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Sample records for coli acsp2 promoter

  1. Expression of the N2 fixation gene operon of Paenibacillus sp. WLY78 under the control of the T7 promoter in Escherichia coli BL21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lihong; Liu, Xiaomeng; Li, Xinxin; Chen, Sanfeng

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the transcription and translation and nitrogenase activity of the nine N2-fixing-gene (nif) operon (nifBHDKENXhesAnifX) of Paenibacillus sp. WLY78 under the control of the T7 promoter in Escherichia coli BL21 under different conditions. The Paenibacillus nif operon under the control of the T7 promoter is significantly transcribed and effectively translated in E. coli BL21 when grown in medium containing organic N compounds (yeast extract and Tryptone) or NH4+ by using RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Transcription and translation of foreign nif genes in E. coli are not inhibited by environmental organic or inorganic N compounds or O2. However, contrary to transcription and translation, nitrogenase activity is 4% lower in the recombinant E. coli 78-32 compared to the native Paenibacillus sp. WLY78. The Paenibacillus nif operon under the control of T7 promoter enables E. coli BL21 to synthesize active nitrogenase. This study shows how the nif gene operon can be transferred to non-N2-fixing bacteria or to eukaryotic organelles.

  2. Escherichia coli promoter sequences predict in vitro RNA polymerase selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, M E; Hawley, D K; Entriken, R; McClure, W R

    1984-01-11

    We describe a simple algorithm for computing a homology score for Escherichia coli promoters based on DNA sequence alone. The homology score was related to 31 values, measured in vitro, of RNA polymerase selectivity, which we define as the product KBk2, the apparent second order rate constant for open complex formation. We found that promoter strength could be predicted to within a factor of +/-4.1 in KBk2 over a range of 10(4) in the same parameter. The quantitative evaluation was linked to an automated (Apple II) procedure for searching and evaluating possible promoters in DNA sequence files.

  3. Design of cAMP-CRP-activated promoters in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentin-Hansen, P; Holst, B; Søgaard-Andersen, L

    1991-01-01

    We have studied the deoP2 promoter of Escherichia coli to define features that are required for optimal activation by the complex of adenosine 3',5' monophosphate (cAMP) and the cAMP receptor protein (CRP). Systematic mutagenesis of deoP2 shows that the distance between the CRP site and the -10...

  4. Escherichia coli promoter sequences predict in vitro RNA polymerase selectivity.

    OpenAIRE

    Mulligan, M E; Hawley, D K; Entriken, R; McClure, W R

    1984-01-01

    We describe a simple algorithm for computing a homology score for Escherichia coli promoters based on DNA sequence alone. The homology score was related to 31 values, measured in vitro, of RNA polymerase selectivity, which we define as the product KBk2, the apparent second order rate constant for open complex formation. We found that promoter strength could be predicted to within a factor of +/-4.1 in KBk2 over a range of 10(4) in the same parameter. The quantitative evaluation was linked to ...

  5. Viral promoters can initiate expression of toxin genes introduced into Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Daniela

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The expression of recombinant proteins in eukaryotic cells requires the fusion of the coding region to a promoter functional in the eukaryotic cell line. Viral promoters are very often used for this purpose. The preceding cloning procedures are usually performed in Escherichia coli and it is therefore of interest if the foreign promoter results in an expression of the gene in bacteria. In the case molecules toxic for humans are to be expressed, this knowledge is indispensable for the specification of safety measures. Results We selected five frequently used viral promoters and quantified their activity in E. coli with a reporter system. Only the promoter from the thymidine kinase gene from HSV1 showed no activity, while the polyhedrin promoter from baculovirus, the early immediate CMV promoter, the early SV40 promoter and the 5' LTR promoter from HIV-1 directed gene expression in E. coli. The determination of transcription start sites in the immediate early CMV promoter and the polyhedrin promoter confirmed the existence of bacterial -10 and -35 consensus sequences. The importance of this heterologous gene expression for safety considerations was further supported by analysing fusions between the aforementioned promoters and a promoter-less cytotoxin gene. Conclusion According to our results a high percentage of viral promoters have the ability of initiating gene expression in E. coli. The degree of such heterologous gene expression can be sufficient for the expression of toxin genes and must therefore be considered when defining safety measures for the handling of corresponding genetically modified organisms.

  6. Compilation and analysis of Escherichia coli promoter DNA sequences.

    OpenAIRE

    Hawley, D K; McClure, W R

    1983-01-01

    The DNA sequence of 168 promoter regions (-50 to +10) for Escherichia coli RNA polymerase were compiled. The complete listing was divided into two groups depending upon whether or not the promoter had been defined by genetic (promoter mutations) or biochemical (5' end determination) criteria. A consensus promoter sequence based on homologies among 112 well-defined promoters was determined that was in substantial agreement with previous compilations. In addition, we have tabulated 98 promoter ...

  7. Promoters of Escherichia coli versus promoter islands: function and structure comparison.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy V Panyukov

    Full Text Available Expression of bacterial genes takes place under the control of RNA polymerase with exchangeable σ-subunits and multiple transcription factors. A typical promoter region contains one or several overlapping promoters. In the latter case promoters have the same or different σ-specificity and are often subjected to different regulatory stimuli. Genes, transcribed from multiple promoters, have on average higher expression levels. However, recently in the genome of Escherichia coli we found 78 regions with an extremely large number of potential transcription start points (promoter islands, PIs. It was shown that all PIs interact with RNA polymerase in vivo and are able to form transcriptionally competent open complexes both in vitro and in vivo but their transcriptional activity measured by oligonucleotide microarrays was very low, if any. Here we confirmed transcriptional defectiveness of PIs by analyzing the 5'-end specific RNA-seq data, but showed their ability to produce short oligos (9-14 bases. This combination of functional properties indicated a deliberate suppression of transcriptional activity within PIs. According to our data this suppression may be due to a specific conformation of the DNA double helix, which provides an ideal platform for interaction with both RNA polymerase and the histone-like nucleoid protein H-NS. The genomic DNA of E.coli contains therefore several dozen sites optimized by evolution for staying in a heterochromatin-like state. Since almost all promoter islands are associated with horizontally acquired genes, we offer them as specific components of bacterial evolution involved in acquisition of foreign genetic material by turning off the expression of toxic or useless aliens or by providing optimal promoter for beneficial genes. The putative molecular mechanism underlying the appearance of promoter islands within recipient genomes is discussed.

  8. The CytR repressor antagonizes cyclic AMP-cyclic AMP receptor protein activation of the deoCp2 promoter of Escherichia coli K-12

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard-Andersen, L; Martinussen, J; Møllegaard, N E

    1990-01-01

    We have investigated the regulation of the Escherichia coli deoCp2 promoter by the CytR repressor and the cyclic AMP (cAMP) receptor protein (CRP) complexed to cAMP. Promoter regions controlled by these two proteins characteristically contain tandem cAMP-CRP binding sites. Here we show that (i) Cyt...

  9. Characterization and sequence analysis of the F2 promoter from corynephage BFK20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koptides, M.; Ugorcakova, J.; Baloghova, E.; Bukovska, G.; Timko, J.

    1994-01-01

    F2 promoter from corynephage BFK20 was isolated and characterized. It was functional in Escherichia coli and Corynebacterium glutamicum. Cloning of the F2 promoter into the pJUP05 promoter probe vector caused an increase of the neomycin phosphotransferase II specific activity. According to the Northern blot hybridization the nptII gene was expressed from the cloned F2 promoter. The apparent transcription start point in E. coli and C. glutamicum was determined. The-35 region of F2 promoter showed high similarity to that of E. coli promoter consensus sequence, but its - 10 region was G+C rich and had no significant homology to that. (author)

  10. High dietary zinc feeding promotes persistence of multi-resistant E. coli in the swine gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciesinski, Lisa; Guenther, Sebastian; Pieper, Robert; Kalisch, Martin; Bednorz, Carmen; Wieler, Lothar H

    2018-01-01

    High levels of zinc oxide are used frequently as feed additive in pigs to improve gut health and growth performance and are still suggested as an alternative to antimicrobial growth promoters. However, we have recently described an increase of multi-resistant E. coli in association to zinc feeding in piglets. This previous study focused on clonal diversity of E. coli, observing the effect on multi-resistant strains by chance. To shed further light into this highly important topic and falsify our previous findings, we performed a zinc pig feeding trial where we specifically focused on in-depth analysis of antimicrobial resistant E. coli. Under controlled experimental conditions, piglets were randomly allocated to a high dietary zinc (zinc group) and a background zinc feeding group (control group). At different ages samples were taken from feces, digesta, and mucosa and absolute E. coli numbers were determined. A total of 2665 E. coli isolates were than phenotypically tested for antimicrobial resistance and results were confirmed by minimum inhibitory concentration testing for random samples. In piglets fed with high dietary zinc, we detected a substantial increase of multi-resistant E. coli in all gut habitats tested, ranging from 28.9-30.2% multi-resistant E. coli compared to 5.8-14.0% in the control group. This increase was independent of the total number of E. coli. Interestingly, the total amount of the E. coli population decreased over time. Thus, the increase of the multi-resistant E. coli populations seems to be linked with persistence of the resistant population, caused by the influence of high dietary zinc feeding. In conclusion, these findings corroborate our previous report linking high dietary zinc feeding of piglets with the occurrence of antimicrobial resistant E. coli and therefore question the feeding of high dietary zinc oxide as alternative to antimicrobial growth promoters.

  11. The whole set of constitutive promoters recognized by RNA polymerase RpoD holoenzyme of Escherichia coli.

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    Tomohiro Shimada

    Full Text Available The promoter selectivity of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase is determined by the sigma subunit with promoter recognition activity. The model prokaryote Escherichia coli contains seven species of the sigma subunit, each recognizing a specific set of promoters. The major sigma subunit, sigma-70 encoded by rpoD, plays a major role in transcription of growth-related genes. Concomitant with the increase in detection of promoters functioning in vivo under various stressful conditions, the variation is expanding in the consensus sequence of RpoD promoters. In order to identify the canonical sequence of "constitutive promoters" that are recognized by the RNA polymerase holoenzyme containing RpoD sigma in the absence of supporting transcription factors, an in vitro mixed transcription assay was carried out using a whole set of variant promoters, each harboring one base replacement, within the model promoter with the conserved -35 and -10 sequences of RpoD promoters. The consensus sequences, TTGACA(-35 and TATAAT(-10, were identified to be ideal for the maximum level of open complex formation and the highest rate of promoter opening, respectively. For identification of the full range of constitutive promoters on the E. coli genome, a total of 2,701 RpoD holoenzyme-binding sites were identified by Genomic SELEX screening, and using the reconfirmed consensus promoter sequence, a total of maximum 669 constitutive promoters were identified, implying that the majority of hitherto identified promoters represents the TF-dependent "inducible promoters". One unique feature of the constitutive promoters is the high level of promoter sequence conservation, about 85% carrying five-out-of-six agreements with -35 or -10 consensus sequence. The list of constitutive promoters provides the community resource toward estimation of the inducible promoters that operate under various stressful conditions in nature.

  12. Function of Corynebacterium glutamicum promoters in Eschrichia coli, Streptomyces lividans, and Baccillus subtilis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pátek, Miroslav; Muth, G.; Wohlleben, W.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 104, - (2003), s. 325-334 ISSN 0168-1656 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IPP1050128; GA ČR GA525/01/0916 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : corynebacterium glutamicum * escherichia coli * promoters Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.543, year: 2003

  13. bTSSfinder: a novel tool for the prediction of promoters in Cyanobacteria andEscherichia coli

    KAUST Repository

    Shahmuradov, Ilham Ayub

    2016-09-29

    Motivation: The computational search for promoters in prokaryotes remains an attractive problem in bioinformatics. Despite the attention it has received for many years, the problem has not been addressed satisfactorily. In any bacterial genome, the transcription start site is chosen mostly by the sigma (σ) factor proteins, which control the gene activation. The majority of published bacterial promoter prediction tools target σ70 promoters in Escherichia coli. Moreover, no σ-specific classification of promoters is available for prokaryotes other than for E. coli. Results: Here, we introduce bTSSfinder, a novel tool that predicts putative promoters for five classes of σ factors in Cyanobacteria (σA, σC, σH, σG and σF) and for five classes of sigma factors in E. coli (σ70, σ38, σ32, σ28 and σ24). Comparing to currently available tools, bTSSfinder achieves higher accuracy (MCC=0.86, F1-score=0.93) compared to the next best tool with MCC=0.59, F1-score=0.79) and covers multiple classes of promoters.

  14. Re-wiring of energy metabolism promotes viability during hyperreplication stress in E. coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charbon, Godefroid; Campion, Christopher; Chan, Siu Hung Joshua

    2017-01-01

    Chromosome replication in Escherichia coli is initiated by DnaA. DnaA binds ATP which is essential for formation of a DnaA-oriC nucleoprotein complex that promotes strand opening, helicase loading and replisome assembly. Following initiation, DnaAATP is converted to DnaAADP primarily by the Regul......Chromosome replication in Escherichia coli is initiated by DnaA. DnaA binds ATP which is essential for formation of a DnaA-oriC nucleoprotein complex that promotes strand opening, helicase loading and replisome assembly. Following initiation, DnaAATP is converted to DnaAADP primarily...

  15. A genome-wide analysis of promoter-mediated phenotypic noise in Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olin K Silander

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene expression is subject to random perturbations that lead to fluctuations in the rate of protein production. As a consequence, for any given protein, genetically identical organisms living in a constant environment will contain different amounts of that particular protein, resulting in different phenotypes. This phenomenon is known as "phenotypic noise." In bacterial systems, previous studies have shown that, for specific genes, both transcriptional and translational processes affect phenotypic noise. Here, we focus on how the promoter regions of genes affect noise and ask whether levels of promoter-mediated noise are correlated with genes' functional attributes, using data for over 60% of all promoters in Escherichia coli. We find that essential genes and genes with a high degree of evolutionary conservation have promoters that confer low levels of noise. We also find that the level of noise cannot be attributed to the evolutionary time that different genes have spent in the genome of E. coli. In contrast to previous results in eukaryotes, we find no association between promoter-mediated noise and gene expression plasticity. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that, in bacteria, natural selection can act to reduce gene expression noise and that some of this noise is controlled through the sequence of the promoter region alone.

  16. Chromosomal features of Escherichia coli serotype O2:K2, an avian pathogenic E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Steffen L; Kudirkiene, Egle; Li, Lili; Christensen, Jens P; Olsen, John E; Nolan, Lisa; Olsen, Rikke H

    2017-01-01

    Escherichia coli causing infection outside the gastrointestinal system are referred to as extra-intestinal pathogenic E. coli. Avian pathogenic E. coli is a subgroup of extra-intestinal pathogenic E. coli and infections due to avian pathogenic E. coli have major impact on poultry production economy and welfare worldwide. An almost defining characteristic of avian pathogenic E. coli is the carriage of plasmids, which may encode virulence factors and antibiotic resistance determinates. For the same reason, plasmids of avian pathogenic E. coli have been intensively studied. However, genes encoded by the chromosome may also be important for disease manifestation and antimicrobial resistance. For the E. coli strain APEC_O2 the plasmids have been sequenced and analyzed in several studies, and E. coli APEC_O2 may therefore serve as a reference strain in future studies. Here we describe the chromosomal features of E. coli APEC_O2. E. coli APEC_O2 is a sequence type ST135, has a chromosome of 4,908,820 bp (plasmid removed), comprising 4672 protein-coding genes, 110 RNA genes, and 156 pseudogenes, with an average G + C content of 50.69%. We identified 82 insertion sequences as well as 4672 protein coding sequences, 12 predicated genomic islands, three prophage-related sequences, and two clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats regions on the chromosome, suggesting the possible occurrence of horizontal gene transfer in this strain. The wildtype strain of E. coli APEC_O2 is resistant towards multiple antimicrobials, however, no (complete) antibiotic resistance genes were present on the chromosome, but a number of genes associated with extra-intestinal disease were identified. Together, the information provided here on E. coli APEC_O2 will assist in future studies of avian pathogenic E. coli strains, in particular regarding strain of E. coli APEC_O2, and aid in the general understanding of the pathogenesis of avian pathogenic E. coli .

  17. Tailoring Escherichia coli for the L-rhamnose PBAD promoter-based production of membrane and secretory proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hjelm, Anna; Karyolaimos, Alexandros; Zhang, Zhe; Rujas, Edurne; Vikström, David; Slotboom, Dirk Jan; de Gier, Jan-Willem

    Membrane and secretory protein production in Escherichia coli requires precisely controlled production rates to avoid the deleterious saturation of their biogenesis pathways. Based on this requirement, the E. coli L-rhamnose PBAD promoter (PrhaBAD) is often used for membrane and secretory protein

  18. A strategy of gene overexpression based on tandem repetitive promoters in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Mingji

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For metabolic engineering, many rate-limiting steps may exist in the pathways of accumulating the target metabolites. Increasing copy number of the desired genes in these pathways is a general method to solve the problem, for example, the employment of the multi-copy plasmid-based expression system. However, this method may bring genetic instability, structural instability and metabolic burden to the host, while integrating of the desired gene into the chromosome may cause inadequate transcription or expression. In this study, we developed a strategy for obtaining gene overexpression by engineering promoter clusters consisted of multiple core-tac-promoters (MCPtacs in tandem. Results Through a uniquely designed in vitro assembling process, a series of promoter clusters were constructed. The transcription strength of these promoter clusters showed a stepwise enhancement with the increase of tandem repeats number until it reached the critical value of five. Application of the MCPtacs promoter clusters in polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB production proved that it was efficient. Integration of the phaCAB genes with the 5CPtacs promoter cluster resulted in an engineered E.coli that can accumulate 23.7% PHB of the cell dry weight in batch cultivation. Conclusions The transcription strength of the MCPtacs promoter cluster can be greatly improved by increasing the tandem repeats number of the core-tac-promoter. By integrating the desired gene together with the MCPtacs promoter cluster into the chromosome of E. coli, we can achieve high and stale overexpression with only a small size. This strategy has an application potential in many fields and can be extended to other bacteria.

  19. Transport proteins promoting Escherichia coli pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Fengyi; Saier, Milton H.

    2014-01-01

    Escherichia coli is a genetically diverse species infecting hundreds of millions of people worldwide annually. We examined seven well-characterized E. coli pathogens causing urinary tract infections, gastroenteritis, pyelonephritis and haemorrhagic colitis. Their transport proteins were identified and compared with each other and a non-pathogenic E. coli K12 strain to identify transport proteins related to pathogenesis. Each pathogen possesses a unique set of protein secretion systems for export to the cell surface or for injecting effector proteins into host cells. Pathogens have increased numbers of iron siderophore receptors and ABC iron uptake transporters, but the numbers and types of low-affinity secondary iron carriers were uniform in all strains. The presence of outer membrane iron complex receptors and high-affinity ABC iron uptake systems correlated, suggesting co-evolution. Each pathovar encodes a different set of pore-forming toxins and virulence-related outer membrane proteins lacking in K12. Intracellular pathogens proved to have a characteristically distinctive set of nutrient uptake porters, different from those of extracellular pathogens. The results presented in this report provide information about transport systems relevant to various types of E. coli pathogenesis that can be exploited in future basic and applied studies. PMID:24747185

  20. Transport proteins promoting Escherichia coli pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Fengyi; Saier, Milton H

    2014-01-01

    Escherichia coli is a genetically diverse species infecting hundreds of millions of people worldwide annually. We examined seven well-characterized E. coli pathogens causing urinary tract infections, gastroenteritis, pyelonephritis and haemorrhagic colitis. Their transport proteins were identified and compared with each other and a non-pathogenic E. coli K12 strain to identify transport proteins related to pathogenesis. Each pathogen possesses a unique set of protein secretion systems for export to the cell surface or for injecting effector proteins into host cells. Pathogens have increased numbers of iron siderophore receptors and ABC iron uptake transporters, but the numbers and types of low-affinity secondary iron carriers were uniform in all strains. The presence of outer membrane iron complex receptors and high-affinity ABC iron uptake systems correlated, suggesting co-evolution. Each pathovar encodes a different set of pore-forming toxins and virulence-related outer membrane proteins lacking in K12. Intracellular pathogens proved to have a characteristically distinctive set of nutrient uptake porters, different from those of extracellular pathogens. The results presented in this report provide information about transport systems relevant to various types of E. coli pathogenesis that can be exploited in future basic and applied studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Photocatalytic production of 1O2 and ·OH mediated by silver oxidation during the photoinactivation of Escherichia coli with TiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Camilo A.; Osorio, Paula; Sienkiewicz, Andrzej; Pulgarin, Cesar; Centeno, Aristóbulo; Giraldo, Sonia A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Metallic silver enhances the Ag–TiO 2 photoinactivation of Escherichia coli under Vis irradiation. ► 1 O 2 and ·OH were identified in Vis irradiated Ag–TiO 2 suspensions. ► UV oxidized the Ag metallic species in the material decreasing photoactivity. ► Dark contact of the UV oxidized material with E. coli regenerates the photocatalyst. - Abstract: Ag loaded TiO 2 was applied in the photocatalytic inactivation of Escherichia coli under ultraviolet (UV) and visible (Vis) light irradiations. Ag enhanced the TiO 2 photodisinfecting effect under Vis irradiation promoting the formation of singlet oxygen and hydroxyl radicals as identified by EPR analyses. Ag nanoparticles, determined on TEM analyses, undergo an oxidation process on the TiO 2 's surface under UV or Vis irradiation as observed by XPS. In particular, UV pre-irradiation of the material totally diminished its photodisinfection activity under a subsequent Vis irradiation test. Under UV, photodegradation of dichloroacetic acid (DCA), attributed to photoproduced holes in TiO 2 , was inhibited by the presence of Ag suggesting that oxidation of Ag 0 to Ag + and Ag 2+ is faster than the oxidative path of the TiO 2 's holes on DCA molecules. Furthermore, photoassisted increased of Ag + concentration on TiO 2 's surface enhances the bacteriostatic activity of the material in dark periods. Indeed, this latter dark contact of Ag + –TiO 2 and E. coli seems to induce recovering of the Vis light photoactivity promoted by the surface Ag photoactive species.

  2. Lipocalin 2 is protective against E. coli pneumonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hong; Santoni-Rugiu, Eric; Ralfkiaer, Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    Lipocalin 2 is a bacteriostatic protein that binds the siderophore enterobactin, an iron-chelating molecule produced by Escherichia coli (E. coli) that is required for bacterial growth. Infection of the lungs by E. coli is rare despite a frequent exposure to this commensal bacterium. Lipocalin 2...... is an effector molecule of the innate immune system and could therefore play a role in hindering growth of E. coli in the lungs....

  3. Uropathogenic E. coli Exploit CEA to Promote Colonization of the Urogenital Tract Mucosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muenzner, Petra; Kengmo Tchoupa, Arnaud; Klauser, Benedikt; Brunner, Thomas; Putze, Johannes; Dobrindt, Ulrich; Hauck, Christof R.

    2016-01-01

    Attachment to the host mucosa is a key step in bacterial pathogenesis. On the apical surface of epithelial cells, members of the human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) family are abundant glycoproteins involved in cell-cell adhesion and modulation of cell signaling. Interestingly, several gram-negative bacterial pathogens target these receptors by specialized adhesins. The prototype of a CEACAM-binding pathogen, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, utilizes colony opacity associated (Opa) proteins to engage CEA, as well as the CEA-related cell adhesion molecules CEACAM1 and CEACAM6 on human epithelial cells. By heterologous expression of neisserial Opa proteins in non-pathogenic E. coli we find that the Opa protein-CEA interaction is sufficient to alter gene expression, to increase integrin activity and to promote matrix adhesion of infected cervical carcinoma cells and immortalized vaginal epithelial cells in vitro. These CEA-triggered events translate in suppression of exfoliation and improved colonization of the urogenital tract by Opa protein-expressing E. coli in CEA-transgenic compared to wildtype mice. Interestingly, uropathogenic E. coli expressing an unrelated CEACAM-binding protein of the Afa/Dr adhesin family recapitulate the in vitro and in vivo phenotype. In contrast, an isogenic strain lacking the CEACAM-binding adhesin shows reduced colonization and does not suppress epithelial exfoliation. These results demonstrate that engagement of human CEACAMs by distinct bacterial adhesins is sufficient to blunt exfoliation and to promote host infection. Our findings provide novel insight into mucosal colonization by a common UPEC pathotype and help to explain why human CEACAMs are a preferred epithelial target structure for diverse gram-negative bacteria to establish a foothold on the human mucosa. PMID:27171273

  4. Synthetic operon for (R,R)-2,3-butanediol production in Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Rafael R; Nicholson, Wayne L

    2016-01-01

    To reduce dependence on petroleum, an alternative route to production of the chemical feedstock 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD) from renewable lignocellulosic sources is desirable. In this communication, the genes encoding the pathway from pyruvate to 2,3-BD (alsS, alsD, and bdhA encoding acetolactate synthase, acetolactate decarboxylase, and butanediol dehydrogenase, respectively) from Bacillus subtilis were engineered into a single tricistronic operon under control of the isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG)-inducible Pspac promoter in a shuttle plasmid capable of replication and expression in either B. subtilis or Escherichia coli. We describe the construction and performance of a shuttle plasmid carrying the IPTG-inducible synthetic operon alsSDbdhA coding for 2,3-BD pathway capable of (i) expression in two important representative model microorganisms, the gram-positive B. subtilis and the gram-negative E. coli; (ii) increasing 2,3-BD production in B. subtilis; and (iii) successfully introducing the B. subtilis 2,3-BD pathway into E. coli. The synthetic alsSDbdhA operon constructed using B. subtilis native genes not only increased the 2,3-BD production in its native host but also efficiently expressed the pathway in the heterologous organism E. coli. Construction of an efficient shuttle plasmid will allow investigation of 2,3-BD production performance in related organisms with industrial potential for production of bio-based chemicals.

  5. bTSSfinder: a novel tool for the prediction of promoters in Cyanobacteria andEscherichia coli

    KAUST Repository

    Shahmuradov, Ilham; Mohamad Razali, Rozaimi; Bougouffa, Salim; Radovanovic, Aleksandar; Bajic, Vladimir B.

    2016-01-01

    Results: Here, we introduce bTSSfinder, a novel tool that predicts putative promoters for five classes of σ factors in Cyanobacteria (σA, σC, σH, σG and σF) and for five classes of sigma factors in E. coli (σ70, σ38, σ32, σ28 and σ24). Comparing to currently available tools, bTSSfinder achieves higher accuracy (MCC=0.86, F1-score=0.93) compared to the next best tool with MCC=0.59, F1-score=0.79) and covers multiple classes of promoters.

  6. Chromosomal features of Escherichia coli serotype O2:K2, an avian pathogenic E. coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Steffen L; Kudirkiene, Egle; Li, Lili

    2017-01-01

    Escherichia coli causing infection outside the gastrointestinal system are referred to as extra-intestinal pathogenic E. coli. Avian pathogenic E. coli is a subgroup of extra-intestinal pathogenic E. coli and infections due to avian pathogenic E. coli have major impact on poultry production econo...

  7. Cysteine Addition Promotes Sulfide Production and 4-Fold Hg(II)-S Coordination in Actively Metabolizing Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Sara A; Gaillard, Jean-François

    2017-04-18

    The bacterial uptake of mercury(II), Hg(II), is believed to be energy-dependent and is enhanced by cysteine in diverse species of bacteria under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. To gain insight into this Hg(II) biouptake pathway, we have employed X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) to investigate the relationship between exogenous cysteine, cellular metabolism, cellular localization, and Hg(II) coordination in aerobically respiring Escherichia coli (E. coli). We show that cells harvested in exponential growth phase consistently display mixtures of 2-fold and 4-fold Hg(II) coordination to sulfur (Hg-S 2 and Hg-S 4 ), with added cysteine enhancing Hg-S 4 formation. In contrast, cells in stationary growth phase or cells treated with a protonophore causing a decrease in cellular ATP predominantly contain Hg-S 2 , regardless of cysteine addition. Our XAS results favor metacinnabar (β-HgS) as the Hg-S 4 species, which we show is associated with both the cell envelope and cytoplasm. Additionally, we observe that added cysteine abiotically oxidizes to cystine and exponentially growing E. coli degrade high cysteine concentrations (100-1000 μM) into sulfide. Thermodynamic calculations confirm that cysteine-induced sulfide biosynthesis can promote the formation of dissolved and particulate Hg(II)-sulfide species. This report reveals new complexities arising in Hg(II) bioassays with cysteine and emphasizes the need for considering changes in chemical speciation as well as growth stage.

  8. Systematic Dissection of Sequence Elements Controlling σ70 Promoters Using a Genomically-Encoded Multiplexed Reporter Assay in E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urtecho, Guillaume; Tripp, Arielle D; Insigne, Kimberly; Kim, Hwangbeom; Kosuri, Sriram

    2018-02-01

    Promoters are the key drivers of gene expression and are largely responsible for the regulation of cellular responses to time and environment. In E. coli , decades of studies have revealed most, if not all, of the sequence elements necessary to encode promoter function. Despite our knowledge of these motifs, it is still not possible to predict the strength and regulation of a promoter from primary sequence alone. Here we develop a novel multiplexed assay to study promoter function in E. coli by building a site-specific genomic recombination-mediated cassette exchange (RMCE) system that allows for the facile construction and testing of large libraries of genetic designs integrated into precise genomic locations. We build and test a library of 10,898 σ70 promoter variants consisting of all combinations of a set of eight -35 elements, eight -10 elements, three UP elements, eight spacers, and eight backgrounds. We find that the -35 and -10 sequence elements can explain approximately 74% of the variance in promoter strength within our dataset using a simple log-linear statistical model. Neural network models can explain greater than 95% of the variance in our dataset, and show the increased power is due to nonlinear interactions of other elements such as the spacer, background, and UP elements.

  9. Kinetics of activation of the P4 promoter of pBR322 by the Escherichia coli cyclic AMP receptor protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoggett, J G; Brierley, I

    1992-11-01

    The activation of transcription initiation from the P4 promoter of pBR322 by the Escherichia coli cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) has been investigated using a fluorescence abortive initiation assay. The effect of the cyclic-AMP/CRP complex on the linear P4 promoter was to increase the initial binding (KB) of RNA polymerase to the promoter by about a factor of 10, but the rate of isomerization of closed to open complex (kf) was unaffected. One molecule of CRP per promoter was required for activation, and the concentration of cyclic AMP producing half-maximal stimulation was about 7-8 microM. Supercoiling caused a 2-3-fold increase in the rate of isomerization of the CRP-activated promoter, but weakened the initial binding of polymerase by about one order of magnitude. The unactivated supercoiled promoter was too weak to allow reliable assessment of kinetic parameters against the high background rate originating from the rest of the plasmid.

  10. Assessing the effects of data selection and representation on the development of reliable E. coli sigma 70 promoter region predictors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa M Abbas

    Full Text Available As the number of sequenced bacterial genomes increases, the need for rapid and reliable tools for the annotation of functional elements (e.g., transcriptional regulatory elements becomes more desirable. Promoters are the key regulatory elements, which recruit the transcriptional machinery through binding to a variety of regulatory proteins (known as sigma factors. The identification of the promoter regions is very challenging because these regions do not adhere to specific sequence patterns or motifs and are difficult to determine experimentally. Machine learning represents a promising and cost-effective approach for computational identification of prokaryotic promoter regions. However, the quality of the predictors depends on several factors including: i training data; ii data representation; iii classification algorithms; iv evaluation procedures. In this work, we create several variants of E. coli promoter data sets and utilize them to experimentally examine the effect of these factors on the predictive performance of E. coli σ70 promoter models. Our results suggest that under some combinations of the first three criteria, a prediction model might perform very well on cross-validation experiments while its performance on independent test data is drastically very poor. This emphasizes the importance of evaluating promoter region predictors using independent test data, which corrects for the over-optimistic performance that might be estimated using the cross-validation procedure. Our analysis of the tested models shows that good prediction models often perform well despite how the non-promoter data was obtained. On the other hand, poor prediction models seems to be more sensitive to the choice of non-promoter sequences. Interestingly, the best performing sequence-based classifiers outperform the best performing structure-based classifiers on both cross-validation and independent test performance evaluation experiments. Finally, we propose a

  11. Translational coupling in Escherichia coli of a heterologous Bacillus subtilis-Escherichia coli gene fusion.

    OpenAIRE

    Zaghloul, T I; Doi, R H

    1986-01-01

    The efficient expression in Escherichia coli of the Tn9-derived chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.28) gene fused distal to the promoter and N terminus of the Bacillus subtilis aprA gene was dependent on the initiation of translation from the ribosome-binding site in the aprA gene.

  12. Investigations of Escherichia coli promoter sequences with artificial neural networks: new signals discovered upstream of the transcriptional startpoint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Gorm; Engelbrecht, Jacob

    1995-01-01

    We present a novel method for using the learning ability of a neural network as a measure of information in local regions of input data. Using the method to analyze Escherichia coli promoters, we discover all previously described signals, and furthermore find new signals that are regularly spaced...

  13. Escherichia coli type III secretion system 2 (ETT2) is widely distributed in avian pathogenic Escherichia coli isolates from Eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S; Liu, X; Xu, X; Zhao, Y; Yang, D; Han, X; Tian, M; Ding, C; Peng, D; Yu, S

    2016-10-01

    Pathogens utilize type III secretion systems to deliver effector proteins, which facilitate bacterial infections. The Escherichia coli type III secretion system 2 (ETT2) which plays a crucial role in bacterial virulence, is present in the majority of E. coli strains, although ETT2 has undergone widespread mutational attrition. We investigated the distribution and characteristics of ETT2 in avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) isolates and identified five different ETT2 isoforms, including intact ETT2, in 57·6% (141/245) of the isolates. The ETT2 locus was present in the predominant APEC serotypes O78, O2 and O1. All of the ETT2 loci in the serotype O78 isolates were degenerate, whereas an intact ETT2 locus was mostly present in O1 and O2 serotype strains, which belong to phylogenetic groups B2 and D, respectively. Interestingly, a putative second type III secretion-associated locus (eip locus) was present only in the isolates with an intact ETT2. Moreover, ETT2 was more widely distributed in APEC isolates and exhibited more isoforms compared to ETT2 in human extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli, suggesting that APEC might be a potential risk to human health. However, there was no distinct correlation between ETT2 and other virulence factors in APEC.

  14. Photocatalytic production of {sup 1}O{sub 2} and {center_dot}OH mediated by silver oxidation during the photoinactivation of Escherichia coli with TiO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Camilo A. [Centro de Investigaciones en Catalisis, Escuela de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad Industrial de Santander (UIS), A.A. 678, Bucaramanga (Colombia); Institute of Chemical Sciences and Engineering, GGEC, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), Station 6, CH-1015, Lausanne (Switzerland); Osorio, Paula [Institute of Chemical Sciences and Engineering, GGEC, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), Station 6, CH-1015, Lausanne (Switzerland); Sienkiewicz, Andrzej [Laboratory of Complex Matter Physics, Institute of Physics of Condensed Matter, EPFL, Station 3, CH-1015, Lausanne (Switzerland); Pulgarin, Cesar, E-mail: cesar.pulgarin@epfl.ch [Institute of Chemical Sciences and Engineering, GGEC, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), Station 6, CH-1015, Lausanne (Switzerland); Centeno, Aristobulo [Centro de Investigaciones en Catalisis, Escuela de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad Industrial de Santander (UIS), A.A. 678, Bucaramanga (Colombia); Giraldo, Sonia A., E-mail: sgiraldo@uis.edu.co [Centro de Investigaciones en Catalisis, Escuela de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad Industrial de Santander (UIS), A.A. 678, Bucaramanga (Colombia)

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Metallic silver enhances the Ag-TiO{sub 2} photoinactivation of Escherichia coli under Vis irradiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {sup 1}O{sub 2} and {center_dot}OH were identified in Vis irradiated Ag-TiO{sub 2} suspensions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UV oxidized the Ag metallic species in the material decreasing photoactivity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dark contact of the UV oxidized material with E. coli regenerates the photocatalyst. - Abstract: Ag loaded TiO{sub 2} was applied in the photocatalytic inactivation of Escherichia coli under ultraviolet (UV) and visible (Vis) light irradiations. Ag enhanced the TiO{sub 2} photodisinfecting effect under Vis irradiation promoting the formation of singlet oxygen and hydroxyl radicals as identified by EPR analyses. Ag nanoparticles, determined on TEM analyses, undergo an oxidation process on the TiO{sub 2}'s surface under UV or Vis irradiation as observed by XPS. In particular, UV pre-irradiation of the material totally diminished its photodisinfection activity under a subsequent Vis irradiation test. Under UV, photodegradation of dichloroacetic acid (DCA), attributed to photoproduced holes in TiO{sub 2}, was inhibited by the presence of Ag suggesting that oxidation of Ag{sup 0} to Ag{sup +} and Ag{sup 2+} is faster than the oxidative path of the TiO{sub 2}'s holes on DCA molecules. Furthermore, photoassisted increased of Ag{sup +} concentration on TiO{sub 2}'s surface enhances the bacteriostatic activity of the material in dark periods. Indeed, this latter dark contact of Ag{sup +}-TiO{sub 2} and E. coli seems to induce recovering of the Vis light photoactivity promoted by the surface Ag photoactive species.

  15. Expression of human ferredoxin and assembly of the [2Fe-2S] center in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coghlan, V.M.; Vickery, L.E.

    1989-01-01

    A cDNA fragment encoding human ferredoxin, a mitochondrial [2Fe-2S] protein, was introduced into Escherichia coli by using an expression vector based on the approach of Nagai and Thogersen. Expression was under control of the λP L promoter and resulted in production of ferredoxin as a cleavable fusion protein with an amino-terminal fragment derived from bacteriophage λcII protein. The fusion protein was isolated from the soluble fraction of induced cells and was specifically cleaved to yield mature recombinant ferredoxin. The recombinant protein was shown to be identical in size to ferredoxin isolated from human placenta (13,546 Da) by NaDodSO 4 /PAGE and partial amino acid sequencing. E. coli cells expressing human ferredoxin were brown in color, and absorbance and electron paramagnetic resonance spectra of the purified recombinant protein established that the [2Fe-2S]center was assembled and incorporated into ferredoxin in vivo. Recombinant ferredoxin was active in steroid hydroxylations when reconstituted with cytochromes P-450 sec and P-450 11β and exhibited rates comparable to those observed for ferredoxin isolated from human placenta. This expression system should be useful in production of native and structurally altered forms of human ferredoxin for studies of ferredoxin structure and function

  16. Comparison of mutagenic efficiency of decay of 32P incorporated in E.Coli WP-2 and E.Coli WP-2S cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pluciennik, H.

    1975-01-01

    32 P-labelled Escherichia coli WP-2 and Escherichia coli WP-2S cells were stored at -196 0 . The lethal effect induced by 32 P decay was equal in both strains. Lethal efficiency of 32 P→ 32 S transmutation in DNA amounted to 0.046. Reversion try→try + were induced with a ten times higher efficiency in UV-sensitive strain WP-2S, as compared with strain WP-2. (author)

  17. Mucin2 is Required for Probiotic Agents-Mediated Blocking Effects on Meningitic E. coli-Induced Pathogenicities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jing-Yi; He, Xiao-Long; Puthiyakunnon, Santhosh; Peng, Liang; Li, Yan; Wu, Li-Sha; Peng, Wen-Ling; Zhang, Ya; Gao, Jie; Zhang, Yao-Yuan; Boddu, Swapna; Long, Min; Cao, Hong; Huang, Sheng-He

    2015-10-01

    Mucin2 (MUC2), an important regulatory factor in the immune system, plays an important role in the host defense system against bacterial translocation. Probiotics known to regulate MUC2 gene expression have been widely studied, but the interactions among probiotic, pathogens, and mucin gene are still not fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of MUC2 in blocking effects of probiotics on meningitic E. coli-induced pathogenicities. In this study, live combined probiotic tablets containing living Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, and Streptococcus thermophilus were used. MUC2 expression was knocked down in Caco-2 cells by RNA interference. 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-CdR), which enhances mucin-promoted probiotic effects through inducing production of Sadenosyl- L-methionine (SAMe), was used to up-regulate MUC2 expression in Caco-2 cells. The adhesion to and invasion of meningitic E. coli were detected by competition assays. Our studies showed that probiotic agents could block E. coli-caused intestinal colonization, bacteremia, and meningitis in a neonatal sepsis and meningitis rat model. MUC2 gene expression in the neonatal rats given probiotic agents was obviously higher than that of the infected and uninfected control groups without probiotic treatment. The prohibitive effects of probiotic agents on MUC2-knockdown Caco-2 cells infected with E44 were significantly reduced compared with nontransfected Caco-2 cells. Moreover, the results also showed that 5- Aza-CdR, a drug enhancing the production of SAMe that is a protective agent of probiotics, was able to significantly suppress adhesion and invasion of E44 to Caco-2 cells by upregulation of MUC2 expression. Taken together, our data suggest that probiotic agents can efficiently block meningitic E. coli-induced pathogenicities in a manner dependent on MUC2.

  18. Comparison of mutagenic efficiency of decay of /sup 32/P incorporated in E. Coli WP-2 and E. Coli WP-2S cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pluciennik, H [Warsaw Univ. (Poland). Instytut Podstawowych Problemow Chemii

    1975-01-01

    Phosphorous-32 labelled Escherichia coli WP-2 and Escherichia coli WP-2S cells were stored at -196/sup 0/. The lethal effect induced by /sup 32/P decay was equal in both strains. Lethal efficiency of /sup 32/P..-->../sup 32/S transmutation in DNA amounted to 0.046. Reversion try..-->..try/sup +/ were induced with a ten times higher efficiency in uv-sensitive strain WP-2S, as compared with strain WP-2.

  19. The Effect of Growth Promoter Feed Additives on Performance of Broilers Challenged With Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R Valipouri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 528 day-old Ross 308 male broilers were used to study the effect of antibiotic, probiotic, prebiotic and organic acid on performance, cecal Coliform load and internal organs’ weight. The chickens were placed into 6 groups with 4 replicates and 22 chickens per pen. Six dietary treatments included: 1 negative control as basal diet without any antibiotic growth promoter and coccidiostat (Control, 2 Diet 1+ 0.9 g/kg Primalac® (Primalac, 3 Diet 1+0.1 g/kg Bactocell® (Bactocell, 4 Diet 1+15ppm virginiamycin (Virginiamycin, 5 Diet 1+2 g/kg Fermacto® (Fermacto, and 6 Diet 1+2 g/kg Formycin Gold® (Formycin. At day 7 all chickens were orally gavaged with a 0.5 mL of 107 cfu/mL of mixed culture of pathogenic E. coli (O2K12 and O78K80 verified for presence of genes including stx1, stx2, eaeA and hlyA. Eight chickens from each group were euthanized for detection of the challenged bacteria in liver, spleen and cecum content at days 14, 28 and 42. Overall weight gain (P

  20. Pathological alterations in respiratory system during co-infection with low pathogenic avian influenza virus (H9N2 and Escherichia coli in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaleel Shahid

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Despite the advancements in the field, there is a lack of data when it comes to co-infections in poultry. Therefore, this study was designed to address this issue. Material and Methods: Broiler birds were experimentally infected with E. coli (O78 and low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI strain, alone or in combination. The experimental groups were negative control. Results: The infected birds showed most severe clinical signs in E. coli+LPAI group along with a significant decrease in weight and enhanced macroscopic and microscopic pathological lesions. The survival rate was 60%, 84%, and 100% in birds inoculated with E. coli+LPAI, E. coli, and LPAI virus alone, respectively. The results showed that experimental co-infection with E. coli and H9N2 strain of LPAI virus increased the severity of clinical signs, mortality rate, and gross lesions. The HI titre against LPAI virus infection in the co-infected group was significantly higher than the HI titre of LPAI group, which may indicate that E. coli may promote propagation of H9N2 LPAI virus by alteration of immune response. Conclusion: The present study revealed that co-infection with E. coli and H9N2 LPAI virus caused more serious synergistic pathogenic effects and indicates the role of both pathogens as complicating factors in poultry infections.

  1. Development of expression vectors for Escherichia coli based on the pCR2 replicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deb J K

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent developments in metabolic engineering and the need for expanded compatibility required for co-expression studies, underscore the importance of developing new plasmid vectors with properties such as stability and compatibility. Results We utilized the pCR2 replicon of Corynebacterium renale, which harbours multiple plasmids, for constructing a range of expression vectors. Different antibiotic-resistance markers were introduced and the vectors were found to be 100% stable over a large number of generations in the absence of selection pressure. Compatibility of this plasmid was studied with different Escherichia coli plasmid replicons viz. pMB1 and p15A. It was observed that pCR2 was able to coexist with these E.coli plasmids for 60 generations in the absence of selection pressure. Soluble intracellular production was checked by expressing GFP under the lac promoter in an expression plasmid pCR2GFP. Also high level production of human IFNγ was obtained by cloning the h-IFNγ under a T7 promoter in the expression plasmid pCR2-IFNγ and using a dual plasmid heat shock system for expression. Repeated sub-culturing in the absence of selection pressure for six days did not lead to any fall in the production levels post induction, for both GFP and h-IFNγ, demonstrating that pCR2 is a useful plasmid in terms of stability and compatibility. Conclusion We have constructed a series of expression vectors based on the pCR2 replicon and demonstrated its high stability and sustained expression capacity, in the absence of selection pressure which will make it an efficient tool for metabolic engineering and co-expression studies, as well as for scale up of expression.

  2. Cell-to-cell transformation in Escherichia coli: a novel type of natural transformation involving cell-derived DNA and a putative promoting pheromone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rika Etchuuya

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli is not assumed to be naturally transformable. However, several recent reports have shown that E. coli can express modest genetic competence in certain conditions that may arise in its environment. We have shown previously that spontaneous lateral transfer of non-conjugative plasmids occurs in a colony biofilm of mixed E. coli strains (a set of a donor strain harbouring a plasmid and a plasmid-free recipient strain. In this study, with high-frequency combinations of strains and a plasmid, we constructed the same lateral plasmid transfer system in liquid culture. Using this system, we demonstrated that this lateral plasmid transfer was DNase-sensitive, indicating that it is a kind of transformation in which DNase-accessible extracellular naked DNA is essential. However, this transformation did not occur with purified plasmid DNA and required a direct supply of plasmid from co-existing donor cells. Based on this feature, we have termed this transformation type as 'cell-to-cell transformation'. Analyses using medium conditioned with the high-frequency strain revealed that this strain released a certain factor(s that promoted cell-to-cell transformation and arrested growth of the other strains. This factor is heat-labile and protease-sensitive, and its roughly estimated molecular mass was between ∼9 kDa and ∼30 kDa, indicating that it is a polypeptide factor. Interestingly, this factor was effective even when the conditioned medium was diluted 10(-5-10(-6, suggesting that it acts like a pheromone with high bioactivity. Based on these results, we propose that cell-to-cell transformation is a novel natural transformation mechanism in E. coli that requires cell-derived DNA and is promoted by a peptide pheromone. This is the first evidence that suggests the existence of a peptide pheromone-regulated transformation mechanism in E. coli and in Gram-negative bacteria.

  3. A Selected Lactobacillus rhamnosus Strain Promotes EGFR-Independent Akt Activation in an Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88-Infected IPEC-J2 Cell Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    Full Text Available Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC are important intestinal pathogens that cause diarrhea in humans and animals. Although probiotic bacteria may protect against ETEC-induced enteric infections, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. In this study, porcine intestinal epithelial J2 cells (IPEC-J2 were pre-incubated with and without Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469 and then exposed to F4+ ETEC. Increases in TLR4 and NOD2 mRNA expression were observed at 3 h after F4+ ETEC challenge, but these increases were attenuated by L. rhamnosus treatment. Expression of TLR2 and NOD1 mRNA was up-regulated in cells pre-treated with L. rhamnosus. Pre-treatment with L. rhamnosus counteracted F4+ ETEC-induced increases in TNF-α concentration. Increased PGE2. concentrations were observed in cells infected with F4+ ETEC and in cells treated with L. rhamnosus only. A decrease in phosphorylated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR was observed at 3 h after F4+ ETEC challenge in cells treated with L. rhamnosus. Pre-treatment with L. rhamnosus enhanced Akt phosphorylation and increased ZO-1 and occludin protein expression. Our findings suggest that L. rhamnosus protects intestinal epithelial cells from F4+ ETEC-induced damage, partly through the anti-inflammatory response involving synergism between TLR2 and NOD1. In addition, L. rhamnosus promotes EGFR-independent Akt activation, which may activate intestinal epithelial cells in response to bacterial infection, in turn increasing tight junction integrity and thus enhancing the barrier function and restricting pathogen invasion. Pre-incubation with L. rhamnosus was superior to co-incubation in reducing the adhesion of F4+ ETEC to IPEC-J2 cells and subsequently attenuating F4+ ETEC-induced mucin layer destruction and suppressing apoptosis. Our data indicate that a selected L. rhamnosus strain interacts with porcine intestinal epithelial cells to maintain the epithelial barrier and promote intestinal epithelial

  4. A Selected Lactobacillus rhamnosus Strain Promotes EGFR-Independent Akt Activation in an Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88-Infected IPEC-J2 Cell Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Yao-Hong; Yang, Jin-Cai; Yang, Gui-Yan; Zhou, Dong; Wang, Jiu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are important intestinal pathogens that cause diarrhea in humans and animals. Although probiotic bacteria may protect against ETEC-induced enteric infections, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. In this study, porcine intestinal epithelial J2 cells (IPEC-J2) were pre-incubated with and without Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469 and then exposed to F4+ ETEC. Increases in TLR4 and NOD2 mRNA expression were observed at 3 h after F4+ ETEC challenge, but these increases were attenuated by L. rhamnosus treatment. Expression of TLR2 and NOD1 mRNA was up-regulated in cells pre-treated with L. rhamnosus. Pre-treatment with L. rhamnosus counteracted F4+ ETEC-induced increases in TNF-α concentration. Increased PGE2. concentrations were observed in cells infected with F4+ ETEC and in cells treated with L. rhamnosus only. A decrease in phosphorylated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) was observed at 3 h after F4+ ETEC challenge in cells treated with L. rhamnosus. Pre-treatment with L. rhamnosus enhanced Akt phosphorylation and increased ZO-1 and occludin protein expression. Our findings suggest that L. rhamnosus protects intestinal epithelial cells from F4+ ETEC-induced damage, partly through the anti-inflammatory response involving synergism between TLR2 and NOD1. In addition, L. rhamnosus promotes EGFR-independent Akt activation, which may activate intestinal epithelial cells in response to bacterial infection, in turn increasing tight junction integrity and thus enhancing the barrier function and restricting pathogen invasion. Pre-incubation with L. rhamnosus was superior to co-incubation in reducing the adhesion of F4+ ETEC to IPEC-J2 cells and subsequently attenuating F4+ ETEC-induced mucin layer destruction and suppressing apoptosis. Our data indicate that a selected L. rhamnosus strain interacts with porcine intestinal epithelial cells to maintain the epithelial barrier and promote intestinal epithelial cell activation in

  5. Thiophenone Attenuates Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli O103:H2 Virulence by Interfering with AI-2 Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witsø, Ingun Lund; Valen Rukke, Håkon; Benneche, Tore; Aamdal Scheie, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Interference with bacterial quorum sensing communication provides an anti-virulence strategy to control pathogenic bacteria. Here, using the Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) O103:H2, we showed for the first time that thiophenone TF101 reduced expression of lsrB; the gene encoding the AI-2 receptor. Combined results of transcriptional and phenotypic analyses suggested that TF101 interfere with AI-2 signalling, possibly by competing with AI-2 for binding to LsrB. This is supported by in silico docking prediction of thiophenone TF101 in the LsrB pocket. Transcriptional analyses furthermore showed that thiophenone TF101 interfered with expression of the virulence genes eae and fimH. In addition, TF101 reduced AI-2 induced E. coli adhesion to colorectal adenocarcinoma cells. TF101, on the other hand, did not affect epinephrine or norepinephrine enhanced E. coli adhesion. Overall, our results showed that thiophenone TF101 interfered with virulence expression in E. coli O103:H2, suggestedly by interfering with AI-2 mediated quorum sensing. We thus conclude that thiophenone TF101 might represent a promising future anti-virulence agent in the fight against pathogenic E. coli.

  6. Chaperonin GroEL/GroES Over-Expression Promotes Aminoglycoside Resistance and Reduces Drug Susceptibilities in Escherichia coli Following Exposure to Sublethal Aminoglycoside Doses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goltermann, Lise; Sarusie, Menachem V; Bentin, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is an increasing challenge to modern healthcare. Aminoglycoside antibiotics cause translation corruption and protein misfolding and aggregation in Escherichia coli. We previously showed that chaperonin GroEL/GroES depletion and over-expression sensitize and promote short...

  7. Strategies for Protein Overproduction in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mott, John E.

    1984-01-01

    Examines heterologous expression in Escherichia coli and the role of regulatory sequences which control gene expression at transcription resulting in abundant production of messenger RNA and regulatory sequences in mRNA which promote efficient translation. Also examines the role of E. coli cells in stabilizing mRNA and protein that is…

  8. Dynamics of CMY-2 producing E. coli in a broiler parent flock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dame-Korevaar, Anita; Fischer, Egil A J; Stegeman, Arjan; Mevius, Dik; van Essen-Zandbergen, Alieda; Velkers, Francisca; van der Goot, Jeanet

    2017-05-01

    Extended-spectrum β-lactamase and plasmid mediated AmpC β-lactamase (ESBL/pAmpC) producing bacteria are resistant to Extended Spectrum Cephalosporins (ESC), and are present in all levels of the broiler production chain. We determined the prevalence, concentration, and persistence of ESBL/pAmpC-Escherichia coli in a broiler parent flock during the rearing and laying period. One-day old chickens were housed in four separate pens. Until week 33 no antibiotics or coccidiostatics were used. During rearing 57 chickens in each pen (n=228), and in the laying period two groups of 33 chickens were individually sampled (n=66). Environmental samples were taken from week 16 onwards. ESBL/pAmpC-E. coli presence was determined by selective culturing. In the samples of week 16-19 the concentration of ESBL/pAmpC-E. coli was determined. All ESC-resistant isolates found were positive for pAmpC gene bla CMY-2 located on IncA/C plasmids, in several E. coli MLST types. CMY-2-E. coli prevalence decreased from 91% (95%CI 86-94%) at day 7 (week 1) to 0% (95%CI 0-5%) in week 21. However, CMY-2-E. coli remained present in the environmental samples during the whole study. CMY-2-E. coli concentration varied between detection limit (E. coli in this broiler parent flock in absence of antibiotics suggests a selective disadvantage of bla CMY-2 on IncA/C plasmids on animal level. The underlying mechanism should be studied further as this may provide new insights on how to reduce ESBL/pAmpC prevalence and transmission in the broiler production chain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. TiO2 Photocatalysis Damages Lipids and Proteins in Escherichia coli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carre, Gaelle; Hamon, Erwann; Ennahar, Said; Estner, Maxime; Lett, Marie-Claire; Horvatovich, Peter; Gies, Jean-Pierre; Keller, Valerie; Keller, Nicolas; Andre, Philippe

    This study investigates the mechanisms of UV-A (315 to 400 nm) photocatalysis with titanium dioxide (TiO2) applied to the degradation of Escherichia coli and their effects on two key cellular components: lipids and proteins. The impact of TiO2 photocatalysis on E. coli survival was monitored by

  10. Sterilization of E. coli bacterium in a flowing N2-O2 post-discharge reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villeger, S; Cousty, S; Ricard, A; Sixou, M

    2003-01-01

    Effective destruction of Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria has been obtained in a flowing N 2 -O 2 microwave post-discharge reactor. The sterilizing agents are the O atoms and the UV emissions of NOβ which are produced by N and O atoms recombination in the reactor. In the following plasma conditions: pressure 5 Torr, flow rate 1 L n min -1 , microwave power of 100 W in a quartz tube of 5 mm, an O atom density of 2.5x10 15 cm -3 is measured by NO titration in the post-discharge reactor with UV emission in a N 2 -(5%)O 2 gas mixture. Full destruction of 10 13 cfu ml -1 E. coli is observed after a treatment time of 25 min. (rapid communication)

  11. Radiation sensitization of Escherichia coli B/r by 2'-chloro-2'-deoxythymidine under various irradiation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, M.; Kuwabara, M.; Sato, F.; Itoh, T.

    1985-01-01

    Marked sensitization of E. coli cells by 2'-chloro-2'-deoxythymidine to x-rays was observed, when E. coli cells labelled with 2' Cl-TdR were exposed to x-rays in the absence and presence of oxygen. The sensitization factor calculated from inactivation constants from survival curves irradiated in the absence of 0 2 was about half that obtained in its presence. When 2'Cl-TdR was not incorporated into the DNA of E. coli cells, the presence of 2'Cl-TdR in the cell suspension fluid at the time of irradiation caused no sensitization. The sensitization factor for 2'Cl-TdR obtained under N 2 O was almost the same as that obtained under N 2 . The sensitization factor obtained in the presence of glycerol at 1 mol dm -3 under N 2 was similar to that obtained in its presence. These results indicated that the radical at the C-2' position of the deoxyribose moiety in DNA produced by x-irradiation was transformed into lethal damage for E. coli cells even in the absence of O 2 , though more efficiently in its presence. (U.K.)

  12. High temperature in combination with UV irradiation enhances horizontal transfer of stx2 gene from E. coli O157:H7 to non-pathogenic E. coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Fu Yue

    Full Text Available Shiga toxin (stx genes have been transferred to numerous bacteria, one of which is E. coli O157:H7. It is a common belief that stx gene is transferred by bacteriophages, because stx genes are located on lambdoid prophages in the E. coli O157:H7 genome. Both E. coli O157:H7 and non-pathogenic E. coli are highly enriched in cattle feedlots. We hypothesized that strong UV radiation in combination with high temperature accelerates stx gene transfer into non-pathogenic E. coli in feedlots.E. coli O157:H7 EDL933 strain were subjected to different UV irradiation (0 or 0.5 kJ/m(2 combination with different temperature (22, 28, 30, 32, and 37 °C treatments, and the activation of lambdoid prophages was analyzed by plaque forming unit while induction of Stx2 prophages was quantified by quantitative real-time PCR. Data showed that lambdoid prophages in E. coli O157:H7, including phages carrying stx2, were activated under UV radiation, a process enhanced by elevated temperature. Consistently, western blotting analysis indicated that the production of Shiga toxin 2 was also dramatically increased by UV irradiation and high temperature. In situ colony hybridization screening indicated that these activated Stx2 prophages were capable of converting laboratory strain of E. coli K12 into new Shiga toxigenic E. coli, which were further confirmed by PCR and ELISA analysis.These data implicate that high environmental temperature in combination with UV irradiation accelerates the spread of stx genes through enhancing Stx prophage induction and Stx phage mediated gene transfer. Cattle feedlot sludge are teemed with E. coli O157:H7 and non-pathogenic E. coli, and is frequently exposed to UV radiation via sunlight, which may contribute to the rapid spread of stx gene to non-pathogenic E. coli and diversity of shiga toxin producing E. coli.

  13. Transhydrogenase promotes the robustness and evolvability of E. coli deficient in NADPH production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Hung Chou

    Full Text Available Metabolic networks revolve around few metabolites recognized by diverse enzymes and involved in myriad reactions. Though hub metabolites are considered as stepping stones to facilitate the evolutionary expansion of biochemical pathways, changes in their production or consumption often impair cellular physiology through their system-wide connections. How does metabolism endure perturbations brought immediately by pathway modification and restore hub homeostasis in the long run? To address this question we studied laboratory evolution of pathway-engineered Escherichia coli that underproduces the redox cofactor NADPH on glucose. Literature suggests multiple possibilities to restore NADPH homeostasis. Surprisingly, genetic dissection of isolates from our twelve evolved populations revealed merely two solutions: (1 modulating the expression of membrane-bound transhydrogenase (mTH in every population; (2 simultaneously consuming glucose with acetate, an unfavored byproduct normally excreted during glucose catabolism, in two subpopulations. Notably, mTH displays broad phylogenetic distribution and has also played a predominant role in laboratory evolution of Methylobacterium extorquens deficient in NADPH production. Convergent evolution of two phylogenetically and metabolically distinct species suggests mTH as a conserved buffering mechanism that promotes the robustness and evolvability of metabolism. Moreover, adaptive diversification via evolving dual substrate consumption highlights the flexibility of physiological systems to exploit ecological opportunities.

