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  1. Bioremediation of trace cobalt from simulated spent decontamination solutions of nuclear power reactors using E. coli expressing NiCoT genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghu, G.; Maruthi Mohan, P.; Balaji, V.; Venkateswaran, G.; Rodrigue, A.; Lyon 1 Univ., 69

    2008-01-01

    Removal of radioactive cobalt at trace levels (∼nM) in the presence of large excess (10 6 -fold) of corrosion product ions of complexed Fe, Cr, and Ni in spent chemical decontamination formulations (simulated effluent) of nuclear reactors is currently done by using synthetic organic ion exchangers. A large volume of solid waste is generated due to the nonspecific nature of ion sorption. Our earlier work using various fungi and bacteria, with the aim of nuclear waste volume reduction, realized up to 30% of Co removal with specific capacities calculated up to 1 μg/g in 6-24 h. In the present study using engineered Escherichia coli expressing NiCoT genes from Rhodopseudomonas palustris CGA009 (RP) and Novosphingobium aromaticivorans F-199 (NA), we report a significant increase in the specific capacity for Co removal (12 μg/g) in 1-h exposure to simulated effluent. About 85% of Co removal was achieved in a two-cycle treatment with the cloned bacteria. Expression of NiCoT genes in the E. coli knockout mutant of NiCoT efflux gene (rcnA) was more efficient as compared to expression in wild-type E. coli MC4100, JM109 and BL21 (DE3) hosts. The viability of the E. coli strains in the formulation as well as at different doses of gamma rays exposure and the effect of gamma dose on their cobalt removal capacity are determined. The potential application scheme of the above process of bioremediation of cobalt from nuclear power reactor chemical decontamination effluents is discussed. (orig.)

  2. Expression in E. coli systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsdam, Anne-M; Kristiansen, Karsten; Nøhr, Jane

    2003-01-01

    intracellularly in soluble form. In E. coli, proteins containing disulfide bonds are best produced by secretion because the disulfide forming foldases reside in the periplasm. Likewise, a correct N-terminus is more likely to be obtained upon secretion. Moreover, potentially toxic proteins are more likely......Owing to cost advantage, speed of production, and often high product yield (up to 50% of total cell protein), expression in Escherichia coli is generally the first choice when attempting to express a recombinant protein. Expression systems exist to produce recombinant protein intracellularly...

  3. Escherichia coli Protein Expression System for Acetylcholine Binding Proteins (AChBPs.

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    Nikita Abraham

    Full Text Available Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR are ligand gated ion channels, identified as therapeutic targets for a range of human diseases. Drug design for nAChR related disorders is increasingly using structure-based approaches. Many of these structural insights for therapeutic lead development have been obtained from co-crystal structures of nAChR agonists and antagonists with the acetylcholine binding protein (AChBP. AChBP is a water soluble, structural and functional homolog of the extracellular, ligand-binding domain of nAChRs. Currently, AChBPs are recombinantly expressed in eukaryotic expression systems for structural and biophysical studies. Here, we report the establishment of an Escherichia coli (E. coli expression system that significantly reduces the cost and time of production compared to the existing expression systems. E. coli can efficiently express unglycosylated AChBP for crystallography and makes the expression of isotopically labelled forms feasible for NMR. We used a pHUE vector containing an N-terminal His-tagged ubiquitin fusion protein to facilitate AChBP expression in the soluble fractions, and thus avoid the need to recover protein from inclusion bodies. The purified protein yield obtained from the E. coli expression system is comparable to that obtained from existing AChBP expression systems. E. coli expressed AChBP bound nAChR agonists and antagonists with affinities matching those previously reported. Thus, the E. coli expression system significantly simplifies the expression and purification of functional AChBP for structural and biophysical studies.

  4. Expression of green fluorescent protein (GFPuv) in Escherichia coli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    The recombinant green fluorescent protein (GFPuv) was expressed by transformed cells of Escherichia coli DH5-α grown in LB/amp broth at 37oC, for 8 h and 24 h. To evaluate the effectiveness of different parameters to improve the expression of GFPuv by E. coli, four variable culturing conditions were set up for assays by ...

  5. Expression of maize prolamins in Escherichia Coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Szu-zhen; Esen, Asim

    1985-01-01

    We have constructed a cDNA expression library of developing corn (Zea manys L.) endosperm using plasmid pUC8 as vector and Escherichia coli strain DH1 as host. The expression library was screened with non-radioactive immunological probes to detect the expression of gamma-zein and alpha-zein. When anti-gamma-zein antibody was used as the probe, 23 colonies gave positive reactions. The lengths of cDNA inserts of the 23 colonies were found to be 250-900 base pairs. When anti-alpha zein antibody was used, however, fewer colonies gave positive reactions. The library was also screened by colony-hybridization with 32 P-labeled DNA probes. Based on immunological and hybridization screening of the library and other evidence, we conclude that alpha-zein was either toxic to E. coli cells or rapidly degraded whereas gamma-zein and its fragments were readily expressed. (author)

  6. Injury and mechanism of recombinant E. coli expressing STa on piglets colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yang; Li, Xueni; Zhang, Lin; Shi, Yutao; DU, Linxiao; Ding, Binying; Hou, Yongqing; Gong, Joshua; Wu, Tao

    2018-02-09

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is primary pathogenic bacteria of piglet diarrhea, over two thirds of piglets diarrhea caused by ETEC are resulted from STa-producing ETEC strains. This experiment was conducted to construct the recombinant E. coli expressing STa and study the injury and mechanism of recombinant E. coli expressing STa on 7 days old piglets colon. Twenty-four 7 days old piglets were allotted to four treatments: control group, STa group (2 × 10 9 CFU E. coli LMG194-STa), LMG194 group (2 × 10 9 CFU E. coli LMG194) and K88 group (2 × 10 9 CFU E. coli K88). The result showed that E. coli infection significantly increased diarrhea rates; changed DAO activity in plasma and colon; damaged colonic mucosal morphology including crypt depth, number of globet cells, density of lymphocytes and lamina propria cell density; substantially reduced antioxidant capacity by altering activities of GSH-Px, SOD, and TNOS and productions of MDA and H 2 O 2 ; obviously decreased AQP3, AQP4 and KCNJ13 protein expression levels; substantially altered the gene expression levels of inflammatory cytokines. Conclusively, STa group had the biggest effect on these indices in four treatment groups. These results suggested that the recombinant strain expressed STa can induce piglets diarrhea and colonic morphological and funtional damage by altering expression of proteins connect to transportation function and genes associated with intestinal injury and inflammatory cytokines.

  7. Cytolysin a expressing E. coli a promising candidate for imageable therapeutic probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Vu Hong; Phan, Thuy Xuan; Hong, Yeoung Jin; Min, Jung Joon

    2007-01-01

    Using bacteria for cancer treatment has a long history. Discovery of optical reporter genes consisting of fluorescent and luminescent protein facilitates the monitor of bacteria in vivo, non-invasively and repeatedly. E. coli, the natural enteric bacteria possessing capacity of tumor-targeting ability, seems to be suitable candidate for cancer treatment. In this study, we established the strain light-emitting E. coli for diagnostic purpose and Cytolysin A (Cly A) expressing E. coli for therapeutic purpose. E. coli (MG1655, wild type strain) was transformed plasmid pUC19 carrying lux gene to create the light expressing bacteria and test the tumor targeting-capacity by injecting the bacteria into CT26-tumor bearing mice via tail vein. On the other hand, for therapeutic purpose, plasmid containing Cly A gene, which is encoded for a pore-forming protein toxin, was introduced into E. coli. The toxicity of Cly A was evaluated in vitro by inoculating the bacteria with various cultured cancer cell lines. On the other hand, to test the therapeutic effect, the bacteria were injected intratumorally and intravenously into s.c.CT26-bearing as well as CT26-lung metastasized Balb/c mice. In vivo imaging data showed that the E. coli strains selectively located in the tumor. The in vitro result showed that the number of death cells were significantly higher in the samples containing E. coli expressing Cly A (E. coli Cly A) compared with the samples containing wild type strain. The growth of tumors was repressed in mice injected with either E. coli Cly A (significantly) or wild type E. coli (mildly), while tumors in no treatment group still grew fast. Furthermore, the tumors inoculated with E. coli cly A were necrotized but not with wild type E. coli. In the CT26-lung metastasized mouse model, the life span of mice was elongated when inject E. coli and longer in the group injected with E. coli cly A. Cly A expressing E. coli can become an effective candidate for imageable

  8. Design parameters to control synthetic gene expression in Escherichia coli.

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    Mark Welch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Production of proteins as therapeutic agents, research reagents and molecular tools frequently depends on expression in heterologous hosts. Synthetic genes are increasingly used for protein production because sequence information is easier to obtain than the corresponding physical DNA. Protein-coding sequences are commonly re-designed to enhance expression, but there are no experimentally supported design principles. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To identify sequence features that affect protein expression we synthesized and expressed in E. coli two sets of 40 genes encoding two commercially valuable proteins, a DNA polymerase and a single chain antibody. Genes differing only in synonymous codon usage expressed protein at levels ranging from undetectable to 30% of cellular protein. Using partial least squares regression we tested the correlation of protein production levels with parameters that have been reported to affect expression. We found that the amount of protein produced in E. coli was strongly dependent on the codons used to encode a subset of amino acids. Favorable codons were predominantly those read by tRNAs that are most highly charged during amino acid starvation, not codons that are most abundant in highly expressed E. coli proteins. Finally we confirmed the validity of our models by designing, synthesizing and testing new genes using codon biases predicted to perform well. CONCLUSION: The systematic analysis of gene design parameters shown in this study has allowed us to identify codon usage within a gene as a critical determinant of achievable protein expression levels in E. coli. We propose a biochemical basis for this, as well as design algorithms to ensure high protein production from synthetic genes. Replication of this methodology should allow similar design algorithms to be empirically derived for any expression system.

  9. Type 1 fimbrial expression enhances Escherichia coli virulence for the urinary tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connell, Hugh; Agace, William; Klemm, Per

    1996-01-01

    of Escherichia coli for the urinary tract by promoting bacterial persistence and enhancing the inflammatory responce to infection. In a clinical study, we observed that disease severity was greater in children infected with E. coli O1:K1:H7 isolates expressing type 1 fimbriae than in those infected with type 1...... negative isolates of the same serotype. The E. coli O1:K1:H7 isolates had the same electrophoretic type, were hemolysin-negative, expressed P fimbriae, and carried the fim DNA sequences. When tested in a mouse urinary tract infection model, the type 1-positive E. coli O1:K1:H7 isolates survived inhigher...... urinary tract infection model. E. coli CN1016 reconstituted with type 1 fimbriae had restored virulence similar to that of the wild-type parent strain. These results show that type 1 fimbriae in the genetic background of a uropathogenic strain contribute to the pathogenesis of E. coli in the urinary tract....

  10. Viral promoters can initiate expression of toxin genes introduced into Escherichia coli

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    Jacob Daniela

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The expression of recombinant proteins in eukaryotic cells requires the fusion of the coding region to a promoter functional in the eukaryotic cell line. Viral promoters are very often used for this purpose. The preceding cloning procedures are usually performed in Escherichia coli and it is therefore of interest if the foreign promoter results in an expression of the gene in bacteria. In the case molecules toxic for humans are to be expressed, this knowledge is indispensable for the specification of safety measures. Results We selected five frequently used viral promoters and quantified their activity in E. coli with a reporter system. Only the promoter from the thymidine kinase gene from HSV1 showed no activity, while the polyhedrin promoter from baculovirus, the early immediate CMV promoter, the early SV40 promoter and the 5' LTR promoter from HIV-1 directed gene expression in E. coli. The determination of transcription start sites in the immediate early CMV promoter and the polyhedrin promoter confirmed the existence of bacterial -10 and -35 consensus sequences. The importance of this heterologous gene expression for safety considerations was further supported by analysing fusions between the aforementioned promoters and a promoter-less cytotoxin gene. Conclusion According to our results a high percentage of viral promoters have the ability of initiating gene expression in E. coli. The degree of such heterologous gene expression can be sufficient for the expression of toxin genes and must therefore be considered when defining safety measures for the handling of corresponding genetically modified organisms.

  11. Functional expression of a valencene dioxygenase from Pleurotus sapidus in E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelena, Kateryna; Krings, Ulrich; Berger, Ralf G

    2012-03-01

    Valencene dioxygenase (ValOx) from the edible basidiomycete Pleurotus sapidus converted the sesquiterpene (+)-valencene to the valuable grapefruit flavour (+)-nootkatone and to nootkatols through intermediate hydroperoxides. Expression of the enzyme was carried out in the cytosol and periplasm of Escherichia coli. The heterologous production led to high yields of inclusion bodies. The poor yield of soluble recombinant protein was improved by various strategies including cold shock expression, chaperone co-expression, and employment of mutant E. coli strains. Up to 60 mg of the biologically active, soluble ValOx was produced by cold shock under control of the cspA promoter at 8 °C in the BL21(DE3)Star strain and co-expression of the E. coli trigger factor. The recombinant enzyme, purified using the N-terminal His tag, showed the catalytic properties of the wild-type enzyme, as was confirmed by the LC-MS analysis of hydroperoxide intermediates and GC-MS analysis of the volatile products. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Recombinant protein production data after expression in the bacterium Escherichia coli

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    J. Enrique Cantu-Bustos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Fusion proteins have become essential for the expression and purification of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli. The metal-binding protein CusF has shown several features that make it an attractive fusion protein and affinity tag: "Expression and purification of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli tagged with the metal-binding protein CusF" (Cantu-Bustos et al., 2016 [1]. Here we present accompanying data from protein expression experiments; we tested different protein tags, temperatures, expression times, cellular compartments, and concentrations of inducer in order to obtain soluble protein and low formation of inclusion bodies. Additionally, we present data from the purification of the green fluorescent protein (GFP tagged with CusF, using Ag(I metal affinity chromatography.

  13. Expression of maize prolamins in Escherichia Coli. [Zea mays L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Szu-zhen; Esen, Asim

    1985-12-02

    A cDNA expression library of developing corn (Zea mays L.) endosperm has been constructed using plasmid pUC8 as vector and Escherichia coli strain DH1 as host. The expression library was screened with non-radioactive immunological probes to detect the expression of gamma-zein and alpha-zein. When anti-gamma-zein antibody was used as the probe, 23 colonies gave positive reactions. The lengths of cDNA inserts of the 23 colonies were found to be 250-900 base pairs. When anti-alpha zein antibody was used, however, fewer colonies gave positive reactions. The library was also screened by colony-hybridization with /sup 32/P-labeled DNA probes. Based on immunological and hybridization screening of the library and other evidence, it was conclude that alpha-zein was either toxic to E. coli cells or rapidly degraded whereas gamma-zein and its fragments were readily expressed. 21 references.

  14. Expression of tung tree diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 in E. coli

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    Klasson K Thomas

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGATs catalyze the final and rate-limiting step of triacylglycerol (TAG biosynthesis in eukaryotic organisms. Database search has identified at least 59 DGAT1 sequences from 48 organisms, but the expression of any DGAT1 as a full-length protein in E. coli had not been reported because DGAT1s are integral membrane proteins and difficult to express and purify. The objective of this study was to establish a procedure for expressing full-length DGAT1 in E. coli. Results An expression plasmid containing the open reading frame for tung tree (Vernicia fordii DGAT1 fused to maltose binding protein and poly-histidine affinity tags was constructed and expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3. Immunoblotting showed that the recombinant DGAT1 (rDGAT1 was expressed, but mostly targeted to the membranes and insoluble fractions. Extensive degradation also occurred. Nonetheless, the fusion protein was partially purified from the soluble fraction by Ni-NTA and amylose resin affinity chromatography. Multiple proteins co-purified with DGAT1 fusion protein. These fractions appeared yellow in color and contained fatty acids. The rDGAT1 was solubilized from the insoluble fraction by seven detergents and urea, with SDS and Triton X-100 being the most effective detergents. The solubilized rDGAT1 was partially purified by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. PreScission protease digestion confirmed the identity of rDGAT1 and showed extensive precipitation following Ni-NTA affinity purification. Conclusions This study reports the first procedure for expressing full-length DGAT1 from any species using a bacterial expression system. The results suggest that recombinant DGAT1 is degraded extensively from the carboxyl terminus and associated with other proteins, lipids, and membranes.

  15. Differential expression of the Escherichia coli autoaggregation factor antigen 43

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schembri, Mark; Hjerrild, Louise; Gjermansen, Morten

    2003-01-01

    Antigen 43 (Ag43) is a self-recognizing surface adhesin found in most Escherichia coli strains. Due to its excellent cell-to-cell aggregation characteristics, Ag43 expression confers clumping and fluffing of cells and promotes biofilm formation. Ag43 expression is repressed by the cellular redox...

  16. Global gene expression profiling of asymptomatic bacteriuria Escherichia coli during biofilm growth in human urine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hancock, Viktoria; Klemm, Per

    2007-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is an important health problem worldwide, with many millions of cases each year, and Escherichia coli is the most common organism causing UTI in humans. Also, E. coli is responsible for most infections in patients with chronic indwelling bladder catheter. The two...... asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) E. coli strains 83972 and VR50 are significantly better biofilm formers in their natural growth medium, human urine, than the two uropathogenic E. coli isolates CFT073 and 536. We used DNA microarrays to monitor the expression profile during biofilm growth in urine of the two ABU...... strains 83972 and VR50. Significant differences in expression levels were seen between the biofilm expression profiles of the two strains with the corresponding planktonic expression profiles in morpholinepropanesulfonic acid minimal laboratory medium and human urine; 417 and 355 genes were up- and down...

  17. Secretory expression of nattokinase from Bacillus subtilis YF38 in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiaobo; Jia, Shifang; Sun, Yufang; Chen, Meiling; Chen, Xiuzhu; Zhong, Jin; Huan, Liandong

    2007-11-01

    Nattokinase producing bacterium, B. subtilis YF38, was isolated from douchi, using the fibrin plate method. The gene encoding this enzyme was cloned by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Cytoplasmic expression of this enzyme in E. coli resulted in inactive inclusion bodies. But with the help of two different signal peptides, the native signal peptide of nattokinase and the signal peptide of PelB, active nattokinase was successfully expressed in E. coli with periplasmic secretion, and the nattokinase in culture medium displayed high fibrinolytic activity. The fibrinolytic activity of the expressed enzyme in the culture was determined to reach 260 urokinase units per micro-liter when the recombinant strain was induced by 0.7 mmol l(-1) isopropyl-beta-D- thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) at 20 degrees C for 20 h, resulting 49.3 mg active enzyme per liter culture. The characteristic of this recombinant nattokinase is comparable to the native nattokinase from B. subtilis YF38. Secretory expression of nattokinase in E. coli would facilitate the development of this enzyme into a therapeutic product for the control and prevention of thrombosis diseases.

  18. Expression and purification of recombinant hemoglobin in Escherichia coli.

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    Chandrasekhar Natarajan

    Full Text Available Recombinant DNA technologies have played a pivotal role in the elucidation of structure-function relationships in hemoglobin (Hb and other globin proteins. Here we describe the development of a plasmid expression system to synthesize recombinant Hbs in Escherichia coli, and we describe a protocol for expressing Hbs with low intrinsic solubilities. Since the α- and β-chain Hbs of different species span a broad range of solubilities, experimental protocols that have been optimized for expressing recombinant human HbA may often prove unsuitable for the recombinant expression of wildtype and mutant Hbs of other species.As a test case for our expression system, we produced recombinant Hbs of the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus, a species that has been the subject of research on mechanisms of Hb adaptation to hypoxia. By experimentally assessing the combined effects of induction temperature, induction time and E. coli expression strain on the solubility of recombinant deer mouse Hbs, we identified combinations of expression conditions that greatly enhanced the yield of recombinant protein and which also increased the efficiency of post-translational modifications.Our protocol should prove useful for the experimental study of recombinant Hbs in many non-human animals. One of the chief advantages of our protocol is that we can express soluble recombinant Hb without co-expressing molecular chaperones, and without the need for additional reconstitution or heme-incorporation steps. Moreover, our plasmid construct contains a combination of unique restriction sites that allows us to produce recombinant Hbs with different α- and β-chain subunit combinations by means of cassette mutagenesis.

  19. Expression and purification of recombinant hemoglobin in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Chandrasekhar; Jiang, Xiaoben; Fago, Angela; Weber, Roy E; Moriyama, Hideaki; Storz, Jay F

    2011-01-01

    Recombinant DNA technologies have played a pivotal role in the elucidation of structure-function relationships in hemoglobin (Hb) and other globin proteins. Here we describe the development of a plasmid expression system to synthesize recombinant Hbs in Escherichia coli, and we describe a protocol for expressing Hbs with low intrinsic solubilities. Since the α- and β-chain Hbs of different species span a broad range of solubilities, experimental protocols that have been optimized for expressing recombinant human HbA may often prove unsuitable for the recombinant expression of wildtype and mutant Hbs of other species. As a test case for our expression system, we produced recombinant Hbs of the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus), a species that has been the subject of research on mechanisms of Hb adaptation to hypoxia. By experimentally assessing the combined effects of induction temperature, induction time and E. coli expression strain on the solubility of recombinant deer mouse Hbs, we identified combinations of expression conditions that greatly enhanced the yield of recombinant protein and which also increased the efficiency of post-translational modifications. Our protocol should prove useful for the experimental study of recombinant Hbs in many non-human animals. One of the chief advantages of our protocol is that we can express soluble recombinant Hb without co-expressing molecular chaperones, and without the need for additional reconstitution or heme-incorporation steps. Moreover, our plasmid construct contains a combination of unique restriction sites that allows us to produce recombinant Hbs with different α- and β-chain subunit combinations by means of cassette mutagenesis.

  20. Expression of the cationic antimicrobial peptide lactoferricin fused with the anionic peptide in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ha-Kun; Chun, Dae-Sik; Kim, Joon-Sik; Yun, Cheol-Ho; Lee, Ju-Hoon; Hong, Soon-Kwang; Kang, Dae-Kyung

    2006-09-01

    Direct expression of lactoferricin, an antimicrobial peptide, is lethal to Escherichia coli. For the efficient production of lactoferricin in E. coli, we developed an expression system in which the gene for the lysine- and arginine-rich cationic lactoferricin was fused to an anionic peptide gene to neutralize the basic property of lactoferricin, and successfully overexpressed the concatemeric fusion gene in E. coli. The lactoferricin gene was linked to a modified magainin intervening sequence gene by a recombinational polymerase chain reaction, thus producing an acidic peptide-lactoferricin fusion gene. The monomeric acidic peptide-lactoferricin fusion gene was multimerized and expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3) upon induction with isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside. The expression levels of the fusion peptide reached the maximum at the tetramer, while further increases in the copy number of the fusion gene substantially reduced the peptide expression level. The fusion peptides were isolated and cleaved to generate the separate lactoferricin and acidic peptide. About 60 mg of pure recombinant lactoferricin was obtained from 1 L of E. coli culture. The purified recombinant lactoferricin was found to have a molecular weight similar to that of chemically synthesized lactoferricin. The recombinant lactoferricin showed antimicrobial activity and disrupted bacterial membrane permeability, as the native lactoferricin peptide does.

  1. Tunable recombinant protein expression with E. coli in a mixed-feed environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagmeister, Patrick; Schimek, Clemens; Meitz, Andrea; Herwig, Christoph; Spadiut, Oliver

    2014-04-01

    Controlling the recombinant protein production rate in Escherichia coli is of utmost importance to ensure product quality and quantity. Up to now, only the genetic construct, introduced into E. coli, and the specific growth rate of the culture were used to influence and stir the productivity. However, bioprocess technological means to control or even tune the productivity of E. coli are scarce. Here, we present a novel method for the process-technological control over the recombinant protein expression rate in E. coli. A mixed-feed fed-batch bioprocess based on the araBAD promoter expression system using both D-glucose and L-arabinose as assimilable C-sources was designed. Using the model product green fluorescent protein, we show that the specific product formation rate can be efficiently tuned even on the cellular level only via the uptake rate of L-arabinose. This novel approach introduces an additional degree of freedom for the design of recombinant bioprocesses with E. coli. We anticipate that the presented method will result in significant quality and robustness improvement as well as cost and process time reduction for recombinant bacterial bioprocesses in the future.

  2. Expression of goose parvovirus whole VP3 protein and its epitopes in Escherichia coli cells.

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    Tarasiuk, K; Woźniakowski, G; Holec-Gąsior, L

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was the expression of goose parvovirus capsid protein (VP3) and its epitopes in Escherichia coli cells. Expression of the whole VP3 protein provided an insufficient amount of protein. In contrast, the expression of two VP3 epitopes (VP3ep4, VP3ep6) in E. coli, resulted in very high expression levels. This may suggest that smaller parts of the GPV antigenic determinants are more efficiently expressed than the complete VP3 gene.

  3. in Escherichia coli with native cholesterol oxidase expressed

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The structure and bio-activity of an endogenous cholesterol oxidase from Brevibacterium sp. was compared to the same enzyme exogenously expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) with and without N- or C-terminal his-tags. The different proteins were purified with affinity and subtractive protocols. The specific activity of ...

  4. Importance of the High-Expression of Proline Transporter PutP to the Adaptation of Escherichia coli to High Salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Hideaki; Sato, Daichi; Oshima, Akinobu

    2017-01-01

     The effect of the amount of the proline transporter PutP expression on the mechanism of adaptation of E. coli cells to high salinity was analyzed. The PutP gene derived from the E. coli expression plasmid was introduced into the E. coli cell, and a high PutP expression strain was developed. At 1.2 M NaCl culture condition, the growth of normal E. coli cells was inhibited, whereas high ProP expression cells showed growth under 2.5 M NaCl conditions. The uptake of proline by E. coli as a compatible solute and substrate for metabolization was in good accordance with those seen in cell growth. These data suggested that the amount of the proline transporter PutP expression played an important role in the adaptation of E. coli cells to high saline conditions.

  5. Regulation of gene expression in Escherichia coli and its bacteriophage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, C.F.

    1986-01-01

    This chapter reviews the study of prokaryotic gene expression beginning with a look at the regulation of the lactose operon and the mechanism of attenuation in the tryptophan operon to the more recent development of recombinant DNA technology. The chapter deals almost entirely with escherichia coli and its bacteriophage. The only experimental technique which the authors explore in some detail is the construction and use of gene and operon fusions which have revolutionized the study of gene expression. Various mechanisms by which E. Coli regulate the cellular levels of individual messenger-RNA species are described. Translational regulation of the cellular levels of messenger-RNA include signals encoded within the messenger-RNA molecule itself and regulatory molecules which interact with the messenger-RNA and alter it translational efficiency

  6. [Expression of enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis and polyketide synthase gene-expressing Escherichia coli in colorectal adenoma patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, L L; Wu, N; Zhu, Y M; Qiu, X Y; Chen, G D; Zhang, L M; Liu, Y L

    2016-03-29

    To investigate the distribution of various bacteria in adenoma tissue of colorectal adenoma (T/CRA), normal colonic mucosa tissue adjacent to the adenoma (N/CRA), and healthy colonic mucosa tissue (N/H) by comparing the number of total bacteria, Bacteroides fragilis (BF), enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis (ETBF), polyketide synthase (pks) gene-expressing Escherichia coli(E.coli)(pks(+) E. coli)among the above 3 types of tissues. A total of 36 patients diagnosed with colorectal adenoma by colonoscopy and pathology in Department of Gastroenterology, Peking University People's Hospital from September 2011 to September 2013 were selected into this study. T/CRA and N/CRA tissues from the 36 patients and N/H tissues from 18 healthy controls were collected for DNA extraction. The number of total bacteria, BF, ETBF, pks(+) E. coli was detected by quantitative real time PCR, and their correlation with colorectal adenoma was analyzed. (1) The number of total bacteria decreased gradually from N/H, N/CRA, to T/CRA, with the median values being 3.18×10(8,) 1.57×10(8,) and 7.91×10(7) copies/g, respectively, and with significant difference among the three groups and between each two groups (all PCRA, to T/CRA, the median values being 6.03×10(5,) 4.28×10(4,) and 5.48×10(3) copies/g, respectively, and with significant difference among the three groups and between each two groups (all PCRA, to T/CRA, the relative expression being 1.73±0.30, 6.15±1.52, and 8.54±1.80, respectively. Significant difference was found between the T/CRA and N/H tissue (P=0.003), but not between any other two groups. (4) The expression of clbB in pks(+) E.coli was highest in T/CRA colonic tissue (2.96±0.28), followed by the N/CRA (2.79±0.19) and N/H tissue (1.06±0.08). Significant difference was found between T/CRA and N/H tissues, as well as between N/CRA and N/H tissues (both PCRA and N/CRA tissues. The number of total bacteria is markedly reduced in the colonic mucosa of CRA patients

  7. Comparative Study on Different Expression Hosts for Alkaline Phytase Engineered in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weiwei; Yu, Hongwei; Ye, Lidan

    2016-07-01

    The application of alkaline phytase as a feed additive is restricted by the poor specific activity. Escherichia coli is a frequently used host for directed evolution of proteins including alkaline phytase towards improved activity. However, it is not suitable for production of food-grade products due to potential pathogenicity. To combine the advantages of different expression systems, mutants of the alkaline phytase originated from Bacillus subtilis 168 (phy168) were first generated via directed evolution in E. coli and then transformed to food-grade hosts B. subtilis and Pichia pastoris for secretory expression. In order to investigate the suitability of different expression systems, the phy168 mutants expressed in different hosts were characterized and compared in terms of specific activity, pH profile, pH stability, temperature profile, and thermostability. The specific activity of B. subtilis-expressed D24G/K70R/K111E/N121S mutant at pH 7.0 and 60 °C was 30.4 U/mg, obviously higher than those in P. pastoris (22.7 U/mg) and E. coli (19.7 U/mg). Moreover, after 10 min incubation at 80 °C, the B. subtilis-expressed D24G/K70R/K111E/N121S retained about 70 % of the activity at pH 7.0 and 37 °C, whereas the values were only about 25 and 50 % when expressed in P. pastoris and E. coli, respectively. These results suggested B. subtilis as an appropriate host for expression of phy168 mutants and that the strategy of creating mutants in one host and expressing them in another might be a new solution to industrial production of proteins with desired properties.

  8. Soluble expression of recombinant proteins in the cytoplasm of Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Hans; Mortensen, Kim

    2005-01-01

    Pure, soluble and functional proteins are of high demand in modern biotechnology. Natural protein sources rarely meet the requirements for quantity, ease of isolation or price and hence recombinant technology is often the method of choice. Recombinant cell factories are constantly employed...... molecular tools available. In spite of all these qualities, expression of recombinant proteins with E. coli as the host often results in insoluble and/or nonfunctional proteins. Here we review new approaches to overcome these obstacles by strategies that focus on either controlled expression of target...... for the production of protein preparations bound for downstream purification and processing. Eschericia coli is a frequently used host, since it facilitates protein expression by its relative simplicity, its inexpensive and fast high density cultivation, the well known genetics and the large number of compatible...

  9. Expression and purification of recombinant hemoglobin in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Natarajan, Chandrasekhar; Jiang, Xiaoben; Fago, Angela

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recombinant DNA technologies have played a pivotal role in the elucidation of structure-function relationships in hemoglobin (Hb) and other globin proteins. Here we describe the development of a plasmid expression system to synthesize recombinant Hbs in Escherichia coli, and we describe...

  10. Inactivation and Gene Expression of a Virulent WastewaterEscherichia coliStrain and the Nonvirulent CommensalEscherichia coliDSM1103 Strain upon Solar Irradiation

    KAUST Repository

    Aljassim, Nada I.; Mantilla-Calderon, David; Wang, Tiannyu; Hong, Pei-Ying

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the decay kinetics and molecular responses of two Escherichia coli strains upon solar irradiation. The first is E. coli PI-7, a virulent and antibiotic-resistant strain that was isolated from wastewater and carries the emerging NDM-1 antibiotic resistance gene. The other strain, E. coli DSM1103, displayed lower virulence and antibiotic resistance than E. coli PI-7. In a buffer solution, E. coli PI-7 displayed a longer lag phase prior to decay and a longer half-life compared with E. coli DSM1103 (6.64 ± 0.63 h and 2.85 ± 0.46 min vs 1.33 ± 0.52 h and 2.04 ± 0.36 min). In wastewater, both E. coli strains decayed slower than they did in buffer. Although solar irradiation remained effective in reducing the numbers of both strains by more than 5-log10 in <24 h, comparative genomics and transcriptomics revealed differences in the genomes and overall regulation of genes between the two E. coli strains. A wider arsenal of genes related to oxidative stress, cellular repair and protective mechanisms were upregulated in E. coli PI-7. Subpopulations of E. coli PI-7 expressed genes related to dormancy and persister cell formation during the late decay phase, which may have accounted for its prolonged persistence. Upon prolonged solar irradiation, both E. coli strains displayed upregulation of genes related to horizontal gene transfer and antibiotic resistance. Virulence functions unique to E. coli PI-7 were also upregulated. Our findings collectively indicated that, whereas solar irradiation is able to reduce total cell numbers, viable E. coli remained and expressed genes that enable survival despite solar treatment. There remains a need for heightened levels of concern regarding risks arising from the dissemination of E. coli that may remain viable in wastewater after solar irradiation.

  11. Inactivation and Gene Expression of a Virulent WastewaterEscherichia coliStrain and the Nonvirulent CommensalEscherichia coliDSM1103 Strain upon Solar Irradiation

    KAUST Repository

    Aljassim, Nada I.

    2017-03-06

    This study examined the decay kinetics and molecular responses of two Escherichia coli strains upon solar irradiation. The first is E. coli PI-7, a virulent and antibiotic-resistant strain that was isolated from wastewater and carries the emerging NDM-1 antibiotic resistance gene. The other strain, E. coli DSM1103, displayed lower virulence and antibiotic resistance than E. coli PI-7. In a buffer solution, E. coli PI-7 displayed a longer lag phase prior to decay and a longer half-life compared with E. coli DSM1103 (6.64 ± 0.63 h and 2.85 ± 0.46 min vs 1.33 ± 0.52 h and 2.04 ± 0.36 min). In wastewater, both E. coli strains decayed slower than they did in buffer. Although solar irradiation remained effective in reducing the numbers of both strains by more than 5-log10 in <24 h, comparative genomics and transcriptomics revealed differences in the genomes and overall regulation of genes between the two E. coli strains. A wider arsenal of genes related to oxidative stress, cellular repair and protective mechanisms were upregulated in E. coli PI-7. Subpopulations of E. coli PI-7 expressed genes related to dormancy and persister cell formation during the late decay phase, which may have accounted for its prolonged persistence. Upon prolonged solar irradiation, both E. coli strains displayed upregulation of genes related to horizontal gene transfer and antibiotic resistance. Virulence functions unique to E. coli PI-7 were also upregulated. Our findings collectively indicated that, whereas solar irradiation is able to reduce total cell numbers, viable E. coli remained and expressed genes that enable survival despite solar treatment. There remains a need for heightened levels of concern regarding risks arising from the dissemination of E. coli that may remain viable in wastewater after solar irradiation.

  12. Relation between tetR and tetA expression in tetracycline resistant Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Thea S. B.; Overgaard, Martin; Nielsen, Søren S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tetracyclines are among the most used antibiotics in livestock worldwide. Resistance is widely disseminated in Escherichia coli, where it is generally mediated by tetracycline efflux pumps, such as TetA. Expression of tetracycline efflux pumps is tightly controlled by the repressor Tet......R, which has been shown to be tetracycline-responsive at sub-MIC tetracycline concentrations. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of increasing tetracycline concentrations on the growth of TetA-producing E. coli, and to determine how expression of tetA and tetR related to each other...... in different growth phases in the presence of tetracycline. Results: A tetracycline resistant E. coli strain containing tetA and tetR on the chromosome was constructed and cultured in the presence of increasing concentrations of tetracycline. Expression of tetR and tetA was measured at four time points...

  13. The Genomic Pattern of tDNA Operon Expression in E. coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In fast-growing microorganisms, a tRNA concentration profile enriched in major isoacceptors selects for the biased usage of cognate codons. This optimizes translational rate for the least mass invested in the translational apparatus. Such translational streamlining is thought to be growth-regulated, but its genetic basis is poorly understood. First, we found in reanalysis of the E. coli tRNA profile that the degree to which it is translationally streamlined is nearly invariant with growth rate. Then, using least squares multiple regression, we partitioned tRNA isoacceptor pools to predicted tDNA operons from the E. coli K12 genome. Co-expression of tDNAs in operons explains the tRNA profile significantly better than tDNA gene dosage alone. Also, operon expression increases significantly with proximity to the origin of replication, oriC, at all growth rates. Genome location explains about 15% of expression variation in a form, at a given growth rate, that is consistent with replication-dependent gene concentration effects. Yet the change in the tRNA profile with growth rate is less than would be expected from such effects. We estimated per-copy expression rates for all tDNA operons that were consistent with independent estimates for rDNA operons. We also found that tDNA operon location, and the location dependence of expression, were significantly different in the leading and lagging strands. The operonic organization and genomic location of tDNA operons are significant factors influencing their expression. Nonrandom patterns of location and strandedness shown by tDNA operons in E. coli suggest that their genomic architecture may be under selection to satisfy physiological demand for tRNA expression at high growth rates.

  14. Expression of human mag-1 gene in E. coli and preparation of its antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Huiyun; Xu Yuanji; Wang Yan; Chen Huihua; Du Zhiyan; Tan Xiaogang; Lu Yinglin

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To further investigate the new metastasis associated gene, mag-1 expressed in E. coli and its anti-body was prepared in rabbit. Methods: mag-1 was amplified by PCR from pcDNA3-mag-1 and directly cloned into pET-28a vector. The fusion protein was expressed in BL21 and identified by Western blot using anti-His monoclonal antibody. Rabbit was immunized with partially purified fusion protein subcutaneously. Results: Sequence analysis revealed identity of the sequence obtained to the previous report. The recombinant His-mag-1 could be expressed in E. coli as a fusion protein of 18 x 10 3 . The recombinant protein was mostly expressed in the inclusion bodies on the induction by 0.1 mmol/L IPTG at 37 degree C for 6 hours. Western blot analysis showed that the recombinant protein could be recognized by His monoclonal anti-body. The titer of polyclonal antibody against mag-1 was 1:160000. Conclusion: The mag-1 gene is expressed in E. coli highly and its antibody is prepared successfully. (authors)

  15. Cloning and expression of antibacterial goat lactoferricin from Escherichia coli AD494(DE3)pLysS expression system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gen-Hung; Yin, Li-Jung; Chiang, I-Hua; Jiang, Shann-Tzong

    2008-12-01

    Goat lactoferricin (GLfcin), an antibacterial peptide, is released from the N terminus of goat lactoferrin by pepsin digestion. Two GLfcin-related cDNAs, GLfcin L and GLfcin S, encoding Ala20-Ser60 and Ser36-Ser60 of goat lactoferrin, respectively, were cloned into the pET-23a(+) expression vector upstream from (His)6-Tag gene and transformed into Escherichia coli AD494(DE3)pLysS expression host. After being induced by isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG), two (His)6-Tag fused recombinant lactoferricins, GLfcin L-His*Tag and GLfcin S-His*Tag, were expressed in soluble form within the E. coli cytoplasm. The GLfcin L-His*Tag and GLfcin S-His*Tag were purified using HisTrap affinity chromatography. According to an antibacterial activity assay using the agar diffusion method, GLfcin L-His*Tag had antibacterial activity against E. coli BCRC 11549, Staphylococcus aureus BCRC 25923, and Propionibacterium acnes BCRC 10723, while GLfcin S-His*Tag was able to inhibit the growth of E. coli BCRC 11549 and P. acnes BCRC 10723. These two recombinant lactoferricins behaved as thermostable peptides, which could retain their activity for up to 30 min of exposure at 100 degrees C.

  16. Efficient Extracellular Expression of Phospholipase D in Escherichia Coli with an Optimized Signal Peptide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Leyun; Xu, Yu; Chen, Yong; Ying, Hanjie

    2018-01-01

    New secretion vectors containing the synthetic signal sequence (OmpA’) was constructed for the secretory production of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli. The E. coli Phospholipase D structural gene (Accession number:NC_018658) fused to various signal sequence were expressed from the Lac promoter in E. coli Rosetta strains by induction with 0.4mM IPTG at 28°C for 48h. SDS-PaGe analysis of expression and subcellular fractions of recombinant constructs revealed the translocation of Phospholipase D (PLD) not only to the medium but also remained in periplasm of E. coli with OmpA’ signal sequence at the N-terminus of PLD. Thus the study on the effects of various surfactants on PLD extracellular production in Escherichia coli in shake flasks revealed that optimal PLD extracellular production could be achieved by adding 0.4% Triton X-100 into the medium. The maximal extracellular PLD production and extracellular enzyme activity were 0.23mg ml-1 and 16U ml-1, respectively. These results demonstrate the possibility of efficient secretory production of recombinant PLD in E. coli should be a potential industrial applications.

  17. The order of expression is a key factor in the production of active transglutaminase in Escherichia coli by co-expression with its pro-peptide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Song

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptomyces transglutaminase (TGase is naturally synthesized as zymogen (pro-TGase, which is then processed to produce active enzyme by the removal of its N-terminal pro-peptide. This pro-peptide is found to be essential for overexpression of soluble TGase in E. coli. However, expression of pro-TGase by E. coli requires protease-mediated activation in vitro. In this study, we developed a novel co- expression method for the direct production of active TGase in E. coli. Results A TGase from S. hygroscopicus was expressed in E. coli only after fusing with the pelB signal peptide, but fusion with the signal peptide induced insoluble enzyme. Therefore, alternative protocol was designed by co-expressing the TGase and its pro-peptide as independent polypeptides under a single T7 promoter using vector pET-22b(+. Although the pro-peptide was co-expressed, the TGase fused without the signal peptide was undetectable in both soluble and insoluble fractions of the recombinant cells. Similarly, when both genes were expressed in the order of the TGase and the pro-peptide, the solubility of TGase fused with the signal peptide was not improved by the co-expression with its pro-peptide. Interestingly, active TGase was only produced by the cells in which the pro-peptide and the TGase were fused with the signal peptide and sequentially expressed. The purified recombinant and native TGase shared the similar catalytic properties. Conclusions Our results indicated that the pro-peptide can assist correct folding of the TGase inter-molecularly in E. coli, and expression of pro-peptide prior to that of TGase was essential for the production of active TGase. The co-expression strategy based on optimizing the order of gene expression could be useful for the expression of other functional proteins that are synthesized as a precursor.

  18. In-silico design, expression, and purification of novel chimeric Escherichia coli O157:H7 OmpA fused to LTB protein in Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aytak Novinrooz

    Full Text Available E. coli O157:H7, one of the major EHEC serotypes, is capable of developing bloody diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis (HC, and fatal hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS and is accompanied by high annual economic loss worldwide. Due to the increased risk of HC and HUS development following antibiotic therapy, the prevention of infections caused by this pathogen is considered to be one of the most effective ways of avoiding the consequences of this infection. The main aim of the present study was to design, express, and purify a novel chimeric protein to develope human vaccine candidate against E. coli O157:H7 containing loop 2-4 of E. coli O157:H7, outer membrane protein A (OmpA, and B subunit of E. coli heat labile enterotoxin (LTB which are connected by a flexible peptide linker. Several online databases and bioinformatics software were utilized to choose the peptide linker among 537 analyzed linkers, design the chimeric protein, and optimize the codon of the relative gene encoding this protein. Subsequently, the recombinant gene encoding OmpA-LTB was synthesized and cloned into pET-24a (+ expression vector and transferred to E. coli BL21(DE3 cells. The expression of OmpA-LTB chimeric protein was then carried out by induction of cultured E. coli Bl21 (DE3 cells with 1mM isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG. The purification of OmpA-LTB was then performed by nickel affinity chromatography. Expression and purification were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulphate poly acrylamide gel electrophoresis. Moreover, the identity of the expressed protein was analyzed by western blotting. SDS-PAGE and western immunoblotting confirmed the successful expression of a 27 KDa recombinant protein after 24 hours at 37°C post-IPTG induction. OmpA-LTB was then successfully purified, using nickel affinity chromatography under denaturing conditions. The yield of purification was 12 mg per liter of culture media. Ultimately, we constructed the successful design and efficient

  19. Expression and purification of recombinant hemoglobin in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Natarajan, Chandrasekhar; Jiang, Xiaoben; Fago, Angela

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recombinant DNA technologies have played a pivotal role in the elucidation of structure-function relationships in hemoglobin (Hb) and other globin proteins. Here we describe the development of a plasmid expression system to synthesize recombinant Hbs in Escherichia coli, and we describe...... a protocol for expressing Hbs with low intrinsic solubilities. Since the alpha- and beta-chain Hbs of different species span a broad range of solubilities, experimental protocols that have been optimized for expressing recombinant human HbA may often prove unsuitable for the recombinant expression......-translational modifications. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our protocol should prove useful for the experimental study of recombinant Hbs in many non-human animals. One of the chief advantages of our protocol is that we can express soluble recombinant Hb without co-expressing molecular chaperones, and without the need...

  20. GroEL-GroES assisted folding of multiple recombinant proteins simultaneously over-expressed in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Megha; Chaudhuri, Tapan K

    2015-07-01

    Folding of aggregation prone recombinant proteins through co-expression of chaperonin GroEL and GroES has been a popular practice in the effort to optimize preparation of functional protein in Escherichia coli. Considering the demand for functional recombinant protein products, it is desirable to apply the chaperone assisted protein folding strategy for enhancing the yield of properly folded protein. Toward the same direction, it is also worth attempting folding of multiple recombinant proteins simultaneously over-expressed in E. coli through the assistance of co-expressed GroEL-ES. The genesis of this thinking was originated from the fact that cellular GroEL and GroES assist in the folding of several endogenous proteins expressed in the bacterial cell. Here we present the experimental findings from our study on co-expressed GroEL-GroES assisted folding of simultaneously over-expressed proteins maltodextrin glucosidase (MalZ) and yeast mitochondrial aconitase (mAco). Both proteins mentioned here are relatively larger and aggregation prone, mostly form inclusion bodies, and undergo GroEL-ES assisted folding in E. coli cells during over-expression. It has been reported that the relative yield of properly folded functional forms of MalZ and mAco with the exogenous GroEL-ES assistance were comparable with the results when these proteins were overexpressed alone. This observation is quite promising and highlights the fact that GroEL and GroES can assist in the folding of multiple substrate proteins simultaneously when over-expressed in E. coli. This method might be a potential tool for enhanced production of multiple functional recombinant proteins simultaneously in E. coli. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Co-expression and characterization of enterocin CRL35 and its mutant in Escherichia coli Rosetta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masías Emilse

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Even though many sequences and structures of bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria have been fully characterized so far, little information is currently available about bacteriocins heterologously produced by Escherichia coli. For this purpose, the structural gene of enterocin CRL35, munA, was PCR-amplified using specific primers and cloned downstream of PelB sequence in the pET22b (+ expression vector. E. coli Rosetta (DE3 pLysS was chosen as the host for production and enterocin was purified by an easy two-step protocol. The bacteriocin was correctly expressed with the expected intramolecular disulfide bond. Nevertheless, it was found that a variant of the enterocin, differing by 12 Da from the native polypeptide, was co-expressed by E. coli Rosetta in comparable amount. Indeed, the mutant bacteriocin contained two amino acid substitutions that were characterized by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF and HPLCelectrospray (ESI-Q-TOF tandem mass spectrometry (MS/ MS sequencing. This is the first report regarding the production of mutants of pediocin-like bacteriocins in the E. coli expression system.

  2. In vivo functional expression of a screened P. aeruginosa chaperone-dependent lipase in E. coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Xiangping

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microbial lipases particularly Pseudomonas lipases are widely used for biotechnological applications. It is a meaningful work to design experiments to obtain high-level active lipase. There is a limiting factor for functional overexpression of the Pseudomonas lipase that a chaperone is necessary for effective folding. As previously reported, several methods had been used to resolve the problem. In this work, the lipase (LipA and its chaperone (LipB from a screened strain named AB which belongs to Pseudomonas aeruginosa were overexpressed in E. coli with two dual expression plasmid systems to enhance the production of the active lipase LipA without in vitro refolding process. Results In this work, we screened a lipase-produced strain named AB through the screening procedure, which was identified as P. aeruginosa on the basis of 16S rDNA. Genomic DNA obtained from the strain was used to isolate the gene lipA (936 bp and lipase specific foldase gene lipB (1023 bp. One single expression plasmid system E. coli BL21/pET28a-lipAB and two dual expression plasmid systems E. coli BL21/pETDuet-lipA-lipB and E. coli BL21/pACYCDuet-lipA-lipB were successfully constructed. The lipase activities of the three expression systems were compared to choose the optimal expression method. Under the same cultured condition, the activities of the lipases expressed by E. coli BL21/pET28a-lipAB and E. coli BL21/pETDuet-lipA-lipB were 1300 U/L and 3200 U/L, respectively, while the activity of the lipase expressed by E. coli BL21/pACYCDuet-lipA-lipB was up to 8500 U/L. The lipase LipA had an optimal temperature of 30°C and an optimal pH of 9 with a strong pH tolerance. The active LipA could catalyze the reaction between fatty alcohols and fatty acids to generate fatty acid alkyl esters, which meant that LipA was able to catalyze esterification reaction. The most suitable fatty acid and alcohol substrates for esterification were octylic acid and hexanol

  3. Biodegradation of dioxins by recombinant Escherichia coli expressing rat CYP1A1 or its mutant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinkyo, Raku; Inouye, Kuniyo [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Div. of Food Science and Biotechnology; Kamakura, Masaki; Ikushiro, Shin-ichi; Sakaki, Toshiyuki [Toyama Prefectural Univ. (Japan). Biotechnology Research Center

    2006-09-15

    Among polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TetraCDD) is the most toxic one. Recently, we reported that rat CYP1A1 mutant, F240A, expressed in yeast showed metabolic activity toward 2,3,7,8-TetraCDD. In this study, we successfully expressed N-terminal truncated P450s ({delta}1A1 and {delta}F240A) in Escherichia coli cells. Kinetic analysis using membrane fractions prepared from the recombinant E. coli cells revealed that {delta}F240A has enzymatic properties similar to F240A expressed in yeast. The metabolism of PCDDs by recombinant E. coli cells expressing both {delta}F240A and human NADPH-P450 reductase was also examined. When 2,3,7-TriCDD was added to the E. coli cell culture at a final concentration of 10 {mu}M, approximately 90% of the 2,3,7-TriCDD was converted into multiple metabolites within 8 h. These results indicate the possible application of prokaryotic cells expressing {delta}F240A to the bioremediation of PCDD-contaminated soil. (orig.)

  4. Influence of medium components on the expression of recombinant lipoproteins in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Chi-Ling; Leng, Chih-Hsiang

    2012-02-01

    Bacterial lipoproteins are crucial antigens for protective immunity against bacterial pathogens. Expression of exogenous lipoproteins in Escherichia coli at high levels is thought to be an extremely difficult endeavor because it frequently results in incomplete or absent lipid modification. Previously, we identified a fusion sequence (D1) from a Neisseria meningitidis lipoprotein that induced a non-lipidated protein, E3 (the domain III of the dengue virus envelope protein), to become lipidated. However, without optimizing the growth conditions, some of the D1-fusion proteins were not lipidated. Here, we report the influence of medium components on the expression of recombinant lipoproteins in E. coli. For high-level expression of mature lipoproteins in the C43 (DE3) strain, M9 medium was better than M63 and the rich medium. Furthermore, we analyzed the influence of other media factors (including nitrogen and carbon sources, phosphate, ferrous ions, calcium, magnesium, and pH) on the levels of lipoprotein expression. The results showed that excess nitrogen sources and phosphate in M9 medium could increase the amount of immature lipoproteins, and glucose was a better carbon source than glycerol for expressing mature lipoproteins. We also found that lipoproteins tended to be completely processed in the alkaline environment, even in the nutrient-rich medium. Additional constructs expressing different immunogens or lipid signal peptides as targets were also utilized, demonstrating that these targets could be expressed as completely mature lipoproteins in the M9 medium but not in the rich medium. Our results provide the useful information for expressing mature exogenous lipoproteins in E. coli.

  5. Global impact of mature biofilm lifestyle on Escherichia coli K-12 gene expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beloin, C.; Valle, J.; Latour-Lambert, P.

    2004-01-01

    The formation of biofilm results in a major lifestyle switch that is thought to affect the expression of multiple genes and operons. We used DNA arrays to study the global effect of biofilm formation on gene expression in mature Escherichia coli K-12 biofilm. We show that, when biofilm is compared...... that 20 of these genes are required for the formation of mature biofilm. This group includes 11 genes of previously unknown function. These results constitute a comprehensive analysis of the global transcriptional response triggered in mature E. coli biofilms and provide insights into its physiological...

  6. Cloning and expression of the Legionella micdadei "common antigen" in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsborg, Jette Marie; Collins, M T; Høiby, N

    1989-01-01

    To study individual Legionella antigens, a Legionella micdadei genomic library in Escherichia coli SC181 was established. Partially Sau3A digested L. micdadei DNA fragments (15-25 kilobase pairs (kb] were cloned into the tetracycline resistance gene of the cosmid vector pHC79. Four thousand...... ampicillin resistant recombinants were obtained; seven hundred were screened for expression of Legionella antigens in Western blot analysis with a polyspecific E. coli-absorbed anti-L. micdadei rabbit antibody. One of the positive clones expressed a 60 kilodalton (K) antigen, which reacted strongly...... will provide important information with respect to genetic vs. antigenic relatedness among Legionellae and other Gram-negative species, as well as to CA structure and possible function....

  7. Homologous high-throughput expression and purification of highly conserved E coli proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duchmann Rainer

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic factors and a dysregulated immune response towards commensal bacteria contribute to the pathogenesis of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD. Animal models demonstrated that the normal intestinal flora is crucial for the development of intestinal inflammation. However, due to the complexity of the intestinal flora, it has been difficult to design experiments for detection of proinflammatory bacterial antigen(s involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. Several studies indicated a potential association of E. coli with IBD. In addition, T cell clones of IBD patients were shown to cross react towards antigens from different enteric bacterial species and thus likely responded to conserved bacterial antigens. We therefore chose highly conserved E. coli proteins as candidate antigens for abnormal T cell responses in IBD and used high-throughput techniques for cloning, expression and purification under native conditions of a set of 271 conserved E. coli proteins for downstream immunologic studies. Results As a standardized procedure, genes were PCR amplified and cloned into the expression vector pQTEV2 in order to express proteins N-terminally fused to a seven-histidine-tag. Initial small-scale expression and purification under native conditions by metal chelate affinity chromatography indicated that the vast majority of target proteins were purified in high yields. Targets that revealed low yields after purification probably due to weak solubility were shuttled into Gateway (Invitrogen destination vectors in order to enhance solubility by N-terminal fusion of maltose binding protein (MBP, N-utilizing substance A (NusA, or glutathione S-transferase (GST to the target protein. In addition, recombinant proteins were treated with polymyxin B coated magnetic beads in order to remove lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Thus, 73% of the targeted proteins could be expressed and purified in large-scale to give soluble proteins in the range of 500

  8. Optimalisation of expression conditions for production of round-leaf sundew chitinase (Drosera rotundifolia L. in three E. coli expression strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Rajninec

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Round-leaf sundew (Drosera rotundifolia L., family Droseraceae, genus Drosera, is one of a few plant species with a strong antifungal potential. Chitinases of carnivorous plants play an important role in decomposition of chitin-containing cell structures of insect prey. The cell wall of many phytopathogenic fungi also contains chitin, which can be utilized by chitinases, thus round-leaf sundew represents an interesting gene source for plant biotechnology. The purpose of this study was to compare the suitability of 3 different E. coli expression strains (E. coli BL21- CodonPlus® (DE3-RIPL, E. coli ArcticExpress (DE3RIL and E. coli SHuffle® T7 for production and isolation of heterologous round-leaf sundew chitinase (DrChit. Results showed that the recombinant protein was successfully expressed in all three strains, but occurred in insoluble protein fraction. To get the DrChit protein into soluble protein fraction some modifications concerning to induction temperatures and concentration of the IPTG inductor were tested. In addition, composition of lysis buffer has been modified with supplementation of strong non-ionic detergents, Triton® X100 and Tween® 20, respectively. As these modifications didn’t increase the amount of the DrChit protein in soluble fraction, therefore, its isolation under denaturing conditions and subsequent refolding for activity assays is recommended.

  9. Critical Factors Affecting the Success of Cloning, Expression, and Mass Production of Enzymes by Recombinant E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakruddin, Md; Mohammad Mazumdar, Reaz; Bin Mannan, Khanjada Shahnewaj; Chowdhury, Abhijit; Hossain, Md Nur

    2013-01-01

    E. coli is the most frequently used host for production of enzymes and other proteins by recombinant DNA technology. E. coli is preferable for its relative simplicity, inexpensive and fast high-density cultivation, well-known genetics, and large number of compatible molecular tools available. Despite all these advantages, expression and production of recombinant enzymes are not always successful and often result in insoluble and nonfunctional proteins. There are many factors that affect the success of cloning, expression, and mass production of enzymes by recombinant E. coli. In this paper, these critical factors and approaches to overcome these obstacles are summarized focusing controlled expression of target protein/enzyme in an unmodified form at industrial level.

  10. Evolved Escherichia coli Strains for Amplified, Functional Expression of Membrane Proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gul, Nadia; Linares, Daniel M.; Ho, Franz Y.; Poolman, Bert

    2014-01-01

    The major barrier to the physical characterization and structure determination of membrane proteins is low protein yield and/or low functionality in recombinant expression. The enteric bacterium Escherichia coli is the most widely employed organism for producing recombinant proteins. Beside several

  11. 'Zipbody' leucine zipper-fused Fab in E. coli in vitro and in vivo expression systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojima-Kato, Teruyo; Fukui, Kansuke; Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Hashimura, Dai; Miyake, Shiro; Hirakawa, Yuki; Yamasaki, Tomomi; Kojima, Takaaki; Nakano, Hideo

    2016-04-01

    A small antibody fragment, fragment of antigen binding (Fab), is favorable for various immunological assays. However, production efficiency of active Fab in microorganisms depends considerably on the clones. In this study, leucine zipper-peptide pairs that dimerize in parallel (ACID-p1 (LZA)/BASE-p1 (LZB) or c-Jun/c-Fos) were fused to the C-terminus of heavy chain (Hc, VH-CH1) and light chain (Lc, VL-CL), respectively, to accelerate the association of Hc and Lc to form Fab in Escherichia coli in vivo and in vitro expression systems. The leucine zipper-fused Fab named 'Zipbody' was constructed using anti-E. coli O157 monoclonal antibody obtained from mouse hybridoma and produced in both in vitro and in vivo expression systems in an active form, whereas Fab without the leucine zipper fusion was not. Similarly, Zipbody of rabbit monoclonal antibody produced in in vitro expression showed significant activity. The purified, mouse Zipbody produced in the E. coli strain Shuffle T7 Express had specificity toward the antigen; in bio-layer interferometry analysis, the KD value was measured to be 1.5-2.0 × 10(-8) M. These results indicate that leucine zipper fusion to Fab C-termini markedly enhances active Fab formation in E. coli. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Mycobacterium tuberculosis HspX/EsxS Fusion Protein: Gene Cloning, Protein Expression, and Purification in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khademi, Farzad; Yousefi-Avarvand, Arshid; Derakhshan, Mohammad; Meshkat, Zahra; Tafaghodi, Mohsen; Ghazvini, Kiarash; Aryan, Ehsan; Sankian, Mojtaba

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to clone, express, and purify a novel multidomain fusion protein of Micobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) in a prokaryotic system. An hspX/esxS gene construct was synthesized and ligated into a pGH plasmid, E. coli TOP10 cells were transformed, and the vector was purified. The vector containing the construct and pET-21b (+) plasmid were digested with the same enzymes and the construct was ligated into pET-21b (+). The accuracy of cloning was confirmed by colony PCR and sequencing. E. coli BL21 cells were transformed with the pET-21b (+)/hspX/esxS expression vector and protein expression was evaluated. Finally, the expressed fusion protein was purified on a Ni-IDA column and verified by SDS-PAGE and western blotting. The hspX/esxS gene construct was inserted into pET-21b (+) and recombinant protein expression was induced with IPTG in E. coli BL21 cells. Various concentrations of IPTG were tested to determine the optimum concentration for expression induction. The recombinant protein was expressed in insoluble inclusion bodies. Three molar guanidine HCl was used to solubilize the insoluble protein. An HspX/EsxS Mtb fusion protein was expressed in E. coli and the recombinant protein was purified. After immunological analysis, the HspX/EsxS fusion protein might be an anti-tuberculosis vaccine candidate in future clinical trial studies.

  13. Expression and purification of functional human mu opioid receptor from E.coli.

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    Yanbin Ma

    Full Text Available N-terminally his-tagged human mu opioid receptor, a G protein-coupled receptor was produced in E.coli employing synthetic codon-usage optimized constructs. The receptor was expressed in inclusion bodies and membrane-inserted in different E.coli strains. By optimizing the expression conditions the expression level for the membrane-integrated receptor was raised to 0.3-0.5 mg per liter of culture. Milligram quantities of receptor could be enriched by affinity chromatography from IPTG induced cultures grown at 18°C. By size exclusion chromatography the protein fraction with the fraction of alpha-helical secondary structure expected for a 7-TM receptor was isolated, by CD-spectroscopy an alpha-helical content of ca. 45% was found for protein solubilised in the detergent Fos-12. Receptor in Fos-12 micelles was shown to bind endomorphin-1 with a K(D of 61 nM. A final yield of 0.17 mg functional protein per liter of culture was obtained.

  14. Pyranose 2-oxidase from Phanerochaete chrysosporium : expression in E. coli and biochemical characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ines Pisanelli; Magdalena Kujawa; Oliver Spadiut; Roman Kittl; Petr Halada; Jindrich Volc; Michael D. Mozuch; Philip Kersten; Dietmar Haltrich; Clemens Peterbauer

    2009-01-01

    The presented work reports the isolation and heterologous expression of the p2ox gene encoding the flavoprotein pyranose 2-oxidase (P2Ox) from the basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium. The p2ox cDNA was inserted into the bacterial expression vector pET21a(+) and successfully expressed in Escherichia coli. We obtained active, fully flavinylated recombinant P2Ox in...

  15. High-level expression of Bacillus naganoensis pullulanase from recombinant Escherichia coli with auto-induction: effect of lac operator.

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    Yao Nie

    Full Text Available Pullulanase plays an important role in specific hydrolysis of branch points in amylopectin and is generally employed as an important enzyme in starch-processing industry. So far, however, the production level of pullulanase is still somewhat low from wide-type strains and even heterologous expression systems. Here the gene encoding Bacillus naganoensis pullulanase was amplified and cloned. For expression of the protein, two recombinant systems, Escherichia coli BL21(DE3/pET-20b(+-pul and E. coli BL21(DE3/pET-22b(+-pul, were constructed, both bearing T7 promoter and signal peptide sequence, but different in the existance of lac operator and lacI gene encoding lac repressor. Recombinant pullulanase was initially expressed with the activity of up to 14 U/mL by E. coli BL21(DE3/pET-20b(+-pul with IPTG induction in LB medium, but its expression level reduced continually with the extension of cryopreservation time and basal expression was observed. However, E. coli BL21(DE3/pET-22b(+-pul , involving lac operator downstream of T7 promoter to regulate foreign gene transcription, exhibited pullulanase activity consistently without detected basal expression. By investigating the effect of lac operator, basal expression of foreign protein was found to cause expression instability and negative effect on production of target protein. Thus double-repression strategy was proposed that lac operators in both chromosome and plasmid were bound with lac repressor to repress T7 RNA polymerase synthesis and target protein expression before induction. Consequently, the total activity of pullulanase was remarkably increased to 580 U/mL with auto-induction by lac operator-involved E. coli BL21(DE3/pET-22b(+-pul. When adding 0.6% glycine in culture, the extracellular production of pullulanase was significantly improved with the extracellular activity of 502 U/mL, which is a relatively higher level achieved to date for extracellular production of pullulanase. The

  16. Functional expression of a human GDP-L-fucose transporter in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förster-Fromme, Karin; Schneider, Sarah; Sprenger, Georg A; Albermann, Christoph

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the translocation of nucleotide-activated sugars from the cytosol across a membrane into the endoplasmatic reticulum or the Golgi apparatus which is an important step in the synthesis of glycoproteins and glycolipids in eukaryotes. The heterologous expression of the recombinant and codon-adapted human GDP-L-fucose antiporter gene SLC35C1 (encoding an N-terminal OmpA-signal sequence) led to a functional transporter protein located in the cytoplasmic membrane of Escherichia coli. The in vitro transport was investigated using inverted membrane vesicles. SLC35C1 is an antiporter specific for GDP-L-fucose and depending on the concomitant reverse transport of GMP. The recombinant transporter FucT1 exhibited an activity for the transport of 3 H-GDP-L-fucose with a V max of 8 pmol/min mg with a K m of 4 µM. The functional expression of SLC35C1 in GDP-L-fucose overproducing E. coli led to the export of GDP-L-fucose to the culture supernatant. The export of GDP-L-fucose by E. coli provides the opportunity for the engineering of a periplasmatic fucosylation reaction in recombinant bacterial cells.

  17. Expression of Caenorhabditis elegans antimicrobial peptide NLP-31 in Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Mei-Perng; Nathan, Sheila

    2014-09-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis, a fulminant disease endemic in Southeast Asia and Northern Australia. The standardized form of therapy is antibiotics treatment; however, the bacterium has become increasingly resistant to these antibiotics. This has spurred the need to search for alternative therapeutic agents. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are small proteins that possess broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. In a previous study, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans was infected by B. pseudomallei and a whole animal transcriptome analysis identified a number of AMP-encoded genes which were induced significantly in the infected worms. One of the AMPs identified is NLP-31 and to date, there are no reports of anti-B. pseudomallei activity demonstrated by NLP-31. To produce NLP-31 protein for future studies, the gene encoding for NLP-31 was cloned into the pET32b expression vector and transformed into Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). Protein expression was induced with 1 mM IPTG for 20 hours at 20°C and recombinant NLP-31 was detected in the soluble fraction. Taken together, a simple optimized heterologous production of AMPs in an E. coli expression system has been successfully developed.

  18. The SOS response is permitted in Escherichia coli strains deficient in the expression of the mazEF pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalderon, Ziva; Kumar, Sathish; Engelberg-Kulka, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    The Escherichia coli (E. coli) SOS response is the largest, most complex, and best characterized bacterial network induced by DNA damage. It is controlled by a complex network involving the RecA and LexA proteins. We have previously shown that the SOS response to DNA damage is inhibited by various elements involved in the expression of the E. coli toxin-antitoxin mazEF pathway. Since the mazEF module is present on the chromosomes of most E. coli strains, here we asked: Why is the SOS response found in so many E. coli strains? Is the mazEF module present but inactive in those strains? We examined three E. coli strains used for studies of the SOS response, strains AB1932, BW25113, and MG1655. We found that each of these strains is either missing or inhibiting one of several elements involved in the expression of the mazEF-mediated death pathway. Thus, the SOS response only takes place in E. coli cells in which one or more elements of the E. coli toxin-antitoxin module mazEF or its downstream pathway is not functioning.

  19. Cloning and expression of Tenebrio molitor antifreeze protein in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Chang-Wu; Zhang, Yi-Zheng

    2009-03-01

    A novel antifreeze protein cDNA was cloned by RT-PCR from the larva of the yellow mealworm Tenebrio molitor. The coding fragment of 339 bp encodes a protein of 112 amino acid residues and was fused to the expression vectors pET32a and pTWIN1. The resulted expression plasmids were transformed into Escherischia coli strains BL21 (DE3), ER2566, and Origami B (DE3), respectively. Several strategies were used for expression of the highly disulfide-bonded beta-helix-contained protein with the activity of antifreeze in different expression systems. A protocol for production of refolded and active T. molitor antifreeze protein in bacteria was obtained.

  20. Níveis de cromo-ácido nicotínico em dietas de suínos em crescimento e terminação Levels of chromium-nicotinic acid in diets for growing-finishing pigs

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    Gustavo Julio Mello Monteiro de Lima

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos de níveis crescentes de cromo dietético, na forma de ácido nicotínico, sobre o desempenho e nas características de carcaça de suínos. Noventa e seis suínos (Landrace x Large White x Duroc, machos castrados e fêmeas, com peso médio inicial de 25,93±0,57 kg foram distribuídos ao acaso em baias de dois animais do mesmo sexo, segundo um esquema fatorial 6 x 2 (6 níveis de Cr e 2 sexos. Uma dieta basal (0 ppb Cr foi suplementada com 100, 200, 300, 400 e 500 ppb de Cr, na forma de Cr-ácido nicotínico, incluído através do premix vitamínico. Os animais, aos 70 dias de experimento, foram pesados, abatidos, e as carcaças avaliadas utilizando-se a pistola Hennessy e o Método Brasileiro de Classificação de Carcaças. Houve efeito significativo (P0,05 do nível de Cr sobre qualquer dos parâmetros estudados, seja de desempenho ou de avaliação de carcaça por qualquer dos métodos utilizados. A adição de níveis de até 500 ppb de Cr, na forma de Cr-ácido nicotínico, não altera o desempenho e a qualidade de carcaça de suínos em crescimento e em terminação.Ninety-six barrows and gilts (Landrace x Large White x Duroc, with average initial weight of 25.93±0.57 kg, were used in order to evaluate the effects of Cr on performance and carcass characteristics, in a random block design, according to a 6 x 2 factorial arrangement (6 Cr levels x 2 sexes. A basal diet (0 ppb Cr was supplemented with 100, 200, 300, 400 e 500 ppb Cr, as Cr-nicotinic acid, added to the vitamin premix. On the 70th day of the experimental period, all animals were weighted, slaughtered and had their carcass evaluated using Hennessy probe and the Brazilian Carcass Classification Method. There was a significant sex effect (P0.05. The addition of up to 500 ppb Cr in the diet, in the form of Cr-nicotinic acid, did not improve performance and carcass traits of growing-finishing pigs.

  1. Tunable Control of an Escherichia coli Expression System for the Overproduction of Membrane Proteins by Titrated Expression of a Mutant lac Repressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong Keun; Lee, Dae-Hee; Kim, Oh Cheol; Kim, Jihyun F; Yoon, Sung Ho

    2017-09-15

    Most inducible expression systems suffer from growth defects, leaky basal induction, and inhomogeneous expression levels within a host cell population. These difficulties are most prominent with the overproduction of membrane proteins that are toxic to host cells. Here, we developed an Escherichia coli inducible expression system for membrane protein production based on titrated expression of a mutant lac repressor (mLacI). Performance of the mLacI inducible system was evaluated in conjunction with commonly used lac operator-based expression vectors using a T7 or tac promoter. Remarkably, expression of a target gene can be titrated by the dose-dependent addition of l-rhamnose, and the expression levels were homogeneous in the cell population. The developed system was successfully applied to overexpress three membrane proteins that were otherwise difficult to produce in E. coli. This gene expression control system can be easily applied to a broad range of existing protein expression systems and should be useful in constructing genetic circuits that require precise output signals.

