placing an even greater importance on thermal choices for nest sites in the future. These results highlight the capacity of landscape features to act as moderators of thermal extremes and demonstrate how thermal complexity at organism-specific scales can dictate habitat selection.

  13. Uncertainty, robustness, and the value of information in managing a population of northern bobwhites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Fred A.; Hagan, Greg; Palmer, William E.; Kemmerer, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The abundance of northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus) has decreased throughout their range. Managers often respond by considering improvements in harvest and habitat management practices, but this can be challenging if substantial uncertainty exists concerning the cause(s) of the decline. We were interested in how application of decision science could be used to help managers on a large, public management area in southwestern Florida where the bobwhite is a featured species and where abundance has severely declined. We conducted a workshop with managers and scientists to elicit management objectives, alternative hypotheses concerning population limitation in bobwhites, potential management actions, and predicted management outcomes. Using standard and robust approaches to decision making, we determined that improved water management and perhaps some changes in hunting practices would be expected to produce the best management outcomes in the face of uncertainty about what is limiting bobwhite abundance. We used a criterion called the expected value of perfect information to determine that a robust management strategy may perform nearly as well as an optimal management strategy (i.e., a strategy that is expected to perform best, given the relative importance of different management objectives) with all uncertainty resolved. We used the expected value of partial information to determine that management performance could be increased most by eliminating uncertainty over excessive-harvest and human-disturbance hypotheses. Beyond learning about the factors limiting bobwhites, adoption of a dynamic management strategy, which recognizes temporal changes in resource and environmental conditions, might produce the greatest management benefit. Our research demonstrates that robust approaches to decision making, combined with estimates of the value of information, can offer considerable insight into preferred management approaches when great uncertainty exists about

  14. Infection levels of the eyeworm Oxyspirura petrowi and caecal worm Aulonocephalus pennula in the northern bobwhite and scaled quail from the Rolling Plains of Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, N R; Peper, S T; Downing, C; Brake, E; Rollins, D; Kendall, R J

    2017-09-01

    Northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) and scaled quail (Callipepla squamata) have experienced chronic declines within the Rolling Plains ecoregion of Texas. Parasitic infection, which has long been dismissed as a problem in quail, has not been studied thoroughly until recently. A total of 219 northern bobwhite and 101 scaled quail from Mitchell County, Texas were captured and donated from 2014 to 2015, and examined for eyeworm (Oxyspirura petrowi) and caecal worm (Aulonocephalus pennula) infections. In 2014, bobwhites averaged 19.6 ± 1.8 eyeworms and 98.6 ± 8.2 caecal worms, and 23.5 ± 2.1 eyeworms and 129.9 ± 10.7 caecal worms in 2015. Scaled quail averaged 4.8 ± 1.0 eyeworms and 50 ± 6.8 caecal worms in 2014, and 5.7 ± 1.3 eyeworms and 38.1 ± 7.1 caecal worms in 2015. This study expands the knowledge of parasitic infection in quail inhabiting the Rolling Plains of Texas. A significant difference was documented in O. petrowi infection between species but there was no significant difference in A. pennula between quail species. No significant difference was detected in parasite infection between the sexes of both northern bobwhite and scaled quail. This study also documented the highest reported O. petrowi infection in both species of quail. Additional research is needed on the life history and infection dynamics of O. petrowi and A. pennula infections to determine if there are individual- and/or population-level implications due to parasitic infection.

  15. Effects of the mosquito larvicide GB-1111 on bird eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, D.J.; Albers, P.H.; Melancon, M.J.; Miles, A.K.

    2004-01-01

    Golden Bear Oil (GB-1111; legal trade name for GB-1313) is a petroleum distillate used in the United States and other countries as a mosquito larvicide. As part of an evaluation of the potential effects of GB-1111 on birds, fertile eggs of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) were incubated in the laboratory, and treated on day 4 of incubation with external applications equivalent to either 0, 1/3, 1, 3 or 10 times the maximum rate (X) of 47 l/ha (5 gal/A) of field application of GB-1111. Hatching success was significantly reduced in mallards treated at 3 and 10 times the maximum field application, with a calculated approximate LD 50 of 1.9 times the maximum field application. Most mortality occurred within a week of treatment. Hepatic P450-associated monooxygenase activity (ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase; EROD) was negatively related to dose. In the 3X group there was a significant increase in the concentration of hepatic reduced glutathione (GSH) but a decrease in protein-bound thiols (PBSH). Hatching success of bobwhite was marginally reduced at the highest level of treatment (10X). Other effects at this level in bobwhite included a significant increase in incidence of abnormal embryos or hatchlings, lower body and liver weights, and a two-fold increase in hepatic microsomal EROD activity in hatchlings. The recommended maximum rate of field application of GB-1111 is unlikely to impair the survival or development of bobwhite embryos but is potentially toxic to mallard embryos under conditions of larvicide drift or spray overlap. - Mosquito larvicide GB-1111 is unlikely to harm bobwhite embryos when applied according to product label guidance, but could pose a potential risk to mallard embryos under conditions of larvicide drift or spray overlap

  16. Gemfibrozil disrupts the metabolism of circulating lipids in bobwhite quails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussière-Côté, Sophie; Omlin, Teye; de Càssia Pinheiro, Eliana; Weber, Jean-Michel

    2016-01-01

    The circulating lipids of birds play essential roles for egg production and as an energy source for flight and thermogenesis. How lipid-lowering pharmaceuticals geared to prevent heart disease in humans and that are routinely released in the environment affect their metabolism is unknown. This study assesses the impact of the popular drug gemfibrozil (GEM) on the plasma phospholipids (PL), neutral lipids (NL), and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) of bobwhite quails (Colinus virginianus). Results show that bird lipoproteins are rapidly altered by GEM, even at environmentally-relevant doses. After 4 days of exposure, pharmacological amounts cause an 83% increase in circulating PL levels, a major decrease in average lipoprotein size measured as a 56% drop in the NL/PL ratio, and important changes in the fatty acid composition of PL and NEFA (increases in fatty acid unsaturation). The levels of PL carrying all individual fatty acids except arachidonate are strongly stimulated. The large decrease in bird lipoprotein size may reflect the effects seen in humans: lowering of LDL that can cause atherosclerosis and stimulation of HDL that promote cholesterol disposal. Lower (environmental) doses of GEM cause a reduction of %palmitate in all the plasma lipid fractions of quails, but particularly in the core triacylglycerol of lipoproteins (NL). No changes in mRNA levels of bird peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) could be demonstrated. The disrupting effects of GEM on circulating lipids reported here suggest that the pervasive presence of this drug in the environment could jeopardize reproduction and migratory behaviours in wild birds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Factors influencing reproductive performance of northern bobwhite in South Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland, V.; Hostetler, J.A.; Hines, T.C.; Percival, H.F.; Oli, M.K.

    2011-01-01

    Reproductive success is a critical component of individual fitness, and also an important determinant of growth rates of populations characterized by early maturity and high fecundity. We used radiotelemetry data collected during 2003-2008 to estimate reproductive parameters in a declining northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) population in South Florida, and to test hypotheses regarding factors influencing these parameters. The overall clutch size was 12.10 ?? 0.22, but females laid more eggs in their first clutch (12.43 ?? 0.24) than in subsequent clutches (10.19 ?? 0.53) within a nesting season. Daily nest survival was higher for first (0.966 ?? 0.003) than subsequent nests (0.936 ?? 0.011). Hatchability (proportion of laid eggs that hatched conditional upon nest survival to hatching) was 0.853 ?? 0.008, but was higher for nests incubated by females (0.873 ?? 0.009) than those incubated by males (0.798 ?? 0.018). The proportion of individuals attempting a second nest was 0.112 ?? 0.024 and 0.281 ?? 0.040 when the first nest was successful and failed, respectively. Hatchability was lower when the nesting habitat was burned the previous winter. We found no evidence that food strip density (a management practice to provide supplemental food) influenced any of the reproductive parameters. Mean summer temperature affected hatchability, nest survival, and proportion of nests incubated by males. Overall, the reproductive output in our study population was lower than that reported for most other bobwhite populations, indicating that low reproductive performance may have contributed to bobwhite population declines in our study site. These results suggest that current management practices, particularly those related to habitat and harvest management, need careful evaluation. ?? 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  18. Raptor abundance and northern bobwhite survival and habitat use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, J.; Hernandez, F.; Boal, Clint W.; Ballard, Bart M.; Bryant, Fred C.; Wester, D.B.

