Bacteria have evolved various mechanisms to extract utilizable substrates from available resources and consequently acquire fitness advantage over competitors. One of the strategies is the exploitation of cryptic cellular functions encoded by genetic systems that are silent under laboratory conditions, such as the bgl (β-glucoside) operon of E. coli. The bgl operon of Escherichia coli, involved in the uptake and utilization of aromatic β-glucosides salicin and arbutin, is maintained in a silent state in the wild type organism by the presence of structural elements in the regulatory region. This operon can be activated by mutations that disrupt these negative elements. The fact that the silent bgl operon is retained without accumulating deleterious mutations seems paradoxical from an evolutionary view point. Although this operon appears to be silent, specific physiological conditions might be able to regulate its expression and/or the operon might be carrying out function(s) apart from the utilization of aromatic β-glucosides. This is consistent with the observations that the activated operon confers a Growth Advantage in Stationary Phase (GASP) phenotype to Bgl+ cells and exerts its regulation on at least twelve downstream target genes. PMID:25763016
Full Text Available Bacteria have evolved various mechanisms to extract utilizable substrates from available resources and consequently acquire fitness advantage over competitors. One of the strategies is the exploitation of cryptic cellular functions encoded by genetic systems that are silent under laboratory conditions, such as the bgl (β-glucoside operon of E. coli. The bgl operon of Escherichia coli, involved in the uptake and utilization of aromatic β-glucosides salicin and arbutin, is maintained in a silent state in the wild type organism by the presence of structural elements in the regulatory region. This operon can be activated by mutations that disrupt these negative elements. The fact that the silent bgl operon is retained without accumulating deleterious mutations seems paradoxical from an evolutionary view point. Although this operon appears to be silent, specific physiological conditions might be able to regulate its expression and/or the operon might be carrying out function(s apart from the utilization of aromatic β-glucosides. This is consistent with the observations that the activated operon confers a Growth Advantage in Stationary Phase (GASP phenotype to Bgl+ cells and exerts its regulation on at least twelve downstream target genes.
Falke, Dörte; Schulz, Kristin; Doberenz, Claudia; Beyer, Lydia; Lilie, Hauke; Thiemer, Barbara; Sawers, Robert Gary
FocA is a predicted formate channel with a deduced mass of 31 kDa that catalyzes the bidirectional movement of formate across the cytoplasmic membrane of Escherichia coli and is the archetype of the formate-nitrite transporter (FNT) family. Overproduced FocA variants with either an N- or a C-terminal Strep-tag increased formate import into anaerobic E. coli cells as determined by the enhanced activity of a single-copy formate-dependent fdhF::lacZ fusion. Using anti-FocA antibodies, we could show that both FocA variants were integrated into the cytoplasmic membrane. Circular dichroism spectroscopy of purified FocA(Strep-N) revealed a high alpha-helical content of 56% consistent with the predicted six transmembrane helices present in the protein. Analysis of the oligomeric state by blue-native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed FocA to have an unexpected pentameric quaternary structure. This study reports the first isolation of an FNT family member.
Lucas, M L
A review of the evidence for Escherichia coli STa causing fluid secretion in vito leads to the conclusion that the concept of STa acting through enhanced chloride secretion in order to derange intestinal function is unproven. However, a consistent effect of STa in the small intestine is on Na+/H+ exchange, leading to interruption of luminal acidification. A model for the action of STa, involving inhibition of Na+/H+ exchange, is proposed which explains the ability of STa to reduce absorption in vito but its inability to cause secretion in vito in contrast to its apparent secretory effect in vitro. The apparent ability to demonstrate secretion in vitro is shown to derive from methodologies which do not involve measurement of mass transport of water but instead, infer it from in vitro and in vivo proxy measurements. The in vitro demonstration of notional secretion after STa exposure can be reconciled with the proposed new model for fluid absorption in that cell swelling is argued to arise as a transient consequence of STa challenge followed by regulatory volume decrease. Evidence for this derangement model is presented in the form of observations derived from acute in vivo physiological studies and clinical studies on patients without the exchanger. This process of appraisal of the evidence for the mechanism of action of STa has led to a new model for fluid absorption. This is based on the formation of hypotonicity at the brush border luminal surface rather than hypertonicity within the lateral spaces as required by the present standing gradient model of fluid absorption. Evidence from the literature is presented for this new paradigm of water absorption, which may only be relevant for small intestine and other tissues that have Na+/H+ exchangers in contact with HCO-3-containing solutions but which may also be generalizable to all mammalian absorbing epithelial membranes.
... Linked to Leafy Greens Learn about E. coli infections and how they can be prevented Escherichia coli (abbreviated as E. coli ) are bacteria found in the environment, foods, and intestines of people and animals. E. coli are a ...
... For Kids > E. Coli Print A A A en español E. coli What Is E. Coli ? E. coli is a common type of bacteria that can get into food, like beef and vegetables. E. coli is short for the bacteria's medical name Escherichia coli . The strange thing about these bacteria — and lots ...
Sabrina Oktoria Sihombing
Full Text Available A paradigm influences what we see and conceive about certain facts. Paradigm can also influence what we accept as a truth. Yet, the debate over which paradigm and methodology is best suit for marketing and consumer behavior has begun since 1980s. Many researchers criticized the domination of logical empiricism paradigm and offered alternative paradigm to understand marketing and consumer behavior. This article discusses several paradigms and methodology, which are part of qualitative paradigm, and compares them with positivism paradigm. This article will also point to the importance of reconciliation between qualitative and quantitative paradigm in order to improve marketing and consumer behavior studies.
Christensen, Torben Spanget
this article. A possible utilitarian didactical paradigm, already indicated by Krogh as a historical paradigm prominent in our time, is also discussed. It is suggested that reflection could be seen as a normative response to the utilitarian paradigm, and not as a paradigm in its own right. It is concluded...... that reflection must be understood as an overarching cultural phenomenon and a very important qualification of all Nielsen’s paradigms, and also a possible utilitarian paradigm, because it has the potential to add dynamic elements to the more or less static didactic paradigms. Thus the semiotic analysis may...
Escherichia coli is the most prominent cause of infectious diseases that span from the gastrointestinal tract to extra-intestinal sites such as urinary tract infection, septicaemia, and neonatal meningitis. The emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance in E. coli is an increasing public health concern across the world. Rising resistance in E. coli isolates is also observed in Iran. This review summarizes the status of antibiotic resistance of E. coli isolates in Iran from 2007 to 2016. The data of the prevalence of E. coli antibiotic resistance were collected from databases such as Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, Embase, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar and Scientific Information Database. Antibiotic resistance in E. coli is on the rise. Prevalence of antibiotic resistance of E. coli varies from region to region in Iran.
Full Text Available This paper approaches the subject of paradigms for the categories of intelligent systems. First we can look at the term paradigm in its scientific meaning and then we make acquaintance with the main categories of intelligent systems (expert systems, intelligent systems based on genetic algorithms, artificial neuronal systems, fuzzy systems, hybrid intelligent systems. We will see that every system has one or more paradigms, but hybrid intelligent systems combine paradigms because they are made of different technologies. This research has been made under the guidance of Dr. Ioan AND ONE, Professor and Director of Research Laboratory.
Liang, Xiao; Liao, Chunyu; Thompson, Michael L; Soupir, Michelle L; Jarboe, Laura R; Dixon, Philip M
The importance of E. coli as an indicator organism in fresh water has led to numerous studies focusing on cell properties and transport behavior. However, previous studies have been unable to assess if differences in E. coli cell surface properties and genomic variation are associated with different environmental habitats. In this study, we investigated the variation in characteristics of E. coli obtained from stream water and stream bottom sediments. Cell properties were measured for 77 genomically different E. coli strains (44 strains isolated from sediments and 33 strains isolated from water) under common stream conditions in the Upper Midwestern United States: pH 8.0, ionic strength 10 mM and 22°C. Measured cell properties include hydrophobicity, zeta potential, net charge, total acidity, and extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) composition. Our results indicate that stream sediment E. coli had significantly greater hydrophobicity, greater EPS protein content and EPS sugar content, less negative net charge, and higher point of zero charge than stream water E. coli . A significant positive correlation was observed between hydrophobicity and EPS protein for stream sediment E. coli but not for stream water E. coli . Additionally, E. coli surviving in the same habitat tended to have significantly larger (GTG) 5 genome similarity. After accounting for the intrinsic impact from the genome, environmental habitat was determined to be a factor influencing some cell surface properties, such as hydrophobicity. The diversity of cell properties and its resulting impact on particle interactions should be considered for environmental fate and transport modeling of aquatic indicator organisms such as E. coli .
Novak, Joseph D.
Presented is a paradigm for science education research. The paradigm advances the reception learning theory, where regularities to be learned are presented explicitly to the learner. A tool for the study of knowledge production in science education, the Gowin "V," is presented. (RE)
The "algorithmic" model of outdoor experiential learning is based in military tradition and characterized by questionable scientific rationale, production line metaphor, and the notion of learning as marketable commodity. Alternatives are the moral paradigm; the ecological paradigm "friluftsliv"; and the emerging…
Carstensen, Martin B.; Matthijs, Matthias
? Despite the profound impact of Peter Hall’s approach to policy paradigms and social learning, there is a burgeoning consensus that transposing a rudimentary ‘Kuhnian’ understanding of paradigms into the context of public policy making leads to a notion of punctuated equilibrium style shifts as the only...... game in town. In effect, while Hall’s approach can account for inter-paradigm change with reference to exogenous shocks, it does not allow for significant ideational change to occur intra-paradigm. In order to remedy this, we suggest that the concept of ideational power be placed more centrally...... in the study of policy paradigms. To demonstrate the general applicability of our framework, the paper examines the evolution of British macroeconomic policy making since 1990. We show that various Prime Ministers and their Chancellors were able to reinterpret and redefine the dominant neoliberal understanding...
Schlimmer, Jeffrey C.; Langley, Pat
Five paradigms are described for machine learning: connectionist (neural network) methods, genetic algorithms and classifier systems, empirical methods for inducing rules and decision trees, analytic learning methods, and case-based approaches. Some dimensions are considered along with these paradigms vary in their approach to learning, and the basic methods are reviewed that are used within each framework, together with open research issues. It is argued that the similarities among the paradigms are more important than their differences, and that future work should attempt to bridge the existing boundaries. Finally, some recent developments in the field of machine learning are discussed, and their impact on both research and applications is examined.
Qian, Cunzhong; Hou, Jiafa
The present study aimed to investigate whether Escherichia coli virulence affects the roles of sex hormone receptors in female dogs with simulated pyometra. A total of 33 healthy, nulliparous, crossbred female dogs were divided into four groups, with 10 dogs in each of the three experimental groups and 3 dogs in the control group. Estradiol was administrated to female dogs in group 1 continuously at 0.6-4.8 mg/kg twice daily for 12 days (the dose doubled every three days), followed by intramuscular injection of 0.2-1.8 mg/kg progesterone. The progesterone was administrated with an initial dose of 0.2 µg/kg and increased 0.2 mg/kg every three days, twice daily until the maximum of 1.8 mg/kg for 24 days and maintained at 1.8 mg/kg for 19 days. Progesterone only was administrated at 1.8 mg/kg in group 2 (twice daily) for 55 continuous days and only estradiol was administered with an initial dose of 0.6 µg/kg (dose doubled every 3 days for 12 days) in group 3 twice daily and maintained at 4.8 mg/kg for the following 43 days. A strongly virulent E. coli strain, nau-b, and a weakly virulent strain, nau-i, were screened. On the 12th day of diestrus, 5 female dogs in each of the experimental groups were inoculated with E. coli nau-i strain, while the other five in each group were inoculated with nau-b strain. Histopathological changes of uterine tissues were microscopically observed 50 days after E. coli inoculation and hormone receptor expression levels were detected by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Simulated pyometra was observed in dogs administrated with progesterone alone or progesterone combined with estradiol. The clinical symptoms and histopathological observation demonstrated that inoculation with strongly virulent E. coli strain, nau-b, caused earlier onset of pyometra symptoms and more severe pyometra symptoms compared with the weakly virulent E. coli strain, nau-i. Furthermore, estrogen and progesterone receptor levels in dogs with pyometra
Traces the shift of paradigms in the political science profession from the 1960s to 1980, examines the classical paradigm, compares it with modern paradigms, and reviews contemporary efforts to articulate a new paradigm which takes the ecological crisis into account. (Author/DB)
Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to present a unified view of Winnicott’s contribution to psychoanalysis. Part I (Sections 1-4 starts off by recalling that, according to some important commentators, Winnicott introduced a change in paradigms in psychoanalysis. In order to show that this change can be viewed as an overall “switch in paradigms”, in the sense given by T. S. Kuhn, this paper presents an account of the Kuhn’s view of science and offers a reconstruction of Freud’s Oedipal, Triangular or “Toddler-in-the-Mother’s-Bed” Paradigm. Part II (Sections 5-13 shows that as early as the 1920’s Winnicott encountered insurmountable anomalies in the Oedipal paradigm and, for that reason, started what can be called revolutionary research for a new framework of psychoanalysis. This research led Winnicott, especially during the last period of his life, to produce an alternative dual or “Baby-on-the-Mother’s-Lap” Paradigm. This new paradigm is described in some detail, especially the paradigmatic dual mother-baby relation and Winnicott’s dominant theory of maturation. Final remarks are made regarding Winnicott’s heritage and the future of psychoanalysis.
Andova, Suzana; Groenewegen, Luuk P. J.; Verschuren, Jan H. S.; de Vink, Erik P.
For large security systems a clear separation of concerns is achieved through architecting. Particularly the dynamic consistency between the architectural components should be addressed, in addition to individual component behaviour. In this paper, relevant dynamic consistency is specified through Paradigm, a coordination modeling language based on dynamic constraints. As it is argued, this fits well with security issues. A smaller example introduces the architectural approach towards implementing security policies. A larger casestudy illustrates the use of Paradigm in analyzing the FOO voting scheme. In addition, translating the Paradigm models into process algebra brings model checking within reach. Security properties of the examples discussed, are formally verified with the model checker Literal>mCRL2Literal>.
Full Text Available Starting with the definition of horror as a literary genre the core story of which is based on a meeting with threatening Otherness whose influx into consensual reality and it’s tacit normality creates unrest and awakens fear in the protagonists and the audience, this paper defines the three key paradigms of the horror genre, based on the causes of fear, or rather the “monstrous” Otherness in them. Paradigm 1 concerns the “fear of one’s own self”: the root of the fear is inside, in the individual psyche, in the split, deceived, or in some other way unreliable self which is, consciously or unconsciously, harmful to others, and ultimately to itself. Paradigm 2 deals with the “Fear of others”: the root of fear is outside and is concerned with other people and other creatures which have an urge to occupy a certain human microcosm. Paradigm 3 is concerned with the “Fear of the numinous”: the root of the fear is mostly situated on the outside; however its shape is amorphous, ambivalent and unknowable. The “monster” is faceless; it touches on primary forces of the divine/demonic, and as such is situated on the very border between inside/outside. All three paradigms, with their main approaches and constitutive elements, are modulated through two basic possible treatments: the conservative and the progressive (liberal, which affords a total of six basic variations of horror. Starting from definitions given by John Carpenter, Robin Wood and his own, the author analyzes representative examples from horror literature and film for each paradigm and its variation, with a special accent on the image of Otherness and its connection to the norm, its intrusion into the status quo, anthropocentrism and the presence or absence of a happy ending. The paper demonstrates the richness of connotative potential within the horror genre and provides a basis for its taxonomy.
19.0%, 16.7% and 11.9% respectively. This data supports the assertion of E. coli as being the most important bacterial pathogen involved in neonatal diarrhoea or collibacillosis and have important public health implication due to the involvement of serotype O157. It was concluded that there is the need for further research ...
Goodsell, David S.
Diverse biological data may be used to create illustrations of molecules in their cellular context. I describe the scientific results that support a recent textbook illustration of an "Escherichia coli cell". The image magnifies a portion of the bacterium at one million times, showing the location and form of individual macromolecules. Results…
. This regrammation process involves semantic changes that must be described in terms of paradigm (re)organisation and cannot be captured in terms of changes along the parameters of the cline of grammaticalisation. Two main types of auxiliaries are distinguished: inflectional auxiliaries, with predication scope...
of one variable, we might first design a multiple-precision arithmetic representation. Robert W Floyd, Turing ... paradigm of structured programming does serve to. extend one's powers of design, allowing the construction of ... Balzer, in his jeremiad against the state of software construction, went on to prophesy that automatic ...
S.C. van der Made-Potuijt; A. de Bruin (Arie)
textabstractBy using Paradigm, it is possible to model cooperating processes and to make the communication between these processes very clear. This report gives a formal description of this modeling method using state-transition diagrams in order to model processes and homomorphismes and
Kiss, Katalin; Brozik, Anna; Kucsma, Nora
ABCB6, a member of the adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family, has been proposed to be responsible for the mitochondrial uptake of porphyrins. Here we show that ABCB6 is a glycoprotein present in the membrane of mature erythrocytes and in exosomes released from reticuloc...... paradigm linking the expression and function of ABCB6 to mitochondria....
Full Text Available This paper's goal is to briefly explain the basic theory behind programming languages and their history while taking a close look at different programming paradigms that are used today as well as describing their differences, benefits, and drawbacks
Marsh, Rob; Larsen, Vibeke Grupe; Hacker, Jake
for developing a new paradigm for zero-energy architecture. There has been a radical transformation in building energy consumption over the last 30 years, with an absolute reduction in heat consumption and a rapid growth in electricity consumption, reflecting wider technological and social transformations......This paper argues that the understanding of architecture again needs to be widened if the architectural profession is to play an active role in combating climate change. The paper therefore examines past, present and future challenges for building energy consumption in Denmark as the basis...... in the future. With this background, a new paradigm for zero-energy architecture is developed that re-flects the architectural design process. In this way, the architectural focus early in the de-sign process on functional disposition, spatial quality and built form can act as the driving force in the movement...
Full Text Available We are at the beginning of a change of paradigm in the energy systems of the whole World. Both new resources being found and exploited and the new technologies for energy conversion, transport and distribution, along with the associated artificial intelligence systems, are starting to create new futures, with different living values, for the greatest machine created by men: the energy system. Some relevant elements are presented in the paper along with the position and the perspectives of Romania.
Full Text Available Nowadays competitiveness is made up of “the new” paradigm that allows to prevail in the global World. Thus, it is inevitable to ask, was it required to be competitive to be successful in the international trade arena? Recognizing the discussion about it and its theoretical-conceptual density, the present paper studies this old notion whose meaning, in essence, is always the same one. This applies even though new realities in the present world-wide atmosphere confer to it a distinguishing character and new and old players are forced to organize actions and bring efforts together to obtain the competitive supremacy.
Sveiby, Karl Erik; Segercrantz, Beata
Innovation is almost always seen as a "good thing". Challenging the Innovation Paradigm is a critical analysis of the innovation frenzy and contemporary innovation research. The one-sided focus on desirable effects of innovation misses many opportunities to reduce the undesirable consequences. Authors in this book show how systemic effects outside the innovating firms reduce the net benefits of innovation for individual employees, customers, as well as for society as a whole - also the innovators' own organizations. This book analyzes the dominant discourses that construct and recons
Full Text Available Even if sustainable development is a concept that gained quite recently its scientific prestige, through contribution of researchers its content has upgraded to a high degree of conceptual luggage and, through contribution from governance representatives, has gained an impressive good-practice background. Allowing the use of different methodological premises and conceptual tools, sustainable development paradigm is equipped with all the elements that would allow the opening of new horizons of knowledge. Based on the facility which can operate the concept of sustainable development, the European Union aims to develop both a more competitive economy based on environmental protection as well as a new governance of economic policy. This on one hand demonstrates the sustainable development ability to irradiate creativity towards the establishment of interdisciplinary bridges and on the other hand explains the growing interest of researchers interested in the problem of analyzing in detail this fruitful concept. Launched first as a theoretical framework to serve justify actions responsible for weighting economic growth, the concept of Sustainable Development has quickly become a topic of ethical debate circumscribed to the area of perfectibility of human nature to the necessity registry. In this regard, the philosophical content of this paradigm could not remain outside researchers concerns, who want to provide both policy makers and the general public a wide range of evidence to demonstrate the viability of this paradigm. Academia waits until maximization of the contribution of governance to achieve sustainable economic development, which consists in conjunction of this upward path with the momentum given by public policy sync, perfectly adapted for globalization era and all crises to come. However, because this concept based its structure and composition on three pillars, equally important economy, society and environment any attempt to strengthen
Escherichia coli strains are important commensals of the intestinal tract of humans and animals; however, pathogenic strains, including diarrhea-inducing E. coli and extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli. Intestinal E. coli pathotypes may cause a dehydrating watery diarrhea, or more severe diseases su...
Daugbjerg, Carsten; Farsund, Arild Aurvåg; Langhelle, Oluf
This paper argues that a policy regime based on a paradigm mix may be resilient when challenged by changing power balances and new agendas. Controversies between the actors can be contained within the paradigm mix as it enables them to legitimize different ideational positions. Rather than engaging...... in conflict over the foundation of the regime, they are more likely to rebalance the paradigm blend. We show that despite being a mixture of two contradictory paradigms, the World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement on Agriculture has proven resilient when the power balance within the WTO and the policy...
Full Text Available The words and phrases swop with each other and the apparent stability of a word’s meaning sometimes change in time. This explains why the generic term of accounting is used when referring to the qualities attributed to accounting,but also when it comes to organizing financial accounting function within the entity, and when referring concretely to keeping a double record with its specific means, methods and tools specific, respectively seen as a technical accounting.Speaking about the qualities of accounting, but also about the organizational form it takes, we note that there is a manifold meaning of the word accounting, which is why the purpose of this article is to demonstrate that the paradigm shift aimed at a new set of rules and if the rules changes, then we can change the very purpose of accounting.
Larson Janet E
Full Text Available Abstract Genetic and environmental agents that disrupt organogenesis are numerous and well described. Less well established, however, is the role of delay in the developmental processes that yield functionally immature tissues at birth. Evidence is mounting that organs do not continue to develop postnatally in the context of these organogenesis insults, condemning the patient to utilize under-developed tissues for adult processes. These poorly differentiated organs may appear histologically normal at birth but with age may deteriorate revealing progressive or adult-onset pathology. The genetic and molecular underpinning of the proposed paradigm reveals the need for a comprehensive systems biology approach to evaluate the role of maternal-fetal environment on organogenesis. You may delay, but time will not Benjamin Franklin USA Founding Father
Vu, Thanh Long; Chatzivasileiadis, Spyros; Chiang, Hsiao-Dong
demand and hopefully stabilize the system. This traditional emergency control results in interrupted service with severe economic damage to customers. Also, such control is usually less effective due to the lack of coordination among protective devices. In this paper, we propose a novel structural...... emergency control to render post-fault dynamics from the critical/emergency fault cleared state to the stable equilibrium point. This is a new control paradigm that does not rely on any continuous measurement or load shedding, as in the classical setup. Instead, the grid is made stable by discretely...... relocating the equilibrium point and its stability region, such that the system is consecutively attracted from the fault-cleared state back to the original equilibrium point. The proposed control is designed by solving linear and convex optimization problems, making it possibly scalable to large-scale power...
Dougherty, Eric R; Carlson, Colin J; Bueno, Veronica M; Burgio, Kevin R; Cizauskas, Carrie A; Clements, Christopher F; Seidel, Dana P; Harris, Nyeema C
Parasitic species, which depend directly on host species for their survival, represent a major regulatory force in ecosystems and a significant component of Earth's biodiversity. Yet the negative impacts of parasites observed at the host level have motivated a conservation paradigm of eradication, moving us farther from attainment of taxonomically unbiased conservation goals. Despite a growing body of literature highlighting the importance of parasite-inclusive conservation, most parasite species remain understudied, underfunded, and underappreciated. We argue the protection of parasitic biodiversity requires a paradigm shift in the perception and valuation of their role as consumer species, similar to that of apex predators in the mid-20th century. Beyond recognizing parasites as vital trophic regulators, existing tools available to conservation practitioners should explicitly account for the unique threats facing dependent species. We built upon concepts from epidemiology and economics (e.g., host-density threshold and cost-benefit analysis) to devise novel metrics of margin of error and minimum investment for parasite conservation. We define margin of error as the risk of accidental host extinction from misestimating equilibrium population sizes and predicted oscillations, while minimum investment represents the cost associated with conserving the additional hosts required to maintain viable parasite populations. This framework will aid in the identification of readily conserved parasites that present minimal health risks. To establish parasite conservation, we propose an extension of population viability analysis for host-parasite assemblages to assess extinction risk. In the direst cases, ex situ breeding programs for parasites should be evaluated to maximize success without undermining host protection. Though parasitic species pose a considerable conservation challenge, adaptations to conservation tools will help protect parasite biodiversity in the face of
Makvana, Sejal; Krilov, Leonard R
Virulent strains of Escherichia coli are responsible for most diarrheal infections, meningitis, septicemia, and urinary tract infections in children worldwide. Clinicians must learn to recognize, treat, and prevent these infections. After completing this article, readers should be able to: 1. Describe the epidemiology of E coli infections. 2. Recognize the clinical features of E coli infections, including the O157: H7 strain. 3. Appropriately treat children with various types of E coli infections. 4. Understand ways to prevent E coli infections.
S. Andova; L.P.J. Groenewegen; E.P. de Vink (Erik Peter); L. Aceto (Luca); M.R. Mousavi
htmlabstractThe coordination modelling language Paradigm addresses collaboration between components in terms of dynamic constraints. Within a Paradigm model, component dynamics are consistently specified at a detailed and a global level of abstraction. To enable automated verification of Paradigm
... We have answers. Fact Sheets Share Escherichia coli (E. coli) Friday, 01 September 2017 In every pregnancy, ... pregnancy and while breastfeeding. Donate Sign Up For E-Newsletter Full Name * Email Address * Enter The Code: ...
paradigm. The model reflects drivers of globalisation and technology development which support establishment of multifunctional information systems incorporating diverse land rights, land use regulations and other useful data. A third major driver, sustainable development, stimulates demands...
E. coli is the name of a type of bacteria that lives in your intestines. Most types of E. coli are harmless. However, some types can make ... type causes travelers' diarrhea. The worst type of E. coli causes bloody diarrhea, and can sometimes cause ...
Full Text Available This article elaborates consumption paradigm in marketing. In background, this paper reviews different perspectives of consumption: economic perspective and marketing perspective. In ontology, this work describes various issues regarding consumption view. In epistemology, this article demonstrates how marketers especially researches explore the consumption phenomena. In methodology, the article describes experiential marketing –one of applied consumption paradigm in marketing, which could be an alternative choice of marketing practices.
Sebag, J; Sadun, Alfredo A; Pierce, Eric A
Future advances in ophthalmology will see a paradigm shift in diagnostics from a focus on dysfunction and disease to better measures of psychophysical function and health. Practical methods to define genotypes will be increasingly important and non-invasive nanotechnologies are needed to detect molecular changes that predate histopathology. This is not a review nor meant to be comprehensive. Specific topics have been selected to illustrate the principles of important paradigm shifts that will influence the future of ophthalmic diagnostics. It is our impression that future evaluation of vision will go beyond visual acuity to assess ocular health in terms of psychophysical function. The definition of disease will incorporate genotype into what has historically been a phenotype-centric discipline. Non-invasive nanotechnologies will enable a paradigm shift from disease detection on a cellular level to a sub-cellular molecular level. Vision can be evaluated beyond visual acuity by measuring contrast sensitivity, color vision, and macular function, as these provide better insights into the impact of aging and disease. Distortions can be quantified and the psychophysical basis of vision can be better evaluated than in the past by designing tests that assess particular macular cell function(s). Advances in our understanding of the genetic basis of eye diseases will enable better characterization of ocular health and disease. Non-invasive nanotechnologies can assess molecular changes in the lens, vitreous, and macula that predate visible pathology. Oxygen metabolism and circulatory physiology are measurable indices of ocular health that can detect variations of physiology and early disease. This overview of paradigm shifts in ophthalmology suggests that the future will see significant improvements in ophthalmic diagnostics. The selected topics illustrate the principles of these paradigm shifts and should serve as a guide to further research and development. Indeed
Chua, Leon O
Revolutionary and original, this treatise presents a new paradigm of EMERGENCE and COMPLEXITY, with applications drawn from numerous disciplines, including artificial life, biology, chemistry, computation, physics, image processing, information science, etc.CNN is an acronym for Cellular Neural Networks when used in the context of brain science, or Cellular Nonlinear Networks, when used in the context of emergence and complexity. A CNN is modeled by cells and interactions: cells are defined as dynamical systems and interactions are defined via coupling laws. The CNN paradigm is a universal Tur
Soothill, Keith; Christoffersen, Mogens N.; Hussain, Azhar
Using Danish registers for a 1980 birth cohort of 29,944 males with parental information and following up these cases for 25 years, the study considers four paradigms of crime reduction (parental child rearing, structural factors around adolescence, locality and individual resources). Focusing...... on offenders with first-time convictions for shoplifting (n = 1,989), for burglary (n = 1,324) and for violence (n = 1,901), all four paradigms made a contribution to risk of first-time offending for all three crimes. The counter-factual analysis indicated that a focus on structural issues within a society may...
There is a worldwide need to build understanding of the land management paradigm and for institutional development to establish sustainable national concepts. This includes creation and adoption of a policy on land development, and an approach that combines the land administration/cadastre/land r......There is a worldwide need to build understanding of the land management paradigm and for institutional development to establish sustainable national concepts. This includes creation and adoption of a policy on land development, and an approach that combines the land administration...
Wigger, Angela; Buch-Hansen, Hubert
of competition regulation is heaving into sight. It sets out to explain this from the vantage point of a critical political economy perspective, which identifies the circumstances under which a crisis can result in a regulatory paradigm shift. Contrasting the current situation with the shift in EC/EU competition...... capitalism; the social power configuration underpinning the neoliberal order remains unaltered; no clear counter-project has surfaced; the European Commission has been (and remains) in a position to oppose radical changes; and finally, there are no signs of a wider paradigm shift in the EU's regulatory...
Shirmohammadi, Dariush [Pacific Gas and Electric Co., San Francisco, CA (United States); Vieira Filho, Xisto; Gorenstin, Boris [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pereira, Mario V.P. [Power System Research, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
In this paper we describe the principles of several paradigms and methodologies for pricing transmission services. The paper outlines some of the main characteristics of these paradigms and methodologies such as where they may be used for best results. Due to their popularity, power flow based MW-mile and short run marginal cost pricing methodologies will be covered in some detail. We conclude the paper with examples of the application of these two pricing methodologies for pricing transmission services in Brazil. (author) 25 refs., 2 tabs.
Rice, William R
Experimental genetics with model organisms and mathematically explicit genetic theory are generally considered to be the major paradigms by which progress in genetics is achieved. Here I argue that this view is incomplete and that pivotal advances in genetics--and other fields of biology--are also made by synthesizing disparate threads of extant information rather than generating new information from experiments or formal theory. Because of the explosive expansion of information in numerous "-omics" data banks, and the fragmentation of genetics into numerous subdisciplines, the importance of the synthesis paradigm will likely expand with time.
According to the author, the necessary change to a new psychoanalytic paradigm of femininity can only take place if the patriarchal discourse of psychoanalytic metatheory is systematically deconstructed. Only then can a reconstruction of this discourse occur with a view toward the emancipation of both genders.
Reigeluth, Charles M., Ed.
Examines changes in the "supersystem" of instructional systems design (ISD) that indicate the need for a paradigm of training and education based on learning instead of sorting students. Emphasizes the necessity of developing initiative, teamwork, thinking skills, and diversity, as well as new learning-focused instructional theories and…
logical paradigm for conservative Afrikaner believers must be critical, legitimising and free of .... thoughts with a belief in the divine source of knowledge. Both aimed at arriving at knowledge which is .... the right-wing Afrikaners with the vision that they are the chosen Israel. These peo ple emphasise the concept of election in ...
Glaveanu, Vlad Petre
This presentation aims to focus on and develop the notion of distributed creativity from a cultural psychological perspective. It will start by outlining the need for a cultural psychological paradigm of creative expression and argue that this perspective is primarily concerned with what can...
Manchet: This paper was first presented by Professor Enemark at the RICS Christmas Lecture in December last year. It provides a cogent and detailed reference point for the current state of land management in developed countries, charts a course for the future and looks at how education must chang...... to meet the new paradigm....
2015 RAHAYU ANGGREINI coli Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk melakukan identifikasi cemaran bakteri E. coli O157:H7 pada daging sapi di kota Makassar. Sampel pada penelitian ini sebanyak 72 sampel Kata Kunci : Daging sapi, pasar tradisional, E. coli, E. coli O157:H7, kontaminasi bakteri, identifikasi E. coli O157:H7.
... out if you have E. coli in your intestines. The culture has to be taken in the first 48 hours after the bloody diarrhea starts. PreventionHow can I keep from getting E. coli infection?You can help prevent this infection by handling ...
Zhang, Haoran; Li, Zhengjun; Pereira, Brian; Stephanopoulos, Gregory
.... In this study, we aim to explore the potential of the E. coli-E. coli coculture system to use a single renewable carbon source, glycerol, for the production of value-added product cis, cis-muconic acid...
Gomes, Tânia A T; Elias, Waldir P; Scaletsky, Isabel C A; Guth, Beatriz E C; Rodrigues, Juliana F; Piazza, Roxane M F; Ferreira, Luís C S; Martinez, Marina B
Most Escherichia coli strains live harmlessly in the intestines and rarely cause disease in healthy individuals. Nonetheless, a number of pathogenic strains can cause diarrhea or extraintestinal diseases both in healthy and immunocompromised individuals. Diarrheal illnesses are a severe public health problem and a major cause of morbidity and mortality in infants and young children, especially in developing countries. E. coli strains that cause diarrhea have evolved by acquiring, through horizontal gene transfer, a particular set of characteristics that have successfully persisted in the host. According to the group of virulence determinants acquired, specific combinations were formed determining the currently known E. coli pathotypes, which are collectively known as diarrheagenic E. coli. In this review, we have gathered information on current definitions, serotypes, lineages, virulence mechanisms, epidemiology, and diagnosis of the major diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Skogstad, Grace Darlene
Policy Paradigms, Transnationalism, and Domestic Politics offers a variety of perspectives on the development of policy paradigms -- the ideas that structure thinking about what can and should be done in a policy domain...
The author presents multiple paradigm research into the organisational culture of a birdwatching association, where he conducted his ethnographic research. On top of the functionalist, interpretive, radical structuralist and radical humanist paradigms as presented by Gibson Burrell and Gareth Morgan, he applies the fifth paradigm into the analysis of the organisation. The so-called complexity paradigm, which was formed in 1980's based on findings about complex systems and networks that emerge...
structures by identifying an ideal and historically neutral LAS model for: servicing the needs of governments, business and the public; utilising the latest technologies; servicing rights, responsibilities, restrictions and risks in relation to land; and delivering much broader information about sustainable...... frameworks complicated by the tasks they must perform, by national cultural, political and judicial settings, and by technology. This paper facilitates an overall understanding of the land management paradigm. This paper assists sharing LAS among countries with diverse legal systems and institutional...
Pethe, V P
This article offers a new paradigm for eradicating poverty in India. It was assumed incorrectly by Mahatma Gandhi that a good society without mass poverty would follow after independence. India copied Western models of development and developed giant factories, big dams, and megacities. Agriculture did not expand the number of jobs for people. The Western paradigm failed in India because of the false assumption of "trickle down" of income to the masses. The targeted programs to the poor did not directly benefit enough of the poor. Mega-industrialization led to reduced employment and higher skill needs. The model failed mainly because it was a proxy and relied on indirect ways of reaching the poor. The models failed to be adapted to conditions in India. The Swadeshi paradigm is a direct model for addressing mass poverty. Poverty is affected by immediate, intermediate, and ultimate determinants. Poverty begets social and economic problems, such as ignorance, ill health, high fertility, unemployment, and crime. In India and developing countries, mass poverty results from under use of human resources; lack of equal opportunities; and an outdated non-egalitarian social structure, an unjust global economic order, human cruelty, and erosion of ethical values. Indians are squandering their precious resources mimicking Western consumerism. Poverty leads to rapid population growth. People become productive assets with universal literacy, compulsory and free education, health services and sanitation, vocational training, and work ethics. India needs people-oriented policies with less emphasis on capital accumulation.
Watson, Sunnie Lee; Reigeluth, Charles M.
This article, the third in a series of four installments, begins by discussing the need for paradigm change in education and for a critical systems approach to paradigm change, and examines current progress toward paradigm change. Then it explores what a learner-centered, Information-Age educational system should be like, including the APA…
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Full Text Available Escherichia coli is a bacterium that is commonly found in the gut of humans and warm-blooded animals. Most strains of E. coli are harmless for human. E. coli O157:H7 is the most common member of a group of pathogenic E. coli strains known variously as enterohaemorrhagic, verocytotoxin-producing, or Shiga-toxin-producing organisms. EHEC bacterium is the major cause of haemorrhagic colitis and haemolytic uraemic syndrome. The reservoir of this pathogen appears to be mainly cattle and other ruminants such as camels. It is transmitted to humans primarily through consumption of contaminated foods. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(4.000: 387-388
Dreyer, Gerusa; Mattos, Denise; Figueredo-Silva, José; Norões, Joaquim
The way a particular subject is understood changes over time as a result of scientific research. In most cases, these changes are minor, with limited effect on the overall knowledge on the subject. Sometimes, however, revolutionary changes occur and not only modify the understanding of the subject but open perspectives that can trigger new interpretations and new ways for expansion of scientific knowledge. The studies of Gregor Johann Mendel were a good example. They led to discovery of the laws of inheritance which, in turn, have revolutionized biology and provided the foundation for genetics. In certain situations, changes not only alter ways of thinking, but have practical implications, also improving the quality of life for many people. In his book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, Thomas Kuhn refers to discontinuities in scientific development as a 'change of paradigm', a term now used in a generic manner to describe a profound changes in our reference points. For lymphatic filariasis the old paradigm stated that Wuchereria bancrofti at the adult stage causes lymphatic vessel obstruction, triggering an inevitable immune response in predisposed individuals and leading to elephantiasis. This has been replaced by a new paradigm, which offers hope that W. bancrofti infection does not necessarily predispose to the disfiguring outward manifestation of lymphatic dysfunction. Repeated secondary bacterial infections (erysipela-like) are now recognized as the most important factor for initiation and progression of chronic lymphedema in individuals living in filariasis-endemic areas. Most inhabitants of endemic communities can prevent and minimize the acute bacterial episodes by regular use of soap and water, the simplest form of hygiene already well known to human beings.
The aim of industrial ecology is to design and re-design industrial systems, by using nature as a metaphor and model. In this way far less non-renewable resources will be used and far less emissions and wastes will be released to the natural environment than up to now. Many approaches to industrial ecology are attempted, varying from those looking upon industrial ecology as a method for waste recycling to those who see industrial ecology as a new paradigm in a wider social perspective . By go...
A series of editorials in this Journal have argued that psychiatry is in the midst of a crisis. The various solutions proposed would all involve a strengthening of psychiatry\\'s identity as essentially \\'applied neuroscience\\'. Although not discounting the importance of the brain sciences and psychopharmacology, we argue that psychiatry needs to move beyond the dominance of the current, technological paradigm. This would be more in keeping with the evidence about how positive outcomes are achieved and could also serve to foster more meaningful collaboration with the growing service user movement.
Conrad P. Pritscher
Full Text Available A part of hypothesis formation, while necessary for scientific investigation, is beyond direct observation. Powerful hypothesis formation is more than logical and is facilitated by mindopening. As Percy Bridgeman, Nobel laureate, said, science is: “Nothing more than doing one's damnedest with one's mind, no holds barred.” This paper suggests more open schooling helps generate more open hypothesizing which helps one do one's damnedest with one's mind. It is hypothesized that a more open process of hypothesis formation may help schools and society forge new ways of living and learning so that more people more often can do their damnedest with their mind. This writing does not offer a new paradigm but rather attempts to elaborate on the notion that new paradigms are difficult to form without openness to what was previously quasiunthinkable. More on these topics and issues is included in the author's Reopening Einstein's Thought: About What Can't Be Learned From Textbooks to be published by Sense Publishers in June 2008.