  2. Expression and purification of PprI protein from D.radiodurans R1 in escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yongqin; Zhou Hui; Chen Jie; Yang Zhanshan

    2011-01-01

    In order to express and purify PprI protein from D.radiodurans R1 in E. coli, the full length of pprI gene was gained by PCR amplification using pCMV-HA-pprI as a template. The gene segment was inserted into vector pET-28a after digested by two restriction endonucleases Nco I and EcoR I. Then the recombinant vector pET-28a-His-pprI was transfected into E. coli BL21(DE3) RP. The PprI protein expression was induced by IPTG and the fusion protein was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. The expressive conditions of the protein such as E. coli' A 600 , concentration of IPTG, time and temperature of culture, were optimized. Finally the fusion protein was purified by Ni-NTA His Bind Resins and molecule boult. The experimental results show the fusion protein confirmed by Western blotting is 6 x His-PprI and its molecular weight is 37 kDa. The ladders of PprI protein at molecular weight 37 kDa were different due to difference of the PprI protein expression conditions if E. coli. The PprI protein exists both in supernatant and precipitation. The concentration of purified protein is about 0.15 mg/mL which was measured by BCA method. It is concluded that the recombinant plasmid pET-28a-His-pprI is constructed and the PprI fusion protein is expressed and purified. The results lay a solid foundation for studying the radio-resistance and immunity of PprI protein. (authors)

  3. Gene Expression during Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Soil and Water

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    Ashley D. Duffitt

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 at 15∘C under two experimental conditions (sterile soil and sterile natural water was examined. DNA microarrays of the entire set of E. coli O157:H7 genes were used to measure the genomic expression patterns after 14 days. Although the populations declined, some E. coli O157:H7 cells survived in sterile stream water up to 234 days and in sterile soil for up to 179 days. Cells incubated in soil microcosms for 14 days expressed genes for antibiotic resistance, biosynthesis, DNA replication and modification, metabolism, phages, transposons, plasmids, pathogenesis and virulence, antibiotic resistance, ribosomal proteins, the stress response, transcription, translation, and transport and binding proteins at significantly higher levels than cells grown in Luria broth. These results suggest that E. coli O157:H7 may develop a different phenotype during transport through the environment. Furthermore, this pathogen may become more resistant to antibiotics making subsequent infections more difficult to treat.

  4. Soluble expression and purifiation of hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg subgenotype B3 in Escherichia coli using thioredoxin fusion tag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmah Waty

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To express HBcAg protein (hepatitis B virus subgenotype B3 in Escherichia coli in soluble form. Methods: HBcAg sequence of hepatitis B virus subgenotype B3 was cloned into plasmid pET32a and introduced to E. coli BL21 (DE3. The E. coli was grown in Luria-Bertani (LB medium supplemented with ampicillin with agitation. Protein expression was induced by adding isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG at concentrations of 0.1 mmol/L, 0.3 mmol/L, and 0.5 mmol/L at room temperature (28 °C. The bacteria were dissolved in lysis buffer and lysed by freeze-thawing method then sonication. The fusion protein [thioredoxin A-(His6tag-HBcAg] was purified using immobilized metal affinity chromatography. The protein expression was analyzed by SDS-PAGE, dot blot, and western blot. Results: This research showed that DNA sequence of HBcAg could be propagated in pET32a and soluble protein was successfully expressed in E. coli. Induction with 0.3 mmol/L IPTG and 4-hour incubation was the best condition to express the HBcAg protein. SDS-PAGE and dot blot analysis showed that HBcAg protein could be expressed in E. coli. Western blot analysis showed that molecular weight of HBcAg fusion protein was about 38.5 kDa. Conclusions: This study confirmed that HBcAg protein could be expressed in soluble form in E. coli.

  5. Expression levels of chaperones influence biotransformation activity of recombinant Escherichia coli expressing Micrococcus luteus alcohol dehydrogenase and Pseudomonas putida Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, A-Hyong; Jeon, Eun-Yeong; Lee, Sun-Mee; Park, Jin-Byung

    2015-05-01

    We demonstrated for the first time that the archaeal chaperones (i.e., γ-prefoldin and thermosome) can stabilize enzyme activity in vivo. Ricinoleic acid biotransformation activity of recombinant Escherichia coli expressing Micrococcus luteus alcohol dehydrogenase and the Pseudomonas putida KT2440 Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase improved significantly with co-expression of γ-prefoldin or recombinant themosome originating from the deep-sea hyperthermophile archaea Methanocaldococcus jannaschii. Furthermore, the degree of enhanced activity was dependent on the expression levels of the chaperones. For example, whole-cell biotransformation activity was highest at 12 µmol/g dry cells/min when γ-prefoldin expression level was approximately 46% of the theoretical maximum. This value was approximately two-fold greater than that in E. coli, where the γ-prefoldin expression level was zero or set to the theoretical maximum. Therefore, it was assumed that the expression levels of chaperones must be optimized to achieve maximum biotransformation activity in whole-cell biocatalysts. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Co-ordinate single-cell expression of LEE4- and LEE5-encoded proteins of Escherichia coli O157:H7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, Andrew J; Naylor, Stuart W; Spears, Kevin J; Yull, Helen M; Dransfield, Tracy A; Oxford, Matthew; McKendrick, Iain J; Porter, Megan; Woodward, Martin J; Smith, David G E; Gally, David L

    2004-10-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a zoonotic pathogen that can express a type III secretion system (TTSS) considered important for colonization and persistence in ruminants. E. coli O157:H7 strains have been shown to vary markedly in levels of protein secreted using the TTSS and this study has confirmed that a high secretion phenotype is more prevalent among isolates associated with human disease than isolates shed by healthy cattle. The variation in secretion levels is a consequence of heterogeneous expression, being dependent on the proportion of bacteria in a population that are actively engaged in protein secretion. This was demonstrated by indirect immunofluorescence and eGFP fusions that examined the expression of locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE)-encoded factors in individual bacteria. In liquid media, the expression of EspA, tir::egfp, intimin, but not map::egfp were co-ordinated in a subpopulation of bacteria. In contrast to E. coli O157:H7, expression of tir::egfp in EPEC E2348/69 was equivalent in all bacteria although the same fusion exhibited variable expression when transformed into an E. coli O157:H7 background. An E. coli O157:H7 strain deleted for the LEE demonstrated weak but variable expression of tir::egfp indicating that the elements controlling the heterogeneous expression lie outside the LEE. The research also demonstrated the rapid induction of tir::egfp and map::egfp on contact with bovine epithelial cells. This control in E. coli O157:H7 may be required to limit exposure of key surface antigens, EspA, Tir and intimin during colonization of cattle but allow their rapid production on contact with bovine gastrointestinal epithelium at the terminal rectum.

  7. Cloning, Codon Optimization, and Expression of Yersinia intermedia Phytase Gene in E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, Maryam; Saffar, Behnaz; Shareghi, Behzad

    2016-06-01

    Phytate is an anti-nutritional factor in plants, which catches the most phosphorus contents and some vital minerals. Therefore, Phytase is added mainly as an additive to the monogastric animals' foods to hydrolyze phytate and increase absorption of phosphorus. Y. intermedia phytase is a new phytase with special characteristics such as high specific activity, pH stability, and thermostability. Our aim was to clone, express, and characterizea codon optimized Y. intermedia phytase gene in E. coli . The Y. intermedia phytase gene was optimized according to the codon usage in E. coli . The sequence was synthesized and sub-cloned in pET-22b (+) vector and transformed into E. coli Bl21 (DE3). The protein was expressed in the presence of IPTG at a final concentration of 1 mM at 30°C. The purification of recombinant protein was performed by Ni 2+ affinity chromatography. Phytase activity and stability were determined in various pH and temperatures. The codon optimized Y. intermedia phytase gene was sub-cloned successfully.The expression was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis. The recombinant enzyme (approximately 45 kDa) was purified. Specific activity of enzyme was 3849 (U.mg -1 ) with optimal pH 5 and optimal temperature of 55°C. Thermostability (80°C for 15 min) and pH stability (3-6) of the enzyme were 56 and more than 80%, respectively. The results of the expression and enzyme characterization revealed that the optimized Y. intermedia phytase gene has a good potential to be produced commercially andto be applied in animals' foodsindustry.

  8. Expression and purification of soluble recombinant Hexastatin in E. coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Xin; Wen Lei; Song Naling; Wang Dezhi; Zhao Qiren

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To construct the expression vector of Hexastatin gene, to express and to purify the recombinant protein for further activity research. Methods: The human Hexastatin gene was isolated by RTPCR from EC9706 cells total RNA and cloned into pMD18-T for sequencing. Then the Hexastatin gene was subcloned into pMAL-c4x expression vector and induced to express by IPTG. The recombinant fusion protein was purified with Amylose Resin Heads. Results: RT-PCR product was about 687 bp and its sequence was the same as that of Hexastatin reported. The recombinant protein was expressed in E. coli BL21 with high level and the soluble protein accounted for 24.8% of the total bacterial protein. The purification of recombinant protein purified with Amylose Resin Heads reached more than 90%. Conclusion: The cloning, expression and purification of human Hexastatin have laid a foundation for its anti-angiogenesis therapy for tumor. (authors)

  9. Effects of Selected Egyptian Honeys on the Cellular Ultrastructure and the Gene Expression Profile of Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reham Wasfi

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to: (i evaluate the antibacterial activities of three Egyptian honeys collected from different floral sources (namely, citrus, clover, and marjoram against Escherichia coli; (ii investigate the effects of these honeys on bacterial ultrastructure; and (iii assess the anti-virulence potential of these honeys, by examining their impacts on the expression of eight selected genes (involved in biofilm formation, quorum sensing, and stress survival in the test organism. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of the honey samples against E. coli ATCC 8739 were assessed by the broth microdilution assay in the presence and absence of catalase enzyme. Impacts of the honeys on the cellular ultrastructure and the expression profiles of the selected genes of E. coli were examined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR analysis, respectively. The susceptibility tests showed promising antibacterial activities of all the tested honeys against E. coli. This was supported by the TEM observations, which revealed "ghost" cells lacking DNA, in addition to cells with increased vacuoles, and/or with irregular shrunken cytoplasm. Among the tested honeys, marjoram exhibited the highest total antibacterial activity and the highest levels of peroxide-dependent activity. The qPCR analysis showed that all honey-treated cells share a similar overall pattern of gene expression, with a trend toward reduced expression of the virulence genes of interest. Our results indicate that some varieties of the Egyptian honey have the potential to be effective inhibitor and virulence modulator of E. coli via multiple molecular targets.

  10. Functional expression of spider neurotoxic peptide huwentoxin-I in E. coli.

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    Er Meng

    Full Text Available The coding sequence of huwentoxin-I, a neurotoxic peptide isolated from the venom of the Chinese spider Ornithoctonus huwena, was amplified by PCR using the cDNA library constructed from the spider venom glands. The cloned fragment was inserted into the expression vector pET-40b and transformed into the E. coli strain BL21 (DE3. The expression of a soluble fusion protein, disulfide interchange protein (DsbC-huwentoxin-I, was auto-induced in the periplasm of E. coli in the absence of IPTG. After partial purification using a Ni-NTA column, the expressed fusion protein was digested using enterokinase to release heteroexpressed huwentoxin-I and was further purified using RP-HPLC. The resulting peptide was subjected to gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry analysis. The molecular weight of the heteroexpressed huwentoxin-I was 3750.69, which is identical to that of the natural form of the peptide isolated from spider venom. The physiological properties of the heteroexpressed huwentoxin-I were further analyzed using a whole-cell patch clamp assay. The heteroexpressed huwentoxin-I was able to block currents generated by human Na(v1.7 at an IC₅₀ of 640 nmole/L, similar to that of the natural huwentoxin-I, which is 630 nmole/L.

  11. Functional Expression of Spider Neurotoxic Peptide Huwentoxin-I in E. coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Liu, Yan-Bo; Peng, Kuan; Liang, Songping; Zhang, Dong-Yi

    2011-01-01

    The coding sequence of huwentoxin-I, a neurotoxic peptide isolated from the venom of the Chinese spider Ornithoctonus huwena, was amplified by PCR using the cDNA library constructed from the spider venom glands. The cloned fragment was inserted into the expression vector pET-40b and transformed into the E. coli strain BL21 (DE3). The expression of a soluble fusion protein, disulfide interchange protein (DsbC)-huwentoxin-I, was auto-induced in the periplasm of E. coli in the absence of IPTG. After partial purification using a Ni-NTA column, the expressed fusion protein was digested using enterokinase to release heteroexpressed huwentoxin-I and was further purified using RP-HPLC. The resulting peptide was subjected to gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry analysis. The molecular weight of the heteroexpressed huwentoxin-I was 3750.69, which is identical to that of the natural form of the peptide isolated from spider venom. The physiological properties of the heteroexpressed huwentoxin-I were further analyzed using a whole-cell patch clamp assay. The heteroexpressed huwentoxin-I was able to block currents generated by human Nav1.7 at an IC50 of 640 nmole/L, similar to that of the natural huwentoxin-I, which is 630 nmole/L. PMID:21731778

  12. Systematic comparison of co-expression of multiple recombinant thermophilic enzymes in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Huang, Rui; Zhang, Y-H Percival

    2017-06-01

    The precise control of multiple heterologous enzyme expression levels in one Escherichia coli strain is important for cascade biocatalysis, metabolic engineering, synthetic biology, natural product synthesis, and studies of complexed proteins. We systematically investigated the co-expression of up to four thermophilic enzymes (i.e., α-glucan phosphorylase (αGP), phosphoglucomutase (PGM), glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH)) in E. coli BL21(DE3) by adding T7 promoter or T7 terminator of each gene for multiple genes in tandem, changing gene alignment, and comparing one or two plasmid systems. It was found that the addition of T7 terminator after each gene was useful to decrease the influence of the upstream gene. The co-expression of the four enzymes in E. coli BL21(DE3) was demonstrated to generate two NADPH molecules from one glucose unit of maltodextrin, where NADPH was oxidized to convert xylose to xylitol. The best four-gene co-expression system was based on two plasmids (pET and pACYC) which harbored two genes. As a result, apparent enzymatic activities of the four enzymes were regulated to be at similar levels and the overall four-enzyme activity was the highest based on the formation of xylitol. This study provides useful information for the precise control of multi-enzyme-coordinated expression in E. coli BL21(DE3).

  13. Bovine milk fat globule membrane affects virulence expression in Escherichia coli O157:H7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellez, A; Corredig, M; Guri, A; Zanabria, R; Griffiths, M W; Delcenserie, V

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of the bovine milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) on the virulence of Escherichia coli O157:H7. The MFGM was extracted from raw or heat-treated milk, resulting in 2 preparations differing in protein composition. Both heated and raw MFGM exerted an inhibitory effect on Shiga toxin gene expression by E. coli O157:H7 (ratios of -7.69 and -5.96, respectively). Interestingly, the effect was stronger with heated MFGM, with a larger decrease in expression of the virulence gene fliC (ratio of -9.43). The difference in effect observed between heated and raw MFGM could be explained by the difference in protein composition between the 2 preparations. These results show, for the first time, a specific effect of MFGM on expressionof Shiga toxin genes as well as genes involved in the motility of E. coli O157:H7. This may offer a new approach to mitigate the adverse health effects caused by E. coli O157:H7 infections. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Efficient cell-free expression with the endogenous E. Coli RNA polymerase and sigma factor 70

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noireaux Vincent

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Escherichia coli cell-free expression systems use bacteriophage RNA polymerases, such as T7, to synthesize large amounts of recombinant proteins. These systems are used for many applications in biotechnology, such as proteomics. Recently, informational processes have been reconstituted in vitro with cell-free systems. These synthetic approaches, however, have been seriously limited by a lack of transcription modularity. The current available cell-free systems have been optimized to work with bacteriophage RNA polymerases, which put significant restrictions to engineer processes related to biological information. The development of efficient cell-free systems with broader transcription capabilities is required to study complex informational processes in vitro. Results In this work, an efficient cell-free expression system that uses the endogenous E. coli RNA polymerase only and sigma factor 70 for transcription was prepared. Approximately 0.75 mg/ml of Firefly luciferase and enhanced green fluorescent protein were produced in batch mode. A plasmid was optimized with different regulatory parts to increase the expression. In addition, a new eGFP was engineered that is more translatable in cell-free systems than the original eGFP. The protein production was characterized with three different adenosine triphosphate (ATP regeneration systems: creatine phosphate (CP, phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP, and 3-phosphoglyceric acid (3-PGA. The maximum protein production was obtained with 3-PGA. Preparation of the crude extract was streamlined to a simple routine procedure that takes 12 hours including cell culture. Conclusions Although it uses the endogenous E. coli transcription machinery, this cell-free system can produce active proteins in quantities comparable to bacteriophage systems. The E. coli transcription provides much more possibilities to engineer informational processes in vitro. Many E. coli promoters/operators specific to sigma

  15. Comparative proteomic analysis of proteins expression changes in the mammary tissue of cows infected with Escherichia coli mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiao-wei; Yang, Yong-xin; Huang, Dong-wei; Cheng, Guang-long; Zhao, Hui-ling

    2015-01-01

    Cows infected with Escherichia (E.) coli usually experience severe clinical symptoms, including damage to mammary tissues, reduced milk yield, and altered milk composition. In order to investigate the host response to E. coli infection and discover novel markers for mastitis treatment, mammary tissue samples were collected from healthy cows and bovines with naturally occurring severe E. coli mastitis. Changes of mammary tissue proteins were examined using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and label-free proteomic approaches. A total of 95 differentially expressed proteins were identified. Of these, 56 proteins were categorized according to molecular function, cellular component, and biological processes. The most frequent biological processes influenced by the proteins were response to stress, transport, and establishment of localization. Furthermore, a network analysis of the proteins with altered expression in mammary tissues demonstrated that these factors are predominantly involved with binding and structural molecule activities. Vimentin and a-enolase were central "functional hubs" in the network. Based on results from the present study, disease-induced alterations of protein expression in mammary glands and potential markers for the effective treatment of E. coli mastitis were identified. These data have also helped elucidate defense mechanisms that protect the mammary glands and promote the pathogenesis of E. coli mastitis.

  16. Optimization of the Expression of DT386-BR2 Fusion Protein in Escherichia coli using Response Surface Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiee, Fatemeh; Rabbani, Mohammad; Jahanian-Najafabadi, Ali

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the best condition for the production of DT386-BR2 fusion protein, an immunotoxin consisting of catalytic and translocation domains of diphtheria toxin fused to BR2, a cancer specific cell penetrating peptide, for targeted eradication of cancer cells, in terms of the host, cultivation condition, and culture medium. Recombinant pET28a vector containing the codons optimized for the expression of the DT386-BR2 gene was transformed to different strains of Escherichia coli ( E. coli BL21 DE3, E. coli Rosetta DE3 and E. coli Rosetta-gami 2 DE3), followed by the induction of expression using 1 mM IPTG. Then, the strain with the highest ability to produce recombinant protein was selected and used to determine the best expression condition using response surface methodology (RSM). Finally, the best culture medium was selected. Densitometry analysis of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the expressed fusion protein showed that E. coli Rosetta DE3 produced the highest amounts of the recombinant fusion protein when quantified by 1 mg/ml bovine serum albumin (178.07 μg/ml). Results of RSM also showed the best condition for the production of the recombinant fusion protein was induction with 1 mM IPTG for 2 h at 37°C. Finally, it was established that terrific broth could produce higher amounts of the fusion protein when compared to other culture media. In this study, we expressed the recombinant DT386-BR2 fusion protein in large amounts by optimizing the expression host, cultivation condition, and culture medium. This fusion protein will be subjected to purification and evaluation of its cytotoxic effects in future studies.

  17. Optimization of the Expression of DT386-BR2 Fusion Protein in Escherichia coli using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Shafiee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to determine the best condition for the production of DT386-BR2 fusion protein, an immunotoxin consisting of catalytic and translocation domains of diphtheria toxin fused to BR2, a cancer specific cell penetrating peptide, for targeted eradication of cancer cells, in terms of the host, cultivation condition, and culture medium. Materials and Methods: Recombinant pET28a vector containing the codons optimized for the expression of the DT386-BR2 gene was transformed to different strains of Escherichia coli (E. coli BL21 DE3, E. coli Rosetta DE3 and E. coli Rosetta-gami 2 DE3, followed by the induction of expression using 1 mM IPTG. Then, the strain with the highest ability to produce recombinant protein was selected and used to determine the best expression condition using response surface methodology (RSM. Finally, the best culture medium was selected. Results: Densitometry analysis of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the expressed fusion protein showed that E. coli Rosetta DE3 produced the highest amounts of the recombinant fusion protein when quantified by 1 mg/ml bovine serum albumin (178.07 μg/ml. Results of RSM also showed the best condition for the production of the recombinant fusion protein was induction with 1 mM IPTG for 2 h at 37°C. Finally, it was established that terrific broth could produce higher amounts of the fusion protein when compared to other culture media. Conclusion: In this study, we expressed the recombinant DT386-BR2 fusion protein in large amounts by optimizing the expression host, cultivation condition, and culture medium. This fusion protein will be subjected to purification and evaluation of its cytotoxic effects in future studies.

  18. Role of leader peptide synthesis in tryptophanase operon expression in Escherichia coli K-12.

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, V; Yanofsky, C

    1986-01-01

    We used site-directed mutagenesis to replace the Escherichia coli tryptophanase (tna) operon leader peptide start codon with AUC. This change greatly decreased the uninduced rate of tna operon expression, and it also lowered the response to inducer. We conclude that leader peptide synthesis plays an essential role in tna operon expression.

  19. Cloning and expression of cellulase XF-818 of Xylella fastidiosa in Escherichia Coli Clonagem e expressão da celulase Xf-818 de Xylella Fastidiosa em Escherichia Coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Arno Wulff

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Xylella fastidiosa's genome was the first of a plant pathogen to be completely sequenced. Through comparative sequence analysis many genes were identified and, among them, several potentially involved in plant-pathogen interaction. However, the biological role of each gene should be assigned experimentally. On this regard, heterologous protein expression is a powerful tool to produce proteins from such genes, allowing their characterization. X. fastidiosa lives inside xylem vessels and eventually would degrade pit membranes from xylem cells to move radialy into the host. The identification of several putative plant cell wall degrading enzymes on X. fastidiosa genome prompted the assession of the function of such proteins. The open reading frame (ORF Xf-818 was cloned into expression vector pET20b and E. coli cells harboring such plasmid exhibited cellulase activity. Using IPTG at 0.4 mmol L-1 with a 12 h incubation at 32°C are the best conditions to produce higher amounts of heterologous protein. The enzyme degrades cellulose confirming the endoglucanase activity of Xf-818.Xylella fastidiosa foi a primeira bactéria fitopatogênica que teve seu genoma completamente seqüenciado. A identificação de diversos genes, através de similaridade de seqüências, indicou os possíveis mecanismos de patogenicidade da bactéria. Entretanto, a determinação da função de um gene requer a confirmação experimental e, neste aspecto, a expressão heteróloga é uma poderosa ferramenta. X. fastidiosa coloniza somente o xilema das plantas hospedeiras e a identificação putativa de diversos genes semelhantes a enzimas que degradam a parede celular vegetal, estimularam o presente estudo de catacterização destas enzimas. A clonagem da ORF Xf-818 de X. fastidiosa no vetor de expressão pET20b possibilitou a produção da proteína heterologamente em E. coli. O emprego de IPTG a 0,4 mmol L-1 com 12 h a 32°C, possibilitou as melhores condições para E. coli

  20. A Comparative Analysis of Recombinant Expression and Solubility Screening of Two Phytases in E. coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Pandey

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbial phytases, especially from fungal and bacterial sources, have received much attention as food additives in human nutrition and as feed supplements for monogastric animals. An effective expression screening method for recombinant production of this enzyme on a small scale is industrially desirable. An effort has been made in this work to clone and express phytase genes from Aspergillus sp. and Escherichia coli with the selected host, vector and inducer combination. Albeit the formation of insoluble inclusion bodies by fungal phytase, recombinant E. coli appA was effectively expressed in a cost-effective manner in the periplasm of BL21plysS using an inducer concentration of 0.01 mM in 4 h of growth. Enzyme was purified in three consecutive steps and functional studies were carried out.

  1. Screening of genetic parameters for soluble protein expression in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vernet, Erik; Kotzsch, Alexander; Voldborg, Bjørn

    2011-01-01

    Soluble expression of proteins in a relevant form for functional and structural investigations still often remains a challenge. Although many biochemical factors are known to affect solubility, a thorough investigation of yield-limiting factors is normally not feasible in high-throughput efforts....... Here we present a screening strategy for expression of biomedically relevant proteins in Escherichia coli using a panel of six different genetic variations. These include engineered strains for rare codon supplementation, increased disulfide bond formation in the cytoplasm and novel vectors...... for secretion to the periplasm or culture medium. Combining these variants with expression construct truncations design, we report on parallel cloning and expression of more than 300 constructs representing 24 selected proteins; including full-length variants of human growth factors, interleukins and growth...

  2. Cloning, expression and purification of d-tagatose 3-epimerase gene from Escherichia coli JM109.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaoliang; Zhou, Xiaohui; Yang, Zi; Xu, Le; Yu, Yuxiu; Jia, Lingling; Li, Guoqing

    2015-10-01

    An unknown d-tagatose 3-epimerase (DTE) containing a IoIE domain was identified and cloned from Escherichia coli. This gene was subcloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pET-15b, and induced by IPTG in E. coli BL21 expression system. Through His-select gel column purification and fast-protein liquid chromatography, highly purified and stable DTE protein was produced. The molecular weight of the DTE protein was estimated to be 29.8kDa. The latest 83 DTE sequences from public database were selected and analyzed by molecular clustering, multi-sequence alignment. DTEs were roughly divided into five categories. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Controlling Citrate Synthase Expression by CRISPR/Cas9 Genome Editing for n-Butanol Production in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heo, Min-Ji; Jung, Hwi-Min; Um, Jaeyong

    2017-01-01

    Genome editing using CRISPR/Cas9 was successfully demonstrated in Esherichia coli to effectively produce n-butanol in a defined medium under microaerobic condition. The butanol synthetic pathway genes including those encoding oxygen-tolerant alcohol dehydrogenase were overexpressed in metabolically...... prediction program, UTR designer, and modified using the CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing method to reduce its expression level. E. coli strains with decreased citrate synthase expression produced more butanol and the citrate synthase activity was correlated with butanol production. These results demonstrate...

  4. Expression, purification, and activity assay of peptide deformylase from Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Xuchun; Hu, Jinwei; Wang, Lijuan; Zhu, Zhifeng; Xu, Qiong; Lv, Junqiang; Fu, Zheng; Sun, Yajun; Sun, Jia; Lin, Gang; Lu, Rong; Yao, Zhi

    2011-11-01

    Peptide deformylase (PDF) is considered an attractive target for screening novel antibiotics. The PDF from Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus are representative of the gram-negative species type of PDF (type I PDF) and the gram-positive species type of PDF (type II PDF), respectively. They could be used for screening broad-spectrum antibiotics. Herein, we cloned the def gene by PCR, inserted it into plasmid pET-22b-def, and transformed the plasmid into E. coli BL21 (DE3) cells, then the cells were induced by IPTG to express PDF. E. coli Ni(2+)-PDF was extracted and purified by ion-exchange chromatography and gel filtration chromatography. S. aureus PDFs were extracted and purified using the MagExtractor kit. The nickel form of S. aureus PDF was obtained by adding NiCl(2) to all reagents used for purification. Iron-enriched S. aureus PDF was obtained by adding FeCl(3) to the growth medium for E. coli BL21 (DE3) cells and adding FeCl(3) and catalase to all reagents used for purification. The activities of PDFs were analyzed, compared, and grouped according to the experimental conditions that produced optimal activity, and we used actinonin as an inhibitor of PDF and calculated the IC(50) value. We obtained high expression of E. coli and S. aureus PDF with high activity and stability. The function of PDFs was inhibited by actinonin in a dose-dependent manner. Results may be helpful for future mechanistic investigations of PDF as well as high-throughput screening for other PDF inhibitors.

  5. Purification and characterization of Desulfovibrio vulgaris (Hildenborough) hydrogenase expressed in Escherichia coli.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voordouw, G.; Hagen, W.R.; Kruse-Wolters, M.; Berkel-Arts, van A.; Veeger, C.

    1987-01-01

    Hydrogenase from Desulfovibrio vulgaris (Hildenborough) is a heterologous dimer of molecular mass 46 + 13.5 kDa. Its two structural genes have been cloned on a 4664-base-pair fragment of known sequence in the vector pUC9. Expression of hydrogenase polypeptides in Escherichia coli transformed with

  6. High-level expression of soluble recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli using an HE-maltotriose-binding protein fusion tag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yingqian; Guo, Wanying; Su, Bingqian; Guo, Yujie; Wang, Jiang; Chu, Beibei; Yang, Guoyu

    2018-02-01

    Recombinant proteins are commonly expressed in prokaryotic expression systems for large-scale production. The use of genetically engineered affinity and solubility enhancing fusion proteins has increased greatly in recent years, and there now exists a considerable repertoire of these that can be used to enhance the expression, stability, solubility, folding, and purification of their fusion partner. Here, a modified histidine tag (HE) used as an affinity tag was employed together with a truncated maltotriose-binding protein (MBP; consisting of residues 59-433) from Pyrococcus furiosus as a solubility enhancing tag accompanying a tobacco etch virus protease-recognition site for protein expression and purification in Escherichia coli. Various proteins tagged at the N-terminus with HE-MBP(Pyr) were expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3) cells to determine expression and solubility relative to those tagged with His6-MBP or His6-MBP(Pyr). Furthermore, four HE-MBP(Pyr)-fused proteins were purified by immobilized metal affinity chromatography to assess the affinity of HE with immobilized Ni 2+ . Our results showed that HE-MBP(Pyr) represents an attractive fusion protein allowing high levels of soluble expression and purification of recombinant protein in E. coli. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Expression, purification and crystallization of the Cmi immunity protein from Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Römer, Christin; Patzer, Silke I.; Albrecht, Reinhard; Zeth, Kornelius; Braun, Volkmar

    2011-01-01

    The colicin M immunity protein Cmi protects E. coli cells against killing by colicin M. The Cmi protein was produced for structure determination and crystals were obtained which diffracted to high resolution. Many bacteria kill related bacteria by secretion of bacteriocins. In Escherichia coli, the colicin M protein kills E. coli after uptake into the periplasm. Self-protection from destruction is provided by the co-expressed immunity protein. The colicin M immunity protein (Cmi) was cloned, overexpressed and purified to homogeneity. The correct fold of purified Cmi was analyzed by activity tests and circular-dichroism spectroscopy. Crystallization trials yielded crystals, one of which diffracted to a resolution of 1.9 Å in the orthorhombic space group C222 1 . The crystal packing, with unit-cell parameters a = 66.02, b = 83.47, c = 38.30 Å, indicated the presence of one monomer in the asymmetric unit with a solvent content of 53%

  8. Diversification of gene expression during formation of static submerged biofilms by Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Besharova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Many bacteria primarily exist in nature as structured multicellular communities, so called biofilms. Biofilm formation is a highly regulated process that includes the transition from the motile planktonic to sessile biofilm lifestyle. Cellular differentiation within a biofilm is a commonly accepted concept but it remains largely unclear when, where and how exactly such differentiation arises. Here we used fluorescent transcriptional reporters to quantitatively analyze spatio-temporal expression patterns of several groups of genes during the formation of submerged Escherichia coli biofilms in an open static system. We first confirm that formation of such submerged biofilms as well as pellicles at the liquid-air interface requires the major matrix component, curli, and flagella-mediated motility. We further demonstrate that in this system, diversification of gene expression leads to emergence of at least three distinct subpopulations of E. coli, which differ in their levels of curli and flagella expression, and in the activity of the stationary phase sigma factor σS. Our study reveals mutually exclusive expression of curli fibers and flagella at the single cell level, with high curli levels being confined to dense cell aggregates/microcolonies and flagella expression showing an opposite expression pattern. Interestingly, despite the known σS-dependence of curli induction, there was only a partial correlation between the σS activity and curli expression, with subpopulations of cells having high σS activity but low curli expression and vice versa. Finally, consistent with different physiology of the observed subpopulations, we show striking differences between the growth rates of cells within and outside of aggregates.

  9. High-level expression and purification of soluble recombinant FGF21 protein by SUMO fusion in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Yadong

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21 is a promising drug candidate to combat metabolic diseases. However, high-level expression and purification of recombinant FGF21 (rFGF21 in Escherichia coli (E. coli is difficult because rFGF21 forms inclusion bodies in the bacteria making it difficult to purify and obtain high concentrations of bioactive rFGF21. To overcome this problem, we fused the FGF21 with SUMO (Small ubiquitin-related modifier by polymerase chain reaction (PCR, and expressed the fused gene in E. coli BL21(DE3. Results By inducing with IPTG, SUMO-FGF21 was expressed at a high level. Its concentration reached 30% of total protein, and exceeded 95% of all soluble proteins. The fused protein was purified by DEAE sepharose FF and Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. Once cleaved by the SUMO protease, the purity of rFGF21 by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was shown to be higher than 96% with low endotoxin level (in vivo animal experiments showed that rFGF21 produced by using this method, could decrease the concentration of plasma glucose in diabetic rats by streptozotocin (STZ injection. Conclusions This study demonstrated that SUMO, when fused with FGF21, was able to promote its soluble expression of the latter in E. coli, making it more convenient to purify rFGF21 than previously. This may be a better method to produce rFGF21 for pharmaceutical research and development.

  10. Efficient biosynthesis of L-phenylglycine by an engineered Escherichia coli with a tunable multi-enzyme-coordinate expression system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiaoli; Zhou, Junping; Yang, Taowei; Zhang, Xian; Xu, Meijuan; Rao, Zhiming

    2018-03-01

    Whole-cell catalysis with co-expression of two or more enzymes in a single host as a simple low-cost biosynthesis method has been widely studied and applied but hardly with regulation of multi-enzyme expression. Here we developed an efficient whole-cell catalyst for biosynthesis of L-phenylglycine (L-Phg) from benzoylformic acid through co-expression of leucine dehydrogenase from Bacillus cereus (BcLeuDH) and NAD + -dependent mutant formate dehydrogenase from Candida boidinii (CbFDH A10C ) in Escherichia coli with tunable multi-enzyme-coordinate expression system. By co-expressing one to four copies of CbFDH A10C and optimization of the RBS sequence of BcLeuDH in the expression system, the ratio of BcLeuDH to CbFDH in E. coli BL21/pETDuet-rbs 4 leudh-3fdh A10C was finally regulated to 2:1, which was the optimal one determined by enzyme-catalyzed synthesis. The catalyst activity of E. coli BL21/pETDuet-rbs 4 leudh-3fdh A10C was 28.4 mg L -1  min -1  g -1 dry cell weight for L-Phg production using whole-cell transformation, it's was 3.7 times higher than that of engineered E. coli without enzyme expression regulation. Under optimum conditions (pH 8.0 and 35 °C), 60 g L -1 benzoylformic acid was completely converted to pure chiral L-Phg in 4.5 h with 10 g L -1 dry cells and 50.4 g L -1 ammonium formate, and with enantiomeric excess > 99.9%. This multi-enzyme-coordinate expression system strategy significantly improved L-Phg productivity and demonstrated a novel low-cost method for enantiopure L-Phg production.

  11. Relation between tetR and tetA expression in tetracycline resistant Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Thea S. B.; Overgaard, Martin; Nielsen, Søren S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tetracyclines are among the most used antibiotics in livestock worldwide. Resistance is widely disseminated in Escherichia coli, where it is generally mediated by tetracycline efflux pumps, such as TetA. Expression of tetracycline efflux pumps is tightly controlled by the repressor Tet...

  12. Vanillin production using Escherichia coli cells over-expressing isoeugenol monooxygenase of Pseudomonas putida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Mamoru; Okada, Yukiyoshi; Yoshida, Toyokazu; Nagasawa, Toru

    2008-04-01

    The isoeugenol monooxygenase gene of Pseudomonas putida IE27 was inserted into an expression vector, pET21a, under the control of the T7 promoter. The recombinant plasmid was introduced into Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) cells, containing no vanillin-degrading activity. The transformed E. coli BL21(DE3) cells produced 28.3 g vanillin/l from 230 mM isoeugenol, with a molar conversion yield of 81% at 20 degrees C after 6 h. In the reaction system, no accumulation of undesired by-products, such as vanillic acid or acetaldehyde, was observed.

  13. Global gene expression profiling of the asymptomatic bacteriuria Escherichia coli strain 83972 in the human urinary tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hancock, Viktoria; Klemm, Per

    2006-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are an important health problem worldwide, with many million cases each year. Escherichia coli is the most common organism causing UTIs in humans. The asymptomatic bacteriuria E. coli strain 83972 is an excellent colonizer of the human urinary tract, where it causes...... long-term bladder colonization. The strain has been used for prophylactic purposes in patients prone to more severe and recurrent UTIs. For this study, we used DNA microarrays to monitor the expression profile of strain 83972 in the human urinary tract. Significant differences in expression levels were...

  14. Functional Properties of Mouse Chitotriosidase Expressed in the Periplasmic Space of Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Kimura

    Full Text Available Chitotriosidase (Chit1 is an enzyme associated with various diseases, including Gaucher disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Alzheimer disease and cystic fibrosis. In this study, we first expressed mouse mature Chit1 fused with V5 and (His6 tags at the C-terminus (Chit1-V5-His in the cytoplasm of Escherichia coli and found that most of the expressed protein was insoluble. In contrast, Chit1 tagged with Protein A at the N-terminus and V5-His at the C-terminus, was expressed in the periplasmic space of E. coli as a soluble protein and successfully purified. We evaluated the chitinolytic properties of the recombinant enzyme using 4-nitrophenyl N,N'-diacetyl-β-D-chitobioside [4NP-chitobioside, 4NP-(GlcNAc2] and found that its activity was comparable to CHO cells-expressed Chit1-V5-His. Optimal conditions for the E. coli-produced Chit1 were pH ~5.0 at 50°C. Chit1 was stable after 1 h incubation at pH 5.0~11.0 on ice and its chitinolytic activity was lost at pH 2.0, although the affinity to chitin remained unchanged. Chit1 efficiently cleaved crystalline and colloidal chitin substrates as well as oligomers of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc releasing primarily (GlcNAc2 fragments at pH 5.0. On the other hand, (GlcNAc3 was relatively resistant to digestion by Chit1. The degradation of 4NP-(GlcNAc2 and (GlcNAc3 was less evident at pH 7.0~8.0, while (GlcNAc2 production from colloidal chitin and (GlcNAc6 at these pH conditions remained strong at the neutral conditions. Our results indicate that Chit1 degrades chitin substrates under physiological conditions and suggest its important pathophysiological roles in vivo.

  15. A new strategy for full-length Ebola virus glycoprotein expression in E.coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zai, Junjie; Yi, Yinhua; Xia, Han; Zhang, Bo; Yuan, Zhiming

    2016-12-01

    Ebola virus (EBOV) causes severe hemorrhagic fever in humans and non-human primates with high rates of fatality. Glycoprotein (GP) is the only envelope protein of EBOV, which may play a critical role in virus attachment and entry as well as stimulating host protective immune responses. However, the lack of expression of full-length GP in Escherichia coli hinders the further study of its function in viral pathogenesis. In this study, the vp40 gene was fused to the full-length gp gene and cloned into a prokaryotic expression vector. We showed that the VP40-GP and GP-VP40 fusion proteins could be expressed in E.coli at 16 °C. In addition, it was shown that the position of vp40 in the fusion proteins affected the yields of the fusion proteins, with a higher level of production of the fusion protein when vp40 was upstream of gp compared to when it was downstream. The results provide a strategy for the expression of a large quantity of EBOV full-length GP, which is of importance for further analyzing the relationship between the structure and function of GP and developing an antibody for the treatment of EBOV infection.

  16. DNA-damaging agents stimulate gene expression at specific loci in Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenyon, C.J.; Walker, G.C.

    1988-05-01

    Operon fusions in Escherichia coli were obtained that showed increased beta-galactosidase expression in response to treatment with the DNA-damaging agent mitomycin C. These fusions were generated by using the Mud(ApR, lac) vector to insert the lactose structural genes randomly into the bacterial chromosome. Induction of beta-galactosidase in these strains, which carried fusions of lac to these din (damage-inducible) loci, was (i) triggered by UV light as well as by mitomycin C and (ii) abolished by either a recA- or a lexA- mutation. Similar characteristics of induction were observed when the lactose genes were fused to a prophage lambda promoter by using Mud(ApR, lac). These results indicate that E. coli contains a set of genes that, like prophage lambda genes, are expressed in response to DNA-damaging agents and regulated by the recA and lexA gene products. These din genes map at five bacterial loci. One din::Mud(ApR, lac) insertion results in a UV-sensitive phenotype and may be within the uvrA transcriptional unit.

  17. Enhancement of crystallinity of cellulose produced by Escherichia coli through heterologous expression of bcsD gene from Gluconacetobacter xylinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajadi, Elaheh; Babaipour, Valiollah; Deldar, Ali Asghar; Yakhchali, Bagher; Fatemi, Seyed Safa-Ali

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the crystallinity index of the cellulose produced by Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 after heterologous expression of the cellulose synthase subunit D (bcsD) gene of Gluconacetobacter xylinus BPR2001. The bcsD gene of G. xylinus BPR2001 was expressed in E. coli and its protein product was visualized using SDS-PAGE. FTIR analysis showed that the crystallinity index of the cellulose produced by the recombinants was 0.84, which is 17% more than that of the wild type strain. The increased crystallinity index was also confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. The cellulose content was not changed significantly after over-expressing the bcsD. The bcsD gene can improve the crystalline structure of the bacterial cellulose but there is not any significant difference between the amounts of cellulose produced by the recombinant and wild type E. coli Nissle 1917.

  18. [Construction and expression of fusion protein TRX-hJagged1 in E.coli BL21].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guo-Hui; Fan, Yu-Zhen; Huang, Si-Yong; Liu, Qiang; Yin, Dan-Dan; Liu, Li; Chen, Ren-An; Hao, Miao-Wang; Liang, Ying-Min

    2014-06-01

    This study was purposed to construct prokaryotic expression vector and to investigate the expression of Notch ligand Jagged1 in E.coli. An expression vector pET-hJagged1 was constructed, which can be inserted in Jagged1 with different lengths, but the DSL domain of human Jagged1 should be contained. Then the recombinant plasmids were transformed into the competent cell of E.coli BL21, and the expression of the fusion protein was induced by IPTG. Fusion protein was purified from the supernatant of cell lysates via the Nickel affinity chromatography. The results showed that prokaryotic expression vectors pET-hJagged1 (Bgl II), pET-hJagged1 (Hind I) and pET-hJagged1 (Stu I) were successfully constructed, but only pET-hJagged1 (Stu I) could express the soluble TRX-hJagged1. The purified TRX-Jagged1 protein could be obtained via the Nickel affinity chromatography, and then confirmed by Western Blot. It is concluded that prokaryotic expression vector pET-hJagged1 is successfully constructed, but only pET-hJagged1 (Stu I) can express the soluble TRX-hJagged1 and the TRX-Jagged1 fusion protein is obtained through the prokaryotic expression system, which laid a solid foundation for further to explore the effects of Jagged1 in hematopoietic and lymphoid system.

  19. Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the regulator AcrR from Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ming; Qiu, Xi; Su, Chih-Chia; Long, Feng; Gu, Ruoyu; McDermott, Gerry; Yu, Edward W.

    2006-01-01

    The transcriptional regulator AcrR from Escherichia coli has been cloned, overexpressed, purified and crystallized and X-ray diffraction data have been collected to a resolution of 2.5 Å. This paper describes the cloning, expression, purification and preliminary X-ray data analysis of the AcrR regulatory protein. The Escherichia coli AcrR is a member of the TetR family of transcriptional regulators. It regulates the expression of the AcrAB multidrug transporter. Recombinant AcrR with a 6×His tag at the C-terminus was expressed in E. coli and purified by metal-affinity chromatography. The protein was crystallized using hanging-drop vapor diffusion. X-ray diffraction data were collected from cryocooled crystals at a synchrotron light source. The best crystal diffracted to 2.5 Å. The space group was determined to be P3 2 , with unit-cell parameters a = b = 46.61, c = 166.16 Å

  20. EXPRESSION OF A BEE-VENOM PHOSPHOLIPASE A2 FROM APIS CERANA CERANA IN E,.qCHERICHIA COLI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-rongShen; Jia-anCheng; Chuan-xiZhang

    2004-01-01

    The venomous phospholipase A2 (AcPLA2) coding reading region of the Chinese honeybee (Apis cerana cerana), which is composed of 405 bp encoding a mature glycosylated peptide with 134 amino residues was transformed into the expression vector pETblue-1. Then the recombinant vector was introduced into Escherichia coli Tuner (DE3) plac I for expression. Analysis result of SDS-PAGE showed that the expression products had a protein band of about 15 kD. Detection of western blot using ant-European honeybee (Apis mellifera) phospholipase A2 (AmPLA2) polyclonal serum as the first antibody showed that the expression products appeared a special blot same as the native AmPLA2.The result demonstrated that the AcPLA2 peptide had been expressed in E. coli and the AcPLA2 has the similar antigenicity as the AmPLA2.

  1. Human Interleukine-1 receptor antagonist:Cloning, Expression and Optimization in E.coli Host

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh. Barati

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Interleukine-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA is a powerful anti-inflammatory cytokine which limits the biological effects of IL-1. Due to structural similarity between IL-1 and its antagonist, IL-1RA competitively binds to IL-1 receptor which leads to no signal transduction. Therefore , it is applied in the treatment of patients with inflammatory diseases such as Rheumatoid Arthritis. The aim of this study is cloning, expression and op-timization of IL-1RA in E. coli. Materials & Methods: In this experimental study synthetically prepared cDNA was amplified by PCR. After double digestion with NdeI and XhoI restriction enzymes, this gene was cloned in pET28a expression vector. Expression of desired gene was analyzed at RNA level by RT-PCR and at protein level by SDS-PAGE and followed by western blot to confirm SDS-PAGE results. Optimization of recombinant protein expression was performed in dif-ferent IPTG concentrations and harvesting times after induction. Results: The presence of gene in pET28a was determined by colony-PCR and confirmed by restriction digestion. Transcription of cloned gene and expression of high yield recombinant protein were shown by RT-PCR and SDS-PAGE, respectively. The result of SDS-PAGE was confirmed by western blot. Expression was optimized in different induction time and IPTG concentrations Conclusion: The result of this study demonstrated expression of this recombinant protein at high level in E.coli system by pET28a expression vector. This study also showed a direct as-sociation between the increased level of expression and time of induction . Therefore, an overnight induction time with 0.1 mM IPTG concentration is recommended for a high level expression. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2014; 21 (2:145-151

  2. Genetical and functional investigation of fliC genes encoding flagellar serotype H4 in wildtype strains of Escherichia coli and in a laboratory E. coli K-12 strain expressing flagellar antigen type H48

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaudinn Christoph

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Serotyping of O-(lipopolysaccharide and H-(flagellar antigens is a wideley used method for identification of pathogenic strains and clones of Escherichia coli. At present, 176 O- and 53 H-antigens are described for E. coli which occur in different combinations in the strains. The flagellar antigen H4 is widely present in E. coli strains of different O-serotypes and pathotypes and we have investigated the genetic relationship between H4 encoding fliC genes by PCR, nucleotide sequencing and expression studies. Results The complete nucleotide sequence of fliC genes present in E. coli reference strains U9-41 (O2:K1:H4 and P12b (O15:H17 was determined and both were found 99.3% (1043 of 1050 nucleotides identical in their coding sequence. A PCR/RFLP protocol was developed for typing of fliC-H4 strains and 88 E. coli strains reacting with H4 antiserum were investigated. Nucleotide sequencing of complete fliC genes of six E. coli strains which were selected based on serum agglutination titers, fliC-PCR genotyping and reference data revealed 96.6 to 100% identity on the amino acid level. The functional expression of flagellin encoded by fliC-H4 from strain U9-41 and from our strain P12b which is an H4 expressing variant type was investigated in the E. coli K-12 strain JM109 which encodes flagellar type H48. The fliC recombinant plasmid carrying JM109 strains reacted with both H4 and H48 specific antisera whereas JM109 reacted only with the H48 antiserum. By immunoelectron microscopy, we could show that the flagella made by the fliC-H4 recombinant plasmid carrying strain are constituted of H48 and H4 flagellins which are co-assembled into functional flagella. Conclusion The flagellar serotype H4 is encoded by closely related fliC genes present in serologically different types of E. coli strainswhich were isolated at different time periods and geographical locations. Our expression studies show for the first time, that flagellins of

  3. Stationary phase expression of the arginine biosynthetic operon argCBH in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Yuan

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arginine biosynthesis in Escherichia coli is elevated in response to nutrient limitation, stress or arginine restriction. Though control of the pathway in response to arginine limitation is largely modulated by the ArgR repressor, other factors may be involved in increased stationary phase and stress expression. Results In this study, we report that expression of the argCBH operon is induced in stationary phase cultures and is reduced in strains possessing a mutation in rpoS, which encodes an alternative sigma factor. Using strains carrying defined argR, and rpoS mutations, we evaluated the relative contributions of these two regulators to the expression of argH using operon-lacZ fusions. While ArgR was the main factor responsible for modulating expression of argCBH, RpoS was also required for full expression of this biosynthetic operon at low arginine concentrations (below 60 μM L-arginine, a level at which growth of an arginine auxotroph was limited by arginine. When the argCBH operon was fully de-repressed (arginine limited, levels of expression were only one third of those observed in ΔargR mutants, indicating that the argCBH operon is partially repressed by ArgR even in the absence of arginine. In addition, argCBH expression was 30-fold higher in ΔargR mutants relative to levels found in wild type, fully-repressed strains, and this expression was independent of RpoS. Conclusion The results of this study indicate that both derepression and positive control by RpoS are required for full control of arginine biosynthesis in stationary phase cultures of E. coli.

  4. Expression and purification of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli tagged with the metal-binding protein CusF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantu-Bustos, J Enrique; Vargas-Cortez, Teresa; Morones-Ramirez, Jose Ruben; Balderas-Renteria, Isaias; Galbraith, David W; McEvoy, Megan M; Zarate, Xristo

    2016-05-01

    Production of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli has been improved considerably through the use of fusion proteins, because they increase protein solubility and facilitate purification via affinity chromatography. In this article, we propose the use of CusF as a new fusion partner for expression and purification of recombinant proteins in E. coli. Using a cell-free protein expression system, based on the E. coli S30 extract, Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) was expressed with a series of different N-terminal tags, immobilized on self-assembled protein microarrays, and its fluorescence quantified. GFP tagged with CusF showed the highest fluorescence intensity, and this was greater than the intensities from corresponding GFP constructs that contained MBP or GST tags. Analysis of protein production in vivo showed that CusF produces large amounts of soluble protein with low levels of inclusion bodies. Furthermore, fusion proteins can be exported to the cellular periplasm, if CusF contains the signal sequence. Taking advantage of its ability to bind copper ions, recombinant proteins can be purified with readily available IMAC resins charged with this metal ion, producing pure proteins after purification and tag removal. We therefore recommend the use of CusF as a viable alternative to MBP or GST as a fusion protein/affinity tag for the production of soluble recombinant proteins in E. coli. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Agitation down-regulates immunoglobulin binding protein EibG expression in Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Kuczius

    Full Text Available Shiga toxin (Stx-producing Escherichia coli (STEC carrying eibG synthesize Escherichia coli immunoglobulin binding protein (EibG. EibG nonspecifically binds to immunoglobulins and tends to aggregate in multimers but is poorly expressed in wild-type strains. To study synthesis of the proteins and their regulation in the pathogens, we identified natural growth conditions that increased EibG synthesis. EibG proteins as well as corresponding mRNA were highly expressed under static growth conditions while shearing stress created by agitation during growth repressed protein synthesis. Further regulation effects were driven by reduced oxygen tension, and pH up-regulated EibG expression, but to a lesser extent than growth conditions while decreased temperature down-regulated EibG. Bacteria with increased EibG expression during static growth conditions showed a distinct phenotype with chain formation and biofilm generation, which disappeared with motion. High and low EibG expression was reversible indicating a process with up- and down-regulation of the protein expression. Our findings indicate that shear stress represses EibG expression and might reduce bacterial attachments to cells and surfaces.

  6. Impact of intramammary treatment on gene expression profiles in bovine Escherichia coli mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipka, Anja; Klaessig, Suzanne; Duhamel, Gerald E; Swinkels, Jantijn; Rainard, Pascal; Schukken, Ynte

    2014-01-01

    Clinical mastitis caused by E. coli accounts for significant production losses and animal welfare concerns on dairy farms worldwide. The benefits of therapeutic intervention in mild to moderate cases are incompletely understood. We investigated the effect of intramammary treatment with cefapirin alone or in combination with prednisolone on gene expression profiles in experimentally-induced E. coli mastitis in six mid-lactating Holstein Friesian cows. Cows were challenged with E. coli in 3 quarters and received 4 doses of 300 mg cefapirin in one quarter and 4 doses of 300 mg cefapirin together with 20 mg prednisolone in another quarter. At 24 h (n = 3) or 48 h (n = 3) post-challenge, tissue samples from control and treated quarters were collected for microarray analysis. Gene expression analysis of challenged, un-treated quarters revealed an up-regulation of transcripts associated with immune response functions compared to un-challenged quarters. Both treatments resulted in down-regulation of these transcripts compared to challenged, un-treated quarters most prominently for genes representing Chemokine and TLR-signaling pathways. Gene expression of Lipopolysaccharide Binding Protein (LBP), CCL2 and CXCL2 were only significantly down-regulated in cefapirin-prednisolone-treated quarters compared to un-treated controls. Down-regulation of chemokines was further confirmed on the basis of protein levels in milk whey for CXCL1, CXCL2 and CXCL8 in both treatments with a greater decrease in cefapirin-prednisolone-treated quarters. The data reveal a significant effect of treatment on cell recruitment with a more pronounced effect in cefapirin-prednisolone treated quarters. Provided a rapid bacteriological clearance, combination therapy may prevent neutrophil-induced tissue damage and promote recovery of the gland.

  7. Expression, purification, and refolding of active recombinant human E-selectin lectin and EGF domains in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, Susumu; Iyaguchi, Daisuke; Okada, Chiaki; Sasaki, Yusuke; Toyota, Eiko

    2013-06-01

    Attempts to obtain active E-selectin from Escherichia coli (E. coli) have not yet been successful. In this study, we succeeded in expressing the recombinant lectin and epidermal growth factor domain fragments of human E-selectin (rh-ESLE) in E. coli on a large-scale. The rh-ESLE protein was expressed as an inactive form in the inclusion bodies. The inactive form of rh-ESLE was denatured and solubilized by 6 M guanidine hydrochloride and then purified by Ni(2+) affinity chromatography under denaturing conditions. Denatured rh-ESLE was then refolded by a rapid-dilution method using a large amount of refolding buffer, which contained arginine and cysteine/cystine. The refolded rh-ESLE showed binding affinity for sLe(X) (K(d) = 321 nM, B(max) = 1.9 pmol/μg protein). This result suggests that the refolded rh-ESLE recovered its native and functional structure.

  8. Isolation, molecular cloning and expression of cellobiohydrolase B (CbhB) from Aspergillus niger in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woon, J. S. K.; Murad, A. M. A.; Abu Bakar, F. D.

    2015-01-01

    A cellobiohydrolase B (CbhB) from Aspergillus niger ATCC 10574 was cloned and expressed in E. coli. CbhB has an open reading frame of 1611 bp encoding a putative polypeptide of 536 amino acids. Analysis of the encoded polypeptide predicted a molecular mass of 56.2 kDa, a cellulose binding module (CBM) and a catalytic module. In order to obtain the mRNA of cbhB, total RNA was extracted from A. niger cells induced by 1% Avicel. First strand cDNA was synthesized from total RNA via reverse transcription. The full length cDNA of cbhB was amplified by PCR and cloned into the cloning vector, pGEM-T Easy. A comparison between genomic DNA and cDNA sequences of cbhB revealed that the gene is intronless. Upon the removal of the signal peptide, the cDNA of cbhB was cloned into the expression vector pET-32b. However, the recombinant CbhB was expressed in Escherichia coli Origami DE3 as an insoluble protein. A homology model of CbhB predicted the presence of nine disulfide bonds in the protein structure which may have contributed to the improper folding of the protein and thus, resulting in inclusion bodies in E. coli

  9. Isolation, molecular cloning and expression of cellobiohydrolase B (CbhB) from Aspergillus niger in Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woon, J. S. K., E-mail: jameswoon@siswa.ukm.edu.my; Murad, A. M. A., E-mail: munir@ukm.edu.my; Abu Bakar, F. D., E-mail: fabyff@ukm.edu.my [School of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-09-25

    A cellobiohydrolase B (CbhB) from Aspergillus niger ATCC 10574 was cloned and expressed in E. coli. CbhB has an open reading frame of 1611 bp encoding a putative polypeptide of 536 amino acids. Analysis of the encoded polypeptide predicted a molecular mass of 56.2 kDa, a cellulose binding module (CBM) and a catalytic module. In order to obtain the mRNA of cbhB, total RNA was extracted from A. niger cells induced by 1% Avicel. First strand cDNA was synthesized from total RNA via reverse transcription. The full length cDNA of cbhB was amplified by PCR and cloned into the cloning vector, pGEM-T Easy. A comparison between genomic DNA and cDNA sequences of cbhB revealed that the gene is intronless. Upon the removal of the signal peptide, the cDNA of cbhB was cloned into the expression vector pET-32b. However, the recombinant CbhB was expressed in Escherichia coli Origami DE3 as an insoluble protein. A homology model of CbhB predicted the presence of nine disulfide bonds in the protein structure which may have contributed to the improper folding of the protein and thus, resulting in inclusion bodies in E. coli.

  10. Isolation, molecular cloning and expression of cellobiohydrolase B (CbhB) from Aspergillus niger in Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woon, J. S. K.; Murad, A. M. A.; Abu Bakar, F. D.

    2015-09-01

    A cellobiohydrolase B (CbhB) from Aspergillus niger ATCC 10574 was cloned and expressed in E. coli. CbhB has an open reading frame of 1611 bp encoding a putative polypeptide of 536 amino acids. Analysis of the encoded polypeptide predicted a molecular mass of 56.2 kDa, a cellulose binding module (CBM) and a catalytic module. In order to obtain the mRNA of cbhB, total RNA was extracted from A. niger cells induced by 1% Avicel. First strand cDNA was synthesized from total RNA via reverse transcription. The full length cDNA of cbhB was amplified by PCR and cloned into the cloning vector, pGEM-T Easy. A comparison between genomic DNA and cDNA sequences of cbhB revealed that the gene is intronless. Upon the removal of the signal peptide, the cDNA of cbhB was cloned into the expression vector pET-32b. However, the recombinant CbhB was expressed in Escherichia coli Origami DE3 as an insoluble protein. A homology model of CbhB predicted the presence of nine disulfide bonds in the protein structure which may have contributed to the improper folding of the protein and thus, resulting in inclusion bodies in E. coli.

  11. mRNA secondary structure at start AUG codon is a key limiting factor for human protein expression in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Weici; Xiao Weihua; Wei Haiming; Zhang Jian; Tian Zhigang

    2006-01-01

    Codon usage and thermodynamic optimization of the 5'-end of mRNA have been applied to improve the efficiency of human protein production in Escherichia coli. However, high level expression of human protein in E. coli is still a challenge that virtually depends upon each individual target genes. Using human interleukin 10 (huIL-10) and interferon α (huIFN-α) coding sequences, we systematically analyzed the influence of several major factors on expression of human protein in E. coli. The results from huIL-10 and reinforced by huIFN-α showed that exposing AUG initiator codon from base-paired structure within mRNA itself significantly improved the translation of target protein, which resulted in a 10-fold higher protein expression than the wild-type genes. It was also noted that translation process was not affected by the retained short-range stem-loop structure at Shine-Dalgarno (SD) sequences. On the other hand, codon-optimized constructs of huIL-10 showed unimproved levels of protein expression, on the contrary, led to a remarkable RNA degradation. Our study demonstrates that exposure of AUG initiator codon from long-range intra-strand secondary structure at 5'-end of mRNA may be used as a general strategy for human protein production in E. coli

  12. Improved production of biohydrogen in light-powered Escherichia coli by co-expression of proteorhodopsin and heterologous hydrogenase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Jaoon YH

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Solar energy is the ultimate energy source on the Earth. The conversion of solar energy into fuels and energy sources can be an ideal solution to address energy problems. The recent discovery of proteorhodopsin in uncultured marine γ-proteobacteria has made it possible to construct recombinant Escherichia coli with the function of light-driven proton pumps. Protons that translocate across membranes by proteorhodopsin generate a proton motive force for ATP synthesis by ATPase. Excess protons can also be substrates for hydrogen (H2 production by hydrogenase in the periplasmic space. In the present work, we investigated the effect of the co-expression of proteorhodopsin and hydrogenase on H2 production yield under light conditions. Results Recombinant E. coli BL21(DE3 co-expressing proteorhodopsin and [NiFe]-hydrogenase from Hydrogenovibrio marinus produced ~1.3-fold more H2 in the presence of exogenous retinal than in the absence of retinal under light conditions (70 μmole photon/(m2·s. We also observed the synergistic effect of proteorhodopsin with endogenous retinal on H2 production (~1.3-fold more with a dual plasmid system compared to the strain with a single plasmid for the sole expression of hydrogenase. The increase of light intensity from 70 to 130 μmole photon/(m2·s led to an increase (~1.8-fold in H2 production from 287.3 to 525.7 mL H2/L-culture in the culture of recombinant E. coli co-expressing hydrogenase and proteorhodopsin in conjunction with endogenous retinal. The conversion efficiency of light energy to H2 achieved in this study was ~3.4%. Conclusion Here, we report for the first time the potential application of proteorhodopsin for the production of biohydrogen, a promising alternative fuel. We showed that H2 production was enhanced by the co-expression of proteorhodopsin and [NiFe]-hydrogenase in recombinant E. coli BL21(DE3 in a light intensity-dependent manner. These results demonstrate that E. coli

  13. Effect of rat ovary irradiation or OVX on the expression of COLI and TGF-β1 mRNA in the rat bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yanhong; Gao Jianjun; Jin Weifang; Wang Hongfu

    2003-01-01

    To observe the effects of exposure of rat ovary to radiation or OVX on the expression of TGF-β 1 and COLI in the rat bone. The mRNA levels of TGF-β 1 and COLI in rat tibiae were measured with RT-PCR after the rat ovaries were irradiated by 50 Gy of 137 Cs γ-rays or OVX. For both the radiation group and the OVX group, the COLI mRNA level in the rat bone increased, whereas the TGF-β 1 decreased. Irradiation of ovary and OVX affect the expression of COLI and TGF-β 1 mRNA in bone probably in a similar way which is related to estrogen decrease

  14. Expression of nattokinase in Escherichia coli and renaturation of its inclusion body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, He; Guo, Peng-Cheng; Jiang, Wei-Ling; Fan, Xiao-Min; Luo, Xiang-Yu; Li, Hai-Hang

    2016-08-10

    Nattokinase is an important fibrinolytic enzyme with therapeutic applications for cardiovascular diseases. The full-length and mature nattokinase genes were cloned from Bacillus subtilis var. natto and expressed in pQE30 vector in Escherichia coli. The full-length gene expressed low nattokinase activity in the intracellular soluble and the medium fractions. The mature gene expressed low soluble nattokinase activity and large amount insoluble protein in inclusion bodies without enzyme activity. Large amount of refolding solutions (RSs) at different pH values were screening and RS-10 and RS-11 at pH 9 were selected to refold nattokinase inclusion bodies. The recombinant cells were lysed with 0.1mg/mL lysozyme and ultrasonic treatment. After centrifugation, the pellete was washed twice with 20mM Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.5) containing 1% Triton X-100 to purify the inclusion bodies. The inclusion bodies were dissolved in water at pH 12.0 and refolded with RS-10. The refolded proteins showed 42.8IU/mg and 79.3IU/mg fibrinolytic activity by the traditional dilution method (20-fold dilution into RS-10) and the directly mixing the protein solution with equal volume RS-10, respectively, compared to the 52.0IU/mg of total water-soluble proteins from B. subtilis var. natto. This work demonstrated that the inclusion body of recombinant nattokinase expressed in E. coli could be simply refolded to the natural enzyme activity level by directly mixing the protein solution with equal volume refolding solution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Protective vaccination with a recombinant fragment of Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin serotype A expressed from a synthetic gene in Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Clayton, M A; Clayton, J M; Brown, D R; Middlebrook, J L

    1995-01-01

    A completely synthetic gene encoding fragment C, a approximately 50-kDa fragment, of botulinum neurotoxin serotype A was constructed from oligonucleotides. The gene was expressed in Escherichia coli, and full-sized product was produced as judged by Western blot (immunoblot) analysis. Crude extracts of E. coli expressing the gene were used to vaccinate mice and evaluate their survival against challenge with active toxin. Mice given three subcutaneous vaccinations were protected against an intr...

  16. Engineering and Validation of a Vector for Concomitant Expression of Rare Transfer RNA (tRNA and HIV-1 nef Genes in Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Aisyah Mualif

    Full Text Available Relative ease in handling and manipulation of Escherichia coli strains make them primary candidate to express proteins heterologously. Overexpression of heterologous genes that contain codons infrequently used by E. coli is related with difficulties such as mRNA instability, early termination of transcription and/or translation, deletions and/or misincorporation, and cell growth inhibition. These codon bias -associated problems are addressed by co-expressing ColE1-compatible, rare tRNA expressing helper plasmids. However, this approach has inadequacies, which we have addressed by engineering an expression vector that concomitantly expresses the heterologous protein of interest, and rare tRNA genes in E. coli. The expression vector contains three (argU, ileY, leuW rare tRNA genes and a useful multiple cloning site for easy in-frame cloning. To maintain the overall size of the parental plasmid vector, the rare tRNA genes replaced the non-essential DNA segments in the vector. The cloned gene is expressed under the control of T7 promoter and resulting recombinant protein has a C-terminal 6His tag for IMAC-mediated purification. We have evaluated the usefulness of this expression vector by expressing three HIV-1 genes namely HIV-1 p27 (nef, HIV-1 p24 (ca, and HIV-1 vif in NiCo21(DE3 E.coli and demonstrated the advantages of using expression vector that concomitantly expresses rare tRNA and heterologous genes.

  17. Induction studies with Escherichia coli expressing recombinant interleukin-13 using multi-parameter flow cytometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shitu, J. O.; Woodley, John; Wnek, R.

    2009-01-01

    The expression of interleukin-13 (IL13) following induction with IPTG in Escherichia coli results in metabolic changes as indicated by multi-parameter flow cytometry and traditional methods of fermentation profiling (O-2 uptake rate, CO2 evolution rate and optical density measurements). Induction...

  18. Role of tetracycline speciation in the bioavailability to Escherichia coli for uptake and expression of antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingjie; Boyd, Stephen A; Teppen, Brian J; Tiedje, James M; Li, Hui

    2014-05-06

    Tetracycline contains ionizable functional groups that manifest several species with charges at different locales and differing net charge; the fractional distribution of each species depends on pH-pKa relationship in the aqueous phase. In nature, these species interact with naturally abundant cations (e.g., Ca(2+) and Mg(2+)) to form metal-tetracycline complexes in water. In this study, we used Escherichia coli MC4100/pTGM whole-cell bioreporter to investigate tetracycline uptake from solution under varying conditions of pH, salt composition and concentration by quantifying the corresponding expression of antibiotic resistance gene. The expression of antibiotic resistance gene in the E. coli bioreporter responded linearly to intracellular tetracycline concentration. Less tetracycline entered E. coli cells at solution pH of 8.0 than at pH 6.0 or 7.0 indicating reduced bioavailability of the antibiotic at higher pH. Both Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) in solution formed metal-tetracycline complexes which reduced uptake of tetracycline by E. coli hence diminishing the bioresponse. Among the various tetracycline species present in solution, including both metal-complexed and free (noncomplexed) species, zwitterionic tetracycline was identified as the predominant species that most readily passed through the cell membrane eliciting activation of the antibiotic resistance gene in E. coli. The results indicate that the same total concentration of tetracycline in ambient solution can evoke very different expression of antibiotic resistance gene in the exposed bacteria due to differential antibiotic uptake. Accordingly, geochemical factors such as pH and metal cations can modulate the selective pressure exerted by tetracycline for development and enrichment of antibiotic resistant bacteria. We suggest that tetracycline speciation analysis should be incorporated into the risk assessment framework for evaluating environmental exposure and the corresponding development of antibiotic

  19. Impact of intramammary treatment on gene expression profiles in bovine Escherichia coli mastitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Sipka

    Full Text Available Clinical mastitis caused by E. coli accounts for significant production losses and animal welfare concerns on dairy farms worldwide. The benefits of therapeutic intervention in mild to moderate cases are incompletely understood. We investigated the effect of intramammary treatment with cefapirin alone or in combination with prednisolone on gene expression profiles in experimentally-induced E. coli mastitis in six mid-lactating Holstein Friesian cows. Cows were challenged with E. coli in 3 quarters and received 4 doses of 300 mg cefapirin in one quarter and 4 doses of 300 mg cefapirin together with 20 mg prednisolone in another quarter. At 24 h (n = 3 or 48 h (n = 3 post-challenge, tissue samples from control and treated quarters were collected for microarray analysis. Gene expression analysis of challenged, un-treated quarters revealed an up-regulation of transcripts associated with immune response functions compared to un-challenged quarters. Both treatments resulted in down-regulation of these transcripts compared to challenged, un-treated quarters most prominently for genes representing Chemokine and TLR-signaling pathways. Gene expression of Lipopolysaccharide Binding Protein (LBP, CCL2 and CXCL2 were only significantly down-regulated in cefapirin-prednisolone-treated quarters compared to un-treated controls. Down-regulation of chemokines was further confirmed on the basis of protein levels in milk whey for CXCL1, CXCL2 and CXCL8 in both treatments with a greater decrease in cefapirin-prednisolone-treated quarters. The data reveal a significant effect of treatment on cell recruitment with a more pronounced effect in cefapirin-prednisolone treated quarters. Provided a rapid bacteriological clearance, combination therapy may prevent neutrophil-induced tissue damage and promote recovery of the gland.

  20. Characterization and optimization of ArtinM lectin expression in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranchevicius Maria-Cristina S

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ArtinM is a d-mannose-specific lectin from Artocarpus integrifolia seeds that induces neutrophil migration and activation, degranulation of mast cells, acceleration of wound healing, induction of interleukin-12 production by macrophages and dendritic cells, and protective T helper 1 immune response against Leishmania major, Leishmania amazonensis and Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infections. Considering the important biological properties of ArtinM and its therapeutic applicability, this study was designed to produce high-level expression of active recombinant ArtinM (rArtinM in Escherichia coli system. Results The ArtinM coding region was inserted in pET29a(+ vector and expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3-Codon Plus-RP. The conditions for overexpression of soluble ArtinM were optimized testing different parameters: temperatures (20, 25, 30 or 37°C and shaking speeds (130, 200 or 220 rpm during induction, concentrations of the induction agent IPTG (0.01-4 mM and periods of induction (1-19 h. BL21-CodonPlus(DE3-RP cells induced under the optimized conditions (incubation at 20°C, at a shaking speed of 130 rpm, induction with 0.4 mM IPTG for 19 h resulted in the accumulation of large amounts of soluble rArtinM. The culture provided 22.4 mg/L of rArtinM, which activity was determined by its one-step purification through affinity chromatography on immobilized d-mannose and glycoarray analysis. Gel filtration showed that rArtinM is monomeric, contrasting with the tetrameric form of the plant native protein (jArtinM. The analysis of intact rArtinM by mass spectrometry revealed a 16,099.5 Da molecular mass, and the peptide mass fingerprint and esi-cid-ms/ms of amino acid sequences of peptides from a tryptic digest covered 41% of the total ArtinM amino acid sequence. In addition, circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy of rArtinM indicated that its global fold comprises β-sheet structure. Conclusions Overall, the

  1. Development of expression vectors for Escherichia coli based on the pCR2 replicon

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    Deb J K

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent developments in metabolic engineering and the need for expanded compatibility required for co-expression studies, underscore the importance of developing new plasmid vectors with properties such as stability and compatibility. Results We utilized the pCR2 replicon of Corynebacterium renale, which harbours multiple plasmids, for constructing a range of expression vectors. Different antibiotic-resistance markers were introduced and the vectors were found to be 100% stable over a large number of generations in the absence of selection pressure. Compatibility of this plasmid was studied with different Escherichia coli plasmid replicons viz. pMB1 and p15A. It was observed that pCR2 was able to coexist with these E.coli plasmids for 60 generations in the absence of selection pressure. Soluble intracellular production was checked by expressing GFP under the lac promoter in an expression plasmid pCR2GFP. Also high level production of human IFNγ was obtained by cloning the h-IFNγ under a T7 promoter in the expression plasmid pCR2-IFNγ and using a dual plasmid heat shock system for expression. Repeated sub-culturing in the absence of selection pressure for six days did not lead to any fall in the production levels post induction, for both GFP and h-IFNγ, demonstrating that pCR2 is a useful plasmid in terms of stability and compatibility. Conclusion We have constructed a series of expression vectors based on the pCR2 replicon and demonstrated its high stability and sustained expression capacity, in the absence of selection pressure which will make it an efficient tool for metabolic engineering and co-expression studies, as well as for scale up of expression.