    2014-01-01

    Predation risk has a profound influence on prey behavior and habitat use. The Rio Grande Plains ecoregion of Texas, USA, provides a unique opportunity to investigate changes in prey behavior because the ecoregion experiences a high influx of raptors every year during autumn migration. We used an 8-year data set (2000–2008) of radiocollared northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus) and raptor abundance to test the hypothesis that bobwhites responded to increased raptor abundance via changes in woody-cover use at the home-range scale. Bobwhite survival was negatively correlated with raptor abundance, with red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), and northern harriers (Circus cyaneus) accounting for 51% of the variability in bobwhite survival (P raptor migration (6.6% ± 0.5%; n = 73 bobwhites) and non-migration periods (7.1% ± 0.4%; n = 105 bobwhites; P = 0.490). In addition, bobwhites that survived the raptor migration period used similar amounts of woody cover within their home range (6.3% ± 0.6%, n = 58 bobwhites) compared with those dying during the migration period (6.8% ± 0.4%, n = 100 bobwhites; P = 0.530). Our data suggest that bobwhites do not alter their use of woody cover at the home-range scale in response to increasing raptor abundance, but this does not preclude increased use of woody cover at the point-of-use scale.

  19. Hematozoan parasites of Rio Grande wild turkeys from southern Texas (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Marc D.; Christensen, Beth A.; Rocke, Tonie E.

    1988-01-01

    One hundred twenty-three of 300 blood samples (41%) taken from Rio Grande wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo intermedia) from three locations in southern Texas (Welder Wildlife Refuge, Chaparrosa Ranch, and Campo Alegre Ranch) and subinoculated into domestic broad-breasted white turkey poults were positive for a Plasmodium (Novyella) sp. Analysis of blood films from 350 turkeys revealed Haemoproteus meleagridis in 76% of the birds. A significantly greater mean parasite intensity was observed in birds from Welder Wildlife Refuge. Birds from the Campo Alegre Ranch exhibited a significantly higher prevalence of H. meleagridis than birds from Chaparrosa. The Plasmodium sp. was infective for canaries (Serinus canaria), bobwhites (Colinus virginianus), and ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus), but would not produce infection in white leghorn chickens (Gallus gallus) or Coturnix quail (Coturnix coturnix). Attempts to infect Culex tarsalis and C. pipiens pipiens were unsuccessful. Asexual erythrocytic synchrony was not observed when blood-induced infections were monitored in two domestic turkey poults every 4 hr for 72 hr. Exoerythrocytic stages were not found upon examination of impression smears and tissue samples taken from brain, liver, spleen, kidney, lung, and bone marrow. The Plasmodium sp. is most similar morphologically to three species in the subgenus Novyella, P. hexamerium, P. vaughani, and P. kempi. The most striking similarities are to P. hexamerium, and involve mean merozoite number, erythrocytic schizont location, and vertebrate host susceptibility. It differs from P. vaughani in being able to infect turkeys and in type of parasitized erythrocytes. Differences to P. kempi include mean merozoite number, and ability to infect pheasants, and its inability to develop inC. pipiens and C. tarsalis.

  20. Max Weber y Georg Simmel: ¿Dos teorías sociológicas de la modernidad?

    OpenAIRE

    JOSÉ Mª GONZÁLEZ GARCÍA

    2000-01-01

    A pesar de reconocer las diferencias entre Simmel y Weber en el análisis de la modernidad, el artículo aboga por la complementariedad de los dos enfoques: el análisis fragmentario y ensayístico de la sociedad moderna realizado por Simmel tendría su complemento más sistemático en el análisis del proceso de racionalización occidental hecho por Weber: Después de señalar la matriz intelectual común marcada por la herencia de Goethe y de Kant, así como por la recepción crítica de Marx y de Nietzsc...

  1. Georg Simmel y Max Weber: ¿Dos teorías sociológicas de la modernidad?

    OpenAIRE

    González García, José M.

    2000-01-01

    A pesar de reconocer las diferencias entre Simmel y Weber en el análisis de la modernidad, el artículo aboga por la complementariedad de los dos enfoques: el análisis fragmentario y ensayístico de la sociedad moderna realizado por Simmel tendría su complemento más sistemático en el análisis del proceso de racionalización occidental hecho por Weber. Después de señalar la matriz intelectual común marcada por la herencia de Goethe y de Kant, así como por la recepción crítica de Ma...

  2. Fases del kirchnerismo: de la ruptura a la afirmación particularista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Cantamutto

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo analiza el kirchnerismo como proceso político populista. Utilizando la bibliografía especializada, es posible reconstruir la modificación en las alianzas políticas y sociales del gobierno, marcadas por el conflicto con la fracción agropecuaria del bloque en el poder en 2008. Este conflicto produjo un cambio de énfasis en la estrategia política del gobierno, que modificó su discurso y alianzas. Con base en ello se propone una periodización del proceso en dos etapas, donde se pasa de una fase ligada a la ruptura populista del orden institucional previo a una segunda donde se produce una afirmación particularista de la identidad kirchnerista. El artículo analiza en detalle los nuevos rasgos del orden político a partir de 2008.

  3. Creencias y elecciones de confianza en estudiantes del proyecto lasallista “Utopía”. Una aproximación empírica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Oswaldo Gil Mateus

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Las actitudes y los comportamientos de confianza y reciprocidad determinanla posibilidad de construcción de capital social. Así, es necesario conocerlas percepciones y comportamientos con relación a la confianza de los agentesinvolucrados en tal proceso de construcción, en particular para aquellos quepueden tener el liderazgo. Para ello, utilizando las herramientas y técnicas decampo dispuestas por la economía experimental, se realizó un ejercicio de campo en el proyecto lasallista denominado “Utopía”, en el cual los resultados señalan que las elecciones están marcadas por la creencia de la decisión que tomará la contraparte, evidenciando el efecto de reciprocidad presente en la toma de decisiones de interacción estratégica.

  4. La formación del profesorado de Música ante la Convergencia Europea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Teresa DÍAZ MOHEDO

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El contexto educativo interviene en la perpetuación de la política de género y contribuye a la construcción de una identidad personal marcada por el género. Por ello, la inclusión de la reflexión coeducativa en la formación de profesores especialistas en educación musical resulta esencial para una mejor definición de su ejercicio profesional.La investigación sobre el género debe formar parte de la filosofía curricular de todas las materias formativas, incluida la música, para que el alumnado pueda hacer explícitos sus conocimientos y a partir de entonces, redefinirlos, ampliarlos y modificarlos, acercando los contenidos disciplinares a su propio aprendizaje.

  5. CONTRIBUCIÓN ANTROPOGÉNICA A LOS CAMBIOS GEOMORFOLÓGICOS Y EVOLUCIÓN RECIENTE DE LA COSTA CARIBE COLOMBIANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RANGEL BUITRAGO NELSON

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available La evolución reciente del Caribe colombiano está asociada, entre otras causas, a una marcada influencia antropogénica sobre la morfología litoral. A lo largo de los 30 municipios costeros que conforman esta región, se encuentran áreas intervenidas por el hombre que al mismo tiempo son afectadas por retrocesos significativos en su línea de costa. La tendencia erosiva predominante es influenciada y multiplicada, en muchos de los casos, por una expansión humana desorganizada y los fenómenos que ésta trae consigo. Un análisis general en algunas áreas permitió identificar acciones realizadas por el hombre, su influencia e sus impactos negativos sobre la geomorfofogía y evolución reciente del sistema litoral

  6. Three empirical essays on gender equality and education

    OpenAIRE

    Nollenberger Castro, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    Descripció del recurs: 15 de gener de 2014 A la portada: PhD Program in Research of Applied Economics El objetivo de esta tesis es aportar nueva evidencia empírica sobre tres temas de gran importancia en las áreas de Economía de Género y Economía de la Educación. La tesis consiste en tres ensayos con una marcada orientación empírica. En el primer ensayo se analiza el efecto de proveer servicios de guardería universales sobre la participación de las madres en el mercado de trabajo. Para ...

  7. Brincar ao género: Socialização e igualdade na educação pré-escolar

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Catarina Sales; Mendes, Andreia

    2017-01-01

    Neste artigo, aborda-se a socialização de género na educação pré-escolar. Procurou-se observar como se realiza o processo de socialização de género numa sala de jardim-de-infância em que a educadora frequentou uma oficina de formação em educação de género e cidadania. Acionando uma metodologia de tipo qualitativo, o estudo decorreu numa sala de uma Instituição Privada de Solidariedade Social (IPSS). Os resultados sugerem que a socialização é fortemente marcada pelos papéis de género, o que na...

  8. El exilio en México de la gente común

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    Ana María Serna Rodríguez

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available La memoria la Guerra Civil que guardan muchos españoles está marcada por el hecho brutal del destierro. Los derrotados del bando republicano perdieron la guerra y sus hogares. Amenazados con la pena de muerte y la persecución, encontraron una opción de vida en el exilio. México acogió al mayor número de exiliados quienes harían de aquél país su domicilio permanente. La memoria de este grupo se mantiene y circula mayormente en los relatos y anécdotas familiares y, en buena medida, se ha constr...

  9. EL SISTEMA GRÁFICO DE LA MÚSICA DE LA TRADICIÓN OCCDIDENTAL: UN LUGAR PARA EL DESARROLLO DEL PENSAMIENTO MUSICAL

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    Myriam Arroyave

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Dado que una transferencia de pensamiento entre geometría y música marca el origen de la escritura musical, en la partitura se consolida un "mundo-música" cuyos objetos se piensan, se miden, son organizados y jerarquizados. Música y matemáticas tienen en común que ambas se escriben y sus escrituras tienen un carácter diagramático; ambas piensan y calculan con letras, números, figuras y gestos. La actividad musical está marcada por el gesto de distanciamiento característico de la relación con el escrito, necesario para el desarrollo de la reflexividad. Por esta relación, en la actividad musical sobresalen dos condiciones lógicas, una ligada a la proporción y el ordenamiento, y otra relacionada con la simbolización y el discurso.