Full Text Available Background: Demography is a uniquely empirical research area amongst the social sciences. We posit that the same principle of empiricism should be applied to studies of the population sciences as a discipline, contributing to greater self-awareness amongst its practitioners. Objective: The paper aims to include measurable data in the study of changes in selected demographic paradigms and perspectives. Methods: The presented analysis is descriptive and is based on a series of simple measures obtained from the free online tool Google Books Ngram Viewer, which includes frequencies of word groupings (n-grams in different collections of books digitised by Google. Results: The tentative findings corroborate the shifts in the demographic paradigms identified in the literature -- from cross-sectional, through longitudinal, to event-history and multilevel approaches. Conclusions: These findings identify a promising area of enquiry into the development of demography as a social science discipline. We postulate that more detailed enquiries in this area in the future could lead to establishing History of Population Thought as a new sub-discipline within population sciences.
Kabadayi, Can; Bobrowicz, Katarzyna; Osvath, Mathias
In this paper, we review one of the oldest paradigms used in animal cognition: the detour paradigm. The paradigm presents the subject with a situation where a direct route to the goal is blocked and a detour must be made to reach it. Often being an ecologically valid and a versatile tool, the detour paradigm has been used to study diverse cognitive skills like insight, social learning, inhibitory control and route planning. Due to the relative ease of administrating detour tasks, the paradigm has lately been used in large-scale comparative studies in order to investigate the evolution of inhibitory control. Here we review the detour paradigm and some of its cognitive requirements, we identify various ecological and contextual factors that might affect detour performance, we also discuss developmental and neurological underpinnings of detour behaviors, and we suggest some methodological approaches to make species comparisons more robust.
Jain, Lakhmi; Howlett, Robert
This book presents fundamental topics and algorithms that form the core of machine learning (ML) research, as well as emerging paradigms in intelligent system design. The multidisciplinary nature of machine learning makes it a very fascinating and popular area for research. The book is aiming at students, practitioners and researchers and captures the diversity and richness of the field of machine learning and intelligent systems. Several chapters are devoted to computational learning models such as granular computing, rough sets and fuzzy sets An account of applications of well-known learning methods in biometrics, computational stylistics, multi-agent systems, spam classification including an extremely well-written survey on Bayesian networks shed light on the strengths and weaknesses of the methods. Practical studies yielding insight into challenging problems such as learning from incomplete and imbalanced data, pattern recognition of stochastic episodic events and on-line mining of non-stationary ...
Full Text Available In this short essay, I argue that the ephemeral nature of emerging instant-messaging applications, such as Snapchat, applies an oral paradigm. While online discourse of computer-mediated communication shares many qualities with oral communication, the case of ephemeral applications is unique, as the oral features are already integrated in the application technology design and as orality is often implemented on highly visual products. Snapchat applies technology that fades visual contents as if they were spoken words fading in the air after utterance. Moreover, Snapchat’s promise to delete all messages from its database after they are viewed echoes a key characteristic of primary oral culture: that is, the inability (and in our case, the obligation not to store knowledge. In this, Snapchat demonstrates counter-logic to the contemporary grammar of new media, which is based on information aggregation.
Rossi, Angelo Pio; Baumann, Peter
Spatio-temporal data sets often can be represented conveniently through datacubes as a common unifying paradigm. Flexible, scalable services can be offered based on the concept of a datacube query language while hiding the technicalities, thereby allowing user-friendly visual data interaction. One of today's most influential initiatives in Big Geo Data is EarthServer which is paving the way for flexible, scalable datacube services based on innovative NewSQL technology (Fig. 1). Researchers from Europe, the US and recently Australia have teamed up to rigorously materialize the datacube paradigm for Earth Observation, ocean, meteorological, and planetary science. EarthServer has established client and server technology for such spatio-temporal datacubes strictly based on the open datacube standards, OGC WCS and WPCS. The underlying scalable array engine, rasdaman, enables direct interaction, including 3-D visualization, what-if scenarios, common EO data processing, and general analytics on regular and irregular grids. Integration of datacube and metadata retrieval, together with advanced visualization based on NASA WorldWind, are geared towards an effective, user-friendly access and analysis. Conversely, EarthServer is significantly shaping the ISO, OGC, and INSPIRE Big Data standards landscape by being specification editor. Phase 1 of EarthServer has advanced scalable array data¬base technology into 100+ TB services; in phase 2, a federation of Petabyte datacubes is being built in Europe and Australia to perform ad-hoc querying and merging. Phase 1 reviewers have attested rasdaman to "significantly transform the way that scientists in different areas of Earth Science will be able to access and use data in a way that hitherto was not possible". Altogether, these large-scale deployments prove that datacubes are a convenient model for presenting users with a simple, consolidated view on the massive amount of data files gathered - "a cube tells more than a million
Nord, James, R.
The foreign language instruction in the United States has followed a paradigm commonly called the "audio-lingual" method for almost twenty years. This paradigm is basically response-oriented and based upon structural linguistics and behavioral psychology. It focuses attention on speaking as the primary skill. It has not lived up to expectations.…
The student-centred, progressive paradigm has not had sustained success in changing teacher-centred, formalistic practices in "developing" country classrooms. Does "Gestalt-switch" and paradigm reversal demonstrate that progressive theory has realigned with formalistic reality, or has it remained axiomatic in the research and…
Denzin, Norman K.
This paper re-engages the paradigm wars of the 1980s, discussing their relevance in the current historical moment. It extends Egon Guba's call for dialogue across paradigm communities. Ten theses and three agenda items are advanced. (Contains 4 notes.)
Terence Rajivan Edward
Full Text Available In her paper ‘An Awkward Relationship: the Case of Feminism and Anthropology’, Marilyn Strathern argues that feminist research cannot produce a paradigm shift in social anthropology. I present an argument for thinking that, on the relevant understanding of paradigm shift, it is possible for this to happen. I then object to Strathern’s arguments against the possibility.
Kirschner, Paul A.
Every science, every scientific discipline, operates under one or more paradigms; a world view that underlies the theories and methodologies of the discipline. Sometimes a discipline’s paradigms complement or supplement each other while at other times they may contradict or even exclude each other.
businesses has been observed. There is an increasing trend within the chemical industry to focus on products and the sustainable processes that can make them. Do these changes point to a paradigm shift in chemical engineering as a discipline? Historically, two previous paradigm shifts in chemical engineering...... corresponded to major shifts in chemical engineering as a discipline, which affected not only the education of chemical engineers, but also the development of chemical engineering as a discipline. Has the time come for a new paradigm shift that will prepare the current and future chemical engineering graduates...... to tackle the complex problems facing the chemicals based industries and serve the modern society more efficiently? The lecture will review the current status of chemical engineering as a discipline, the proposals for the third paradigm, the need for such a paradigm shift and related educational issues....
Bridelia ferruginea est utilisée dans la Pharmacopée traditionnelle africaine comme ... dans un extrait aqueux de cette plante sur la motricité de Taenia coli de Cobaye et de ..... Afrique de l'ouest, Editions Roche Basel, Switzerland, (1991) 151. ... physiopathologie vasculaire : intérêt des stocks mobilisables de no et des.
Lindeberg, Yrja Lisa; Egedal, Karen; Hossain, Zenat Zebin
-landings, the average CFU per fly-landing was > 0·6 x 103 CFU. Genes of diarrheagenic E. coli and Shigella species were detected in 39 of 60 (65%) of exposed rice samples. Two fly species were identified; the common housefly (Musca domestica) and the oriental latrine fly (Chrysomya megacephala). CONCLUSION: Flies may...
Tan, Donald T H; Anshu, Arundhati; Mehta, Jodhbir S
Conventional corneal transplantation, in the form of penetrating keratoplasty (PK), involves full-thickness replacement of the cornea, and is a highly successful procedure. However, the cornea is anatomically a multi-layered structure. Pathology may only affect individual layers of the cornea, hence selective lamellar surgical replacement of only the diseased corneal layers whilst retaining unaffected layers represents a new paradigm shift in the field. Recent advancements in surgical techniques and instrumentation have resulted in several forms of manual, microkeratome and femto-second laser-assisted lamellar transplantation procedures. Anterior lamellar keratoplasty (ALK) aims at replacing only diseased or scarred corneal stroma, whilst retaining the unaffected corneal endothelial layer, thus obviating the risk of endothelial allograft rejection. Posterior lamellar keratoplasty/endothelial keratoplasty (PLK/EK) involves the replacement of the dysfunctional endothelial cell layer only. Whilst significant technical and surgical challenges are involved in performing lamellar micro-dissection of a tissue which is only 0.5 mm thick, the benefits of a more controlled surgical procedure and improved graft survival rates have resulted in a shift away from conventional PK. This review details the current advances in emerging lamellar corneal surgical procedures and highlights the main advantages and disadvantages of these new lamellar corneal procedures.
Pack, Allan I.
Recent changes in policies by insurance companies with respect to mandating home sleep apnea testing rather than in-laboratory studies have a large impact on the financial viability of clinical sleep centers. Coping with this disruptive change requires forward planning. First, it is important to be well positioned with respect to facilities so that these can be quickly downsized to control costs. There is also a need to develop, in advance, an accredited home sleep study program so that centers can respond to the rapidly changing environment. Following the change there is a need to control costs by rapidly downsizing the technology workforce. Technologists can be retrained for other essential roles. Centralizing the precertification process with knowledgeable, well-trained staff and a robust auditing process is an essential component. The approach taken at the University of Pennsylvania to this change is described as is how one can ensure continued financial viability of a comprehensive sleep center program in a major academic medical center. Citation: Pack AI. Dealing with a paradigm shift. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(8):925–929. PMID:26094918
Full Text Available For over 30 years it has been established that the Entamoeba histolytica protozoan included two biologically and genetically different species, one with a pathogenic phenotype called E. histolytica and the other with a non-pathogenic phenotype called Entamoeba dispar. Both of these amoebae species can infect humans. E. histolytica has been considered as a potential pathogen that can cause serious damage to the large intestine (colitis, dysentery and other extraintestinal organs, mainly the liver (amebic liver abscess, whereas E. dispar is a species that interacts with humans in a commensal relationship, causing no symptoms or any tissue damage. This paradigm, however, should be reconsidered or re-evaluated. In the present work, we report the detection and genotyping of E. dispar sequences of DNA obtained from patients with amebic liver abscesses, including the genotyping of an isolate obtained from a Brazilian patient with a clinical diagnosis of intestinal amebiasis that was previously characterized as an E. dispar species. The genetic diversity and phylogenetic analysis performed by our group has shown the existence of several different genotypes of E. dispar that can be associated to, or be potentiality responsible for intestinal or liver tissue damage, similar to that observed with E. histolytica.
Full Text Available In light of technological advances, researchers have lost sight of robotic grippers/end effectors design intent. In a semi-structured environment the biomimetic approach is impractical due to the high complexity of the mechanism and control algorithms. Current industrial grippers are robust, but lack the flexibility that allows for in hand manipulation. The authors believe that underactuated grippers provide the best approach to allow for in hand manipulation along with being rugged enough for an industrial setting. Thinking of the robotic gripper and the robotic arm as one system (as opposed to two separate subsystems, one is capable of using the degrees of freedom of the robot in conjunction with that of the gripper to provide the desired motion profile without the complexity of running two subsystems. This paper will outline where recent grippers have failed and will introduce a new design paradigm for grippers along with several underactuated gripper ideas.
This paper was presented at the IFToMM/ASME International Workshop on Underactuated Grasping (UG2010, 19 August 2010, Montréal, Canada.
Herndon, J Marvin
I present here a new, indivisible planetary science paradigm, a wholly self-consistent vision of the nature of matter in the Solar System, and dynamics and energy sources of planets. Massive-core planets formed by condensing and raining-out from within giant gaseous protoplanets at high pressures and high temperatures. Earth's complete condensation included a 300 Earth-mass gigantic gas/ice shell that compressed the rocky kernel to about 66% of Earth's present diameter. T-Tauri eruptions stripped the gases away from the inner planets and stripped a portion of Mercury's incompletely condensed protoplanet, and transported it to the region between Mars and Jupiter where it fused with in-falling oxidized condensate from the outer regions of the Solar System and formed the parent matter of ordinary chondrite meteorites, the main-Belt asteroids, and veneer for the inner planets, especially Mars. In response to decompression-driven planetary volume increases, cracks form to increase surface area and mountain ranges ...
Hertz, Frederik Boetius
Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one the most common bacterial infections and is regularly treated in primary health care. The most common cause of UTI is extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) already present in the intestinal microflora, often as the dominating strain. Resistance...... in E.coli is increasing and especially isolates producing Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamases (ESBL) have been reported worldwide. Treatment of UTI is usually initiated by the general practitioners and a significant proportion of clinical isolates are now resistant to first line antibiotics. The global...... dissemination of resistant E.coli has in particular been driven by the spread of a few specific E.coli-lineages and it seems that there is a difference between the sequence types found among resistant E.coli, ESBL-producing E.coli and antibiotic susceptible E.coli. The overall objectives of this thesis were...
Wolf, Wouter; Levordashka, Ana; Ruff, Johanna R; Kraaijeveld, Steven; Lueckmann, Jan-Matthis; Williams, Kipling D
We describe Ostracism Online, a novel, social media-based ostracism paradigm designed to (1) keep social interaction experimentally controlled, (2) provide researchers with the flexibility to manipulate the properties of the social situation to fit their research purposes, (3) be suitable for online data collection, (4) be convenient for studying subsequent within-group behavior, and (5) be ecologically valid. After collecting data online, we compared the Ostracism Online paradigm with the Cyberball paradigm (Williams & Jarvis Behavior Research Methods, 38, 174-180, 2006) on need-threat and mood questionnaire scores (van Beest & Williams Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 91, 918-928, 2006). We also examined whether ostracized targets of either paradigm would be more likely to conform to their group members than if they had been included. Using a Bayesian analysis of variance to examine the individual effects of the different paradigms and to compare these effects across paradigms, we found analogous effects on need-threat and mood. Perhaps because we examined conformity to the ostracizers (rather than neutral sources), neither paradigm showed effects of ostracism on conformity. We conclude that Ostracism Online is a cost-effective, easy to use, and ecologically valid research tool for studying the psychological and behavioral effects of ostracism.
Laird, Angela R.
We present the basic structure of the Cognitive Paradigm Ontology (CogPO) for human behavioral experiments. While the experimental psychology and cognitive neuroscience literature may refer to certain behavioral tasks by name (e.g., the Stroop paradigm or the Sternberg paradigm) or by function (a working memory task, a visual attention task), these paradigms can vary tremendously in the stimuli that are presented to the subject, the response expected from the subject, and the instructions given to the subject. Drawing from the taxonomy developed and used by the BrainMap project (www.brainmap.org) for almost two decades to describe key components of published functional imaging results, we have developed an ontology capable of representing certain characteristics of the cognitive paradigms used in the fMRI and PET literature. The Cognitive Paradigm Ontology is being developed to be compliant with the Basic Formal Ontology (BFO), and to harmonize where possible with larger ontologies such as RadLex, NeuroLex, or the Ontology of Biomedical Investigations (OBI). The key components of CogPO include the representation of experimental conditions focused on the stimuli presented, the instructions given, and the responses requested. The use of alternate and even competitive terminologies can often impede scientific discoveries. Categorization of paradigms according to stimulus, response, and instruction has been shown to allow advanced data retrieval techniques by searching for similarities and contrasts across multiple paradigm levels. The goal of CogPO is to develop, evaluate, and distribute a domain ontology of cognitive paradigms for application and use in the functional neuroimaging community. PMID:21643732
McGhee, Charles N J; Kim, Bia Z; Wilson, Peter J
The past 20 years have witnessed an explosion in our knowledge of keratoconus, accompanied by a radical transformation of management options. A 2-hit hypothesis proposes an underlying genetic predisposition coupled with external environmental factors, including eye rubbing and atopy. The variable prevalence and natural history have been better defined including significant cone progression in middle age. Therefore, current management must include early diagnosis, regular monitoring, and treatment of environmental cofactors. Spectacles and contact lenses remain fundamental to the optical management of keratoconus. Intrastromal corneal ring segments have been increasingly used, providing improvement in the corneal shape, corrected visual acuity, and contact lens wear. However, like contact lenses, intrastromal corneal ring segments do not treat the underlying disease process. Therefore, current approaches must also consider treatments to minimize keratoconus progression. Fortunately, there is increasing evidence that corneal collagen crosslinking will halt or slow progression in most cases. Until relatively recently, penetrating keratoplasty was the preferred intervention for advanced keratoconus, with long-term success in the region of 90%; however, the greatest risk of failure remains endothelial allograft rejection. Deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty has emerged in the new millennium as a preferred approach to conserve the host endothelium and avoid rejection. Nonetheless, the overall superiority of deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty compared with penetrating keratoplasty, in terms of optical and survival benefits, is still debated. This perspective provides an overview of our current knowledge of keratoconus and current management options. A step-ladder approach to managing keratoconus is outlined to provide the practitioner with a contemporary management paradigm.
Yuriy M. Bogachkov
Full Text Available Considering total crisis in education in Informational Age, we suggest that to overcome the crisis, it is necessary to promote pedagogical science up from "pre-paradigm stage” to the "paradigm stage". For this purpose it is necessary to separate the "educational science" from "education." “Educational paradigm” in such study will be the subject of the science. The key concepts for the "pedagogical paradigm" should be the concepts of "educational practice", "class of problems" and "educational text". We offer some axioms around these concepts.
What would it take for a degrowth paradigm shift to take place? Drawing on contemporary critical political economy scholarship, this article identifies four prerequisites for socio-economic paradigm shifts: deep crisis, an alternative political project, a comprehensive coalition of social forces...... currently facing humanity. On the other hand, the prospects for a degrowth paradigm shift remain bleak: unlike political projects that became hegemonic in the past, degrowth has neither support from a comprehensive coalition of social forces nor any consent to its agenda among the broader population....
S. Andova; L.P.J. Groenewegen; E.P. de Vink (Erik Peter)
htmlabstractThe coordination modelling language Paradigm addresses collaboration between components in terms of dynamic constraints. Within a Paradigm model, component dynamics are consistently specified at various levels of abstraction. The operational semantics of Paradigm is given. For a
Sanaa Mahdi Oraibi
Full Text Available The presence of Escherichia coli in the air of facilities involved in management and composting of post-slaughter poultry wastes in selected plants of West Western Pomerania region was studied. Measurements were made on four dates in a variety of weather conditions during the year. The study was conducted at 5 objects that differ in the type of waste and the degree of preparation for composting. These were: chemical treatment and preliminary processing plant, liquid wastes reservoir, platform for preparation of materials for composting, storage of biological sediments, and composting facility. Measurement of bacteria count was carried out in accordance with the applicable procedures on selective chromogenic TBX medium. The assays revealed the presence of E. coli at all test objects, but not always on all measurement dates. It has been shown that the presence of E. coli was from 20 to 3047 CFU∙m-3 of air, although the largest quantities were most frequently detected in the air of the building for post-slaughter waste pre-treatment in chemical treatment plant.
McKenney, S. (2013). Paradigms and Principles Shaping Educational Design Research. Invited panel presentation at the annual meeting of the European Association for Research on Learning and Instruction. August 27-31, Munich.
...’ power and how more power could work for a new marketing paradigm. There are many unethical marketing techniques which could be found in deceptive product recipes, packaging, promotion, prices and in other...
Levelling processes in the history of the German verb paradigm from Old High German to the present are discussed. It is asserted that the theory of transformational generative grammar provides a proper framework for the study of linguistic change. (RM)
The dryland desertification paradigm focuses on losses of ecosystem services accompanying transitions from grasslands to systems dominated by bare ground or woody plants unpalatable for domestic livestock. However, recent studies reveal complex transitions across a range of environmental conditions ...
Buller, David J
For some evolutionary psychology is merely a field of inquiry, but for others it is a robust paradigm involving specific theories about the nature and evolution of the human mind. Proponents of this paradigm claim to have made several important discoveries regarding the evolved architecture of the mind. Highly publicized discoveries include a cheater-detection module, a psychological sex difference in jealousy, and motivational mechanisms underlying parental love and its lapses, which purportedly result in child maltreatment. In this article, I argue that the empirical evidence for these "discoveries" is inconclusive, at best. I suggest that, as the reigning paradigm in evolutionary psychology has produced questionable results, the evolutionary study of human psychology is still in need of a guiding paradigm.
1988) reject foundationalistic theology and recommend a holistic theological ap proach. In this process contextual theology, which emphasises the distinctiveness of individual nations, is accused of being the 'domination paradigm' and is even ...
This essay discusses 'paradigms' as means to conceive anthropogenic global change. Humankind alters earth-systems because of the number of people, the patterns of consumption of resources, and the alterations of environments. This process of anthropogenic global change is a composite consisting of societal (in the 'noosphere') and natural (in the 'bio-geosphere') features. Engineering intercedes these features; e.g. observing stratospheric ozone depletion has led to understanding it as a collateral artefact of a particular set of engineering choices. Beyond any specific use-case, engineering works have a common function; e.g. civil-engineering intersects economic activity and geosphere. People conceive their actions in the noosphere including giving purpose to their engineering. The 'noosphere' is the ensemble of social, cultural or political concepts ('shared subjective mental insights') of people. Among people's concepts are the paradigms how to shape environments, production systems and consumption patterns given their societal preferences. In that context, engineering is a means to implement a given development path. Four paradigms currently are distinguishable how to make anthropogenic global change happening. Among the 'engineering paradigms' for anthropogenic global change, 'adaptation' is a paradigm for a business-as-usual scenario and steady development paths of societies. Applying this paradigm implies to forecast the change to come, to appropriately design engineering works, and to maintain as far as possible the current production and consumption patterns. An alternative would be to adjust incrementally development paths of societies, namely to 'dovetail' anthropogenic and natural fluxes of matter and energy. To apply that paradigm research has to identify 'natural boundaries', how to modify production and consumption patterns, and how to tackle process in the noosphere to render alterations of common development paths acceptable. A further alternative
The fast changes that took place in the last quarter of the 20th century made the professionals dealing with pedagogy realize that our school system followed the economical changes in terms of training supply and the matter of education very slowly, if at all; let alone the educational methods. We had to realize that the maintaining of this conservative system is not rational, education has become the most important part of the globalisational competition and the key to the 21st century is learning. Accordingly, the spatial and temporal expenditure of education has become a new trend, namely lifelong learning (LLL). The social needs on education have increased, the expectations of economy and employers have changed: knowledge has become the fund of competitiveness. In this process, universities have got an accentuated role: in addition to being the place of undergraduate training they have become the site of postgraduate courses for the increasing graduate adult masses. Therefore, reform processes have started in a number of European countries in the nineties. The Bologna Declaration signed on 19th June 1999 set a common direction for these reforms, with its signatories aiming to establish a standard European Higher Education Area with harmonized and comparable educational systems by 2010. However, the administrative change itself is not enough to reach the goals; a formal innovation has to be followed by a reform of the contents which means reformation of higher education. In recent years, Hungarian colleges and universities have worked out their educational programs that are suitable for the new structure; it is only the new educational programs that started from 1st September 2006. The author determines the most important parts of the reform of the training system of Semmelweis University Faculty of Health Sciences, which are the following: redrawing of the training philosophy and paradigm, the reform of the training structure of macro level (cognition
Marvin Herndon, J.
Progress in science involves replacing less precise understanding with more precise understanding. In science and in science education one should always question popular ideas; ask "What's wrong with this picture?" Finding limitations, conflicts or circumstances that require special ad hoc consideration sometimes is the key to making important discoveries. For example, from thermodynamic considerations, I found that the 'standard model of solar system formation' leads to insufficiently massive planetary cores. That understanding led me to discover a new indivisible planetary science paradigm. Massive-core planets formed by condensing and raining-out from within giant gaseous protoplanets at high pressures and high temperatures, accumulating heterogeneously on the basis of volatility with liquid core-formation preceding mantle-formation; the interior states of oxidation resemble that of the Abee enstatite chondrite. Core-composition was established during condensation based upon the relative solubilities of elements, including uranium, in liquid iron in equilibrium with an atmosphere of solar composition at high pressures and high temperatures. Uranium settled to the central region and formed planetary nuclear fission reactors, producing heat and planetary magnetic fields. Earth's complete condensation included a ~300 Earth-mass gigantic gas/ice shell that compressed the rocky kernel to about 66% of Earth's present diameter. T-Tauri eruptions, associated with the thermonuclear ignition of the Sun, stripped the gases away from the Earth and the inner planets. The T-Tauri outbursts stripped a portion of Mercury's incompletely condensed protoplanet and transported it to the region between Mars and Jupiter where it fused with in-falling oxidized condensate from the outer regions of the Solar System, forming the parent matter of ordinary chondrite meteorites, the main-Belt asteroids, and veneer for the inner planets, especially Mars. With its massive gas/ice shell
Ngu, Phuc Huy
The explosion of mobile applications both in number and variety raises the need of shedding light on their architecture, composition and quality. Indeed, it is crucial to understand which mobile application paradigm fits better to what type of application and usage. Such understanding has direct consequences on the user experience, the development cost and sale revenues of mobile apps. In this thesis, we identify four main mobile application paradigms and evaluate them from the viewpoints of ...
International audience; Scientists and engineers who extensively use the term “nanomachine” are not always aware of the philosophical implications of this term. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the concept of nanomachine through a distinction between three major paradigms of machine. After a brief presentation of two well-known paradigms - Cartesian mechanistic machines and Von Neumann's complex and uncontrolled machines – we will argue that Drexler's model was mainly Cartesian. But wh...
Full Text Available We develop here a multi-agent model of the creation of knowledge (scientific progress or technological evolution within a community of researchers devoted to such endeavors. In the proposed model, agents learn in a physical-technological landscape, and weight is attached to both individual search and social influence. We find that the combination of these two forces together with random experimentation can account for both i marginal change, that is, periods of normal science or refinements on the performance of a given technology (and in which the community stays in the neighborhood of the current paradigm; and ii radical change, which takes the form of scientific paradigm shifts (or discontinuities in the structure of performance of a technology that is observed as a swift migration of the knowledge community towards the new and superior paradigm. The efficiency of the search process is heavily dependent on the weight that agents posit on social influence. The occurrence of a paradigm shift becomes more likely when each member of the community attaches a small but positive weight to the experience of his/her peers. For this parameter region, nevertheless, a conservative force is exerted by the representatives of the current paradigm. However, social influence is not strong enough to seriously hamper individual discovery, and can act so as to empower successful individual pioneers who have conquered the new and superior paradigm.
Rodriguez-Sickert, Carlos; Cosmelli, Diego; Claro, Francisco; Fuentes, Miguel Angel
We develop here a multi-agent model of the creation of knowledge (scientific progress or technological evolution) within a community of researchers devoted to such endeavors. In the proposed model, agents learn in a physical-technological landscape, and weight is attached to both individual search and social influence. We find that the combination of these two forces together with random experimentation can account for both i) marginal change, that is, periods of normal science or refinements on the performance of a given technology (and in which the community stays in the neighborhood of the current paradigm); and ii) radical change, which takes the form of scientific paradigm shifts (or discontinuities in the structure of performance of a technology) that is observed as a swift migration of the knowledge community towards the new and superior paradigm. The efficiency of the search process is heavily dependent on the weight that agents posit on social influence. The occurrence of a paradigm shift becomes more likely when each member of the community attaches a small but positive weight to the experience of his/her peers. For this parameter region, nevertheless, a conservative force is exerted by the representatives of the current paradigm. However, social influence is not strong enough to seriously hamper individual discovery, and can act so as to empower successful individual pioneers who have conquered the new and superior paradigm.
This work has as starting point the concept of paradigm proposed by E. Morin: principal categories that guide the intelligibility and logical thinking. The great paradigm of the western hemisphere (prevailing paradigm) is characterized by its effects of disjunction, reduction, simplification, and exclusion. The effects of the paradigm in the medical practice, in the scientific work, and in education are analyzed. The epistemological premises of neopositivism, heir of the prevailing paradigm, and of critical of experience are confronted. It emphasizes the opposite roles that each epistemological tendency gives to the ideas and facts in knowledge. The disjunction between the creation and use of knowledge, typical of the school institution, originates the passive perspective of education. The idea of knowledge as elaboration of the learner in knowledge situation, originates the participative perspective of education. The characteristics of both perspectives of education in relation to the role of theory and practice, the role of the professor and student, and the main purposes are contrasted. It is briefly analyzed how the different educational schools appeared in the XX century do not represent true alternatives to the paradigm, except P. Freire's proposals. The more relevant aspects of the participative perspective of education are emphasized: habit of reflective thinking about the vital experience, exercise of criticism and self-criticism, development of points of view about problem situations of experience and of methodological and practical abilities. Different considerations are made about what the participative perspective of education implies in the pretension to overcome the effects of disjunction, reduction and simplification of the ruling paradigm.
Li, Junhua; Zhang, Liqing
Brain-computer interface (BCI) allows the use of brain activities for people to directly communicate with the external world or to control external devices without participation of any peripheral nerves and muscles. Motor imagery is one of the most popular modes in the research field of brain-computer interface. Although motor imagery BCI has some advantages compared with other modes of BCI, such as asynchronization, it is necessary to require training sessions before using it. The performance of trained BCI system depends on the quality of training samples or the subject engagement. In order to improve training effect and decrease training time, we proposed a new paradigm where subjects participated in training more actively than in the traditional paradigm. In the traditional paradigm, a cue (to indicate what kind of motor imagery should be imagined during the current trial) is given to the subject at the beginning of a trial or during a trial, and this cue is also used as a label for this trial. It is usually assumed that labels for trials are accurate in the traditional paradigm, although subjects may not have performed the required or correct kind of motor imagery, and trials may thus be mislabeled. And then those mislabeled trials give rise to interference during model training. In our proposed paradigm, the subject is required to reconfirm the label and can correct the label when necessary. This active training paradigm may generate better training samples with fewer inconsistent labels because it overcomes mistakes when subject's motor imagination does not match the given cues. The experiments confirm that our proposed paradigm achieves better performance; the improvement is significant according to statistical analysis.
Quivey, Robert G.; Koo, Hyun; Abranches, Jacqueline
Despite the enormous contributions of the bacterial paradigms Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis to basic and applied research, it is well known that no single organism can be a perfect representative of all other species. However, given that some bacteria are difficult, or virtually impossible, to cultivate in the laboratory, that some are recalcitrant to genetic and molecular manipulation, and that others can be extremely dangerous to manipulate, the use of model organisms will continue to play an important role in the development of basic research. In particular, model organisms are very useful for providing a better understanding of the biology of closely related species. Here, we discuss how the lifestyle, the availability of suitable in vitro and in vivo systems, and a thorough understanding of the genetics, biochemistry and physiology of the dental pathogen Streptococcus mutans have greatly advanced our understanding of important areas in the field of bacteriology such as interspecies biofilms, competence development and stress responses. In this article, we provide an argument that places S. mutans, an organism that evolved in close association with the human host, as a novel Gram-positive model organism. PMID:23393147
D. D. Miniaeva
Full Text Available This article examines an environmentalism integration process into Three classical paradigms of international relations theory (Liberalism, Realism and Marxism into Three classical paradigms of international relations theory (Liberalism, Realism and Marxism. The main purpose of this study is to reveal the result of this integration. Methods used in this article include analysis and comparison of "ecological" paradigms on selected parameters (the nature of international relations, actors, targets, tools, processes. Results of research show that the beginning of the XXI century is distinguished by the development of new types of political concepts that explain interaction of elements in modern international relations in the area of environmental protection. The reason of these changes lies in the phenomena of environmentalism integration into Three paradigms of international relations. However, we cannot say that any of the examined paradigms accumulated all features of environmentalism without their modification. Better to say, it's rather similar to adaptation of environmental ideas. Therefore, to understand modern international relations processes, it is necessary to take into account their environmental element. Purchase on Elibrary.ru > Buy nowDOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2070-7568-2014-3-4
Princen, Sebastiaan; van Esch, Femke
This article analyses whether the European Union’s (EU) Stability and Growth Pact (SGP) has been underpinned by a policy paradigm. In doing so, it seeks to contribute to the debate on the existence and importance of paradigms in policy-making. It uses a causal mapping technique to reconstruct the
Dubreuil, J. Daniel; Isaacson, Richard E.; Schifferli, Dieter M.
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is the most common cause of E. coli diarrhea in farm animals. ETEC are characterized by the ability to produce two types of virulence factors; adhesins that promote binding to specific enterocyte receptors for intestinal colonization and enterotoxins responsible for fluid secretion. The best-characterized adhesins are expressed in the context of fimbriae, such as the F4 (also designated K88), F5 (K99), F6 (987P), F17 and F18 fimbriae. Once established in the animal small intestine, ETEC produces enterotoxin(s) that lead to diarrhea. The enterotoxins belong to two major classes; heat-labile toxin that consist of one active and five binding subunits (LT), and heat-stable toxins that are small polypeptides (STa, STb, and EAST1). This chapter describes the disease and pathogenesis of animal ETEC, the corresponding virulence genes and protein products of these bacteria, their regulation and targets in animal hosts, as well as mechanisms of action. Furthermore, vaccines, inhibitors, probiotics and the identification of potential new targets identified by genomics are presented in the context of animal ETEC. PMID:27735786
Electrolyte and haematological parameters in rabbits infected with pathogenic isolates of Escherichia coli from rural water supplies ... rabbits not infected with E. coli. ..... Basic pathology. 4lh ed. ' ' Saunders W.B Company London. Ppl75. Tillman, S.M.M.C. Conover and AG. Tilkian. 1979. Blood Chemistry Electrolytes. In:.
The eclectic paradigm has become the dominant theoretical basis in the study of international business, multinational corporations and internationalization since 1980. However, developments such as economic globalization and the subsequent growth of global and alliance capitalism have fundamentally......, finance, evolutionary economics, resource-based theory or strategic management? Can it be utilized to explain new developments in international business and economics? Do these require new ideas and concepts to be integrated within the eclectic paradigm? What are the new challenges to which international...... affected the way in which MNC activities are undertaken and organized. The contributions to this volume evaluate the eclectic paradigm in the global economy and its validity as a theoretical basis to understand these developments. Contributions by leading scholars -including John Dunning, Stephen Gusinger...
The aim of this article was to review the basic drawbacks of the deterministic and reductionistic thinking in biomedical science and to provide ways for dealing with them. The present paradigm of research in biomedical science has not got rid of the errors of the old science yet, i.e. the errors of absolute determinism and reductionism. These errors restrict the view and thinking of scholars engaged in the studies of complex and dynamic phenomena and mechanisms. Recently, discussions on science paradigm aimed at spreading the new science paradigm that of complex dynamic systems as well as chaos theory are in progress all over the world. It is for the nearest future to show which of the two, the old or the new science, will be the winner. We have come to the main conclusion that deterministic and reductionistic thinking applied in improper way can cause substantial damage rather than prove benefits for biomedicine science.
Kreibig, Sylvia D; Gross, James J
In this review, we examine the paradigms and measures available for experimentally studying mixed emotions in the laboratory. For eliciting mixed emotions, we describe a mixed emotions film library that allows for the repeated elicitation of a specific homogeneous mixed emotional state and appropriately matched pure positive, pure negative, and neutral emotional states. For assessing mixed emotions, we consider subjective and objective measures that fall into univariate, bivariate, and multivariate measurement categories. As paradigms and measures for objectively studying mixed emotions are still in their early stages, we conclude by outlining future directions that focus on the reliability, temporal dynamics, and response coherence of mixed emotions paradigms and measures. This research will build a strong foundation for future studies and significantly advance our understanding of mixed emotions.
Agneeswaran, Vijay Srinivas; Tonpay, Pranay; Tiwary, Jayati
The article explains the three generations of machine learning algorithms-with all three trying to operate on big data. The first generation tools are SAS, SPSS, etc., while second generation realizations include Mahout and RapidMiner (that work over Hadoop), and the third generation paradigms include Spark and GraphLab, among others. The essence of the article is that for a number of machine learning algorithms, it is important to look beyond the Hadoop's Map-Reduce paradigm in order to make them work on big data. A number of promising contenders have emerged in the third generation that can be exploited to realize deep analytics on big data.
experience change and actually to guide it. An intensified exchange of ideas among all ... process is greatly determined by the communication paradigm and practices adopted by the source (media requesting ... to create awareness and interest that encourages evaluation, trials and rapid adoption of development ideas.
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 16; Issue 11. Science Academies' Refresher Course on Paradigms and Applications of Pattern Recognition in Image Processing and Computer Vision. Information and Announcements Volume 16 Issue 11 November 2011 pp 1100-1100 ...
Valentin Gabriel CRISTEA
Full Text Available Henning Kirkegaard shows that the evolution of accounting is to shift from one paradigm to another . Business continuity perspective should guide the company into the future , without confine it exclusively in the past. Accounting in its classical form , however, can not be dissociated from the historical cost evaluation .
Ariel E. Lugo
The Anthropocene will have fundamental effects on the species composition, function, and structure of the ecosystems of the world. Land management agencies such as the USDA Forest Service will need to adapt their policies and conservation activities to avoid engaging in continuous conflict with natural processes and unfamiliar biotic assemblages. Conservation paradigms...
Jul 18, 2010 ... Park, S-K., 2010, 'A postfoundationalist research paradigm of practical theology ',. HTS Teologiese Studies/. Theological Studies 66(2),. Art. #849, 6 pages. DOI: 10.4102/hts.v66i2. ... Philosophically, the foundationalist views transform the narratives by which we live into the typical grand metanarratives of ...
CHERVYAKOVA OLHA VOLODYMYRIVNA
This article presents aspects of public administration paradigm of using disciplinary matrix, a public management model based on a feedback mechanism in the subject-subject interaction, which is the basis of theoretical and methodological establishment in public administration science (Public administration) in Ukraine.
Asmus, Edward P., Jr.
This investigation of a college music course examined the effectiveness of a cyclical affective learning paradigm based on the premise that student affect toward a course of instruction will dictate, in part, cognitive performance. Results suggest that teachers would be better advised to concentrate on cognitive instruction than on affect.…
Geller, Jack M.; Lasley, Paul
Explains how the New Environmental Paradigm Scale (NEP) is used to examine and measure paradigmatic shifts in the public's orientation toward the physical environment. Study findings across three different populations confirm the dimensionality of a three-factor model. An appendix contains the NEP scale and item numbers. (ML)
Feb 1, 1999 ... Heart failure - an inflammatory paradigm. E. Q. KLUG. TABLE I. CYTOKINES MEDIATING MYOCARDIAL. DEPRESSION certain characteristics. In general they mediate cell growth, inflammation, immunity, differentiation and repair. They are small to medium-sized peptides produced by a variety of different ...
Elliott, M.; Whitfield, A. K.
For many years, estuarine science has been the 'poor relation' in aquatic research - freshwater scientists ignored estuaries as they tended to get confused by salt and tides, and marine scientists were more preoccupied by large open systems. Estuaries were merely regarded by each group as either river mouths or sea inlets respectively. For the past four decades, however, estuaries (and other transitional waters) have been regarded as being ecosystems in their own right. Although often not termed as such, this has led to paradigms being generated to summarise estuarine structure and functioning and which relate to both the natural science and management of these systems. This paper defines, details and affirms these paradigms that can be grouped into those covering firstly the science (definitions, scales, linkages, productivity, tolerances and variability) and secondly the management (pressures, valuation, health and services) of estuaries. The more 'science' orientated paradigms incorporate the development and types of ecotones, the nature of stressed and variable systems (with specific reference to resilience and redundancy), the relationship between generalists and specialists produced by environmental tolerance, the relevance of scale in relation to functioning and connectivity, the sources of production and degree of productivity, the biodiversity-ecosystem functioning and the stress-subsidy debates. The more 'management' targeted paradigms include the development and effects of exogenic unmanaged pressures and endogenic managed pressures, the perception of health and the ability to manage estuaries (related to internal and external influences), and the influence of all of these on the production of ecosystem services and societal benefits.
Koutsopoulos, Kostis C.; Kotsanis, Yannis C.