  2. Análise da utilização do Questionário de Tolerância de Fagerström (QTF como instrumento de medida da dependência nicotínica Analysis of the use of the Fagerström Tolerance Questionnaire as an instrument to measure nicotine dependence

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    LUIS SUÁREZ HALTY

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: O Hospital Universitário é referência na cidade de Rio Grande, no Rio Grande do Sul, para pneumopatas crônicos, sendo importante a existência de um programa para cessação do fumo. Objetivos: Analisar a utilização do Questionário de Tolerância de Fagerström como instrumento de medida da magnitude da dependência nicotínica do paciente tabagista e obter subsídios para planejar a conduta terapêutica mais adequada. Material e método: Aplicação do Questionário de Tolerância de Fagerström em pacientes adultos fumantes regulares, dos setores de Clínica Médica e Pneumologia do Hospital Universitário e Santa Casa de Rio Grande durante o período de 12 meses. Foram preenchidos 301 questionários válidos, sendo 40,5% dos entrevistados do sexo feminino e 59,5% do masculino. A média de idade dos participantes foi de 48,6 anos. Conforme a pontuação obtida com o questionário, os pacientes foram classificados segundo sua dependência nicotínica em cinco graus: muito baixa, baixa, média, elevada e muito elevada. Resultados: 54,9% dos fumantes pertenciam ao Grupo de Elevada Dependência Nicotínica (³ 6 pontos. Foi encontrada associação entre elevada dependência nicotínica e consumo diário de cigarros ou tempo até o fumar o primeiro cigarro do dia (p Introduction: The University Hospital is reference in the city of Rio Grande, in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Southeast part of Brazil, for chronic lung disease patients, with a major smoking cessation program. Aim: The purpose of this work was to analyze the utilization of Fagerström Tolerance Questionnaire to assess the nicotine dependence of smoking patients with reference to individualization of treatment. Material and Method: The authors used the Fagerström Tolerance Questionnaire (FTQ in daily smoking adult patients from the Medical Clinic and Chest Medicine Units of the University Hospital and Rio Grande Santa Casa Hospital, during the period of one year

  3. CONSTRUCTION, EXPRESSION AND PURIFICATION OF RECOMBINANT PRE-MATURE PEPTIDE OF PLANTARICIN F FROM Lactobacillus plantarum S34 IN Escherichia coli

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    Kusdianawati Kusdianawati

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Plantaricin is one of bacteriocins that have the potential to be used as food preservative. Plantaricin is safe for human consumption because it can be easily degraded by proteolytic enzymes. The objective of this study was to express and purify recombinant pre-mature peptide of plantaricin F from Lactobacillus plantarum S34 in Escherichia coli. Plantaricin gene-specific primer was used to obtain pln F structural gene amplicon from L. plantarum S34. This amplicon was cloned in pET32a vector and expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3 pLysS. Pre-mature plantaricin F peptide was expressed as Histagged-fusion protein and separated by Co2+-chelating affinity chromatography. L. plantarum S34-derived pre-mature plantaricin F peptide fused with thioredoxin-(His6tag had successfully been expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3 pLysS using pET32a as an expression vector. The fused recombinant pln F as pre-mature state expressed had a molecular mass of +24 kDa, meanwhile the fused recombinant that contained only the leader peptide of pln F appeared as +20 kDa based on SDS-PAGE separations. The optimal production of fused recombinant pln F as soluble fraction was obtained when culture condition was added with 0.5 mM of IPTG and incubated at 22°C for 5 hours (OD~1. Furthermore, the expression of fused recombinant pln F as its pre-mature peptide pointed out that the pln F’s leader peptide could be proteolytically cleaved by a system in heterologous cells. Overall, heterologous pln F production as pre-mature peptide fused with thioredoxin-(His6tag had been well established. From this research, we expect plantaricin F can be expressed and purified in E. coli.

  4. A general procedure for small-scale purification of fimbriae expressed by porcine enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strains

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    Ana Cristina Campal Espinosa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Fimbriae expression by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strains is a complex process which is controlled by global and local transcriptional regulators and post-transcriptional control. It is influenced by factors such as bacterial growth rate, culture medium composition, pH and temperature. Fimbrial expression could thus frequently become lost. Bacterial culture procedures favouring fimbrial expression are thus needed. The fimbriated bacterial population was therefore enriched by static culture in Mueller–Hinton broth. Fimbrial expression was then maintained by making it grow consecutively in agar CFA and Minca or minimal broth according to the fimbrial serotype. Maximum fimbrial expression was reached after 4h or 5h in culture. The fimbriae were extracted by heat -shock treatment and precipitated with 40% ammonium sulphate. Further purification was carried out by molecular exclusion and sodium deoxycholate treatment. This methodology integrates known procedures in a simple and reproducible process for obtaining F4, F5, F6 and F41 fimbriae in sufficient quantities for their subsequent use in producing antibodies, immunoassays and other studies (at laboratory level requiring high-purity preparations (80% to maintain their native structure. Key words: Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli; fimbriae; Minca; minimal medium; CFA.

  5. How to find soluble proteins: a comprehensive analysis of alpha/beta hydrolases for recombinant expression in E. coli

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    Barth Sandra

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In screening of libraries derived by expression cloning, expression of active proteins in E. coli can be limited by formation of inclusion bodies. In these cases it would be desirable to enrich gene libraries for coding sequences with soluble gene products in E. coli and thus to improve the efficiency of screening. Previously Wilkinson and Harrison showed that solubility can be predicted from amino acid composition (Biotechnology 1991, 9(5:443–448. We have applied this analysis to members of the alpha/beta hydrolase fold family to predict their solubility in E. coli. alpha/beta hydrolases are a highly diverse family with more than 1800 proteins which have been grouped into homologous families and superfamilies. Results The predicted solubility in E. coli depends on hydrolase size, phylogenetic origin of the host organism, the homologous family and the superfamily, to which the hydrolase belongs. In general small hydrolases are predicted to be more soluble than large hydrolases, and eukaryotic hydrolases are predicted to be less soluble in E. coli than prokaryotic ones. However, combining phylogenetic origin and size leads to more complex conclusions. Hydrolases from prokaryotic, fungal and metazoan origin are predicted to be most soluble if they are of small, medium and large size, respectively. We observed large variations of predicted solubility between hydrolases from different homologous families and from different taxa. Conclusion A comprehensive analysis of all alpha/beta hydrolase sequences allows more efficient screenings for new soluble alpha/beta hydrolases by the use of libraries which contain more soluble gene products. Screening of hydrolases from families whose members are hard to express as soluble proteins in E. coli should first be done in coding sequences of organisms from phylogenetic groups with the highest average of predicted solubility for proteins of this family. The tools developed here can be used

  6. The new pLAI (lux regulon based auto-inducible expression system for recombinant protein production in Escherichia coli

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    Nocadello Salvatore

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background After many years of intensive research, it is generally assumed that no universal expression system can exist for high-level production of a given recombinant protein. Among the different expression systems, the inducible systems are the most popular for their tight regulation. However, induction is in many cases less favorable due to the high cost and/or toxicity of inducers, incompatibilities with industrial scale-up or detrimental growth conditions. Expression systems using autoinduction (or self-induction prove to be extremely versatile allowing growth and induction of recombinant proteins without the need to monitor cell density or add inducer. Unfortunately, almost all the actual auto inducible expression systems need endogenous or induced metabolic changes during the growth to trigger induction, both frequently linked to detrimental condition to cell growth. In this context, we use a simple modular approach for a cell density-based genetic regulation in order to assemble an autoinducible recombinant protein expression system in E. coli. Result The newly designed pLAI expression system places the expression of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli under control of the regulatory genes of the lux regulon of Vibrio fischeri's Quorum Sensing (QS system. The pLAI system allows a tight regulation of the recombinant gene allowing a negligible basal expression and expression only at high cell density. Sequence optimization of regulative genes of QS of V. fischeri for expression in E. coli upgraded the system to high level expression. Moreover, partition of regulative genes between the plasmid and the host genome and introduction of a molecular safety lock permitted tighter control of gene expression. Conclusion Coupling gene expression to cell density using cell-to-cell communication provides a promising approach for recombinant protein production. The system allows the control of expression of the target recombinant gene

  7. Effects of Cinnamon extract on biochemical enzymes, TNF-α and NF-κB gene expression levels in liver of broiler chickens inoculated with Escherichia coli

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    Seyed Mahmoud Tabatabaei

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Infection with Escherichia coli (E. coli is a common disease in poultry industry. The use of antibiotics to treat diseases is facing serious criticism and concerns. The medicinal plants may be effective alternatives because of their multiplex activities. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of cinnamon extract on the levels of liver enzymes, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB gene expressions in liver of broiler chickens infected with E. coli. Ninety Ross-308 broilers were divided into healthy or E. coli-infected groups, receiving normal or cinnamon extract (in concentrations of 100 or 200mg/kg of food supplemented diets. E. coli suspension (108cfu was injected subcutaneously after 12 days cinnamon administration. Seventy-two hours after E. coli injection, the blood samples were taken for biochemical analysis of liver enzymes in serum (spectrophotometrically, and liver tissue samples were obtained for detection of gene expression of inflammatory markers TNF-α and NF-κB, using real-time PCR. Infection with E. coli significantly increased the levels of TNF-α and NF-κB gene expressions as well as some liver enzymes including creatine-kinase (CK, lactate-dehydrogenase (LDH, alanine-transferase (ALT and aspartate-transferase (AST as compared with control group (P<0.05. Pre-administration of cinnamon extract in broilers diet (in both concentrations significantly reduced the tissue levels of TNF-α and NF-κB gene expressions and enzymes CK and ALT in serum of broiler chickens inoculated with E. coli in comparison with E. coli group (P<0.05 and P<0.01. The levels of LDH and AST were significantly decreased only by 200mg/kg cinnamon extract in infected broilers. The level of alkaline-phosphatase (ALP was not affected in any groups. Pre-administration of cinnamon extract in diets of broiler chickens inoculated with E. coli could significantly reduce the gene expression levels of pro

  8. Increase in furfural tolerance in ethanologenic Escherichia coli LY180 by plasmid-based expression of thyA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Huabao; Wang, Xuan; Yomano, Lorraine P; Shanmugam, Keelnatham T; Ingram, Lonnie O

    2012-06-01

    Furfural is an inhibitory side product formed during the depolymerization of hemicellulose by mineral acids. Genomic libraries from three different bacteria (Bacillus subtilis YB886, Escherichia coli NC3, and Zymomonas mobilis CP4) were screened for genes that conferred furfural resistance on plates. Beneficial plasmids containing the thyA gene (coding for thymidylate synthase) were recovered from all three organisms. Expression of this key gene in the de novo pathway for dTMP biosynthesis improved furfural resistance on plates and during fermentation. A similar benefit was observed by supplementation with thymine, thymidine, or the combination of tetrahydrofolate and serine (precursors for 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate, the methyl donor for ThyA). Supplementation with deoxyuridine provided a small benefit, and deoxyribose was of no benefit for furfural tolerance. A combination of thymidine and plasmid expression of thyA was no more effective than either alone. Together, these results demonstrate that furfural tolerance is increased by approaches that increase the supply of pyrimidine deoxyribonucleotides. However, ThyA activity was not directly affected by the addition of furfural. Furfural has been previously shown to damage DNA in E. coli and to activate a cellular response to oxidative damage in yeast. The added burden of repairing furfural-damaged DNA in E. coli would be expected to increase the cellular requirement for dTMP. Increased expression of thyA (E. coli, B. subtilis, or Z. mobilis), supplementation of cultures with thymidine, and supplementation with precursors for 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate (methyl donor) are each proposed to increase furfural tolerance by increasing the availability of dTMP for DNA repair.

  9. Genome engineering for improved recombinant protein expression in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalik, Shubhashree; Sharma, Ashish K; Mukherjee, Krishna J

    2014-12-19

    A metabolic engineering perspective which views recombinant protein expression as a multistep pathway allows us to move beyond vector design and identify the downstream rate limiting steps in expression. In E.coli these are typically at the translational level and the supply of precursors in the form of energy, amino acids and nucleotides. Further recombinant protein production triggers a global cellular stress response which feedback inhibits both growth and product formation. Countering this requires a system level analysis followed by a rational host cell engineering to sustain expression for longer time periods. Another strategy to increase protein yields could be to divert the metabolic flux away from biomass formation and towards recombinant protein production. This would require a growth stoppage mechanism which does not affect the metabolic activity of the cell or the transcriptional or translational efficiencies. Finally cells have to be designed for efficient export to prevent buildup of proteins inside the cytoplasm and also simplify downstream processing. The rational and the high throughput strategies that can be used for the construction of such improved host cell platforms for recombinant protein expression is the focus of this review.

  10. Critical Factors Affecting the Success of Cloning, Expression, and Mass Production of Enzymes by Recombinant E. coli

    OpenAIRE

    Fakruddin, Md.; Mohammad Mazumdar, Reaz; Bin Mannan, Khanjada Shahnewaj; Chowdhury, Abhijit; Hossain, Md. Nur

    2013-01-01

    E. coli is the most frequently used host for production of enzymes and other proteins by recombinant DNA technology. E. coli is preferable for its relative simplicity, inexpensive and fast high-density cultivation, well-known genetics, and large number of compatible molecular tools available. Despite all these advantages, expression and production of recombinant enzymes are not always successful and often result in insoluble and nonfunctional proteins. There are many factors that affect the s...

  11. SHuffle, a novel Escherichia coli protein expression strain capable of correctly folding disulfide bonded proteins in its cytoplasm

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    Lobstein Julie

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Production of correctly disulfide bonded proteins to high yields remains a challenge. Recombinant protein expression in Escherichia coli is the popular choice, especially within the research community. While there is an ever growing demand for new expression strains, few strains are dedicated to post-translational modifications, such as disulfide bond formation. Thus, new protein expression strains must be engineered and the parameters involved in producing disulfide bonded proteins must be understood. Results We have engineered a new E. coli protein expression strain named SHuffle, dedicated to producing correctly disulfide bonded active proteins to high yields within its cytoplasm. This strain is based on the trxB gor suppressor strain SMG96 where its cytoplasmic reductive pathways have been diminished, allowing for the formation of disulfide bonds in the cytoplasm. We have further engineered a major improvement by integrating into its chromosome a signal sequenceless disulfide bond isomerase, DsbC. We probed the redox state of DsbC in the oxidizing cytoplasm and evaluated its role in assisting the formation of correctly folded multi-disulfide bonded proteins. We optimized protein expression conditions, varying temperature, induction conditions, strain background and the co-expression of various helper proteins. We found that temperature has the biggest impact on improving yields and that the E. coli B strain background of this strain was superior to the K12 version. We also discovered that auto-expression of substrate target proteins using this strain resulted in higher yields of active pure protein. Finally, we found that co-expression of mutant thioredoxins and PDI homologs improved yields of various substrate proteins. Conclusions This work is the first extensive characterization of the trxB gor suppressor strain. The results presented should help researchers design the appropriate protein expression conditions using

  12. An Engineered Survival-Selection Assay for Extracellular Protein Expression Uncovers Hypersecretory Phenotypes in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Aravind; Haitjema, Charles H; Lee, Robert; Boock, Jason T; DeLisa, Matthew P

    2017-05-19

    The extracellular expression of recombinant proteins using laboratory strains of Escherichia coli is now routinely achieved using naturally secreted substrates, such as YebF or the osmotically inducible protein Y (OsmY), as carrier molecules. However, secretion efficiency through these pathways needs to be improved for most synthetic biology and metabolic engineering applications. To address this challenge, we developed a generalizable survival-based selection strategy that effectively couples extracellular protein secretion to antibiotic resistance and enables facile isolation of rare mutants from very large populations (i.e., 10 10-12 clones) based simply on cell growth. Using this strategy in the context of the YebF pathway, a comprehensive library of E. coli single-gene knockout mutants was screened and several gain-of-function mutations were isolated that increased the efficiency of extracellular expression without compromising the integrity of the outer membrane. We anticipate that this user-friendly strategy could be leveraged to better understand the YebF pathway and other secretory mechanisms-enabling the exploration of protein secretion in pathogenesis as well as the creation of designer E. coli strains with greatly expanded secretomes-all without the need for expensive exogenous reagents, assay instruments, or robotic automation.

  13. High yield expression in a recombinant E. coli of a codon optimized chicken anemia virus capsid protein VP1 useful for vaccine development

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    You Bang-Jau

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chicken anemia virus (CAV, the causative agent chicken anemia, is the only member of the genus Gyrovirus of the Circoviridae family. CAV is an immune suppressive virus and causes anemia, lymph organ atrophy and immunodeficiency. The production and biochemical characterization of VP1 protein and its use in a subunit vaccine or as part of a diagnostic kit would be useful to CAV infection prevention. Results Significantly increased expression of the recombinant full-length VP1 capsid protein from chicken anemia virus was demonstrated using an E. coli expression system. The VP1 gene was cloned into various different expression vectors and then these were expressed in a number of different E. coli strains. The expression of CAV VP1 in E. coli was significantly increased when VP1 was fused with GST protein rather than a His-tag. By optimizing the various rare amino acid codons within the N-terminus of the VP1 protein, the expression level of the VP1 protein in E. coli BL21(DE3-pLysS was further increased significantly. The highest protein expression level obtained was 17.5 g/L per liter of bacterial culture after induction with 0.1 mM IPTG for 2 h. After purification by GST affinity chromatography, the purified full-length VP1 protein produced in this way was demonstrated to have good antigenicity and was able to be recognized by CAV-positive chicken serum in an ELISA assay. Conclusions Purified recombinant VP1 protein with the gene's codons optimized in the N-terminal region has potential as chimeric protein that, when expressed in E. coli, may be useful in the future for the development of subunit vaccines and diagnostic tests.

  14. Global transcriptional regulatory network for Escherichia coli robustly connects gene expression to transcription factor activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xin; Sastry, Anand; Mih, Nathan; Kim, Donghyuk; Tan, Justin; Lloyd, Colton J.; Gao, Ye; Yang, Laurence; Palsson, Bernhard O.

    2017-01-01

    Transcriptional regulatory networks (TRNs) have been studied intensely for >25 y. Yet, even for the Escherichia coli TRN—probably the best characterized TRN—several questions remain. Here, we address three questions: (i) How complete is our knowledge of the E. coli TRN; (ii) how well can we predict gene expression using this TRN; and (iii) how robust is our understanding of the TRN? First, we reconstructed a high-confidence TRN (hiTRN) consisting of 147 transcription factors (TFs) regulating 1,538 transcription units (TUs) encoding 1,764 genes. The 3,797 high-confidence regulatory interactions were collected from published, validated chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) data and RegulonDB. For 21 different TF knockouts, up to 63% of the differentially expressed genes in the hiTRN were traced to the knocked-out TF through regulatory cascades. Second, we trained supervised machine learning algorithms to predict the expression of 1,364 TUs given TF activities using 441 samples. The algorithms accurately predicted condition-specific expression for 86% (1,174 of 1,364) of the TUs, while 193 TUs (14%) were predicted better than random TRNs. Third, we identified 10 regulatory modules whose definitions were robust against changes to the TRN or expression compendium. Using surrogate variable analysis, we also identified three unmodeled factors that systematically influenced gene expression. Our computational workflow comprehensively characterizes the predictive capabilities and systems-level functions of an organism’s TRN from disparate data types. PMID:28874552

  15. Cytosolic expression of functional Fab fragments in Escherichia coli using a novel combination of dual SUMO expression cassette and EnBase® cultivation mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaie, F; Davami, F; Mansouri, K; Agha Amiri, S; Fazel, R; Mahdian, R; Davoudi, N; Enayati, S; Azizi, M; Khalaj, V

    2017-05-08

    The Escherichia coli expression system is highly effective in producing recombinant proteins. However, there are some limitations in this system, especially in obtaining correctly folded forms of some complex proteins such as Fab fragments. To improve the solubility and folding quality of Fab fragments, we have examined the effect of simultaneous application of a SUMO fusion tag, EnBase ® cultivation mode and a redox mutant strain in the E. coli expression system. A bicistronic gene construct was designed to express an antivascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) Fab fragment as a model system. The construct contained a dual SUMO fusion gene fragment to encode SUMO-tagged heavy and light chains. While the expression of the construct in batch cultures of BL21 or SHuffle ® transformants produced insoluble and unfolded products, the induction of the transformants in EnBase ® medium resulted in soluble and correctly folded Fab fragment, reaching as high as 19% of the total protein in shuffle strain. The functional assays indicated that the biological activity of the target Fab is similar to the commercial anti-VEGF, Lucentis ® . This study demonstrated that the combination of SUMO fusion technology, EnBase ® cultivation system and recruiting a redox mutant of E. coli can efficiently enhance the solubility and productivity of recombinant Fab fragments. The presented strategy provides not only a novel method to produce soluble and active form of an anti-VEGF Fab but also may use in the efficient production of other antibody fragments. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. Type 1 fimbrial expression enhances Escherichia coli virulence for the urinary tract.

    OpenAIRE

    Connell, I; Agace, W; Klemm, P; Schembri, M; Mărild, S; Svanborg, C

    1996-01-01

    Type 1 fimbriae are adhesion organelles expressed by many Gram-negative bacteria. They facilitate adherence to mucosal surfaces and inflammatory cells in vitro, but their contribution to virulence has not been defined. This study presents evidence that type 1 fimbriae increase the virulence of Escherichia coli for the urinary tract by promoting bacterial persistence and enhancing the inflammatory response to infection. In a clinical study, we observed that disease severity was greater in chil...

  17. Cloning and Expression of 31kDa Outer Membrane Protein of Brucella melitansis in E.coli

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    Sayeneh Khodadadi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: The identification of Brucella spp. antigens with the capacity to elicit a protective immune response is of the great interest for the researchers. So, characterization and assessment of diverse antigens of Brucella need to be evaluated. In this study, we report the cloning and expression of the gene coding for 31 KDa OMP (OMP31 of Brucella melitensis 16M.   Methods: Brucella melitensis Omp31 gene was amplified with specific primers, cloned into pJET1/2 and subsequently subcloned in pET28a (+ vector. Both these recombinant plasmids were sequenced and then after, expression of recombinant protein was induced by 1mM IPTG. Western blot analysis was also performed by polyclonal rabbit antiserum.   Results: Omp31 successfully was cloned in both plasmid vectors. The recombinant Omp31 was expressed in E.coli host and purified with significant yield. Western blot results along with those of sequencing ensured accurate production of recombinant omp31 and retaining of its partial epitopes.   Conclusion: Our results show that, an expression host such as E. coli is suitable for omp31 production.

  18. Chromatin architecture and gene expression in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willenbrock, Hanni; Ussery, David

    2004-01-01

    Two recent genome-scale analyses underscore the importance of DNA topology and chromatin structure in regulating transcription in Escherichia coli.......Two recent genome-scale analyses underscore the importance of DNA topology and chromatin structure in regulating transcription in Escherichia coli....

  19. Identification, cloning, and expression of the Escherichia coli pyrazinamidase and nicotinamidase gene, pncA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frothingham, R; Meeker-O'Connell, W A; Talbot, E A; George, J W; Kreuzer, K N

    1996-06-01

    Pyrazinamide (PZA) is one of the three most important drugs for treatment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections. The antibacterial activity of PZA requires a bacterial enzyme, pyrazinamidase (PZAase), which hydrolyzes PZA to form pyrazinoic acid and ammonia. Most PZA-resistant clinical M. tuberculosis isolates lack PZAase activity. With the goal of eventually identifying and characterizing the M.tuberculosis PZAase gene, we began with the more tractable organism, Escherichia coli, which also has PZAase activity. We screened a transposon-generated E. coli insertion mutant library, using a qualitative PZAase assay. Two PZAase-negative mutants out of 4,000 colonies screened were identified. In each mutant, the transposon interrupted the same 639-bp open reading frame (ORF), ORF1. The expression of ORF1 on a multicopy plasmid complemented a PZAase-negative mutant, leading to PZAase activity levels approximately 10-fold greater than those of the wild type. PZA has a structure similar to that of nicotinamide, a pyridine nucleotide cycle intermediate, so we tested our strains for nicotinamidase activity (EC 3.5.1.19) (genetic locus pncA). The construct with multiple plasmid copies of ORF1 had an approximately 10-fold increase in levels of nicotinamidase activity. This overexpressing strain could utilize nicotinamide as a sole nitrogen source, through wild-type E. coli cannot. We conclude that a single E. coli enzyme accounts for both PZAase and nicotinamidase activities and that ORF1 is the E.coli PZAase and nicotinamidase gene, pncA.

  20. Expression in E. coli systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsdam, Anne-M; Kristiansen, Karsten; Nøhr, Jane

    2003-01-01

    intracellularly in soluble form. In E. coli, proteins containing disulfide bonds are best produced by secretion because the disulfide forming foldases reside in the periplasm. Likewise, a correct N-terminus is more likely to be obtained upon secretion. Moreover, potentially toxic proteins are more likely...

  1. Heterologously expressed bacterial and human multidrug resistance proteins confer cadmium resistance to Escherichia coli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achard-Joris, M; van Saparoea, HBV; Driessen, AJM; Bourdineaud, JP; Bourdineaud, Jean-Paul

    2005-01-01

    The human MDR1 gene is induced by cadmium exposure although no resistance to this metal is observed in human cells overexpressing hMDR1. To access the role of MDR proteins in cadmium resistance, human MDR1, Lactococcus lactis lmrA, and Oenococcus oeni omrA were expressed in an Escherichia coli tolC

  2. The E. coli pET expression system revisited-mechanistic correlation between glucose and lactose uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurm, David Johannes; Veiter, Lukas; Ulonska, Sophia; Eggenreich, Britta; Herwig, Christoph; Spadiut, Oliver

    2016-10-01

    Therapeutic monoclonal antibodies are mainly produced in mammalian cells to date. However, unglycosylated antibody fragments can also be produced in the bacterium Escherichia coli which brings several advantages, like growth on cheap media and high productivity. One of the most popular E. coli strains for recombinant protein production is E. coli BL21(DE3) which is usually used in combination with the pET expression system. However, it is well known that induction by isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) stresses the cells and can lead to the formation of insoluble inclusion bodies. In this study, we revisited the pET expression system for the production of a novel antibody single-chain variable fragment (scFv) with the goal of maximizing the amount of soluble product. Thus, we (1) investigated whether lactose favors the recombinant production of soluble scFv compared to IPTG, (2) investigated whether the formation of soluble product can be influenced by the specific glucose uptake rate (q s,glu) during lactose induction, and (3) determined the mechanistic correlation between the specific lactose uptake rate (q s,lac) and q s,glu. We found that lactose induction gave a much greater amount of soluble scFv compared to IPTG, even when the growth rate was increased. Furthermore, we showed that the production of soluble protein could be tuned by varying q s,glu during lactose induction. Finally, we established a simple model describing the mechanistic correlation between q s,lac and q s,glu allowing tailored feeding and prevention of sugar accumulation. We believe that this mechanistic model might serve as platform knowledge for E. coli.

  3. Dissecting the hydrogenase expression and activity of transformed escherichia coli with the bidirectional NiFe-hydrogenase from synechocystis sp. PCC 6803

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Yu Ran; Lee, Min Hee; An, Byung Chull; Chung, Byung Yeoup; Kim, Jae Sung; Kim, Jin Hong; Park, Youn Il; Kim, Cha Soon

    2009-01-01

    Synechocystis bidirectional hydrogenase genes (hoxEFUYH) and their putative promoter regions and transformed into E. coli. The hox genes were transcribed in the E. coli cells carrying the vector construct of pCCIFOS::phox::hox or pCCIFOS::pT7::hox and translated into HoxEFUYH proteins, suggesting that the putative hox promoter can be constitutively activated in E. coli. Accordingly, the total hydrogenase activity was markedly increased up to 192% or 169% in the transformed cells, while the hydrogen uptake was decreased up to about 30% of the negative control. Although the gene expression of LexA, the only one transcription regulator proven for the hox genes, was substantially decreased in the pCCIFOS::phox::hox cells after γ-irradiation of 30 Gy, the expression levels of HoxEFUYH proteins were not altered significantly. Thus, it is also suggested that other transcription regulators as well as LexA might contribute to activation of the hox promoter in E. coli

  4. Expression of fully functional tetrameric human hemoglobin in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, S.J.; Looker, D.L.; Roehrich, J.M.; Cozart, P.E.; Durfee, S.L.; Tedesco, J.L.; Stetler, G.L.

    1990-01-01

    Synthesis genes encoding the human α- and β-globin polypeptides have been expressed from a single operon in Escherichia coli. The α- and β-globin polypeptides associate into soluble tetramers, incorporate heme, and accumulate to >5% of the total cellular protein. Purified recombinant hemoglobin has the correct stoichiometry of α- and β-globin chains and contains a full complement of heme. Each globin chain also contains an additional methionine as an extension to the amino terminus. The recombinant hemoglobin has a C 4 reversed-phase HPLC profile essentially identical to that of human hemoglobin A 0 and comigrates with hemoglobin A 0 on SDS/PAGE. The visible spectrum and oxygen affinity are similar to that of native human hemoglobin A 0 . The authors have also expressed the α- and β-globin genes separately and found that the expression of the α-globin gene alone results in a marked decrease in the accumulation of α-globin in the cell. Separate expression of the β-globin gene results in high levels of insoluble β-globin. These observations suggest that the presence of α- and β-globin in the same cell stabilizes α-globin and aids the correct folding of β-globin. This system provides a simple method for expressing large quantities of recombinant hemoglobin and allows facile manipulation of the genes encoding hemoglobin to produce functionally altered forms of this protein

  5. [Effect of eicosapentaenoic acid on mRNA expression of tight junction protein ZO-1 in intestinal epithelial cells after Escherichia coli LF82 infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Li-Jun; Lin, Yan; Zhang, Wei; Tian, Jiao; Wang, Ya; Chen, Peng-De; Hu, Chong-Kang; Zeng, Ling-Chao; Yang, Jie; Wang, Bao-Xi; Jiang, Xun

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the change in the expression of tight junction protein ZO-1 in intestinal epithelial cells (Caco-2 cells) and the protective effect of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) after adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (E.coli) LF82 infection. The Caco-2 cell line was used to establish an in vitro model of tight junction of intestinal epithelial cells. Caco-2 cells were divided into EPA treatment groups (0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 μmol/L EPA) and EPA (0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 μmol/L EPA)+E.coli LF82 treatment (0, 6, and 12 hours) groups. A microscope was used to observe the morphological characteristics of the cells. MTT assay was used to determine the cell growth curve. The activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) at both sides of the cell membrane was compared to evaluate the Caco-2 cell model. MTT assay and flow cytometry were used to investigate the effects of different concentrations of EPA on the survival rate and apoptosis rate of Caco-2 cells. RT-qPCR was used to measure the mRNA expression of ZO-1 in Caco-2 cells after EPA and/or E.coli LF82 treatment. ELISA was used to measure the change in the level of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in culture supernatant. After EPA treatment (25 and 50 μmol/L), the proliferation of Caco-2 cells was induced in a dose-dependent manner. The survival rates of the cells were significantly higher than those in the control group (PE.coli LF82 treatment groups had decreasing mRNA expression of ZO-1 in Caco-2 cells over the time of treatment and had significantly lower mRNA expression of ZO-1 than the untreated group (PE.coli LF82 and 25 or 50 μmol/L EPA for 6 or 12 hours showed an increase in the mRNA expression of ZO-1 with the increasing concentration of EPA, as well as significantly higher mRNA expression of ZO-1 than the Caco-2 cells treated with E.coli LF82 alone (PE.coli LF82 alone for 6 or 12 hours had increasing secretion of TNF-α over the time of treatment and had significantly higher secretion than the untreated

  6. Cost effective purification of intein based syntetic cationic antimicrobial peptide expressed in cold shock expression system using salt inducible E. coli GJ1158

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seetha Ram Kotra

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Synthetic cationic antimicrobial peptide (SC-AMP is an important and upcoming therapeutic molecule against onventional antibiotics. In this study, an attempt was made to purify the SC-AMP without the enzymatic cleavage of the affinity tag, by using an intein-based system. Methods:The intein sequence was amplified from pTYB11 vector using PCR methodologies and the N-terminal of intein was ligated with SC-AMP. The designed construct, intein-SC-AMP was cloned into MCS region of cold shock expression vector, pCOLDI and the recombinant peptide was purified on a chitin affinity column by cleaving intein with 50 mM DTT without applying enzymatic cleavage. Later the peptide was quantified and its antibacterial activity of the purified peptide was studied using well diffusion method. Results: Initially, intein-SC-AMP was expressed as a fusion protein in both IPTG inducible E. coli BL21(DE3 and salt inducible E. coli GJ1158. Single step purification using CBD (chitin binding domain - intein tag in salt inducible E. coli GJ1158, yields the SC-AMP in the soluble form at a oncentration of 208 mg/L. The antibacterial activity and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC of the purified SC-AMP was studied against both Gram positive and Gram negative microorganisms. Conclusion: For the first time, single step purification of soluble SC-AMP was carried out using chitin-binding domain affinity tag in salt inducible E. coli GJ1158 without an application of enzymatic cleavage. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2014;4(1:13-19

  7. Evaluation of Biological Toxicity of CdTe Quantum Dots with Different Coating Reagents according to Protein Expression of Engineering Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The results obtained from toxicity assessment of quantum dots (QDs can be used to establish guidelines for the application of QDs in bioimaging. This paper focused on the design of a novel method to evaluate the toxicity of CdTe QDs using engineering Escherichia coli as a model. The toxicity of mercaptoacetic acid (MPA, glutathione (GSH, and L-cysteine (Cys capped CdTe QDs was analyzed according to the heterologous protein expression in BL21/DE3, engineering Escherichia coli extensively used for protein expression. The results showed that the MPA-CdTe QDs had more serious toxicity than the other two kinds of CdTe QDs. The microscopic images and SEM micrographs further proved that both the proliferation and the protein expression of engineering Escherichia coli were inhibited after treatment with MPA-CdTe QDs. The proposed method is important to evaluate biological toxicity of both QDs and other nanoparticles.

  8. Targeted capture and heterologous expression of the Pseudoalteromonas alterochromide gene cluster in Escherichia coli represents a promising natural product exploratory platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Avena C; Gulland, Lauren E S; Dorrestein, Pieter C; Moore, Bradley S

    2015-04-17

    Marine pseudoalteromonads represent a very promising source of biologically important natural product molecules. To access and exploit the full chemical capacity of these cosmopolitan Gram-(-) bacteria, we sought to apply universal synthetic biology tools to capture, refactor, and express biosynthetic gene clusters for the production of complex organic compounds in reliable host organisms. Here, we report a platform for the capture of proteobacterial gene clusters using a transformation-associated recombination (TAR) strategy coupled with direct pathway manipulation and expression in Escherichia coli. The ~34 kb pathway for production of alterochromide lipopeptides by Pseudoalteromonas piscicida JCM 20779 was captured and heterologously expressed in E. coli utilizing native and E. coli-based T7 promoter sequences. Our approach enabled both facile production of the alterochromides and in vivo interrogation of gene function associated with alterochromide's unusual brominated lipid side chain. This platform represents a simple but effective strategy for the discovery and biosynthetic characterization of natural products from marine proteobacteria.

  9. Identification and quantification of N alpha-acetylated Y. pestis fusion protein F1-V expressed in Escherichia coli using LCMS E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bariola, Pauline A; Russell, Brett A; Monahan, Steven J; Stroop, Steven D

    2007-05-31

    N-terminal acetylation in E coli is a rare event catalyzed by three known N-acetyl-transferases (NATs), each having a specific ribosomal protein substrate. Multiple, gram-scale lots of recombinant F1-V, a fusion protein constructed from Y. Pestis antigens, were expressed and purified from a single stably transformed E. coli cell bank. A variant form of F1-V with mass increased by 42-43 Da was detected in all purified lots by electrospray orthogonal acceleration time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MS). Peptide mapping LCMS localized the increased mass to an N-terminal Lys-C peptide, residues 1-24, and defined it as +42.0308+/-0.0231 Da using a LockSpray exact mass feature and a leucine enkaphalin mass standard. Sequencing of the variant 1-24 peptide by LCMS and high-energy collision induced dissociation (LCMS(E)) further localized the modification to the amino terminal tri-peptide ADL and identified the modification as N(alpha)-acetylation. The average content of N(alpha)-acetylated F1-V in five lots was 24.7+/-2.6% indicating that a stable acetylation activity for F1-V was established in the E. coli expression system. Alignment of the F1-V N-terminal sequence with those of other known N(alpha)-acetylated ectopic proteins expressed in E. coli reveals a substrate motif analogous to the eukaryote NatA' acetylation pathway and distinct from endogenous E. coli NAT substrates.

  10. Elevated Expression of GlpT and UhpT via FNR Activation Contributes to Increased Fosfomycin Susceptibility in Escherichia coli under Anaerobic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurabayashi, Kumiko; Tanimoto, Koichi; Fueki, Shinobu; Tomita, Haruyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Because a shortage of new antimicrobial agents is a critical issue at present, and with the spread of multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens, the use of fosfomycin to treat infections is being revisited as a “last-resort option.” This drug offers a particular benefit in that it is more effective against bacteria growing under oxygen-limited conditions, unlike other commonly used antimicrobials, such as fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides. In this study, we showed that Escherichia coli strains, including enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), were more susceptible to fosfomycin when grown anaerobically than when grown aerobically, and we investigated how the activity of this drug was enhanced during anaerobic growth of E. coli. Our quantitative PCR analysis and a transport assay showed that E. coli cells grown under anaerobic conditions had higher levels of expression of glpT and uhpT, encoding proteins that transport fosfomycin into cells with their native substrates, i.e., glycerol-3-phosphate and glucose-6-phosphate, and led to increased intracellular accumulation of the drug. Elevation of expression of these genes during anaerobic growth requires FNR, a global transcriptional regulator that is activated under anaerobic conditions. Purified FNR bound to DNA fragments from regions upstream of glpT and uhpT, suggesting that it is an activator of expression of glpT and uhpT during anaerobic growth. We concluded that the increased antibacterial activity of fosfomycin toward E. coli under anaerobic conditions can be attributed to elevated expression of GlpT and UhpT following activation of FNR, leading to increased uptake of the drug. PMID:26248376

  11. [Expression, purification and immunogenicity of human papillomavirus type 11 virus-like particles from Escherichia coli].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Chunyan; Li, Shaowei; Wang, Jin; Wei, Minxi; Huang, Bo; Zhuang, Yudi; Li, Zhongyi; Pan, Huirong; Zhang, Jun; Xia, Ningshao

    2009-11-01

    To produce human papillomavirus type 11 virus-like particles (HPV11 VLPs) from Escherichia coli and to investigate its immunogenicity and type cross neutralization nature. We expressed the major capsid protein of HPV11 (HPV11-L1) in Escherichia coli ER2566 in non fusion fashion and purified by amino sulfate precipitation, ion-exchange chromatography and hydrophobic interaction chromatography, sequentially. Then we removed the reductant DTT to have the purified HPV11-L1 self-assemble into VLPs in vitro. We investigated the morphology of these VLPs with dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy. We assayed the immunogenicity of the resultant HPV11 VLPs by vaccinations on mice and evaluated by HPV6/11/16/18 pseudovirion neutralization cell models. We expressed HPV11 L1 in Escherichia coli with two forms, soluble and inclusion body. The soluble HPV11 L1 with over 95% purity can self assemble to VLPs in high efficiency. Morphologically, these VLPs were globular, homogeneous and with a diameter of - 50 nm, which is quite similar with native HPV11 virions. The half effective dosage (ED50) of HPV11 VLPs is 0.031 microg, and the maximum titer of neutralizing antibody elicited is averaged to 10(6). The cross neutralization activity (against HPV6/16/18) of the anti-HPV11 serum was found to have exact correlation to the inter-type homology in amino acid alignment. We can provide HPV11 VLPs with highly immunogenicity from prokaryote expression system, which may pave a new way for research and development of prophylactic vaccine for HPV11.

  12. Antimicrobial activity of apple cider vinegar against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans; downregulating cytokine and microbial protein expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagnik, Darshna; Serafin, Vlad; J Shah, Ajit

    2018-01-29

    The global escalation in antibiotic resistance cases means alternative antimicrobials are essential. The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial capacity of apple cider vinegar (ACV) against E. coli, S. aureus and C. albicans. The minimum dilution of ACV required for growth inhibition varied for each microbial species. For C. albicans, a 1/2 ACV had the strongest effect, S. aureus, a 1/25 dilution ACV was required, whereas for E-coli cultures, a 1/50 ACV dilution was required (p < 0.05). Monocyte co-culture with microbes alongside ACV resulted in dose dependent downregulation of inflammatory cytokines (TNFα, IL-6). Results are expressed as percentage decreases in cytokine secretion comparing ACV treated with non-ACV treated monocytes cultured with E-coli (TNFα, 99.2%; IL-6, 98%), S. aureus (TNFα, 90%; IL-6, 83%) and C. albicans (TNFα, 83.3%; IL-6, 90.1%) respectively. Proteomic analyses of microbes demonstrated that ACV impaired cell integrity, organelles and protein expression. ACV treatment resulted in an absence in expression of DNA starvation protein, citrate synthase, isocitrate and malate dehydrogenases in E-coli; chaperone protein DNak and ftsz in S. aureus and pyruvate kinase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, fructose bisphosphate were among the enzymes absent in C.albican cultures. The results demonstrate ACV has multiple antimicrobial potential with clinical therapeutic implications.

  13. Cloning and expression of pab gene of M. tuberculosis isolated from pulmonary TB patient in E.coli DH5α

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Y. M. Raras

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen38 is a potent serodiagnostic agent containing two M. tuberculosisspecific B-cell epitopes. The high price of imported diagnostic agents hinders realization of fast clinical TB diagnosis in developing countries. Therefore, we produced recombinant antigen38 (recAg38M from M. tuberculosis local strain, which might be used to produce economical tuberculosis serodiagnostic kit.Methods: Pab gene that was isolated from pulmonary TB patient in Malang was cloned into a plasmid vector (pGEMTeasy to construct pMB38. The E.coli DH5α clone carrying pMb38 was selected on X-gal medium. The expression of pab was mediated using pPRoExHTc under the control of Trc promoter and E.coli DH5α as host.Results: Alignment of the pab sequence from the white E.coli DH5α clones with that of M. tuberculosis H37Rv showed 98% homology. The recombinant protein in which the signal peptide has been deleted to prevent the protein being secreted into medium was found in the cytoplasm.Conclusion: pab gene of M. tuberculosis isolated from a TB patient could be expressed in heterologous system in E.coliDH5α. (Med J Indones 2011; 20:247-54Keywords: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Pab gene expression, recombinant antigen38

  14. Heterologous expression of mannanase and developing a new Reporter gene system in Lactobacillus casei and Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Jinzhong; Zou, Yexia; Ma, Chengjie

    2015-01-01

    Reporter gene systems are useful for studying bacterial molecular biology, including the regulation of gene expression and the histochemical analysis of protein products. Here, two genes, β-1,4-mannanase (manB) from Bacillus pumilus and β-glucuronidase (gusA) from Escherichia coli K12, were clone....... casei and E.coli....

  15. Assembly and multiple gene expression of thermophilic enzymes in Escherichia coli for in vitro metabolic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninh, Pham Huynh; Honda, Kohsuke; Sakai, Takaaki; Okano, Kenji; Ohtake, Hisao

    2015-01-01

    In vitro reconstitution of an artificial metabolic pathway is an emerging approach for the biocatalytic production of industrial chemicals. However, several enzymes have to be separately prepared (and purified) for the construction of an in vitro metabolic pathway, thereby limiting the practical applicability of this approach. In this study, genes encoding the nine thermophilic enzymes involved in a non-ATP-forming chimeric glycolytic pathway were assembled in an artificial operon and co-expressed in a single recombinant Escherichia coli strain. Gene expression levels of the thermophilic enzymes were controlled by their sequential order in the artificial operon. The specific activities of the recombinant enzymes in the cell-free extract of the multiple-gene-expression E. coli were 5.0-1,370 times higher than those in an enzyme cocktail prepared from a mixture of single-gene-expression strains, in each of which a single one of the nine thermophilic enzymes was overproduced. Heat treatment of a crude extract of the multiple-gene-expression cells led to the denaturation of indigenous proteins and one-step preparation of an in vitro synthetic pathway comprising only a limited number of thermotolerant enzymes. Coupling this in vitro pathway with other thermophilic enzymes including the H2 O-forming NADH oxidase or the malate/lactate dehydrogenase facilitated one-pot conversion of glucose to pyruvate or lactate, respectively. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Expression of human ferredoxin and assembly of the [2Fe-2S] center in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coghlan, V.M.; Vickery, L.E.

    1989-01-01

    A cDNA fragment encoding human ferredoxin, a mitochondrial [2Fe-2S] protein, was introduced into Escherichia coli by using an expression vector based on the approach of Nagai and Thogersen. Expression was under control of the λP L promoter and resulted in production of ferredoxin as a cleavable fusion protein with an amino-terminal fragment derived from bacteriophage λcII protein. The fusion protein was isolated from the soluble fraction of induced cells and was specifically cleaved to yield mature recombinant ferredoxin. The recombinant protein was shown to be identical in size to ferredoxin isolated from human placenta (13,546 Da) by NaDodSO 4 /PAGE and partial amino acid sequencing. E. coli cells expressing human ferredoxin were brown in color, and absorbance and electron paramagnetic resonance spectra of the purified recombinant protein established that the [2Fe-2S]center was assembled and incorporated into ferredoxin in vivo. Recombinant ferredoxin was active in steroid hydroxylations when reconstituted with cytochromes P-450 sec and P-450 11β and exhibited rates comparable to those observed for ferredoxin isolated from human placenta. This expression system should be useful in production of native and structurally altered forms of human ferredoxin for studies of ferredoxin structure and function

  17. Expression of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Ku and Ligase D in Escherichia coli results in RecA and RecB-independent DNA end-joining at regions of microhomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malyarchuk, Svitlana; Wright, Douglas; Castore, Reneau; Klepper, Emily; Weiss, Bernard; Doherty, Aidan J; Harrison, Lynn

    2007-10-01

    Unlike Escherichia coli, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mt) expresses a Ku-like protein and an ATP-dependent DNA ligase that can perform non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ). We have expressed the Mt-Ku and Mt-Ligase D in E. coli using an arabinose-inducible promoter and expression vectors that integrate into specific sites in the E. coli chromosome. E. coli strains have been generated that express the Mt-Ku and Mt-Ligase D on a genetic background that is wild-type for repair, or deficient in either the RecA or RecB protein. Transformation of these strains with linearized plasmid DNA containing a 2bp overhang has demonstrated that expression of both the Mt-Ku and Mt-Ligase D is required for DNA end-joining and that loss of RecA does not prevent this double-strand break repair. Analysis of the re-joined plasmid has shown that repair is predominantly inaccurate and results in the deletion of sequences. Loss of RecB did not prevent the formation of large deletions, but did increase the amount of end-joining. Sequencing the junctions has revealed that the majority of the ligations occurred at regions of microhomology (1-4bps), eliminating one copy of the homologous sequence at the junction. The Mt-Ku and Mt-Ligase D can therefore function in E. coli to re-circularize linear plasmid.

  18. Reconstitution of active mycobacterial binuclear iron monooxygenase complex in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, Toshiki; Hayashi, Mika; Kino, Kuniki

    2013-10-01

    Bacterial binuclear iron monooxygenases play numerous physiological roles in oxidative metabolism. Monooxygenases of this type found in actinomycetes also catalyze various useful reactions and have attracted much attention as oxidation biocatalysts. However, difficulties in expressing these multicomponent monooxygenases in heterologous hosts, particularly in Escherichia coli, have hampered the development of engineered oxidation biocatalysts. Here, we describe a strategy to functionally express the mycobacterial binuclear iron monooxygenase MimABCD in Escherichia coli. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic analysis of the mimABCD gene expression in E. coli revealed that the oxygenase components MimA and MimC were insoluble. Furthermore, although the reductase MimB was expressed at a low level in the soluble fraction of E. coli cells, a band corresponding to the coupling protein MimD was not evident. This situation rendered the transformed E. coli cells inactive. We found that the following factors are important for functional expression of MimABCD in E. coli: coexpression of the specific chaperonin MimG, which caused MimA and MimC to be soluble in E. coli cells, and the optimization of the mimD nucleotide sequence, which led to efficient expression of this gene product. These two remedies enabled this multicomponent monooxygenase to be actively expressed in E. coli. The strategy described here should be generally applicable to the E. coli expression of other actinomycetous binuclear iron monooxygenases and related enzymes and will accelerate the development of engineered oxidation biocatalysts for industrial processes.

  19. Facile promoter deletion in Escherichia coli in response to leaky expression of very robust and benign proteins from common expression vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawe Martin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overexpression of proteins in Escherichia coli is considered routine today, at least when the protein is soluble and not otherwise toxic for the host. We report here that the massive overproduction of even such "benign" proteins can cause surprisingly efficient promoter deletions in the expression plasmid, leading to the growth of only non-producers, when expression is not well repressed in the newly transformed bacterial cell. Because deletion is so facile, it might impact on high-throughput protein production, e.g. for structural genomics, where not every expression parameter will be monitored. Results We studied the high-level expression of several robust non-toxic proteins using a T5 promoter under lac operator control. Full induction leads to no significant growth retardation. We compared expression from almost identical plasmids with or without the lacI gene together in strains expressing different levels of LacI. Any combination without net overexpression of LacI led to an efficient promoter deletion in the plasmid, although the number of growing colonies and even the plasmid size – all antibiotic-resistant non-producers – was almost normal, and thus the problem not immediately recognizable. However, by assuring sufficient repression during the initial establishment phase of the plasmid, deletion was completely prevented. Conclusion The deletions in the insufficiently repressed system are caused entirely by the burden of high-level translation. Since the E. coli Dps protein, known to protect DNA against stress in the stationary phase, is accumulated in the deletion mutants, the mutation may have taken place during a transient stationary phase. The cause of the deletion is thus distinct from the well known interference of high-level transcription with plasmid replication. The deletion can be entirely prevented by overexpressing LacI, a useful precaution even without any signs of stress caused by the protein.

  20. CTX-M-1 β-lactamase expression in Escherichia coli is dependent on cefotaxime concentration, growth phase and gene location

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Thea S. B.; Overgaard, Martin; Nielsen, Søren S.

    2015-01-01

    blaCTX-M-1 mRNA expression and CTX-M-1 protein levels were dependent on cefotaxime concentration, growth phase and gene location. These results provide insight into the expression of cephalosporin resistance in CTX-M-1-producing E. coli, improving our understanding of the relationship between ant...

  1. Efficient secretory expression of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli with a novel actinomycete signal peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yanbing; Meng, Yiwei; Zhang, Juan; Cheng, Bin; Yin, Huijia; Gao, Chao; Xu, Ping; Yang, Chunyu

    2017-01-01

    In well-established heterologous hosts, such as Escherichia coli, recombinant proteins are usually intracellular and frequently found as inclusion bodies-especially proteins possessing high rare codon content. In this study, successful secretory expression of three hydrolases, in a constructed inducible or constitutive system, was achieved by fusion with a novel signal peptide (Kp-SP) from an actinomycete. The signal peptide efficiently enabled extracellular protein secretion and also contributed to the active expression of the intracellular recombinant proteins. The thermophilic α-amylase gene of Bacillus licheniformis was fused with Kp-SP. Both recombinants, carrying inducible and constitutive plasmids, showed remarkable increases in extracellular and intracellular amylolytic activity. Amylase activity was observed to be > 10-fold in recombinant cultures with the constitutive plasmid, pBSPPc, compared to that in recombinants lacking Kp-SP. Further, the signal peptide enabled efficient secretion of a thermophilic cellulase into the culture medium, as demonstrated by larger halo zones and increased enzymatic activities detected in both constructs from different plasmids. For heterologous proteins with a high proportion of rare codons, it is difficult to obtain high expression in E. coli owing to the codon bias. Here, the fusion of an archaeal homologue of the amylase encoding gene, FSA, with Kp-SP resulted in > 5-fold higher extracellular activity. The successful extracellular expression of the amylase indicated that the signal peptide also contributed significantly to its active expression and signified the potential value of this novel and versatile signal peptide in recombinant protein production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Efficient Production of γ-GABA Using Recombinant E. coli Expressing Glutamate Decarboxylase (GAD) Derived from Eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Qiang; Xu, Zheng; Xu, Lu; Yao, Zhong; Li, Sha; Xu, Hong

    2017-12-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (γ-GABA) is a non-proteinogenic amino acid, which acts as a major regulator in the central nervous system. Glutamate decarboxylase (namely GAD, EC 4.1.1.15) is known to be an ideal enzyme for γ-GABA production using L-glutamic acid as substrate. In this study, we cloned and expressed GAD gene from eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ScGAD) in E. coli BL21(DE3). This enzyme was further purified and its optimal reaction temperature and pH were 37 °C and pH 4.2, respectively. The cofactor of ScGAD was verified to be either pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) or pyridoxal hydrochloride. The optimal concentration of either cofactor was 50 mg/L. The optimal medium for E. coli-ScGAD cultivation and expression were 10 g/L lactose, 5 g/L glycerol, 20 g/L yeast extract, and 10 g/L sodium chloride, resulting in an activity of 55 U/mL medium, three times higher than that of using Luria-Bertani (LB) medium. The maximal concentration of γ-GABA was 245 g/L whereas L-glutamic acid was near completely converted. These findings provided us a good example for bio-production of γ-GABA using recombinant E. coli expressing a GAD enzyme derived from eukaryote.

  3. Cloning expression and analysis of phytochelatin synthase (pcs) gene from Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 offering multiple stress tolerance in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaurasia, Neha; Mishra, Yogesh; Rai, Lal Chand

    2008-01-01

    Phytochelatin synthase (PCS) is involved in the synthesis of phytochelatins (PCs), plays role in heavy metal detoxification. The present study describes for first time the functional expression and characterization of pcs gene of Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 in Escherichia coli in terms of offering protection against heat, salt, carbofuron (pesticide), cadmium, copper, and UV-B stress. The involvement of pcs gene in tolerance to above abiotic stresses was investigated by cloning of pcs gene in expression vector pGEX-5X-2 and its transformation in E. coli BL21 (DE3). The E. coli cells transformed with pGEX-5X-pcs showed better growth than control cells (pGEX-5X-2) under temperature (47 deg. C), NaCl (6% w/v), carbofuron (0.025 mg ml -1 ), CdCl 2 (4 mM), CuCl 2 (1 mM), and UV-B (10 min) exposure. The enhanced expression of pcs gene revealed by RT-PCR analysis under above stresses at different time intervals further advocates its role in tolerance against above abiotic stresses

  4. Vaccine development against the Taenia solium parasite: the role of recombinant protein expression in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauci, Charles; Jayashi, César; Lightowlers, Marshall W

    2013-01-01

    Taenia solium is a zoonotic parasite that causes cysticercosis. The parasite is a major cause of human disease in impoverished communities where it is transmitted to humans from pigs which act as intermediate hosts. Vaccination of pigs to prevent transmission of T. solium to humans is an approach that has been investigated to control the disease. A recombinant vaccine antigen, TSOL18, has been remarkably successful at reducing infection of pigs with T. solium in several experimental challenge trials. The vaccine has been shown to eliminate transmission of naturally acquired T. solium in a field trial conducted in Africa. We recently reported that the vaccine was also effective in a field trial conducted in Peru. The TSOL18 recombinant antigen for each of these trials has been produced by expression in Escherichia coli. Here we discuss research that has been undertaken on the TSOL18 antigen and related antigens with a focus on improved methods of preparation of recombinant TSOL18 and optimized expression in Escherichia coli.

  5. Aberrant expression of sonic hedgehog pathway in colon cancer and melanosis coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhong Chuan; Gao, Jun; Zi, Shu Ming; Yang, Ming; Du, Peng; Cui, Long

    2013-08-01

    To determine the hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway correlated with the development of colon cancer and melanosis coli. Protein and mRNA levels of Hh signaling pathway components (sonic hedgehog [Shh], protein patched homolog 1 [Ptch 1], GLI family zinc finger 1 [Gli 1] and suppressor of fused homolog [Drosophila] [Sufu]) in 127 patients with colon cancer, 36 with melanosis coli and 20 adjacent normal mucosal tissues taken from surgical specimens were evaluated using antibody staining and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. In adjacent normal tissue Shh and Ptch1, but not Gli1 or Sufu, were weakly expressed and mainly in the lining epithelium of the colonic mucosa. In cancerous tissues Shh and Gli1 were uniformly strong while Ptch1 was patchy and weak, and Sufu uniformly weak, which paralleled their levels of corresponding mRNA. Elevated protein levels of Shh and Ptch were significantly associated with mucinous colonic tissues. Elevated Sufu protein levels were positively correlated with the diameter and invasion of the tumor. In patients with melanosis coli, mRNA levels of Shh, Ptch1, Gli1 and Sufu were very low, which was similar to those of adjacent normal tissues; but protein levels of Shh, Ptch1 and Gli1, but not Sufu, were high, which was similar to those of cancerous tissues. The mRNA and protein levels of Hh pathway components are aberrantly elevated in colon cancer, which may be the potential molecular classification markers. Further studies are required to determine the role of melanosis coli in the colon tumorigenesis. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Digestive Diseases © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd and Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine.

  6. Regulation of crp gene expression by the catabolite repressor/activator, Cra, in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhongge; Aboulwafa, Mohammad; Saier, Milton H

    2014-01-01

    Growth of E. coli on several carbon sources is dependent on the catabolite repressor/activator (Cra) protein although a Cra consensus DNA-binding site is not present in the control regions of the relevant catabolic operons. We show that Cra regulates growth by activating expression of the crp gene. It thereby mediates catabolite repression of catabolic operons by an indirect mechanism. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Translational regulation of gene expression by an anaerobically induced small non-coding RNA in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Anders; Møller-Jensen, Jakob; Kallipolitis, Birgitte H.

    2010-01-01

    Small non-coding RNAs (sRNA) have emerged as important elements of gene regulatory circuits. In enterobacteria such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella many of these sRNAs interact with the Hfq protein, an RNA chaperone similar to mammalian Sm-like proteins and act in the post...... that adaptation to anaerobic growth involves the action of a small regulatory RNA....... of at least one sRNA regulator. Here, we extend this view by the identification and characterization of a highly conserved, anaerobically induced small sRNA in E. coli, whose expression is strictly dependent on the anaerobic transcriptional fumarate and nitrate reductase regulator (FNR). The sRNA, named Fnr...

  8. A family of E. coli expression vectors for laboratory scale and high throughput soluble protein production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bottomley Stephen P

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the past few years, both automated and manual high-throughput protein expression and purification has become an accessible means to rapidly screen and produce soluble proteins for structural and functional studies. However, many of the commercial vectors encoding different solubility tags require different cloning and purification steps for each vector, considerably slowing down expression screening. We have developed a set of E. coli expression vectors with different solubility tags that allow for parallel cloning from a single PCR product and can be purified using the same protocol. Results The set of E. coli expression vectors, encode for either a hexa-histidine tag or the three most commonly used solubility tags (GST, MBP, NusA and all with an N-terminal hexa-histidine sequence. The result is two-fold: the His-tag facilitates purification by immobilised metal affinity chromatography, whilst the fusion domains act primarily as solubility aids during expression, in addition to providing an optional purification step. We have also incorporated a TEV recognition sequence following the solubility tag domain, which allows for highly specific cleavage (using TEV protease of the fusion protein to yield native protein. These vectors are also designed for ligation-independent cloning and they possess a high-level expressing T7 promoter, which is suitable for auto-induction. To validate our vector system, we have cloned four different genes and also one gene into all four vectors and used small-scale expression and purification techniques. We demonstrate that the vectors are capable of high levels of expression and that efficient screening of new proteins can be readily achieved at the laboratory level. Conclusion The result is a set of four rationally designed vectors, which can be used for streamlined cloning, expression and purification of target proteins in the laboratory and have the potential for being adaptable to a high

  9. Acquisition of Carbapenem Resistance by Plasmid-Encoded-AmpC-Expressing Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Boxtel, Ria; Wattel, Agnes A; Arenas, Jesús; Goessens, Wil H F; Tommassen, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Although AmpC β-lactamases can barely degrade carbapenems, if at all, they can sequester them and prevent them from reaching their targets. Thus, carbapenem resistance in Escherichia coli and other Enterobacteriaceae can result from AmpC production and simultaneous reduction of antibiotic influx into the periplasm by mutations in the porin genes. Here we investigated the route and genetic mechanisms of acquisition of carbapenem resistance in a clinical E. coli isolate carrying bla CMY-2 on a plasmid by selecting for mutants that are resistant to increasing concentrations of meropenem. In the first step, the expression of OmpC, the only porin produced in the strain under laboratory conditions, was lost, leading to reduced susceptibility to meropenem. In the second step, the expression of the CMY-2 β-lactamase was upregulated, leading to resistance to meropenem. The loss of OmpC was due to the insertion of an IS1 element into the ompC gene or to frameshift mutations and premature stop codons in this gene. The bla CMY-2 gene was found to be located on an IncIγ plasmid, and overproduction of the CMY-2 enzyme resulted from an increased plasmid copy number due to a nucleotide substitution in the inc gene. The clinical relevance of these genetic mechanisms became evident from the analysis of previously isolated carbapenem-resistant clinical isolates, which appeared to carry similar mutations. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Microbiology.

  10. Zinc oxide nanoparticle reduced biofilm formation and antigen 43 expressions in uropathogenic Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Shakerimoghaddam

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: This study aimed to investigate the effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-np on biofilm formation and expression of the flu gene in uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC strains. Materials and Methods: Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of ZnO-np was determined by agar dilution method. The effect of MIC and sub-MIC concentrations of ZnO-np on biofilm formation were determined by microtiter plate assay. The expression level of the flu gene was assessed by Real-Time PCR assay. Results: MIC and sub-MIC ZnO-np concentrations reduced biofilm formation by 50% and 33.4%, respectively. Sub-MIC ZnO-np concentration significantly reduced the flu gene expression in the UPEC isolates (P

  11. F9 fimbriae of uropathogenic Escherichia coli are expressed at low temperature and recognise Galβ1-3GlcNAc-containing glycans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniël J Wurpel

    Full Text Available Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC is the leading causative agent of urinary tract infections (UTI in the developed world. Among the major virulence factors of UPEC, surface expressed adhesins mediate attachment and tissue tropism. UPEC strains typically possess a range of adhesins, with type 1 fimbriae and P fimbriae of the chaperone-usher class the best characterised. We previously identified and characterised F9 as a new chaperone-usher fimbrial type that mediates biofilm formation. However, the regulation and specific role of F9 fimbriae remained to be determined in the context of wild-type clinical UPEC strains. In this study we have assessed the distribution and genetic context of the f9 operon among diverse E. coli lineages and pathotypes and demonstrated that f9 genes are significantly more conserved in a UPEC strain collection in comparison to the well-defined E. coli reference (ECOR collection. In the prototypic UPEC strain CFT073, the global regulator protein H-NS was identified as a transcriptional repressor of f9 gene expression at 37°C through its ability to bind directly to the f9 promoter region. F9 fimbriae expression was demonstrated at 20°C, representing the first evidence of functional F9 fimbriae expression by wild-type E. coli. Finally, glycan array analysis demonstrated that F9 fimbriae recognise and bind to terminal Galβ1-3GlcNAc structures.

  12. The Dermatophagoides farinae group 22 allergen: cloning and expression in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yu-bao; Cai, Hong-xing; Zhou, Ying; Wang, Nan; Yu, Li-li; Yang, Li; Zhang, Cheng-bo

    2015-09-01

    Dermatophagoides farinae (Hughes) (Acari: Pyroglyphidae) and other domestic mites produce allergens that affect people worldwide. Here, the complementary DNA (cDNA) coding for group 22 allergen of D. farinae (Der f 22) from China was cloned, sequenced, and expressed successfully. The cDNA encoding Der f 22 was synthesized by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), then ligated to the pCold-TF for expression in Escherichia coli BL21 cells. The purified recombinant fusion protein was identified by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), Western-blotting, and tandem matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF). The full-length cDNA comprised 468 nucleotides and was 99.57% (466/468) identical with the reference sequence (GenBank: DQ643992). After the plasmid pCold-TF-Der f 22 was transformed into E. coli BL21 and expressed with the induction of IPTG, SDS-PAGE showed a specific band for the recombinant fusion protein. The recombinant fusion protein, which was purified by chromatography, bound with a His-tagged antibody by Western blotting. MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry revealed that the structure of the recombinant protein was identical to the predicted Der f 22 structure. The hydrophilic protein contains a signal peptide of 20 amino acids, and the mature Der f 22 consists of 135 amino acid residues with a molecular weight of 14.7 kDa and theoretical isoelectric points (pI) of 6.38. Its secondary structure comprises an alpha helix (38.5%), beta-sheet (45.9%), random coils (11.85%), and beta-turns (11.1%). This work represents the first reported full-length sequence and successful cloning of Der f 22 from D. farinae in China; bioinformatics analysis can be used to further study the allergenicity and clinical utility of the recombinant Der f 22. © 2015 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  13. A empiric expression to interpret the approximation of λ cI phages to E. coli C600 bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garces, F.; Vidania, R. de

    1984-01-01

    In general the process of adsorption of phages to bacteria is considered in the bibliography as an statistical process. In this work we use an empiric expression which allows to interpret the approximation of λcI pages to E. coli C 6 00 bacteria. This expression introduces some changes respect to a pure statistical description of the approximation process. (Author) 26 refs

  14. Aspirin augments the expression of Adenomatous Polyposis Coli protein by suppression of IKKβ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashida, Noboru; Kishihata, Masako; Tien, Dat Nguyen; Kamei, Kaeko; Kimura, Takeshi; Yokode, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Clinical studies revealed aspirin inhibits cancer, but the mechanism is not known. • Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) is a well-known tumor-suppressing gene. • We found aspirin up-regulates the protein of APC. • Aspirin suppressed the expression of IKKβ, an essential kinase in NFκB activation. • The deletion of IKKβ significantly increases the expression of APC protein. - Abstract: Aspirin has been widely used as analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory medicine for long. In addition to these traditional effects, clinical studies suggest that aspirin can protect against cancer, but its mechanism has not been explored. To unveil it, we identified the proteins up- or down-regulated after incubation with aspirin by using proteomics analysis with Nano-flow LC/MALDI-TOF system. Interestingly, the analysis identified the protein of Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) as one of the most up-regulated protein. APC regulates cell proliferation or angiogenesis, and is widely known as a tumor-suppressing gene which can cause colorectal cancer when it is mutated. Western blots confirmed this result, and real-time PCR indicated it is transcriptionally regulated. We further tried to elucidate the molecular mechanism with focusing on IKKβ. IKKβ is the essential kinase in activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), major transcriptional factors that regulate genes responsible for inflammation or immune response. Previous reports indicated that aspirin specifically inhibits IKKβ activity, and constitutively active form of IKKβ accelerates APC loss. We found that aspirin suppressed the expression of IKKβ, and the deletion of IKKβ by siRNA increases the expression of APC in HEK294 cells. Finally, we observed similar effects of aspirin in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Taken together, these results reveal that aspirin up-regulates the expression of APC via the suppression of IKKβ. This can be a mechanism how aspirin prevents cancer at

  15. Aspirin augments the expression of Adenomatous Polyposis Coli protein by suppression of IKKβ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashida, Noboru, E-mail: nashida@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Clinical Innovative Medicine, Institute for Advancement of Clinical and Translational Science, Faculty of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Kishihata, Masako [Department of Clinical Innovative Medicine, Institute for Advancement of Clinical and Translational Science, Faculty of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Tien, Dat Nguyen [Department of Clinical Innovative Medicine, Institute for Advancement of Clinical and Translational Science, Faculty of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Department of Biomolecular Engineering, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Kyoto (Japan); Kamei, Kaeko [Department of Biomolecular Engineering, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Kyoto (Japan); Kimura, Takeshi [Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Yokode, Masayuki [Department of Clinical Innovative Medicine, Institute for Advancement of Clinical and Translational Science, Faculty of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)

    2014-04-04

    Highlights: • Clinical studies revealed aspirin inhibits cancer, but the mechanism is not known. • Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) is a well-known tumor-suppressing gene. • We found aspirin up-regulates the protein of APC. • Aspirin suppressed the expression of IKKβ, an essential kinase in NFκB activation. • The deletion of IKKβ significantly increases the expression of APC protein. - Abstract: Aspirin has been widely used as analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory medicine for long. In addition to these traditional effects, clinical studies suggest that aspirin can protect against cancer, but its mechanism has not been explored. To unveil it, we identified the proteins up- or down-regulated after incubation with aspirin by using proteomics analysis with Nano-flow LC/MALDI-TOF system. Interestingly, the analysis identified the protein of Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) as one of the most up-regulated protein. APC regulates cell proliferation or angiogenesis, and is widely known as a tumor-suppressing gene which can cause colorectal cancer when it is mutated. Western blots confirmed this result, and real-time PCR indicated it is transcriptionally regulated. We further tried to elucidate the molecular mechanism with focusing on IKKβ. IKKβ is the essential kinase in activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), major transcriptional factors that regulate genes responsible for inflammation or immune response. Previous reports indicated that aspirin specifically inhibits IKKβ activity, and constitutively active form of IKKβ accelerates APC loss. We found that aspirin suppressed the expression of IKKβ, and the deletion of IKKβ by siRNA increases the expression of APC in HEK294 cells. Finally, we observed similar effects of aspirin in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Taken together, these results reveal that aspirin up-regulates the expression of APC via the suppression of IKKβ. This can be a mechanism how aspirin prevents cancer at

  16. Expression, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the periplasmic stress sensory protein RseB from Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollmann, Petra; Zeth, Kornelius

    2006-01-01

    The periplasmic stress protein RseB from E. coli was cloned, expressed and crystallized. Crystallographic data are presented and structure solution using the multiple isomorphous replacement approach (MIR) is in progress. Sensing external stress in the bacterial periplasm and signal transduction to the cytoplasm are important functions of the CpxAR, Bae and σ E signalling pathways. In Escherichia coli, the σ E pathway can be activated through degradation of the antisigma factor RseA by DegS and YaeL. The periplasmic protein RseB plays an important role in this pathway by exerting a direct or indirect negative effect on YaeL cleavage efficiency. RseB from E. coli, missing the periplasmic signal sequence (RseB ΔN ), was cloned, expressed, purified and crystallized. Crystals were obtained in two different forms belonging to space group P42 1 2 (form I) and C222 1 (form II) and diffracted to 2.8 and 2.4 Å resolution, respectively. In crystal form I two copies of the protein were located in the asymmetric unit according to heavy-atom analysis, while crystal form II contained three copies

  17. High Level Expression and Purification of the Clinically Active Antimicrobial Peptide P-113 in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuang-Ting Cheng

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available P-113, which was originally derived from the human saliva protein histatin 5, is a histidine-rich antimicrobial peptide with the sequence AKRHHGYKRKFH. P-113 is currently undergoing phase II clinical trial as a pharmaceutical agent to fight against fungal infections in HIV patients with oral candidiasis. Previously, we developed a new procedure for the high-yield expression and purification of hG31P, an analogue and antagonist of human CXCL8. Moreover, we have successfully removed lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin associated with hG31P in the expression with Escherichia coli. In this paper, we have used hG31P as a novel fusion protein for the expression and purification of P-113. The purity of the expressed P-113 is more than 95% and the yield is 4 mg P-113 per liter of E. coli cell culture in Luria-Bertani (LB medium. The antimicrobial activity of the purified P-113 was tested. Furthermore, we used circular dichroism (CD and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy to study the structural properties of P-113. Our results indicate that using hG31P as a fusion protein to obtain large quantities of P-113 is feasible and is easy to scale up for commercial production. An effective way of producing enough P-113 for future clinical studies is evident in this study.