  14. Transhydrogenase Promotes the Robustness and Evolvability of E. coli Deficient in NADPH Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Hsin-Hung; Marx, Christopher J.; Sauer, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic networks revolve around few metabolites recognized by diverse enzymes and involved in myriad reactions. Though hub metabolites are considered as stepping stones to facilitate the evolutionary expansion of biochemical pathways, changes in their production or consumption often impair cellular physiology through their system-wide connections. How does metabolism endure perturbations brought immediately by pathway modification and restore hub homeostasis in the long run? To address this question we studied laboratory evolution of pathway-engineered Escherichia coli that underproduces the redox cofactor NADPH on glucose. Literature suggests multiple possibilities to restore NADPH homeostasis. Surprisingly, genetic dissection of isolates from our twelve evolved populations revealed merely two solutions: (1) modulating the expression of membrane-bound transhydrogenase (mTH) in every population; (2) simultaneously consuming glucose with acetate, an unfavored byproduct normally excreted during glucose catabolism, in two subpopulations. Notably, mTH displays broad phylogenetic distribution and has also played a predominant role in laboratory evolution of Methylobacterium extorquens deficient in NADPH production. Convergent evolution of two phylogenetically and metabolically distinct species suggests mTH as a conserved buffering mechanism that promotes the robustness and evolvability of metabolism. Moreover, adaptive diversification via evolving dual substrate consumption highlights the flexibility of physiological systems to exploit ecological opportunities. PMID:25715029

  15. Lysogeny with Shiga Toxin 2-Encoding Bacteriophages Represses Type III Secretion in Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xuefang; McAteer, Sean P.; Tree, Jai J.; Shaw, Darren J.; Wolfson, Eliza B. K.; Beatson, Scott A.; Roe, Andrew J.; Allison, Lesley J.; Chase-Topping, Margo E.; Mahajan, Arvind; Tozzoli, Rosangela; Woolhouse, Mark E. J.; Morabito, Stefano; Gally, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Lytic or lysogenic infections by bacteriophages drive the evolution of enteric bacteria. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) have recently emerged as a significant zoonotic infection of humans with the main serotypes carried by ruminants. Typical EHEC strains are defined by the expression of a type III secretion (T3S) system, the production of Shiga toxins (Stx) and association with specific clinical symptoms. The genes for Stx are present on lambdoid bacteriophages integrated into the E. coli genome. Phage type (PT) 21/28 is the most prevalent strain type linked with human EHEC infections in the United Kingdom and is more likely to be associated with cattle shedding high levels of the organism than PT32 strains. In this study we have demonstrated that the majority (90%) of PT 21/28 strains contain both Stx2 and Stx2c phages, irrespective of source. This is in contrast to PT 32 strains for which only a minority of strains contain both Stx2 and 2c phages (28%). PT21/28 strains had a lower median level of T3S compared to PT32 strains and so the relationship between Stx phage lysogeny and T3S was investigated. Deletion of Stx2 phages from EHEC strains increased the level of T3S whereas lysogeny decreased T3S. This regulation was confirmed in an E. coli K12 background transduced with a marked Stx2 phage followed by measurement of a T3S reporter controlled by induced levels of the LEE-encoded regulator (Ler). The presence of an integrated Stx2 phage was shown to repress Ler induction of LEE1 and this regulation involved the CII phage regulator. This repression could be relieved by ectopic expression of a cognate CI regulator. A model is proposed in which Stx2-encoding bacteriophages regulate T3S to co-ordinate epithelial cell colonisation that is promoted by Stx and secreted effector proteins. PMID:22615557

  16. N-type Cu2O Film for Photocatalytic and Photoelectrocatalytic Processes: Its stability and Inactivation of E. coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, Liangbin; Ng, Tsz Wai; Yu, Ying; Xia, Dehua; Yip, Ho Yin; Li, Guiying; An, Taicheng; Zhao, Huijun; Wong, Po Keung

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Photoelectrocatalytic inactivation of E. coli by Cu 2 O film was firstly reported. • 7 log of E. coli could be completely inactivated in 2 h by Cu 2 O with a 0.1 V bias. • Charge transfer between Cu 2 O and E. coli was monitored by electrochemical technique. • Inactivation of E. coli by electric charges of electrodes was in-depth investigated. • Stability of N-type Cu 2 O as a photocatalyst was studied for the first time. - ABSTRACT: Photoelectrocatalytic (PEC) inactivation of Escherichia coli K-12 by cuprous oxide (Cu 2 O) film irradiated by visible light is firstly reported. A complete inactivation of about 7 log of E. coli was obtained for Cu 2 O film within 6 h. The bacterial inactivation efficiency was significantly improved in a photoelectrochemical cell, in which 7 log of E. coli could be completely inactivated within 2 h by Cu 2 O film with a 0.1 V bias. Electric charge transfer between electrodes and E. coli, and electric charge inactivation towards E. coli were investigated using membrane-separated reactor combined with short circuit photocurrent technique. H 2 O 2 , hole, and toxicity of Cu 2 O film were found responsible for the inactivation of E. coli. Toxicity of copper ions (including Cu 2+ and Cu + ) leakage from Cu 2 O films was determined and the results showed that the amount of leakage copper ions was not toxic to E. coli. Finally, the Cu 2 O film was proved to be effective and reusable for PC and PEC inactivation of E. coli

  17. Antimicrobial Activities of TiO2 Nanoparticle Against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Barzegary

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Organic antibacterial materials have been used as insecticides and bactericides for many years. Unfortunately, high temperatures in manufacturing process reduce their antibacterial properties. However, inorganic materials of antibacterial agents have excellent bacterial resistance and thermal stability. Over the past few decades, inorganic nanoparticles whose structures exhibit significantly novel and improved physical, chemical and biological properties and functionality due to their nano-scale size have elicited much interest. methods:The aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial properties of one kind of nano-specimen (TiO2 nanoparticle against Escherichia coli and Streptococcus aureus. Our study was research perusal. In the first study, the optical density of E. coli and S. aureus cultures were observed in the presence of 0.01%, 0.75% and 1.5% of TiO2. In the second study, 6.3 log CFU/ml of E. coli and S. areus were separately exposed to 1.5% TiO2 at 37 ºC in water. In third study, we studied thew growth of E.coli in solid medium with and without nanoparticles. Results: The presence of 0.01% TiO2 nanoparticles didn’t have a statistically significant effect, but in the presence of 0.75% and 1.5% nanoparticles, the bacterial colonies decreased significantly. In the control group, bacterial cells survival was nearly 13 days, while complete cell death of E. coli was seen when 1.5% TiO2 was applied for 24 hours. The same experiment for S. aureu, showed that complete cell death occured when the bacterial culture was exposed to 1.5% TiO2 for 16 hours.. It was shown that presence of 1.5% TiO2 in the solid medium suppressed the growth of E. coli 5.6 times more (p < 0.001. Discussion: Our findings showed antibacterial effects of TiO2 nanoparticles against both bacteria, but S. areus bacteria were more sensitive to nanoparticles as compared to E. coli bacteria

  18. Electrochemical reactivity of Co-Li2S nanocomposite for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Yongning; Wu, Changliang; Zhang, Hua; Wu, Xiaojing; Fu, Zhengwen

    2007-01-01

    The fabrication of Co-Li 2 S nanocomposite thin film is reported by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) for the first time. Li 2 S-Co nanocomposite thin film is used as storing Li electrodes that have led to promising electrochemical activity and good electrochemical performance. The releasing Li process from the as-deposited Li 2 S-Co nanocomposite thin films is confirmed by the ex situ high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) measurements and may come from the decomposition of Li 2 S with and without the interaction of metal Co into CoS 2 and S. The electrochemical reaction mechanism of Co-Li 2 S nanocomposite film electrode involving both the formation and decomposition of Li 2 S and the lithium extraction/insertion of CoS 2 after the initial charging process is proposed. Our results demonstrate the advantages of using Co-Li 2 S nanocomposite in storage lithium materials

  19. Escherichia coli producing CNF1 and CNF2 cytotoxins in animals with different disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, P; Oswald, E; Van Muylem, K; Jacquemin, E; Lintermans, P; Mainil, J

    1993-01-01

    Two DNA probes were used for the detection of CNF1- and CNF2-positive E coli strains in a collection of 553 E coli isolates from cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, horses, dogs, cats and poultry. CNF-positive E coli were frequently associated with septicaemia in cattle, dogs, and cats, with diarrhoea in calves, cats and dogs, and with abortion in bovine and porcine species. CNF2-positive strains were observed among adult healthy cattle. They were also found in cases of pneumonia, metritis, mastitis in cattle and in 1 case of metritis of a mare. The physiopathology induced by CNF-positive E coli strains remains to be elucidated. However, the impact of CNF strains on veterinary pathology is clear and the diagnosis of CNF-producing E coli should become routine in veterinary practice.

  20. Supercritical CO2 induces marked changes in membrane phospholipids composition in Escherichia coli K12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburini, Sabrina; Anesi, Andrea; Ferrentino, Giovanna; Spilimbergo, Sara; Guella, Graziano; Jousson, Olivier

    2014-06-01

    Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) treatment is one of the most promising alternative techniques for pasteurization of both liquid and solid food products. The inhibitory effect of SC-CO2 on bacterial growth has been investigated in different species, but the precise mechanism of action remains unknown. Membrane permeabilization has been proposed to be the first event in SC-CO2-mediated inactivation. Flow cytometry, high performance liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization–mass spectrometry and NMR analyses were performed to investigate the effect of SC-CO2 treatment on membrane lipid profile and membrane permeability in Escherichia coli K12. After 15 min of SC-CO2 treatment at 120 bar and 35 °C, the majority of bacterial cells dissipated their membrane potential (95 %) and lost membrane integrity, as 81 % become partially permeabilized and 18 % fully permeabilized. Membrane permeabilization was associated with a 20 % decrease in bacterial biovolume and to a strong (>50 %) reduction in phosphatidylglycerol (PG) membrane lipids, without altering the fatty acid composition and the degree of unsaturation of acyl chains. PGs are thought to play an important role in membrane stability, by reducing motion of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) along the membrane bilayer, therefore promoting the formation of inter-lipid hydrogen bonds. In addition, the decrease in intracellular pH induced by SC-CO2 likely alters the chemical properties of phospholipids and the PE/PG ratio. Biophysical effects of SC-CO2 thus cause a strong perturbation of membrane architecture in E. coli, and such alterations are likely associated with its strong inactivation effect.

  1. Effect of promoter strength and signal sequence on the periplasmic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two plasmids, pFLAG-ATS and pET 26b(+), were studied for the periplasmic expression of recombinant human interferon-2b (IFN-2b) in Escherichia coli. The pFLAG-ATS contains ompA signal sequence and tac promoter while pET 26b(+) contains pelB signal sequence and T7lac promoter. It was observed that periplasmic ...

  2. Investigation of E. coli bacteria inactivation by photocatalytic activity of TiO2 coated expanded polystyrene foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varnagiris, S.; Sakalauskaite, S.; Tuckute, S.; Lelis, M.; Daugelavicius, R.; Milcius, D.

    2017-03-01

    Photocatalytic properties of anatase and other TiO2 polymorphs are widely researched and applied in practical application. In current study TiO2 films on the plasma pre-treated expanded polystyrene (EPS) foam were deposited using magnetron sputtering technique. Main properties of the films were characterised using combination of XRD, XPS and SEM techniques. Photocatalytic properties of the observed crystalline anatase phase were tested by investigating bleaching of the methylene blue (MB) aqueous solution and by testing Escherichia coli (E. coli) viability after incubation under UV-B irradiation. E. coli viability experiments indicated that there are two mechanisms of E. coli bacteria inactivation. UV irradiation alone causes rapid damage to the outer membrane of E. coli bacteria. The second mechanism of E. coli inactivation is invoked only with synergistic combination of TiO2 and UV. Acting as photocatalyst TiO2 generates active radicals who initiate the chain peroxidation of organic molecules and within 45 min reduce E. coli bacteria viability by nearly 90%.

  3. Detection of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli Related Genes in E. coli Strains Belonging to B2 Phylogroup Isolated from Urinary Tract Infections in Combination with Antimicrobial Resistance Phenotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Staji

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background:  This study was conducted to detect the prevalence of EHEC virulence genes and antimicrobial resistance profile of Escherichia coli strains belonging to B2 phylogroup implicated in Urinary tract infections in Semnan, Iran.Methods:   From 240 urine samples 160 E. coli strains were isolated, biochemically. Then, E. coli isolates were examined by Multiplex-PCR for phylogenetic typing and detection of virulence genes (hly, stx1, stx2, eae associated with Enterohemorrhagic E. coli. Finally, Antimicrobial resistance of E. coli isolates were characterized using Disk Diffusion method.  Results:  From 160 E. coli isolates, 75 strains (47% were assigned to B2 phylogenetic group and prevalence of virulence genes were as follow: hly (21.3%, stx1 (16%, stx2 (10.6% and eae (6.7%, subsequently.  Phenotypic antimicrobial resistance of B2 isolates showed that all isolates were sensitive to Meropenem and Furazolidone and then highest frequency of resistance was observed to Streptomycin, Oxytetracycline, Neomycin, Nalidixic acid and Ampicillin (98.7% to 49.3%. Also low resistance prevalence was observed in case of Ceftizoxime, Lincospectin, Imipenem, Chloramphenicol and flurefenicole (16% to 1.3%.Conclusion:   The data suggest a high prevalence of antibiotic resistance in UPEC strains belonging to B2 phylogroup even for the antimicrobials using in pet and farm animals and their potential to cause EHEC specific clinical symptoms which may represent a serious health risk since these strains can be transmitted to GI tract and act as a reservoir for other uropathogenic E. coli and commensal strains.

  4. A Selected Lactobacillus rhamnosus Strain Promotes EGFR-Independent Akt Activation in an Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88-Infected IPEC-J2 Cell Model

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Yao-Hong; Yang, Jin-Cai; Yang, Gui-Yan; Zhou, Dong; Wang, Jiu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are important intestinal pathogens that cause diarrhea in humans and animals. Although probiotic bacteria may protect against ETEC-induced enteric infections, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. In this study, porcine intestinal epithelial J2 cells (IPEC-J2) were pre-incubated with and without Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469 and then exposed to F4+ ETEC. Increases in TLR4 and NOD2 mRNA expression were observed at 3 h after F4+ ETEC challenge, but t...

  5. Integration of AI-2 Based Cell-Cell Signaling with Metabolic Cues in Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arindam Mitra

    Full Text Available The quorum sensing molecule Autoinducer-2 (AI-2 is generated as a byproduct of activated methyl cycle by the action of LuxS in Escherichia coli. AI-2 is synthesized, released and later internalized in a cell-density dependent manner. Here, by mutational analysis of the genes, uvrY and csrA, we describe a regulatory circuit of accumulation and uptake of AI-2. We constructed a single-copy chromosomal luxS-lacZ fusion in a luxS + merodiploid strain and evaluated its relative expression in uvrY and csrA mutants. At the entry of stationary phase, the expression of the fusion and AI-2 accumulation was positively regulated by uvrY and negatively regulated by csrA respectively. A deletion of csrA altered message stability of the luxS transcript and CsrA protein exhibited weak binding to 5' luxS regulatory region. DNA protein interaction and chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis confirmed direct interaction of UvrY with the luxS promoter. Additionally, reduced expression of the fusion in hfq deletion mutant suggested involvement of small RNA interactions in luxS regulation. In contrast, the expression of lsrA operon involved in AI-2 uptake, is negatively regulated by uvrY and positively by csrA in a cell-density dependent manner. The dual role of csrA in AI-2 synthesis and uptake suggested a regulatory crosstalk of cell signaling with carbon regulation in Escherichia coli. We found that the cAMP-CRP mediated catabolite repression of luxS expression was uvrY dependent. This study suggests that luxS expression is complex and regulated at the level of transcription and translation. The multifactorial regulation supports the notion that cell-cell communication requires interaction and integration of multiple metabolic signals.

  6. The green alga, Cladophora, promotes Escherichia coli growth and contamination of recreational waters in Lake Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanden Heuvel, Amy; McDermott, Colleen; Pillsbury, Robert; Sandrin, Todd; Kinzelman, Julie; Ferguson, John; Sadowsky, Michael; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara; Whitman, Richard; Kleinheinz, Gregory T

    2010-01-01

    A linkage between Cladophora mats and exceedances of recreational water quality criteria has been suggested, but not directly studied. This study investigates the spatial and temporal association between Escherichia coli concentrations within and near Cladophora mats at two northwestern Lake Michigan beaches in Door County, Wisconsin. Escherichia coli concentrations in water underlying mats were significantly greater than surrounding water (p Cladophora mats had lower E. coli concentrations, but surpassed EPA swimming criteria the majority of sampling days. A significant positive association was found between E. coli concentrations attached to Cladophora and in underlying water (p Cladophora mats from beach areas may improve aesthetic and microbial water quality at affected beaches. These associations and potential natural growth of E. coli in bathing waters call into question the efficacy of using E. coli as a recreational water quality indicator of fecal contaminations.

  7. A stochastic killing system for biological containment of Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemm, P.; Jensen, Lars Bogø; Molin, Søren

    1995-01-01

    Bacteria with a stochastic conditional lethal containment system have been constructed. The invertible switch promoter located upstream of the fimA gene from Escherichia coli was inserted as expression cassette in front of the Lethal gef gene deleted of its own natural promoter. The resulting...... fusion was placed on a plasmid and transformed to E. coli. The phenotype connected with the presence of such a plasmid was to reduce the population growth rate with increasing significance as the cell growth rate was reduced. In very fast growing cells, there was no measurable effect on growth rate. When...

  8. Whole-Genome Characterization and Strain Comparison of VT2f-Producing Escherichia coli Causing Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelacci, Valeria; Bondì, Roslen; Gigliucci, Federica; Franz, Eelco; Badouei, Mahdi Askari; Schlager, Sabine; Minelli, Fabio; Tozzoli, Rosangela; Caprioli, Alfredo; Morabito, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Verotoxigenic Escherichia coli infections in humans cause disease ranging from uncomplicated intestinal illnesses to bloody diarrhea and systemic sequelae, such as hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Previous research indicated that pigeons may be a reservoir for a population of verotoxigenic E. coli producing the VT2f variant. We used whole-genome sequencing to characterize a set of VT2f-producing E. coli strains from human patients with diarrhea or HUS and from healthy pigeons. We describe a phage conveying the vtx2f genes and provide evidence that the strains causing milder diarrheal disease may be transmitted to humans from pigeons. The strains causing HUS could derive from VT2f phage acquisition by E. coli strains with a virulence genes asset resembling that of typical HUS-associated verotoxigenic E. coli. PMID:27584691

  9. Commensal E. coli Stx2 lysogens produce high levels of phages after spontaneous prophage induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hildegunn eIversen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC is a food-borne pathogen that causes disease ranging from uncomplicated diarrhea to life-threatening hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS and nervous system complications. Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2 is the major virulence factor of EHEC and is critical for development of HUS. The genes encoding Stx2 are carried by lambdoid bacteriophages and the toxin production is tightly linked to the production of phages during lytic cycle. It has previously been suggested that commensal E. coli could amplify the production of Stx2-phages and contribute to the severity of disease. In this study we examined the susceptibility of commensal E. coli strains to the Stx2-converting phage ϕ734, isolated from a highly virulent EHEC O103:H25 (NIPH-11060424. Among 38 commensal E. coli strains from healthy children below five years, 15 were lysogenized by the ϕ734 phage, whereas lytic infection was not observed. Three of the commensal E. coli ϕ734 lysogens were tested for stability, and appeared stable and retained the phage for at least 10 cultural passages. When induced to enter lytic cycle by H2O2 treatment, 8 out of 13 commensal lysogens produced more ϕ734 phages than NIPH-11060424. Strikingly, five of them even spontaneously (non-induced produced higher levels of phage than the H2O2 induced NIPH-11060424. An especially high frequency of HUS (60% was seen among children infected by NIPH-11060424 during the outbreak in 2006. Based on our findings, a high Stx2 production by commensal E. coli lysogens cannot be ruled out as a contributor to the high frequency of HUS during this outbreak.

  10. Facile promoter deletion in Escherichia coli in response to leaky expression of very robust and benign proteins from common expression vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawe Martin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overexpression of proteins in Escherichia coli is considered routine today, at least when the protein is soluble and not otherwise toxic for the host. We report here that the massive overproduction of even such "benign" proteins can cause surprisingly efficient promoter deletions in the expression plasmid, leading to the growth of only non-producers, when expression is not well repressed in the newly transformed bacterial cell. Because deletion is so facile, it might impact on high-throughput protein production, e.g. for structural genomics, where not every expression parameter will be monitored. Results We studied the high-level expression of several robust non-toxic proteins using a T5 promoter under lac operator control. Full induction leads to no significant growth retardation. We compared expression from almost identical plasmids with or without the lacI gene together in strains expressing different levels of LacI. Any combination without net overexpression of LacI led to an efficient promoter deletion in the plasmid, although the number of growing colonies and even the plasmid size – all antibiotic-resistant non-producers – was almost normal, and thus the problem not immediately recognizable. However, by assuring sufficient repression during the initial establishment phase of the plasmid, deletion was completely prevented. Conclusion The deletions in the insufficiently repressed system are caused entirely by the burden of high-level translation. Since the E. coli Dps protein, known to protect DNA against stress in the stationary phase, is accumulated in the deletion mutants, the mutation may have taken place during a transient stationary phase. The cause of the deletion is thus distinct from the well known interference of high-level transcription with plasmid replication. The deletion can be entirely prevented by overexpressing LacI, a useful precaution even without any signs of stress caused by the protein.

  11. Autoregulation of transcription of the hupA gene in Escherichia coli: evidence for steric hindrance of the functional promoter domains induced by HU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohno, K; Yasuzawa, K; Hirose, M; Kano, Y; Goshima, N; Tanaka, H; Imamoto, F

    1994-06-01

    The molecular mechanism of autoregulation of expression of the hupA gene in Escherichia coli was examined. The promoter of the gene contains a palindromic sequence with the potential to form a cruciform DNA structure in which the -35 sequence lies at the base of the stem and the -10 sequence forms a single-stranded loop. An artificial promoter lacking the palindrome, which was constructed by replacing a 10 nucleotide repeat for the predicted cruciform arm by a sequence in the opposite orientation, was not subject to HU-repression. DNA relaxation induced by deleting HU proteins and/or inhibiting DNA gyrase in cells results in increased expression from the hupA promoter. We propose that initiation of transcription of the hupA gene is negatively regulated by steric hindrance of the functional promoter domains for formation of the cruciform configuration, which is facilitated at least in part by negative supercoiling of the hupA promoter DNA region. The promoter region of the hupB gene also contains a palindromic sequence that can assume a cruciform configuration. Negative regulation of this gene by HU proteins may occur by a mechanism similar to that operating for the hupA gene.

  12. The oxygen effect in E. coli cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myasnik, M.N.; Skvortsov, V.G.; Sokolov, V.A.

    1982-01-01

    In experiments on E. coli strains deficient in some stages of DNA repair from radiation damages, it was demonstrated that the value of the oxygen effect, under optimal conditions for manifestation thereof, decreases in the following order: E. coli WP2 (the wild type) → E. coli WP2 exr - and E. coli B → E. coli WP2 uvr A6 → E. coli WP2 rec Al and E. coli WP2 hcr - exr - . It was detected that 0.14 M NaCl solution sensitizes the anoxic cells of some E. coli strains to the effect of γ-radiation. It was established that mutation of the uvr A-gene increases sharply the sensitivity of cells to iradiation under the anoxic conditions in the presence of NaCl, the reverse'' oxygen effect being observed

  13. Structure of Vibrio cholerae ribosome hibernation promoting factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Bari, Heather; Berry, Edward A.

    2013-01-01

    The X-ray crystal structure of ribosome hibernation promoting factor from V. cholerae has been determined at 2.0 Å resolution. The crystal was phased by two-wavelength MAD using cocrystallized cobalt. The X-ray crystal structure of ribosome hibernation promoting factor (HPF) from Vibrio cholerae is presented at 2.0 Å resolution. The crystal was phased by two-wavelength MAD using cocrystallized cobalt. The asymmetric unit contained two molecules of HPF linked by four Co atoms. The metal-binding sites observed in the crystal are probably not related to biological function. The structure of HPF has a typical β–α–β–β–β–α fold consistent with previous structures of YfiA and HPF from Escherichia coli. Comparison of the new structure with that of HPF from E. coli bound to the Thermus thermophilus ribosome [Polikanov et al. (2012 ▶), Science, 336, 915–918] shows that no significant structural changes are induced in HPF by binding

  14. Production of vanillin by metabolically engineered Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sang-Hwal; Li, Cui; Kim, Ju-Eun; Lee, Sook-Hee; Yoon, Ji-Young; Choi, Myung-Suk; Seo, Weon-Taek; Yang, Jae-Kyung; Kim, Jae-Yeon; Kim, Seon-Won

    2005-11-01

    E. coli was metabolically engineered to produce vanillin by expression of the fcs and ech genes from Amycolatopsis sp. encoding feruloyl-CoA synthetase and enoyl-CoA hydratase/aldolase, respectively. Vanillin production was optimized by leaky expression of the genes, under the IPTG-inducible trc promoter, in complex 2YT medium. Supplementation with glucose, fructose, galactose, arabinose or glycerol severely decreased vanillin production. The highest vanillin production of 1.1 g l(-1) was obtained with cultivation for 48 h in 2YT medium with 0.2% (w/v) ferulate, without IPTG and no supplementation of carbon sources.

  15. Inhibition of Coenzyme Qs Accumulation in Engineered Escherichia coli by High Concentration of Farnesyl Diphosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samoudi, Mojtaba; Omid Yeganeh, Negar; Shahbani Zahiri, Hossein; Shariati, Parvin; Hajhosseini, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Coenzyme Q 10 (CoQ 10 ) is an isoprenoid component used widely in nutraceutical industries. Farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FPPS) is a responsible enzyme for biosynthesis of farnesyl diphosphate (FPP), a key precursor for CoQs production. This research involved investigating the effect of FPPS over-expression on CoQs production in engineered CoQ 10 -producing Escherichia coli (E. coli). Methods: Two CoQ 10 -producing strains, as referred to E. coli Ba and E. coli Br, were transformed by the encoding gene for FPPS (ispA) under the control of either the trc or P BAD promoters. Results: Over-expression of ispA under the control of P BAD promoter led to a relative increase in CoQ 10 production only in recombinant E. coli Br although induction by arabinose resulted in partial reduction of CoQ 10 production in both recombinant E. coli Ba and E. coli Br strains. Over-expression of ispA under the control of stronger trc promoter, however, led to a severe decrease in CoQ 10 production in both recombinant E. coli Ba and E. coli Br strains, as reflected by reductions from 629±40 to 30±13 and 564±28 to 80±14 μg/g Dried Cell Weight (DCW), respectively. The results showed high level of FPP reduces endogenous CoQ 8 production as well and that CoQs are produced in a complimentary manner, as the increase in production of one decreases the production of the other. Conclusion: The reduction in CoQ 10 production can be a result of Dds inhibition by high FPP concentration. Therefore, more effort is needed to verify the role of intermediate metabolite concentration and to optimize production of CoQ 10 . PMID:26306151

  16. Asymptomatic bacteriuria Escherichia coli are live biotherapeutics for UTI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudick, Charles N; Taylor, Aisha K; Yaggie, Ryan E; Schaeffer, Anthony J; Klumpp, David J

    2014-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) account for approximately 8 million clinic visits annually with symptoms that include acute pelvic pain, dysuria, and irritative voiding. Empiric UTI management with antimicrobials is complicated by increasing antimicrobial resistance among uropathogens, but live biotherapeutics products (LBPs), such as asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) strains of E. coli, offer the potential to circumvent antimicrobial resistance. Here we evaluated ASB E. coli as LBPs, relative to ciprofloxacin, for efficacy against infection and visceral pain in a murine UTI model. Visceral pain was quantified as tactile allodynia of the pelvic region in response to mechanical stimulation with von Frey filaments. Whereas ciprofloxacin promoted clearance of uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC), it did not reduce pelvic tactile allodynia, a measure of visceral pain. In contrast, ASB E. coli administered intravesically or intravaginally provided comparable reduction of allodynia similar to intravesical lidocaine. Moreover, ASB E. coli were similarly effective against UTI allodynia induced by Proteus mirabilis, Enterococccus faecalis and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Therefore, ASB E. coli have anti-infective activity comparable to the current standard of care yet also provide superior analgesia. These studies suggest that ASB E. coli represent novel LBPs for UTI symptoms.

  17. Standardisation of a new model of H9N2/Escherichia coli challenge in broilers in the Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elie K. Barbour

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Primary infection by low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI predisposes for secondary infection by Escherichia coli in poultry, leading to significant economic losses. Future research in control of this ailment requires the establishment of a successful controlled challenge by avian influenza virus (AIV/E. coli. Six groups of broilers (6 birds/group were included for the standardisation of the controlled challenge by AIV/E. coli. Birds in groups 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 received an intra-tracheal challenge of 0.5 ml of two haemagglutinating units of H9N2 virus at 20 days of age. At the age of 23 days, birds in group 1 received an intra-thoracic (right air sac-E. coli challenge equivalent to 1.6 × 109 colony-forming units (cfu/0.5 ml/bird, while birds in groups 2, 3, 4 and 5 received E. coli by the same route and in the following respective decreasing order of viable cells: 1.6 × 106, 1.6 × 105, 1.6 × 104 and 1.6 × 103 cfu. Birds in control group 6 were deprived of H9N2 and E. coli challenge. Results showed significant early mortality in group 1 that was challenged with the highest number of E. coli, in comparison to groups 2-6 (p0.05. The frequencies of four signs at 2 days and at 5 days post E. coli challenge (conjunctivitis, diarrhoea, ocular exudates and rales in the surviving birds of groups 2-5 were most often higher than those observed in control group 6 (p<0.05. These four signs and five gross lesions (abdominal airsacculitis, left thoracic airsacculitis, pericarditis, right thoracic airsacculitis and tracheitis had a decreasing pattern of frequency related to a decrease in the E. coli count used in the challenge.

  18. Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli Markers and Phenotypes among Fecal E. coli Isolates Collected from Nicaraguan Infants ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Reyes, Daniel; Vilchez, Samuel; Paniagua, Margarita; Colque-Navarro, Patricia; Weintraub, Andrej; Möllby, Roland; Kühn, Inger

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed the prevalence of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) markers and common phenotypes in 2,164 E. coli isolates from 282 DEC-positive samples. Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) and enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) were very diverse and were not correlated with diarrhea. Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) estA and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) belonged to a few phenotypes and were significantly correlated with diarrhea.

  19. Effects of dialysis on the pharmacokinetics of salazosulfapyridine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inami, Yuko; Yamaji, Ken; Sato, Michiko; Gohda, Tomohito; Io, Hiroaki; Nawata, Masuyuki; Hamada, Chieko; Takasaki, Yoshinari; Tomino, Yasuhiko

    2013-02-01

    There was no standard or report for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients on hemodialysis with Salazosulfapyridine (SASP). We examined the pharmacokinetics of SASP and its metabolites in RA patient on hemodialysis. Hemodialysis was started 2 h after administration of SASP at a dose of 250 or 500 mg. Blood samples were took 8 times during the observation period. The concentration of SASP and its metabolites (SP, Ac-SP) in blood sample were measured. There was no difference for the concentration of SASP before and after hemodialysis. Results showed SASP was nondialyzable, but SP and AC-SP were dialyzable. At a dose of 500 mg, AUC0-∞ of SASP and SP were higher than healthy volunteer. Therapy with SASP for hemodialysis RA should be started at a lower dose for adverse event risk.

  20. Prevalence and behavior of multidrug-resistant shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, enteropathogenic E. coli and enterotoxigenic E. coli on coriander.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Aldapa, Carlos A; Segovia-Cruz, Jesús A; Cerna-Cortes, Jorge F; Rangel-Vargas, Esmeralda; Salas-Rangel, Laura P; Gutiérrez-Alcántara, Eduardo J; Castro-Rosas, Javier

    2016-10-01

    The prevalence and behavior of multidrug-resistant diarrheagenic Escherichia coli pathotypes on coriander was determined. One hundred coriander samples were collected from markets. Generic E. coli were determined using the most probable number procedure. Diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes (DEPs) were identified using two multiplex polymerase chain reaction procedures. Susceptibility to sixteen antibiotics was tested for the isolated DEPs strains by standard test. The behavior of multidrug-resistant DEPs isolated from coriander was determined on coriander leaves and chopped coriander at 25°± 2 °C and 3°± 2 °C. Generic E. coli and DEPs were identified, respectively, in 43 and 7% of samples. Nine DEPs strains were isolated from positive coriander samples. The identified DEPs included Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC, 4%) enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC, 2%) and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC, 1%). All isolated DEPs strains exhibited multi-resistance to antibiotics. On inoculated coriander leaves stored at 25°± 2 °C or 3°± 2 °C, no growth was observed for multidrug-resistant DEPs strains. However, multidrug-resistant DEPs strains grew in chopped coriander: after 24 h at 25° ± 2 °C, DEPs strains had grown to approximately 3 log CFU/g. However, at 3°± 2 °C the bacterial growth was inhibited. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the presence and behavior of multidrug-resistant STEC, ETEC and EPEC on coriander and chopped coriander. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Mapping Stress-Induced Changes in Autoinducer AI-2 Production in Chemostat-Cultivated Escherichia coli K-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLisa, Matthew P.; Valdes, James J.; Bentley, William E.

    2001-01-01

    Numerous gram-negative bacteria employ a cell-to-cell signaling mechanism, termed quorum sensing, for controlling gene expression in response to population density. Recently, this phenomenon has been discovered in Escherichia coli, and while pathogenic E. coli utilize quorum sensing to regulate pathogenesis (i.e., expression of virulence genes), the role of quorum sensing in nonpathogenic E. coli is less clear, and in particular, there is no information regarding the role of quorum sensing during the overexpression of recombinant proteins. The production of autoinducer AI-2, a signaling molecule employed by E. coli for intercellular communication, was studied in E. coli W3110 chemostat cultures using a Vibrio harveyi AI-2 reporter assay (M. G. Surrette and B. L. Bassler, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95:7046–7050, 1998). Chemostat cultures enabled a study of AI-2 regulation through steady-state and transient responses to a variety of environmental stimuli. Results demonstrated that AI-2 levels increased with the steady-state culture growth rate. In addition, AI-2 increased following pulsed addition of glucose, Fe(III), NaCl, and dithiothreitol and decreased following aerobiosis, amino acid starvation, and isopropyl-β-d-thiogalactopyranoside-induced expression of human interleukin-2 (hIL-2). In general, the AI-2 responses to several perturbations were indicative of a shift in metabolic activity or state of the cells induced by the individual stress. Because of our interest in the expression of heterologous proteins in E. coli, the transcription of four quorum-regulated genes and 20 stress genes was mapped during the transient response to induced expression of hIL-2. Significant regulatory overlap was revealed among several stress and starvation genes and known quorum-sensing genes. PMID:11292813

  2. Enteroaggregative, Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli O111:H2 Associated with an Outbreak of Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabito, Stefano; Karch, Helge; Mariani-Kurkdjian, Patrizia; Schmidt, Herbert; Minelli, Fabio; Bingen, Edouard; Caprioli, Alfredo

    1998-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O111:H2 strains from an outbreak of hemolytic-uremic syndrome showed aggregative adhesion to HEp-2 cells and harbored large plasmids which hybridized with the enteroaggregative E. coli probe PCVD432. These strains present a novel combination of virulence factors and might be as pathogenic to humans as the classic enterohemorrhagic E. coli. PMID:9508328

  3. Autoinducer-2 Quorum Sensing Contributes to Regulation of Microcin PDI in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Yeh Lu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Escherichia coli quorum sensing (QS signal molecule, autoinducer-2 (AI-2, reaches its maximum concentration during mid-to-late growth phase after which it quickly degrades during stationary phase. This pattern of AI-2 concentration coincides with the up- then down-regulation of a recently described microcin PDI (mccPDI effector protein (McpM. To determine if there is a functional relationship between these systems, a prototypical mccPDI-expressing strain of E. coli 25 was used to generate ΔluxS, ΔlsrACDBFG (Δlsr, and ΔlsrR mutant strains that are deficient in AI-2 production, transportation, and AI-2 transport regulation, respectively. Trans-complementation, RT-qPCR, and western blot assays were used to detect changes of microcin expression and synthesis under co-culture and monoculture conditions. Compared to the wild-type strain, the AI-2-deficient strain (ΔluxS and -uptake negative strain (Δlsr were >1,000-fold less inhibitory to susceptible bacteria (P < 0.05. With in trans complementation of luxS, the AI-2 deficient mutant reduced the susceptible E. coli population by 4-log, which was within 1-log of the wild-type phenotype. RT-qPCR and western blot results for the AI-2 deficient E. coli 25 showed a 5-fold reduction in mcpM transcription with an average 2-h delay in McpM synthesis. Furthermore, overexpression of sRNA micC and micF (both involved in porin protein regulation was correlated with mcpM regulation, consistent with a possible link between QS and mcpM regulation. This is the direct first evidence that microcin regulation can be linked to quorum sensing in a Gram-negative bacterium.

  4. Hierarchy of non-glucose sugars in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidelberg, Guy; Towbin, Benjamin D; Rothschild, Daphna; Dekel, Erez; Bren, Anat; Alon, Uri

    2014-12-24

    Understanding how cells make decisions, and why they make the decisions they make, is of fundamental interest in systems biology. To address this, we study the decisions made by E. coli on which genes to express when presented with two different sugars. It is well-known that glucose, E. coli's preferred carbon source, represses the uptake of other sugars by means of global and gene-specific mechanisms. However, less is known about the utilization of glucose-free sugar mixtures which are found in the natural environment of E. coli and in biotechnology. Here, we combine experiment and theory to map the choices of E. coli among 6 different non-glucose carbon sources. We used robotic assays and fluorescence reporter strains to make precise measurements of promoter activity and growth rate in all pairs of these sugars. We find that the sugars can be ranked in a hierarchy: in a mixture of a higher and a lower sugar, the lower sugar system shows reduced promoter activity. The hierarchy corresponds to the growth rate supported by each sugar- the faster the growth rate, the higher the sugar on the hierarchy. The hierarchy is 'soft' in the sense that the lower sugar promoters are not completely repressed. Measurement of the activity of the master regulator CRP-cAMP shows that the hierarchy can be quantitatively explained based on differential activation of the promoters by CRP-cAMP. Comparing sugar system activation as a function of time in sugar pair mixtures at sub-saturating concentrations, we find cases of sequential activation, and also cases of simultaneous expression of both systems. Such simultaneous expression is not predicted by simple models of growth rate optimization, which predict only sequential activation. We extend these models by suggesting multi-objective optimization for both growing rapidly now and preparing the cell for future growth on the poorer sugar. We find a defined hierarchy of sugar utilization, which can be quantitatively explained by

  5. Quantitative analysis of an engineered CO2-fixing Escherichia coli reveals great potential of heterotrophic CO2 fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Fuyu; Liu, Guoxia; Zhai, Xiaoyun; Zhou, Jie; Cai, Zhen; Li, Yin

    2015-01-01

    Production of fuels from the abundant and wasteful CO2 is a promising approach to reduce carbon emission and consumption of fossil fuels. Autotrophic microbes naturally assimilate CO2 using energy from light, hydrogen, and/or sulfur. However, their slow growth rates call for investigation of the possibility of heterotrophic CO2 fixation. Although preliminary research has suggested that CO2 fixation in heterotrophic microbes is feasible after incorporation of a CO2-fixing bypass into the central carbon metabolic pathway, it remains unclear how much and how efficient that CO2 can be fixed by a heterotrophic microbe. A simple metabolic flux index was developed to indicate the relative strength of the CO2-fixation flux. When two sequential enzymes of the cyanobacterial Calvin cycle were incorporated into an E. coli strain, the flux of the CO2-fixing bypass pathway accounts for 13 % of that of the central carbon metabolic pathway. The value was increased to 17 % when the carbonic anhydrase involved in the cyanobacterial carbon concentrating mechanism was introduced, indicating that low intracellular CO2 concentration is one limiting factor for CO2 fixation in E. coli. The engineered CO2-fixing E. coli with carbonic anhydrase was able to fix CO2 at a rate of 19.6 mg CO2 L(-1) h(-1) or the specific rate of 22.5 mg CO2 g DCW(-1) h(-1). This CO2-fixation rate is comparable with the reported rates of 14 autotrophic cyanobacteria and algae (10.5-147.0 mg CO2 L(-1) h(-1) or the specific rates of 3.5-23.7 mg CO2 g DCW(-1) h(-1)). The ability of CO2 fixation was created and improved in E. coli by incorporating partial cyanobacterial Calvin cycle and carbon concentrating mechanism, respectively. Quantitative analysis revealed that the CO2-fixation rate of this strain is comparable with that of the autotrophic cyanobacteria and algae, demonstrating great potential of heterotrophic CO2 fixation.

  6. Salt at concentrations relevant to meat processing enhances Shiga toxin 2 production in Escherichia coli O157:H7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Shaun M; Yue, Wan-Fu; Olsen, Sarena A; Hu, Jia; Means, Warrie J; McCormick, Richard J; Du, Min; Zhu, Mei-Jun

    2012-10-15

    Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157:H7 remains a major food safety concern associated with meat, especially beef products. Shiga toxins (Stx) are key virulence factors produced by E. coli O157:H7 that are responsible for hemorrhagic colitis and Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome. Stx are heat stable and can be absorbed after oral ingestion. Despite the extensive study of E. coli O157:H7 survival during meat processing, little attention is paid to the production of Stx during meat processing. The objective of this study was to elucidate the effect of salt, an essential additive to processed meat, at concentrations relevant to meat processing (0%, 1%, 2%, 3%, W/V) on Stx2 production and Stx2 prophage induction by E. coli O157:H7 strains. For both E. coli O157:H7 86-24 and EDL933 strains, including 2% salt in LB broth decreased (Pmeat processing enhances Stx production, a process linked to bacterial stress response and lambdoid prophage induction. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Mouse in Vivo Neutralization of Escherichia coli Shiga Toxin 2 with Monoclonal Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry H. Stanker

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC food contaminations pose serious health concerns, and have been the subject of massive food recalls. STEC has been identified as the major cause of the life-threatening complication of hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS. Besides supportive care, there currently are no therapeutics available. The use of antibiotics for combating pathogenic E. coli is not recommended because they have been shown to stimulate toxin production. Clearing Stx2 from the circulation could potentially lessen disease severity. In this study, we tested the in vivo neutralization of Stx2 in mice using monoclonal antibodies (mAbs. We measured the biologic half-life of Stx2 in mice and determined the distribution phase or t1/2 α to be 3 min and the clearance phase or t1/2 β to be 40 min. Neutralizing mAbs were capable of clearing Stx2 completely from intoxicated mouse blood within minutes. We also examined the persistence of these mAbs over time and showed that complete protection could be passively conferred to mice 4 weeks before exposure to Stx2. The advent of better diagnositic methods and the availability of a greater arsenal of therapeutic mAbs against Stx2 would greatly enhance treatment outcomes of life threatening E. coli infections.

  8. Effect of bile on growth, peritoneal absorption, and blood clearance of Escherichia coli in E coli peritonitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, R.; Schalen, C.; Tranberg, K.G.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of intraperitoneal bile on growth, peritoneal absorption, and clearance of Escherichia coli was determined in E coli peritonitis in the rat. In E coli peritonitis, intraperitoneal bacterial counts gradually decreased, whereas they increased (after 2 hours) with subsequent development of bacteremia in E coli plus bile peritonitis. After an intraperitoneal injection of labeled bacteria, blood radioactivity was only initially lower in E coli plus bile peritonitis compared with E coli peritonitis. Clearance from blood was lower in E coli plus bile peritonitis than in E coli peritonitis. Organ localization was similar in E coli peritonitis and E coli plus bile peritonitis with decreased splenic, increased pulmonary, and unchanged hepatic uptakes compared with controls. Impaired peritoneal absorption of bacteria, together with impaired local host defense, is likely to enhance the noxious effect of bile in E coli peritonitis

  9. Specific selection for virulent urinary tract infectious Escherichia coli strains during catheter-associated biofilm formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferrieres, Lionel; Hancock, Viktoria; Klemm, Per

    2007-01-01

    microorganisms can attach. Urinary tract infectious (UTI) Escherichia coli range in pathogenicity and the damage they cause - from benign asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) strains, which inflict no or few problems to the host, to uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) strains, which are virulent and often cause severe...... for and promote biofilm formation of the most virulent group of UTI E. coli strains, hardly a desirable situation for the catheterized patient....

  10. The green alga, Cladophora, promotes Escherichia coli growth and contamination of recreational waters in Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuvel, A.V.; McDermott, C.; Pillsbury, R.; Sandrin, T.; Kinzelman, J.; Ferguson, J.; Sadowsky, M.; Byappanahalli, M.; Whitman, R.; Kleinheinz, G.T.

    2010-01-01

    A linkage between Cladophora mats and exceedances of recreational water quality criteria has been suggested, but not directly studied. Th is study investigates the spatial and temporal association between Escherichia coli concentrations within and near Cladophora mats at two northwestern Lake Michigan beaches in Door County, Wisconsin. Escherichia coli concentrations in water underlying mats were significantly greater than surrounding water (p bacterial pathogens, however, could not be detected by microbiological culture methods either attached to mat biomass or in underlying water. Removal of Cladophora mats from beach areas may improve aesthetic and microbial water quality at affected beaches. These associations and potential natural growth of E. coli in bathing waters call into question the efficacy of using E. coli as a recreational water quality indicator of fecal contaminations. Copyright ?? 2010 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  11. Efek ekstrak daun singkong (Manihot utilissima terhadap ekspresi COX-2 pada monosit yang dipapar LPS E.coli (The effect of Manihot utilissima extracts on COX-2 expression of monocytes induced by LPS E. coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahara Meilawaty

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodontal disease is a common and widespread disease in the community. Gram negative bacteria have a role inperiodontitis. These bacteria secrete a variety of products such as endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS, which causes the occurrenceof inflammation or infection. The body defense responses are neutrophils and mononuclear cells (monocytes and macrophages. Inresponse to defense mechanism, the body will be expressed enzyme cyclooxygenase (COX which functions convert arachidonic acidto prostaglandins. Cassava leaf cells known to play a role in reducing inflammation, but the mechanism for inhibiting COX-2, is notknown. Purpose: The study was aimed to determine the effect of cassava leaf extract (Manihot utilissima on expression of enzyme COX-2 in monocytes which were exposed by LPS E. coli. Methods: This study was in vitro experimental studies with the design of posttestonly control group design. The sample was the cassava leaves extract (Manihot utilissima at concentration of 12.5 % and 25 %. Theexpression of COX-2 was determined by immunocytochemistry method. Isolated monocytes were incubated in cassava leaf extract, andthen exposed to LPS, after washing imunostaning procedure was performed using a monoclonal antibody (MAb anti-human COX-2.The research data was the number of monocytes that express COX-2. Results: Expression of COX-2 in the group cassava leaf extractwas higher than the group that induced by LPS E. coli only. Conclusion: Cassava leaf extract did not inhibit the expression of COX-2in monocytes which were exposed by LPS E. coli.Latar belakang: Penyakit periodontal merupakan penyakit umum dan tersebar luas di masyarakat. Bakteri yang banyak berperanpada periodontitis adalah Gram negatif. Bakteri ini mengeluarkan berbagai produk antara lain endotoksin lipopolisakarida (LPS yangmenyebabkan inflamasi atau infeksi. Respon pertahanan tubuh pertama adalah netrofil dan sel mononuklear (monosit dan makrofag.Pada respon

  12. Enhanced expression of membrane proteins in E. coli with a PBAD promoter mutant: synergies with chaperone pathway engineering strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nannenga Brent L

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Membrane proteins (MPs populate 20-30% of genomes sequenced to date and hold potential as therapeutic targets as well as for practical applications in bionanotechnology. However, MP toxicity and low yields in normally robust expression hosts such as E. coli has curtailed progress in our understanding of their structure and function. Results Using the seven transmembrane segments H. turkmenica deltarhodopsin (HtdR as a reporter, we isolated a spontaneous mutant in the arabinose-inducible PBAD promoter leading to improved cell growth and a twofold increase in the recovery of active HtdR at 37°C. A single transversion in a conserved region of the cyclic AMP receptor protein binding site caused the phenotype by reducing htdR transcript levels by 65%. When the mutant promoter was used in conjunction with a host lacking the molecular chaperone Trigger Factor (Δtig cells, toxicity was further suppressed and the amount of correctly folded HtdR was 4-fold that present in the membranes of control cells. More importantly, while improved growth barely compensated for the reduction in transcription rates when another polytopic membrane protein (N. pharonis sensory rhodopsin II was expressed under control of the mutant promoter in wild type cells, a 4-fold increase in productivity could be achieved in a Δtig host. Conclusions Our system, which combines a downregulated version of the tightly repressed PBAD promoter with a TF-deficient host may prove a valuable alternative to T7-based expression for the production of membrane proteins that have so far remained elusive targets.

  13. ANALISIS CEMARAN BAKTERI Escherichia coli ANALISIS CEMARAN BAKTERI Escherichia coli ANALISIS CEMARAN BAKTERI Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    ANGGREINI, RAHAYU

    2015-01-01

    2015 RAHAYU ANGGREINI coli Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk melakukan identifikasi cemaran bakteri E. coli O157:H7 pada daging sapi di kota Makassar. Sampel pada penelitian ini sebanyak 72 sampel Kata Kunci : Daging sapi, pasar tradisional, E. coli, E. coli O157:H7, kontaminasi bakteri, identifikasi E. coli O157:H7.

  14. Inhibitory effect of 2‑mercaptoethane sulfonate on the formation of Escherichia coli biofilms in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sheng; He, Nianhai; Yu, Jialin; Li, Luquan; Sun, Fengjun; Hu, Ying; Deng, Rui; Zhong, Shiming; Shen, Leilei

    2015-10-01

    The biofilms (BF) formed by Escherichia coli (E. coli) is an important cause of chronic and recurrent infections due to its capacity to persist on medical surfaces and indwelling devices, demonstrating the importance of inhibiting the formation of E. coli BF and reducing BF infection. Although 2‑mercaptoethane sulfonate (MESNA) exhibits a marked mucolytic effect clinically, the effect of MESNA on the inhibition of E. coli BF formation remains to be elucidated. The present study investigated whether MESNA inhibits the formation of E. coli BF in vitro. The minimum inhibitory concentration of MESNA on E. coli was determined to be 10 mg/ml. Subsequently, the effect of MESNA on BF early adhesion, extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) and extracellular protein were detected. The effect of a subinhibitory concentration of MESNA on BF formation was evaluated, and the inhibitory potency of MESNA against matured BF was assayed. The results revealed that MESNA inhibited early stage adhesion and formation of the E. coli BF, destroyed the mature BF membrane and reduced the EPS and extracellular proteins levels of the BF. In addition, the present study investigated the effects of MESNA on the expression of EPS‑ and adhesion protein‑associated genes using quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis, which demonstrated that MESNA effectively inhibited the expression of these genes. These results suggested that MESNA possesses anti‑BF formation capability on E. coli in vitro and may be used as a potential reagent for the clinical treatment of E. coli BF‑associated infections.

  15. Type 1 fimbrial expression enhances Escherichia coli virulence for the urinary tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connell, Hugh; Agace, William; Klemm, Per

    1996-01-01

    of Escherichia coli for the urinary tract by promoting bacterial persistence and enhancing the inflammatory responce to infection. In a clinical study, we observed that disease severity was greater in children infected with E. coli O1:K1:H7 isolates expressing type 1 fimbriae than in those infected with type 1...... negative isolates of the same serotype. The E. coli O1:K1:H7 isolates had the same electrophoretic type, were hemolysin-negative, expressed P fimbriae, and carried the fim DNA sequences. When tested in a mouse urinary tract infection model, the type 1-positive E. coli O1:K1:H7 isolates survived inhigher...... urinary tract infection model. E. coli CN1016 reconstituted with type 1 fimbriae had restored virulence similar to that of the wild-type parent strain. These results show that type 1 fimbriae in the genetic background of a uropathogenic strain contribute to the pathogenesis of E. coli in the urinary tract....

  16. Preparation of Silver Immobilised TiO2-Hectorite for Phenol Removal and Eschericia coli Desinfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Is Fatimah

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Preparation of silver immobilized TiO2-Hectorite and its application in phenol photooxidation and Eschericia coli bacteria desinfection has been conducted. Material was obtained by two steps of synthesis: preparation of TiO2-Hectorite and silver immobilization into TiO2-Hectorite. Physico-chemical characterization to the prepared material compared to raw hectorite was conducted by X-ray Diffraction, gas sorption analyzer, scanning electron microscope and DRUV-Visible spectrophotometry and for photoactivity study, phenol photooxidation and Eschericia coli desinfection were investigated. The results indicated that the modification to hectorite material improve the physico-chemical character related to its role as photo-catalyst. Kinetic study of phenol photooxidation revealed the role of TiO2 pillarization and silver immobilization in enhancing rate of reaction as well as increased photoactivity of the materials in E. coli desinfection. © 2013 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 28th September 2012; Revised: 7th December 2012; Accepted: 20th Decemberber 2012[How to Cite: I. Fatimah (2013. Preparation of Silver Immobilised TiO2-Hectorite for Phenol Removal and Eschericia coli Desinfection. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 7 (3: 191-197. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.7.3.4047.191-197][Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.7.3.4047.191-197 ] View in  |

  17. Short communication: The role of autoinducer 2 (AI-2) on antibiotic resistance regulation in an Escherichia coli strain isolated from a dairy cow with mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Ting; Yu, Lumin; Shang, Fei; Li, Wenchang; Zhang, Ming; Ni, Jingtian; Chen, Xiaolin

    2016-06-01

    Extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-positive Escherichia coli is a major etiological organism responsible for bovine mastitis. The autoinducer 2 (AI-2) quorum sensing system is widely present in many species of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria and has been proposed to be involved in interspecies communication. In E. coli model strains, the functional mechanisms of AI-2 have been well studied; however, in clinical antibiotic-resistant E. coli strains, whether AI-2 affects the expression of antibiotic resistance genes has not been reported. In this study, we report that exogenous AI-2 increased the antibiotic resistance of a clinical E. coli strain isolated from a dairy cow with mastitis by upregulating the expression of TEM-type enzyme in an LsrR (LuxS regulated repressor)-dependent manner. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Functional Analysis of Genes Comprising the Locus of Heat Resistance in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Ryan; Nguyen, Oanh; Ou, Qixing; McMullen, Lynn; Gänzle, Michael G

    2017-10-15

    The locus of heat resistance (LHR) is a 15- to 19-kb genomic island conferring exceptional heat resistance to organisms in the family Enterobacteriaceae , including pathogenic strains of Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli The complement of LHR-comprising genes that is necessary for heat resistance and the stress-induced or growth-phase-induced expression of LHR-comprising genes are unknown. This study determined the contribution of the seven LHR-comprising genes yfdX1 GI , yfdX2 , hdeD GI , orf11 , trx GI , kefB , and psiE GI by comparing the heat resistances of E. coli strains harboring plasmid-encoded derivatives of the different LHRs in these genes. (Genes carry a subscript "GI" [genomic island] if an ortholog of the same gene is present in genomes of E. coli ) LHR-encoded heat shock proteins sHSP20, ClpK GI , and sHSP GI are not sufficient for the heat resistance phenotype; YfdX1, YfdX2, and HdeD are necessary to complement the LHR heat shock proteins and to impart a high level of resistance. Deletion of trx GI , kefB , and psiE GI from plasmid-encoded copies of the LHR did not significantly affect heat resistance. The effect of the growth phase and the NaCl concentration on expression from the putative LHR promoter p2 was determined by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR and by a plasmid-encoded p2:GFP promoter fusion. The expression levels of exponential- and stationary-phase E. coli cells were not significantly different, but the addition of 1% NaCl significantly increased LHR expression. Remarkably, LHR expression in E. coli was dependent on a chromosomal copy of evgA In conclusion, this study improved our understanding of the genes required for exceptional heat resistance in E. coli and factors that increase their expression in food. IMPORTANCE The locus of heat resistance (LHR) is a genomic island conferring exceptional heat resistance to several foodborne pathogens. The exceptional level of heat resistance provided by the LHR questions the

  19. Characterization of the hemA-prs region of the Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium chromosomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Post, David A.; Hove-Jensen, Bjarne; Switzer, Robert L.

    1993-01-01

    The prs gene, encoding phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase, is preceded by a leader, which is 302 bp long in Escherichia coli and 417 bp in Salmonella typhimurium. A potential open reading frame (ORF) extends across the prs promoter and into the leader. The region between the prs coding region...... two promoters, the first promoter (P1) originating upstream of ORF 1, and expressing the prs gene in a tricistronic operon and a second promoter (P2), located within the ORF 2 coding frame, which transcribes the prs gene only. The transcripts encoding prs only were 20 times as abundant...... in the amount of message originating from the promoter P2....

  20. The innate immune response to lower respiratory tract E. Coli infection and the role of the CCL2-CCR2 axis in neonatal mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath-Morrow, Sharon A; Ndeh, Roland; Collaco, Joseph M; Poupore, Amy K; Dikeman, Dustin; Zhong, Qiong; Singer, Benjamin D; D'Alessio, Franco; Scott, Alan

    2017-09-01

    Neonates have greater morbidity/mortality from lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) compared to older children. Lack of conditioning of the pulmonary immune system due to limited environmental exposures and/or infectious challenges likely contributes to the increase susceptibility in the neonate. In this study, we sought to gain insights into the nature and dynamics of the neonatal pulmonary immune response to LRTI using a murine model. Wildtype (WT) and Ccr2 -/- C57BL/6 neonatal and juvenile mice received E. coli or PBS by direct pharyngeal aspiration. Flow cytometry was used to measure immune cell dynamics and identify cytokine-producing cells. Real-time PCR and ELISA were used to measure cytokine/chemokine expression. Innate immune cell recruitment in response to E. coli-induced LRTI was delayed in the neonatal lung compared to juvenile lung. Lung clearance of bacteria was also significantly delayed in the neonate. Ccr2 -/- neonates, which lack an intact CCL2-CCR2 axis, had higher mortality after E. coli challenged than Ccr2 +/+ neonates. A greater percentage of CD8 + T cells and monocytes from WT neonates challenged with E. coli produced TNF compared to controls. The pulmonary immune response to E. coli-induced LRTI differed significantly between neonatal and juvenile mice. Neonates were more susceptible to increasing doses of E. coli and exhibited greater mortality than juveniles. In the absence of an intact CCL2-CCR2 axis, susceptibility to LRTI-induced mortality was further increased in neonatal mice. Taken together these findings underscore the importance of age-related differences in the innate immune response to LRTI during early stages of postnatal life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Promoter2.0: for the recognition of PolII promoter sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Steen; Knudsen, Steen

    1999-01-01

    transcription start sites. On standardized test setsconsisting of human genomic DNA, the performance of Promoter2.0 compares well with other softwaredeveloped for the same purpose. Availability : Promoter2.0 is available as a Web server at http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/promoter/ Contact : steen@cbs.dtu.dk...