  10. El sistema gráfico de la música de la tradición occidental: un lugar para el desarrollo del pensamiento musical

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    Myriam Arroyave

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dado que una transferencia de pensamiento entre geometría y música marca el origen de la escritura musical, en la partitura se consolida un “mundo-música” cuyos objetos se piensan, se miden, son organizados y jerarquizados. Música y matemáticas tienen en común que ambas se escriben y sus escrituras tienen un carácter diagramático; ambas piensan y calculan con letras, números, figuras y gestos. La actividad musical está marcada por el gesto de distanciamiento característico de la relación con el escrito, necesario para el desarrollo de la reflexividad. Por esta relación, en la actividad musical sobresalen dos condiciones lógicas, una ligada a la proporción y el ordenamiento, y otra relacionada con la simbolización y el discurso.

  11. Exploração do Trabalho Infantil, Espaço Urbano e Sinais de Trânsito: tensões entre ser criança e ter que trabalhar

    OpenAIRE

    Campos, Túlio; Marques, Walter Ernesto Ude

    2010-01-01

    Este texto tem como objetivo fomentar discussões relativas àexploração do trabalho infantil no contexto urbano, bem como suas implicações no que diz respeito às tensões entre ser criança e ter que trabalhar, visando problematizar as condições da presença de uma determinada infância, a infância trabalhadora na metrópole, em especial, a dos “sinais” de trânsito. Busca também levantar questões referentes à rua como espaço de afirmação da virilidade, a qual se apresenta marcada por códigos e deli...

  12. ¿Podremos mirar más allá de la basura? Raneros, cirujas y cartoneros: historias detrás de la basura

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    Sabina Dimarco

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available En el presente texto nos proponemos reflexionar sobre los procesos identitarios que se van configurando entorno de y gracias a la basura. Más específicamente, en las líneas que siguen intentaremos introducirnos en las tensiones y ambigüedades que signan los procesos identitarios en torno a la recuperación informal de residuos en Buenos Aires, Argentina. Esta actividad laboral conocida como “cartoneo”, si bien se ha expandido en forma exponencial a partir de la última gran crisis económica, permanece marcada por la estigmatización social, la informalidad extrema y el no–reconocimiento social de este trabajo como un trabajo “legitimo”. Trataremos de introducirnos en las dificultades que estos trabajadores encuentran para reconocerse y legitimarse en un trabajo que se encuentra por fuera de la cartografía de las actividades laborales socialmente aceptadas de la modernidad.

  13. RELIGIOSIDADE POPULAR E FESTEJOS RELIGIOSOS: ASPECTOS DA ESPACIALIDADE DE COMUNIDADES RIBEIRINHAS DE PORTO VELHO, RONDÔNIA

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    Adriano Lopes Saraiva

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available O artigo apresentado analisa a religiosidade popular contida nos momentos do festejar das festas de santo das comunidades ribeirinhas de São Carlos e Nazaré, localizadas no município de Porto Velho, Estado de Rondônia. Eventos religiosos que nos mostram que esses festejos são exemplificações da história cultural na qual a impregnação do universo cultural do grupo está presente; marcada por atividades coletivas, pela qualidade e quantidade da religiosidade, pela efervescência coletiva, pelas inúmeras representações de crenças e pela celebração em torno da imagem do santo protetor.

  14. Agricultura familiar e as rendas não-agrícolas na Região Metropolitana de Porto Alegre : um estudo de caso dos municípios de Dois Irmãos e Ivoti - RS

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Antonio Verardi Fialho

    2000-01-01

    Esta estudo discute a importância das rendas não-agrícolas na composição da renda total dos agricultores familiares de uma região fortemente marcada pela pluriatividade de seus produtores rurais. Os dados utilizados neste estudo foram obtidos a partir de uma pesquisa de campo realizada junto a 57 agricultores familiares dos municípios de Dois Irmãos e Ivoti, RS. A metodologia utilizada consistiu na identificação e quantificação das rendas agrícolas e não-agrícolas bem como na caracterização d...

  15. Os vandrés do sertão: música sertaneja, ufanismo e reconstruções da memória na redemocratização = Sertaneja music, protests, dictatorship and politics of memory = Música sertaneja, protestas, dictadura y políticas de la memoria

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    Ferreira, Gustavo Alves Alonso

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A música sertaneja foi, em grande parte, embora não somente, marcada pelo apoio ao regime ditatorial inaugurado em 1964. Assim como a quase totalidade dos gêneros musicais brasileiros, muitos artistas sertanejos apoiaram ufanistamente o regime. Este artigo visa mostrar como os músicos sertanejos reconstruíram sua relação com a memória do período ditatorial, especialmente a partir dos anos 1980, quando se engajaram no processo de redemocratização, apagando laços com o passado apologeta. Mesmo fazendo tal percurso comum a quase totalidade da sociedade brasileira, os sertanejos não conseguiram ser vistos como artistas “politizados” e permaneceram com a pecha de “adesistas” por longos anos, tema que será problematizado neste artigo

  16. Historia Reciente: apuntes sobre un campo de investigación en expansión

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    Marina Franco

    Full Text Available Este artículo se dedica a presentar las que consideramos características centrales del campo de la Historia Reciente, que en Argentina desarrolla en la última década un proceso de consolidación intelectual e institucional y una marcada expansión en la cantidad de investigaciones -plasmadas en tesis, artículos, libros y ponencias-. Repasamos para ello los principales problemas epistemológicos y políticos de esta área de la historiografía, presentamos algunos datos cuantitativos para dar cuenta del proceso de expansión, proponemos un balance de los principales nudos en que se concentra la producción y señalamos las áreas de vacancia y desafíos con que se encuentra el campo de la Historia Reciente en la actualidad.

  17. Vivendo em contexto de violência: o caso de um adolescente

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    Lordelo Lia da Rocha

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho integra um estudo longitudinal, explorando nexos entre uma história marcada cotidianamente pela violência doméstica e urbana e a construção social de uma cultura pessoal em um adolescente de 14 anos, o segundo dos três filhos de uma família matrifocal. Apoiou-se em entrevistas semi-estruturadas realizadas em diferentes períodos do estudo. Na análise, caracteriza-se um processo de construção social do envolvimento com a violência (na condição de vítima e de agressor, destacando-se o contexto sociocultural imediato, estruturado por situações adversas como pobreza, conflitos intra-familiares e sociais e, especificamente, violência, todos estes formando o que se poderia chamar de ecologia propiciadora de atos violentos.

  18. Oftalmoplegia internuclear em paciente com mielose funicular

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    J. Lamartine de Assis

    1968-06-01

    Full Text Available É relatado um caso de oftalmoplegia internuclear, tipo posterior, com manifestações oculares bilaterais e assimétricas em paciente com mielose funicular. O diagnóstico da natureza da moléstia foi comprovado pela prova de absorção da vitamina B12 radioativa marcada com 57Co (método de Schilling. Foram realizados três exames electromiográficos do músculo reto mediai mais afetado (esquerdo, com intervalos de 45 a 90 dias, não tendo havido modificação dos traçados. O electromiograma nada mostrou de específico e permitiu excluir lesão neurogênica (paresia ou paralisia do 3.° nervo e muscular propriamente dita (miopatia.

  19. La cultura del oro y el agua. Un proyecto de reconstrucción

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    Clemencia Plazas

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available El interés por la sociedad que habitó las llanuras bajas del Caribe bañadas por los ríos Sínú y San Jorge, se concentró durante siglos en su orfebrería. Piezas maravillosas caracterizadas por el trabajo en filigrana y sobresalientes por la representación realista de seres humanos y animales, sobre todo aves de vistoso plumaje, la gran cantidad de oro zenú avivó la codicia de los conquistadores, que obsesionados con la idea de El Dorado partían desde Cartagena en busca de la riqueza de sus tumbas, marcadas, según se decía, con árboles adornados de campanas de oro.

  20. Geología y aspectos geográficos de la isla de san andrés, colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas Cuervo, German

    2012-01-01

    La Isla de San Andrés ha sido definida geológicamente por varios autores en dos unidades calcáreas de características bien marcadas: Una unidad de calizas heterogéneas,denominada como Formación San Andrés de edad Mioceno y una unidad de calizas coralinas de edad Pleistoceno, conocida como Formación San Luis. La primera unidad aflora en la parte central de la isla y representa la zona de colinas suaves con alturas máximas de 87 m.s.n.m y la Formación San Luis constituye la región plana a suave...