This paper presents the basic concept of the EU Network School on Cloud: Namely, that present conditions require a new teaching and learning paradigm based on the integrated dimension of education, when considering the use of cloud computing. In other words, it is suggested that there is a need for an integrated approach which is simultaneously…
Nov 30, 2011 ... ANN. Science Academies' Refresher Course on. Paradigms and Applications of Pattern Recognition in. Image Processing and Computer Vision hosted by School of Information Technology and Science. Dr GR Damodaran College of Science, Coimbatore 641 014. Recognition of patterns is a cognitive task ...
Sams, Timothy E.
Thomas Kuhn's 1962 groundbreaking work, "The Scientific Revolution," established the process for creating, and the components of, a disciplinary paradigm. This "scientific revolution" has evolved to become the standard for determining a field's claim to disciplinary status. In 2001 and 2003, Ama Mazama, used Kuhn's model to establish the…
Chadwick, Clifton B.
The author reviews various elements of what may be considered as evidence that the long-awaited shift in the education paradigm is actually happening. Concepts like student-centered learning, attainment-based evaluation, knowledge-based constructivism, and effort-based intelligence are growing, are being more widely recognized as important, and…
Galina Ledneva; Viktor Jludov; Alexander Pesin; Viktor Salganik; Vladimir Shmakov
The paper reviews principles of different concepts of enterprise management including a theory of constrains, a Balanced Scorecard, lean production, Six Sigma. The authors believe that creating some mix or integration of these paradigms can bring extraordinary effect for production management. As example the modified Balanced Scorecard based on constraints and its application on Magnitorsk metallurgical enterprise in Russia is described.
Historically, approaches for monitoring air pollution generally use expensive, complex, stationary equipment,1,2 which limits who collects data, why data are collected, and how data are accessed. This paradigm is changing with the materialization of lower-cost, easy-to...
Ni, Xiaopeng; Branch, Robert Maribe
The authors discuss topics appropriate for augmenting the ADDIE paradigm for instructional design. The topics selected are based on data from a study of working professionals who successfully completed an instructional design and technology certificate program and who identified related topics that they regarded as beneficial. The participants…
FEDERAL BALANCING IN NIGERIA: A PARADIGM. FOR SUSTAINABLE DEMOCRACY. Bonaventure I. Ozoigbo. Introduction. Federal balancing in Nigeria since she became a federation in 1954 till date is an issue worth discussing. Right from the time of amalgamation of Southern and Northern provinces in 1914, there.
the attention of politicians, planners and architects today is focused on the individual, not the collective. But the policy of the third way has no counterpart in an urbanism torn between two paradigms. Tom Nielsen paints the picture of what has to urban development since the welfare state...
However, many of the respondents were aware of the need for a new approach to career counselling. The implication of this finding to entrepreneurship development is the need to adopt a paradigm shift in career counselling. Retraining of practicing counsellors and new training guides for student counsellors as well as the ...
Poulsen, Lars K.
In this review of research priorities, presented for the European Commission, food allergy is established as a disease with a considerable impact on modern society. Research paradigms have changed from establishing basic symptomatology and diagnostic methods over allergen characterization to a risk...
Watson, William R.; Watson, Sunnie Lee
Higher education is under enormous pressure to transform itself and embrace a new paradigm. Operating under an outdated model that no longer aligns with the realities of modern society, institutions of higher education are recognizing the need to drastically remake themselves or possibly cease to exist. This article explores the current landscape…
Walter C. Willett, MD, DrPH, an international expert in diet and nutrition, with posts as a Professor of Epidemiology and Nutrition and Chairman of the Department of Nutrition at Harvard School of Public Health and as Professor of Medicine at Harvard Medical School, presented "Diet and Cancer: The Fourth Paradigm".
This paper argues that there is an emergence of a new paradigm of professionalism in agriculture as a result of the introduction of several participatory learning approaches. These approaches have necessitated the change from the conventional advisory services in agricultural extension to counselling services where the ...
Klokmose, Clemens Nylandsted
will require comprehensive experimental user centred development. Originality/Value -- This research offers a new way of thinking interaction, suited for the dynamism of modern computing. Take away message -- Through a strong foundation in activity theory and ecological psychology a new paradigm for ubiquitous...
This review encompasses a time-span of about 50 years of research on morality and moral development. It discusses Kohlberg's (1984) work as a milestone that constituted the cognitive developmental viewpoint of morality and that dominated research for about three decades. In this paradigm the role of reasoning and deliberation was emphasized as the…
Dibbets, P.; Maes, J.H.R.; Vossen, J.M.H.
Two experiments with human subjects assessed contextual dependencies in a stimulus equivalence paradigm. Subjects learned to form two sets of stimuli in a matching-to-sample training procedure. Each set was presented against one of two different background colours, the contextual cues. At test, the
Tozzoli, Rosangela; Grande, Laura; Michelacci, Valeria; Ranieri, Paola; Maugliani, Antonella; Caprioli, Alfredo; Morabito, Stefano
Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are pathogenic E. coli causing diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis (HC) and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). STEC are characterized by a constellation of virulence factors additional to Stx and have long been regarded as capable to cause HC and HUS when possessing the ability of inducing the attaching and effacing (A/E) lesion to the enterocyte, although strains isolated from such severe infections sometimes lack this virulence feature. Interestingly, the capability to cause the A/E lesion is shared with another E. coli pathogroup, the Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC). In the very recent times, a different type of STEC broke the scene causing a shift in the paradigm for HUS-associated STEC. In 2011, a STEC O104:H4 caused a large outbreak with more than 800 HUS and 50 deaths. Such a strain presented the adhesion determinants of Enteroaggregative E. coli (EAggEC). We investigated the possibility that, besides STEC and EAggEC, other pathogenic E. coli could be susceptible to infection with stx-phages. A panel of stx2-phages obtained from STEC isolated from human disease was used to infect experimentally E. coli strains representing all the known pathogenic types, including both diarrheagenic E. coli (DEC) and extra-intestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC). We observed that all the E. coli pathogroups used in the infection experiments were susceptible to the infection. Our results suggest that the stx2-phages used may not have specificity for E. coli adapted to the intestinal environment, at least in the conditions used. Additionally, we could only observe transient lysogens suggesting that the event of stable stx2-phage acquisition occurs rarely. PMID:24999453
Hancock, Viktoria; Nielsen, E.M.; Klemm, Per
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) affect millions of people each year. Escherichia coli is the most common organism associated with asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) in humans. Persons affected by ABU may carry a particular E. coli strain for extended periods of time without any symptoms. In contrast...... to uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) that cause symptomatic UTI, very little is known about the mechanisms by which these strains colonize the urinary tract. Here, we have investigated the growth characteristics in human urine as well as adhesin repertoire of nine ABU strains; the ability of ABU strains to compete...
Knoche, Hendrik; Jamadagni, HS; Rao, PR Sheshagiri
To improve their agricultural output, farmers require timely and contextualized information and advice. Relevant information and advice provided by trusted peers represents a promising approach. We present the considerations for the design of coli, an agricultural information network on touch...
Andersen, Thomas E; Khandige, Surabhi; Madelung, Michelle
Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strains are capable of invading bladder epithelial cells (BECs) on the bladder luminal surface. Based primarily on studies in mouse models, invasion is proposed to trigger an intracellular uropathogenic cascade involving intracellular bacterial proliferation...
Herring, Susan C.
Are established methods of content analysis (CA) adequate to analyze web content, or should new methods be devised to address new technological developments? This article addresses this question by contrasting narrow and broad interpretations of the concept of web content analysis. The utility of a broad interpretation that subsumes the narrow one is then illustrated with reference to research on weblogs (blogs), a popular web format in which features of HTML documents and interactive computer-mediated communication converge. The article concludes by proposing an expanded Web Content Analysis (WebCA) paradigm in which insights from paradigms such as discourse analysis and social network analysis are operationalized and implemented within a general content analytic framework.
Penna, Robert F. [Department of Physics and Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research,Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)
The Bondi-van der Burg-Metzner-Sachs (BMS) group is the asymptotic symmetry group of asymptotically flat spacetime. It is infinite dimensional and entails an infinite number of conservation laws. According to the black hole membrane paradigm, null infinity (in asymptotically flat spacetime) and black hole event horizons behave like fluid membranes. The fluid dynamics of the membrane is governed by an infinite set of symmetries and conservation laws. Our main result is to point out that the infinite set of symmetries and conserved charges of the BMS group and the membrane paradigm are the same. This relationship has several consequences. First, it sheds light on the physical interpretation of BMS conservation laws. Second, it generalizes the BMS conservation laws to arbitrary subregions of arbitrary null surfaces. Third, it clarifies the identification of the superrotation subgroup of the BMS group. We briefly comment on the black hole information problem.
Naim Hamdija Afgan
Full Text Available This paper defines the knowledge society as a human structured organisation based on contemporary developed knowledge and representing new quality of life support systems. It implies the need for a full understanding of distribution of knowledge, access to information and the capability to transfer information into a knowledge. The understanding of knowledge is the central challenge when defining a knowledge society. From our present perception of knowledge society, it is of interest to emphasize the role of the knowledge society in future development of human society. The life support systems are essential pillars of human society development. In this respect knowledge society represents a new paradigm for future development and it is strongly correlated to sustainable development. For this reason the sustainability paradigm of knowledge society is a potential frame for human society development leading to social cohesion, economic competitiveness and stability, use of resources and economic development, safeguarding biodiversity and the ecosystem.In order to verify the mutual relation between knowledge society and sustainability, we have to introduce the difference between these two terms. The knowledge society is based on the agglomeration of eco-knowledge, env-knowledge and soc-knowledge, it may be evaluated as the complex knowledge of quality of life support systems. We have to introduce metrics which will allow us to present knowledge as the paradigm of the number of indicators for verifying progress made.Sustainability metrics are designed to consolidate measures of economic, environmental and social performance of any system. It can be understood as a pattern for evaluation of the available knowledge about systems and their performance. In particular the decision-making process for the selection of the system under consideration must be based on the available knowledge. The link between knowledge and sustainability makes it possible for
E M Akimkin
Full Text Available The article given describes the author's view on theoretical ideas by T.M. Dridze as well as on the derivative social technologies relevant to local self-government. Besides, the article touches upon interactions between scientific community and municipal authority, in particular municipal consulting. The author maintains that prediction social projection based upon ecoanthropocentric paradigm of social cognition and semiosociopsychologic concept of social communication should be interpreted as socially oriented management consulting of municipal development.
Reyes, Daniel; Vilchez, Samuel; Paniagua, Margarita; Colque-Navarro, Patricia; Weintraub, Andrej; Möllby, Roland; Kühn, Inger
We analyzed the prevalence of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) markers and common phenotypes in 2,164 E. coli isolates from 282 DEC-positive samples. Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) and enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) were very diverse and were not correlated with diarrhea. Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) estA and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) belonged to a few phenotypes and were significantly correlated with diarrhea.
Som B. Ale
Full Text Available Ecological theory provides applications to biodiversity management—but often falls short of expectations. One possibility is that heuristic theories of a young science are too immature. Logistic growth predicts a carrying capacity, but fisheries managed with the Lotka-Volterra paradigm continue to collapse. A second issue is that general predictions may not be useful. The theory of island biogeography predicts species richness but does not predict community composition. A third possibility is that the theory itself may not have much to do with nature, or that empirical parameterization is too difficult to know. The metapopulation paradigm is relevant to conservation, but metapopulations might not be common in nature. For instance, empirical parameterization within the metapopulation paradigm is usually infeasible. A challenge is to determine why ecology fails to match needs of managers sometimes but helps at other. Managers may expect too much of paradigmatic blueprints, while ecologists believe them too much. Those who implement biodiversity conservation plans need simple, pragmatic guidelines based on science. Is this possible? What is possible? An eclectic review of theory and practice demonstrate the power and weaknesses of the ideas that guide conservation and attempt to identify reasons for prevailing disappointment.
Mishin, E. V.
Enhanced westward flows are the dominant feature of the plasma convection in the perturbed subauroral geospace. These include latitudinally-narrow "polarization jets" (PJ) or "subauroral ion drifts" (SAID) observed mainly in the premidnight MLT sector and broad flow channels on the duskside. The generic term "sub-auroral polarization streams" (SAPS) was introduced to unite both (narrow and broad) flows, taking for granted that their underlying mechanisms are quite similar, if not the same. The concept of voltage and current generators is believed to explain the SAPS major features. The generator paradigm treats hot, ≥1 keV, plasma sheet (PS) particles as single (test) particles driven by the dawn-to-dusk and co-rotation electric fields and gradient-curvature drift disregarding charge neutrality and concomitant polarization fields, inherent in slow plasma processes. In this approach, the inner boundary of the hot ion trajectories on the duskside extends earthward of that of the PS electrons by some distance increasing toward dusk. However, magnetically conjugate observations in the evening sector reveal that the generator paradigm fails to explain the substorm SAID features and that they are rather explained in terms of a short-circuiting of substorm-injected hot plasma jets over the plasmapause. This report presents multispacecraft magnetically conjugate observations of substorm-enhanced flows on the duskside showing that their features are hardly compatible with the (test particle) generator paradigm. It is suggested that they are causally related to the two-loop system of the westward traveling surge.
Full Text Available This paper focuses on key issues in relation to the choice of basic language of communication of marketing as a practical and academic field. Principally, marketing managers prefer descriptive way of expression, but they should use the advantages of language of numbers much more. By doing so, they will advance decision-making process - and the communication with finance and top management. In this regard, models offered by academic community could be helpful. This especially pertains to those positive or normative verbal approaches and models in which mathematics and statistical solutions have been embedded, as well as to those which emphasize financial criteria in decision-making. Concerning the process of creation and verification of scientific knowledge, the choice between languages of words and numbers is the part of much wider dimension, because it is inseparable from the decision on basic research orientation. Quantitative paradigm is more appropriate for hypotheses testing, while qualitative paradigm gives greater contribution in their generation. Competition factor could become the key driver of changes by which existing "parallel worlds" of main paradigms would be integrating, for the sake of disciplinary knowledge advancement.
Lindström, U A
The main purpose of this research was to determine the professional paradigm of the qualified psychiatric nurse and the factors influencing the formation of this paradigm. The research was both explorative and descriptive, and both qualitative and quantitative methods were used. The research approach was deductive and based on the theory of paradigm of Törnebohm. The test persons comprised three groups: Swedish-speaking Finns, Swedes and Finns. In each group there were eight students in the final stages of their psychiatric nursing training. A total of 40 questionnaires were distributed to each group. The research revealed four different characteristic types of qualified psychiatric nurses: caring science oriented, partly caring science oriented, general humanist and finally the personality- and experience-oriented. The results also indicate that there is a discrepancy between will and ability within caring. This can partly be interpreted as an expression of the discrepancy between philosophical and ideological impressions and real acts but it may partly indicate a lack of information. Many informants had difficulty naming a theoretical frame of reference for their work and stating aspects of psychiatric caring that would be important to know but on which no information so far exists. Many informants expressed the need for more research and development but did not indicate the subjects.
Full Text Available Researchers in social cognition increasingly realize that many phenomena cannot be understood by investigating offline situations only, focusing on individual mechanisms and an observer perspective. There are processes of dynamic emergence specific to online situations, when two or more persons are engaged in a real-time interaction that are more than just the sum of the individual capacities or behaviours, and these require the study of online social interaction. Auvray et al.’s (2009 perceptual crossing paradigm offers possibly the simplest paradigm for studying such online interactions: two persons, a one-dimensional space, one bit of information, and a yes/no answer. Despite, or maybe because of its simplicity, this study has provoked a lot of resonance in different areas of research, including experimental psychology, computer/robot modelling, philosophy, more recently psychopathology, and even in the field of design. In this article, we review and critically assess this body of literature. We give an overview over work on the perceptual crossing paradigm, both concerning behavioural experiments and computational agent modelling, and review the different contexts in which it has been referred to. We discuss the controversy about the possible constitutive role of perceptual crossing for social cognition and other theoretical contexts in which the research has been cited, offering our own interpretation. We conclude with an outlook on future research possibilities, in particular those that could elucidate the link between online interaction dynamics and individual social cognition.
Yoneda, Masaki; Saitoh, Kazuya
Analogous to the gap paradigm in experiments for saccadic eye movements with very short reaction times, we hypothesized that the initiation of oropharyngeal swallowing movements guided by visual cues are encouraged under experimental conditions using a similar gap paradigm. A red visual cue indicating to hold a bolus in the mouth and a blue one indicating to swallow the bolus were sequentially provided on a computer display to 11 healthy participants. The gap period between these cues varied from 0 to 800ms. Swallowing kinetics and kinematics were recorded using surface electromyography and a laser displacement sensor, respectively. In comparison with the no-gap paradigm, the delay from the onset of muscle activities to initiation of movement significantly decreased with a 100- (pparadigm of 100-200ms. Wrist flexion was boosted in a similar manner. Thus, the gap effect may be a generalized warning effect. Our findings might provide insights into the contribution of the basal ganglia to volitional swallowing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Auvray, Malika; Rohde, Marieke
Researchers in social cognition increasingly realize that many phenomena cannot be understood by investigating offline situations only, focusing on individual mechanisms and an observer perspective. There are processes of dynamic emergence specific to online situations, when two or more persons are engaged in a real-time interaction that are more than just the sum of the individual capacities or behaviors, and these require the study of online social interaction. Auvray et al.'s (2009) perceptual crossing paradigm offers possibly the simplest paradigm for studying such online interactions: two persons, a one-dimensional space, one bit of information, and a yes/no answer. This study has provoked a lot of resonance in different areas of research, including experimental psychology, computer/robot modeling, philosophy, psychopathology, and even in the field of design. In this article, we review and critically assess this body of literature. We give an overview of both behavioral experimental research and simulated agent modeling done using the perceptual crossing paradigm. We discuss different contexts in which work on perceptual crossing has been cited. This includes the controversy about the possible constitutive role of perceptual crossing for social cognition. We conclude with an outlook on future research possibilities, in particular those that could elucidate the link between online interaction dynamics and individual social cognition. PMID:22723776
Mark W. Antley
Full Text Available This paper shows how a partial consilience might be achieved in the field of human development by means of principles from general systems theory. The author concurs with Sameroff (1989 that it is possible to interpret the mechanistic, organisimic, and contextualist paradigms/worldviews (Goldhaber, 2000; Pepper, 1970 in terms of general systems theory. The author selects a major developmentalist from each paradigm and interprets that scholar’s work in terms of systems principles. The following developmentalists were selected: Arnold Sameroff (contextualism, Erik Erickson (organicism, and Albert Bandura (mechanism. The systems principles employed are wholeness and order, self-stabilization, self-reorganization, hierarchical interaction, and dialectical contradiction (Sameroff, 1989. The author addresses the conflicting presuppositions of the major paradigms in order to provide for their theoretical subsuming under systems theory. Finally, the author notes areas of inconsistency that will need to be resolved in the future and calls for further scholarship to translate developmental theory in terms of general systems theory for the benefit of students, scholars, consultants and other practitioners familiar with systems theory.
James Michael Whitacre
Full Text Available Robustness has been studied through the analysis of data sets, simulations, and a variety of experimental techniques that each have their own limitations but together confirm the ubiquity of biological robustness. Recent trends suggest that different types of perturbation (e.g. mutational, environmental are commonly stabilized by similar mechanisms, and system sensitivities often display a long-tailed distribution with relatively few perturbations representing the majority of sensitivities. Conceptual paradigms from network theory, control theory, complexity science, and natural selection have been used to understand robustness, however each paradigm has a limited scope of applicability and there has been little discussion of the conditions that determine this scope or the relationships between paradigms. Systems properties such as modularity, bow-tie architectures, degeneracy, and other topological features are often positively associated with robust traits, however common underlying mechanisms are rarely mentioned. For instance, many system properties support robustness through functional redundancy or through response diversity with responses regulated by competitive exclusion and cooperative facilitation. Moreover, few studies compare and contrast alternative strategies for achieving robustness such as homeostasis, adaptive plasticity, environment shaping, and environment tracking. These strategies share similarities in their utilization of adaptive and self-organization processes that are not well appreciated yet might be suggestive of reusable building blocks for generating robust behavior.
Houghton, Catherine; Hunter, Andrew; Meskell, Pauline
To explore the use of paradigms as ontological and philosophical guides for conducting PhD research. A paradigm can help to bridge the aims of a study and the methods to achieve them. However, choosing a paradigm can be challenging for doctoral researchers: there can be ambiguity about which paradigm is suitable for a particular research question and there is a lack of guidance on how to shape the research process for a chosen paradigm. The authors discuss three paradigms used in PhD nursing research: post-positivism, interpretivism and pragmatism. They compare each paradigm in relation to its ontology, epistemology and methodology, and present three examples of PhD nursing research studies to illustrate how research can be conducted using these paradigms in the context of the research aims and methods. The commonalities and differences between the paradigms and their uses are highlighted. Creativity and flexibility are important when deciding on a paradigm. However, consistency and transparency are also needed to ensure the quality and rigour necessary for conducting nursing research. When choosing a suitable paradigm, the researcher should ensure that the ontology, epistemology and methodology of the paradigm are manifest in the methods and research strategies employed.
Rauscher, Laura Anne
Paradigm adherence has been developed as a meta-theoretical approach to organize and to classify the multitude of different theories of counseling and psychotherapy. Four paradigms have been identified in the literature: The Organic-Medical, The Psychological, The Systemic-Relational, and the Social Constructivist paradigms. Only one other study…
This paper indicates the influence of paradigms and theories on the development of South Africa's National Water Resource Strategy, Second Edition. Five paradigms exist: positivism, postpositivism, interpretivism/constructivism, critical theories and the participatory paradigm. I use the PULSE3 framework for analysis that I ...
Elaine Ferreira do Vale Borges
Full Text Available In this article, I intend to conduct a short literature review and discussion about paradigm shift in language teaching and language teacher education from Cartesian to the complexity paradigm. For that, I use the Kuhnian notion of scientific revolution to present a short compilation of works related to paradigm shift in different sciences, including psychology, linguistics and, more emphatically, applied linguistics. The main proposal is to show the evolutions of paradigm shift in language and social sciences and its impact on the emergence of the complexity paradigm in language teaching and language teacher education fields.
Wittmann, A; Schlagenhauf, F; John, T; Guhn, A; Rehbein, H; Siegmund, A; Stoy, M; Held, D; Schulz, I; Fehm, L; Fydrich, T; Heinz, A; Bruhn, H; Ströhle, A
Agoraphobia (with and without panic disorder) is a highly prevalent and disabling anxiety disorder. Its neural complexity can be characterized by specific cues in fMRI studies. Therefore, we developed a fMRI paradigm with agoraphobia-specific stimuli. Pictures of potential agoraphobic situations were generated. Twenty-six patients, suffering from panic disorder and agoraphobia, and 22 healthy controls rated the pictures with respect to arousal, valence, and agoraphobia-related anxiety. The 96 pictures, which discriminated best between groups were chosen, split into two parallel sets and supplemented with matched neutral pictures from the International Affective Picture System. Reliability, criterion, and construct validity of the picture set were determined in a second sample (44 patients, 28 controls). The resulting event-related "Westphal-Paradigm" with cued and uncued pictures was tested in a fMRI pilot study with 16 patients. Internal consistency of the sets was very high; parallelism was given. Positive correlations of picture ratings with Mobility Inventory and Hamilton anxiety scores support construct validity. FMRI data revealed activations in areas associated with the fear circuit including amygdala, insula, and hippocampal areas. Psychometric properties of the Westphal-Paradigm meet necessary quality requirements for further scientific use. The paradigm reliably produces behavioral and fMRI patterns in response to agoraphobia-specific stimuli. To our knowledge, it is the first fMRI paradigm with these properties. This paradigm can be used to further characterize the functional neuroanatomy of panic disorder and agoraphobia and might be useful to contribute data to the differentiation of panic disorder and agoraphobia as related, but conceptually different clinical disorders.
Sadruddin Bahadur Qutoshi
Full Text Available This paper aims to address the key question, ‘How far autoethnography contributes towards enriching the field of transformative learning?’ Using my lived experiences as a teacher educator/autoethnographer/researcher and contextualizing self/others within a particular socio-pedagogical life courses I build the basis through addressing questions: Why auto/ethnography is one of the most suitable spaces for transformative researchers and to what extent it serves the agenda of envisioning a transformative teacher education. To achieve this objective I use autobiographies, stories, reflections and poems etc. as narratives with multiple logics and genres; pictography as art-based expression; and ethnography as methodological space within multiparadigmatic design space. In so doing autoethnographer has to delve into whole process of research along a continuum of self and beyond within a particular sociocultural context to understand the phenomena at deeper level of consciousness. This transformative paradigm holds a strong basis in the process of research as: re/reading, re/viewing, critically reflecting on self/others, re/writing for meaning making and developing a subjective understanding of phenomena under exploration. This process of research is found to be an innovative way of knowing through ‘interpreting and constructing (Luitel, 2009within Interpretivism, critically thinking and reflecting within Criticalism, and adding both ‘pluralism and playfulness’ (Taylor, 2013 within Postmodernism. In so doing it raises awareness, develops consciousness and improves capacities constantly that ultimately alters our way of seeing and being in the world differently- a paradigm shift in self/others. It is found to be highly rigorous, dialectically eloquent, dialogically rigorous, critically reflective, consciously awakening, and innovative critical discourse that greatly contributes to transform researcher/s. Therefore, it seems illustrious for
Sadock, Benjamin J
The author suggests that a new paradigm may be needed which holds that some suicides may be inevitable. The goal of this paradigm would be to diminish the sense of failure and inadequacy felt by many psychiatrists who experience the suicide of a patient and to increase understanding of the unique biopsychosocial profile of those whose suicides appear to be inevitable. The author stresses that this proposed paradigm should not be misconstrued as therapeutic nihilism but rather should serve to stimulate efforts to treat this patient population more effectively. Risk factors that place individuals at high risk for suicide are reviewed, including presence of a mental illness, genetic predisposition, and factors such as a history of abuse, divorce, unemployment, male gender, recent discharge from a psychiatric hospital, prior suicide attempts, alcohol or other substance abuse, a history of panic attacks, and persistent suicidal thoughts, especially if coupled with a plan. The author notes that, in those suicides that appear to have been inevitable, risk factors are not only numerous but at the extreme end of profound pathology. The example of Ernest Hemingway is used to illustrate how such a combination of risk factors may have contributed to his eventual suicide. Psychiatrists, like other doctors, may have to acknowledge that some psychiatric disorders are associated with a high mortality rate as a natural outcome. This could lead to heightened vigilance, a more realistic view of what can and cannot be achieved with therapy, and efforts to improve the quality of life of patients at high risk for suicide with the goal of reducing this risk and prolonging their lives. (Journal of Psychiatric Practice 2012;18:221-224).
Nahnybida Lyubov Serhiyivna
Full Text Available The article reviews traditional and modern lines of research that contribute revelation of many-sided entity of metaphor. Despite numerous efforts of scrutinizing and systematization of metaphors, there is no far and wide integrated theory that could have included ideas of different approaches. The author identifies main, the most effective researches in classifications of metaphors that give the idea of its place and role within the text and discourse. Functional cognitive paradigm is determinant in metaphor studying and revealing its dual nature.
For uninitiated researchers, engineers, and scientists interested in a quick entry into the subject of chaos, this book offers a timely collection of 55 carefully selected papers covering almost every aspect of this subject. Because Chua's circuit is endowed with virtually every bifurcation phenomena reported in the extensive literature on chaos, and because it is the only chaotic system which can be easily built by a novice, simulated in a personal computer, and tractable mathematically, it has become a paradigm for chaos, and a vehicle for illustrating this ubiquitous phenomenon. Its supreme
Blumell, Lindsey; Hellmueller, Lea; Etter, Michael
and if these guidelines challenge the news paradigm. While using social media have been a “loop-hole” of sorts to disseminating political information in countries that have strong censorship (the Arab Spring being a premiere example, Eltantawy & Wiest, 2011; Lotan, Graeff, Ananny, Gaffney, & Pearce, 2011), journalists......Social network use continues to increase in the majority of regions around the world, with a global increase of 17.6% in 2012, and another projected 12.6% in 2014 (digital.org, 2014). Social media have also been incorporated into daily routines of American journalists, with 53.8% reporting...
Full Text Available In the last decades a growing awareness emerged of the relevance of corruption as an hidden factor which may negatively affect political and economic decision-making processes. In spite of a lively scientific debate there is no general consensus on a commonly accepted definition of what corruption is.The A. distinguishes three main paradigms, focusing on different (though not irreconcilable variables.The first is the economic paradigm, which usually takes the principal-agent model of corruption as its founding pillar. In this paradigm corruption is considered the outcome of rational individual choices, and its spread within a certain organization is influenced by the factors defining the structure of expected costs and rewards.A second approach – the cultural paradigm – looks at the differences in cultural traditions, social norms and interiorized values which shape individuals’ moral preferences and consideration of his social and institutional role. These are a leading forces that can push a corrupt public or private agent (not to violate legal norms.A third neo-institutional approach considers also mechanisms which allow the internal regulation of social interactions within corrupt networks, and their effects on individuals’ beliefs and preferences. Though the corrupt agreements cannot be enforced with legal sanctions, several informal, non-written rules, contractual provisos and conventions may regulate the corrupt exchange between agent and corruptor.The A. underlines that corruption is the outcome of a multitude of individual and collective choices which change public opinion towards corruption and its diffusion throughout the state, markets and civil society. There is no univocal recipe to deal with anti-bribery measures, since corruption is a complex and multifaceted phenomenon.Reforms aimed at dismantling systemic corruption have to be finely tuned against its hidden governance structures, i.e. its internal regulation of
Smith, Cameron M.
Because permanent space settlement will be multigenerational it will have to be viable on ecological timescales so far unfamiliar to those planning space exploration. Long-term viability will require evolutionary and adaptive planning. Adaptations in the natural world provide many lessons for such planning, but implementing these lessons will require a new, evolutionary paradigm for envisioning and carrying out Earth-independent space settlement. I describe some of these adaptive lessons and propose some cognitive shifts required to implement them in a genuinely evolutionary approach to human space settlement.
Grandjean, Philippe; Herz, Katherine T
Trace elements have contributed unique insights into developmental neurotoxicity and serve as paradigms for such adverse effects. Many trace elements are retained in the body for long periods and can be easily measured to assess exposure by inexpensive analytical methods that became available...... neurotoxicants that provide a reference for other substances that may have similar adverse effects. Less evidence is available on manganese, fluoride, and cadmium, but experience from the former trace elements suggest that, with time, adverse effects are likely to be documented at exposures previously thought...
Krogsdam, Anne-M; Kristiansen, Karsten; Nøhr, Jane
Owing to cost advantage, speed of production, and often high product yield (up to 50% of total cell protein), expression in Escherichia coli is generally the first choice when attempting to express a recombinant protein. Expression systems exist to produce recombinant protein intracellularly...... intracellularly in soluble form. In E. coli, proteins containing disulfide bonds are best produced by secretion because the disulfide forming foldases reside in the periplasm. Likewise, a correct N-terminus is more likely to be obtained upon secretion. Moreover, potentially toxic proteins are more likely...
Full Text Available Subset of faecal E. coli that can enter, colonize urinary tract and cause infection are known as uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC. UPEC strains act as opportunistic intracellular pathogens taking advantage of host susceptibility using a diverse array of virulence factors. Presence of specific virulence associated genes on genomic/pathogenicity islands and involvement of horizontal gene transfer appears to account for evolution and diversity of UPEC. Recent success in large-scale genome sequencing and comparative genomics has helped in unravelling UPEC pathogenomics. Here we review recent findings regarding virulence characteristics of UPEC and mechanisms involved in pathogenesis of urinary tract infection.
Conclusion. In conclusion, these results have shown immobilization of spermatozoa by E. coli and demonstrate a factor (SIF produced and secreted by E. coli which causes variable structural damage as probable morphological correlates of immobilization.
Ramteke, P W; Tewari, Suman
Fifty seven isolates of thermotolerant E. coli were recovered from 188 drinking water sources, 45 (78.9%) were typable of which 15 (26.3%) were pathogenic serotypes. Pathogenic serogroup obtained were 04 (Uropathogenic E. coli, UPEC), 025 (Enterotoxigenic E. coli, ETEC), 086 (Enteropathogenic E. coli, EPEC), 0103 (Shiga-toxin producing E. coli, STEC), 0157 (Shiga-toxin producing E. coli, STEC), 08 (Enterotoxigenic E. coli, ETEC) and 0113 (Shiga-toxin producing E. coli, STEC). All the pathogenic serotypes showed resistance to bacitracin and multiple heavy metal ions. Resistance to streptomycin and cotrimazole was detected in two strains whereas resistance to cephaloridine, polymixin-B and ampicillin was detected in one strain each. Transfer of resistances to drugs and metallic ions was observed in 9 out of 12 strains studied. Resistances to bacitracin were transferred in all nine strains. Among heavy metals resistance to As(3+) followed by Cr(6+) were transferred more frequently.
Full Text Available This paper aims to look at alternatives to the classic models of development by exploring the paradigm of degrowth in a tourism context. Degrowth touted as an alternative to mainstream paradigms of development, aims to ensure a high quality of life for people in a society where work, production and consumption are reduced. As a weapon to the problems accrued by capitalism, degrowth reorients the current unsustainable and inequitable path through the transition to a smaller economy with less production and consumption. By arguing that natural limits to growth of many destinations have already been surpassed and their carrying capacity levels have been reached, degrowth proposes the abandonment of growth which promotes nothing other than a quest for profits on part of the owners of capital and results in disastrous implications for the environment and the humanity. As a philosophical concept and movement, degrowth is revolutionary and anticapitalist directed to sustainable change which results from an interest in locality and place, small and medium-sized enterprises, employment generation and reduction in working hours, ecology and quality of life, decommodification of tourism activity, carbon reduction in transport, changed pattern of production and consumption, and high priority in the travel experience.
Angelone, David J; Mitchell, Damon; Carola, Kara
The present study attempted to develop a laboratory analogue for the study of tolerance for sexual harassment by using an online speed-dating paradigm. In that context, the relation between participants' sexual harassment attitudes, perpetrator attractiveness, perpetrator status, and perceived dating potential of the perpetrator were examined as factors influencing participants' tolerance of sexually harassing behavior. Participants were 128 female college students from a small northeastern public university. Results indicated that attractiveness, high social status, and attitudinal beliefs about sexual harassment were all predictive of tolerance for sexual harassment, providing preliminary support for the validity of this paradigm. In addition, participants' self reported likelihood to date a bogus male dating candidate was also predictive of tolerance for sexual harassment, over and above the aforementioned variables, suggesting that dating potential can play a role in perceptions of sexual harassment. Further, this experiment demonstrated that perceptions of sexual harassment can be assessed using the in vivo measurement of behavior. In addition, using an online environment not only provides a contemporary spin and adds a greater degree of external validity compared to other sexual harassment analogues, it also reduces any risk of potential physical sexual contact for participants.
Full Text Available Modern moment more and more denotes realisation that we will have to change the way of life in order to preserve this planet and culture for descendants. We talk about new paradigm relationship to the world and action, which can by its extent compete with other widest and biggest world’s movements under UNESCO, World health organisation and other international organisations. Movement of endeavours for lasting development is defined and encouraged by series of international documents, accepted in last two decades. They are the result of countries’ efforts and politics which acknowledge the necessity of active uniting of powers and resources, to preserve the planet and ensure future for generations to come. Important vision is a holistic development of a person who is becoming an active and responsible citizen, ready to co-influence important decisions. Usefulness and life knowledges, constructive, critical thinking and cooperation are those components which are necessary for making these decisions and will lead to true long-lasting development. Therefore must be visions and values of lasting development also key component of quality education (UNESCO 2004 in the vertical and all others extensions, also in the lifelong dimension. Theorists predict – practitioners are already experiencing this - that education of adult will have to change innovatively in order to follow the requirements of this paradigm.
Full Text Available The marketing practices of the companies show that not all of them are observing ethical and moral standards and they manipulate the consumers. This paper has as main goal to examine the most usual unethical techniques, the present status of consumers’ power and how more power could work for a new marketing paradigm. There are many unethical marketing techniques which could be found in deceptive product recipes, packaging, promotion, prices and in other areas. Most consumers have no appropriate powers and tools to counteract the manipulation techniques and feel they have fewer rights than the marketers. The current state of empowerment of the consumer show that the European consumers are not in the best position in the market as the Consumer Empowerment Index proves. This matter of facts emphasizes a strong need for a better empowerment of the consumers. The consumer which has more power and wisely use it could improve the balance of power in the market. But the consumers should have a proactive buying behavior in order to get such results. These revolutionary consumers attack the structural roots of the social, economic and political problems which produces a new market ideology as a part of the new tier of transnational institutional ideology. This consumer behavior may have a strong influence toward a new marketing paradigm.
Full Text Available A new paradigm in human development must be founded upon a new paradigm in education. A human-centered educational system is needed whose aim is the fullest development of the capacities of each individual. Today humanity is on the cusp of a major transition in education, our most powerful instrument for conscious social evolution. Quality education can now be made universally accessible and affordable. Equally important, future education must be made relevant to the rapidly changing needs of society, the increasingly sophisticated demands of the labor market, the growing shortage of attitudes and skills need to promote entrepreneurship and full employment, the values needed for social harmony and problem solving, and the individuality needed for leadership, independent thinking and creativity. The coming revolution in education spurred by the breakthrough in online learning has made all of these goals achievable. New technology can facilitate a shift from the drudgery of passive knowledge transfer and memorization to the exhilaration of active learning that fosters curiosity, discovery and original thinking. It can also help break down the intellectual boundaries between disciplines, making possible a more comprehensive, transdisciplinary, integrated approach to knowledge. A revolution in higher education is upon us.
Francisco Javier Esquivel
Full Text Available Games Theory constitutes a model by means every player tries to predict what they will make the other players in reply to his own actions, and to optimize the result of the above mentioned actions in his benefit knowing that the others are thinking to about the same form. The development of the theory supposed a boom after the World War II, which happened of analyzing exclusively competitive behaviors to considering situations with competitive and cooperative characteristics. Nevertheless, the advance of the humanity and the disappearance of both geopolitical blocks have eliminated the balance of power and have produced the emergence of a world the most based on the exclusive conquest of the power. This has originated the model change and dilemmas, happening from the most cooperative models (Prisoner’s Dilemma or from the models of the Cold War (Dilemma of the Gallina up to reaching the dilemmas of the Leader or of the Hero. This change of paradigm owes to the extension of the globalization, which originates an immeasurable loss of economic, social, political power, of human rights, which they have affected negatively to the poor people. In this paper is studied the change of paradigm caused by the consequences of the globalization and the geopolitical transformations in a monopolar world, analyzing the consequences on the basis of the Theory of Games.
Haro, Alex; Castro-Santos, Theodore
Despite more than 250 years of development, the passage of American shad Alosa sapidissima at dams and other barriers frequently remains problematic. Few improvements in design based on knowledge of the swimming, schooling, and migratory behaviors of American shad have been incorporated into passage structures. Large-scale technical fishways designed for the passage of adult salmonids on the Columbia River have been presumed to have good performance for American shad but have never been rigorously evaluated for this species. Similar but smaller fishway designs on the East Coast frequently have poor performance. Provision of effective downstream passage for both juvenile and postspawning adult American shad has been given little consideration in most passage projects. Ways to attract and guide American shad to both fishway entrances and downstream bypasses remain marginally understood. The historical development of passage structures for American shad has resulted in assumptions and paradigms about American shad behavior and passage that are frequently unsubstantiated by supporting data or appropriate experimentation. We propose that many of these assumptions and paradigms are either unfounded or invalid and that significant improvements to American shad upstream and downstream passage can be made via a sequential program of behavioral experimentation, application of experimental results to the physical and hydraulic design of new structures, and controlled tests of large-scale prototype structures in the laboratory and field.
Hammer, Fred J.; Kahr, Joseph R.