  2. Bipyridine (2,2′-dipyridyl) potentiates Escherichia coli lethality induced by nitrogen mustard mechlorethamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Alencar, T.A.M.; Wilmart-Gonçalves, T.C.; Vidal, L.S.; Fortunato, R.S.; Leitão, A.C.; Lage, C.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Reduction of Fe 2+ ensues a respiratory burst to reduce the oxidized iron pool. • Through Harber–Weiss recycling, superoxide electrons can reduce oxidized iron. • Redox imbalance sensitized repair proficient Escherichia coli to mustard lethal crosslinks. • A stronger synergism impacted survival of a superoxide dismutase-deficient strain. • Anti-cancer cocktails added of an iron chelator may impact hypoxia and genotoxicity. - Abstract: Alkylating agents are used in anti-tumor chemotherapy because they bind covalently to DNA and generate adducts that may lead to cell death. Bifunctional (HN2) and monofunctional (HN1) nitrogen are two such agents, and HN2 was the first drug successfully employed in anti-leukemia chemotherapy. Currently, HN2 is used either alone or combined with other drugs to treat Hodgkin's disease. It is well known that several crosslinking agents require metabolic activation via reactive oxygen species (ROS) to exert their lethal effects. The objective of this work was therefore to determine whether the abovementioned mustards would also require metabolic activation to exert lethal action against Escherichia coli. For this purpose, we measured survival following exposure to HN2 in E. coli strains that were deficient in nucleotide excision repair (uvrA NER mutant), base excision repair (xthA nfo nth fpg BER mutant) or superoxide dismutase (sodAB mutant) activity. We also performed the same experiments in cells pretreated with an iron chelator (2,2′-dipyridyl, DIP). The NER and BER mutants were only sensitive to HN2 treatment (survival rates similar to those of the wild-type were achieved with 5-fold lower HN2 doses). However, wild-type and sodAB strains were not sensitive to treatment with HN2. In all tested strains, survival dropped by 2.5-fold following pretreatment with DIP compared to treatment with HN2 alone. Furthermore, DIP treatment increased ROS generation in both wild type and sodAB-deficient strains. Based

  3. Bipyridine (2,2′-dipyridyl) potentiates Escherichia coli lethality induced by nitrogen mustard mechlorethamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Alencar, T.A.M.; Wilmart-Gonçalves, T.C.; Vidal, L.S.; Fortunato, R.S.; Leitão, A.C. [Laboratório de Radiobiologia Molecular (Brazil); Lage, C., E-mail: claudia_lage_dna@yahoo.com.br [Laboratório de Radiações em Biologia (Brazil)

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • Reduction of Fe{sup 2+} ensues a respiratory burst to reduce the oxidized iron pool. • Through Harber–Weiss recycling, superoxide electrons can reduce oxidized iron. • Redox imbalance sensitized repair proficient Escherichia coli to mustard lethal crosslinks. • A stronger synergism impacted survival of a superoxide dismutase-deficient strain. • Anti-cancer cocktails added of an iron chelator may impact hypoxia and genotoxicity. - Abstract: Alkylating agents are used in anti-tumor chemotherapy because they bind covalently to DNA and generate adducts that may lead to cell death. Bifunctional (HN2) and monofunctional (HN1) nitrogen are two such agents, and HN2 was the first drug successfully employed in anti-leukemia chemotherapy. Currently, HN2 is used either alone or combined with other drugs to treat Hodgkin's disease. It is well known that several crosslinking agents require metabolic activation via reactive oxygen species (ROS) to exert their lethal effects. The objective of this work was therefore to determine whether the abovementioned mustards would also require metabolic activation to exert lethal action against Escherichia coli. For this purpose, we measured survival following exposure to HN2 in E. coli strains that were deficient in nucleotide excision repair (uvrA NER mutant), base excision repair (xthA nfo nth fpg BER mutant) or superoxide dismutase (sodAB mutant) activity. We also performed the same experiments in cells pretreated with an iron chelator (2,2′-dipyridyl, DIP). The NER and BER mutants were only sensitive to HN2 treatment (survival rates similar to those of the wild-type were achieved with 5-fold lower HN2 doses). However, wild-type and sodAB strains were not sensitive to treatment with HN2. In all tested strains, survival dropped by 2.5-fold following pretreatment with DIP compared to treatment with HN2 alone. Furthermore, DIP treatment increased ROS generation in both wild type and sodAB-deficient strains

  4. Earthworms as vectors of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in soil and vermicomposts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, A Prysor; Roberts, Paula; Avery, Lisa M; Killham, Ken; Jones, David L

    2006-10-01

    Survival and movement of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in both soil and vermicompost is of concern with regards to human health. Whilst it is accepted that E. coli O157:H7 can persist for considerable periods in soils, it is not expected to survive thermophilic composting processes. However, the natural behavior of earthworms is increasingly utilized for composting (vermicomposting), and the extent to which earthworms promote the survival and dispersal of the bacterium within such systems is unknown. The faecal material produced by earthworms provides a ready supply of labile organic substrates to surrounding microbes within soil and compost, thus promoting microbial activity. Earthworms can also cause significant movement of organisms through the channels they form. Survival and dispersal of E. coli O157:H7 were monitored in contaminated soil and farmyard manure subjected to earthworm digestion over 21 days. Our findings lead to the conclusion that anecic earthworms such as Lumbricus terrestris may significantly aid vertical movement of E. coli O157 in soil, whereas epigeic earthworms such as Dendrobaena veneta significantly aid lateral movement within compost. Although the presence of earthworms in soil and compost may aid proliferation of E. coli O157 in early stages of contamination, long-term persistence of the pathogen appears to be unaffected.

  5. The pancreatic zymogen granule membrane protein, GP2, binds Escherichia coli type 1 Fimbriae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lowe Anson W

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background GP2 is the major membrane protein present in the pancreatic zymogen granule, and is cleaved and released into the pancreatic duct along with exocrine secretions. The function of GP2 is unknown. GP2's amino acid sequence is most similar to that of uromodulin, which is secreted by the kidney. Recent studies have demonstrated uromodulin binding to bacterial Type 1 fimbria. The fimbriae serve as adhesins to host receptors. The present study examines whether GP2 also shares similar binding properties to bacteria with Type 1 fimbria. Commensal and pathogenic bacteria, including E. coli and Salmonella, express type 1 fimbria. Methods An in vitro binding assay was used to assay the binding of recombinant GP2 to defined strains of E. coli that differ in their expression of Type 1 fimbria or its subunit protein, FimH. Studies were also performed to determine whether GP2 binding is dependent on the presence of mannose residues, which is a known determinant for FimH binding. Results GP2 binds E. coli that express Type 1 fimbria. Binding is dependent on GP2 glycosylation, and specifically the presence of mannose residues. Conclusion GP2 binds to Type 1 fimbria, a bacterial adhesin that is commonly expressed by members of the Enterobacteriacae family.

  6. Impact of dry chilling on the genetic diversity of Escherichia coli on beef carcasses and on the survival of E. coli and E. coli O157.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visvalingam, Jeyachchandran; Liu, Yang; Yang, Xianqin

    2017-03-06

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of dry chilling on the genetic diversity of naturally occurring Escherichia coli on beef carcasses, and to examine whether two populations of E. coli recovered from carcasses during chilling and E. coli O157 differed in their response to desiccation. Isolates of E. coli were obtained from beef carcasses during a 67h dry chilling process and were genotyped using multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA). Ten E. coli genotypes found only at 0h (group A) and found more than once (group B), as well as five strains of E. coli O157 (group C) were inoculated on stainless steel coupons and their survival was examined after exposure to 75 and 100% relative humidity (RH) at 0 or 35°C for 67h. A total of 450 E. coli isolates were obtained, with 254, 49, 49, 51, 23, 20, and 4 from 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 24h of chilling, respectively. No E. coli were recovered at 67h. MLVA of the isolates revealed 173 distinct genotypes. Genetic diversity of E. coli isolates, defined as ratio of the number of isolates to the number of genotypes, remained between 2.3 and 1.3 during the 24h of chilling. All strains inoculated on stainless steel coupons and exposed to 75% RH at 35°C were completely inactivated, irrespective of their groups. Inactivation of E. coli of the three groups was not significantly (P>0.05) different by exposure to 75% RH at 0°C. The findings indicate that the genetic diversity of E. coli on beef carcasses was not affected by dry chilling. In addition, inactivation of E. coli genotypes and E. coli O157 by desiccation on stainless steel simulating dry chilling conditions did not differ significantly (P>0.05). Thus, dry chilling may be used as an effective antimicrobial intervention for beef carcasses. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Meta-Analysis of Transcriptional Responses to Mastitis-Causing Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidra Younis

    Full Text Available Bovine mastitis is a widespread disease in dairy cows, and is often caused by bacterial mammary gland infection. Mastitis causes reduced milk production and leads to excessive use of antibiotics. We present meta-analysis of transcriptional profiles of bovine mastitis from 10 studies and 307 microarrays, allowing identification of much larger sets of affected genes than any individual study. Combining multiple studies provides insight into the molecular effects of Escherichia coli infection in vivo and uncovers differences between the consequences of E. coli vs. Staphylococcus aureus infection of primary mammary epithelial cells (PMECs. In udders, live E. coli elicits inflammatory and immune defenses through numerous cytokines and chemokines. Importantly, E. coli infection causes downregulation of genes encoding lipid biosynthesis enzymes that are involved in milk production. Additionally, host metabolism is generally suppressed. Finally, defensins and bacteria-recognition genes are upregulated, while the expression of the extracellular matrix protein transcripts is silenced. In PMECs, heat-inactivated E. coli elicits expression of ribosomal, cytoskeletal and angiogenic signaling genes, and causes suppression of the cell cycle and energy production genes. We hypothesize that heat-inactivated E. coli may have prophylactic effects against mastitis. Heat-inactivated S. aureus promotes stronger inflammatory and immune defenses than E. coli. Lipopolysaccharide by itself induces MHC antigen presentation components, an effect not seen in response to E. coli bacteria. These results provide the basis for strategies to prevent and treat mastitis and may lead to the reduction in the use of antibiotics.

  8. Cloning, purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of LsrR from Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xiaotian; Wu, Minhao; Sun, Demeng; Zang, Jianye

    2010-01-01

    The E. coli transcription repressor LsrR has been overexpressed, purified and crystallized. Diffraction data were collected to about 3 Å resolution. In Escherichia coli, the lsr operon is composed of six genes lsrACDBFG which regulate uptake and modification of the signalling molecule AI-2. LsrR is a repressor of the lsr operon and itself, which can bind phospho-AI-2 and be released from the promoter region of the operon and thus activate gene expression. LsrR fused with an HHHHHH sequence at the C-terminus was expressed, purified and crystallized in order to determine its structure and elucidate the molecular mechanism of repression. The crystal belonged to space group I222, with unit-cell parameters a = 79.84, b = 116.65, c = 186.04 Å, and was estimated to contain two protein molecules per asymmetric unit

  9. Antimicrobial effect of Al2O3, Ag and Al2O3/Ag thin films on Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas putida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelov, O; Stoyanova, D; Ivanova, I; Todorova, S

    2016-01-01

    The influence of Al 2 O 3 , Ag and Al 2 O 3 /Ag thin films on bacterial growth of Gramnegative bacteria Pseudomonas putida and Escherichia coli is studied. The nanostructured thin films are deposited on glass substrates without intentional heating through r.f. magnetron sputtering in Ar atmosphere of Al 2 O 3 and Ag targets or through sequential sputtering of Al 2 O 3 and Ag targets, respectively. The individual Ag thin films (thickness 8 nm) have a weak bacteriostatic effect on Escherichia coli expressed as an extended adaptive phase of the bacteria up to 5 hours from the beginning of the experiment, but the final effect is only 10 times lower bacterial density than in the control. The individual Al 2 O 3 film (20 nm) has no antibacterial effect against two strains E. coli - industrial and pathogenic. The Al 2 O 3 /Ag bilayer films (Al 2 O 3 20 nm/Ag 8 nm) have strong bactericidal effect on Pseudomonas putida and demonstrate an effective time of disinfection for 2 hours. The individual films Al2O3 and Ag have not pronounced antibacterial effect on Pseudomonas putida . A synergistic effect of Al2O3/Ag bilayer films in formation of oxidative species on the surface in contact with the bacterial suspension could be a reason for their antimicrobial effect on E. coli and P. putida . (paper)

  10. Construction and Characterization of an Escherichia coli Mutant Producing Kdo2-Lipid A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianli Wang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available 3-deoxy-d-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid (Kdo2-lipid A is the conserved structure domain of lipopolysaccharide found in most Gram-negative bacteria, and it is believed to stimulate the innate immune system through the TLR4/MD2 complex. Therefore, Kdo2-lipid A is an important stimulator for studying the mechanism of the innate immune system and for developing bacterial vaccine adjuvants. Kdo2-lipid A has not been chemically synthesized to date and could only be isolated from an Escherichia coli mutant strain, WBB06. WBB06 cells grow slowly and have to grow in the presence of tetracycline. In this study, a novel E. coli mutant strain, WJW00, that could synthesize Kdo2-lipid A was constructed by deleting the rfaD gene from the genome of E. coli W3110. The rfaD gene encodes ADP-l-glycero-d-manno-heptose-6-epimerase RfaD. Based on the analysis by SDS-PAGE, thin layer chromatography (TLC and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI/MS, WJW00 could produce similar levels of Kdo2-lipid A to WBB06. WJW00 cells grow much better than WBB06 cells and do not need to add any antibiotics during growth. Compared with the wild-type strain, W3110, WJW00 showed increased hydrophobicity, higher cell permeability, greater autoaggregation and decreased biofilm-forming ability. Therefore, WJW00 could be a more suitable strain than WBB06 for producing Kdo2-lipid A and a good base strain for developing lipid A adjuvants.

  11. Dissecting the hydrogenase expression and activity of transformed escherichia coli with the bidirectional NiFe-hydrogenase from synechocystis sp. PCC 6803

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Yu Ran; Lee, Min Hee; An, Byung Chull; Chung, Byung Yeoup; Kim, Jae Sung; Kim, Jin Hong; Park, Youn Il; Kim, Cha Soon

    2009-01-01

    Synechocystis bidirectional hydrogenase genes (hoxEFUYH) and their putative promoter regions and transformed into E. coli. The hox genes were transcribed in the E. coli cells carrying the vector construct of pCCIFOS::phox::hox or pCCIFOS::pT7::hox and translated into HoxEFUYH proteins, suggesting that the putative hox promoter can be constitutively activated in E. coli. Accordingly, the total hydrogenase activity was markedly increased up to 192% or 169% in the transformed cells, while the hydrogen uptake was decreased up to about 30% of the negative control. Although the gene expression of LexA, the only one transcription regulator proven for the hox genes, was substantially decreased in the pCCIFOS::phox::hox cells after γ-irradiation of 30 Gy, the expression levels of HoxEFUYH proteins were not altered significantly. Thus, it is also suggested that other transcription regulators as well as LexA might contribute to activation of the hox promoter in E. coli

  12. Comprehensive mutagenesis of the fimS promoter regulatory switch reveals novel regulation of type 1 pili in uropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huibin; Susanto, Teodorus T; Wan, Yue; Chen, Swaine L

    2016-04-12

    Type 1 pili (T1P) are major virulence factors for uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), which cause both acute and recurrent urinary tract infections. T1P expression therefore is of direct relevance for disease. T1P are phase variable (both piliated and nonpiliated bacteria exist in a clonal population) and are controlled by an invertible DNA switch (fimS), which contains the promoter for the fim operon encoding T1P. Inversion of fimS is stochastic but may be biased by environmental conditions and other signals that ultimately converge at fimS itself. Previous studies of fimS sequences important for T1P phase variation have focused on laboratory-adapted E coli strains and have been limited in the number of mutations or by alteration of the fimS genomic context. We surmounted these limitations by using saturating genomic mutagenesis of fimS coupled with accurate sequencing to detect both mutations and phase status simultaneously. In addition to the sequences known to be important for biasing fimS inversion, our method also identifies a previously unknown pair of 5' UTR inverted repeats that act by altering the relative fimA levels to control phase variation. Thus we have uncovered an additional layer of T1P regulation potentially impacting virulence and the coordinate expression of multiple pilus systems.

  13. Regulation of Toll-like receptor 2 interaction with Ecgp96 controls Escherichia coli K1 invasion of brain endothelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnan, Subramanian; Chen, Shuang; Turcatel, Gianluca; Arditi, Moshe; Prasadarao, Nemani V.

    2012-01-01

    The interaction of outer membrane protein A (OmpA) with its receptor, Ecgp96 (a homologue of Hsp90β) is critical for the pathogenesis of E. coli K1 meningitis. Since Hsp90 chaperones Toll-like receptors (TLRs), we examined the role of TLRs in E. coli K1 infection. Herein, we show that newborn TLR2−/− mice are resistant to E. coli K1 meningitis, while TLR4−/− mice succumb to infection sooner. In vitro, OmpA+ E. coli infection selectively upregulates Ecgp96 and TLR2 in human brain microvascular...

  14. Effects of substitutions at position 180 in the Escherichia coli RNA ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Escherichia coli RNA polymerase, two mutant variants of the protein with substitutions for either alanine or glutamic .... promoter signals utilized for in vitro transcription assays and ..... free recombinant protein using a self-cleavable affinity tag.

  15. Sekuen Nukleotida Gene Shiga like toxin-2 dari Isolat Lokal Escherichia coli O157:H7 asal Hewan dan Manusia (NUCLEOTIDES SQUENCES OF SHIGA-LIKE TOXIN 2 GENES OF ESCHERICHIA COLI O157:H7 LOCAL ISOLATES ORIGINATED FROM ANIMALS AND HUMAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Suardana

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Animals/livestock, especially cattle, are known as the main reservoir of Escherichia coli O157: H7. As the only one of zoonotic E. coli, the pathogenicity of these bacteria is determined by its ability to produce one or more very potent cytotoxin known as Shiga-like toxin (Stx or verocytotoxin, particularly of the Stx2 type that is closely related to the incidence of hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS in humans. This study analyzed the nucleotide sequences of stx2 gene between isolates from animals and humans in an effort to assess the potential zoonoses of the agent. The research activity was initiated by cultivating 20 isolates of E. coli O157:H7 collection based on result in the previous study i.e. 2 isolates originated from cattle feces, 2 isolates originated from beef, 2 isolates originated from chicken feces, 2 isolates originated from human feces, and 12 non-clinical isolates originated from human fecal who were suffering with renal failure. All isolates were confirmed on selective medium Sorbitol MacConkey Agar (SMAC followed by testing on aglutination O157 latex test, and H7 antisera. Molecular analysis of stx2 gene covering open reading frame (ORF of the stx2 gene was performed using the primer which was designed by researcher i.e. Stx2 (F/Stx2 (R. The results showed, there were 2 isolates i.e. KL-48 (2 originated from human feces and SM-25 (1 originated from cattle feces were positive for carrying a stx2 gene, which was marked by the 1587 bp PCR product. Analysis of sequencing showed both isolates had identical to stx2 nucleotide squences with E. phaga 933 as well as E. coli ATCC 933. These results indicate the both local isolates are potential as zoonotic agents with clinical effects similar to E. phaga 933 and E. coli ATCC 43894. ABSTRAK Hewan ternak khususnya sapi, dikenal sebagai reservoir utama Escherichia coli O157:H7. Sebagai satu-satunya serotipe E. coli yang bersifat zoonosis, patogenitas bakteri ini ditentukan oleh kemampuannya

  16. Development of inducer-free expression plasmids based on IPTG-inducible promoters for Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Dinh Thi Minh; Phan, Trang Thi Phuong; Huynh, Thanh Kieu; Dang, Ngan Thi Kim; Huynh, Phuong Thi Kim; Nguyen, Tri Minh; Truong, Tuom Thi Tinh; Tran, Thuoc Linh; Schumann, Wolfgang; Nguyen, Hoang Duc

    2017-07-25

    the inducible vector using the same promoter. Finally, we used gfp as a reporter gene in combination with the two promoters Pgrac01 and Pgrac100 to test the new vector types. The GFP expression levels could be repressed at least 1.5 times for the Pgrac01-gfp+ inducer-free construct in E. coli. The inducer-free constructs Pgrac01-gfp+ and Pgrac100-gfp+ allowed GFP expression at high levels from 23 × 10 4 to 32 × 10 4 RFU units and 9-13% of total intracellular proteins. We could reconfirm the two major advantages of the new inducer-free expression plasmids: (1) Strong repression of the target gene expression in the E. coli cloning strain, and (2) production of the target protein at high levels in B. subtilis in the absence of the inducer. We propose a general strategy to generate inducer-free expression vector by using IPTG-inducible vectors, and more specifically we developed inducer-free expression plasmids using IPTG-inducible promoters in the absence of the LacI repressor. These plasmids could be an excellent choice for high-level production of recombinant proteins in B. subtilis without the addition of inducer and at the same time maintaining a low basal level of the recombinant proteins in E. coli. The repression of the recombinant gene expression would facilitate cloning of genes that potentially inhibit the growth of E. coli cloning strains. The inducer-free expression plasmids will be extended versions of the current available IPTG-inducible expression vectors for B. subtilis, in which all these vectors use the same cognate promoters. These inducer-free and previously developed IPTG-inducible expression plasmids will be a useful cassette to study gene expression at a small scale up to a larger scale up for the production of recombinant proteins.

  17. Evaluation of the Live Biotherapeutic Product, Asymptomatic Bacteriuria Escherichia coli 2-12, in Healthy Dogs and Dogs with Clinical Recurrent UTI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segev, G; Sykes, J E; Klumpp, D J; Schaeffer, A J; Antaki, E M; Byrne, B A; Yaggie, R E; Westropp, J L

    2018-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is an emerging problem. To investigate the safety and efficacy of a live biotherapeutic product, ASB E. coli 2-12 for UTI treatment. Six healthy research dogs; nine client-owned dogs with recurrent UTI. Prospective noncontrolled clinical trial. For safety data, research dogs were sedated, a urinary catheter was inserted into the bladder; 10 10 CFU/mL of ASB E. coli 2-12 was instilled. Urine was cultured on days 1, 3, and 8 post-instillation and dogs were observed for lower urinary tract signs (LUTS). For client-owned dogs, ASB E. coli 2-12 was instilled similarly and urine cultures analyzed on days 1, 7, and 14 days postinstillation. No LUTS were noted in any of the 6 research dogs after ASB E. coli 2-12 infusion. Pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) studies confirmed the bacterial strains isolated matched that ASB E. coli 2-12 strain. Four of the nine client-owned dogs had complete or nearly complete clinical cures by day 14. Of these four dogs, 3 also had microbiologic cures at day 14; one of these dogs had subclinical bacteriuria (in addition to ASB E. coli 2-12). Three of these four dogs had ASB E. coli 2-12 isolated from their urine at day 14. With the exception of mild, temporary, self-limiting, hyporexia in two dogs on the day of biotherapeutic administration, there were no major adverse effects. These results suggest ASB E. coli 2-12 is safe and should be investigated in a larger controlled study evaluating clinical UTI in dogs. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  18. Comparative analysis of regulatory elements between Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae by genome-wide transcription start site profiling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghyuk Kim

    Full Text Available Genome-wide transcription start site (TSS profiles of the enterobacteria Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae were experimentally determined through modified 5' RACE followed by deep sequencing of intact primary mRNA. This identified 3,746 and 3,143 TSSs for E. coli and K. pneumoniae, respectively. Experimentally determined TSSs were then used to define promoter regions and 5' UTRs upstream of coding genes. Comparative analysis of these regulatory elements revealed the use of multiple TSSs, identical sequence motifs of promoter and Shine-Dalgarno sequence, reflecting conserved gene expression apparatuses between the two species. In both species, over 70% of primary transcripts were expressed from operons having orthologous genes during exponential growth. However, expressed orthologous genes in E. coli and K. pneumoniae showed a strikingly different organization of upstream regulatory regions with only 20% identical promoters with TSSs in both species. Over 40% of promoters had TSSs identified in only one species, despite conserved promoter sequences existing in the other species. 662 conserved promoters having TSSs in both species resulted in the same number of comparable 5' UTR pairs, and that regulatory element was found to be the most variant region in sequence among promoter, 5' UTR, and ORF. In K. pneumoniae, 48 sRNAs were predicted and 36 of them were expressed during exponential growth. Among them, 34 orthologous sRNAs between two species were analyzed in depth, and the analysis showed that many sRNAs of K. pneumoniae, including pleiotropic sRNAs such as rprA, arcZ, and sgrS, may work in the same way as in E. coli. These results reveal a new dimension of comparative genomics such that a comparison of two genomes needs to be comprehensive over all levels of genome organization.

  19. Engineering of E. coli for increased production of L- lactic acid

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-15

    Sep 15, 2009 ... Wakamatsu-ku, Kitakyushu-shi, Fukuoka, Japan. Accepted 11 ... was cloned into pBAD vector and transformed into E. coli SZ85 by electroporation. SDS-page and ..... replacement. In the first construct, the internal promoter.

  20. Structure of protease-cleaved Escherichia coli α-2-macroglobulin reveals a putative mechanism of conformational activation for protease entrapment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fyfe, Cameron D.; Grinter, Rhys; Josts, Inokentijs; Mosbahi, Khedidja; Roszak, Aleksander W.; Cogdell, Richard J.; Wall, Daniel M.; Burchmore, Richard J. S.; Byron, Olwyn; Walker, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The X-ray structure of protease-cleaved E. coli α-2-macroglobulin is described, which reveals a putative mechanism of activation and conformational change essential for protease inhibition. Bacterial α-2-macroglobulins have been suggested to function in defence as broad-spectrum inhibitors of host proteases that breach the outer membrane. Here, the X-ray structure of protease-cleaved Escherichia coli α-2-macroglobulin is described, which reveals a putative mechanism of activation and conformational change essential for protease inhibition. In this competitive mechanism, protease cleavage of the bait-region domain results in the untethering of an intrinsically disordered region of this domain which disrupts native interdomain interactions that maintain E. coli α-2-macroglobulin in the inactivated form. The resulting global conformational change results in entrapment of the protease and activation of the thioester bond that covalently links to the attacking protease. Owing to the similarity in structure and domain architecture of Escherichia coli α-2-macroglobulin and human α-2-macroglobulin, this protease-activation mechanism is likely to operate across the diverse members of this group

  1. Structure of protease-cleaved Escherichia coli α-2-macroglobulin reveals a putative mechanism of conformational activation for protease entrapment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fyfe, Cameron D.; Grinter, Rhys; Josts, Inokentijs; Mosbahi, Khedidja [University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Scotland (United Kingdom); Roszak, Aleksander W. [University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Scotland (United Kingdom); University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Scotland (United Kingdom); Cogdell, Richard J.; Wall, Daniel M.; Burchmore, Richard J. S.; Byron, Olwyn; Walker, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.walker@glasgow.ac.uk [University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-30

    The X-ray structure of protease-cleaved E. coli α-2-macroglobulin is described, which reveals a putative mechanism of activation and conformational change essential for protease inhibition. Bacterial α-2-macroglobulins have been suggested to function in defence as broad-spectrum inhibitors of host proteases that breach the outer membrane. Here, the X-ray structure of protease-cleaved Escherichia coli α-2-macroglobulin is described, which reveals a putative mechanism of activation and conformational change essential for protease inhibition. In this competitive mechanism, protease cleavage of the bait-region domain results in the untethering of an intrinsically disordered region of this domain which disrupts native interdomain interactions that maintain E. coli α-2-macroglobulin in the inactivated form. The resulting global conformational change results in entrapment of the protease and activation of the thioester bond that covalently links to the attacking protease. Owing to the similarity in structure and domain architecture of Escherichia coli α-2-macroglobulin and human α-2-macroglobulin, this protease-activation mechanism is likely to operate across the diverse members of this group.

  2. Antimicrobial resistance in clinical Escherichia coli isolates from poultry and livestock, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afrah Kamal Yassin

    Full Text Available Poultry and livestock are the most important reservoirs for pathogenic Escherichia coli and use of antimicrobials in animal farming is considered the most important factor promoting the emergence, selection and dissemination of antimicrobial-resistant microorganisms. The aim of our study was to investigate antimicrobial resistance in E. coli isolated from food animals in Jiangsu, China. The disc diffusion method was used to determine susceptibility to 18 antimicrobial agents in 862 clinical isolates collected from chickens, ducks, pigs, and cows between 2004 and 2012. Overall, 94% of the isolates showed resistance to at least one drug with 83% being resistance to at least three different classes of antimicrobials. The isolates from the different species were most commonly resistant to tetracycline, nalidixic acid, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and ampicillin, and showed increasing resistance to amikacin, aztreonam, ceftazidime, cefotaxime, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin. They were least resistant to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (3.4% and ertapenem (0.2%. MDR was most common in isolates from ducks (44/44, 100%, followed by chickens (568/644, 88.2%, pigs (93/113, 82.3% and cows (13/61, 21.3%. Our finding that clinical E. coli isolates from poultry and livestock are commonly resistant to multiple antibiotics should alert public health and veterinary authorities to limit and rationalize antimicrobial use in China.

  3. Suppressors of DnaAATP imposed overinitiation in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charbon, Godefroid; Riber, Leise; Cohen, Malene

    2011-01-01

    Chromosome replication in Escherichia coli is limited by the supply of DnaA associated with ATP. Cells deficient in RIDA (Regulatory Inactivation of DnaA) due to a deletion of the hda gene accumulate suppressor mutations (hsm) to counteract the overinitiation caused by an elevated DnaAATP level....... Eight spontaneous hda suppressor mutations were identified by whole-genome sequencing, and three of these were analysed further. Two mutations (hsm-2 and hsm-4) mapped in the dnaA gene and led to a reduced ability to initiate replication from oriC. One mutation (hsm-1) mapped to the seqA promoter...

  4. Downregulation of adenomatous polyposis coli by microRNA-663 promotes odontogenic differentiation through activation of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae-Sung; Park, Min-Gyeong; Lee, Seul Ah; Park, Sun-Young; Kim, Heung-Joong; Yu, Sun-Kyoung; Kim, Chun Sung; Kim, Su-Gwan; Oh, Ji-Su; You, Jae-Seek; Kim, Jin-Soo; Seo, Yo-Seob [Oral Biology Research Institute, School of Dentistry, Chosun University, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Chun, Hong Sung [Department of Biomedical Science, Chosun University, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Joo-Cheol [Department of Oral Histology-Developmental Biology, School of Dentistry and Dental Research Institute, BK 21, Seoul National University, Seoul 110-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Do Kyung, E-mail: kdk@chosun.ac.kr [Oral Biology Research Institute, School of Dentistry, Chosun University, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-18

    Highlights: • miR-663 is significantly up-regulated during MDPC-23 odontoblastic cell differentiation. • miR-663 accelerates mineralization in MDPC-23 odontoblastic cells without cell proliferation. • miR-663 promotes odontoblastic cell differentiation by targeting APC and activating Wnt/β-catenin signaling in MDPC-23 cells. - Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate cell differentiation by inhibiting mRNA translation or by inducing its degradation. However, the role of miRNAs in odontogenic differentiation is largely unknown. In this present study, we observed that the expression of miR-663 increased significantly during differentiation of MDPC-23 cells to odontoblasts. Furthermore, up-regulation of miR-663 expression promoted odontogenic differentiation and accelerated mineralization without proliferation in MDPC-23 cells. In addition, target gene prediction for miR-663 revealed that the mRNA of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene, which is associated with the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, has a miR-663 binding site in its 3′-untranslated region (3′UTR). Furthermore, APC expressional was suppressed significantly by miR-663, and this down-regulation of APC expression triggered activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling through accumulation of β-catenin in the nucleus. Taken together, these findings suggest that miR-663 promotes differentiation of MDPC-23 cells to odontoblasts by targeting APC-mediated activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Therefore, miR-663 can be considered a critical regulator of odontoblast differentiation and can be utilized for developing miRNA-based therapeutic agents.

  5. Are Escherichia coli Pathotypes Still Relevant in the Era of Whole-Genome Sequencing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins-Browne, Roy M.; Holt, Kathryn E.; Ingle, Danielle J.; Hocking, Dianna M.; Yang, Ji; Tauschek, Marija

    2016-01-01

    The empirical and pragmatic nature of diagnostic microbiology has given rise to several different schemes to subtype E.coli, including biotyping, serotyping, and pathotyping. These schemes have proved invaluable in identifying and tracking outbreaks, and for prognostication in individual cases of infection, but they are imprecise and potentially misleading due to the malleability and continuous evolution of E. coli. Whole genome sequencing can be used to accurately determine E. coli subtypes that are based on allelic variation or differences in gene content, such as serotyping and pathotyping. Whole genome sequencing also provides information about single nucleotide polymorphisms in the core genome of E. coli, which form the basis of sequence typing, and is more reliable than other systems for tracking the evolution and spread of individual strains. A typing scheme for E. coli based on genome sequences that includes elements of both the core and accessory genomes, should reduce typing anomalies and promote understanding of how different varieties of E. coli spread and cause disease. Such a scheme could also define pathotypes more precisely than current methods. PMID:27917373

  6. Building a complete image of genome regulation in the model organism Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihama, Akira

    2018-01-15

    The model organism, Escherichia coli, contains a total of more than 4,500 genes, but the total number of RNA polymerase (RNAP) core enzyme or the transcriptase is only about 2,000 molecules per genome. The regulatory targets of RNAP are, however, modulated by changing its promoter selectivity through two-steps of protein-protein interplay with 7 species of the sigma factor in the first step, and then 300 species of the transcription factor (TF) in the second step. Scientists working in the field of prokaryotic transcription in Japan have made considerable contributions to the elucidation of genetic frameworks and regulatory modes of the genome transcription in E. coli K-12. This review summarizes the findings by this group, first focusing on three sigma factors, the stationary-phase sigma RpoS, the heat-shock sigma RpoH, and the flagellar-chemotaxis sigma RpoF, as examples. It also presents an overview of the current state of the systematic research being carried out to identify the regulatory functions of all TFs from a single and the same bacterium E. coli K-12, using the genomic SELEX and PS-TF screening systems. All these studies have been undertaken with the aim of understanding the genome regulation in E. coli K-12 as a whole.

  7. Effect of chlorine treatment on inhibition of E. coli serogroup O2 incorporation into 7-day-old biofilm on polyvinylchloride surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharjan, P; Dey, S; Huff, G; Zhang, W; Phillips, G K; Watkins, S

    2017-08-01

    Poultry waterlines are constructed using polyvinylchloride (PVC) material on which bacterial biofilm can easily form. Biofilm can harbor pathogens including avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) strains. An in vitro evaluation was performed to determine if E. coli sero group O2 (avian pathogenic) could attach on a PVC surface that had pre-formed biofilm and if this phenomenon could be affected when water was treated with chlorine. Initially, biofilm growth was induced in PVC test coupons (15.16 cm2) for a 7-day period mimicking the waterline scenario in the first wk of poultry brooding; and then this biofilm was challenged with E. coli O2 seeded water in presence/absence of chlorine treatment. After rinsing, test coupons were sampled for bacterial (APC) and E. coli O2 enumeration at various occasions post seeding the pathogen and chlorine treatment. Day 7 APC recovered from coupons was 4.35 log10 cfu/cm2 in trial 1 and 3.66 log10 cfu/cm2 in trial 2. E. coli O2 was not recovered from chlorine treated test coupons (P  3 log10 cfu/cm2 in trial 1 and > 2 log10 cfu/cm2 in trial 2). This study suggests that E. coli O2 can incorporate into pre-formed biofilm on a PVC surface within 24 h if water sanitation is not present, and the attachment time of the pathogen can prolong in the absence of already formed biofilm. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  8. 1,2-Fucosyllactose Does Not Improve Intestinal Function or Prevent Escherichia coli F18 Diarrhea in Newborn Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cilieborg, Malene Skovsted; Sangild, Per Torp; Jensen, Michael Ladegaard

    2017-01-01

    of mucosa and activities of some brush border enzymes in the proximal small intestine. In situ abundance of α-1,2-fucose and E coli was similar between groups, whereas sequencing showed higher abundance of Enterobacteriaceae in F18, Enterococcus in control and Lachnospiraceae in 2FL-F18 pigs. Conclusions: 2......′-FL inhibited in vitro adhesion of E coli F18 to epithelial cells, but had limited effects on diarrhea and mucosal health in newborn pigs challenged with E coli F18...... in the intestine and may in part explain the protective effects of human milk. We hypothesized that 2′-FL prevents diarrhea via competitive inhibition of pathogen adhesion in a pig model for sensitive newborn infants. Methods: Intestinal cell studies were coupled with studies on cesarean-delivered newborn pigs (n...

  9. Development of a native Escherichia coli induction system for ionic liquid tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijke Frederix

    Full Text Available The ability to solubilize lignocellulose makes certain ionic liquids (ILs very effective reagents for pretreating biomass prior to its saccharification for biofuel fermentation. However, residual IL in the aqueous sugar solution can inhibit the growth and function of biofuel-producing microorganisms. In E. coli this toxicity can be partially overcome by the heterologous expression of an IL efflux pump encoded by eilA from Enterobacter lignolyticus. In the present work, we used microarray analysis to identify native E. coli IL-inducible promoters and develop control systems for regulating eilA gene expression. Three candidate promoters, PmarR', PydfO', and PydfA', were selected and compared to the IPTG-inducible PlacUV5 system for controlling expression of eilA. The PydfA' and PmarR' based systems are as effective as PlacUV5 in their ability to rescue E. coli from typically toxic levels of IL, thereby eliminating the need to use an IPTG-based system for such tolerance engineering. We present a mechanistic model indicating that inducible control systems reduce target gene expression when IL levels are low. Selected-reaction monitoring mass spectrometry analysis revealed that at high IL concentrations EilA protein levels were significantly elevated under the control of PydfA' and PmarR' in comparison to the other promoters. Further, in a pooled culture competition designed to determine fitness, the strain containing pPmarR'-eilA outcompeted strains with other promoter constructs, most significantly at IL concentrations above 150 mM. These results indicate that native promoters such as PmarR' can provide effective systems for regulating the expression of heterologous genes in host engineering and simplify the development of industrially useful strains.

  10. Genotype to phenotype mapping and the fitness landscape of the E. coli lac promoter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Otwinowski

    Full Text Available Genotype-to-phenotype maps and the related fitness landscapes that include epistatic interactions are difficult to measure because of their high dimensional structure. Here we construct such a map using the recently collected corpora of high-throughput sequence data from the 75 base pairs long mutagenized E. coli lac promoter region, where each sequence is associated with its phenotype, the induced transcriptional activity measured by a fluorescent reporter. We find that the additive (non-epistatic contributions of individual mutations account for about two-thirds of the explainable phenotype variance, while pairwise epistasis explains about 7% of the variance for the full mutagenized sequence and about 15% for the subsequence associated with protein binding sites. Surprisingly, there is no evidence for third order epistatic contributions, and our inferred fitness landscape is essentially single peaked, with a small amount of antagonistic epistasis. There is a significant selective pressure on the wild type, which we deduce to be multi-objective optimal for gene expression in environments with different nutrient sources. We identify transcription factor (CRP and RNA polymerase binding sites in the promotor region and their interactions without difficult optimization steps. In particular, we observe evidence for previously unexplored genetic regulatory mechanisms, possibly kinetic in nature. We conclude with a cautionary note that inferred properties of fitness landscapes may be severely influenced by biases in the sequence data.

  11. Pyranose 2-oxidase from Phanerochaete chrysosporium : expression in E. coli and biochemical characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ines Pisanelli; Magdalena Kujawa; Oliver Spadiut; Roman Kittl; Petr Halada; Jindrich Volc; Michael D. Mozuch; Philip Kersten; Dietmar Haltrich; Clemens Peterbauer

    2009-01-01

    The presented work reports the isolation and heterologous expression of the p2ox gene encoding the flavoprotein pyranose 2-oxidase (P2Ox) from the basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium. The p2ox cDNA was inserted into the bacterial expression vector pET21a(+) and successfully expressed in Escherichia coli. We obtained active, fully flavinylated recombinant P2Ox in...

  12. Replication of Vibrio cholerae chromosome I in Escherichia coli: dependence on dam methylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Birgit; Ma, Xiaofang; Løbner-Olesen, Anders

    2010-01-01

    . cholerae chromosome I replication, which similar to what is observed for E. coli. No hda homologue has been identified in V. cholerae yet. In V. cholerae, dam is essential for viability, whereas in E. coli, dam mutants are viable. Replacement of E. coli oriC with oriCIVc allowed us to specifically address...... the role of the Dam methyltransferase and SeqA in replication initiation from oriCIVc. We show that when E. coli's origin of replication is substituted by oriCIVc, dam, but not seqA, becomes important for growth, arguing that Dam methylation exerts a critical function at the origin of replication itself....... We propose that Dam methylation promotes DnaA-assisted successful duplex opening and replisome assembly at oriCIVc in E. coli. In this model, methylation at oriCIVc would ease DNA melting. This is supported by the fact that the requirement for dam can be alleviated by increasing negative supercoiling...

  13. The ygaVP Genes of Escherichia coli Form a Tributyltin-Inducible Operon▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Gueuné, Hervé; Durand, Marie-José; Thouand, Gérald; DuBow, Michael S.

    2008-01-01

    A tributyltin (TBT) luxAB transcriptional fusion in Escherichia coli revealed that a TBT-activated promoter is located upstream of two cotranscribed orphan genes, ygaV and ygaP. We demonstrate that transcription from the promoter upstream of ygaVP is constitutive in a ygaVP mutant, suggesting that YgaV is an autoregulated, TBT-inducible repressor.

  14. Binding of the cyclic AMP receptor protein of Escherichia coli and DNA bending at the P4 promoter of pBR322.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brierley, I; Hoggett, J G

    1992-07-01

    The binding of the Escherichia coli cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) to its specific site on the P4 promoter of pBR322 has been studied by gel electrophoresis. Binding to the P4 site was about 40-50-fold weaker than to the principal CRP site on the lactose promoter at both low (0.01 M) and high (0.1 M) ionic strengths. CRP-induced bending at the P4 site was investigated from the mobilities of CRP bound to circularly permuted P4 fragments. The estimated bending angle, based on comparison with Zinkel & Crothers [(1990) Biopolymers 29, 29-38] A-tract bending standards, was found to be approximately 96 degrees, similar to that found for binding to the lac site. These observations suggest that there is not a simple relationship between strength of CRP binding and the extent of induced bending for different CRP sites. The apparent centre of bending in P4 is displaced about 6-8 bp away from the conserved TGTGA sequence and the P4 transcription start site.

  15. Synergistic effect of heat and solar UV on DNA damage and water disinfection of E. coli and bacteriophage MS2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theitler, Dana Jennifer; Nasser, Abid; Gerchman, Yoram; Kribus, Abraham; Mamane, Hadas

    2012-12-01

    The response of a representative virus and indicator bacteria to heating, solar irradiation, or their combination, was investigated in a controlled solar simulator and under real sun conditions. Heating showed higher inactivation of Escherichia coli compared to the bacteriophage MS2. Heating combined with natural or simulated solar irradiation demonstrated a synergistic effect on the inactivation of E. coli, with up to 3-log difference for 50 °C and natural sun insolation of 2,000 kJ m(-2) (compared to the sum of the separate treatments). Similar synergistic effect was also evident when solar-UV induced DNA damage to E. coli was assessed using the endonuclease sensitive site assay (ESS). MS2 was found to be highly resistant to irradiation and heat, with a slightly synergistic effect observed only at 59 °C and natural sun insolation of 5,580 kJ m(-2). Heat treatment also hindered light-dependent recovery of E. coli making the treatment much more effective.

  16. Differential expression of the Escherichia coli autoaggregation factor antigen 43

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schembri, Mark; Hjerrild, Louise; Gjermansen, Morten

    2003-01-01

    Antigen 43 (Ag43) is a self-recognizing surface adhesin found in most Escherichia coli strains. Due to its excellent cell-to-cell aggregation characteristics, Ag43 expression confers clumping and fluffing of cells and promotes biofilm formation. Ag43 expression is repressed by the cellular redox...

  17. Isolation and characterization of mutant strains of Escherichia coli altered in H2 metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.H.; Patel, P.; Sankar, P.; Shanmugam, K.T.

    1985-01-01

    A positive selection procedure is described for the isolation of hydrogenase-defective mutant strains of Escherichia coli. Mutant strains isolated by this procedure can be divided into two major classes. Class II mutants produced hydrogenase activity (determined by using a tritium-exchange assay) and formate hydrogenlyase activity but lacked the ability to reduce benzyl viologen or fumarate with H 2 as the electron donor. Class I mutants failed to produce active hydrogenase and hydrogenase-dependent activities. All the mutant strains produced detectable levels of formate dehydrogenase-1 and -2 and fumarate reductase. The mutation in class I mutants mapped near 65 min of the E. coli chromosome, whereas the mutation in class II mutants mapped between srl and cys operons (58 and 59 min, respectively) in the genome. The class II Hyd mutants can be further subdivided into two groups (hydA and hydB) based on the cotransduction characteristics with cys and srl. These results indicate that there are two hyd operons and one hup operon in the E. coli chromosome. The two hyd operons are needed for the production of active hydrogenase, and all three are essential for hydrogen-dependent growth of the cell

  18. Norwegian patients and retail chicken meat share cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli and IncK/blaCMY-2 resistance plasmids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, E S; Wester, A L; Ahrenfeldt, J; Mo, S S; Slettemeås, J S; Steinbakk, M; Samuelsen, Ø; Grude, N; Simonsen, G S; Løhr, I H; Jørgensen, S B; Tofteland, S; Lund, O; Dahle, U R; Sunde, M

    2017-06-01

    In 2012 and 2014 the Norwegian monitoring programme for antimicrobial resistance in the veterinary and food production sectors (NORM-VET) showed that 124 of a total of 406 samples (31%) of Norwegian retail chicken meat were contaminated with extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli. The aim of this study was to compare selected cephalosporin-resistant E. coli from humans and poultry to determine their genetic relatedness based on whole genome sequencing (WGS). Escherichia coli representing three prevalent cephalosporin-resistant multi-locus sequence types (STs) isolated from poultry (n=17) were selected from the NORM-VET strain collections. All strains carried an IncK plasmid with a bla CMY-2 gene. Clinical E. coli isolates (n=284) with AmpC-mediated resistance were collected at Norwegian microbiology laboratories from 2010 to 2014. PCR screening showed that 29 of the clinical isolates harboured both IncK and bla CMY-2 . All IncK/bla CMY-2 -positive isolates were analysed with WGS-based bioinformatics tools. Analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in 2.5 Mbp of shared genome sequences showed close relationship, with fewer than 15 SNP differences between five clinical isolates from urinary tract infections (UTIs) and the ST38 isolates from poultry. Furthermore, all of the 29 clinical isolates harboured IncK/bla CMY-2 plasmid variants highly similar to the IncK/bla CMY-2 plasmid present in the poultry isolates. Our results provide support for the hypothesis that clonal transfer of cephalosporin-resistant E. coli from chicken meat to humans may occur, and may cause difficult-to-treat infections. Furthermore, these E. coli can be a source of AmpC-resistance plasmids for opportunistic pathogens in the human microbiota. Copyright © 2017 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Characterization of diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli isolates in Jordanian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehabi, Asem A; Bulos, Najawa-Kuri; Hajjaj, Kamal G

    2003-01-01

    In a prospective study carried out among Jordanian children in Amman, a total of 73/250 (29.2%) stool specimens were positive for 1 or more diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli strains using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction method. This study indicated that diarrhoeagenic E. coli isolates were found frequently more in stools of children with diarrhoea (34%) than without diarrhoea (23.1%), but without any significant difference (p > 0.05). The predominant diarrhoeagenic E. coli strains associated with diarrhoea were enteropathogenic E. coli (11.3%), followed by enterotoxigenic E. coli (9.8%) and enteroaggrative E. coli (9%), whereas in the control group these were 4.3%, 11.1% and 6%, respectively. Enteroinvasive E. coli strains (2.9%) were found only in stools of children with diarrhoea. This study revealed the absence of enterohaemorrhagic E. coli in both diarrhoeal and control stools, and found that diarrhoeagenic E. coli isolates were highly resistance to tetracycline (55%), co-trimoxazole (60%) and ampicillin (89%), which are commonly used antibiotics in Jordan.

  20. Escherichia coli pathotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escherichia coli strains are important commensals of the intestinal tract of humans and animals; however, pathogenic strains, including diarrhea-inducing E. coli and extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli. Intestinal E. coli pathotypes may cause a dehydrating watery diarrhea, or more severe diseases su...

  1. Dual Functional Core-Shell Fluorescent Ag2S@Carbon Nanostructure for Selective Assay of E. coli O157:H7 and Bactericidal Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Wei, Xing; Zheng, An-Qi; Yang, Ting; Chen, Ming-Li; Wang, Jian-Hua

    2017-03-24

    A dual functional fluorescent core-shell Ag 2 S@Carbon nanostructure is prepared by a hydrothermally assisted multi-amino synthesis approach with folic acid (FA), polyethylenimine (PEI), and mannoses (Mans) as carbon and nitrogen sources (FA-PEI-Mans-Ag 2 S nanocomposite shortly as Ag 2 S@C). The nanostructure exhibits strong fluorescent emission at λ ex /λ em = 340/450 nm with a quantum yield of 12.57 ± 0.52%. Ag 2 S@C is bound to E. coli O157:H7 via strong interaction with the Mans moiety in Ag 2 S@C with FimH proteins on the fimbriae tip in E. coli O157:H7. Fluorescence emission from Ag 2 S@C/E. coli conjugate is closely related to the content of E. coli O157:H7. Thus, a novel procedure for fluorescence assay of E. coli O157:H7 is developed, offering a detection limit of 330 cfu mL -1 . Meanwhile, the Ag 2 S@C nanostructure exhibits excellent antibacterial performance against E. coli O157:H7. A 99.9% sterilization rate can be readily achieved for E. coli O157:H7 at a concentration of 10 6 -10 7 cfu mL -1 with 3.3 or 10 μg mL -1 of Ag 2 S@C with an interaction time of 5 or 0.5 min, respectively.

  2. Antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and characterization of ZnO and ZnO–Al2O3 mixed oxide nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertan Şahin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve better antibacterial water insoluble nanoparticles (Nanoparticles of ZnO and ZnO–Al2O3 were studied. ZnO–Al2O3 mixed oxide nanoparticles were produced from a solution containing Zn(AC22H2O and AlCl3 by Solvothermal method. The calcination process of the ZnO–Al2O3 composite nanoparticles brought forth polycrystalline one phase ZnO–Al2O3 nanoparticles of 30–50 nm in diameters. ZnO and ZnO–Al2O3 were crystallized into würtzite and rock salt structures, respectively. The structural properties of this sample were analyzed by XRD and compared with bulk case of these samples. Antibacterial effectiveness of the ZnO and ZnO–Al2O3 nanoparticles were tested against general Escherichia coli (E. coli ATCC 25922 and E. coli O157:H7 by measuring the growth through optical density and digital counting of live–dead cells. Minimum inhibitory concentration values against four representative bacteria along with E. coli O157:H7 were also obtained.

  3. Protective effects of indigenous Escherichia coli against a pathogenic E. coli challenge strain in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahjen, W; Cuisiniere, T; Zentek, J

    2017-10-13

    To investigate the inhibitory effect of indigenous enterobacteria on pathogenic Escherichia coli, a challenge trial with postweaning pigs was conducted. A pathogenic E. coli strain was administered to all animals and their health was closely monitored thereafter. Faecal samples were taken from three healthy and three diarrhoeic animals. Samples were cultivated on MacConkey agar and isolates were subcultured. A soft agar overlay assay was used to determine the inhibitory activity of the isolates. A total of 1,173 enterobacterial isolates were screened for their ability to inhibit the E. coli challenge strain. Colony forming units of enterobacteria on MacConkey agar were not different between healthy and diarrhoeic animals in the original samples. Furthermore, numbers of isolates per animal were also not significantly different between healthy (482 isolates) and diarrhoeic animals (691 isolates). A total of 43 isolates (3.7%) with inhibitory activity against the pathogenic E. coli challenge strain were detected. All inhibitory isolates were identified as E. coli via MALDI-TOF. The isolates belonged to the phylotypes A, C and E. Many isolates (67.4%) were commensal E. coli without relevant porcine pathogenic factors, but toxin- and fimbrial genes (stx2e, fae, estIb, elt1a, fas, fan) were detected in 14 inhibitory isolates. Healthy animals showed significantly (P=0.003) more inhibitory isolates (36 of 482 isolates; 7.5%) than diseased animals (7 of 691 isolates; 1.0%). There were no significant correlations regarding phylotype or pathogenic factors between healthy and diseased animals. This study has shown that a small proportion of indigenous E. coli is able to inhibit in vitro growth of a pathogenic E. coli strain in pigs. Furthermore, healthy animals possess significantly more inhibitory E. coli strains than diarrhoeic animals. The inhibition of pathogenic E. coli by specific indigenous E. coli strains may be an underlying principle for the containment of pathogenic

  4. ANIMAL ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubreuil, J. Daniel; Isaacson, Richard E.; Schifferli, Dieter M.

    2016-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is the most common cause of E. coli diarrhea in farm animals. ETEC are characterized by the ability to produce two types of virulence factors; adhesins that promote binding to specific enterocyte receptors for intestinal colonization and enterotoxins responsible for fluid secretion. The best-characterized adhesins are expressed in the context of fimbriae, such as the F4 (also designated K88), F5 (K99), F6 (987P), F17 and F18 fimbriae. Once established in the animal small intestine, ETEC produces enterotoxin(s) that lead to diarrhea. The enterotoxins belong to two major classes; heat-labile toxin that consist of one active and five binding subunits (LT), and heat-stable toxins that are small polypeptides (STa, STb, and EAST1). This chapter describes the disease and pathogenesis of animal ETEC, the corresponding virulence genes and protein products of these bacteria, their regulation and targets in animal hosts, as well as mechanisms of action. Furthermore, vaccines, inhibitors, probiotics and the identification of potential new targets identified by genomics are presented in the context of animal ETEC. PMID:27735786

  5. Protective effect of in ovo treatment with the chicken cathelicidin analog D-CATH-2 against avian pathogenic E. coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuperus, Tryntsje; van Dijk, Albert; Matthijs, Mieke G. R.; Veldhuizen, Edwin J. A.; Haagsman, Henk P.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing antibiotic resistance and ever stricter control on antibiotic use are a driving force to develop alternatives to antibiotics. One such strategy is the use of multifunctional Host Defense Peptides. Here we examined the protective effect of prophylactic treatment with the D analog of chicken cathelicidin-2 (D-CATH-2) against a respiratory E. coli infection. Chickens were treated with D-CATH-2 in ovo at day 18 of embryonic development or intramuscularly at days 1 and 4 after hatch. At 7 days of age, birds were challenged intratracheally with avian pathogenic E. coli. Protection was evaluated by recording mortality, morbidity (Mean Lesion Score) and bacterial swabs of air sacs at 7 days post-infection. In ovo D-CATH-2 treatment significantly reduced morbidity (63%) and respiratory bacterial load (>90%), while intramuscular treatment was less effective. D-CATH-2 increased the percentage of peripheral blood lymphocytes and heterophils by both administration routes. E. coli specific IgM levels were lower in in ovo treated animals compared to intramuscular D-CATH-2 treatment. In short, in ovo treatment with the Host Defense Peptide derived D-CATH-2 can partially protect chickens from E. coli infection, making this peptide an interesting starting point to develop alternatives to antibiotics for use in the poultry sector. PMID:27229866

  6. NanoSIMS50 analyses of Ar/18O2 plasma-treated Escherichia coli bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clément, F; Lecoq, E; Duday, D; Audinot, J-N; Lentzen, E; Penny, C; Cauchie, H-M; Choquet, P; Belmonte, T

    2011-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can be produced by electrical discharges and can be transported in uncharged regions by gas flows, in the so-called afterglows. These species are well known to have bactericidal effects but interaction mechanisms that occur with living micro-organisms remain misunderstood. In order to better understand these interactions, new analysis approaches are necessary. High-lateral-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) is one of the most promising ways of retrieving additional information on bacteria plasma inactivation mechanisms by combining isotopic imaging of plasma-treated bacteria and the use of 18 O 2 as process gas. Indeed, this technology combines a lateral resolution of a few tens of nanometres that is sufficient to image the interior of bacteria, and a high mass resolution allowing detection of isotopes present in low quantities (a few ppm or lower) within the bacteria. The present paper deals with Ar- 18 O 2 (2%) plasma treatment, through low-pressure microwave late afterglows, of Escherichia coli bacteria and their elemental and isotopic imaging by NanoSIMS. E. coli bacteria have been exposed to this reactive medium for varying treatment duration while keeping all other parameters unchanged. Our main goal is to determine whether the quantity of 18 O fixed in treated bacteria and the NanoSIMS50 lateral resolution are sufficient to give additional information on E. coli bacteria-plasma interaction. (paper)

  7. A novel autolysis system controlled by magnesium and its application to poly (3-hydroxypropionate) production in engineered Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamekou Lacmata, Stephen; Yao, Lan; Xian, Mo; Liu, Hui; Kuiate, Jules-Roger; Liu, Huizhou; Feng, Xinjun; Zhao, Guang

    2017-09-03

    The release of intracellular products, especially polyhydroxyalkanoates, is still a great challenge in industry. To solve this bottleneck, a novel autolysis system strictly controlled with magnesium was constructed and applied to poly(3-hydroxypropionate) production in engineered Escherichia coli. The autolysis system was constructed by inserting the 5'untranslated region (5'UTR) behind promoter PmgtA with lysis genes (S, R, and Rz, from E. coli) overexpressed. The autolysis system functioned well (lysis efficiency of more than 90%) in the P3HP producer with double plasmids containing lysis genes and P3HP biosynthesis genes, whereas the P3HP production was reduced due to plasmid losses. After the autolysis genes and P3HP biosynthesis genes were integrated into one plasmid, the P3HP content of 72.7% (2.4 times of the control) and the plasmid stability of 79.8 ± 3.1% were achieved in strain Q2646 with promoter PmgtA-UTR. However, the strain Q2647 with promoter PmgtA could not accumulate P3HP because of rapid cell lysis. The novel autolysis system activated in Mg 2+ -depleted conditions proves to be feasible for polyhydroxyalkanoates production, which may have great application potential for other intracellular products.

  8. Characterization of Escherichia coli Phylogenetic Groups ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Escherichia coli strains mainly fall into four phylogenetic groups (A, B1, B2, and D) and that virulent extra‑intestinal strains mainly belong to groups B2 and D. Aim: The aim was to determine the association between phylogenetic groups of E. coli causing extraintestinal infections (ExPEC) regarding the site of ...

  9. Natural LacI from E. coli Yields Faster Response and Higher Level of Expression than the LVA-Tagged LacI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Patrick Rosendahl; Fredberg, Sofie; Horan, Mattias

    2014-01-01

    The lac promoter is one of the most commonly used promoters for expression control of recombinant genes in E. coli. In the absence of galactosides, the lac promoter is repressed by its repressor protein LacI. Since the lac promoter is regulated by a repressor, overexpression of LacI is necessary...

  10. Escherichia coli producing CMY-2 β-lactamase in bovine mastitis milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endimiani, Andrea; Bertschy, Isabelle; Perreten, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    An Escherichia coli isolate producing the CMY-2 β-lactamase was found in the milk of a cow with recurrent subclinical mastitis. The isolate was resistant to the antibiotics commonly used for intramammary mastitis treatment, such as penicillins, cephalosporins, β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitor combinations, aminoglycosides, tetracyclines, and sulfonamides. This is the first report of a plasmid-mediated AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae in bovine milk.

  11. Optimization of the Expression of DT386-BR2 Fusion Protein in Escherichia coli using Response Surface Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiee, Fatemeh; Rabbani, Mohammad; Jahanian-Najafabadi, Ali

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the best condition for the production of DT386-BR2 fusion protein, an immunotoxin consisting of catalytic and translocation domains of diphtheria toxin fused to BR2, a cancer specific cell penetrating peptide, for targeted eradication of cancer cells, in terms of the host, cultivation condition, and culture medium. Recombinant pET28a vector containing the codons optimized for the expression of the DT386-BR2 gene was transformed to different strains of Escherichia coli ( E. coli BL21 DE3, E. coli Rosetta DE3 and E. coli Rosetta-gami 2 DE3), followed by the induction of expression using 1 mM IPTG. Then, the strain with the highest ability to produce recombinant protein was selected and used to determine the best expression condition using response surface methodology (RSM). Finally, the best culture medium was selected. Densitometry analysis of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the expressed fusion protein showed that E. coli Rosetta DE3 produced the highest amounts of the recombinant fusion protein when quantified by 1 mg/ml bovine serum albumin (178.07 μg/ml). Results of RSM also showed the best condition for the production of the recombinant fusion protein was induction with 1 mM IPTG for 2 h at 37°C. Finally, it was established that terrific broth could produce higher amounts of the fusion protein when compared to other culture media. In this study, we expressed the recombinant DT386-BR2 fusion protein in large amounts by optimizing the expression host, cultivation condition, and culture medium. This fusion protein will be subjected to purification and evaluation of its cytotoxic effects in future studies.