  18. Boosting the free fatty acid synthesis of Escherichia coli by expression of a cytosolic Acinetobacter baylyi thioesterase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Yanning

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thioesterases remove the fatty acyl moiety from the fatty acyl-acyl carrier proteins (ACPs, releasing them as free fatty acids (FFAs, which can be further used to produce a variety of fatty acid-based biofuels, such as biodiesel, fatty alcohols and alkanes. Thioesterases play a key role in the regulation of the fatty acid synthesis in Escherichia coli. Therefore, exploring more promising thioesterases will contribute to the development of industrial microbial lipids production. Results We cloned and expressed a cytosolic Acinetobacter baylyi thioesterase (‘AcTesA in E. coli by deleting its leader sequence. Protein sequence alignment, structure modeling and site-directed mutagenesis demonstrated that Ser10, Gly48, Asn77, Asp158 and His161 residues composed the active centre of ‘AcTesA. The engineered strain that overexpressed ‘AcTesA achieved a FFAs titer of up to 501.2 mg/L in shake flask, in contrast to only 20.5 mg/L obtained in wild-type E. coli, demonstrating that the expression of ‘AcTesA indeed boosted the synthesis of FFAs. The ‘AcTesA exhibited a substrate preference towards the C8-C16 acyl groups, with C14:0, C16:1, C12:0 and C8:0 FFAs being the top four components. Optimization of expression level of ‘AcTesA made the FFAs production increase to 551.3 mg/L. The FFAs production further increased to 716.1 mg/L by optimization of the culture medium. Fed-batch fermentation was also carried out to evaluate the FFAs production in a scaleable process. Finally, 3.6 g/L FFAs were accumulated within 48 h, and a maximal FFAs yield of 6.1% was achieved in 12–16 h post induction. Conclusions For the first time, an A. baylyi thioesterase was cloned and solubly expressed in the cytosol of E. coli. This leaderless thioesterase (‘AcTesA was found to be capable of enhancing the FFAs production of E. coli. Without detailed optimization of the strain and fermentation, the finally achieved 3.6 g/L FFAs is encouraging. In

  19. Bicistronic expression plasmid for the rapid production of recombinant fused proteins in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yero, Daniel; Pajón, Rolando; Niebla, Olivia; Sardiñas, Gretel; Vivar, Isbel; Perera, Yasser; García, Darien; Delgado, Maité; Cobas, Karem

    2006-04-01

    In the post-genomic era, every aspect of the production of proteins must be accelerated. In this way, several vectors are currently exploited for rapid production of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli. N-terminal fusions to the first 47 amino acids of the LpdA (dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase A) protein of Neisseria meningitidis have been shown to increase the expression of recombinant proteins. Consequently, we have constructed a modified N-terminal LpdA fusion vector, introducing the blue/white colony selection by exploiting a bicistronic gene organization. In the new vector, the sequence encoding the first 47 amino acids of meningococcal LpdA and the alpha-peptide sequence of beta-galactosidase were connected via a ribosome-binding site, and two MCSs (multiple cloning sites) were located surrounding the latter, allowing efficient cloning by colour selection of recombinants. The vector was also improved with the addition of a C-terminal polyhistidine tag, and an EKS (enterokinase recognition sequence) immediately after the LpdA fusion sequence. The new plasmid was employed in the expression and purification of six different bacterial polypeptides. One of these recombinant proteins, P6 protein from Haemophilus influenzae, was used as a model and its N-terminal fusion sequence was totally removed from the recombinant version after incubation with the enterokinase protease, while the polyhistidine tail successfully allowed the purification of the unfused protein from the protease reaction. Two completely new neisserial vaccine candidates, NMB0088 and NMB1126 proteins, were cloned, expressed and purified using this system. To our knowledge, this constitutes the first report of the cloning and expression of these proteins in E. coli.

  20. Strategies for Protein Overproduction in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mott, John E.

    1984-01-01

    Examines heterologous expression in Escherichia coli and the role of regulatory sequences which control gene expression at transcription resulting in abundant production of messenger RNA and regulatory sequences in mRNA which promote efficient translation. Also examines the role of E. coli cells in stabilizing mRNA and protein that is…

  1. Self-assembly of virus-like particles of porcine circovirus type 2 capsid protein expressed from Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Xuepeng

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2 is a serious problem to the swine industry and can lead to significant negative impacts on profitability of pork production. Syndrome associated with PCV2 is known as porcine circovirus closely associated with post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS. The capsid (Cap protein of PCV2 is a major candidate antigen for development of recombinant vaccine and serological diagnostic method. The recombinant Cap protein has the ability to self-assemble into virus-like particles (VLPs in vitro, it is particularly opportunity to develop the PV2 VLPs vaccine in Escherichia coli,(E.coli , because where the cost of the vaccine must be weighed against the value of the vaccinated pig, when it was to extend use the VLPs vaccine of PCV2. Results In this report, a highly soluble Cap-tag protein expressed in E.coli was constructed with a p-SMK expression vector with a fusion tag of small ubiquitin-like modifiers (SUMO. The recombinant Cap was purified using Ni2+ affinity resins, whereas the tag was used to remove the SUMO protease. Simultaneously, the whole native Cap protein was able to self-assemble into VLPs in vitro when viewed under an electron microscope. The Cap-like particles had a size and shape that resembled the authentic Cap. The result could also be applied in the large-scale production of VLPs of PCV2 and could be used as a diagnostic antigen or a potential VLP vaccine against PCV2 infection in pigs. Conclusion we have, for the first time, utilized the SUMO fusion motif to successfully express the entire authentic Cap protein of PCV2 in E. coli. After the cleavage of the fusion motif, the nCap protein has the ability to self-assemble into VLPs, which can be used as as a potential vaccine to protect pigs from PCV2-infection.

  2. Self-assembly of virus-like particles of porcine circovirus type 2 capsid protein expressed from Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) is a serious problem to the swine industry and can lead to significant negative impacts on profitability of pork production. Syndrome associated with PCV2 is known as porcine circovirus closely associated with post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS). The capsid (Cap) protein of PCV2 is a major candidate antigen for development of recombinant vaccine and serological diagnostic method. The recombinant Cap protein has the ability to self-assemble into virus-like particles (VLPs) in vitro, it is particularly opportunity to develop the PV2 VLPs vaccine in Escherichia coli,(E.coli ), because where the cost of the vaccine must be weighed against the value of the vaccinated pig, when it was to extend use the VLPs vaccine of PCV2. Results In this report, a highly soluble Cap-tag protein expressed in E.coli was constructed with a p-SMK expression vector with a fusion tag of small ubiquitin-like modifiers (SUMO). The recombinant Cap was purified using Ni2+ affinity resins, whereas the tag was used to remove the SUMO protease. Simultaneously, the whole native Cap protein was able to self-assemble into VLPs in vitro when viewed under an electron microscope. The Cap-like particles had a size and shape that resembled the authentic Cap. The result could also be applied in the large-scale production of VLPs of PCV2 and could be used as a diagnostic antigen or a potential VLP vaccine against PCV2 infection in pigs. Conclusion we have, for the first time, utilized the SUMO fusion motif to successfully express the entire authentic Cap protein of PCV2 in E. coli. After the cleavage of the fusion motif, the nCap protein has the ability to self-assemble into VLPs, which can be used as as a potential vaccine to protect pigs from PCV2-infection. PMID:20646322

  3. Cloning and over expression of non-coding RNA rprA in E.coli and its resistance to Kanamycin without osmotic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahni, Azita; Hajjari, Mohammadreza; Raheb, Jamshid; Foroughmand, Ali Mohammad; Asgari, Morteza

    2017-01-01

    Recent reports have indicated that small RNAs have key roles in the response of the E.coli to stress and also in the regulating of virulence factors. It seems that some small non-coding RNAs are involved in multidrug resistance. Previous studies have indicated that rprA can increase the tolerance to Kanamycin in RcsB-deficient Escherichia coli K-12 following osmotic shock. The current study aims to clone and over-express the non-coding RNA rprA in E.coli and investigate its effect on the bacterial resistance to Kanamycin without any osmotic shock. For this purpose, rprA gene was amplified by the PCR and then cloned into the PET-28a (+) vector. The recombinant plasmid was transformed into wild type E.coli BL21 (DE3). The over expression was induced by IPTG and confirmed by qRT-PCR. The resistance to the kanamycin was then measured in different times by spectrophotometry. The statistical analysis showed that the rprA can increase the resistance to Kanamycin in Ecoli K12. The interaction between rprA and rpoS was reviewed and analyzed by in silico methods. The results showed that the bacteria with over-expressed rprA were more resistant to Kanamycin. The present study is an important step to prove the role of non-coding RNA rprA in bacterial resistance. The data can be the basis for future works and can also help to develop and deliver next-generation antibiotics.

  4. Expression of verocytotoxic Escherichia coli antigens in tobacco seeds and evaluation of gut immunity after oral administration in mouse model

    OpenAIRE

    Rossi, Luciana; Di Giancamillo, Alessia; Reggi, Serena; Domeneghini, Cinzia; Baldi, Antonella; Sala, Vittorio; Dell'Orto, Vittorio; Coddens, Annelies; Cox, Eric; Fogher, Corrado

    2013-01-01

    Verocytotoxic Escherichia (E.) coli strains are responsible for swine oedema disease, which is an enterotoxaemia that causes economic losses in the pig industry. The production of a vaccine for oral administration in transgenic seeds could be an efficient system to stimulate local immunity. This study was conducted to transform tobacco plants for the seed-specific expression of antigenic proteins from a porcine verocytotoxic E. coli strain. Parameters related to an immunological response and ...

  5. [Expression and functions of adaptive response genes in Escherichia coli treated with mono- and bifunctional alkylating agents. Interference with SOS response].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasil'eva, S V; Makhova, E V; Moshkovskaia, E Iu

    1999-04-01

    The expression of genes belonging to the Ada regulon of Escherichia coli under the action of mono- and bifunctional alkylating agents--high-efficiency antitumor HMM, ACNU, and BCNU preparations--was studied. The functional specificity of the alkA, alkB, and aidB1 genes concerning both the structure and volume of DNA alkylation and the specificity of cell preadaptation was revealed. Additional experimental evidence for the role of the aidB1 gene as a unique "hazard gene", a component of the E. coli ada operon, was obtained. A phenomenon of positive interference between alternative SOS and Ada responses was observed for the first time upon gene expression.

  6. Efficient system of artificial oil bodies for functional expression and purification of recombinant nattokinase in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Chung-Jen; Chen, Hong-Chen; Chao, Yun-Peng; Tzen, Jason T C

    2005-06-15

    Nattokinase, a serine protease, and pronattokinase, when expressed in Escherichia coli, formed insoluble aggregates without enzymatic activity. For functional expression and purification, nattokinase or pronattokinase was first overexpressed in E. coli as an insoluble recombinant protein linked to the C terminus of oleosin, a structural protein of seed oil bodies, by an intein fragment. Artificial oil bodies were reconstituted with triacylglycerol, phospholipid, and the insoluble recombinant protein thus formed. Soluble nattokinase was subsequently released through self-splicing of intein induced by temperature alteration, with the remaining oleosin-intein residing in oil bodies and the leading propeptide of pronattokinase, when present, spontaneously cleaved in the process. Active nattokinase with fibrinolytic activity was harvested by concentrating the supernatant. Nattokinase released from oleosin-intein-pronattokinase exhibited 5 times higher activity than that released from oleosin-intein-nattokinase, although the production yields were similar in both cases. Furthermore, active nattokinase could be harvested in the same system by fusing pronattokinase to the N terminus of oleosin via a different intein linker, with self-splicing induced by 1,4-dithiothreitol. These results have shown a great potential of this system for bacterial expression and purification of functional recombinant proteins.

  7. Production of biohydrogen by recombinant expression of [NiFe]-hydrogenase 1 in Escherichia coli

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    Kim Jaoon YH

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hydrogenases catalyze reversible reaction between hydrogen (H2 and proton. Inactivation of hydrogenase by exposure to oxygen is a critical limitation in biohydrogen production since strict anaerobic conditions are required. While [FeFe]-hydrogenases are irreversibly inactivated by oxygen, it was known that [NiFe]-hydrogenases are generally more tolerant to oxygen. The physiological function of [NiFe]-hydrogenase 1 is still ambiguous. We herein investigated the H2 production potential of [NiFe]-hydrogenase 1 of Escherichia coli in vivo and in vitro. The hyaA and hyaB genes corresponding to the small and large subunits of [NiFe]-hydrogenase 1 core enzyme, respectively, were expressed in BL21, an E. coli strain without H2 producing ability. Results Recombinant BL21 expressing [NiFe]-hydrogenase 1 actively produced H2 (12.5 mL H2/(h·L in 400 mL glucose minimal medium under micro-aerobic condition, whereas the wild type BL21 did not produce H2 even when formate was added as substrate for formate hydrogenlyase (FHL pathway. The majority of recombinant protein was produced as an insoluble form, with translocation of a small fraction to the membrane. However, the membrane fraction displayed high activity (~65% of total cell fraction, based on unit protein mass. Supplement of nickel and iron to media showed these metals contribute essentially to the function of [NiFe]-hydrogenase 1 as components of catalytic site. In addition, purified E. coli [NiFe]-hydrogenase 1 using his6-tag displayed oxygen-tolerant activity of ~12 nmol H2/(min·mg protein under a normal aeration environment, compared to [FeFe]-hydrogenase, which remains inactive under this condition. Conclusions This is the first report on physiological function of E. coli [NiFe]-hydrogenase 1 for H2 production. We found that [NiFe]-hydrogenase 1 has H2 production ability even under the existence of oxygen. This oxygen-tolerant property is a significant advantage because it is

  8. Efek ekstrak daun singkong (Manihot utilissima terhadap ekspresi COX-2 pada monosit yang dipapar LPS E.coli (The effect of Manihot utilissima extracts on COX-2 expression of monocytes induced by LPS E. coli

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    Zahara Meilawaty

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodontal disease is a common and widespread disease in the community. Gram negative bacteria have a role inperiodontitis. These bacteria secrete a variety of products such as endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS, which causes the occurrenceof inflammation or infection. The body defense responses are neutrophils and mononuclear cells (monocytes and macrophages. Inresponse to defense mechanism, the body will be expressed enzyme cyclooxygenase (COX which functions convert arachidonic acidto prostaglandins. Cassava leaf cells known to play a role in reducing inflammation, but the mechanism for inhibiting COX-2, is notknown. Purpose: The study was aimed to determine the effect of cassava leaf extract (Manihot utilissima on expression of enzyme COX-2 in monocytes which were exposed by LPS E. coli. Methods: This study was in vitro experimental studies with the design of posttestonly control group design. The sample was the cassava leaves extract (Manihot utilissima at concentration of 12.5 % and 25 %. Theexpression of COX-2 was determined by immunocytochemistry method. Isolated monocytes were incubated in cassava leaf extract, andthen exposed to LPS, after washing imunostaning procedure was performed using a monoclonal antibody (MAb anti-human COX-2.The research data was the number of monocytes that express COX-2. Results: Expression of COX-2 in the group cassava leaf extractwas higher than the group that induced by LPS E. coli only. Conclusion: Cassava leaf extract did not inhibit the expression of COX-2in monocytes which were exposed by LPS E. coli.Latar belakang: Penyakit periodontal merupakan penyakit umum dan tersebar luas di masyarakat. Bakteri yang banyak berperanpada periodontitis adalah Gram negatif. Bakteri ini mengeluarkan berbagai produk antara lain endotoksin lipopolisakarida (LPS yangmenyebabkan inflamasi atau infeksi. Respon pertahanan tubuh pertama adalah netrofil dan sel mononuklear (monosit dan makrofag.Pada respon

  9. Fcγ receptor I alpha chain (CD64) expression in macrophages is critical for the onset of meningitis by Escherichia coli K1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Rahul; Sukumaran, Sunil K; Selvaraj, Suresh K; Wooster, David G; Babu, M Madan; Schreiber, Alan D; Verbeek, J Sjef; Prasadarao, Nemani V

    2010-11-18

    Neonatal meningitis due to Escherichia coli K1 is a serious illness with unchanged morbidity and mortality rates for the last few decades. The lack of a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms involved in the development of meningitis contributes to this poor outcome. Here, we demonstrate that depletion of macrophages in newborn mice renders the animals resistant to E. coli K1 induced meningitis. The entry of E. coli K1 into macrophages requires the interaction of outer membrane protein A (OmpA) of E. coli K1 with the alpha chain of Fcγ receptor I (FcγRIa, CD64) for which IgG opsonization is not necessary. Overexpression of full-length but not C-terminal truncated FcγRIa in COS-1 cells permits E. coli K1 to enter the cells. Moreover, OmpA binding to FcγRIa prevents the recruitment of the γ-chain and induces a different pattern of tyrosine phosphorylation of macrophage proteins compared to IgG2a induced phosphorylation. Of note, FcγRIa(-/-) mice are resistant to E. coli infection due to accelerated clearance of bacteria from circulation, which in turn was the result of increased expression of CR3 on macrophages. Reintroduction of human FcγRIa in mouse FcγRIa(-/-) macrophages in vitro increased bacterial survival by suppressing the expression of CR3. Adoptive transfer of wild type macrophages into FcγRIa(-/-) mice restored susceptibility to E. coli infection. Together, these results show that the interaction of FcγRI alpha chain with OmpA plays a key role in the development of neonatal meningitis by E. coli K1.

  10. Induction of UMUC+ gene expression in Escherichia coli irradiated by near ultraviolet light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, N.; Ohnishi, T.; Tano, K.; Nozu, K.; Yamamoto, K.

    1985-01-01

    The induction of umu + gene expression caused by irradiation with near ultraviolet light (BLB; black light blue) was studied in Escherichia coli K-12 strains with special reference to the effects of SOS repair deficiencies. The umuC + gene expression was measured as the enzymic activity of β-galactosidase which is regulated by the promoter of the umuC + operon carried in a plasmid DNA carrying a promoter of umuC + operon, a umuD + gene and a umuC + -lacZ + gene fusion. A high induction of the umuC + gene expression was observed in the uvrA cells in the case of BLB or UV irradiation as compared with the parental wild-type cells. Caffeine inhibited the induction of the umuC + gene expression due to BLB or UV irradiation in both strains. There was very little induction in lexA and recA mutants. In contrast with UV irradiation, there was no killing of cells by BLB irradiation in any strain (wild, uvrA, lexA and recA). Possible implications of the experimental results were discussed. (author)

  11. [Cloning of Clostridium perfringens alpha-toxin gene and extracellular expression in Escherichia coli].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Masaharu; Kikuchi, Maho; Komoriya, Tomoe; Watanabe, Kunitomo; Kouno, Hideki

    2007-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) is a Gram-positive bacterial pathogen that widely propagets in the soil and the gastrointestinal tract of human and animals. This bacteria causes food poisoning, gas gangrene and other various range of infectious diseases. But there is no standard diagnosis method of C. perfringens. In order to develop a new type of immunoassay for clinical purpose, we studied expression and extracellular secretion of recombinant alpha-toxin having enzyme activity in E. coli expression system. Cloning was carried out after PCR amplification from C. perfringens GAI 94074 which was clinical isolate. Three kinds of fragment were cloned using pET100/D-TOPO vector. These fragments coded for ribosome binding site, signal peptide, and alpha-toxin gene respectively. Recombinant pET100 plasmid transformed into TOP 10 cells and the obtained plasmids were transformed into BL21 (DE3) cells. Then, the transformants were induced expression with IPTG. In conclusion, we successfully cloned, expressed and exteracellular secreted C. perfringens alpha-toxin containing signal peptide. Biologically, the obtained recombinant protein was positive for phospholipase C activity.

  12. Host cell and expression engineering for development of an E. coli ketoreductase catalyst: Enhancement of formate dehydrogenase activity for regeneration of NADH

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    Mädje Katharina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enzymatic NADH or NADPH-dependent reduction is a widely applied approach for the synthesis of optically active organic compounds. The overall biocatalytic conversion usually involves in situ regeneration of the expensive NAD(PH. Oxidation of formate to carbon dioxide, catalyzed by formate dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.2; FDH, presents an almost ideal process solution for coenzyme regeneration that has been well established for NADH. Because isolated FDH is relatively unstable under a range of process conditions, whole cells often constitute the preferred form of the biocatalyst, combining the advantage of enzyme protection in the cellular environment with ease of enzyme production. However, the most prominent FDH used in biotransformations, the enzyme from the yeast Candida boidinii, is usually expressed in limiting amounts of activity in the prime host for whole cell biocatalysis, Escherichia coli. We therefore performed expression engineering with the aim of enhancing FDH activity in an E. coli ketoreductase catalyst. The benefit resulting from improved NADH regeneration capacity is demonstrated in two transformations of technological relevance: xylose conversion into xylitol, and synthesis of (S-1-(2-chlorophenylethanol from o-chloroacetophenone. Results As compared to individual expression of C. boidinii FDH in E. coli BL21 (DE3 that gave an intracellular enzyme activity of 400 units/gCDW, co-expression of the FDH with the ketoreductase (Candida tenuis xylose reductase; XR resulted in a substantial decline in FDH activity. The remaining FDH activity of only 85 U/gCDW was strongly limiting the overall catalytic activity of the whole cell system. Combined effects from increase in FDH gene copy number, supply of rare tRNAs in a Rosetta strain of E. coli, dampened expression of the ketoreductase, and induction at low temperature (18°C brought up the FDH activity threefold to a level of 250 U/gCDW while reducing the XR activity by

  13. Improved ethanol production from cheese whey, whey powder, and sugar beet molasses by "Vitreoscilla hemoglobin expressing" Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbas, Meltem Yesilcimen; Sar, Taner; Ozcelik, Busra

    2014-01-01

    This work investigated the improvement of ethanol production by engineered ethanologenic Escherichia coli to express the hemoglobin from the bacterium Vitreoscilla (VHb). Ethanologenic E. coli strain FBR5 and FBR5 transformed with the VHb gene in two constructs (strains TS3 and TS4) were grown in cheese whey (CW) medium at small and large scales, at both high and low aeration, or with whey powder (WP) or sugar beet molasses hydrolysate (SBMH) media at large scale and low aeration. Culture pH, cell growth, VHb levels, and ethanol production were evaluated after 48 h. VHb expression in TS3 and TS4 enhanced their ethanol production in CW (21-419%), in WP (17-362%), or in SBMH (48-118%) media. This work extends the findings that "VHb technology" may be useful for improving the production of ethanol from waste and byproducts of various sources.

  14. Cloning and Expression of Cyclophilin from Platanus orientalis Pollens in Escherichia coli

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    Mojtaba Sankian

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Allergy is a clinical disorder affecting the human population with wide geographical distribution. Platanus orientalis (P. orientalis trees are planted in many countries and their pollen causes allergic reactions. Cyclophilin has recently been identified as one of the most important allergens of P. orientalis pollen. We aimed to clone and purify this allergen in Escherichia coli for further studies and therapeutic and diagnostic purposes for allergy to P. orientalis. Methods: RNA was extracted from P. orientalis. A full-length fragment encoding cyclophilin was prepared by polymerase chain reaction amplification of the first-strand cDNA synthesized from P. orientalis RNA. The cDNA was inserted into the pET32b (+ vector, and the construct transformed into E. coli Top10 and BL21 cells. The expressed protein was purified by the CuSO4 method. Results: The cDNA for the cyclophilin of P. orientalis pollen was cloned, and a specific reactivity of recombinant cyclophin was confirmed by immunoblotting using sera from patients allergic to P. orientalis pollen. Conclusion: The recombinant cyclophilin has a potential for immunologic assays for evaluation of allergy to P. orientalis pollen.

  15. Application of SGT1-Hsp90 chaperone complex for soluble expression of NOD1 LRR domain in E. coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Tae-Joon; Hahn, Ji-Sook

    2016-01-01

    NOD1 is an intracellular sensor of innate immunity which is related to a number of inflammatory diseases. NOD1 is known to be difficult to express and purify for structural and biochemical studies. Based on the fact that Hsp90 and its cochaperone SGT1 are necessary for the stabilization and activation of NOD1 in mammals, SGT1 was chosen as a fusion partner of the leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain of NOD1 for its soluble expression in Escherichia coli. Fusion of human SGT1 (hSGT1) to NOD1 LRR significantly enhanced the solubility, and the fusion protein was stabilized by coexpression of mouse Hsp90α. The expression level of hSGT1-NOD1 LRR was further enhanced by supplementation of rare codon tRNAs and exchange of antibiotic marker genes. - Highlights: • The NOD1 LRR domain was solubilized by SGT1 fusion in E. coli. • The coexpression of HSP90 stabilized the SGT1-NOD1 LRR fusion protein. • Several optimizations could enhance the expression level of the fusion protein.

  16. Genome-Scale Co-Expression Network Comparison across Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Reveals Significant Conservation at the Regulon Level of Local Regulators Despite Their Dissimilar Lifestyles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrineh, Peyman; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Aminael; Hosseinkhan, Nazanin; Narimani, Zahra; Marchal, Kathleen; Masoudi-Nejad, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Availability of genome-wide gene expression datasets provides the opportunity to study gene expression across different organisms under a plethora of experimental conditions. In our previous work, we developed an algorithm called COMODO (COnserved MODules across Organisms) that identifies conserved expression modules between two species. In the present study, we expanded COMODO to detect the co-expression conservation across three organisms by adapting the statistics behind it. We applied COMODO to study expression conservation/divergence between Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, and Bacillus subtilis. We observed that some parts of the regulatory interaction networks were conserved between E. coli and S. enterica especially in the regulon of local regulators. However, such conservation was not observed between the regulatory interaction networks of B. subtilis and the two other species. We found co-expression conservation on a number of genes involved in quorum sensing, but almost no conservation for genes involved in pathogenicity across E. coli and S. enterica which could partially explain their different lifestyles. We concluded that despite their different lifestyles, no significant rewiring have occurred at the level of local regulons involved for instance, and notable conservation can be detected in signaling pathways and stress sensing in the phylogenetically close species S. enterica and E. coli. Moreover, conservation of local regulons seems to depend on the evolutionary time of divergence across species disappearing at larger distances as shown by the comparison with B. subtilis. Global regulons follow a different trend and show major rewiring even at the limited evolutionary distance that separates E. coli and S. enterica. PMID:25101984

  17. Production of soluble mammalian proteins in Escherichia coli: identification of protein features that correlate with successful expression

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    Perera Rajika L

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the search for generic expression strategies for mammalian protein families several bacterial expression vectors were examined for their ability to promote high yields of soluble protein. Proteins studied included cell surface receptors (Ephrins and Eph receptors, CD44, kinases (EGFR-cytoplasmic domain, CDK2 and 4, proteases (MMP1, CASP2, signal transduction proteins (GRB2, RAF1, HRAS and transcription factors (GATA2, Fli1, Trp53, Mdm2, JUN, FOS, MAD, MAX. Over 400 experiments were performed where expression of 30 full-length proteins and protein domains were evaluated with 6 different N-terminal and 8 C-terminal fusion partners. Expression of an additional set of 95 mammalian proteins was also performed to test the conclusions of this study. Results Several protein features correlated with soluble protein expression yield including molecular weight and the number of contiguous hydrophobic residues and low complexity regions. There was no relationship between successful expression and protein pI, grand average of hydropathicity (GRAVY, or sub-cellular location. Only small globular cytoplasmic proteins with an average molecular weight of 23 kDa did not require a solubility enhancing tag for high level soluble expression. Thioredoxin (Trx and maltose binding protein (MBP were the best N-terminal protein fusions to promote soluble expression, but MBP was most effective as a C-terminal fusion. 63 of 95 mammalian proteins expressed at soluble levels of greater than 1 mg/l as N-terminal H10-MBP fusions and those that failed possessed, on average, a higher molecular weight and greater number of contiguous hydrophobic amino acids and low complexity regions. Conclusions By analysis of the protein features identified here, this study will help predict which mammalian proteins and domains can be successfully expressed in E. coli as soluble product and also which are best targeted for a eukaryotic expression system. In some cases

  18. recA+-dependent inactivation of the lambda repressor in Escherichia coli lysogens by γ-radiation and by tif expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, S.C.; Powell, K.A.; Emmerson, P.T.

    1975-01-01

    When lambda lysogens of E. coli are induced by γ-radiation the lambda repressor, as measured by its specific binding to lambda DNA, is rapidly inactivated by a recA + -dependent process which does not require new protein synthesis. This rapid inactivation is similar to inactivation of repressor by expression of the temperature sensitive E. coli mutation tif. In contrast, induction by UV irradiation or mitomycin C treatment requires new protein synthesis and there is a lag before the repressor is inactivated (Tomizawa and Ogawa, 1967; Shinagawa and Itoh, 1973). (orig.) [de

  19. [Expression optimization and characterization of Tenebrio molitor antimicrobiol peptides TmAMP1m in Escherichia coli].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimu, Reyihanguli; Mao, Xinfang; Liu, Zhongyuan

    2013-06-01

    To improve the expression level of tmAMP1m gene from Tenebrio molitor in Escherichia coli, we studied the effects of expression level and activity of the fusion protein HIS-TmAMP1m by conditions, such as culture temperature, inducing time and the final concentration of inductor Isopropyl beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG). We analyzed the optimum expression conditions by Tricine-SDS-PAGE electrophoresis, meanwhile, detected its antibacterial activity by using agarose cavity diffusion method. The results suggest that when inducing the recombinant plasmid with a final IPTG concentration of 0.1 mmol/L at 37 degrees C for 4 h, there was the highest expression level of fusion protein HIS-TmAMP1m in Escherichia coli. Under these conditions, the expression of fusion protein accounted for 40% of the total cell lysate with the best antibacterial activity. We purified the fusion protein HIS-TmAMPlm with nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid (Ni-NTA) metal-affinity chromatography matrices. Western blotting analysis indicates that the His monoclonal antibody could be specifically bound to fusion protein HIS-TmAMPlm. After expression by inducing, the fusion protein could inhibit the growth of host cell transformed by pET30a-tmAMP1m. The fusion protein HIS-TmAMP1m had better stability and remained higher antibacterial activities when incubated at 100 degrees C for 10 h, repeated freeze thawing at -20 degrees C, dissolved in strong acid and alkali, or treated by organic solvents and protease. Moreover, the minimum inhibitory concentration results demonstrated that the fusion protein HIS-TmAMP1m has a good antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus sp., Corynebacterium glutamicum, Bacillus thuringiensis, Corynebacterium sp. This study laid the foundation to promote the application of insect antimicrobial peptides and further research.

  20. Production of recombinant disulfide-rich venom peptides for structural and functional analysis via expression in the periplasm of E. coli.

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    Julie K Klint

    Full Text Available Disulfide-rich peptides are the dominant component of most animal venoms. These peptides have received much attention as leads for the development of novel therapeutic agents and bioinsecticides because they target a wide range of neuronal receptors and ion channels with a high degree of potency and selectivity. In addition, their rigid disulfide framework makes them particularly well suited for addressing the crucial issue of in vivo stability. Structural and functional characterization of these peptides necessitates the development of a robust, reliable expression system that maintains their native disulfide framework. The bacterium Escherichia coli has long been used for economical production of recombinant proteins. However, the expression of functional disulfide-rich proteins in the reducing environment of the E. coli cytoplasm presents a significant challenge. Thus, we present here an optimised protocol for the expression of disulfide-rich venom peptides in the periplasm of E. coli, which is where the endogenous machinery for production of disulfide-bonds is located. The parameters that have been investigated include choice of media, induction conditions, lysis methods, methods of fusion protein and peptide purification, and sample preparation for NMR studies. After each section a recommendation is made for conditions to use. We demonstrate the use of this method for the production of venom peptides ranging in size from 2 to 8 kDa and containing 2-6 disulfide bonds.

  1. Flagellar region 3b supports strong expression of integrated DNA and the highest chromosomal integration efficiency of the Escherichia coli flagellar regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhas, Mario; Ajioka, James W

    2015-07-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli is routinely used as the chassis for a variety of biotechnology and synthetic biology applications. Identification and analysis of reliable chromosomal integration and expression target loci is crucial for E. coli engineering. Chromosomal loci differ significantly in their ability to support integration and expression of the integrated genetic circuits. In this study, we investigate E. coli K12 MG1655 flagellar regions 2 and 3b. Integration of the genetic circuit into seven and nine highly conserved genes of the flagellar regions 2 (motA, motB, flhD, flhE, cheW, cheY and cheZ) and 3b (fliE, F, G, J, K, L, M, P, R), respectively, showed significant variation in their ability to support chromosomal integration and expression of the integrated genetic circuit. While not reducing the growth of the engineered strains, the integrations into all 16 target sites led to the loss of motility. In addition to high expression, the flagellar region 3b supports the highest efficiency of integration of all E. coli K12 MG1655 flagellar regions and is therefore potentially the most suitable for the integration of synthetic genetic circuits. © 2015 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. TROUBLESHOOTING IN EXPRESSION AND PURIFICATION OF RECOMBINANT SEVERE ACUTE RESPIRATORY SYNDROME-ASSOCIATED CORONAVIRUS NUCLEOCAPSID PROTEIN IN Escherichia coli BL21

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    Budiman Bela

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Considering importance of N protein for study of viral pathogenesis or development of immunodiagnostic assay, wereported effects of several conditions on purity and homogeneity of recombinant SARS-CoV N protein expressed in E.coli BL21. The SARS-CoV N gene was reverse transcribed and amplified by the reverse transcription-polymerase chainreaction (RT-PCR technique. The amplicons were cloned into pGEX-6P1 and followed by subcloning of the targetgene into pQE-80L. After inserting the recombinant plasmid (pQE80-N into E. coli, the recombinant protein (6 x Histag-N protein fusion was expressed by inducing the bacterial cells with 0.1-0.5 mM isopropyl-1-thio-Dgalactopyranoside(IPTG for 1-5 h. The protein recombinant were extracted from the bacterial cells by NTT buffercontaining 0-20 mM imidazol, and followed by Ni-NTA affinity resin purification. The results showed that induction ofE. coli BL21 with 0.2 mM IPTG for 4 h and followed with lysis of bacterial cells in NTT buffer containing 10 mMimidazol were optimal conditions to obtain the pure recombinant SARS-CoV N protein.

  3. A empiric expression to interpret the approximation of {lambda} cI phages to E. coli C{sub 6}00 bacteria; Determinacion experimental de la cinetica de laproximacion del fago /{lambda}cl a la bacteria E. coli C{sub 6}00 Expression empirica interpretativa del proceso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garces, F; Vidania, R de

    1984-07-01

    In general the process of adsorption of phages to bacteria is considered in the bibliography as an statistical process. In this work we use an empiric expression which allows to interpret the approximation of {lambda}cI pages to E. coli C{sub 6}00 bacteria. This expression introduces some changes respect to a pure statistical description of the approximation process. (Author) 26 refs.

  4. Expression of a prokaryotic P-type ATPase in E. coli Plasma Membranes and Purification by Ni2+-affinity chromatography

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    Geisler Markus

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to characterize the P-type ATPase from Synechocystis 6803 [Geisler (1993 et al. J. Mol. Biol. 234, 1284] and to facilitate its purification, we expressed an N-terminal 6xHis-tagged version of the ATPase in an ATPase deficient E. coli strain. The expressed ATPase was immunodetected as a dominant band of about 97 kDa localized to the E. coli plasma membranes representing about 20-25% of the membrane protein. The purification of the Synecho-cystis 6xHis-ATPase by single-step Ni-affinity chromatography under native and denaturating conditions is described. ATPase activity and the formation of phosphointermediates verify the full function of the enzyme: the ATPase is inhibited by vanadate (IC50= 119 &mgr;M and the formation of phosphorylated enzyme intermediates shown by acidic PAGE depends on calcium, indicating that the Synechocystis P-ATPase functions as a calcium pump.

  5. Expression of the major outer membrane protein (MOMP) of Chlamydophila abortus, Chlamydophila pecorum, and Chlamydia suis in Escherichia coli using an arabinose-inducible plasmid vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoelzle, L E; Hoelzle, K; Wittenbrink, M M

    2003-10-01

    The ompA genes encoding the 40 kDa major outer membrane protein (MOMP) of Chlamydophila (Ch.) abortus, Ch. pecorum, and Chlamydia (C.) suis were cloned into the arabinose-inducible plasmid vector pBADMycHis, and recombinant MOMPs (rMOMP) from the three chlamydial species were expressed at high levels in Escherichia (E.) coli. The proteins lacking the 22 aa N-terminal signal peptide were expressed as insoluble cytoplasmic inclusion bodies which were readily purified using immobilized metal-affinity chromatography. The rMOMPs including the N-terminal signal peptide were expressed and translocated as a surface-exposed immunoaccessible protein into the outer membrane of E. coli. Transformants expressing this full-length rMOMP were significantly reduced in viability. Purified native elementary bodies (EB) and rMOMPs of the three chlamydial species purified from the E. coli cytoplasm were used for immunization of rabbits. The resulting sera were analysed for their ability to recognize homologous and heterologous rMOMP and native EB. When testing rMOMP antisera against rMOMP and EB antigens, marked cross-reactivities were detected between the three species. Using EB antisera and rMOMPs as antigens, a significant species-specific reactivity was measured.

  6. Production of Polyclonal Antibody against Grapevine fanleaf virus Movement Protein Expressed in Escherichia coli

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    Davoud Koolivand

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The genomic region of Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV encoding the movement protein (MP was cloned into pET21a and transformed into Escherichia coli strain BL21 (DE3 to express the protein. Induction was made with a wide range of isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG concentrations (1, 1.5, and 2 mM each for duration of 4, 6, or 16 h. However, the highest expression level was achieved with 1 mM IPTG for 4 h. Identity of the expressed protein was confirmed by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE followed by Western blotting. The expressed 41 kDa protein was purified under denaturing condition by affinity chromatography, reconfirmed by Western blotting and plate-trapped antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (PTA-ELISA before being used as a recombinant antigen to raise polyclonal antibodies in rabbits. Purified anti-GFLV MP immunoglobulines (IgGs and conjugated IgGs detected the expressed MP and GFLV virions in infected grapevines when used in PTA-ELISA, double antibody sandwich-ELISA, and Western blotting. This is the first report on the production of anti-GFLV MP polyclonal antibodies and application for the virus detection.

  7. Quantification of contamination of lettuce by GFP-expressing Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franz, Eelco; Visser, Anna A; Van Diepeningen, Anne D; Klerks, Michel M; Termorshuizen, Aad J; van Bruggen, Ariena H C

    The primary objective of this study was to determine the possibility of internalization of GFP-expressing Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) strains MAE 110 (multi-cellular morphology) and 119 (wild type morphology) into lettuce seedlings (Lactuca

  8. Expression of a humanized SZ-63 McAb functional recombinant Fab fragment in E. Coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Lijun; Gu Jianming; Zhang Xiaoming; Liu Yue; Wan Haiying; Li Peixia; Ruan Changgeng

    1995-06-01

    MRNA was selected on oligo(dT)-cellulose from total RNA isolated from SZ-63 hybridoma cells by CsCl ultracentrifugation. cDNA coding for heavy and light variable regions were amplified by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The amplified fragments were then cloned and sequenced by the 32 P labelled sanger dideoxy-mediated chain-termination method. The nucleotides of VH and Vκ are 354 and 321 respectively, the amino acid sequence of heavy and light chain of SZ-63 were also deduced. Then, linking the variable genes of SZ-63 with human immunoglobulin γ 1 CH and κ VL genes, constructing pHEN1-63 Fab/Hu chimera for expression and transforming E. coli HB2151. The expressed chimeric SZ-63 Fab was soluble. Both ELISA and Western blot results showed the expression products could specifically bind with cross-linked fibrin and the content in expression culture was about 225 μg/L. (5 figs.)

  9. Lactobacillus zeae protects Caenorhabditis elegans from enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli-caused death by inhibiting enterotoxin gene expression of the pathogen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengzhou Zhou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has become increasingly used for screening antimicrobials and probiotics for pathogen control. It also provides a useful tool for studying microbe-host interactions. This study has established a C. elegans life-span assay to preselect probiotic bacteria for controlling K88(+ enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC, a pathogen causing pig diarrhea, and has determined a potential mechanism underlying the protection provided by Lactobacillus. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Life-span of C. elegans was used to measure the response of worms to ETEC infection and protection provided by lactic acid-producing bacteria (LAB. Among 13 LAB isolates that varied in their ability to protect C. elegans from death induced by ETEC strain JG280, Lactobacillus zeae LB1 offered the highest level of protection (86%. The treatment with Lactobacillus did not reduce ETEC JG280 colonization in the nematode intestine. Feeding E. coli strain JFF4 (K88(+ but lacking enterotoxin genes of estA, estB, and elt did not cause death of worms. There was a significant increase in gene expression of estA, estB, and elt during ETEC JG280 infection, which was remarkably inhibited by isolate LB1. The clone with either estA or estB expressed in E. coli DH5α was as effective as ETEC JG280 in killing the nematode. However, the elt clone killed only approximately 40% of worms. The killing by the clones could also be prevented by isolate LB1. The same isolate only partially inhibited the gene expression of enterotoxins in both ETEC JG280 and E. coli DH5α in-vitro. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The established life-span assay can be used for studies of probiotics to control ETEC (for effective selection and mechanistic studies. Heat-stable enterotoxins appeared to be the main factors responsible for the death of C. elegans. Inhibition of ETEC enterotoxin production, rather than interference of its intestinal colonization, appears to be the

  10. Cloning, expression, purification and initial crystallographic studies of UbiG: a methyltransferase involved in ubiquinone biosynthesis in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, M.A.F.; Magalhaes, R.D.; Nagem, R.A.P.; Ferreira-Junior, J.R.; Barros, M.H.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Ubiquinone is a molecule that functions as an electron carrier in the respiratory chain in living organisms. Some clinical phenotypes, including, encephalomyopathy, has been associated with ubiquinone deficiency, raising the interest in the biosynthetic pathway of this molecule. This pathway was proposed mainly from the results of the genetic analysis of mutants of E. coli. UbiG is a methyltransferase involved in ubiquinone biosynthesis in E. coli. In this work we have cloned, expressed, purified and made initial crystallographic assessments of UbiG for later determination of its three-dimensional structure. The gene encoding UbiG was amplified from E. coli genomic DNA by polymerase chain reaction. The 753 bases pairs amplicon was inserted into the expression plasmid pMCSG7 by ligation independent cloning system and transformed into BL21(DE3) E. coli strain. The expression of UbiG, verified by SDS polyacrylamide gel, showed a protein of approximately 29kDa after IPTG induction. The recombinant UbiG, in the soluble fraction of the cellular lysate, was purified by affinity chromatography and the molecular weight of recombinant UbiG of approximately 29 kDa was confirmed by mass spectrometry. After removal of His-tag by TEV protease, another affinity chromatography was performed and UbiG, without His-tag, was observed in flow-through fraction. In Size-Exclusion Chromatography (SEC), the recombinant UbiG showed a unique peak with correct molecular weight of a monomer. Analysis of CD indicated that recombinant UbiG has 31,80% of alpha helix at 20 deg C and DLS showed that 70.9% of the sample is still monomeric in solution even five days after purification. Initial crystallization studies were performed with Crystal Screen 1 and Crystal Screen 2 from Hampton Research. Needle-shaped microcrystals of UbiG were obtained using a precipitant solution consisting of 0,1M lithium sulfate, 0,1M Tris pH 7,5 and 30% w/v polyethylene glycol 4,000. (author)

  11. Cloning, expression, purification and initial crystallographic studies of UbiG: a methyltransferase involved in ubiquinone biosynthesis in Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, M.A.F.; Magalhaes, R.D.; Nagem, R.A.P. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Ferreira-Junior, J.R.; Barros, M.H. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: Ubiquinone is a molecule that functions as an electron carrier in the respiratory chain in living organisms. Some clinical phenotypes, including, encephalomyopathy, has been associated with ubiquinone deficiency, raising the interest in the biosynthetic pathway of this molecule. This pathway was proposed mainly from the results of the genetic analysis of mutants of E. coli. UbiG is a methyltransferase involved in ubiquinone biosynthesis in E. coli. In this work we have cloned, expressed, purified and made initial crystallographic assessments of UbiG for later determination of its three-dimensional structure. The gene encoding UbiG was amplified from E. coli genomic DNA by polymerase chain reaction. The 753 bases pairs amplicon was inserted into the expression plasmid pMCSG7 by ligation independent cloning system and transformed into BL21(DE3) E. coli strain. The expression of UbiG, verified by SDS polyacrylamide gel, showed a protein of approximately 29kDa after IPTG induction. The recombinant UbiG, in the soluble fraction of the cellular lysate, was purified by affinity chromatography and the molecular weight of recombinant UbiG of approximately 29 kDa was confirmed by mass spectrometry. After removal of His-tag by TEV protease, another affinity chromatography was performed and UbiG, without His-tag, was observed in flow-through fraction. In Size-Exclusion Chromatography (SEC), the recombinant UbiG showed a unique peak with correct molecular weight of a monomer. Analysis of CD indicated that recombinant UbiG has 31,80% of alpha helix at 20 deg C and DLS showed that 70.9% of the sample is still monomeric in solution even five days after purification. Initial crystallization studies were performed with Crystal Screen 1 and Crystal Screen 2 from Hampton Research. Needle-shaped microcrystals of UbiG were obtained using a precipitant solution consisting of 0,1M lithium sulfate, 0,1M Tris pH 7,5 and 30% w/v polyethylene glycol 4,000. (author)

  12. Recombinant dioscorins of the yam storage protein expressed in Escherichia coli exhibit antioxidant and immunomodulatory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jheng, Yi-Jyun; Tsai, Wei-Yi; Chen, Kuo-Hsuan; Lin, Kuo-Wei; Chyan, Chia-Lin; Yang, Ching-Chi; Lin, Kuo-Chih

    2012-09-01

    Dioscorins, the major storage proteins in yam tubers, exhibit biochemical and immunomodulatroy activities. To investigate the potential application of dioscorins in biomedical research, we expressed the dioscorin genes Dj-dioA3 and Dp-dioA2 from Dioscorea japonica and Dioscorea pseudojaponica, respectively, in E. coli and routinely obtained approximately 15 mg proteins per liter Escherichia coli culture (mg/L) to 30 mg/L of rDj-dioscorinA3 and 4 to 8 mg/L of rDp-dioscorinA2. Western blot analyses revealed that both recombinant dioscorins contained epitopes with similar antigenicities to those of the native dioscorins. Results from dithiothreitol (DTT) treatment followed by monobromobimane (mBBr) staining showed that both recombinant dioscorins, like the native dioscorins, contain an intramolecular disulfide bond between Cys(28) and Cys(187) residues. Circular dichroism spectroscopy findings indicated that the secondary structural contents of the recombinant dioscorins showed high similarity to those of their corresponding native dioscorins. Both recombinant dioscorins, like the native dioscorins, exhibited 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and Toll-like receptor 4 signaling activities, and stimulated the phagocytosis of E. coli by macrophage. Overall, our results indicated that substantial amounts of recombinant dioscorins can be purified easily from E. coli and that these recombinant dioscorins are appropriate for application in future investigations of the biomedical functions of dioscorins. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Expression and purification of lacticin Q by small ubiquitin-related modifier fusion in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qingshan; Yu, Zhanqiao; Han, Bing; Wang, Qing; Zhang, Rijun

    2012-04-01

    Lacticin Q is a broad-spectrum class II bacteriocin with potential as an alternative to conventional antibiotics. The objective of this study was to produce recombinant lacticin Q using a small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) fusion protein expression system. The 168-bp lacticin Q gene was cloned into the expression vector pET SUMO and transformed into Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). The soluble fusion protein was recovered with a Ni-NTA Sepharose column (95% purity); 130 mg protein was obtained per liter of fermentation culture. The SUMO tag was then proteolytically cleaved from the protein, which was re-applied to the column. Finally, about 32 mg lacticin Q (≥96% purity) was obtained. The recombinant protein exhibited antimicrobial properties similar to that of the native protein, demonstrating that lacticin Q had been successfully expressed by the SUMO fusion system.

  14. Evolved Escherichia coli strains for amplified, functional expression of membrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, Nadia; Linares, Daniel M; Ho, Franz Y; Poolman, Bert

    2014-01-09

    The major barrier to the physical characterization and structure determination of membrane proteins is low protein yield and/or low functionality in recombinant expression. The enteric bacterium Escherichia coli is the most widely employed organism for producing recombinant proteins. Beside several advantages of this expression host, one major drawback is that the protein of interest does not always adopt its native conformation and may end up in large insoluble aggregates. We describe a robust strategy to increase the likelihood of overexpressing membrane proteins in a functional state. The method involves fusion in tandem of green fluorescent protein and the erythromycin resistance protein (23S ribosomal RNA adenine N-6 methyltransferase, ErmC) to the C-terminus of a target membrane protein. The fluorescence of green fluorescent protein is used to report the folding state of the target protein, whereas ErmC is used to select for increased expression. By gradually increasing the erythromycin concentration of the medium and testing different membrane protein targets, we obtained a number of evolved strains of which four (NG2, NG3, NG5 and NG6) were characterized and their genome was fully sequenced. Strikingly, each of the strains carried a mutation in the hns gene, whose product is involved in genome organization and transcriptional silencing. The degree of expression of (membrane) proteins correlates with the severity of the hns mutation, but cells in which hns was deleted showed an intermediate expression performance. We propose that (partial) removal of the transcriptional silencing mechanism changes the levels of proteins essential for the functional overexpression of membrane proteins. © 2013.

  15. Identification of genes expressed in cultures of E. coli lysogens carrying the Shiga toxin-encoding prophage Φ24B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riley Laura M

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Shigatoxigenic E. coli are a global and emerging health concern. Shiga toxin, Stx, is encoded on the genome of temperate, lambdoid Stx phages. Genes essential for phage maintenance and replication are encoded on approximately 50% of the genome, while most of the remaining genes are of unknown function nor is it known if these annotated hypothetical genes are even expressed. It is hypothesized that many of the latter have been maintained due to positive selection pressure, and that some, expressed in the lysogen host, have a role in pathogenicity. This study used Change Mediated Antigen Technology (CMAT™ and 2D-PAGE, in combination with RT-qPCR, to identify Stx phage genes that are expressed in E. coli during the lysogenic cycle. Results Lysogen cultures propagated for 5-6 hours produced a high cell density with a low proportion of spontaneous prophage induction events. The expression of 26 phage genes was detected in these cultures by differential 2D-PAGE of expressed proteins and CMAT. Detailed analyses of 10 of these genes revealed that three were unequivocally expressed in the lysogen, two expressed from a known lysogenic cycle promoter and one uncoupled from the phage regulatory network. Conclusion Propagation of a lysogen culture in which no cells at all are undergoing spontaneous lysis is impossible. To overcome this, RT-qPCR was used to determine gene expression profiles associated with the growth phase of lysogens. This enabled the definitive identification of three lambdoid Stx phage genes that are expressed in the lysogen and seven that are expressed during lysis. Conservation of these genes in this phage genome, and other Stx phages where they have been identified as present, indicates their importance in the phage/lysogen life cycle, with possible implications for the biology and pathogenicity of the bacterial host.

  16. Reactivity of some mammalian sera with the bovine leukaemia virus env gene polypeptide expressed in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavikova, K.; Zajac, V.

    1989-01-01

    Sera from bovine leukaemia virus (BLV)-infected cattle and sheep were tested by radioimmunoassay and Western blot for their reactivity with 60,000 protein coded by the env gene of BLV and expressed in Escherichia coli. This protein, antigenically similar to BLV protein, reacted with antibodies against BLV antigens in the sera tested. (author). 3 figs., 1 tab., 13 refs

  17. Escherichia coli survival in waters: Temperature dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowing the survival rates of water-borne Escherichia coli is important in evaluating microbial contamination and making appropriate management decisions. E. coli survival rates are dependent on temperature, a dependency that is routinely expressed using an analogue of the Q10 mo...

  18. Whole-cell bioreduction of aromatic α-keto esters using Candida tenuis xylose reductase and Candida boidinii formate dehydrogenase co-expressed in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egger Sigrid

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whole cell-catalyzed biotransformation is a clear process option for the production of chiral alcohols via enantioselective reduction of precursor ketones. A wide variety of synthetically useful reductases are expressed heterologously in Escherichia coli to a high level of activity. Therefore, this microbe has become a prime system for carrying out whole-cell bioreductions at different scales. The limited capacity of central metabolic pathways in E. coli usually requires that reductase coenzyme in the form of NADPH or NADH be regenerated through a suitable oxidation reaction catalyzed by a second NADP+ or NAD+ dependent dehydrogenase that is co-expressed. Candida tenuis xylose reductase (CtXR was previously shown to promote NADH dependent reduction of aromatic α-keto esters with high Prelog-type stereoselectivity. We describe here the development of a new whole-cell biocatalyst that is based on an E. coli strain co-expressing CtXR and formate dehydrogenase from Candida boidinii (CbFDH. The bacterial system was evaluated for the synthesis of ethyl R-4-cyanomandelate under different process conditions and benchmarked against a previously described catalyst derived from Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing CtXR. Results Gene co-expression from a pETDuet-1 vector yielded about 260 and 90 units of intracellular CtXR and CbFDH activity per gram of dry E. coli cell mass (gCDW. The maximum conversion rate (rS for ethyl 4-cyanobenzoylformate by intact or polymyxin B sulphate-permeabilized cells was similar (2 mmol/gCDWh, suggesting that the activity of CbFDH was partly rate-limiting overall. Uncatalyzed ester hydrolysis in substrate as well as inactivation of CtXR and CbFDH in the presence of the α-keto ester constituted major restrictions to the yield of alcohol product. Using optimized reaction conditions (100 mM substrate; 40 gCDW/L, we obtained ethyl R-4-cyanomandelate with an enantiomeric excess (e.e. of 97.2% in a yield of 82

  19. The asymptomatic bacteriuria Escherichia coli strain 83972 outcompetes uropathogenic E. coli strains in human urine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hancock, Viktoria; Ulett, G.C.; Schembri, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    Escherichia coli is the most common organism associated with asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU). In contrast to uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC), which causes symptomatic urinary tract infections (UTI), very little is known about the mechanisms by which these strains colonize the human urinary tract....... The prototype ABU E. coli strain 83972 was originally isolated from a girl who had carried it asymptomatically for 3 years. Deliberate colonization of UTI-susceptible individuals with E. coli 83972 has been used successfully as an alternative approach for the treatment of patients who are refractory...... to conventional therapy. Colonization with strain 83972 appears to prevent infection with UPEC strains in such patients despite the fact that this strain is unable to express the primary adhesins involved in UTI, viz. P and type 1 fimbriae. Here we investigated the growth characteristics of E. coli 83972 in human...

  20. Over-expression in Escherichia coli, purification and reconstitution in liposomes of the third member of the OCTN sub-family: The mouse carnitine transporter OCTN3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scalise, Mariafrancesca; Galluccio, Michele; Pochini, Lorena; Indiveri, Cesare

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► mOCTN3 transport protein has been cloned in pET-21a(+) and over-expressed in Escherichia coli. ► The expressed mOCTN3 has been purified to homogeneity by Ni-chelating chromatography. ► The protein solubilised in Triton X-100 has been reconstituted in liposomes. ► Recombinant mOCTN3 catalyses transport of carnitine by a uniport mode. -- Abstract: pET-21a(+)-mOCTN3-6His was constructed and used for over-expression in Escherichia coli Rosetta(DE3)pLysS. After IPTG induction a protein with apparent molecular mass of 53 kDa was collected in the insoluble fraction of the cell lysate and purified by Ni 2+ -chelating chromatography with a yield of 2 mg/l of cell culture. The over-expressed protein was identified with mOCTN3 by anti-His antibody and reconstitution in liposomes. mOCTN3 required peculiar conditions for optimal expression and reconstitution in liposomes. The protein catalyzed a time dependent [ 3 H]carnitine uptake which was stimulated by intraliposomal ATP and nearly independent of the pH. The K m for carnitine was 36 μM. [ 3 H]carnitine transport was inhibited by carnitine analogues and some Cys and NH 2 reagents. This paper represents the first outcome in over-expressing, in active form, the third member of the OCTN sub-family, mOCTN3, in E. coli.

  1. Synergy between type 1 fimbriae expression and C3 opsonisation increases internalisation of E. coli by human tubular epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ke; Zhou, Wuding; Hong, Yuzhi; Sacks, Steven H; Sheerin, Neil S

    2009-03-31

    Bacterial infection of the urinary tract is a common clinical problem with E. coli being the most common urinary pathogen. Bacterial uptake into epithelial cells is increasingly recognised as an important feature of infection. Bacterial virulence factors, especially fimbrial adhesins, have been conclusively shown to promote host cell invasion. Our recent study reported that C3 opsonisation markedly increases the ability of E. coli strain J96 to internalise into human proximal tubular epithelial cells via CD46, a complement regulatory protein expressed on host cell membrane. In this study, we further assessed whether C3-dependent internalisation by human tubular epithelial cells is a general feature of uropathogenic E. coli and investigated features of the bacterial phenotype that may account for any heterogeneity. In 31 clinical isolates of E. coli tested, C3-dependent internalisation was evident in 10 isolates. Type 1 fimbriae mediated-binding is essential for C3-dependent internalisation as shown by phenotypic association, type 1 fimbrial blockade with soluble ligand (mannose) and by assessment of a type 1 fimbrial mutant. we propose that efficient internalisation of uropathogenic E. coli by the human urinary tract depends on co-operation between type 1 fimbriae-mediated adhesion and C3 receptor -ligand interaction.

  2. Expression in Escherichia coli and purification of bioactive antibacterial peptide ABP-CM4 from the Chinese silk worm, Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bao-Cun; Zhang, Shuang-Quan; Dan, Wen-Bing; Chen, Yu-Qing; Cao, Peng

    2007-07-01

    The antibacterial peptide CM4 (ABP-CM4), isolated from Chinese Bombys mori, is a 35-residue cationic, amphipathic alpha-helical peptide that exhibits a broad range of antimicrobial activity. To explore a new approach for the expression of ABP-CM4 in E. coli, the gene ABP-CM4, obtained by recursive PCR (rPCR), was cloned into the vector pET32a to construct a fusion expression plasmid. The fusion protein Trx-CM4 was expressed in soluble form, purified by Ni(2+)-chelating chromatography, and cleaved by formic acid to release recombinant CM4. Purification of rCM4 was achieved by affinity chromatography and reverse-phase HPLC. The purified of recombinant peptide showed antimicrobial activities against E. coli K(12)D(31), Penicillium chrysogenum, Aspergillus niger and Gibberella saubinetii. According to the antimicrobial peptide database (http://aps.unmc.edu/AP/main.html), 116 peptides contain a Met residue, but only 5 peptides contain the AspPro site, indicating a broader application of formic acid than CNBr in cleaving fusion protein. The successful application to the expression of the ABP-CM4 indicates that the system is a low-cost, efficient way of producting milligram quantities of ABP-CM4 that is biologically active.

  3. Transcriptome of E. coli K1 bound to human brain microvascular endothelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Yi; Parthasarathy, Geetha; Di Cello, Francescopaolo; Teng, Ching-Hao; Paul-Satyaseela, Maneesh; Kim, Kwang Sik

    2007-01-01

    Escherichia coli K1 is the most common Gram-negative organism causing neonatal meningitis. Binding to human brain microvascdular endothelial cells (HBMEC) is an essential step for E. coli K1 traversal of the blood-brain barrier. In this study, we examined expression profiles of E. coli K1 strain RS218 during its binding to HBMEC. Comparison of HBMEC-bound E. coli K1 with collagen-bound E. coli revealed more than one hundred genes whose expression patterns were significantly changed in HBMEC-b...

  4. Factors limiting SOS expression in log-phase cells of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massoni, Shawn C; Leeson, Michael C; Long, Jarukit Edward; Gemme, Kristin; Mui, Alice; Sandler, Steven J

    2012-10-01

    In Escherichia coli, RecA-single-stranded DNA (RecA-ssDNA) filaments catalyze DNA repair, recombination, and induction of the SOS response. It has been shown that, while many (15 to 25%) log-phase cells have RecA filaments, few (about 1%) are induced for SOS. It is hypothesized that RecA's ability to induce SOS expression in log-phase cells is repressed because of the potentially detrimental effects of SOS mutagenesis. To test this, mutations were sought to produce a population where the number of cells with SOS expression more closely equaled the number of RecA filaments. Here, it is shown that deleting radA (important for resolution of recombination structures) and increasing recA transcription 2- to 3-fold with a recAo1403 operator mutation act independently to minimally satisfy this condition. This allows 24% of mutant cells to have elevated levels of SOS expression, a percentage similar to that of cells with RecA-green fluorescent protein (RecA-GFP) foci. In an xthA (exonuclease III gene) mutant where there are 3-fold more RecA loading events, recX (a destabilizer of RecA filaments) must be additionally deleted to achieve a population of cells where the percentage having elevated SOS expression (91%) nearly equals the percentage with at least one RecA-GFP focus (83%). It is proposed that, in the xthA mutant, there are three independent mechanisms that repress SOS expression in log-phase cells. These are the rapid processing of RecA filaments by RadA, maintaining the concentration of RecA below a critical level, and the destabilizing of RecA filaments by RecX. Only the first two mechanisms operate independently in a wild-type cell.

  5. High-level expression and characterization of two chitinases, ChiCH and ChiCW, of Bacillus cereus 28-9 in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, C.-J.; Chen, C.-Y.

    2005-01-01

    Many chitinase genes have been cloned and sequenced from prokaryotes and eukaryotes but overexpression of chitinases in Escherichia coli cells was less reported. ChiCH and ChiCW of Bacillus cereus 28-9 belong to two distinct groups based on their amino acid sequences of catalytic domains, and in addition, domain structures of two enzymes are different. In this study, we established an ideal method for high-level expression of chitinases in E. coli as glutathione-S-transferase fusion proteins using pGEX-6P-1 vector. Both ChiCH and ChiCW were successfully highly expressed in E. coli cells as soluble GST-chitinase fusion proteins, and recombinant native ChiCH and ChiCW could be purified after cleavage with PreScission protease to remove GST tag. Purified chitinases were used for biochemical characterization of kinetics, hydrolysis products, and binding activities. The results indicate that ChiCW is an endo-chitinase and effectively hydrolyzes chitin and chito-multimers to chito-oligomers and the end product chitobiose, and ChiCH is an exo-chitinase and degrades chito-oligomers to produce chitobiose. Furthermore, due to higher affinity of ChiCW toward colloidal chitin than Avicel, C-terminal domain of ChiCW should be classified as a chitin-binding domain not a cellulose-binding domain although that was revealed as a cellulose-binding domain by conserved domain analysis. Therefore, the method of high-level expression of chitinases is helpful to studies and applications of chitinases

  6. Physiological relation between respiration activity and heterologous expression of selected benzoylformate decarboxylase variants in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pohl Martina

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The benzoylformate decarboxylase (BFD from Pseudomonas putida is a biotechnologically interesting biocatalyst. It catalyses the formation of chiral 2-hydroxy ketones, which are important building blocks for stereoselective syntheses. To optimise the enzyme function often the amino acid composition is modified to improve the performance of the enzyme. So far it was assumed that a relatively small modification of the amino acid composition of a protein does not significantly influence the level of expression or media requirements. To determine, which effects these modifications might have on cultivation and product formation, six different BFD-variants with one or two altered amino acids and the wild type BFD were expressed in Escherichia coli SG13009 pKK233-2. The oxygen transfer rate (OTR as parameter for growth and metabolic activity of the different E. coli clones was monitored on-line in LB, TB and modified PanG mineral medium with the Respiratory Activity MOnitoring System (RAMOS. Results Although the E. coli clones were genetically nearly identical, the kinetics of their metabolic activity surprisingly differed in the standard media applied. Three different types of OTR curves could be distinguished. Whereas the first type (clones expressing Leu476Pro-Ser181Thr or Leu476Pro had typical OTR curves, the second type (clones expressing the wild type BFD, Ser181Thr or His281Ala showed an early drop of OTR in LB and TB medium and a drastically reduced maximum OTR in modified PanG mineral medium. The third type (clone expressing Leu476Gln behaved variable. Depending on the cultivation conditions, its OTR curve was similar to the first or the second type. It was shown, that the kinetics of the metabolic activity of the first type depended on the concentration of thiamine, which is a cofactor of BFD, in the medium. It was demonstrated that the cofactor binding strength of the different BFD-variants correlated with the differences

  7. Optimal expression of a Fab-effector fusion protein in Escherichia coli by removing the cysteine residues responsible for an interchain disulfide bond of a Fab molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyeon-Ju; Kim, Hye-Jin; Jung, Mun-Sik; Han, Jae-Kyu; Cha, Sang-Hoon

    2017-04-01

    Development of novel bi-functional or even tri-functional Fab-effector fusion proteins would have a great potential in the biomedical sciences. However, the expression of Fab-effector fusion proteins in Escherichia coli is problematic especially when a eukaryotic effector moiety is genetically linked to a Fab due to the lack of proper chaperone proteins and an inappropriate physicochemical environment intrinsic to the microbial hosts. We previously reported that a human Fab molecule, referred to as SL335, reactive to human serum albumin has a prolonged in vivo serum half-life in rats. We, herein, tested six discrete SL335-human growth hormone (hGH) fusion constructs as a model system to define an optimal Fab-effector fusion format for E. coli expression. We found that one variant, referred to as HserG/Lser, outperformed the others in terms of a soluble expression yield and functionality in that HserG/Lser has a functional hGH bioactivity and possesses an serum albumin-binding affinity comparable to SL335. Our results clearly demonstrated that the genetic linkage of an effector domain to the C-terminus of Fd (V H +C H1 ) and the removal of cysteine (Cys) residues responsible for an interchain disulfide bond (IDB) ina Fab molecule optimize the periplasmic expression of a Fab-effector fusion protein in E. coli. We believe that our approach can contribute the development of diverse bi-functional Fab-effector fusion proteins by providing a simple strategy that enables the reliable expression of a functional fusion proteins in E. coli. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Gene Expression Analysis of Escherichia Coli Grown in Miniaturized Bioreactor Platforms for High-Throughput Analysis of Growth and genomic Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boccazzi, P.; Zanzotto, A.; Szita, Nicolas

    2005-01-01

    Combining high-throughput growth physiology and global gene expression data analysis is of significant value for integrating metabolism and genomics. We compared global gene expression using 500 ng of total RNA from Escherichia coli cultures grown in rich or defined minimal media in a miniaturize...... cultures using just 500 ng of total RNA indicate that high-throughput integration of growth physiology and genomics will be possible with novel biochemical platforms and improved detection technologies....

  9. Cloning, expression and sequence diversity of iss gene from avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC isolated in Brazil / Clonagem, expressão e diversidade na seqüência do gene iss de Escherichia coli patogênica para aves (APEC, isolada no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilda Carlos Vidotto

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A proteína Iss (increased serum survival é uma importante característica de resistência ao sistema complemento da Escherichia coli patogênica para aves (APEC. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram clonar e verificar a diversidade da seqüência do gene iss de APEC e caracterizar a proteína Iss recombinante. O gene iss de 309 bp foi amplificado por PCR, clonado e expresso na E. coli BL21 (DE3 utilizando o vetor pET SUMO. O gene iss da APEC9 foi classificado como iss tipo 1 pela diferenciação entre 3 tipos de iss alelos. A proteína Iss foi expressa pela indução com IPTG, purificada em coluna com resina ligada ao íon níquel e utilizada na imunização de galinhas poedeiras. Anticorpos da classe IgY anti rIss reagiram com a proteina rIss, a qual apresentou massa molecular de 22 kDa, correspondendo 11kDa da Iss e 11 kDa da proteína SUMO. The Iss (Increased serum survival protein is an important characteristic of resistance to complement system of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC. The objectives of this work were to cloning and verify the sequence diversity of iss gene from APEC and characterize the recombinant Iss protein. The iss gene of 309 bp was amplified by PCR, cloned and expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3 using the pET SUMO vector. The iss gene from APEC9 strain was classified as iss type 1 by differentiation of the three iss gene allele types. The protein was expressed by induction of IPTG and purified in resin charged with the nickel ion. Antibodies IgY anti rIss reacted with rIss showing a molecular mass of 22 kDa, corresponding 11KDa of Iss protein and 11 KDa SUMO protein.

  10. New insights into enterocin CRL35: mechanism of action and immunity revealed by heterologous expression in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraza, Daniela E; Ríos Colombo, Natalia S; Galván, Adriana E; Acuña, Leonardo; Minahk, Carlos J; Bellomio, Augusto; Chalón, Miriam C

    2017-09-01

    The role of the class IIa bacteriocin membrane receptor protein remains unclear, and the following two different mechanisms have been proposed: the bacteriocin could interact with the receptor changing it to an open conformation or the receptor might act as an anchor allowing subsequent bacteriocin insertion and membrane disruption. Bacteriocin-producing cells synthesize an immunity protein that forms an inactive bacteriocin-receptor-immunity complex. To better understand the molecular mechanism of enterocin CRL35, the peptide was expressed as the suicidal probe EtpM-enterocin CRL35 in Escherichia coli, a naturally insensitive microorganism since it does not express the receptor. When the bacteriocin is anchored to the periplasmic face of the plasma membrane through the bitopic membrane protein, EtpM , E. coli cells depolarize and die. Moreover, co-expression of the immunity protein prevents the deleterious effect of EtpM-enterocin CRL35. The binding and anchoring of the bacteriocin to the membrane has demonstrated to be a sufficient condition for its membrane insertion. The final step of membrane disruption by EtpM-enterocin CRL35 is independent from the receptor, which means that the mannose PTS might not be involved in the pore structure. In addition, the immunity protein can protect even in the absence of the receptor. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Efficient soluble expression of disulfide bonded proteins in the cytoplasm of Escherichia coli in fed-batch fermentations on chemically defined minimal media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gąciarz, Anna; Khatri, Narendar Kumar; Velez-Suberbie, M Lourdes; Saaranen, Mirva J; Uchida, Yuko; Keshavarz-Moore, Eli; Ruddock, Lloyd W

    2017-06-15

    The production of recombinant proteins containing disulfide bonds in Escherichia coli is challenging. In most cases the protein of interest needs to be either targeted to the oxidizing periplasm or expressed in the cytoplasm in the form of inclusion bodies, then solubilized and re-folded in vitro. Both of these approaches have limitations. Previously we showed that soluble expression of disulfide bonded proteins in the cytoplasm of E. coli is possible at shake flask scale with a system, known as CyDisCo, which is based on co-expression of a protein of interest along with a sulfhydryl oxidase and a disulfide bond isomerase. With CyDisCo it is possible to produce disulfide bonded proteins in the presence of intact reducing pathways in the cytoplasm. Here we scaled up production of four disulfide bonded proteins to stirred tank bioreactors and achieved high cell densities and protein yields in glucose fed-batch fermentations, using an E. coli strain (BW25113) with the cytoplasmic reducing pathways intact. Even without process optimization production of purified human single chain IgA 1 antibody fragment reached 139 mg/L and hen avidin 71 mg/L, while purified yields of human growth hormone 1 and interleukin 6 were around 1 g/L. Preliminary results show that human growth hormone 1 was also efficiently produced in fermentations of W3110 strain and when glucose was replaced with glycerol as the carbon source. Our results show for the first time that efficient production of high yields of soluble disulfide bonded proteins in the cytoplasm of E. coli with the reducing pathways intact is feasible to scale-up to bioreactor cultivations on chemically defined minimal media.