In the past, flight and ground systems have been developed largely-independently, with the flight system taking the lead, and dominating the development process. Operability issues have been addressed poorly in planning, requirements, design, I&T, and system-contracting activities. In many cases, as documented in lessons-learned, this has resulted in significant avoidable increases in cost and risk. With complex missions and systems, operability is being recognized as an important end-to-end design issue. Never-the-less, lessons-learned and operability concepts remain, in many cases, poorly understood and sporadically applied. A key to effective application of operability concepts is adopting a 'mission system' paradigm. In this paradigm, flight and ground systems are treated, from an engineering and management perspective, as inter-related elements of a larger mission system. The mission system consists of flight hardware, flight software, telecom services, ground data system, testbeds, flight teams, science teams, flight operations processes, procedures, and facilities. The system is designed in functional layers, which span flight and ground. It is designed in response to project-level requirements, mission design and an operations concept, and is developed incrementally, with early and frequent integration of flight and ground components.
Chen, Kunfeng; Xue, Dongfeng
Among decades of development, electrochemical energy storage systems are now sorely in need of a new design paradigm at the nano size and ion level to satisfy the higher energy and power demands. In this review paper, we introduce a new colloidal electrode paradigm for supercapattery that integrates multiple-scale forms of matter, i.e. ion clusters, colloidal ions, and nanosized materials, into one colloid system, coupled with multiple interactions, i.e. electrostatic, van der Waals forces, and chemical bonding, thus leading to the formation of many redox reactive centers. This colloidal electrode not only keeps the original ionic nature in colloidal materials, but also creates a new attribute of high electroactivity. Colloidal supercapattery is a perfect application example of the novel colloidal electrode, leading to higher specific capacitance than traditional electrode materials. The high electroactivity of the colloidal electrode mainly comes from the contribution of exposed reactive centers, owing to the confinement effect of carbon and a binder matrix. Systematic and thorough research on the colloidal system will significantly promote the development of fundamental science and the progress of advanced energy storage technology.
Jaap, John; Davis, Elizabeth
The Flight Projects Directorate at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center is developing a new planning and scheduling environment and a new scheduling algorithm to enable a paradigm shift in planning and scheduling concepts. Over the past 33 years Marshall has developed and evolved a paradigm for generating payload timelines for Skylab, Spacelab, various other Shuttle payloads, and the International Space Station. The current paradigm starts by collecting the requirements, called "tasks models," from the scientists and technologists for the tasks that they want to be done. Because of shortcomings in the current modeling schema, some requirements are entered as notes. Next a cadre with knowledge of vehicle and hardware modifies these models to encompass and be compatible with the hardware model; again, notes are added when the modeling schema does not provide a better way to represent the requirements. Finally, another cadre further modifies the models to be compatible with the scheduling engine. This last cadre also submits the models to the scheduling engine or builds the timeline manually to accommodate requirements that are expressed in notes. A future paradigm would provide a scheduling engine that accepts separate science models and hardware models. The modeling schema would have the capability to represent all the requirements without resorting to notes. Furthermore, the scheduling engine would not require that the models be modified to account for the capabilities (limitations) of the scheduling engine. The enabling technology under development at Marshall has three major components. (1) A new modeling schema allows expressing all the requirements of the tasks without resorting to notes or awkward contrivances. The chosen modeling schema is both maximally expressive and easy to use. It utilizes graphics methods to show hierarchies of task constraints and networks of temporal relationships. (2) A new scheduling algorithm automatically schedules the models
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 13; Issue 8. Conjugal Pairing in Escherichia Coli. Joshua Lederberg. Classics Volume 13 Issue 8 August 2008 pp 793-794. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/013/08/0793-0794 ...
Friedrich, Alexander; Stein, Jürgen; Dignass, Axel
E. coli ist ein wesentlicher Bestandteil der physiologischen Darmflora des Menschen. Die üblicherweise im Darm vorkommenden Kolibakterien sind apathogen und für den Menschen eher nützlich (Sonnenborn u. Greinwald 1990). Allerdings kennen wir bei dieser Bakterienspezies auch ein breites Spektrum von
Wang, Ping; Robert, Lydia; Pelletier, James; Dang, Wei Lien; Taddei, Francois; Wright, Andrew; Jun, Suckjoon
... 1 A). We measured the timescale of nutrient uptake by E. coli by using the fluorescent glucose analog (2-NBDG) and found that diffusion into the channels is much faster (∼1 s) than the timescale of nutrient uptake (∼2–3 min; Supplemental Experimental Procedures , available online), ensuring steady-state conditions for all cells. The cell at...
Balci, Osman; Nance, Richard E.
This paper describes our research efforts in prototyping the automation-based software paradigm to provide automated support for discrete-event simulation model development. The automation-based paradigm has been suggested as the software technology in the 1990's. The technology needed to support this paradigm does not yet exist. However, the benefits to be gained are so significant that, if achieved, it could profoundly change the way that simulation models are developed. We have been workin...
AIR WAR COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY TRIPLE TRACK: A NEW PARADIGM FOR DEVELOPING AIR FORCE OFFICERS by Tracy N. Hunter, Lieutenant...their careers in order to possess the skills to effectively integrate capabilities across the joint force.5 The AF needs to alter the paradigm on...same time developing officers who can integrating elements across multiple domains. This new paradigm will encourage a focus on officer
"César Vallejo's Poetry: the Paradigm of the Rebellion". The object of bachelor work „ César Vallejo' Poetry: the Paradigm of the Rebellion “ is the poetry of Peruvian poet Cesar Vallejo. The study aims to reveal the paradigm of the rebellion that was observed in three following aspects: the social rebellion, internal oppositions and arguments with the Bible. In order to conduct a survey the hermeneutic poetry analysis and sociocultural perspectives were used. According to the hypothesis form...
KIM, KWANG SIK
E. coli is the most common Gram-negative bacillary organism causing meningitis and E. coli meningitis continues to be an important cause of mortality and morbidity throughout the world. Our incomplete knowledge of its pathogenesis contributes to such mortality and morbidity. Recent reports of E. coli strains producing CTX-M-type or TEM-type extended-spectrum β-lactamases create a challenge. Studies using in vitro and in vivo models of the blood-brain barrier have shown that E. coli meningitis follows a high-degree of bacteremia and invasion of the blood-brain barrier. E. coli invasion of the blood-brain barrier, the essentials step in the development of E. coli meningitis, requires specific microbial and host factors as well as microbe- and host-specific signaling molecules. Blockade of such microbial and host factors contributing to E. coli invasion of the blood-brain barrier is shown to be efficient in preventing E. coli penetration into the brain. The basis for requiring a high-degree of bacteremia for E. coli penetration of the blood-brain barrier, however, remains unclear. Continued investigation on the microbial and host factors contributing to a high-degree of bacteremia and E. coli invasion of the blood-brain barrier is likely to identify new targets for prevention and therapy of E. coli meningitis. PMID:27223820
Nordt, Marisa; Hoehl, Stefanie; Weigelt, Sarah
Repetition suppression paradigms allow a more detailed look at brain functioning than classical paradigms and have been applied vigorously in adult cognitive neuroscience. These paradigms are well suited for studies in the field of developmental cognitive neuroscience as they can be applied without collecting a behavioral response and across all age groups. Furthermore, repetition suppression paradigms can be employed in various neuroscience techniques, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG). In the present article we review studies using repetition suppression paradigms in developmental cognitive neuroscience covering the age range from infancy to adolescence. Our first goal is to point out characteristics of developmental repetition suppression effects. In doing so, we discuss the relationship of the direction of repetition effects (suppression vs enhancement) with developmental factors, and address the question how the direction of repetition effects might be related to looking-time effects in behavioral infant paradigms, the most prominently used behavioral measure in infant research. To highlight the potential of repetition suppression paradigms, our second goal is to provide an overview on the insights recently obtained by applying repetition paradigms in neurodevelopmental studies, including research on children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). We conclude that repetition suppression paradigms are valuable tools for investigating neurodevelopmental processes, while at the same time we highlight the necessity for further studies that disentangle methodological and developmental factors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Paulson, William D; Moist, Louise; Lok, Charmaine E
The hemodialysis vascular access surveillance controversy provides a case study of how enthusiasm for a new test or treatment can lead to adoption of a false paradigm. Paradigms are the beliefs and assumptions shared by those in a field of knowledge, and are commonly included in clinical practice guidelines. The guidelines of the National Kidney Foundation Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative recommend that arteriovenous vascular accesses undergo routine surveillance for detection and correction of stenosis. This recommendation is based on the paradigm that surveillance of access blood flow or dialysis venous pressure combined with correction of stenosis improves access outcomes. However, the quality of evidence that supports this paradigm has been widely criticized. We tested the validity of the surveillance paradigm by applying World Health Organization (WHO) criteria for evaluating screening tests to a literature review of published vascular access studies. These criteria include four components: undesired condition, screening test, intervention, and desired outcome. The WHO criteria show that surveillance as currently practiced fails all four components and provides little or no significant benefit, suggesting that surveillance is a false paradigm. Once a paradigm is established, however, challenges to its validity are usually resisted even as new evidence indicates the paradigm is not valid. Thus, it is paramount to apply rigorous criteria when developing guidelines. Regulators may help promote needed changes in paradigms when cost and safety considerations coincide. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Landau, J D; Marsh, R L
Current laboratory paradigms used to assess unconscious plagiarism consist of three tasks. First, participants generate solutions to a puzzle task with a partner (initial generation task); second, they recall their individual contribution (recall-own task); and third, they attempt to create new solutions that were not offered previously (generate-new task). An analysis of these tasks indicated that they differ in terms of the source monitoring they require. The two generative tasks require less differentiated information (e.g., familiarity) and relatively lax decision criteria. The recall-own task, however, demands more differentiated information and more extended decision criteria. In two experiments, factors known to influence source monitoring were manipulated. Consistent with the analysis, no effects were associated with the generative tasks. Recall-own plagiarisms increased when self- and other-generated solutions were difficult to distinguish (Experiment 1) and decreased when the two sources were easier to distinguish (Experiment 2).
Moshagen, Morten; Hilbig, Benjamin E
One type of paradigm commonly used in studies on unethical behavior implements a lottery, relying on a randomization device to determine winnings while ensuring that the randomized outcome is only known to participants. Thereby, participants have the incentive and opportunity to cheat by anonymously claiming to have won. Data obtained in such a way are often analyzed using the observed "win" responses as a proxy for actual dishonesty. However, because the observed "win" response is contaminated by honest respondents who actually won, such an approach only allows for inferring dishonesty indirectly and leads to substantially underestimated effects. As a remedy, we outline approaches to estimate correlations between dishonesty and other variables, as well as to predict dishonesty in a modified logistic regression model. Using both simulated and empirical data, we demonstrate the superiority and relevance of the suggested methods.
Serfaty, D.; Kleinman, D. L.
The study of distributed information processing and decision making is presently hampered by two factors: (1) The inherent complexity of the mathematical formulation of decentralized problems has prevented the development of models that could be used to predict performance in a distributed environment; and (2) The lack of comprehensive scientific empirical data on human team decision making has hindered the development of significant descriptive models. As a part of a comprehensive effort to find a new framework for multihuman decision making problems, a novel experimental research paradigm was developed involving human terms in decision making tasks. Attempts to construct parts of an integrated model with ideas from queueing networks, team theory, distributed estimation and decentralized resource management are described.
Brigatti, Karlla W.; Deutsch, Eric C.; Lynch, David R.; Farmer, Jennifer M.
Friedreich ataxia is the most common inherited ataxia, with a wide phenotypic spectrum. It is generally caused by GAA expansions on both alleles of FXN, but a small percentage of patients are compound heterozygotes for a pathogenic expansion and a point mutation. Two recent diagnostic innovations are further characterizing individuals with the phenotype but without the classic genotypes. First, lateral-flow immunoassay is able to quantify the frataxin protein, thereby further characterizing these atypical individuals as likely affected or not affected, and providing some correlation to phenotype. It also holds promise as a biomarker for clinical trials in which the investigative agent increases frataxin. Second, gene dosage analysis and the identification of affected individuals with gene deletions introduce a novel genetic mechanism of disease. Both tests are now clinically available and suggest a new diagnostic paradigm for the disorder. Genetic counseling issues and future diagnostic testing approaches are considered as well. PMID:22752491
Full Text Available Du point de vue technique, la formulation de cette question de l'évaluation (objet, méthode, résultats n’est rien d’autre qu’une conséquence de l'expansion du paradigme de la mesure, qui de son côté corrobore l'usage social fait de la mathématique dans les sociétés modernes. Cet usage de la mathématique dans les sociétés rationalisées en vue de fins n'a d'ailleurs pas rendu possible le déploiement de la seule catégorie d'évaluation, il a favorisé ...
Full Text Available Processes like the globalization consistency and learning about society are screened by diffuse concepts such as those taking the last steps of the industrial civilization and hierarchically ordered world through hegemony. This is why the meaning of globalization is given by deviant trends, like globalism, and the knowledge society is taken for the tools promoted by itself, such as the internet. This does not imply only approximations of meaning but rather the vanity of change, preserving the status quo represented by the pre-global world or the adversity principle. Historicism of paradigm cannot be avoided. Evolvement towards something else, announced by globalization is implacable, and the new ordinating principle, the one of competition, opens the opportunity horizon to global world
Full Text Available Processes like the globalization consistency and learning about society are screened by diffuse concepts such as those taking the last steps of the industrial civilization and hierarchically ordered world through hegemony. This is why the meaning of globalization is given by deviant trends, like globalism, and the knowledge society is taken for the tools promoted by itself, such as the internet. This does not imply only approximations of meaning but rather the vanity of change, preserving the status quo represented by the pre-global world or the adversity principle. Historicism of paradigm cannot be avoided. Evolvement towards something else, announced by globalization is implacable, and the new ordinating principle, the one of competition, opens the opportunity horizon to global world.
Jin, N; Yamagishi, T; Kiyonari, T
Two experiments examined the effect of illusion of control on in-group favoritism found in the minimal group situation (Tajfel, Billig, Bundy, & Flament, 1971). In bilateral dependency condition, each member made allocation decisions for in-group as well as out-group participants. It was exactly the same situation used in the original studies under the minimal group paradigm, and the subjects knew that their reward allocation too depended on others' decisions. In contrast, in unilateral dependency condition, the subjects made allocation decisions knowing that theirs were not dependent on others' decisions. In Experiment 1, an in-group bias in reward distribution was found in the bilateral dependency condition, but not in the unilateral condition. In Experiment 2, it was found that only those who felt illusion of control exhibited such an in-group bias. Results of the experiments therefore confirmed that illusion of control explained in-group favoritism, as Karp, Jin, Yamagishi, and Shinotsuka (1993) originally hypothesized.
Pérez Alvarez, Salvador
Nanomedicine is the Nanotechnology applied in the field of Medicine. Nanomedicine includes a wide range of technologies applied to devices, materials, medical procedures and treatment modalities are being developed, in some cases, through the convergence of living and nonliving materials. The developments in this scientific field are the prelude of a new era in health where Nanotechnology will provide, in a short period of time, substantial benefits for the general welfare and health of people with serious and incurable diseases using other more traditional medical treatments. This is, in brief, the object of this research that has been focused in the study of the ethical-legal paradigms that should inform the developments and expectations generated by medical applications of Nanotechnology.
Kennel, Charles F.
The magnetosphere is the region where cosmic rays and the solar wind interact with the Earth's magnetic field, creating such phenomena as the northern lights and other aurorae. The configuration and dynamics of the magnetosphere are of interest to planetary physicists, geophysicists, plasma astrophysicists, and to scientists planning space missions. The circulation of solar wind plasma in the magnetosphere and substorms have long been used as the principle paradigms for studying this vital region. Charles F. Kennel, a leading scientist in the field, here presents a synthesis of the convection and substorm literatures, and an analysis of convection and substorm interactions; he also suggests that the currently accepted steady reconnection model may be advantageously replaced by a model of multiple tail reconnection events, in which many mutually interdependent reconnections occur. Written in an accessible, non-mathematical style, this book introduces the reader to the exciting discoveries in this fast-growing field.
Christov, Christo I.; Maugin, Gérard A.; Porubov, Alexey V.
Boussinesq's original derivation of his celebrated equation for surface waves on a fluid layer opened up new horizons that were to yield the concept of the soliton. The present contribution concerns the set of Boussinesq-like equations under the general title of 'Boussinesq's paradigm'. These are true bi-directional wave equations occurring in many physical instances and sharing analogous properties. The emphasis is placed: (i) on generalized Boussinesq systems that involve higher-order linear dispersion through either additional space derivatives or additional wave operators (so-called double-dispersion equations); and (ii) on the 'mechanics' of the most representative localized nonlinear wave solutions. Dissipative cases and two-dimensional generalizations are also considered. To cite this article: C.I. Christov et al., C. R. Mecanique 335 (2007).
Meshkat, Leila; Ruszkowski, James; Haensly, Jean; Pennington, Granvil A.; Hogle, Charles
The Transferable, Adaptable, Modular and Upgradeable (TAMU) Flight Production Process (FPP) is a model-centric System of System (SoS) framework which cuts across multiple organizations and their associated facilities, that are, in the most general case, in geographically diverse locations, to develop the architecture and associated workflow processes for a broad range of mission operations. Further, TAMU FPP envisions the simulation, automatic execution and re-planning of orchestrated workflow processes as they become operational. This paper provides the vision for the TAMU FPP paradigm. This includes a complete, coherent technique, process and tool set that result in an infrastructure that can be used for full lifecycle design and decision making during any flight production process. A flight production process is the process of developing all products that are necessary for flight.
Petrović Slavica P.
Full Text Available Chaos and complexity theory is a special, functionalist systems approach to dealing with complex, dynamic, nonlinear systems. Through treating organizations as complex, with their environments coevolving, nonlinear systems, complexity theory is aimed at creative research of their erratic nature. When an organization is in a state of bounded instability, at the edge of chaos, order and disorder are intertwined, its behavior is irregular and unpredictable but has some pattern. According to the complexity paradigm organizations have to strive to avoid the equilibrium states of stability and instability. They have instead to strive to remain in a state of bounded instability, at the edge of chaos, where they are able to display their full potential for creativity and innovation.
encompasses the total natural and built environment. Land Administration Systems (LAS) are institutional frameworks complicated by the tasks they must perform, by national cultural, political and judicial settings, and by technology. This paper facilitates an overall understanding of the land management...... paradigm. The paper presents a model for sharing LAS among countries with diverse legal systems and institutional structures by identifying an ideal and historically neutral LAS model for: servicing the needs of governments, business and the public; utilising the latest technologies; and servicing rights...... development which support establishment of multifunctional information systems incorporating diverse land rights, land use regulations and other useful data. A third major driver, sustainable development, stimulates demands for comprehensive information about environmental conditions in combination with other...
Bègue, Laurent; Beauvois, Jean-Léon; Courbet, Didier; Oberlé, Dominique; Lepage, Johan; Duke, Aaron A
This study investigates how obedience in a Milgram-like experiment is predicted by interindividual differences. Participants were 35 males and 31 females aged 26-54 from the general population who were contacted by phone 8 months after their participation in a study transposing Milgram's obedience paradigm to the context of a fake television game show. Interviews were presented as opinion polls with no stated ties to the earlier experiment. Personality was assessed by the Big Five Mini-Markers questionnaire (Saucier, 1994). Political orientation and social activism were also measured. Results confirmed hypotheses that Conscientiousness and Agreeableness would be associated with willingness to administer higher-intensity electric shocks to a victim. Political orientation and social activism were also related to obedience. Our results provide empirical evidence suggesting that individual differences in personality and political variables matter in the explanation of obedience to authority. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Toma, Claudia; Lu, Yan; Higa, Naomi; Nakasone, Noboru; Chinen, Isabel; Baschkier, Ariela; Rivas, Marta; Iwanaga, Masaaki
A multiplex PCR assay for the identification of human diarrheagenic Escherichia coli was developed. The targets selected for each category were eae for enteropathogenic E. coli, stx for Shiga toxin-producing E. coli, elt and est for enterotoxigenic E. coli, ipaH for enteroinvasive E. coli, and aggR for enteroaggregative E. coli. This assay allowed the categorization of a diarrheagenic E. coli strain in a single reaction tube.
Jørgensen, Steffen L; Kudirkiene, Egle; Li, Lili
Escherichia coli causing infection outside the gastrointestinal system are referred to as extra-intestinal pathogenic E. coli. Avian pathogenic E. coli is a subgroup of extra-intestinal pathogenic E. coli and infections due to avian pathogenic E. coli have major impact on poultry production economy...... sequences, 12 predicated genomic islands, three prophage-related sequences, and two clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats regions on the chromosome, suggesting the possible occurrence of horizontal gene transfer in this strain. The wildtype strain of E. coli APEC_O2 is resistant towards...
Li, Peng; Lin, Jieru E; Snook, Adam E; Waldman, Scott A
There is a geographic inequality in the incidence of colorectal cancer, lowest in developing countries, and greatest in developed countries. This disparity suggests an environmental contribution to cancer resistance in endemic populations. Enterotoxigenic bacteria associated with diarrheal disease are prevalent in developing countries, including enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) producing heat-stable enterotoxins (STs). STs are peptides that are structurally homologous to paracrine hormones that regulate the intestinal guanylyl cyclase C (GUCY2C) receptor. Beyond secretion, GUCY2C is a tumor suppressor universally silenced by loss of expression of its paracrine hormone during carcinogenesis. Thus, the geographic imbalance in colorectal cancer, in part, may reflect chronic exposure to ST-producing organisms that restore GUCY2C signaling silenced by hormone loss during transformation. Here, mice colonized for 18 weeks with control E. coli or those engineered to secrete ST exhibited normal growth, with comparable weight gain and normal stool water content, without evidence of secretory diarrhea. Enterotoxin-producing, but not control, E. coli, generated ST that activated colonic GUCY2C signaling, cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) production, and cGMP-dependent protein phosphorylation in colonized mice. Moreover, mice colonized with ST-producing E. coli exhibited a 50% reduction in carcinogen-induced colorectal tumor burden. Thus, chronic colonization with ETEC producing ST could contribute to endemic cancer resistance in developing countries, reinforcing a novel paradigm of colorectal cancer chemoprevention with oral GUCY2C-targeted agents.
Full Text Available There is a geographic inequality in the incidence of colorectal cancer, lowest in developing countries, and greatest in developed countries. This disparity suggests an environmental contribution to cancer resistance in endemic populations. Enterotoxigenic bacteria associated with diarrheal disease are prevalent in developing countries, including enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC producing heat-stable enterotoxins (STs. STs are peptides that are structurally homologous to paracrine hormones that regulate the intestinal guanylyl cyclase C (GUCY2C receptor. Beyond secretion, GUCY2C is a tumor suppressor universally silenced by loss of expression of its paracrine hormone during carcinogenesis. Thus, the geographic imbalance in colorectal cancer, in part, may reflect chronic exposure to ST-producing organisms that restore GUCY2C signaling silenced by hormone loss during transformation. Here, mice colonized for 18 weeks with control E. coli or those engineered to secrete ST exhibited normal growth, with comparable weight gain and normal stool water content, without evidence of secretory diarrhea. Enterotoxin-producing, but not control, E. coli, generated ST that activated colonic GUCY2C signaling, cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP production, and cGMP-dependent protein phosphorylation in colonized mice. Moreover, mice colonized with ST-producing E. coli exhibited a 50% reduction in carcinogen-induced colorectal tumor burden. Thus, chronic colonization with ETEC producing ST could contribute to endemic cancer resistance in developing countries, reinforcing a novel paradigm of colorectal cancer chemoprevention with oral GUCY2C-targeted agents.
Nguyen, Y; Sperandio, Vanessa
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) serotype O157:H7 is a human pathogen responsible for outbreaks of bloody diarrhea and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) worldwide. Conventional antimicrobials trigger an SOS response in EHEC that promotes the release of the potent Shiga toxin that is responsible for much of the morbidity and mortality associated with EHEC infection. Cattle are a natural reservoir of EHEC, and approximately 75% of EHEC outbreaks are linked to the consumption of contamina...
The teaching of religions has long relied on the World Religions paradigm to guide curricula throughout education, which has led to a widening gap, on the one hand, between what is taught in schools and in universities and, on the other, between research and teaching. While the World Religions paradigm has allowed the inclusion of non-Christian…
This paper combines affective computing with an imaging interaction paradigm. An imaging interaction paradigm means that human and computer communicates primarily by images. Images evoke emotions in humans, so the computer must be able to behave emotionally intelligent. An affective image selection...
Fuster, Joaquin M.
Converging evidence from humans and nonhuman primates is obliging us to abandon conventional models in favor of a radically different, distributed-network paradigm of cortical memory. Central to the new paradigm is the concept of memory network or cognit--that is, a memory or an item of knowledge defined by a pattern of connections between neuron…
Reigeluth, Charles M.; Squire, Kurt
Elaborates on the nature of the new paradigm of instructional theories (May-June 1996 issue) by summarizing 21 theories that are described in "Instructional-Design Theories and Models: A New Paradigm of Instructional Theory." Divides theories into seven broad categories: understanding, problem-based learning, community of learners,…
Reigeluth, Charles M.
The learner-centered paradigm of education requires very different roles for technology, as well as for teachers and students, compared with the teacher-centered paradigm. Rather than almost exclusively serving the teacher for teaching, technology primarily serves the student for learning. It does so through four major roles: (1) keeping records…
Magen, Hagit; Cohen, Asher
The Dimension Action (DA) model asserts that the visual system is modular, and that each task involves multiple-response mechanisms rather than a unitary-response selection mechanism. The model has been supported by evidence from single-task interference paradigms. We use the psychological refractory period paradigm and show that dual-task…
Holton, Elwood F., III; Yamkovenko, Bogdan
The performance paradigm of human resource development (HRD) practice has served the field well, particularly in enhancing the relevance and impact of HRD interventions. However, in this article, it is argued that the time has come for a new defining paradigm to advance the field of HRD to a higher level of organizational impact. This article…
Full Text Available Background and Purpose: The aim of this paper is to present the influence of Industry 4.0 on the development of the new simulation modelling paradigm, embodied by the Digital Twin concept, and examine the adoption of the new paradigm via a multiple case study involving real-life R&D cases involving academia and industry.
Ngo, Trung Dung
Given a task of designing controller for mobile robots in swarms, one might wonder which distributed control paradigms should be selected. Until now, paradigms of robot controllers have been within either behaviour based control or neural network based control, which have been recognized as two...
Van Dam, K.H.; Adhitya, A.; Srinivasan, R.; Lukszo, Z.
Contemporary problems in process systems engineering often require model-based decision support tool. Among the various modelling paradigms, equation-based models and agent-based models are widely used to develop dynamic models of systems. Which is the most appropriate modelling paradigm for a
Pfeifer, Niki; Douven, Igor
This position paper advocates combining formal epistemology and the new paradigm psychology of reasoning in the studies of conditionals and reasoning with uncertainty. The new paradigm psychology of reasoning is characterized by the use of probability theory as a rationality framework instead of
Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Clark, Martyn; Samaniego, Luis; Verhoest, Niko E.C.; Emmerik, Van Tim; Uijlenhoet, Remko; Achieng, Kevin; Franz, Trenton E.; Woods, Ross A.
In this synthesis paper addressing hydrologic scaling and similarity, we posit that roadblocks in the search for universal laws of hydrology are hindered by our focus on computational simulation (the third paradigm) and assert that it is time for hydrology to embrace a fourth paradigm of
Berner, Eta S.
Thomas Kuhn's conceptions of the influence of paradigms on the progress of science form the framework for analyzing how medical educators have approached research on medical problem solving. A new paradigm emphasizing multiple types of problems with varied solution strategies is proposed. (Author/MLW)
This paper identifies the need for a deliberate approach to theory building in the context of researching cognitive and learning style differences in human performance. A case for paradigm shift and a focus upon research epistemology is presented, building upon a recent critique of style research. A proposal for creating paradigm shift is made,…
Kunze, A.E.; Arntz, A.; Kindt, M.
Background and objectives: We argue that the stimuli used in traditional fear conditioning paradigms are too simple to model the learning and unlearning of complex fear memories. We therefore developed and tested an adapted fear conditioning paradigm, specifically designed for the study of complex
Baldridge, J. Victor
This paper for educational administrators and researchers, and theorists begins with a discussion of the role of intellectual paradigms in the development of science, and outlines some of the general social science paradigms that have been dominant in organization theory. A classification scheme is constructed, based on Udy's organizational…
The postcolonial theory paradigm guided the study. The article reviews literature on the postcolonial theory with the objective of illustrating how this research paradigm may be employed in the field of education in a postcolonial context. The origin, purpose and relevance of the postcolonial theory are brought to the fore as ...
Through ongoing rapid-fire changes in the nature of communications, the social, professional, and political landscapes of our time are rapidly transforming. But the prevailing paradigm in most schools and school systems is a relic of the industrial revolution. Schools and school systems must adopt a new paradigm for learning if they are to remain…
This paper argues that the domain of GIS, cartography, geo-information etc. is facing a paradigm shift. The implication of a paradigm shift is a complete and necessary re-definition of e.g. the philosophical foundation of the system, as well as with a major upgrade and readjustment of procedures...
This article gives a critical evaluation of the paradigm approach of the Groot Noord-Sotho Woordeboek to the lemmatisation of verbs and nouns derived from verbs. The verb stem -roba 'break' with its complicated system of derivations will be taken as a case in point. The paradigm presented for -roba will be evaluated in ...
Abstract: This article gives a critical evaluation of the paradigm approach of the Groot Noord-. Sotho Woordeboek to the lemmatisation of verbs and nouns derived from verbs. The verb stem -roba. 'break' with its complicated system of derivations will be taken as a case in point. The paradigm presented for -roba will be ...
Burrell and Morgan's widely-cited "Sociological Paradigms and Organizational Analysis" is applied here to research on distributed leadership in education. Nearly all of the extant research is regulatory, not radical; and the evidence which it has generated falls broadly within the paradigm of interpretivism. Few studies have generated the…
The question on which paradigm to use for a research study has always presented problems, particularly to new researchers. The methodological waters are further muddied by many scholars who, among themselves, share different views on these paradigms. It thus becomes necessary to clarify the nature of arguments ...
Suggests that focusing on paradigms of work--the way it is described, together with the thematic implications it embodies--can be useful in teaching literature to young adults. Examines how examples from literature illustrate Erik H. Erikson's paradigm of the psychosocial stages of development in late childhood and adolescence. (MM)
The aim of this article is to propose a method for practical theology, the hermeneutical-praxis paradigm, based on discussions of three different methodological approaches to practical theology. This article suggests the hermeneutical-praxis paradigm, which bridges theory and practice, which connects church with society, which correlates theology…
Minsu Song; Jonghyun Kim
Motor imagery (MI) has been widely used in neurorehabilitation and brain computer interface. The size of event-related desynchronization (ERD) is a key parameter for successful motor imaginary rehabilitation and BCI adaptation. Many studies have used visual guidance for enhancement/ amplification of motor imagery ERD amplitude, but their enhancements were not significant. We propose a novel ERD enhancing paradigm using body-ownership illusion, or also known as rubber hand illusion (RHI). The system was made by motorized, moving rubber hand which can simulate wrist extension. The amplifying effects of the proposed RHI paradigm were evaluated by comparing ERD sizes of the proposed paradigm with motor imagery and actual motor execution paradigms. The comparison result shows that the improvement of ERD size due to the proposed paradigm was statistically significant (pparadigms.
Rogoff, Barbara; Mejía-Arauz, Rebeca; Correa-Chávez, Maricela
We discuss Learning by Observing and Pitching In (LOPI) as a cultural paradigm that provides an interesting alternative to Assembly-Line Instruction for supporting children's learning. Although LOPI may occur in all communities, it appears to be especially prevalent in many Indigenous and Indigenous-heritage communities of the Americas. We explain key features of this paradigm, previewing the chapters of this volume, which examine LOPI as it occurs in the lives of families and communities. In this introductory chapter, we focus especially on one feature of the paradigm that plays an important role in its uptake and maintenance in families, institutions, and communities-the nature of assessment. We consider the power of the dominant paradigm and the challenges in making paradigm shifts. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Shrestha, S.; Giakos, G. C.; Deshpande, A.; Quang, T.; Narayan, Chaya; Farrahi, Tannaz; Li, Y.; Petermann, J.; Blinzler, A.; Marotta, S.
The objective of the study is to present integrative paradigms highlighting their applicability of polarimetry to multidisciplinary areas such as space defense and bioscience applications. Polarimetric sensing and imaging offer unique advantages for a wide range of detection and classification problems due to the intrinsic potential for high contrast in different polarization components of the backscattered light. Indeed, polarized imaging can yield high-specificity images under high-dynamic range and extreme condition scenarios, in scattering media, or cluttered environments, offering at the same instance information related to the object material composition and its surface characteristics. In this study, a new imaging approach based on polarimetric detection principles will be introduced and the Mueller matrix formalism will be defined, and will be applied for space applications, such as detection of unresolved objects, as well as for early cancer detection. The design principles of the liquid crystal polarimetric imaging system will be introduced and related to operating conditions and system performance metrics. The depolarization, diattenuation, and retardance of the materials will be estimated using Mueller matrix decomposition for different aspect angles.
Capps, Benjamin; Lederman, Zohar
In this paper, the authors consider the idea of the public biobank governance framework with respect to the innovative paradigm of One Health. The One Health initiative has been defined as an integrative and interdisciplinary effort to improve the lives and well-being of human beings and non-human animals, as well as to preserve the environment. Here, we use this approach as a starting presumption with respect to institutional design. We examine the theoretical and legal framework underlying the concept of biobanking that, being public orientated, is for the public good. We suggest that this account of research practice does not ethically correlate with One Health principles. Instead, we argue that One Health requires a model of biobanking that is based on universal goods, that is, goods that serve human beings as well as non-human animals and the environment, and which we define in detail. Our purpose is to begin a discussion on how One Health principles might be implemented in health initiatives. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Studying hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem cells for almost three decades revealed some similarities between the stem cell entity and the single-celled eukaryotes exhibiting the anaerobic/facultative aerobic metabolic features. A careful analysis of nowadays knowledge concerning the early eukaryotic evolution allowed us to reveal some analogies between stem cells in the metazoan tissues and the single-celled eukaryotes which existed during the first phase of eukaryotes evolution in mid-Proterozoic era. In fact, it is possible to trace the principle of the self-renewal back to the first eukaryotic common ancestor, the first undifferentiated nucleated cell possessing the primitive, mostly anaerobically-respiring mitochondria and a capacity to reproduction by a simple cell division "à l'identique". Similarly, the diversification of these single-cell eukaryotes and acquiring of complex life cycle allowed/conditioned by the increase of O2 in atmosphere (and consequently in the water environment) represents a prototype for the phenomenon of commitment/differentiation. This point of view allowed to predict the ex-vivo behavior of stem cells with respect to the O2 availability and metabolic profile which enabled to conceive the successful protocols of stem cell expansion and ex vivo conditioning based on "respecting" this relationship between the anaerobiosis and stemness. In this review, the basic elements of this paradigm and a possible application in cell engineering were discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Music represents a relational category, in the sense that people write meaning into it, and later by the means of the same music they write the meaning into other people. Therefore, I regard music as a cultural construct. Music does not possess universal meanings, but it forms its numerous meanings in different cultural environments, as well as in different individual perceptions. In anthropology, music is not studied in relation to its musical characteristics or aesthetical values. Anthropologists study its role in a wider social system, and strive to understand, by analysing the role of music in a society, the social and cultural system it belongs to - musical structure is less important here. The goal of the paper is to give an overview of the paradigms in ethnology and anthropology which have been used in studying music. In addition, a hypothetical-theoretical framework for studying music in institutions is set. Although the theory of hubs, which is presented here as a potential framework for studying music in institutions, is exemplified by traditional music, it can be applied to any genre of music. The basic theoretical framework offered by the authors Nadia Kiwan and Hanna Mainhof has been supplemented by certain parts which the author thought appropriate for studying music in institutions, both in ethnological and anthropological discourse.
Schmidt, Jon Alan
Modern philosophy recognizes two major ethical theories: deontology, which encourages adherence to rules and fulfillment of duties or obligations; and consequentialism, which evaluates morally significant actions strictly on the basis of their actual or anticipated outcomes. Both involve the systematic application of universal abstract principles, reflecting the culturally dominant paradigm of technical rationality. Professional societies promulgate codes of ethics with which engineers are expected to comply (deontology), while courts and the public generally assign liability to engineers primarily in accordance with the results of their work, whether intended or unintended (consequentialism). A third option, prominent in ancient philosophy, has reemerged recently: virtue ethics, which recognizes that sensitivity to context and practical judgment are indispensable in particular concrete situations, and therefore rightly focuses on the person who acts, rather than the action itself. Beneficial character traits--i.e., virtues--are identified within a specific social practice in light of the internal goods that are unique to it. This paper proposes a comprehensive framework for implementing virtue ethics within engineering.
Michael K. McMullen
Full Text Available In plant-based medical systems, bitter tasting plants play a key role in managing dyspepsia. Yet when it comes to defining their mechanism of activity, herbalists and pharmacologists are split between two theories: one involves cephalic elicited vagal responses while the other comprises purely local responses. Recent studies indicate that bitters elicit a range of cephalic responses which alter postprandial gastric phase haemodynamics. Caffeine and regular coffee (Coffea arabica semen, L. increase heart rate whereas gentian (Gentiana lutea radix, L. and wormwood (Artemisia absinthium herba L. increase tonus in the vascular resistance vessels. Following meals increased cardiac activity acts to support postprandial hyperaemia and maintain systemic blood pressure. The increased vascular tonus acts in parallel with the increased cardiac activity and in normal adults this additional pressor effect results in a reduced cardiac workload. The vascular response is a sympathetic reflex, evident after 5 minutes and dose dependent. Thus gentian and wormwood elicit cephalic responses which facilitate rather than stimulate digestive activity when postprandial hyperaemia is inadequate. Encapsulated caffeine elicits cardiovascular responses indicating that gastrointestinal bitter receptors are functionally active in humans. However, neither encapsulated gentian nor wormwood elicited cardiovascular responses during the gastric phase. These findings provide the platform for a new evidence-based paradigm.
Wikstrom, M.C.; Gustafson, J.L.
Why is it that mathematical results are useful for centuries, yet computer programs suffer tumultuous changes of technology? Can one write programs that will be useful in fifty years? Extreme efforts to preserve ``dusty deck`` programs have confused the roles and responsibilities of four participants: the end user, application programmer, system software designer, and hardware engineer. Users feel they must know hardware details like word size and megahertz rate--yet are oblivious to error in the output. Application programmers try to guess compiler behavior, often obtaining high performance only by trickery. With new hardware, that old guess is often wrong. The result is ``high-performance code`` that is slower than the original code. The hardware engineer tries to maintain compatibility through many generations, sacrificing performance and hardware affordability to meet presumed needs of the other three participants. We propose that the respective roles and responsibilities be clearly delineated via a three-stage contract between the four participants. The result is a new interaction paradigm that should allow programs to share the longevity of mathematical results and absorb technical advances gracefully.
Drakos, Andreas; Orphanoudakis, Theofanis G; Stavdas, Alexandros
The sustainability of Future Internet critically depends on networking paradigms able to provide optimum and balanced performance over an extended set of efficiency and Quality of Service (QoS) metrics. In this work we benchmark the most established networking modes through appropriate performance metrics for three network topologies. The results demonstrate that the static reservation of WDM channels, as used in IP/WDM schemes, is severely limiting scalability, since it cannot efficiently adapt to the dynamic traffic fluctuations that are frequently observed in today's networks. Optical Burst Switching (OBS) schemes do provide dynamic resource reservation but their performance is compromised due to high burst loss. It is shown that the CANON (Clustered Architecture for Nodes in an Optical Network) architecture exploiting statistical multiplexing over a large scale core optical network and efficient grooming at appropriate granularity levels could be a viable alternative to existing static as well as dynamic wavelength reservation schemes. Through extensive simulation results we quantify performance gains and we show that CANON demonstrates the highest efficiency achieving both targets for statistical multiplexing gains and QoS guarantees.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mutations that cause learning and memory defects in Drosophila melanogaster have been found to also compromise visual responsiveness and attention. A better understanding of attention-like defects in such Drosophila mutants therefore requires a more detailed characterization of visual responsiveness across a range of visual parameters. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We designed an automated behavioral paradigm for efficiently dissecting visual responsiveness in Drosophila. Populations of flies walk through multiplexed serial choice mazes while being exposed to moving visuals displayed on computer monitors, and infra-red fly counters at the end of each maze automatically score the responsiveness of a strain. To test our new design, we performed a detailed comparison between wild-type flies and a learning and memory mutant, dunce(1. We first confirmed that the learning mutant dunce(1 displays increased responsiveness to a black/green moving grating compared to wild type in this new design. We then extended this result to explore responses to a wide range of psychophysical parameters for moving gratings (e.g., luminosity, contrast, spatial frequency, velocity as well as to a different stimulus, moving dots. Finally, we combined these visuals (gratings versus dots in competition to investigate how dunce(1 and wild-type flies respond to more complex and conflicting motion effects. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We found that dunce(1 responds more strongly than wild type to high contrast and highly structured motion. This effect was found for simple gratings, dots, and combinations of both stimuli presented in competition.