  1. As concepções educacionais de Martinho Lutero The educational conceptions of Martin Luther

    OpenAIRE

    Luciane Muniz Ribeiro Barbosa

    2007-01-01

    Este artigo tem como objetivo apresentar a concepção de educação de Martinho Lutero no movimento da Reforma Protestante do século XVI, revelando aproximações entre história, religião e política. Em um século marcado por inúmeras indagações e mudanças, Lutero apresenta críticas em prol de uma Reforma na Igreja e também faz propostas para uma reforma da educação escolar de sua época, até então marcada pela formação exclusiva de religiosos e eclesiásticos. Ele propõe, em dois textos de sua autor...

  2. Hacia los orígenes del derecho civil europeo. Algunas observaciones sobre las relaciones entre pandectística alemana y doctrina civilista italiana en materia de negocio jurídico

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    Filippo Ranieri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available La historia del derecho civil italiano del último siglo estuvo marcada por un acontecimiento de gran relevancia: la sustitución de la influencia francesa por la alemana. Sin embargo, esta influencia ha disminuido desde hace algunas décadas. Hoy en día es marcado el interés que la cultura italiana muestra por el modelo angloamericano. A pesar de ello, el estudio de este capítulo fundamental de la reciente historia del derecho privado europeo, al cual podemos denominar “pandectística italiana”, podría facilitar la comprensión de ciertos caracteres estructurales del derecho civil italiano y mantener en vida la conciencia de un aspecto de la cultura iusprivatista que Italia comparte con Alemania y otros países europeos.

  3. El juego como elemento motivador en el inicio del entrenamiento de la velocidad en natación”

    OpenAIRE

    Domínguez, Santiago

    2012-01-01

    La presente investigación surge de las observaciones desarrolladas en las clases de natación de niños de entre 8 y 10 años de edad de la pileta NADAR, en San Martín de los Andes, Provincia del Neuquén. En una reunión de profesores, sale el debate de cómo entrenar la velocidad en los niños de 8 a 10 años que se iniciaban en la práctica de natación como entrenamiento para competencias. Dentro de diferentes las posturas dadas, se diferenciaban dos bien marcadas, una en donde era hacer activid...

  4. Migración irregular de haitianos hacia república dominicana y sus implicaciones socio-económicas en el desarrollo de ambas naciones

    OpenAIRE

    Ovalles Mejía, José Manuel; Uribe Mendoza, Cristhian José

    2017-01-01

    84 páginas : gráficos. Esta investigación analiza la migración irregular de haitianos hacia la República Dominicana y sus implicaciones socio-económicas en el desarrollo de ambas naciones durante el período 2010-2015. Este tema reviste gran importancia en el entendido de que los dos países analizados, con condiciones económicas, políticas, sociales y culturales con marcadas diferencias, hoy día comparten y conviven en una misma isla a causa del fenómeno de la migración. Se hace una des...

  5. Orígenes del Krausofröbelismo y Masonería

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    Enrique M. UREÑA

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: En sendos artículos publicados en esta misma revista hice una primera introducción a los aspectos masónicos y a los educativos de la vida y obra de Krause. El segundo artículo concluía con una referencia al krausofröbelismo y con el anuncio de que pensaba tratar ampliamente este último tema dentro de un estudio monográfico sobre el krausismo alemán del siglo XIX. Este proyecto sigue en pie. Ahora voy a adelantar solamente algunos de los resultados de ese estudio, bajo la perspectiva marcada por el título del presente artículo.

  6. Como tem se dado a atuação do assistente social nas empresas privadas?

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    Stephania Lani de Lacerda Reis Gavioli de Abreu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo tem como objetivo apresentar como vem se dando a atuação do assistente social nas empresas privadas. O estudo foi realizado por meio de uma pesquisa qualitativa, mediante entrevistas com profissionais da área, através de roteiro semi-estruturado, em seis empresas privadas. Como principais resultados observou-se que a atuação do assistente social nas empresas privadas é marcada por diversos antagonismos, no entanto, acredita-se ser possível direcionar seu trabalho para os interesses dos trabalhadores em paralelo aos interesses de lucratividade do capital, realizando-os por meio de estratégias articuladas ao projeto ético-político do Serviço Social.

  7. Inibição da Na+/K+ATPase pelo derivado esteróide auabaína: Implicações sobre o ciclo de vesículas sinápticas em junção neuromuscular.

    OpenAIRE

    Ernani Aloysio Amaral

    2006-01-01

    Ouabaína é um derivado esteróide cardiotônico e inibidor específico da Na+K+-ATPase. Neste trabalho, os efeitos da ouabaína sobre o ciclo de vesículas sinápticas na junção neuromuscular de rã foram investigados de forma direta e dinâmica utilizando-se a sonda fluorescente FM1-43. Este marcador consiste em uma molécula anfipática com uma cauda hidrofóbica que promove a ligação da sonda à membrana do terminal axonal. Após um estímulo despolarizante, a membrana marcada com FM1-43 é internalizada...

  8. educativos en México: 1987-2004

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    Edna María Villarreal Peralta

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se analiza el impacto del nivel educativo sobre el ingreso salarial en México para el periodo 1987-2004. Para ello, se calcula la evolución de los rendimientos educativos empleando datos de la Encuesta Nacional de Empleo Urbano (ENEU. Se estiman tres modelos alternativos: primero, se toman años de estudio como variable explicativa principal; segundo, se incorporan variables dummies para estado civil y parentesco y, tercero, se consideran niveles educativos. Se obtiene que los mayores rendimientos marginales corresponden a los individuos con nivel educativo más elevado. Asimismo, al estimar los rendimientos por género, se encuentra que los de las mujeres superan a los de los hombres. Por último, aparece una marcada disminución en los rendimientos en los periodos de crisis económica.

  9. Family Sexual Violence: is it possible to protect the child?

    OpenAIRE

    Azambuja, Maria Regina Fay de

    2006-01-01

    A trajetória percorrida pela criança, ao longo da história, vem marcada por inúmeras situações de violência, referendadas, muitas vezes, pelo próprio ordenamento jurídico. A partir da Constituição Federal de 1988, no Brasil, a criança adquire o “status” de sujeito de direitos, descortinando-se novo cenário, embasado no reconhecimento de sua condição de pessoa em desenvolvimento e de prioridade absoluta, princípios que têm seu nascedouro na Doutrina da Proteção Integral, em consonância com a C...

  10. Das geociências à química : a percepção de paisagens naturais e a microgênese cognitiva da identificação e da classificação de minerais

    OpenAIRE

    Juliano de O. Guterres

    2008-01-01

    Historicamente a relação entre a psicologia do desenvolvimento e a didática das ciências é marcada pela irregularidade da harmonia entre essas áreas. Se por um lado a psicologia genética nos mostra que o sujeito “inventa conhecimentos” quando em contato com uma situação nova, através dos seus mecanismos de desenvolvimento, por outro, quando a questão é aplicar a psicologia genética à educação, faltam estudos sobre a construção de conhecimentos escolares específicos. Assim, parece natural para...

  11. Poetes a peu de carrer: espais per a la transferència en la nit dels investigadors

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    Mª del Carmen Quiles Cabrera

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Bajo el título de este artículo planteamos una reflexión en torno a la transferencia del conocimiento en el ámbito de la educación literaria. Partimos del nuevo concepto de lectura y de lector –espacios en red, programas informáticos-, cuya evolución ha venido marcada por los cambios sociales y tecnológicos, para plantear la necesidad de acercar el hecho literario a los integrantes de cada comunidad y aproximarlos al lenguaje poético desde el juego y la experimentación. Así, describimos la iniciativa que supuso Poetas a pie de calle en la Noche Europea de los Investigadores, en tanto que modelo de transferencia desde las Humanidades y las Ciencias de la Educación.

  12. Os sentidos da formação acadêmica e do trabalho para estudantes de mestrados no Brasil e na Espanha

    OpenAIRE

    Figuera Gazo, Pilar; Raitz, Tânia Regina; Llanes Ordóñez, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Este texto analisa os sentidos da formação acadêmica e do trabalho para estudantes dos mestrados na área da Educação – Brasil e Espanha. Esta representação está atualmente marcada por instabilidades que se configuram como turbulência, flexibilidade e impermanência nas trajetórias estudantis e laborais, isto não quer dizer que o trabalho não seja uma esfera importante na vida dos indivíduos, mas ganha novas dimensões. É visível a própria diversidade que caracteriza o mercado de trabalho atualm...

  13. Are all Dollars Equal? The Meanings Behind Migrants’ Financial Transfers

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    Diana Mata-Codesal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo ofrece un análisis detallado de las transferencias monetarias entre per-sonas migrantes y sus familias en dos zonas rurales de los Andes ecuatorianos. Seidentifican y analizan cinco transferencias distintas: remesas sustento, ahorros delas personas migrantes, pago de deudas, dinero para emergencias y dinero-regalo.En cada caso, los significados asociados a los dólares recibidos son diferentes. Paraentender plenamente las transferencias de dinero entre las personas migrantes y susfamilias, hay que mirar la relación que se existe entre ambos grupos. Esta relaciónque incluye mutuas y a veces divergentes expectativas y obligaciones, es compleja yestá marcada por cuestiones de género, edad y parentesco.