  12. Co-Expression of ORFCma with PHB Depolymerase (PhaZCma ) in Escherichia coli Induces Efficient Whole-Cell Biodegradation of Polyesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ming-Chieh; Liu, En-Jung; Yang, Cheng-Han; Hsiao, Li-Jung; Wu, Tzong-Ming; Li, Si-Yu

    2018-04-01

    Whole-cell degradation of polyesters not only avoids the tedious process of enzyme separation, but also allows the degraded product to be reused as a carbon source. In this study, Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) harboring phaZ Cma , a gene encoding poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) depolymerase from Caldimonas manganoxidans, is constructed. The extra-cellular fraction of E. coli/pPHAZ exhibits a fast PHB degradation rate where it only took 35 h to completely degrade PHB films, while C. manganoxidans takes 81 h to do the same. The co-expression of ORF Cma (a putative periplasmic substrate binding protein that is within the same operon of phaZ Cma ) further improves the PHB degradation. While 28 h is needed for E. coli/pPHAZ to cause an 80% weight loss in PHB films, E. coli/pORFPHAZ needs only 21 h. Furthermore, it is able to degrade at-least four different polyesters, PHB, poly(lactic acid) (PLA), polycaprolactone (PCL), and poly(butylene succinate-co-adipate) (PBSA). Testing of the time course of 3-hydroxybutyrate concentration and the turbidity of the degradation solutions over time shows that PhaZ Cma has both exo- and endo-enzymatic activity. The whole-cell E. coli/pORFPHAZ can be used for recycling various polyesters while ORF Cma can potentially be a universal element for enhancing the secretion of recombinant protein. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Over-expression in Escherichia coli, purification and reconstitution in liposomes of the third member of the OCTN sub-family: The mouse carnitine transporter OCTN3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scalise, Mariafrancesca; Galluccio, Michele; Pochini, Lorena [Department of Cell Biology, University of Calabria, Via P. Bucci 4c, 87036 Arcavacata di Rende (Italy); Indiveri, Cesare, E-mail: indiveri@unical.it [Department of Cell Biology, University of Calabria, Via P. Bucci 4c, 87036 Arcavacata di Rende (Italy)

    2012-05-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer mOCTN3 transport protein has been cloned in pET-21a(+) and over-expressed in Escherichia coli. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The expressed mOCTN3 has been purified to homogeneity by Ni-chelating chromatography. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The protein solubilised in Triton X-100 has been reconstituted in liposomes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Recombinant mOCTN3 catalyses transport of carnitine by a uniport mode. -- Abstract: pET-21a(+)-mOCTN3-6His was constructed and used for over-expression in Escherichia coli Rosetta(DE3)pLysS. After IPTG induction a protein with apparent molecular mass of 53 kDa was collected in the insoluble fraction of the cell lysate and purified by Ni{sup 2+}-chelating chromatography with a yield of 2 mg/l of cell culture. The over-expressed protein was identified with mOCTN3 by anti-His antibody and reconstitution in liposomes. mOCTN3 required peculiar conditions for optimal expression and reconstitution in liposomes. The protein catalyzed a time dependent [{sup 3}H]carnitine uptake which was stimulated by intraliposomal ATP and nearly independent of the pH. The K{sub m} for carnitine was 36 {mu}M. [{sup 3}H]carnitine transport was inhibited by carnitine analogues and some Cys and NH{sub 2} reagents. This paper represents the first outcome in over-expressing, in active form, the third member of the OCTN sub-family, mOCTN3, in E. coli.

  14. Fast identification of folded human protein domains expressed in E. coli suitable for structural analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlegel Brigitte

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-throughput protein structure analysis of individual protein domains requires analysis of large numbers of expression clones to identify suitable constructs for structure determination. For this purpose, methods need to be implemented for fast and reliable screening of the expressed proteins as early as possible in the overall process from cloning to structure determination. Results 88 different E. coli expression constructs for 17 human protein domains were analysed using high-throughput cloning, purification and folding analysis to obtain candidates suitable for structural analysis. After 96 deep-well microplate expression and automated protein purification, protein domains were directly analysed using 1D 1H-NMR spectroscopy. In addition, analytical hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC was used to detect natively folded protein. With these two analytical methods, six constructs (representing two domains were quickly identified as being well folded and suitable for structural analysis. Conclusion The described approach facilitates high-throughput structural analysis. Clones expressing natively folded proteins suitable for NMR structure determination were quickly identified upon small scale expression screening using 1D 1H-NMR and/or analytical HIC. This procedure is especially effective as a fast and inexpensive screen for the 'low hanging fruits' in structural genomics.

  15. Expression and purification of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli tagged with a small metal-binding protein from Nitrosomonas europaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Cortez, Teresa; Morones-Ramirez, Jose Ruben; Balderas-Renteria, Isaias; Zarate, Xristo

    2016-02-01

    Escherichia coli is still the preferred organism for large-scale production of recombinant proteins. The use of fusion proteins has helped considerably in enhancing the solubility of heterologous proteins and their purification with affinity chromatography. Here, the use of a small metal-binding protein (SmbP) from Nitrosomonas europaea is described as a new fusion protein for protein expression and purification in E. coli. Fluorescent proteins tagged at the N-terminal with SmbP showed high levels of solubility, compared with those of maltose-binding protein and glutathione S-transferase, and low formation of inclusion bodies. Using commercially available IMAC resins charged with Ni(II), highly pure recombinant proteins were obtained after just one chromatography step. Proteins may be purified from the periplasm of E. coli if SmbP contains the signal sequence at the N-terminal. After removal of the SmbP tag from the protein of interest, high-yields are obtained since SmbP is a protein of just 9.9 kDa. The results here obtained suggest that SmbP is a good alternative as a fusion protein/affinity tag for the production of soluble recombinant proteins in E. coli. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The ura5 gene of the ascomycete Sordaria macrospora: molecular cloning, characterization and expression in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Chevanton, L; Leblon, G

    1989-04-15

    We cloned the ura5 gene coding for the orotate phosphoribosyl transferase from the ascomycete Sordaria macrospora by heterologous probing of a Sordaria genomic DNA library with the corresponding Podospora anserina sequence. The Sordaria gene was expressed in an Escherichia coli pyrE mutant strain defective for the same enzyme, and expression was shown to be promoted by plasmid sequences. The nucleotide sequence of the 1246-bp DNA fragment encompassing the region of homology with the Podospora gene has been determined. This sequence contains an open reading frame of 699 nucleotides. The deduced amino acid sequence shows 72% similarity with the corresponding Podospora protein.

  17. A novel thermal decomposition approach to synthesize hydroxyapatite-silver nanocomposites and their antibacterial action against GFP-expressing antibiotic resistant E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahni, Geetika; Gopinath, P; Jeevanandam, P

    2013-03-01

    A novel thermal decomposition approach to synthesize hydroxyapatite-silver (Hap-Ag) nanocomposites has been reported. The nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis, transmission electron microscopy and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy techniques. Antibacterial activity studies for the nanocomposites were explored using a new rapid access method employing recombinant green fluorescent protein (GFP) expressing antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli). The antibacterial activity was studied by visual turbidity analysis, optical density analysis, fluorescence spectroscopy and microscopy. The mechanism of bactericidal action of the nanocomposites on E. coli was investigated using atomic force microscopy, and TEM analysis. Excellent bactericidal activity at low concentration of the nanocomposites was observed which may allow their use in the production of microbial contamination free prosthetics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Heterologous expression of enterocin A, a bacteriocin from Enterococcus faecium, fused to a cellulose-binding domain in Escherichia coli results in a functional protein with inhibitory activity against Listeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klocke, Michael; Mundt, Kerstin; Idler, Frank; Jung, Sabrina; Backhausen, Jan E

    2005-06-01

    The genes for the bacteriocins enterocin A and B were isolated from Enterococcus faecium ATB 197a. Using the pET37b(+) vector, the enterocin genes were fused to an Escherichia coli specific export signal sequence, a cellulose-binding domain (CBD(cenA)) and a S-tag under the control of a T7lac promotor. The constructs were subsequently cloned into E. coli host cells. The expression of the recombinant enterocins had different effects on both the host cells and other Gram-positive bacteria. The expression of entA in Esc. coli led to the synthesis and secretion of functional active enterocin A fusion proteins, which were active against some Gram-positive indicator bacteria, but did not influence the viability of the host cells. In contrast, the expression of enterocin B fusion proteins led to a reduced viability of the host cells, indicating a misfolding of the protein or interference with the cellular metabolism of Esc. coli. Indicator strains of Gram-positive bacteria were not inhibited by purified enterocin B fusion proteins. However, recombinant enterocin B displayed inhibitory activity after the proteolytic cleavage of the fused peptides.

  19. Expression of Vibrio harveyi acyl-ACP synthetase allows efficient entry of exogenous fatty acids into the Escherichia coli fatty acid and lipid A synthetic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yanfang; Morgan-Kiss, Rachael M; Campbell, John W; Chan, Chi Ho; Cronan, John E

    2010-02-02

    Although the Escherichia coli fatty acid synthesis (FAS) pathway is the best studied type II fatty acid synthesis system, a major experimental limitation has been the inability to feed intermediates into the pathway in vivo because exogenously supplied free fatty acids are not efficiently converted to the acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioesters required by the pathway. We report that expression of Vibrio harveyi acyl-ACP synthetase (AasS), a soluble cytosolic enzyme that ligates free fatty acids to ACP to form acyl-ACPs, allows exogenous fatty acids to enter the E. coli fatty acid synthesis pathway. The free fatty acids are incorporated intact and can be elongated or directly incorporated into complex lipids by acyltransferases specific for acyl-ACPs. Moreover, expression of AasS strains and supplementation with the appropriate fatty acid restored growth to E. coli mutant strains that lack essential fatty acid synthesis enzymes. Thus, this strategy provides a new tool for circumventing the loss of enzymes essential for FAS function.

  20. Asymptomatic bacteriuria Escherichia coli strain 83972 carries mutations in the foc locus and is unable to express F1C fimbriae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hancock, Viktoria; Schembri, M.A.; Ulett, G.C.

    2006-01-01

    Escherichia coli is the most common organism associated with asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU). In contrast to uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC), which causes symptomatic urinary tract infection (UTI), very little is known about the mechanisms by which these strains colonize the urinary tract. Bacterial...... status of one of the primary adhesion factors known to be associated with UTI, namely F1C fimbriae, encoded by the foc gene cluster. F1C fimbriae recognize receptors present in the human kidney and bladder. Expression of the foc genes was found to be up-regulated in human urine. It was also shown...

  1. Molecular cloning and expression of bovine kappa-casein in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Y.C.; Richardson, T.

    1988-01-01

    A cDNA library was constructed using poly(A) + RNA from bovine mammary gland. This cDNA library of 6000 clones was screened employing colony hybridization using 32 P-labelled oligonucleotide probes and restriction endonuclease mapping. The cDNA from the selected plasmid, pKR76, was sequenced using the dideoxy-chain termination method. The cDNA insert of pKR76 carries the full-length sequence, which codes for mature kappa-casein protein. The amino acid sequence deduced from the cDNA sequence fits the published amino acid sequence with three exceptions; the reported pyroglutamic acid at position 1, tyrosine at position 35, and aspartic acid at position 81 are, respectively, a glutamine, a histidine, and an asparagine in the clone containing pKR76. The MspI-, NlaIV-cleaved fragment (630 base pair) from the kappa-casein cDNA insert has been subcloned into expression vectors pUC18 and pKK233-2, which contain a lac promoter and a trc promoter, respectively. Escherichia coli cells carrying the recombinant expression plasmids were shown to produce kappa-casein protein having the expected mobility on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and being recognized by specific antibodies raised against natural bovine kappa-casein

  2. Expression of Aspergillus niger N5-5 in E. coli and purification and identification of products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuai; Cao, Yong; Cheng, Hao

    2017-12-01

    Due to the feature of high hydrolysis, tannase is widely used in food, beverage, brewing and other fields. However, high cost in producing natural tannase makes it difficult to apply tannase to industry in a large-scale. Microbial expression systems can be used for preparing numerous amount of enzyme at low cost, so in this paper Aspergillus niger N5-5 was expressed using E. coli system. Specific primers were designed based on the Aspergillus niger N5-5 sequence N3 (GenBank, No.: KP677552), and tannase gene tan was promoted to carry 6 His tag and enzyme cutting site which contains NdeI/HindIII using PCR amplification. Then, tannase gene tan was connected to expression vector by NdeI/HindIII enzyme cutting. In this way, recombinant expression vector tan -pET43.1a was formed. Then, the expression vector pET43.1a by NdeI/HindIII enzyme cutting was transformed into E. coli BL21 (DE3) to induce expression of Aspergillus niger N5-5. When the induced fungi were disrupted by the ultrasonic wave, the crude enzyme was extracted and purified by using the IMAC, and then the activity of the crude enzyme and pure enzyme was determined. According to the results of determination of the tannase activity, the tannase activity of the crude enzyme was greatly improved after the crude enzyme was purified, and the specific activity of the pure enzyme was about 8 times of that of the crude enzyme. The results of SDS-PAGE of the pure enzyme showed that the molecular mass of the pure enzyme was about 65 kDa/64-65 kDa, which was consistent with the expected result (64.2 kDa), It can be concluded that the crude enzyme solution was purified successfully. The results of pure enzyme's protein identification by Western Blotting showed that clear protein bands pro -3 were observed. Molecular mass of clear protein bands pro-3 was about 65 kDa, which was in line with the expected results (64.2 kDa). It can be seen that the aforementioned expression protein could be specifically combined

  3. Cloning and expression in Escherichia coli of cellulases genes from Clostridium IBUN 22A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Carolina Vargas Pabón

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Genomic library of the native strain Clostridium IBUN 22A was constructed, using plasmid pBluescriptlI® KS+/ - as cloning vector and its expression in Escherichia coli was evaluated. Eight recombination clones with enzymatic activity were detected by enzymatic screening and using the red-Congo test with three substrates: cellobiose, carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC and cellulose powder (native. Restriction analysis of three recombination plasmids, representative of each enzymatic activity showed the inserted size (1600, 13000 and 11000bp approximately for pBS68, pBS25 and pBS57 respectively. More studies of protein expression and enzymatic characterization will allow theses enzymes and other typical parameters to be defined. In the same way the fragment sequence cloned will lead to a more detailed analysis and definition of the biotechnological potential of this strain regarding solvent production using cellulosic substrates for fermentation.

  4. Phenotypic and gene expression responses of E. coli to antibiotics during spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zea, Luis

    Bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics has been shown in vitro to be reduced during spaceflight; however, the underlying mechanisms responsible for this outcome are not fully understood. In particular, it is not yet clear whether this observed response is due to increased drug resistance (a microbial defense response) or decreased drug efficacy (a microgravity biophysical mass transport effect). To gain insight into the differentiation between these two potential causes, an investigation was undertaken onboard the International Space Station (ISS) in 2014 termed Antibiotic Effectiveness in Space-1 (AES-1). For this purpose, E. coli was challenged with two antibiotics, Gentamicin Sulfate and Colistin Sulfate, at concentrations higher than those needed to inhibit growth on Earth. Phenotypic parameters (cell size, cell envelope thickness, population density and lag phase duration) and gene expression were compared between the spaceflight samples and ground controls cultured in varying levels of drug concentration. It was observed that flight samples proliferated in antibiotic concentrations that were inhibitory on Earth, growing on average to a 13-fold greater concentration than matched 1g controls. Furthermore, at the highest drug concentrations in space, E. coli cells were observed to aggregate into visible clusters. In spaceflight, cell size was significantly reduced, translating to a decrease in cell surface area to about one half of the ground controls. Smaller cell surface area can in turn proportionally reduce the rate of antibiotic molecules reaching the cell. Additionally, it was observed that genes --- in some cases more than 2000 --- were overexpressed in space with respect to ground controls. Up-regulated genes include poxB, which helps catabolize glucose into organic acids that alter acidity around and inside the cell, and the gadABC family genes, which confer resistance to extreme acid conditions. The next step is to characterize the mechanisms behind

  5. Translational errors in expression of Shiga toxin from pathogenic Escherichia coli as measured by MALDI-TOF-TOF and Orbitrap mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Shiga toxin (Stx) is an AB5 toxin expressed by Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) and Shigella dysenteriae. The Stx holotoxin attaches to surface receptors of eukaryotic cells. After cellular envelopment, the toxin disrupts ribosomal protein synthesis causing cell death. Variations i...

  6. Natural LacI from E. coli Yields Faster Response and Higher Level of Expression than the LVA-Tagged LacI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Patrick Rosendahl; Fredberg, Sofie; Horan, Mattias

    2014-01-01

    The lac promoter is one of the most commonly used promoters for expression control of recombinant genes in E. coli. In the absence of galactosides, the lac promoter is repressed by its repressor protein LacI. Since the lac promoter is regulated by a repressor, overexpression of LacI is necessary...

  7. The approaches to mathematical modeling of recA, umuD genes expression in bacteria Escherichia coli after UV-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belov, O.V.

    2006-01-01

    The modern data of recA, umuD genes expression of the system of SOS-repair at classical object of radiation genetic researches - bacteria Escherichia coli, after ultraviolet irradiation are presented. Essentially a new method of analysis of SOS-genes expression is considered. It was shown that using this method it is possible to determine the character of induction of some SOS-genes more precisely. The possible approach to the mathematical description of SOS-response of cells by construction of the system of the differential equations is presented

  8. Expression and cytoprotective activity of the small GTPase RhoB induced by the Escherichia coli cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huelsenbeck, Stefanie C; Roggenkamp, Dennis; May, Martin

    2013-01-01

    B expression, based on the inactivation of Rho/Ras proteins. In this study, we report on a long lasting expression of RhoB in cultured cells upon activation of Rho proteins by the cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1 (CNF1) from Escherichia coli. The observations of this study highlight a new pathway involving Rac1...... without any signs of cell death. In conclusion, the cytoprotective RhoB response is not only evoked by bacterial protein toxins inactivating Rho/Ras proteins but also by the Rac1-activating toxin CNF1....

  9. Rare codons effect on expression of recombinant gene cassette in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aghil Esmaeili-Bandboni

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To demonstrate the sensitivity of expression of fusion genes to existence of a large number of rare codons in recombinant gene sequenced. Methods: Primers for amplification of cholera toxin B, Shiga toxin B and gfp genes were designed by Primer3 software and synthesized. All of these 3 genes were cloned. Then the genes were fused together by restriction sites and enzymatic method. Two linkers were used as a flexible bridge in connection of these genes. Results: Cloning and fusion of cholera toxin B, Shiga toxin B and gfp genes were done correctly. After that, expression of the recombinant gene construction was surveyed. Conclusions: According to what was seen, because of the accumulation of 12 rare codons of Shiga toxin B and 19 rare codons of cholera toxin B in this gene cassette, the expression of the recombinant gene cassette, in Escherichia coli BL21, failed.

  10. Functional expression of a penicillin acylase from the extreme thermophile Thermus thermophilus HB27 in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres Leticia L

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Penicillin acylases (PACs are enzymes of industrial relevance in the manufacture of β-lactam antibiotics. Development of a PAC with a longer half-life under the reaction conditions used is essential for the improvement of the operational stability of the process. A gene encoding a homologue to Escherichia coli PAC was found in the genome of the thermophilic bacterium Thermus thermophilus (Tth HB27. Because of the nature of this PAC and its complex maturation that is crucial to reach its functional heterodimeric final conformation, the overexpression of this enzyme in a heterologous mesophilic host was a challenge. Here we describe the purification and characterization of the PAC protein from Tth HB27 overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Results Fusions to a superfolder green fluorescent protein and differential membrane solubilization assays indicated that the native enzyme remains attached through its amino-terminal end to the outer side of the cytoplasmic membrane of Tth cells. In order to overexpress this PAC in E. coli cells, a variant of the protein devoid of its membrane anchoring segment was constructed. The effect of the co-expression of chaperones and calcium supplementation of the culture medium was investigated. The total production of PAC was enhanced by the presence of DnaK/J and GrpE and even more by trigger factor and GroEL/ES. In addition, 10 mM calcium markedly improved both PAC specific and volumetric activities. Recombinant PAC was affinity-purified and proper maturation of the protein was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF analysis of the subunits. The recombinant protein was tested for activity towards several penicillins, cephalosporins and homoserine lactones. Hydrophobic acyl-chain penicillins were preferred over the rest of the substrates. Penicillin K (octanoyl penicillin was the best substrate, with the highest specificity constant value (16.12 mM-1.seg-1. The optimum pH was aprox. 4 and the optimum

  11. Functional expression of a penicillin acylase from the extreme thermophile Thermus thermophilus HB27 in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Leticia L; Ferreras, Eloy R; Cantero, Angel; Hidalgo, Aurelio; Berenguer, José

    2012-08-09

    Penicillin acylases (PACs) are enzymes of industrial relevance in the manufacture of β-lactam antibiotics. Development of a PAC with a longer half-life under the reaction conditions used is essential for the improvement of the operational stability of the process. A gene encoding a homologue to Escherichia coli PAC was found in the genome of the thermophilic bacterium Thermus thermophilus (Tth) HB27. Because of the nature of this PAC and its complex maturation that is crucial to reach its functional heterodimeric final conformation, the overexpression of this enzyme in a heterologous mesophilic host was a challenge. Here we describe the purification and characterization of the PAC protein from Tth HB27 overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Fusions to a superfolder green fluorescent protein and differential membrane solubilization assays indicated that the native enzyme remains attached through its amino-terminal end to the outer side of the cytoplasmic membrane of Tth cells. In order to overexpress this PAC in E. coli cells, a variant of the protein devoid of its membrane anchoring segment was constructed. The effect of the co-expression of chaperones and calcium supplementation of the culture medium was investigated. The total production of PAC was enhanced by the presence of DnaK/J and GrpE and even more by trigger factor and GroEL/ES. In addition, 10 mM calcium markedly improved both PAC specific and volumetric activities. Recombinant PAC was affinity-purified and proper maturation of the protein was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF analysis of the subunits. The recombinant protein was tested for activity towards several penicillins, cephalosporins and homoserine lactones. Hydrophobic acyl-chain penicillins were preferred over the rest of the substrates. Penicillin K (octanoyl penicillin) was the best substrate, with the highest specificity constant value (16.12 mM-1.seg-1). The optimum pH was aprox. 4 and the optimum temperature was 75 °C. The half-life of

  12. PENICILLIN-BINDING PROTEIN 2X OF STREPTOCOCCUS-PNEUMONIAE - EXPRESSION IN ESCHERICHIA-COLI AND PURIFICATION OF A SOLUBLE ENZYMATICALLY ACTIVE DERIVATIVE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LAIBLE, G; KECK, W; LURZ, R; MOTTL, H; FRERE, JM; JAMIN, M; HAKENBECK, R

    1992-01-01

    A 2.5-kb DNA fragment including the structural gene coding for the penicillin-binding protein 2x (PBP 2x) of Streptococcus pneumoniae has been cloned into the vector pJDC9 and expressed in Escherichia coli. Mapping of RNA polymerase binding sites by electron microscopy indicated that the pbpX

  13. High-level SUMO-mediated fusion expression of ABP-dHC-cecropin A from multiple joined genes in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiaxin; Movahedi, Ali; Wei, Zhiheng; Sang, Ming; Wu, Xiaolong; Wang, Mengyang; Wei, Hui; Pan, Huixin; Yin, Tongming; Zhuge, Qiang

    2016-09-15

    The antimicrobial peptide ABP-dHC-cecropin A is a small cationic peptide with potent activity against a wide range of bacterial species. Evidence of antifungal activity has also been suggested; however, evaluation of this peptide has been limited due to the low expression of cecropin proteins in Escherichia coli. To improve the expression level of ABP-dHC-cecropin A in E. coli, tandem repeats of the ABP-dHC-cecropin A gene were constructed and expressed as fusion proteins (SUMO-nABP-dHC-cecropin, n = 1, 2, 3, 4) via pSUMO-nABP-dHC-cecropin A vectors (n = 1, 2, 3, 4). Comparison of the expression levels of soluble SUMO-nABP-dHC-cecropin A fusion proteins (n = 1, 2, 3, 4) suggested that BL21 (DE3)/pSUMO-3ABP-dHC-cecropin A is an ideal recombinant strain for ABP-dHC-cecropin A production. Under the selected conditions of cultivation and isopropylthiogalactoside (IPTG) induction, the expression level of ABP-dHC-cecropin A was as high as 65 mg/L, with ∼21.3% of the fusion protein in soluble form. By large-scale fermentation, protein production reached nearly 300 mg/L, which is the highest yield of ABP-dHC-cecropin A reported to date. In antibacterial experiments, the efficacy was approximately the same as that of synthetic ABP-dHC-cecropin A. This method provides a novel and effective means of producing large amounts of ABP-dHC-cecropin A. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A Comparative Study on the Expression, Purification and Functional Characterization of Human Adiponectin in Pichia pastoris and Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussin A. Rothan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Adiponectin is one of the most bioactive substances secreted by adipose tissue and is involved in the protection against metabolic syndrome, artherosclerosis and type II diabetes. Research into the use of adiponectin as a promising drug for metabolic syndromes requires production of this hormone in high quantities considering its molecular isoforms. The objective of this study is to produce recombinant human adiponectin by Pichia pastoris (P-ADP as a cheap and convenient eukaryotic expression system for potential application in pharmaceutical therapy. For comparison, adiponectin was also expressed using the Escherichia coli (E-ADP expression system. Adiponectin was constructed by overlap-extension PCR, and cloned in standard cloning vector and hosts. Recombinant expression vectors were cloned in the P. pastoris and E. coli host strains, respectively. SDS-PAGE and western blotting were used to detect and analyse expressed recombinant protein in both systems. Adiponectin was purified by affinity chromatography and quantified using the Bradford Assay. The results of this study indicated that P-ADP quantity (0.111 mg/mL was higher than that of E-ADP (0.04 mg/mL and both were produced in soluble form. However, P-ADP was able to form high molecular weights of adiponectin molecules, whilst E-ADP was not able to form isoforms higher than trimer. In addition, P-ADP was more active in lowering blood glucose compared with E-ADP. The two types of proteins were equally efficient and significantly decreased blood triglyceride and increased high density lipoprotein. We conclude that P. pastoris is able to produce high quantity of bioactive adiponectin for potential use in treatment of metabolic syndromes.

  15. Production of D-tagatose at high temperatures using immobilized Escherichia coli cells expressing L-arabinose isomerase from Thermotoga neapolitana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Young-Ho; Lee, Dong-Woo; Lee, Sang-Jae; Choe, Eun-Ah; Kim, Seong-Bo; Lee, Yoon-Hee; Cheigh, Chan-Ick; Pyun, Yu-Ryang

    2007-04-01

    Escherichia coli cells expressing L-arabinose isomerase from Thermotoga neapolitana (TNAI) were immobilized in calcium alginate beads. The resulting cell reactor (2.4 U, t (1/2) = 43 days at 70 degrees C) in a continuous recycling mode at 70 degrees C produced 49 and 38 g D-tagatose/l from 180 and 90 g D-galactose/l, respectively, within 12 h.

  16. Purification and properties of poliovirus RNA polymerase expressed in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plotch, S.J.; Palant, O.; Gluzman, Y.

    1989-01-01

    A cDNA clone encoding the RNA polymerase of poliovirus has been expressed in Escherichia coli under the transcriptional control of a T7 bacteriophage promoter. This poliovirus enzyme was designed to contain only a single additional amino acid, the N-terminal methionine. The recombinant enzyme has been purified to near homogeneity, and polyclonal antibodies have been prepared against it. The enzyme exhibits poly(A)-dependent oligo(U)-primed ply(U) polymerase activity as well as RNA polymerase activity. In the presence of an oligo(U) primer, the enzyme catalyzes the synthesis of a full-length copy of either poliovirus or globin RNA templates. In the absence of added primer, RNA products up to twice the length of the template are synthesized. When incubated in the presence of a single nucleoside triphosphate, [α- 32 P]UTP, the enzyme catalyzes the incorporation of radioactive label into template RNA. These results are discussed in light of previously proposed models of poliovirus RNA synthesis in vitro

  17. High Efficient Expression, Purification, and Functional Characterization of Native Human Epidermal Growth Factor in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Ma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Human epidermal growth factor (hEGF is a small, mitotic growth polypeptide that promotes the proliferation of various cells and is widely applied in clinical practices. However, high efficient expression of native hEGF in Escherichia coli has not been successful, since three disulfide bonds in monomer hEGF made it unable to fold into correct 3D structure using in vivo system. To tackle this problem, we fused Mxe GyrA intein (Mxe at the C-terminal of hEGF followed by small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO and 10x His-tag to construct a chimeric protein hEGF-Mxe-SUMO-H10. The fusion protein was highly expressed at the concentration of 281 mg/L and up to 59.5% of the total cellular soluble proteins. The fusion protein was purified by affinity chromatography and 29.4 mg/L of native hEGF can be released by thiol induced N-terminal cleavage without any proteases. The mitotic activity in Balb/c 3T3 cells is proliferated by commercial and recombinant hEGF measured with methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT assay which indicated that recombinant hEGF protein stimulates the cell proliferation similar to commercial protein. This study significantly improved the yield and reduced the cost of hEGF in the recombinant E. coli system and could be a better strategy to produce native hEGF for pharmaceutical development.

  18. High Efficient Expression, Purification, and Functional Characterization of Native Human Epidermal Growth Factor in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yi; Yu, Jieying; Lin, Jinglian; Wu, Shaomin; Li, Shan; Wang, Jufang

    2016-01-01

    Human epidermal growth factor (hEGF) is a small, mitotic growth polypeptide that promotes the proliferation of various cells and is widely applied in clinical practices. However, high efficient expression of native hEGF in Escherichia coli has not been successful, since three disulfide bonds in monomer hEGF made it unable to fold into correct 3D structure using in vivo system. To tackle this problem, we fused Mxe GyrA intein (Mxe) at the C-terminal of hEGF followed by small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) and 10x His-tag to construct a chimeric protein hEGF-Mxe-SUMO-H 10 . The fusion protein was highly expressed at the concentration of 281 mg/L and up to 59.5% of the total cellular soluble proteins. The fusion protein was purified by affinity chromatography and 29.4 mg/L of native hEGF can be released by thiol induced N-terminal cleavage without any proteases. The mitotic activity in Balb/c 3T3 cells is proliferated by commercial and recombinant hEGF measured with methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay which indicated that recombinant hEGF protein stimulates the cell proliferation similar to commercial protein. This study significantly improved the yield and reduced the cost of hEGF in the recombinant E. coli system and could be a better strategy to produce native hEGF for pharmaceutical development.

  19. An enzyme-immunobinding assay for fast screening of expression of tissue plasminogen activator cDNA in E. coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, J.C.T.; Li, S.H.

    1984-01-01

    Tissue plasminogen activator (TPA) has been isolated from normal human tissues and certain human cell lines in culture. The enzyme is a serine protease which converts an inactive zymogen, plasminogen to plasmin, and causes lysis of fibrin clots. The high affinity of TPA for fibrin indicates that it is a potential thrombolytic agent and is superior to urokinase-like plasminogen activators. Recently, TPA has been cloned and expressed in E. coli. Using TPA as a model protein, the authors report here the development of a direct, sensitive enzyme-immunoassay for the screening of a cDNA expression library using specific antibodies and peroxidase-labeled second antibody

  20. Effect of alginate microencapsulation on the catalytic efficiency and in vitro enzyme-prodrug therapeutic efficacy of cytosine deaminase and of recombinant E. coli expressing cytosine deaminase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funaro, Michael G; Nemani, Krishnamurthy V; Chen, Zhihang; Bhujwalla, Zaver M; Griswold, Karl E; Gimi, Barjor

    2016-02-01

    Cytosine deaminase (CD) catalyses the enzymatic conversion of the non-toxic prodrug 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) to the potent chemotherapeutic form, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Intratumoral delivery of CD localises chemotherapy dose while reducing systemic toxicity. Encapsulation in biocompatible microcapsules immunoisolates CD and protects it from degradation. We report on the effect of alginate encapsulation on the catalytic and functional activity of isolated CD and recombinant E. coli engineered to express CD (E. coli(CD)). Alginate microcapsules containing either CD or Escherichia coli(CD) were prepared using ionotropic gelation. Conversion of 5-FC to 5-FU was quantitated in unencapsulated and encapsulated CD/E. coli(CD) using spectrophotometry, with a slower rate of conversion observed following encapsulation. Both encapsulated CD/5-FC and E. coli(CD)/5-FC resulted in cell kill and reduced proliferation of 9 L rat glioma cells, which was comparable to direct 5-FU treatment. Our results show that encapsulation preserves the therapeutic potential of CD and E. coli(CD) is equally effective for enzyme-prodrug therapy.

  1. Heterologous expression of Homo sapiens alpha-folate receptors in E. coli by fusion with a trigger factor for enhanced solubilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Beatriz Nogueira Messias; Fotoran, Wesley Luzetti; Canduri, Fernanda; Souza, Dulce Helena Ferreira; Wunderlich, Gerhard; Carrilho, Emanuel

    2018-02-01

    The role of Alpha folate receptors (FRα) in folate metabolism and cancer development has been extensively studied. The reason for this is not only associated to its direct relation to disease development but also to its potential use as a highly sensitive and specific biomarker for cancers therapies. Over the recent years, the crystal structures of human FRα complexed with different ligands were described relying on an expensive and time-consuming production process. Here, we constructed an efficient system for the expression and purification of a human FRα in E. coli. Unlike a conventional expression method we used a specific protein fusion expressing the target protein together with a trigger factor (TF). This factor is a chaperone from E. coli that assists the correct folding of newly synthesized polypeptide chains. The activity of rTFFRα was comparable to glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchored proteins extracted from HeLa tumor cells. Our work demonstrates a straightforward and versatile approach for the production of active human FRα by heterologous expression; this approach further enhances the development of inhibition studies and biotechnological applications. The purified product was then conjugated to liposomes, obtaining a 35% higher signal from densitometry measurement on the immunoblotting assay in the contruct containing the Ni-NTA tag, as a mimesis of an exosome, which is of vital importance to nanotherapeutic techniques associated to treatment and diagnosis of tumors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Peptide nucleic acid (PNA) antisense effects in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Good, L; Nielsen, P E

    1999-01-01

    Antisense peptide nucleic acid (PNA) can be used to control cell growth, gene expression and growth phenotypes in the bacteria Escherichia coli. PNAs targeted to the RNA components of the ribosome can inhibit translation and cell growth, and PNAs targeted to mRNA can limit gene expression with gene...... and sequence specificity. In an E. coli cell extract, efficient inhibition is observed when using PNA concentrations in the nanomolar range, whereas micromolar concentrations are required for inhibition in growing cells. A mutant strain of E. coli that is more permeable to antibiotics also is more susceptible...... to antisense PNAs than the wild type. This chapter details methods for testing the antisense activities of PNA in E. coli. As an example of the specific antisense inhibition possible, we show the effects of an anti-beta-galactosidase PNA in comparison to control PNAs. With improvements in cell uptake...

  3. Regulation of gene expression: Cryptic β-glucoside (bgl operon of Escherichia coli as a paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharmesh Harwani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria have evolved various mechanisms to extract utilizable substrates from available resources and consequently acquire fitness advantage over competitors. One of the strategies is the exploitation of cryptic cellular functions encoded by genetic systems that are silent under laboratory conditions, such as the bgl (β-glucoside operon of E. coli. The bgl operon of Escherichia coli, involved in the uptake and utilization of aromatic β-glucosides salicin and arbutin, is maintained in a silent state in the wild type organism by the presence of structural elements in the regulatory region. This operon can be activated by mutations that disrupt these negative elements. The fact that the silent bgl operon is retained without accumulating deleterious mutations seems paradoxical from an evolutionary view point. Although this operon appears to be silent, specific physiological conditions might be able to regulate its expression and/or the operon might be carrying out function(s apart from the utilization of aromatic β-glucosides. This is consistent with the observations that the activated operon confers a Growth Advantage in Stationary Phase (GASP phenotype to Bgl+ cells and exerts its regulation on at least twelve downstream target genes.

  4. Regulation of gene expression: cryptic β-glucoside (bgl) operon of Escherichia coli as a paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwani, Dharmesh

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria have evolved various mechanisms to extract utilizable substrates from available resources and consequently acquire fitness advantage over competitors. One of the strategies is the exploitation of cryptic cellular functions encoded by genetic systems that are silent under laboratory conditions, such as the bgl (β-glucoside) operon of E. coli. The bgl operon of Escherichia coli, involved in the uptake and utilization of aromatic β-glucosides salicin and arbutin, is maintained in a silent state in the wild type organism by the presence of structural elements in the regulatory region. This operon can be activated by mutations that disrupt these negative elements. The fact that the silent bgl operon is retained without accumulating deleterious mutations seems paradoxical from an evolutionary view point. Although this operon appears to be silent, specific physiological conditions might be able to regulate its expression and/or the operon might be carrying out function(s) apart from the utilization of aromatic β-glucosides. This is consistent with the observations that the activated operon confers a Growth Advantage in Stationary Phase (GASP) phenotype to Bgl(+) cells and exerts its regulation on at least twelve downstream target genes.

  5. Chaperonin GroEL/GroES Over-Expression Promotes Aminoglycoside Resistance and Reduces Drug Susceptibilities in Escherichia coli Following Exposure to Sublethal Aminoglycoside Doses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goltermann, Lise; Sarusie, Menachem V; Bentin, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is an increasing challenge to modern healthcare. Aminoglycoside antibiotics cause translation corruption and protein misfolding and aggregation in Escherichia coli. We previously showed that chaperonin GroEL/GroES depletion and over-expression sensitize and promote short...

  6. Comparative method of protein expression and isolation of EBV epitope in E.coli DH5α

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyndita, Nadya V. M.; Dluha, Nurul; Himmah, Karimatul; Rifa'i, Muhaimin; Widodo

    2017-11-01

    Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) or human herpes virus 4 (HHV-4) is a virus that infects human B cell and leads to nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The prevention of this disease remains unsuccessful since the vaccine has not been discovered. The objective of this study is to over-produce EBV gp350/220 epitope using several methods in E.coli DH5α. EBV epitope sequences were inserted into pMAL-p5x vector, then transformed into DH5α E.coli and over-produced using 0.3, 1 and 2 mM IPTG. Plasmid transformation was validated using AflIII restriction enzyme in 0.8% agarose. Periplasmic protein was isolated using 2 comparative methods and then analyzed using SDS-PAGE. Method A produced a protein band around 50 kDa and appeared only at transformant. Method B failed to isolate the protein, indicated by no protein band appearing. In addition, any variations in IPTG concentration didn't give a different result. Thus it can be concluded that even the lowest IPTG concentration is able to induce protein expression.

  7. Molecular photonic imaging of cancer using light-emitting e. coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jae Hyo; Min, Jung Joon; Moon, Sung Min; Kim, Hyun Ju; Hong, Yeong Jin; Choy, Hyon E.; Bom, Hee Seung; Jeong, Jae Ho; Cho, Kyoung Oh

    2005-01-01

    Cancer research has long sought a magic bullet that would selectively target and destroy malignant cells. In this study, we exploited that E. coli injected into tumor-bearing mice selectively target and proliferate in solid tumors by employing optical imaging technique. Lux operon or GFP has been cloned into pUC19 plasmid to engineer pUC19Lux or pUC19gfp which was transformed into varying kinds of wild type (MG1655) or mutant E.coli strains. For stable expression, lux operon was cloned with asd (aspartate β-semialdehyde dehydrogenase) gene and transformed into asd defective E. coli (MG1655asd-/asd+lux). These bacteria were i.v. injected into tumor mice or directly into central necrosis of tumor. The imaging signal from wild type E.coli was detected initially at liver (20min), then migrated to and shine in the tumor mass until 2 weeks of injection which was consistently observed in immuno-defective (nude) and -competent (Balb/c) mice. Imaging signal of stbaly transformed strain (MG1655asd-/asd+lux) was stronger and longer-lasting than that of transiently transformed strain (MG1655lux). Flagella defective E. coli strain failed to reach tumor loci. Only a few amounts of stress regulatory defective E. coli strain arrived at but couldn't survive at the tumor loci. E. coli colonies expressing GFP was mostly observed at the border of central necrosis and peripheral proliferative areas in immunofluorescence studies. Directly injected MG1655ad-/asd+lux was transiently observed at central necrosis followed by spreading to the peripheral tumor mass which was consistent with the finding by tail vein injection. We successfully engineered E. coli strain stably expressing lux reporter gene. E. coli strongly targeted solid tumor regardless of host immune status. Our results support that the targeting of tumor by E.coli is an active process and would be applied as a delivery vehicle of varying imaging markers or therapeutic molecules

  8. Gene sequencing, cloning, and expression of the recombinant L- Asparaginase of Pseudomonas aeruginosa SN4 strain in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arastoo Badoei-dalfard

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: L- asparaginase is in an excessive demand in medical applications and in food treating industries, the request for this therapeutic enzyme is growing several folds every year. Materials and methods: In this study, a L- asparaginase gene from Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain SN4 was sequenced and cloned in E. coli. Primers were designed based on L- asparaginase from P. aeruginosa DSM 50071, which show high similarity to SN4 strain, according to 16S rRNA sequence. The L- asparaginase gene was exposed to restriction digestion with NdeI and XhoI enzymes and then ligated into pET21a plasmid. The ligated sample was transformed into competent E. coli (DE3 pLysS DH5a cells, according to CaCl2 method. The transformed E. coli cells were grown into LB agar plate containing 100 µg/ml ampicillin, IPTG (1 mM. Results: Recombinant L- asparaginase from E. coli BL21 induced after 9 h of incubation and showed high L- asparaginase activity about 93.4 IU/ml. Recombinant L- asparaginase sequencing and alignments showed that the presumed amino acid sequence composed of 350 amino acid residues showed high similarity with P. aeruginosa L- asparaginases about 99%. The results also indicated that SN4 L- asparaginase has the catalytic residues and conserve region similar to other L- asparaginases. Discussion and conclusion: This is the first report on cloning and expression of P. aeruginosa L- asparaginases in Escherichia coli. These results indicated a potent source of L- asparaginase for in vitro and in vivio anticancer consideration. 

  9. Recombinant expression in E. coli of human FGFR2 with its transmembrane and extracellular domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Bajinting

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs are a family of receptor tyrosine kinases containing three domains: an extracellular receptor domain, a single transmembrane helix, and an intracellular tyrosine kinase domain. FGFRs are activated by fibroblast growth factors (FGFs as part of complex signal transduction cascades regulating angiogenesis, skeletal formation, cell differentiation, proliferation, cell survival, and cancer. We have developed the first recombinant expression system in E. coli to produce a construct of human FGFR2 containing its transmembrane and extracellular receptor domains. We demonstrate that the expressed construct is functional in binding heparin and dimerizing. Size exclusion chromatography demonstrates that the purified FGFR2 does not form a complex with FGF1 or adopts an inactive dimer conformation. Progress towards the successful recombinant production of intact FGFRs will facilitate further biochemical experiments and structure determination that will provide insight into how extracellular FGF binding activates intracellular kinase activity.

  10. Pathogenic Escherichia coli and food handlers in luxury hotels in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyango, Abel O; Kenya, Eucharia U; Mbithi, John J N; Ng'ayo, Musa O

    2009-11-01

    The epidemiology and virulence properties of pathogenic Escherichia coli among food handlers in tourist destination hotels in Kenya are largely uncharacterized. This cross-sectional study among consenting 885 food handlers working in nine luxurious tourist hotels in Nairobi, Kenya determined the epidemiology, virulence properties, antibiotics susceptibility profiles and conjugation abilities of pathogenic Escherichia coli. Pathogenic Escherichia coli was detected among 39 (4.4%) subjects, including 1.8% enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) harboring aggR genes, 1.2% enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) expressing both LT and STp toxins, 1.1% enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and 0.2% Shiga-like Escherichia coli (EHEC) both harboring eaeA and stx2 genes respectively. All the pathotypes had increased surface hydrophobicity. Using multivariate analyses, food handlers with loose stools were more likely to be infected with pathogenic Escherichia coli. Majority 53.8% of the pathotypes were resistant to tetracycline with 40.2% being multi-drug resistant. About 85.7% pathotypes trans-conjugated with Escherichia coli K12 F(-) NA(r) LA. The carriage of multi-drug resistant, toxin expressing pathogenic Escherichia coli by this population is of public health concern because exposure to low doses can result in infection. Screening food handlers and implementing public awareness programs is recommended as an intervention to control transmission of enteric pathogens.

  11. Role of cloned carotenoid genes expressed in Escherichia coli in protecting against inactivation by near-UV light and specific phototoxic molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuveson, R.W.; Larson, R.A.; Kagan, J.

    1988-01-01

    Genes controlling carotenoid synthesis were cloned from Erwinia herbicola and expressed in an Escherichia coli strain. Carotenoids protect against high fluences of near-UV (NUV; 320 to 400 nm) but not against far-UV (200-300 nm). Protection of E. coli cells was not observed following treatment with either psoralen or 8-methoxypsoralen plus NUV. However, significant protection of cells producing carotenoids was observed with three photosensitizing molecules activated by NUV (alpha-terthienyl, harmine, and phenylheptatriyne) which are thought to have the membrane as an important lethal target. Protection of carotenoid-producing cells against inactivation was not observed with acridine orange plus visible light but was seen with toluidine blue O plus visible light

  12. Comparative genomics and transcriptomics of Escherichia coli isolates carrying virulence factors of both enteropathogenic and enterotoxigenic E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazen, Tracy H; Michalski, Jane; Luo, Qingwei; Shetty, Amol C; Daugherty, Sean C; Fleckenstein, James M; Rasko, David A

    2017-06-14

    Escherichia coli that are capable of causing human disease are often classified into pathogenic variants (pathovars) based on their virulence gene content. However, disease-associated hybrid E. coli, containing unique combinations of multiple canonical virulence factors have also been described. Such was the case of the E. coli O104:H4 outbreak in 2011, which caused significant morbidity and mortality. Among the pathovars of diarrheagenic E. coli that cause significant human disease are the enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) and enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC). In the current study we use comparative genomics, transcriptomics, and functional studies to characterize isolates that contain virulence factors of both EPEC and ETEC. Based on phylogenomic analysis, these hybrid isolates are more genomically-related to EPEC, but appear to have acquired ETEC virulence genes. Global transcriptional analysis using RNA sequencing, demonstrated that the EPEC and ETEC virulence genes of these hybrid isolates were differentially-expressed under virulence-inducing laboratory conditions, similar to reference isolates. Immunoblot assays further verified that the virulence gene products were produced and that the T3SS effector EspB of EPEC, and heat-labile toxin of ETEC were secreted. These findings document the existence and virulence potential of an E. coli pathovar hybrid that blurs the distinction between E. coli pathovars.

  13. Over-expression in Escherichia coli and characterization of two recombinant isoforms of human FAD synthetase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brizio, Carmen; Galluccio, Michele; Wait, Robin; Torchetti, Enza Maria; Bafunno, Valeria; Accardi, Rosita; Gianazza, Elisabetta; Indiveri, Cesare; Barile, Maria

    2006-01-01

    FAD synthetase (FADS) (EC 2.7.7.2) is a key enzyme in the metabolic pathway that converts riboflavin into the redox cofactor FAD. Two hypothetical human FADSs, which are the products of FLAD1 gene, were over-expressed in Escherichia coli and identified by ESI-MS/MS. Isoform 1 was over-expressed as a T7-tagged protein which had a molecular mass of 63 kDa on SDS-PAGE. Isoform 2 was over-expressed as a 6-His-tagged fusion protein, carrying an extra 84 amino acids at the N-terminal with an apparent molecular mass of 60 kDa on SDS-PAGE. It was purified near to homogeneity from the soluble cell fraction by one-step affinity chromatography. Both isoforms possessed FADS activity and had a strict requirement for MgCl 2 , as demonstrated using both spectrophotometric and chromatographic methods. The purified recombinant isoform 2 showed a specific activity of 6.8 ± 1.3 nmol of FAD synthesized/min/mg protein and exhibited a K M value for FMN of 1.5 ± 0.3 μM. This is First report on characterization of human FADS, and First cloning and over-expression of FADS from an organism higher than yeast

  14. Microarray-Based Screening of Differentially Expressed Genes of E. coli O157:H7 Sakai during Preharvest Survival on Butterhead Lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge Van der Linden

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous outbreaks of Escherichia coli O157:H7 have been linked to the consumption of leafy vegetables. However, up to the present, little has been known about E. coli O157:H7’s adaptive responses to survival on actively growing (and thus responsive plants. In this study, whole genome transcriptional profiles were generated from E. coli O157:H7 cells (isolate Sakai, stx- one hour and two days after inoculation on the leaves of growing butterhead lettuce, and compared with an inoculum control. A total of 273 genes of E. coli O157:H7 Sakai (5.04% of the whole genome were significantly induced or repressed by at least two-fold (p < 0.01 in at least one of the analyzed time points in comparison with the control. Several E. coli O157:H7 genes associated with oxidative stress and antimicrobial resistance were upregulated, including the iron-sulfur cluster and the multiple antibiotic resistance (mar operon, whereas the Shiga toxin virulence genes were downregulated. Nearly 40% of the genes with significantly different expression were poorly characterized genes or genes with unknown functions. These genes are of special interest for future research as they may play an important role in the pathogens’ adaptation to a lifestyle on plants. In conclusion, these findings suggest that the pathogen actively interacts with the plant environment by adapting its metabolism and responding to oxidative stress.

  15. Construction and expression of immunogenic hybrid enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli CFA/I and CS2 colonization fimbriae for use in vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Joshua; Svennerholm, Ann-Mari; Holmgren, Jan; Lebens, Michael

    2010-07-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are an important cause of diarrheal morbidity in developing countries, especially in children and also of traveler's diarrhea. Colonization factors (CFs) of ETEC, like CFA/I and CS2 which are genetically and structurally related, play a substantial role in pathogenicity, and since intestinal-mucosal immune responses against CFs appear to be protective, much effort has focused on the development of a CF-based ETEC vaccine. We have constructed hybrid operons in which the major CS2 subunit-encoding cotA gene was inserted into the CFA/I operon, either replacing (hybrid I) or being added to the major CFA/I subunit-encoding cfaB gene (hybrid II). Using specific monoclonal antibodies against the major subunits of CFA/I and CS2, high levels of surface expression of both fimbrial subunits were shown in E. coli carrying the hybrid II operon. Oral immunization of mice with formalin-killed bacteria expressing hybrid II fimbriae induced strong CFA/I- and CS2-specific serum IgG + IgM and fecal IgA antibody responses, which were higher than those achieved by similar immunization with the reference strains. Bacteria expressing hybrid fimbriae are potential candidate strains in an oral-killed CF-ETEC vaccine, and the approach represents an attractive and novel means of producing a broad-spectrum ETEC vaccine.

  16. Factors affecting expression of the recF gene of Escherichia coli K-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, S J; Clark, A J

    1990-01-31

    This report describes four factors which affect expression of the recF gene from strong upstream lambda promoters under temperature-sensitive cIAt2-encoded repressor control. The first factor was the long mRNA leader sequence consisting of the Escherichia coli dnaN gene and 95% of the dnaA gene and lambda bet, N (double amber) and 40% of the exo gene. When most of this DNA was deleted, RecF became detectable in maxicells. The second factor was the vector, pBEU28, a runaway replication plasmid. When we substituted pUC118 for pBEU28, RecF became detectable in whole cells by the Coomassie blue staining technique. The third factor was the efficiency of initiation of translation. We used site-directed mutagenesis to change the mRNA leader, ribosome-binding site and the 3 bp before and after the translational start codon. Monitoring the effect of these mutational changes by translational fusion to lacZ, we discovered that the efficiency of initiation of translation was increased 30-fold. Only an estimated two- or threefold increase in accumulated levels of RecF occurred, however. This led us to discover the fourth factor, namely sequences in the recF gene itself. These sequences reduce expression of the recF-lacZ fusion genes 100-fold. The sequences responsible for this decrease in expression occur in four regions in the N-terminal half of recF. Expression is reduced by some sequences at the transcriptional level and by others at the translational level.

  17. Escherichia coli LF82 differentially regulates ROS production and mucin expression in intestinal epithelial T84 cells: implication of NOX1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elatrech, Imen; Marzaioli, Viviana; Boukemara, Hanane; Bournier, Odile; Neut, Christel; Darfeuille-Michaud, Arlette; Luis, José; Dubuquoy, Laurent; El-Benna, Jamel; My-Chan Dang, Pham; Marie, Jean-Claude

    2015-05-01

    Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production is associated with inflamed ileal lesions in Crohn's disease colonized by pathogenic adherent-invasive Escherichia coli LF82. We investigated whether such ileal bacteria can modulate ROS production by epithelial cells, thus impacting on inflammation and mucin expression. Ileal bacteria from patients with Crohn's disease were incubated with cultured epithelial T84 cells, and ROS production was assayed using the luminol-amplified chemiluminescence method. The gentamicin protection assay was used for bacterial invasion of T84 cell. The expression of NADPH oxidase (NOX) subunits, mucin, and IL-8 was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blots. Involvement of NOX and ROS was analyzed using diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Among different bacteria tested, only LF82 induced an increase of ROS production by T84 cells in a dose-dependent manner. This response was inhibited by DPI and NAC. Heat- or ethanol-attenuated LF82 bacteria and the mutant LF82ΔFimA, which does not express pili type 1 and poorly adheres to epithelial cells, did not induce the oxidative response. The LF82-induced oxidative response coincides with its invasion in T84 cells, and both processes were inhibited by DPI. Also, we observed an increased expression of NOX1 and NOXO1 in response to LF82 bacteria versus the mutant LF82ΔFimA. Furthermore, LF82 inhibited mucin gene expression (MUC2 and MUC5AC) in T84 cells while increasing the chemotactic IL-8 expression, both in a DPI-sensitive manner. Adherent-invasive E. coli LF82 induced ROS production by intestinal NADPH oxidase and altered mucin and IL-8 expression, leading to perpetuation of inflammatory lesions in Crohn's disease.

  18. Improving the expression of recombinant proteins in E. coli BL21 (DE3) under acetate stress: an alkaline pH shift approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hengwei; Wang, Fengqing; Wang, Wei; Yao, Xueling; Wei, Dongzhi; Cheng, Hairong; Deng, Zixin

    2014-01-01

    Excess acetate has long been an issue for the production of recombinant proteins in E. coli cells. Recently, improvements in acetate tolerance have been achieved through the use of genetic strategies and medium supplementation with certain amino acids and pyrimidines. The aim of our study was to evaluate an alternative to improve the acetate tolerance of E. coli BL21 (DE3), a popular strain used to express recombinant proteins. In this work we reported the cultivation of BL21 (DE3) in complex media containing acetate at high concentrations. In the presence of 300 mM acetate, compared with pH 6.5, pH 7.5 improved cell growth by approximately 71%, reduced intracellular acetate by approximately 50%, and restored the expression of glutathione S-transferase (GST), green fluorescent protein (GFP) and cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (CYP). Further experiments showed that alkaline pHs up to 8.5 had little inhibition in the expression of GST, GFP and CYP. In addition, the detrimental effect of acetate on the reduction of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) by the cell membrane, an index of cellular metabolic capacity, was substantially alleviated by a shift to alkaline pH values of 7.5-8.0. Thus, we suggest an approach of cultivating E. coli BL21 (DE3) at pH 8.0 ± 0.5 to minimize the effects caused by acetate stress. The proposed strategy of an alkaline pH shift is a simple approach to solving similar bioprocessing problems in the production of biofuels and biochemicals from sugars.

  19. Production of caffeoylmalic acid from glucose in engineered Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianzhen; Zhou, Wei; Bi, Huiping; Zhuang, Yibin; Zhang, Tongcun; Liu, Tao

    2018-07-01

    To achieve biosynthesis of caffeoylmalic acid from glucose in engineered Escherichia coli. We constructed the biosynthetic pathway of caffeoylmalic acid in E. coli by co-expression of heterologous genes RgTAL, HpaBC, At4CL2 and HCT2. To enhance the production of caffeoylmalic acid, we optimized the tyrosine metabolic pathway of E. coli to increase the supply of the substrate caffeic acid. Consequently, an E. coli-E. coli co-culture system was used for the efficient production of caffeoylmalic acid. The final titer of caffeoylmalic acid reached 570.1 mg/L. Microbial production of caffeoylmalic acid using glucose has application potential. In addition, microbial co-culture is an efficient tool for producing caffeic acid esters.

  20. Repeated batch fermentation of immobilized E. coli expressing Vitreoscilla hemoglobin for long-term use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sar, Taner; Seker, Gamze; Erman, Ayse Gokce; Stark, Benjamin C; Yesilcimen Akbas, Meltem

    2017-09-03

    This study describes an efficient and reusable process for ethanol production from medium containing whey powder, using alginate immobilized ethanologenic E. coli strains either expressing (TS3) or not expressing (FBR5) Vitreoscilla hemoglobin. Reuseabilities of the FBR5 and TS3 strains were investigated regarding their ethanol production capacities over the course of 15 successive 96-h batch fermentations. The ethanol production was fairly stable over the entire duration of the experiment, with strain TS3 maintaining a substantial advantage over strain FBR5. Storage of both strains in 2 different solutions for up to 60 d resulted in only a modest loss of ethanol production, with strain TS3 consistently outperforming strain FBR5 by a substantial amount. Strains stored for 15 or 30 d maintained their abilities to produce ethanol without dimunition over the course of 8 successive batch fermentations; again strain TS3 maintained a substantial advantage over strain FBR5 throughout the entire experiment. Thus, immobilization is a useful strategy to maintain the advantage in ethanol productivity afforded by expression of Vitreoscilla hemoglobin over long periods of time and large numbers of repeated batch fermentations, including, as in this case, using media with food processing wastes as the carbon source.

  1. Biodesulfurization of dibenzothiophene in Escherichia coli is enhanced by expression of a Vibrio harveyi oxidoreductase gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichmuth, D.S.; Hittle, J.L.; Blanch, H.W.; Keasling, J.D.

    2000-01-05

    One possible alternative to current fuel hydrodesulfurization methods is the use of microorganisms to remove sulfur compounds. Biodesulfurization requires much milder processing conditions, gives higher specificity, and does not require molecular hydrogen. In the present work the authors have produced two compatible plasmids: pDSR3, which allows Escherichia coli to convert dibenzothiophene (DBT) to hydroxybiphenyl (HBP), and pDSR2, which produces a Vibrio harveyi flavin oxidoreductase. The authors show that the flavin oxidoreductase enhances the rate of DBT removal when co-expressed in vivo with the desulfurization enzymes. The plasmids pDSR2 and pDSR3 were co-expressed in growing cultures. The expression of oxidoreductase caused an increase in the rate of DBT removal but a decrease in the rate of HBP production. The maximum rate of DBT removal was 8 mg/h {center{underscore}dot} g dry cell weight. Experiments were also conducted using resting cells with the addition of various carbon sources. It was found that the addition of glucose or glycerol to cultures with oxidoreductase expression produced the highest DBT removal rate. The culture with acetate and no oxidoreductase expression had the highest level of HBP production. For all carbon sources, the DBT removal rate was faster and the HBP generation rate slower with the expression of the oxidoreductase. Analysis of desulfurization intermediates indicates that the last enzyme in the pathway may be limiting.

  2. Expression in mammalian cells of the Escherichia coli O6 alkylguanine-DNA-alkyltransferase gene ogt reduces the toxicity of alkylnitrosoureas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, L. C.; Margison, G. P.

    1993-01-01

    V79 Chinese hamster cells expressing either the O6-alkylguanine-DNA-alkyltransferase (ATase) encoded by the E. coli ogt gene or a truncated version of the E. coli ada gene have been exposed to various alkylnitrosoureas to investigate the contribution of ATase repairable lesions to the toxicity of these compounds. Both ATases are able to repair O6-alkylguanine (O6-AlkG) and O4-alkylthymine (O4-AlkT) but the ogt ATase is more efficient in the repair of O4-methylthymine (O4-MeT) and higher alkyl derivatives of O6-AlkG than is the ada ATase. Expression of the ogt ATase provided greater protection against the toxic effects of the alkylating agents then the ada ATase particularly with N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) and N-butyl-N-nitrosourea (BNU) to which the ada ATase expressing cells were as sensitive as parent vector transfected cells. Although ogt was expressed at slightly higher levels than the truncated ada in the transfected cells, this could not account for the differential protection observed. For-N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) the increased protection in ogt-transfected cells is consistent with O4-MeT acting as a toxic lesion. For the longer chain alkylating agents and chloroethylating agents, the protection afforded by the ogt protein may be a consequence of the more efficient repair of O6-AlkG, O4-AlkT or both of these lesions in comparison with the ada-encoded ATase. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8512805

  3. Expression, purification and activity determination of the beetle tenebrio molitor antifreeze protein afp84c in escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Q.; Feng, H.

    2013-01-01

    Summary: A cDNA encoding antifreeze protein (AFP84c) was cloned by RT-PCR from the larva of the yellow mealworm Tenebrio molitor. The coding fragment of 252 bp encodes a protein of 84 amino acid residues and was fused to the expression vectors pMAL-c2X and pMAL-p2X. The expression plasmids pMAL-c2X-afp84c and pMAL-p2X-afp84c were constructed and transformed into Escherischia coli strains TBI, respectively. Strategy of optimization of induction conditions were used for expression of the highly disulfide-bonded beta-helix-contained protein with the activity of antifreeze in pMALTM expression system. The target fusion protein was released from the cytoplasm and periplasm by sonication and cold osmotic shock procedure respectively. Recombinant AFP84c was purified by amylose affinity column. The purified target protein displayed a single band in SDS-PAGE. Expressed AFP84c exhibits to increase low temperature resistance of bacteria. (author)

  4. Meta-Analysis of Transcriptional Responses to Mastitis-Causing Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidra Younis

    Full Text Available Bovine mastitis is a widespread disease in dairy cows, and is often caused by bacterial mammary gland infection. Mastitis causes reduced milk production and leads to excessive use of antibiotics. We present meta-analysis of transcriptional profiles of bovine mastitis from 10 studies and 307 microarrays, allowing identification of much larger sets of affected genes than any individual study. Combining multiple studies provides insight into the molecular effects of Escherichia coli infection in vivo and uncovers differences between the consequences of E. coli vs. Staphylococcus aureus infection of primary mammary epithelial cells (PMECs. In udders, live E. coli elicits inflammatory and immune defenses through numerous cytokines and chemokines. Importantly, E. coli infection causes downregulation of genes encoding lipid biosynthesis enzymes that are involved in milk production. Additionally, host metabolism is generally suppressed. Finally, defensins and bacteria-recognition genes are upregulated, while the expression of the extracellular matrix protein transcripts is silenced. In PMECs, heat-inactivated E. coli elicits expression of ribosomal, cytoskeletal and angiogenic signaling genes, and causes suppression of the cell cycle and energy production genes. We hypothesize that heat-inactivated E. coli may have prophylactic effects against mastitis. Heat-inactivated S. aureus promotes stronger inflammatory and immune defenses than E. coli. Lipopolysaccharide by itself induces MHC antigen presentation components, an effect not seen in response to E. coli bacteria. These results provide the basis for strategies to prevent and treat mastitis and may lead to the reduction in the use of antibiotics.

  5. Application of a Colorimetric Assay to Identify Putative Ribofuranosylaminobenzene 5'-Phosphate Synthase Genes Expressed with Activity in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bechard Matthew E.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Tetrahydromethanopterin (H4MPT is a tetrahydrofolate analog originally discovered in methanogenic archaea, but later found in other archaea and bacteria. The extent to which H4MPT occurs among living organisms is unknown. The key enzyme which distinguishes the biosynthetic pathways of H4MPT and tetrahydrofolate is ribofuranosylaminobenzene 5'-phosphate synthase (RFAP synthase. Given the importance of RFAP synthase in H4MPT biosynthesis, the identification of putative RFAP synthase genes and measurement of RFAP synthase activity would provide an indication of the presence of H4MPT in untested microorganisms. Investigation of putative archaeal RFAP synthase genes has been hampered by the tendency of the resulting proteins to form inactive inclusion bodies in Escherichia coli. The current work describes a colorimetric assay for measuring RFAP synthase activity, and two modified procedures for expressing recombinant RFAP synthase genes to produce soluble, active enzyme. By lowering the incubation temperature during expression, RFAP synthase from Archaeoglobus fulgidus was produced in E. coli and purified to homogeneity. The production of active RFAP synthase from Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus was achieved by coexpression of the gene MTH0830 with a molecular chaperone. This is the first direct biochemical identification of a methanogen gene that codes for an active RFAP synthase.

  6. Application of a Colorimetric Assay to Identify Putative Ribofuranosylaminobenzene 5'-Phosphate Synthase Genes Expressed with Activity in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechard, Matthew E.; Chhatwal, Sonya; Garcia, Rosemarie E.; Rasche, Madeline E.

    2003-01-01

    Tetrahydromethanopterin (H(4)MPT) is a tetrahydrofolate analog originally discovered in methanogenic archaea, but later found in other archaea and bacteria. The extent to which H(4)MPT occurs among living organisms is unknown. The key enzyme which distinguishes the biosynthetic pathways of H(4)MPT and tetrahydrofolate is ribofuranosylaminobenzene 5'-phosphate synthase (RFAP synthase). Given the importance of RFAP synthase in H(4)MPT biosynthesis, the identification of putative RFAP synthase genes and measurement of RFAP synthase activity would provide an indication of the presence of H(4)MPT in untested microorganisms. Investigation of putative archaeal RFAP synthase genes has been hampered by the tendency of the resulting proteins to form inactive inclusion bodies in Escherichia coli. The current work describes a colorimetric assay for measuring RFAP synthase activity, and two modified procedures for expressing recombinant RFAP synthase genes to produce soluble, active enzyme. By lowering the incubation temperature during expression, RFAP synthase from Archaeoglobus fulgidus was produced in E. coli and purified to homogeneity. The production of active RFAP synthase from Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus was achieved by coexpression of the gene MTH0830 with a molecular chaperone. This is the first direct biochemical identification of a methanogen gene that codes for an active RFAP synthase.

  7. Metabolic engineering of the Stevia rebaudiana ent-kaurene biosynthetic pathway in recombinant Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Min Kyung; Kang, Hyun-Jun; Kim, Jin Ho; Oh, Soon Hwan; Lee, Pyung Cheon

    2015-11-20

    The ent-kaurene is a dedicated precursor pool and is responsible for synthesizing natural sweeteners such as steviol glycosides. In this study, to produce ent-kaurene in Escherichia coli, we modularly constructed and expressed two ent-kaurene genes encoding ent-copalyl diphosphate synthase (CPPS) and ent-kaurene synthase (KS) from Stevia rebaudiana known as a typical plant producing steviol glycoside. The CPPS and KS from S. rebaudiana were functionally expressed in a heterologous host E. coli. Furthermore, in order to enhance ent-kaurene production in E. coli, six geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthases (GGPPS) from various microorganisms and eight strains of E. coli as host were compared by measuring ent-kaurene production. The highest ent-kaurene production of approximately 41.1mg/L was demonstrated in E. coli strain MG1655 co-expressing synthetic CPPS-KS module and GGPPS from Rhodobacter sphaeroides. The ent-kaurene production was further increased up to 179.6 mg/L by overexpression of the three key enzymes for isoprenoid precursor, 1-deoxyxylulose-5-phosphate synthase (DXS), farnesyl diphosphate synthase (IspA) and isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase (IDI) from E. coli. Finally, the highest titer of ent-kaurene (578 mg/L) with a specific yield of ent-kaurene of 143.5mg/g dry cell weight was obtained by culturing E. coli strain MG1655 co-expressing the ent-kaurene module, DXS, IDI and IspA in 1L bioreactor containing 20 g/L glycerol. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Expression of the phycoerythrin gene of Gracilaria lemaneiformis (Rhodophyta) in E. coli and evaluation of the bioactivity of recombinant PE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Ruobing; Sui, Zhenghong; Zhang, Xuecheng; Zhang, Shuang; Qin, Song

    2007-10-01

    Phycoerythrin (PE) is one of the most important proteins involved in light capturing during photosynthesis in red algae. Its potential biological activities had gained wide concerns. In the present study, tumor cytotoxic and hydroxyl radical assay were preformed to detect the bioactivity of recombinant PE. Recombinant plasmids pGEX-PE and pBGL were transformed into E. coli BL21 to make two recombinant strains BEX (pGEX-PE) and BGL (pBGL). PE expressing in BEX (pGEX-PE) was validated by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting analysis. SDS-PAGE analysis indicated that the PE-GST fusion protein was mostly inclusion bodies. Specific expression of PE was confirmed by Western blotting analysis. The recombinant E. coli BEX (pGEX-PE) cells were collected and sonicated. The supernatants were reserved for the tumor cytotoxic experiments. The result of tumor cytotoxic assay indicated that the supernatants containing PE had the activity of inhibiting the growth of Hela cells and with the increase of protein concentration, the inhibiting rate increased from 37.31% to 63.26%, which showed significant difference from the control. Hydroxyl radical scavenging effect was tested with supernatants of BEX (pGEX-PE) and BGL (pBGL) cell lysates treated with sonication and heating. For the sonication samples, the scavenging rates of the supernatants of BEX (pGEX-PE) and BGL (pBGL) cell lysates were significantly higher than the negative control BL21(pGEX-4T) ( Pprotein content. For the heating samples, except for the 0.2 mg mL-1 BGL (pBGL) products, the scavenging effects of the supernatants of BEX (pGEX-PE) and BGL (pBGL) cell lysates were stronger than that of negative control BL21(pGEX-4T). However, the effect intensity was not positively correlated with the increase of the protein concentration. Though a partially decreased hydroxyl radical scavenging activity was led by heating, the biological activity was still retained and conspicuous. This research showed that phycoerythrin protein

  9. DNA microarray analysis of fim mutations in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schembri, Mark; Ussery, David; Workman, Christopher

    2002-01-01

    Bacterial adhesion is often mediated by complex polymeric surface structures referred to as fimbriae. Type I fimbriae of Escherichia coli represent the archetypical and best characterised fimbrial system. These adhesive organelles mediate binding to D-mannose and are directly associated...... we have used DNA microarray analysis to examine the molecular events involved in response to fimbrial gene expression in E. coli K-12. Observed differential expression levels of the fim genes were in good agreement with our current knowledge of the stoichiometry of type I fimbriae. Changes in fim...

  10. “Inclonals”: IgGs and IgG-enzyme fusion proteins produced in an E. coli expression-refolding system

    OpenAIRE

    Hakim, Rahely; Benhar, Itai

    2009-01-01

    Full-length antibodies and antibodies that ferry a cargo to target cells are desired biopharmaceuticals. We describe the production of full-length IgGs and IgG-toxin fusion proteins in E. coli. In the presented examples of anti CD30 and anti EGF-receptor antibodies, the antibody heavy and light chains or toxin fusions thereof were expressed in separate bacterial cultures, where they accumulated as insoluble inclusion bodies. Following refolding and purification, high yields (up to 50 mg/L of ...