Evans, Oliver; Paulk, Angelique C; van Swinderen, Bruno
Mutations that cause learning and memory defects in Drosophila melanogaster have been found to also compromise visual responsiveness and attention. A better understanding of attention-like defects in such Drosophila mutants therefore requires a more detailed characterization of visual responsiveness across a range of visual parameters. We designed an automated behavioral paradigm for efficiently dissecting visual responsiveness in Drosophila. Populations of flies walk through multiplexed serial choice mazes while being exposed to moving visuals displayed on computer monitors, and infra-red fly counters at the end of each maze automatically score the responsiveness of a strain. To test our new design, we performed a detailed comparison between wild-type flies and a learning and memory mutant, dunce(1). We first confirmed that the learning mutant dunce(1) displays increased responsiveness to a black/green moving grating compared to wild type in this new design. We then extended this result to explore responses to a wide range of psychophysical parameters for moving gratings (e.g., luminosity, contrast, spatial frequency, velocity) as well as to a different stimulus, moving dots. Finally, we combined these visuals (gratings versus dots) in competition to investigate how dunce(1) and wild-type flies respond to more complex and conflicting motion effects. We found that dunce(1) responds more strongly than wild type to high contrast and highly structured motion. This effect was found for simple gratings, dots, and combinations of both stimuli presented in competition.
Kennedy, H P; Lowe, N K
The everyday world of clinical practice is filled with paradigms and paradoxes that stem from the issues of who defines knowledge, how it is generated, and how the individual midwife applies it when providing care for women and families. Research useful for clinical practice should provide evidence to support scientific approaches (models) or strategies (interventions) in caring for women. In a clinical discipline, the answers to research questions should eventually inform clinical decision-making by providing practical clinical knowledge. This article presents an application of Stevenson's research steps for the development of clinically applicable knowledge that the midwife can use to analyze and evaluate research findings as a basis for practice decisions. Specific examples of midwifery research are used to illustrate each stage in the process and the circular nature of knowledge development. The challenge is to prepare midwives who can apply research findings skillfully using the best evidence to support clinical practice, as well as to groom midwife researchers who will develop systematic programs of relevant research about midwifery practice and outcomes.
Full Text Available The premise of this issue of the journal is that in western secular democracies the principles underlying the democratic paradigm at the national level are not in any serious doubt. It is this presumption that I wish to address. This paper will assert that the citizen is no longer at the heart of the democratic process. Using the example of the UK, I will argue that this is a consequence of the representative nature of liberal democracy which conceptualises citizenship as a legal status, giving citizens protection of the law rather than participating in its formulation or execution as in the civic republican model. Liberal democracy not only eschews greater political participation, it does not prepare citizens for it. There currently exists a democratic deficit at local and national level which is leading to a decline in active citizenship. Therefore any attempt to democratise globalisation without addressing the weakening of national democracies will simply lead to the current political elites populating new ‘democratic’ structures. With this in mind I will counter arguments utilised to discredit the civic republican model of democracy. I will argue that in England the present educational system, predicated upon a narrow skills-based agenda premised upon an economic rationale, is undermining democracy by not preparing the citizenry for active political participation or to critique governance. In addition, policy changes in England are leading to the commodification of education which will undermine its social purpose and inter alia democracy.
McAuley, Margaret; Timson, David J
Proteins are highly mobile structures. In addition to gross conformational changes occurring on, for example, ligand binding, they are also subject to constant thermal motion. The mobility of a protein varies through its structure and can be modulated by ligand binding and other events. It is becoming increasingly clear that this mobility plays an important role in key functions of proteins including catalysis, allostery, cooperativity, and regulation. Thus, in addition to an optimum structure, proteins most likely also require an optimal dynamic state. Alteration of this dynamic state through protein engineering will affect protein function. A dramatic example of this is seen in some inherited metabolic diseases where alternation of residues distant from the active site affects the mobility of the protein and impairs function. We postulate that using molecular dynamics simulations, experimental data or a combination of the two, it should be possible to engineer the mobility of active sites. This may be useful in, for example, increasing the promiscuity of enzymes. Thus, a paradigm for protein engineering is suggested in which the mobility of the active site is rationally modified. This might be combined with more "traditional" approaches such as altering functional groups in the active site.
Mironov, V; Trusk, T; Kasyanov, V; Little, S; Swaja, R; Markwald, R
Biofabrication can be defined as the production of complex living and non-living biological products from raw materials such as living cells, molecules, extracellular matrices, and biomaterials. Cell and developmental biology, biomaterials science, and mechanical engineering are the main disciplines contributing to the emergence of biofabrication technology. The industrial potential of biofabrication technology is far beyond the traditional medically oriented tissue engineering and organ printing and, in the short term, it is essential for developing potentially highly predictive human cell- and tissue-based technologies for drug discovery, drug toxicity, environmental toxicology assays, and complex in vitro models of human development and diseases. In the long term, biofabrication can also contribute to the development of novel biotechnologies for sustainable energy production in the future biofuel industry and dramatically transform traditional animal-based agriculture by inventing 'animal-free' food, leather, and fur products. Thus, the broad spectrum of potential applications and rapidly growing arsenal of biofabrication methods strongly suggests that biofabrication can become a dominant technological platform and new paradigm for 21st century manufacturing. The main objectives of this review are defining biofabrication, outlining the most essential disciplines critical for emergence of this field, analysis of the evolving arsenal of biofabrication technologies and their potential practical applications, as well as a discussion of the common challenges being faced by biofabrication technologies, and the necessary conditions for the development of a global biofabrication research community and commercially successful biofabrication industry.
Full Text Available This article studies the latest trends observed in the area of contradictory relations between countries with regard to international trade, which cause changes in the paradigm of international trade disputes. It has been found out that any state of inconsistent relations between the countries is recently characterized as a «trade war». It has been analyzed the notions of «dispute», «conflict», «war» according to international regulatory documents and determined the applicability of these terms depending on a number of criteria. It has been studied the evolution of the objects of international trade disputes since the time of ancient Greece until today, and new trends based on this have been revealed with regard to use of trade policy instruments that cause disputes between countries. Several specific examples of international trade disputes and causes of their occurrence have been considered. A quantitative analysis of international trade disputes in general and in relations between the leading countries in terms of a number of the trade disputes in which they were involved has been performed.
Harris, Philip R.
Prototypes of 21st century management, especially for large scale enterprises, may well be found within the aerospace industry. The space era inaugurated a number of projects of such scope and magnitude that another type of management had to be created to ensure successful achievement. The challenges will be not just in terms of technology and its management, but also human and cultural in dimension. Futurists, students of management, and those concerned with technological administration would do well to review the literature of emerging space management for its wider implications. NASA offers a paradigm, or demonstrated model, of future trends in the field of management at large. More research is needed on issues of leadership for Earth based project in space and space based programs with managers there. It is needed to realize that large scale technical enterprises, such as are undertaken in space, require a new form of management. NASA and other responsible agencies are urged to study excellence in space macromanagement, including the necessary multidisciplinary skills. Two recommended targets are the application of general living systems theory and macromanagement concepts for space stations in the 1990s.
Jørgensen, Steffen L; Kudirkiene, Egle; Li, Lili; Christensen, Jens P; Olsen, John E; Nolan, Lisa; Olsen, Rikke H
Escherichia coli causing infection outside the gastrointestinal system are referred to as extra-intestinal pathogenic E. coli. Avian pathogenic E. coli is a subgroup of extra-intestinal pathogenic E. coli and infections due to avian pathogenic E. coli have major impact on poultry production economy and welfare worldwide. An almost defining characteristic of avian pathogenic E. coli is the carriage of plasmids, which may encode virulence factors and antibiotic resistance determinates. For the same reason, plasmids of avian pathogenic E. coli have been intensively studied. However, genes encoded by the chromosome may also be important for disease manifestation and antimicrobial resistance. For the E. coli strain APEC_O2 the plasmids have been sequenced and analyzed in several studies, and E. coli APEC_O2 may therefore serve as a reference strain in future studies. Here we describe the chromosomal features of E. coli APEC_O2. E. coli APEC_O2 is a sequence type ST135, has a chromosome of 4,908,820 bp (plasmid removed), comprising 4672 protein-coding genes, 110 RNA genes, and 156 pseudogenes, with an average G + C content of 50.69%. We identified 82 insertion sequences as well as 4672 protein coding sequences, 12 predicated genomic islands, three prophage-related sequences, and two clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats regions on the chromosome, suggesting the possible occurrence of horizontal gene transfer in this strain. The wildtype strain of E. coli APEC_O2 is resistant towards multiple antimicrobials, however, no (complete) antibiotic resistance genes were present on the chromosome, but a number of genes associated with extra-intestinal disease were identified. Together, the information provided here on E. coli APEC_O2 will assist in future studies of avian pathogenic E. coli strains, in particular regarding strain of E. coli APEC_O2, and aid in the general understanding of the pathogenesis of avian pathogenic E. coli.
Krascheninnikow, Serhij; Jeska, Edward L.
The Ouchterlony technique has been applied to three species of parasitic ciliates: Balantidium coli, B. caviae and B. wenrichi. Species specificity has been demonstrated by the occurrence of precipitation bands peculiar to B. coli and B. caviae, while B. wenrichi was distinguished by its limited reactivity with the antisera of the other two species. B. coli and B. caviae are shown to be immunologically more closely related to each other than to B. wenrichi. The antigenic properties of B. coli and B. caviae appear more complex than in B. wenrichi. PMID:14459337
Rosen, Clark A; Gartner-Schmidt, Jackie; Hathaway, Bridget; Simpson, C Blake; Postma, Gregory N; Courey, Mark; Sataloff, Robert T
There is a significant lack of uniform agreement regarding nomenclature for benign vocal fold lesions (BVFLs). This confusion results in difficulty for clinicians communicating with their patients and with each other. In addition, BVFL research and comparison of treatment methods are hampered by the lack of a detailed and uniform BVFL nomenclature. Clinical consensus conferences were held to develop an initial BVFL nomenclature paradigm. Perceptual video analysis was performed to validate the stroboscopy component of the paradigm. The culmination of the consensus conferences and the video-perceptual analysis was used to evaluate the BVFL nomenclature paradigm using a retrospective review of patients with BVFL. An initial BVFL nomenclature paradigm was proposed utilizing detailed definitions relating to vocal fold lesion morphology, stroboscopy, response to voice therapy and intraoperative findings. Video-perceptual analysis of stroboscopy demonstrated that the proposed binary stroboscopy system used in the BVFL nomenclature paradigm was valid and widely applicable. Retrospective review of 45 patients with BVFL followed to the conclusion of treatment demonstrated that slight modifications of the initial BVFL nomenclature paradigm were required. With the modified BVFL nomenclature paradigm, 96% of the patients fit into the predicted pattern and definitions of the BVFL nomenclature system. This study has validated a multidimensional BVFL nomenclature paradigm. This vocal fold nomenclature paradigm includes nine distinct vocal fold lesions: vocal fold nodules, vocal fold polyp, pseudocyst, vocal fold cyst (subepithelial or ligament), nonspecific vocal fold lesion, vocal fold fibrous mass (subepithelial or ligament), and reactive lesion. Copyright © 2011 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.
Dho-Moulin, M; Fairbrother, J M
Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) cause aerosacculitis, polyserositis, septicemia and other mainly extraintestinal diseases in chickens, turkeys and other avian species. APEC are found in the intestinal microflora of healthy birds and most of the diseases associated with them are secondary to environmental and host predisposing factors. APEC isolates commonly belong to certain serogroups, O1, O2 and O78, and to a restricted number of clones. Several experimental models have been developed, permitting a more reliable evaluation of the pathogenicity of E. coli for chickens and turkeys. Hence, virulence factors identified on APEC are adhesins such as the F1 and P fimbriae, and curli, the aerobactin iron sequestering system, K1 capsule, temperature-sensitive hemagglutinin (Tsh), resistance to the bactericidal effects of serum and cytotoxic effects. Experimental infection studies have shown that the air-exchange regions of the lung and the airsacs are important sites of entry of E. coli into the bloodstream of birds during the initial stages of infection and that resistance to phagocytosis may be an important mechanism in the development of the disease. They have also demonstrated that F1 fimbriae are expressed in the respiratory tract, whereas P fimbriae are expressed in the internal organs of infected chickens. The role of these fimbrial adhesins in the development of disease is not yet, however, fully understood. The more recent use of genetic approaches for the identification of new virulence factors will greatly enhance our knowledge of APEC pathogenic mechanisms. Diagnosis of APEC infections is based on the clinical picture, lesions and isolation of E. coli. This may be strengthened by serotyping and identification of virulence factors using immunological or molecular methods such as DNA probes and PCR. Approaches for the prevention and control of APEC infections include the control of environmental contamination and environmental parameters such as
Narayanan, Kumaran; Lee, Choon Weng; Radu, Aurelian; Sim, Edmund Ui Hang
Successful gene delivery into mammalian cells using bactofection requires entry of the bacterial vector via cell surface integrin receptors followed by release of plasmid DNA into the cellular environment. We show, for the first time, that addition of the DNA transfection reagent Lipofectamine improves entry of invasive Escherichia coli into HeLa cells and enhances up to 2.8-fold green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression from a reporter plasmid. The addition of Lipofectamine may be applicable to other bacterial vectors to increase their DNA delivery efficiency into mammalian cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chang, Wei-Ching; Fraser, Joy H
The role of competition and cooperation in relation to the goal of health equity is examined in this paper. The authors explain why the win-lose mentality associated with avoidable competition is ethically questionable and less effective than cooperation in achieving positive outcomes, particularly as it relates to health and health equity. Competition, which differentiates winners from losers, often with the winner-takes-all reward system, inevitably leads to a few winners and many losers, resulting in social inequality, which, in turn, engenders and perpetuates health inequity.Competitive market-driven approaches to healthcare-brought about by capitalism, neo-liberalization, and globalization, based primarily on a competitive framework-are shown to have contributed to growing inequities with respect to the social determinants of health, and have undermined equal opportunity to access health care and achieve health equity. It is possible to redistribute income and wealth to reduce social inequality, but globalization poses increasing challenges to policy makers. John Stuart Mill provided a passionate, philosophical defense of cooperatives, followed by Karl Polanyi who offered an insightful critique of both state socialism and especially the self-regulating market, thereby opening up the cooperative way of shaping the future. We cite Hannah Arendt's "the banality of evil" to characterize the tragic concept of "ethical fading" witnessed in business and everyday life all over the world, often committed (without thinking and reflecting) by ordinary people under competitive pressures.To promote equity in health for all, we recommend the adoption of a radically new cooperation paradigm, applied whenever possible, to everything in our daily lives.
Coroneo, Minas T
Human ingenuity is challenged by defending vision, our highest bandwidth sense. Special challenges are presented by the replacement or repair of highly specialized but scarce tissue within the constraints of transparency, tissue shape and alignment, tissue borders and pressure maintenance. Many, mostly destructive, surgical procedures were developed prior to an understanding of underlying pathophysiology. For a number of conditions, both reconstructive and destructive procedures co-exist, yet there are few guidelines as to the better approach. Because the consequences of these procedures may take many years to surface (consistent with a stem cell role in long-term tissue maintenance), guidance may be provided by the elucidation of underlying principles from these approaches. Illustrative examples from clinical, basic research and biotechnology, particularly relating to pterygium, ocular surface squamous neoplasia, dry-eye syndrome, corneal rehabilitation and replacement, cataract surgery, strabismus surgery and bionic eye research, are described. An unexpected consequence of bionic device development has been an appreciation of the sophistication of tissues being replaced, given the limitations of available biomaterials. Examples of how this has provided insights into ocular disease will be illustrated. Stem cell and biomaterial technologies are starting to impact at a time when cost-effectiveness is under scrutiny. Both efficacy and cost will need to be considered as these interventions are introduced. It appears that the paradigm shift rate is accelerating and there is evidence of this in ophthalmology. Lessons learned from the areas of destructive versus reconstructive surgery and the limitations of development of bionic replacements will be used to illustrate how new procedures and technologies can be developed. © 2017 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.
Full Text Available Bright gamma-ray burst (GRB 110731A was simultaneously observed by Fermi and Swift observatories, with a follow up optical observation which inferred the redshift of z = 2.83. Thus, available data are spanning from optical to high energy (GeV emission. We analyze these data within the induced gravitational collapse (IGC paradigm, recently introduced to explain temporal coincidence of some long GRBs with type Ic supernovae. The case of binary-driven hypcrnova (BdHN assumes a close system, which starts as an evolved core - neutron star binary. After the core-collapse event, the new NS - black hole system is formed, emitting the GRB in the process. We performed the time-resolved and time-integrated analysis of the Fermi data. Preliminary results gave isotropic energy Eiso = 6.05 × 1053 erg and the total P-GRB energy of Ep–GRB = 3.7 × 1052 erg. At transparency point we found a Lorentz factor Γ ~ 2.17 × 103 laboratory radius of 8.33 x 1013 cm, P-GRB observed temperature of 168 keV and a baryon load B = 4.35 × 10-4. Simulated light-curve and prompt emission spectra showed the average circum burst medium density to be n ~ 0.03 particles per cm3. We reproduced the X-ray light-curve within the rest-frame of the source, finding the common late power-law behavior, with α = –1.22. Considering these results, we interpret GRB 110731A as a member of a BdHNe group.
Primorac, Daria; Ruffini, Remo; Pisani, Giovanni Battista; Aimuratov, Yerlan; Biancol, Carlo Luciano; Karlica, Mile; Melon Fuksman, Julio David; Moradi, Rahim; Muccino, Marco; Penacchioni, Ana Virginia; Rueda, Jorge Armando; Wang, Yu
Bright gamma-ray burst (GRB) 110731A was simultaneously observed by Fermi and Swift observatories, with a follow up optical observation which inferred the redshift of z = 2.83. Thus, available data are spanning from optical to high energy (GeV) emission. We analyze these data within the induced gravitational collapse (IGC) paradigm, recently introduced to explain temporal coincidence of some long GRBs with type Ic supernovae. The case of binary-driven hypcrnova (BdHN) assumes a close system, which starts as an evolved core - neutron star binary. After the core-collapse event, the new NS - black hole system is formed, emitting the GRB in the process. We performed the time-resolved and time-integrated analysis of the Fermi data. Preliminary results gave isotropic energy Eiso = 6.05 × 1053 erg and the total P-GRB energy of Ep-GRB = 3.7 × 1052 erg. At transparency point we found a Lorentz factor Γ 2.17 × 103 laboratory radius of 8.33 x 1013 cm, P-GRB observed temperature of 168 keV and a baryon load B = 4.35 × 10-4. Simulated light-curve and prompt emission spectra showed the average circum burst medium density to be n 0.03 particles per cm3. We reproduced the X-ray light-curve within the rest-frame of the source, finding the common late power-law behavior, with α = -1.22. Considering these results, we interpret GRB 110731A as a member of a BdHNe group.
Mobility is a basic necessity of contemporary society and it is a key factor in global economic development. The basic requirements for the transport of people and goods are: safety and duration of travel, but also a number of additional criteria are very important: energy saving, pollution, passenger comfort. Due to advances in hardware and software, automation has penetrated massively in transport systems both on infrastructure and on vehicles, but man is still the key element in vehicle driving. However, the classic concept of ‘human-in-the-loop’ in terms of ‘hands on’ in driving the cars is competing aside from the self-driving startups working towards so-called ‘Level 4 autonomy’, which is defined as “a self-driving system that does not requires human intervention in most scenarios”. In this paper, a conceptual synthesis of the autonomous vehicle issue is made in connection with the artificial intelligence paradigm. It presents a classification of the tasks that take place during the driving of the vehicle and its modeling from the perspective of traditional control engineering and artificial intelligence. The issue of autonomous vehicle management is addressed on three levels: navigation, movement in traffic, respectively effective maneuver and vehicle dynamics control. Each level is then described in terms of specific tasks, such as: route selection, planning and reconfiguration, recognition of traffic signs and reaction to signaling and traffic events, as well as control of effective speed, distance and direction. The approach will lead to a better understanding of the way technology is moving when talking about autonomous cars, smart/intelligent cars or intelligent transport systems. Keywords: self-driving vehicle, artificial intelligence, deep learning, intelligent transport systems.
Joule, R V
An experiment was conducted with a new paradigm of Festinger's (1957) theory of dissonance. This paradigm was used to test dissonance reduction following two behaviors, rather than just one as in the classic forced compliance paradigm. The first behavior involved refraining from smoking for one evening, and the second, convincing a peer that abstinence from smoking was not difficult. It was hypothesized that the dissonance reduction effect would be greater for a sample of French students who had executed both behaviors than for those who had executed only one. The results supported this hypothesis.
Full Text Available The objective of the present article is to discuss innovation policy issues related to three emerging innovation paradigms: user-driven innovation, open innovation, and value co-creation. It provides a summary of insights based on innovation policy practices and challenges in Denmark. The choice of Danish innovation policy practices is not accidental. In 2008 Denmark implemented 40 different national innovation programs by allocating about 400 million euros. Since the three emerging paradigms have become globally relevant, the discussion of Danish policy development challenges and practices is expected to be insightful for innovation experts from other developed countries that are currently dealing with the adoption of these paradigms.
Engstroem, Maria; Landtblom, Anne-Marie; Ragnehed, Mattias; Lundberg, Peter (Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV), Linkoeping Univ., Linkoeping (Sweden)), e-mail: email@example.com; Karlsson, Marie; Crone, Marie (Dept. of Clinical and Experimental Medicine/Logopedics, Linkoeping Univ., Linkoeping (Sweden)); Antepohl, Wolfram (Dept. of Clinical and Experimental Medicine/Rehabilitation, Linkoeping Univ., Linkoeping (Sweden))
Background: In fMRI examinations, it is very important to select appropriate paradigms assessing the brain function of interest. In addition, the patients' ability to perform the required cognitive tasks during fMRI must be taken into account. Purpose: To evaluate two language paradigms, word generation and sentence reading for their usefulness in examinations of aphasic patients and to make suggestions for improvements of clinical fMRI. Material and Methods: Five patients with aphasia after stroke or trauma sequelae were examined by fMRI. The patients' language ability was screened by neurolinguistic tests and elementary pre-fMRI language tests. Results: The sentence-reading paradigm succeeded to elicit adequate language-related activation in perilesional areas whereas the word generation paradigm failed. These findings were consistent with results on the behavioral tests in that all patients showed very poor performance in phonemic fluency, but scored well above mean at a reading comprehension task. Conclusion: The sentence-reading paradigm is appropriate to assess language function in this patient group, while the word-generation paradigm seems to be inadequate. In addition, it is crucial to use elementary pre-fMRI language tests to guide the fMRI paradigm decision.
van Heijenoort, Jean
Summary: The review summarizes the abundant information on the 35 identified peptidoglycan (PG) hydrolases of Escherichia coli classified into 12 distinct families, including mainly glycosidases, peptidases, and amidases. An attempt is also made to critically assess their functions in PG maturation, turnover, elongation, septation, and recycling as well as in cell autolysis. There is at least one hydrolytic activity for each bond linking PG components, and most hydrolase genes were identified. Few hydrolases appear to be individually essential. The crystal structures and reaction mechanisms of certain hydrolases having defined functions were investigated. However, our knowledge of the biochemical properties of most hydrolases still remains fragmentary, and that of their cellular functions remains elusive. Owing to redundancy, PG hydrolases far outnumber the enzymes of PG biosynthesis. The presence of the two sets of enzymes acting on the PG bonds raises the question of their functional correlations. It is difficult to understand why E. coli keeps such a large set of PG hydrolases. The subtle differences in substrate specificities between the isoenzymes of each family certainly reflect a variety of as-yet-unidentified physiological functions. Their study will be a far more difficult challenge than that of the steps of the PG biosynthesis pathway. PMID:22126997
Jul 19, 2012 ... This study monitored antimicrobial resistance in commensal Escherichia coli from the faeces of on-farm .... sterile tryptic soy broth (TSB) (Oxoid, Basingstoke, UK) in universal bottles. 10 g of ... Figure 1. Rates of antimicrobial resistance in E. coli isolates from the faeces of cattle and beef in Ibadan, Nigeria.
Oct 2, 2001 ... shown to occur among different animal species, between humans, and from animals to humans and vice versa(5,6). Antibiotic resistant E. coli may be passed from animals to humans through contact with faecal material or faecally contaminated food sources. Normal E. coli flora acquire resistance plasmids ...
SEROTYPES CONFIRMED IN EXPERIMENTAL MAMMARY GLAND. INFECTIONS. P. A. AKPAN AND ... 037, 02a and 109) in mammary glands of experimental cows (cow 105, 107 and 102 respectively). Pathogenicity of the E. coli which ..... Akpan, P. A and Ikpeme, E. U., 2005. pathology of. Experimental Escherichia Coli ...
Abdissa, Rosa; Haile, Woynshet; Fite, Akafete Teklu; Beyi, Ashenafi Feyisa; Agga, Getahun E.; Edao, Bedaso Mammo; Tadesse, Fanos; Korsa, Mesula Geloye; Beyene, Takele; Beyene, Tariku Jibat; Zutter, De Lieven; Cox, Eric; Goddeeris, Bruno Maria
Background: There is paucity of information regarding the epidemiology of Escherichia coli O157: H7 in developing countries. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of E. coli O157: H7 associated with beef cattle at processing plants and at retail shops in Ethiopia. Methods: Various samples
infection, and neonatal meningitis. Phylogenetic analysis has shown that E. coli strains fall into four main groups. (A, B1, B2, and D). It has been found that pathogenic E. coli strains causing extraintestinal infections mainly belong to group B2 and a lesser extent to group D whereas commensal strains belong to group A ...
ABSTRACT. A total of 56 and 24 strains of E. coli and Shigella sp. isolated from children less than five years with diarrhoea attending 3 different hospitals in South South Nigeria were screened for their antibiotic resistance patterns. Approximately 80% of E. coli and 70% of Shigella isolates were resistant to tetracycline.
Petersen, Lise; Bollback, Jonathan P; Dimmic, Matt
We used a comparative genomics approach to identify genes that are under positive selection in six strains of Escherichia coli and Shigella flexneri, including five strains that are human pathogens. We find that positive selection targets a wide range of different functions in the E. coli genome...
Background: Escherichia coli strains mainly fall into four phylogenetic groups (A, B1, B2, and D) and that virulent extra‑intestinal strains mainly belong to groups B2 and D. Aim: The aim was to determine the association between phylogenetic groups of E. coli causing extraintestinal infections (ExPEC) regarding the site of ...
Klemm, Per; Hancock, Viktoria; Schembri, Mark A.
Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) represent an important subclass of E. coli that cause a wide spectrum of diseases in human and animal hosts. Fimbriae are key virulence factors of ExPEC strains. These long surface located rod-shaped organelles mediate receptor-specific attachment...
Electrolyte and haematological parameters in rabbits infected with pathogenic isolates of Escherichia coli from rural water supplies in Rivers State, Nigeria, where monitored. Rabbits were orally infected with suspension containing 3x107 cfu /ml of Escherichia coli to induce diarrhoea, and the electrolyte (sodium, potassium ...
This study was designed to determine the isolation rate, serotypes and biochemical profiles of E. coli from colibacillosis and dead-in-shell embryos in Zaria, Northern-Nigeria. The isolation rate of E. coli from hatcheries studied were 4.67% and 7.50% from farms of Simtu Agricultural Company and National Animal Production ...
Knowing the survival rates of water-borne Escherichia coli is important in evaluating microbial contamination and making appropriate management decisions. E. coli survival rates are dependent on temperature, a dependency that is routinely expressed using an analogue of the Q10 mo...
Proceedings of the Third E. Coli Genome Meeting are provided. Presentations were divided into sessions entitled (1) Large Scale Sequencing, Sequence Analysis; (2) Databases; (3) Sequence Analysis; (4) Sequence Divergence in E. coli Strains; (5) Repeated Sequences and Regulatory Motifs; (6) Mutations, Rearrangements and Stress Responses; and (7) Origins of New Genes. The document provides a collection of abstracts of oral and poster presentations.
Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Clark, Martyn; Samaniego, Luis; Verhoest, Niko E. C.; van Emmerik, Tim; Uijlenhoet, Remko; Achieng, Kevin; Franz, Trenton E.; Woods, Ross
In this synthesis paper addressing hydrologic scaling and similarity, we posit that roadblocks in the search for universal laws of hydrology are hindered by our focus on computational simulation (the third paradigm), and assert that it is time for hydrology to embrace a fourth paradigm of data-intensive science. Advances in information-based hydrologic science, coupled with an explosion of hydrologic data and advances in parameter estimation and modelling, have laid the foundation for a data-driven framework for scrutinizing hydrological scaling and similarity hypotheses. We summarize important scaling and similarity concepts (hypotheses) that require testing, describe a mutual information framework for testing these hypotheses, describe boundary condition, state flux, and parameter data requirements across scales to support testing these hypotheses, and discuss some challenges to overcome while pursuing the fourth hydrological paradigm. We call upon the hydrologic sciences community to develop a focused effort towards adopting the fourth paradigm and apply this to outstanding challenges in scaling and similarity.
Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Clark, Martyn; Samaniego, Luis; Verhoest, Niko E. C.; van Emmerik, Tim; Uijlenhoet, Remko; Achieng, Kevin; Franz, Trenton E.; Woods, Ross
In this synthesis paper addressing hydrologic scaling and similarity, we posit that roadblocks in the search for universal laws of hydrology are hindered by our focus on computational simulation (the third paradigm) and assert that it is time for hydrology to embrace a fourth paradigm of data-intensive science. Advances in information-based hydrologic science, coupled with an explosion of hydrologic data and advances in parameter estimation and modeling, have laid the foundation for a data-driven framework for scrutinizing hydrological scaling and similarity hypotheses. We summarize important scaling and similarity concepts (hypotheses) that require testing; describe a mutual information framework for testing these hypotheses; describe boundary condition, state, flux, and parameter data requirements across scales to support testing these hypotheses; and discuss some challenges to overcome while pursuing the fourth hydrological paradigm. We call upon the hydrologic sciences community to develop a focused effort towards adopting the fourth paradigm and apply this to outstanding challenges in scaling and similarity.
.... In this article, we explore how the lean startup paradigm, which validates the market for a product with a business model that can sustain subsequent scaling, has led to a new process model to accelerate innovation...
Full Text Available Current human–computer interaction (HCI) paradigms are deeply rooted in a Western epistemology that attests its partiality and bias of its embedded assumptions, values, definitions, techniques, and derived frameworks and models. Thus tensions...
This study aims to examine the potential nature of an ongoing paradigm shift in psychiatry that has been suggested to be occurring. New findings in traumatology and neuroscience do form a potential platform for a paradigm shift. Prior conflicting paradigms are suggested to be due to biases arising from mental structures themselves. A new wholist perspective is proposed, which makes sense of and incorporates previous paradigms, and coheres recent understanding of right- and left-brain functioning and biopsychosocial traumatic processes and their ramifications. The perspective makes sense of the great variety of post-traumatic manifestations ranging from somatic to meaning-making dysfunctions. The wholist perspective may well be an important step in solidifying a fresh paradigmatic perspective in psychiatry.
systems theory (see Ludwig von Bertalanffy , General System Theory: Foundations, Development, Applications, rev. ed., New York: George Braziller...for analytic recruitment, training, and education, as well as adopting a new paradigm for analysis. 27 Bibliography Bertalanffy , Ludwig von, General
Reisner, A.; Holler, B.M.; Molin, Søren
the pathways governing development of more complex heterogeneous communities. In this study, we established a laboratory model where biofilm-stimulating effects due to interactions between genetically diverse strains of Escherichia coli were monitored. Synergistic induction of biofilm formation resulting from...... the cocultivation of 403 undomesticated E. coli strains with a characterized E. coli K-12 strain was detected at a significant frequency. The survey suggests that different mechanisms underlie the observed stimulation, yet synergistic development of biofilm within the subset of E. coli isolates (n = 56) exhibiting...... the strongest effects was most often linked to conjugative transmission of natural plasmids carried by the E. coli isolates (70%). Thus, the capacity of an isolate to promote the biofilm through cocultivation was (i) transferable to the K-12 strain, (ii) was linked with the acquisition of conjugation genes...
Kaas, Rolf Sommer
Escherichia coli (E. coli) is of huge importance in global health both as a commensal organism living within its host or as a pathogen causing millions of infections each year. Infections occur both sporadic and as outbreaks with sometimes up to thousands of infected people. To limit the number...... of infections it is important to monitor pathogenic E. coli in order to detect outbreaks as quickly as possible and find the source of the outbreak. The effectiveness of monitoring and tracking of pathogens is very dependent on the typing methods that are employed. Classical typing methods employed for E. coli......D thesis attempts to take the first steps toward such a method. In Kaas I all publicly available E. coli genomes sequenced (186) are analyzed. 1,702 core genes were found in all genomes. 3,051 genes were found in 95% of the genomes. The pan genome was found to consist of 16,373 genes. The overall phylogeny...
Bettelheim, Karl A; Goldwater, Paul N
This review examines the association of strains of Escherichia coli with sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and the possible role these bacteria play in this enigmatic condition. The review addresses evidence for E. coli in SIDS infants, potential sources of E. coli in the environment, colonization by commensal and pathogenic strains, the variety of currently accepted pathotypes, and how these pathotypes could compromise intestinal integrity and induce inflammation. Both intestinal and extraintestinal pathotypes are compared in relation to the apparent liability in which virulence traits can be gained or lost by strains of E. coli. The way in which E. coli infections fit with current views on infant sleeping position and other SIDS risk factors is highlighted.
Paul Nathan Goldwater
Full Text Available This review examines the association of strains of Escherichia coli with Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS and the possible role of these bacteria play in this enigmatic condition. The review addresses evidence for E. coli in SIDS infants, potential sources of E. coli in the environment, colonisation by commensal and pathogenic strains, the variety of currently accepted pathotypes, and how these pathotypes could compromise intestinal integrity and induce inflammation. Both intestinal and extraintestinal pathotypes are compared in relation to the apparent lability in which virulence traits can be gained or lost by strains of E. coli. The way in which E. coli infections fit with current views on infant sleeping position and other SIDS risk factors is highlighted.
Sharma, Om P
am sure such a cultural change and paradigm shift from the status quo does not need extra funds and can be surely ushered in without money.
Van Dam, K.H.; Adhitya, A.; Srinivasan, R; Lukszo, Z.
Contemporary problems in process systems engineering often require model-based decision support tool. Among the various modelling paradigms, equation-based models and agent-based models are widely used to develop dynamic models of systems. Which is the most appropriate modelling paradigm for a supply chain? In this paper, we seek to address this important question through a well-structured benchmarking process. First, we demonstrate that in the space of models, 'equations' and 'agents' are co...
Paradigm shifts are the core of scientific revolutions. They change how we view the world, the questions that scientists consider worth asking and the manner of doing science. There is often talk of paradigm shifts in reference to a global change of theory, such as the eclipsing of the geocentric by the heliocentric world vision (Copernican theory), the discovery of plate tectonics, the particular theory of heredity (Mendelian theory), or the discovery that DNA is the physical carrier of inhe...
Kemmett, Kirsty; Humphrey, Tom; Rushton, Steven; Close, Andrew; Wigley, Paul; Williams, Nicola J
Colibacillosis is an economically important syndromic disease of poultry caused by extra-intestinal avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) but the pathotype remains poorly defined. Combinations of virulence-associated genes (VAGs) have aided APEC identification. The intestinal microbiota is a potential APEC reservoir. Broiler chickens are selectively bred for fast, uniform growth. Here we simultaneously investigate intestinal E. coli VAG carriage in apparently healthy birds and characterise systemic E. coli from diseased broiler chickens from the same flocks. Four flocks were sampled longitudinally from chick placement until slaughter. Phylogrouping, macro-restriction pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) were performed on an isolate subset from one flock to investigate the population structure of faecal and systemic E. coli. Early in production, VAG carriage among chick intestinal E. coli populations was diverse (average Simpson's D value = 0.73); 24.05% of intestinal E. coli (n = 160) from 1 day old chicks were carrying ≥5 VAGs. Generalised Linear models demonstrated VAG prevalence in potential APEC populations declined with age; 1% of E. coli carrying ≥5 VAGs at slaughter and demonstrated high strain diversity. A variety of VAG profiles and high strain diversity were observed among systemic E. coli. Thirty three new MLST sequence types were identified among 50 isolates and a new sequence type representing 22.2% (ST-2999) of the systemic population was found, differing from the pre-defined pathogenic ST-117 at a single locus. For the first time, this study takes a longitudinal approach to unravelling the APEC paradigm. Our findings, supported by other studies, highlight the difficulty in defining the APEC pathotype. Here we report a high genetic diversity among systemic E. coli between and within diseased broilers, harbouring diverse VAG profiles rather than single and/or highly related pathogenic clones
Blaschke, Thomas; Hay, Geoffrey J.; Kelly, Maggi; Lang, Stefan; Hofmann, Peter; Addink, Elisabeth; Queiroz Feitosa, Raul; van der Meer, Freek; van der Werff, Harald; van Coillie, Frieke; Tiede, Dirk
The amount of scientific literature on (Geographic) Object-based Image Analysis - GEOBIA has been and still is sharply increasing. These approaches to analysing imagery have antecedents in earlier research on image segmentation and use GIS-like spatial analysis within classification and feature extraction approaches. This article investigates these development and its implications and asks whether or not this is a new paradigm in remote sensing and Geographic Information Science (GIScience). We first discuss several limitations of prevailing per-pixel methods when applied to high resolution images. Then we explore the paradigm concept developed by Kuhn (1962) and discuss whether GEOBIA can be regarded as a paradigm according to this definition. We crystallize core concepts of GEOBIA, including the role of objects, of ontologies and the multiplicity of scales and we discuss how these conceptual developments support important methods in remote sensing such as change detection and accuracy assessment. The ramifications of the different theoretical foundations between the 'per-pixel paradigm' and GEOBIA are analysed, as are some of the challenges along this path from pixels, to objects, to geo-intelligence. Based on several paradigm indications as defined by Kuhn and based on an analysis of peer-reviewed scientific literature we conclude that GEOBIA is a new and evolving paradigm.