  12. Optimization of the Expression of DT386-BR2 Fusion Protein in Escherichia coli using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Shafiee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to determine the best condition for the production of DT386-BR2 fusion protein, an immunotoxin consisting of catalytic and translocation domains of diphtheria toxin fused to BR2, a cancer specific cell penetrating peptide, for targeted eradication of cancer cells, in terms of the host, cultivation condition, and culture medium. Materials and Methods: Recombinant pET28a vector containing the codons optimized for the expression of the DT386-BR2 gene was transformed to different strains of Escherichia coli (E. coli BL21 DE3, E. coli Rosetta DE3 and E. coli Rosetta-gami 2 DE3, followed by the induction of expression using 1 mM IPTG. Then, the strain with the highest ability to produce recombinant protein was selected and used to determine the best expression condition using response surface methodology (RSM. Finally, the best culture medium was selected. Results: Densitometry analysis of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the expressed fusion protein showed that E. coli Rosetta DE3 produced the highest amounts of the recombinant fusion protein when quantified by 1 mg/ml bovine serum albumin (178.07 μg/ml. Results of RSM also showed the best condition for the production of the recombinant fusion protein was induction with 1 mM IPTG for 2 h at 37°C. Finally, it was established that terrific broth could produce higher amounts of the fusion protein when compared to other culture media. Conclusion: In this study, we expressed the recombinant DT386-BR2 fusion protein in large amounts by optimizing the expression host, cultivation condition, and culture medium. This fusion protein will be subjected to purification and evaluation of its cytotoxic effects in future studies.

  13. A Phyletically Rare Gene Promotes the Niche-specific Fitness of an E. coli Pathogen during Bacteremia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiles, Travis J.; Lewis, Adam J.; Mobley, Harry L. T.; Casjens, Sherwood R.; Mulvey, Matthew A.

    2013-01-01

    In bacteria, laterally acquired genes are often concentrated within chromosomal regions known as genomic islands. Using a recently developed zebrafish infection model, we set out to identify unique factors encoded within genomic islands that contribute to the fitness and virulence of a reference urosepsis isolate—extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli strain CFT073. By screening a series of deletion mutants, we discovered a previously uncharacterized gene, neaT, that is conditionally required by the pathogen during systemic infections. In vitro assays indicate that neaT can limit bacterial interactions with host phagocytes and alter the aggregative properties of CFT073. The neaT gene is localized within an integrated P2-like bacteriophage in CFT073, but was rarely found within other proteobacterial genomes. Sequence-based analyses revealed that neaT homologues are present, but discordantly conserved, within a phyletically diverse set of bacterial species. In CFT073, neaT appears to be unameliorated, having an exceptionally A+T-rich composition along with a notably altered codon bias. These data suggest that neaT was recently brought into the proteobacterial pan-genome from an extra-phyletic source. Interestingly, even in G+C-poor genomes, as found within the Firmicutes lineage, neaT-like genes are often unameliorated. Sequence-level features of neaT homologues challenge the common supposition that the A+T-rich nature of many recently acquired genes reflects the nucleotide composition of their genomes of origin. In total, these findings highlight the complexity of the evolutionary forces that can affect the acquisition, utilization, and assimilation of rare genes that promote the niche-dependent fitness and virulence of a bacterial pathogen. PMID:23459509

  14. Serotonin disturbs colon epithelial tolerance of commensal E. coli by increasing NOX2-derived superoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banskota, Suhrid; Regmi, Sushil Chandra; Gautam, Jaya; Gurung, Pallavi; Lee, Yu-Jeong; Ku, Sae Kwang; Lee, Jin-Hyung; Lee, Jintae; Chang, Hyeun Wook; Park, Sang Joon; Kim, Jung-Ae

    2017-05-01

    Adherent-invasive E. coli colonization and Toll-like receptor (TLR) expression are increased in the gut of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. However, the underlying mechanism of such changes has not been determined. In the current study, it was examined whether gut serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) can induce adherent-invasive E. coli colonization and increase TLR expression. In a co-culture system, commensal E. coli strain (BW25113, BW) adhered minimally to colon epithelial cells, but this was significantly enhanced by 5-HT to the level of a pathogenic strain (EDL933). Without inducing bacterial virulence, such as, biofilm formation, 5-HT enhanced BW-induced signaling in colon epithelial cells, that is, NADPH oxidase (NOX)-dependent superoxide production, the up-regulations of IL-8, TLR2, TLR4, and ICAM-1, and the down-regulations of E-cadherin and claudin-2. In a manner commensurate with these gene modulations, BW induced an increase in NF-κB and a decrease in GATA reporter signals in colon epithelial cells. However, 5-HT-enhanced BW adhesion and colon epithelial responses were blocked by knock-down of NOX2, TLR2, or TLR4. In normal mice, 5-HT induced the invasion of BW into gut submucosa, and the observed molecular changes were similar to those observed in vitro, except for significant increases in TNFα and IL-1β, and resulted in death. In dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis mice (an IBD disease model), in which colonic 5-HT levels were markedly elevated, BW administration induced death in along with large amount of BW invasion into colon submucosa, and time to death was negatively related to the amount of BW injected. Taken together, our results demonstrate that 5-HT induces the invasion of commensal E. coli into gut submucosa by amplifying commensal bacteria-induced epithelial signaling (superoxide production and the inductions of NOX2 and TLR2/TLR4). The authors suggest that these changes may constitute the molecular basis for the

  15. Functional participation of a nifH-arsA2 chimeric fusion gene in arsenic reduction by Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahiri, Surobhi; Pulakat, Lakshmi; Gavini, Nara

    2008-01-01

    The NifH (dimer) and ArsA proteins are structural homologs and share common motifs like nucleotide-binding domains, signal transduction domains and also possible similar metal center ligands. Given the similarity between two proteins, we investigated if the NifH protein from Azotobacter vinelandii could functionally substitute for the ArsA1 half of the ArsA protein of Escherichia coli. The chimeric NifH-ArsA2 protein was expressed and detected in the E. coli strain by Western blotting. Growth comparisons of E. coli strains containing plasmids encoding for complete ArsA, partial ArsA (ArsA2) or chimeric ArsA (NifH-ArsA2) in media with increasing sodium arsenite concentrations (0-5 mM) showed that the chimeric NifH-ArsA2 could substitute for the ArsA. This functional complementation demonstrated the strong conservation of essential domains that have been maintained in NifH and ArsA even after their divergence to perform varied functions

  16. Tunable recombinant protein expression with E. coli in a mixed-feed environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagmeister, Patrick; Schimek, Clemens; Meitz, Andrea; Herwig, Christoph; Spadiut, Oliver

    2014-04-01

    Controlling the recombinant protein production rate in Escherichia coli is of utmost importance to ensure product quality and quantity. Up to now, only the genetic construct, introduced into E. coli, and the specific growth rate of the culture were used to influence and stir the productivity. However, bioprocess technological means to control or even tune the productivity of E. coli are scarce. Here, we present a novel method for the process-technological control over the recombinant protein expression rate in E. coli. A mixed-feed fed-batch bioprocess based on the araBAD promoter expression system using both D-glucose and L-arabinose as assimilable C-sources was designed. Using the model product green fluorescent protein, we show that the specific product formation rate can be efficiently tuned even on the cellular level only via the uptake rate of L-arabinose. This novel approach introduces an additional degree of freedom for the design of recombinant bioprocesses with E. coli. We anticipate that the presented method will result in significant quality and robustness improvement as well as cost and process time reduction for recombinant bacterial bioprocesses in the future.

  17. A high prevalence of antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli isolated from pigs and a low prevalence of antimicrobial resistant E. coli from cattle and sheep in Great Britain at slaughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enne, Virve I; Cassar, Claire; Sprigings, Katherine; Woodward, Martin J; Bennett, Peter M

    2008-01-01

    The incidence of antimicrobial resistance and expressed and unexpressed resistance genes among commensal Escherichia coli isolated from healthy farm animals at slaughter in Great Britain was investigated. The prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among the isolates varied according to the animal species; of 836 isolates from cattle tested only 5.7% were resistant to one or more antimicrobials, while only 3.0% of 836 isolates from sheep were resistant to one or more agents. However, 92.1% of 2480 isolates from pigs were resistant to at least one antimicrobial. Among isolates from pigs, resistance to some antimicrobials such as tetracycline (78.7%), sulphonamide (66.9%) and streptomycin (37.5%) was found to be common, but relatively rare to other agents such as amikacin (0.1%), ceftazidime (0.1%) and coamoxiclav (0.2%). The isolates had a diverse range of resistance gene profiles, with tet(B), sul2 and strAB identified most frequently. Seven out of 615 isolates investigated carried unexpressed resistance genes. One trimethoprim-susceptible isolate carried a complete dfrA17 gene but lacked a promoter for it. However, in the remaining six streptomycin-susceptible isolates, one of which carried strAB while the others carried aadA, no mutations or deletions in gene or promoter sequences were identified to account for susceptibility. The data indicate that antimicrobial resistance in E. coli of animal origin is due to a broad range of acquired genes.

  18. E coli enteritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... coli; Food poisoning - E. coli; E. coli diarrhea; Hamburger disease ... coleslaw or potato salad) that have been out of the refrigerator too ... reheated Fish or oysters Raw fruits or vegetables that have ...

  19. Growth and survival of Escherichia coli and enterococci populations in the macro-alga Cladophora (Chlorophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N; Shively, Dawn A; Nevers, Meredith B; Sadowsky, Michael J; Whitman, Richard L

    2003-11-01

    The macro-alga Cladophora glomerata is found in streams and lakes worldwide. High concentrations of Escherichia coli and enterococci have been reported in Cladophora along the Lake Michigan shore. The objective of this study was to determine if Cladophora supported growth of these indicator bacteria. Algal leachate readily supported in vitro multiplication of E. coli and enterococci, suggesting that leachates contain necessary growth-promoting substances. Growth was directly related to the concentration of algal leachate. E. coli survived for over 6 months in dried Cladophora stored at 4 degrees C; residual E. coli grew after mat rehydration, reaching a carrying capacity of 8 log CFU g(-1) in 48 h. Results of this study also show that the E. coli strains associated with Cladophora are highly related; in most instances they are genetically different from each other, suggesting that the relationship between E. coli and Cladophora may be casual. These findings indicate that Cladophora provides a suitable environment for indicator bacteria to persist for extended periods and to grow under natural conditions.

  20. Model of transcriptional activation by MarA in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Michael E; Markowitz, David A; Rosner, Judah L; Martin, Robert G

    2009-12-01

    The AraC family transcription factor MarA activates approximately 40 genes (the marA/soxS/rob regulon) of the Escherichia coli chromosome resulting in different levels of resistance to a wide array of antibiotics and to superoxides. Activation of marA/soxS/rob regulon promoters occurs in a well-defined order with respect to the level of MarA; however, the order of activation does not parallel the strength of MarA binding to promoter sequences. To understand this lack of correspondence, we developed a computational model of transcriptional activation in which a transcription factor either increases or decreases RNA polymerase binding, and either accelerates or retards post-binding events associated with transcription initiation. We used the model to analyze data characterizing MarA regulation of promoter activity. The model clearly explains the lack of correspondence between the order of activation and the MarA-DNA affinity and indicates that the order of activation can only be predicted using information about the strength of the full MarA-polymerase-DNA interaction. The analysis further suggests that MarA can activate without increasing polymerase binding and that activation can even involve a decrease in polymerase binding, which is opposite to the textbook model of activation by recruitment. These findings are consistent with published chromatin immunoprecipitation assays of interactions between polymerase and the E. coli chromosome. We find that activation involving decreased polymerase binding yields lower latency in gene regulation and therefore might confer a competitive advantage to cells. Our model yields insights into requirements for predicting the order of activation of a regulon and enables us to suggest that activation might involve a decrease in polymerase binding which we expect to be an important theme of gene regulation in E. coli and beyond.

  1. Model of transcriptional activation by MarA in Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E Wall

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The AraC family transcription factor MarA activates approximately 40 genes (the marA/soxS/rob regulon of the Escherichia coli chromosome resulting in different levels of resistance to a wide array of antibiotics and to superoxides. Activation of marA/soxS/rob regulon promoters occurs in a well-defined order with respect to the level of MarA; however, the order of activation does not parallel the strength of MarA binding to promoter sequences. To understand this lack of correspondence, we developed a computational model of transcriptional activation in which a transcription factor either increases or decreases RNA polymerase binding, and either accelerates or retards post-binding events associated with transcription initiation. We used the model to analyze data characterizing MarA regulation of promoter activity. The model clearly explains the lack of correspondence between the order of activation and the MarA-DNA affinity and indicates that the order of activation can only be predicted using information about the strength of the full MarA-polymerase-DNA interaction. The analysis further suggests that MarA can activate without increasing polymerase binding and that activation can even involve a decrease in polymerase binding, which is opposite to the textbook model of activation by recruitment. These findings are consistent with published chromatin immunoprecipitation assays of interactions between polymerase and the E. coli chromosome. We find that activation involving decreased polymerase binding yields lower latency in gene regulation and therefore might confer a competitive advantage to cells. Our model yields insights into requirements for predicting the order of activation of a regulon and enables us to suggest that activation might involve a decrease in polymerase binding which we expect to be an important theme of gene regulation in E. coli and beyond.

  2. Identification and Prevalence of Escherichia coli and Escherichia coli O157: H7 in Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ancuta Mihaela Rotar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to investigate the incidence of Escherichia coli in animal and non-animal foods, and mainly the incidence of the serotype O157: H7 producing verotoxin. The presence of common Escherichia coli and Escherichia coli O157: H7 in various foods (of animal and non animal origin was performed in Transylvania area. We analyzed a total of one hundred forty-one samples of minced meat, one hundred twenty-six samples of meat , twenty six samples of meat products, five samples of alcoholic beverages, three samples of seafood, one hundred samples of cheese from pasteurized milk, seventeen samples of butter, four samples of vegetables and one sample of milk powder, using the standard cultural method and Vidas Eco method for E. coli O157: H7 strains. E. coli was identified in 50 samples of minced meat, 55 samples of meat prepared, 4 samples of meat products, 2 samples of alcoholic beverages, 25 samples of cheese from pasteurized milk, 6 samples of butter and 1 sample of vegetables. In this study were not been identified any foods contaminated with the E. coli O157: H7 serotype. The results of this reasearch have demostrated that E. coli wich represents a hygienic indicator of recent food contamination, can be destroyed with heat treatment and hygienic handling of foods. Our country over the years has been among the few countries where the incidence of the E. coli O157: H7 serotype has been minimal.

  3. Treatment of inflammatory bowel disease associated E. coli with ciprofloxacin and E. coli Nissle in the streptomycin-treated mouse intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Andreas Munk; Schjørring, Susanne; Gerstrøm, Sarah Choi

    2011-01-01

    E. coli belonging to the phylogenetic group B2 are linked to Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). Studies have shown that antimicrobials have some effect in the treatment of IBD, and it has been demonstrated that E. coli Nissle has prophylactic abilities comparable to 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA......) therapy in ulcerative colitis. The objective of this study was to test if ciprofloxacin and/or E. coli Nissle could eradicate IBD associated E. coli in the streptomycin-treated mouse intestine....

  4. Application of an E. coli signal sequence as a versatile inclusion body tag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jong, Wouter S P; Vikström, David; Houben, Diane; van den Berg van Saparoea, H Bart; de Gier, Jan-Willem; Luirink, Joen

    2017-03-21

    Heterologous protein production in Escherichia coli often suffers from bottlenecks such as proteolytic degradation, complex purification procedures and toxicity towards the expression host. Production of proteins in an insoluble form in inclusion bodies (IBs) can alleviate these problems. Unfortunately, the propensity of heterologous proteins to form IBs is variable and difficult to predict. Hence, fusing the target protein to an aggregation prone polypeptide or IB-tag is a useful strategy to produce difficult-to-express proteins in an insoluble form. When screening for signal sequences that mediate optimal targeting of heterologous proteins to the periplasmic space of E. coli, we observed that fusion to the 39 amino acid signal sequence of E. coli TorA (ssTorA) did not promote targeting but rather directed high-level expression of the human proteins hEGF, Pla2 and IL-3 in IBs. Further analysis revealed that ssTorA even mediated IB formation of the highly soluble endogenous E. coli proteins TrxA and MBP. The ssTorA also induced aggregation when fused to the C-terminus of target proteins and appeared functional as IB-tag in E. coli K-12 as well as B strains. An additive effect on IB-formation was observed upon fusion of multiple ssTorA sequences in tandem, provoking almost complete aggregation of TrxA and MBP. The ssTorA-moiety was successfully used to produce the intrinsically unstable hEGF and the toxic fusion partner SymE, demonstrating its applicability as an IB-tag for difficult-to-express and toxic proteins. We present proof-of-concept for the use of ssTorA as a small, versatile tag for robust E. coli-based expression of heterologous proteins in IBs.

  5. The effect of E coli virulence on bacterial translocation and systemic sepsis in the neonatal rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, R J; Smith, S D; Wadowsky, R M; DePudyt, L; Rowe, M I

    1991-04-01

    In the surgical neonate, three factors that promote bacterial translocation and systemic infection are: (1) intestinal bacterial colonization and overgrowth; (2) compromised host defenses; and (3) disruption of the mucosal epithelial barrier. The newborn rabbit provides an excellent model to study these factors. Like the human, there is early closure of the gut mucosa to macromolecules, and nutrition can be maintained by breast or formula feeding. This study examines translocation and systemic sepsis after colonization with virulent K1 and avirulent K100 strains of Escherichia coli. New Zealand white rabbit pups (2 to 5 days old) were studied. The gastrointestinal tracts of 12 were colonized with K1 E coli; 14 were colonized with K100 E coli; 12 control animals were not inoculated. Mesenteric lymph node (MLN), liver, spleen, and colon homogenate were cultured 72 hours postinoculation. No bacteria were isolated from the colons of all but one control animal. Translocation or systemic sepsis did not occur. Translocation to the MLN was significantly increased (P less than .03) in K1 (50%) and K100 (36%) groups compared with controls (0%). Translocation to liver and spleen (systemic sepsis) was significantly increased (P less than .03) in K1 animals (67%) compared with K100 (0%) or controls (0%). Colonization by both strains of E coli led to translocation to the MLN, but only K1 E coli caused systemic sepsis. This suggests that although colonization by E coli in the newborn leads to translocation to the MLN, progression to systemic sepsis is the result of characteristics of the bacteria and/or neonatal host responses.

  6. Solid-state voltammetry-based electrochemical immunosensor for Escherichia coli using graphene oxide-Ag nanoparticle composites as labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaochun; Chen, Kun; Wang, Jing; Shao, Kang; Fu, Tao; Shao, Feng; Lu, Donglian; Liang, Jiangong; Foda, M Frahat; Han, Heyou

    2013-06-21

    A new electrochemical immunosensor based on solid-state voltammetry was fabricated for the detection of Escherichia coli (E. coli) by using graphene oxide-Ag nanoparticle composites (P-GO-Ag) as labels. To construct the platform, Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) were first self-assembled on an Au electrode surface through cysteamine and served as an effective matrix for antibody (Ab) attachment. Under a sandwich-type immunoassay format, the analyte and the probe (P-GO-Ag-Ab) were successively captured onto the immunosensor. Finally, the bonded AgNPs were detected through a solid-state redox process in 0.2 M of KCl solution. Combining the advantages of the high-loading capability of graphene oxide with promoted electron-transfer rate of AuNPs, this immunosensor produced a 26.92-fold signal enhancement compared with the unamplified protocol. Under the optimal conditions, the immunosensor exhibited a wide linear dependence on the logarithm of the concentration of E. coli ranging from 50 to 1.0 × 10(6) cfu mL(-1) with a detection limit of 10 cfu mL(-1). Moreover, as a practical application, the proposed immunosensor was used to monitor E. coli in lake water with satisfactory results.

  7. Systems Biology Approach to Bioremediation of Nitroaromatics: Constraint-Based Analysis of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene Biotransformation by Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Iman

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Microbial remediation of nitroaromatic compounds (NACs is a promising environmentally friendly and cost-effective approach to the removal of these life-threating agents. Escherichia coli (E. coli has shown remarkable capability for the biotransformation of 2,4,6-trinitro-toluene (TNT. Efforts to develop E. coli as an efficient TNT degrading biocatalyst will benefit from holistic flux-level description of interactions between multiple TNT transforming pathways operating in the strain. To gain such an insight, we extended the genome-scale constraint-based model of E. coli to account for a curated version of major TNT transformation pathways known or evidently hypothesized to be active in E. coli in present of TNT. Using constraint-based analysis (CBA methods, we then performed several series of in silico experiments to elucidate the contribution of these pathways individually or in combination to the E. coli TNT transformation capacity. Results of our analyses were validated by replicating several experimentally observed TNT degradation phenotypes in E. coli cultures. We further used the extended model to explore the influence of process parameters, including aeration regime, TNT concentration, cell density, and carbon source on TNT degradation efficiency. We also conducted an in silico metabolic engineering study to design a series of E. coli mutants capable of degrading TNT at higher yield compared with the wild-type strain. Our study, therefore, extends the application of CBA to bioremediation of nitroaromatics and demonstrates the usefulness of this approach to inform bioremediation research.

  8. Engineering of a plasmid-free Escherichia coli strain for improved in vivo biosynthesis of astaxanthin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steuer Kristin

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The xanthophyll astaxanthin is a high-value compound with applications in the nutraceutical, cosmetic, food, and animal feed industries. Besides chemical synthesis and extraction from naturally producing organisms like Haematococcus pluvialis, heterologous biosynthesis in non-carotenogenic microorganisms like Escherichia coli, is a promising alternative for sustainable production of natural astaxanthin. Recent achievements in the metabolic engineering of E. coli strains have led to a significant increase in the productivity of carotenoids like lycopene or β-carotene by increasing the metabolic flux towards the isoprenoid precursors. For the heterologous biosynthesis of astaxanthin in E. coli, however, the conversion of β-carotene to astaxanthin is obviously the most critical step towards an efficient biosynthesis of astaxanthin. Results Here we report the construction of the first plasmid-free E. coli strain that produces astaxanthin as the sole carotenoid compound with a yield of 1.4 mg/g cdw (E. coli BW-ASTA. This engineered E. coli strain harbors xanthophyll biosynthetic genes from Pantoea ananatis and Nostoc punctiforme as individual expression cassettes on the chromosome and is based on a β-carotene-producing strain (E. coli BW-CARO recently developed in our lab. E. coli BW-CARO has an enhanced biosynthesis of the isoprenoid precursor isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP and produces β-carotene in a concentration of 6.2 mg/g cdw. The expression of crtEBIY along with the β-carotene-ketolase gene crtW148 (NpF4798 and the β-carotene-hydroxylase gene (crtZ under controlled expression conditions in E. coli BW-ASTA directed the pathway exclusively towards the desired product astaxanthin (1.4 mg/g cdw. Conclusions By using the λ-Red recombineering technique, genes encoding for the astaxanthin biosynthesis pathway were stably integrated into the chromosome of E. coli. The expression levels of chromosomal integrated recombinant

  9. Efficient Extracellular Expression of Phospholipase D in Escherichia Coli with an Optimized Signal Peptide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Leyun; Xu, Yu; Chen, Yong; Ying, Hanjie

    2018-01-01

    New secretion vectors containing the synthetic signal sequence (OmpA’) was constructed for the secretory production of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli. The E. coli Phospholipase D structural gene (Accession number:NC_018658) fused to various signal sequence were expressed from the Lac promoter in E. coli Rosetta strains by induction with 0.4mM IPTG at 28°C for 48h. SDS-PaGe analysis of expression and subcellular fractions of recombinant constructs revealed the translocation of Phospholipase D (PLD) not only to the medium but also remained in periplasm of E. coli with OmpA’ signal sequence at the N-terminus of PLD. Thus the study on the effects of various surfactants on PLD extracellular production in Escherichia coli in shake flasks revealed that optimal PLD extracellular production could be achieved by adding 0.4% Triton X-100 into the medium. The maximal extracellular PLD production and extracellular enzyme activity were 0.23mg ml-1 and 16U ml-1, respectively. These results demonstrate the possibility of efficient secretory production of recombinant PLD in E. coli should be a potential industrial applications.

  10. Emergence of Escherichia coli encoding Shiga toxin 2f in human Shiga toxin-producing E-coli (STEC) infections in the Netherlands, January 2008 to December 2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friesema, I.; van der Zwaluw, K.; Schuurman, T.; Kooistra-Smid, M.; Franz, E.; van Duynhoven, Y.; van Pelt, W.

    2014-01-01

    The Shiga toxins of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) can be divided into Shiga toxin 1 (Stx1) and Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2) with several sub-variants. Variant Stx(2f) is one of the latest described, but has been rarely associated with symptomatic human infections. In the enhanced STEC

  11. Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli for the production of riboflavin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Riboflavin (vitamin B2), the precursor of the flavin cofactors flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), is used commercially as an animal feed supplement and food colorant. E. coli is a robust host for various genetic manipulations and has been employed for efficient production of biofuels, polymers, amino acids, and bulk chemicals. Thus, the aim of this study was to understand the metabolic capacity of E. coli for the riboflavin production by modification of central metabolism, riboflavin biosynthesis pathway and optimization of the fermentation conditions. Results The basic producer RF01S, in which the riboflavin biosynthesis genes ribABDEC from E. coli were overexpressed under the control of the inducible trc promoter, could accumulate 229.1 mg/L of riboflavin. Further engineering was performed by examining the impact of expression of zwf (encodes glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase) and gnd (encodes 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase) from Corynebacterium glutamicum and pgl (encodes 6-phosphogluconolactonase) from E. coli on riboflavin production. Deleting pgi (encodes glucose-6-phosphate isomerase) and genes of Entner-Doudoroff (ED) pathway successfully redirected the carbon flux into the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, and overexpressing the acs (encodes acetyl-CoA synthetase) reduced the acetate accumulation. These modifications increased riboflavin production to 585.2 mg/L. By further modulating the expression of ribF (encodes riboflavin kinase) for reducing the conversion of riboflavin to FMN in RF05S, the final engineering strain RF05S-M40 could produce 1036.1 mg/L riboflavin in LB medium at 37°C. After optimizing the fermentation conditions, strain RF05S-M40 produced 2702.8 mg/L riboflavin in the optimized semi-defined medium, which was a value nearly 12-fold higher than that of RF01S, with a yield of 137.5 mg riboflavin/g glucose. Conclusions The engineered strain RF05S-M40 has the highest yield among all

  12. Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli for the production of riboflavin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhenquan; Xu, Zhibo; Li, Yifan; Wang, Zhiwen; Chen, Tao; Zhao, Xueming

    2014-07-16

    Riboflavin (vitamin B2), the precursor of the flavin cofactors flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), is used commercially as an animal feed supplement and food colorant. E. coli is a robust host for various genetic manipulations and has been employed for efficient production of biofuels, polymers, amino acids, and bulk chemicals. Thus, the aim of this study was to understand the metabolic capacity of E. coli for the riboflavin production by modification of central metabolism, riboflavin biosynthesis pathway and optimization of the fermentation conditions. The basic producer RF01S, in which the riboflavin biosynthesis genes ribABDEC from E. coli were overexpressed under the control of the inducible trc promoter, could accumulate 229.1 mg/L of riboflavin. Further engineering was performed by examining the impact of expression of zwf (encodes glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase) and gnd (encodes 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase) from Corynebacterium glutamicum and pgl (encodes 6-phosphogluconolactonase) from E. coli on riboflavin production. Deleting pgi (encodes glucose-6-phosphate isomerase) and genes of Entner-Doudoroff (ED) pathway successfully redirected the carbon flux into the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, and overexpressing the acs (encodes acetyl-CoA synthetase) reduced the acetate accumulation. These modifications increased riboflavin production to 585.2 mg/L. By further modulating the expression of ribF (encodes riboflavin kinase) for reducing the conversion of riboflavin to FMN in RF05S, the final engineering strain RF05S-M40 could produce 1036.1 mg/L riboflavin in LB medium at 37°C. After optimizing the fermentation conditions, strain RF05S-M40 produced 2702.8 mg/L riboflavin in the optimized semi-defined medium, which was a value nearly 12-fold higher than that of RF01S, with a yield of 137.5 mg riboflavin/g glucose. The engineered strain RF05S-M40 has the highest yield among all reported riboflavin production

  13. Multi-Layered TiO2 Films towards Enhancement of Escherichia coli Inactivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorachon Yoriya

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Crystalline TiO2 has shown its great photocatalytic properties in bacterial inactivation. This work presents a design fabrication of low-cost, layered TiO2 films assembled reactors and a study of their performance for a better understanding to elucidate the photocatalytic effect on inactivation of E. coli in water. The ability to reduce the number of bacteria in water samples for the layered TiO2 composing reactors has been investigated as a function of time, while varying the parameters of light sources, initial concentration of bacteria, and ratios of TiO2 film area and volume of water. Herein, the layered TiO2 films have been fabricated on the glass plates by thermal spray coating prior to screen printing, allowing a good adhesion of the films. Surface topology and crystallographic phase of TiO2 for the screen-printed active layer have been characterized, resulting in the ratio of anatase:rutile being 80:20. Under exposure to sunlight and a given condition employed in this study, the optimized film area:water volume of 1:2.62 has shown a significant ability to reduce the E. coli cells in water samples. The ratio of surface area of photocatalytic active base to volume of water medium is believed to play a predominant role facilitating the cells inactivation. The kinetic rate of inactivation and its behavior are also described in terms of adsorption of reaction species at different contact times.

  14. Escherichia coli producing colibactin triggers premature and transmissible senescence in mammalian cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Secher

    Full Text Available Cellular senescence is an irreversible state of proliferation arrest evoked by a myriad of stresses including oncogene activation, telomere shortening/dysfunction and genotoxic insults. It has been associated with tumor activation, immune suppression and aging, owing to the secretion of proinflammatory mediators. The bacterial genotoxin colibactin, encoded by the pks genomic island is frequently harboured by Escherichia coli strains of the B2 phylogenetic group. Mammalian cells exposed to live pks+ bacteria exhibit DNA-double strand breaks (DSB and undergo cell-cycle arrest and death. Here we show that cells that survive the acute bacterial infection with pks+ E. coli display hallmarks of cellular senescence: chronic DSB, prolonged cell-cycle arrest, enhanced senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-Gal activity, expansion of promyelocytic leukemia nuclear foci and senescence-associated heterochromatin foci. This was accompanied by reactive oxygen species production and pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and proteases secretion. These mediators were able to trigger DSB and enhanced SA-β-Gal activity in bystander recipient cells treated with conditioned medium from senescent cells. Furthermore, these senescent cells promoted the growth of human tumor cells. In conclusion, the present data demonstrated that the E. coli genotoxin colibactin induces cellular senescence and subsequently propel bystander genotoxic and oncogenic effects.

  15. A VAR2CSA:CSP conjugate capable of inducing dual specificity antibody responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matondo, Sungwa; Thrane, Susan; Janitzek, Christoph Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    Catcher peptide. The covalent interaction between SpyTag/SpyCatcher enables the formation of DBL1x-DBL2x-ID2a:CSP conjugate vaccine. Immunogenicity and quality of antibody responses induced by the conjugate vaccine, as well as a control CSP-SpyCatcher vaccine, was tested in BALB/c mice.  Results: Serum samples...... obtained from mice immunized with the conjugate vaccine were able to recognize both untagged DBL1x-DBL2x-ID2a as well as CSP antigen. Moreover, the geometric mean anti-CSP antibody titer was 1.9-fold higher in serum (at day 35 and 55 post-first immunization) from mice immunized with the conjugate vaccine......, as compared to mice receiving the control vaccine.  Conclusion: The data obtained in this study serves as proof-of-concept for the simultaneous induction of antibodies directed against individual antigen components in a dual stage anti-malaria vaccine....

  16. Production of caffeoylmalic acid from glucose in engineered Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianzhen; Zhou, Wei; Bi, Huiping; Zhuang, Yibin; Zhang, Tongcun; Liu, Tao

    2018-07-01

    To achieve biosynthesis of caffeoylmalic acid from glucose in engineered Escherichia coli. We constructed the biosynthetic pathway of caffeoylmalic acid in E. coli by co-expression of heterologous genes RgTAL, HpaBC, At4CL2 and HCT2. To enhance the production of caffeoylmalic acid, we optimized the tyrosine metabolic pathway of E. coli to increase the supply of the substrate caffeic acid. Consequently, an E. coli-E. coli co-culture system was used for the efficient production of caffeoylmalic acid. The final titer of caffeoylmalic acid reached 570.1 mg/L. Microbial production of caffeoylmalic acid using glucose has application potential. In addition, microbial co-culture is an efficient tool for producing caffeic acid esters.

  17. Modular optimization of heterologous pathways for de novo synthesis of (2S-naringenin in Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjun Wu

    Full Text Available Due to increasing concerns about food safety and environmental issues, bio-based production of flavonoids from safe, inexpensive, and renewable substrates is increasingly attracting attention. Here, the complete biosynthetic pathway, consisting of 3-deoxy-D-arabinoheptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase (DAHPS, chorismate mutase/prephenate dehydrogenase (CM/PDH, tyrosine ammonia lyase (TAL, 4-coumarate:CoA ligase (4CL, chalcone synthase (CHS, chalcone isomerase (CHI, malonate synthetase, and malonate carrier protein, was constructed using pre-made modules to overproduce (2S-naringenin from D-glucose. Modular pathway engineering strategies were applied to the production of the flavonoid precursor (2S-naringenin from L-tyrosine to investigate the metabolic space for efficient conversion. Modular expression was combinatorially tuned by modifying plasmid gene copy numbers and promoter strengths to identify an optimally balanced pathway. Furthermore, a new modular pathway from D-glucose to L-tyrosine was assembled and re-optimized with the identified optimal modules to enable de novo synthesis of (2S-naringenin. Once this metabolic balance was achieved, the optimum strain was capable of producing 100.64 mg/L (2S-naringenin directly from D-glucose, which is the highest production titer from D-glucose in Escherichia coli. The fermentation system described here paves the way for the development of an economical process for microbial production of flavonoids.

  18. Export of Cytochrome P450 105D1 to the Periplasmic Space of Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Kaderbhai, Mustak A.; Ugochukwu, Cynthia C.; Kelly, Steven L.; Lamb, David C.

    2001-01-01

    CYP105D1, a cytochrome P450 from Streptomyces griseus, was appended at its amino terminus to the secretory signal of Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase and placed under the transcriptional control of the native phoA promoter. Heterologous expression in E. coli phosphate-limited medium resulted in abundant synthesis of recombinant CYP105D1 that was translocated across the bacterial inner membrane and processed to yield authentic, heme-incorporated P450 within the periplasmic space. Cell ext...

  19. Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli: a sustainable industrial platform for bio-based chemical production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xianzhong; Zhou, Li; Tian, Kangming; Kumar, Ashwani; Singh, Suren; Prior, Bernard A; Wang, Zhengxiang

    2013-12-01

    In order to decrease carbon emissions and negative environmental impacts of various pollutants, more bulk and/or fine chemicals are produced by bioprocesses, replacing the traditional energy and fossil based intensive route. The Gram-negative rod-shaped bacterium, Escherichia coli has been studied extensively on a fundamental and applied level and has become a predominant host microorganism for industrial applications. Furthermore, metabolic engineering of E. coli for the enhanced biochemical production has been significantly promoted by the integrated use of recent developments in systems biology, synthetic biology and evolutionary engineering. In this review, we focus on recent efforts devoted to the use of genetically engineered E. coli as a sustainable platform for the production of industrially important biochemicals such as biofuels, organic acids, amino acids, sugar alcohols and biopolymers. In addition, representative secondary metabolites produced by E. coli will be systematically discussed and the successful strategies for strain improvements will be highlighted. Moreover, this review presents guidelines for future developments in the bio-based chemical production using E. coli as an industrial platform. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. MUREIN-METABOLIZING ENZYMES FROM ESCHERICHIA-COLI - EXISTENCE OF A 2ND LYTIC TRANSGLYCOSYLASE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ENGEL, H; SMINK, AJ; VANWIJNGAARDEN, L; KECK, W

    1992-01-01

    In addition to the soluble lytic transglycosylase, a murein-metabolizing enzyme with a molecular mass of 70 kDa (Slt70), Escherichia coli possesses a second lytic transglycosylase, which has been described as a membrane-bound lytic transglycosylase (Mlt; 35 kDa; EC 3.2.1.-). The mlt gene, which

  1. ECMDB 2.0: A richer resource for understanding the biochemistry of E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajed, Tanvir; Marcu, Ana; Ramirez, Miguel; Pon, Allison; Guo, An Chi; Knox, Craig; Wilson, Michael; Grant, Jason R; Djoumbou, Yannick; Wishart, David S

    2016-01-04

    ECMDB or the Escherichia coli Metabolome Database (http://www.ecmdb.ca) is a comprehensive database containing detailed information about the genome and metabolome of E. coli (K-12). First released in 2012, the ECMDB has undergone substantial expansion and many modifications over the past 4 years. This manuscript describes the most recent version of ECMDB (ECMDB 2.0). In particular, it provides a comprehensive update of the database that was previously described in the 2013 NAR Database Issue and details many of the additions and improvements made to the ECMDB over that time. Some of the most important or significant enhancements include a 13-fold increase in the number of metabolic pathway diagrams (from 125 to 1650), a 3-fold increase in the number of compounds linked to pathways (from 1058 to 3280), the addition of dozens of operon/metabolite signalling pathways, a 44% increase in the number of compounds in the database (from 2610 to 3760), a 7-fold increase in the number of compounds with NMR or MS spectra (from 412 to 3261) and a massive increase in the number of external links to other E. coli or chemical resources. These additions, along with many other enhancements aimed at improving the ease or speed of querying, searching and viewing the data within ECMDB should greatly facilitate the understanding of not only the metabolism of E. coli, but also allow the in-depth exploration of its extensive metabolic networks, its many signalling pathways and its essential biochemistry. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  2. Enzymatic Comparisons of Aspergillus niger PhyA and Escherichia coli AppA2 Phytases

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was to compare three phytase activity assays and kinetics of Aspergillus niger PhyA and Escherichia coli AppA2 phytases expressed in Pichia pastoris at the observed stomach pH of 3.5. In Experiment 1, equivalent phytase activities in the crude preparations of PhyA and AppA2 were tested ...

  3. The 75-kilodalton cytoplasmic Chlamydia trachomatis L2 polypeptide is a DnaK-like protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkelund, Svend; Lundemose, AG; Christiansen, Gunna

    1990-01-01

    ,980-base-pair open reading frame revealed 94% homology with a 75-kilodalton protein from C. trachomatis serovar D and 57% homology with the DnaK proteins of E. coli and of Bacillus megaterium, while amino acid homology with human heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) was 42%. The promoter region was identified......The gene coding for the 75-kilodalton cytoplasmic Chlamydia trachomatis L2 polypeptide has been cloned in Escherichia coli, and the nucleotide sequence has been determined. The cloned DNA fragment contained the coding region as well as the putative promoter. The deduced amino acid sequence of the 1...... by computer search and by primer extension of mRNA synthesized in recombinant E. coli. The promoter region which differed from the putative promoter region in serovar D was shown to be a mixed promoter type in which the -10 region showed a regular TATA box configuration while the -35 region showed high...

  4. Biocompatible click chemistry enabled compartment-specific pH measurement inside E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Maiyun; Jalloh, Abubakar S; Wei, Wei; Zhao, Jing; Wu, Peng; Chen, Peng R

    2014-09-19

    Bioorthogonal reactions, especially the Cu(I)-catalysed azide-alkyne cycloaddition, have revolutionized our ability to label and manipulate biomolecules under living conditions. The cytotoxicity of Cu(I) ions, however, has hindered the application of this reaction in the internal space of living cells. By systematically surveying a panel of Cu(I)-stabilizing ligands in promoting protein labelling within the cytoplasm of Escherichia coli, we identify a highly efficient and biocompatible catalyst for intracellular modification of proteins by azide-alkyne cycloaddition. This reaction permits us to conjugate an environment-sensitive fluorophore site specifically onto HdeA, an acid-stress chaperone that adopts pH-dependent conformational changes, in both the periplasm and cytoplasm of E. coli. The resulting protein-fluorophore hybrid pH indicators enable compartment-specific pH measurement to determine the pH gradient across the E. coli cytoplasmic membrane. This construct also allows the measurement of E. coli transmembrane potential, and the determination of the proton motive force across its inner membrane under normal and acid-stress conditions.

  5. Characterization of sulphonamide-resistant Escherichia coli using comparison of sul2 gene sequences and multilocus sequence typing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trobos, Margarita; Christensen, Henrik; Sunde, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    according to source, but some included different sources. Sul(R) E coli from different animals, food, human faeces and infections did not cluster according to their origin, suggesting that these habitats share E coli and sul2 gene types. However, while pig isolates on one occasion clustered with urinary...... tract infection isolates, poultry isolates seemed more related to isolates from bloodstream infections in humans. Presence of mainly two types of the sul2 gene in both human and animal isolates, irrespective of date and geography, and the presence of both types in the same clonal lineages, suggest...

  6. Inactivation and Gene Expression of a Virulent WastewaterEscherichia coliStrain and the Nonvirulent CommensalEscherichia coliDSM1103 Strain upon Solar Irradiation

    KAUST Repository

    Aljassim, Nada I.; Mantilla-Calderon, David; Wang, Tiannyu; Hong, Pei-Ying

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the decay kinetics and molecular responses of two Escherichia coli strains upon solar irradiation. The first is E. coli PI-7, a virulent and antibiotic-resistant strain that was isolated from wastewater and carries the emerging NDM-1 antibiotic resistance gene. The other strain, E. coli DSM1103, displayed lower virulence and antibiotic resistance than E. coli PI-7. In a buffer solution, E. coli PI-7 displayed a longer lag phase prior to decay and a longer half-life compared with E. coli DSM1103 (6.64 ± 0.63 h and 2.85 ± 0.46 min vs 1.33 ± 0.52 h and 2.04 ± 0.36 min). In wastewater, both E. coli strains decayed slower than they did in buffer. Although solar irradiation remained effective in reducing the numbers of both strains by more than 5-log10 in <24 h, comparative genomics and transcriptomics revealed differences in the genomes and overall regulation of genes between the two E. coli strains. A wider arsenal of genes related to oxidative stress, cellular repair and protective mechanisms were upregulated in E. coli PI-7. Subpopulations of E. coli PI-7 expressed genes related to dormancy and persister cell formation during the late decay phase, which may have accounted for its prolonged persistence. Upon prolonged solar irradiation, both E. coli strains displayed upregulation of genes related to horizontal gene transfer and antibiotic resistance. Virulence functions unique to E. coli PI-7 were also upregulated. Our findings collectively indicated that, whereas solar irradiation is able to reduce total cell numbers, viable E. coli remained and expressed genes that enable survival despite solar treatment. There remains a need for heightened levels of concern regarding risks arising from the dissemination of E. coli that may remain viable in wastewater after solar irradiation.

  7. Inactivation and Gene Expression of a Virulent WastewaterEscherichia coliStrain and the Nonvirulent CommensalEscherichia coliDSM1103 Strain upon Solar Irradiation

    KAUST Repository

    Aljassim, Nada I.

    2017-03-06

    This study examined the decay kinetics and molecular responses of two Escherichia coli strains upon solar irradiation. The first is E. coli PI-7, a virulent and antibiotic-resistant strain that was isolated from wastewater and carries the emerging NDM-1 antibiotic resistance gene. The other strain, E. coli DSM1103, displayed lower virulence and antibiotic resistance than E. coli PI-7. In a buffer solution, E. coli PI-7 displayed a longer lag phase prior to decay and a longer half-life compared with E. coli DSM1103 (6.64 ± 0.63 h and 2.85 ± 0.46 min vs 1.33 ± 0.52 h and 2.04 ± 0.36 min). In wastewater, both E. coli strains decayed slower than they did in buffer. Although solar irradiation remained effective in reducing the numbers of both strains by more than 5-log10 in <24 h, comparative genomics and transcriptomics revealed differences in the genomes and overall regulation of genes between the two E. coli strains. A wider arsenal of genes related to oxidative stress, cellular repair and protective mechanisms were upregulated in E. coli PI-7. Subpopulations of E. coli PI-7 expressed genes related to dormancy and persister cell formation during the late decay phase, which may have accounted for its prolonged persistence. Upon prolonged solar irradiation, both E. coli strains displayed upregulation of genes related to horizontal gene transfer and antibiotic resistance. Virulence functions unique to E. coli PI-7 were also upregulated. Our findings collectively indicated that, whereas solar irradiation is able to reduce total cell numbers, viable E. coli remained and expressed genes that enable survival despite solar treatment. There remains a need for heightened levels of concern regarding risks arising from the dissemination of E. coli that may remain viable in wastewater after solar irradiation.

  8. Thioredoxin from Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmgren, A.; Ohlsson, I.; Grankvist, M.L.

    1978-01-01

    A competition radioimmunoassay for Escherichia coli thioredoxin using 125 I-labeled thioredoxin-S 2 and a double antibody technique was developed. The method permits determination of picomole amounts of thioredoxin in crude cell extracts and was used to study the localization of thioredoxin cell fractions. E. coli B was calculated to have approximately 10,000 copies of thioredoxin per cell mainly located in the soluble fraction after separation of the membrane and soluble fractions by gentle lysis and centrifugation. E. coli B tsnC mutants which are defective in the replication of phage T7 DNA in vivo and in vitro were examined for their content of thioredoxin. E. coli B tsnC 7004 contained no detectable level of thioredoxin in cell-free extracts examined under a variety of conditions. The results strongly suggest that tsnC 7004 is a nonsense or deletion mutant. Two other E. coli tsnC mutants, 7007 and 7008, contained detectable levels of thioredoxin in crude extracts as measured by thioredoxin reductase and gave similar immunoprecipitation reactions as the parent strain B/1. By radioimmunoassay incompletely cross-reacting material was present in both strains. These results show that tsnC 7007 and 7008 belong to a type of thioredoxin mutants with missence mutations in the thioredoxin gene affecting the function of thioredoxin as subunit in phage T7 DNA polymerase

  9. The Escherichia coli BolA Protein IbaG Forms a Histidine-Ligated [2Fe-2S]-Bridged Complex with Grx4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlouhy, Adrienne C; Li, Haoran; Albetel, Angela-Nadia; Zhang, Bo; Mapolelo, Daphne T; Randeniya, Sajini; Holland, Ashley A; Johnson, Michael K; Outten, Caryn E

    2016-12-13

    Two ubiquitous protein families have emerged as key players in iron metabolism, the CGFS-type monothiol glutaredoxins (Grxs) and the BolA proteins. Monothiol Grxs and BolA proteins form heterocomplexes that have been implicated in Fe-S cluster assembly and trafficking. The Escherichia coli genome encodes members of both of these proteins families, namely, the monothiol glutaredoxin Grx4 and two BolA family proteins, BolA and IbaG. Previous work has demonstrated that E. coli Grx4 and BolA interact as both apo and [2Fe-2S]-bridged heterodimers that are spectroscopically distinct from [2Fe-2S]-bridged Grx4 homodimers. However, the physical and functional interactions between Grx4 and IbaG are uncharacterized. Here we show that co-expression of Grx4 with IbaG yields a [2Fe-2S]-bridged Grx4-IbaG heterodimer. In vitro interaction studies indicate that IbaG binds the [2Fe-2S] Grx4 homodimer to form apo Grx4-IbaG heterodimer as well as the [2Fe-2S] Grx4-IbaG heterodimer, altering the cluster stability and coordination environment. Additionally, spectroscopic and mutagenesis studies provide evidence that IbaG ligates the Fe-S cluster via the conserved histidine that is present in all BolA proteins and by a second conserved histidine that is present in the H/C loop of two of the four classes of BolA proteins. These results suggest that IbaG may function in Fe-S cluster assembly and trafficking in E. coli as demonstrated for other BolA homologues that interact with monothiol Grxs.

  10. Self-assembly of virus-like particles of porcine circovirus type 2 capsid protein expressed from Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Xuepeng

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2 is a serious problem to the swine industry and can lead to significant negative impacts on profitability of pork production. Syndrome associated with PCV2 is known as porcine circovirus closely associated with post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS. The capsid (Cap protein of PCV2 is a major candidate antigen for development of recombinant vaccine and serological diagnostic method. The recombinant Cap protein has the ability to self-assemble into virus-like particles (VLPs in vitro, it is particularly opportunity to develop the PV2 VLPs vaccine in Escherichia coli,(E.coli , because where the cost of the vaccine must be weighed against the value of the vaccinated pig, when it was to extend use the VLPs vaccine of PCV2. Results In this report, a highly soluble Cap-tag protein expressed in E.coli was constructed with a p-SMK expression vector with a fusion tag of small ubiquitin-like modifiers (SUMO. The recombinant Cap was purified using Ni2+ affinity resins, whereas the tag was used to remove the SUMO protease. Simultaneously, the whole native Cap protein was able to self-assemble into VLPs in vitro when viewed under an electron microscope. The Cap-like particles had a size and shape that resembled the authentic Cap. The result could also be applied in the large-scale production of VLPs of PCV2 and could be used as a diagnostic antigen or a potential VLP vaccine against PCV2 infection in pigs. Conclusion we have, for the first time, utilized the SUMO fusion motif to successfully express the entire authentic Cap protein of PCV2 in E. coli. After the cleavage of the fusion motif, the nCap protein has the ability to self-assemble into VLPs, which can be used as as a potential vaccine to protect pigs from PCV2-infection.

  11. Self-assembly of virus-like particles of porcine circovirus type 2 capsid protein expressed from Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) is a serious problem to the swine industry and can lead to significant negative impacts on profitability of pork production. Syndrome associated with PCV2 is known as porcine circovirus closely associated with post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS). The capsid (Cap) protein of PCV2 is a major candidate antigen for development of recombinant vaccine and serological diagnostic method. The recombinant Cap protein has the ability to self-assemble into virus-like particles (VLPs) in vitro, it is particularly opportunity to develop the PV2 VLPs vaccine in Escherichia coli,(E.coli ), because where the cost of the vaccine must be weighed against the value of the vaccinated pig, when it was to extend use the VLPs vaccine of PCV2. Results In this report, a highly soluble Cap-tag protein expressed in E.coli was constructed with a p-SMK expression vector with a fusion tag of small ubiquitin-like modifiers (SUMO). The recombinant Cap was purified using Ni2+ affinity resins, whereas the tag was used to remove the SUMO protease. Simultaneously, the whole native Cap protein was able to self-assemble into VLPs in vitro when viewed under an electron microscope. The Cap-like particles had a size and shape that resembled the authentic Cap. The result could also be applied in the large-scale production of VLPs of PCV2 and could be used as a diagnostic antigen or a potential VLP vaccine against PCV2 infection in pigs. Conclusion we have, for the first time, utilized the SUMO fusion motif to successfully express the entire authentic Cap protein of PCV2 in E. coli. After the cleavage of the fusion motif, the nCap protein has the ability to self-assemble into VLPs, which can be used as as a potential vaccine to protect pigs from PCV2-infection. PMID:20646322

  12. A genomically modified Escherichia coli strain carrying an orthogonal E. coli histidyl-tRNA synthetase•tRNAHis pair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englert, Markus; Vargas-Rodriguez, Oscar; Reynolds, Noah M; Wang, Yane-Shih; Söll, Dieter; Umehara, Takuya

    2017-11-01

    Development of new aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (aaRS)•tRNA pairs is central for incorporation of novel non-canonical amino acids (ncAAs) into proteins via genetic code expansion (GCE). The Escherichia coli and Caulobacter crescentus histidyl-tRNA synthetases (HisRS) evolved divergent mechanisms of tRNA His recognition that prevent their cross-reactivity. Although the E. coli HisRS•tRNA His pair is a good candidate for GCE, its use in C. crescentus is limited by the lack of established genetic selection methods and by the low transformation efficiency of C. crescentus. E. coli was genetically engineered to use a C. crescentus HisRS•tRNA His pair. Super-folder green fluorescent protein (sfGFP) and chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) were used as reporters for read-through assays. A library of 313 ncAAs coupled with the sfGFP reporter system was employed to investigate the specificity of E. coli HisRS in vivo. A genomically modified E. coli strain (named MEOV1) was created. MEVO1 requires an active C. crescentus HisRS•tRNA His pair for growth, and displays a similar doubling time as the parental E. coli strain. sfGFP- and CAT-based assays showed that the E. coli HisRS•tRNA His pair is orthogonal in MEOV1 cells. A mutation in the anticodon loop of E. coli tRNA His CUA elevated its suppression efficiency by 2-fold. The C. crescentus HisRS•tRNA His pair functionally complements an E. coli ΔhisS strain. The E. coli HisRS•tRNA His is orthogonal in MEOV1 cells. E. coli tRNA His CUA is an efficient amber suppressor in MEOV1. We developed a platform that allows protein engineering of E. coli HisRS that should facilitate GCE in E. coli. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Biochemistry of Synthetic Biology - Recent Developments" Guest Editor: Dr. Ilka Heinemann and Dr. Patrick O'Donoghue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. E. Coli Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. coli is the name of a type of bacteria that lives in your intestines. Most types of E. coli are harmless. However, some types can make you ... type causes travelers' diarrhea. The worst type of E. coli causes bloody diarrhea, and can sometimes cause kidney ...

  14. Characterization of prokaryotic and eukaryotic promoters usinghidden Markov models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Gorm; Baldi, Pierre; Brunak, Søren

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we utilize hidden Markov models (HMMs) and information theory to analyze prokaryotic and eukaryotic promoters. We perform this analysis with special emphasis on the fact that promoters are divided into a number of different classes, depending on which polymerase-associated factors...... that bind to them. We find that HMMs trained on such subclasses of Escherichia coli promoters (specifically, the so-called sigma-70 and sigma-54 classes) give an excellent classification of unknown promoters with respect to sigma-class. HMMs trained on eukaryotic sequences from human genes also model nicely...

  15. Deuterium incorporation into Escherichia-coli proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lederer, H.; May, R. P.; Kjems, Jørgen

    1986-01-01

    Neutron small-angle scattering studies of single protein subunits in a protein-DNA complex require the adjustment of the neutron scattering-length densities of protein and DNA, which is attainable by specific deuteration of the protein. The neutron scattering densities of unlabelled DNA and DNA......-dependent RNA polymerase of Escherichia coli match when RNA polymerase is isolated from cells grown in a medium containing 46% D2O and unlabelled glucose as carbon source. Their contrasts vanish simultaneously in a dialysis buffer containing 65% D2O. An expression was evaluated which allows the calculation...... of the degree of deuteration and match point of any E. coli protein from the D2O content of the growth medium, taking the 2H incorporation into RNA polymerase amino acids to be representative for all amino acids in E. coli proteins. The small-angle scattering results, on which the calculation of the degree...

  16. Engineering cell wall synthesis mechanism for enhanced PHB accumulation in E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xing-Chen; Guo, Yingying; Liu, Xu; Chen, Xin-Guang; Wu, Qiong; Chen, Guo-Qiang

    2018-01-01

    The rigidity of bacterial cell walls synthesized by a complicated pathway limit the cell shapes as coccus, bar or ellipse or even fibers. A less rigid bacterium could be beneficial for intracellular accumulation of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) as granular inclusion bodies. To understand how cell rigidity affects PHB accumulation, E. coli cell wall synthesis pathway was reinforced and weakened, respectively. Cell rigidity was achieved by thickening the cell walls via insertion of a constitutive gltA (encoding citrate synthase) promoter in front of a series of cell wall synthesis genes on the chromosome of several E. coli derivatives, resulting in 1.32-1.60 folds increase of Young's modulus in mechanical strength for longer E. coli cells over-expressing fission ring FtsZ protein inhibiting gene sulA. Cell rigidity was weakened by down regulating expressions of ten genes in the cell wall synthesis pathway using CRISPRi, leading to elastic cells with more spaces for PHB accumulation. The regulation on cell wall synthesis changes the cell rigidity: E. coli with thickened cell walls accumulated only 25% PHB while cell wall weakened E. coli produced 93% PHB. Manipulation on cell wall synthesis mechanism adds another possibility to morphology engineering of microorganisms. Copyright © 2017 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. In vivo and in vitro characterization of σ70 constitutive promoters by real-time PCR and fluorescent measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, James; Freemont, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The characterization of DNA regulatory elements such as ribosome binding sites and transcriptional promoters is a fundamental aim of synthetic biology. Characterization of such DNA regulatory elements by monitoring the synthesis of fluorescent proteins is a commonly used technique to resolve the relative or absolute strengths. These measurements can be used in combination with mathematical models and computer simulation to rapidly assess performance of DNA regulatory elements both in isolation and in combination, to assist predictable and efficient engineering of complex novel biological devices and systems. Here we describe the construction and relative characterization of Escherichia coli (E. coli) σ(70) transcriptional promoters by monitoring the synthesis of green fluorescent protein (GFP) both in vivo in E. coli and in vitro in a E. coli cell-free transcription and translation reaction.

  18. Structure-function analysis of the self-recognizing Antigen 43 autotransporter protein from Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemm, Per; Hjerrild, L.; Gjermansen, Morten

    2004-01-01

    Antigen 43 (Ag43) is a self-recognizing surface adhesin found in most Escherichia coli strains. Expression of Ag43 confers aggregation and fluffing of cells, promotes biofilm formation and is associated with enhanced resistance to antimicrobial agents. Ag43 is an autotransporter protein and consi......Antigen 43 (Ag43) is a self-recognizing surface adhesin found in most Escherichia coli strains. Expression of Ag43 confers aggregation and fluffing of cells, promotes biofilm formation and is associated with enhanced resistance to antimicrobial agents. Ag43 is an autotransporter protein......-clumping variants, we have pinpointed the region of the protein responsible for autoaggregation to be located within the N-terminal one-third of the passenger domain. Our data suggest that ionic interactions between charged residues residing in interacting pairs of Ag43(alpha) domains may be important for the self...

  19. Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli is the predominant diarrheagenic E. coli pathotype among irrigation water and food sources in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aijuka, Matthew; Santiago, Araceli E; Girón, Jorge A; Nataro, James P; Buys, Elna M

    2018-08-02

    Diarrheagenic E. coli (DEC) has been implicated in foodborne outbreaks worldwide and have been associated with childhood stunting in the absence of diarrhoea. Infection is extraordinarily common, but the routes of transmission have not been determined. Therefore, determining the most prevalent pathotypes in food and environmental sources may help provide better guidance to various stakeholders in ensuring food safety and public health and advancing understanding of the epidemiology of enteric disease. We characterized 205 E. coli strains previously isolated from producer distributor bulk milk (PDBM)(118), irrigation water (48), irrigated lettuce (29) and street vendor coleslaw (10) in South Africa. Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) and diffusely adherent E. coli (DAEC) were sought. We used PCR and partial gene sequencing for all 205 strains while 46 out of 205 that showed poor resolution were subsequently characterized using cell adherence (HeLa cells). PCR and partial gene sequencing of aatA and/or aaiC genes confirmed EAEC (2%, 5 out of 205) as the only pathotype. Phylogenetic analysis of sequenced EAEC strains with E. coli strains in GenBank showing ≥80% nucleotide sequence similarity based on possession of aaiC and aatA generated distinct clusters of strains separated predominantly based on their source of isolation (food source or human stool) suggesting a potential role of virulence genes in source tracking. EAEC 24%, 11 out of 46 strains (PDBM = 15%, irrigation water = 7%, irrigated lettuce = 2%) was similarly the predominant pathotype followed by strains showing invasiveness to HeLa cells, 4%, 2 out of 46 (PDBM = 2%, irrigated lettuce = 2%), among stains characterized using cell adherence. Therefore, EAEC may be the leading cause of DEC associated food and water-borne enteric infection in South Africa. Additionally, solely using molecular based methods targeting virulence

  20. Analysis of the promoters involved in enterocin AS-48 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebrián, Rubén; Rodríguez-Ruano, Sonia; Martínez-Bueno, Manuel; Valdivia, Eva; Maqueda, Mercedes; Montalbán-López, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The enterocin AS-48 is the best characterized antibacterial circular protein in prokaryotes. It is a hydrophobic and cationic bacteriocin, which is ribosomally synthesized by enterococcal cells and post-translationally cyclized by a head-to-tail peptide bond. The production of and immunity towards AS-48 depend upon the coordinated expression of ten genes organized in two operons, as-48ABC (where genes encoding enzymes with processing, secretion, and immunity functions are adjacent to the structural as-48A gene) and as-48C1DD1EFGH. The current study describes the identification of the promoters involved in AS-48 expression. Seven putative promoters have been here amplified, and separately inserted into the promoter-probe vector pTLR1, to create transcriptional fusions with the mCherry gene used as a reporter. The activity of these promoter regions was assessed measuring the expression of the fluorescent mCherry protein using the constitutive pneumococcal promoter PX as a reference. Our results revealed that only three promoters PA, P2(2) and PD1 were recognized in Enterococcus faecalis, Lactococcus lactis and Escherichia coli, in the conditions tested. The maximal fluorescence was obtained with PX in all the strains, followed by the P2(2) promoter, which level of fluorescence was 2-fold compared to PA and 4-fold compared to PD1. Analysis of putative factors influencing the promoter activity in single and double transformants in E. faecalis JH2-2 demonstrated that, in general, a better expression was achieved in presence of pAM401-81. In addition, the P2(2) promoter could be regulated in a negative fashion by genes existing in the native pMB-2 plasmid other than those of the as-48 cluster, while the pH seems to affect differently the as-48 promoter expression.