  14. Dermatomiositis y síndrome de evans asociado a infección por HTLV-1

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    David Loja-Oropeza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Paciente mujer de 55 años de edad, natural de Ayacucho, con antecedente de dermatomiositis desde hace 3 años, recibió tratamiento irregular con prednisona. Dos meses antes del ingreso presenta anemia hemolítica autoinmune y púrpura trombocitopénica idiopática, recibió pulsos de metilprednisolona y transfusión de paquetes globulares. Al ingreso, soporosa, mal estado general, marcada pérdida ponderal, deshidratada, livedo reticularis en miembros inferiores, onicodistrofia y onicolisis múltiple en los dedos de ambos pies. Western Blot positivo para HTLV-1. Evoluciona con hipoglicemia recurrente. Reportamos un caso de dermatomiositis y síndrome de Evans presentados en el contexto de una infección por virus linfotrópico humano tipo 1.

  15. Acidosis láctica severa y leucemia aguda

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    David Loja

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Reportamos el caso de una paciente de 27 años de edad con leucemia linfoblástica aguda, quien presentó acidosis láctica severa como complicación metabólica. Ella acudió con desnutrición severa, anemia marcada y síndrome consuntivo. No había compromiso del sistema reticuloendotelial y un mielograma inicial fue normal. Estos factores retardaron el diagnóstico y obligaron a ampliar el diagnóstico diferencial. La sospecha de neoplasia hematológica asociada a acidosis láctica sin causa aparente permitió reevaluar el caso con un nuevo mielograma y establecer el diagnóstico.

  16. Por uma ética do cuidado na psicanálise da criança

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    Rafaela Mota Paixão França

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Ao refletir sobre a função do cuidado na constituição psíquica, este artigo discute os aspectos fundamentais para se pensar a clínica psicanalítica com crianças, marcada por um exercício ético. O estilo clínico de Winnicott e de Ferenczi, tomado como referência, favorece a proposição de que a dimensão intersubjetiva mostra-se como um elemento central à ética do cuidado em psicanálise, podendo contribuir para movimentar as práticas de cuidado na infância.

  17. La enseñanza del periodismo social y su aplicación. El ejemplo de Periodismo Humano

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Montes, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    La presente investigación surge del afán por conocer el alcance de la enseñanza del periodismo social en las universidades españolas de cara a una aplicación práctica, complementado con el ejemplo del medio de comunicación Periodismo Humano. En una época marcada por la globalización, en la que los intercambios culturales están a la orden del día, las condiciones de vida a lo largo y ancho del planeta difieren enormemente dependiendo del país en el que nos encontremos. Aunque se han logrado nu...

  18. Espacio y viticultura : marco territorial y apuntes tecnológicos de los vinos de licor

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    Francisco del Castillo García

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Es por todos conocida la fuerte contracción que ha sufrido la demanda de vino en España en los últimos tiempos, sobre todo en los cinco años anteriores, estimándose en estos momentos un consumo en torno a 40 I por habitante y año. Dentro de este descenso generalizado el más perjudicado ha sido el mercado de graneles dada la tendencia a consumir mejores calidades. No obstante hay unos determinados vinos que están en una situación precaria y que al contrario de los graneles tienen una gran calidad y sobre todo una marcada personalidad, son los llamados vinos de licor. Éstos a pesar de su larga tradición y debido a diversas causas (moda, poca rentabilidad,.. son poco conocidos y casi siempre ignorados hasta incluso por los profesionales del sector vitivinícola.

  19. Dinámicas del África en el sistema internacional: procesos de paz en Darfur – Sudán

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    Andebeng Labeu Madeleine Alingue

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available El conflicto de Dafur es uno de los dramas humanitarios del mundo moderno. Y esos hechos, precisamente, son una constante en las relaciones internacionales del mundo con África que afectan la misión, el rol y la función del nuevo orden mundial. El "embarrasment" o la incomodidad de los "grandes" frente a las tragedias humanitarias reflejan el poco control que éstos pueden asumir. Estos brotes ratifican que el mundo unipolar es todavía una ilusión discursiva. Acercarse a estas realidades implica localizarlas en un mundo amplio como es África, y en este caso en particular, la separación de dos sociedades que conviven desde milenios en los territorios de Sudán está marcada por diferencias fundamentales.

  20. Fighting bacteria using selective drugs for membranes

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, Susana Filipa Almeida

    2015-01-01

    Tese de mestrado em Bioquímica Médica, apresentada à Universidade de Lisboa, através da Faculdade de Ciências, 2015 Os antibióticos são fármacos utilizados no tratamento e prevenção de infeções causadas por bactérias ou fungos. Devido à sua elevada eficácia, baixo custo e fácil acesso, as últimas décadas foram marcadas pelo uso excessivo destes fármacos. Como consequência, bactérias e fungos acabaram por desenvolver resistência aos antibióticos convencionais. O desenvolvimento de mecanismo...

  1. Síndrome de Ayerza (Cardiacos negros

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    Gabriel Toro Villa

    1941-09-01

    Full Text Available Hacia 1930 tuve oportunidad de examinar un caballero cuyos antecedentes me eran conocidos por haber sido su médico en otras enfermedades. Se trataba de un hacendado de muy buena constitución, buenos hábitos, marcada actividad y mucho ánimo para el trabajo. En dos ocasiones distintas hube de prestarle servicios para ataques palúdicos. Mas tarde, siendo como era persona bien conocida, supe que estaba gravemente enfermo de bronconeumonía; mejoró de ella pero no de una manera completa porque entonces principiaron sus molestias cardíacas para las cuales fuí consultado por recomendación de su médico.

  2. Concepciones de infancia, alfabetización inicial y aprendizaje de los educadores y educadoras

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    Rosa Julia Guzmán

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo presentamos reflexiones derivadas de varios procesos de investigación de la Universidad de La Sabana, en la línea de investigación de Pedagogía e Infancia, del Grupo de investigación Educación y Educadores. Ellos se orientan a indagar sobre las concepciones de infancia de los educadores y educadoras del nivel inicial, y a buscar comprensiones sobre las formas en que ellos y ellas aprenden. Delimitamos este aprendizaje a la alfabetización inicial de los niños y niñas, dada la importancia de este proceso en una sociedad y en una cultura letrada. Luego de varios años de investigaciones de corte cualitativo, encontramos una marcada incidencia de las prácticas cotidianas y de las concepciones de infancia en el aprendizaje de los maestros y maestras.

  3. Estudiantes y educadores

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    Isidro Moreno Sánchez

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available El uso de nuevas tecnologías en la escuela es un asunto que interesa a los diversos segmentos de la sociedad y que afecta especialmente a estudiantes y educadores: nativos y no nativos digitales. El texto aborda, usando la perspectiva de la educación, los conceptos principales de las nuevas tecnologías que pueden ser aplicados en el aula para reducir la brecha digital de conocimientos entre nativos y no nativos digitales. Se debaten conceptos y se proponen alternativas pedagógicas para su aplicación escolar. La base de la investigación proviene de las escuelas brasileñas, la línea pedagógica es la marcada por Paulo Freire y el recurso tecnológico usado en el experimento es el vídeo digital. 

  4. PROCESO DE FORMACIÓN URBANA DE ORIHUELA (ALICANTE

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    Gregorio Canales Martínez

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available La evolución urbana de Orihuela ha venido marcada por un progresivo desplaza- miento desde su primitiva ubicación de carácter defensivo en el Monte San Miguel hasta ir ocupando las tierras ribereñas del río Segura, cuyo cauce ha definido hasta fechas muy cercanas su desarrollo urbano. El estudio determina los elementos y circunstancias que han condicionado el proceso de formación urbana desde el siglo XIV hasta nuestros días y sus tendencias expansivas, a través del análisis de la documentación histórica disponi- ble, tanto gráfica como bibliográfica, ofreciendo así una síntesis de la evolución histórica de la ciudad.

  5. O desafio do desenvolvimento frente aos marcos ecológico e de mercado em direção à sustentabilidade no século XXI

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    Gustavo Madeira da Silveira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho demonstrar-se-á o desafio do modelo desenvolvimentista atual em direção à preconizada e colimada sustentabilidade. A primeira década deste século XXI foi marcada por dois marcos, um ambiental (as mudanças climáticas e outro de mercado (a crise econômica mundial, que colocaram em cheque o sistema capitalista, tendo em vista as soluções insustentáveis que foram tomadas para enfrentar estes marcos. Foram objeto de análise da pesquisa, a não adesão dos EUA ao Protocolo de Quioto; o contraponto dos países “em desenvolvimento” entre desenvolver-se ora sustentavelmente, ora insustentavelmente; e o fomento do consumo como única alternativa encontrada pelo países para a saída da crise econômica mundial.