Jacobs, Ivo F; Osvath, Mathias
String pulling is one of the most widely used paradigms in comparative psychology. First documented 2 millennia ago, it has been a well-established scientific paradigm for a century. More than 160 bird and mammal species have been tested in over 200 studies with countless methodological variations. The paradigm can be used to address a wide variety of issues on animal cognition; for example, what animals understand about contact and connection as well as whether they rely on perceptual feedback, grasp the functionality of strings, generalize across conditions, apply their knowledge flexibly, and possess insight. Mammals are typically tested on a horizontal configuration, birds on a vertical one, making the studies difficult to compare; in particular, pulling a string vertically requires better coordination and attention. A species' performance on the paradigm is often influenced by its ecology, especially concerning whether limbs are used for foraging. Many other factors can be of importance and should be considered. The string-pulling paradigm is easy to administer, vary, and apply to investigate a wide array of cognitive abilities. Although it can be and has been used to compare species, divergent methods and unclear reporting have limited its comparative utility. With increasing research standards, the paradigm is expected to become an even more fundamental tool in comparative psychology. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Blaschke, Thomas; Hay, Geoffrey J; Kelly, Maggi; Lang, Stefan; Hofmann, Peter; Addink, Elisabeth; Queiroz Feitosa, Raul; van der Meer, Freek; van der Werff, Harald; van Coillie, Frieke; Tiede, Dirk
The amount of scientific literature on (Geographic) Object-based Image Analysis - GEOBIA has been and still is sharply increasing. These approaches to analysing imagery have antecedents in earlier research on image segmentation and use GIS-like spatial analysis within classification and feature extraction approaches. This article investigates these development and its implications and asks whether or not this is a new paradigm in remote sensing and Geographic Information Science (GIScience). We first discuss several limitations of prevailing per-pixel methods when applied to high resolution images. Then we explore the paradigm concept developed by Kuhn (1962) and discuss whether GEOBIA can be regarded as a paradigm according to this definition. We crystallize core concepts of GEOBIA, including the role of objects, of ontologies and the multiplicity of scales and we discuss how these conceptual developments support important methods in remote sensing such as change detection and accuracy assessment. The ramifications of the different theoretical foundations between the ' per-pixel paradigm ' and GEOBIA are analysed, as are some of the challenges along this path from pixels, to objects, to geo-intelligence. Based on several paradigm indications as defined by Kuhn and based on an analysis of peer-reviewed scientific literature we conclude that GEOBIA is a new and evolving paradigm.
Friedrich, Patrick; Ocklenburg, Sebastian; Mochalski, Lisa; Schlüter, Caroline; Güntürkün, Onur; Genc, Erhan
The Poffenberger paradigm is a simple perception task that is used to estimate the speed of information transfer between the two hemispheres, the so-called interhemispheric transfer time (IHTT). Although the original paradigm is a behavioral task, it can be combined with electroencephalography (EEG) to assess the underlying neurophysiological processes during task execution. While older studies have supported the validity of both paradigms for investigating interhemispheric interactions, their long-term reliability has not been assessed systematically before. The present study aims to fill this gap by determining both internal consistency and long-term test-retest reliability of IHTTs produced by using the two different versions of the Poffenberger paradigm in a sample of 26 healthy subjects. The results show high reliability for the EEG Poffenberger paradigm. In contrast, reliability measures for the behavioral Poffenberger paradigm were low. Hence, our results indicate that electrophysiological measures of interhemispheric transfer are more reliable than behavioral measures; the later should be used with caution in research investigating inter-individual differences of neurocognitive measures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hebbelstrup Jensen, Betina; Stensvold, Christen R.; Struve, Carsten
Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) has been associated with persistent diarrhea, reduced growth acceleration, and failure to thrive in children living in developing countries and with childhood diarrhea in general in industrialized countries. The clinical implications of an EAEC carrier-st...... heterogeneity of this pathotype. EAEC was highly prevalent (n = 25, 14%) in Danish children in daycare centers and was accompanied by gastrointestinal symptoms in 56% of the infected children. No serotype or phylogenetic group was specifically linked to children with disease....... and 2013. This is the first investigation of the incidence and pathological significance of EAEC in Danish children attending daycare facilities. Conventional microbiological detection of enteric pathogens was performed at Statens Serum Institute, Copenhagen, Denmark, and at Hvidovre Hospital, Copenhagen...
Mir, Maria C; Pavan, Nicola; Parekh, Dipen J
key predictors of ultimate renal function after partial nephrectomy. Traditionally partial nephrectomy has been performed with hilar occlusion to provide a relatively bloodless surgical field allowing effective oncologic control during tumor excision with secure management of blood vessels, collecting system and renal reconstruction. Selective clamping and nonclamping techniques have been proposed to avoid the perceived harmful effects of ischemia, although they convert a complex surgery into a more challenging procedure, potentially limiting the widespread use of partial nephrectomy for management of renal cancers. Promising urine and blood-based biomarkers (NGAL, KIM-1) in the context of critical care settings and global stress have been observed to predict acute kidney injury. Within the partial nephrectomy environment the usefulness of those markers needs to be further investigated. To date, no study has proved their usefulness in the setting of partial nephrectomy. Based on the available evidence, use of a single cutoff for duration of ischemia time as a dichotomous value for renal function outcomes in the setting of partial nephrectomy is flawed. Renal ischemia is a controversial topic with a shifted paradigm within the last decade. Current evidence has shown that patients with 2 kidneys undergoing nephron sparing surgery can tolerate ischemia times of more than 30 minutes without a clinically significant decline in renal function. Biomarkers predictive of renal tubular injury fail to predict acute kidney injury in the context of partial nephrectomy. Indications for partial nephrectomy could be significantly expanded as the safety of limited renal ischemia is now better understood. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Phillips, Marla; Kashyap, Vishal; Cheung, Mee-Shew
Leaders in the pharmaceutical, medical device, and food industries expressed a unilateral concern over product confidence throughout the total product lifecycle, an unsettling fact for these leaders to manage given that their products affect the lives of millions of people each year. Fueled by the heparin incident of intentional adulteration in 2008, initial efforts for increasing product confidence were focused on improving the confidence of incoming materials, with a belief that supplier performance must be the root cause. As in the heparin case, concern over supplier performance extended deep into the supply chain to include suppliers of the suppliers-which is often a blind spot for pharmaceutical, device, and food manufacturers. Resolved to address the perceived lack of supplier performance, these U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-regulated industries began to adopt the supplier relationship management strategy, developed by the automotive industry, that emphasizes "management" of suppliers for the betterment of the manufacturers. Current product and supplier management strategies, however, have not led to a significant improvement in product confidence. As a result of the enduring concern by industry leaders over the lack of product confidence, Xavier University launched the Integrity of Supply Initiative in 2012 with a team of industry leaders and FDA officials. Through a methodical research approach, data generated by the pharmaceutical, medical device, and food manufacturers surprisingly pointed to themselves as a source of the lack of product confidence, and revealed that manufacturers either unknowingly increase the potential for error or can control/prevent many aspects of product confidence failure. It is only through this paradigm shift that manufacturers can work collaboratively with their suppliers as equal partners, instead of viewing their suppliers as "lesser" entities needing to be controlled. The basis of this shift provides manufacturers
Reshes, Galina; Vanounou, Sharon; Fishov, Itzhak; Feingold, Mario
Bacteria are the simplest living organisms. In particular, Escherichia coli has been extensively studied and it has become one of the standard model systems in microbiology. However, optical microscopy studies of single E. coli have been limited by its small size, ∼1 × 3 μm, not much larger than the optical resolution, ∼0.25 μm. As a result, not enough quantitative dynamical information on the life cycle of single E. coli is presently available. We suggest that, by careful analysis of images ...
Kaas, Rolf Sommer; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Ussery, David; Lund, Ole
Escherichia coli (E. coli) spiller en vigtig rolle i den globale sundhed både grundet dennes rolle som kommensal bakterie, der lever i dennes vært og som patogen bakterie, der er skyld i millioner af infektioner hvert eneste år. Infektionerne er både sporadiske eller som udbrud med tusindvis af smittede i visse tilfælde. For at mindske antallet af infektioner er det vigtigt at overvåge patogene E. coli med henblik på hurtigt opdagelse af udbrud og sporing af kilden til disse. Effektiviteten a...
Vejborg, Rebecca Munk; Klemm, Per
In this study we report on a novel structural phenotype in Escherichia coli biofilms: cellular chain formation. Biofilm chaining in E. coli K-12 was found to occur primarily by clonal expansion, but was not due to filamentous growth. Rather, chain formation was the result of intercellular......; type I fimbriae expression significantly reduced cellular chain formation, presumably by steric hindrance. Cellular chain formation did not appear to be specific to E coli K-12. Although many urinary tract infection (UTI) isolates were found to form rather homogeneous, flat biofilms, three isolates...
The contamination of lettuce, spinach and basil with pathogenic E. coli has caused numerous illnesses over the past decade. E. coli O157:H7, E. coli O104:H4 and avian pathogenic E. coli (APECstx- and APECstx+) were inoculated on basil plants and in promix soiless substrate using drip and overhead ir...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Escherichia coli serological reagents. 866.3255... coli serological reagents. (a) Identification. Escherichia coli serological reagents are devices that consist of antigens and antisera used in serological tests to identify Escherichia coli from cultured...
USA Abstract Introduction: One approach to control enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infections has been to develop vaccines focused on...results show a lack of clonality among Egypt CS6 E. coli isolates and supports the use and the further research on vaccines targeting this cell surface...organisms must colonize the mucosal epithelium; this process utilizes fimbrial and non-fimbrial colonization factors, also referred to as coli surface
Vahjen, W; Cuisiniere, T; Zentek, J
To investigate the inhibitory effect of indigenous enterobacteria on pathogenic Escherichia coli, a challenge trial with postweaning pigs was conducted. A pathogenic E. coli strain was administered to all animals and their health was closely monitored thereafter. Faecal samples were taken from three healthy and three diarrhoeic animals. Samples were cultivated on MacConkey agar and isolates were subcultured. A soft agar overlay assay was used to determine the inhibitory activity of the isolates. A total of 1,173 enterobacterial isolates were screened for their ability to inhibit the E. coli challenge strain. Colony forming units of enterobacteria on MacConkey agar were not different between healthy and diarrhoeic animals in the original samples. Furthermore, numbers of isolates per animal were also not significantly different between healthy (482 isolates) and diarrhoeic animals (691 isolates). A total of 43 isolates (3.7%) with inhibitory activity against the pathogenic E. coli challenge strain were detected. All inhibitory isolates were identified as E. coli via MALDI-TOF. The isolates belonged to the phylotypes A, C and E. Many isolates (67.4%) were commensal E. coli without relevant porcine pathogenic factors, but toxin- and fimbrial genes (stx2e, fae, estIb, elt1a, fas, fan) were detected in 14 inhibitory isolates. Healthy animals showed significantly (P=0.003) more inhibitory isolates (36 of 482 isolates; 7.5%) than diseased animals (7 of 691 isolates; 1.0%). There were no significant correlations regarding phylotype or pathogenic factors between healthy and diseased animals. This study has shown that a small proportion of indigenous E. coli is able to inhibit in vitro growth of a pathogenic E. coli strain in pigs. Furthermore, healthy animals possess significantly more inhibitory E. coli strains than diarrhoeic animals. The inhibition of pathogenic E. coli by specific indigenous E. coli strains may be an underlying principle for the containment of pathogenic
Webster, Lynn R; Fine, Perry G
An increasing number of deaths have been inferred to be associated with current opioid rotation practices and evidence is mounting that the use of widely accepted protocols for opioid rotation is an important contributing factor. Based on the findings of a literature review published in conjunction with this article, we propose a new paradigm for a potentially safer method of opioid rotation and present a case study illustrating the paradigm. This new paradigm suggests three easy-to-remember steps in opioid rotation and obviates the need to use a conversion table. Report of a clinical case of a patient undergoing opioid rotation using this new paradigm. The patient was successfully rotated from extended-release oxycodone to extended-release hydromorphone. The dose of oxycodone was slowly decreased, while the hydromorphone dose was slowly titrated. A critical element to this approach involved providing sufficient immediate-release opioid to treat breakthrough pain and to reverse acute abstinence signs and symptoms if the dosing changes prove insufficient. A safer new paradigm for opioid rotation may provide an important incremental step forward in reducing adverse public health consequences of inappropriate opioid dosing. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
M. A. Tavana
Full Text Available The debate of method of recognition in humanities, social and nature science is one of the apprehensions of Scientists in Wisdom Domain –especially in the modern world. This apprehension, before all things was of appearing in the paradigm of methodoligical between the advocates of the paradigms of positivism with having a share of the natural science. They used to values of naturalism in social and human studies. Additionally, testing and observation and repetition are present as the main terms of recognition. In front, the difference between human studies and natural science is important for the advocates of hermeneutic paradigm. Also, they speak about the methodology of interpretation (understanding of human and social phenomenon. But, in the second half of 20th century another paradigms was established as the Critical realism. This paradigm is tried to parther from the methodoloigcal binary and has a share from the recognition of ontological positivism and epistemological hermeneutics attain to a procedure of interdisciplinary about recognition. So, on the basis of this subject, this article mentioned this question that: would the critical realism receive as the methodology in interdisciplinary? Method of the Article is postulate. This article reasoned that multilayer ontology and epistemology redounded to multilayer methodology that could build up the knowledge of interdisciplinary.
This article attempts to contribute to the debate on the future of epidemiology by combining Thomas Kuhn's ideas on scientific paradigms with the author's observations on some epidemiology textbooks. The author's interpretations were based on his readings of Kuhn's The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, epidemiology textbooks, and papers on the future of epidemiology. Thomas Kuhn's view is that sciences mostly work with a single paradigm driven by exemplars of successful work, and that proposals for paradigm change are resisted. Sciences that are maturing or changing do not have a dominant paradigm. Epidemiology textbooks showed diversity in their concepts, content, and approach. Most exemplars related to etiologic research rather than public health practice. One key focus of the recent controversy regarding the role of epidemiology has been the increasing inability of epidemiology to solve socially based public health problems. Kuhn's views help explain the polarization of views expressed. Kuhn's philosophy of science offers insights into controversies such as whether a paradigm shift is needed or imminent and the gap between epidemiology and public health practice. Interaction between science philosophers, epidemiologists, and public health practitioners may be valuable. PMID:10432899
Tremblay, Marie-Claude; Richard, Lucie
Health promotion underpins a distancing from narrow, simplifying health approaches associated with the biomedical model. However, it has not yet succeeded in formally establishing its theoretical, epistemological and methodological foundations on a single paradigm. The complexity paradigm, which it has yet to broach head-on, might provide it with a disciplinary matrix in line with its implicit stances and basic values. This article seeks to establish complexity's relevance as a paradigm that can contribute to the development of a health promotion discipline. The relevance of complexity is justified primarily by its matching with several implicit epistemological and methodological/theoretical stances found in the cardinal concepts and principles of health promotion. The transcendence of ontological realism and determinism as well as receptiveness in respect of the reflexivity that complexity encompasses are congruent with the values of social justice, participation, empowerment and the concept of positive health that the field promotes. Moreover, from a methodological and theoretical standpoint, complexity assumes a holistic, contextual and transdisciplinary approach, toward which health promotion is tending through its emphasis on ecology and interdisciplinary action. In a quest to illustrate our position, developmental evaluation is presented as an example of practice stemming from a complexity paradigm that can be useful in the evaluation of health promotion initiatives. In short, we argue that it would be advantageous for health promotion to integrate this paradigm, which would provide it with a formal framework appropriate to its purposes and concerns.
Avneon, Maayan; Lamy, Dominique
Research on the limits of unconscious processing typically relies on the subliminal-prime paradigm. However, this paradigm is limited in the issues it can address. Here, we examined the implications of using the liminal-prime paradigm, which allows comparing unconscious and conscious priming with constant stimulation. We adapted an iconic demonstration of unconscious response priming to the liminal-prime paradigm. On the one hand, temporal attention allocated to the prime and its relevance to the task increased the magnitude of response priming. On the other hand, the longer RTs associated with the dual task inherent to the paradigm resulted in response priming being underestimated, because unconscious priming effects were shorter-lived than conscious-priming effects. Nevertheless, when the impact of long RTs was alleviated by considering the fastest trials or by imposing a response deadline, conscious response priming remained considerably larger than unconscious response priming. These findings suggest that conscious perception strongly modulates response priming. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information (KISTI has been studying the e-Science paradigm. With its successful application to particle physics, we consider the application of the paradigm to astroparticle physics. The Standard Model of particle physics is still not considered perfect even though the Higgs boson has recently been discovered. Astrophysical evidence shows that dark matter exists in the universe, hinting at new physics beyond the Standard Model. Therefore, there are efforts to search for dark matter candidates using direct detection, indirect detection, and collider detection. There are also efforts to build theoretical models for dark matter. Current astroparticle physics involves big investments in theories and computing along with experiments. The complexity of such an area of research is explained within the framework of the e-Science paradigm. The idea of the e-Science paradigm is to unify experiment, theory, and computing. The purpose is to study astroparticle physics anytime and anywhere. In this paper, an example of the application of the paradigm to astrophysics is presented.
Hayat, Seyed Mohammad Gheibi; Farahani, Najmeh; Golichenari, Behrouz; Sahebkar, Amir Hosein
Host, vector, and culture conditions (including cultivation media) are considered among the three main elements contributing to a successful production of recombinant proteins. Accordingly, one of the most common hosts to produce recombinant therapeutic proteins is Escherichia coli. A comprehensive literature review was performed to identify important factors affecting production of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli. Escherichia coli is taken into account as the easiest, quickest, and cheapest host with a fully known genome. Thus, numerous modifications have been carried out on Escherichia coli to optimize it as a good candidate for protein expression and; as a result, several engineered strains of Escherichia coli have been designed. In general; host strain, vector, and cultivation parameters are recognized as crucial ones determining success of recombinant protein expression in Escherichia coli. In this review, the role of host, vector, and culture conditions along with current pros and cons of different types of these factors leading to success of recombinant protein expression in Escherichia coli were discussed. Successful protein expression in Escherichia coli necessitates a broad knowledge about physicochemical properties of recombinant proteins, selection among common strains of Escherichia coli and vectors, as well as factors related to media including time, temperature, and inducer. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at firstname.lastname@example.org.
van den Beld, M J C; Reubsaet, F A G
Shigella causes bacillary dysentery and is classified into four species based on their antigen characteristics. This classification does not reflect genetic relatedness; in fact, Shigella species are so related to Escherichia coli , they should be classified as one distinctive species in the genus Escherichia. The differentiation of Shigella and E. coli is even more complicated with the description of enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC). EIEC are strains that possess some of the biochemical characteristics of E. coli and have the ability to cause dysentery using the same method of invasion as Shigella does. Sequencing of multiple housekeeping genes indicates that EIEC is more related to Shigella than to non-invasive E. coli. Shigella and EIEC evolved from the same ancestor and form a single pathovar within E. coli. Shigella and EIEC could be separated from other E. coli by a PCR targeting the ipaH-gene; this is a multicopy gene exclusively found in all Shigella and EIEC. It is possible to differentiate Shigella and all E. coli, including EIEC, by using multiple tests, including ipaH-gene PCR, physiological and biochemical typing and serological typing. Based on literature study, a key is designed for daily use in diagnostic laboratories to identify Shigella and all E. coli.
-40). The findings showed the ... nanoparticles stabilized on zinc. As safe drinking water should not contain E. coli, this organism was studied as the model organism and an indicator in this study. ..... performance paint coatings. Asian J. Exp.
González Sánchez, O
A patient who was surgically treated for acute appendicitis is presented. In the sections of cecal appendix many Balantidium coli trophozoites were found. The history, characteristics, habitat, location, biological aspects and reproduction of this parasite are commented.
Molaabaszadeh H; Eslami K; Hamidi M; Asadollahi M
ABSTRACT Background and objective: The resistance to antibiotics among of pathogen bacteria is one of the main concerns of doctors all around the world, with consideration to different reports about E.coli...
Olsen, Rikke Heidemann; Thøfner, Ida; Pors, Susanne Elisabeth
Several types of Escherichia coli have been associated with extra-intestinal infections in poultry, however, they may vary significantly in their virulence potential. The aim of the present study was to investigate the virulence of five strains of E. coli obtained from different disease......) had a distinct ability to cause disease. Results of the study shows major differences in virulence of different strains of E. coli in ascending infections; however, there was no indication of tissue-specific adaptation, since strains obtained from lesions unrelated to the reproductive system were...... fully capable of causing experimental infection. In conclusion, the study provides evidence for the clinical outcome of infection with E. coli in poultry is largely influenced by the specific strain as well as individual host factors....
Lauridsen, Trine Kiilerich; Arpi, Magnus; Fritz-Hansen, Thomas
-spectrum intravenous antibiotics. Transthoracic and transoesophageal echocardiography revealed a severe mitral endocarditis. E. coli DNA was identified from the mitral valve and the vegetation, and no other pathogen was found. The case was further complicated by spondylodiscitis and bilateral endophthalmitis. Extra-intestinal...... pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) are able to colonize tissue outside the gastrointestinal tract and contain a variety of virulence factors that may enable the pathogens to invade and induce infections in the cardiac endothelia. In these cases echocardiography as the imaging technology is of paramount importance......Although Escherichia coli is among the most common causes of Gram-negative bacteraemia, infectious endocarditis (IE) due to this pathogen is rare. A 67-y-old male without a previous medical history presented with a new mitral regurgitation murmur and persisting E. coli bacteraemia in spite of broad...
Full Text Available Infections due to enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (Escherichia coli have a low incidence but can have severe and sometimes fatal health consequences, and thus represent some of the most serious diseases due to the contamination of water and food. New, fast and simple devices that monitor these pathogens are necessary to improve the safety of our food supply chain. In this work we report on mesoporous titania thin-film substrates as sensors to detect E. coli O157:H7. Titania films treated with APTES ((3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane and GA (glutaraldehyde were functionalized with specific antibodies and the absorption properties monitored. The film-based biosensors showed a detection limit for E. coli of 1 × 102 CFU/mL, constituting a simple and selective method for the effective screening of water samples.
Greppi, Gianfranco; Marongiu, Maria Laura; Roggero, Pier Paolo; Ravindranath, Sandeep P; Mauer, Lisa J; Schibeci, Nicoletta; Perria, Francesco; Piccinini, Massimo; Innocenzi, Plinio; Irudayaraj, Joseph
Summary Infections due to enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (Escherichia coli) have a low incidence but can have severe and sometimes fatal health consequences, and thus represent some of the most serious diseases due to the contamination of water and food. New, fast and simple devices that monitor these pathogens are necessary to improve the safety of our food supply chain. In this work we report on mesoporous titania thin-film substrates as sensors to detect E. coli O157:H7. Titania films treated with APTES ((3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane) and GA (glutaraldehyde) were functionalized with specific antibodies and the absorption properties monitored. The film-based biosensors showed a detection limit for E. coli of 1 × 102 CFU/mL, constituting a simple and selective method for the effective screening of water samples. PMID:23019542
Lauridsen, Trine Kiilerich; Arpi, Magnus; Fritz-Hansen, Thomas; Frimodt-Møller, Niels; Bruun, Niels Eske
Although Escherichia coli is among the most common causes of Gram-negative bacteraemia, infectious endocarditis (IE) due to this pathogen is rare. A 67-y-old male without a previous medical history presented with a new mitral regurgitation murmur and persisting E. coli bacteraemia in spite of broad-spectrum intravenous antibiotics. Transthoracic and transoesophageal echocardiography revealed a severe mitral endocarditis. E. coli DNA was identified from the mitral valve and the vegetation, and no other pathogen was found. The case was further complicated by spondylodiscitis and bilateral endophthalmitis. Extra-intestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) are able to colonize tissue outside the gastrointestinal tract and contain a variety of virulence factors that may enable the pathogens to invade and induce infections in the cardiac endothelia. In these cases echocardiography as the imaging technology is of paramount importance for the correct diagnosis and treatment.
This volume is a collection of abstracts of oral presentations and poster sessions of studies reported at the First International E. Coli Genome Meeting, held September 10-14, 1992 at the University of Wisconsin.
This volume is a collection of abstracts of oral presentations and poster sessions of studies reported at the First International E. Coli Genome Meeting, held September 10-14, 1992 at the University of Wisconsin.
Lauridsen, Trine Kiilerich; Arpi, Magnus; Fritz-Hansen, Thomas
Although Escherichia coli is among the most common causes of Gram-negative bacteraemia, infectious endocarditis (IE) due to this pathogen is rare. A 67-y-old male without a previous medical history presented with a new mitral regurgitation murmur and persisting E. coli bacteraemia in spite of broad......-spectrum intravenous antibiotics. Transthoracic and transoesophageal echocardiography revealed a severe mitral endocarditis. E. coli DNA was identified from the mitral valve and the vegetation, and no other pathogen was found. The case was further complicated by spondylodiscitis and bilateral endophthalmitis. Extra......-intestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) are able to colonize tissue outside the gastrointestinal tract and contain a variety of virulence factors that may enable the pathogens to invade and induce infections in the cardiac endothelia. In these cases echocardiography as the imaging technology is of paramount importance...
Ewers, Christa; Janssen, Traute; Wieler, Lothar H
Infections with avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) cause colibacillosis, an acute and mostly systemic disease resulting in significant economic losses in poultry industry worldwide. Avian colibacillosis is a complex syndrome characterized by multiple organ lesions with airsacculitis and associated pericarditis, perihepatitis and peritonitis being most typical. Environmental factors as well as the constitution of poultry or initial viral infections influence the outcome of APEC-infections. However, several challenge experiments in chickens proofed the role of virulent APEC strains as the single aetiological agent. Currently serotypes O1:K1, O2:K1 and O78:K80 are recognized as the most prevalent, however the number of published serotypes is increasing. In addition, single APEC isolates vary profoundly in virulence, and knowledge about the molecular basis of this variability is still scarce. Known virulence factors of APEC are adhesins (F1- and P-fimbriae), iron acquisition systems (aerobactin and yersiniabactin), hemolysins (hemolysinE and temperaturesensitive hemagglutinin), resistance to the bactericidal effects of serum and phagocytosis (outer membrane protein, iss protein, lipopolysaccharide, K/1)-capsule and colilcin production) as well as toxins and cytotoxins (heat stable toxin, cyto-/verotoxin and flagella toxin). Esperimental studies have shown that the respiratory tract, principally the gas-exchange region of the lung and the interstitium of the air sacs are the most important sites of entry for avian pathogenic E. coli. APEC strains adhere to the epithelial cells of air sacs presumably through F1-fimbriae. After colonization and multiplication the bacteria enter the bloodstream, and the temperature-sensitive hemagglutinin (tsh) seems to be important int his step. After invading the bloodstream APEC cause a septicemia resulting in massive lesins in multiple internal organs and in sudden death of the birds. The ability of the bacteria to acquire iron
Korhonen, T K; Väisänen-Rhen, V; Rhen, M; Pere, A; Parkkinen, J; Finne, J
Fimbriae recognizing sialyl galactosides (S fimbriae) were purified from an Escherichia coli strain. The S fimbriae were morphologically identical to type 1 and P fimbriae of E. coli and showed a hemagglutination that was abolished when erythrocytes were treated with neuraminidase. Hemagglutination by the purified fimbriae was inhibited by orosomucoid but not by its desialylated derivative. Of the oligosaccharides tested, sialyl-(alpha 2-3)-lactose and sialyl-(alpha 2-3)-N-acetyllactosamine h...
creases substantially when certain strains of E. coli are grown in the presence of the antibiotic, chloramphenicol (10). Using the skin test to assay for...8. antigens. Somewhat unexpectedly, it was observed that the combined ant- igens exhibited synergism : when administered together, they elicited...Escherichia coli in the presence of chloramphenicol . J. Bacteriol. 110:667-676, (continued) 12. 11. Levner, M.H., Wiener, F.P., Rubin, B.A. Induction of
Full Text Available Gram-negative organisms are a rare cause of infective endocarditis. Escherichia coli, the most common cause of urinary tract infection and gram-negative septicemia involves endocardium rarely. In this case report, we describe infection of native mitral valve by E. coli following septicemia of urinary tract origin in a diabetic male; subsequently, he required prosthetic tissue valve replacement indicated by persistent sepsis and congestive cardiac failure.
Rangarajan, D.; Ramakrishnan, S.; Patro, K. C.; Devaraj, S.; Krishnamurthy, V.; Kothari, Y.; Satyaki, N.
Gram-negative organisms are a rare cause of infective endocarditis. Escherichia coli, the most common cause of urinary tract infection and gram-negative septicemia involves endocardium rarely. In this case report, we describe infection of native mitral valve by E. coli following septicemia of urinary tract origin in a diabetic male; subsequently, he required prosthetic tissue valve replacement indicated by persistent sepsis and congestive cardiac failure.
Full Text Available AbstrakLatar belakang: Bakteri Escherichia coli (E. coli ada yang telah bermutasi menjadi patogen yang menimbulkan berbagai penyakit seperti hemorrhagic colitis (HC, hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS, sepsis, pnemonia, neonatal meningitis, dan infeksi saluran kemih. Mutasi terjadi karena bakteri ini menerima transfer gen yang virulen dari bakteri lain yang hidup di sekitarnya. E. coli yang biasanya hidup normal di dalam usus manusia telah beradaptasi sehingga bisa hidup di tanah, makanan, dan saluran kemih. Penelitian ini mendeteksi gene yang virulen pada DNA isolat E. coli. Metode: Untuk deteksi E. coli yang virulen pada penelitian ini digunakan metode Real-time PCR dengan mencocokkan hasil sekuensing dengan sekuens E. coli virulen yang telah di publikasikan sebagai rujukan. Hasil: Sekuens RT PCR menggambarkan DNA gen eae pada BLAST mempunyai kesesuaian dengan rujukan segmen E. coli yang virulen. Dari sampel yang berasal dari E. coli di sekitar perairan lingkungan didapatkan gen Eae sebagai gen yang menyebabkan E. coli menjadi virulen sebesar 7,3%. Kesimpulan: E. coli yang virulen ditemukan pada sampel E. coli yang berasal dari perairan lingkungan dengan metode realtime PCR. (Health Science Indones 2013;1:41-6 Kata kunci: gen virulen E. coli, real-time PCR, perairan lingkunganAbstractBackground: Escherichia coli(E. coli bacteria have developed into pathogenic bacteria that caused diseases such as hemorrhagic colitis (HC, hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS, sepsis, pneumonia, neonatal meningitis, and urinary tract infections. Pathogenic E. coli have acquired pathogenic/virulence genes from other bacteria in their environment. E. coli that normally lived in the human gut had adapted to other niches such as soil, food and the urinary tract. This study investigated the presence of pathogenic E. coli from water samples by examining E. coli virulence genes present in E. coli genomes of water sourced isolates. Methods:This study used Real-time PCR to detect
Manning, Mark L; Manning, Rana L
Although dissociative identity disorder, a condition in which multiple individuals appear to inhabit a single body, is a recognized psychiatric disorder, patients may yet encounter health professionals who declare that they simply "do not believe in multiple personalities." This article explores the proposal that resistance to the disorder represents a failure to apply an appropriate paradigm from which the disorder should be interpreted. Trauma and sociocognitive explanations of dissociative identity disorder are contrasted. The trauma hypothesis is further differentiated into paradigms in which trauma affects a defense mechanism, and one in which trauma serves to inhibit the normal integration sequence of parallel processes of the self in childhood. This latter paradigm is shown to be broadly consistent with current models of cortical processing in another system, the cortical visual system.
Smilkstein, G; Aspy, C B; Quiggins, P A
Conjugal violence has been described as having multiple etiologies. The variables are so numerous that intervention and research protocols are difficult to effect. This paper proposes a paradigm that establishes conjugal conflict and violence as separate entities. According to the paradigm, conjugal conflict is viewed as "an inevitable part of human association," whereas conjugal violence is determined to be a learned behavioral tactic that is employed as a coping strategy when an individual's conflict threshold potential is exceeded. Evidence will be offered that violence is learned from family of origin and from observing what is common or accepted practice in the community. Use of this paradigm would give primacy to community education programs that advance the concept of conflict resolution through rational discourse.
Ringsted, C; Østergaard, D; Scherpbier, A
Assessment of clinical competence is facing a paradigm shift in more than one sense. The shift relates to test content, which increasingly covers a broader spectrum of competences than mere medical expertise, and to test methods, with an increasing focus on testing performance in realistic settings....... Also there is a shift in the concept of assessment in that instruction and assessment are no longer seen as being separate in time and purpose, but as integral parts of the learning process. The nature of the new paradigm for assessment is well described but the challenge to programme directors...... is to specify the evaluation situations and develop appropriate methods. This paper describes the intrinsic rational validation process in outlining an assessment programme for first-year anaesthesiology residency training according to the new paradigm. The applicability to other residency programmes and higher...
Altshul, Victor A
The authors Torres and Bergner present a simple, elegant paradigm for understanding the phenomenon of humiliation. They suggest it may have universal applicability and may be of heuristic value for clinicians and policy-makers involved in forensic and social arenas. They offer case examples to illustrate its utility. It is open to question, however, whether the paradigm is sufficiently complex to encompass all the variables in actual situations. In real life, the evolution of humiliation is a highly complicated, often messy process that takes place over time and often results in intense feelings of humiliation in more than one person, often affecting several persons. The authors' examples are reexamined from alternate assumptions about what may have happened in each case. An additional case example illustrates a high degree of interpersonal complexity, suggesting that actual situations may be too unwieldy to allow for simple analysis by the paradigm.
Russano, Melissa B; Meissner, Christian A; Narchet, Fadia M; Kassin, Saul M
The primary goal of the current study was to develop a novel experimental paradigm with which to study the influence of psychologically based interrogation techniques on the likelihood of true and false confessions. The paradigm involves guilty and innocent participants being accused of intentionally breaking an experimental rule, or "cheating." In the first demonstration of this paradigm, we explored the influence of two common police interrogation tactics: minimization and an explicit offer of leniency, or a "deal." Results indicated that guilty persons were more likely to confess than innocent persons, and that the use of minimization and the offer of a deal increased the rate of both true and false confessions. Police investigators are encouraged to avoid interrogation techniques that imply or directly promise leniency, as they appear to reduce the diagnostic value of any confession that is elicited.
Full Text Available The author deals with locative paradigm as a universal linguistic phenomenon, which encompasses three types of sentences: predicative-locative sentence, existential sentence and possessive sentence. It is assumed that all three types of sentences derive from the same deep structure. The emphasis is on the analysis of the Spanish locative paradigm; especially in linking verbs ser, estar, haber and tener as well as on those properties of nominal phrases that affect their distribution. The results show that the locative argument is mandatory, that the linking verbs of the locative paradigm derive from each other, and that in particular [+/- definiteness] of the theme and [+/- humanity] of the location influence the selection of a particular sentence type.
Meador, Jessica P.; Caldwell, Matthew E.; Cohen, Paul S.
Since the first step of the infection process is colonization of the host, it is important to understand how Escherichia coli pathogens successfully colonize the intestine. We previously showed that enterohemorrhagic O157:H7 strain E. coli EDL933 colonizes a niche in the streptomycin-treated mouse intestine that is distinct from that of human commensal strains, which explains how E. coli EDL933 overcomes colonization resistance imparted by some, but not all, commensal E. coli strains. Here we sought to determine if other E. coli pathogens use a similar strategy. We found that uropathogenic E. coli CFT073 and enteropathogenic E. coli E2348/69 occupy intestinal niches that are distinct from that of E. coli EDL933. In contrast, two enterohemorrhagic strains, E. coli EDL933 and E. coli Sakai, occupy the same niche, suggesting that strategies to prevent colonization by a given pathotype should be effective against other strains of the same pathotype. However, we found that a combination of commensal E. coli strains that can prevent colonization by E. coli EDL933 did not prevent colonization by E. coli CFT073 or E. coli E2348/69. Our results indicate that development of probiotics to target multiple E. coli pathotypes will be problematic, as the factors that govern niche occupation and hence stable colonization vary significantly among strains. PMID:24566621
Choi, Kyeong Rok; Shin, Jae Ho; Cho, Jae Sung; Yang, Dongsoo; Lee, Sang Yup
Systems metabolic engineering, which recently emerged as metabolic engineering integrated with systems biology, synthetic biology, and evolutionary engineering, allows engineering of microorganisms on a systemic level for the production of valuable chemicals far beyond its native capabilities. Here, we review the strategies for systems metabolic engineering and particularly its applications in Escherichia coli. First, we cover the various tools developed for genetic manipulation in E. coli to increase the production titers of desired chemicals. Next, we detail the strategies for systems metabolic engineering in E. coli, covering the engineering of the native metabolism, the expansion of metabolism with synthetic pathways, and the process engineering aspects undertaken to achieve higher production titers of desired chemicals. Finally, we examine a couple of notable products as case studies produced in E. coli strains developed by systems metabolic engineering. The large portfolio of chemical products successfully produced by engineered E. coli listed here demonstrates the sheer capacity of what can be envisioned and achieved with respect to microbial production of chemicals. Systems metabolic engineering is no longer in its infancy; it is now widely employed and is also positioned to further embrace next-generation interdisciplinary principles and innovation for its upgrade. Systems metabolic engineering will play increasingly important roles in developing industrial strains including E. coli that are capable of efficiently producing natural and nonnatural chemicals and materials from renewable nonfood biomass.
Bryan E Bunnell
Full Text Available Zinc inhibits the virulence of diarrheagenic E. coli by inducing the envelope stress response and inhibiting the SOS response. The SOS response is triggered by damage to bacterial DNA. In Shiga-toxigenic E. coli, the SOS response strongly induces the production of Shiga toxins (Stx and of the bacteriophages that encode the Stx genes. In E. coli, induction of the SOS response is accompanied by a higher mutation rate, called the mutator response, caused by a shift to error-prone DNA polymerases when DNA damage is too severe to be repaired by canonical DNA polymerases. Since zinc inhibited the other aspects of the SOS response, we hypothesized that zinc would also inhibit the mutator response, also known as hypermutation. We explored various different experimental paradigms to induce hypermutation triggered by the SOS response, and found that hypermutation was induced not just by classical inducers such as mitomycin C and the quinolone antibiotics, but also by antiviral drugs such as zidovudine and anti-cancer drugs such as 5-fluorouracil, 6-mercaptopurine, and azacytidine. Zinc salts inhibited the SOS response and the hypermutator phenomenon in E. coli as well as in Klebsiella pneumoniae, and was more effective in inhibiting the SOS response than other metals. We then attempted to determine the mechanism by which zinc, applied externally in the medium, inhibits hypermutation. Our results show that zinc interferes with the actions of RecA, and protects LexA from RecA-mediated cleavage, an early step in initiation of the SOS response. The SOS response may play a role in the development of antibiotic resistance and the effect of zinc suggests ways to prevent it.
Lynn Grove High School in Great Yarmouth, UK has been awarded a Royal Society partnership grant. Lynn Grove pupils aged between 11 and 16 years will carry out an investigation collaborating with scientists at the John Innes Centre in Norwich, UK to investigate the distribution of E.coli and other coliform bacteria within a school. The information will be used as an evidence base to educate pupils about the transmission of microbes and about methods of control. Through this work pupils will gain an appreciation of the diversity of microbial biochemistry and the chemistry behind chromogenic detection methodologies for specific bacterial enzymes. Inferences from the use of diagnostic selective media will be confirmed by carrying out DNA isolation and PCR to identify the genes responsible for the biochemical reactions. PCR will also be used to identify species of coliforms by reference to genomic sequence databases. These techniques will allow pupils to look into an unseen world in a way which has direct relevance to their everyday lives. Furthermore this partnership study will demonstrate to pupils that solving scientific questions requires the integration of a variety of scientific disciplines. The project will run from January 2012 until June 2012. We will present our preliminary results from the investigation and outline our future plans.
Charles M. Reigeluth
Full Text Available This article describes instructional theory that supports post-industrial education and training systems - ones that are customized and learner-centered, in which student progress is based on learning rather than time. The article describes universal methods of instruction, situational methods, core ideas of the post-industrial paradigm of instruction, the importance of and problems with task-based instruction, a vision of an instructional theory for post-industrial education and training, and the roles that may be played by the teacher, the learner, and technology in the new paradigm.
Jorge Luis Juliao Rossi
Full Text Available The objective of this document is to demonstrate the potential of the dynamics of systems as a thinking trend which may help in the understanding process and the construction of an accounting paradigm change. This objective is framed inside a wider purpose: to propase interdisciplinary encounters that contribute to the necessary paradigm change. The described problem is studied from the «System Thinking», which is an approach with theoretical framework and representation and simulation tools related to the tapie.
Knudsen, Mette Præst; Tanev, Stoyan; Bisgaard, Tanja
Successful firms today are forced to deal with new competitive realities by being globally present, innovatively resourceful and internationally competitive on multiple markets across the world. The new competitive realities challenge firms to open their innovation processes by adopting new......-creation paradigm is relatively new, but with a significant potential to also affect formulation of new innovation policy perspectives. The three paradigms are considered as examples of distributive innovation, which is based on the need of firms to orchestrate and integrate the innovative contributions from...