  1. Analysis of the promoters involved in enterocin AS-48 expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Cebrián

    Full Text Available The enterocin AS-48 is the best characterized antibacterial circular protein in prokaryotes. It is a hydrophobic and cationic bacteriocin, which is ribosomally synthesized by enterococcal cells and post-translationally cyclized by a head-to-tail peptide bond. The production of and immunity towards AS-48 depend upon the coordinated expression of ten genes organized in two operons, as-48ABC (where genes encoding enzymes with processing, secretion, and immunity functions are adjacent to the structural as-48A gene and as-48C1DD1EFGH. The current study describes the identification of the promoters involved in AS-48 expression. Seven putative promoters have been here amplified, and separately inserted into the promoter-probe vector pTLR1, to create transcriptional fusions with the mCherry gene used as a reporter. The activity of these promoter regions was assessed measuring the expression of the fluorescent mCherry protein using the constitutive pneumococcal promoter PX as a reference. Our results revealed that only three promoters PA, P2(2 and PD1 were recognized in Enterococcus faecalis, Lactococcus lactis and Escherichia coli, in the conditions tested. The maximal fluorescence was obtained with PX in all the strains, followed by the P2(2 promoter, which level of fluorescence was 2-fold compared to PA and 4-fold compared to PD1. Analysis of putative factors influencing the promoter activity in single and double transformants in E. faecalis JH2-2 demonstrated that, in general, a better expression was achieved in presence of pAM401-81. In addition, the P2(2 promoter could be regulated in a negative fashion by genes existing in the native pMB-2 plasmid other than those of the as-48 cluster, while the pH seems to affect differently the as-48 promoter expression.

  2. Novel insights into E. coli's hexuronate metabolism: KduI facilitates the conversion of galacturonate and glucuronate under osmotic stress conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Rothe

    Full Text Available Using a gnotobiotic mouse model, we previously observed the upregulation of 2-deoxy-D-gluconate 3-dehydrogenase (KduD in intestinal E. coli of mice fed a lactose-rich diet and the downregulation of this enzyme and of 5-keto 4-deoxyuronate isomerase (KduI on a casein-rich diet. The present study aimed to define the role of the so far poorly characterized E. coli proteins KduD and KduI in vitro. Galacturonate and glucuronate induced kduD and kduI gene expression 3-fold and 7 to 11-fold, respectively, under aerobic conditions as well as 9 to 20-fold and 19 to 54-fold, respectively, under anaerobic conditions. KduI facilitated the breakdown of these hexuronates. In E. coli, galacturonate and glucuronate are normally degraded by UxaABC and UxuAB. However, osmotic stress represses the expression of the corresponding genes in an OxyR-dependent manner. When grown in the presence of galacturonate or glucuronate, kduID-deficient E. coli had a 30% to 80% lower maximal cell density and 1.5 to 2-fold longer doubling times under osmotic stress conditions than wild type E. coli. Growth on lactose promoted the intracellular formation of hexuronates, which possibly explain the induction of KduD on a lactose-rich diet. These results indicate a novel function of KduI and KduD in E. coli and demonstrate the crucial influence of osmotic stress on the gene expression of hexuronate degrading enzymes.

  3. E. Coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for the bacteria's medical name Escherichia coli . The strange thing about these bacteria — and lots of other ... In some cases, E. coli poisoning can cause life-threatening kidney problems. What Can Kids Do? Adults ...

  4. Error-Prone Translesion DNA Synthesis by Escherichia coli DNA Polymerase IV (DinB on Templates Containing 1,2-dihydro-2-oxoadenine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Hori

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli DNA polymerase IV (Pol IV is involved in bypass replication of damaged bases in DNA. Reactive oxygen species (ROS are generated continuously during normal metabolism and as a result of exogenous stress such as ionizing radiation. ROS induce various kinds of base damage in DNA. It is important to examine whether Pol IV is able to bypass oxidatively damaged bases. In this study, recombinant Pol IV was incubated with oligonucleotides containing thymine glycol (dTg, 5-formyluracil (5-fodU, 5-hydroxymethyluracil (5-hmdU, 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxodG and 1,2-dihydro-2-oxoadenine (2-oxodA. Primer extension assays revealed that Pol IV preferred to insert dATP opposite 5-fodU and 5-hmdU, while it inefficiently inserted nucleotides opposite dTg. Pol IV inserted dCTP and dATP opposite 8-oxodG, while the ability was low. It inserted dCTP more effectively than dTTP opposite 2-oxodA. Pol IV's ability to bypass these lesions decreased in the order: 2-oxodA > 5-fodU~5-hmdU > 8-oxodG > dTg. The fact that Pol IV preferred to insert dCTP opposite 2-oxodA suggests the mutagenic potential of 2-oxodA leading to A:T→G:C transitions. Hydrogen peroxide caused an ~2-fold increase in A:T→G:C mutations in E. coli, while the increase was significantly greater in E. coli overexpressing Pol IV. These results indicate that Pol IV may be involved in ROS-enhanced A:T→G:C mutations.

  5. Evaluation of Petrifilm™ Select E. coli Count Plate medium to discriminate antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensen Lars

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Screening and enumeration of antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli directly from samples is needed to identify emerging resistant clones and obtain quantitative data for risk assessment. Aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of 3M™ Petrifilm™ Select E. coli Count Plate (SEC plate supplemented with antimicrobials to discriminate antimicrobial-resistant and non-resistant E. coli. Method A range of E. coli isolates were tested by agar dilution method comparing the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC for eight antimicrobials obtained by Mueller-Hinton II agar, MacConkey agar and SEC plates. Kappa statistics was used to assess the levels of agreement when classifying strains as resistant, intermediate or susceptible. Results SEC plate showed that 74% of all strains agreed within ± 1 log2 dilution when comparing MICs with Mueller-Hinton II media. High agreement levels were found for gentamicin, ampicillin, chloramphenicol and cefotaxime, resulting in a kappa value of 0.9 and 100% agreement within ± 1 log2 dilution. Significant variances were observed for oxytetracycline and sulphamethoxazole. Further tests showed that the observed discrepancy in classification of susceptibility to oxytetracycline by the two media could be overcome when a plate-dependent breakpoint of 64 mg/L was used for SEC plates. For sulphamethoxazole, SEC plates provided unacceptably high MICs. Conclusion SEC plates showed good agreement with Mueller-Hinton II agar in MIC studies and can be used to screen and discriminate resistant E. coli for ampicillin, cephalothin, streptomycin, chloramphenicol, cefotaxime and gentamicin using CLSI standardized breakpoints, but not for sulphamethoxazole. SEC plates can also be used to discriminate oxytetracycline-resistant E. coli if a plate-dependent breakpoint value of 64 mg/L is used.

  6. Pathogenic Escherichia coli and food handlers in luxury hotels in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyango, Abel O; Kenya, Eucharia U; Mbithi, John J N; Ng'ayo, Musa O

    2009-11-01

    The epidemiology and virulence properties of pathogenic Escherichia coli among food handlers in tourist destination hotels in Kenya are largely uncharacterized. This cross-sectional study among consenting 885 food handlers working in nine luxurious tourist hotels in Nairobi, Kenya determined the epidemiology, virulence properties, antibiotics susceptibility profiles and conjugation abilities of pathogenic Escherichia coli. Pathogenic Escherichia coli was detected among 39 (4.4%) subjects, including 1.8% enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) harboring aggR genes, 1.2% enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) expressing both LT and STp toxins, 1.1% enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and 0.2% Shiga-like Escherichia coli (EHEC) both harboring eaeA and stx2 genes respectively. All the pathotypes had increased surface hydrophobicity. Using multivariate analyses, food handlers with loose stools were more likely to be infected with pathogenic Escherichia coli. Majority 53.8% of the pathotypes were resistant to tetracycline with 40.2% being multi-drug resistant. About 85.7% pathotypes trans-conjugated with Escherichia coli K12 F(-) NA(r) LA. The carriage of multi-drug resistant, toxin expressing pathogenic Escherichia coli by this population is of public health concern because exposure to low doses can result in infection. Screening food handlers and implementing public awareness programs is recommended as an intervention to control transmission of enteric pathogens.

  7. 22 CFR 101.2 - Promotion of American interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Promotion of American interests. 101.2 Section... FUNCTIONS § 101.2 Promotion of American interests. Officers of the Foreign Service shall further the.... (g) By taking appropriate steps to facilitate the promotion of such import trade into the United...

  8. Coating of silicone with mannoside-PAMAM dendrimers to enhance formation of non-pathogenic Escherichia coli biofilms against colonization of uropathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhiling; Yu, Fei; Chen, Haoqing; Wang, Jun; Lopez, Analette I; Chen, Quan; Li, Siheng; Long, Yuyu; Darouiche, Rabih O; Hull, Richard A; Zhang, Lijuan; Cai, Chengzhi

    2017-12-01

    Bacterial interference using non-pathogenic Escherichia coli 83972 is a novel strategy for preventing catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI). Crucial to the success of this strategy is to establish a high coverage and stable biofilm of the non-pathogenic bacteria on the catheter surface. However, this non-pathogenic strain is sluggish to form biofilms on silicone as the most widely used material for urinary catheters. We have addressed this issue by modifying the silicone catheter surfaces with mannosides that promote the biofilm formation, but the stability of the non-pathogenic biofilms challenged by uropathogens over long-term remains a concern. Herein, we report our study on the stability of the non-pathogenic biofilms grown on propynylphenyl mannoside-modified silicone. The result shows that 94% non-pathogenic bacteria were retained on the modified silicone under >0.5 Pa shear stress. After being challenged by three multidrug-resistant uropathogenic isolates in artificial urine for 11 days, large amounts (>4 × 10 6  CFU cm -2 ) of the non-pathogenic bacteria remained on the surfaces. These non-pathogenic biofilms reduced the colonization of the uropathogens by >3.2-log. In bacterial interference, the non-pathogenic Escherichia coli strains are sluggish to form biofilms on the catheter surfaces, due to rapid removal by urine flow. We have demonstrated a solution to this bottleneck by pre-functionalization of mannosides on the silicone surfaces to promote E. coli biofilm formation. A pre-conjugated high affinity propynylphenyl mannoside ligand tethered to the nanometric amino-terminated poly(amido amine) (PAMAM) dendrimer is used for binding to a major E. coli adhesin FimH. It greatly improves the efficiency for the catheter modification, the non-pathogenic biofilm coverage, as well as the (long-term) stability for prevention of uropathogen infections. Copyright © 2017 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Contribution of the Pmra Promoter to Expression of Genes in the Escherichia coli mra Cluster of Cell Envelope Biosynthesis and Cell Division Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengin-Lecreulx, Dominique; Ayala, Juan; Bouhss, Ahmed; van Heijenoort, Jean; Parquet, Claudine; Hara, Hiroshi

    1998-01-01

    Recently, a promoter for the essential gene ftsI, which encodes penicillin-binding protein 3 of Escherichia coli, was precisely localized 1.9 kb upstream from this gene, at the beginning of the mra cluster of cell division and cell envelope biosynthesis genes (H. Hara, S. Yasuda, K. Horiuchi, and J. T. Park, J. Bacteriol. 179:5802–5811, 1997). Disruption of this promoter (Pmra) on the chromosome and its replacement by the lac promoter (Pmra::Plac) led to isopropyl-β-d-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG)-dependent cells that lysed in the absence of inducer, a defect which was complemented only when the whole region from Pmra to ftsW, the fifth gene downstream from ftsI, was provided in trans on a plasmid. In the present work, the levels of various proteins involved in peptidoglycan synthesis and cell division were precisely determined in cells in which Pmra::Plac promoter expression was repressed or fully induced. It was confirmed that the Pmra promoter is required for expression of the first nine genes of the mra cluster: mraZ (orfC), mraW (orfB), ftsL (mraR), ftsI, murE, murF, mraY, murD, and ftsW. Interestingly, three- to sixfold-decreased levels of MurG and MurC enzymes were observed in uninduced Pmra::Plac cells. This was correlated with an accumulation of the nucleotide precursors UDP–N-acetylglucosamine and UDP–N-acetylmuramic acid, substrates of these enzymes, and with a depletion of the pool of UDP–N-acetylmuramyl pentapeptide, resulting in decreased cell wall peptidoglycan synthesis. Moreover, the expression of ftsZ, the penultimate gene from this cluster, was significantly reduced when Pmra expression was repressed. It was concluded that the transcription of the genes located downstream from ftsW in the mra cluster, from murG to ftsZ, is also mainly (but not exclusively) dependent on the Pmra promoter. PMID:9721276

  10. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 Ameliorates Escherichia coli-Induced Inflammation and Cell Damage via Attenuation of ASC-Independent NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiong; Liu, Ming-Chao; Yang, Jun; Wang, Jiu-Feng; Zhu, Yao-Hong

    2016-02-15

    Escherichia coli is a major environmental pathogen causing bovine mastitis, which leads to mammary tissue damage and cell death. We explored the effects of the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 on ameliorating E. coli-induced inflammation and cell damage in primary bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMECs). Increased Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), NOD1, and NOD2 mRNA expression was observed following E. coli challenge, but this increase was attenuated by L. rhamnosus GR-1 pretreatment. Immunofluorescence and Western blot analyses revealed that L. rhamnosus GR-1 pretreatment decreased the E. coli-induced increases in the expression of the NOD-like receptor family member pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) and the serine protease caspase 1. However, expression of the adaptor protein apoptosis-associated speck-like protein (ASC, encoded by the Pycard gene) was decreased during E. coli infection, even with L. rhamnosus GR-1 pretreatment. Pretreatment with L. rhamnosus GR-1 counteracted the E. coli-induced increases in interleukin-1β (IL-1β), -6, -8, and -18 and tumor necrosis factor alpha mRNA expression but upregulated IL-10 mRNA expression. Our data indicate that L. rhamnosus GR-1 reduces the adhesion of E. coli to BMECs, subsequently ameliorating E. coli-induced disruption of cellular morphology and ultrastructure and limiting detrimental inflammatory responses, partly via promoting TLR2 and NOD1 synergism and attenuating ASC-independent NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Although the residual pathogenic activity of L. rhamnosus, the dosage regimen, and the means of probiotic supplementation in cattle remain undefined, our data enhance our understanding of the mechanism of action of this candidate probiotic, allowing for development of specific probiotic-based therapies and strategies for preventing pathogenic infection of the bovine mammary gland. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Vanillin production using Escherichia coli cells over-expressing isoeugenol monooxygenase of Pseudomonas putida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Mamoru; Okada, Yukiyoshi; Yoshida, Toyokazu; Nagasawa, Toru

    2008-04-01

    The isoeugenol monooxygenase gene of Pseudomonas putida IE27 was inserted into an expression vector, pET21a, under the control of the T7 promoter. The recombinant plasmid was introduced into Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) cells, containing no vanillin-degrading activity. The transformed E. coli BL21(DE3) cells produced 28.3 g vanillin/l from 230 mM isoeugenol, with a molar conversion yield of 81% at 20 degrees C after 6 h. In the reaction system, no accumulation of undesired by-products, such as vanillic acid or acetaldehyde, was observed.

  12. [miR-182 promotes cell proliferation of cervical cancer cells by targeting adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pei; Hu, Jing; Zhang, Ying; Li, Jianping; Dang, Yunzhi; Zhang, Rui; Wei, Lichun; Shi, Mei

    2018-02-01

    Objective To investigate the role and mechanism of microRNA-182 (miR-182) in the proliferation of cervical cancer cells. Methods With liposome-mediated transient transfection method, the level of miR-182 in HeLa and SiHa cells was increased or decreased. CCK-8 assay and colony formation assay were used to observe the effect of miR-182 on the proliferation of cervical cancer cells. Using bioinformatics predictions, real-time quantitative PCR, and dual luciferase reporter assay, we clarified the role of miR-182 in posttranscriptional regulation of adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene and its effect on the downstream molecules (c-Myc and cyclin D1) of Wnt singling pathway. Results Up-regulation of miR-182 significantly promoted the proliferation of cervical cancer cells, while down-regulation of miR-182 significantly inhibited the proliferation of cervical cancer cells. Over-expression of miR-182 inhibited the expression of APC gene in cervical cancer cells and the regulation of miR-182 affected the expression of canonical Wnt signaling pathway downstream molecules in cervical cancer cells. Conclusion The miR-182 stimulates canonical Wnt signaling pathway by targeting APC gene and enhances the proliferation of cervical cancer cells.

  13. EXPRESSION OF A BEE-VENOM PHOSPHOLIPASE A2 FROM APIS CERANA CERANA IN E,.qCHERICHIA COLI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-rongShen; Jia-anCheng; Chuan-xiZhang

    2004-01-01

    The venomous phospholipase A2 (AcPLA2) coding reading region of the Chinese honeybee (Apis cerana cerana), which is composed of 405 bp encoding a mature glycosylated peptide with 134 amino residues was transformed into the expression vector pETblue-1. Then the recombinant vector was introduced into Escherichia coli Tuner (DE3) plac I for expression. Analysis result of SDS-PAGE showed that the expression products had a protein band of about 15 kD. Detection of western blot using ant-European honeybee (Apis mellifera) phospholipase A2 (AmPLA2) polyclonal serum as the first antibody showed that the expression products appeared a special blot same as the native AmPLA2.The result demonstrated that the AcPLA2 peptide had been expressed in E. coli and the AcPLA2 has the similar antigenicity as the AmPLA2.

  14. Systematic search for the Cra-binding promoters using genomic SELEX system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Tomohiro; Fujita, Nobuyuki; Maeda, Michihisa; Ishihama, Akira

    2005-09-01

    Cra (or FruR), a global transcription factor with both repression and activation activities, controls a large number of the genes for glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. To get insights into the entire network of transcription regulation of the E. coli genome by Cra, we isolated a set of Cra-binding sequences using an improved method of genomic SELEX. From the DNA sequences of 97 independently isolated DNA fragments by SELEX, the Cra-binding sequences were identified in a total of ten regions on the E. coli genome, including promoters of six known genes and four hitherto-unidentified genes. All six known promoters are repressed by Cra, but none of the activation-type promoters were cloned after two cyles of SELEX, because the Cra-binding affinity to the repression-type promoters is higher than the activation-type promoters, as determined by the quantitative gel shift assay. Of a total of four newly identified Cra-binding sequences, two are associated with promoter regions of the gapA (glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase) and eno (enolase) genes, both involved in sugar metabolism. The regulation of newly identified genes by Cra was confirmed by the in vivo promoter strength assay using a newly developed TFP (two-fluorescent protein) vector for promoter assay or by in vitro transcription assay in the presence of Cra protein.

  15. Escherichia coli pyomyositis in an immunocompromised host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Umesh; Schwan, William R; Agger, William A

    2011-08-01

    Pyomyositis due to Escherichia coli (E. coil) is rarely reported in immunocompromised patients with hematological malignancy. We present a case report of a 34-year-old man who developed E. coli pyomyositis as a complication of acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the right hip suggested myofascial infection of the gluteal muscles, and a needle muscle aspiration grew E. coli phylogenetic group B2. The patient responded to intravenous piperacillin/tazobactam followed by prolonged oral levofloxacin. Pyomyositis should be suspected in all immunocompromised patients complaining of muscle pain and may exhibit signs of localized muscle infection. Appropriate antibiotic therapy targeting fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli should be considered for initial empiric therapy of pyomyositis in immunocompromised patients.

  16. Control of MarRAB Operon in Escherichia coli via Autoactivation and Autorepression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajapat, Mahendra Kumar; Jain, Kirti; Saini, Supreet

    2015-01-01

    Choice of network topology for gene regulation has been a question of interest for a long time. How do simple and more complex topologies arise? In this work, we analyze the topology of the marRAB operon in Escherichia coli, which is associated with control of expression of genes associated with conferring resistance to low-level antibiotics to the bacterium. Among the 2102 promoters in E. coli, the marRAB promoter is the only one that encodes for an autoactivator and an autorepressor. What advantages does this topology confer to the bacterium? In this work, we demonstrate that, compared to control by a single regulator, the marRAB regulatory arrangement has the least control cost associated with modulating gene expression in response to environmental stimuli. In addition, the presence of dual regulators allows the regulon to exhibit a diverse range of dynamics, a feature that is not observed in genes controlled by a single regulator. PMID:26445450

  17. Active site studies of Escherichia coli 2-keto-4-hydroxyglutarate aldolase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlahos, C.J.

    1987-01-01

    The data presented delineate the complete amino acid sequence of E. coli KHG aldolase and also identify Lys-133, Glu-45, and Arg-49 as aminoacyl residues required for catalytic activity. Incubation of E. coli KHG aldolase with [ 14 C]pyruvate in the presence of NaCNBH 3 results in the incorporation of one mol of 14 C per mol of enzyme subunit. Digestion of this enzyme-adduct with trypsin, followed by purification of the peptides, allowed for the isolation of a unique radioactive peptide. Its amino acid sequence showed that the pyruvate-binding (i.e., Schiff-base forming) lysine residue is located at position 133 in the intact enzyme. E. coli KHG aldolase activity is lost when the enzyme is reacted with bromopyruvate; saturation kinetics are observed. The substrates, pyruvate and KHG, protect the enzyme from inactivation. Both facts suggest that the reagent is active-site specific. Incubation of the aldolase with [3- 14 C]bromopyruvate is associated with a concomitant loss of enzymatic activity and esterification of Glu-45; if the enzyme is denatured in the presence of excess bromopyruvate, Cys-159 and Cys-180 are also alkylated. Blocking the active-site lysine residue with pyruvate prevents Glu-45 from being esterified but does not eliminate alkylation of these two cysteine residues. Woodward's Reagent K was also found to inactivate the aldolase under conditions that are usually specific for carboxyl group modification. This aldolase is also inactivated by 1,2-cyclohexanedione. Loss of enzymatic activity occurs concomitantly with modification of one arginine residue per enzyme subunit. Treatment of the aldolase with the arginine-specific reagent, 4-(oxyacetyl)phenoxyacetic acid, followed by digestion with trypsin allowed for the isolation of a unique peptide and the identification of Arg-49 as the specific residue involved

  18. Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli to produce 2'-fucosyllactose via salvage pathway of guanosine 5'-diphosphate (GDP)-l-fucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Young-Wook; Seo, Nari; Kim, Jae-Han; Seo, Jin-Ho

    2016-11-01

    2'-Fucosyllactose (2-FL) is one of the key oligosaccharides in human milk. In the present study, the salvage guanosine 5'-diphosphate (GDP)-l-fucose biosynthetic pathway from fucose was employed in engineered Escherichia coli BL21star(DE3) for efficient production of 2-FL. Introduction of the fkp gene coding for fucokinase/GDP-l-fucose pyrophosphorylase (Fkp) from Bacteroides fragilis and the fucT2 gene encoding α-1,2-fucosyltransferase from Helicobacter pylori allows the engineered E. coli to produce 2-FL from fucose, lactose and glycerol. To enhance the lactose flux to 2-FL production, the attenuated, and deleted mutants of β-galactosidase were employed. Moreover, the 2-FL yield and productivity were further improved by deletion of the fucI-fucK gene cluster coding for fucose isomerase (FucI) and fuculose kinase (FucK). Finally, fed-batch fermentation of engineered E. coli BL21star(DE3) deleting lacZ and fucI-fucK, and expressing fkp and fucT2 resulted in 23.1 g/L of extracellular concentration of 2-FL and 0.39 g/L/h productivity. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 2443-2452. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Three-dimensional structure of phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetase from E. coli at 2.71 Å resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timofeev, V. I., E-mail: inna@ns.crys.ras.ru, E-mail: tostars@mail.ru, E-mail: ugama@yandex.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation); Abramchik, Yu. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shemyakin–Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry (Russian Federation); Zhukhlistova, N. E. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation); Muravieva, T. I.; Esipov, R. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shemyakin–Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry (Russian Federation); Kuranova, I. P. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetase from Escherichia coli was cloned, purified, and crystallized. Single crystals of the enzyme were grown under microgravity. The X-ray diffraction data set was collected at the Spring-8 synchrotron facility and used to determine the three-dimensional structure of the enzyme by the molecular-replacement method at 2.71 Å resolution. The active and regulatory sites in the molecule of E. coli phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetase were revealed by comparison with the homologous protein from Bacillus subtilis, the structure of which was determined in a complex with functional ligands. The conformations of polypeptide-chain fragments surrounding and composing the active and regulatory sites were shown to be identical in both proteins.

  20. Prevalence of extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli in a farrowing farm: ST1121 clone harboring IncHI2 plasmid contributes to the dissemination of blaCMY-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui eDeng

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract During a regular monitoring of antimicrobial resistance in a farrowing farm in Southern China, 117 Escherichia coli isolates were obtained from sows and piglets. Compared with the isolates from piglets, the isolates from sows exhibited higher resistance rates to the tested cephalosporins. Correspondingly, the total detection rate of the blaCMY-2/blaCTX-M genes in the sow isolates (34.2% was also significantly higher than that of the piglet isolates (13.6% (p<0.05. The blaCMY-2 gene had a relatively high prevalence (11.1% in the E. coli isolates. MLST and PFGE analysis revealed the clonal spread of ST1121 E. coli in most (7/13 of the blaCMY-2-positive isolates. An indistinguishable IncHI2 plasmid harboring blaCMY-2 was also identified in each of the seven ST1121 E. coli isolates. Complete sequence analysis of this IncHI2 plasmid (pEC5207 revealed that pEC5207 may have originated through recombination of an IncHI2 plasmid with a blaCMY-2-carrying IncA/C plasmid like pCFSAN007427_01. In addtion to blaCMY-2, pEC5207 also carried other resistance determinants for aminoglycosides (aacA7, sulfonamides (sul1, as well as heavy metals ions, such as Cu and Ag. The susceptibility testing showed that the pEC5207 can mediate both antibiotic and heavy metal resistance. This highlights the role of pEC5207 in co-selection of blaCMY-2-positive isolates under the selective pressure of heavy metals, cephalosporins and other antimicrobials. In conclusion, clonal spread of an ST1121 type E. coli strain harboring an IncHI2 plasmid contributed to the dissemination of blaCMY-2 in a farrowing farm in Southern China. We also have determined the first complete sequence analysis of a blaCMY-2-carrying IncHI2 plasmid.

  1. Characterization of prokaryotic and eukaryotic promoters using hidden Markov models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Gorm; Baldi, P.; Chauvin, Y.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we utilize hidden Markov models (HMMs) and information theory to analyze prokaryotic and eukaryotic promoters. We perform this analysis with special emphasis on the fact that promoters are divided into a number of different classes, depending on which polymerase-associated factors...... that bind to them. We find that HMMs trained on such subclasses of Escherichia coli promoters (specifically, the so-called sigma 70 and sigma 54 classes) give an excellent classification of unknown promoters with respect to sigma-class. HMMs trained on eukaryotic sequences from human genes also model nicely...

  2. Cadmium tolerance and antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli isolated from waste stabilization ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Sova; Das, T K; Avila, C; Cabello, V; Castillo, F; Sarkar, D; Lahiri, Susmita; Jana, B B

    2012-04-01

    The incidence pattern of cadmium tolerance and antibiotics resistance by Escherichia coli was examined periodically from the samples of water, sludge and intestine of fish raised in waste stabilization ponds in a sewage treatment plant. Samples of water and sludge were collected from all the selected ponds and were monitored for total counts of fecal coliform (FC), total coliform (TC) and the population of Escherichia coli, which was also obtained from the intestine of fishes. Total counts of both FC and TC as well as counts of E. coli were markedly reduced from the facultative pond to the last maturation pond. Tolerance limit to cadmium by E. coli tended to decline as the distance of the sewage effluent from the source increased; the effective lethal concentration of cadmium ranged from 0.1 mM in split chamber to 0.05 mM in first maturation pond. E. coli isolated from water, sludge and fish gut were sensitive to seven out of ten antibiotics tested. It appears that holistic functions mediated through the mutualistic growth of micro algae and heterotrophic bacteria in the waste stabilization ponds were responsible for the promotion of water quality and significant reduction of coliform along the sewage effluent gradient.

  3. Stress-responsively modulated ymdAB-clsC operon plays a role in biofilm formation and apramycin susceptibility in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Moonjeong; Kim, Kwang-Sun

    2017-07-06

    The YmdB protein, an inhibitor of biofilm formation and an inducer of apramycin susceptibility in Escherichia coli (E. coli), is part of a putative operon. However, transcription of this operon and its subsequent effects on biological pathways has not been fully studied. Here, we characterized the operon in terms of promoter activity, transcription and function. Promoter activity assays identified two new growth- and cold-shock-responsive upstream (PymdA) and inner (PclsC) promoters, respectively. Moreover, investigation of the operon-derived transcripts identified different polycistronic transcripts harboring multiple heterogeneous 3΄ ends. Overexpression of YmdA or ClsC proteins inhibited biofilm formation and affected apramycin susceptibility, a process dependent on the sucA gene, suggesting that the operon genes or their encoded proteins are functionally linked. Additional investigation of the effects of polycistronic transcripts on the response of E. coli cells to apramycin revealed that transcripts containing ymdA (-213 to +27) are required for apramycin susceptibility. Thus, ymdAB-clsC is a new stress-responsive operon that plays a role in inhibiting undesired biofilm forming and antibiotic-resistant bacterial populations. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Identification of a single-nucleotide insertion in the promoter region affecting the sodC promoter activity in Brucella neotomae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina A Moustafa

    Full Text Available Brucella neotomae is not known to be associated with clinical disease in any host species. Previous research suggested that B. neotomae might not express detectable levels of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD, a periplasmic enzyme known to be involved in protecting Brucella from oxidative bactericidal effects of host phagocytes. This study was undertaken to investigate the genetic basis for the disparity in SOD expression in B. neotomae. Our Western blot and SOD enzyme assay analyses indicated that B. neotomae does express SOD, but at a substantially reduced level. Nucleotide sequence analysis of region upstream to the sodC gene identified a single-nucleotide insertion in the potential promoter region. The same single-nucleotide insertion was also detected in the sodC promoter of B. suis strain Thomsen, belonging to biovar 2 in which SOD expression was undetectable previously. Examination of the sodC promoter activities using translational fusion constructs with E. coli β-galactosidase demonstrated that the B. neotomae and B. suis biovar 2 promoters were very weak in driving gene expression. Site-directed mutation studies indicated that the insertion of A in the B. neotomae sodC promoter reduced the promoter activity. Increasing the level of SOD expression in B. neotomae through complementation with B. abortus sodC gene did not alter the bacterial survival in J774A.1 macrophage-like cells and in tissues of BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. These results for the first time demonstrate the occurrence of a single-nucleotide polymorphism affecting promoter function and gene expression in Brucella.

  5. E. Coli and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chat Live Help Fact Sheets Share Escherichia coli (E. coli) Friday, 01 September 2017 In every pregnancy, a ... risk. This sheet talks about whether exposure to E. coli may increase the risk for birth defects over ...

  6. Functional expression of a valencene dioxygenase from Pleurotus sapidus in E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelena, Kateryna; Krings, Ulrich; Berger, Ralf G

    2012-03-01

    Valencene dioxygenase (ValOx) from the edible basidiomycete Pleurotus sapidus converted the sesquiterpene (+)-valencene to the valuable grapefruit flavour (+)-nootkatone and to nootkatols through intermediate hydroperoxides. Expression of the enzyme was carried out in the cytosol and periplasm of Escherichia coli. The heterologous production led to high yields of inclusion bodies. The poor yield of soluble recombinant protein was improved by various strategies including cold shock expression, chaperone co-expression, and employment of mutant E. coli strains. Up to 60 mg of the biologically active, soluble ValOx was produced by cold shock under control of the cspA promoter at 8 °C in the BL21(DE3)Star strain and co-expression of the E. coli trigger factor. The recombinant enzyme, purified using the N-terminal His tag, showed the catalytic properties of the wild-type enzyme, as was confirmed by the LC-MS analysis of hydroperoxide intermediates and GC-MS analysis of the volatile products. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Interactions between the cyclic AMP receptor protein and the alpha subunit of RNA polymerase at the Escherichia coli galactose operon P1 promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attey, A; Belyaeva, T; Savery, N; Hoggett, J; Fujita, N; Ishihama, A; Busby, S

    1994-10-25

    DNAase I footprinting has been used to study open complexes between Escherichia coli RNA polymerase and the galactose operon P1 promoter, both in the absence and the presence of CRP (the cyclic AMP receptor protein, a transcription activator). From the effects of deletion of the C-terminal part of the RNA polymerase alpha subunit, we deduce that alpha binds at the upstream end of both the binary RNA polymerase-galP1 and ternary RNA polymerase-CRP-galP1 complexes. Disruption of the alpha-upstream contact suppresses open complex formation at galP1 at lower temperatures. In ternary RNA polymerase-CRP-galP1 complexes, alpha appears to make direct contact with Activating Region 1 in CRP. DNAase I footprinting has been used to detect and quantify interactions between purified alpha and CRP bound at galP1.

  8. Genetic toxicology of metal compounds. II. Enhancement of ultraviolet light-induced mutagenesis in Escherichia coli WP2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossman, T.G.; Molina, M.

    1986-01-01

    Salts of metals which are carcinogenic, noncarcinogenic, or of unknown carcinogenicity were assayed for their abilities to modulate ultraviolet (UV)-induced mutagenesis in Escherichia coli WP2. In addition to the previously reported comutagenic effect of arsenite, salts of three other compounds were found to enhance UV mutagenesis. CuCl 2 , MnCl 2 (and a small effect by KMnO 4 ), and NaMoO 4 acted as comutagens in E coli WP2, which has wild-type DNA repair capability, but were much less comutagenic in the repair deficient strain WP2/sub s/ (uvrA). The survival of irradiated or unirradiated cells was not affected by these compounds. No effects on UV mutagenesis were seen for 16 other metal compounds. We suggest that the comutagenic effects might occur either via metal-induced decreases in the fidelity of repair replication or via metal-induced depurination

  9. Human Meningitis-Associated Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    KIM, KWANG SIK

    2016-01-01

    E. coli is the most common Gram-negative bacillary organism causing meningitis and E. coli meningitis continues to be an important cause of mortality and morbidity throughout the world. Our incomplete knowledge of its pathogenesis contributes to such mortality and morbidity. Recent reports of E. coli strains producing CTX-M-type or TEM-type extended-spectrum β-lactamases create a challenge. Studies using in vitro and in vivo models of the blood-brain barrier have shown that E. coli meningitis follows a high-degree of bacteremia and invasion of the blood-brain barrier. E. coli invasion of the blood-brain barrier, the essentials step in the development of E. coli meningitis, requires specific microbial and host factors as well as microbe- and host-specific signaling molecules. Blockade of such microbial and host factors contributing to E. coli invasion of the blood-brain barrier is shown to be efficient in preventing E. coli penetration into the brain. The basis for requiring a high-degree of bacteremia for E. coli penetration of the blood-brain barrier, however, remains unclear. Continued investigation on the microbial and host factors contributing to a high-degree of bacteremia and E. coli invasion of the blood-brain barrier is likely to identify new targets for prevention and therapy of E. coli meningitis. PMID:27223820

  10. The interface interaction behavior between E. coli and two kinds of fibrous minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Qunwei; Han, Linbao; Deng, Jianjun; Zhao, Yulian; Dang, Zheng; Tan, Daoyong; Dong, Faqin

    2017-11-09

    In the present, studies of interaction between human normal flora and fibrous mineral are still lacking. Batch experiments were performed to deal with the interaction of Escherichia coli and two fibrous minerals (brucite and palygorskite), and the interface and liquid phase characteristics in the short-term interaction processes were discussed. The bacterial concentrations, the remnant glucose (GLU), pyruvic acid, and the activity of β-galactosidase and six elements were measured, and the results show that the promoting effect of brucite on the growth of E. coli was more significant than that of palygorskite. FTIR and XRD analysis results also confirmed E. coli has obviously dissolved on brucite and damage effect on palygorskite silicon structure. SEM results show that the interfacial contact degree between E. coli cells and brucite fibers was higher than that of palygorskite. These may be due to the zeta potential difference between E. coli and palygorskite was 14.57-22.37 mV, while it of brucite was 44.04-64.24 mV. The elements dissolving of two fibrous minerals not only increased regularly to liquid EC but also had a good buffer effect to the decrease of liquid pH. Studies of short-term interaction between E. coli and brucite and palygorskite can help to understand the effect of fibrous minerals on microeubiosis of human normal flora and the contribution of microbial behaviors on the fibrous minerals weathering in the natural environment.

  11. Third International E. coli genome meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    Proceedings of the Third E. Coli Genome Meeting are provided. Presentations were divided into sessions entitled (1) Large Scale Sequencing, Sequence Analysis; (2) Databases; (3) Sequence Analysis; (4) Sequence Divergence in E. coli Strains; (5) Repeated Sequences and Regulatory Motifs; (6) Mutations, Rearrangements and Stress Responses; and (7) Origins of New Genes. The document provides a collection of abstracts of oral and poster presentations.

  12. Deteksi Produksi Toksin Stx-1 dan Stx-2 dari Escherichia coli O157:H7 Isolat Lokal Hasil Isolasi Feses dan Daging Sapi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Suardana

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Shiga toxin produced by Escherichia coli O157:H7 can cause outbreaks and sporadic cases of serioushuman diseases. The diseases are indicated by hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome. Meatand meat products have been identified as vehicles of food borne disease caused by E.coli O157:H7. Themain aim of this research was to identify the correlation between the level of E.coli O157:H7 contaminationand the presence of Shiga toxin (Stx1 and Stx2 by applying method of Vero toxin Escherichia coli-ReversePassive Agglutination Test (VTEC-RPLA. The results showed that 3 of 7 isolates and 1 of 4 isolatesisolated from feces of cattle and beef, respectively produced Stx 1 (VT1. In the detection of Stx 2 (VT2, 4of 7 isolates and 1 of 4 isolates, isolated from the same samples were found to produce this toxin.According to all isolates, in this research showed, 1 isolate was found to produce VT2, 4 isolates to produceboth VT1 and VT2, while 6 isolates showed negative results either to VT1 or VT2.

  13. Nucleic acid and protein extraction from electropermeabilized E. coli cells on a microfluidic chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matos, T.; Senkbeil, Silja; Mendonça, A.

    2013-01-01

    technique has been developed which is based on exposing E. coli cells to low voltages to allow extraction of nucleic acids and proteins. The flow-through electropermeability chip used consists of a microfluidic channel with integrated gold electrodes that promote cell envelope channel formation at low...

  14. Conjugation in Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Herbert

    1966-01-01

    Boyer, Herbert (Yale University, New Haven, Conn.). Conjugation in Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 91:1767–1772. 1966.—The sex factor of Escherichia coli K-12 was introduced into an E. coli B/r strain by circumventing the host-controlled modification and restriction incompatibilities known to exist between these closely related strains. The sexual properties of the constructed F+ B strain and its Hfr derivatives were examined. These studies showed that the E. coli strain B/r F+ and Hfr derivatives are similar to the E. coli strain K-12 F+ and Hfr derivatives. However, the site of sex factor integration was found to be dependent on the host genome. PMID:5327905

  15. High-throughput identification of chemical inhibitors of E. coli Group 2 capsule biogenesis as anti-virulence agents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos C Goller

    Full Text Available Rising antibiotic resistance among Escherichia coli, the leading cause of urinary tract infections (UTIs, has placed a new focus on molecular pathogenesis studies, aiming to identify new therapeutic targets. Anti-virulence agents are attractive as chemotherapeutics to attenuate an organism during disease but not necessarily during benign commensalism, thus decreasing the stress on beneficial microbial communities and lessening the emergence of resistance. We and others have demonstrated that the K antigen capsule of E. coli is a preeminent virulence determinant during UTI and more invasive diseases. Components of assembly and export are highly conserved among the major K antigen capsular types associated with UTI-causing E. coli and are distinct from the capsule biogenesis machinery of many commensal E. coli, making these attractive therapeutic targets. We conducted a screen for anti-capsular small molecules and identified an agent designated "C7" that blocks the production of K1 and K5 capsules, unrelated polysaccharide types among the Group 2-3 capsules. Herein lies proof-of-concept that this screen may be implemented with larger chemical libraries to identify second-generation small-molecule inhibitors of capsule biogenesis. These inhibitors will lead to a better understanding of capsule biogenesis and may represent a new class of therapeutics.

  16. Exposure to Sub-lethal 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid Arrests Cell Division and Alters Cell Surface Properties in Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Supriya V.; Kamencic, Belma; Körnig, André; Shahina, Zinnat; Dahms, Tanya E. S.

    2018-01-01

    Escherichia coli is a robust, easily adaptable and culturable bacterium in vitro, and a model bacterium for studying the impact of xenobiotics in the environment. We have used correlative atomic force – laser scanning confocal microscopy (AFM-LSCM) to characterize the mechanisms of cellular response to the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). One of the most extensively used herbicides world-wide, 2,4-D is known to cause hazardous effects in diverse non-target organisms. Sub-lethal concentrations of 2,4-D caused DNA damage in E. coli WM1074 during short exposure periods which increased significantly over time. In response to 2,4-D, FtsZ and FtsA relocalized within seconds, coinciding with the complete inhibition of cell septation and cell elongation. Exposure to 2,4-D also resulted in increased activation of the SOS response. Changes to cell division were accompanied by concomitant changes to surface roughness, elasticity and adhesion in a time-dependent manner. This is the first study describing the mechanistic details of 2,4-D at sub-lethal levels in bacteria. Our study suggests that 2,4-D arrests E. coli cell division within seconds after exposure by disrupting the divisome complex, facilitated by dissipation of membrane potential. Over longer exposures, 2,4-D causes filamentation as a result of an SOS response to oxidative stress induced DNA damage. PMID:29472899

  17. Immunization of pregnant cows with Shiga toxin-2 induces high levels of specific colostral antibodies and lactoferrin able to neutralize E. coli O157:H7 pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albanese, Adriana; Sacerdoti, Flavia; Seyahian, E Abril; Amaral, Maria Marta; Fiorentino, Gabriela; Fernandez Brando, Romina; Vilte, Daniel A; Mercado, Elsa C; Palermo, Marina S; Cataldi, Angel; Zotta, Elsa; Ibarra, Cristina

    2018-03-20

    E. coli O157:H7 is a foodborne pathogen responsible for bloody diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). The objective of the present work was to evaluate the ability of colostral IgG obtained from Stx2-immunized cows to prevent against E. coli O157:H7 infection and Stx2 cytotoxicity. Hyperimmune colostrum (HC) was obtained from cows intramuscularly immunized with inactivated Stx2 or vehicle for controls. Colostral IgG was purified by affinity chromatography. Specific IgG antibodies against Stx2 and bovine lactoferrin (bLF) levels in HC and the corresponding IgG (HC-IgG/bLF) were determined by ELISA. The protective effects of HC-IgG/bLF against Stx2 cytotoxicity and adhesion of E. coli O157:H7 and its Stx2-negative mutant were analyzed in HCT-8 cells. HC-IgG/bLF prevention against E. coli O157:H7 was studied in human colon and rat colon loops. Protection against a lethal dose of E. coli O157:H7 was evaluated in a weaned mice model. HC-IgG/bLF showed high anti-Stx2 titers and high bLF levels that were able to neutralize the cytotoxic effects of Stx2 in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, HC-IgG/bLF avoided the inhibition of water absorption induced by E. coli O157:H7 in human colon and also the pathogenicity of E. coli O157:H7 and E. coli O157:H7Δstx2 in rat colon loops. Finally, HC-IgG/bLF prevented in a 100% the lethality caused by E. coli O157:H7 in a weaned mice model. Our study suggests that HC-IgG/bLF have protective effects against E. coli O157:H7 infection. These beneficial effects may be due to specific anti-Stx2 neutralizing antibodies in combination with high bLF levels. These results allow us to consider HC-IgG/bLF as a nutraceutical tool which could be used in combination with balanced supportive diets to prevent HUS. However further studies are required before recommendations can be made for therapeutic and clinical applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Escherichia coli pathotypes in Pakistan from consecutive floods in 2010 and 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokhari, Habib; Shah, Muhammad Ali; Asad, Saba; Akhtar, Sania; Akram, Muhammad; Wren, Brendan W

    2013-03-01

    This study compares Escherichia coli pathotypes circulating among children in Pakistan during the floods of 2010 and 2011 and from sporadic cases outside flood affected areas. Using multiplex polymerase chain reaction 115 of 205 stool samples (56.29%) were positive for diarrheagenic E. coli from specimens taken during the floods compared with 50 of 400 (12.5%) stool samples being positive for sporadic cases. The E. coli pathotypes were categorized as Enteropathogenic E. coli 33 (28.69%) and 13 (26%), Enterotoxigenic E. coli 29 (25.21%) and 15 (30%), Enteroaggregative E. coli 21 (18.2%) and 18 (36%), Enterohemorrhagic E. coli 5 (4.34%) and 1 (2%) from flood and sporadic cases, respectively. Furthermore, patients co-infected with more than one pathotype were 26 (22.60%) and 3 (6%) from flood and sporadic cases, respectively. The study shows an unexpectedly high rate of isolation of E. coli pathotypes suggesting Pakistan as an endemic region that requires active surveillance particularly during flood periods.

  19. Escherichia Coli Removal from Water Using Electrophotocatalytic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    inactivation of bacterial microorganisms in areas with low ... disinfection of water contaminated with fecal indicators such as E. coli ... media, brain heart infusion, sodium chloride, sodium hydroxide ... furnace at temperature 105 and 320°C f0r 60 min. For 2- and .... charge of E. coli logarithmic growth phase might affect the ...

  20. Sterilization of Escherichia coli by using near-UV LED and TiO{sub 2} nanofibers that were prepared by using electrostatic spray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong-Gil; Hong, Ji-Tae; Son, Min-Kyu; Lee, Kyoung-Jun; Xu, Guo-Cheng; Prabakar, Kandasamy; Kim, Hee-je, E-mail: heeje@pusan.ac.k [Department of Electrical Engineering Pusan National University, 30 Jangjeon-dong, Geumjeong-gu, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-01

    TiO{sub 2} nanofiber films were prepared by a homemade electrostatic spray method at 13 kV using a high power supply. As-prepared TiO{sub 2} was used to sterilize enteropathogenic Escherichia coli in polluted water by using near-UV LEDs at three different wavelengths with variable exposure time and frequency of irradiation. Irrespective of the wavelength of the light source used, longer irradiation times such as 1 h completely inactivated the E. coli. However, a wavelength of 375 nm was effective in inactivating in a shorter irradiation time (15 min). When the frequency of irradiation was 1 kHz, almost 95% of the E. coli was inactivated after 30 min exposure.

  1. Pirated Siderophores Promote Sporulation in Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandchamp, Gabrielle M; Caro, Lews; Shank, Elizabeth A

    2017-05-15

    In microbial communities, bacteria chemically and physically interact with one another. Some of these interactions are mediated by secreted specialized metabolites that act as either intraspecies or interspecies signals to alter gene expression and to change cell physiology. Bacillus subtilis is a well-characterized soil microbe that can differentiate into multiple cell types, including metabolically dormant endospores. We were interested in identifying microbial interactions that affected sporulation in B. subtilis Using a fluorescent transcriptional reporter, we observed that coculturing B. subtilis with Escherichia coli promoted sporulation gene expression via a secreted metabolite. To identify the active compound, we screened the E. coli Keio Collection and identified the sporulation-accelerating cue as the siderophore enterobactin. B. subtilis has multiple iron acquisition systems that are used to take up the B. subtilis- produced siderophore bacillibactin, as well as to pirate exogenous siderophores such as enterobactin. While B. subtilis uses a single substrate binding protein (FeuA) to take up both bacillibactin and enterobactin, we discovered that it requires two distinct genes to sporulate in response to these siderophores (the esterase gene besA for bacillibactin and a putative esterase gene, ybbA , for enterobactin). In addition, we found that siderophores from a variety of other microbial species also promote sporulation in B. subtilis Our results thus demonstrate that siderophores can act not only as bacterial iron acquisition systems but also as interspecies cues that alter cellular development and accelerate sporulation in B. subtilis IMPORTANCE While much is known about the genetic regulation of Bacillus subtilis sporulation, little is understood about how other bacteria influence this process. This work describes an interaction between Escherichia coli and B. subtilis that accelerates sporulation in B. subtilis The interaction is mediated by the E

  2. Antibiotic resistance, phylogenetic grouping and virulence potential of Escherichia coli isolated from the faeces of intensively farmed and free range poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeng, Akua Serwaah; Rickard, Heather; Ndi, Olasumbo; Sexton, Margaret; Barton, Mary

    2012-01-27

    Antibiotic use in poultry production is a risk factor for promoting the emergence of resistant Escherichia coli. To ascertain differences in different classes of chickens, the resistance profile, some virulence genes and phylogenetic grouping on 251 E. coli isolates from intensive meat (free range and indoor commercial) and free range egg layer chickens collected between December 2008 and June 2009 in South Australia were performed. Among the 251 strains, 102 (40.6%) and 67 (26.7%) were found to be resistant to tetracycline and ampicillin respectively. Resistance was also observed to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (12.4%), streptomycin (10.8%), spectinomycin (9.6%), neomycin (6.0%) and florfenicol (2.0%) but no resistance was found to ceftiofur, ciprofloxacin or gentamicin. Amplification of DNA of the isolates by polymerase chain reaction revealed the presence of genes that code for resistant determinants: tetracycline (tet(A), tet(B) and tet(C)), ampicillin (bla(TEM) and bla(SHV)), trimethoprim (dhfrV and dhfrXIII), sulphonamide (sulI and sulII), neomycin (aph(3)-Ia(aphA1)), and spectinomycin-streptinomycin (aadA2). In addition, 32.3-39.4% of the isolates were found to belong to commensal groups (A and B1) and 11.2-17.1% belonged to the virulent groups (B2 and D). Among the 251 E. coli isolates, 25 (10.0%) carried two or more virulence genes typical of Extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC). Furthermore, 17 of the isolates with multi-resistance were identified to be groups B2 and D. Although no significant difference was observed between isolates from free range and indoor commercial meat chickens (P>0.05), significant differences was observed between the different classes of meat chickens (free range and indoor commercial) and egg layers (Pzoonotic potential of poultry E. coli isolates. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Evaluation of genotoxicity induced by hydrogen peroxide in the presence of ions chelator Fe2+ (2,2'-dipyridyl) and of Cu2+(neocuproine), in Escherichia coli: involvement of DNA repair mechanisms in the bacteria survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Carlos Eduardo Bonacossa de

    1998-01-01

    Prior incubation of the E. coli cultures with the iron ions chelator 2,2'-dipyridyl (1 mM) caused an intensification of the lethality and the mutagenesis induced by the hydrogen peroxide, mainly at high concentrations (20 mM). It was also detected an enhancement of DNA strand breaks in this condition. The addition of the copper ions chelator neocuproine blocked partially this phenomenon. The enzymes XthA and Nfo act alternatively in the repair of the lesions induced by H 2 O 2 in the presence of 2,2'-dipyridyl. H 2 O 2 can act synergistically with neocuproine in killing E. coli, causing an enhancement in DNA strand breaks. The recombinational repair, the UvrABC excinuclease and Fpg function appeared to participate in the repair of the synergistic lesions. (author)

  4. Increased riboflavin production by knockout of 6-phosphofructokinase I and blocking the Entner-Doudoroff pathway in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuang; Kang, Pei; Cui, Zhenzhen; Wang, Zhiwen; Chen, Tao

    2016-08-01

    To construct an Escherichia coli strain capable of producing riboflavin with high titer and yield. A low copy number plasmid pLS01 containing a riboflavin operon under the control of a constitutive promoter was constructed and introduced into Escherichia coli MG1655. Subsequently, the pfkA, edd and ead genes were disrupted, and the resulting strain LS02T produced 667 mg riboflavin/l in MSY medium supplied with 10 g glucose/l in flask cultivation. In a fed-batch process, riboflavin production of the strain reached 10.4 g/l with a yield of 56.8 mg riboflavin/g glucose. To our knowledge, this is the first report of engineered E. coli strains that can produce more than 10 g riboflavin/l in fed-batch cultivation, indicating that E. coli has potential for riboflavin production.

  5. Impact of intramammary treatment on gene expression profiles in bovine Escherichia coli mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipka, Anja; Klaessig, Suzanne; Duhamel, Gerald E; Swinkels, Jantijn; Rainard, Pascal; Schukken, Ynte

    2014-01-01

    Clinical mastitis caused by E. coli accounts for significant production losses and animal welfare concerns on dairy farms worldwide. The benefits of therapeutic intervention in mild to moderate cases are incompletely understood. We investigated the effect of intramammary treatment with cefapirin alone or in combination with prednisolone on gene expression profiles in experimentally-induced E. coli mastitis in six mid-lactating Holstein Friesian cows. Cows were challenged with E. coli in 3 quarters and received 4 doses of 300 mg cefapirin in one quarter and 4 doses of 300 mg cefapirin together with 20 mg prednisolone in another quarter. At 24 h (n = 3) or 48 h (n = 3) post-challenge, tissue samples from control and treated quarters were collected for microarray analysis. Gene expression analysis of challenged, un-treated quarters revealed an up-regulation of transcripts associated with immune response functions compared to un-challenged quarters. Both treatments resulted in down-regulation of these transcripts compared to challenged, un-treated quarters most prominently for genes representing Chemokine and TLR-signaling pathways. Gene expression of Lipopolysaccharide Binding Protein (LBP), CCL2 and CXCL2 were only significantly down-regulated in cefapirin-prednisolone-treated quarters compared to un-treated controls. Down-regulation of chemokines was further confirmed on the basis of protein levels in milk whey for CXCL1, CXCL2 and CXCL8 in both treatments with a greater decrease in cefapirin-prednisolone-treated quarters. The data reveal a significant effect of treatment on cell recruitment with a more pronounced effect in cefapirin-prednisolone treated quarters. Provided a rapid bacteriological clearance, combination therapy may prevent neutrophil-induced tissue damage and promote recovery of the gland.

  6. Antimicrobial drug resistance evaluations and monitoring in Escherichia coli isolated from poultry environment at different time intervals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, R.; Khan, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    A high prevalence of multiple drug resistance was observed in population of E. coli isolated in 1992-93 from poultry carcasses, fluff, hatchery environment and water at different broiler farms in Karachi, Pakistan. Five hundred isolate of E. coli were made of which 375 were tested for their sensitivity of five antimicrobials using the tube dilution method. Similarly, during 1995-1996, 430 E. coli isolates were made (from the same farms) of which 315 were tested for their sensitivity to the same antimicrobials studied in 1992-93. E. coli isolates during 1992-93 and 1995-96 showed increase in resistance from 50 to 56% against amoxicillin, from 62 to 71% against neomycin, from 97 to 100% against oxytetracycline, from 95 to 100% against tetracycline and from 95 to 98% against trimethoprim. It appears that exposure of E. coli of poultry origin in Pakistan to the five studies antimicrobials could well be the cause of increasing antimicrobials resistance. This data supports the growing contention that subtherapeutic doses of antimicrobials should be eliminated as a means of promoting rapid growth. (author)

  7. Antimicrobial drug resistance evaluations and monitoring in Escherichia coli isolated from poultry environment at different time intervals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anwar, R; Khan, M A [University of Karachi (Pakistan). Inst. of Environmental Studies

    2004-06-01

    A high prevalence of multiple drug resistance was observed in population of E. coli isolated in 1992-93 from poultry carcasses, fluff, hatchery environment and water at different broiler farms in Karachi, Pakistan. Five hundred isolate of E. coli were made of which 375 were tested for their sensitivity of five antimicrobials using the tube dilution method. Similarly, during 1995-1996, 430 E. coli isolates were made (from the same farms) of which 315 were tested for their sensitivity to the same antimicrobials studied in 1992-93. E. coli isolates during 1992-93 and 1995-96 showed increase in resistance from 50 to 56% against amoxicillin, from 62 to 71% against neomycin, from 97 to 100% against oxytetracycline, from 95 to 100% against tetracycline and from 95 to 98% against trimethoprim. It appears that exposure of E. coli of poultry origin in Pakistan to the five studies antimicrobials could well be the cause of increasing antimicrobials resistance. This data supports the growing contention that subtherapeutic doses of antimicrobials should be eliminated as a means of promoting rapid growth. (author)

  8. Tumour Suppressor Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) localisation is regulated by both Kinesin-1 and Kinesin-2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruane, Peter T; Gumy, Laura F; Bola, Becky; Anderson, Beverley; Wozniak, Marcin J; Hoogenraad, Casper C; Allan, Victoria J

    2016-01-01

    Microtubules and their associated proteins (MAPs) underpin the polarity of specialised cells. Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) is one such MAP with a multifunctional agenda that requires precise intracellular localisations. Although APC has been found to associate with kinesin-2 subfamily members,

  9. Engineering Escherichia coli to grow constitutively on D-xylose using the carbon-efficient Weimberg pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossoni, Luca; Carr, Reuben; Baxter, Scott; Cortis, Roxann; Thorpe, Thomas; Eastham, Graham; Stephens, Gill

    2018-01-01

    Bio-production of fuels and chemicals from lignocellulosic C5 sugars usually requires the use of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) to produce pyruvate. Unfortunately, the oxidation of pyruvate to acetyl-coenzyme A results in the loss of 33 % of the carbon as CO2, to the detriment of sustainability and process economics. To improve atom efficiency, we engineered Escherichia coli to utilize d-xylose constitutively using the Weimberg pathway, to allow direct production of 2-oxoglutarate without CO2 loss. After confirming enzyme expression in vitro, the pathway expression was optimized in vivo using a combinatorial approach, by screening a range of constitutive promoters whilst systematically varying the gene order. A PPP-deficient (ΔxylAB), 2-oxoglutarate auxotroph (Δicd) was used as the host strain, so that growth on d-xylose depended on the expression of the Weimberg pathway, and variants expressing Caulobacter crescentus xylXAB could be selected on minimal agar plates. The strains were isolated and high-throughput measurement of the growth rates on d-xylose was used to identify the fastest growing variant. This strain contained the pL promoter, with C. crescentus xylA at the first position in the synthetic operon, and grew at 42 % of the rate on d-xylose compared to wild-type E. coli using the PPP. Remarkably, the biomass yield was improved by 53.5 % compared with the wild-type upon restoration of icd activity. Therefore, the strain grows efficiently and constitutively on d-xylose, and offers great potential for use as a new host strain to engineer carbon-efficient production of fuels and chemicals via the Weimberg pathway. PMID:29458683

  10. Recognition of prokaryotic and eukaryotic promoters using convolutional deep learning neural networks

    KAUST Repository

    Umarov, Ramzan

    2017-02-03

    Accurate computational identification of promoters remains a challenge as these key DNA regulatory regions have variable structures composed of functional motifs that provide gene-specific initiation of transcription. In this paper we utilize Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) to analyze sequence characteristics of prokaryotic and eukaryotic promoters and build their predictive models. We trained a similar CNN architecture on promoters of five distant organisms: human, mouse, plant (Arabidopsis), and two bacteria (Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis). We found that CNN trained on sigma70 subclass of Escherichia coli promoter gives an excellent classification of promoters and non-promoter sequences (Sn = 0.90, Sp = 0.96, CC = 0.84). The Bacillus subtilis promoters identification CNN model achieves Sn = 0.91, Sp = 0.95, and CC = 0.86. For human, mouse and Arabidopsis promoters we employed CNNs for identification of two well-known promoter classes (TATA and non-TATA promoters). CNN models nicely recognize these complex functional regions. For human promoters Sn/Sp/CC accuracy of prediction reached 0.95/0.98/0,90 on TATA and 0.90/0.98/0.89 for non-TATA promoter sequences, respectively. For Arabidopsis we observed Sn/Sp/CC 0.95/0.97/0.91 (TATA) and 0.94/0.94/0.86 (non-TATA) promoters. Thus, the developed CNN models, implemented in CNNProm program, demonstrated the ability of deep learning approach to grasp complex promoter sequence characteristics and achieve significantly higher accuracy compared to the previously developed promoter prediction programs. We also propose random substitution procedure to discover positionally conserved promoter functional elements. As the suggested approach does not require knowledge of any specific promoter features, it can be easily extended to identify promoters and other complex functional regions in sequences of many other and especially newly sequenced genomes. The CNNProm program is available to run at web server http://www.softberry.com.