  6. CULTURAL AND INGLORIOUS BASTARDS: GENDER CONFIGURATIONS IN SHANI MOOTOO’S SERIAL DIASPORA

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    Sandra Regina Goulart Almeida

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho analisa o romance Cereus Blooms at Night, deShani Mootoo, que narra a estória de personagens dedescendência indiana que imigraram para o Caribe como mãode obra através de contratos de trabalho. Partindo de teorizaçõessobre performance de gênero, analisa a representação  dessaspersonagens cujas vivências, marcadas pela violência e pelaexclusão, estão relacionadas não apenas a sua experiênciadiaspórica, mas também a suas orientações sexuais e àinadequação dos papéis de gênero às quais estão submetidas.

  7. GESTÃO DE UMA VINÍCOLA DA SERRA GAÚCHA: COMPETITIVIDADE E RISCO

    OpenAIRE

    Sehnem, Alyne; Bertolini, Adriana Locatelli; Azevedo Roesch, Sylvia Maria; Olea, Pelayo Munhoz

    2011-01-01

    As famílias Amarone e Bergamaschi foram unidas por laços de sangue e também pelos negócios. Suas vidas foram marcadas por escolhas que as fizeram se encontrar no Brasil, após tantos percalços enfrentados na Europa do século XIX. No ano de 1999, com uma safra excelente e a conjuntura econômica nacional favorecida, surgiu a Amarone Adega de Vinhos Finos: vinícola localizada na cidade gaúcha de Bento Gonçalves, fruto do encontro e da união das forças de duas famílias Amarone e Bergamaschi. O obj...

  8. Tendências no ensino da epidemiologia no Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Barata Rita Barradas

    1997-01-01

    O ensino da epidemiologia teve início no Brasil na década de 20 e sempre foi voltado para a saúde pública. Na década de 70, o ensino de epidemiologia passou por um crescimento em nível de pós-graduação. Os anos 80 foram marcados pela "epidemiologia social", que incorporava as ciências sociais e seus métodos; a segunda metade da década foi marcada pelo desenvolvimento das técnicas da bioestatística. No momento atual, a definição de diretrizes para o ensino da epidemiologia depende da reflexão ...

  9. Detección del receptor de factor de crecimiento epidérmico en lesiones orales premalignas por relaxometría

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso Geli, Yamirka; De la Cruz, Enrique Reynaldo; Dutok Sánchez, Carlos M.; Álvarez Guerra, Eloy D

    2014-01-01

    Objetivo: detectar la sobreexpresión del receptor de factor de crecimiento epidérmico en células epiteliales de lesiones premalignas de la mucosa bucal, marcadas magnéticamente por relaxometría. Métodos: las células exfoliadas de mucosa oral de individuos sanos y enfermos se marcaron con el sistema: IgG anti-EGF-R biotinilada/IgG anti-biotina conjugada con partículas superparamagnéticas y se midieron los tiempos de relajación T1 y T2. Resultados: disminuyeron los tiempos de relajación (T1 y T...

  10. Estructura funcional y composición de la comunidad de pequeños mamíferos terrestres en el bosque andino del santuario de flora y fauna Otún Quimbaya, Risaralda

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    Swanni Alvarado R.

    2005-07-01

    que el BNM tiene los valores más altos de diversidad y la mayor riqueza, mientras que la menor diversidad y riqueza fue encontrada en el BR. El BNM y el BR son más similares según el índice de Morisita y un análisis de Cluster. Para ordenar las especies por las variables morfológicas externas se realizó un Análisis de Componentes Principales, el cual mostró una agrupación de especies pequeñas y otra de especies intermedias, que podría estar indicando que no hay una competencia marcada por un mismo recurso.

  11. El "sistema de guerra" de la sociedad industrial

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    JORGE VERSTRYNGE ROJAS

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una tipología de la guerra, la cual es definida como una "empresa organizada de destrucción", y se examina el proceso implicado en el desarrollo de un "combate totalmente industrializado". Se analizan varias guerras, entre las cuales figuran la revolución Francesa, la guerra civil Americana, la guerra austro-prusiana de 1866, etc. La I Guerra Mundial es considerada la primera "guerra total" de la era paleotécnica; la II Guerra Mundial fue la culminación de la era neotécnica. La "guerra total", sea esta limitada o ilimitada, viene marcada por un gran incremento en la competición por la innovación militar. Se destaca la concepción prusiana del hombre militar en tanto que criatura disciplinada y mecanizada dedicada al proceso de intensificación de la guerra.

  12. Ante las seguridades evanescentes. Riesgo y subjetividades en la ciudad de Guadalajara

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    Joanna Jablonska-Bayro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta los hallazgos de una investigación etnográfica sobre las formas en que los riesgos propios de la modernidad configuran subjetividades en distintas posi - ciones sociales de la ciudad de Guadalajara. El análisis se enfoca en la relación de los sujetos con las instituciones Estado , trabajo y familia , en los significados y en las prácti - cas que surgen en torno a la cotidianidad urbana marcada por la expansión de lo siniestro, y en las concepciones de lo común en el contexto de inseguridad. El riesgo se revela como un dispositivo de control con un fuerte poder individualizador y fragmen - tador, capaz de debilitar la agencia social y de exacerbar la actual precariedad de lo común.

  13. Expressões da Antiguidade na Arte e Literatura Modernas e Contemporâneas. Livro de resumos

    OpenAIRE

    Caramelo, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    Livro de resumos do colóquio internacional «Expressões da Antiguidade na Arte e Literatura Modernas e Contemporâneas», organizado pelo grupo de investigação «A Antiguidade e a sua Recepção», do CHAM. Este encontro pretende impulsionar o debate científico no âmbito dos estudos da recepção da Antiguidade, no que respeita às épocas moderna e contemporânea do mundo ocidental, já que estas foram marcadas por um renovado interesse pelo mundo antigo. Da recuperação dos cânones clássicos, no século X...

  14. Literatura e Direitos Humanos: Questões sobre Alteridade e Identidade

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    Ana Paula Cabrera

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo propõe um estudo sobre a presença do outro, sua adaptação ou segregação dentro do contexto que o recebe, bem como as relações de poder que se estabelecem a partir deste encontro. Do mesmo modo, desenvolvem-se reflexões relacionadas ao assédio moral e sexual nas relações de trabalho de imigrantes. No contexto da alteridade, a análise focaliza a cotidianidade da protagonista de Susanna Tamaro, e os embates que ela enfrenta, apontando como a construção de sentido em um ambiente hostil é marcada pela instabilidade: ora aflorando, ora se dissolvendo.

  15. COPI: transgressão e escrita transformista

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, Renata Pimentel

    2007-01-01

    Copi é o pseudônimo sob o qual foi assinada a obra de Raul Damonte Botana, nascido em Buenos Aires, em 1939, e morto em Paris (de Aids), em 1987. Egresso de uma família vinculada à cultura e à política (neto de Natálio Botana, fundador do diário Crítica), que se opôs à ditadura peronista, por isso acabou por exilar-se no Uruguai e, depois, em Paris; onde se instalou definitivamente, em 1962. Toda sua obra é marcada por humor e grande violência transgressora, além de uma crítica...

  16. Tercera cultura: la versión ibérica

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    Angel Gordo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Durante las últimas décadas hemos presenciado la aparición de una vanguardia científica, conocida como la Tercera Cultura, de marcada naturaleza mediática y que suscita el interés de intelectuales de muy diversa índole, aunque todos ellos a favor de que la ciencia sea juez y parte en la toma de decisiones de profundo calado social y político. A modo tentativo planteo que algunas de las colaboraciones y los discursos que simpatizan con la Tercera Cultura en el contexto español ayudan a visualizar un complejo entramado de afinidades sociopolíticas y un pensamiento evolutivista en expansión.

  17. Desafíos Contemporáneos de la implantación de la Salud de la Familia en Minas Gerais

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    Maria Rizoneide Negreiros de ARAÚJO

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Él artículo aborda las estrategias utilizadas por la Secretaria del Estado de Salud de Minas Gerais para el enfrentamiento de los problemas de baja capacidad de resolución de atención primaria a la salud en los provincias de Minas Gerais. El destaca el Proyecto Estructurador Salud en Casa por los investimientos realizados en aquellas provincias que tienen equipos de salud de la familia y el apoyo tecnico-pedagógico para contribuir en la reorganización del modelo asistencial. Él señala los desafíos enfrentados para consolidar la estrategia en un estado con una marcada desigualdad social entre regiones, en la distribución de ingreso y en el acceso a los bienes e servicios.

  18. Un siglo aún por descubrir en la Historia de España: el siglo V después de Cristo

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    Francisco Javier Guzmán Armario

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available El siglo V después de Cristo es, sin duda, el más desconocido de la Historia de España. Ello se debe a que, desde fines del siglo XIX, los historiadores han cultivado una imagen de esa centuria marcada por los vicios de la historiografía tradicional que incluso ha llegado a nuestro tiempo. En la actualidad, es necesario recurrir a nuevos planteamientos metodológicos (en este artículo el autor propone cuatro argumentos al respecto y a nuevas perspectivas en Arqueología si se quiere corregir esa deficiencia en un siglo tan importante para la Historia de España.