This book presents the latest research on Software Engineering Frameworks for the Cloud Computing Paradigm, drawn from an international selection of researchers and practitioners. The book offers both a discussion of relevant software engineering approaches and practical guidance on enterprise-wide software deployment in the cloud environment, together with real-world case studies. Features: presents the state of the art in software engineering approaches for developing cloud-suitable applications; discusses the impact of the cloud computing paradigm on software engineering; offers guidance an
A basic assumption of the object-oriented paradigm of computer programming and database thinking is that objects (including classes) are dynamic: classes have objects as instances which can be created, modified, and deleted. I argue that this leads to unnecessary conceptual difficulties, and sugg......A basic assumption of the object-oriented paradigm of computer programming and database thinking is that objects (including classes) are dynamic: classes have objects as instances which can be created, modified, and deleted. I argue that this leads to unnecessary conceptual difficulties...
Krueger, James M.; Tononi, Giulio
The logic and potential mechanisms for a new paradigm, the local use-dependent view of sleep as a distributed dynamic process in brain, are presented. This new paradigm is needed because the current dominant top-down imposition of sleep on the brain by sleep regulatory centers is either silent or is of inadequate explanatory value for many well-known sleep phenomena, e.g. sleep inertia. Two mechanistic falsifiable hypotheses linking sleep to cell use and the emergence of sleep/wake states are...
Tanev, Stoyan; Knudsen, Mette Præst; Bisgaard, Tanja
The objective of the present article is to discuss innovation policy issues related to three emerging innovation paradigms: user-driven innovation, open innovation, and value co-creation. It provides a summary of insights based on innovation policy practices and challenges in Denmark.......The objective of the present article is to discuss innovation policy issues related to three emerging innovation paradigms: user-driven innovation, open innovation, and value co-creation. It provides a summary of insights based on innovation policy practices and challenges in Denmark....
Sunyer, J Oriol
Recent years have witnessed a renaissance in the study of fish immune systems. Such studies have greatly expanded the knowledge of the evolution and diversification of vertebrate immune systems. Several findings in those studies have overturned old paradigms about the immune system and led to the discovery of novel aspects of mammalian immunity. Here I focus on how findings pertaining to immunity in teleost (bony) fish have led to major new insights about mammalian B cell function in innate and adaptive immunity. Additionally, I illustrate how the discovery of the most ancient mucosal immunoglobulin described thus far will help resolve unsettled paradigms of mammalian mucosal immunity. PMID:23507645
Technology violates human dignity only to the extent that its use reduces persons to the moral status of objects. The prevalence of technology in health care is an extension of the scientific paradigm, in which the body is reduced to an object void of subjectivity. The empathie paradigm, in contrast, is based upon the moral primacy of subjectivity. Empathic touch-as distinct from instrumental and philanthropic touch-establishes a clinical relation of intersubjectivity, affirming in patients the dignity and worth that morally distinguish persons from objects.
Johns Hopkins Antibiotic Guide were retained for analysis. 34 Antimicrobial Resistance Classification To evaluate changes in antimicrobial...drug resistance continues to change , and should vary to reflect susceptibilities in local antibiograms. This annual report summarized E. coli...important to monitor and manage the significant risk presented by MDR E. coli and control the proliferation of resistance . Continued surveillance is
Hancock, Viktoria; Ulett, G.C.; Schembri, M.A.
Escherichia coli is the most common organism associated with asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU). In contrast to uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC), which causes symptomatic urinary tract infections (UTI), very little is known about the mechanisms by which these strains colonize the human urinary tract....... The prototype ABU E. coli strain 83972 was originally isolated from a girl who had carried it asymptomatically for 3 years. Deliberate colonization of UTI-susceptible individuals with E. coli 83972 has been used successfully as an alternative approach for the treatment of patients who are refractory...... to conventional therapy. Colonization with strain 83972 appears to prevent infection with UPEC strains in such patients despite the fact that this strain is unable to express the primary adhesins involved in UTI, viz. P and type 1 fimbriae. Here we investigated the growth characteristics of E. coli 83972 in human...
Silvia Y Bando
Full Text Available The genetic relationship among the Escherichia coli pathotypes was investigated. We used random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD data for constructing a dendrogram of 73 strains of diarrheagenic E. coli. A phylogenetic tree encompassing 15 serotypes from different pathotypes was constructed using multilocus sequence typing data. Phylogram clusters were used for validating RAPD data on the clonality of enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC O serogroup strains. Both analyses showed very similar topologies, characterized by the presence of two major groups: group A includes EPEC H6 and H34 strains and group B contains the other EPEC strains plus all serotypes belonging to atypical EPEC, enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC. These results confirm the existence of two evolutionary divergent groups in EPEC: one is genetically and serologically very homogeneous whereas the other harbors EPEC and non-EPEC serotypes. The same situation was found for EAEC and EHEC.
van den Heuvell, Chiquit van Linden; van Zuuren, Florence; Wells, Mary; van der Laan, Geert; Reintsema, Harry
Objective: This article describes a paradigm shift in what is considered to be good care for patients living with and after (head and neck) cancer. HNO patients often experience severe and difficult physical and psychosocial problems due to the nature and location of the disease. Many disciplines
Bezemer, Dirk J.
This paper contributes to the debate on what economics can learn from the credit crisis and recession. It asks what are the elements in the mainstream paradigm that caused many economists to misjudge the state of the economy so dramatically in the years leading up to the 2007 credit crisis and the
Supratman, Lucy Pujasari
... from the Religious Affairs Ministry, the divorce rate in Indonesia is increasing. The results of this study are the changing paradigm of agreeing the parents divorced decision to teenagers and the changing social interaction in the family. It has changed the interpersonal communication between the single parents and their young teenagers. The t...
This article discusses major theoretical debates and paradigms from the last decades in general education and their specific influences in mathematics education contexts. Behaviourism, cognitive science, constructivism, situated cognition, critical theory, place-based learning, postmodernism and poststructuralism and their significant aspects in…
This study aims to develop a conceptual model of the wider influencing forces impacting the governance paradigms of public universities. It draws on the multi-theoretical governance concept and seeks to identify these forces through the lens of chief audit executives using a qualitative research approach. The interview data supported by published…
information society, e-government, digital divide, and e-learning/digital scholarship. This paper provides an overview of the paradigm shifts sweeping the information landscape in the networked world and the implications for the creation and management of information, especially in African libraries. African Journal of ...
Ross, David A.; Olson, Ingrid R.; Marks, Lawrence E.; Gore, John C.
The ability to identify and reproduce sounds of specific frequencies is remarkable and uncommon. The etiology and defining characteristics of this skill, absolute pitch (AP), have been very controversial. One theory suggests that AP requires a specific type of early musical training and that the ability to encode and remember tones depends on these learned musical associations. An alternate theory argues that AP may be strongly dependent on hereditary factors and relatively independent of musical experience. To date, it has been difficult to test these hypotheses because all previous paradigms for identifying AP have required subjects to employ knowledge of musical nomenclature. As such, these tests are insensitive to the possibility of discovering AP in either nonmusicians or musicians of non-Western training. Based on previous literature in pitch memory, a paradigm is presented that is intended to distinguish between AP possessors and nonpossessors independent of the subjects' musical experience. The efficacy of this method is then tested with 20 classically defined AP possessors and 22 nonpossessors. Data from these groups strongly support the validity of the paradigm. The use of a nonmusical paradigm to identify AP may facilitate research into many aspects of this phenomenon.
Sosa, Emma Rosa Cruz; Barrientos, Laura Gática; Castro, Patricia Eugenia García; García, Jesús Hernández
The present work aims to describe academic performance, school desertion and the emotional paradigm of the university students of the accounting school of the Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla (FCPBUAP). We have found that low academic performance is related to students' economic deficiency, which affects their concentration on their…
Watson, William R.; Watson, Sunnie Lee; Reigeluth, Charles M.
Educational reform efforts have failed to create widespread improvement. The authors argue that rather than trying to improve the existing system of education, a new learner-centered paradigm is needed that supports individualized learning. Such a significantly different system of education will require the systemic application of technology to…
Plack, Margaret M.
Human nature is a very complex phenomenon. In physical therapy this complexity is enhanced by the need to understand the intersection between the art and science of human behavior and patient care. A paradigm is a set of basic beliefs that represent a worldview, defines the nature of the world and the individual's place in it, and helps to…
Stahl, Christoph; Klauer, Karl Christoph
False memories are sometimes strong enough to elicit recollective experiences. This phenomenon has been termed Phantom Recollection (PR). The Conjoint Recognition (CR) paradigm has been used to empirically separate PR from other memory processes. Recently, a simplification of the CR procedure has been proposed. We herein extend the simplified CR…
Synonymy in the Translation. Equivalent Paradigms of a. Standard Translation Dictionary*. Phillip Adriaan Louw, Department of Afrikaans and Dutch,. University of Stellenbosch, South Africa. Abstract: The norm in current canonical translation dictionaries with Afrikaans and English as the treated language pair is an ...
Basili, Victor R.
The Software Engineering Laboratory uses a paradigm for improving the software process and product, called the quality improvement paradigm. This paradigm has evolved over the past 18 years, along with our software development processes and product. Since 1976, when we first began the SEL, we have learned a great deal about improving the software process and product, making a great many mistakes along the way. Quality improvement paradigm, as it is currently defined, can be broken up into six steps: characterize the current project and its environment with respect to the appropriate models and metrics; set the quantifiable goals for successful project performance and improvement; choose the appropriate process model and supporting methods and tools for this project; execute the processes, construct the products, and collect, validate, and analyze the data to provide real-time feedback for corrective action; analyze the data to evaluate the current practices, determine problems, record findings, and make recommendations for future project improvements; and package the experience gained in the form of updated and refined models and other forms of structured knowledge gained from this and prior projects and save it in an experience base to be reused on future projects.
The publication of the Surgeon General's Report (1996) on Physical Activity and Health by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services recommended a paradigm shift during the 21st Century from prescribing exercise for fitness, to promoting physical activity and leisure education as an active approach to good ...
In this essay I argue that online education, artificial intelligence, and market pressures are driving higher education to adopt the industrial model and to find a new paradigm for delivering education at low costs. In addition, there is tremendous pressure from the federal government to make universities more accountable while making higher…
Luo, Lingen; Han, Bei; Chen, Jingde; Sheng, Gehao; Jiang, Xiuchen
.... Take advantage of the affluent results from random matrix theory (RMT), such as eigenvalue analysis, M-P law, the ring law, and so on, a novel methodology in RMT paradigm is proposed for fast PD pulse detection in this paper...
Alsem, K.J.; Kostelijk, E.J.
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to propose a fundamentally new extension of the marketing paradigm. This is theoretically and practically necessary since in the authors' view there is an insufficient balance between customer and brand thinking. Design/methodology/approach - While the
Олена Миколаївна Отич
Human-center measuring of society education are required by claims of new holistic educational paradigm, which becomes the source of conceptual ideas on providing integral influence of education on intellectual and emotional and sensual spheres of personality with the purpose of its harmonious general and professional development, forming of integral worldview which consists of scientific and artistic worldviews, each of which is valuable
It proffers some suggestions as to their containment, especially for the disciplinary public health physicians as the ultimate community physicians in that most efficient practice paradigm of PH. The same applies also to the disciplinary public health nurse-midwives, similarly, as the statutory district or zonal community ...
... from course evaluations to illustrate these differences and to question how educators with each of the four worldviews would use student evaluations as a means of course improvement. Key words: Research paradigms, curriculum design, student evaluations, academic development [Jnl for Language Teaching Vol.37(2) ...
Ross, John Minor
Proposes that object-oriented (OO) analysis, design, and programming methods, currently having a major impact on computing, will play an increasing role in shaping the paradigms of performance technology--particularly in instructional design (ID). Ties this crossover of OO from computing to ID to design trends and ongoing research in ID. (AEF)
Walker, Guy H; Salmon, Paul M; Bedinger, Melissa; Stanton, Neville A
A paradigm is an accepted world view. If we do not continually question our paradigm then wider trends and movements will overtake the discipline leaving it ill adapted to future challenges. This Special Issue is an opportunity to keep systems thinking at the forefront of ergonomics theory and practice. Systems thinking prompts us to ask whether ergonomics, as a discipline, has been too timid? Too preoccupied with the resolution of immediate problems with industrial-age methods when, approaching fast, are developments which could render these operating assumptions an irrelevance. Practical case studies are presented to show how abstract systems problems can be tackled head-on to deliver highly innovative and cost-effective insights. The strategic direction of the discipline foregrounds high-quality systems problems. These are something the discipline is well able to respond to provided that the appropriate operating paradigms are selected. Practitioner Summary: High-quality systems problems are the future of the discipline. How do we convert obtuse sounding systems concepts into practical interventions? In this paper, the essence of systems thinking is distilled and practical case studies used to demonstrate the benefits of this new paradigm.
Peters, Michael A.; Hung, Ruyu
This article provides grounds for a new paradigm of environmental ethics and education based on the centrality of the sun and solar system--a shift from anthropocentrism to solar systemism. The article provides some grounds for this shift from the physical sciences that considers the planet Earth as part of a wider system that is dependent upon…
Nathan, Ran; Getz, Wayne M.; Revilla, Eloy; Holyoak, Marcel; Kadmon, Ronen; Saltz, David; Smouse, Peter E.
Movement of individual organisms is fundamental to life, quilting our planet in a rich tapestry of phenomena with diverse implications for ecosystems and humans. Movement research is both plentiful and insightful, and recent methodological advances facilitate obtaining a detailed view of individual movement. Yet, we lack a general unifying paradigm, derived from first principles, which can place movement studies within a common context and advance the development of a mature scientific discipline. This introductory article to the Movement Ecology Special Feature proposes a paradigm that integrates conceptual, theoretical, methodological, and empirical frameworks for studying movement of all organisms, from microbes to trees to elephants. We introduce a conceptual framework depicting the interplay among four basic mechanistic components of organismal movement: the internal state (why move?), motion (how to move?), and navigation (when and where to move?) capacities of the individual and the external factors affecting movement. We demonstrate how the proposed framework aids the study of various taxa and movement types; promotes the formulation of hypotheses about movement; and complements existing biomechanical, cognitive, random, and optimality paradigms of movement. The proposed framework integrates eclectic research on movement into a structured paradigm and aims at providing a basis for hypothesis generation and a vehicle facilitating the understanding of the causes, mechanisms, and spatiotemporal patterns of movement and their role in various ecological and evolutionary processes. ”Now we must consider in general the common reason for moving with any movement whatever.“ (Aristotle, De Motu Animalium, 4th century B.C.) PMID:19060196
Christianity still grappling with law and the old paradigm two thousand years into new ... then known cosmos. God would reign sovereign, fulfilling the hope of his people. The two ages would be radically different, having hardly anything in common. ... for these experiences was that the last days, in which the Spirit would be.
Pushkin, David B.
Science, particularly the physical sciences, has undergone several paradigm shifts during history. The modernistic and mechanistic world that was viewed through the lens of Newton's laws no longer offers valid answers to present-day questions. This paper examines four themes: the evolution of physics, the evolution of chemistry, the evolution of…
Dumas, Guillaume; de Guzman, Gonzalo C; Tognoli, Emmanuelle; Kelso, J A Scott
Social neuroscience has called for new experimental paradigms aimed toward real-time interactions. A distinctive feature of interactions is mutual information exchange: One member of a pair changes in response to the other while simultaneously producing actions that alter the other. Combining mathematical and neurophysiological methods, we introduce a paradigm called the human dynamic clamp (HDC), to directly manipulate the interaction or coupling between a human and a surrogate constructed to behave like a human. Inspired by the dynamic clamp used so productively in cellular neuroscience, the HDC allows a person to interact in real time with a virtual partner itself driven by well-established models of coordination dynamics. People coordinate hand movements with the visually observed movements of a virtual hand, the parameters of which depend on input from the subject's own movements. We demonstrate that HDC can be extended to cover a broad repertoire of human behavior, including rhythmic and discrete movements, adaptation to changes of pacing, and behavioral skill learning as specified by a virtual "teacher." We propose HDC as a general paradigm, best implemented when empirically verified theoretical or mathematical models have been developed in a particular scientific field. The HDC paradigm is powerful because it provides an opportunity to explore parameter ranges and perturbations that are not easily accessible in ordinary human interactions. The HDC not only enables to test the veracity of theoretical models, it also illuminates features that are not always apparent in real-time human social interactions and the brain correlates thereof.
Johnny Joung-Lin Liaw
Full Text Available After the applications of mini-implant anchorage, the envelope of orthodontic treatment was expanded and some treatment modes were changed because of more predictable tooth movement with empowered anchorage. The author tried to share his experience of TADs applications for clarifying the paradigm shifts of orthodontic treatment assisted with the mini-implant anchorage.
C. D. Peters-Lidard
Full Text Available In this synthesis paper addressing hydrologic scaling and similarity, we posit that roadblocks in the search for universal laws of hydrology are hindered by our focus on computational simulation (the third paradigm and assert that it is time for hydrology to embrace a fourth paradigm of data-intensive science. Advances in information-based hydrologic science, coupled with an explosion of hydrologic data and advances in parameter estimation and modeling, have laid the foundation for a data-driven framework for scrutinizing hydrological scaling and similarity hypotheses. We summarize important scaling and similarity concepts (hypotheses that require testing; describe a mutual information framework for testing these hypotheses; describe boundary condition, state, flux, and parameter data requirements across scales to support testing these hypotheses; and discuss some challenges to overcome while pursuing the fourth hydrological paradigm. We call upon the hydrologic sciences community to develop a focused effort towards adopting the fourth paradigm and apply this to outstanding challenges in scaling and similarity.
Article argues that the values and beliefs of the consumer-survivor recovery movement are closely aligned with those of the social work profession, and the movement offers social workers a more promising perspective from which to practice. Primary concepts and values of the evolving recovery paradigm are delineated; implications for direct…
Simus, Jason Boaz
The new paradigm in ecology emphasizes dynamic change, disturbance, and nonequilibrium in natural systems, and it presents some challenges for contemporary environmental aesthetics, one of which has to do with the thesis known as "scientific cognitivism." Scientific cognitivism holds that appropriate aesthetic appreciation of nature must be…
Full Text Available We live in the Anthropocene era, where human action has an unforeseen impact on global ecosystems. This is visible, for instance, in climate change, in the loss of biodiversity and in the acidification of the oceans. Little attention is given to the fact that the Anthropocene is related to anthropocentric thinking that also guides our policies. Therefore, we argue that ecologically and socially sustainable policies will not be achieved by incidental policy measures alone, but a change of paradigm is needed. In our article, we lay out the tenets of a relational paradigm resting on holistic thinking and deep ecology. On the basis of this paradigm, the principles, conceptions and goals specific to any given policy can be formulated, giving them a common ground. In this article, we apply the relational paradigm to social policy in order to contribute to the quest for sustainable wellbeing in the overconsuming welfare states. Here, we formulate a multidimensional and relational conception of wellbeing, the HDLB-model (Having-Doing-Loving-Being, which is a modification of sociologist Erik Allardt’s theory. We illustrate how this model could provide the foundation of a sustainable ecosocial policy.
Siu, Fiona Kwai-peng
This study aims to explore the effectiveness of a paradigm to teach native Cantonese-speaking university students the hierarchical structure of expository prose to improve paragraph coherence. Most of the diagnostic argumentative essays the participants in this study wrote in the course were incoherent, failing to meet readers' expectation of…
Apr 23, 2015 ... not paradigm-driven. Based on the moral sense that is founded in ... political discourse and application of new policies did not lead to the delivery of the initial promise of a healthy society. In spite of .... 'the voice of nature'; 'the engraven law'; 'the law of nature';. 'the natural law'; 'the inner mind'; 'the rule of ...
Vij, Sumit; Biesbroek, Robbert; Groot, Annemarie; Termeer, Katrien
The aim of this article is to explain and compare the changes in climate policy paradigms (CPPs) of Bangladesh and Nepal. Climate policies are shaped by the underlying CPPs that refer to a dominant set of prevailing and institutionalized ideas and strategies to reduce the impacts of climate change.
Høst, Jeppe Engset
I am going today to speak on rural development and how it is currently practiced in Europe, with a specific focus on the new rural paradigm and the LEADER method. I will try to explain the background and setup of rural development in the European Union, and try to describe the principles of the so...
Putnam, Linda L.
Describes four paradigms that dominate the major research traditions in organizational communication: functionalist, interpretive, radical humanist, and radical structuralist. Argues that, although researchers rarely make their core assumptions known, their beliefs about social reality undergird the way they theorize and put into operation…
Sullivan, Deborah A.; Schmidt-Rinehart, Barbara C.; Morris, Nancy A.
Academic institutions as well as professional organizations are faced with providing their constituents with the knowledge and tools that will enable them to interact with people of other cultures--to be global citizens in both their personal and professional lives. The foreign language profession developed a paradigm that has been effectively…
The South African paradigm that guided the pre-1994 Total Strategy defence outlook was later opposed and ousted by one that was more explanatory and embracing of the democratic features permeating and envisaged for South African society. This democratic imperative drove the dominant shift in the South African ...
The new mobilities paradigm has emerged, becoming a prominent feature in contemporary social science research. Mobility, as one would assume, focuses primarily on the movement and mobilisation of people and has consequently become increasingly associated with a field synonymous with movements en masse, that ...
Paradigm shift: contribution of field epidemiology training in advancing the “One Health” approach to strengthen disease surveillance and outbreak ... brings clinicians, veterinarians, and environmental health professionals drawn from different governmental sectors, to work with a common purpose of disease control and ...
The recent Sustainable Development Goals draw from the antecedents of colonialism, economic growth and development, people-centred development, sustainable development, and globalization. The implications for policy are key issues in regard to the analytical meaning of the co-existing paradigms and the destination ...
Qvist, Tavs; Pressler, Tania; Høiby, Niels
Important paradigms of pulmonary disease with nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are currently shifting based on an increasing attention within the field of cystic fibrosis (CF). These shifts are likely to benefit the management of all patients with pulmonary NTM, regardless of underlying pathology...
О. S. Tokovenko
Full Text Available The purpose of the work is finding the reasonability of using bio-evolutionary paradigm for researching ratio morphic cognitive activity. Methodology. Methodological grounds consist of the original principles and conceptual apparatus of evolutionary epistemology. Scientific novelty. The article identifies opportunities for using of biological and evolutionary paradigm to study the peculiarities of ratiomorphic cognitive backgrounds and their influence on the formation and development of human knowledge. Conclusions. The article concludes that together with the idea of hyper cycles (feedback loop with mutual transmission of information in cognitive process the concept of ratiomorphic cognitive backgrounds, as well as attempts to examine cognitive processes based on the scientific criteria (empirical verification, explanatory power and ability to predict should be certainly considered as a positive contribution to the development of evolutionary epistemology into modern epistemological research. However, it is also indicated the fact of narrowing the heuristic possibilities of this epistemological direction because of excessive metaphor of bio-evolutionary paradigm. Further development of evolutionary epistemological research is considered in shifting the emphasis from biological and evolutionary towards cultural and evolutionary paradigm.
The HIV/AIDS pandemic is having a devastating effect world-wide and particularly in Africa. Over the past two decades, the focus of most government HIV/AIDS initiatives has been on prevention through strategies based on the knowledge efficacy paradigm, and have been unsuccessful in reducing the rate of infection.
This paper therefore examines rural social organizations in bottom-up paradigm in sustainable rural transformation in Nigeria. In an attempt to justify the continued involvement of rural social organizations in rural transformation, the paper takes an overview on the short and long term strategies adopted so far by rural social ...
This is an unprecedented era of human history, in which simultaneous transformations of every technically advanced field are being driven by the powerful technological revolution in information and communications. Technically, these transformative changes are "paradigm shifts"--a distinct kind of historical change in which the governing…
Inspired by the vision of care in Vincent van Gogh's depiction of the parable of the Good Samaritan, this article offers a paradigm for inhabiting compassion. Compassion is understood in this article as a moral emotion that is also a pathocentric virtue. This definition creates a dynamic view of compassion as a desire to ...
It is important to understand the thought patterns of students and supervisors that underlie the choice of paradigm and determine the progression of doctoral studies as an integral part of articulating scholarship at the doctoral level and subsequently, to completing the research. This paper traces a student's and a supervisor's ...
Mar 14, 2011 ... Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 36; Issue 1. Clipboard: New paradigm for ATP synthesis and consumption. C Channakeshava. Volume 36 Issue 1 March 2011 pp 3-4. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/jbsc/036/01/0003-0004 ...
Community-based participatory approach has been used for decades in rural sociology and the humanities in the design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of development and intervention projects. Community-based medical and health education paradigm has become the accepted standard for undergraduate ...
Walker, Alicia; Cormier, Bret T.
We examined the practices, beliefs, and attitudes of secondary teachers in order to identify factors that led to success for non-dominant-group students. We found a unique paradigm among educators whose students of color and/or poverty showed no achievement gap. Rather than coming from a deficit perspective or one expecting assimilation, those…
The new dispensation in South Africa necessitated a paradigm shift at the National Terminology Services (NTS). Being part of the Central Government, the NTS has to implement policy as laid down by the government of the day. Former policy, processes and products are described as well as the vision and objectives for the ...
To assess distance teacher trainees in a fair and authentic manner calls for a shift of the paradigm from 'once off' to a multiple mode assessment. The shift would involve teacher trainees in assessment strategies that provide them with the opportunities to demonstrate their competencies in various ways. This paper proposes ...
Roy, Subhadip; Banerjee, Pratyush
In this paper, an attempt has been made to develop a hybrid ethnographic paradigm, taking the best points from the different approaches of ethnographic research. The pioneering proponents of ethnography differed in their conceptualization of the method, resulting in the development of three distinct schools of thought-holistic, semiotic and…
Port Harcourt Medical Journal, a paradigm shift. N Eke. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0795-3038.179439 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors ...
Researchers rely on theories to guide the research process. Theories provide directions in formulating research questions and in the interpretation of findings. The choice of theory to guide inquiry must relate to research paradigm and corresponding meta-theory. However, many beginning scholars experience difficulty in ...
Rodriguez, Janette; Valenzuela, Madonna; Ayuyao, Nunilon
Purpose: Critical success factors (CSFs) in total quality management (TQM) implementation are vital to the quality improvement of organizations, including higher education institutions (HEIs). The present study aims to attempt to develop a TQM paradigm contextualized to HEIs in the Philippine setting. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 309…
He wished to reframe his readers' thought world, making abundant use of apocalyptic innuendo carried by terminology akin to Jewish apocalyptic theology and piety. Written against the background of modern day Christianity still grappling with law and the old paradigm two thousand years into new creation, this article ...
This article aims to develop a paradigm of lifelong learning situations. The starting point is the EU-Commission policy document where three kinds of learning situations are identified: formal, non-formal and informal. The article tries to deepen this categorisation by searching for the underlying ontological and epistemological dimensions. The…
composite term 'development paradigm' keeps changing over time is not based on empirical ... The need to measure progress of development in under- developed systems led to the establishment of MDGs and measurement targets. Just as the time .... There is no methodology to achieve this in a neat and clean fashion'.
Habron, Geoffrey; Goralnik, Lissy; Thorp, Laurie
Purpose: Michigan State University developed an undergraduate, academic specialization in sustainability based on the learning paradigm. The purpose of this paper is to share initial findings on assessment of systems thinking competency. Design/methodology/approach: The 15-week course served 14 mostly third and fourth-year students. Assessment of…
Tanev, Stoyan; Knudsen, Mette Præst; Bisgaard, Tanja
The objective of the present article is to discuss innovation policy issues related to three emerging innovation paradigms: user-driven innovation, open innovation, and value cocreation. It provides a summary of insights based on innovation policy practices and challenges in Denmark. The choice...
Woodland, Calvin; Parsons, Michael H.
Leadership in the 21st century will require new insights and a new paradigm. With nearly 100 years of combined experience in community college teaching and administration, the authors of this chapter blend theory and experience into a design for engaging the "new normal."
Jan 1, 2016 ... Interpretivism/constructivism. Critical theories. Participatory paradigm. Action is structured, linear and has a cause and effect man- ner (Eisner, 1990). There is an objective, apprehensible reality. (Ponterotto, 2005). .... They are not innocent bystanders in the research process, often playing an active part in ...
An integral, positive psychology paradigm for global coherence, research, and health promotion. ... 0.1 Hz. This is associated with synchronisation between various physiological systems, positive emotions, athletes' “zone” experience, enhanced spirituality, effective prayer, personal, social and global coherence and health.
Rajput, Shahzad K.
The problem of building test collections is central to the development of information retrieval systems such as search engines. The primary use of test collections is the evaluation of IR systems. The widely employed "Cranfield paradigm" dictates that the information relevant to a topic be encoded at the level of documents, therefore…
Kelly, Lynne; Keaten, James A.
Offers a synopsis of M. Beatty and J. McCroskey's 1998 reconceptualization of communication apprehension via the communibiological paradigm. Examines possible treatment implications of this model of communication anxiety for teachers of speech communication, particularly of public speaking. Advances pedagogical strategies, based upon the premise…
Smith, Marlene A.; Keaveney, Susan M.
This article discusses the development and delivery of online courses for the executive education audience. The goal is to introduce a new framework, the technical/strategic paradigm, that will help educators to identify the pedagogical needs of disparate executive groups and adjust their online course development plans accordingly. We describe…
Hennessey, Maeghan N.; Higley, Kelli; Chesnut, Steven R.
Mathematics teachers face a myriad of instructional obstacles. Since the early 1990s, mathematics education researchers have proposed the use of constructivist practices to counteract these ever-prevalent obstacles. While we do give credit to the choices of instructional activities the constructivist paradigm promotes, there are problems with its…
Li, Qing; Clark, Bruce; Winchester, Ian
Although traditional instructional design and technology (IDT) has largely been based on objectivism, in the past 20 years, constructivism has emerged as a dominant framework for IDT. Both perspectives, however, present shortcomings. This paper explores enactivism--an emerging new philosophical world view--as an alternative paradigm. It also…
Jose Miguel DeAngulo
Full Text Available The application of systems theory and the study of complexity to medicine and human health allows for a more comprehensive understanding and a more holistic view of what it means to be human. Such application overcomes the limitations of the traditional, fragmented understanding of phenomena and problems based on the mechanistic or Newtonian worldview. It recognizes that phenomena are interrelated, and that individual parts cannot be understood by only focusing on the analysis of their individual qualities. Rather, the individual parts can only be understood in relation to the whole and by being analyzed in the context of their interaction with the whole. The door is opened to previously unimagined models of thinking.In the 20th Century there have been shifts in the paradigms that have governed medicine and human health in the modern western world. There has been a shift from the focus on specific biological analysis and pathological diagnostics to complex human interactions with the environment and with sociopolitical and economic processes. There are complex models of systems in immunology, in neuroscience, and in genetics, as well as complex ways of understanding interactions as in epidemic modeling, in social media technologies, socioeconomic factors, and artificial intelligence.In this paper we describe three paradigms of the health-disease process that in some degree correspond to the historical development of modern medicine and healthcare over the previous century. The oldest paradigm focused on specific disease mechanisms and treatment. This gave way to paradigms that historically were broader and more inclusive, such as “international health”. The international health paradigm focused primarily on the control of epidemics across national borders and considered government as the only health actor. However, this perspective has come to be seen as excessively reductionist and excluded many critical components essential to a robust
Chakraborty, D P; Haygood, T M; Ryan, J; Marom, E M; Evanoff, M; McEntee, M F; Brennan, P C
Laboratory observer performance measurements, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and free-response ROC (FROC) differ from actual clinical interpretations in several respects, which could compromise their clinical relevance. The objective of this study was to develop a method for quantifying the clinical relevance of a laboratory paradigm and apply it to compare the ROC and FROC paradigms in a nodule detection task. The original prospective interpretations of 80 digital chest radiographs were classified by the truth panel as correct (C=1) or incorrect (C=0), depending on correlation with additional imaging, and the average of C was interpreted as the clinical figure of merit. FROC data were acquired for 21 radiologists and ROC data were inferred using the highest ratings. The areas under the ROC and alternative FROC curves were used as laboratory figures of merit. Bootstrap analysis was conducted to estimate conventional agreement measures between laboratory and clinical figures of merit. Also computed was a pseudovalue-based image-level correctness measure of the laboratory interpretations, whose association with C as measured by the area (rAUC) under an appropriately defined relevance ROC curve, is as a measure of the clinical relevance of a laboratory paradigm. Low correlations (e.g. κ=0.244) and near chance level rAUC values (e.g. 0.598), attributable to differences between the clinical and laboratory paradigms, were observed. The absolute width of the confidence interval was 0.38 for the interparadigm differences of the conventional measures and 0.14 for the difference of the rAUCs. The rAUC measure was consistent with the traditional measures but was more sensitive to the differences in clinical relevance. A new relevance ROC method for quantifying the clinical relevance of a laboratory paradigm is proposed.
Daise Aparecida Rossi
Full Text Available Campylobacter coli is an important species involved in human cases of enteritis, and chickens are carriers of the pathogen mainly in developing country. The current study aimed to evaluate the transmission of C. coli and its pathogenic effects in chicken embryos. Breeder hens were inoculated intra-esophageally with C. coli isolated from chickens, and their eggs and embryos were analyzed for the presence of bacteria using real-time PCR and plate culture. The viability of embryos was verified. In parallel, SPF eggs were inoculated with C. coli in the air sac; after incubation, the embryos were submitted to the same analysis as the embryos from breeder hens. In embryos and fertile eggs from breeder hens, the bacterium was only identified by molecular methods; in the SPF eggs, however, the bacterium was detected by both techniques. The results showed no relationship between embryo mortality and positivity for C. coli in the embryos from breeder hens. However, the presence of bacteria is a cause of precocious mortality for SPF embryos. This study revealed that although the vertical transmission is a possible event, the bacteria can not grow in embryonic field samples.
Xiao, Mengrong; Zhang, Liang; Liu, Shuangping; Shi, Guiyang
We constructed several recombinant Escherichia coli strains to transform phosphoenolpyruvate: carbohydrate phosphotransferase system (PTS system) and compared the characteristics of growth and metabolism of the mutants. We knocked-out the key genes ptsI and ptsG in PTS system by using Red homologous recombination in E. coli and meanwhile we also knocked-in the glucose facilitator gene glf from Zymomonas mobilis in the E. coli chromosome. Recombinant E. coli strains were constructed and the effects of cell growth, glucose consumption and acetic acid accumulation were also evaluated in all recombinant strains. The deletion of gene ptsG and ptsI inactivated some PTS system functions and inhibited the growth ability of the cell. Expressing the gene glf can help recombinant E. coli strains re-absorb the glucose through Glf-Glk (glucose facilitator-glucokinase) pathway as it can use ATP to phosphorylate glucose and transport into cell. This pathway can improve the availability of glucose and also reduce the accumulation of acetic acid; it can also broaden the carbon flux in the metabolism pathway.
Korhonen, T K; Väisänen-Rhen, V; Rhen, M; Pere, A; Parkkinen, J; Finne, J
Fimbriae recognizing sialyl galactosides (S fimbriae) were purified from an Escherichia coli strain. The S fimbriae were morphologically identical to type 1 and P fimbriae of E. coli and showed a hemagglutination that was abolished when erythrocytes were treated with neuraminidase. Hemagglutination by the purified fimbriae was inhibited by orosomucoid but not by its desialylated derivative. Of the oligosaccharides tested, sialyl-(alpha 2-3)-lactose and sialyl-(alpha 2-3)-N-acetyllactosamine had the strongest inhibitory activities. It was concluded that S fimbriae have the strongest affinity for (alpha 2-3)-linked sialyl galactosides. In the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, the hyperimmune serum to the S fimbriae reacted strongly with the homologous antigen but not with type 1, P, or nonhemagglutinating KS71C fimbriae of E. coli. Analogously, the hyperimmune sera to the other E. coli fimbriae did not react with the purified S fimbriae. The immunoprecipitation assay showed that S fimbriae on different E. coli serotypes shared immunological cross-reactivity.
Caires, C. S. A.; Leal, C. R. B.; Rodrigues, A. C. S.; Lima, A. R.; Silva, C. M.; Ramos, C. A. N.; Chang, M. R.; Arruda, E. J.; Oliveira, S. L.; Nascimento, V. A.; Caires, A. R. L.
The emergence of plasmid-mediated colistin resistance in Enterobacteriaceae, mostly in Escherichia coli due to the mcr-1 gene, has revealed the need to develop alternative approaches in treating mcr-1 positive bacterial infections. This is because colistin is a broad-spectrum antibiotic and one of the ‘last-resort’ antibiotics for multidrug resistant bacteria. The present study evaluated for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, the efficacy of photoinactivation processes to kill a known mcr-1 positive E. coli strain. Eosin methylene-blue (EMB) was investigated as a photoantimicrobial agent for inhibiting the growth of a mcr-1 positive E. coli strain obtained from a patient with a diabetic foot infection. The photoantimicrobial activity of EMB was also tested in a non-multidrug resistant E. coli strain. The photoinactivation process was tested using light doses in the 30–45 J cm‑2 range provided by a LED device emitting at 625 nm. Our findings demonstrate that a mcr-1 positive E. coli strain is susceptible to photoinactivation. The results show that the EMB was successfully photoactivated, regardless of the bacterial multidrug resistance; inactivating the bacterial growth by oxidizing the cells in accordance with the generation of the oxygen reactive species. Our results suggest that bacterial photoinactivation is an alternative and effective approach to kill mcr-1 positive bacteria.
Kim, Nam Hee; Cho, Tae Jin; Rhee, Min Suk
This review examined scientific reports and articles published from 2007 to 2016 regarding the major environmental sources of pathogenic Escherichia coli and the routes by which they enter the human gastrointestinal tract. The literature describes novel techniques used to combat pathogenic E. coli transmitted to humans from livestock and agricultural products, food-contact surfaces in processing environments, and food products themselves. Although prevention before contamination is always the best "intervention," many studies aim to identify novel chemical, physical, and biological techniques that inactivate or eliminate pathogenic E. coli cells from breeding livestock, growing crops, and manufactured food products. Such intervention strategies target each stage of the food chain from the perspective of "Farm to Table food safety" and aim to manage major reservoirs of pathogenic E. coli throughout the entire process. Issues related to, and recent trends in, food production must address not only the safety of the food itself but also the safety of those who consume it. Thus, research aims to discover new "natural" antimicrobial agents and to develop "multiple hurdle technology" or other novel technologies that preserve food quality. In addition, this review examines the practical application of recent technologies from the perspective of product quality and safety. It provides comprehensive insight into intervention measures used to ensure food safety, specifically those aimed at pathogenic E. coli. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
In looking to the future, some writers on religious education (RE) have attempted to evaluate current approaches to the subject. Some have characterised any significant change in approach as a "paradigm shift", a term derived from Thomas Kuhn's work in the philosophy of science. This article examines the uses of the terms…
Toth, Peter P; Thanassoulis, George; Williams, Ken; Furberg, Curt D; Sniderman, Allan
All current guidelines use the 10-year risk of a cardiovascular event to select subjects for statin primary preventive therapy. Benefit from therapy is stated to be determined by risk with the result that statin primary preventive therapy is initiated only when the risk of a cardiovascular event over the next decade exceeds a specified level. Thus all current guidelines are based primarily on the Risk-Benefit paradigm of primary prevention. The recent American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology guidelines differ from others in basing selection for statin therapy virtually exclusively on risk except for those few subjects with markedly elevated levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). The Causal Exposure paradigm differs from the Risk-Benefit paradigm in that the objective of therapy is to prevent the anatomic disease within arterial walls that produces cardiovascular risk. Moreover, the anatomic disease and, therefore, the cardiovascular risk, is a function of the injurious action of the causal factors of vascular disease, such as blood pressure and LDL, on the arterial wall over long periods. In this article, we explain the strengths and weaknesses of both paradigms to provide a more secure framework to compare the strengths and weaknesses in the different cholesterol guidelines with particular emphasis on the evidence that the cardiovascular risk and the benefit from statin therapy is related to the level of LDL. Copyright © 2014 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Yang, Shih-Chun; Lin, Chih-Hung; Aljuffali, Ibrahim A; Fang, Jia-You
Food contamination by pathogenic microorganisms has been a serious public health problem and a cause of huge economic losses worldwide. Foodborne pathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli) contamination, such as that with E. coli O157 and O104, is very common, even in developed countries. Bacterial contamination may occur during any of the steps in the farm-to-table continuum from environmental, animal, or human sources and cause foodborne illness. To understand the causes of the foodborne outbreaks by E. coli and food-contamination prevention measures, we collected and investigated the past 10 years' worldwide reports of foodborne E. coli contamination cases. In the first half of this review article, we introduce the infection and symptoms of five major foodborne diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes: enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), Shiga toxin-producing E. coli/enterohemorrhagic E. coli (STEC/EHEC), Shigella/enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC), enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), and enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC). In the second half of this review article, we introduce the foodborne outbreak cases caused by E. coli in natural foods and food products. Finally, we discuss current developments that can be applied to control and prevent bacterial food contamination.