  11. Fecal colonization with P-fimbriated Escherichia coli in newborn children and relation to development of extraintestinal E. coli infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tullus, K

    1987-01-01

    The incidence of E. coli pyelonephritis before the age of one year among the children born at Danderyd Hospital during a ten year period was studied. During the study period, 4 or 5 outbreaks of E. coli pyelonephritis occurred among the children who had previously been staying in the hospital's neonatal ward. These outbreaks seemed to have been caused by nosocomial spread of and fecal colonization with certain virulent E. coli strains among the children staying in the ward during certain periods of time. The strains that were spread in the ward seemed to belong to certain pyelonephritogenic E. coli clones of the serotypes O6:K5, O4:K3 and possibly O6:K2. Although the children became fecally colonized with the strains in the neonatal ward, most fell ill some time after they had left the ward. The mean age at the development of their first pyelonephritis was 3.4 months for the boys and 6.2 months for the girls, who had been cared for in this ward. A correlation between the number of infections and the bed occupancy of the ward could be found (p less than 0.01). The risk for a child staying in the ward during an outbreak to develop pyelonephritis was about 5-10%. There was a baseline incidence rate of 0.6-0.7% during non-epidemic periods. During one of the outbreaks there was also an increased incidence rate of E. coli septicemia among the children staying in the neonatal ward. The predictive value of fecal colonization with P-fimbriated E. coli for the later development of extraintestinal E. coli infections was studied in a 2.5 year prospective study. During this study period there was a baseline incidence rate of 10-20% fecal colonization with P-fimbriated E. coli among the children staying in both the neonatal and maternity wards, interrupted only by minor peaks of colonization with such strains. Length of stay in the neonatal ward and a high bed occupancy of the neonatal ward were statistically correlated to fecal colonization with P-fimbriated E. coli strains (p

  12. Distribution and characterization of ampicillin- and tetracycline-resistant Escherichia coli from feedlot cattle fed subtherapeutic antimicrobials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanke L Jay

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Feedlot cattle in North America are routinely fed subtherapeutic levels of antimicrobials to prevent disease and improve the efficiency of growth. This practice has been shown to promote antimicrobial resistance (AMR in subpopulations of intestinal microflora including Escherichia coli. To date, studies of AMR in feedlot production settings have rarely employed selective isolation, therefore yielding too few AMR isolates to enable characterization of the emergence and nature of AMR in E. coli as an indicator bacterium. E. coli isolates (n = 531 were recovered from 140 cattle that were housed (10 animals/pen in 14 pens and received no dietary antimicrobials (control - 5 pens, CON, or were intermittently administered subtherapeutic levels of chlortetracycline (5 pens-T, chlortetracycline + sulfamethazine (4 pens-TS, or virginiamycin (5 pens-V for two separate periods over a 9-month feeding period. Phenotype and genotype of the isolates were determined by susceptibility testing and pulsed field gel electrophoresis and distribution of characterized isolates among housed cattle reported. It was hypothesized that the feeding of subtherapeutic antibiotics would increase the isolation of distinct genotypes of AMR E. coli from cattle. Results Overall, patterns of antimicrobial resistance expressed by E. coli isolates did not change among diet groups (CON vs. antibiotic treatments, however; isolates obtained on selective plates (i.e., MA,MT, exhibited multi-resistance to sulfamethoxazole and chloramphenicol more frequently when obtained from TS-fed steers than from other treatments. Antibiograms and PFGE patterns suggested that AMR E. coli were readily transferred among steers within pens. Most MT isolates possessed the tet(B efflux gene (58.2, 53.5, 40.8, and 50.6% of isolates from CON, T, TS, and V steers, respectively whereas among the MA (ampicillin-resistant isolates, the tem1-like determinant was predominant (occurring in 50, 66

  13. Enhancement of solubility in Escherichia coli and purification of an aminotransferase from Sphingopyxis sp. MTA144 for deamination of hydrolyzed fumonisin B1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartinger Doris

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fumonisin B1 is a cancerogenic mycotoxin produced by Fusarium verticillioides and other fungi. Sphingopyxis sp. MTA144 can degrade fumonisin B1, and a key enzyme in the catabolic pathway is an aminotransferase which removes the C2-amino group from hydrolyzed fumonisin B1. In order to study this aminotransferase with respect to a possible future application in enzymatic fumonisin detoxification, we attempted expression of the corresponding fumI gene in E. coli and purification of the enzyme. Since the aminotransferase initially accumulated in inclusion bodies, we compared the effects of induction level, host strain, expression temperature, solubility enhancers and a fusion partner on enzyme solubility and activity. Results When expressed from a T7 promoter at 30°C, the aminotransferase accumulated invariably in inclusion bodies in DE3 lysogens of the E. coli strains BL21, HMS174, Rosetta 2, Origami 2, or Rosetta-gami. Omission of the isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG used for induction caused a reduction of expression level, but no enhancement of solubility. Likewise, protein production but not solubility correlated with the IPTG concentration in E. coli Tuner(DE3. Addition of the solubility enhancers betaine and sorbitol or the co-enzyme pyridoxal phosphate showed no effect. Maltose-binding protein, used as an N-terminal fusion partner, promoted solubility at 30°C or less, but not at 37°C. Low enzyme activity and subsequent aggregation in the course of purification and cleavage indicated that the soluble fusion protein contained incorrectly folded aminotransferase. Expression in E. coli ArcticExpress(DE3, which co-expresses two cold-adapted chaperonins, at 11°C finally resulted in production of appreciable amounts of active enzyme. Since His tag-mediated affinity purification from this strain was hindered by co-elution of chaperonin, two steps of chromatography with optimized imidazole concentration in the

  14. Transcription factor DecR (YbaO) controls detoxification of L-cysteine in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Tomohiro; Tanaka, Kan; Ishihama, Akira

    2016-09-01

    YbaO is an uncharacterized AsnC-family transcription factor of Escherichia coli. In both Salmonella enterica and Pantoea ananatis, YbaO homologues were identified to regulate the adjacent gene encoding cysteine desulfhydrase for detoxification of cysteine. Using the genomic SELEX (systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment) screening system, we identified the yhaOM operon, located far from the ybaO gene on the E. coli genome, as a single regulatory target of YbaO. In both gel shift assay in vitro and reporter and Northern blot assays in vivo, YbaO was found to regulate the yhaOM promoter. The growth of mutants lacking either ybaO or its targets yhaOM was delayed in the presence of cysteine, indicating involvement of these genes in cysteine detoxification. In the major pathway of cysteine degradation, hydrogen sulfide is produced in wild-type E. coli, but its production was not observed in each of the ybaO, yhaO and yhaM mutants. The yhaOM promoter was activated in the presence of cysteine, implying the role of cysteine in activation of YbaO. Taken together, we propose that YbaO is the cysteine-sensing transcriptional activator of the yhaOM operon, which is involved in the detoxification of cysteine. We then propose the naming of ybaO as decR (regulator of detoxification of cysteine).

  15. Bombyx mori E26 transformation-specific 2 (BmEts2), an Ets family protein, represses Bombyx mori Rels (BmRels)-mediated promoter activation of antimicrobial peptide genes in the silkworm Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, H; Sagisaka, A; Suzuki, N; Yamakawa, M

    2016-10-01

    E26 transformation-specific (Ets) family transcription factors are known to play roles in various biological phenomena, including immunity, in vertebrates. However, the mechanisms by which Ets proteins contribute to immunity in invertebrates remain poorly understood. In this study, we identified a cDNA encoding BmEts2, which is a putative orthologue of Drosophila Yan and human translocation-ets-leukemia/Ets-variant gene 6, from the silkworm Bombyx mori. Expression of the BmEts2 gene was significantly increased in the fat bodies of silkworm larvae in response to injection with Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. BmEts2 overexpression dramatically repressed B. mori Rels (BmRels)-mediated promoter activation of antimicrobial peptide genes in silkworm cells. Conversely, gene knockdown of BmEts2 significantly enhanced BmRels activity. In addition, two κB sites located on the 5' upstream region of cecropin B1 were found to be involved in the repression of BmRels-mediated promoter activation. Protein-competition analysis further demonstrated that BmEts2 competitively inhibited binding of BmRels to κB sites. Overall, BmEts2 acts as a repressor of BmRels-mediated transactivation of antimicrobial protein genes by inhibiting the binding of BmRels to κB sites. © 2016 The Royal Entomological Society.

  16. Induction of prophage lambda during the division cycle of Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worsey, M J; Wilkins, B M [Leicester Univ. (UK). Dept. of Genetics

    1975-01-01

    When synchronous populations of Escherichia coli B/r (lambda) were exposed to low doses of ultraviolet light, the yield of infective centres varied with cell age. The yield was highest if the lysogenic bacteria were irradiated at a time which coincides approximately with the termination of rounds of DNA replication and it was lowest when dividing cells were irradiated. No such variation was detected following either irradiation of excision-defective lysogenic cells or thermal induction of lambda cI857 prophage in irradiated bacteria. It is suggested that the variation reflects a relationship between prophage induction and inhibition of cell division. This hypothesis is supported by data showing that irradiation-promoted induction and curtailed division in E. coli K12 dnaA mutants which were dividing in the absence of DNA replication.

  17. Induction of prophage lambda during the division cycle of Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worsey, M.J.; Wilkins, B.M.

    1975-01-01

    When synchronous populations of Escherichia coli B/r (lambda) were exposed to low doses of ultraviolet light, the yield of infective centres varied with cell age. The yield was highest if the lysogenic bacteria were irradiated at a time which coincides approximately with the termination of rounds of DNA replication and it was lowest when dividing cells were irradiated. No such variation was detected following either irradiation of excision-defective lysogenic cells or thermal induction of lambda cI857 prophage in irradiated bacteria. It is suggested that the variation reflects a relationship between prophage induction and inhibition of cell division. This hypothesis is supported by data showing that irradiation-promoted induction and curtailed division in E. coli K12 dnaA mutants which were dividing in the absence of DNA replication. (orig.) [de

  18. Secretion of human epidermal growth factor (EGF) in autotrophic culture by a recombinant hydrogen-utilizing bacterium, Pseudomonas pseudoflava, carrying broad-host-range EGF secretion vector pKSEGF2.

    OpenAIRE

    Hayase, N; Ishiyama, A; Niwano, M

    1994-01-01

    We constructed the broad-host-range human epidermal growth factor (EGF) secretion plasmid pKSEGF2 by inserting the Escherichia coli tac promoter, the signal sequence of Pseudomonas stutzeri amylase, and the synthesized EGF gene into the broad-host-range vector pKT230. E. coli JM109 carrying pKSEGF2 secreted EGF into the periplasm and the culture medium under the control of the tac promoter. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1161 carrying pKSEGF2 and Pseudomonas putida AC10 carrying pKSEGF2 secreted E...

  19. Pathogenic Potential to Humans of Bovine Escherichia coli O26, Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosser, Tracy; Allison, Lesley J.; Courcier, Emily; Evans, Judith; McKendrick, Iain J.; Pearce, Michael C.; Handel, Ian; Caprioli, Alfredo; Karch, Helge; Hanson, Mary F.; Pollock, Kevin G.J.; Locking, Mary E.; Woolhouse, Mark E.J.; Matthews, Louise; Low, J. Chris; Gally, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Escherichia coli O26 and O157 have similar overall prevalences in cattle in Scotland, but in humans, Shiga toxin–producing E. coli O26 infections are fewer and clinically less severe than E. coli O157 infections. To investigate this discrepancy, we genotyped E. coli O26 isolates from cattle and humans in Scotland and continental Europe. The genetic background of some strains from Scotland was closely related to that of strains causing severe infections in Europe. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling found an association between hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) and multilocus sequence type 21 strains and confirmed the role of stx2 in severe human disease. Although the prevalences of E. coli O26 and O157 on cattle farms in Scotland are equivalent, prevalence of more virulent strains is low, reducing human infection risk. However, new data on E. coli O26–associated HUS in humans highlight the need for surveillance of non-O157 enterohemorrhagic E. coli and for understanding stx2 phage acquisition. PMID:22377426

  20. Discovery of a super-strong promoter enables efficient production of heterologous proteins in cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jie; Zhang, Haifeng; Meng, Hengkai; Zhu, Yan; Bao, Guanhui; Zhang, Yanping; Li, Yin; Ma, Yanhe

    2014-03-28

    Cyanobacteria are oxygenic photosynthetic prokaryotes that play important roles in the global carbon cycle. Recently, engineered cyanobacteria capable of producing various small molecules from CO2 have been developed. However, cyanobacteria are seldom considered as factories for producing proteins, mainly because of the lack of efficient strong promoters. Here, we report the discovery and verification of a super-strong promoter P(cpc560), which contains two predicted promoters and 14 predicted transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs). Using P(cpc560), functional proteins were produced at a level of up to 15% of total soluble protein in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. 6803, a level comparable to that produced in Escherichia coli. We demonstrated that the presence of multiple TFBSs in P(cpc560) is crucial for its promoter strength. Genetically transformable cyanobacteria neither have endotoxins nor form inclusion bodies; therefore, P(cpc560) opens the possibility to use cyanobacteria as alternative hosts for producing heterogeneous proteins from CO2 and inorganic nutrients.

  1. Interaction of an IHF-like protein with the Rhizobium etli nifA promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benhassine, Traki; Fauvart, Maarten; Vanderleyden, Jos; Michiels, Jan

    2007-06-01

    The nifA gene fulfills an essential role in the regulation of nitrogen fixation genes in Rhizobium etli. Transcription analysis of the nifA gene, assessed using promoter deletions, indicated an oxygen-independent expression, threefold higher during symbiosis as compared with free-living conditions. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays using those nifA promoter deletion fragments, which were actively transcribed, demonstrated the specific interaction with R. etli cellular protein(s) resulting in the formation of two DNA-protein complexes. An interacting protein was purified by liquid chromatography on Heparin Sepharose and Mono S columns. The purified 12 kDa R. etli protein cross-reacted with antibodies directed against Escherichia coli integration host factor (IHF). Furthermore, purified E. coli IHF was able to specifically bind to the R. etli nifA promoter region. These results point to an as yet undisclosed function of IHF in the regulation of R. etli nifA expression.

  2. Lithium modulation of the human inositol monophosphatase 2 (IMPA2) promoter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seelan, Ratnam S.; Parthasarathy, Latha K.; Parthasarathy, Ranga N.

    2004-01-01

    The inositol-signaling pathway is a therapeutic target for lithium in the treatment of bipolar disorder. Inositol monophosphatases (IMPases) play a key role in inositol signaling. Lithium's ability to inhibit IMPase 1 is well known, but its effect on IMPase 2 or on the transcriptional regulation of these genes has not been studied. Here, we report the identification and characterization of the minimal promoter of IMPA2 (encoding IMPase 2) in HeLa (epithelial) and SK-N-AS (neuronal) cells. IMPA2 promoter activity appears to be contributed by different elements in the 5' flanking region, suggesting that the gene is differentially regulated in neuronal and non-neuronal cells. Furthermore, IMPA2 promoter activity in both cell lines is downregulated, in a dose-dependent manner, by lithium after treatment for only 24 h. This effect is also observed in vivo. Our results suggest a possible role for IMPA2 in bipolar disorder

  3. Cloning of the nptII gene of Escherichia coli and construction of a recombinant strain harboring functional recA and nptII antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanem, S

    2011-01-01

    In an attempt to clone the ORF of the nptII gene of Escherichia coli K12 (ATCC 10798), two degenerate primers were designed based on the nptII sequence of its Tn5 transposon. The nptII ORF was placed under the control of the E. coli hybrid trc promoter, in the pKK388-1 vector, transformed into E. coli DH5α ΔrecA (recombinant, deficient strain). Transferred cells were tested for ampicillin, tetracycline, kanamycin, neomycin, geneticin, paromomycin, penicillin, and UV resistance. The neomycin phosphotransferase gene of E. coli was cloned successfully and conferred kanamycin, neomycin, geneticin, and paromomycin resistance to recombinant DH5α; this did not inhibit insertion of additional antibiotic resistance against ampicillin and tetracycline, meaning the trc promoter can express two different genes carried by two different plasmids harbored in the same cell. This resistance conferral process could be considered as an emulation of horizontal gene transfer occurring in nature and would be a useful tool for understanding mechanisms of evolution of multidrug-resistant strains.

  4. Resuscitation of the viable but non-culturable state of Salmonella enterica serovar Oranienburg by recombinant resuscitation-promoting factor derived from Salmonella Typhimurium strain LT2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panutdaporn, N; Kawamoto, K; Asakura, H; Makino, S-I

    2006-02-15

    A gene encoding the resuscitation-promoting factor (Rpf) from Salmonella Typhimurium LT2 was cloned and characterized. The amino acid sequence encoded by S. Typhimurium LT2 rpf gene shares 24.2% homology with Micrococcus luteus Rpf, which is secreted by growing cells, and required to resuscitate from viable but non-culturable (VNC) state. The S. Typhimurium LT2 rpf gene is 696 bp long, and shared a conserved segment with Salmonella enterica serovar Oranienburg (99.4%). Recombinant Rpf (rRpf) proteins of S. Typhimurium LT2 after expression in E. coli BL21 harboring the pET15-b plasmid was approximately 25 kDa. Since S. Oranienburg cells are relatively quick to enter the VNC state just after incubating in the presence of 7% NaCl at 37 degrees C for 3 days, we evaluated the biological effect of rRpf by using S. Oranienburg VNC cells. The rRpf not only promoted proliferation but also induced resuscitation of VNC cells to the culturable state in a dose-dependent manner. Therefore, rRpf may be useful for detection of bacterial contaminants present in the VNC form in food samples and the environment.

  5. Triglyceride kinetics in fasted and fed E.coli septic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanza-Jacoby, S.; Tabares, A.

    1990-01-01

    The mechanism for the development of hypertriglyceridemia during gram-negative sepsis was studies by examining the liver production and clearance of very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) triglyceride (TG). To assess the liver output and peripheral clearance the kinetics of VLDL-TG were determined by a constant intravenous infusion of [2- 3 H] glycerol-labeled VLDL in fasted control, fasted E. coli-treated, fed control, and fed E.coli-treated rats. Lewis inbred rats, 275-300 g, were made septic with 8 x 10 7 live E.coli colonies per 100 g body weight. Twenty-four hours following E.coli injection serum TG of fasted E.coli-treated rats was elevated by 170% which was attributed to a 67% decrease in the clearance rate of VLDL-TG in fasted E.coli-treated rats compared with their fasted controls. The secretion of VLDL-TG declined by 31% in the livers of the fasted E.coli-treated rats which was accompanied by a 2-fold increase in the composition of liver TG. In a second series of experiments control and E.coli-treated rats were fed intragastrically (IG) a balanced solution containing glucose plus fat as the sources of nonprotein calories. Serum TG were 26% lower in the fed E.coli-treated rats because the clearance rate increased by 86%. The secretion of TG in the fed septic rats increased by 40% but this difference was not significant. In the septic rat the ability to clear triglycerides from the plasma depends upon the nutritional state

  6. Antibiotic resistance of Verotoxigenic Escherichia coli isolated from vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mojtaba boniadian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Human gastrointestinal disease caused by verotoxigenic Escherichia coli has been diagnosed for recent decades. Escherichia coli O157:H7 is the most important serotype of verotoxigenic Escherichia coli that cause hemolytic uremic syndrome and hemorrhagic colitis in humans. This study was conducted to determine the occurrence of verotoxigenic E. coli and antibiotic resistance of the isolates from vegetables. Materials and methods: A total of 500 fresh vegetable samples were collected randomly from retail shops in Shahrekord, Iran. E. coli was isolated and identified using bacteriological and biochemical tests. PCR method was used to identify the rbfE, stx1, stx2 and eae genes. Also, antibiotic resistance of the isolates was determined by disk diffusion method. Results: The results represented that among 25 isolates possess virulence genes, 40, 12 and 4% of the isolates contained eaeA, STx2, and both genes, respectively. But none of them contained H7, STx1, and rfbE genes. The antibiotic resistance pattern demonstrated that the isolates were highly resistant to Gentamycin and cefotoxime. Discussion and conclusion: The results of this study showed that the presence of verotoxigenic E.coli in vegetables; and high resistance of the isolates to antibiotics could be hazardous for public health.

  7. AAHD's Health Promotion and Wellness, Part 2: Health Promotion Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exceptional Parent, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This article is part 2 of a 4-part series on "Health Promotion and Wellness" from the American Association on Health and Disability (AAHD). According to the U.S. Census Bureau, more than 54 million people--one in five Americans--have a disability, and these Americans are more likely to report: (1) Being in poorer overall health; (2) Having less…

  8. Involvement of UV-inducible repair in pyrimidine dimer excision in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masek, F.; Sedliakova, M.

    1978-01-01

    The influence of UV radiation on pyrimidine dimer excision in the cells of three excision-proficient E.coli strains was studied. For this purpose cells were irradiated with a first fluence of 300 ergs/mm 2 and at different time intervals with a second fluence of 500 ergs/mm 2 . After the second fluence dimer excision was found to be partly inhibited in E.coli B/r Hcr + and E.coli 15 555-7, but not in E.coli K12 SR20. (author)

  9. Involvement of UV-inducible repair in pyrimidine dimer excision in Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masek, F; Sedliakova, M [Slovenska Akademia Vied, Bratislava (Czechoslovakia)

    1978-11-15

    The influence of UV radiation on pyrimidine dimer excision in the cells of three excision-proficient E.coli strains was studied. For this purpose cells were irradiated with a first fluence of 300 ergs/mm/sup 2/ and at different time intervals with a second fluence of 500 ergs/mm/sup 2/. After the second fluence dimer excision was found to be partly inhibited in E.coli B/r Hcr/sup +/ and E.coli 15 555-7, but not in E.coli K12 SR20.

  10. CRP-dependent positive autoregulation and proteolytic degradation regulate competence activator Sxy of Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaskólska, Milena; Gerdes, Kenn

    2015-01-01

    is positively autoregulated at the level of transcription by a mechanism that requires cAMP receptor protein (CRP), cyclic AMP (cAMP) and a CRP-S site in the sxy promoter. Similarly, we found no evidence that Sxy expression in E. coli was regulated at the translational level. However, our analysis revealed...

  11. Occurrence and characterization of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 and other non-sorbitol-fermenting E. coli in cattle and humans in urban areas of Morogoro, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupindu, Athumani M; Olsen, John E; Ngowi, Helena A; Msoffe, Peter L M; Mtambo, Madundo M; Scheutz, Flemming; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2014-07-01

    Escherichia coli strains such as Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), enteropathogenic E. coli, enterotoxigenic, attaching, and effacing E. coli, and enteroinvasive E. coli cause diarrhea in humans. Although other serotypes exist, the most commonly reported STEC in outbreaks is O157:H7. A cross-sectional study was conducted to isolate and characterize non-sorbitol-fermenting (NSF) E. coli O157:H7 from urban and periurban livestock settings of Morogoro, Tanzania. Human stool, cattle feces, and soil and water samples were collected. Observations and questionnaire interview studies were used to gather information about cattle and manure management practices in the study area. E. coli were isolated on sorbitol MacConkey agar and characterized by conventional biochemical tests. Out of 1049 samples, 143 (13.7%) yielded NSF E. coli. Serological and antimicrobial tests and molecular typing were performed to NSF E. coli isolates. These procedures detected 10 (7%) pathogenic E. coli including STEC (n=7), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) (n=2), and attaching and effacing E. coli (A/EEC) (n=1) strains. The STEC strains had the ability to produce VT1 and different VT2 toxin subtypes that caused cytopathic effects on Vero cells. The prevalence of STEC in cattle was 1.6%, out of which 0.9% was serotype O157:H7 and the overall prevalence of diarrheagenic E. coli in cattle was 2.2%. The serotypes O157:H7, O142:H34, O113:H21, O+:H-, O+:H16, and O25:H4 were identified. One ESBL-producing isolate showed the MLST type ST131. To our knowledge, this is the first finding in Tanzania of this recently emerged worldwide pandemic clonal group, causing widespread antimicrobial-resistant infections, and adds knowledge of the geographical distribution of ST131. Cattle manure was indiscriminately deposited within residential areas, and there was direct contact between humans and cattle feces during manure handling. Cattle and manure management practices expose humans, animals, and the environment

  12. Selective Deactivation of M13 Bacteriophage in E. Coli using Femtosecond Laser Pulses

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Molukanele, P

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Deactivation of M13 Bacteriophage in E. Coli using Femtosecond Laser Pulses P. Molukanele 1, 3, A. Du Plessis 1, T. Roberts 1, L. Botha 1, M. Khati 2,3, W. Campos 2, 3 1CSIR National Laser Centre, Femtosecond Science group, Pretoria, South Africa 2CSIR... that is about 1 ?m long and 5-6 nm in diameter. Its host Escherichia coli (E.coli), is approximately 2-6 ?m long and 1-1.5 ?m in diameter, see figure 1 below. Figure 1: Schematic representations of M13 bacteriophage and its host E.coli...

  13. Characterization of the domains of E. coli initiation factor IF2 responsible for recognition of the ribosome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manuel Palacios Moreno, Juan; Andersen, Lars Dyrskjøt; Egebjerg Kristensen, Janni

    1999-01-01

    We have studied the interactions between the ribosome and the domains of Escherichia coli translation initiation factor 2, using an in vitro ribosomal binding assay with wild-type forms, N- and C-terminal truncated forms of IF2 as well as isolated structural domains. A deletion mutant of the factor...

  14. Characterization of the domains of E. coli initiation factor IF2 responsible for recognition of the ribosome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manuel Palacios Moreno, Juan; Andersen, Lars Dyrskjøt; Egebjerg Kristensen, Janni

    1999-01-01

    We have studied the interactions between the ribosome and the domains of Escherichia coli translation initiation factor 2, using an in vitro ribosomal binding assay with wild-type forms, N- and C-terminal truncated forms of IF2 as well as isolated structural domains. A deletion mutant of the fact...

  15. Annual Surveillance Summary: Escherichia coli (E. coli) Infections in the Military Health System (MHS), 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Annual Surveillance Summary: Escherichia coli ( E . coli ) Infections in the Military Health System (MHS...or position of the Department of the Navy, Department of Defense, nor the U.S. Government. i i E . coli in the MHS: Annual Summary 2015 Prepared...March 2017 EpiData Center Department NMCPHC-EDC-TR-187-2017 ii ii E . coli in the MHS: Annual Summary 2015 Prepared March 2017 EpiData

  16. FimH adhesin of Escherichia coli K1 type 1 fimbriae activates BV-2 microglia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jongseok; Shin, Sooan; Teng, C.-H.; Hong, Suk Jin; Kim, Kwang Sik

    2005-01-01

    The generation of intense inflammation in the subarachnoid space in response to meningitis-causing bacteria contributes to brain dysfunction and neuronal injury in bacterial meningitis. Microglia, the major immune effector cells in the central nervous system (CNS), become activated by bacterial components to produce proinflammatory immune mediators. In this study, we showed that FimH adhesin, a tip component of type 1 fimbriae of meningitis-causing Escherichia coli K1, activated the murine microglial cell line, BV-2, which resulted in the production of nitric oxide and the release of tumor necrosis factor-α. Mitogen-activated protein kinases, ERK and p-38, and nuclear factor-κB were involved in FimH adhesin-mediated microglial activation. These findings suggest that FimH adhesin contributes to the CNS inflammatory response by virtue of activating microglia in E. coli meningitis

  17. Evaluation of genotoxicity induced by hydrogen peroxide in the presence of ions chelator Fe{sup 2+} (2,2'-dipyridyl) and of Cu{sup 2+}(neocuproine), in Escherichia coli: involvement of DNA repair mechanisms in the bacteria survival; Avaliacao da genotoxicidade induzida pelo peroxido de hidrogenio na presenca dos quelantes de ions Fe{sup 2+} (2,2'-dipiridil) e de ions Cu{sup 2+} (neocuproina), em Escherichia coli: envolvimento de mecanismos de reparo de DNA na sobrevivencia bacteriana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Carlos Eduardo Bonacossa de

    1998-07-01

    Prior incubation of the E. coli cultures with the iron ions chelator 2,2'-dipyridyl (1 mM) caused an intensification of the lethality and the mutagenesis induced by the hydrogen peroxide, mainly at high concentrations (20 mM). It was also detected an enhancement of DNA strand breaks in this condition. The addition of the copper ions chelator neocuproine blocked partially this phenomenon. The enzymes XthA and Nfo act alternatively in the repair of the lesions induced by H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in the presence of 2,2'-dipyridyl. H{sub 2}O{sub 2} can act synergistically with neocuproine in killing E. coli, causing an enhancement in DNA strand breaks. The recombinational repair, the UvrABC excinuclease and Fpg function appeared to participate in the repair of the synergistic lesions. (author)

  18. Evaluation of genotoxicity induced by hydrogen peroxide in the presence of ions chelator Fe{sup 2+} (2,2'-dipyridyl) and of Cu{sup 2+}(neocuproine), in Escherichia coli: involvement of DNA repair mechanisms in the bacteria survival; Avaliacao da genotoxicidade induzida pelo peroxido de hidrogenio na presenca dos quelantes de ions Fe{sup 2+} (2,2'-dipiridil) e de ions Cu{sup 2+} (neocuproina), em Escherichia coli: envolvimento de mecanismos de reparo de DNA na sobrevivencia bacteriana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Carlos Eduardo Bonacossa de

    1998-07-01

    Prior incubation of the E. coli cultures with the iron ions chelator 2,2'-dipyridyl (1 mM) caused an intensification of the lethality and the mutagenesis induced by the hydrogen peroxide, mainly at high concentrations (20 mM). It was also detected an enhancement of DNA strand breaks in this condition. The addition of the copper ions chelator neocuproine blocked partially this phenomenon. The enzymes XthA and Nfo act alternatively in the repair of the lesions induced by H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in the presence of 2,2'-dipyridyl. H{sub 2}O{sub 2} can act synergistically with neocuproine in killing E. coli, causing an enhancement in DNA strand breaks. The recombinational repair, the UvrABC excinuclease and Fpg function appeared to participate in the repair of the synergistic lesions. (author)

  19. New evidence on the role of catalase in Escherichia coli-mediated biocorrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeza, S.; Vejar, N.; Gulppi, M.; Azocar, M.; Melo, F.; Monsalve, A.; Pérez-Donoso, J.; Vásquez, C.C.; Pavez, J.; Zagal, J.H.; Zhou, X.; Thompson, G.E.; Páez, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► MIC on stainless by catalase deficient Escherichia coli bacteria reveals the enzyme influence. ► The localized damage was greater in the presence of the wild E. coli. ► Catalase assists oxygen generation by disproportionation of H 2 O 2 to H 2 O and O 2 . - Abstract: The role of catalase on the microbiologically influenced corrosion mechanism by Escherichia coli (E. coli) has been examined, employing wild type and catalase-deficient cells. The bacteria were cultured for different times in the presence of AISI 316L stainless steel samples. The morphologies of the metallic surfaces covered by biofilms were studied by optical microscopy. The localized corrosion catalyzed by the bacteria was followed by scanning electron microscopy after immersion in the bacterial culture for different times. Susceptibility to corrosion was further investigated by potentiodynamic measurements. It was found that wild type E. coli is more aggressive than the mutant one, suggesting a role for catalase in increasing the kinetics of the cathodic reaction and, consequently, the global corrosion process. This correlates with oxygen uptake kinetics, as determined by differential pulse voltammetry on a pyrolytic graphite electrode modified with cobalt phthalocyanine, which was higher in the presence of wild type E. coli. When H 2 O 2 was deliberately added to the culture medium, wild type E. coli catalyzed oxygen disproportionation more efficiently than the mutant derivative, thus limiting H 2 O 2 accumulation in the medium and, hence, bacterial poisoning. In fact, the reduced adhesion of mutant cells to the metal substrate is apparently the result of H 2 O 2 accumulation in the culture broth. Thus, the rapid consumption of oxygen and peroxide in the presence of wild type E. coli is associated with the catalysis of H 2 O 2 disproportionation to water and oxygen. On the stainless steel, however, a dual mechanism of oxygen reduction, i.e. through formation of hydrogen peroxide

  20. Nosocomial acquisition of Escherichia coli by infants delivered in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, K; Murono, K

    1996-04-01

    The delivery of infants in hospitals is desirable for obstetric reasons, but exposes the neonates to the microbiological hazards of a maternity unit. When neonates are born and cared for in hospital, the Escherichia coli strains that colonize the intestine tend to be acquired from the environment or from other babies, and are potentially pathogenic. The colonization of the infant with maternal flora should be promoted by strict rooming-in of mother and baby, or by delivery at home.

  1. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Kilic

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli is a bacterium that is commonly found in the gut of humans and warm-blooded animals. Most strains of E. coli are harmless for human. E. coli O157:H7 is the most common member of a group of pathogenic E. coli strains known variously as enterohaemorrhagic, verocytotoxin-producing, or Shiga-toxin-producing organisms. EHEC bacterium is the major cause of haemorrhagic colitis and haemolytic uraemic syndrome. The reservoir of this pathogen appears to be mainly cattle and other ruminants such as camels. It is transmitted to humans primarily through consumption of contaminated foods. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(4.000: 387-388

  2. A rapid phospholipase A2 bioassay using 14C-oleate-labelled E. coli bacterias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, T; von Wichert, P; Weins, D

    1989-02-01

    Two methods of phospholipase A2 determination using 14C-labelled E. coli bacterias as substrate were compared. One method works with a filter membrane for separation of cleaved 14C-oleate from remaining phospholipids, the other uses the well-known thin-layer chromatography for lipid analysis. Some features of human serum phospholipase A2 regarding pH and Ca2+ dependency were investigated. Possible sources of errors were discussed. It was shown that either method can differentiate between normal and pathologically elevated phospholipase A2 levels, but that the filter method is superior in terms of sensitivity and workload.

  3. Effect of rifampicin and gentamicin on Shiga toxin 2 expression level and the SOS response in Escherichia coli O104:H4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadlallah, Sukayna M; Rahal, Elias A; Sabra, Ahmad; Kissoyan, Kohar A B; Matar, Ghassan M

    2015-01-01

    A novel pathotype, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O104:H4, was the cause of a severe outbreak that affected European countries, mainly Germany, in 2011. The effect of different regimens of rifampicin and gentamicin were evaluated to determine possible treatment modes for the novel strain, and to evaluate the SOS response and its effect on toxin release. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was performed on the novel E. coli O104:H4 pathotype and two pre-outbreak E. coli O104:H4 CDC strains. Transcript levels of the stx2 and recA gene (SOS response inducer) were evaluated using quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in the novel E. coli O104:H4 samples subjected to different regimens of rifampicin and gentamicin. Consequently, reverse passive latex agglutination (RPLA) was used to determine the Stx2 titers in these samples. Western blot was performed to determine the LexA levels (SOS response repressor) in E. coli O104:H4. The efficacy of treatment with antimicrobial agents was assessed in BALB/c mice. The outbreak and pre-outbreak strains are closely related as shown by PFGE, which demonstrated slight genomic differences between the three strains. The transcription level of the stx2 gene in the new pathotype was 1.41- and 1.75-fold that of the 2009 EL-2050 and 2009 EL-2071 pre-outbreak strains, respectively. Moreover, the transcription level of the stx2 gene in the new pathotype was substantially decreased as a result of treatment with the different concentrations of the antimicrobial agents, but was enhanced when the antibiotics were administered at two subinhibitory levels. RPLA data were in accordance with the qRT-PCR results. E. coli O104:H4 exposed to gentamicin at both sub-minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) levels led to high transcription levels of the recA gene and lack of expression of the LexA protein, implying that the SOS response was activated. Rifampicin at both sub-MIC levels resulted in low

  4. [Expression in E.coli and bioactivity assay of Micrococcus luteus resuscitation promoting factor domain and its mutants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Chen-Li; Shi, Jie-Ran; Shi, Chang-Hong; Zhang, Hai; Zhao, Lei; Zhang, Ting-Fen; Zhao, Yong; Xi, Li

    2008-10-01

    To express Micrococcus luteus resuscitation promoting factor (Rpf) domain and its mutants in prokaryotic cells, and to investigate their bioactivity. The gene of Rpf domain and its mutants (E54K, E54A) were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from the genome of Micrococcus luteus and cloned into pMD18-T vector. After sequenced, the Rpf domain and its mutant gene were subcloned into expression vector PGEX-4T-1, and transfected into E. coli DH5alpha. The expressed product was purified by affinity chromatography using GST Fusion Protein Purification bead. The aim proteins were identified by SDS-PAGE analysis and by Western blot with monoclonal antibodies against Rpf domain (mAb). The bioactivity of the proteins was analyzed by stimulating the resuscitation of Mycobacterium smegmatis. The sequences of the PCR products were identical to those of the Rpf domain and its mutant gene in GenBank. The relative molecular mass identified by SDS-PAGE analysis was consistent with that had been reported, which was also confirmed by Western blot analysis that there were specific bindings at 32 000 with Rpf domain mAb. The purified GST-Rpf domain could stimulate resuscitation of Mycobacterium smegmatis. Replacements E54A and especially E54K resulted in inhibition of Rpf resuscitation activity. Rpf domain and two kinds of its mutant protein were obtained, and its effects on the resuscitation of dormant Mycobacterium smegmatis were clarified.

  5. Solar photocatalytic disinfection of E. coli and bacteriophages MS2, ΦX174 and PR772 using TiO2, ZnO and ruthenium based complexes in a continuous flow system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Mahon, Joanne; Pillai, Suresh C; Kelly, John M; Gill, Laurence W

    2017-05-01

    The performance of photocatalytic treatment processes were assessed using different photocatalysts against E. coli and bacteriophages MS2, ΦX174 and PR772, in a recirculating continuous flow compound parabolic collector system under real sunlight conditions. Suspended TiO 2 and ZnO nanoparticle powders and Tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)dichlororuthenium(II) hexahydrate in solution were tested separately, as well as in combination, using E. coli. For a 3-log reduction of E. coli in distilled water, inactivation rates in terms of cumulative dose were in the order Ru(bpy) 3 Cl 2 >(TiO 2 & Ru(bpy) 3 Cl 2 )>(ZnO & Ru(bpy) 3 Cl 2 )>ZnO>TiO 2 >photolysis. Reactivation of E. coli was observed following all trials despite the detection limit being reached, although the reactivated colonies were observed to be under stress and much slower growing when compared to original colonies. Treatment with Ru(bpy) 3 Cl 2 was also compared against standard photolysis of bacteriophages MS2, ΦX174 and PR772 with the order of photolytic inactivation for a 3-log reduction in terms of cumulative UV-A dose being ΦX174>PR772>MS2. However, MS2 was found to be the most susceptible bacteriophage to treatment with Ru(bpy) 3 Cl 2 , with complete removal of the phage observed within the first 15min of exposure. Ru(bpy) 3 Cl 2 also significantly improved inactivation rates for PR772 and ΦX174. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Photoreactivating enzyme from Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snapka, R.M.; Fuselier, C.O.

    1977-01-01

    Escherichia coli photoreactivating enzyme (PRE) has been purified in large amounts from an E.coli strain lysogenic for a defective lambda bacteriophage carrying the phr gene. The resulting enzyme had a pH optimum of 7.2 and an ionic strength optimum of 0.18. It consisted of an apoprotein and cofactor, both of which were necessary for catalytic activity. The apoprotein had a monomer molecular weight of 35,200 and showed stable aggregates under denaturing conditions. The amino acid analysis of the E.coli enzyme was very similar to that of the photoreactivating enzyme from orchid seedlings (Cattelya aurantiaca). Both had arginine at the amino terminus. The cofactor, like the holoenzyme, showed absorption, magnetic circular dichroism, and emission properties indicative of an adenine moiety. Although the isolated enzyme had an action spectrum which peaked at about 360 nm, neither the cofactor, apoenzyme nor holoenzyme showed any detectable absorption between 300 and 400 nm. (author)

  7. Photoreactivating enzyme from Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snapka, R M; Fuselier, C O [California Univ., Irvine (USA)

    1977-05-01

    Escherichia coli photoreactivating enzyme (PRE) has been purified in large amounts from an E.coli strain lysogenic for a defective lambda bacteriophage carrying the phr gene. The resulting enzyme had a pH optimum of 7.2 and an ionic strength optimum of 0.18. It consisted of an apoprotein and cofactor, both of which were necessary for catalytic activity. The apoprotein had a monomer molecular weight of 35,200 and showed stable aggregates under denaturing conditions. The amino acid analysis of the E.coli enzyme was very similar to that of the photoreactivating enzyme from orchid seedlings (Cattelya aurantiaca). Both had arginine at the amino terminus. The cofactor, like the holoenzyme, showed absorption, magnetic circular dichroism, and emission properties indicative of an adenine moiety. Although the isolated enzyme had an action spectrum which peaked at about 360 nm, neither the cofactor, apoenzyme nor holoenzyme showed any detectable absorption between 300 and 400 nm.

  8. Regulatory switches for hierarchical use of carbon sources in E. coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth S. Perez-Alfaro

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work we study the preferential use of carbon sources in the bacterium Escherichia coli. To that end we engineered transcriptional fusions of the reporter gene gfpmut2, downstream of transcription-factor promoters, and analyzed their activity under several conditions. The chosen transcription factors are known to regulate catabolic operons associated to the consumption of alternative sugars. The obtained results indicate the following hierarchical order of sugar preference in this bacterium: glucose > arabinose > sorbitol > galactose. Further dynamical results allowed us to conjecture that this hierarchical behavior might be operated by at least the following three regulatory strategies: 1 the coordinated activation of the corresponding operons by the global regulator catabolic repressor protein (CRP, 2 their asymmetrical responses to specific and unspecific sugars and, 3 the architecture of the associated gene regulatory networks.

  9. Captive wild birds as reservoirs of enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) and Shiga-toxin producing E. coli (STEC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanches, Lilian Aparecida; Gomes, Marcelo da Silva; Teixeira, Rodrigo Hidalgo Friciello; Cunha, Marcos Paulo Vieira; Oliveira, Maria Gabriela Xavier de; Vieira, Mônica Aparecida Midolli; Gomes, Tânia Aparecida Tardelli; Knobl, Terezinha

    Psittacine birds have been identified as reservoirs of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli, a subset of pathogens associated with mortality of children in tropical countries. The role of other orders of birds as source of infection is unclear. The aim of this study was to perform the molecular diagnosis of infection with diarrheagenic E. coli in 10 different orders of captive wild birds in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Fecal samples were analyzed from 516 birds belonging to 10 orders: Accipitriformes, Anseriformes, Columbiformes, Falconiformes, Galliformes, Passeriformes, Pelecaniformes, Piciformes, Psittaciformes and Strigiformes. After isolation, 401 E. coli strains were subjected to multiplex PCR system with amplification of genes eae and bfp (EPEC), stx1 and stx2 for STEC. The results of these tests revealed 23/401 (5.74%) positive strains for eae gene, 16/401 positive strains for the bfp gene (3.99%) and 3/401 positive for stx2 gene (0.75%) distributed among the orders of Psittaciformes, Strigiformes and Columbiformes. None of strains were positive for stx1 gene. These data reveal the infection by STEC, typical and atypical EPEC in captive birds. The frequency of these pathotypes is low and restricted to few orders, but the data suggest the potential public health risk that these birds represent as reservoirs of diarrheagenic E. coli. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. YibK is the 2'-O-methyltransferase TrmL that modifies the wobble nucleotide in Escherichia coli tRNA(Leu) isoacceptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benítez-Páez, Alfonso; Villarroya, Magda; Douthwaite, Stephen Roger

    2010-01-01

    to uncover candidate E. coli genes for the missing enzyme(s). Transfer RNAs from null mutants for candidate genes were analyzed by mass spectrometry and revealed that inactivation of yibK leads to loss of 2'-O-methylation at position 34 in both tRNA(Leu)(CmAA) and tRNA(Leu)(cmnm5UmAA). Loss of Yib...... of the wobble nucleotide; YibK recognition of this target requires a pyridine at position 34 and N⁶-(isopentenyl)-2-methylthioadenosine at position 37. YibK is one of the last remaining E. coli tRNA modification enzymes to be identified and is now renamed TrmL.......Transfer RNAs are the most densely modified nucleic acid molecules in living cells. In Escherichia coli, more than 30 nucleoside modifications have been characterized, ranging from methylations and pseudouridylations to more complex additions that require multiple enzymatic steps. Most...

  11. Endocytosis-inducer adhesins produced by enteropathogenic serogroups of Escherichia coli participate on bacterial attachment to infant enterocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Ramos Costa Andrade

    1987-03-01

    Full Text Available Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC infection of Hep-2 cells preoceeds through bacterial attachment to cell surface and internalization of adhered bacteria. EPEC attachment is a prerequisite for cell infection and is mediated by adhesins that recognize carbohydrate-containing receptors on cell membrane. Such endocytosis-inducer adhesins (EIA also promote EPEC binding to infant enterocytes, suggesting that EIA may have an important role on EPEC gastroenteritis.A infecção de células Hep-2 por E. coli enteropatogênicas (ECEP implica na aderência bacteriana e posterior interiorização dos microrganismos aderidos por um mecanismo de endocitose. A aderência das ECEP é pré-requisito para a infecção e é mediada por adesinas que reconhecem receptores inibidos por certas oses na membrana celular. Tais "adesinas indutoras da endocitose" (AIE também promovem a ligação bacteriana a enterócitos obtidos do intestino delgado de lactente, sugerindo que as AIE possam desempenhar algum papel nas diarréias causadas por ECEP.

  12. Brote causado por Escherichia coli en Chalco, México Outbreak caused by Escherichia coli in Chalco, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliana Alejandra Cortés-Ortiz

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Identificar el agente causal del brote de diarrea asociado con el desbordamiento del canal de aguas negras en Chalco. Material y métodos. Estudio retrospectivo y transversal, efectuado en el Instituto de Diagnóstico y Referencia Epidemiológicos (InDRE, de la Secretaría de Salud, con 1 550 hisopos rectales para el aislamiento e identificación bioquímica de V. cholerae y enterobacterias, obtenidos de la población del Valle de Chalco, que presentó diarrea y vómito durante el desastre natural acontecido el 31 de mayo de 2000. El análisis de los resultados se efectuó por la diferencia entre las proporciones de dos poblaciones (prueba de Ji cuadrada. Las cepas de E. coli se hibridaron por "colony blot" para los grupos ETEC, EIEC, EPEC y EHEC. Resultados. El 0.45% correspondió a Salmonella: S. agona, S. infantis, S. enteritidis, S. muenchen, S. typhimurium; 0.06% a Shigella flexneri 3a, y 76.6% a E. coli: 62.2% a ETEC (44.6 % con LT, 11.2% con ST, y 44.1% con ambas sondas, 0.84% a EIEC (sonda ial, 0.84% a EPEC (sonda bundle-forming pilus BFP, 0.08% a E. coli enterohemorrágica no-O157:H7 (sonda pCVD419, y 36.02% no hibridó. No se encontró asociación entre E. coli patógena con la edad y género. Conclusiones. Escherichia coli podría ser responsable del brote de diarrea. Es importante conocer el agente etiológico del brote para encaminar las estrategias en el estudio y control sanitario del mismo.Objective. To identify the etiologic agent responsible for a disease outbreak following an overflow of sewage water in Valle de Chalco, Mexico. Material and Methods. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out. Rectal samples were collected from the population of Chalco valley, who suffered from diarrhea and vomiting during a natural disaster that took place on May 31, 2000. The Instituto de Diagnóstico y Referencia Epidemiológicos (Epidemic Reference and Diagnosis Institute, InDRE, Ministry of Health, received 1521 rectal

  13. Impact of intramammary treatment on gene expression profiles in bovine Escherichia coli mastitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Sipka

    Full Text Available Clinical mastitis caused by E. coli accounts for significant production losses and animal welfare concerns on dairy farms worldwide. The benefits of therapeutic intervention in mild to moderate cases are incompletely understood. We investigated the effect of intramammary treatment with cefapirin alone or in combination with prednisolone on gene expression profiles in experimentally-induced E. coli mastitis in six mid-lactating Holstein Friesian cows. Cows were challenged with E. coli in 3 quarters and received 4 doses of 300 mg cefapirin in one quarter and 4 doses of 300 mg cefapirin together with 20 mg prednisolone in another quarter. At 24 h (n = 3 or 48 h (n = 3 post-challenge, tissue samples from control and treated quarters were collected for microarray analysis. Gene expression analysis of challenged, un-treated quarters revealed an up-regulation of transcripts associated with immune response functions compared to un-challenged quarters. Both treatments resulted in down-regulation of these transcripts compared to challenged, un-treated quarters most prominently for genes representing Chemokine and TLR-signaling pathways. Gene expression of Lipopolysaccharide Binding Protein (LBP, CCL2 and CXCL2 were only significantly down-regulated in cefapirin-prednisolone-treated quarters compared to un-treated controls. Down-regulation of chemokines was further confirmed on the basis of protein levels in milk whey for CXCL1, CXCL2 and CXCL8 in both treatments with a greater decrease in cefapirin-prednisolone-treated quarters. The data reveal a significant effect of treatment on cell recruitment with a more pronounced effect in cefapirin-prednisolone treated quarters. Provided a rapid bacteriological clearance, combination therapy may prevent neutrophil-induced tissue damage and promote recovery of the gland.

  14. Isolation and characteristics of Shiga toxin 2f-producing Escherichia coli among pigeons in Kyushu, Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Murakami

    Full Text Available An increasing number of Shiga toxin 2f-producing Escherichia coli (STEC2f infections in humans are being reported in Europe, and pigeons have been suggested as a reservoir for the pathogen. In Japan, there is very little information regarding carriage of STEC2f by pigeons, prompting the need for further investigation. We collected 549 samples of pigeon droppings from 14 locations in Kyushu, Japan, to isolate STEC2f and to investigate characteristics of the isolates. Shiga toxin stx 2f gene fragments were detected by PCR in 16 (2.9% of the 549 dropping samples across four of the 14 locations. We obtained 23 STEC2f-isolates from seven of the original samples and from three pigeon dropping samples collected in an additional sampling experiment (from a total of seven locations across both sampling periods. Genotypic and phenotypic characteristics were then examined for selected isolates from each of 10 samples with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles. Eight of the stx 2f gene fragments sequenced in this study were homologous to others that were identified in Europe. Some isolates also contained virulence-related genes, including lpfA O26, irp 2, and fyuA, and all of the 10 selected isolates maintained the eae, astA, and cdt genes. Moreover, five of the 10 selected isolates contained sfpA, a gene that is restricted to Shiga toxin-producing E. coli O165:H2 and sorbitol-fermenting Shiga toxin-producing E. coli O157:NM. We document serotypes O152:HNM, O128:HNM, and O145:H34 as STEC2f, which agrees with previous studies on pigeons and humans. Interestingly, O119:H21 was newly described as STEC2f. O145:H34, with sequence type 722, was described in a German study in humans and was also isolated in the current study. These results revealed that Japanese zoonotic STEC2f strains harboring several virulence-related factors may be of the same clonal complexes as some European strains. These findings provide useful information for public health

  15. Injury and mechanism of recombinant E. coli expressing STa on piglets colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yang; Li, Xueni; Zhang, Lin; Shi, Yutao; DU, Linxiao; Ding, Binying; Hou, Yongqing; Gong, Joshua; Wu, Tao

    2018-02-09

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is primary pathogenic bacteria of piglet diarrhea, over two thirds of piglets diarrhea caused by ETEC are resulted from STa-producing ETEC strains. This experiment was conducted to construct the recombinant E. coli expressing STa and study the injury and mechanism of recombinant E. coli expressing STa on 7 days old piglets colon. Twenty-four 7 days old piglets were allotted to four treatments: control group, STa group (2 × 10 9 CFU E. coli LMG194-STa), LMG194 group (2 × 10 9 CFU E. coli LMG194) and K88 group (2 × 10 9 CFU E. coli K88). The result showed that E. coli infection significantly increased diarrhea rates; changed DAO activity in plasma and colon; damaged colonic mucosal morphology including crypt depth, number of globet cells, density of lymphocytes and lamina propria cell density; substantially reduced antioxidant capacity by altering activities of GSH-Px, SOD, and TNOS and productions of MDA and H 2 O 2 ; obviously decreased AQP3, AQP4 and KCNJ13 protein expression levels; substantially altered the gene expression levels of inflammatory cytokines. Conclusively, STa group had the biggest effect on these indices in four treatment groups. These results suggested that the recombinant strain expressed STa can induce piglets diarrhea and colonic morphological and funtional damage by altering expression of proteins connect to transportation function and genes associated with intestinal injury and inflammatory cytokines.

  16. [Virulence markers of Escherichia coli O1 strains].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarova, M A; Kaftyreva, L A; Grigor'eva, N S; Kicha, E V; Lipatova, L A

    2011-01-01

    To detect virulence genes in clinical isolates of Escherichia coli O1 using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). One hundred and twenty strains of E.coli O1 strains isolated from faeces of patients with acute diarrhea (n = 45) and healthy persons (n = 75) were studied. PCR with primers for rfb and fliC genes, which control synthesis of O- and H- antigens respectively, was used. Fourteen virulence genes (pap, aaf, sfa, afa, eaeA, bfpA, ial, hly, cnf, stx1, stx2, lt, st, and aer) were detected by PCR primers. K1-antigen was determined by Pastorex Meningo B/E. coli O1 kit (Bio-Rad). rfb gene controlling O-antigen synthesis in serogroup O1 as well as fliC gene controlling synthesis of H7 and K1 antigens were detected in all strains. Thus all E. coli strains had antigenic structure O1:K1 :H-:F7. Virulence genes aafl, sfa, afa, eaeA, bfpA, ial, hly, cnf, stx1, stx2, lt, and st were not detected. All strains owned pap and aer genes regardless of the presence of acute diarrhea symptoms. It was shown that E. coli O1:KI:H-:F7 strains do not have virulence genes which are characteristic for diarrhea-causing Escherichia. In accordance with the presence of pap and aer genes they could be attributed to uropathogenic Escherichia (UPEC) or avian-pathogenic Escherichia (APEC). It is necessary to detect virulence factors in order to determine E. coli as a cause of intestinal infection.

  17. Interaction of Escherichia coli with growing salad spinach plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warriner, Keith; Ibrahim, Faozia; Dickinson, Matthew; Wright, Charles; Waites, William M

    2003-10-01

    In this study, the interaction of a bioluminescence-labeled Escherichia coli strain with growing spinach plants was assessed. Through bioluminescence profiles, the direct visualization of E. coli growing around the roots of developing seedlings was accomplished. Subsequent in situ glucuronidase (GUS) staining of seedlings confirmed that E. coli had become internalized within root tissue and, to a limited extent, within hypocotyls. When inoculated seeds were sown in soil microcosms and cultivated for 42 days, E. coli was recovered from the external surfaces of spinach roots and leaves as well as from surface-sterilized roots. When 20-day-old spinach seedlings (from uninoculated seeds) were transferred to soil inoculated with E. coli, the bacterium became established on the plant surface, but internalization into the inner root tissue was restricted. However, for seedlings transferred to a hydroponic system containing 10(2) or 10(3) CFU of E. coli per ml of the circulating nutrient solution, the bacterium was recovered from surface-sterilized roots, indicating that it had been internalized. Differences between E. coli interactions in the soil and those in the hydroponic system may be attributed to greater accessibility of the roots in the latter model. Alternatively, the presence of a competitive microflora in soil may have restricted root colonization by E. coli. The implications of this study's findings with regard to the microbiological safety of minimally processed vegetables are discussed.

  18. Carnosol promotes endothelial differentiation under H2O2-induced oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ou Shulin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress causes deregulation of endothelial cell differentiation. Carnosol is a potent antioxidant and antiinflammatory compound. In the present study, we examined whether the antioxidant effect of carnosol might protect bone marrow stem cells against H2O2-induced oxidative stress and promote endothelial differentiation. We examined cell viability by the MTT assay; oxidative stress and apoptosis were analyzed through changes in ROS levels, apoptotic ratio and caspase-3 activity; changes in protein expression of OCT-4, Flk-1, CD31 and Nrf-2 were assessed by Western blot analysis. H2O2 treatment increased oxidative stress and reduced cell viability, while the stem cell marker OCT-4 and endothelial markers Flk-1, CD31 were significantly downregulated as a result of the treatment with H2O2. Treatment with carnosol improved the antioxidant status, increased OCT-4 expression and promoted endothelial differentiation. This study provides evidence that carnosol could increase the antioxidant defense mechanism and promote endothelial differentiation.

  19. Examining a DNA Replication Requirement for Bacteriophage λ Red- and Rac Prophage RecET-Promoted Recombination in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomason, Lynn C; Costantino, Nina; Court, Donald L

    2016-09-13

    -strand regions may be created during DNA replication or by single-strand exonuclease digestion of linear duplex DNA. Previously, in vitro studies reported that these recombinases promote the single-strand annealing of two complementary DNAs and also strand invasion of a single DNA strand into duplex DNA to create a three-stranded region. Here, in vivo experiments show that recombinase-mediated annealing of complementary single-stranded DNA is the predominant recombination pathway in E. coli. Copyright © 2016 Thomason et al.

  20. mTORC2 Promotes Tumorigenesis via Lipid Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guri, Yakir; Colombi, Marco; Dazert, Eva; Hindupur, Sravanth K; Roszik, Jason; Moes, Suzette; Jenoe, Paul; Heim, Markus H; Riezman, Isabelle; Riezman, Howard; Hall, Michael N

    2017-12-11

    Dysregulated mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) promotes cancer, but underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We describe an mTOR-driven mouse model that displays hepatosteatosis progressing to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Longitudinal proteomic, lipidomics, and metabolomic analyses revealed that hepatic mTORC2 promotes de novo fatty acid and lipid synthesis, leading to steatosis and tumor development. In particular, mTORC2 stimulated sphingolipid (glucosylceramide) and glycerophospholipid (cardiolipin) synthesis. Inhibition of fatty acid or sphingolipid synthesis prevented tumor development, indicating a causal effect in tumorigenesis. Increased levels of cardiolipin were associated with tubular mitochondria and enhanced oxidative phosphorylation. Furthermore, increased lipogenesis correlated with elevated mTORC2 activity and HCC in human patients. Thus, mTORC2 promotes cancer via formation of lipids essential for growth and energy production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A new mechanism to render clinical isolates of Escherichia coli non-susceptible to imipenem: substitutions in the PBP2 penicillin-binding domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aissa, Nejla; Mayer, Noémie; Bert, Fréderic; Labia, Roger; Lozniewski, Alain; Nicolas-Chanoine, Marie-Hélène

    2016-01-01

    So far, two types of mechanism are known to be involved in carbapenem non-susceptibility of Escherichia coli clinical isolates: reduced outer membrane permeability associated with production of ESBLs and/or overproduction of class C β-lactamases; and production of carbapenemases. Non-susceptibility to only imipenem observed in two clinical isolates suggested a new mechanism, described in the present study. The ST was determined for the two isolates of E. coli (strains LSNy and VSBj), and their chromosomal region encoding the penicillin-binding domain of PBP2 was amplified, sequenced and then used for recombination experiments in E. coli K12 C600. Antibiotic MICs were determined using the Etest method. Strains LSNy and VSBj, which displayed ST23 and ST345, respectively, showed amino acid substitutions in their PBP2 penicillin-binding domain. Substitution Ala388Ser located in motif 2 (SXD) was common to the two strains. Two additional substitutions (Ala488Thr and Leu573Val) located outside the two other motifs were identified in strain LSNy, whereas another one (Thr331Pro) located in motif 1 was identified in strain VSBj. Recombination experiments to reproduce non-susceptibility to imipenem in E. coli K12 C600 were not successful when only the common substitution was transferred, whereas recombination with DNA fragments including either the three substitutions (strain LSNy) or the two substitutions (strain VSBj) were successful. Substitution of amino acids in the penicillin-binding domain of PBP2 is a new mechanism by which E. coli clinical isolates specifically resist imipenem. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Escherichia coli O104 associated with human diarrhea, South Africa, 2004-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tau, Nomsa P; Meidany, Parastu; Smith, Anthony M; Sooka, Arvinda; Keddy, Karen H

    2012-08-01

    To determine the origin of >4,000 suspected diarrheagenic Escherichia coli strains isolated during 2004-2011 in South Africa, we identified 7 isolates as serotype O104; 5 as enteroaggregative E. coli O104:H4, and 2 as enteropathogenic E. coli O104:non-H4. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed that these isolates were unrelated to the 2011 E. coli O104:H4 outbreak strain from Germany.