  19. Aplicación de la inteligencia emocional como herramienta para el liderazgo en organizaciones de alto desempeño

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    Luis Alfredo Martínez Martínez

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de esta investigación fue determinar la utilización de las aptitudes de Inteligencia Emocional como herramienta para el liderazgo en PDVSA, Unidad de Negocios del Distrito Lagunillas, mediante estudio de tipo exploratorio-descriptivo, diseño de campo no experimental transversal, encuesta a muestra representativa de 61 trabajadores y entrevistas a gerentes. Concluyéndose la presencia de fortalezas, como el liderazgo y la aceptación hacia el uso de aptitudes emocionales y debilidades, como el escaso conocimiento teórico de IE, incompleto desarrollo de habilidades sociales y marcada tendencia al perfeccionamiento técnico en detrimento de habilidades como la motivación y el trabajo en equipo.

  20. manifestação de síndrome anti-sintetase

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    Mário Pires

    2014-03-01

    Apresentamos o caso de um homem com diagnóstico efectuado há 13 anos, no contexto de internamento por uma “pneumonia”, com queixas de dispneia para esforços e cansaço fácil com 3 meses de evolução. Durante o internamento é identificada uma doença pulmonar intersticial e, posteriormente surge um quadro de mialgias com elevação marcada das enzimas musculares. A electromiografia mostrou um padrão sugestivo de miopatia e identificou-se anticorpos anti-Jo-1, estabelecendo-se o diagnóstico de síndrome anti-sintetase. Sob terapêutica imunossupressora desde então, mantém seguimento em consulta externa, encontrando-se clinicamente bem.

  1. Almeida Júnior: o sol no meio do caminho

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    Rodrigo Naves

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Com foco na tela "Caipira picando fumo", este artigo analisa a obra do pintor Almeida Júnior (1850-1899. O autor discute o tratamento concedido pelo artista ao meio social, à natureza, aos tipos humanos, às peculiaridades regionais. Adiante, problematiza a idéia de nacionalidade em sua obra, marcada por instabilidades de forma que dialogam com a tradição crítica do determinismo naturalista.Focusing the painting "Caipira picando fumo", this article analyses the work of the Brazilian painter Almeida Júnior (1850-1899. The author discusses the way the artist used to depict the social environment, nature, human types and regional particularities. Further on, he puts into question the idea of nationality in Junior's work, which is best understood if seen against the framework of theories such as the naturalist determinism.

  2. LA SAETA DEL TIEMPO: UNA LECTURA A GERALD WHITROW

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    M. BUTLER

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available En la vida cotidiana, el mundo muestra una marcada diferencia entre el pasado y el futuro, pero —con una pequeña excepción— las leyes de la física son simétricas en el tiempo. Gerald Whitrow fue uno de los primeros en darse cuenta que la resolución de esta paradoja está de acuerdo con la cosmología y las condiciones iniciales en el nacimiento del universo. Pero esta simple conclusión oculta algunas profundas sutilezas que toman un nuevo giro con la aparición de la cosmología cuántica y la hipótesis del universo inflacionario. La cuestión aún no ha sido resuelta por completo, y sigue siendo uno de los grandes

  3. O bairro da Luz em São Paulo: questões antropológicas sobre o fenômeno da gentrification El barrio de la Luz en São Paulo: cuestiones antropológicas sobre el fenómeno de la gentrification The Luz district in São Paulo: anthropological questions on the phenomenon of gentrification

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    Heitor Frúgoli Jr

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Esse artigo explora, numa perspectiva etnográfica, o alcance do conceito de gentrification com relação às mudanças (e também permanências sociais e urbanas em curso no bairro da Luz, localizado na área central da cidade de São Paulo, situado numa confluência entre processos de preservação patrimonial de instituições culturais, intervenções urbanísticas e um uso histórico por parte de vários grupos provenientes das classes populares. Tais questões serão tratadas com atenção aos seguintes tópicos: políticas locais de intervenção em áreas marcadas pela estigmatização, quando ocupadas predominantemente pelas classes populares; a revisão da oposição "práticas de intervenção" vs. "resistência dos grupos atingidos" (marcadas por certas divisões do ponto de vista analítico; por fim, a busca de definições mais precisas dos termos de comparação com outros casos emblemáticos (evitando perspectivas apriorísticas.Este artículo explora, en una perspectiva etnográfica, el alcance del concepto de gentrification con relación a los cambios (y también permanencias sociales y urbanos en curso en el barrio de la Luz , localizado en la área central de la ciudad de São Paulo, situado en una confluencia entre procesos de preservación patrimonial de instituciones culturales, intervenciones urbanísticas y un uso histórico por parte de varios grupos provenientes de las clases populares. Tales cuestiones serán tratadas con atención a los siguientes tópicos: políticas locales de intervención en áreas marcadas por la estigmatización, cuando ocupadas predominantemente por las clases populares; revisión de la oposición "prácticas de intervención" vs. "resistencia de los grupos afectados" (marcadas por ciertas divisiones del punto de vista analítico; y, por fin, la búsqueda de definiciones más precisas de los términos de comparación con otros casos emblemáticos (evitando perspectivas aprior

  4. La producción de artículos científicos como competencia a desarrollar en las nuevas generaciones académicas en Colombia

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    Antonio Díaz Caballero

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available El concepto actual de las competencias académicas, implica la importancia de saber desempeñarse en un medio y dentro de un contexto establecido para los docentes y alumnos de cada proceso académico en nuestra geografía, lo mismo que en diversidad de países1. Es notoria a nivel de las instituciones académicas en educación superior, la ausencia marcada y formal de una competencia en lecto-escritura por parte de los principales actores, lo que implica una sensación de atraso en la creación de artículos científicos, resúmenes, monografías y revisiones sistemáticas de la literatura científica en Colombia y en muchos otros países2, 3.

  5. Impacto de eventos traumáticos em aspectos clínicos

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Martha Vaitses Fontanari

    2015-01-01

    A Disforia de Gênero (DG) caracteriza-se pela marcada incongruência entre gênero e sexo atribuído ao nascer. Trata-se de uma condição rara, cuja prevalência varia muito de acordo com o local estudado: na Nova Zelândia, há 27,48 por 100 000 habitantes, enquanto que, no Irã, são 0,68 por 100 000 habitantes. Sua etiologia depende da interação entre fatores biológicos e psicossociais, sendo a herdabilidade estimada de 62%. Indivíduos diagnosticados com DG integram populações sujeitas a maior viol...

  6. LA COBERTURA DE LA CIENCIA EN LOS NOTICIEROS COLOMBIANOS: DEL ANÁLISIS DE RESULTADOS A LAS REFLEXIONES METODOLÓGICAS PARA SU INVESTIGACIÓN

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    Tania Arboleda Castrillón

    Full Text Available Basados en los resultados de un estudio de cobertura de ciencia y tecnología en el noticiero2Noticias Caracol de Colombia, realizado entre octubre del 2009 y marzo del 2010, nos preguntamos críticamente por la marcada tendencia que esta investigación indica, en diálogo con pesquisas similares, sobre lo que parece ser una baja presencia de estas temáticas en los medios informativos latinoamericanos. Inicialmente discutimos la metodología utilizada en este estudio y otros similares. Luego nos centramos en las noticias sobre agua y medio ambiente, que son las más recurrentes en este estudio, para finalmente preguntarnos por los contextos de riesgo que éstas tácitamente evocan y que están atravesados por concepciones particulares de la ciencia y la tecnología.

  7. El Cauca, un río "desenfrenadamente raudo"

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    Luis Horacio López Domínguez

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available En sus cuencas de drenaje el río Cauca ha sido escenario de numerosos sucesos históricos del occidente de Colombia que se semejan al curso mismo, colmado de atavismos y de retos de supervivencia ambiental, marcados por catástrofes naturales y desafueros, desencadenados por una presión antrópica, impuesta esta por quienes han incursionado a sangre y fuego para explotar sus recursos por siglos. Historia del río marcada por altibajos sociales como su lecho, apenas consignados por cronistas de Indias y por registros documentales del acontecer fluvial, visible a tramos, en archivos, crónicas lugareñas y por la exhumación arqueológica amenazada por una guaquería sin sosiegos.

  8. Dever e prazer no casamento- empresa:transações regulares de controle do amor segundo a Igreja Universal

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    Bárbara Regina Altivo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho sonda as principais linhas de sentido que animam a proposta da Igreja Universal do Reino de Deus (IURD sobre o amor no mundo contemporâneo através de suas materialidades discursivas. O artigo aborda os discursos iurdianos de teor pedagógico sobre amor, família e gênero. Como característica deste aparato, observamos a associação direta entre a busca imediata pela obtenção da felicidade, característica do hedonismo presente na Teologia da Prosperidade, e um ascetismo de ordem empresarial, que visa domesticar as impulsividades emocionais do homem e, principalmente, da mulher, nas dinâmicas intricadas do relacionamento amoroso. Assim, podemos entrever linhas de força que conflagram subjetividades marcadas por compromissos de gênero inscritos num modelo familiar de inspiração mercadológica.