  11. Construction, Expression, and Characterization of Recombinant Pfu DNA Polymerase in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wenjun; Wang, Qingsong; Bi, Qun

    2016-04-01

    Pfu DNA polymerase (Pfu) is a DNA polymerase isolated from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus. With its excellent thermostability and high fidelity, Pfu is well known as one of the enzymes widely used in the polymerase chain reaction. In this study, the recombinant plasmid pLysS His6-tagged Pfu-pET28a was constructed. His-tagged Pfu was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) competent cells and then successfully purified with the ÄKTAprime plus compact one-step purification system by Ni(2+) chelating affinity chromatography after optimization of the purification conditions. The authenticity of the purified Pfu was further confirmed by peptide mass fingerprinting. A bio-assay indicated that its activity in the polymerase chain reaction was equivalent to that of commercial Pfu and its isoelectric point was found to be between 6.85 and 7.35. These results will be useful for further studies on Pfu and its wide application in the future.

  12. Effect of growth conditions on expression of the acid phosphatase (cyx-appA) operon and the appY gene, which encodes a transcriptional activator of Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndsted, Lone; Atlung, Tove

    1996-01-01

    The expression and transcriptional regulation of the Escherichia coli cyx-appA operon and the appY gene has been investigated during different environmental conditions using single copy transcriptional lacZ fusions. The cyx-appA operon encodes acid phosphatase and a putative cytochrome oxidase...... of the cyx-appA operon. The nitrate repression was partially dependent on NarL. A high expression of the operon was obtained in glucose medium supplemented with formate, where E.coli obtains energy by fermentation. The formate induction was independent of the fhlA gene product. The results presented...... in this paper indicate a clear difference in the regulation of the cyx-appA operon compared to the cyd operon, encoding the cytochrome d oxidase complex. The results suggest that cytochrome x oxidase has a function at even more oxygen limiting conditions than cytochrome d oxidase. The expression of the app...

  13. Laccase of Cyathus bulleri: structural, catalytic characterization and expression in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salony; Garg, N; Baranwal, R; Chhabra, M; Mishra, S; Chaudhuri, T K; Bisaria, V S

    2008-02-01

    Cyathus bulleri, a ligninolytic fungus, produces a single laccase the internal peptides (3) of which bear similarity to laccases of several white rot fungi. Comparison of the total amino acid composition of this laccase with several fungal laccases indicated dissimilarity in the proportion of some basic and hydrophobic amino acids. Analysis of the circular dichroism spectrum of the protein indicated 37% alpha-helical, 26% beta-sheet and 38% random coil content which differed significantly from that in the solved structures of other laccases, which contain higher beta-sheet structures. The critical role of the carboxylic group containing amino acids was demonstrated by determining the kinetic parameters at different pH and this was confirmed by the observation that a critical Asp is strongly conserved in both Ascomycete and Basidiomycete laccases. The enzyme was denatured in the presence of a number of denaturing agents and refolded back to functional state with copper. In the folding experiments under alkaline conditions, zinc could replace copper in restoring 100% of laccase activity indicating the non-essential role of copper in this laccase. The laccase was expressed in Escherichia coli by a modification of the ligation-anchored PCR approach making it the first fungal laccase to be expressed in a bacterial host. The laccase sequence was confirmed by way of analysis of a 435 bp sequence of the insert.

  14. A simple and robust protocol for high-yield expression of perdeuterated proteins in Escherichia coli grown in shaker flasks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Mengli [National Institutes of Health, Laboratories of Chemical Physics, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (United States); Huang, Ying; Yang, Renbin; Craigie, Robert, E-mail: robertc@niddk.nih.gov [National Institutes of Health, Laboratories of Molecular Biology, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (United States); Clore, G. M., E-mail: mariusc@mail.nih.gov [National Institutes of Health, Laboratories of Chemical Physics, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (United States)

    2016-10-15

    We present a simple, convenient and robust protocol for expressing perdeuterated proteins in E. coli BL21(DE3) cells in shaker flasks that reduces D{sub 2}O usage tenfold and d{sub 7}-glucose usage by 30 %. Using a modified M9 medium and optimized growth conditions, we were able to grow cells in linear log phase to an OD{sub 600} of up to 10. Inducing the cells with isopropyl β-d-1-thiogalactopyranoside at an OD{sub 600} of 10, instead of less than 1, enabled us to increase the cell mass tenfold per unit volume of cell culture. We show that protein expression levels per cell are the same when induced at an OD{sub 600} between 1 and 10 under these growth conditions. Thus, our new protocol can increase protein yield per unit volume of cell culture tenfold. Adaptation of E. coli from H{sub 2}O-based to D{sub 2}O-based medium is also key for ensuring high levels of protein expression in D{sub 2}O. We find that a simple three-step adaptation approach—Luria–Bertani (LB) medium in H{sub 2}O to LB in D{sub 2}O to modified-M9 medium in D{sub 2}O is both simple and reliable. The method increases the yield of perdeuterated proteins by up to tenfold using commonly available air shakers without any requirement for specialized fermentation equipment.

  15. A simple and robust protocol for high-yield expression of perdeuterated proteins in Escherichia coli grown in shaker flasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Mengli; Huang, Ying; Yang, Renbin; Craigie, Robert; Clore, G. M.

    2016-01-01

    We present a simple, convenient and robust protocol for expressing perdeuterated proteins in E. coli BL21(DE3) cells in shaker flasks that reduces D_2O usage tenfold and d_7-glucose usage by 30 %. Using a modified M9 medium and optimized growth conditions, we were able to grow cells in linear log phase to an OD_6_0_0 of up to 10. Inducing the cells with isopropyl β-d-1-thiogalactopyranoside at an OD_6_0_0 of 10, instead of less than 1, enabled us to increase the cell mass tenfold per unit volume of cell culture. We show that protein expression levels per cell are the same when induced at an OD_6_0_0 between 1 and 10 under these growth conditions. Thus, our new protocol can increase protein yield per unit volume of cell culture tenfold. Adaptation of E. coli from H_2O-based to D_2O-based medium is also key for ensuring high levels of protein expression in D_2O. We find that a simple three-step adaptation approach—Luria–Bertani (LB) medium in H_2O to LB in D_2O to modified-M9 medium in D_2O is both simple and reliable. The method increases the yield of perdeuterated proteins by up to tenfold using commonly available air shakers without any requirement for specialized fermentation equipment.

  16. Expression of an Acid Urease with Urethanase Activity in E. coli and Analysis of Urease Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Qian; Zhou, Nandi; Tian, Yaping

    2017-03-01

    Urea in alcoholic beverage is a precursor of ethyl carbamate (EC), which is carcinogenic. Enzymatic elimination of urea has attracted much research interest. Acid urease with good tolerance toward ethanol and acid is ideal enzyme for such applications. In the present work, the structural genes of urease from Providencia rettgeri JN-B815, ureABC were efficiently expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3) in an active form (apourease) exhibiting both urease and urethanase (hydrolyze EC) activities. The specific activities of the purified apourease were comparatively low, which were 2.1 U/mg for urease and 0.6 U/mg for urethanase, respectively. However, apourease exhibited good resistance toward ethanol and acidic conditions. The relative activities of urease and urethanase remained over 80% in the buffers within pH 4-7. And the recoveries of both urease and urethanase activities were more than 50% in 5-25% ethanol solution. Apourease was utilized to eliminate urea in wine, and the residual urea in model wine was less than 50% after treatment with apourease for 30 h. Then 3D structure of UreC was predicted, and it was docked with urea and EC, respectively. The docking result revealed that three hydrogen bonds were formed between urea and amino acid residues in the active site of urease, whereas only one hydrogen bond can be formed between EC and the active center. Moreover, EC exhibited greater steric hindrance than urea when combined with the active site. Due to the low specific activities of apourease, both structural genes and accessory genes of urease were co-expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3). The holoenzyme was expressed as inclusion body. After renaturation and purification, the specific activities of urease and urethanase reached 10.7 and 3.8 U/mg, which were 5.62-fold and 6.33-fold of those of apourease, respectively. Therefore, accessory subunits of urease play an important role in enhancing urease and urethanase activities.

  17. Engineering of a plasmid-free Escherichia coli strain for improved in vivo biosynthesis of astaxanthin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steuer Kristin

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The xanthophyll astaxanthin is a high-value compound with applications in the nutraceutical, cosmetic, food, and animal feed industries. Besides chemical synthesis and extraction from naturally producing organisms like Haematococcus pluvialis, heterologous biosynthesis in non-carotenogenic microorganisms like Escherichia coli, is a promising alternative for sustainable production of natural astaxanthin. Recent achievements in the metabolic engineering of E. coli strains have led to a significant increase in the productivity of carotenoids like lycopene or β-carotene by increasing the metabolic flux towards the isoprenoid precursors. For the heterologous biosynthesis of astaxanthin in E. coli, however, the conversion of β-carotene to astaxanthin is obviously the most critical step towards an efficient biosynthesis of astaxanthin. Results Here we report the construction of the first plasmid-free E. coli strain that produces astaxanthin as the sole carotenoid compound with a yield of 1.4 mg/g cdw (E. coli BW-ASTA. This engineered E. coli strain harbors xanthophyll biosynthetic genes from Pantoea ananatis and Nostoc punctiforme as individual expression cassettes on the chromosome and is based on a β-carotene-producing strain (E. coli BW-CARO recently developed in our lab. E. coli BW-CARO has an enhanced biosynthesis of the isoprenoid precursor isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP and produces β-carotene in a concentration of 6.2 mg/g cdw. The expression of crtEBIY along with the β-carotene-ketolase gene crtW148 (NpF4798 and the β-carotene-hydroxylase gene (crtZ under controlled expression conditions in E. coli BW-ASTA directed the pathway exclusively towards the desired product astaxanthin (1.4 mg/g cdw. Conclusions By using the λ-Red recombineering technique, genes encoding for the astaxanthin biosynthesis pathway were stably integrated into the chromosome of E. coli. The expression levels of chromosomal integrated recombinant

  18. Structures of the Porphyromonas gingivalis OxyR regulatory domain explain differences in expression of the OxyR regulon in Escherichia coli and P. gingivalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svintradze, David V. [Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298-0566 (United States); Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23219-1540 (United States); Peterson, Darrell L. [Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23219-1540 (United States); Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298-0614 (United States); Collazo-Santiago, Evys A.; Lewis, Janina P. [Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298-0566 (United States); Wright, H. Tonie, E-mail: xrdproc@vcu.edu [Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23219-1540 (United States); Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298-0614 (United States); Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298-0566 (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Differences in OxyR regulated expression of oxidative stress genes between Escherichia coli and Porphyromonas gingivalis are explained by very minor differences in structure and amino-acid sequence of the respective oxidized and reduced OxyR regulatory domains. These differences affect OxyR quaternary structures and are predicted from model building of full length OxyR–DNA complexes to confer distinct modes of DNA binding on this transcriptional regulator. OxyR transcriptionally regulates Escherichia coli oxidative stress response genes through a reversibly reducible cysteine disulfide biosensor of cellular redox status. Structural changes induced by redox changes in these cysteines are conformationally transmitted to the dimer subunit interfaces, which alters dimer and tetramer interactions with DNA. In contrast to E. coli OxyR regulatory-domain structures, crystal structures of Porphyromonas gingivalis OxyR regulatory domains show minimal differences in dimer configuration on changes in cysteine disulfide redox status. This locked configuration of the P. gingivalis OxyR regulatory-domain dimer closely resembles the oxidized (activating) form of the E. coli OxyR regulatory-domain dimer. It correlates with the observed constitutive activation of some oxidative stress genes in P. gingivalis and is attributable to a single amino-acid insertion in P. gingivalis OxyR relative to E. coli OxyR. Modelling of full-length P. gingivalis, E. coli and Neisseria meningitidis OxyR–DNA complexes predicts different modes of DNA binding for the reduced and oxidized forms of each.

  19. Structures of the Porphyromonas gingivalis OxyR regulatory domain explain differences in expression of the OxyR regulon in Escherichia coli and P. gingivalis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svintradze, David V.; Peterson, Darrell L.; Collazo-Santiago, Evys A.; Lewis, Janina P.; Wright, H. Tonie

    2013-01-01

    Differences in OxyR regulated expression of oxidative stress genes between Escherichia coli and Porphyromonas gingivalis are explained by very minor differences in structure and amino-acid sequence of the respective oxidized and reduced OxyR regulatory domains. These differences affect OxyR quaternary structures and are predicted from model building of full length OxyR–DNA complexes to confer distinct modes of DNA binding on this transcriptional regulator. OxyR transcriptionally regulates Escherichia coli oxidative stress response genes through a reversibly reducible cysteine disulfide biosensor of cellular redox status. Structural changes induced by redox changes in these cysteines are conformationally transmitted to the dimer subunit interfaces, which alters dimer and tetramer interactions with DNA. In contrast to E. coli OxyR regulatory-domain structures, crystal structures of Porphyromonas gingivalis OxyR regulatory domains show minimal differences in dimer configuration on changes in cysteine disulfide redox status. This locked configuration of the P. gingivalis OxyR regulatory-domain dimer closely resembles the oxidized (activating) form of the E. coli OxyR regulatory-domain dimer. It correlates with the observed constitutive activation of some oxidative stress genes in P. gingivalis and is attributable to a single amino-acid insertion in P. gingivalis OxyR relative to E. coli OxyR. Modelling of full-length P. gingivalis, E. coli and Neisseria meningitidis OxyR–DNA complexes predicts different modes of DNA binding for the reduced and oxidized forms of each

  20. Biodesulfurization of dibenzothiophene in Escherichia coli is enhanced by expression of a Vibrio harveyi oxidoreductase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichmuth, D S; Hittle, J L; Blanch, H W; Keasling, J D

    2000-01-05

    One possible alternative to current fuel hydrodesulfurization methods is the use of microorganisms to remove sulfur compounds. Biodesulfurization requires much milder processing conditions, gives higher specificity, and does not require molecular hydrogen. In the present work we have produced two compatible plasmids: pDSR3, which allows Escherichia coli to convert dibenzothiophene (DBT) to hydroxybiphenyl (HBP), and pDSR2, which produces a Vibrio harveyi flavin oxidoreductase. We show that the flavin oxidoreductase enhances the rate of DBT removal when co-expressed in vivo with the desulfurization enzymes. The plasmids pDSR2 and pDSR3 were co-expressed in growing cultures. The expression of oxidoreductase caused an increase in the rate of DBT removal but a decrease in the rate of HBP production. The maximum rate of DBT removal was 8 mg/h. g dry cell weight. Experiments were also conducted using resting cells with the addition of various carbon sources. It was found that the addition of glucose or glycerol to cultures with oxidoreductase expression produced the highest DBT removal rate (51 mg/h. g dry cell weight). The culture with acetate and no oxidoreductase expression had the highest level of HBP production. For all carbon sources, the DBT removal rate was faster and the HBP generation rate slower with the expression of the oxidoreductase. Analysis of desulfurization intermediates indicates that the last enzyme in the pathway may be limiting. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  1. Novel reference genes for quantifying transcriptional responses of Escherichia coli to protein overexpression by quantitative PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zou Ruiyang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate interpretation of quantitative PCR (qPCR data requires normalization using constitutively expressed reference genes. Ribosomal RNA is often used as a reference gene for transcriptional studies in E. coli. However, the choice of reliable reference genes has not been systematically validated. The objective of this study is to identify a set of reliable reference genes for transcription analysis in recombinant protein over-expression studies in E. coli. Results In this study, the meta-analysis of 240 sets of single-channel Affymetrix microarray data representing over-expressions of 63 distinct recombinant proteins in various E. coli strains identified twenty candidate reference genes that were stably expressed across all conditions. The expression of these twenty genes and two commonly used reference genes, rrsA encoding ribosomal RNA 16S and ihfB, was quantified by qPCR in E. coli cells over-expressing four genes of the 1-Deoxy-D-Xylulose 5-Phosphate pathway. From these results, two independent statistical algorithms identified three novel reference genes cysG, hcaT, and idnT but not rrsA and ihfB as highly invariant in two E. coli strains, across different growth temperatures and induction conditions. Transcriptomic data normalized by the geometric average of these three genes demonstrated that genes of the lycopene synthetic pathway maintained steady expression upon enzyme overexpression. In contrast, the use of rrsA or ihfB as reference genes led to the mis-interpretation that lycopene pathway genes were regulated during enzyme over-expression. Conclusion This study identified cysG/hcaT/idnT to be reliable novel reference genes for transcription analysis in recombinant protein producing E. coli.

  2. Maximized Autotransporter-Mediated Expression (MATE for Surface Display and Secretion of Recombinant Proteins in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanna Sichwart

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new optimized system for the surface display and secretion of recombinant proteins is described, termed MATE (maximized autotransporter-mediated expression. It is based on an artificial gene consisting of the coding region for the signal peptide of CtxB, a multiple cloning site for passenger gene insertion, flanked by coding sequences for linear epitopes for monoclonal antibodies and OmpT, and factor Xa protease cleavage sites followed by a codon-optimized DNA sequence of the linker and the β-barrel of the type V autotransporter EhaA from Escherichia coli under control of an IPTG-inducible T5 promoter. The MATE system enabled the continuous secretion of recombinant passenger mCherry via OmpT-mediated cleavage, using native OmpT protease activity in E. coli when grown at 37 °C. It is the first example to show that native OmpT activity is sufficient to facilitate the secretion of a correctly folded target protein in preparative amounts obtaining 240 μg of purified mCherry from 800 mL of crude culture supernatant. Because the release of mCherry was achieved by a simple transfer of the encoding plasmid from an OmpT-negative to an OmpT-positive strain, it bears the option to use surface display for screening purposes and secretion for production of the selected variant. A single plasmid could therefore be used for continuous secretion in OmpT-positive strains or surface display in OmpT-negative strains. In conclusion, the MATE system appears to be a versatile tool for the surface display and for the secretion of target proteins in E. coli.

  3. Genetic and biochemical analysis of peptide transport in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    E. coli peptide transport mutants have been isolated based on their resistance to toxic tripeptides. These genetic defects were found to map in two distinct chromosomal locations. The transport systems which require expression of the trp-linked opp genes and the oppE gene(s) for activity were shown to have different substrate preferences. Growth of E. coli in medium containing leucine results in increased entry of exogenously supplied tripeptides into the bacterial cell. This leucine-mediated elevation of peptide transport required expression of the trp-linked opp operon and was accompanied by increased sensitivity to toxic tripeptides, by an enhanced capacity to utilize nutritional peptides, and by an increase in both the velocity and apparent steady-state level of L-(U- 14 C)alanyl-L-alanyl-L-alanine accumulation for E. coli grown in leucine-containing medium relative to these parameters of peptide transport measured with bacteria grown in media lacking leucine. Direct measurement of opp operon expression by pulse-labeling experiments demonstrated that growth of E. coli in the presence of leucine resulted in increased synthesis of the oppA-encoded periplasmic binding protein. The transcriptional regulation of the trp-linked opp operon of E. coli was investigated using λ placMu51-generated lac operon fusions. Synthesis of β-galactosidase by strains harboring oppA-lac, oppB-lac, and oppD-lac fusions occurred at a basal level when the fusion-containing strains were grown in minimal medium

  4. Cloning, expression and purification of recombinant streptokinase: partial characterization of the protein expressed in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Avilán

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available We cloned the streptokinase (STK gene of Streptococcus equisimilis in an expression vector of Escherichia coli to overexpress the profibrinolytic protein under the control of a tac promoter. Almost all the recombinant STK was exported to the periplasmic space and recovered after gentle lysozyme digestion of induced cells. The periplasmic fraction was chromatographed on DEAE Sepharose followed by chromatography on phenyl-agarose. Active proteins eluted between 4.5 and 0% ammonium sulfate, when a linear gradient was applied. Three major STK derivatives of 47.5 kDa, 45 kDa and 32 kDa were detected by Western blot analysis with a polyclonal antibody. The 32-kDa protein formed a complex with human plasminogen but did not exhibit Glu-plasminogen activator activity, as revealed by a zymographic assay, whereas the 45-kDa protein showed a Km = 0.70 µM and kcat = 0.82 s-1, when assayed with a chromogen-coupled substrate. These results suggest that these proteins are putative fragments of STK, possibly derived from partial degradation during the export pathway or the purification steps. The 47.5-kDa band corresponded to the native STK, as revealed by peptide sequencing

  5. Hyper-regulation of pyr-gene expression in Escherichia coli cells with slow ribosomes. Evidence for RNA polymerase pausing in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kaj Frank

    1988-01-01

    UTP-modulated attenuation of transcription is involved in regulating the synthesis of pyrimidine nucleotides in Escherichia coli. Thus, expression of two genes, pyrBI and pyrE, was shown to be under this type of control. The genes encode the two subunits of aspartate transcarbamylase and orotate...... transcription should terminate or continue into the structural genes. This paper described a study of pyrBI and pyrE gene regulation in cells where the ribosomes move slowly as a result of mutation in rpsL. It appears that expression of the two genes is hyper-regulated by the UTP pool in this type of cells...

  6. Different Effects of Six Antibiotics and Ten Traditional Chinese Medicines on Shiga Toxin Expression by Escherichia coli O157:H7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Ling Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the effects of ten types of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs and six different antibiotics on E. coli O157:H7 Shiga toxin gene (stx2 mRNA expression level based on real-time PCR and the expression level of Stx toxin using an ELISA quantitative assay. We also compared their effects on the induction of the SOS response. The results clearly indicated that all ten TCMs had negative results in the SOS response induction test, while most TCMs did not increase the levels of stx2 mRNA and the Stx toxin. Some TCMs did increase the mRNA levels of the stx2 gene and the Stx toxin level, but their increases were much lower than those caused by antibiotics. With the exception of cefotaxime, the six antibiotics increased the Stx toxin level and increased the stx2 gene mRNA level. With the exceptions of cefotaxime and tetracycline, the antibiotics increased the SOS induction response. These results suggest that TCMs may have advantages compared with antibiotics, when treating E. coli O157:H7; TCMs did not greatly increase Stx toxin production and release.

  7. Purification and characterization of recombinant protein kinase CK2 from Zea mays expressed in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riera, Marta; Pages, Montserrat; Issinger, Olaf Georg

    2003-01-01

    Recombinant protein kinase subunits rmCK2alpha-1 and rmCK2beta-1 from Zea mays were expressed separately in Escherichia coli and assembled to a fully active tetrameric holoenzyme complex in vitro. The obtained maize holoenzyme was purified to homogeneity, biochemically characterized, and compared...... to CK2 from human. Kinetic measurements of the recombinant maize holoenzyme (rmCK2) revealed k(cat) values for ATP and GTP of 4 and 2s(-1), respectively; whereas the recombinant maize catalytic subunit showed almost equal values for ATP and GTP, i.e., ca. 0.8s(-1). A comparison of the k(cat)/K(m) ratio...

  8. Expression optimization and biochemical characterization of a recombinant gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase from Escherichia coli novablue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Ya-Feng; Weng, Yih-Ming; Hu, Hui-Yu; Ku, Kuo-Lung; Lin, Long-Liu

    2006-09-01

    A truncated Escherichia coli Novablue gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (EcGGT) gene lacking the first 48-bp coding sequence for part of the signal sequence was amplified by polymerase chain reaction and cloned into expression vector pQE-30 to generate pQE-EcGGT. The maximum production of His(6)-tagged enzyme by E. coli M15 (pQE-EcGGT) was achieved with 0.1 mM IPTG induction for 12 h at 20 degrees C. The overexpressed enzyme was purified to homogeneity by nickel-chelate chromatography to a specific transpeptidase activity of 4.25 U/mg protein and a final yield of 83%. The molecular masses of the subunits of the purified enzyme were estimated to be 41 and 21 kDa respectively by SDS-PAGE, indicating EcGGT still undergoes the post-translational cleavage even in the truncation of signal sequence. The optimum temperature and pH for the recombinant enzyme were 40 degrees C and 9, respectively. The apparent K (m) and V (max) values for gamma-glutamyl-p-nitroanilide as gamma-glutamyl donor in the transpeptidation reaction were 37.9 microM and 53.7 x 10(-3) mM min(-1), respectively. The synthesis of L -theanine was performed in a reaction mixture containing 10 mM L -Gln, 40 mM ethylamine, and 1.04 U His(6)-tagged EcGGT/ml, pH 10, and a conversion rate of 45% was obtained.

  9. Genetic Transfer of Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli Lipopolysaccharide Antigens to Escherichia coli K-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Randall T.; Koeltzow, Donald E.; Stocker, B. A. D.

    1972-01-01

    Escherichia coli K-12 ϰ971 was crossed with a smooth Salmonella typhimurium donor, HfrK6, which transfers early the ilv-linked rfa region determining lipopolysaccharide (LPS) core structure. Two ilv+ hybrids differing in their response to the LPS-specific phages FO and C21 were then crossed with S. typhimurium HfrK9, which transfers early the rfb gene cluster determining O repeat unit structure. Most recombinants selected for his+ (near rfb) were agglutinated by Salmonella factor 4 antiserum. Transfer of an F′ factor (FS400) carrying the rfb–his region of S. typhimurium to the same two ilv+ hybrids gave similar results. LPS extracted from two ilv+,his+, factor 4-positive hybrids contained abequose, the immunodominant sugar for factor 4 specificity. By contrast, his+ hybrids obtained from ϰ971 itself by similar HfrK9 and F′FS400 crosses were not agglutinated by factor 4 antiserum, indicating that the parental E. coli ϰ971 does not have the capacity to attach Salmonella O repeat units to its LPS core. It is concluded that the Salmonella rfb genes are expressed only in E. coli ϰ971 hybrids which have also acquired ilv-linked genes (presumably rfa genes affecting core structure or O-translocase ability, or both) from a S. typhimurium donor. When E. coli ϰ971 was crossed with a smooth E. coli donor, Hfr59, of serotype O8, which transfers his early, most his+ recombinants were agglutinated by E. coli O8 antiserum and lysed by the O8-specific phage, Ω8. This suggests that, although the parental E. coli K-12 strain ϰ971 cannot attach Salmonella-specific repeat units to its LPS core, it does have the capacity to attach E. coli O8-specific repeat units. PMID:4559827

  10. An array of Escherichia coli clones over-expressing essential proteins: A new strategy of identifying cellular targets of potent antibacterial compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, H. Howard; Real, Lilian; Bailey, Melissa Wu

    2006-01-01

    With the advancement of high throughput screening, it has become easier and faster to discover hit compounds that inhibit proliferation of bacterial cells. However, development in technologies used to identify cellular targets of potent antibacterial inhibitors has lagged behind. Here, we describe a novel strategy of target identification for antibacterial inhibitors using an array of Escherichia coli clones each over-expressing one essential protein. In a proof-of-concept study, eight essential genes were cloned into pLex5BA vector under the control of an inducible promoter. Over-expression of target proteins was confirmed. For two clones, one over-expressing FabI and the other over-expressing MurA enzymes, the host cells became 17- and 139-fold more resistant to the specific inhibitors triclosan and phosphomycin, respectively, while the susceptibility of other clones towards these inhibitors remained unchanged after induction of gene expression. Target identification via target protein over-expression was demonstrated using both mixed clone and individual clone assay formats

  11. Expression and purification of antimicrobial peptide adenoregulin with C-amidated terminus in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wei; Zhou, Yuxun; Ma, Yushu; Luo, Qingping; Wei, Dongzhi

    2005-04-01

    Adenoregulin is a 33 amino acid antimicrobial peptide isolated from the skin of the arboreal frog Phyllomedusa bicolor. Natural adenoregulin is synthesized with an amidated valine residue at C-terminus and shows lethal effects against filamentous fungi, as well as a broad spectrum of pathogenic microorganisms. A synthetic gene for adenoregulin (ADR) with an additional amino acid glutamine at C-terminus was cloned into pET32a vector to allow expression of ADR as a Trx fusion protein in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). The resulting expression level of the fusion protein could reach up to 20% of the total cell proteins. The fusion protein could be purified effectively by Ni2+-chelating chromatography. Released from the fusion protein by enterokinase cleavage and purified to homogeneity, the recombinant ADR displayed antimicrobial activity similar to that of the synthetic ADR reported earlier. Comparing the antimicrobial activities of the recombinant adenoregulin with C-amidated terminus to that without an amidated C-terminus, we found that the amide of glutamine at C-terminus of ADR improved its potency on certain microorganisms such as Tritirachium album and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  12. Development of a high yielding E. coli periplasmic expression system for the production of humanized Fab' fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Mark; Patel, Pareshkumar; Edon, Marjory; Ramage, Walter; Dickinson, Robert; Humphreys, David P

    2017-01-01

    Humanized Fab' fragments may be produced in the periplasm of Escherichia coli but can be subject to degradation by host cell proteases. In order to increase Fab' yield and reduce proteolysis we developed periplasmic protease deficient strains of E. coli. These strains lacked the protease activity of Tsp, protease III and DegP. High cell density fermentations indicated Tsp deficient strains increased productivity two fold but this increase was accompanied by premature cell lysis soon after the induction of Fab' expression. To overcome the reduction in cell viability we introduced suppressor mutations into the spr gene. The mutations partially restored the wild type phenotype of the cells. Furthermore, we coexpressed a range of periplasmic chaperone proteins with the Fab', DsbC had the most significant impact, increasing humanized Fab' production during high cell density fermentation. When DsbC coexpression was combined with a Tsp deficient spr strain we observed an increase in yield and essentially restored "wild type" cell viability. We achieved a final periplasmic yield of over 2.4g/L (final cell density OD 600 105), 40 h post Fab' induction with minimal cell lysis.The data suggests that proteolysis, periplasm integrity, protein folding and disulphide bond formation are all potential limiting steps in the production of Fab' fragments in the periplasm of E. coli. In this body of work, we have addressed these limiting steps by utilizing stabilized protease deficient strains and chaperone coexpression. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 33:212-220, 2017. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  13. Production of isotopically labeled heterologous proteins in non-E. coli prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Hideo; Shimada, Ichio

    2010-01-01

    The preparation of stable isotope-labeled proteins is necessary for the application of a wide variety of NMR methods, to study the structures and dynamics of proteins and protein complexes. The E. coli expression system is generally used for the production of isotope-labeled proteins, because of the advantages of ease of handling, rapid growth, high-level protein production, and low cost for isotope-labeling. However, many eukaryotic proteins are not functionally expressed in E. coli, due to problems related to disulfide bond formation, post-translational modifications, and folding. In such cases, other expression systems are required for producing proteins for biomolecular NMR analyses. In this paper, we review the recent advances in expression systems for isotopically labeled heterologous proteins, utilizing non-E. coli prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.

  14. Generation of Active Bovine Terminal Deoxynucleotidyl Transferase (TdT in E.coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wee Liang Kuan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A synthetic gene encoding bovine terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT was generated, cloned into an expression vector and expressed in E.coli. The effects of altering culture and induction conditions on the nature of recombinant protein production were investigated. This led to the expression of active recombinant bovine TdT in E.coli. After purification and characterisation, the activity of the enzyme was assessed in a biological assay for apoptosis. The process described in this report enables the economical production of TdT for high throughput applications.

  15. Generation of Active Bovine Terminal Deoxynucleotidyl Transferase (TdT in E.coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wee Liang Kuan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A synthetic gene encoding bovine terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT was generated, cloned into an expression vector and expressed in E.coli. The effects of altering culture and induction conditions on the nature of recombinant protein production were investigated. This led to the expression of active recombinant bovine TdT in E.coli. After purification and characterisation, the activity of the enzyme was assessed in a biological assay for apoptosis. The process described in this report enables the economical production of TdT for high throughput applications.

  16. Translational coupling in Escherichia coli of a heterologous Bacillus subtilis-Escherichia coli gene fusion.

    OpenAIRE

    Zaghloul, T I; Doi, R H

    1986-01-01

    The efficient expression in Escherichia coli of the Tn9-derived chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.28) gene fused distal to the promoter and N terminus of the Bacillus subtilis aprA gene was dependent on the initiation of translation from the ribosome-binding site in the aprA gene.

  17. Application of an E. coli signal sequence as a versatile inclusion body tag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jong, Wouter S P; Vikström, David; Houben, Diane; van den Berg van Saparoea, H Bart; de Gier, Jan-Willem; Luirink, Joen

    2017-03-21

    Heterologous protein production in Escherichia coli often suffers from bottlenecks such as proteolytic degradation, complex purification procedures and toxicity towards the expression host. Production of proteins in an insoluble form in inclusion bodies (IBs) can alleviate these problems. Unfortunately, the propensity of heterologous proteins to form IBs is variable and difficult to predict. Hence, fusing the target protein to an aggregation prone polypeptide or IB-tag is a useful strategy to produce difficult-to-express proteins in an insoluble form. When screening for signal sequences that mediate optimal targeting of heterologous proteins to the periplasmic space of E. coli, we observed that fusion to the 39 amino acid signal sequence of E. coli TorA (ssTorA) did not promote targeting but rather directed high-level expression of the human proteins hEGF, Pla2 and IL-3 in IBs. Further analysis revealed that ssTorA even mediated IB formation of the highly soluble endogenous E. coli proteins TrxA and MBP. The ssTorA also induced aggregation when fused to the C-terminus of target proteins and appeared functional as IB-tag in E. coli K-12 as well as B strains. An additive effect on IB-formation was observed upon fusion of multiple ssTorA sequences in tandem, provoking almost complete aggregation of TrxA and MBP. The ssTorA-moiety was successfully used to produce the intrinsically unstable hEGF and the toxic fusion partner SymE, demonstrating its applicability as an IB-tag for difficult-to-express and toxic proteins. We present proof-of-concept for the use of ssTorA as a small, versatile tag for robust E. coli-based expression of heterologous proteins in IBs.

  18. Expression, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of the outer membrane protein OmpW from Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, Reinhard; Zeth, Kornelius; Söding, Johannes; Lupas, Andrei; Linke, Dirk

    2006-01-01

    The outer membrane protein OmpW from E. coli was overexpressed in inclusion bodies and refolded with the help of detergent. The protein has been crystallized and the crystals diffract to 3.5 Å resolution. OmpW is an eight-stranded 21 kDa molecular-weight β-barrel protein from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. It is a major antigen in bacterial infections and has implications in antibiotic resistance and in the oxidative degradation of organic compounds. OmpW from Escherichia coli was cloned and the protein was expressed in inclusion bodies. A method for refolding and purification was developed which yields properly folded protein according to circular-dichroism measurements. The protein has been crystallized and crystals were obtained that diffracted to a resolution limit of 3.5 Å. The crystals belong to space group P422, with unit-cell parameters a = 122.5, c = 105.7 Å. A homology model of OmpW is presented based on known structures of eight-stranded β-barrels, intended for use in molecular-replacement trials

  19. High-throughput expression of animal venom toxins in Escherichia coli to generate a large library of oxidized disulphide-reticulated peptides for drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchetto, Jeremy; Sequeira, Ana Filipa; Ramond, Laurie; Peysson, Fanny; Brás, Joana L A; Saez, Natalie J; Duhoo, Yoan; Blémont, Marilyne; Guerreiro, Catarina I P D; Quinton, Loic; De Pauw, Edwin; Gilles, Nicolas; Darbon, Hervé; Fontes, Carlos M G A; Vincentelli, Renaud

    2017-01-17

    Animal venoms are complex molecular cocktails containing a wide range of biologically active disulphide-reticulated peptides that target, with high selectivity and efficacy, a variety of membrane receptors. Disulphide-reticulated peptides have evolved to display improved specificity, low immunogenicity and to show much higher resistance to degradation than linear peptides. These properties make venom peptides attractive candidates for drug development. However, recombinant expression of reticulated peptides containing disulphide bonds is challenging, especially when associated with the production of large libraries of bioactive molecules for drug screening. To date, as an alternative to artificial synthetic chemical libraries, no comprehensive recombinant libraries of natural venom peptides are accessible for high-throughput screening to identify novel therapeutics. In the accompanying paper an efficient system for the expression and purification of oxidized disulphide-reticulated venom peptides in Escherichia coli is described. Here we report the development of a high-throughput automated platform, that could be adapted to the production of other families, to generate the largest ever library of recombinant venom peptides. The peptides were produced in the periplasm of E. coli using redox-active DsbC as a fusion tag, thus allowing the efficient formation of correctly folded disulphide bridges. TEV protease was used to remove fusion tags and recover the animal venom peptides in the native state. Globally, within nine months, out of a total of 4992 synthetic genes encoding a representative diversity of venom peptides, a library containing 2736 recombinant disulphide-reticulated peptides was generated. The data revealed that the animal venom peptides produced in the bacterial host were natively folded and, thus, are putatively biologically active. Overall this study reveals that high-throughput expression of animal venom peptides in E. coli can generate large

  20. A sustainable route to produce the scytonemin precursor using Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malla, Sailesh; Sommer, Morten O. A.

    2014-01-01

    moiety of scytonemin from tryptophan and tyrosine in Escherichia coli. We heterologously expressed the biosynthetic pathway from Nostoc punctiforme and discovered that only three enzymes from N. punctiforme are required for the in vivo production of the monomer moiety of scytonemin in E. coli. We also...

  1. Expression of colonization factor CS5 of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC is enhanced in vivo and by the bile component Na glycocholate hydrate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilda Nicklasson

    Full Text Available Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC is an important cause of acute watery diarrhoea in developing countries. Colonization factors (CFs on the bacterial surface mediate adhesion to the small intestinal epithelium. Two of the most common CFs worldwide are coli surface antigens 5 and 6 (CS5, CS6. In this study we investigated the expression of CS5 and CS6 in vivo, and the effects of bile and sodium bicarbonate, present in the human gut, on the expression of CS5. Five CS5+CS6 ETEC isolates from adult Bangladeshi patients with acute diarrhoea were studied. The level of transcription from the CS5 operon was approximately 100-fold higher than from the CS6 operon in ETEC bacteria recovered directly from diarrhoeal stool without sub-culturing (in vivo. The glyco-conjugated primary bile salt sodium glycocholate hydrate (NaGCH induced phenotypic expression of CS5 in a dose-dependent manner and caused a 100-fold up-regulation of CS5 mRNA levels; this is the first description of NaGCH as an enteropathogenic virulence inducer. The relative transcription levels from the CS5 and CS6 operons in the presence of bile or NaGCH in vitro were similar to those in vivo. Another bile salt, sodium deoxycholate (NaDC, previously reported to induce enteropathogenic virulence, also induced expression of CS5, whereas sodium bicarbonate did not.

  2. Antimicrobial activity of γ-thionin-like soybean SE60 in E. coli and tobacco plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yeonhee; Choi, Yang Do; Lee, Jong Seob

    2008-01-01

    The SE60, a low molecular weight, sulfur-rich protein in soybean, is known to be homologous to wheat γ-purothionin. To elucidate the functional role of SE60, we expressed SE60 cDNA in Escherichia coli and in tobacco plants. A single protein band was detected by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) after anti-FLAG affinity purification of the protein from transformed E. coli. While the control E. coli cells harboring pFLAG-1 showed standard growth with Isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) induction, E. coli cells expressing the SE60 fusion protein did not grow at all, suggesting that SE60 has toxic effects on E. coli growth. Genomic integration and the expression of transgene in the transgenic tobacco plants were confirmed by Southern and Northern blot analysis, respectively. The transgenic plants demonstrated enhanced resistance against the pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that SE60 has antimicrobial activity and play a role in the defense mechanism in soybean plants

  3. Cloning and Expression of Phytase appA Gene from Shigella sp. CD2 in Pichia pastoris and Comparison of Properties with Recombinant Enzyme Expressed in E. coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moushree Pal Roy

    Full Text Available The phytase gene appAS was isolated from Shigella sp. CD2 genomic library. The 3.8 kb DNA fragment contained 1299 bp open reading frame encoding 432 amino acid protein (AppAS with 22 amino acid signal peptide at N-terminal and three sites of N-glycosylation. AppAS contained the active site RHGXRXP and HDTN sequence motifs, which are conserved among histidine acid phosphatases. It showed maximum identity with phytase AppA of Escherichia coli and Citrobacter braakii. The appAS was expressed in Pichia pastoris and E. coli to produce recombinant phytase rAppAP and rAppAE, respectively. Purified glycosylated rAppAP and nonglycosylated rAppAE had specific activity of 967 and 2982 U mg(-1, respectively. Both had pH optima of 5.5 and temperature optima of 60°C. Compared with rAppAE, rAppAP was 13 and 17% less active at pH 3.5 and 7.5 and 11 and 18% less active at temperature 37 and 50°C, respectively; however, it was more active at higher incubation temperatures. Thermotolerance of rAppAP was 33% greater at 60°C and 24% greater at 70°C, when compared with rAppAE. Both the recombinant enzymes showed high specificity to phytate and resistance to trypsin. To our knowledge, this is the first report on cloning and expression of phytase from Shigella sp.

  4. Cloning and Expression of Phytase appA Gene from Shigella sp. CD2 in Pichia pastoris and Comparison of Properties with Recombinant Enzyme Expressed in E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal Roy, Moushree; Mazumdar, Deepika; Dutta, Subhabrata; Saha, Shyama Prasad; Ghosh, Shilpi

    2016-01-01

    The phytase gene appAS was isolated from Shigella sp. CD2 genomic library. The 3.8 kb DNA fragment contained 1299 bp open reading frame encoding 432 amino acid protein (AppAS) with 22 amino acid signal peptide at N-terminal and three sites of N-glycosylation. AppAS contained the active site RHGXRXP and HDTN sequence motifs, which are conserved among histidine acid phosphatases. It showed maximum identity with phytase AppA of Escherichia coli and Citrobacter braakii. The appAS was expressed in Pichia pastoris and E. coli to produce recombinant phytase rAppAP and rAppAE, respectively. Purified glycosylated rAppAP and nonglycosylated rAppAE had specific activity of 967 and 2982 U mg(-1), respectively. Both had pH optima of 5.5 and temperature optima of 60°C. Compared with rAppAE, rAppAP was 13 and 17% less active at pH 3.5 and 7.5 and 11 and 18% less active at temperature 37 and 50°C, respectively; however, it was more active at higher incubation temperatures. Thermotolerance of rAppAP was 33% greater at 60°C and 24% greater at 70°C, when compared with rAppAE. Both the recombinant enzymes showed high specificity to phytate and resistance to trypsin. To our knowledge, this is the first report on cloning and expression of phytase from Shigella sp.

  5. Incidence of Lettuce mosaic virus in lettuce and its detection by polyclonal antibodies produced against recombinant coat protein expressed in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Prachi; Sharma, Susheel; Singh, Jasvir; Saha, Swati; Baranwal, V K

    2016-04-01

    Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV), a member of the genus Potyvirus of family Potyviridae, causes mosaic disease in lettuce has recently been identified in India. The virus is seed borne and secondary infection occurs through aphids. To ensure virus freedom in seeds it is important to develop diagnostic tools, for serological methods the production of polyclonal antibodies is a prerequisite. The coat protein (CP) gene of LMV was amplified, cloned and expressed using pET-28a vector in Escherichia coli BL21DE3 competent cells. The LMV CP was expressed as a fusion protein containing a fragment of the E. coli His tag. The LMV CP/His protein reacted positively with a commercial antiserum against LMV in an immunoblot assay. Polyclonal antibodies purified from serum of rabbits immunized with the fusion protein gave positive results when LMV infected lettuce (Lactuca sativa) was tested at 1:1000 dilution in PTA-ELISA. These were used for specific detection of LMV in screening lettuce accessions. The efficacy of the raised polyclonal antiserum was high and it can be utilized in quarantine and clean seed production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Hydrogen production by recombinant Escherichia coli strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Toshinari; Sanchez‐Torres, Viviana; Wood, Thomas K.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The production of hydrogen via microbial biotechnology is an active field of research. Given its ease of manipulation, the best‐studied bacterium Escherichia coli has become a workhorse for enhanced hydrogen production through metabolic engineering, heterologous gene expression, adaptive evolution, and protein engineering. Herein, the utility of E. coli strains to produce hydrogen, via native hydrogenases or heterologous ones, is reviewed. In addition, potential strategies for increasing hydrogen production are outlined and whole‐cell systems and cell‐free systems are compared. PMID:21895995

  7. The role of Cra in regulating acetate excretion and osmotic tolerance in E. coli K-12 and E. coli B at high density growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Young-Jin; Phue, Je-Nie; Trinh, Loc B; Lee, Sang Jun; Shiloach, Joseph

    2011-06-30

    E. coli B (BL21), unlike E.coli K-12 (JM109) is insensitive to glucose concentration and, therefore, grows faster and produces less acetate than E. coli K-12, especially when growing to high cell densities at high glucose concentration. By performing genomic analysis, it was demonstrated that the cause of this difference in sensitivity to the glucose concentration is the result of the differences in the central carbon metabolism activity. We hypothesized that the global transcription regulator Cra (FruR) is constitutively expressed in E. coli B and may be responsible for the different behaviour of the two strains. To investigate this possibility and better understand the function of Cra in the two strains, cra - negative E. coli B (BL21) and E. coli K-12 (JM109) were prepared and their growth behaviour and gene expression at high glucose were evaluated using microarray and real-time PCR. The deletion of the cra gene in E. coli B (BL21) minimally affected the growth and maximal acetate accumulation, while the deletion of the same gene in E.coli K-12 (JM109) caused the cells to stop growing as soon as acetate concentration reached 6.6 g/L and the media conductivity reached 21 mS/cm. ppsA (gluconeogenesis gene), aceBA (the glyoxylate shunt genes) and poxB (the acetate producing gene) were down-regulated in both strains, while acs (acetate uptake gene) was down-regulated only in E.coli B (BL21). These transcriptional differences had little effect on acetate and pyruvate production. Additionally, it was found that the lower growth of E. coli K-12 (JM109) strain was the result of transcription inhibition of the osmoprotectant producing bet operon (betABT). The transcriptional changes caused by the deletion of cra gene did not affect the activity of the central carbon metabolism, suggesting that Cra does not act alone; rather it interacts with other pleiotropic regulators to create a network of metabolic effects. An unexpected outcome of this work is the finding that cra

  8. Surface display of Salmonella epitopes in Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus carnosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhan, Nguyen Thanh; Gonzalez de Valdivia, Ernesto; Gustavsson, Martin; Hai, Truong Nam; Larsson, Gen

    2011-04-11

    Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis (SE) is considered to be one of the most potent pathogenic Salmonella serotypes causing food-borne disease in humans. Since a live bacterial vaccine based on surface display of antigens has many advantages over traditional vaccines, we have studied the surface display of the SE antigenic proteins, H:gm and SefA in Escherichia coli by the β-autotransporter system, AIDA. This procedure was compared to protein translocation in Staphylococcus carnosus, using a staphylococci hybrid vector earlier developed for surface display of other vaccine epitopes. Both SefA and H:gm were translocated to the outer membrane in Escherichia coli. SefA was expressed to full length but H:gm was shorter than expected, probably due to a proteolytic cleavage of the N-terminal during passage either through the periplasm or over the membrane. FACS analysis confirmed that SefA was facing the extracellular environment, but this could not be conclusively established for H:gm since the N-terminal detection tag (His6) was cleaved off. Polyclonal salmonella antibodies confirmed the sustained antibody-antigen binding towards both proteins. The surface expression data from Staphylococcus carnosus suggested that the H:gm and SefA proteins were transported to the cell wall since the detection marker was displayed by FACS analysis. Apart from the accumulated knowledge and the existence of a wealth of equipment and techniques, the results indicate the selection of E. coli for further studies for surface expression of salmonella antigens. Surface expression of the full length protein facing the cell environment was positively proven by standard analysis, and the FACS signal comparison to expression in Staphylococcus carnosus shows that the distribution of the surface protein on each cell was comparatively very narrow in E. coli, the E. coli outer membrane molecules can serve as an adjuvant for the surface antigenic proteins and multimeric forms of the SefA protein

  9. Survival and expression of acid resistance genes in Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli acid adapted in pineapple juice and exposed to synthetic gastric fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aims: The aim of this research was to examine relative transcriptional expression of acid resistance (AR) genes, rpoS, gadA and adiA, in O157:H7 and non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serotypes after adaptation to pineapple juice (PJ) and subsequently to determine survival with e...

  10. Effect of simulated microgravity on E. coli K12 MG1655 growth and gene expression

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This study demonstrates simulated microgravity effects on E. coli K 12 MG1655 when grown on LB medium supplemented with glycerol. The results imply that E. coli...

  11. ANALISIS CEMARAN BAKTERI Escherichia coli ANALISIS CEMARAN BAKTERI Escherichia coli ANALISIS CEMARAN BAKTERI Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    ANGGREINI, RAHAYU

    2015-01-01

    2015 RAHAYU ANGGREINI coli Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk melakukan identifikasi cemaran bakteri E. coli O157:H7 pada daging sapi di kota Makassar. Sampel pada penelitian ini sebanyak 72 sampel Kata Kunci : Daging sapi, pasar tradisional, E. coli, E. coli O157:H7, kontaminasi bakteri, identifikasi E. coli O157:H7.

  12. Purification and refolding of anti-T-antigen single chain antibodies (scFvs) expressed in Escherichia coli as inclusion bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuasa, Noriyuki; Koyama, Tsubasa; Fujita-Yamaguchi, Yoko

    2014-02-01

    T-antigen (Galβ1-3GalNAcα-1-Ser/Thr) is an oncofetal antigen that is commonly expressed as a carbohydrate determinant in many adenocarcinomas. Since it is associated with tumor progression and metastasis, production of recombinant antibodies specific for T-antigen could lead to the development of cancer diagnostics and therapeutics. Previously, we isolated and characterized 11 anti-T-antigen phage clones from a phage library displaying human single-chain antibodies (scFvs) and purified one scFv protein, 1G11. More recently, we purified and characterized 1E8 scFv protein using a Drosophila S2 expression system. In the current study, four anti-T-antigen scFv genes belonging to Groups 1-4 were purified from inclusion bodies expressed in Escherichia coli cells. Inclusion bodies isolated from E. coli cells were denatured in 3.5 M Gdn-HCl. Solubilized His-tagged scFv proteins were purified using Ni(2+)-Sepharose column chromatography in the presence of 3.5 M Gdn-HCl. Purified scFv proteins were refolded according to a previously published method of step-wise dialysis. Two anti-T-antigen scFv proteins, 1E6 and 1E8 that belong to Groups 1 and 2, respectively, were produced in sufficient amounts, thus allowing further characterization of their binding activity with T-antigen. Specificity and affinity constants determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR), respectively, provided evidence that both 1E8 and 1E6 scFv proteins are T-antigen specific and suggested that 1E8 scFv protein has a higher affinity for T-antigen than 1E6 scFv protein.

  13. Differential gene expression and adherence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in vitro and in ligated pig intestines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianhua Yin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Escherichia coli O157:H7 strain 86-24 grown in MacConkey broth (MB shows almost no adherence to cultured epithelial cells but adheres well in pig ligated intestines. This study investigated the mechanisms associated with the difference between in-vitro and in-vivo adherence of the MB culture. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: It was found that decreased adherence in vitro by bacteria grown in MB was mainly due to lactose, possibly implicating the involvement of carbon catabolite repression (CCR. Expression of selected virulence-related genes associated with adherence and CCR was then examined by quantitative PCR. When bacteria were grown in MB and Brain Heart Infusion with NaHCO(3 (BHIN plus lactose, pH was reduced to 5.5-5.9 and there was a significant decrease in expression of the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE genes eae, tir, espD, grlA/R and ler, and an increase in cya (cAMP, and two negative regulators of the LEE, gadE and hfq. Putative virulence genes stcE, hlyA, ent and nleA were also decreased in vitro. Reversal of these changes was noted for bacteria recovered from the intestine, where transcripts for qseF and fis and putative virulence factors AidA(15, TerC and Ent/EspL2 were significantly increased, and transcripts for AIDA(48, Iha, UreC, Efa1A, Efa1B, ToxB, EhxA, StcE, NleA and NleB were expressed at high levels. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Presence of lactose resulted in decreased expression of LEE genes and the failure of EHEC O157:H7 to adhere to epithelial cells in vitro but this repression was overcome in vivo. CCR and/or acidic pH may have played a role in repression of the LEE genes. Bacterial pathogens need to integrate their nutritional metabolism with expression of virulence genes but little is known of how this is done in E. coli O157:H7. This study indicates one aspect of the subject that should be investigated further.

  14. Increased Frequency of ColV Plasmids and Mannose-Resistant Hemagglutinating Activity in an Escherichia coli K1 Population

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    The expression of traits linked to pathogenicity was studied in a population of Escherichia coli K1 strains. It was found that E. coli K1 strains isolated from extraintestinal infection harbor the ColV plasmid and express mannose-resistant hemagglutinating activity type VI with a high frequency. The presence of these properties may play a role in the ability of some E. coli K1 serogroups to invade.

  15. Effect of aqueous media on the copper-ion-mediated phototoxicity of CuO nanoparticles toward green fluorescent protein-expressing Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Enxiang; Li, Yang; Niu, Junfeng; Guo, Huiyuan; Zhou, Yijing; Liu, Han; Zhang, Xinqi

    2015-12-01

    Quantitative comparison of different aqueous media on the phototoxicity of copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) is crucial for understanding their ecological effects. In this study, the phototoxicity of CuO NPs toward the green fluorescent protein-expressing Escherichia coli (GFP-E. coli) under UV irradiation (365 nm) was investigated in Luria-Bertani medium (LB), NaCl solution, deionized water (DI) and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). The phototoxicity of CuO NPs toward GFP-E. coli decreased in the order of DI>NaCl>PBS>LB because of different released concentrations of Cu(2+). The 3h released Cu(2+) concentrations by 10mg/L CuO NPs in DI water, NaCl solution, LB medium, and PBS were 1946.3 ± 75.6, 1242.5 ± 47.6, 1023.4 ± 41.2, and 1162.1 ± 41.9 μg/L, respectively. Transmission electron microscope and laser scanning confocal microscope images of E. coli exposed to CuO NPs demonstrated that the released Cu(2+) resulted in fragmentation of bacterial cell walls, leakage of intracellular components, and finally death of bacteria in four media after UV light irradiation. In each medium, the bacterial mortality rate logarithmically increased with the releasing concentrations of Cu(2+) by CuO NPs (R(2)>0.90) exposed to 3h UV light. This study highlights the importance of taking into consideration of water chemistry when the phototoxicity of CuO NPs is assessed in nanotoxicity research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Differential requirements of two recA mutants for constitutive SOS expression in Escherichia coli K-12.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarukit Edward Long

    Full Text Available Repairing DNA damage begins with its detection and is often followed by elicitation of a cellular response. In E. coli, RecA polymerizes on ssDNA produced after DNA damage and induces the SOS Response. The RecA-DNA filament is an allosteric effector of LexA auto-proteolysis. LexA is the repressor of the SOS Response. Not all RecA-DNA filaments, however, lead to an SOS Response. Certain recA mutants express the SOS Response (recA(C in the absence of external DNA damage in log phase cells.Genetic analysis of two recA(C mutants was used to determine the mechanism of constitutive SOS (SOS(C expression in a population of log phase cells using fluorescence of single cells carrying an SOS reporter system (sulAp-gfp. SOS(C expression in recA4142 mutants was dependent on its initial level of transcription, recBCD, recFOR, recX, dinI, xthA and the type of medium in which the cells were grown. SOS(C expression in recA730 mutants was affected by none of the mutations or conditions tested above.It is concluded that not all recA(C alleles cause SOS(C expression by the same mechanism. It is hypothesized that RecA4142 is loaded on to a double-strand end of DNA and that the RecA filament is stabilized by the presence of DinI and destabilized by RecX. RecFOR regulate the activity of RecX to destabilize the RecA filament. RecA730 causes SOS(C expression by binding to ssDNA in a mechanism yet to be determined.

  17. Mitochondrial intermediate peptidase: Expression in Escherichia coli and improvement of its enzymatic activity detection with FRET substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcondes, Marcelo F.; Torquato, Ricardo J.S.; Assis, Diego M.; Juliano, Maria A.; Hayashi, Mirian A.F.; Oliveira, Vitor

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, soluble, functionally-active, recombinant human mitochondrial intermediate peptidase (hMIP), a mitochondrial metalloendoprotease, was expressed in a prokaryotic system. The hMIP fusion protein, with a poly-His-tag (6x His), was obtained by cloning the coding region of hMIP cDNA into the pET-28a expression vector, which was then used to transform Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) pLysS. After isolation and purification of the fusion protein by affinity chromatography using Ni-Sepharose resin, the protein was purified further using ion exchange chromatography with a Hi-trap resource Q column. The recombinant hMIP was characterized by Western blotting using three distinct antibodies, circular dichroism, and enzymatic assays that used the first FRET substrates developed for MIP and a series of protease inhibitors. The successful expression of enzymatically-active hMIP in addition to the FRET substrates will contribute greatly to the determination of substrate specificity of this protease and to the development of specific inhibitors that are essential for a better understanding of the role of this protease in mitochondrial functioning.

  18. Control analysis of the dependence of Escherichia coli physiology on the H+ -ATPase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Ruhdal; Michelsen, Ole; Westerhoff, Hans V.

    1993-01-01

    The H+-ATPase plays a central role in Escherichia coli free-energy transduction and hence in E. coli physiology. We here investigate the extent to which this enzyme also controls the growth rate, growth yield, and respiratory rate of E. coli. We modulate the expression of the atp operon and deter...

  19. Functional characterization of a rice de novo DNA methyltransferase, OsDRM2, expressed in Escherichia coli and yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pang, Jinsong, E-mail: pangjs542@nenu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Molecular Epigenetics of the Ministry of Education, Northeast Normal University, Changchun, Jilin 130024 (China); Dong, Mingyue; Li, Ning; Zhao, Yanli [Key Laboratory of Molecular Epigenetics of the Ministry of Education, Northeast Normal University, Changchun, Jilin 130024 (China); Liu, Bao, E-mail: baoliu@nenu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Molecular Epigenetics of the Ministry of Education, Northeast Normal University, Changchun, Jilin 130024 (China)

    2013-03-01

    Highlights: ► A rice de novo DNA methyltransferase OsDRM2 was cloned. ► In vitro methylation activity of OsDRM2 was characterized with Escherichia coli. ► Assays of OsDRM2 in vivo methylation were done with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. ► OsDRM2 methylation activity is not preferential to any type of cytosine context. ► The activity of OsDRM2 is independent of RdDM pathway. - Abstract: DNA methylation of cytosine nucleotides is an important epigenetic modification that occurs in most eukaryotic organisms and is established and maintained by various DNA methyltransferases together with their co-factors. There are two major categories of DNA methyltransferases: de novo and maintenance. Here, we report the isolation and functional characterization of a de novo methyltransferase, named OsDRM2, from rice (Oryza sativa L.). The full-length coding region of OsDRM2 was cloned and transformed into Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Both of these organisms expressed the OsDRM2 protein, which exhibited stochastic de novo methylation activity in vitro at CG, CHG, and CHH di- and tri-nucleotide patterns. Two lines of evidence demonstrated the de novo activity of OsDRM2: (1) a 5′-CCGG-3′ containing DNA fragment that had been pre-treated with OsDRM2 protein expressed in E. coli was protected from digestion by the CG-methylation-sensitive isoschizomer HpaII; (2) methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) analysis of S. cerevisiae genomic DNA from transformants that had been introduced with OsDRM2 revealed CG and CHG methylation levels of 3.92–9.12%, and 2.88–6.93%, respectively, whereas the mock control S. cerevisiae DNA did not exhibit cytosine methylation. These results were further supported by bisulfite sequencing of the 18S rRNA and EAF5 genes of the transformed S. cerevisiae, which exhibited different DNA methylation patterns, which were observed in the genomic DNA. Our findings establish that OsDRM2 is an active de novo DNA

  20. Functional characterization of a rice de novo DNA methyltransferase, OsDRM2, expressed in Escherichia coli and yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang, Jinsong; Dong, Mingyue; Li, Ning; Zhao, Yanli; Liu, Bao

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A rice de novo DNA methyltransferase OsDRM2 was cloned. ► In vitro methylation activity of OsDRM2 was characterized with Escherichia coli. ► Assays of OsDRM2 in vivo methylation were done with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. ► OsDRM2 methylation activity is not preferential to any type of cytosine context. ► The activity of OsDRM2 is independent of RdDM pathway. - Abstract: DNA methylation of cytosine nucleotides is an important epigenetic modification that occurs in most eukaryotic organisms and is established and maintained by various DNA methyltransferases together with their co-factors. There are two major categories of DNA methyltransferases: de novo and maintenance. Here, we report the isolation and functional characterization of a de novo methyltransferase, named OsDRM2, from rice (Oryza sativa L.). The full-length coding region of OsDRM2 was cloned and transformed into Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Both of these organisms expressed the OsDRM2 protein, which exhibited stochastic de novo methylation activity in vitro at CG, CHG, and CHH di- and tri-nucleotide patterns. Two lines of evidence demonstrated the de novo activity of OsDRM2: (1) a 5′-CCGG-3′ containing DNA fragment that had been pre-treated with OsDRM2 protein expressed in E. coli was protected from digestion by the CG-methylation-sensitive isoschizomer HpaII; (2) methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) analysis of S. cerevisiae genomic DNA from transformants that had been introduced with OsDRM2 revealed CG and CHG methylation levels of 3.92–9.12%, and 2.88–6.93%, respectively, whereas the mock control S. cerevisiae DNA did not exhibit cytosine methylation. These results were further supported by bisulfite sequencing of the 18S rRNA and EAF5 genes of the transformed S. cerevisiae, which exhibited different DNA methylation patterns, which were observed in the genomic DNA. Our findings establish that OsDRM2 is an active de novo DNA

  1. High-level expression of human stem cell factor fused with erythropoietin mimetic peptide in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Lin; Chen, Song-Sen; Yang, Ke-Gong; Liu, Chang-Zheng; Zhang, Yan-Li; Liang, Zhi-Quan

    2006-06-01

    Stem cell factor (SCF) and erythropoietin are essential for normal erythropoiesis and induce proliferation and differentiation synergistically for erythroid progenitor cells. Here, we report our work on construction of SCF/erythropoietin mimetic peptide (EMP) fusion protein gene, in which human SCF cDNA (1-165aa) and EMP sequence (20aa) were connected using a short (GGGGS) or long (GGGGSGGGGGS) linker sequence. The SCF/EMP gene was cloned into the pBV220 vector and expressed in the Escherichia coli DH5alpha strain. The expression level of the fusion protein was about 30% of total cell protein. The resulting inclusion bodies were solubilized with 8 M urea, followed by dilution refolding. The renatured protein was subsequently purified by Q-Sepharose FF column. The final product was >95% pure by SDS-PAGE and the yield of fusion protein was about 40 mg/L of culture. UT-7 cell proliferation and human cord blood cell colony-forming assays showed that the fusion proteins exhibited more potent activity than recombinant human SCF, suggesting a new strategy to enhance biological activities of growth factors.

  2. Deuterium incorporation into Escherichia-coli proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lederer, H.; May, R. P.; Kjems, Jørgen

    1986-01-01

    Neutron small-angle scattering studies of single protein subunits in a protein-DNA complex require the adjustment of the neutron scattering-length densities of protein and DNA, which is attainable by specific deuteration of the protein. The neutron scattering densities of unlabelled DNA and DNA......-dependent RNA polymerase of Escherichia coli match when RNA polymerase is isolated from cells grown in a medium containing 46% D2O and unlabelled glucose as carbon source. Their contrasts vanish simultaneously in a dialysis buffer containing 65% D2O. An expression was evaluated which allows the calculation...... of the degree of deuteration and match point of any E. coli protein from the D2O content of the growth medium, taking the 2H incorporation into RNA polymerase amino acids to be representative for all amino acids in E. coli proteins. The small-angle scattering results, on which the calculation of the degree...

  3. Escherichia coli EDL933 Requires Gluconeogenic Nutrients To Successfully Colonize the Intestines of Streptomycin-Treated Mice Precolonized with E. coli Nissle 1917

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinner, Silvia A. C.; Mokszycki, Matthew E.; Adediran, Jimmy; Leatham-Jensen, Mary; Conway, Tyrrell

    2015-01-01

    Escherichia coli MG1655, a K-12 strain, uses glycolytic nutrients exclusively to colonize the intestines of streptomycin-treated mice when it is the only E. coli strain present or when it is confronted with E. coli EDL933, an O157:H7 strain. In contrast, E. coli EDL933 uses glycolytic nutrients exclusively when it is the only E. coli strain in the intestine but switches in part to gluconeogenic nutrients when it colonizes mice precolonized with E. coli MG1655 (R. L. Miranda et al., Infect Immun 72:1666–1676, 2004, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/IAI.72.3.1666-1676.2004). Recently, J. W. Njoroge et al. (mBio 3:e00280-12, 2012, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.00280-12) reported that E. coli 86-24, an O157:H7 strain, activates the expression of virulence genes under gluconeogenic conditions, suggesting that colonization of the intestine with a probiotic E. coli strain that outcompetes O157:H7 strains for gluconeogenic nutrients could render them nonpathogenic. Here we report that E. coli Nissle 1917, a probiotic strain, uses both glycolytic and gluconeogenic nutrients to colonize the mouse intestine between 1 and 5 days postfeeding, appears to stop using gluconeogenic nutrients thereafter in a large, long-term colonization niche, but continues to use them in a smaller niche to compete with invading E. coli EDL933. Evidence is also presented suggesting that invading E. coli EDL933 uses both glycolytic and gluconeogenic nutrients and needs the ability to perform gluconeogenesis in order to colonize mice precolonized with E. coli Nissle 1917. The data presented here therefore rule out the possibility that E. coli Nissle 1917 can starve the O157:H7 E. coli strain EDL933 of gluconeogenic nutrients, even though E. coli Nissle 1917 uses such nutrients to compete with E. coli EDL933 in the mouse intestine. PMID:25733524

  4. Expression of ultraviolet-induced restriction alleviation in Escherichia coli K-12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoms, B.; Wackernagel, W.

    1983-01-01

    Ultraviolet-induced restriction alleviation is an SOS function which partially relieves the K-12-specific DNA restriction in Escherichia coli. Restriction alleviation is determined by observing elevated survival of unmodified phage lambda in cells irradiated with ultraviolet prior to infection. The authors demonstrate that restriction of lambda is also relieved when log-phase cells are irradiated as late as 50 min after adsorption of lambda. At this time more than 60% of the lambda DNA is already released as acid-soluble material from the cells. Experiments involving reextraction of lambda DNA from infected cells and a mild detergent treatment removing adsorbed phages from the cellular surface showed that only a small specific fraction of all lambda infections is destined to escape restriction due to restriction alleviation. This fraction (10-20%) has a retarded mode of DNA injection (60 min or longer) after adsorption which allows the expression of the restriction alleviation function before the phage DNA is exposed to restriction endonucleases. This behaviour of a fraction of lambda phages explains why the SOS function restriction alleviation could initially be discovered. The authors show that the retarded mode of DNA injection is not required for another SOS function acting on lambda DNA, the increased repair of ultraviolet-irradiated DNA (Weigle reactivation). (Auth.)

  5. Amaranthus caudatus extract inhibits the invasion of E. coli into uroepithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Soumitra; Zambrana, Silvia; Dieulouard, Soizic; Kamolvit, Witchuda; Nilsén, Vera; Gonzales, Eduardo; Östenson, Claes-Göran; Brauner, Annelie

    2018-06-28

    Amaranthus caudatus is traditionally used to treat infections. Based on its traditional usage, we investigated the effect of A. caudatus on the bladder epithelial cells in the protection of E. coli infection. The direct antimicrobial effects of A. caudatus on uropathogenic bacteria were investigated using minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay. Bladder epithelial cell lines T24 and 5637 and uropathogenic E. coli strain #12 were used to investigate the effect of A. caudatus. Bacterial adhesion and invasion into bladder cells treated with A. caudatus was analyzed. Expression of uroplakin-1a (UPK1A), β1 integrin (ITGB1), caveolin-1 (CAV1) and the antimicrobial peptides human β defensin-2 (DEFB4A) and LL-37 (CAMP) was evaluated using RT-PCR. No direct antibacterial effect on E. coli or any of the tested uropathogenic strains was observed by A. caudatus. However, we demonstrated reduced mRNA expression of uroplakin-1a and caveolin-1, but not β1 integrin after treatment of uroepithelial cells, mirrored by the decreased adhesion and invasion of E. coli. A. caudatus treatment did not induce increased gene expression of the antimicrobial peptides, LL-37 and human β-defensin-2. Our results showed that A. caudatus has a protective role on bladder epithelial cells against uropathogenic E. coli infection by decreasing the bacterial adhesion and invasion, thereby preventing infection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Putative carotenoid genes expressed under the regulation of Shine-Dalgarno regions in Escherichia coli for efficient lycopene production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Weiyue; Xu, Xian; Jiang, Ling; Zhang, Zhidong; Li, Shuang; Huang, He

    2015-11-01

    Putative genes crtE, crtB, and crtI from Deinococcus wulumiqiensis R12, a novel species, were identified by genome mining and were co-expressed using the optimized Shine-Dalgarno (SD) regions to improve lycopene yield. A lycopene biosynthesis pathway was constructed by co-expressing these three genes in Escherichia coli. After optimizing the upstream SD regions and the culture medium, the recombinant strain EDW11 produced 88 mg lycopene g(-1) dry cell wt (780 mg lycopene l(-1)) after 40 h fermentation without IPTG induction, while the strain EDW without optimized SD regions only produced 49 mg lycopene g(-1) dry cell wt (417 mg lycopene l(-1)). Based on the optimization of the upstream SD regions and culture medium, the yield of the strain EDW11 reached a high level during microbial lycopene production until now.