Full Text Available Abstract The ability to adhere to host surfaces is by far the most vital step in the successful colonization by microbial pathogens. Colonization begins with the attachment of the bacterium to receptors expressed by cells forming the lining of the mucosa. Long hair like extracellular appendages called fimbriae, produced by most Gram-negative pathogens, mediate specific attachment to the epithelial cell surface. Associated with the fimbriae is a protein called an adhesin, which directs high-affinity binding to specific cell surface components. In the last couple of years, an enormous amount of research has been undertaken that deals with understanding how bacterial pathogens adhere to host cells. E. coli in all probability is one of the best studied free-living organisms. A group of E. coli called Extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC including both human and animal pathogens like Uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC, Newborn meningitic E. coli (NMEC and Avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC, have been found to harbour many fimbriae including Type 1 fimbriae, P fimbriae, curli fibres, S fimbriae, F1C fimbriae, Dr fimbriae, afimbrial adhesins, temperature-sensitive haemagglutinin and many novel adhesin gene clusters that have not yet been characterized. Each of these adhesins is unique due to the recognition of an adhesin-specific receptor, though as a group these adhesins share common genomic organization. A newly identified putative adhesin temporarily termed ExPEC Adhesin I, encoded by gene yqi, has been recently found to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of APEC infection, thus making it an interesting candidate for future research. The aim of this review is to describe the role of ExPEC adhesins during extraintestinal infections known till date, and to suggest the idea of investigating their potential role in the colonization of the host gut which is said to be a reservoir for ExPEC.
Full Text Available Soon after birth the mammalian gut microbiota forms a permanent and collectively highly resilient consortium. There is currently no robust method for re-deriving an already microbially colonized individual again-germ-free. We previously developed the in vivo growth-incompetent E. coli K-12 strain HA107 that is auxotrophic for the peptidoglycan components D-alanine (D-Ala and meso-diaminopimelic acid (Dap and can be used to transiently associate germ-free animals with live bacteria, without permanent loss of germ-free status. Here we describe the translation of this experimental model from the laboratory-adapted E. coli K-12 prototype to the better gut-adapted commensal strain E. coli HS. In this genetic background it was necessary to complete the D-Ala auxotrophy phenotype by additional knockout of the hypothetical third alanine racemase metC. Cells of the resulting fully auxotrophic strain assembled a peptidoglycan cell wall of normal composition, as long as provided with D-Ala and Dap in the medium, but could not proliferate a single time after D-Ala/Dap removal. Yet, unsupplemented bacteria remained active and were able to complete their cell cycle with fully sustained motility until immediately before autolytic death. Also in vivo, the transiently colonizing bacteria retained their ability to stimulate a live-bacteria-specific intestinal Immunoglobulin (IgA response. Full D-Ala auxotrophy enabled rapid recovery to again-germ-free status. E. coli HS has emerged from human studies and genomic analyses as a paradigm of benign intestinal commensal E. coli strains. Its reversibly colonizing derivative may provide a versatile research tool for mucosal bacterial conditioning or compound delivery without permanent colonization.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The formation of native disulfide bonds is a complex and essential post-translational modification for many proteins. The large scale production of these proteins can be difficult and depends on targeting the protein to a compartment in which disulfide bond formation naturally occurs, usually the endoplasmic reticulum of eukaryotes or the periplasm of prokaryotes. It is currently thought to be impossible to produce large amounts of disulfide bond containing protein in the cytoplasm of wild-type bacteria such as E. coli due to the presence of multiple pathways for their reduction. Results Here we show that the introduction of Erv1p, a sulfhydryl oxidase and FAD-dependent catalyst of disulfide bond formation found in the inter membrane space of mitochondria, allows the efficient formation of native disulfide bonds in heterologously expressed proteins in the cytoplasm of E. coli even without the disruption of genes involved in disulfide bond reduction, for example trxB and/or gor. Indeed yields of active disulfide bonded proteins were higher in BL21 (DE3 pLysSRARE, an E. coli strain with the reducing pathways intact, than in the commercial Δgor ΔtrxB strain rosetta-gami upon co-expression of Erv1p. Conclusions Our results refute the current paradigm in the field that disruption of at least one of the reducing pathways is essential for the efficient production of disulfide bond containing proteins in the cytoplasm of E. coli and open up new possibilities for the use of E. coli as a microbial cell factory.
Mehta, Sonal; Vora, Nirav; Edgell, Randall C; Allam, Hesham; Alawi, Aws; Koehne, Jennifer; Kumar, Abhay; Feen, Eliahu; Cruz-Flores, Salvador; Alshekhlee, Amer
Recent reports suggested better outcomes associated with the drip-and-ship paradigm for acute ischemic stroke (AIS) treated with thrombolysis. We hypothesized that a higher rate of stroke mimics (SM) among AIS treated in nonspecialized stroke centers that are transferred to comprehensive centers is responsible for such outcomes. Consecutive patients treated with thrombolysis according to the admission criteria were reviewed in a single comprehensive stroke center over 1 academic year (July 1, 2011 to June 30, 2012). Information on the basic demographic, hospital complications, psychiatric diagnoses, and discharge disposition was collected. We identified those patients who were treated at a facility and then transferred to the tertiary center (ie, drip-and-ship paradigm). In addition to comparative and adjusted analysis to identify predictors for SM, a stratified analysis by the drip-and-ship status was performed. One hundred twenty patients were treated with thrombolysis for AIS included in this analysis; 20 (16.7%) were discharged with the final diagnosis of SM; 14 of those had conversion syndrome and 6 patients had other syndromes (seizures, migraine, and hypoglycemia). Patients with SM were younger (55.6 ± 15.0 versus 69.4 ± 14.9, P = .0003) and more likely to harbor psychiatric diagnoses (45% versus 9%; P ≤ .0001). Eighteen of 20 SM patients (90%) had the drip-and-ship treatment paradigm compared with 65% of those with AIS (P = .02). None of the SM had hemorrhagic complications, and all were discharged to home. Predictors of SM on adjusted analysis included the drip-and-ship paradigm (odds ratio [OR] 12.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.78, 92.1) and history of any psychiatric illness (OR 12.08; 95% CI 3.14, 46.4). Eighteen of 83 drip-and-ship patients (21.7%) were diagnosed with SM compared with 2 of 37 patients (5.4%) presented directly to the hub hospital (P = .02). The drip-and-ship paradigm and any psychiatric history predict the diagnosis of
Maeda, Toshinari; Sanchez‐Torres, Viviana; Wood, Thomas K.
Summary The production of hydrogen via microbial biotechnology is an active field of research. Given its ease of manipulation, the best‐studied bacterium Escherichia coli has become a workhorse for enhanced hydrogen production through metabolic engineering, heterologous gene expression, adaptive evolution, and protein engineering. Herein, the utility of E. coli strains to produce hydrogen, via native hydrogenases or heterologous ones, is reviewed. In addition, potential strategies for increasing hydrogen production are outlined and whole‐cell systems and cell‐free systems are compared. PMID:21895995
Dodson, Charlotte A
Recombinant protein expression is widely used to generate milligram quantities of protein kinases for crystallographic, enzymatic, or other biophysical assays in vitro. Expression in E. coli is fast, cheap, and reliable. Here I present a detailed protocol for the production of human Aurora-A kinase. I begin with transformation of a suitable plasmid into an expression strain of E. coli, followed by growth and harvesting of bacterial cell cultures. Finally, I describe the purification of Aurora-A to homogeneity using immobilized metal affinity and size exclusion chromatographies.
PMQR) genes and the prevalence of extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) types in Escherichia coli clinical isolates. Methods: Sixty-one ESBL-producing urinary E. coli isolates were studied. An antibiotic susceptibility test was performed ...
PCR) for the analysis of genetic diversity among Escherichia coli strains isolated from commercial swine farms in Sichuan province of China. Thirty four strains of E. coli were selected by selective medium and conventional biochemical test from ...
Hebbelstrup Jensen, Betina; Olsen, Katharina E P; Struve, Carsten
Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) represents a heterogeneous group of E. coli strains. The pathogenicity and clinical relevance of these bacteria are still controversial. In this review, we describe the clinical significance of EAEC regarding patterns of infection in humans, transmission...
Dedeić-Ljubović, AmeLa; Hukić, Mirsada; Bekić, DaRia; Zvizdić, AmrA
Diarrhoeal disease is a major cause of illness and death among infants and young children worldwide. Among the Escherichia coli (E. coli) causing intestinal diseases, there are six well-described categories: enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), diffusely adherent E. coli (DAEC), enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC), entero-pathogenic E. coli (EPEC), enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) and enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC).
Paradigm-oriented research strategies in experimental psychology have strengths and limitations. On the one hand, experimental paradigms play a crucial epistemic and heuristic role in basic psychological research. On the other hand, empirical research is often limited to the observed effects in a certain paradigm, and theoretical models are frequently tied to the particular features of the given paradigm. A paradigm-driven research strategy therefore jeopardizes the pursuit of research questions and theoretical models that go beyond a specific paradigm. As one example of a more integrative approach, recent research on illusory and spurious correlations has attempted to overcome the limitations of paradigm-specific models in the context of biased contingency perception and social stereotyping. Last but not least, the use of statistical models for the analysis of elementary cognitive functions is a means toward a more integrative terminology and theoretical perspective across different experimental paradigms and research domains. © The Author(s) 2011.
Leenders, Roger Th.A.J.; Gabbay, Shaul M.; Fiegenbaum, Avi
The strategic management paradigm explains organizational performance through the alignment between environment, strategy, and reference points. We extend this paradigm by incorporating the role of interorganizational networks on firm performance, thus integrating strategic management and corporate
Wu, Hong; Santoni-Rugiu, Eric; Ralfkiaer, Elisabeth
Lipocalin 2 is a bacteriostatic protein that binds the siderophore enterobactin, an iron-chelating molecule produced by Escherichia coli (E. coli) that is required for bacterial growth. Infection of the lungs by E. coli is rare despite a frequent exposure to this commensal bacterium. Lipocalin 2...... is an effector molecule of the innate immune system and could therefore play a role in hindering growth of E. coli in the lungs....
Kelly-Wintenberg, K; Montie, T. C.
The flagellin gene was isolated from a Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 genomic bank by conjugation into a PA103 Fla- strain. Flagellin DNA was transferred from motile recipient PA103 Fla+ cells by transformation into Escherichia coli. We show that transformed E. coli expresses flagellin protein. Export of flagellin to the E. coli cell surface was suggested by positive colony blots of unlysed cells and by isolation of flagellin protein from E. coli supernatants.
The aim of this article is to discuss Husserlian phenomenology as philosophy and methodology, and its relevance for nursing research. The main content in Husserl's phenomenological world view is described and compared to the unitary-transformative paradigm as mentioned by Newman et al. The phenom......The aim of this article is to discuss Husserlian phenomenology as philosophy and methodology, and its relevance for nursing research. The main content in Husserl's phenomenological world view is described and compared to the unitary-transformative paradigm as mentioned by Newman et al...... is used to give phenomenological researchers and readers an expanding reality picturing, including memories and hopes and not only a reality of the five senses. It is concluded that phenomenology as a world view and methodology can contribute to nursing research and strengthen the identity of nursing...
Duus, Henrik Johannsen
E-learning området er meget varieret hvad angår produkter, holdninger ogmeninger, og indeholder også en del 'støj' og mytedannelser, som afspejles i såvel denakademisk-videnskabelige som den journalistisk-offentlige debat om området. Dennevariation i såvel produkter som udtrykte meninger søges...... systematiseret og ordnet i fireidealtypiske paradigmer. Det vises, hvorledes disse fire paradigmer har hver sinebestemte karakteristika og udviklingsgrænser. Dette har afgørende strategisk betydningfor virksomheders og læreanstalters udvikling af e-learning, idet forkerte paradigmevalgvil hæmme udviklingen....
Full Text Available Origin of spontaneous fat preference in mammals remains elusive. It is clearly a multimodal system resulting from the integration of orosensory and post-ingestive signals. For a long time, dietary lipids were thought to be only sensed in the oral cavity through their textural and olfactory cues. Recent data strongly suggest that the sense of taste also plays a significant role in the preference for lipid-rich foods and in lipid-mediated induction of cephalic phase of the digestion in rodents and in humans. Molecular and physiological mechanisms of this new paradigm become known. Some of these data were not fully expected and might be considered, as first sight, as paradoxical. The « fatty taste » paradigm and paradoxes are analyzed in this minireview.
Osowiec, Darlene A
Within the hypnosis field, there is a disparity between clinical and research worldviews. Clinical practitioners work with patients who are dealing with serious, often unique, real-world problems-lived experience. Researchers adhere to objective measurements, standardization, data, and statistics. Although there is overlap, an ongoing divergence can be counterproductive to the hypnosis field and to the larger professional and social contexts. The purpose of this article is: (1) to examine some of the major assumptions, the history, and the philosophy that undergird the definition of science, which was constructed in the mid-17th century; (2) to discover how science is a product of prevailing social forces and is undergoing a paradigm shift; and (3) to understand the more encompassing, holistic paradigm with implications for the hypnosis field.
Samudhram, Ananda; Siew, Eu-Gene; Sinnakkannu, Jothee; Yeow, Paul H P
Technoeconomic paradigms based economic growth theories suggest that waves of technological innovations drove the economic growth of advanced economies. Widespread economic degradation and pollution is an unintended consequence of such growth. Tackling environmental and social issues at firm levels would help us to overcome such issues at macro-levels. Consequently, the Triple Bottom Line (TBL) reporting approach promotes firm level economic, environmental and social performances. Incorporating Zink's (2014) 3-pillar presentation model, this paper indicates that economic, social and environmental performances tend to be reported at firm level. All three pillars are not covered evenly at the activity levels. Thus, a loophole is identified whereby excellent environmental performance at activity levels could potentially leave poor social performance undisclosed. A refinement of the TBL paradigm, whereby all three pillars are covered at the activity level, is suggested, to enhance sustainability reporting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Orsucci, Franco F
Neurocognitive science represents the modern approach to integrating the subdisciplines aimed at a scientific study of the brain-mind system. This relatively new discipline recognizes, implicitly or explicitly, that this is a complex system whose states and processes are determined by multiple bio-psycho-social variables and order parameters. In a generic perspective, all neurocognitive science is complex, as it is multidisciplinary, but in some studies, complexity has become a more defined scientific paradigm using its own specific empirical and theoretical tools. Some neuroscientists consider complexity science as a specific and formalized paradigm. Between their contributions, the author will try to highlight some current promising paths and new frontiers for neuroscience. In this perspective, he will mostly focus on those contributions directly related to clinical perspectives. This is the reason why some seminal contributions more focused on physiological functioning might not be mentioned.
Hinton, T.G.; Bedford, J.; Ulsh, B.; Whicker, F. Ward
A historical perspective is given of the current paradigm that does not explicitly protect the environment from radiation, but instead, relies on the concept that if dose limits are set to protect humans then the environment is automatically protected as well. We summarize recent international questioning of this paradigm and briefly present three different frameworks for protecting biota that are being considered by the U.S. DOE, the Canadian government and the International Commission on Radiological Protection. We emphasize that an enhanced collaboration is required between what has traditionally been separated disciplines of radiation biology and radiation ecology if we are going to properly address the current environmental radiation problems. We then summarize results generated from an EMSP grant that allowed us to develop a Low Dose Irradiation Facility that specifically addresses effects of low-level, chronic irradiation on multiple levels of biological organization.
Krueger, James M; Tononi, Giulio
The logic and potential mechanisms for a new paradigm, the local use-dependent view of sleep as a distributed dynamic process in brain, are presented. This new paradigm is needed because the current dominant top-down imposition of sleep on the brain by sleep regulatory centers is either silent or is of inadequate explanatory value for many well-known sleep phenomena, e.g. sleep inertia. Two mechanistic falsifiable hypotheses linking sleep to cell use and the emergence of sleep/wake states are presented. These hypotheses are not mutually exclusive and both firmly link sleep to activity-dependent epigenetic brain plasticity and the need to integrate and balance waking activity induced-network connectivity changes. The views presented herein emphasize the inseparability of sleep mechanisms from a connectivity sleep function.
Ahmed, Zeeshan; Zeeshan, Saman; Dandekar, Thomas
Software design and sustainable software engineering are essential for the long-term development of bioinformatics software. Typical challenges in an academic environment are short-term contracts, island solutions, pragmatic approaches and loose documentation. Upcoming new challenges are big data, complex data sets, software compatibility and rapid changes in data representation. Our approach to cope with these challenges consists of iterative intertwined cycles of development (" Butterfly" paradigm) for key steps in scientific software engineering. User feedback is valued as well as software planning in a sustainable and interoperable way. Tool usage should be easy and intuitive. A middleware supports a user-friendly Graphical User Interface (GUI) as well as a database/tool development independently. We validated the approach of our own software development and compared the different design paradigms in various software solutions.
Raymond, Christopher M.; Kenter, Jasper O.; Plieninger, Tobias
Despite rapid advancements in the development of non-monetary techniques for the assessment of social values for ecosystem services, little research attention has been devoted to the evaluation of their underpinning paradigms. This study evaluates two contrasting paradigms for the assessment of s......, pragmatic paradigm that integrates some of the qualities of both. This paradigm has implications for engaging multiple community groups and decision-makers in the articulation and mapping of social values for cultural ecosystem services....
Reitz, O Ed; Malin, Shelly
The movement toward linking reimbursement with outcomes necessitates providing care across a continuum of settings, leading to the need for a new healthcare paradigm. Issues related to shifting to this new paradigm include disagreement about what this paradigm encompasses, the fragmentation of the healthcare system, and overreliance on the medical model as a framework for driving health policy decisions. We advocate for nurse leaders to guide the development of this new paradigm.
Full Text Available This paper reviews the hydraulic paradigm in Spain and its evolution over the last 100 years to the current decentralisation process of "agua para todos", i.e. where different regional governments vie for control over 'scarce' water resources and defining the concept of hydro-solidarity between regions. Recent events seem to point to a new hydraulic bureaucracy at the sub-national level due to the political devolution currently taking place in Spain, where water has an increased political value in electoral terms. Water has strategic importance in single-issue politics and territorial identity, as compared to traditional left/right ideological politics for both national and regional parties in the Spanish multilevel electoral system. This refers to an important aspect of water politics – openly discussed in Spain but rarely analysed – namely the 'political returns' on water (or 'political rent-seeking'. This also points to spatial dimensions of the definition of state, identity, and access to resources in a semiarid country. This historical process of decentralisation of water is highlighted with particular reference to key events in recent Spanish history, including the Hydraulic Plan of the 1930s, its reappearance in the 1993 National Hydrological Plan, a revised version in the year 2001, and a final change in paradigm in 2005 at the national level. This suggests that the hydraulic paradigm is re-enacted at the regional government level. It is argued that a multi-scalar analysis of Spanish water decentralisation is essential in order to understand change and stasis in public policy paradigms related to water.
Swanson, Link R.
Predictive processing (PP) is a paradigm in computational and cognitive neuroscience that has recently attracted significant attention across domains, including psychology, robotics, artificial intelligence and philosophy. It is often regarded as a fresh and possibly revolutionary paradigm shift, yet a handful of authors have remarked that aspects of PP seem reminiscent of the work of 18th century philosopher Immanuel Kant. To date there have not been any substantive discussions of how exactly PP links back to Kant. In this article, I argue that several core aspects of PP were anticipated by Kant (1996/1787) in his works on perception and cognition. Themes from Kant active in PP include: (1) the emphasis on “top-down” generation of percepts; (2) the role of “hyperpriors”; (3) the general function of “generative models”; (4) the process of “analysis-by-synthesis”; and (5) the crucial role of imagination in perception. In addition to these, I also point out that PP echoes Kant’s general project in that it aims to explain how minds track causal structure in the world using only sensory data, and that it uses a reverse-engineer or “top-down” method of analysis. I then locate a possible source of Kant’s influence on PP by tracing the paradigm back to Hermann von Helmholtz, who saw himself as providing a scientific implementation of Kant’s conclusions. I conclude by arguing that PP should not be regarded as a new paradigm, but is more appropriately understood as the latest incarnation of an approach to perception and cognition initiated by Kant and refined by Helmholtz. PMID:27777555
M. Amin Abdullah
Full Text Available Discussing the paradigm of dialogue and integration in the Islamic science of religion is important since the practice of religious education still applies the paradigm of conflict and independence. These paradigms have a great influence on the formation of socio-religious and cultural ways of thinking. The relationship between Islamic religiousc and natural, social, as well as cultural sciences, needs patterns of integrated, interconnected relations and dialogues. Islamic Studies requires a multidisciplinary approach, that is, interdisciplinarity and transdisciplinarity. Scientific linearity, in which science is narrowly defined and mono-disciplinary, will lead to an understanding of religion and religious interpretations that has no contact with and relevance to the context in which it is studied. New types of religious thought that encourage independent discussion and dialogue on the subjective, objective and intersubjective aspects of science and religion will create the emergence of a new type of religiosity in the multicultural era. All of this requires more effort to undertake a serious reconstruction of scientific methodologies and the methodologies of scientific studies of religion.[Penerapan paradigma dialog dan integrasi dalam ilmu-ilmu keislaman masih penting untuk didiskusikan mengingat praktik pendidikan agama masih menerapkan paradigm konflik dan independen. Paradigma-paradigma ini memiliki pengaruh yang besar dalam pembentukan cara pandang keagamaan, baik sosial maupun kultural. Hubungan antara ilmu-ilmu keislaman di satu sisi dengan ilmu-ilmu alam, sosial, dan budaya di sisi lain, memerlukan pola hubungan dan dialog yang terintegrasi-interkoneksi. Studi Islam mensyaratkan pendekatan multi disiplin, baik interdisipliner maupun transdisipliner. Linearitas keilmuan yang membatasi bidang ilmu secara sempit dan mono-disiplin akan menggiring pemahaman agama dan tafsir keagamaan yang tidak terkait dan tidak relevan dengan konteks
Full Text Available The paradigm of unity is a response to the contemporary needs of society; it shows a new way of looking at social and cultural processes, in positive and creative aspects, giving the hope to solve many problems of the modern world. It constitutes a methodological basis for building both the theoretical models and application schemas, also reveals the directions of the empirical research (Biela, 1996.
Kollndorfer, Kathrin; Furtner, Julia; Krajnik, Jacqueline; Prayer, Daniela; Schöpf, Veronika
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a reliable and non-invasive method with which to localize language function in pre-surgical planning. In clinical practice, visual stimulus presentation is often difficult or impossible, due to the patient's restricted language or attention abilities. Therefore, our aim was to investigate modality-specific differences in visual and auditory stimulus presentation. Ten healthy subjects participated in an fMRI study comprising two experiments with visual and auditory stimulus presentation. In both experiments, two language paradigms (one for language comprehension and one for language production) used in clinical practice were investigated. In addition to standard data analysis by the means of the general linear model (GLM), independent component analysis (ICA) was performed to achieve more detailed information on language processing networks. GLM analysis revealed modality-specific brain activation for both language paradigms for the contrast visual > auditory in the area of the intraparietal sulcus and the hippocampus, two areas related to attention and working memory. Using group ICA, a language network was detected for both paradigms independent of stimulus presentation modality. The investigation of language lateralization revealed no significant variations. Visually presented stimuli further activated an attention-shift network, which could not be identified for the auditory presented language. The results of this study indicate that the visually presented language stimuli additionally activate an attention-shift network. These findings will provide important information for pre-surgical planning in order to preserve reading abilities after brain surgery, significantly improving surgical outcomes. Our findings suggest that the presentation modality for language paradigms should be adapted on behalf of individual indication.
Full Text Available The article discusses some paradigms of artificial intelligence in the context of their applications in computer financial systems. The proposed approach has a significant po-tential to increase the competitiveness of enterprises, including financial institutions. However, it requires the effective use of supercomputers, grids and cloud computing. A reference is made to the computing environment for Bitcoin. In addition, we characterized genetic programming and artificial neural networks to prepare investment strategies on the stock exchange market.
Charles M. Reigeluth
This article describes instructional theory that supports post-industrial education and training systems - ones that are customized and learner-centered, in which student progress is based on learning rather than time. The article describes universal methods of instruction, situational methods, core ideas of the post-industrial paradigm of instruction, the importance of and problems with task-based instruction, a vision of an instructional theory for post-industrial education and training, an...
Melbourne-Thomas, Jessica; Constable, Andrew; Wotherspoon, Simon; Raymond, Ben
Antarctic marine ecosystems have undergone significant changes as a result of human activities in the past and are now responding in varied and often complicated ways to climate change impacts. Recent years have seen the emergence of large-scale mechanistic explanations–or “paradigms of change”–that attempt to synthesize our understanding of past and current changes. In many cases, these paradigms are based on observations that are spatially and temporally patchy. The West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP), one of Earth’s most rapidly changing regions, has been an area of particular research focus. A recently proposed mechanistic explanation for observed changes in the WAP region relates changes in penguin populations to variability in krill biomass and regional warming. While this scheme is attractive for its simplicity and chronology, it may not account for complex spatio-temporal processes that drive ecosystem dynamics in the region. It might also be difficult to apply to other Antarctic regions that are experiencing some, though not all, of the changes documented for the WAP. We use qualitative network models of differing levels of complexity to test paradigms of change for the WAP ecosystem. Importantly, our approach captures the emergent effects of feedback processes in complex ecological networks and provides a means to identify and incorporate uncertain linkages between network elements. Our findings highlight key areas of uncertainty in the drivers of documented trends, and suggest that a greater level of model complexity is needed in devising explanations for ecosystem change in the Southern Ocean. We suggest that our network approach to evaluating a recent and widely cited paradigm of change for the Antarctic region could be broadly applied in hypothesis testing for other regions and research fields. PMID:23405116
de Nicolas, A T
New discoveries in perceptual psychology, brain chemistry, brain evolution, brain development, ethology, cultural anthropology, the more recent work of MacLean on the structure of the brains and the discovery by Gazzaniga of the role of the, so-called, "interpreter module," are the foundations of a new paradigm on human cortical information processing, called by its discoverer, Dr. M. Colavito, the "biocultural paradigm." This paradigm shows that biology and culture act on one another as the conditioning parameters of neurocultural information. Through mutual interaction biology in humans becomes culture, and vice versa, culture opens and stimulates the neural passages of the brains, accounting thus for the varieties of brains in humans, and for cultural diversity. Culture conditions and stimulates biology, while biology conditions and makes culture possible. Cultures and brains may be distinguished from one another through identification with certain functions or combination of functions that are exercised habitually, or become neural hard-wire through repetition or habit. This new model has replaced older and simpler models of the nature/ nurture controversy, such as the unextended rational substance of Descartes, the tabula rasa of Locke, the associated-matrix of Hume, the passive, reinforcement-driven animal of Skinner, and the genetically hard-wired robot of the sociobiologists. However, elements of these earlier models are included in the new one, but the conversation about human experience has changed, and, therefore, the human images of ourselves. This change was forced on scientists by the importance of the conditionality of the experience of "I" and "not-I" as described by Alex Comfort in his book I and That, and was introduced in the conversations some of us already had with each other. This article focuses on the "I" and "not-I" experiences with a description of the "not-I" or "oceanic" or "mystical" experience to clarify the new paradigm of
Mocan, Rodica; Racorean, Stefana
Does new media technology have the potential to make us happier? This paper explores the influence of new information communication technologies on family life satisfaction while analyzing some of the factors that determine changes in the way we live our lives in the information age. Family 2.0 is the new paradigm of family life and the emergence of Web 2.0 type of applications is at the very core of its existence.
Full Text Available The paper examines the relationship between neoliberal policies and the Great Recession with a focus on the persistence of the policy paradigm in spite of overwhelming evidence of its role in creating the crisis. These economic problems are only the latest that have arisen in the wake of the three long decade experiment with these policy packages. The paper investigates the ideological, methodological, historical, theoretical, political and economic interests underlying the perpetuation of neoliberalism.
Link Ray Swanson
Full Text Available Predictive processing is a paradigm in computational and cognitive neuroscience that has recently attracted significant attention across domains, including psychology, robotics, artificial intelligence, and philosophy. It is often regarded as a fresh and possibly revolutionary paradigm shift, yet a handful of authors have remarked that aspects of predictive processing seem reminiscent of the work of 18th century philosopher Immanuel Kant. To date there have not been any substantive discussions of how exactly predictive processing links back to Kant. In this article I argue that several core aspects of predictive processing were anticipated by Kant in his 1781-87 works on perception and cognition. Themes from Kant active in predictive processing include (1 the emphasis on ‘top-down’ generation of percepts, (2 the role of ‘hyperpriors’, (3 the general function of ‘generative models’, (4 the process of ‘analysis-by-synthesis’, and (5 the crucial role of imagination in perception. In addition to these, I also point out that predictive processing echoes Kant’s general project in that it aims to explain how minds track causal structure in the world using only sensory data, and that it uses a reverse-engineer or ‘top-down’ method of analysis. I then locate a possible source of Kant’s influence on predictive processing by tracing the paradigm back to Hermann von Helmholtz, who saw himself as providing a scientific implementation of Kant’s conclusions. I conclude by arguing that predictive processing should not be regarded as a new paradigm but is more appropriately understood as the latest incarnation of an approach to perception and cognition initiated by Kant and refined by Helmholtz.
Soft computing (SC) consists of several computing paradigms, including neural networks, fuzzy set theory, approximate reasoning, and derivative-free optimization methods such as genetic algorithms. The integration of those constituent methodologies forms the core of SC. In addition, the synergy allows SC to incorporate human knowledge effectively, deal with imprecision and uncertainty, and learn to adapt to unknown or changing environments for better performance. Together with other modern technologies, SC and its applications exert unprecedented influence on intelligent systems that mimic hum
Олена Миколаївна Отич
Full Text Available Human-center measuring of society education are required by claims of new holistic educational paradigm, which becomes the source of conceptual ideas on providing integral influence of education on intellectual and emotional and sensual spheres of personality with the purpose of its harmonious general and professional development, forming of integral worldview which consists of scientific and artistic worldviews, each of which is valuable
Full Text Available Objectives: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI is a reliable and non-invasive method with which to localize language function in pre-surgical planning. In clinical practice, visual stimulus presentation is often difficult or impossible, due to the patient’s restricted language or attention abilities. Therefore, our aim was to investigate modality-specific differences in visual and auditory stimulus presentation.Methods: Ten healthy subjects participated in an fMRI study comprising two experiments with visual and auditory stimulus presentation. In both experiments, two language paradigms (one for language comprehension and one for language production used in clinical practice were investigated. In addition to standard data analysis by the means of the general linear model (GLM, independent component analysis (ICA was performed to achieve more detailed information on language processing networks.Results: GLM analysis revealed modality-specific brain activation for both language paradigms for the contrast visual > auditory in the area of the intraparietal sulcus and the hippocampus, two areas related to attention and working memory. Using group ICA, a language network was detected for both paradigms independent of stimulus presentation modality. The investigation of language lateralization revealed no significant variations. Visually presented stimuli further activated an attention-shift network, which could not be identified for the auditory presented language.Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that the visually presented language stimuli additionally activate an attention-shift network. These findings will provide important information for pre-surgical planning in order to preserve reading abilities after brain surgery, significantly improving surgical outcomes. Our findings suggest that the presentation modality for language paradigms should be adapted on behalf of individual indication.
Romeo, Ross V.
The Department of Defense's (DOD) ambitious introduction of total quality management (TQM) will fail, unless they change their paradigm and reengineer how they do business. TQM implementation in the defense department and possibilities for reengineering DOD's management structure were investigated. This paper uses a case study to investigate DOD's procurement efficiency and effectiveness with information technology. The findings show DOD is faced with its greatest challenge since WWII in meeting the rapidly evolving environment of the 1990s and the 21st century.
Soothill, University of Lancaster, Keith; Christoffersen, Mogens; Azhar, Hussain
Using Danish registers for a 1980 birth cohort of 29,944 males with parental information and following up these cases for 24 years, the study considers four paradigms of crime reduction (parental child-rearing, structural factors around adolescence, locality and individual resources). Focusing...... more widespread benefits, but the assumed causal links need to be further explored. The use of population registers, under controlled conditions, provides an important window on criminal careers....
Mohammed Nour Eddine Affaya
Full Text Available The seminar’s director asks whether globalization represents a new intercultural dynamic or a will to hegemonic power. The term globalization is, by definition, a process in which the world participates, which it joins, in which it exchanges and communicates.Thus globalization is the carrier of a new paradigm between a tangible economic and communicative reality and an imagery, a phantasmagoria, an universe where imagery feeds on archetypes, prejudices, and dreams.
Full Text Available The authors analyze the developmental framework of digital libraries in China and point out their current demand characteristics, development requirements, and developmental period. They then conclude that it is necessary to start up a new paradigm evolution of a digital library, from a traditional digital library to a virtual digital library. On that basis, they describe in detail several problems and developmental approaches that developing a virtual digital library must deal with, drawing lessons from the prototype DILIGENT.
Tan Sun; Guobin Huang
The authors analyze the developmental framework of digital libraries in China and point out their current demand characteristics, development requirements, and developmental period. They then conclude that it is necessary to start up a new paradigm evolution of a digital library, from a traditional digital library to a virtual digital library. On that basis, they describe in detail several problems and developmental approaches that developing a virtual digital library must deal with, drawing ...
A. A. Verbitsky
Full Text Available The mission of education is changing according to the changing system of social values. Developed concepts related to the conformities of human growth determine the content, education and upbringing methods, pedagogic position and thinking, and way of life in educational institutions.The paper looks at the problems regarding the transition to the new educational paradigm. The author has conducted the historical review and retrospective analysis of the existing over the centuries educational paradigms: natural, civil, Christian, anthropological, and classical. The main emphasis is placed on the latter paradigm based on the principle of conformity to nature and learner’s perception and memorization of the ready-made educational material, since that out-of-date explanatory and illustrative traditional method still remains the most popular in pedagogic environment and dominating over the last three centuries in the world education. Lecture–workshop system of higher education appears to be its specific version based on the same theoretical principles. Most school teachers and academic staff at universities, colleges and vocational schools – some of them without special pedagogic education – work successfully according to Komensky, the founder of the class-lesson system of education. The comparison between the above mentioned classical paradigm and developing modern one in Russian educational system is given. The most significant contro- versies between the two educational models, preventing the implementation of the perspective innovations, are examined. It is emphasized that they can be solved on the theoretical and technological basis of the context teaching.
Liliana Rodriguez; Carlos Peralta
Society, industry and the economy are all experiencing changes caused by a shift from products to services. While a “problem-solving” approach is commonly used for the development of products, new design approaches are needed as the primary unit of exchange moves from goods to services. This research argues that a fundamental transformation in the design world is taking place, manifested in a thinking paradigm shift from problem solving (designing products) towards systems thinking (designin...
Kunze, Anna E; Arntz, Arnoud; Kindt, Merel
We argue that the stimuli used in traditional fear conditioning paradigms are too simple to model the learning and unlearning of complex fear memories. We therefore developed and tested an adapted fear conditioning paradigm, specifically designed for the study of complex associative memories. Second, we explored whether manipulating the meaning and complexity of the CS-UCS association strengthened the learned fear association. In a two-day differential fear conditioning study, participants were randomly assigned to two experimental conditions. All participants were subjected to the same CSs (i.e., pictures) and UCS (i.e., 3 s film clip) during fear conditioning. However, in one of the conditions (negative-relevant context), the reinforced CS and UCS were meaningfully connected to each other by a 12 min aversive film clip presented prior to fear acquisition. Participants in the other condition (neutral context) were not able to make such meaningful connection between these stimuli, as they viewed a neutral film clip. Fear learning and unlearning were observed on fear-potentiated startle data and distress ratings within the adapted paradigm. Moreover, several group differences on these measures indicated increased UCS valence and enhanced associative memory strength in the negative-relevant context condition compared to the neutral context condition. Due to technical equipment failure, skin conductance data could not be interpreted. The fear conditioning paradigm as presented in the negative-relevant context condition holds considerable promise for the study of complex associative fear memories and therapeutic interventions for such memories. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
In the article, the problem of creating a theoretical system for approaching the complex phenomena of Reality is discussed. The idea is expressed that epistemology, as the theory of cognitive process, has a dissociative character. The postulate of an integrated informational system is formulated. Such postulate is a suggested basis for creation of a unified methodology of cognition (investigation) which makes it possible to elaborate a new paradigm of interdisciplinary investigations as a sep...
Swanson, Link R
Predictive processing (PP) is a paradigm in computational and cognitive neuroscience that has recently attracted significant attention across domains, including psychology, robotics, artificial intelligence and philosophy. It is often regarded as a fresh and possibly revolutionary paradigm shift, yet a handful of authors have remarked that aspects of PP seem reminiscent of the work of 18th century philosopher Immanuel Kant. To date there have not been any substantive discussions of how exactly PP links back to Kant. In this article, I argue that several core aspects of PP were anticipated by Kant (1996/1787) in his works on perception and cognition. Themes from Kant active in PP include: (1) the emphasis on "top-down" generation of percepts; (2) the role of "hyperpriors"; (3) the general function of "generative models"; (4) the process of "analysis-by-synthesis"; and (5) the crucial role of imagination in perception. In addition to these, I also point out that PP echoes Kant's general project in that it aims to explain how minds track causal structure in the world using only sensory data, and that it uses a reverse-engineer or "top-down" method of analysis. I then locate a possible source of Kant's influence on PP by tracing the paradigm back to Hermann von Helmholtz, who saw himself as providing a scientific implementation of Kant's conclusions. I conclude by arguing that PP should not be regarded as a new paradigm, but is more appropriately understood as the latest incarnation of an approach to perception and cognition initiated by Kant and refined by Helmholtz.
Paula Pereira Scherre
Full Text Available This abstract has its origins in the call of some authors who indicated the need for developing an Education, teacher-training, and scientific knowledge production, based upon the Complexity and Transdisciplinarity. My goal is to reflect on a (transformative path of reconstruction of the pedagogical-research matrix, developing awareness of the subjacent pragmatic roots of the professional being and doing, as well as teachers and researchers. This meeting was possible through the formative methodology and the research called ‘Autoformative Narrative’ resulting from a qualitative study which has been systematized and theorized throughout my PhD in Education. As a result, we have the present matrix identification, in its pedagogical and research dimensions, the recognition of its foundations in a Cartesian Newtonian paradigm and the openness to the building of another emerging matrix under the Complexity Paradigm, and the Emerging Educational Paradigm. Even knowing that the different paradigms will keep co-existing within me, being aware of how they influence me allows me to improve my professional being and doing. I believe this (Autoformative process enables us to take control of the different formation types and contexts, to empower ourselves with our history and life project, to attribute sense to what is experienced and learned, to value knowledge, learning processes and experiences, in a continued dialogue with disciplinary and theoretical knowledge. I aim to contribute so that learning environments (in class, virtual, and hybrid can be places and times of (transformation, self-knowledge, research, authorship, meaning, creativity, self-knowledge production, and scientific knowledge.
Domen, Ronald E; Baccon, Jennifer
The exponential growth of the field of pathology over the past several decades has created challenges for residency training programs. These challenges include the ability to train competent pathologists in 4 years, an increased demand for fellowship training, and the structuring and completion of maintenance of certification. The authors feel that pathology residency training has reached a critical point and that a new paradigm for training is required. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.