  3. Biodegradation of 4-nitroaniline by plant-growth promoting Acinetobacter sp. AVLB2 and toxicological analysis of its biodegradation metabolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silambarasan, Sivagnanam [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Vangnai, Alisa S., E-mail: alisa.v@chula.ac.th [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Center of Excellence on Hazardous Substance Management (HSM), Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)

    2016-01-25

    Highlights: • Acinetobacter sp. AVLB2 is a PGPB able to degrade high concentration of 4-NA. • Growth and degradation kinetics for 4-NA removal by AVLB2 were studied. • A novel biodegradation pathway for 4-nitroaniline has been proposed. • Toxicological studies revealed non-toxic nature of 4-NA biodegraded metabolites. • Acinetobacter sp. AVLB2 could maintain PGP traits under 4-NA stress. - Abstract: 4-nitroaniline (4-NA) is one of the major priority pollutants generated from industrial productions and pesticide transformation; however very limited biodegradation details have been reported. This work is the first to report 4-NA biodegradation kinetics and toxicity reduction using a newly isolated plant-growth promoting bacterium, Acinetobacter sp. AVLB2. The 4-NA-dependent growth kinetics parameters: μ{sub max}, K{sub s} and K{sub i}, were determined to be 0.039 h{sup −1}, 6.623 mg L{sup −1} and 25.57 mg L{sup −1}, respectively using Haldane inhibition model, while the maximum biodegradation rate (V{sub max}) of 4-NA was at 0.541 mg L{sup −1} h{sup −1} and 0.551 mg L{sup −1} h{sup −1}, following Michaelis–Menten and Hanes–Woolf models, respectively. Biodegradation pathway of 4-NA by Acinetobacter sp. AVLB2 was proposed, and successfully led to the reduction of 4-NA toxicity according to the following toxicity assessments: microbial toxicity using Escherichia coli DH5α, phytotoxicity with Vigna radiata and Crotalaria juncea, and cytogenotoxicity with Allium cepa root-tip cells. In addition, Acinetobacter sp. AVLB2 possess important plant-growth promoting traits, both in the presence and absence of 4-NA. This study has provided a new insight into 4-NA biodegradation ability and concurrent plant-growth promoting activities of Acinetobacter sp. AVLB2, which may indicate its potential role for rhizoremediation, while sustaining crop production even under 4-NA stressed environment.

  4. GSTT2 promoter polymorphisms and colorectal cancer risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahn Sun-A

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glutathione S-transferases are a group of enzymes that participate in detoxification and defense mechanisms against toxic carcinogens and other compounds. These enzymes play an important role in human carcinogenesis. In the present study, we sought to determine whether GSTT2 promoter single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are associated with colorectal cancer risk. Methods A total of 436 colorectal cancer patients and 568 healthy controls were genotyped for three GSTT2 promoter SNPs (-537G>A, -277T>C and -158G>A, using real-time TaqMan assay and direct sequencing. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA was performed to determine the effects of polymorphisms on protein binding to the GSTT2 promoter. Results The -537A allele (-537G/A or A/A was significantly associated with colorectal cancer risk (OR = 1.373, p = 0.025, while the -158A allele (-158G/A or A/A was involved in protection against colorectal cancer (OR = 0.539, p = 0.032. Haplotype 2 (-537A, -277T, -158G was significantly associated with colorectal cancer risk (OR = 1.386, p = 0.021, while haplotype 4 (-537G, -277C, -158A protected against colorectal cancer (OR = 0.539, p = 0.032. EMSA data revealed lower promoter binding activity in the -537A allele than its -537G counterpart. Conclusion Our results collectively suggest that SNPs and haplotypes of the GSTT2 promoter region are associated with colorectal cancer risk in the Korean population.

  5. Efficacy of a Blend of Sulfuric Acid and Sodium Sulfate against Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and Nonpathogenic Escherichia coli Biotype I on Inoculated Prerigor Beef Surface Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Bullard, Britteny R; Geornaras, Ifigenia; Delmore, Robert J; Woerner, Dale R; Reagan, James O; Morgan, J Bred; Belk, Keith E

    2017-12-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of a sulfuric acid-sodium sulfate blend (SSS) against Escherichia coli O157:H7, non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), Salmonella, and nonpathogenic E. coli biotype I on prerigor beef surface tissue. The suitability of using the nonpathogenic E. coli as a surrogate for in-plant validation studies was also determined by comparing the data obtained for the nonpathogenic inoculum with those for the pathogenic inocula. Prerigor beef tissue samples (10 by 10 cm) were inoculated (ca. 6 log CFU/cm 2 ) on the adipose side in a laboratory-scale spray cabinet with multistrain mixtures of E. coli O157:H7 (5 strains), non-O157 STEC (12 strains), Salmonella (6 strains), or E. coli biotype I (5 strains). Treatment parameters evaluated were two SSS pH values (1.5 and 1.0) and two spray application pressures (13 and 22 lb/in 2 ). Untreated inoculated beef tissue samples served as controls for initial bacterial populations. Overall, the SSS treatments lowered inoculated (6.1 to 6.4 log CFU/cm 2 ) bacterial populations by 0.6 to 1.5 log CFU/cm 2 (P SSS was applied to samples inoculated with any of the tested E. coli inocula; however, solution pH did have a significant effect (P SSS was applied to samples inoculated with Salmonella. Results indicated that the response of the nonpathogenic E. coli inoculum to the SSS treatments was similar (P ≥ 0.05) to that of the pathogenic inocula tested, making the E. coli biotype I strains viable surrogate organisms for in-plant validation of SSS efficacy on beef. The application of SSS at the tested parameters to prerigor beef surface tissue may be an effective intervention for controlling pathogens in a commercial beef harvest process.

  6. Pathogenic Escherichia coli producing Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases isolated from surface water and wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Eelco; Veenman, Christiaan; van Hoek, Angela H A M; de Roda Husman, Ana; Blaak, Hetty

    2015-09-24

    To assess public health risks from environmental exposure to Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases (ESBL)-producing bacteria, it is necessary to have insight in the proportion of relative harmless commensal variants and potentially pathogenic ones (which may directly cause disease). In the current study, 170 ESBL-producing E. coli from Dutch wastewater (n = 82) and surface water (n = 88) were characterized with respect to ESBL-genotype, phylogenetic group, resistance phenotype and virulence markers associated with enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), extraintesinal E. coli (ExPEC), and Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC). Overall, 17.1% of all ESBL-producing E. coli were suspected pathogenic variants. Suspected ExPECs constituted 8.8% of all ESBL-producing variants and 8.3% were potential gastrointestinal pathogens (4.1% EAEC, 1.8% EPEC, 1.2% EIEC, 1.2% ETEC, no STEC). Suspected pathogens were significantly associated with ESBL-genotype CTX-M-15 (X(2) = 14.7, P antibiotics. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that the aquatic environment is a potential reservoir of E. coli variants that combine ESBL-genes, a high level of multi-drug resistance and virulence factors, and therewith pose a health risk to humans upon exposure.

  7. In vitro base modification of Escherichia coli glutamate 2 transfer-RNA and phenylalanine transfer-RNA gene transcripts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahan, M.N.

    1989-01-01

    Plasmids were constructed that contain an E. Coli tRNA 2 Glu or tRNA Phe gene in a system transcribable by T7 or SP6 RNA polymerase. Selectively 32 P-labeled transcripts of these plasmids were used to study tRNA base modification in vitro in crude extracts by nearest neighbor analysis. The synthesis of 5-methyl-aminomethyl-2-thiouridine (mnm 5 s 2 U) was studied. Complete synthesis of mnm 5 s 2 2U is not observed. Instead, 2-thiouridine (s 2 U) is synthesized. Synthesis requires ATP, cysteine, Mg + , and monovalent cation concentrations below 50 mM. The reaction has a pH optimum above 7.0. Sulfide ion will substitute for cysteine in the reaction but sulfate, sulfite, methionine, homocysteine, and β-mercaptopyruvate will not. Extracts from E. coli strains carrying either the asuE or asuF mutations have reduced s 2 U synthetic activity which supports in vivo evidence that the wild type genes are involved in 2-thiolation of uridine. The enzyme is shown to be unstable both upon storage at -80 degree C and during the modification reaction. A method was developed to study the synthesis of any one of four pseudouridines ψ found at different positions of the tRNA cloverleaf. Synthesis of ψ is observed at three of the four positions-positions 32, 39, and 55. The asuC mutation is shown to affect ψ synthesis only at position 39 confirming that it is an allele of hisT and that the hisT mutations do not affect ψ synthesis at position 32 in E. coli. Synthesis of ψ32, ψ39, and ψ55 does not require any prior modification. Synthesis of dihydrouridine, 7-methylguanosine, and 3(3-amino-3-carboxypropyl)uridine is also observed. Synthesis of 2-methyladenosine and ψ 13 is not seen. Removal of part of the aminoacyl stem reduces synthesis of all modifications examined by 3' fold or more

  8. Membrane interaction of antimicrobial peptides using E. coli lipid extract as model bacterial cell membranes and SFG spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soblosky, Lauren; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy; Chen, Zhan

    2015-04-01

    Supported lipid bilayers are used as a convenient model cell membrane system to study biologically important molecule-lipid interactions in situ. However, the lipid bilayer models are often simple and the acquired results with these models may not provide all pertinent information related to a real cell membrane. In this work, we use sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy to study molecular-level interactions between the antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) MSI-594, ovispirin-1 G18, magainin 2 and a simple 1,2-dipalmitoyl-d62-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglycerol (dDPPG)/1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglycerol (POPG) bilayer. We compared such interactions to those between the AMPs and a more complex dDPPG/Escherichia coli (E. coli) polar lipid extract bilayer. We show that to fully understand more complex aspects of peptide-bilayer interaction, such as interaction kinetics, a heterogeneous lipid composition is required, such as the E. coli polar lipid extract. The discrepancy in peptide-bilayer interaction is likely due in part to the difference in bilayer charge between the two systems since highly negative charged lipids can promote more favorable electrostatic interactions between the peptide and lipid bilayer. Results presented in this paper indicate that more complex model bilayers are needed to accurately analyze peptide-cell membrane interactions and demonstrates the importance of using an appropriate lipid composition to study AMP interaction properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Can E. coli fly?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindeberg, Yrja Lisa; Egedal, Karen; Hossain, Zenat Zebin

    2018-01-01

    , and the numbers of flies landing on the exposed rice were counted. Following exposure, the surface of the rice was microbiologically and molecularly analysed for the presence of E. coli and genes of diarrheagenic E. coli and Shigella strains. RESULTS: Rice was at greater risk (p ... with E. coli if flies landed on the rice than if no flies landed on the rice (odds ratio 5·4 (p ...-landings, the average CFU per fly-landing was > 0·6 x 103 CFU. Genes of diarrheagenic E. coli and Shigella species were detected in 39 of 60 (65%) of exposed rice samples. Two fly species were identified; the common housefly (Musca domestica) and the oriental latrine fly (Chrysomya megacephala). CONCLUSION: Flies may...

  10. Understanding the role of the catalase/peroxide genes in H2O2 resistance of E. coli serotype O157:H7 biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Escherichia coli serotype O157:H7 defenses against H2O2 include the peroxiredoxin AhpC and three catalases: KatG (catalase-peroxidase), KatE (catalase), and the plasmid-encoded KatP (catalase/peroxidase). AhpC, KatG, and KatP are induced by OxyR in exponential phase, while KatE is indu...

  11. Emergence and mechanism of carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli in Henan, China, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-juan Liang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The emergence and dissemination of carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli strains is a main risk for global public health, but little is known of carbapenemase producing E. coli in Henan, China. The study was undertaken to investigate the prevalence and mechanism of carbapenem-resistant E. coli strains in a hospital in Xinxiang, Henan, China, 2014. A total of 5 carbapenemase-producing E. coli strains were screened from 1014 isolates. We found that they were all resistant to meropenem and imipenem. Amikacin showed the best sensitivity, with gentamicin coming up next. The positive rate of blaNDM was 80% (4/5. The sequencing results showed that two isolates belonged to blaNDM-1 whereas other 2 isolates carried the blaNDM-5. Other carbapenemase genes including blaIMP, blaVIM, blaKPC and blaOXA-48 were not detected. The blaCTX-M-15, blaTEM-1, sul2, aad, and aac(6”–Ib–cr were also detected. MLST analysis showed that NDM-producing E. coli were sporadic. Conjugation test indicated blaNDM could be transferred. In conclusion, the blaNDM was the principal resistance mechanism of carbapenem-resistant E. coli in the hospital, Henan, China. Keywords: blaNDM, Carbapenem-resistant, Escherichia coli

  12. Can Escherichia coli fly? The role of flies as transmitters of E. coli to food in an urban slum in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeberg, Yrja Lisa; Egedal, Karen; Hossain, Zenat Zebin; Phelps, Matthew; Tulsiani, Suhella; Farhana, Israt; Begum, Anowara; Jensen, Peter Kjaer Mackie

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the transmission of faecal bacteria by flies to food under natural settings. Over a period of 2 months, paired (exposed and non-exposed) containers with cooked rice were placed on the ground in kitchen areas in an urban slum area in Dhaka, Bangladesh, and the numbers of flies landing on the exposed rice were counted. Following exposure, the surface of the rice was microbiologically and molecularly analysed for the presence of Escherichia coli and genes of diarrhoeagenic E. coli and Shigella strains. Rice was at greater risk (P E. coli if flies landed on the rice than if no flies landed on the rice (odds ratio 5·4 (P 0·6 × 103 CFU. Genes of diarrhoeagenic E. coli and Shigella species were detected in 39 of 60 (65%) of exposed rice samples. Two fly species were identified: the common housefly (Musca domestica) and the oriental latrine fly (Chrysomya megacephala). Flies may transmit large quantities of E. coli to food under field settings. The findings highlight the importance of implementing control measures to minimise exposure of food to flies to ensure food safety. Fly control measures should be considered for the prevention of diarrhoeal diseases caused by E. coli. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Presence of faecal coliforms, Escherichia coli and diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes in ready-to-eat salads, from an area where crops are irrigated with untreated sewage water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Rosas, Javier; Cerna-Cortés, Jorge F; Méndez-Reyes, Eligio; Lopez-Hernandez, Daniel; Gómez-Aldapa, Carlos A; Estrada-Garcia, Teresa

    2012-05-15

    Consumption of ready-to-eat (RTE) salads has increased worldwide. Consequently, the number of outbreaks caused by food-borne pathogens, including diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes (DEPs), associated with the consumption of RTE-salads has increased. DEPs include enterotoxigenic (ETEC), typical and atypical enteropathogenic (tEPEC, aEPEC), enteroinvasive (EIEC), enteroaggregative (EAEC), diffuse adherent (DAEC) and Shiga toxin-producing (STEC) E. coli. In less-developed areas of the world, fresh crops continue to be irrigated with untreated sewage water. The aims of this study were to evaluate the microbiological quality and prevalence of DEPs in RTE-salads of raw vegetables, purchased from restaurants at Pachuca-City, Hidalgo, Mexico, where most locally consumed vegetables are irrigated with untreated sewage water. A total of 130 salads were purchased from restaurants of three categories: A) national chain restaurants and B) local restaurants, both with the H distinctive (a recognition that the Secretary of Tourism grants to restaurants that manage supplies with high levels of hygiene); and C) local small inexpensive restaurants without H distinctive. A total of 6 restaurants were included, 2 per category (A(1-2), B(1-2), C(1-2)). Each sample was tested for the presence of faecal coliforms (FC) and E. coli by standard procedures. E. coli strains were further characterized for the presence of DEPs loci by two multiplex polymerase chain reactions. Among the 130 salad samples 99% (129) were contaminated with FC; 85% (110/129) harboured E. coli and 7% (8/110) DEPs. The amount of positive salad samples for FC and E. coli was similar between restaurants and categories. The FC mean (571 FC/g) of all samples was significantly higher (p<0.001) than the E. coli mean (63 E. coli/g). A weak correlation of 7.7% (r(2)=0.077, p=0.003) between median FC and E. coli MPN (most probable number) per sample was found. Of the 8 salad samples contaminated with DEPs, 2 were spinach salads

  14. Biosynthesis of caffeic acid in Escherichia coli using its endogenous hydroxylase complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Yuheng

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Caffeic acid (3,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid is a natural phenolic compound derived from the plant phenylpropanoid pathway. Caffeic acid and its phenethyl ester (CAPE have attracted increasing attention for their various pharmaceutical properties and health-promoting effects. Nowadays, large-scale production of drugs or drug precursors via microbial approaches provides a promising alternative to chemical synthesis and extraction from plant sources. Results We first identified that an Escherichia coli native hydroxylase complex previously characterized as the 4-hydroxyphenylacetate 3-hydroxylase (4HPA3H was able to convert p-coumaric acid to caffeic acid efficiently. This critical enzymatic step catalyzed in plants by a membrane-associated cytochrome P450 enzyme, p-coumarate 3-hydroxylase (C3H, is difficult to be functionally expressed in prokaryotic systems. Moreover, the performances of two tyrosine ammonia lyases (TALs from Rhodobacter species were compared after overexpression in E. coli. The results indicated that the TAL from R. capsulatus (Rc possesses higher activity towards both tyrosine and L-dopa. Based on these findings, we further designed a dual pathway leading from tyrosine to caffeic acid consisting of the enzymes 4HPA3H and RcTAL. This heterologous pathway extended E. coli native tyrosine biosynthesis machinery and was able to produce caffeic acid (12.1 mg/L in minimal salt medium. Further improvement in production was accomplished by boosting tyrosine biosynthesis in E. coli, which involved the alleviation of tyrosine-induced feedback inhibition and carbon flux redirection. Finally, the titer of caffeic acid reached 50.2 mg/L in shake flasks after 48-hour cultivation. Conclusion We have successfully established a novel pathway and constructed an E. coli strain for the production of caffeic acid. This work forms a basis for further improvement in production, as well as opens the possibility of microbial synthesis

  15. Non-Escherichia coli versus Escherichia coli community-acquired urinary tract infections in children hospitalized in a tertiary center: relative frequency, risk factors, antimicrobial resistance and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Nir; Ashkenazi, Shai; Yaari, Arnon; Samra, Zmira; Livni, Gilat

    2005-07-01

    Currently hospitalization for children with urinary tract infections (UTIs) is reserved for severe or complicated cases. Changes may have taken place in the characteristics and causative uropathogens of hospital-treated community-acquired UTI. To study children hospitalized in a tertiary center with community-acquired UTI, compare Escherichia coli and non-E. coli UTI, define predictors for non-E. coli UTI and elucidate the appropriate therapeutic approach. A prospective clinical and laboratory study from 2001 through 2002 in a tertiary pediatric medical center. Patients were divided by results of the urine culture into E. coli and non-E. coli UTI groups, which were compared. Of 175 episodes of culture-proved UTI, 70 (40%) were caused by non-E. coli pathogens. Non-E. coli UTI was more commonly found in children who were male (P = 0.005), who had underlying renal abnormalities (P = 0.0085) and who had received antibiotic therapy in the prior month (P = 0.0009). Non-E. coli uropathogens were often resistant to antibiotics usually recommended for initial therapy for UTI, including cephalosporins and aminoglycosides; 19% were initially treated with inappropriate empiric intravenous antibiotics (compared with 2% for E. coli UTI, P = 0.0001), with a longer hospitalization. Current treatment routines are often inappropriate for hospitalized children with non-E. coli UTI, which is relatively common in this population. The defined risk factors associated with non-E. coli UTIs and its antimicrobial resistance patterns should be considered to improve empiric antibiotic therapy for these infections.

  16. Short-lasting systemic and regional benefits of early crystalloid infusion after intravenous inoculation of dogs with live Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrido A.G.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the systemic and regional hemodynamic effects of early crystalloid infusion in an experimental model of septic shock induced by intravenous inoculation with live Escherichia coli. Anesthetized dogs received an intravenous infusion of 1.2 x 10(10 cfu/kg live E. coli in 30 min. After 30 min of observation, they were randomized to controls (no fluids; N = 7, or fluid resuscitation with lactated Ringer's solution, 16 ml/kg (N = 7 or 32 ml/kg (N = 7 over 30 min and followed for 120 min. Cardiac index, portal blood flow, mean arterial pressure, systemic and regional oxygen-derived variables, blood lactate, and gastric PCO2 were assessed. Rapid and progressive cardiovascular deterioration with reduction in cardiac output, mean arterial pressure and portal blood flow (~50, ~25 and ~70%, respectively was induced by the live bacteria challenge. Systemic and regional territories showed significant increases in oxygen extraction and in lactate levels. Significant increases in venous-arterial (~9.6 mmHg, portal-arterial (~12.1 mmHg and gastric mucosal-arterial (~18.4 mmHg PCO2 gradients were also observed. Early fluid replacement, especially with 32 ml/kg volumes of crystalloids, promoted only partial and transient benefits such as increases of ~76% in cardiac index, of ~50% in portal vein blood flow and decreases in venous-arterial, portal-arterial, gastric mucosal-arterial PCO2 gradients (7.2 ± 1.0, 7.2 ± 1.3 and 9.7 ± 2.5 mmHg, respectively. The fluid infusion promoted only modest and transient benefits, unable to restore the systemic and regional perfusional and metabolic changes in this hypodynamic septic shock model.

  17. Recyclable Escherichia coli-Specific-Killing AuNP-Polymer (ESKAP) Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yuqi; Liu, Feng; Xue, Lulu; Wang, Hongwei; Pan, Jingjing; Cui, Yuecheng; Chen, Hong; Yuan, Lin

    2016-05-11

    Escherichia coli plays a crucial role in various inflammatory diseases and infections that pose significant threats to both human health and the global environment. Specifically inhibiting the growth of pathogenic E. coli is of great and urgent concern. By modifying gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with both poly[2-(methacrylamido)glucopyranose] (pMAG) and poly[2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl trimethylammonium iodide] (pMETAI), a novel recyclable E. coli-specific-killing AuNP-polymer (ESKAP) nanocomposite is proposed in this study, which based on both the high affinity of glycopolymers toward E. coli pili and the merits of antibacterial quaternized polymers attached to gold nanoparticles. The properties of nanocomposites with different ratios of pMAG to pMETAI grafted onto AuNPs are studied. With a pMAG:pMETAI feed ratio of 1:3, the nanocomposite appeared to specifically adhere to E. coli and highly inhibit the bacterial cells. After addition of mannose, which possesses higher affinity for the lectin on bacterial pili and has a competitive advantage over pMAG for adhesion to pili, the nanocomposite was able to escape from dead E. coli cells, becoming available for repeat use. The recycled nanocomposite retained good antibacterial activity for at least three cycles. Thus, this novel ESKAP nanocomposite is a promising, highly effective, and readily recyclable antibacterial agent that specifically kills E. coli. This nanocomposite has potential applications in biological sensing, biomedical diagnostics, biomedical imaging, drug delivery, and therapeutics.

  18. Photocatalytic activity of Al2O3-doped TiO2 thin films activated with visible light on the bacteria Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barajas-Ledesma, E.; Garcia-Benjume, M.L.; Espitia-Cabrera, I.; Bravo-Patino, A.; Espinoza-Beltran, F.J.; Mostaghimi, J.; Contreras-Garcia, M.E.

    2010-01-01

    Al 2 O 3 -doped TiO 2 thin films were prepared by combining electrophoretic deposition (EPD) with sputtering. A Corning* glass was used as a substrate, in which a titanium film was deposited by sputtering. Then, a precursor sol was prepared with Ti(n-OBu) 4 and Al(s-OBu) 3 and used as the medium for EPD. Next, the thin films were sintered and, finally, characterised by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Several cultures of Escherichia coli, strain XL1-Blue, were prepared. Nine experiments were carried out. In three of them, an inoculum (a low amount of a product that contains bacteria) was prepared without a film; in the other six Al 2 O 3 -doped TiO 2 film-coated glass substrates were irradiated with visible light before they were introduced in the inoculum. The SEM and EDS results showed that TiO 2 -Al 2 O 3 films were obtained, covering all the glass substrate and with uniform size of particles forming them, and that the aluminium was distributed uniformly on the film. XRD results showed that rutile phase was obtained. By TEM, the structure of TiO 2 was demonstrated. Al 2 O 3 -doped TiO 2 thin films were successful at eliminating E. coli.

  19. Temporal variations of Escherichia coli concentrations in a large Midwestern river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, K.E.; Zhang, Y.-K.; Hill, D.R.; Jones, C.S.; Wolter, C.F.

    2009-01-01

    The Raccoon River used by the Des Moines Water Works to serve more than 400,000 people in central Iowa is threatened by contamination from Escherichia coli bacteria from point and nonpoint sources. The 9389 km2 watershed is highly agricultural, with 73% of the land in row crop production and widespread animal production. Results from 2155 grab samples from 1997 to 2005 for E. coli analysis were examined for temporal variations. E. coli concentrations were found to vary across years, seasons, and flow conditions, with a 9-year mean value of 1156 most probable number (MPN)/100 ml. Monthly concentrations exhibited clear seasonality with highest values in May through July. Although E. coli concentrations were higher during periods of greater discharge, the relation of log E. coli to log discharge was not particularly strong (r2 = 0.35). The variogram of E. coli concentrations showed temporal correlation within a span of 4 days suggesting that concentrations measured on 1 day may be related in time to concentrations measured up to 3 days later and beyond 4 days the concentrations vary randomly. The spectral analysis of the time series of E. coli was also carried out and was fitted well with the spectrum of an exponential covariance function. Deciphering temporal patterns and correlation of E. coli bacteria in streams may be useful for developing future monitoring strategies to track concentration patterns and loads. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A cryptic promoter in potato virus X vector interrupted plasmid construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schultz Ronald D

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Potato virus X has been developed into an expression vector for plants. It is widely used to express foreign genes. In molecular manipulation, the foreign genes need to be sub-cloned into the vector. The constructed plasmid needs to be amplified. Usually, during amplification stage, the foreign genes are not expressed. However, if the foreign gene is expressed, the construction work could be interrupted. Two different viral genes were sub-cloned into the vector, but only one foreign gene was successfully sub-cloned. The other foreign gene, canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2 VP1 could not be sub-cloned into the vector and amplified without mutation (frame shift mutation. Results A cryptic promoter in the PVX vector was discovered with RT-PCR. The promoter activity was studied with Northern blots and Real-time RT-PCR. Conclusion It is important to recognize the homologous promoter sequences in the vector when a virus is developed as an expression vector. During the plasmid amplification stage, an unexpected expression of the CPV-2 VP1 gene (not in the target plants, but in E. coli can interrupt the downstream work.

  1. 99mTechnetium labelled Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diniz, S.O.F.; Cardoso, V.N.; Resende, B.M.; Nunan, E.A.; Simal, C.J.R.

    1999-01-01

    Samples of a culture of unlabeled Escherichia coli were incubated with different concentrations of stannous chloride for various time periods. 99m Tc (26.0 MBq) was added to each preparation and the results showed a labelling yield of 98% for E. coli. Since the bacterial viability of 99m Tc-E. coli and E. coli did not show any statistical differences, these results demonstrate that labelling of E. coli with 99m Tc does not modify the bacterial viability, and the radiolabelled bacteria may be a good model to study bacterial translocation

  2. Synthesis of avenanthramides using engineered Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Su Jin; Sim, Geun Young; Kang, Hyunook; Yeo, Won Seok; Kim, Bong-Gyu; Ahn, Joong-Hoon

    2018-03-22

    Hydroxycinnamoyl anthranilates, also known as avenanthramides (avns), are a group of phenolic alkaloids with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-itch, anti-irritant, and antiatherogenic activities. Some avenanthramides (avn A-H and avn K) are conjugates of hydroxycinnamic acids (HC), including p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, and ferulic acid, and anthranilate derivatives, including anthranilate, 4-hydroxyanthranilate, and 5-hydroxyanthranilate. Avns are primarily found in oat grain, in which they were originally designated as phytoalexins. Knowledge of the avns biosynthesis pathway has now made it possible to synthesize avns through a genetic engineering strategy, which would help to further elucidate their properties and exploit their beneficial biological activities. The aim of the present study was to synthesize natural avns in Escherichia coli to serve as a valuable resource. We synthesized nine avns in E. coli. We first synthesized avn D from glucose in E. coli harboring tyrosine ammonia lyase (TAL), 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase (4CL), anthranilate N-hydroxycinnamoyl/benzoyltransferase (HCBT), and anthranilate synthase (trpEG). A trpD deletion mutant was used to increase the amount of anthranilate in E. coli. After optimizing the incubation temperature and cell density, approximately 317.2 mg/L of avn D was synthesized. Avn E and avn F were then synthesized from avn D, using either E. coli harboring HpaBC and SOMT9 or E. coli harboring HapBC alone, respectively. Avn A and avn G were synthesized by feeding 5-hydroxyanthranilate or 4-hydroxyanthranilate to E. coli harboring TAL, 4CL, and HCBT. Avn B, avn C, avn H, and avn K were synthesized from avn A or avn G, using the same approach employed for the synthesis of avn E and avn F from avn D. Using different HCs, nine avns were synthesized, three of which (avn D, avn E, and avn F) were synthesized from glucose in E. coli. These diverse avns provide a strategy to synthesize both natural and unnatural avns

  3. An analysis of the binding of repressor protein ModE to modABCD (molybdate transport) operator/promoter DNA of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunden, A M; Self, W T; Villain, M; Blalock, J E; Shanmugam, K T

    1999-08-20

    Expression of the modABCD operon in Escherichia coli, which codes for a molybdate-specific transporter, is repressed by ModE in vivo in a molybdate-dependent fashion. In vitro DNase I-footprinting experiments identified three distinct regions of protection by ModE-molybdate on the modA operator/promoter DNA, GTTATATT (-15 to -8; region 1), GCCTACAT (-4 to +4; region 2), and GTTACAT (+8 to +14; region 3). Within the three regions of the protected DNA, a pentamer sequence, TAYAT (Y = C or T), can be identified. DNA-electrophoretic mobility experiments showed that the protected regions 1 and 2 are essential for binding of ModE-molybdate to DNA, whereas the protected region 3 increases the affinity of the DNA to the repressor. The stoichiometry of this interaction was found to be two ModE-molybdate per modA operator DNA. ModE-molybdate at 5 nM completely protected the modABCD operator/promoter DNA from DNase I-catalyzed hydrolysis, whereas ModE alone failed to protect the DNA even at 100 nM. The apparent K(d) for the interaction between the modA operator DNA and ModE-molybdate was 0.3 nM, and the K(d) increased to 8 nM in the absence of molybdate. Among the various oxyanions tested, only tungstate replaced molybdate in the repression of modA by ModE, but the affinity of ModE-tungstate for modABCD operator DNA was 6 times lower than with ModE-molybdate. A mutant ModE(T125I) protein, which repressed modA-lac even in the absence of molybdate, protected the same region of modA operator DNA in the absence of molybdate. The apparent K(d) for the interaction between modA operator DNA and ModE(T125I) was 3 nM in the presence of molybdate and 4 nM without molybdate. The binding of molybdate to ModE resulted in a decrease in fluorescence emission, indicating a conformational change of the protein upon molybdate binding. The fluorescence emission spectra of mutant ModE proteins, ModE(T125I) and ModE(Q216*), were unaffected by molybdate. The molybdate-independent mutant Mod

  4. Lactobacillus crispatus dominant vaginal microbiome is associated with inhibitory activity of female genital tract secretions against Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeny P Ghartey

    Full Text Available Female genital tract secretions inhibit E. coli ex vivo and the activity may prevent colonization and provide a biomarker of a healthy microbiome. We hypothesized that high E. coli inhibitory activity would be associated with a Lactobacillus crispatus and/or jensenii dominant microbiome and differ from that of women with low inhibitory activity.Vaginal swab cell pellets from 20 samples previously obtained in a cross-sectional study of near-term pregnant and non-pregnant healthy women were selected based on having high (>90% inhibition or low (<20% inhibition anti-E. coli activity. The V6 region of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene was amplified and sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. Filtered culture supernatants from Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus iners, and Gardnerella vaginalis were also assayed for E. coli inhibitory activity.Sixteen samples (10 with high and 6 with low activity yielded evaluable microbiome data. There was no difference in the predominant microbiome species in pregnant compared to non-pregnant women (n = 8 each. However, there were significant differences between women with high compared to low E. coli inhibitory activity. High activity was associated with a predominance of L. crispatus (p<0.007 and culture supernatants from L. crispatus exhibited greater E. coli inhibitory activity compared to supernatants obtained from L. iners or G. vaginalis. Notably, the E. coli inhibitory activity varied among different strains of L. crispatus.Microbiome communities with abundant L. crispatus likely contribute to the E. coli inhibitory activity of vaginal secretions and efforts to promote this environment may prevent E. coli colonization and related sequelae including preterm birth.

  5. Molecular and functional characterization of the promoter of ETS2, the human c-ets-2 gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mavrothalassitis, G.J.; Watson, D.K.; Papas, T.S.

    1990-01-01

    The 5' end of the human c-ets-2 gene, ETS2, was cloned and characterized. The major transcription initiation start sites were identified, and the pertinent sequences surrounding the ETS2 promoter were determined. The promoter region of ETS2 does not possess typical TATA and CAAT elements. However, this promoter contains several repeat regions, as well as two consensus AP2 binding sites and three putative Sp1 sites. There is also a palindromic region similar to the serum response element of the c-fos gene, located 1,400 base pairs (bp) upstream from the first major transcription initiation site. A G+C-rich sequence (GC element) with dyad symmetry can be seen in the ETS2 promoter, immediately following an unusually long polypurine-polypyrimidine tract. A series of deletion fragments from the putative promoter region were ligated in front of the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene and tested for activity following transfection into HeLa cells. The 5' boundary of the region needed for maximum promoter activity was found to be 159 bp upstream of the major initiation site. The promoter of ETS2 (within the polypyrimidine tract) serves to illustrate an alternative structure that may be present in genes with TATA-less promoters

  6. Characterization of Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli Isolated in Organic Waste Products (Cattle Fecal Matter, Manure and, Slurry) from Cattle's Markets in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bako, Evariste; Kagambèga, Assèta; Traore, Kuan Abdoulaye; Bagre, Touwendsida Serge; Ibrahim, Hadiza Bawa; Bouda, Soutongnooma Caroline; Bonkoungou, Isidore Juste Ouindgueta; Kaboré, Saidou; Zongo, Cheikna; Traore, Alfred Sababenejo; Barro, Nicolas

    2017-09-22

    Cattle farming can promote diarrheal disease transmission through waste, effluents or cattle fecal matter. The study aims to characterize the diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) isolated from cattle feces, manure in the composting process and slurry, collected from four cattle markets in Ouagadougou. A total of 585 samples (340 cattle feces, 200 slurries and 45 manures in the composting process) were collected from the four cattle markets between May 2015 and May 2016. A multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), namely 16-plex PCR, was used to screen simultaneously the virulence genes specific for shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) and enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC). DEC was detected in 10.76% of samples. ETEC was the most prevalent (9.91%). STEC and EAEC have been observed with the same rate (0.51%). ETEC were detected in 12.64% of cattle feces, in 6.66% of manure in the composting process and in 5% of slurry. STEC were detected in 0.58% of cattle feces and in 2.22% of manure in the composting process. EAEC was detected only in 1% of slurry and in 2.22% of manure in the composting process. ETEC strains were identified based on estIa gene and/or estIb gene and/or elt gene amplification. Of the 58 ETEC, 10.34% contained astA , 17.24% contained elt , 3.44% contained estIa and 79.31% contained estIb . The two positive EAEC strains contained only the aggR gene, and the third was positive only for the pic gene. The results show that effluent from cattle markets could contribute to the spreading of DEC in the environment in Burkina Faso.

  7. Hemolytic porcine intestinal Escherichia coli without virulence-associated genes typical of intestinal pathogenic E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schierack, Peter; Weinreich, Joerg; Ewers, Christa; Tachu, Babila; Nicholson, Bryon; Barth, Stefanie

    2011-12-01

    Testing 1,666 fecal or intestinal samples from healthy and diarrheic pigs, we obtained hemolytic Escherichia coli isolates from 593 samples. Focusing on hemolytic E. coli isolates without virulence-associated genes (VAGs) typical for enteropathogens, we found that such isolates carried a broad variety of VAGs typical for extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli.

  8. escherichia coli serotypes confirmed in experimental mammary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    VARIATIONS IN VIRULENCE OF THREE (3) ESCHERICHIA COLI. SEROTYPES CONFIRMED IN ... ows are susceptible to E. coli infection because. E. coli exist in the .... Coli infections in mice: A laboratory animal model for research in.

  9. Insights into the evolution of pathogenicity of Escherichia coli from genomic analysis of intestinal E. coli of Marmota himalayana in Qinghai-Tibet plateau of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shan; Jin, Dong; Wu, Shusheng; Yang, Jing; Lan, Ruiting; Bai, Xiangning; Liu, Sha; Meng, Qiong; Yuan, Xuejiao; Zhou, Juan; Pu, Ji; Chen, Qiang; Dai, Hang; Hu, Yuanyuan; Xiong, Yanwen; Ye, Changyun; Xu, Jianguo

    2016-12-07

    Escherichia coli is both of a widespread harmless gut commensal and a versatile pathogen of humans. Domestic animals are a well-known reservoir for pathogenic E. coli. However, studies of E. coli populations from wild animals that have been separated from human activities had been very limited. Here we obtained 580 isolates from intestinal contents of 116 wild Marmot Marmota himalayana from Qinghai-Tibet plateau, China, with five isolates per animal. We selected 125 (hereinafter referred to as strains) from the 580 isolates for genome sequencing, based on unique pulse field gel electrophoresis patterns and at least one isolate per animal. Whole genome sequence analysis revealed that all 125 strains carried at least one and the majority (79.2%) carried multiple virulence genes based on the analysis of 22 selected virulence genes. In particular, the majority of the strains carried virulence genes from different pathovars as potential 'hybrid pathogens'. The alleles of eight virulence genes from the Marmot E. coli were found to have diverged earlier than all known alleles from human and other animal E. coli. Phylogenetic analysis of the 125 Marmot E. coli genomes and 355 genomes selected from 1622 human and other E. coli strains identified two new phylogroups, G and H, both of which diverged earlier than the other phylogroups. Eight of the 12 well-known pathogenic E. coli lineages were found to share a most recent common ancestor with one or more Marmot E. coli strains. Our results suggested that the intestinal E. coli of the Marmots contained a diverse virulence gene pool and is potentially pathogenic to humans. These findings provided a new understanding of the evolutionary origin of pathogenic E. coli.

  10. Adsorption kinetics of Escherichia Coli on different Carbon Nanoforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Shamimul Haque Choudhury

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption of Escherichia coli (E. Coli bacterial cells on different carbon nanoforms (i.e. Single walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT, Multiwalled Carbon nanotube (MWCNT, graphite and mixedFullerene aggregates is studied. The diffusivities of pure cultures of E. Coli cells in SWCNT aggregates, MWCN aggregates, Graphite aggregates and Mixed Fullerenes was observed to be 1.5×10-9 cm2/s, 0.55×10-9 cm2/s, 0.8×10-9 cm2/s, and 1.016×10-9 cm2/s, respectively. In addition to batch adsorption studies, optical microscopy studies were also performed. The results suggest that diffusion kinetics ofbacterial cells depends on the concentration and average diameter of the nano-carbon aggregates and also on the type of material used. Diffusivity of E. Coli. in SWCNT was observed to be highest and isabout three times greater than for MWCNT, about two times greater than for graphite and about 1.5 times greater than for Fullerene aggregates. SWCNT seems to be best candidates (amongst the othermaterials studied for adsorption of microorganisms – paying their way for application towards microorganisms filters and for biosensors (where it is desired to simultaneously detect and capture bio-threat agents.

  11. Melanosis coli in patients with colon cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Biernacka-Wawrzonek

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Intoduction: Melanosis coli is a benign lesion affecting the mucosa of the large intestine. There is a relationship between the presence of melanosis and anthraquinone laxative use. Melanosis coli is also observed in patients with colon cancer, but there is doubt whether these two conditions are related. Aim : To analyze the correlation between melanosis and colon cancer. Material and methods: We analyzed retrospectively 436 patients undergoing colon cancer surgery. There were 246 women and 190 men. Patients were divided into three age groups: under 50 years, between 51 and 65 years, and over 66 years. We analyzed sections of the cancer and intestinal mucosa from the tumor’s proximal (2–5 cm and distal (8–10 cm zone. Results : Melanosis coli was present in 52 patients, which represents 11.9% of patients with colon cancer. More often it was present in women. The most common location of melanosis and colon cancer was the terminal part of the large intestine. In patients below 50 years of age in both sexes melanosis coli did not occur. In men, melanosis was more common in the age group over 66 years. Intensity of pigmentation was higher in the tumor’s distal zone. Conclusions : The incidence of melanosis coli increases with age, similar to that of colon cancer. Melanosis was not present inside tumors, in almost half of the cases it was not present in the proximal zone, and the degree of pigmentation increased in distal zone. The cause-effect relationship between melanosis coli and colon cancer remains uncertain.

  12. Dietary N-Carbamylglutamate Supplementation Boosts Intestinal Mucosal Immunity in Escherichia coli Challenged Piglets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengrui Zhang

    Full Text Available N-carbamylglutamate (NCG has been shown to enhance performance in neonatal piglets. However, few studies have demonstrated the effect of NCG on the intestinal mucosal barrier. This study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary NCG supplementation on intestinal mucosal immunity in neonatal piglets after an Escherichia coli (E. coli challenge. New-born piglets (4 d old were assigned randomly to one of four treatments (n = 7, including (I sham challenge, (II sham challenge +50 mg/kg NCG, (III E. coli challenge, and (IV E. coli challenge +50 mg/kg NCG. On d 8, pigs in the E. coli challenge groups (III and IV were orally challenged with 5 mL of E. coli K88 (10(8 CFU/mL, whereas pigs in the sham challenge groups (I and II were orally dosed with an equal volume of water. On d 13, all piglets were sacrificed, and samples were collected and examined. The results show that average daily gain in the E. coli challenged piglets (III and IV was decreased (PE.coli<0.05. However, it tended to be higher in the NCG treated piglets (II and IV. Ileum secretory IgA, as well as IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4 and IL-10 in ileal homogenates, were increased in E. coli challenged piglets (III and IV. Similarly, ileum SIgA and IL-10 levels, and CD4(+ percentage in NCG treated piglets (II and IV were higher than no-NCG treated piglets (PNCG<0.05. However, the IL-2 level was only decreased in the piglets of E. coli challenge + NCG group (IV compared with E. coli challenge group (III (P<0.05. No change in the IL-2 level of the sham challenged piglets (III was observed. In conclusion, dietary NCG supplementation has some beneficial effects on intestinal mucosal immunity in E. coli challenged piglets, which might be associated with stimulated lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine synthesis. Our findings have an important implication that NCG may be used to reduce diarrhea in neonatal piglets.

  13. Effectiveness of sanitizing agents in inactivating Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922 in food cutting board surfaces. Removal E. coli using different sanitizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CEZAR AUGUSTO BELTRAME

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate Escherichia coli adhesion on new and used polyethylene cutting board surface and evaluate it’s removal using different sanitizer (peracetic acid,chlorhexidine, sodium hypochlorite and organic acids. Results indicated that the number of adherent cells increased with time in both surfaces evaluated. Evaluating the sanitizer action, 0.5%peracetic acid was more effective in removal E. coli than chlorhexidine and organic acids at same concentration in both surfaces. Peracetic acid and sodium hypochlorite also showed effectiveness at concentrations of 0.2% and 0.5% on new surfaces, respectively. 0.8% of chlorhexidine and 2.0% of organic acids showed similar effectiveness in the removal E. coli on new and used surfaces, respectively.These results suggest that peracetic acid is considerable promise sanitizer for application in surfaces of the food processing industry.

  14. Metabolic Modeling of Common Escherichia coli Strains in Human Gut Microbiome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue-Dong Gao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent high-throughput sequencing has enabled the composition of Escherichia coli strains in the human microbial community to be profiled en masse. However, there are two challenges to address: (1 exploring the genetic differences between E. coli strains in human gut and (2 dynamic responses of E. coli to diverse stress conditions. As a result, we investigated the E. coli strains in human gut microbiome using deep sequencing data and reconstructed genome-wide metabolic networks for the three most common E. coli strains, including E. coli HS, UTI89, and CFT073. The metabolic models show obvious strain-specific characteristics, both in network contents and in behaviors. We predicted optimal biomass production for three models on four different carbon sources (acetate, ethanol, glucose, and succinate and found that these stress-associated genes were involved in host-microbial interactions and increased in human obesity. Besides, it shows that the growth rates are similar among the models, but the flux distributions are different, even in E. coli core reactions. The correlations between human diabetes-associated metabolic reactions in the E. coli models were also predicted. The study provides a systems perspective on E. coli strains in human gut microbiome and will be helpful in integrating diverse data sources in the following study.

  15. Cytotoxic Necrotizing Factor-1 (CNF1) does not promote E. coli infection in a murine model of ascending pyelonephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Jason E; Kim, Kwang Sik; Harty, William; Kasprenski, Matthew; Wang, Ming-Hsien

    2017-05-25

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are among the most common and costly infections in both hospitalized and ambulatory patients. Uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) represent the majority of UTI isolates and are a diverse group of bacteria that utilize a variety of virulence factors to establish infection of the genitourinary tract. The virulence factor cytotoxic necrotizing factor-1 (CNF1) is frequently expressed in clinical UPEC isolates. To date, there have been conflicting reports on the role of CNF1 in the pathogenesis of E. coli urinary tract infections. We examined the importance of CNF1 in a murine ascending kidney infection/ pyelonephritis model by performing comparative studies between a clinical UPEC isolate strain and a CNF1-deletion mutant. We found no alterations in bacterial burden with the loss of CNF1, whereas loss of the virulence factor fimH decreased bacterial burdens. In addition, we found no evidence that CNF1 contributed to the recruitment of inflammatory infiltrates in the kidney or bladder in vivo. While further examination of CNF-1 may reveal a role in UTI pathogenesis, our data casts doubt on the role of CNF-1 in the pathogenesis of UPEC UTI. As with other infections, different models and approaches are needed to elucidate the contribution of CNF1 to E. coli UTI.

  16. Hydrogenase-3 contributes to anaerobic acid resistance of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Ken; Riggins, Daniel P; Eldahan, Khalid C; Kitko, Ryan D; Slonczewski, Joan L

    2010-04-12

    Hydrogen production by fermenting bacteria such as Escherichia coli offers a potential source of hydrogen biofuel. Because H(2) production involves consumption of 2H(+), hydrogenase expression is likely to involve pH response and regulation. Hydrogenase consumption of protons in E. coli has been implicated in acid resistance, the ability to survive exposure to acid levels (pH 2-2.5) that are three pH units lower than the pH limit of growth (pH 5-6). Enhanced survival in acid enables a larger infective inoculum to pass through the stomach and colonize the intestine. Most acid resistance mechanisms have been defined using aerobic cultures, but the use of anaerobic cultures will reveal novel acid resistance mechanisms. We analyzed the pH regulation of bacterial hydrogenases in live cultures of E. coli K-12 W3110. During anaerobic growth in the range of pH 5 to 6.5, E. coli expresses three hydrogenase isoenzymes that reversibly oxidize H(2) to 2H(+). Anoxic conditions were used to determine which of the hydrogenase complexes contribute to acid resistance, measured as the survival of cultures grown at pH 5.5 without aeration and exposed for 2 hours at pH 2 or at pH 2.5. Survival of all strains in extreme acid was significantly lower in low oxygen than for aerated cultures. Deletion of hyc (Hyd-3) decreased anoxic acid survival 3-fold at pH 2.5, and 20-fold at pH 2, but had no effect on acid survival with aeration. Deletion of hyb (Hyd-2) did not significantly affect acid survival. The pH-dependence of H(2) production and consumption was tested using a H(2)-specific Clark-type electrode. Hyd-3-dependent H(2) production was increased 70-fold from pH 6.5 to 5.5, whereas Hyd-2-dependent H(2) consumption was maximal at alkaline pH. H(2) production, was unaffected by a shift in external or internal pH. H(2) production was associated with hycE expression levels as a function of external pH. Anaerobic growing cultures of E. coli generate H(2) via Hyd-3 at low external pH, and

  17. Immuno-Stimulatory Activity of Escherichia coli Mutants Producing Kdo2-Monophosphoryl-Lipid A or Kdo2-Pentaacyl-Monophosphoryl-Lipid A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biwen Wang

    Full Text Available Lipid A is the active center of lipopolysaccharide which also known as endotoxin. Monophosphoryl-lipid A (MPLA has less toxicity but retains potent immunoadjuvant activity; therefore, it can be developed as adjuvant for improving the strength and duration of the immune response to antigens. However, MPLA cannot be chemically synthesized and can only be obtained by hydrolyzing lipopolysaccharide (LPS purified from Gram-negative bacteria. Purifying LPS is difficult and time-consuming and can damage the structure of MPLA. In this study, Escherichia coli mutant strains HWB01 and HWB02 were constructed by deleting several genes and integrating Francisella novicida gene lpxE into the chromosome of E. coli wild type strain W3110. Compared with W3110, HWB01 and HWB02 synthesized very short LPS, Kdo2-monophosphoryl-lipid A (Kdo2-MPLA and Kdo2-pentaacyl-monophosphoryl-lipid A (Kdo2-pentaacyl-MPLA, respectively. Structural changes of LPS in the outer membranes of HWB01 and HWB02 increased their membrane permeability, surface hydrophobicity, auto-aggregation ability and sensitivity to some antibiotics, but the abilities of these strains to activate the TLR4/MD-2 receptor of HKE-Blue hTLR4 cells were deceased. Importantly, purified Kdo2-MPLA and Kdo2-pentaacyl-MPLA differed from wild type LPS in their ability to stimulate the mammalian cell lines THP-1 and RAW264.7. The purification of Kdo2-MPLA and Kdo2-pentaacyl-MPLA from HWB01 and HWB02, respectively, is much easier than the purification of LPS from W3110, and these lipid A derivatives could be important tools for developing future vaccine adjuvants.

  18. Prediction of acute coronary syndromes by urinary proteome analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nay M Htun

    Full Text Available Identification of individuals who are at risk of suffering from acute coronary syndromes (ACS may allow to introduce preventative measures. We aimed to identify ACS-related urinary peptides, that combined as a pattern can be used as prognostic biomarker. Proteomic data of 252 individuals enrolled in four prospective studies from Australia, Europe and North America were analyzed. 126 of these had suffered from ACS within a period of up to 5 years post urine sampling (cases. Proteomic analysis of 84 cases and 84 matched controls resulted in the discovery of 75 ACS-related urinary peptides. Combining these to a peptide pattern, we established a prognostic biomarker named Acute Coronary Syndrome Predictor 75 (ACSP75. ACSP75 demonstrated reasonable prognostic discrimination (c-statistic = 0.664, which was similar to Framingham risk scoring (c-statistics = 0.644 in a validation cohort of 42 cases and 42 controls. However, generating by a composite algorithm named Acute Coronary Syndrome Composite Predictor (ACSCP, combining the biomarker pattern ACSP75 with the previously established urinary proteomic biomarker CAD238 characterizing coronary artery disease as the underlying aetiology, and age as a risk factor, further improved discrimination (c-statistic = 0.751 resulting in an added prognostic value over Framingham risk scoring expressed by an integrated discrimination improvement of 0.273 ± 0.048 (P < 0.0001 and net reclassification improvement of 0.405 ± 0.113 (P = 0.0007. In conclusion, we demonstrate that urinary peptide biomarkers have the potential to predict future ACS events in asymptomatic patients. Further large scale studies are warranted to determine the role of urinary biomarkers in clinical practice.

  19. Type 1 fimbrial expression enhances Escherichia coli virulence for the urinary tract.

    OpenAIRE

    Connell, I; Agace, W; Klemm, P; Schembri, M; Mărild, S; Svanborg, C

    1996-01-01

    Type 1 fimbriae are adhesion organelles expressed by many Gram-negative bacteria. They facilitate adherence to mucosal surfaces and inflammatory cells in vitro, but their contribution to virulence has not been defined. This study presents evidence that type 1 fimbriae increase the virulence of Escherichia coli for the urinary tract by promoting bacterial persistence and enhancing the inflammatory response to infection. In a clinical study, we observed that disease severity was greater in chil...

  20. SOS gene induction and possible mutagenic effects of freeze-drying in Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Rachel; Buchinger, Sebastian; Pfänder, Ramona; Pedhazur, Rami; Reifferscheid, Georg; Belkin, Shimshon

    2016-11-01

    We report the results of a study of the potential negative effects of the freeze-drying process, normally considered a benign means for long-term conservation of living cells and the golden standard in bacterial preservation. By monitoring gene induction using a whole-cell Escherichia coli bioreporter panel, in which diverse stress-responsive gene promoters are fused to luminescent or fluorescent reporting systems, we have demonstrated that DNA repair genes belonging to the SOS operon (recA, sulA, uvrA, umuD, and lexA) were induced upon resuscitation from the freeze-dried state, whereas other stress-responsive promoters such as grpE, katG, phoA, soxS, and sodA were not affected. This observation was confirmed by the UMU-chromotest (activation of the umuD gene promoter) in Salmonella typhimurium, as well as by real-time PCR analyses of selected E. coli SOS genes. We further show that a functional SOS operon is important in viability maintenance following resuscitation, but that at the same time, this repair system may introduce significantly higher mutation rates, comparable to those induced by high concentrations of a known mutagen. Our results also indicate that the entire freeze-drying process, rather than either freezing or drying separately, is instrumental in the induction of DNA damage.

  1. Dialogue between E. coli free radical pathways and the mitochondria of C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindan, J Amaranath; Jayamani, Elamparithi; Zhang, Xinrui; Mylonakis, Eleftherios; Ruvkun, Gary

    2015-10-06

    The microbial world presents a complex palette of opportunities and dangers to animals, which have developed surveillance and response strategies to hints of microbial intent. We show here that the mitochondrial homeostatic response pathway of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans responds to Escherichia coli mutations that activate free radical detoxification pathways. Activation of C. elegans mitochondrial responses could be suppressed by additional mutations in E. coli, suggesting that C. elegans responds to products of E. coli to anticipate challenges to its mitochondrion. Out of 50 C. elegans gene inactivations known to mediate mitochondrial defense, we found that 7 genes were required for C. elegans response to a free radical producing E. coli mutant, including the bZip transcription factor atfs-1 (activating transcription factor associated with stress). An atfs-1 loss-of-function mutant was partially resistant to the effects of free radical-producing E. coli mutant, but a constitutively active atfs-1 mutant growing on wild-type E. coli inappropriately activated the pattern of mitochondrial responses normally induced by an E. coli free radical pathway mutant. Carbonylated proteins from free radical-producing E. coli mutant may directly activate the ATFS-1/bZIP transcription factor to induce mitochondrial stress response: feeding C. elegans with H2O2-treated E. coli induces the mitochondrial unfolded protein response, and inhibition of a gut peptide transporter partially suppressed C. elegans response to free radical damaged E. coli.

  2. The asymptomatic bacteriuria Escherichia coli strain 83972 outcompetes uropathogenic E. coli strains in human urine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hancock, Viktoria; Ulett, G.C.; Schembri, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    Escherichia coli is the most common organism associated with asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU). In contrast to uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC), which causes symptomatic urinary tract infections (UTI), very little is known about the mechanisms by which these strains colonize the human urinary tract....... The prototype ABU E. coli strain 83972 was originally isolated from a girl who had carried it asymptomatically for 3 years. Deliberate colonization of UTI-susceptible individuals with E. coli 83972 has been used successfully as an alternative approach for the treatment of patients who are refractory...... to conventional therapy. Colonization with strain 83972 appears to prevent infection with UPEC strains in such patients despite the fact that this strain is unable to express the primary adhesins involved in UTI, viz. P and type 1 fimbriae. Here we investigated the growth characteristics of E. coli 83972 in human...

  3. Detection of sul1, sul2 and sul3 in sulphonamide resistant Escherichia coli isolates obtained from healthy humans, pork and pigs in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammerum, Anette Marie; Sandvag, Dorthe; Andersen, Sigrid R.

    2006-01-01

    The occurrence of sulphonamide resistance was investigated in 998 Escherichia coli isolates, obtained from pig faeces collected at slaughter, Danish pork collected at retail outlets and from faeces from healthy persons in Denmark. In total 18% (n = 35), 20% (n = 38) and 26% (n = 161) of the E. coli...... isolates obtained from humans, pork and pigs, respectively, were resistant to sulphonamide. All sulphonamide resistant E. coli isolates were investigated for the presence of sul1, sul2, sul3 and intl1 genes by PCR. The sul1 gene was detected in 40% (n = 14), 29% (n = 11) and 55% (n = 88...

  4. Photoinactivation of mcr-1 positive Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caires, C. S. A.; Leal, C. R. B.; Rodrigues, A. C. S.; Lima, A. R.; Silva, C. M.; Ramos, C. A. N.; Chang, M. R.; Arruda, E. J.; Oliveira, S. L.; Nascimento, V. A.; Caires, A. R. L.

    2018-01-01

    The emergence of plasmid-mediated colistin resistance in Enterobacteriaceae, mostly in Escherichia coli due to the mcr-1 gene, has revealed the need to develop alternative approaches in treating mcr-1 positive bacterial infections. This is because colistin is a broad-spectrum antibiotic and one of the ‘last-resort’ antibiotics for multidrug resistant bacteria. The present study evaluated for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, the efficacy of photoinactivation processes to kill a known mcr-1 positive E. coli strain. Eosin methylene-blue (EMB) was investigated as a photoantimicrobial agent for inhibiting the growth of a mcr-1 positive E. coli strain obtained from a patient with a diabetic foot infection. The photoantimicrobial activity of EMB was also tested in a non-multidrug resistant E. coli strain. The photoinactivation process was tested using light doses in the 30-45 J cm-2 range provided by a LED device emitting at 625 nm. Our findings demonstrate that a mcr-1 positive E. coli strain is susceptible to photoinactivation. The results show that the EMB was successfully photoactivated, regardless of the bacterial multidrug resistance; inactivating the bacterial growth by oxidizing the cells in accordance with the generation of the oxygen reactive species. Our results suggest that bacterial photoinactivation is an alternative and effective approach to kill mcr-1 positive bacteria.