  7. Decreased expression of LamB and Odp1 complex is crucial for antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiang-min; Yang, Man-jun; Li, Hui; Wang, Chao; Peng, Xuan-Xian

    2014-02-26

    We previously revealed a negative regulation of LamB in chlortetracycline-resistant Escherichia coli strain. In the present study, we first showed that the negative regulation, which was characterized by decreased abundance of LamB with elevated growth of its gene-deleted mutant in medium with antibiotics, was a general response in resistance to different classes of antibiotics using 2-DE based proteomics or/and genetically gene-deletion mutant of LamB. Then, we revealed the interaction of LamB and Odp1 which catalyzes the overall conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA and CO2, and found the decrease of the complex in antibiotic-resistant strains with a minimum inhibitory concentration dose-dependent manner. Further spectrofluorometry assay indicated that LamB served as a porin to influx an antibiotic. Finally, we showed that the decreased expression of LamB and Odp1 was detected in almost of all 34 multidrug-resistant strains, which suggested that LamB and Odp1 were biomarkers for identification of antibiotic-resistant E. coli. Our results indicated that the interaction of an outer membrane protein with an energy metabolic enzyme constructed an efficient pathway to resist antibiotics. These findings provide novel insights into the mechanisms of antibiotic resistance. Our data indicate that the negative regulation by LamB is widely detected in antibiotic-resistant E. coli. LamB serves as a porin to influx an antibiotic and is interacted with Odp1. The complex decreases in antibiotic-resistant strains with a MIC dose-dependent manner. Our findings indicate that interaction of outer membrane protein with energy metabolic enzyme constructs an efficient pathway to resist antibiotics and provides novel insights into the mechanisms of antibiotic resistance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Inhibition of Coenzyme Qs Accumulation in Engineered Escherichia coli by High Concentration of Farnesyl Diphosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samoudi, Mojtaba; Omid Yeganeh, Negar; Shahbani Zahiri, Hossein; Shariati, Parvin; Hajhosseini, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Coenzyme Q 10 (CoQ 10 ) is an isoprenoid component used widely in nutraceutical industries. Farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FPPS) is a responsible enzyme for biosynthesis of farnesyl diphosphate (FPP), a key precursor for CoQs production. This research involved investigating the effect of FPPS over-expression on CoQs production in engineered CoQ 10 -producing Escherichia coli (E. coli). Methods: Two CoQ 10 -producing strains, as referred to E. coli Ba and E. coli Br, were transformed by the encoding gene for FPPS (ispA) under the control of either the trc or P BAD promoters. Results: Over-expression of ispA under the control of P BAD promoter led to a relative increase in CoQ 10 production only in recombinant E. coli Br although induction by arabinose resulted in partial reduction of CoQ 10 production in both recombinant E. coli Ba and E. coli Br strains. Over-expression of ispA under the control of stronger trc promoter, however, led to a severe decrease in CoQ 10 production in both recombinant E. coli Ba and E. coli Br strains, as reflected by reductions from 629±40 to 30±13 and 564±28 to 80±14 μg/g Dried Cell Weight (DCW), respectively. The results showed high level of FPP reduces endogenous CoQ 8 production as well and that CoQs are produced in a complimentary manner, as the increase in production of one decreases the production of the other. Conclusion: The reduction in CoQ 10 production can be a result of Dds inhibition by high FPP concentration. Therefore, more effort is needed to verify the role of intermediate metabolite concentration and to optimize production of CoQ 10 . PMID:26306151

  9. Expression and the antigenicity of recombinant coat proteins of tungro viruses expressed in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Siew Fung; Chu, Chia Huay; Poili, Evenni; Sum, Magdline Sia Henry

    2017-02-01

    Rice tungro disease (RTD) is a recurring disease affecting rice farming especially in the South and Southeast Asia. The disease is commonly diagnosed by visual observation of the symptoms on diseased plants in paddy fields and by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). However, visual observation is unreliable and PCR can be costly. High-throughput as well as relatively cheap detection methods are important for RTD management for screening large number of samples. Due to this, detection by serological assays such as immunoblotting assays and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay are preferred. However, these serological assays are limited by lack of continuous supply of antibodies as reagents due to the difficulty in preparing sufficient purified virions as antigens. This study aimed to generate and evaluate the reactivity of the recombinant coat proteins of Rice tungro bacilliform virus (RTBV) and Rice tungro spherical virus (RTSV) as alternative antigens to generate antibodies. The genes encoding the coat proteins of both viruses, RTBV (CP), and RTSV (CP1, CP2 and CP3) were cloned and expressed as recombinant fusion proteins in Escherichia coli. All of the recombinant fusion proteins, with the exception of the recombinant fusion protein of the CP2 of RTSV, were reactive against our in-house anti-tungro rabbit serum. In conclusion, our study showed the potential use of the recombinant fusion coat proteins of the tungro viruses as alternative antigens for production of antibodies for diagnostic purposes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Multiepitope fusion antigen induces broadly protective antibodies that prevent adherence of Escherichia coli strains expressing colonization factor antigen I (CFA/I), CFA/II, and CFA/IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Xiaosai; Knudsen, David E; Wollenberg, Katie M; Sack, David A; Zhang, Weiping

    2014-02-01

    Diarrhea is the second leading cause of death in children younger than 5 years and continues to be a major threat to global health. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains are the most common bacteria causing diarrhea in developing countries. ETEC strains are able to attach to host small intestinal epithelial cells by using bacterial colonization factor antigen (CFA) adhesins. This attachment helps to initiate the diarrheal disease. Vaccines that induce antiadhesin immunity to block adherence of ETEC strains that express immunologically heterogeneous CFA adhesins are expected to protect against ETEC diarrhea. In this study, we created a CFA multiepitope fusion antigen (MEFA) carrying representative epitopes of CFA/I, CFA/II (CS1, CS2, and CS3), and CFA/IV (CS4, CS5, and CS6), examined its immunogenicity in mice, and assessed the potential of this MEFA as an antiadhesin vaccine against ETEC. Mice intraperitoneally immunized with this CFA MEFA exhibited no adverse effects and developed immune responses to CFA/I, CFA/II, and CFA/IV adhesins. Moreover, after incubation with serum of the immunized mice, ETEC or E. coli strains expressing CFA/I, CFA/II, or CFA/IV adhesins were significantly inhibited in adherence to Caco-2 cells. Our results indicated this CFA MEFA elicited antibodies that not only cross-reacted to CFA/I, CFA/II and CFA/IV adhesins but also broadly inhibited adherence of E. coli strains expressing these seven adhesins and suggested that this CFA MEFA could be a candidate to induce broad-spectrum antiadhesin protection against ETEC diarrhea. Additionally, this antigen construction approach (creating an MEFA) may be generally used in vaccine development against heterogenic pathogens.

  11. The Pai-associated leuX specific tRNA5(Leu) affects type 1fimbriation in pathogenic Escherichia coli by control of FimB recombinase expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, A.; Gally, D.; Olsen, Peter Bjarke

    1997-01-01

    The uropathogenic Escherichia coli strain 536 (06:K15:H31) carries two large chromosomalpathogenicity islands (Pais). Both Pais are flanked by tRNA genes. Spontaneous deletion of Pai IIresults in truncation of the leuX tRNA5Leu gene. This tRNA is required for the expression of type 1fimbriae (Fim...

  12. Engineering Bacteria to Catabolize the Carbonaceous Component of Sarin: Teaching E. coli to Eat Isopropanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Margaret E.; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Keasling, Jay D.

    2016-01-01

    conversion with a key reaction performed by the acetone carboxylase complex (ACX). We engineered the heterologous expression of the ACX complex from Xanthobacter autotrophicus PY2 to match the naturally occurring subunit stoichiometry and purified the recombinant complex from E. coli for biochemical analysis....... Incorporating this ACX complex and enzymes from diverse organisms, we introduced an isopropanol degradation pathway in E. coli, optimized induction conditions, and decoupled enzyme expression to probe pathway bottlenecks. Our engineered E. coli consumed 65% of isopropanol compared to no-cell controls......We report an engineered strain of Escherichia coli that catabolizes the carbonaceous component of the extremely toxic chemical warfare agent sarin. Enzymatic decomposition of sarin generates isopropanol waste that, with this engineered strain, is then transformed into acetyl-CoA by enzymatic...

  13. Cloning and expression of the Escherichia coli K-12 sad gene.

    OpenAIRE

    Marek, L E; Henson, J M

    1988-01-01

    The Escherichia coli K-12 sad gene, which encodes an NAD-dependent succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase, was cloned into a high-copy-number vector. Minicells carrying a sad+ plasmid produced a 55,000-dalton peptide, the probable sad gene product.

  14. Systematic high-yield production of human secreted proteins in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Xueyu; Chen Qiang; Lian Min; Zhou Yanfeng; Zhou Mo; Lu Shanyun; Chen Yunjia; Luo Jingchu; Gu Xiaocheng; Jiang Ying; Luo Ming; Zheng Xiaofeng

    2005-01-01

    Human secreted proteins play a very important role in signal transduction. In order to study all potential secreted proteins identified from the human genome sequence, systematic production of large amounts of biologically active secreted proteins is a prerequisite. We selected 25 novel genes as a trial case for establishing a reliable expression system to produce active human secreted proteins in Escherichia coli. Expression of proteins with or without signal peptides was examined and compared in E. coli strains. The results indicated that deletion of signal peptides, to a certain extent, can improve the expression of these proteins and their solubilities. More importantly, under expression conditions such as induction temperature, N-terminus fusion peptides need to be optimized in order to express adequate amounts of soluble proteins. These recombinant proteins were characterized as well-folded proteins. This system enables us to rapidly obtain soluble and highly purified human secreted proteins for further functional studies

  15. Thiophenone Attenuates Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli O103:H2 Virulence by Interfering with AI-2 Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witsø, Ingun Lund; Valen Rukke, Håkon; Benneche, Tore; Aamdal Scheie, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Interference with bacterial quorum sensing communication provides an anti-virulence strategy to control pathogenic bacteria. Here, using the Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) O103:H2, we showed for the first time that thiophenone TF101 reduced expression of lsrB; the gene encoding the AI-2 receptor. Combined results of transcriptional and phenotypic analyses suggested that TF101 interfere with AI-2 signalling, possibly by competing with AI-2 for binding to LsrB. This is supported by in silico docking prediction of thiophenone TF101 in the LsrB pocket. Transcriptional analyses furthermore showed that thiophenone TF101 interfered with expression of the virulence genes eae and fimH. In addition, TF101 reduced AI-2 induced E. coli adhesion to colorectal adenocarcinoma cells. TF101, on the other hand, did not affect epinephrine or norepinephrine enhanced E. coli adhesion. Overall, our results showed that thiophenone TF101 interfered with virulence expression in E. coli O103:H2, suggestedly by interfering with AI-2 mediated quorum sensing. We thus conclude that thiophenone TF101 might represent a promising future anti-virulence agent in the fight against pathogenic E. coli.

  16. Global transcriptional regulatory network for Escherichia coli robustly connects gene expression to transcription factor activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Xin; Sastry, Anand; Mih, Nathan

    2017-01-01

    Transcriptional regulatory networks (TRNs) have been studied intensely for >25 y. Yet, even for the Escherichia coli TRN-probably the best characterized TRN-several questions remain. Here, we address three questions: (i) How complete is our knowledge of the E. coli TRN; (ii) how well can we predi...

  17. Use of a Chimeric Hsp70 to Enhance the Quality of Recombinant Plasmodium falciparum S-Adenosylmethionine Decarboxylase Protein Produced in Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhoba, Xolani Henry; Burger, Adélle; Coertzen, Dina; Zininga, Tawanda; Birkholtz, Lyn-Marie; Shonhai, Addmore

    2016-01-01

    S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (PfAdoMetDC) from Plasmodium falciparum is a prospective antimalarial drug target. The production of recombinant PfAdoMetDC for biochemical validation as a drug target is important. The production of PfAdoMetDC in Escherichia coli has been reported to result in unsatisfactory yields and poor quality product. The co-expression of recombinant proteins with molecular chaperones has been proposed as one way to improve the production of the former in E. coli. E. coli heat shock proteins DnaK, GroEL-GroES and DnaJ have previously been used to enhance production of some recombinant proteins. However, the outcomes were inconsistent. An Hsp70 chimeric protein, KPf, which is made up of the ATPase domain of E. coli DnaK and the substrate binding domain of P. falciparum Hsp70 (PfHsp70) has been previously shown to exhibit chaperone function when it was expressed in E. coli cells whose resident Hsp70 (DnaK) function was impaired. We proposed that because of its domain constitution, KPf would most likely be recognised by E. coli Hsp70 co-chaperones. Furthermore, because it possesses a substrate binding domain of plasmodial origin, KPf would be primed to recognise recombinant PfAdoMetDC expressed in E. coli. First, using site-directed mutagenesis, followed by complementation assays, we established that KPf with a mutation in the hydrophobic residue located in its substrate binding cavity was functionally compromised. We further co-expressed PfAdoMetDC with KPf, PfHsp70 and DnaK in E. coli cells either in the absence or presence of over-expressed GroEL-GroES chaperonin. The folded and functional status of the produced PfAdoMetDC was assessed using limited proteolysis and enzyme assays. PfAdoMetDC co-expressed with KPf and PfHsp70 exhibited improved activity compared to protein co-expressed with over-expressed DnaK. Our findings suggest that chimeric KPf may be an ideal Hsp70 co-expression partner for the production of recombinant plasmodial

  18. Effect of rifampicin and gentamicin on Shiga toxin 2 expression level and the SOS response in Escherichia coli O104:H4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadlallah, Sukayna M; Rahal, Elias A; Sabra, Ahmad; Kissoyan, Kohar A B; Matar, Ghassan M

    2015-01-01

    A novel pathotype, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O104:H4, was the cause of a severe outbreak that affected European countries, mainly Germany, in 2011. The effect of different regimens of rifampicin and gentamicin were evaluated to determine possible treatment modes for the novel strain, and to evaluate the SOS response and its effect on toxin release. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was performed on the novel E. coli O104:H4 pathotype and two pre-outbreak E. coli O104:H4 CDC strains. Transcript levels of the stx2 and recA gene (SOS response inducer) were evaluated using quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in the novel E. coli O104:H4 samples subjected to different regimens of rifampicin and gentamicin. Consequently, reverse passive latex agglutination (RPLA) was used to determine the Stx2 titers in these samples. Western blot was performed to determine the LexA levels (SOS response repressor) in E. coli O104:H4. The efficacy of treatment with antimicrobial agents was assessed in BALB/c mice. The outbreak and pre-outbreak strains are closely related as shown by PFGE, which demonstrated slight genomic differences between the three strains. The transcription level of the stx2 gene in the new pathotype was 1.41- and 1.75-fold that of the 2009 EL-2050 and 2009 EL-2071 pre-outbreak strains, respectively. Moreover, the transcription level of the stx2 gene in the new pathotype was substantially decreased as a result of treatment with the different concentrations of the antimicrobial agents, but was enhanced when the antibiotics were administered at two subinhibitory levels. RPLA data were in accordance with the qRT-PCR results. E. coli O104:H4 exposed to gentamicin at both sub-minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) levels led to high transcription levels of the recA gene and lack of expression of the LexA protein, implying that the SOS response was activated. Rifampicin at both sub-MIC levels resulted in low

  19. Cellular chain formation in Escherichia coli biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejborg, Rebecca Munk; Klemm, Per

    2009-01-01

    ; type I fimbriae expression significantly reduced cellular chain formation, presumably by steric hindrance. Cellular chain formation did not appear to be specific to E coli K-12. Although many urinary tract infection (UTI) isolates were found to form rather homogeneous, flat biofilms, three isolates...

  20. Production of recombinant cholesterol oxidase containing covalently bound FAD in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molla Gianluca

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cholesterol oxidase is an alcohol dehydrogenase/oxidase flavoprotein that catalyzes the dehydrogenation of C(3-OH of cholesterol. It has two major biotechnological applications, i.e. in the determination of serum (and food cholesterol levels and as biocatalyst providing valuable intermediates for industrial steroid drug production. Cholesterol oxidases of type I are those containing the FAD cofactor tightly but not covalently bound to the protein moiety, whereas type II members contain covalently bound FAD. This is the first report on the over-expression in Escherichia coli of type II cholesterol oxidase from Brevibacterium sterolicum (BCO. Results Design of the plasmid construct encoding the mature BCO, optimization of medium composition and identification of the best cultivation/induction conditions for growing and expressing the active protein in recombinant E. coli cells, concurred to achieve a valuable improvement: BCO volumetric productivity was increased from ~500 up to ~25000 U/L and its crude extract specific activity from 0.5 up to 7.0 U/mg protein. Interestingly, under optimal expression conditions, nearly 55% of the soluble recombinant BCO is produced as covalently FAD bound form, whereas the protein containing non-covalently bound FAD is preferentially accumulated in insoluble inclusion bodies. Conclusions Comparison of our results with those published on non-covalent (type I COs expressed in recombinant form (either in E. coli or Streptomyces spp., shows that the fully active type II BCO can be produced in E. coli at valuable expression levels. The improved over-production of the FAD-bound cholesterol oxidase will support its development as a novel biotool to be exploited in biotechnological applications.

  1. Evidence for significantly enhancing reduction of Azo dyes in Escherichia coli by expressed cytoplasmic Azoreductase (AzoA) of Enterococcus faecalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, J; Heinze, T M; Xu, H; Cerniglia, C E; Chen, H

    2010-05-01

    Although cytoplasmic azoreductases have been purified and characterized from various bacteria, little evidence demonstrating that these azoreductases are directly involved in azo dye reduction in vivo is known. In order to evaluate the contribution of the enzyme to azo dye reduction in vivo, experiments were conducted to determine the effect of a recombinant cytoplasmic azoreductase (AzoA) from Enterococcus faecalis expressed in Escherichia coli on the rate of metabolism of Methyl Red, Ponceau BS and Orange II. The intact cells that contained IPTG induced AzoA had a higher rate of dye reduction with increases of 2 (Methyl Red), 4 (Ponceau BS) and 2.6 (Orange II)-fold compared to noninduced cells, respectively. Metabolites of Methyl Red isolated from induced cultures were identified as N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine and 2-aminobenzoic acid through liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS) analyses. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that AzoA from Ent. faecalis is capable of increasing the reduction of azo dyes in intact E. coli cells and that cytoplasmic azoreductase is involved in bacterial dye degradation in vivo.

  2. Cloning, expression and characterization of the endoglucanase gene from Bacillus subtilis UMC7 isolated from the gut of the indigenous termite Macrotermes malaccensis in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelvin Swee Chuan Wei

    2015-03-01

    Conclusions: The recombinant endoglucanase showed a threefold increase in extracellular enzyme activity compared with the wild-type strain. This result revealed the potential of endoglucanase expression in E. coli, which can be induced for the overexpression of the enzyme. The enzyme has a broad range of activity with high specificity toward cellulose.

  3. Mapping Stress-Induced Changes in Autoinducer AI-2 Production in Chemostat-Cultivated Escherichia coli K-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLisa, Matthew P.; Valdes, James J.; Bentley, William E.

    2001-01-01

    Numerous gram-negative bacteria employ a cell-to-cell signaling mechanism, termed quorum sensing, for controlling gene expression in response to population density. Recently, this phenomenon has been discovered in Escherichia coli, and while pathogenic E. coli utilize quorum sensing to regulate pathogenesis (i.e., expression of virulence genes), the role of quorum sensing in nonpathogenic E. coli is less clear, and in particular, there is no information regarding the role of quorum sensing during the overexpression of recombinant proteins. The production of autoinducer AI-2, a signaling molecule employed by E. coli for intercellular communication, was studied in E. coli W3110 chemostat cultures using a Vibrio harveyi AI-2 reporter assay (M. G. Surrette and B. L. Bassler, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95:7046–7050, 1998). Chemostat cultures enabled a study of AI-2 regulation through steady-state and transient responses to a variety of environmental stimuli. Results demonstrated that AI-2 levels increased with the steady-state culture growth rate. In addition, AI-2 increased following pulsed addition of glucose, Fe(III), NaCl, and dithiothreitol and decreased following aerobiosis, amino acid starvation, and isopropyl-β-d-thiogalactopyranoside-induced expression of human interleukin-2 (hIL-2). In general, the AI-2 responses to several perturbations were indicative of a shift in metabolic activity or state of the cells induced by the individual stress. Because of our interest in the expression of heterologous proteins in E. coli, the transcription of four quorum-regulated genes and 20 stress genes was mapped during the transient response to induced expression of hIL-2. Significant regulatory overlap was revealed among several stress and starvation genes and known quorum-sensing genes. PMID:11292813

  4. Engineering cell wall synthesis mechanism for enhanced PHB accumulation in E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xing-Chen; Guo, Yingying; Liu, Xu; Chen, Xin-Guang; Wu, Qiong; Chen, Guo-Qiang

    2018-01-01

    The rigidity of bacterial cell walls synthesized by a complicated pathway limit the cell shapes as coccus, bar or ellipse or even fibers. A less rigid bacterium could be beneficial for intracellular accumulation of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) as granular inclusion bodies. To understand how cell rigidity affects PHB accumulation, E. coli cell wall synthesis pathway was reinforced and weakened, respectively. Cell rigidity was achieved by thickening the cell walls via insertion of a constitutive gltA (encoding citrate synthase) promoter in front of a series of cell wall synthesis genes on the chromosome of several E. coli derivatives, resulting in 1.32-1.60 folds increase of Young's modulus in mechanical strength for longer E. coli cells over-expressing fission ring FtsZ protein inhibiting gene sulA. Cell rigidity was weakened by down regulating expressions of ten genes in the cell wall synthesis pathway using CRISPRi, leading to elastic cells with more spaces for PHB accumulation. The regulation on cell wall synthesis changes the cell rigidity: E. coli with thickened cell walls accumulated only 25% PHB while cell wall weakened E. coli produced 93% PHB. Manipulation on cell wall synthesis mechanism adds another possibility to morphology engineering of microorganisms. Copyright © 2017 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Inhibition of Coenzyme Qs Accumulation in Engineered Escherichia coli by High Concentration of Farnesyl Diphosphate

    OpenAIRE

    Samoudi, Mojtaba; Omid Yeganeh, Negar; Shahbani Zahiri, Hossein; Shariati, Parvin; Hajhosseini, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Coenzyme Q 10 (CoQ 10 ) is an isoprenoid component used widely in nutraceutical industries. Farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FPPS) is a responsible enzyme for biosynthesis of farnesyl diphosphate (FPP), a key precursor for CoQs production. This research involved investigating the effect of FPPS over-expression on CoQs production in engineered CoQ 10 -producing Escherichia coli (E. coli). Methods: Two CoQ 10 -producing strains, as referred to E. coli Ba and E. coli Br, were transform...

  6. [Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG conditioned medium prevents E. coli meningitis by inhibiting nuclear factor-κB pathway].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qing; He, Xiao-Long; Xiao, Han-Sheng; DU, Lei; Li, Yu-Jing; Chen, Le-Cheng; Tian, Hui-Wen; Huang, Sheng-He; Cao, Hong

    2017-01-20

    To investigate whether Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG conditioned medium(LGG-CM)has preventive effect against E. coli K1-induced neuropathogenicity in vitro by inhibiting nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway. An in vitro blood-brain barrier (BBB) model was constructed using human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs). The effect of LGG-CM on E. coli-actived NF-κB signaling pathway was assayed using Western blotting. Invasion assay and polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) transmigration assay were performed to explore whether LGG-CM could inhibit E. coli invasion and PMN transmigration across the BBB in vitro. The expressions of ZO-1 and CD44 were detected using Western blotting and immunofluorescence. The changes of trans-epithelial electric resistance (TEER) and bacterial translocation were determined to evaluate the BBB permeability. Pre-treament with LGG-CM inhibited E. coli-activated NF-κB signaling pathway in HBMECs and decreased the invasion of E. coli K1 and transmigration of PMN. Western blotting showed that LGG-CM could alleviate E. coli-induced up-regulation of CD44 and down-regulation of ZO-1 expressions in HBMECs. In addition, pre-treatment with LGG-CM alleviated E. coli K1-induced reduction of TEER and suppressed bacterial translocation across the BBB in vitro. LGG-CM can block E. coli-induced activation of NF-κB signaling pathway and thereby prevents E. coli K1-induced neuropathogenicity by decreasing E. coli K1 invasion rates and PMN transmigration.

  7. Expression of Aeromonas caviae ST pyruvate dehydrogenase complex components mediate tellurite resistance in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Miguel E.; Molina, Roberto C.; Diaz, Waldo A.; Pradenas, Gonzalo A.; Vasquez, Claudio C.

    2009-01-01

    Potassium tellurite (K 2 TeO 3 ) is harmful to most organisms and specific mechanisms explaining its toxicity are not well known to date. We previously reported that the lpdA gene product of the tellurite-resistant environmental isolate Aeromonas caviae ST is involved in the reduction of tellurite to elemental tellurium. In this work, we show that expression of A. caviae ST aceE, aceF, and lpdA genes, encoding pyruvate dehydrogenase, dihydrolipoamide transacetylase, and dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase, respectively, results in tellurite resistance and decreased levels of tellurite-induced superoxide in Escherichia coli. In addition to oxidative damage resulting from tellurite exposure, a metabolic disorder would be simultaneously established in which the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex would represent an intracellular tellurite target. These results allow us to widen our vision regarding the molecular mechanisms involved in bacterial tellurite resistance by correlating tellurite toxicity and key enzymes of aerobic metabolism.

  8. Expression and purification of moricin CM4 and human β-defensins 4 in Escherichia coli using a new technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yang; Ai, Hong-Xin; Song, Ren; Liang, Zhen-Ning; Li, Jian-Feng; Zhang, Shuang-Quan

    2010-10-20

    Different strategies have been developed to produce small antimicrobial peptides using recombinant techniques. Here we report a new technology of biosynthesis of moricin CM4 and human β-defensins 4 (HβD4) in the Escherichia coli. The CM4 and HβD4 gene were cloned into a vector containing the tags elastin-like peptide (ELP) and intein to construct the expression vector pET-EI-CM4 and pET-EI-HβD4. All the peptides, expressed as soluble fusions, were isolated from the protein debris by the method called inverse transition cycling (ITC) rather than traditional immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) and separated from the fusion leader by self-cleavage. Fully reduced peptides that were purified exhibited expected antimicrobial activity. The approach described here is a low-cost, convenient and potential way for generating small antimicrobial peptide. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison of the ligand binding properties of two homologous rat apocellular retinol-binding proteins expressed in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, M S; Locke, B; Yang, N C; Li, E; Gordon, J I

    1988-11-25

    Cellular retinol-binding protein (CRBP) and cellular retinol-binding protein II (CRBP II) are 132-residue cytosolic proteins which have 56% amino acid sequence identity and bind all-trans-retinol as their endogenous ligand. They belong to a family of cytoplasmic proteins which have evolved to bind distinct hydrophobic ligands. Their patterns of tissue-specific and developmental regulation are distinct. We have compared the ligand binding properties of rat apo-CRBP and apo-CRBP II that have been expressed in Escherichia coli. Several observations indicate that the E. coli-derived apoproteins are structurally similar to the native rat proteins: they co-migrate on isoelectric focusing gels; and when complexed with all-trans-retinol, their absorption and excitation/emission spectra are nearly identical to those of the authentic rat holoproteins. Comparative lifetime and acrylamide quenching studies suggest that there are differences in the conformations of apo-CRBP and apo-CRBP II. The interaction of E. coli-derived apo-CRBP and apo-CRBP II with a variety of retinoids was analyzed using spectroscopic techniques. Both apoproteins formed high affinity complexes with all-trans-retinol (K'd approximately 10 nM). In direct binding assays, all-trans-retinal bound to both apoproteins (K'd approximately 50 nM for CRBP; K'd approximately 90 nM for CRBP II). However, all-trans-retinal could displace all-trans-retinol bound to CRBP II but not to CRBP. These observations suggests that there is a specific yet distinct interaction between these two proteins and all-trans-retinal. Apo-CRBP and apo-CRBP II did not demonstrate significant binding to either retinoic acid or methyl retinoate, an uncharged derivative of all-trans-retinoic acid. This indicates that the carboxymethyl group of methyl retinoate cannot be sterically accommodated in their binding pockets and that failure to bind retinoic acid probably is not simply due to the negative charge of its C-15 carboxylate group

  10. Targeted amino-terminal acetylation of recombinant proteins in E. coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Johnson

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available One major limitation in the expression of eukaryotic proteins in bacteria is an inability to post-translationally modify the expressed protein. Amino-terminal acetylation is one such modification that can be essential for protein function. By co-expressing the fission yeast NatB complex with the target protein in E.coli, we report a simple and widely applicable method for the expression and purification of functional N-terminally acetylated eukaryotic proteins.

  11. Expression of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase B in Escherichia coli and Its Recovery from Inclusion Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalu Rudyat Telly Savalas

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims at expressing and partially purifying PtpB in active form. To achieve this, Mtb PtpB gene has been cloned into pET30a vector and overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL 21(DE3 under IPTG induction in the form of an inclusion body. Following resolubilization by urea and dialysis, the resulted PtpB has been shown to be active against para-Nitrophenyl phosphate.  It is concluded that the resulted PtpB has had been recovered from inclusion body to give the active form of the enzyme, and thus the success in overexpressing PtpB provides the required material to investigate the biochemical properties of the pathogen virulence factor further. 

  12. Differential gene expression of three mastitis-causing Escherichia coli strains grown under planktonic, swimming, and swarming culture conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escherichia coli is a leading cause of intramammary infections in dairy cattle and is typically transient in nature. However, in a minority of cases, E. coli can cause persistent infections. Although the mechanisms that allow for a persistent intramammary E. coli infection are not fully understood...

  13. Spaceflight Modifies Escherichia coli Gene Expression in Response to Antibiotic Exposure and Reveals Role of Oxidative Stress Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas R. Aunins

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria grown in space experiments under microgravity conditions have been found to undergo unique physiological responses, ranging from modified cell morphology and growth dynamics to a putative increased tolerance to antibiotics. A common theory for this behavior is the loss of gravity-driven convection processes in the orbital environment, resulting in both reduction of extracellular nutrient availability and the accumulation of bacterial byproducts near the cell. To further characterize the responses, this study investigated the transcriptomic response of Escherichia coli to both microgravity and antibiotic concentration. E. coli was grown aboard International Space Station in the presence of increasing concentrations of the antibiotic gentamicin with identical ground controls conducted on Earth. Here we show that within 49 h of being cultured, E. coli adapted to grow at higher antibiotic concentrations in space compared to Earth, and demonstrated consistent changes in expression of 63 genes in response to an increase in drug concentration in both environments, including specific responses related to oxidative stress and starvation response. Additionally, we find 50 stress-response genes upregulated in response to the microgravity when compared directly to the equivalent concentration in the ground control. We conclude that the increased antibiotic tolerance in microgravity may be attributed not only to diminished transport processes, but also to a resultant antibiotic cross-resistance response conferred by an overlapping effect of stress response genes. Our data suggest that direct stresses of nutrient starvation and acid-shock conveyed by the microgravity environment can incidentally upregulate stress response pathways related to antibiotic stress and in doing so contribute to the increased antibiotic stress tolerance observed for bacteria in space experiments. These results provide insights into the ability of bacteria to adapt under

  14. Spaceflight Modifies Escherichia coli Gene Expression in Response to Antibiotic Exposure and Reveals Role of Oxidative Stress Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aunins, Thomas R; Erickson, Keesha E; Prasad, Nripesh; Levy, Shawn E; Jones, Angela; Shrestha, Shristi; Mastracchio, Rick; Stodieck, Louis; Klaus, David; Zea, Luis; Chatterjee, Anushree

    2018-01-01

    Bacteria grown in space experiments under microgravity conditions have been found to undergo unique physiological responses, ranging from modified cell morphology and growth dynamics to a putative increased tolerance to antibiotics. A common theory for this behavior is the loss of gravity-driven convection processes in the orbital environment, resulting in both reduction of extracellular nutrient availability and the accumulation of bacterial byproducts near the cell. To further characterize the responses, this study investigated the transcriptomic response of Escherichia coli to both microgravity and antibiotic concentration. E. coli was grown aboard International Space Station in the presence of increasing concentrations of the antibiotic gentamicin with identical ground controls conducted on Earth. Here we show that within 49 h of being cultured, E. coli adapted to grow at higher antibiotic concentrations in space compared to Earth, and demonstrated consistent changes in expression of 63 genes in response to an increase in drug concentration in both environments, including specific responses related to oxidative stress and starvation response. Additionally, we find 50 stress-response genes upregulated in response to the microgravity when compared directly to the equivalent concentration in the ground control. We conclude that the increased antibiotic tolerance in microgravity may be attributed not only to diminished transport processes, but also to a resultant antibiotic cross-resistance response conferred by an overlapping effect of stress response genes. Our data suggest that direct stresses of nutrient starvation and acid-shock conveyed by the microgravity environment can incidentally upregulate stress response pathways related to antibiotic stress and in doing so contribute to the increased antibiotic stress tolerance observed for bacteria in space experiments. These results provide insights into the ability of bacteria to adapt under extreme stress

  15. Spaceflight Modifies Escherichia coli Gene Expression in Response to Antibiotic Exposure and Reveals Role of Oxidative Stress Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aunins, Thomas R.; Erickson, Keesha E.; Prasad, Nripesh; Levy, Shawn E.; Jones, Angela; Shrestha, Shristi; Mastracchio, Rick; Stodieck, Louis; Klaus, David; Zea, Luis; Chatterjee, Anushree

    2018-01-01

    Bacteria grown in space experiments under microgravity conditions have been found to undergo unique physiological responses, ranging from modified cell morphology and growth dynamics to a putative increased tolerance to antibiotics. A common theory for this behavior is the loss of gravity-driven convection processes in the orbital environment, resulting in both reduction of extracellular nutrient availability and the accumulation of bacterial byproducts near the cell. To further characterize the responses, this study investigated the transcriptomic response of Escherichia coli to both microgravity and antibiotic concentration. E. coli was grown aboard International Space Station in the presence of increasing concentrations of the antibiotic gentamicin with identical ground controls conducted on Earth. Here we show that within 49 h of being cultured, E. coli adapted to grow at higher antibiotic concentrations in space compared to Earth, and demonstrated consistent changes in expression of 63 genes in response to an increase in drug concentration in both environments, including specific responses related to oxidative stress and starvation response. Additionally, we find 50 stress-response genes upregulated in response to the microgravity when compared directly to the equivalent concentration in the ground control. We conclude that the increased antibiotic tolerance in microgravity may be attributed not only to diminished transport processes, but also to a resultant antibiotic cross-resistance response conferred by an overlapping effect of stress response genes. Our data suggest that direct stresses of nutrient starvation and acid-shock conveyed by the microgravity environment can incidentally upregulate stress response pathways related to antibiotic stress and in doing so contribute to the increased antibiotic stress tolerance observed for bacteria in space experiments. These results provide insights into the ability of bacteria to adapt under extreme stress

  16. HU participates in expression of a specific set of genes required for growth and survival at acidic pH in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Hongkai; Sun, Lianle; Fukamachi, Toshihiko; Saito, Hiromi; Kobayashi, Hiroshi

    2009-05-01

    The major histone-like Escherichia coli protein, HU, is composed of alpha and beta subunits respectively encoded by hupA and hupB in Escherichia coli. A mutant deficient in both hupA and hupB grew at a slightly slower rate than the wild type at pH 7.5. Growth of the mutant diminished with a decrease in pH, and no growth was observed at pH 4.6. Mutants of either hupA or hupB grew at all pH levels tested. The arginine-dependent survival at pH 2.5 was diminished approximately 60-fold by the deletion of both hupA and hupB, whereas the survival was slightly affected by the deletion of either hupA or hupB. The mRNA levels of adiA and adiC, which respectively encode arginine decarboxylase and arginine/agmatine antiporter, were low in the mutant deficient in both hupA and hupB. The deletion of both hupA and hupB had little effect on survival at pH 2.5 in the presence of glutamate or lysine, and expression of the genes for glutamate and lysine decarboxylases was not impaired by the deletion of the HU genes. These results suggest that HU regulates expression of the specific set of genes required for growth and survival in acidic environments.

  17. Quantitative Brightness Analysis of Fluorescence Intensity Fluctuations in E. Coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-Ho Hur

    Full Text Available The brightness measured by fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy specifies the average stoichiometry of a labeled protein in a sample. Here we extended brightness analysis, which has been mainly applied in eukaryotic cells, to prokaryotic cells with E. coli serving as a model system. The small size of the E. coli cell introduces unique challenges for applying brightness analysis that are addressed in this work. Photobleaching leads to a depletion of fluorophores and a reduction of the brightness of protein complexes. In addition, the E. coli cell and the point spread function of the instrument only partially overlap, which influences intensity fluctuations. To address these challenges we developed MSQ analysis, which is based on the mean Q-value of segmented photon count data, and combined it with the analysis of axial scans through the E. coli cell. The MSQ method recovers brightness, concentration, and diffusion time of soluble proteins in E. coli. We applied MSQ to measure the brightness of EGFP in E. coli and compared it to solution measurements. We further used MSQ analysis to determine the oligomeric state of nuclear transport factor 2 labeled with EGFP expressed in E. coli cells. The results obtained demonstrate the feasibility of quantifying the stoichiometry of proteins by brightness analysis in a prokaryotic cell.

  18. Construction and expression of a functional monoclonal antibody SZ-51 specific for GMP-140 chimeric fab fragment in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Jianming; Zhang Xiaomin; Xia Lijun; Wan Haiying; Liu Yue; Li Peixia; Ruan Changgeng

    1996-04-01

    The variable region cDNAs of a monoclonal antibody SZ-51 specific for α-granule membrane protein (GMP-140) on the surface of activated human platelets were spliced with the constant region cDNA of the heavy chain CH1 and light chain k of human Ig G by means of the gene recombination techniques. The above recombinant gene was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The expression vector of phage plasmid pHEN1 SZ-51 Fab/Hu was constructed. The pHEN1-51 Fab/Hu was introduced into non-suppressor E. coli HB2151. The amount of expression of SZ-51 chimeric Fab/Hu measured by quantitative ELISA was about 500 μg/L. Western blot demonstrated that the SZ-51 chimeric Fab fragment could specifically bind to GMP-140. (2 figs.)

  19. Autodisplay of an avidin with biotin-binding activity on the surface of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardavé-Alejandre, H D; Alvarado-Yaah, J E; Pompa-Mera, E N; Muñoz-Medina, J E; Sárquiz-Martínez, B; Santacruz-Tinoco, C E; Manning-Cela, R G; Ortíz-Navarrete, V; López-Macías, C; González-Bonilla, C R

    2018-03-01

    To display a recombinant avidin fused to the autotransporter ShdA to bind biotinylated molecules on the surface of Escherichia coli. Two chimeric protein constructs containing avidin fused to the autotransporter ShdA were expressed on the surface of Escherichia coli DH5α. One fusion protein contained 476 amino acids of the ShdA α and β domains, whereas the second consisted of a 314 amino acid from α and truncated β domains. Protein production was verified by SDS-PAGE using an antibody to the molecular FLAG-tag. The surface display of the avidin-shdA fusion protein was confirmed by confocal microscopy and flow cytometry analysis, and the biotin-binding activity was evaluated by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry using biotin-4-fluorescein and biotinylated-ovalbumin (OVA). Expression of a recombinant avidin with biotin-binding activity on the surface of E. coli was achieved using the autotransporter ShdA. This system is an alternative to bind biotinylated molecules to E. coli.

  20. Stimulation of Escherichia coli F-18Col- Type-1 fimbriae synthesis by leuX

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newman, Joseph V.; Burghoff, Robert L.; Pallesen, Lars

    1994-01-01

    Escherichia coli F-18, a normal human fecal isolate, is an excellent colonizer of the streptomycin-treated mouse large intestine. E. coli F-18Col-, a derivative of E. coli F-18 which no longer makes the E. coli F-18 colicin, colonizes the large intestine as well as E. coli F-18 when fed to mice...... alone but is eliminated when fed together with E. coli F-18. Recently we randomly cloned E. coli F-18 DNA into E. coli F-18Col- and let the mouse intestine select the best colonizer. In this way, we isolated a 6.5-kb E. coli F-18 DNA sequence that simultaneously stimulated synthesis of type 1 fimbriae...... and enhanced E. coli F-18Col- colonizing ability. In the present investigation we show that the gene responsible for stimulation of type 1 fimbriae synthesis appears to be leuX, which encodes a tRNA specific for the rare leucine codon UUG. Moreover, it appears that expression of leuX may be regulated by two...

  1. Murine leukemia virus pol gene products: analysis with antisera generated against reverse transcriptase and endonuclease fusion proteins expressed in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, S.C.; Court, D.L.; Zweig, M.; Levin, J.G.

    1986-01-01

    The organization of the murine leukemia virus (MuLV) pol gene was investigated by expressing molecular clones containing AKR MuLV reverse transcriptase or endonuclease or both gene segments in Escherichia coli and generating specific antisera against the expressed bacterial proteins. Reaction of these antisera with detergent-disrupted virus precipitated and 80-kilodalton (kDa) protein, the MuLV reverse transcriptase, and a 46-kDa protein which we believe is the viral endonuclease. A third (50-kDa) protein, related to reverse transcriptase, was also precipitated. Bacterial extracts of clones expressing reverse transcriptase and endonuclease sequences competed with the viral 80- and 46-kDa proteins, respectively. These results demonstrate that the antisera are specific for viral reverse transcriptase and endonuclease. Immunoprecipitation of AKR MuLV with antisera prepared against a bacterial protein containing only endonuclease sequences led to the observation that reverse transcriptase and endonuclease can be associated as a complex involving a disulfide bond(s)

  2. DNA repair by the Ada protein of E. coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karran, P.; Hall, J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses the Ada protein of E. coli which exemplifies the highly specialized nature of the enzymes which have evolved to repair DNA. According to the authors, this protein exhibits not only novel mechanistic features but also provides an apparently unique example of a strategy for controlling gene expression in E. coli. They report that knowledge of the properties and mode of action of the Ada protein has afforded insight into how human cells are affected by alkylating agents, including those used in chemotherapy

  3. Efficient Production of an Engineered Apoptin from Chicken Anemia Virus in a Recombinant E. coli for Tumor Therapeutic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Meng-Shiou

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Apoptin, a nonstructural protein encoded by the VP3 gene of chicken anemia virus (CAV, has been shown to not only induce apoptosis when introduced into the precursors of chicken thymocytes, but has been found to specifically kill human cancer cells, tumor cell and transformed cells without affecting the proliferation of normal cells. This tumor-specific apoptotic characteristic of the protein potentially may allow the development of a protein drug that has applications in tumor therapy. However, several major problems, which include poor expression and poor protein solubility, have hampered the production of apoptin in bacteria. Results Significantly increased expression of recombinant full-length apoptin that originated from chicken anemia virus was demonstrated using an E. coli expression system. The CAV VP3 gene was fused with a synthetic sequence containing a trans-acting activator of transcription (TAT protein transduction domain (PTD. The resulting construct was cloned into various different expression vectors and these were then expressed in various E. coli strains. The expression of the TAT-Apoptin in E. coli was significantly increased when TAT-Apoptin was fused with GST-tag rather than a His-tag. When the various rare amino acid codons of apoptin were optimized, the expression level of the GST-TAT-Apoptinopt in E. coli BL21(DE3 was significantly further increased. The highest protein expression level obtained was 8.33 g/L per liter of bacterial culture after induction with 0.1 mM IPTG for 4 h at 25 °C. Moreover, approximately 90% of the expressed GST-TAT-Apoptinopt under these conditions was soluble. After purification by GST affinity chromatography, the purified recombinant TAT-Apoptinopt protein was used to evaluate the recombinant protein’s apoptotic activity on tumor cells. The results demonstrated that the E. coli-expressed GST-TAT-apoptinopt showed apoptotic activity and was able to induce human

  4. On the efficient bio-incorporation of 5-hydroxy-tryptophan in recombinant proteins expressed in Escherichia coli with T7 RNA polymerase-based vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Souza, Wellington P; Bronze, Fellipe; Broos, Jaap; Marcondes, Marcelo F M; Oliveira, Vitor

    2017-10-21

    Biosynthetic incorporation of non-canonic amino acids is an attractive strategy to introduce new properties in recombinant proteins. Trp analogs can be incorporated in recombinant proteins replacing regular Trp during protein translation into a Trp-auxotrophic cell host. This straightforward method however, is limited to few analogs recognized and accepted by the cellular protein production machinery. 5-hydroxy-tryptophan (5OH-Trp) can be bio-incorporated using E. coli as expression host however; we have experienced very low incorporation yields - amount of protein containing regular Trp/amount of protein containing the Trp analog - during expressions of 5OH-Trp labeled proteins. Furthermore, this low incorporation yield were verified especially when the widely-used vectors based on the T7 RNA polymerase were used. Testing different 5OH-Trp incorporation protocols we verified that in these T7-based systems, the production of the T7 RNA polymerase is driven by the same elements - lac promoter/IPTG - as the target protein. Consequently, the bio-incorporation of the 5OH-Trp residues also occurs in this crucial enzyme, but, the produced T7 RNA polymerase labeled with 5OH-Trp is inactive or much less active. In the present work, we describe an efficient method to overcome this mentioned problem and bio-incorporate 5OH-Trp in proteins expressed in E. coli., using vectors based on the T7 RNA polymerase-T7 promoter. The two-step induction protocol here described showed incorporation efficiencies of 5OH-Trp higher than 90%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Inhibitory effect of 2‑mercaptoethane sulfonate on the formation of Escherichia coli biofilms in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sheng; He, Nianhai; Yu, Jialin; Li, Luquan; Sun, Fengjun; Hu, Ying; Deng, Rui; Zhong, Shiming; Shen, Leilei

    2015-10-01

    The biofilms (BF) formed by Escherichia coli (E. coli) is an important cause of chronic and recurrent infections due to its capacity to persist on medical surfaces and indwelling devices, demonstrating the importance of inhibiting the formation of E. coli BF and reducing BF infection. Although 2‑mercaptoethane sulfonate (MESNA) exhibits a marked mucolytic effect clinically, the effect of MESNA on the inhibition of E. coli BF formation remains to be elucidated. The present study investigated whether MESNA inhibits the formation of E. coli BF in vitro. The minimum inhibitory concentration of MESNA on E. coli was determined to be 10 mg/ml. Subsequently, the effect of MESNA on BF early adhesion, extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) and extracellular protein were detected. The effect of a subinhibitory concentration of MESNA on BF formation was evaluated, and the inhibitory potency of MESNA against matured BF was assayed. The results revealed that MESNA inhibited early stage adhesion and formation of the E. coli BF, destroyed the mature BF membrane and reduced the EPS and extracellular proteins levels of the BF. In addition, the present study investigated the effects of MESNA on the expression of EPS‑ and adhesion protein‑associated genes using quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis, which demonstrated that MESNA effectively inhibited the expression of these genes. These results suggested that MESNA possesses anti‑BF formation capability on E. coli in vitro and may be used as a potential reagent for the clinical treatment of E. coli BF‑associated infections.

  6. Fate of the H-NS-repressed bgl operon in evolution of Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Sabari Sankar

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In the enterobacterial species Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica, expression of horizontally acquired genes with a higher than average AT content is repressed by the nucleoid-associated protein H-NS. A classical example of an H-NS-repressed locus is the bgl (aryl-beta,D-glucoside operon of E. coli. This locus is "cryptic," as no laboratory growth conditions are known to relieve repression of bgl by H-NS in E. coli K12. However, repression can be relieved by spontaneous mutations. Here, we investigated the phylogeny of the bgl operon. Typing of bgl in a representative collection of E. coli demonstrated that it evolved clonally and that it is present in strains of the phylogenetic groups A, B1, and B2, while it is presumably replaced by a cluster of ORFans in the phylogenetic group D. Interestingly, the bgl operon is mutated in 20% of the strains of phylogenetic groups A and B1, suggesting erosion of bgl in these groups. However, bgl is functional in almost all B2 isolates and, in approximately 50% of them, it is weakly expressed at laboratory growth conditions. Homologs of bgl genes exist in Klebsiella, Enterobacter, and Erwinia species and also in low GC-content Gram-positive bacteria, while absent in E. albertii and Salmonella sp. This suggests horizontal transfer of bgl genes to an ancestral Enterobacterium. Conservation and weak expression of bgl in isolates of phylogenetic group B2 may indicate a functional role of bgl in extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli.

  7. Antibiotic Susceptibilities and Genetic Characteristics of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli Isolates from Stools of Pediatric Diarrhea Patients in Surabaya, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagus Wasito, Eddy; Shigemura, Katsumi; Osawa, Kayo; Fardah, Alpha; Kanaida, Akiho; Raharjo, Dadik; Kuntaman, K; Hadi, Usman; Harijono, Sugeng; Marto Sudarmo, Subijanto; Nakamura, Tatsuya; Shibayama, Keigo; Fujisawa, Masato; Shirakawa, Toshiro

    2017-07-24

    The purpose of this study was to investigate extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli isolates from pediatric (aged 0 to 3 years) diarrhea patients in Surabaya, Indonesia, where this kind of survey is rare; our study included assessment of their antibiotic susceptibilities, as well as ESBL typing, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and diarrheagenic E. coli (DEC)-typing. ESBL-producing E. coli were detected in 18.8% of all the samples. Many ESBL-producing E. coli had significantly lower susceptibility to gentamicin (p < 0.0001) and the quinolones nalidixic acid (p=0.004) and ciprofloxacin (p < 0.0001) than non-producers. In ESBL-producing E. coli, 84.0% of strains expressed CTX-M-15 alone or in combination with other ESBL types. MLST revealed that 24.0% of ESBL-producers had sequence type 617, all of which expressed the CTX-M-15 gene; we also detected expression of 3 DEC-related genes: 2 enteroaggregative E. coli genes and 1 enteropathogenic E. coli gene. In conclusion, CTX-M-15-type ESBL-producing E. coli ST617 appear to have spread to Indonesia.

  8. Construction and heterologous expression of a truncated Haemagglutinin (HA) protein from the avian influenza virus H5N1 in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee Wei, T; Nurul Wahida, A G; Shaharum, S

    2014-12-01

    Malaysia first reported H5N1 poultry case in 2004 and subsequently outbreak in poultry population in 2007. Here, a recombinant gene encoding of peptide epitopes, consisting fragments of HA1, HA2 and a polybasic cleavage site of H5N1 strain Malaysia, was amplified and cloned into pET-47b(+) bacterial expression vector. DNA sequencing and alignment analysis confirmed that the gene had no alteration and in-frame to the vector. Then, His-tagged truncated HA protein was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) under 1 mM IPTG induction. The protein expression was optimized under a time-course induction study and further purified using Ni-NTA agarose under reducing condition. Migration size of protein was detected at 15 kDa by Western blot using anti-His tag monoclonal antibody and demonstrated no discrepancy compared to its calculated molecular weight.

  9. Production of recombinant proteins from Plasmodium falciparum in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Ángela Patricia; Calvo, Eliana Patricia; Wasserman, Moisés; Chaparro-Olaya, Jacqueline

    2016-02-23

    The production of recombinant proteins is essential for the characterization and functional study of proteins from Plasmodium falciparum. However, the proteins of P. falciparum are among the most challenging to express, and when expression is achieved, the recombinant proteins usually fold incorrectly and lead to the formation of inclusion bodies.  To obtain and purify four recombinant proteins and to use them as antigens to produce polyclonal antibodies. The production efficiency and solubility were evaluated as the proteins were expressed in two genetically modified strains of Escherichia coli to favor the production of heterologous proteins (BL21-CodonPlus (DE3)-RIL and BL21-pG-KJE8).  The four recombinant P. falciparum proteins corresponding to partial sequences of PfMyoA (Myosin A) and PfGAP50 (gliding associated protein 50), and the complete sequences of PfMTIP (myosin tail interacting protein) and PfGAP45 (gliding associated protein 45), were produced as glutathione S-transferase-fusion proteins, purified and used for immunizing mice.  The protein expression was much more efficient in BL21-CodonPlus, the strain that contains tRNAs that are rare in wild-type E. coli, compared to the expression in BL21-pG-KJE8. In spite of the fact that BL21-pG-KJE8 overexpresses chaperones, this strain did not minimize the formation of inclusion bodies.  The use of genetically modified strains of E. coli was essential to achieve high expression levels of the four evaluated P. falciparum proteins and lead to improved solubility of two of them. The approach used here allowed us to obtain and purify four P. falciparum proteins in enough quantity to produce polyclonal antibodies in mice, and a fair amount of two pure and soluble recombinant proteins for future assays.

  10. Effects of recombinant human collagen VI from Escherichia coli on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-20

    Jul 20, 2011 ... In this study, we reported the cloning and over expression of a gene coding for human collagen peptide. (CP6) in Escherichia coli and investigated the protective effects of CP6 on UVA-irradiated human skin fibroblasts cells. The collagen peptide (CP6) was highly soluble and the expression level was.

  11. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 Ameliorates Escherichia coli-Induced Inflammation and Cell Damage via Attenuation of ASC-Independent NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiong; Liu, Ming-Chao; Yang, Jun; Wang, Jiu-Feng; Zhu, Yao-Hong

    2016-02-15

    Escherichia coli is a major environmental pathogen causing bovine mastitis, which leads to mammary tissue damage and cell death. We explored the effects of the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 on ameliorating E. coli-induced inflammation and cell damage in primary bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMECs). Increased Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), NOD1, and NOD2 mRNA expression was observed following E. coli challenge, but this increase was attenuated by L. rhamnosus GR-1 pretreatment. Immunofluorescence and Western blot analyses revealed that L. rhamnosus GR-1 pretreatment decreased the E. coli-induced increases in the expression of the NOD-like receptor family member pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) and the serine protease caspase 1. However, expression of the adaptor protein apoptosis-associated speck-like protein (ASC, encoded by the Pycard gene) was decreased during E. coli infection, even with L. rhamnosus GR-1 pretreatment. Pretreatment with L. rhamnosus GR-1 counteracted the E. coli-induced increases in interleukin-1β (IL-1β), -6, -8, and -18 and tumor necrosis factor alpha mRNA expression but upregulated IL-10 mRNA expression. Our data indicate that L. rhamnosus GR-1 reduces the adhesion of E. coli to BMECs, subsequently ameliorating E. coli-induced disruption of cellular morphology and ultrastructure and limiting detrimental inflammatory responses, partly via promoting TLR2 and NOD1 synergism and attenuating ASC-independent NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Although the residual pathogenic activity of L. rhamnosus, the dosage regimen, and the means of probiotic supplementation in cattle remain undefined, our data enhance our understanding of the mechanism of action of this candidate probiotic, allowing for development of specific probiotic-based therapies and strategies for preventing pathogenic infection of the bovine mammary gland. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Functional Analysis of Genes Comprising the Locus of Heat Resistance in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Ryan; Nguyen, Oanh; Ou, Qixing; McMullen, Lynn; Gänzle, Michael G

    2017-10-15

    The locus of heat resistance (LHR) is a 15- to 19-kb genomic island conferring exceptional heat resistance to organisms in the family Enterobacteriaceae , including pathogenic strains of Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli The complement of LHR-comprising genes that is necessary for heat resistance and the stress-induced or growth-phase-induced expression of LHR-comprising genes are unknown. This study determined the contribution of the seven LHR-comprising genes yfdX1 GI , yfdX2 , hdeD GI , orf11 , trx GI , kefB , and psiE GI by comparing the heat resistances of E. coli strains harboring plasmid-encoded derivatives of the different LHRs in these genes. (Genes carry a subscript "GI" [genomic island] if an ortholog of the same gene is present in genomes of E. coli ) LHR-encoded heat shock proteins sHSP20, ClpK GI , and sHSP GI are not sufficient for the heat resistance phenotype; YfdX1, YfdX2, and HdeD are necessary to complement the LHR heat shock proteins and to impart a high level of resistance. Deletion of trx GI , kefB , and psiE GI from plasmid-encoded copies of the LHR did not significantly affect heat resistance. The effect of the growth phase and the NaCl concentration on expression from the putative LHR promoter p2 was determined by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR and by a plasmid-encoded p2:GFP promoter fusion. The expression levels of exponential- and stationary-phase E. coli cells were not significantly different, but the addition of 1% NaCl significantly increased LHR expression. Remarkably, LHR expression in E. coli was dependent on a chromosomal copy of evgA In conclusion, this study improved our understanding of the genes required for exceptional heat resistance in E. coli and factors that increase their expression in food. IMPORTANCE The locus of heat resistance (LHR) is a genomic island conferring exceptional heat resistance to several foodborne pathogens. The exceptional level of heat resistance provided by the LHR questions the

  13. Large-scale preparation of active caspase-3 in E. coli by designing its thrombin-activatable precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Sung

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Caspase-3, a principal apoptotic effector that cleaves the majority of cellular substrates, is an important medicinal target for the treatment of cancers and neurodegenerative diseases. Large amounts of the protein are required for drug discovery research. However, previous efforts to express the full-length caspase-3 gene in E. coli have been unsuccessful. Results Overproducers of thrombin-activatable full-length caspase-3 precursors were prepared by engineering the auto-activation sites of caspase-3 precursor into a sequence susceptible to thrombin hydrolysis. The engineered precursors were highly expressed as soluble proteins in E. coli and easily purified by affinity chromatography, to levels of 10–15 mg from 1 L of E. coli culture, and readily activated by thrombin digestion. Kinetic evaluation disclosed that thrombin digestion enhanced catalytic activity (kcat/KM of the precursor proteins by two orders of magnitude. Conclusion A novel method for a large-scale preparation of active caspase-3 was developed by a strategic engineering to lack auto-activation during expression with amino acid sequences susceptible to thrombin, facilitating high-level expression in E. coli. The precursor protein was easily purified and activated through specific cleavage at the engineered sites by thrombin, generating active caspase-3 in high yields.

  14. Overexpression of SOS genes in ciprofloxacin resistant Escherichia coli mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourahmad Jaktaji, Razieh; Pasand, Shirin

    2016-01-15

    Fluoroquinolones are important antibiotics for the treatment of urinary tract infections caused by Escherichia coli. Mutational studies have shown that ciprofloxacin, a member of fluoroquinolones induces SOS response and mutagenesis in pathogenic bacteria which in turn develop antibiotic resistance. However, inhibition of SOS response can increase recombination activity which in turn leads to genetic variation. The aim of this study was to measure 5 SOS genes expressions in nine E. coli mutants with different MICs for ciprofloxacin following exposure to ciprofloxacin. Gene expression was assessed by quantitative real time PCR. Gene alteration assessment was conducted by PCR amplification and DNA sequencing. Results showed that the expression of recA was increased in 5 mutants. This overexpression is not related to gene alteration, and enhances the expression of polB and umuCD genes encoding nonmutagenic and mutagenic polymerases, respectively. The direct relationship between the level of SOS expression and the level of resistance to ciprofloxacin was also indicated. It was concluded that novel therapeutic strategy that inhibits RecA activity would enhance the efficiency of common antibiotics against pathogenic bacteria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. YnfA , a SMR family efflux pump is abundant in Escherichia coli isolates from urinary infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S K Sarkar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A quantitative study was undertaken to determine the expression level of different efflux pumps in multi-drug-resistant (MDR Escherichia coli isolates from urinary infection. We have determined the presence of different efflux pumps and measured the expression level of tolC, mdfA, norE and ynfA genes among 48 isolates by quantitative real-time PCR. The expression level of tolC and ynfA was constantly high and observed among 75-80% of isolates, whereas mdfA and norE were expressed occasionally. Our findings suggest that ynfA, a new SMR efflux pump gene family member increases the antibiotics′ resistance in E. coli.

  16. In vivo modification of tyrosine residues in recombinant mussel adhesive protein by tyrosinase co-expression in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi Yoo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In nature, mussel adhesive proteins (MAPs show remarkable adhesive properties, biocompatibility, and biodegradability. Thus, they have been considered promising adhesive biomaterials for various biomedical and industrial applications. However, limited production of natural MAPs has hampered their practical applications. Recombinant production in bacterial cells could be one alternative to obtain useable amounts of MAPs, although additional post-translational modification of tyrosine residues into 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-alanine (Dopa and Dopaquinone is required. The superior properties of MAPs are mainly attributed to the introduction of quinone-derived intermolecular cross-links. To solve this problem, we utilized a co-expression strategy of recombinant MAP and tyrosinase in Escherichia coli to successfully modify tyrosine residues in vivo. Results A recombinant hybrid MAP, fp-151, was used as a target for in vivo modification, and a dual vector system of pET and pACYC-Duet provided co-expression of fp-151 and tyrosinase. As a result, fp-151 was over-expressed and mainly obtained from the soluble fraction in the co-expression system. Without tyrosinase co-expression, fp-151 was over-expressed in an insoluble form in inclusion bodies. The modification of tyrosine residues in the soluble-expressed fp-151 was clearly observed from nitroblue tetrazolium staining and liquid-chromatography-mass/mass spectrometry analyses. The purified, in vivo modified, fp-151 from the co-expression system showed approximately 4-fold higher bulk-scale adhesive strength compared to in vitro tyrosinase-treated fp-151. Conclusion Here, we reported a co-expression system to obtain in vivo modified MAP; additional in vitro tyrosinase modification was not needed to obtain adhesive properties and the in vivo modified MAP showed superior adhesive strength compared to in vitro modified protein. It is expected that this co-expression strategy will accelerate

  17. Autodisplay of the La/SSB protein on LPS-free E. coli for the diagnosis of Sjögren's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Gu; Dilkaute, Carina; Bong, Ji-Hong; Song, Hyun-Woo; Lee, Misu; Kang, Min-Jung; Jose, Joachim; Pyun, Jae-Chul

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this study was to present an immunoassay for the diagnosis of Sjögren's syndrome based on the autodisplayed La/SSB protein on the outer membrane of intact E. coli (strain UT-5600) and LPS-free E. coli (ClearColi™). As the first step, an autodisplay vector (pCK002) was transfected into intact E. coli and LPS-free E. coli for comparison of efficiency of autdisplay of La/SSB. The maximal level of La/SSB expression was estimated to be similar for LPS-free E. coli and intact E. coli at different optimal induction periods. Intact E. coli was found to grow twofold faster than LPS-free E. coli, and the maximal level of expression for LPS-free E. coli was obtained with a longer induction period. When the zeta potential was measured, both intact E. coli and LPS-free E. coli showed negative values, and the autodisplay of negatively charged La/SSB protein (pIE. coli and LPS-free E. coli resulted in a slight change in zeta potential values. E. coli with autodisplayed La/SSB protein was used for an immunoassay of anti-La/SSB antibodies for the diagnosis of Sjögren's syndrome. The surface of E. coli with the autodisplayed antigen was modified with rabbit serum and papain to prevent false positive signals because of nonspecific binding of unrelated antibodies from human serum. LPS-free E. coli with autodisplayed La/SSB protein yielded sensitivity and selectivity of 81.6% and 78.6%, respectively. The Bland-Altman test showed that the immunoassays based on LPS-free E. coli and intact E. coli with autodisplayed La/SSB protein were statistically equivalent to a clinical immunoassay for detection of anti-La/SSB antibodies (confidence coefficient 95%). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Novel roles for the AIDA adhesin from diarrheagenic Escherichia coli:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sherlock, Orla; Schembri, Mark; Reisner, A.

    2004-01-01

    Diarrhea-causing Escherichia coli strains are responsible for numerous cases of gastrointestinal disease and constitute a serious health problem throughout the world. The ability to recognize and attach to host intestinal surfaces is an essential step in the pathogenesis of such strains. AIDA...... binds to mammalian cells. Here, we show that AIDA possesses self-association characteristics and can mediate autoaggregation of E. coli cells. We demonstrate that intercellular AIDA-AIDA interaction is responsible for bacterial autoaggregation. Interestingly, AIDA-expressing cells can interact...

  19. Improved soluble expression and characterization of the Hc domain of Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin serotype A in Escherichia coli by using a PCR-synthesized gene and a Trx co-expression strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rongchang; Shi, Jing; Cai, Kun; Tu, Wei; Hou, Xiaojun; Liu, Hao; Xiao, Le; Wang, Qin; Tang, Yunming; Wang, Hui

    2010-05-01

    Botulinum neurotoxin serotype A (BoNT/A) is an extremely potent bacterial protein toxin. The Hc fragment of BoNT/A (AHc) was shown to be non-toxic, antigenic, and capable of eliciting a protective immunity in animals challenged with homologous BoNT. In this study, we synthesized AHc gene by using T4 DNA ligase and PCR. The AHc was expressed at a high level in Escherichia coli successfully. Because of using the Trx co-expression strain, the expressed AHc is in a soluble and active form. The yield of the purified AHc was about 70mg/L, and its purity was up to 90% through one-step affinity chromatography. The AHc was positively identified by the antibodies raised against BoNT/A using immunological-dot-blot and Western blot assays. AHc was shown to bind with gangliosides and elicit immunity against BoNT/A, indicating that the expressed and purified AHc protein retains a functionally active conformation. Furthermore, the purified AHc has a strong immunogenicity and can be used as a potential subunit candidate vaccine for botulinum toxin serotype A. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Escherichia coli pathotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escherichia coli strains are important commensals of the intestinal tract of humans and animals; however, pathogenic strains, including diarrhea-inducing E. coli and extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli. Intestinal E. coli pathotypes may cause a dehydrating watery diarrhea, or more severe diseases su...

  1. Impediments to Enhancement of CPT-11 Anticancer Activity by E. coli Directed Beta-Glucuronidase Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yuan-Ting; Chen, Kai-Chuan; Cheng, Chiu-Min; Cheng, Tian-Lu; Tao, Mi-Hua; Roffler, Steve R.

    2015-01-01

    CPT-11 is a camptothecin analog used for the clinical treatment of colorectal adenocarcinoma. CPT-11 is converted into the therapeutic anti-cancer agent SN-38 by liver enzymes and can be further metabolized to a non-toxic glucuronide SN-38G, resulting in low SN-38 but high SN-38G concentrations in the circulation. We previously demonstrated that adenoviral expression of membrane-anchored beta-glucuronidase could promote conversion of SN-38G to SN-38 in tumors and increase the anticancer activity of CPT-11. Here, we identified impediments to effective tumor therapy with E. coli that were engineered to constitutively express highly active E. coli beta-glucuronidase intracellularly to enhance the anticancer activity of CPT-11. The engineered bacteria, E. coli (lux/βG), could hydrolyze SN-38G to SN-38, increased the sensitivity of cultured tumor cells to SN-38G by about 100 fold and selectively accumulated in tumors. However, E. coli (lux/βG) did not more effectively increase CPT-11 anticancer activity in human tumor xenografts as compared to non-engineered E. coli. SN-38G conversion to SN-38 by E. coli (lux/βG) appeared to be limited by slow uptake into bacteria as well as by segregation of E. coli in necrotic regions of tumors that may be relatively inaccessible to systemically-administered drug molecules. Studies using a fluorescent glucuronide probe showed that significantly greater glucuronide hydrolysis could be achieved in mice pretreated with E. coli (lux/βG) by direct intratumoral injection of the glucuronide probe or by intratumoral lysis of bacteria to release intracellular beta-glucuronidase. Our study suggests that the distribution of beta-glucuronidase, and possibly other therapeutic proteins, in the tumor microenvironment might be an important barrier for effective bacterial-based tumor therapy. Expression of secreted therapeutic proteins or induction of therapeutic protein release from bacteria might therefore be a promising strategy to enhance anti

  2. Sodium nitroprusside may modulate Escherichia coli antioxidant enzyme expression by interacting with the ferric uptake regulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, R; Danielson, D; Gong, V; Olynik, B; Eze, M O

    2012-01-01

    Efforts to explore possible relationships between nitric oxide (NO) and antioxidant enzymes in an Escherichia coli model have uncovered a possible interaction between sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a potent, NO-donating drug, and the ferric uptake regulator (Fur), an iron(II)--dependent regulator of antioxidant and iron acquisition proteins present in Gram-negative bacteria. The enzymatic profiles of superoxide dismutase and hydroperoxidase during logarithmic phase of growth were studied via non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and activity staining specific to each enzyme. Though NO is known to induce transcription of the manganese-bearing isozyme of SOD (MnSOD), treatment with SNP paradoxically suppressed MnSOD expression and greatly enhanced the activity of the iron-containing equivalent (FeSOD). Fur, one of six global regulators of MnSOD transcription, is uniquely capable of suppressing MnSOD while enhancing FeSOD expression through distinct mechanisms. We thus hypothesize that Fur is complacent in causing this behaviour and that the iron(II) component of SNP is activating Fur. E. coli was also treated with the SNP structural analogues, potassium ferricyanide (PFi) and potassium ferrocyanide (PFo). Remarkably, the ferrous PFo was capable of mimicking the SNP-related pattern, whereas the ferric PFi was not. As Fur depends upon ferrous iron for activation, we submit this observation of redox-specificity as preliminary supporting evidence for the hypothesized Fur-SNP interaction. Iron is an essential metal that the human innate immune system sequesters to prevent its use by invading pathogens. As NO is known to inhibit iron-bound Fur, and as activated Fur regulates iron uptake through feedback inhibition, we speculate that the administration of this drug may disrupt this strategic management of iron in favour of residing Gram-negative species by providing a source of iron in an otherwise iron-scarce environment capable of encouraging its own uptake

  3. Highly sensitive immunoassay based on E. coli with autodisplayed Z-domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jose, Joachim; Park, Min; Pyun, Jae-Chul

    2010-01-01

    The Z-domain of protein A has been known to bind specifically to the F c region of antibodies (IgGs). In this work, the Z-domain of protein A was expressed on the outer membrane of Escherichia coli by using 'Autodisplay' technology as a fusion protein of autotransport domain. The E. coli with autodisplayed Z-domain was applied to the sandwich-type immunoassay as a solid-support of detection-antibodies against a target analyte. For the feasibility demonstration of the E. coli based immunoassay, C-reactive protein (CRP) assay was carried out by using E. coli with autodisplayed Z-domain. The limit of detection (LOD) and binding capacity of the E. coli based immunoassay were estimated to be far more sensitive than the conventional ELISA. Such a far higher sensitivity of E. coli based immunoassay than conventional ELISA was explained by the orientation control of immobilized antibodies and the mobility of E. coli in assay matrix. From the test results of 45 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients' serum and 15 healthy samples, a cut-off value was established to have optimal sensitivity and selectivity values for RA. The CRP test result of each individual sample was compared with ELISA which is the reference method for RA diagnosis. From this work, the E. coli with Z-domain was proved to be feasible for the medical diagnosis based on sandwich-type immunoassay.

  4. Interspecies Quorum Sensing as a Stress-Anticipation Signal in E. coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyland-Kroghsbo, Nina Molin

    in the bacterial cell-cell communication field is why E. coli harbors SdiA, an orphan quorum sensing receptor that is activated in response to AHL quorum sensing molecules produced by other Gram-negative species. The overall aim of this PhD thesis was to investigate to what degree AHL quorum sensing signals...... are exploited by E. coli to increase its chances of surviving potential environmental threats. This thesis uncovers the first quorum sensing-regulated bacteriophage defense mechanism, which serves to protect E. coli against infection by the bacteriophage viruses λ and χ. Investigating the regulatory mechanism...... underlying the quorum sensing regulated defense mechanism, led to the discovery that AHL activates expression of cnu, encoding an Hha-family protein that interacts with the global regulatory protein H-NS, and potentially modifies its functions. Inspired by the discovery that AHL protects E. coli from...

  5. Heterologous co-expression of accA, fabD, and thioesterase genes for improving long-chain fatty acid production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunhee; Jeon, Eunyoung; Jung, Yeontae; Lee, Jinwon

    2012-05-01

    The goal of the present study was to increase the content of intracellular long-chain fatty acids in two bacterial strains, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14 and Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655, by co-overexpressing essential enzymes that are involved in the fatty acid synthesis metabolic pathway. Recently, microbial fatty acids and their derivatives have been receiving increasing attention as an alternative source of fuel. By introducing two genes (accA and fabD) of P. aeruginosa into the two bacterial strains and by co-expressing with them the fatty acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase gene of Streptococcus pyogenes (strain MGAS10270), we have engineered recombinant strains that are efficient producers of long-chain fatty acids (C16 and C18). The recombinant strains exhibit a 1.3-1.7-fold increase in the production of long-chain fatty acids over the wild-type strains. To enhance the production of total long-chain fatty acids, we researched the carbon sources for optimized culture conditions and results were used for post-culture incubation period. E. coli SGJS17 (containing the accA, fabD, and thioesterase genes) produced the highest content of intracellular total fatty acids; in particular, the unsaturated fatty acid content was about 20-fold higher than that in the wild-type E. coli.