  9. Cosméticos Contém 1g: um caso de empreendedorismo e inovação

    OpenAIRE

    Guimarães,Liliane de Oliveira; Cardoza,Guillermo

    2005-01-01

    Este caso de ensino descreve a fundação e a expansão da Contém 1g, uma empresa brasileira do setor de higiene pessoal, perfumaria e cosméticos. Fundada em 1984 como empresa têxtil, seu proprietário redirecionou o negócio e iniciou a produção de perfumes em 1994. A história empresarial da Contém 1g é marcada pelo lançamento de novos produtos e pela utilização, a partir de determinado momento, de um sistema híbrido de vendas: venda direta e franquia. A decisão de expandir o negócio é o ponto de...

  10. A ressemantização do Fundamento em Theodor W. Adorno [The ressemantization of the foundation in Theodor W. Adorno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Luciano Teixeira Filho

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Apresenta-se a tese da ressemantização do conceito de fundamento em Adorno (1903–1969. Através de análise bibliográfica e teórica, pretende-se demonstrar como é possível pensar a fundamentação numa filosofia marcada, essencialmente, pelo fracasso do projeto iluminista recente. [This paper presents the thesis of the resemantization of the concept of foundation in Adorno (1903-1969. Through bibliographical and theoretical analysis, it is intended to demonstrate how it is possible to think the foundation in a philosophy marked, essentially, by the failure of recent Enlightenment project.

  11. Una causa poco frecuente de hipertrabeculación exclusiva del ventrículo derecho: ventrículo derecho no compacto

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    Juan C. Díaz, MD

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available La cardiopatía por falta de compactación ventricular es una entidad infrecuente, que generalmente compromete el ventrículo izquierdo ocasionando falla cardíaca, arritmias ventriculares, embolismo periférico y muerte súbita. Hasta el momento, se han descrito muy pocos casos de ventrículo derecho no compacto, por lo cual no hay criterios diagnósticos establecidos y se desconoce como es la evolución clínica y la respuesta al tratamiento de este grupo de pacientes. Se describe el caso de un paciente con hipertrabeculación marcada del ventrículo derecho en quien se descartó un origen estructural de la misma, haciéndose diagnóstico de ventrículo derecho no compacto.

  12. Una causa poco frecuente de hipertrabeculación exclusiva del ventrículo derecho: ventrículo derecho no compacto

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    Juan C Díaz

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available La cardiopatía por falta de compactación ventricular es una entidad infrecuente, que generalmente compromete el ventrículo izquierdo ocasionando falla cardíaca, arritmias ventriculares, embolismo periférico y muerte súbita. Hasta el momento, se han descrito muy pocos casos de ventrículo derecho no compacto, por lo cual no hay criterios diagnósticos establecidos y se desconoce como es la evolución clínica y la respuesta al tratamiento de este grupo de pacientes. Se describe el caso de un paciente con hipertrabeculación marcada del ventrículo derecho en quien se descartó un origen estructural de la misma, haciéndose diagnóstico de ventrículo derecho no compacto.

  13. Sinopsis de la arqueología y la bioantropología del poblamiento temprano del noroccidente de Sudamérica

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    Miguel Delgado

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Colombia representa un área importan - te para estudiar el poblamiento inicial de Suda mérica debido a su posición geográfi - ca y su marcada diversidad ecológica y cul - tural. Avances recientes en la investigación arqueológica, así como en el estudio de la diversidad molecular y en el análisis de res - tos óseos prehispánicos mediante métodos estadísticos, enfoques poblacionales y teóri - cos más robustos ameritan una revisión. En este trabajo se presenta un resumen general de las investigaciones arqueológicas y bioan - tropológicas realizadas sobre el poblamiento inicial de Colombia, al mismo tiempo que se discuten algunos aspectos relacionados con dicho proceso.

  14. Inmigrantes Nicaragüenses en Costa Rica: Estado y Utilización de Servicios de Salud

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    Andrew A. Herring

    2009-01-01

    población inmigrante nicaragüense goza un estado de salud igual e incluso superior que el de la población local. La prevalencia autoreportada de hipertensión arterial alta, colesterol elevado y enfermedades respiratorias fueron significativamente menores entre la población inmigrante. En general, se mostró que los inmigrantes nicaragüenses tienen una marcada baja tasa de utilización de servicios de salud con respecto a los costarricenses. La creencia que los inmigrantes nicaragüenses representan una carga insostenible para el sistema de salud publica de Costa Rica se pone en duda. Los resultados de este trabajo deberían animar a los tomadores de decisiones en materia de salud para extender el acceso de los servicios médicos a los inmigrantes nicaragüenses sin temor a un desproporcionado gasto fiscal. Investigación adicional es necesaria.

  15. Apresentação

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    Adriana Cox Hollos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Este número da Revista Acesso Livre apresenta o Dossiê História, Arquivo e Memória, cuja reflexão se volta às possíveis relações que podem ser estabelecidas entre tais categorias. Em uma sociedade que não tem tratado sua memória com a devida atenção e que tem sido marcada pelo uso onipresente de tecnologias digitais que desterritorializam a informação de seus suportes materiais e tornam a memória algo ainda mais efêmero que a sua própria natureza, os temas da memória e da história são, sem dúvida, muito bem vindos.

  16. Neumonía eosinofílica: presentación de dos casos, agudo y crónico

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    Oscar Pamo Reyna

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta dos casos de neumonía eosinofílica idiopática, uno crónico y otro agudo. En el caso clínico 1 se realizó una confirmación anatomopatológica de neumonía eosinofílica idiopática y en el caso clínico 2 se tuvo una neumonia eosinofílica aguda probable. Ambos presentaron tos, fiebre y disnea. El estudio radiográfico reveló lesiones alveolares bilaterales con tendencia a la consolidación. La marcada eosinofilia en sangre periférica fue un dato resaltante que facilitó el diagnóstico. Ambos casos tuvieron muy buena respuesta a la corticoterapia.(Rev Med Hered 2007;18:39-44.

  17. Malformación arteriovenosa uterina: A propósito de un caso

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    Badía Agustí, Paloma; Tamarit Bordes, Silvia; Alcover Barrachina, Inmaculada; Tamarit Bordes, Gemma; Pérez-Moneo Pérez, Patricia; Reyes Balanzá Chancosa, María

    2016-01-01

    Paciente de 37 años que acudió a urgencias por metrorragia, G3P1A2, el último de ellos un aborto tardío en gestación gemelar monocorial biamniótica de 20 semanas hacía dos meses. En la ecografía destaca en zona miometrial un área de marcada vascularización de 67 x 45 mm. Tras descartar proceso residual gestacional y ante la sospecha de malformación arteriovenosa uterina se solicitó resonancia magnética nuclear y angiotac, tras confirmar la malformación vascular se programó para embolización d...

  18. Letramento digital de idoso no contexto da EJA em Mossoró-RN

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Samuel de Carvalho; Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Rio Grande do Norte, campus Mossoró; Almeida, Lúrya Valéria de Oliveira Sousa; Secretaria do Desenvolvimento Social e Juventude, Prefeitura Municipal de Mossoró

    2015-01-01

    Resumo: A sociedade brasileira contemporânea é marcada pela cultura tecnológica, cujas práticas sociais são mediadas pelas Tecnologias da Informação e Comunicação (TIC). Essas TICs têm alterado a rotina de muitos sujeitos, sendo que aqueles que não se aproximam dessas acabam por não participar de processos sociais ou de estratégias de facilitação na realização dos mesmos no cotidiano, através de mensagens instantâneas, pagamento de contas online, cursos à distância, entre outros. O idoso, par...

  19. Femineidad y ficción en la obra operística de Richard Strauss

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    María José Sánchez Usón

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tras la muerte de Wagner y Brahms, Richard Straussemergió como uno de los compositores más importantesy populares de la música del siglo XX. Su trayectoria vitaly profesional, azarosa y turbulenta, al igual que las décadasque vivió, estuvo marcada por la realidad femenina.Es innegable que las mujeres de la vida de Strauss, todasde fuerte y distintiva personalidad, dejaron en él huellastan hondas que fue necesario llevarlas a escena, no sólocomo una aportación valiosa a la tipología caracterológicafemenina, sino también como un ejercicio terapéuticopersonal. Así, mujeres reales y mujeres ficticias se confundenen sus obras en un proceso creativo único: el delhombre-artista.

  20. A sociedade cibernética

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    Euripedes Falcão Vieira

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa as mudanças ocorridas na sociedade na transposição de uma época, a modernidade industrial, à outra, a modernidade cibernética. São épocas marcadas por acontecimentos diferenciados no campo da tecnologia, do conhecimento e da informação. Nas duas últimas décadas, particularmente, a mudança em todos os segmentos da sociedade produziu transformações de escala no arcabouço cognitivo, alterando comportamentos e modos de ação e reação ante a nova realidade. Claramente, a nova realidade se impôs e avançou como sociedade cibernética, a sociedade do ciberespaço-tempo com suas narrativas, ainda curtas, dos eventos econômicos, sociais e culturais.