  6. Proteomic analysis of the response of Escherichia coli to short-chain fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Moyá, María; Gonzalez, Ramon

    2015-06-03

    Given their simple and easy-to-manipulate chemical structures, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are valuable feedstocks for many industrial applications. While the microbial production of SCFAs by engineered Escherichia coli has been demonstrated recently, productivity and yields are limited by their antimicrobial properties. In this work, we performed a comparative proteomic analysis of E. coli under octanoic acid stress (15 mM) and identified the underlying mechanisms of SCFA toxicity. Out of a total of 33 spots differentially expressed at a p-value ≤ 0.05, nine differentially expressed proteins involved in transport and structural roles (OmpF, HPr, and FliC), oxidative stress (SodA, SodB, and TrxA), protein synthesis (PPiB and RpsA) and metabolic functions (HPr, PflB) were selected for further investigation. Our studies suggest that membrane damage and oxidative stress are the main routes of inhibition by SCFAs in E. coli. The outer membrane porin OmpF had the greatest impact on SCFA tolerance. Intracellular pH analysis on ompF mutants grown under octanoic acid stress indicated that this porin facilitates transport of SCFAs into the cell. The same response was observed under hexanoic acid stress, further supporting the role of OmpF in response to the presence of SCFAs. Furthermore, analysis of membrane protein expression revealed that other outer membrane porins are also involved in the response of E. coli to SCFAs. This work covers the first known proteomic analysis to assess the inhibitory effect of SCFAs in E. coli. SCFAs are molecules of great interest in the industry, but their microbial production is limited by their antimicrobial properties. This work allowed identification of differentially expressed proteins in response to SCFA stress and demonstrated the relevance of short- and medium-chain FA transport across the cell membrane via outer membrane porins, providing valuable insights on the toxicity mechanism of SCFAs in E. coli. These results could

  7. Purification and Characterization of Recombinant Vaccinia L1R Protein from Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    RECOMBINANT VACCINIA L1R PROTEIN FROM ESCHERICHIA COLI 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background Vaccinia virus (VACV) is the active component of the...the preparation of the recombinant VACV L1R protein fragment by denaturing , refolding, and purifying material expressed into inclusion bodies in...PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF RECOMBINANT VACCINIA L1R PROTEIN FROM ESCHERICHIA COLI ECBC-TR-1370

  8. Expression and Hydroxylamine Cleavage of Thymosin Alpha 1 Concatemer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Zhou

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Human thymosin alpha 1 (Tα1 is an important peptide in the development and senescence of immunological competence in human, and many studies have reported the expression of this peptide. In this study, we designed and synthesized the Tα1 gene according to the E. coli codon usage preference and constructed a 6×Tα1 concatemer. The latter was inserted into an E. coli expression vector pET-22b (+, and transformed into E. coli BL21 (DE3. After induction with IPTG, the concatemer protein was successfully expressed in E. coli then cleaved by hydroxylamine to release the Tα1 monomer. Gly-SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry confirmed that the recombinant protein was cleaved as intended. The bioactivity of the Tα1 monomer was analyzed by lymphocyte proliferation and by mitochondrial activity in two different tumor cell lines. This study provides a description of the preparation of a bioactive Tα1, which may prove useful in future biomedical research.

  9. Design and application of transcription factor based metabolite sensors in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siedler, Solvej; Stahlhut, Steen Gustav; Bringer, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    SoxR that activates expression of soxS in the absence of NADPH in Escherichia coli. We coupled the response to the expression of an auto fluorescent protein and the specific fluorescence of sensor containing cells correlated with enzyme activity of an NADPH-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase from...

  10. Expression of Functional Human Sialyltransferases ST3Gal1 and ST6Gal1 in Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elena Ortiz-Soto

    Full Text Available Sialyltransferases (STs are disulfide-containing, type II transmembrane glycoproteins that catalyze the transfer of sialic acid to proteins and lipids and participate in the synthesis of the core structure oligosaccharides of human milk. Sialic acids are found at the outermost position of glycostructures, playing a key role in health and disease. Sialylation is also essential for the production of recombinant therapeutic proteins (RTPs. Despite their importance, availability of sialyltransferases is limited due to the low levels of stable, soluble and active protein produced in bacterial expression systems, which hampers biochemical and structural studies on these enzymes and restricts biotechnological applications. We report the successful expression of active human sialyltransferases ST3Gal1 and ST6Gal1 in commercial Escherichia coli strains designed for production of disulfide-containing proteins. Fusion of hST3Gal1 with different solubility enhancers and substitution of exposed hydrophobic amino acids by negatively charged residues (supercharging-like approach were performed to promote solubility and folding. Co-expression of sialyltransferases with the chaperon/foldases sulfhydryl oxidase, protein disulfide isomerase and disulfide isomerase C was explored to improve the formation of native disulfide bonds. Active sialyltransferases fused with maltose binding protein (MBP were obtained in sufficient amounts for biochemical and structural studies when expressed under oxidative conditions and co-expression of folding factors increased the yields of active and properly folded sialyltransferases by 20%. Mutation of exposed hydrophobic amino acids increased recovery of active enzyme by 2.5-fold, yielding about 7 mg of purified protein per liter culture. Functionality of recombinant enzymes was evaluated in the synthesis of sialosides from the β-d-galactoside substrates lactose, N-acetyllactosamine and benzyl 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-3-O-(β-d-galactopyranosyl-α-d-galactopyranoside.

  11. [Expression of the genes for lysine biosynthesis of Bacillus subtilis in Escherichia coli cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, T N; Okunev, O V; Aleksieva, Z M; Maliuta, S S

    1984-01-01

    Hybrid plasmids pLRS33 and pLRB4 containing Bac. subtilis genes coding lysin biosynthesis were subjected to genetical analysis. It is shown that after pLRS33- and pLRB4- transformation of E. coli strains, auxotrophic relative to lysin and diaminopimelic acid, there occurs complementation of dapA, dapB, dapC, dapD, dapE, lysA mutations by plasmid pLRS33 and of dapC, dapB, lysA mutations by plasmid pLRB4. The plasmids are studied for their influence on the level of lysin and its precurror synthesis in E. coli strains.

  12. Acquisition of carbapenem resistance by plasmid-encoded-AmpC-expressing Escherichia coli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tommassen - van Boxtel, Ria; Wattel, Agnes A.; Arenas Busto, Jesus; Goessens, Wil H.F.; Tommassen, J

    2017-01-01

    Although AmpC β-lactamases can barely degrade carbapenems, if at all, they can sequester them and prevent them from reaching their targets. Thus, carbapenem resistance in Escherichia coli and other Enterobacteriaceae can result from AmpC production and simultaneous reduction of antibiotic influx

  13. Hydrogenase-3 contributes to anaerobic acid resistance of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Ken; Riggins, Daniel P; Eldahan, Khalid C; Kitko, Ryan D; Slonczewski, Joan L

    2010-04-12

    Hydrogen production by fermenting bacteria such as Escherichia coli offers a potential source of hydrogen biofuel. Because H(2) production involves consumption of 2H(+), hydrogenase expression is likely to involve pH response and regulation. Hydrogenase consumption of protons in E. coli has been implicated in acid resistance, the ability to survive exposure to acid levels (pH 2-2.5) that are three pH units lower than the pH limit of growth (pH 5-6). Enhanced survival in acid enables a larger infective inoculum to pass through the stomach and colonize the intestine. Most acid resistance mechanisms have been defined using aerobic cultures, but the use of anaerobic cultures will reveal novel acid resistance mechanisms. We analyzed the pH regulation of bacterial hydrogenases in live cultures of E. coli K-12 W3110. During anaerobic growth in the range of pH 5 to 6.5, E. coli expresses three hydrogenase isoenzymes that reversibly oxidize H(2) to 2H(+). Anoxic conditions were used to determine which of the hydrogenase complexes contribute to acid resistance, measured as the survival of cultures grown at pH 5.5 without aeration and exposed for 2 hours at pH 2 or at pH 2.5. Survival of all strains in extreme acid was significantly lower in low oxygen than for aerated cultures. Deletion of hyc (Hyd-3) decreased anoxic acid survival 3-fold at pH 2.5, and 20-fold at pH 2, but had no effect on acid survival with aeration. Deletion of hyb (Hyd-2) did not significantly affect acid survival. The pH-dependence of H(2) production and consumption was tested using a H(2)-specific Clark-type electrode. Hyd-3-dependent H(2) production was increased 70-fold from pH 6.5 to 5.5, whereas Hyd-2-dependent H(2) consumption was maximal at alkaline pH. H(2) production, was unaffected by a shift in external or internal pH. H(2) production was associated with hycE expression levels as a function of external pH. Anaerobic growing cultures of E. coli generate H(2) via Hyd-3 at low external pH, and

  14. An Effect of Cadmium and Lead Ions on Escherichia coli with the Cloned Gene for Metallothionein (MT-3) Revealed by Electrochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, Vojtech; Chudobova, Dagmar; Tmejova, Katerina; Cihalova, Kristyna; Krizkova, Sona; Guran, Roman; Kominkova, Marketa; Zurek, Michal; Kremplova, Monika; Jimenez, Ana Maria Jimenez; Konecna, Marie

    2014-01-01

    This study was focused on the application of electrochemical methods for studying of bacterial strains Escherichia coli and Escherichia coli expressing human metallothionein gene (MT-3) before and after the application of cadmium and/or lead ions in four concentrations (25, 50, 75 and 150 μM). Bacterial strains Escherichia coli and Escherichia coli expressing human metallothionein gene (MT-3) were used like model organisms for studying of metals influence to metallothionein expression. Metallothionein was isolated using fast protein liquid chromatography and quantified by electrochemical methods. The occurrence of metallothionein in E.coli was confirmed by gel electrophoresis by the presence of the bands at 15 (MT dimer) and 22 kDa (MT trimer). The changes in electrochemical records due to the interactions of metallothioneins (MT-3 and MT-2A) with cadmium and lead ions showed decline of Cat2 signal of MT with the increasing interaction time because of metal ions binding to cysteines. Electrochemical determination also revealed that Cd(II) remains in E. coli cells in the higher amount than Pb (II). Opposite situation was found at E. coli–MT-3 strain. The antimicrobial effect of cadmium ions was determined by IC 50 and was statistically calculated as 39.2 and 95.5 μM for E. coli without cloned MT-3 and E. coli carrying MT-3 gene, respectively. High provided concentration IC 50 in strains after lead ions application (352.5 μM for E. coli without cloning and 207.0 μM for E. coli carrying cloned MT-3 gene) indicates lower toxicity of lead ions on bacterial strains compared to the cadmium ions

  15. Cloning, molecular characterization and expression of a cDNA encoding a functional NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase from Mucor racemosus PTCC 5305 in E. coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NED A SETAYESH

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to study a new NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase (cb5r from Mucor racemosus PTCC 5305. A cDNA coding for cb s r was isolated from a Mucor racemosus PTCC 5305 cDNA library. The nucleotide sequence of the cDNA including coding and sequences flanking regions was determined. The open reading frame starting from ATG and ending with TAG stop codon encoded 228 amino acids and displayed the closest similarity (73% with Mortierella alpina cb s r. Lack of hydrophobic residues in the N-terminal sequence was apparent, suggesting that the enzyme is a soluble isoform. The coding sequence was then cloned in the pET16b transcription vector carrying an N-terminal-linked His-Tag® sequence and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3. The enzyme was then homogeneously purified by a metal affinity column. The recombinant Mucor enzyme was shown to have its optimal activity at pH and temperature of about 7.5 and 40 °C, respectively. The apparent Km value was calculated to be 13 μM for ferricyanide. To our knowledge, this is the first report on cloning and expression of a native fungal soluble isoform of NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase in E. coli.

  16. Purification and cellular localization of wild type and mutated dihydrolipoyltransacetylases from Azotobacter vinelandii and Escherichia coli expressed in E. coli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulze, Egbert; Westphal, Adrie H.; Veenhuis, Marten; Kok, Arie de

    1992-01-01

    Wild type dihydrolipoyltransacetylase(E2p)-components from the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex of A. vinelandii or E. coli, and mutants of A. vinelandii E2p with stepwise deletions of the lipoyl domains or the alanine- and proline-rich region between the binding and the catalytic domain have been

  17. Secretion of clostridium cellulase by E. coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ida Kuo

    1998-01-01

    A gene, encoding an endocellulase from a newly isolated mesophilic Clostridium strain IY-2 which can digest bamboo fibers, cellulose, rice straw, and sawdust, was isolated by shotgun cloning in an E. coli expression plasmid pLC2833. E. coli positive clones were selected based on their ability to hydrolyze milled bamboo fibers and cellulose present in agar plates. One clone contained a 2.8 kb DNA fragment that was responsible for cellulase activity. Western blot analyses indicated that the positive clone produced a secreted cellulase with a mass of about 58,000 daltons that was identical in size to the subunit of one of the three major Clostridium cellulases. The products of cellulose digestion by this cloned cellulase were cellotetraose and soluble higher polymers. The cloned DNA contained signal sequences capable of directing the secretion of heterologous proteins from an E. coli host. The invention describes a bioprocess for the treatment of cellulosic plant materials to produce cellular growth substrates and fermentation end products suitable for production of liquid fuels, solvents, and acids.

  18. [Expression in E.coli and bioactivity assay of Micrococcus luteus resuscitation promoting factor domain and its mutants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Chen-Li; Shi, Jie-Ran; Shi, Chang-Hong; Zhang, Hai; Zhao, Lei; Zhang, Ting-Fen; Zhao, Yong; Xi, Li

    2008-10-01

    To express Micrococcus luteus resuscitation promoting factor (Rpf) domain and its mutants in prokaryotic cells, and to investigate their bioactivity. The gene of Rpf domain and its mutants (E54K, E54A) were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from the genome of Micrococcus luteus and cloned into pMD18-T vector. After sequenced, the Rpf domain and its mutant gene were subcloned into expression vector PGEX-4T-1, and transfected into E. coli DH5alpha. The expressed product was purified by affinity chromatography using GST Fusion Protein Purification bead. The aim proteins were identified by SDS-PAGE analysis and by Western blot with monoclonal antibodies against Rpf domain (mAb). The bioactivity of the proteins was analyzed by stimulating the resuscitation of Mycobacterium smegmatis. The sequences of the PCR products were identical to those of the Rpf domain and its mutant gene in GenBank. The relative molecular mass identified by SDS-PAGE analysis was consistent with that had been reported, which was also confirmed by Western blot analysis that there were specific bindings at 32 000 with Rpf domain mAb. The purified GST-Rpf domain could stimulate resuscitation of Mycobacterium smegmatis. Replacements E54A and especially E54K resulted in inhibition of Rpf resuscitation activity. Rpf domain and two kinds of its mutant protein were obtained, and its effects on the resuscitation of dormant Mycobacterium smegmatis were clarified.

  19. Engineering Escherichia coli for methanol conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Jonas E N; Meyer, Fabian; Litsanov, Boris; Kiefer, Patrick; Potthoff, Eva; Heux, Stéphanie; Quax, Wim J; Wendisch, Volker F; Brautaset, Trygve; Portais, Jean-Charles; Vorholt, Julia A

    2015-03-01

    Methylotrophic bacteria utilize methanol and other reduced one-carbon compounds as their sole source of carbon and energy. For this purpose, these bacteria evolved a number of specialized enzymes and pathways. Here, we used a synthetic biology approach to select and introduce a set of "methylotrophy genes" into Escherichia coli based on in silico considerations and flux balance analysis to enable methanol dissimilation and assimilation. We determined that the most promising approach allowing the utilization of methanol was the implementation of NAD-dependent methanol dehydrogenase and the establishment of the ribulose monophosphate cycle by expressing the genes for hexulose-6-phosphate synthase (Hps) and 6-phospho-3-hexuloisomerase (Phi). To test for the best-performing enzymes in the heterologous host, a number of enzyme candidates from different donor organisms were selected and systematically analyzed for their in vitro and in vivo activities in E. coli. Among these, Mdh2, Hps and Phi originating from Bacillus methanolicus were found to be the most effective. Labeling experiments using (13)C methanol with E. coli producing these enzymes showed up to 40% incorporation of methanol into central metabolites. The presence of the endogenous glutathione-dependent formaldehyde oxidation pathway of E. coli did not adversely affect the methanol conversion rate. Taken together, the results of this study represent a major advancement towards establishing synthetic methylotrophs by gene transfer. Copyright © 2015 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. 阴道毛滴虫TPI基因克隆及原核表达%Cloning and prokaryotic expression of the Trichomonas vaginalis TPI gene in Escherichia coli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁鹤; 刘畅; 宫鹏涛; 李建华; 李赫; 张国才; 杨举; 李淑红; 张西臣

    2012-01-01

    Objective To construct a prokaryotic expression vector of the Trichomonas vaginalis TPI gene and express it in Escherichia coli (BL2KDE3). Methods Special primers were designed on the basis of the reported Trichomonas vaginalis TPI gene. The TPI gene was amplified by PCR from the total cDNA of T. vaginalis and was cloned into pMD-18-T to construct pMD-TPI. The plasmid pMI-TPI was then digested with restriction ribozymes and subcloned into the prokaryotic expression plasmid pGEX-T to construct pGEX-TPI. It was expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3) induced with IPTG. The fusion product was identified by SDS-PAGE and Western blot. Results A prokaryotic expression vector of the TPI gene was constructed and expressed in E. coli. Induced with IPTG, the expressed recombinant protein was detected as a band of 27. 5 ku by SDS-PAGE. A special reaction band to anti-TPI sera was observed in Western blot. Conclusion The fusion protein of the TPI gene was successfully expressed in prokaryotic cells and has provided a basis to further study the function of the T. vaginalis TPI gene.%目的 构建阴道毛滴虫TPI基因原核表达载体,并在大肠埃希菌BL21 (DE3)中表达.方法 根据阴道毛滴虫TPI基因开放阅读框设计并合成特异性引物,以阴道毛滴虫总cDNA为模板PCR扩增目的片段,与pMD-18-T连接构建克隆载体pMD-TPI,经双酶切回收目的片段,与表达载体pGEX-T连接,构建原核表达载体pGEX- TPI,经IPTG诱导后通过SDS PAGE及Western blot鉴定表达产物.结果 成功构建了阴道毛滴虫TPI基因原核表达载体pGEX TPI; SDS-PAGE电泳显示,在IPTG诱导下重组质粒转化菌高效表达分子质量单位为27.5 ku的蛋白质;Western blot显示表达产物可被抗阴道毛滴虫的多克隆血清识别.结论 成功构建了TPI基因原核表达载体,并在大肠埃希菌BL21( DE3)中高效表达,为进一步研究阴道毛滴虫TPI基因功能奠定了基础.

  1. In vitro assembly of Ebola virus nucleocapsid-like complex expressed in E. coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchao Peng

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ebola virus (EBOV harbors an RNA genome encapsidated by nucleoprotein (NP along with other viral proteins to form a nucleocapsid complex. Previous Cryo-eletron tomography and biochemical studies have shown the helical structure of EBOV nucleocapsid at nanometer resolution and the first 450 amino-acid of NP (NPΔ451–739 alone is capable of forming a helical nucleocapsid-like complex (NLC. However, the structural basis for NP-NP interaction and the dynamic procedure of the nucleocapsid assembly is yet poorly understood. In this work, we, by using an E. coli expression system, captured a series of images of NPΔ451–739 conformers at different stages of NLC assembly by negative-stain electron microscopy, which allowed us to picture the dynamic procedure of EBOV nucleocapsid assembly. Along with further biochemical studies, we showed the assembly of NLC is salt-sensitive, and also established an indispensible role of RNA in this process. We propose the diverse modes of NLC elongation might be the key determinants shaping the plasticity of EBOV virions. Our findings provide a new model for characterizing the self-oligomerization of viral nucleoproteins and studying the dynamic assembly process of viral nucleocapsid in vitro.

  2. Discovery of an Escherichia coli Esterase with High Activity and Enantioselectivity toward 1,2-O-Isopropylideneglycerol Esters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Godinho, Luis F.; Reis, Carlos R.; Tepper, Pieter G.; Poelarends, Gerrit J.; Quax, Wim J.

    Escherichia coli has been widely used as an expression host for the identification of desired biocatalysts through screening or selection assays. We have previously used E. coli in growth selection and screening assays for identification of Bacillus subtilis lipase variants (located in the

  3. E coli enteritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... coli; Food poisoning - E. coli; E. coli diarrhea; Hamburger disease ... coleslaw or potato salad) that have been out of the refrigerator too ... reheated Fish or oysters Raw fruits or vegetables that have ...

  4. Internalization of E. coli O157:H7 in spinach cultivated in soil and hydroponic media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Internalization of E. coli O157:H7 into spinach plants through root uptake is a potential route of contamination. Previous studies that have investigated uptake of E. coli O157:H7 into leafy greens have expressed green fluorescent protein (gfp) from a plasmid, possibly limiting detecti...

  5. Characterization and pulp refining activity of a Paenibacillus campinasensis cellulase expressed in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Chun-Han; Tsai, Chung-Hung; Lin, Po-Heng; Chang, Ko-Cheng; Tu, Jenn; Wang, Ya-Nang; Yang, Chien-Ying

    2010-10-01

    The Cel-BL11 gene from Paenibacillus campinasensis BL11 was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli as a His-tag fusion protein. Zymographic analysis of the recombinant protein revealed cellulase activity corresponding to a protein with a 38-kDa molecular weight. The optimum temperature and pH for purified cellulase were 60 °C and pH 7.0, respectively. The enzyme retained more than 80% activity after 8h at 60 °C at pH 6 and 7. The cellulase has a Km of 11.25 mg/ml and a Vmax of 1250 μmol/min/mg with carboxylmethyl cellulose (CMC). Then enzyme was active on Avicel, swollen Avicel, CMC, barley β-glucan, laminarin in the presence of 100 mM acetate buffer. It was inhibited by Hg²⁺, Cu²⁺ and Zn²⁺. Significant kraft pulp refining energy saving, 10%, was exhibited by the pretreatment of this cellulase applied at 2 IU per gram of oven-dried pulp. Broad pH and temperature stability render this cellulase a convenient applicability toward current mainstream biomass conversion and other industrial processes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Synthesis of dopamine in E. coli using plasmid-based expression system and its marked effect on host growth profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Arunangshu; Verma, Anita; Mukherjee, Krishna J

    2017-09-14

    L-Dopa and dopamine are important pathway intermediates toward the synthesis of catecholamine such as epinephrine and norepinephrine from amino acid L-tyrosine. Dopamine, secreted from dopaminergic nerve cells, serves as an important neurotransmitter. We report the synthesis of dopamine by extending the aromatic amino acid pathway of Escherichia coli DH5α by the expression of 4-hydroxyphenylacetate-3-hydrolase (HpaBC) from E. coli and an engineered dopa decarboxylase (DDC) from pig kidney cell. The activity of HpaBC and DDC require 200 µM iron supplementation and 50 µM vitamin B6, respectively as additives to the growth media. The maximum concentration of L-dopa and dopamine obtained from the broth was around 26 and 27 mg/L after 24 hr of separate shake flask studies. We observed that in the presence of dopamine synthesized in vivo host growth was remarkably enhanced. These observations lead us to an interesting finding about the role of these catecholamines on bacterial growth. It is clear that synthesis of dopamine in vivo actually promotes growth much efficiently as compared to when dopamine is added to the system from outside. From HPLC and GC-MS data it was further observed that L-dopa was stable within the observable time of experiments whereas dopamine actually was subjected to degradation via oxidation and host consumption.

  7. Ontology-based literature mining of E. coli vaccine-associated gene interaction networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Junguk; Özgür, Arzucan; He, Yongqun

    2017-03-14

    these gene interaction networks identified top ranked E. coli genes and 6 INO interaction types (e.g., regulation and gene expression). Vaccine-related E. coli gene-gene interaction network was constructed using ontology-based literature mining strategy, which identified important E. coli vaccine genes and their interactions with other genes through specific interaction types.

  8. Transcriptome Changes of Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, and Escherichia coli O157:H7 Laboratory Strains in Response to Photo-Degraded DOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelumola Oladeinde

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated gene expression changes in three bacterial strains (Escherichia coli C3000, Escherichia coli O157:H7 B6914, and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, commonly used as indicators of water quality and as control strains in clinical, food, and water microbiology laboratories. Bacterial transcriptome responses from pure cultures were monitored in microcosms containing water amended with manure-derived dissolved organic matter (DOM, previously exposed to simulated sunlight for 12 h. We used RNA sequencing (RNA-seq and quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase (qRT-PCR to compare differentially expressed temporal transcripts between bacteria incubated in microcosms containing sunlight irradiated and non-irradiated DOM, for up to 24 h. In addition, we used whole genome sequencing simultaneously with RNA-seq to identify single nucleotide variants (SNV acquired in bacterial populations during incubation. These results indicate that E. coli and E. faecalis have different mechanisms for removal of reactive oxygen species (ROS produced from irradiated DOM. They are also able to produce micromolar concentrations of H2O2 from non-irradiated DOM, that should be detrimental to other bacteria present in the environment. Notably, this study provides an assessment of the role of two conjugative plasmids carried by the E. faecalis and highlights the differences in the overall survival dynamics of environmentally-relevant bacteria in the presence of naturally-produced ROS.

  9. Hierarchy of non-glucose sugars in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidelberg, Guy; Towbin, Benjamin D; Rothschild, Daphna; Dekel, Erez; Bren, Anat; Alon, Uri

    2014-12-24

    Understanding how cells make decisions, and why they make the decisions they make, is of fundamental interest in systems biology. To address this, we study the decisions made by E. coli on which genes to express when presented with two different sugars. It is well-known that glucose, E. coli's preferred carbon source, represses the uptake of other sugars by means of global and gene-specific mechanisms. However, less is known about the utilization of glucose-free sugar mixtures which are found in the natural environment of E. coli and in biotechnology. Here, we combine experiment and theory to map the choices of E. coli among 6 different non-glucose carbon sources. We used robotic assays and fluorescence reporter strains to make precise measurements of promoter activity and growth rate in all pairs of these sugars. We find that the sugars can be ranked in a hierarchy: in a mixture of a higher and a lower sugar, the lower sugar system shows reduced promoter activity. The hierarchy corresponds to the growth rate supported by each sugar- the faster the growth rate, the higher the sugar on the hierarchy. The hierarchy is 'soft' in the sense that the lower sugar promoters are not completely repressed. Measurement of the activity of the master regulator CRP-cAMP shows that the hierarchy can be quantitatively explained based on differential activation of the promoters by CRP-cAMP. Comparing sugar system activation as a function of time in sugar pair mixtures at sub-saturating concentrations, we find cases of sequential activation, and also cases of simultaneous expression of both systems. Such simultaneous expression is not predicted by simple models of growth rate optimization, which predict only sequential activation. We extend these models by suggesting multi-objective optimization for both growing rapidly now and preparing the cell for future growth on the poorer sugar. We find a defined hierarchy of sugar utilization, which can be quantitatively explained by

  10. Impact of cranberry on Escherichia coli cellular surface characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Brandy J.; Lin Baochuan; Dinderman, Michael A.; Rubin, Robert A.; Malanoski, Anthony P.; Ligler, Frances S.

    2008-01-01

    The anti-adhesive effects of cranberry have been attributed to both interactions of its components with the surface of bacterial cells and to inhibition of p-fimbriae expression. Previous reports also suggested that the presence of cranberry juice changed the Gram stain characteristics of Escherichia coli. Here, we show that the morphology of E. coli is changed when grown in the presence of juice or extract from Vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry). Gene expression analysis indicates the down regulation of flagellar basal body rod and motor proteins. Consistent with this finding and previous reports, the SEM images indicate a decrease in the visible p-fimbriae. The iodine used in Gram-staining protocols was found to interact differently with the bacterial membrane when cells were cultured in spiked media. Slight alterations in the Gram stain protocol demonstrated that culturing in the presence of cranberry juice does not change the Gram stain characteristics contradicting other reports.

  11. cDNA cloning of a novel gene codifying for the enzyme lycopene β-cyclase from Ficus carica and its expression in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya-Garay, José Miguel; Feijoo-Siota, Lucía; Veiga-Crespo, Patricia; Villa, Tomás González

    2011-11-01

    Lycopene beta-cyclase (β-LCY) is the key enzyme that modifies the linear lycopene molecule into cyclic β-carotene, an indispensable carotenoid of the photosynthetic apparatus and an important source of vitamin A in human and animal nutrition. Owing to its antioxidant activity, it is commercially used in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries, as well as an additive in foodstuffs. Therefore, β-carotene has a large share of the carotenoidic market. In this study, we used reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE)-PCR to obtain and clone a cDNA copy of the gene Lyc-β from Ficus carica (Lyc-β Fc), which codes for the enzyme lycopene β-cyclase (β-LCY). Expression of this gene in Escherichia coli produced a single polypeptide of 56 kDa of weight, containing 496 amino acids, that was able to cycle both ends of the lycopene chain. Amino acid analysis revealed that the protein contained several conserved plant cyclase motifs. β-LCY activity was revealed by heterologous complementation analysis, with lycopene being converted to β-carotene as a result of the enzyme's action. The β-LCY activity of the expressed protein was confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) identification of the β-carotene. The lycopene to β-carotene conversion rate was 90%. The experiments carried out in this work showed that β-LYC is the enzyme responsible for converting lycopene, an acyclic carotene, to β-carotene, a bicyclic carotene in F. carica. Therefore, by cloning and expressing β-LCY in E. coli, we have obtained a new gene for β-carotene production or as part of the biosynthetic pathway of astaxanthin. So far, this is the first and only gene of the carotenoid pathway identified in F. carica. © Springer-Verlag 2011

  12. Development of inducer-free expression plasmids based on IPTG-inducible promoters for Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Dinh Thi Minh; Phan, Trang Thi Phuong; Huynh, Thanh Kieu; Dang, Ngan Thi Kim; Huynh, Phuong Thi Kim; Nguyen, Tri Minh; Truong, Tuom Thi Tinh; Tran, Thuoc Linh; Schumann, Wolfgang; Nguyen, Hoang Duc

    2017-07-25

    Besides Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis is an important bacterial species for the production of recombinant proteins. Recombinant genes are inserted into shuttle expression vectors which replicate in both E. coli and in B. subtilis. The ligation products are first transformed into E. coli cells, analyzed for correct insertions, and the correct recombinant plasmids are then transformed into B. subtilis. A major problem using E. coli cells can be the strong basal level of expression of the recombinant protein which may interfere with the stability of the cells. To minimize this problem, we developed strong expression vectors being repressed in E. coli and inducer-free in B. subtilis. In general, induction of IPTG-inducible expression vectors is determined by the regulatory lacI gene encoding the LacI repressor in combination with the lacO operator on the promoter. To investigate the inducer-free properties of the vectors, we constructed inducer-free expression plasmids by removing the lacI gene and characterized their properties. First, we examined the ability to repress a reporter gene in E. coli, which is a prominent property facilitating the construction of the expression vectors carrying a target gene. The β-galactosidase (bgaB gene) basal levels expressed from Pgrac01-bgaB could be repressed at least twice in the E. coli cloning strain. Second, the inducer-free production of BgaB from four different plasmids with the Pgrac01 promoter in B. subtilis was investigated. As expected, BgaB expression levels of inducer-free constructs are at least 37 times higher than that of the inducible constructs in the absence of IPTG, and comparable to those in the presence of the inducer. Third, using efficient IPTG-inducible expression vectors containing the strong promoter Pgrac100, we could convert them into inducer-free expression plasmids. The BgaB production levels from the inducer-free plasmid in the absence of the inducer were at least 4.5 times higher than that of

  13. Melibiose permease and alpha-galactosidase of Escherichia coli: Identification by selective labeling using a T7 RNA polymerase/promoter expression system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pourcher, T.; Bassilana, M.; Sarkar, H.K.; Kaback, H.R.; Leblanc, G.

    1990-01-01

    Identification and selective labeling of the melibiose permease and alpha-galactosidase in Escherichia coli, which are encoded by the melB and melA genes, respectively, have been accomplished by selectively labeling the two gene products with a T7 RNA polymerase expression system. Following generation of a novel EcoRI restriction site in the intergenic sequence between the two genes of the mel operon by oligonucleotide-directed, site-specific mutagenesis, melA and melB were separately inserted into plasmid pT7-6 of the T7 expression system. Expression of melB was markedly enhanced by placing a strong, synthetic ribosome binding site at an optimal distance upstream from the initiation codon of melB. Expression of cloned gene products was characterized functionally and by performing autoradiographic analysis on total cell, inner membrane, and cytoplasmic proteins from cells pulse labeled with (35S)methionine in the presence of rifampicin and resolved by sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The results first confirm that alpha-galactosidase is a cytoplasmic protein with an Mr of 50K; in contrast, the membrane-bound melibiose permease is identified as a protein with an apparent Mr of 39K, a value significantly higher than that of 30K previously suggested

  14. Optimizing HIV-1 protease production in Escherichia coli as fusion protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piubelli Luciano

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV is the etiological agent in AIDS and related diseases. The aspartyl protease encoded by the 5' portion of the pol gene is responsible for proteolytic processing of the gag-pol polyprotein precursor to yield the mature capsid protein and the reverse transcriptase and integrase enzymes. The HIV protease (HIV-1Pr is considered an attractive target for designing inhibitors which could be used to tackle AIDS and therefore it is still the object of a number of investigations. Results A recombinant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease (HIV-1Pr was overexpressed in Escherichia coli cells as a fusion protein with bacterial periplasmic protein dithiol oxidase (DsbA or glutathione S-transferase (GST, also containing a six-histidine tag sequence. Protein expression was optimized by designing a suitable HIV-1Pr cDNA (for E. coli expression and to avoid autoproteolysis and by screening six different E. coli strains and five growth media. The best expression yields were achieved in E. coli BL21-Codon Plus(DE3-RIL host and in TB or M9 medium to which 1% (w/v glucose was added to minimize basal expression. Among the different parameters assayed, the presence of a buffer system (based on phosphate salts and a growth temperature of 37°C after adding IPTG played the main role in enhancing protease expression (up to 10 mg of chimeric DsbA:HIV-1Pr/L fermentation broth. GST:HIVPr was in part (50% produced as soluble protein while the overexpressed DsbA:HIV-1Pr chimeric protein largely accumulated in inclusion bodies as unprocessed fusion protein. A simple refolding procedure was developed on HiTrap Chelating column that yielded a refolded DsbA:HIV-1Pr with a > 80% recovery. Finally, enterokinase digestion of resolubilized DsbA:HIV-1Pr gave more than 2 mg of HIV-1Pr per liter of fermentation broth with a purity ≤ 80%, while PreScission protease cleavage of soluble GST:HIVPr yielded ~ 0.15 mg of pure HIV-1

  15. Phosphotyrosine-Mediated Regulation of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli Virulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Colin D.; Hazen, Tracy H.; Kaper, James B.

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Enteric pathogens with low infectious doses rely on the ability to orchestrate the expression of virulence and metabolism-associated genes in response to environmental cues for successful infection. Accordingly, the human pathogen enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) employs a complex multifaceted regulatory network to link the expression of type III secretion system (T3SS) components to nutrient availability. While phosphorylation of histidine and aspartate residues on two-component system response regulators is recognized as an integral part of bacterial signaling, the involvement of phosphotyrosine-mediated control is minimally explored in Gram-negative pathogens. Our recent phosphotyrosine profiling study of E. coli identified 342 phosphorylated proteins, indicating that phosphotyrosine modifications in bacteria are more prevalent than previously anticipated. The present study demonstrates that tyrosine phosphorylation of a metabolite-responsive LacI/GalR family regulator, Cra, negatively affects T3SS expression under glycolytic conditions that are typical for the colonic lumen environment where production of the T3SS is unnecessary. Our data suggest that Cra phosphorylation affects T3SS expression by modulating the expression of ler, which encodes the major activator of EHEC virulence gene expression. Phosphorylation of the Cra Y47 residue diminishes DNA binding to fine-tune the expression of virulence-associated genes, including those of the locus of enterocyte effacement pathogenicity island that encode the T3SS, and thereby negatively affects the formation of attaching and effacing lesions. Our data indicate that tyrosine phosphorylation provides an additional mechanism to control the DNA binding of Cra and other LacI/GalR family regulators, including LacI and PurR. This study describes an initial effort to unravel the role of global phosphotyrosine signaling in the control of EHEC virulence potential. PMID:29487233

  16. Phosphotyrosine-Mediated Regulation of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli Virulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin D. Robertson

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Enteric pathogens with low infectious doses rely on the ability to orchestrate the expression of virulence and metabolism-associated genes in response to environmental cues for successful infection. Accordingly, the human pathogen enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC employs a complex multifaceted regulatory network to link the expression of type III secretion system (T3SS components to nutrient availability. While phosphorylation of histidine and aspartate residues on two-component system response regulators is recognized as an integral part of bacterial signaling, the involvement of phosphotyrosine-mediated control is minimally explored in Gram-negative pathogens. Our recent phosphotyrosine profiling study of E. coli identified 342 phosphorylated proteins, indicating that phosphotyrosine modifications in bacteria are more prevalent than previously anticipated. The present study demonstrates that tyrosine phosphorylation of a metabolite-responsive LacI/GalR family regulator, Cra, negatively affects T3SS expression under glycolytic conditions that are typical for the colonic lumen environment where production of the T3SS is unnecessary. Our data suggest that Cra phosphorylation affects T3SS expression by modulating the expression of ler, which encodes the major activator of EHEC virulence gene expression. Phosphorylation of the Cra Y47 residue diminishes DNA binding to fine-tune the expression of virulence-associated genes, including those of the locus of enterocyte effacement pathogenicity island that encode the T3SS, and thereby negatively affects the formation of attaching and effacing lesions. Our data indicate that tyrosine phosphorylation provides an additional mechanism to control the DNA binding of Cra and other LacI/GalR family regulators, including LacI and PurR. This study describes an initial effort to unravel the role of global phosphotyrosine signaling in the control of EHEC virulence potential.

  17. Synthetic operon for (R,R)-2,3-butanediol production in Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Rafael R; Nicholson, Wayne L

    2016-01-01

    To reduce dependence on petroleum, an alternative route to production of the chemical feedstock 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD) from renewable lignocellulosic sources is desirable. In this communication, the genes encoding the pathway from pyruvate to 2,3-BD (alsS, alsD, and bdhA encoding acetolactate synthase, acetolactate decarboxylase, and butanediol dehydrogenase, respectively) from Bacillus subtilis were engineered into a single tricistronic operon under control of the isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG)-inducible Pspac promoter in a shuttle plasmid capable of replication and expression in either B. subtilis or Escherichia coli. We describe the construction and performance of a shuttle plasmid carrying the IPTG-inducible synthetic operon alsSDbdhA coding for 2,3-BD pathway capable of (i) expression in two important representative model microorganisms, the gram-positive B. subtilis and the gram-negative E. coli; (ii) increasing 2,3-BD production in B. subtilis; and (iii) successfully introducing the B. subtilis 2,3-BD pathway into E. coli. The synthetic alsSDbdhA operon constructed using B. subtilis native genes not only increased the 2,3-BD production in its native host but also efficiently expressed the pathway in the heterologous organism E. coli. Construction of an efficient shuttle plasmid will allow investigation of 2,3-BD production performance in related organisms with industrial potential for production of bio-based chemicals.

  18. Cloning, characterization, and expression of the dapE gene of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvier, J; Richaud, C; Higgins, W; Bögler, O; Stragier, P

    1992-08-01

    The dapE gene of Escherichia coli encodes N-succinyl-L-diaminopimelic acid desuccinylase, an enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of LL-diaminopimelic acid, one of the last steps in the diaminopimelic acid-lysine pathway. The dapE gene region was previously purified from a lambda bacteriophage transducing the neighboring purC gene (J. Parker, J. Bacteriol. 157:712-717, 1984). Various subcloning steps led to the identification of a 2.3-kb fragment that complemented several dapE mutants and allowed more than 400-fold overexpression of N-succinyl-L-diaminopimelic acid desuccinylase. Sequencing of this fragment revealed the presence of two closely linked open reading frames. The second one encodes a 375-residue, 41,129-M(r) polypeptide that was identified as N-succinyl-L-diaminopimelic acid desuccinylase. The first one encodes a 118-residue polypeptide that is not required for diaminopimelic acid biosynthesis, as judged by the wild-type phenotype of a strain in which this gene was disrupted. Expression of the dapE gene was studied by monitoring amylomaltase activity in strains in which the malPQ operon was under the control of various fragments located upstream of the dapE gene. The major promoter governing dapE transcription was found to be located in the adjacent orf118 gene, while a minor promoter allowed the transcription of both orf118 and dapE. Neither of these two promoters is regulated by the lysine concentration in the growth medium.

  19. Production of Brugia malayi BmSXP Recombinant Protein Expressed in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoo, T. K.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A rapid antibody detection test is very useful for detection of lymphatic filariasis, especially for certification and surveillance of post-mass drug administration. One such kit, panLF RapidTM (commercialized by Malaysian BioDiagnostic Research Sdn. Bhd. had been developed in our laboratory for the detection of all species of filarial infections. It is based on the detection of anti-filarial IgG4 antibodies that react with recombinant Brugia malayi antigens, BmR1 and BmSXP. In this study, the growth of recombinant bacteria that produce BmSXP was optimized under shake flask fermentation for high yield of the recombinant antigen. The optimizations involved selection of suitable growth medium, IPTG concentration and induction time. The medium that yielded the highest biomass as well as total protein was Terrific Broth (TB medium, which is an undefined medium. Initiation of induction of protein expression was found to be best at mid-log phase (OD600 = 1.5, with IPTG concentration of 1.0 mM, and harvest time at 9 h post-induction. This study showed that under the optimized conditions, the shake flask culture produced 4 g/L biomass (dry cell weight of recombinant Escherichia coli BmSXP/pPROEXHTa/TOP10F’, which yielded 2.42 mg/L of purified BmSXP recombinant antigen. The purified antigen was analyzed by SDS-PAGE and the antigenicity of protein was confirmed by Western blot.

  20. Molecular cloning and expression of Corynebacterium glutamicum genes for amino acid synthesis in Escherichia coli cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beskrovnaya, O.Yu.; Fonshtein, M.Yu.; Kolibaba, L.G.; Yankovskii, N.K.; Debabov, V.G.

    1989-01-01

    Molecular cloning of Corynebacterium glutamicum genes for threonine and lysine synthesis has been done in Escherichia coli cells. The clonal library of EcoRI fragments of chromosomal DNA of C. glutamicum was constructed on the plasmid vector λpSL5. The genes for threonine and lysine synthesis were identified by complementation of E. coli mutations in thrB and lysA genes, respectively. Recombinant plasmids, isolated from independent ThrB + clone have a common 4.1-kb long EcoRI DNA fragment. Hybrid plasmids isolated from LysA + transductants of E. coli have common 2.2 and 3.3 kb long EcoRI fragments of C. glutamicum DNA. The hybrid plasmids consistently transduced the markers thrB + and lysA + . The Southern hybridization analysis showed that the cloned DNA fragments hybridized with the fragments of identical length in C. glutamicum chromosomes

  1. Production of active pigment epithelium-derived factor inE. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Guan, Ming; Lu, Yuan

    2005-03-01

    Human pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF), a neurotrophic factor, is the most potent natural inhibitor of angiogenesis. To produce the active PEDF, the gene coding for the human PEDF protein was expressed in E. coli. The rPEDF protein was expressed at 457 mg l-1 as a soluble protein. The yield of purified GST fusion protein was 14 mg l-1. Purified rPEDF inhibited tube formation in endothelial cells.

  2. Detoxifying Escherichia coli for endotoxin-free production of recombinant proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamat, Uwe; Wilke, Kathleen; Bramhill, David; Schromm, Andra Beate; Lindner, Buko; Kohl, Thomas Andreas; Corchero, José Luis; Villaverde, Antonio; Schaffer, Lana; Head, Steven Robert; Souvignier, Chad; Meredith, Timothy Charles; Woodard, Ronald Wesley

    2015-04-16

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), also referred to as endotoxin, is the major constituent of the outer leaflet of the outer membrane of virtually all Gram-negative bacteria. The lipid A moiety, which anchors the LPS molecule to the outer membrane, acts as a potent agonist for Toll-like receptor 4/myeloid differentiation factor 2-mediated pro-inflammatory activity in mammals and, thus, represents the endotoxic principle of LPS. Recombinant proteins, commonly manufactured in Escherichia coli, are generally contaminated with endotoxin. Removal of bacterial endotoxin from recombinant therapeutic proteins is a challenging and expensive process that has been necessary to ensure the safety of the final product. As an alternative strategy for common endotoxin removal methods, we have developed a series of E. coli strains that are able to grow and express recombinant proteins with the endotoxin precursor lipid IVA as the only LPS-related molecule in their outer membranes. Lipid IVA does not trigger an endotoxic response in humans typical of bacterial LPS chemotypes. Hence the engineered cells themselves, and the purified proteins expressed within these cells display extremely low endotoxin levels. This paper describes the preparation and characterization of endotoxin-free E. coli strains, and demonstrates the direct production of recombinant proteins with negligible endotoxin contamination.

  3. Characterization of the E.coli proteome and its modifications during growth and ethanol stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boumediene eSoufi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We set out to provide a resource to the microbiology community especially with respect to systems biology based endeavors. To this end, we generated a comprehensive dataset monitoring the changes in protein expression, copy number, and post translational modifications in a systematic fashion during growth and ethanol stress in E.coli. We utilized high-resolution mass spectrometry combined with the Super-SILAC approach. In a single experiment, we have identified over 2,300 proteins, which represent approximately 88% of the estimated expressed proteome of E. coli and estimated protein copy numbers using the Intensity Based Absolute Quantitation (IBAQ. The dynamic range of protein expression spanned up to six orders of magnitude, with the highest protein copy per cell estimated at approximately 300,000. We focused on the proteome dynamics involved during stationary phase growth. A global up-regulation of proteins related to stress response was detected in later stages of growth. We observed the down-regulation of the methyl directed mismatch repair system containing MutS and MutL of E. coli growing in long term growth cultures, confirming that higher incidence of mutations presents an important mechanism in the increase in genetic diversity and stationary phase survival in E.coli. During ethanol stress, known markers such as alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase were induced, further validating the dataset. Finally, we performed unbiased protein modification detection and revealed changes of many known and unknown protein modifications in both experimental conditions.

  4. Development of an efficient E. coli expression and purification system for a catalytically active, human Cullin3-RINGBox1 protein complex and elucidation of its quaternary structure with Keap1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small, Evan; Eggler, Aimee; Mesecar, Andrew D.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → A novel expression strategy was used to purify Cul3-Rbx1 from E. coli. → The Cul3-Rbx1 complex is fully active and catalyzes ubiquitination of Nrf2 in vitro. → Cul3, Rbx1, and Keap1 form a complex with unique stoichiometry of 1:1:2. -- Abstract: The Cullin3-based E3 ubiquitin ligase complex is thought to play an important role in the cellular response to oxidative stress and xenobiotic assault. While limited biochemical studies of the ligase's role in these complex signaling pathways are beginning to emerge, structural studies are lagging far behind due to the inability to acquire sufficient quantities of full-length, highly pure and active Cullin3. Here we describe the design and construction of an optimized expression and purification system for the full-length, human Cullin3-RINGBox 1 (Rbx1) protein complex from Escherichia coli. The dual-expression system is comprised of codon-optimized Cullin3 and Rbx1 genes co-expressed from a single pET-Duet-1 plasmid. Rapid purification of the Cullin3-Rbx1 complex is achieved in two steps via an affinity column followed by size-exclusion chromatography. Approximately 15 mg of highly pure and active Cullin3-Rbx1 protein from 1 L of E. coli culture can be achieved. Analysis of the quaternary structure of the Cullin3-Rbx1 and Cullin3-Rbx1-Keap1 complexes by size-exclusion chromatography and analytical ultracentrifugation indicates a 1:1 stoichiometry for the Cullin3-Rbx1 complex (MW = 111 kDa), and a 1:1:2 stoichiometry for the Cullin3-Rbx1-Keap1 complex (MW = 280 kDa). This latter complex has a novel quaternary structural organization for cullin E3 ligases, and it is fully active based on an in vitro Cullin3-Rbx1-Keap1-Nrf2 ubiquitination activity assay that was developed and optimized in this study.

  5. Development of an efficient E. coli expression and purification system for a catalytically active, human Cullin3-RINGBox1 protein complex and elucidation of its quaternary structure with Keap1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Small, Evan [Department of Biochemistry, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States); Eggler, Aimee [Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University, 240 S. Martin Jischke Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47907-1971 (United States); Mesecar, Andrew D., E-mail: amesecar@purdue.edu [Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University, 240 S. Martin Jischke Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47907-1971 (United States)

    2010-10-01

    Research highlights: {yields} A novel expression strategy was used to purify Cul3-Rbx1 from E. coli. {yields} The Cul3-Rbx1 complex is fully active and catalyzes ubiquitination of Nrf2 in vitro. {yields} Cul3, Rbx1, and Keap1 form a complex with unique stoichiometry of 1:1:2. -- Abstract: The Cullin3-based E3 ubiquitin ligase complex is thought to play an important role in the cellular response to oxidative stress and xenobiotic assault. While limited biochemical studies of the ligase's role in these complex signaling pathways are beginning to emerge, structural studies are lagging far behind due to the inability to acquire sufficient quantities of full-length, highly pure and active Cullin3. Here we describe the design and construction of an optimized expression and purification system for the full-length, human Cullin3-RINGBox 1 (Rbx1) protein complex from Escherichia coli. The dual-expression system is comprised of codon-optimized Cullin3 and Rbx1 genes co-expressed from a single pET-Duet-1 plasmid. Rapid purification of the Cullin3-Rbx1 complex is achieved in two steps via an affinity column followed by size-exclusion chromatography. Approximately 15 mg of highly pure and active Cullin3-Rbx1 protein from 1 L of E. coli culture can be achieved. Analysis of the quaternary structure of the Cullin3-Rbx1 and Cullin3-Rbx1-Keap1 complexes by size-exclusion chromatography and analytical ultracentrifugation indicates a 1:1 stoichiometry for the Cullin3-Rbx1 complex (MW = 111 kDa), and a 1:1:2 stoichiometry for the Cullin3-Rbx1-Keap1 complex (MW = 280 kDa). This latter complex has a novel quaternary structural organization for cullin E3 ligases, and it is fully active based on an in vitro Cullin3-Rbx1-Keap1-Nrf2 ubiquitination activity assay that was developed and optimized in this study.

  6. Overexpression and surface localization of the Chlamydia trachomatis major outer membrane protein in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koehler, JF; Birkelund, Svend; Stephens, RS

    1992-01-01

    The Chlamydia trachomatis major outer membrane protein (MOMP) is the quantitatively predominant surface protein which has important functional, structural and antigenic properties. We have cloned and overexpressed the MOMP in Escherichia coli. The MOMP is surface exposed in C. trachomatis....... The induction of MOMP expression had a rapidly lethal effect on the L2rMOMP E. coli clone. Although no genetic system exists for Chlamydia, development of a stable, inducible E. coli clone which overexpresses the chlamydial MOMP permits a study of the biological properties of the MOMP, including...

  7. A stochastic killing system for biological containment of Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemm, P.; Jensen, Lars Bogø; Molin, Søren

    1995-01-01

    Bacteria with a stochastic conditional lethal containment system have been constructed. The invertible switch promoter located upstream of the fimA gene from Escherichia coli was inserted as expression cassette in front of the Lethal gef gene deleted of its own natural promoter. The resulting...... fusion was placed on a plasmid and transformed to E. coli. The phenotype connected with the presence of such a plasmid was to reduce the population growth rate with increasing significance as the cell growth rate was reduced. In very fast growing cells, there was no measurable effect on growth rate. When...

  8. A camelid nanobody against EGFR was easily obtained through refolding of inclusion body expressed in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li; Song, Xiaoyu; Jia, Lingyun

    2017-11-01

    Using anti-EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) nanobody is a good choice for diagnoses and therapeutics for high EGFR expression diseases. In the present study, the percentage composition of anti-EGFR nanobody attained 25% of the total cell protein expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). However, almost all nanobodies were expressed as inclusion bodies. To acquire active nanobodies, a series of dilution refolding procedures were optimized after inclusion bodies were dissolved into 6 M urea and purified with immobilized metal affinity chromatography. The results showed the refolding rate of the anti-EGFR nanobodies attained to 73%, and about 100 mg nanobodies were refolded from 1 L cells under the conditions that the initial nanobody concentration was 0.3 mg/mL, the dilution speed was 2.5 mL/Min, the dilution buffer was Tris-HCl at pH 8.0, the additives were 0.2 M Arg, 5 mM reduced glutathione (GSH), and 1 mM oxidized glutathione (GSSG). Then the activity of the refolded nanobodies was confirmed. The results showed that the refolded anti-EGFR nanobodies, in a dose-dependent manner, bounded to the tumor cell surface of A431 and MCF-7 and significantly inhibited the proliferation of A431 caused by the epidermal growth factor. Our study provides a facile method to rapidly, efficiently, and massively prepare anti-EGFR antibodies and promotes anti-EGFR-based recognition in cancer diagnoses and therapeutics. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Hydrogenase-3 contributes to anaerobic acid resistance of Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Noguchi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hydrogen production by fermenting bacteria such as Escherichia coli offers a potential source of hydrogen biofuel. Because H(2 production involves consumption of 2H(+, hydrogenase expression is likely to involve pH response and regulation. Hydrogenase consumption of protons in E. coli has been implicated in acid resistance, the ability to survive exposure to acid levels (pH 2-2.5 that are three pH units lower than the pH limit of growth (pH 5-6. Enhanced survival in acid enables a larger infective inoculum to pass through the stomach and colonize the intestine. Most acid resistance mechanisms have been defined using aerobic cultures, but the use of anaerobic cultures will reveal novel acid resistance mechanisms. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed the pH regulation of bacterial hydrogenases in live cultures of E. coli K-12 W3110. During anaerobic growth in the range of pH 5 to 6.5, E. coli expresses three hydrogenase isoenzymes that reversibly oxidize H(2 to 2H(+. Anoxic conditions were used to determine which of the hydrogenase complexes contribute to acid resistance, measured as the survival of cultures grown at pH 5.5 without aeration and exposed for 2 hours at pH 2 or at pH 2.5. Survival of all strains in extreme acid was significantly lower in low oxygen than for aerated cultures. Deletion of hyc (Hyd-3 decreased anoxic acid survival 3-fold at pH 2.5, and 20-fold at pH 2, but had no effect on acid survival with aeration. Deletion of hyb (Hyd-2 did not significantly affect acid survival. The pH-dependence of H(2 production and consumption was tested using a H(2-specific Clark-type electrode. Hyd-3-dependent H(2 production was increased 70-fold from pH 6.5 to 5.5, whereas Hyd-2-dependent H(2 consumption was maximal at alkaline pH. H(2 production, was unaffected by a shift in external or internal pH. H(2 production was associated with hycE expression levels as a function of external pH. CONCLUSIONS: Anaerobic growing

  10. E. Coli Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. coli is the name of a type of bacteria that lives in your intestines. Most types of E. coli are harmless. However, some types can make you ... type causes travelers' diarrhea. The worst type of E. coli causes bloody diarrhea, and can sometimes cause kidney ...

  11. Deinococcus gobiensis cold shock protein improves salt stress tolerance of escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Shijie; Wang Jin; Yang Mingkun; Chen Ming; Zhang Wei; Luo Xuegang

    2013-01-01

    The Deinococcus gobiensis I-0, an extremely radiation-resistant bacterium, isolated from the Gobi, has superior resistance to abiotic stress (e.g radiation, oxidation, dehydration and so on). The two cold-shock proteins encoded by csp1 (Dgo_CA1136) and csp2 (Dgo_PA0041) were identified in the complete genome sequence of D. gobiensis. In this study, we showed that D. gobiensis Csp1 protected Escherichia coli cells against cold shock and other abiotic stresses such as salt and osmotic shocks. The quantitative real-time PCR assay shows that the expression of trehalose synthase (otsA, otsB) was up-regulated remarkably under salt stress in the csp1-expressing strain, while no difference in the expression of the genes involved in trehalose degradation (treB and treC). The results suggested that Csp1 caused the accumulation of the trehalose was a major feature for improving tolerance to salt stress in E. coli. (authors)

  12. Small noncoding RNA GcvB is a novel regulator of acid resistance in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Ye

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The low pH environment of the human stomach is lethal for most microorganisms; but not Escherichia coli, which can tolerate extreme acid stress. Acid resistance in E. coli is hierarchically controlled by numerous regulators among which are small noncoding RNAs (sncRNA. Results In this study, we individually deleted seventy-nine sncRNA genes from the E. coli K12-MG1655 chromosome, and established a single-sncRNA gene knockout library. By systematically screening the sncRNA mutant library, we show that the sncRNA GcvB is a novel regulator of acid resistance in E. coli. We demonstrate that GcvB enhances the ability of E. coli to survive low pH by upregulating the levels of the alternate sigma factor RpoS. Conclusion GcvB positively regulates acid resistance by affecting RpoS expression. These data advance our understanding of the sncRNA regulatory network involved in modulating acid resistance in E. coli.

  13. One-step purification of E. coli elongation factor Tu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Charlotte Rohde; Clark, Brian F. C.; Degn, B

    1993-01-01

    The tuf A gene, encoding the E. coli elongation factor Tu, was cloned in the pGEX gene fusion system. Upon expression EF-Tu is fused to glutathione-S-transferase serving as a purification handle with affinity for glutathione immobilised on agarose. This allows purification of EF-Tu in a one...

  14. The pancreatic zymogen granule membrane protein, GP2, binds Escherichia coli type 1 Fimbriae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lowe Anson W

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background GP2 is the major membrane protein present in the pancreatic zymogen granule, and is cleaved and released into the pancreatic duct along with exocrine secretions. The function of GP2 is unknown. GP2's amino acid sequence is most similar to that of uromodulin, which is secreted by the kidney. Recent studies have demonstrated uromodulin binding to bacterial Type 1 fimbria. The fimbriae serve as adhesins to host receptors. The present study examines whether GP2 also shares similar binding properties to bacteria with Type 1 fimbria. Commensal and pathogenic bacteria, including E. coli and Salmonella, express type 1 fimbria. Methods An in vitro binding assay was used to assay the binding of recombinant GP2 to defined strains of E. coli that differ in their expression of Type 1 fimbria or its subunit protein, FimH. Studies were also performed to determine whether GP2 binding is dependent on the presence of mannose residues, which is a known determinant for FimH binding. Results GP2 binds E. coli that express Type 1 fimbria. Binding is dependent on GP2 glycosylation, and specifically the presence of mannose residues. Conclusion GP2 binds to Type 1 fimbria, a bacterial adhesin that is commonly expressed by members of the Enterobacteriacae family.

  15. Volunteer Challenge With Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli That Express Intestinal Colonization Factor Fimbriae CS17 and CS19

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Serotype was determined by classic serological methods at the Universidad Nacional Aut6noma de Mexico [UNAMl. H- indrcates non-motility. b CF...Levine MM, Merson MM. Serologic differentiation between antitoxin responses to infection with Vibrio cholerae and enterotoxin-producing Escherichia coli...prototype cholera B subunit-colonization factor antigen cnterotoxigenic Escherichia coli vaccine. Vaccine 1993; 1[:929-34. 15. Levine MM, Nalin DR

  16. Soluble multimer of recombinant endostatin expressed in E. coli has anti-angiogenesis activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Dongmei; Gao Yan; Cao Xiangrong; Zhu Nianchun; Liang Jianfu; Xie Weiping; Zhen Mingying; Zhu Minsheng

    2006-01-01

    The bioactivity, refolding, and multimer formation of endostatin, particularly of recombinant endostatin produced from bacteria, are proved challenging for clinical application. In order to determine the biological activity of recombinant endostatin multimer, first, we expressed endostatin in Escherichia coli and purified it with ion-exchange chromatography. The purified active protein could elicit multimer formation spontaneously, but still has comparable activity. Aim to determine the anti-angiogenic activity of multimer endostatin, by use of RP-HPLC, we then successfully separated endostatin monomer and multimer for subjecting to anti-angiogenesis assay. The results from CAM (chorioallantoic membrane) inhibition assay showed that both monomer and multimer suppressed CAM vascularization significantly. At the dosage of 0.8 μg, inhibition rates of multimeric and monomeric proteins were about 58% and 38%, respectively. Multimeric endostatin exerted a higher activity than monomeric endostatin (p 0.05), although both of them show a high inhibition effect in contrast to control. The results from HUVEC proliferation assay also showed similar effects at dosages of 0.6 and 1.6 μg/ml, multimer exerted a higher activity on inhibition of HUVEC proliferation comparing with monomer (p < 0.05). In conclusion, our results suggest that endostatin multimer has a comparable or higher bioactivity and multimerization will not affect its bioactivity, implying that endostatin activity is insensitive to structure conformation contributed by disulfide bonds

  17. The host response to the probiotic Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917: Specific up-regulation of the proinflammatory chemokine MCP-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ukena Sya N

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of live microorganisms to influence positively the course of intestinal disorders such as infectious diarrhea or chronic inflammatory conditions has recently gained increasing interest as a therapeutic alternative. In vitro and in vivo investigations have demonstrated that probiotic-host eukaryotic cell interactions evoke a large number of responses potentially responsible for the effects of probiotics. The aim of this study was to improve our understanding of the E. coli Nissle 1917-host interaction by analyzing the gene expression pattern initiated by this probiotic in human intestinal epithelial cells. Methods Gene expression profiles of Caco-2 cells treated with E. coli Nissle 1917 were analyzed with microarrays. A second human intestinal cell line and also pieces of small intestine from BALB/c mice were used to confirm regulatory data of selected genes by real-time RT-PCR and cytometric bead array (CBA to detect secretion of corresponding proteins. Results Whole genome expression analysis revealed 126 genes specifically regulated after treatment of confluent Caco-2 cells with E. coli Nissle 1917. Among others, expression of genes encoding the proinflammatory molecules monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 ligand 2 (MCP-1, macrophage inflammatory protein-2 alpha (MIP-2α and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 beta (MIP-2β was increased up to 10 fold. Caco-2 cells cocultured with E. coli Nissle 1917 also secreted high amounts of MCP-1 protein. Elevated levels of MCP-1 and MIP-2α mRNA could be confirmed with Lovo cells. MCP-1 gene expression was also up-regulated in mouse intestinal tissue. Conclusion Thus, probiotic E. coli Nissle 1917 specifically upregulates expression of proinflammatory genes and proteins in human and mouse intestinal epithelial cells.

  18. [Prokaryotic expression of Nanog gene and preparation of anti-Nanog antibody].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Wang, Xiao-min; Dou, Zhong-ying; Li, Yong

    2012-07-01

    To express Nanog fusion protein in Escherichia coli ( E.coli), and to prepare rabbit anti-mouse polyclonal antibodies to the Nanog fusion protein. Mouse Nanog gene was amplified from the pNA992 recombinant plasmid and inserted into pET-32a vector to construct a recombinant expression vector pET-32a-Nanog. The recombinant vector was transfected into E.coli BL21 and induced by IPTG to express in them. The acquired Nanog fusion protein was purified with HisTrap affinity column and injected as an antigen into rabbits for preparing polyclonal antibodies. At last, the titer and specificity of the polyclonal antibodies were analyzed with indirect ELISA, Western blotting and immunocytochemical staining, respectively. The recombinant expression vector pET-32a-Nanog was successfully prepared, transfected and induced to obtain the high expression of the Nanog fusion protein in a form of inclusion bodies in E.coli. After purification, its purity was up to 97%. The titer of anti-Nanog antibodies was 1:32 000 in the immunized rabbit serum, and exhibited a high specificity to Nanog protein. The rabbit anti-mouse polyclonal antibodies have been prepared successfully with a high titer and specificity to the Nanog fusion protein.

  19. Identification of a protein glycosylation operon from Campylobacter jejuni JCM 2013 and its heterologous expression in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srichaisupakit, Akkaraphol; Ohashi, Takao; Fujiyama, Kazuhito

    2014-09-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a human enteropathogenic bacterium possessing an N-glycosylation system. In this work, a protein glycosylation (pgl) operon conferring prokaryotic N-glycosylation in C. jejuni JCM 2013 was cloned and identified. Fourteen open reading frames (ORFs) were found in the pgl operon. The operon organization was similar to that of C. jejuni NCTC 11168, with 98% and 99% identities in overall nucleotide sequence and amino acid sequence, respectively. The pgl operon was heterologously co-expressed with model protein CmeA in the Escherichia coli BL21 ΔwaaL mutant. The immuno- and lectin-blotting analysis indicated the protein glycosylation on the recombinant CmeA. In addition, to analyze the glycan composition, the recombinant CmeA was purified and subjected to in-gel trypsin digestion followed by mass spectrometry analysis. The mass spectrometry analysis showed the presence of the N-acetylhexosamine residue at the reducing end but not the predicted di-N-acetylbacillosamine (diNAcBac) residue. Further glycan structural study using the conventional fluorophore-labeling method revealed the GalNAcα-GalNAcα-(Hex-)HexNAc-HexNAc-HexNAc-HexNAc structure. Transcriptional analysis showed that UDP-diNAcBac synthases and diNAcBac transferase are transcribed but might not function in the constructed system. In conclusion, a pgl operon from C. jejuni JCM 2013 successfully functioned in E. coli, resulting in the observed prokaryotic glycosylation. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Connective tissue-activating peptide III (CTAP-III): cloning the synthetic gene and characterization of the protein expressed in E. coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, P.H.; Castor, C.W.; Walz, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    CTAP-III, an α-granule protein secreted by human platelets, is known to stimulate mitogenesis, extracellular matrix synthesis, and plasminogen activator synthesis in human fibroblast cultures. From its primary sequence, a synthetic gene was constructed to code for a methionine-free derivative (Leu substituted for Met-21), then cloned and expressed in E. coli using a new expression vector containing regulatory elements of the colicin E1 operon. Partially purified recombinant CTAP-III showed a line of identity with CTAP-III by immunodiffusion against rabbit antibody to platelet-derived CTAP-III. Immunodetection of the reduced protein after SDS-PAGE electrophoresis showed a molecular weight (mobility) in agreement with the natural form. Biologic activity of rCTAP-III eluted from an antiCTAP-III immunoaffinity column was measured in human synovial cell bioassay systems. rCTAP-III stimulated synovial cell synthesis of 14 C-hyaluronic acid approximately 13-fold; significant (P < 0.001) mitogenesis was also observed. These studies indicate that a sufficient quantity of bioactive peptide can be obtained for a more comprehensive study of its biologic properties

  1. Inhibition of expression in Escherichia coli of a virulence regulator MglB of Francisella tularensis using external guide sequence technology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaoping Xiao

    Full Text Available External guide sequences (EGSs have successfully been used to inhibit expression of target genes at the post-transcriptional level in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. We previously reported that EGS accessible and cleavable sites in the target RNAs can rapidly be identified by screening random EGS (rEGS libraries. Here the method of screening rEGS libraries and a partial RNase T1 digestion assay were used to identify sites accessible to EGSs in the mRNA of a global virulence regulator MglB from Francisella tularensis, a Gram-negative pathogenic bacterium. Specific EGSs were subsequently designed and their activities in terms of the cleavage of mglB mRNA by RNase P were tested in vitro and in vivo. EGS73, EGS148, and EGS155 in both stem and M1 EGS constructs induced mglB mRNA cleavage in vitro. Expression of stem EGS73 and EGS155 in Escherichia coli resulted in significant reduction of the mglB mRNA level coded for the F. tularensis mglB gene inserted in those cells.

  2. E. Coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for the bacteria's medical name Escherichia coli . The strange thing about these bacteria — and lots of other ... In some cases, E. coli poisoning can cause life-threatening kidney problems. What Can Kids Do? Adults ...

  3. ANIMAL ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubreuil, J. Daniel; Isaacson, Richard E.; Schifferli, Dieter M.

    2016-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is the most common cause of E. coli diarrhea in farm animals. ETEC are characterized by the ability to produce two types of virulence factors; adhesins that promote binding to specific enterocyte receptors for intestinal colonization and enterotoxins responsible for fluid secretion. The best-characterized adhesins are expressed in the context of fimbriae, such as the F4 (also designated K88), F5 (K99), F6 (987P), F17 and F18 fimbriae. Once established in the animal small intestine, ETEC produces enterotoxin(s) that lead to diarrhea. The enterotoxins belong to two major classes; heat-labile toxin that consist of one active and five binding subunits (LT), and heat-stable toxins that are small polypeptides (STa, STb, and EAST1). This chapter describes the disease and pathogenesis of animal ETEC, the corresponding virulence genes and protein products of these bacteria, their regulation and targets in animal hosts, as well as mechanisms of action. Furthermore, vaccines, inhibitors, probiotics and the identification of potential new targets identified by genomics are presented in the context of animal ETEC. PMID:27735786

  4. Isolation of dihydroflavonol 4-reductase cDNA clones from Angelonia x angustifolia and heterologous expression as GST fusion protein in Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Gosch

    Full Text Available Blue Angelonia × angustifolia flowers can show spontaneous mutations resulting in white/blue and white flower colourations. In such a white line, a loss of dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR activity was observed whereas chalcone synthase and flavanone 3-hydroxylase activity remained unchanged. Thus, cloning and characterization of a DFR of Angelonia flowers was carried out for the first time. Two full length DFR cDNA clones, Ang.DFR1 and Ang.DFR2, were obtained from a diploid chimeral white/blue Angelonia × angustifolia which demonstrated a 99% identity in their translated amino acid sequence. In comparison to Ang.DFR2, Ang.DFR1 was shown to contain an extra proline in a proline-rich region at the N-terminus along with two exchanges at the amino acids 12 and 26 in the translated amino acid sequence. The recombinant Ang.DFR2 obtained by heterologous expression in yeast was functionally active catalyzing the NADPH dependent reduction of dihydroquercetin (DHQ and dihydromyricetin (DHM to leucocyanidin and leucomyricetin, respectively. Dihydrokaempferol (DHK in contrast was not accepted as a substrate despite the presence of asparagine in a position assumed to determine DHK acceptance. We show that substrate acceptance testing of DFRs provides biased results for DHM conversion if products are extracted with ethyl acetate. Recombinant Ang.DFR1 was inactive and functional activity could only be restored via exchanges of the amino acids in position 12 and 26 as well as the deletion of the extra proline. E. coli transformation of the pGEX-6P-1 vector harbouring the Ang.DFR2 and heterologous expression in E. coli resulted in functionally active enzymes before and after GST tag removal. Both the GST fusion protein and purified DFR minus the GST tag could be stored at -80°C for several months without loss of enzyme activity and demonstrated identical substrate specificity as the recombinant enzyme obtained from heterologous expression in yeast.

  5. Estimating transmission parameters of F4 + E. coli for F4-receptor-positive and -negative piglets: one-to-one transmission experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geenen, P.L.; Meulen, van der J.; Bouma, A.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2004-01-01

    F4+ Escherichia coli is an important agent of post-weaning diarrhoea in piglets. Piglets that express an adhesion site for F4+ E. coli in their small intestine (F4R+) shed higher numbers of F4+ E. coli than piglets lacking this site (F4R[minus sign]). We hypothesized that F4R+ piglets are more

  6. Chromosomal insertion of the entire Escherichia coli lactose operon, into two strains of Pseudomonas, using a modified mini-Tn5 delivery system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, L. H.; Sørensen, S. J.; Jensen, Lars Bogø

    1997-01-01

    A 12-kb PstI fragment including the entire E. coli lactose operon (lacIPOZYA) was inserted in one copy into the chromosome of Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas fluorescens and an E. coli strain with lac(-) phenotype. This was made possible by improvements of an already existing mini-Tn5 transposon...... flanked by NotI sites needed in the mini-Tn5 delivery system; (b) the generation of E. coli nonlysogenic strains expressing the pi protein thus being capable of maintaining and delivering R6K-based mini-Tn5 vectors to other E. coli strains; (c) the successful insertion of the E. coli lactose operon...... into the P. fluorescens chromosome giving P. fluorescens the ability to grow on lactose; (d) evidence from Southern blotting that contradicts the assumption that the mini-Tn5 delivery system always creates one-copy inserts. These improvements allow insertion of large DNA fragments encoding highly expressed...

  7. A novel prokaryotic vector for identification and selection of recombinants: Direct use of the vector for expression studies in E. coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apte-Deshpande Anjali

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The selection of bacterial recombinants that harbour a desired insert, has been a key factor in molecular cloning and a series of screening procedures need to be performed for selection of clones carrying the genes of interest. The conventional cloning techniques are reported to have problems such as screening high number of colonies, generation of false positives, setting up of control ligation mix with vector alone etc. Results We describe the development of a novel dual cloning/expression vector, which enables to screen the recombinants directly and expression of the gene of interest. The vector contains Green fluorescence protein (GFP as the reporter gene and is constructed in such a way that the E. coli cells upon transformation with this vector does not show any fluorescence, but readily fluoresce upon insertion of a foreign gene of interest. The same construct could be easily used for screening of the clones and expression studies by mere switching to specific hosts. Conclusions This is the first vector reported that takes the property o