  5. Incidence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukhumungoon, P.

    2015-01-01

    Entero hemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) especially serotype O157:H7 is one of the important food-borne pathogens because it is able to produce crucial toxins Shiga. However, the outbreak of this organism in Thailand has not been reported. Antibody to O157 antigen was detected in some Thai populations and Shiga toxin-producing E. coli were detected in low numbers of clinical specimens. Interestingly, some E. coli that showed positive to O157 fimbriae probe and lack of virulence gene were isolated from certain patients and one isolate of E. coli O157:H7 which possessed stx1, stx2v was detected in a normal child. In addition, the incidence of E. coli O157:H7 strains were monitored by the samples from cattle and retail beef in Thailand although their inability to produce toxins or produce in a low concentration was demonstrated. This review discusses the incidences of E. coli O157 in clinical and environmental samples of Thailand including the transmission possibility of this bacterium across the Thai border through food trade. (author)

  6. Construction of a ColD cda Promoter-Based SOS-Green Fluorescent Protein Whole-Cell Biosensor with Higher Sensitivity toward Genotoxic Compounds than Constructs Based on recA, umuDC, or sulA Promoters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norman, Anders; Hansen, Lars Hestbjerg; Sørensen, Søren Johannes

    2005-01-01

    Four different green fluorescent protein (GFP)-based whole-cell biosensors were created based on the DNA damage inducible SOS response of Escherichia coli in order to evaluate the sensitivity of individual SOS promoters toward genotoxic substances. Treatment with the known carcinogen N-methyl-N'-......Four different green fluorescent protein (GFP)-based whole-cell biosensors were created based on the DNA damage inducible SOS response of Escherichia coli in order to evaluate the sensitivity of individual SOS promoters toward genotoxic substances. Treatment with the known carcinogen N......-cell biosensor which is not only able to detect minute levels of genotoxins but, due to its use of the green fluorescent protein, also a reporter system which should be applicable in high-throughput screening assays as well as a wide variety of in situ detection studies....

  7. Characterization of Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli Isolated in Organic Waste Products (Cattle Fecal Matter, Manure and, Slurry from Cattle’s Markets in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evariste Bako

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cattle farming can promote diarrheal disease transmission through waste, effluents or cattle fecal matter. The study aims to characterize the diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC isolated from cattle feces, manure in the composting process and slurry, collected from four cattle markets in Ouagadougou. A total of 585 samples (340 cattle feces, 200 slurries and 45 manures in the composting process were collected from the four cattle markets between May 2015 and May 2016. A multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR, namely 16-plex PCR, was used to screen simultaneously the virulence genes specific for shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC, enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC, enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC, enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC and enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC. DEC was detected in 10.76% of samples. ETEC was the most prevalent (9.91%. STEC and EAEC have been observed with the same rate (0.51%. ETEC were detected in 12.64% of cattle feces, in 6.66% of manure in the composting process and in 5% of slurry. STEC were detected in 0.58% of cattle feces and in 2.22% of manure in the composting process. EAEC was detected only in 1% of slurry and in 2.22% of manure in the composting process. ETEC strains were identified based on estIa gene and/or estIb gene and/or elt gene amplification. Of the 58 ETEC, 10.34% contained astA, 17.24% contained elt, 3.44% contained estIa and 79.31% contained estIb. The two positive EAEC strains contained only the aggR gene, and the third was positive only for the pic gene. The results show that effluent from cattle markets could contribute to the spreading of DEC in the environment in Burkina Faso.

  8. Genomic comparison of Escherichia coli serotype O103:H2 isolates with and without verotoxin genes: implications for risk assessment of strains commonly found in ruminant reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Söderlund

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Escherichia coli O103:H2 occurs as verotoxigenic E. coli (VTEC carrying only vtx1 or vtx2 or both variants, but also as vtx-negative atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC. The majority of E. coli O103:H2 identified from cases of human disease are caused by the VTEC form. If aEPEC strains frequently acquire verotoxin genes and become VTEC, they must be considered a significant public health concern. In this study, we have characterized and compared aEPEC and VTEC isolates of E. coli O103:H2 from Swedish cattle. Methods: Fourteen isolates of E. coli O103:H2 with and without verotoxin genes were collected from samples of cattle feces taken during a nationwide cattle prevalence study 2011–2012. Isolates were sequenced with a 2×100 bp setup on a HiSeq2500 instrument producing >100× coverage per isolate. Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP typing was performed using the genome analysis tool kit (GATK. Virulence genes and other regions of interest were detected. Susceptibility to transduction by two verotoxin-encoding phages was investigated for one representative aEPEC O103:H2 isolate. Results and Discussion: This study shows that aEPEC O103:H2 is more commonly found (64% than VTEC O103:H2 (36% in the Swedish cattle reservoir. The only verotoxin gene variant identified was vtx1a. Phylogenetic comparison by SNP analysis indicates that while certain subgroups of aEPEC and VTEC are closely related and have otherwise near identical virulence gene repertoires, they belong to separate lineages. This indicates that the uptake or loss of verotoxin genes is a rare event in the natural cattle environment of these bacteria. However, a representative of a VTEC-like aEPEC O103:H2 subgroup could be stably lysogenized by a vtx-encoding phage in vitro.

  9. Impact of persistent and nonpersistent generic Escherichia coli and Salmonella sp. recovered from a beef packing plant on biofilm formation by E. coli O157.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visvalingam, J; Ells, T C; Yang, X

    2017-12-01

    To examine the influence of meat plant Escherichia coli and Salmonella sp. isolates on E. coli O157 biofilm formation. Biofilm formation was quantified by crystal violet staining (A 570 nm ) and viable cell numbers for up to 6 days at 15°C. All five persistent E. coli genotypes formed strong biofilms when cultured alone or co-cultured with E. coli O157, with A 570 nm values reaching ≥4·8 at day 4, while only two of five nonpersistent genotypes formed such biofilms. For E. coli O157:H7 co-culture biofilms with E. coli genotypes 136 and 533, its numbers were ≥1·5 and ≥1 log CFU per peg lower than those observed for its mono-culture biofilm at days 2 and 4, respectively. The number of E. coli O157:NM in similar co-culture biofilms was 1 log CFU per peg lower than in its mono-culture biofilm at day 4 and 6, respectively. Salmonella sp. lowered the number of E. coli O157:NM by 0·5 log unit, once, at day 6. Generic E. coli may outcompete E. coli O157 strains while establishing biofilms. Findings advance knowledge regarding inter-strain competition for a similar ecological niche and may aid development of biocontrol strategies for E. coli O157 in food processing environments. © 2017 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology Reproduced with the permission of the Minister of the Department of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada.

  10. Explaining and modeling the concentration and loading of Escherichia coli in a stream-A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chaozi; Schneider, Rebecca L; Parlange, Jean-Yves; Dahlke, Helen E; Walter, M Todd

    2018-09-01

    Escherichia coli (E. coli) level in streams is a public health indicator. Therefore, being able to explain why E. coli levels are sometimes high and sometimes low is important. Using citizen science data from Fall Creek in central NY we found that complementarily using principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS) regression provided insights into the drivers of E. coli and a mechanism for predicting E. coli levels, respectively. We found that stormwater, temperature/season and shallow subsurface flow are the three dominant processes driving the fate and transport of E. coli. PLS regression modeling provided very good predictions under stormwater conditions (R 2  = 0.85 for log (E. coli concentration) and R 2  = 0.90 for log (E. coli loading)); predictions under baseflow conditions were less robust. But, in our case, both E. coli concentration and E. coli loading were significantly higher under stormwater condition, so it is probably more important to predict high-flow E. coli hazards than low-flow conditions. Besides previously reported good indicators of in-stream E. coli level, nitrate-/nitrite-nitrogen and soluble reactive phosphorus were also found to be good indicators of in-stream E. coli levels. These findings suggest management practices to reduce E. coli concentrations and loads in-streams and, eventually, reduce the risk of waterborne disease outbreak. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Tryptophan end-tagging for promoted lipopolysaccharide interactions and anti-inflammatory effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Shalini; Datta, Aritreyee; Schmidtchen, Artur

    2017-01-01

    killing than unmodified KYE21. Analogously, W-tagging promotes binding to E. coli LPS and to its endotoxic lipid A moiety. Furthermore, WWWKYE21 causes more stable peptide/LPS complexes than KYE21, as evidenced by detailed NMR studies, adopting a pronounced helical conformation, with a large hydrophobic...

  12. Secretion of clostridium cellulase by E. coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ida Kuo

    1998-01-01

    A gene, encoding an endocellulase from a newly isolated mesophilic Clostridium strain IY-2 which can digest bamboo fibers, cellulose, rice straw, and sawdust, was isolated by shotgun cloning in an E. coli expression plasmid pLC2833. E. coli positive clones were selected based on their ability to hydrolyze milled bamboo fibers and cellulose present in agar plates. One clone contained a 2.8 kb DNA fragment that was responsible for cellulase activity. Western blot analyses indicated that the positive clone produced a secreted cellulase with a mass of about 58,000 daltons that was identical in size to the subunit of one of the three major Clostridium cellulases. The products of cellulose digestion by this cloned cellulase were cellotetraose and soluble higher polymers. The cloned DNA contained signal sequences capable of directing the secretion of heterologous proteins from an E. coli host. The invention describes a bioprocess for the treatment of cellulosic plant materials to produce cellular growth substrates and fermentation end products suitable for production of liquid fuels, solvents, and acids.

  13. Quantitative Brightness Analysis of Fluorescence Intensity Fluctuations in E. Coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-Ho Hur

    Full Text Available The brightness measured by fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy specifies the average stoichiometry of a labeled protein in a sample. Here we extended brightness analysis, which has been mainly applied in eukaryotic cells, to prokaryotic cells with E. coli serving as a model system. The small size of the E. coli cell introduces unique challenges for applying brightness analysis that are addressed in this work. Photobleaching leads to a depletion of fluorophores and a reduction of the brightness of protein complexes. In addition, the E. coli cell and the point spread function of the instrument only partially overlap, which influences intensity fluctuations. To address these challenges we developed MSQ analysis, which is based on the mean Q-value of segmented photon count data, and combined it with the analysis of axial scans through the E. coli cell. The MSQ method recovers brightness, concentration, and diffusion time of soluble proteins in E. coli. We applied MSQ to measure the brightness of EGFP in E. coli and compared it to solution measurements. We further used MSQ analysis to determine the oligomeric state of nuclear transport factor 2 labeled with EGFP expressed in E. coli cells. The results obtained demonstrate the feasibility of quantifying the stoichiometry of proteins by brightness analysis in a prokaryotic cell.

  14. Hybridization analysis of P2 phage and of a defective prophage of Escherichia Coli B by the density gradient centrifugation method; Analyse de l'hybridation du phage P2 et d'un prophage defectifs d'Escherichia Coli B, par la methode de centrifugation en gradient de densite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Denise [Commissariat a l' energie atomique et aux energies alternatives - CEA, C. E. N. de Saclay, Service de Biologie (France)

    1960-07-01

    The P2 Hydis phage produced by P2 phage multiplication in E. coli B shows a higher density than its P2 parent. This density increase is the same for all P2 Hydis coming from a huge number of distinct hybridizations. It is closed to 0.002 g.cm{sup -3}. Reprint of a paper published in Comptes rendus des seances de l'Academie des Sciences, t. 250, p. 946-948, sitting of 1 February 1960 [French] Le phage P2 Hydis, produit lors de la multiplication du phage P2 dans E. Coli B, presente une densite superieure a celle de son parent P2. Cette augmentation de densite est la meme pour tous les P2 Hydis issus d'un grand nombre d'hybridations distinctes. Elle est voisine de 0,002 g.cm{sup -3}. Reproduction d'un article publie dans les Comptes rendus des seances de l'Academie des Sciences, t. 250, p. 946-948, seance du 1er fevrier 1960.

  15. Impediments to Enhancement of CPT-11 Anticancer Activity by E. coli Directed Beta-Glucuronidase Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yuan-Ting; Chen, Kai-Chuan; Cheng, Chiu-Min; Cheng, Tian-Lu; Tao, Mi-Hua; Roffler, Steve R.

    2015-01-01

    CPT-11 is a camptothecin analog used for the clinical treatment of colorectal adenocarcinoma. CPT-11 is converted into the therapeutic anti-cancer agent SN-38 by liver enzymes and can be further metabolized to a non-toxic glucuronide SN-38G, resulting in low SN-38 but high SN-38G concentrations in the circulation. We previously demonstrated that adenoviral expression of membrane-anchored beta-glucuronidase could promote conversion of SN-38G to SN-38 in tumors and increase the anticancer activity of CPT-11. Here, we identified impediments to effective tumor therapy with E. coli that were engineered to constitutively express highly active E. coli beta-glucuronidase intracellularly to enhance the anticancer activity of CPT-11. The engineered bacteria, E. coli (lux/βG), could hydrolyze SN-38G to SN-38, increased the sensitivity of cultured tumor cells to SN-38G by about 100 fold and selectively accumulated in tumors. However, E. coli (lux/βG) did not more effectively increase CPT-11 anticancer activity in human tumor xenografts as compared to non-engineered E. coli. SN-38G conversion to SN-38 by E. coli (lux/βG) appeared to be limited by slow uptake into bacteria as well as by segregation of E. coli in necrotic regions of tumors that may be relatively inaccessible to systemically-administered drug molecules. Studies using a fluorescent glucuronide probe showed that significantly greater glucuronide hydrolysis could be achieved in mice pretreated with E. coli (lux/βG) by direct intratumoral injection of the glucuronide probe or by intratumoral lysis of bacteria to release intracellular beta-glucuronidase. Our study suggests that the distribution of beta-glucuronidase, and possibly other therapeutic proteins, in the tumor microenvironment might be an important barrier for effective bacterial-based tumor therapy. Expression of secreted therapeutic proteins or induction of therapeutic protein release from bacteria might therefore be a promising strategy to enhance anti

  16. Silver nanoparticle-E. coli colloidal interaction in water and effect on E. coli survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dror-Ehre, A; Mamane, H; Belenkova, T; Markovich, G; Adin, A

    2009-11-15

    Silver nanoparticles exhibit antibacterial properties via bacterial inactivation and growth inhibition. The mechanism is not yet completely understood. This work was aimed at elucidating the effect of silver nanoparticles on inactivation of Escherichia coli, by studying particle-particle interactions in aqueous suspensions. Stable, molecularly capped, positively or negatively charged silver nanoparticles were mixed at 1 to 60microgmL(-1) with suspended E. coli cells to examine their effect on inactivation of the bacteria. Gold nanoparticles with the same surfactant were used as a control, being of similar size but made up of a presumably inert metal. Log reduction of 5log(10) and complete inactivation were obtained with the silver nanoparticles while the gold nanoparticles did not show any inactivation ability. The effect of molecularly capped nanoparticles on E. coli survival was dependent on particle number. Log reduction of E. coli was associated with the ratio between the number of nanoparticles and the initial bacterial cell count. Electrostatic attraction or repulsion mechanisms in silver nanoparticle-E. coli cell interactions did not contribute to the inactivation process.

  17. Synthetic promoter libraries for Corynebacterium glutamicum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytter, Jakob Vang; Helmark, Søren; Chen, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The ability to modulate gene expression is an important genetic tool in systems biology and biotechnology. Here, we demonstrate that a previously published easy and fast PCR-based method for modulating gene expression in lactic acid bacteria is also applicable to Corynebacterium glutamicum. We co...... promoter library (SPL) technology is convenient for modulating gene expression in C. glutamicum and should have many future applications, within basic research as well as for optimizing industrial production organisms....... constructed constitutive promoter libraries based on various combinations of a previously reported C. glutamicum -10 consensus sequence (gngnTA(c/t)aaTgg) and the Escherichia coli -35 consensus, either with or without an AT-rich region upstream. A promoter library based on consensus sequences frequently found...... in low-GC Gram-positive microorganisms was also included. The strongest promoters were found in the library with a -35 region and a C. glutamicum -10 consensus, and this library also represents the largest activity span. Using the alternative -10 consensus TATAAT, which can be found in many other...

  18. Detection of virulence genes and the phylogenetic groups of Escherichia coli isolated from dogs in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Morcatti Coura

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study identified the virulence genes, pathovars, and phylogenetic groups of Escherichia coli strains obtained from the feces of dogs with and without diarrhea. Virulence genes and phylogenetic group identification were studied using polymerase chain reaction. Thirty-seven E. coli isolates were positive for at least one virulence factor gene. Twenty-one (57.8% of the positive isolates were isolated from diarrheal feces and sixteen (43.2% were from the feces of non-diarrheic dogs. Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC were the most frequently (62.2% detected pathovar in dog feces and were mainly from phylogroup B1 and E. Necrotoxigenic E. coli were detected in 16.2% of the virulence-positive isolates and these contained the cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1 (cnf1 gene and were classified into phylogroups B2 and D. All E. coli strains were negative for the presence of enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC enterotoxin genes, but four strains were positive for ETEC-related fimbriae 987P and F18. Two isolates were Shiga toxin-producing E. coli strains and contained the toxin genesStx2 or Stx2e, both from phylogroup B1. Our data showed that EPEC was the most frequent pathovar and B1 and E were the most common phylogroups detected in E. coli isolated from the feces of diarrheic and non-diarrheic dogs.

  19. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O22:H8 isolated from cattle reduces E. coli O157:H7 adherence in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martorelli, L; Albanese, A; Vilte, D; Cantet, R; Bentancor, A; Zolezzi, G; Chinen, I; Ibarra, C; Rivas, M; Mercado, E C; Cataldi, A

    2017-09-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are a group of bacteria responsible for food-associated diseases. Clinical features include a wide range of symptoms such as diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis and the hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), a life-threatening condition. Our group has observed that animals naturally colonized with STEC strains of unknown serotype were not efficiently colonized with E. coli O157:H7 after experimental infection. In order to assess the basis of the interference, three STEC strains were isolated from STEC persistently-colonized healthy cattle from a dairy farm in Buenos Aires, Argentina. The three isolated strains are E. coli O22:H8 and carry the stx1 and stx2d genes. The activatable activity of Stx2d was demonstrated in vitro. The three strains carry the adhesins iha, ehaA and lpf O113 . E. coli O22:H8 formed stronger biofilms in abiotic surface than E. coli O157:H7 (eae+, stx2+) and displayed a more adherent phenotype in vitro towards HeLa cells. Furthermore, when both serotypes were cultured together O22:H8 could reduce O157:H7 adherence in vitro. When calves were intragastrically pre-challenged with 10 8 CFU of a mixture of the three STEC strains and two days later challenged with the same dose of the strain E. coli O157:H7 438/99, the shedding of the pathogen was significantly reduced. These results suggest that E. coli O22:H8, a serotype rarely associated with human illness, might compete with O157:H7 at the bovine recto-anal junction, making non-O157 carrying-calves less susceptible to O157:H7 colonization and shedding of the bacteria to the environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Plant lesions promote the rapid multiplication of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on post-harvest lettuce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several outbreaks of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EcO157) infections have been associated with minimally processed leafy vegetables in the U.S. Harvesting and processing cause plant tissue damage. In order to assess the role of plant tissue damage in the contamination of leafy greens with EcO157, the e...

  1. Whole-Genome Characterization and Strain Comparison of VT2f-Producing Escherichia coli Causing Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grande, Laura; Michelacci, Valeria; Bondì, Roslen; Gigliucci, Federica; Franz, Eelco; Badouei, Mahdi Askari; Schlager, Sabine; Minelli, Fabio; Tozzoli, Rosangela; Caprioli, Alfredo; Morabito, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Verotoxigenic Escherichia coli infections in humans cause disease ranging from uncomplicated intestinal illnesses to bloody diarrhea and systemic sequelae, such as hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Previous research indicated that pigeons may be a reservoir for a population of verotoxigenic E. coli

  2. Lethality Prediction for Escherichia Coli O157:H7 and Uropathogenic E. coli in Ground Chicken Treated with High Pressure Processing and Trans-Cinnamaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheen, Shiowshuh; Huang, Chi-Yun; Ramos, Rommel; Chien, Shih-Yung; Scullen, O Joseph; Sommers, Christopher

    2018-03-01

    Pathogenic Escherichia coli, intestinal (O157:H7) as well as extraintestinal types (for example, Uropathogenic E. coli [UPEC]) are commonly found in many foods including raw chicken meat. The resistance of E. coli O157:H7 to UPEC in chicken meat under the stresses of high hydrostatic Pressure (HHP, also known as HPP-high pressure processing) and trans-cinnamaldehyde (an essential oil) was investigated and compared. UPEC was found slightly less resistant than O157:H7 in our test parameter ranges. With the addition of trans-cinnamaldehyde as an antimicrobial to meat, HPP lethality enhanced both O157:H7 and UPEC inactivation. To facilitate the predictive model development, a central composite design (CCD) was used to assess the 3-parameter effects, that is, pressure (300 to 400 MPa), trans-cinnamaldehyde dose (0.2 to 0.5%, w/w), and pressure-holding time (15 to 25 min), on the inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 and UPEC in ground chicken. Linear models were developed to estimate the lethality of E. coli O157:H7 (R 2 = 0.86) and UPEC (R 2 = 0.85), as well as dimensionless nonlinear models. All models were validated with data obtained from separated CCD combinations. Because linear models of O157:H7 and UPEC had similar R 2 and the significant lethality difference of CCD points was only 9 in 20; all data were combined to generate models to include both O157:H7 and UPEC. The results provide useful information/tool to predict how pathogenic E. coli may survive HPP in the presence of trans-cinnamaldehyde and to achieve a great than 5 log CFU/g reduction in chicken meat. The models may be used for process optimization, product development and to assist the microbial risk assessment. The study provided an effective means to reduce the high hydrostatic pressure level with incorporation of antimicrobial compound to achieve a 5-log reduction of pathogenic E. coli without damaging the raw meat quality. The developed models may be used to predict the high pressure processing

  3. Identification of E. coli O157:H7 by Using Specific Primers for rfbE and stx2b Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Bakhshi

    2017-07-01

    Sorbitol-MacConkey agar was used to verification of growth ability of selected colonies during PCR. Results: By appearance of the bonds belong to rfbE and stx2B genes on agarose gel, the ability of designed primers in gene detection in samples of E .coli O157:H7 was verified. Colonies which selected during PCR have growth potency on sorbitol-MacConkey agar medium. Conclusion: It was revealed that we can prepare a fast, precise and relative comfortable method for detection of E. coli O157:H7 strain by using PCR technique and specific primers than other available methods.

  4. E. coli Fis protein insulates the cbpA gene from uncontrolled transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chintakayala, Kiran; Singh, Shivani S; Rossiter, Amanda E; Shahapure, Rajesh; Dame, Remus T; Grainger, David C

    2013-01-01

    The Escherichia coli curved DNA binding protein A (CbpA) is a poorly characterised nucleoid associated factor and co-chaperone. It is expressed at high levels as cells enter stationary phase. Using genetics, biochemistry, and genomics, we have examined regulation of, and DNA binding by, CbpA. We show that Fis, the dominant growth-phase nucleoid protein, prevents CbpA expression in growing cells. Regulation by Fis involves an unusual "insulation" mechanism. Thus, Fis protects cbpA from the effects of a distal promoter, located in an adjacent gene. In stationary phase, when Fis levels are low, CbpA binds the E. coli chromosome with a preference for the intrinsically curved Ter macrodomain. Disruption of the cbpA gene prompts dramatic changes in DNA topology. Thus, our work identifies a novel role for Fis and incorporates CbpA into the growing network of factors that mediate bacterial chromosome structure.

  5. Studies of genetic variability of the glucose transporter 2 promoter in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, A M; Jensen, N M; Pildal, J

    2001-01-01

    This study was performed to test the hypothesis that genetic variation in the promoter of the glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) might predispose to prediabetic phenotypes or type 2 diabetes. A total of 1611 bp comprising the minimal promoter region of the GLUT2 gene were examined by combined single-s......-tolerant subjects. In conclusion, we found no evidence supporting the hypothesis that genetic variability in the minimal promoter of the GLUT2 is associated with type 2 diabetes or prediabetic phenotypes in the Danish population.......This study was performed to test the hypothesis that genetic variation in the promoter of the glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) might predispose to prediabetic phenotypes or type 2 diabetes. A total of 1611 bp comprising the minimal promoter region of the GLUT2 gene were examined by combined single...

  6. Repair of ultraviolet-light damaged ColE1 factor carrying Escherichia coli genes for guanine synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kibe, A.; Shimada, K.; Tagaki, Y.

    1979-01-01

    Hybrid ColE1 plasmids called ColE1-cos lambda-guaA or ColE1-cos lambda-gal can be efficiently transduced into various E.coli K-12 cells through packaging into lambda phage particles. Using these plasmids, repair of ultraviolet-light (UV) damaged ColE1 DNAs was studied in various UV sensitive E.coli K-12 mutants. The host mutations uvrA and uvrB markedly reduced host-cell reactivation of UV-irradiated ColE1-cos lambda-guaA. Pre-existing hybrid ColE1 plasmids had no effect on the frequency of lambda phage-mediated transduction of another differentially marked hybrid ColE1 DNAs. ColE1-cos lambda-guaA and ColE1-cos lambda-gal DNAs could temporarily but not stably co-exist in E.coli K-12 recA cells. The presence of ColE1-cos lambda-gal in uvrB cells promoted the repair of super-infected UV-irradiated ColE1-cos lambda-guaA about 7-fold. The same ColE1-cos lambda-gal plasmid in a uvrB recA double mutant did not have this promoting effect. These results indicate that the effect of resident hybrid ColE1 plasmids is manifested by the host recA + gene function(s) and suggest that ColE1 plasmit itself provides no recA + -like functions. (orig.) [de

  7. Repair of ultraviolet-light damaged ColE1 factor carrying Escherichia coli genes for guanine synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kibe, A; Shimada, K; Tagaki, Y [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Dept. of Biochemistry

    1979-01-01

    Hybrid ColE1 plasmids called ColE1-cos lambda-guaA or ColE1-cos lambda-gal can be efficiently transduced into various E.coli K-12 cells through packaging into lambda phage particles. Using these plasmids, repair of ultraviolet-light (UV) damaged ColE1 DNAs was studied in various UV sensitive E.coli K-12 mutants. The host mutations uvrA and uvrB markedly reduced host-cell reactivation of UV-irradiated ColE1-cos lambda-guaA. Pre-existing hybrid ColE1 plasmids had no effect on the frequency of lambda phage-mediated transduction of another differentially marked hybrid ColE1 DNAs. ColE1-cos lambda-guaA and ColE1-cos lambda-gal DNAs could temporarily but not stably co-exist in E.coli K-12 recA cells. The presence of ColE1-cos lambda-gal in uvrB cells promoted the repair of super-infected UV-irradiated ColE1-cos lambda-guaA about 7-fold. The same ColE1-cos lambda-gal plasmid in a uvrB recA double mutant did not have this promoting effect. These results indicate that the effect of resident hybrid ColE1 plasmids is manifested by the host recA/sup +/ gene function(s) and suggest that ColE1 plasmit itself provides no recA/sup +/-like functions.

  8. Comparative proteomic analysis of proteins expression changes in the mammary tissue of cows infected with Escherichia coli mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiao-wei; Yang, Yong-xin; Huang, Dong-wei; Cheng, Guang-long; Zhao, Hui-ling

    2015-01-01

    Cows infected with Escherichia (E.) coli usually experience severe clinical symptoms, including damage to mammary tissues, reduced milk yield, and altered milk composition. In order to investigate the host response to E. coli infection and discover novel markers for mastitis treatment, mammary tissue samples were collected from healthy cows and bovines with naturally occurring severe E. coli mastitis. Changes of mammary tissue proteins were examined using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and label-free proteomic approaches. A total of 95 differentially expressed proteins were identified. Of these, 56 proteins were categorized according to molecular function, cellular component, and biological processes. The most frequent biological processes influenced by the proteins were response to stress, transport, and establishment of localization. Furthermore, a network analysis of the proteins with altered expression in mammary tissues demonstrated that these factors are predominantly involved with binding and structural molecule activities. Vimentin and a-enolase were central "functional hubs" in the network. Based on results from the present study, disease-induced alterations of protein expression in mammary glands and potential markers for the effective treatment of E. coli mastitis were identified. These data have also helped elucidate defense mechanisms that protect the mammary glands and promote the pathogenesis of E. coli mastitis.

  9. Adsorption of Escherichia coli Using Bone Char | Rezaee | Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of study was providing a novel adsorbent for the removal of Escherichia coli (E.coli) as a microbial model from contaminated air especially in hospital units using bone char (BC). The BC was prepared from cattle animal bone by pyrolysis in a furnace at 450°C for 2 h. The characteristics of BC have been determined ...

  10. Escherichia coli ST131, an Intriguing Clonal Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Xavier; Madec, Jean-Yves

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY In 2008, a previously unknown Escherichia coli clonal group, sequence type 131 (ST131), was identified on three continents. Today, ST131 is the predominant E. coli lineage among extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) isolates worldwide. Retrospective studies have suggested that it may originally have risen to prominence as early as 2003. Unlike other classical group B2 ExPEC isolates, ST131 isolates are commonly reported to produce extended-spectrum β-lactamases, such as CTX-M-15, and almost all are resistant to fluoroquinolones. Moreover, ST131 E. coli isolates are considered to be truly pathogenic, due to the spectrum of infections they cause in both community and hospital settings and the large number of virulence-associated genes they contain. ST131 isolates therefore seem to contradict the widely held view that high levels of antimicrobial resistance are necessarily associated with a fitness cost leading to a decrease in pathogenesis. Six years after the first description of E. coli ST131, this review outlines the principal traits of ST131 clonal group isolates, based on the growing body of published data, and highlights what is currently known and what we need to find out to provide public health authorities with better information to help combat ST131. PMID:24982321

  11. Genetic Transfer of Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli Lipopolysaccharide Antigens to Escherichia coli K-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Randall T.; Koeltzow, Donald E.; Stocker, B. A. D.

    1972-01-01

    Escherichia coli K-12 ϰ971 was crossed with a smooth Salmonella typhimurium donor, HfrK6, which transfers early the ilv-linked rfa region determining lipopolysaccharide (LPS) core structure. Two ilv+ hybrids differing in their response to the LPS-specific phages FO and C21 were then crossed with S. typhimurium HfrK9, which transfers early the rfb gene cluster determining O repeat unit structure. Most recombinants selected for his+ (near rfb) were agglutinated by Salmonella factor 4 antiserum. Transfer of an F′ factor (FS400) carrying the rfb–his region of S. typhimurium to the same two ilv+ hybrids gave similar results. LPS extracted from two ilv+,his+, factor 4-positive hybrids contained abequose, the immunodominant sugar for factor 4 specificity. By contrast, his+ hybrids obtained from ϰ971 itself by similar HfrK9 and F′FS400 crosses were not agglutinated by factor 4 antiserum, indicating that the parental E. coli ϰ971 does not have the capacity to attach Salmonella O repeat units to its LPS core. It is concluded that the Salmonella rfb genes are expressed only in E. coli ϰ971 hybrids which have also acquired ilv-linked genes (presumably rfa genes affecting core structure or O-translocase ability, or both) from a S. typhimurium donor. When E. coli ϰ971 was crossed with a smooth E. coli donor, Hfr59, of serotype O8, which transfers his early, most his+ recombinants were agglutinated by E. coli O8 antiserum and lysed by the O8-specific phage, Ω8. This suggests that, although the parental E. coli K-12 strain ϰ971 cannot attach Salmonella-specific repeat units to its LPS core, it does have the capacity to attach E. coli O8-specific repeat units. PMID:4559827

  12. Active protein aggregates induced by terminally attached self-assembling peptide ELK16 in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Bihong

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, it has been gradually realized that bacterial inclusion bodies (IBs could be biologically active. In particular, several proteins including green fluorescent protein, β-galactosidase, β-lactamase, alkaline phosphatase, D-amino acid oxidase, polyphosphate kinase 3, maltodextrin phosphorylase, and sialic acid aldolase have been successfully produced as active IBs when fused to an appropriate partner such as the foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid protein VP1, or the human β-amyloid peptide Aβ42(F19D. As active IBs may have many attractive advantages in enzyme production and industrial applications, it is of considerable interest to explore them further. Results In this paper, we report that an ionic self-assembling peptide ELK16 (LELELKLK2 was able to effectively induce the formation of cytoplasmic inclusion bodies in Escherichia coli (E. coli when attached to the carboxyl termini of four model proteins including lipase A, amadoriase II, β-xylosidase, and green fluorescent protein. These aggregates had a general appearance similar to the usually reported cytoplasmic inclusion bodies (IBs under transmission electron microscopy or fluorescence confocal microscopy. Except for lipase A-ELK16 fusion, the three other fusion protein aggregates retained comparable specific activities with the native counterparts. Conformational analyses by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed the existence of newly formed antiparallel beta-sheet structures in these ELK16 peptide-induced inclusion bodies, which is consistent with the reported assembly of the ELK16 peptide. Conclusions This has been the first report where a terminally attached self-assembling β peptide ELK16 can promote the formation of active inclusion bodies or active protein aggregates in E. coli. It has the potential to render E. coli and other recombinant hosts more efficient as microbial cell factories for protein production. Our observation might

  13. Discovery of an Escherichia coli Esterase with High Activity and Enantioselectivity toward 1,2-O-Isopropylideneglycerol Esters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Godinho, Luis F.; Reis, Carlos R.; Tepper, Pieter G.; Poelarends, Gerrit J.; Quax, Wim J.

    Escherichia coli has been widely used as an expression host for the identification of desired biocatalysts through screening or selection assays. We have previously used E. coli in growth selection and screening assays for identification of Bacillus subtilis lipase variants (located in the

  14. Cyclooxygenase 2 Promotes Parathyroid Hyperplasia in ESRD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Qiu, Junsi; Li, Haiming; Lu, Yanwen; Wang, Xiaoyun; Yang, Junwei; Wang, Shaoqing; Zhang, Liyin; Gu, Yong; Hao, Chuan-Ming

    2011-01-01

    Hyperplasia of the PTG underlies the secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) observed in CKD, but the mechanism underlying this hyperplasia is incompletely understood. Because aberrant cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) expression promotes epithelial cell proliferation, we examined the effects of COX2 on the parathyroid gland in uremia. In patients with ESRD who underwent parathyroidectomy, clusters of cells within the parathyroid glands had increased COX2 expression. Some COX2-positive cells exhibited two nuclei, consistent with proliferation. Furthermore, nearly 78% of COX2-positive cells expressed proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). In the 5/6-nephrectomy rat model, rats fed a high-phosphate diet had significantly higher serum PTH levels and larger parathyroid glands than sham-operated rats. Compared with controls, the parathyroid glands of uremic rats exhibited more PCNA-positive cells and greater COX2 expression in the chief cells. Treatment with COX2 inhibitor celecoxib significantly reduced PCNA expression, attenuated serum PTH levels, and reduced the size of the glands. In conclusion, COX2 promotes the pathogenesis of hyperparathyroidism in ESRD, suggesting that inhibiting the COX2 pathway could be a potential therapeutic target. PMID:21335517

  15. Hydrogenase-3 contributes to anaerobic acid resistance of Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Noguchi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hydrogen production by fermenting bacteria such as Escherichia coli offers a potential source of hydrogen biofuel. Because H(2 production involves consumption of 2H(+, hydrogenase expression is likely to involve pH response and regulation. Hydrogenase consumption of protons in E. coli has been implicated in acid resistance, the ability to survive exposure to acid levels (pH 2-2.5 that are three pH units lower than the pH limit of growth (pH 5-6. Enhanced survival in acid enables a larger infective inoculum to pass through the stomach and colonize the intestine. Most acid resistance mechanisms have been defined using aerobic cultures, but the use of anaerobic cultures will reveal novel acid resistance mechanisms. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed the pH regulation of bacterial hydrogenases in live cultures of E. coli K-12 W3110. During anaerobic growth in the range of pH 5 to 6.5, E. coli expresses three hydrogenase isoenzymes that reversibly oxidize H(2 to 2H(+. Anoxic conditions were used to determine which of the hydrogenase complexes contribute to acid resistance, measured as the survival of cultures grown at pH 5.5 without aeration and exposed for 2 hours at pH 2 or at pH 2.5. Survival of all strains in extreme acid was significantly lower in low oxygen than for aerated cultures. Deletion of hyc (Hyd-3 decreased anoxic acid survival 3-fold at pH 2.5, and 20-fold at pH 2, but had no effect on acid survival with aeration. Deletion of hyb (Hyd-2 did not significantly affect acid survival. The pH-dependence of H(2 production and consumption was tested using a H(2-specific Clark-type electrode. Hyd-3-dependent H(2 production was increased 70-fold from pH 6.5 to 5.5, whereas Hyd-2-dependent H(2 consumption was maximal at alkaline pH. H(2 production, was unaffected by a shift in external or internal pH. H(2 production was associated with hycE expression levels as a function of external pH. CONCLUSIONS: Anaerobic growing

  16. Expression of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Ku and Ligase D in Escherichia coli results in RecA and RecB-independent DNA end-joining at regions of microhomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malyarchuk, Svitlana; Wright, Douglas; Castore, Reneau; Klepper, Emily; Weiss, Bernard; Doherty, Aidan J; Harrison, Lynn

    2007-10-01

    Unlike Escherichia coli, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mt) expresses a Ku-like protein and an ATP-dependent DNA ligase that can perform non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ). We have expressed the Mt-Ku and Mt-Ligase D in E. coli using an arabinose-inducible promoter and expression vectors that integrate into specific sites in the E. coli chromosome. E. coli strains have been generated that express the Mt-Ku and Mt-Ligase D on a genetic background that is wild-type for repair, or deficient in either the RecA or RecB protein. Transformation of these strains with linearized plasmid DNA containing a 2bp overhang has demonstrated that expression of both the Mt-Ku and Mt-Ligase D is required for DNA end-joining and that loss of RecA does not prevent this double-strand break repair. Analysis of the re-joined plasmid has shown that repair is predominantly inaccurate and results in the deletion of sequences. Loss of RecB did not prevent the formation of large deletions, but did increase the amount of end-joining. Sequencing the junctions has revealed that the majority of the ligations occurred at regions of microhomology (1-4bps), eliminating one copy of the homologous sequence at the junction. The Mt-Ku and Mt-Ligase D can therefore function in E. coli to re-circularize linear plasmid.

  17. Sucralose Increases Antimicrobial Resistance and Stimulates Recovery of Escherichia coli Mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yilin; Li, Rongyan; Jiang, Mingshan; Wang, Xiuhong

    2017-07-01

    Because of heavy use of antimicrobials, antimicrobial resistance in bacteria has become of great concern. The effect of some widely used food additives such as sucralose on bacteria in the gut and the environment has also drawn increasing attention. In this study, we investigated the interaction between antimicrobials and sucralose impacting antimicrobial resistance and mutation of Escherichia coli (E. coli). To examine antimicrobial resistance and mutation frequency, different subinhibitory concentrations of sucralose were added to cultures of E.coli BW25113 that were then treated with antimicrobials, oxolinic acid, or moxifloxacin. Then the E.coli were assayed for bacterial survival and recovery of mutants resistant to an unrelated antimicrobial, rifampicin. Pre-treatment of E.coli BW25113 with 1/2 minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of sucralose increased the survival rate in oxolinic acid or moxifloxacin. A 1/3 MIC of sucralose increased rifampicin-resistant mutation rate of E.coli BW25113 after 72 h, while rifampicin-resistant mutation rate was increased when co-treated with 1/8 MIC, 1/4 MIC, 1/3 MIC sucralose, and oxolinic acid after 24 h. Sucralose can increase the antimicrobial resistance and mutation frequency of E.coli to some antimicrobials.

  18. Involvement of Angiopoietin-2 and Tie2 Receptor Phosphorylation in STEC-HUS Mediated by Escherichia coli O104:H4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Lukasz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli O104:H4-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS is characterized by Shiga toxin-induced vascular damage. As indicated by recent studies, dysregulation of the angiopoietin (Angpt/Tie2 ligand receptor system may be crucial for endothelial dysfunction in HUS. Early Angpt-2 levels quantified in 48 adult HUS patients were predictive for a complicated clinical course, in particular for need of hemodialysis and mechanical ventilation as well as occurrence of seizures. In vitro challenge of human umbilical vein endothelial cells with patients’ sera indicated an injurious mediator role of Angpt-2 opening future perspectives for mitigating endothelial activation in HUS.

  19. High-level expression of Bacillus naganoensis pullulanase from recombinant Escherichia coli with auto-induction: effect of lac operator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Nie

    Full Text Available Pullulanase plays an important role in specific hydrolysis of branch points in amylopectin and is generally employed as an important enzyme in starch-processing industry. So far, however, the production level of pullulanase is still somewhat low from wide-type strains and even heterologous expression systems. Here the gene encoding Bacillus naganoensis pullulanase was amplified and cloned. For expression of the protein, two recombinant systems, Escherichia coli BL21(DE3/pET-20b(+-pul and E. coli BL21(DE3/pET-22b(+-pul, were constructed, both bearing T7 promoter and signal peptide sequence, but different in the existance of lac operator and lacI gene encoding lac repressor. Recombinant pullulanase was initially expressed with the activity of up to 14 U/mL by E. coli BL21(DE3/pET-20b(+-pul with IPTG induction in LB medium, but its expression level reduced continually with the extension of cryopreservation time and basal expression was observed. However, E. coli BL21(DE3/pET-22b(+-pul , involving lac operator downstream of T7 promoter to regulate foreign gene transcription, exhibited pullulanase activity consistently without detected basal expression. By investigating the effect of lac operator, basal expression of foreign protein was found to cause expression instability and negative effect on production of target protein. Thus double-repression strategy was proposed that lac operators in both chromosome and plasmid were bound with lac repressor to repress T7 RNA polymerase synthesis and target protein expression before induction. Consequently, the total activity of pullulanase was remarkably increased to 580 U/mL with auto-induction by lac operator-involved E. coli BL21(DE3/pET-22b(+-pul. When adding 0.6% glycine in culture, the extracellular production of pullulanase was significantly improved with the extracellular activity of 502 U/mL, which is a relatively higher level achieved to date for extracellular production of pullulanase. The

  20. Metabolic investigation of host/pathogen interaction using MS2-infected Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Rishi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background RNA viruses are responsible for a variety of illnesses among people, including but not limited to the common cold, the flu, HIV, and ebola. Developing new drugs and new strategies for treating diseases caused by these viruses can be an expensive and time-consuming process. Mathematical modeling may be used to elucidate host-pathogen interactions and highlight potential targets for drug development, as well providing the basis for optimizing patient treatment strategies. The purpose of this work was to determine whether a genome-scale modeling approach could be used to understand how metabolism is impacted by the host-pathogen interaction during a viral infection. Escherichia coli/MS2 was used as the host-pathogen model system as MS2 is easy to work with, harmless to humans, but shares many features with eukaryotic viruses. In addition, the genome-scale metabolic model of E. coli is the most comprehensive model at this time. Results Employing a metabolic modeling strategy known as "flux balance analysis" coupled with experimental studies, we were able to predict how viral infection would alter bacterial metabolism. Based on our simulations, we predicted that cell growth and biosynthesis of the cell wall would be halted. Furthermore, we predicted a substantial increase in metabolic activity of the pentose phosphate pathway as a means to enhance viral biosynthesis, while a break down in the citric acid cycle was predicted. Also, no changes were predicted in the glycolytic pathway. Conclusions Through our approach, we have developed a technique of modeling virus-infected host metabolism and have investigated the metabolic effects of viral infection. These studies may provide insight into how to design better drugs. They also illustrate the potential of extending such metabolic analysis to higher order organisms, including humans.

  1. Functional characterization of a rice de novo DNA methyltransferase, OsDRM2, expressed in Escherichia coli and yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pang, Jinsong, E-mail: pangjs542@nenu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Molecular Epigenetics of the Ministry of Education, Northeast Normal University, Changchun, Jilin 130024 (China); Dong, Mingyue; Li, Ning; Zhao, Yanli [Key Laboratory of Molecular Epigenetics of the Ministry of Education, Northeast Normal University, Changchun, Jilin 130024 (China); Liu, Bao, E-mail: baoliu@nenu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Molecular Epigenetics of the Ministry of Education, Northeast Normal University, Changchun, Jilin 130024 (China)

    2013-03-01

    Highlights: ► A rice de novo DNA methyltransferase OsDRM2 was cloned. ► In vitro methylation activity of OsDRM2 was characterized with Escherichia coli. ► Assays of OsDRM2 in vivo methylation were done with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. ► OsDRM2 methylation activity is not preferential to any type of cytosine context. ► The activity of OsDRM2 is independent of RdDM pathway. - Abstract: DNA methylation of cytosine nucleotides is an important epigenetic modification that occurs in most eukaryotic organisms and is established and maintained by various DNA methyltransferases together with their co-factors. There are two major categories of DNA methyltransferases: de novo and maintenance. Here, we report the isolation and functional characterization of a de novo methyltransferase, named OsDRM2, from rice (Oryza sativa L.). The full-length coding region of OsDRM2 was cloned and transformed into Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Both of these organisms expressed the OsDRM2 protein, which exhibited stochastic de novo methylation activity in vitro at CG, CHG, and CHH di- and tri-nucleotide patterns. Two lines of evidence demonstrated the de novo activity of OsDRM2: (1) a 5′-CCGG-3′ containing DNA fragment that had been pre-treated with OsDRM2 protein expressed in E. coli was protected from digestion by the CG-methylation-sensitive isoschizomer HpaII; (2) methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) analysis of S. cerevisiae genomic DNA from transformants that had been introduced with OsDRM2 revealed CG and CHG methylation levels of 3.92–9.12%, and 2.88–6.93%, respectively, whereas the mock control S. cerevisiae DNA did not exhibit cytosine methylation. These results were further supported by bisulfite sequencing of the 18S rRNA and EAF5 genes of the transformed S. cerevisiae, which exhibited different DNA methylation patterns, which were observed in the genomic DNA. Our findings establish that OsDRM2 is an active de novo DNA

  2. Functional characterization of a rice de novo DNA methyltransferase, OsDRM2, expressed in Escherichia coli and yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang, Jinsong; Dong, Mingyue; Li, Ning; Zhao, Yanli; Liu, Bao

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A rice de novo DNA methyltransferase OsDRM2 was cloned. ► In vitro methylation activity of OsDRM2 was characterized with Escherichia coli. ► Assays of OsDRM2 in vivo methylation were done with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. ► OsDRM2 methylation activity is not preferential to any type of cytosine context. ► The activity of OsDRM2 is independent of RdDM pathway. - Abstract: DNA methylation of cytosine nucleotides is an important epigenetic modification that occurs in most eukaryotic organisms and is established and maintained by various DNA methyltransferases together with their co-factors. There are two major categories of DNA methyltransferases: de novo and maintenance. Here, we report the isolation and functional characterization of a de novo methyltransferase, named OsDRM2, from rice (Oryza sativa L.). The full-length coding region of OsDRM2 was cloned and transformed into Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Both of these organisms expressed the OsDRM2 protein, which exhibited stochastic de novo methylation activity in vitro at CG, CHG, and CHH di- and tri-nucleotide patterns. Two lines of evidence demonstrated the de novo activity of OsDRM2: (1) a 5′-CCGG-3′ containing DNA fragment that had been pre-treated with OsDRM2 protein expressed in E. coli was protected from digestion by the CG-methylation-sensitive isoschizomer HpaII; (2) methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) analysis of S. cerevisiae genomic DNA from transformants that had been introduced with OsDRM2 revealed CG and CHG methylation levels of 3.92–9.12%, and 2.88–6.93%, respectively, whereas the mock control S. cerevisiae DNA did not exhibit cytosine methylation. These results were further supported by bisulfite sequencing of the 18S rRNA and EAF5 genes of the transformed S. cerevisiae, which exhibited different DNA methylation patterns, which were observed in the genomic DNA. Our findings establish that OsDRM2 is an active de novo DNA

  3. The redistribution of granulocytes following E. coli endotoxin induced sepsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, P; Lillevang, S T; Tønnesen, Else Kirstine

    1994-01-01

    Infusion of endotoxin elicits granulocytopenia followed by increased numbers of granulocytes in peripheral blood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the redistribution and sequestration of granulocytes in the tissues following E. coli endotoxin induced sepsis. From 16 rabbits granulocytes...... were isolated, labelled with Indium and reinjected intravenously. Eight rabbits received an infusion of E. coli endotoxin 2 micrograms kg-1 while eight received isotonic saline. The redistribution of granulocytes was imaged with a gamma camera and calculated with a connected computer before and 2 and 6...... hours after infusion of endotoxin or saline. Serum cortisol and interleukin-1 beta were measured. In another seven rabbits, respiratory burst activity and degranulation of granulocytes were measured prior to and from 5 min to 6 hours after infusion of E. coli endotoxin 2 micrograms kg-1 BW. Following...

  4. Multiplex real-time PCR assay for detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and screening for non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Baoguang; Liu, Huanli; Wang, Weimin

    2017-11-09

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), including E. coli O157:H7, are responsible for numerous foodborne outbreaks annually worldwide. E. coli O157:H7, as well as pathogenic non-O157:H7 STECs, can cause life-threating complications, such as bloody diarrhea (hemolytic colitis) and hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS). Previously, we developed a real-time PCR assay to detect E. coli O157:H7 in foods by targeting a unique putative fimbriae protein Z3276. To extend the detection spectrum of the assay, we report a multiplex real-time PCR assay to specifically detect E. coli O157:H7 and screen for non-O157 STEC by targeting Z3276 and Shiga toxin genes (stx1 and stx2). Also, an internal amplification control (IAC) was incorporated into the assay to monitor the amplification efficiency. The multiplex real-time PCR assay was developed using the Life Technology ABI 7500 System platform and the standard chemistry. The optimal amplification mixture of the assay contains 12.5 μl of 2 × Universal Master Mix (Life Technology), 200 nM forward and reverse primers, appropriate concentrations of four probes [(Z3276 (80 nM), stx1 (80 nM), stx2 (20 nM), and IAC (40 nM)], 2 μl of template DNA, and water (to make up to 25 μl in total volume). The amplification conditions of the assay were set as follows: activation of TaqMan at 95 °C for 10 min, then 40 cycles of denaturation at 95 °C for 10 s and annealing/extension at 60 °C for 60 s. The multiplex assay was optimized for amplification conditions. The limit of detection (LOD) for the multiplex assay was determined to be 200 fg of bacterial DNA, which is equivalent to 40 CFU per reaction which is similar to the LOD generated in single targeted PCRs. Inclusivity and exclusivity determinants were performed with 196 bacterial strains. All E. coli O157:H7 (n = 135) were detected as positive and all STEC strains (n = 33) were positive for stx1, or stx2, or stx1 and stx2 (Table 1). No cross reactivity was detected with Salmonella

  5. PENICILLIN-BINDING PROTEIN 2X OF STREPTOCOCCUS-PNEUMONIAE - EXPRESSION IN ESCHERICHIA-COLI AND PURIFICATION OF A SOLUBLE ENZYMATICALLY ACTIVE DERIVATIVE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LAIBLE, G; KECK, W; LURZ, R; MOTTL, H; FRERE, JM; JAMIN, M; HAKENBECK, R

    1992-01-01

    A 2.5-kb DNA fragment including the structural gene coding for the penicillin-binding protein 2x (PBP 2x) of Streptococcus pneumoniae has been cloned into the vector pJDC9 and expressed in Escherichia coli. Mapping of RNA polymerase binding sites by electron microscopy indicated that the pbpX

  6. Diffuse and enteroaggregative patterns of adherence of Escherichia coli isolated from stools of children in northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scaletsky Isabel Cristina Affonso

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood diarrheal diseases remain highly endemic in northeastern Brazil. The attributable fraction of all diarrheal diseases among children less than 2 years of age due to Escherichia coli was examined in a 2-year prospective study in two large urban centers of Brazil. Between May 1997 and June 1999, fecal E. coli isolates from 237 children with diarrhea (217 acute and 20 persistent cases and 231 children without diarrhea (controls attending two hospitals in Northeast Brazil were tested for their pattern of adherence to HEp-2 cells and for colony hybridization with DNA probes specific for the six pathotypes of diarrheagenic E. coli. Enteroinvasive E. coli, enterotoxigenic E. coli and enterohemorrhagic E. coli were not isolated from any children. Diffusely adherent E. coli (DAEC and enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC were the most frequent isolates with similar frequencies from children with or without diarrhea. Atypical EPEC (EAF-negative strains were isolated with similiar frequency from both cases (5.5% and controls (5.6%. Enteropathogenic E. coli (typical EPEC strains, characterized by localized adherence pattern of adherence, hybridization with the EAF probe, and belonging to the classical O serogroups, were significantly associated with diarrhea (P = 0.03. These E. coli strains associated with diarrhea accounted for 9% of all children with diarrhea. Collectively, in Northeast Brazil, E. coli strains comprise a small proportion of severe diarrhea prevalence in children.

  7. Comparative genomics and transcriptomics of Escherichia coli isolates carrying virulence factors of both enteropathogenic and enterotoxigenic E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazen, Tracy H; Michalski, Jane; Luo, Qingwei; Shetty, Amol C; Daugherty, Sean C; Fleckenstein, James M; Rasko, David A

    2017-06-14

    Escherichia coli that are capable of causing human disease are often classified into pathogenic variants (pathovars) based on their virulence gene content. However, disease-associated hybrid E. coli, containing unique combinations of multiple canonical virulence factors have also been described. Such was the case of the E. coli O104:H4 outbreak in 2011, which caused significant morbidity and mortality. Among the pathovars of diarrheagenic E. coli that cause significant human disease are the enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) and enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC). In the current study we use comparative genomics, transcriptomics, and functional studies to characterize isolates that contain virulence factors of both EPEC and ETEC. Based on phylogenomic analysis, these hybrid isolates are more genomically-related to EPEC, but appear to have acquired ETEC virulence genes. Global transcriptional analysis using RNA sequencing, demonstrated that the EPEC and ETEC virulence genes of these hybrid isolates were differentially-expressed under virulence-inducing laboratory conditions, similar to reference isolates. Immunoblot assays further verified that the virulence gene products were produced and that the T3SS effector EspB of EPEC, and heat-labile toxin of ETEC were secreted. These findings document the existence and virulence potential of an E. coli pathovar hybrid that blurs the distinction between E. coli pathovars.

  8. Sphingosine 1-Phosphate Activation of EGFR As a Novel Target for Meningitic Escherichia coli Penetration of the Blood-Brain Barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiangru; Maruvada, Ravi; Morris, Andrew J.; Liu, Jun O.; Baek, Dong Jae; Kim, Kwang Sik

    2016-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) infection continues to be an important cause of mortality and morbidity, necessitating new approaches for investigating its pathogenesis, prevention and therapy. Escherichia coli is the most common Gram-negative bacillary organism causing meningitis, which develops following penetration of the blood–brain barrier (BBB). By chemical library screening, we identified epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) as a contributor to E. coli invasion of the BBB in vitro. Here, we obtained the direct evidence that CNS-infecting E. coli exploited sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) for EGFR activation in penetration of the BBB in vitro and in vivo. We found that S1P was upstream of EGFR and participated in EGFR activation through S1P receptor as well as through S1P-mediated up-regulation of EGFR-related ligand HB-EGF, and blockade of S1P function through targeting sphingosine kinase and S1P receptor inhibited EGFR activation, and also E. coli invasion of the BBB. We further found that both S1P and EGFR activations occurred in response to the same E. coli proteins (OmpA, FimH, NlpI), and that S1P and EGFR promoted E. coli invasion of the BBB by activating the downstream c-Src. These findings indicate that S1P and EGFR represent the novel host targets for meningitic E. coli penetration of the BBB, and counteracting such targets provide a novel approach for controlling E. coli meningitis in the era of increasing resistance to conventional antibiotics. PMID:27711202

  9. Identification of functional DNA variants in the constitutive promoter region of MDM2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalonde Marie-Eve

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although mutations in the oncoprotein murine double minute 2 (MDM2 are rare, MDM2 gene overexpression has been observed in several human tumors. Given that even modest changes in MDM2 levels might influence the p53 tumor suppressor signaling pathway, we postulated that sequence variation in the promoter region of MDM2 could lead to disregulated expression and variation in gene dosage. Two promoters have been reported for MDM2; an internal promoter (P2, which is located near the end of intron 1 and is p53-responsive, and an upstream constitutive promoter (P1, which is p53-independent. Both promoter regions contain DNA variants that could influence the expression levels of MDM2, including the well-studied single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP SNP309, which is located in the promoter P2; i.e., upstream of exon 2. In this report, we screened the promoter P1 for DNA variants and assessed the functional impact of the corresponding SNPs. Using the dbSNP database and genotyping validation in individuals of European descent, we identified three common SNPs (−1494 G > A; indel 40 bp; and −182 C > G. Three major promoter haplotypes were inferred by using these three promoter SNPs together with rs2279744 (SNP309. Following subcloning into a gene reporter system, we found that two of the haplotypes significantly influenced MDM2 promoter activity in a haplotype-specific manner. Site-directed mutagenesis experiments indicated that the 40 bp insertion/deletion variation is causing the observed allelic promoter activity. This study suggests that part of the variability in the MDM2 expression levels could be explained by allelic p53-independent P1 promoter activity.

  10. Genome analysis of E. coli isolated from Crohn's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakitina, Daria V; Manolov, Alexander I; Kanygina, Alexandra V; Garushyants, Sofya K; Baikova, Julia P; Alexeev, Dmitry G; Ladygina, Valentina G; Kostryukova, Elena S; Larin, Andrei K; Semashko, Tatiana A; Karpova, Irina Y; Babenko, Vladislav V; Ismagilova, Ruzilya K; Malanin, Sergei Y; Gelfand, Mikhail S; Ilina, Elena N; Gorodnichev, Roman B; Lisitsyna, Eugenia S; Aleshkin, Gennady I; Scherbakov, Petr L; Khalif, Igor L; Shapina, Marina V; Maev, Igor V; Andreev, Dmitry N; Govorun, Vadim M

    2017-07-19

    Escherichia coli (E. coli) has been increasingly implicated in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease (CD). The phylogeny of E. coli isolated from Crohn's disease patients (CDEC) was controversial, and while genotyping results suggested heterogeneity, the sequenced strains of E. coli from CD patients were closely related. We performed the shotgun genome sequencing of 28 E. coli isolates from ten CD patients and compared genomes from these isolates with already published genomes of CD strains and other pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains. CDEC was shown to belong to A, B1, B2 and D phylogenetic groups. The plasmid and several operons from the reference CD-associated E. coli strain LF82 were demonstrated to be more often present in CDEC genomes belonging to different phylogenetic groups than in genomes of commensal strains. The operons include carbon-source induced invasion GimA island, prophage I, iron uptake operons I and II, capsular assembly pathogenetic island IV and propanediol and galactitol utilization operons. Our findings suggest that CDEC are phylogenetically diverse. However, some strains isolated from independent sources possess highly similar chromosome or plasmids. Though no CD-specific genes or functional domains were present in all CD-associated strains, some genes and operons are more often found in the genomes of CDEC than in commensal E. coli. They are principally linked to gut colonization and utilization of propanediol and other sugar alcohols.

  11. Phylogenic typing of Escherichia coli isolated from broilers with collibacillosis in Tabriz, North West of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassani, B.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, to know about the phylogeny of Escherichia coli isolated from broilers with collibacillosis in Tabriz, 70 E. coli isolates recovered from broilers with collibacillosis were characterized for phylogenetic group (A, B1, B2, D by multiplex PCR. Of the all 70 samples, 35 (50% isolates were classified as type A, 32 (45% as type D, 2 (2.8% as type B1 and 1 (2.8% as type B2. This study demonstrates the high prevalence of E. coli types A and D in infected broilers. This shows that the collibacilosis-causing E. coli bacteria are typical commensals, type A alongside pathogenic type, D in Iran. It is possible that this type of E. coli could acquire virulence genes from pathogenic types. Of course, such a claim needs further study.

  12. [Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit enhances the immune response against canine parvovirus VP2 in mice immunized by VP2 DNA vaccine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dongmei; Zhong, Fei; Li, Xiujin; Wang, Wei; Wang, Xingxing; Pan, Sumin

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the effect of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) B subunit (LTB) gene on canine parvovirus (CPV) VP2 gene vaccine. The LTB gene was amplified by PCR from genomic DNA of E. coli 44815 strain. The VP2-70 fragment (210 bp) encoding major epitope of VP2 (70 amino acids) was amplified by PCR from a plasmid encoding VP2 gene. VP2-70 and LTB genes were inserted into the eukaryotic vector to construct VP2-70 gene,LTB gene and VP2-70-LTB fused gene vectors. The mice were immunized with VP2-70 vector, VP2-70-LTB fused vector, or VP2-70 vector plus LTB vector, respectively. The antibody titers at the different time were measured by using ELISA method. The spleen lymphocyte proliferation activity was analyzed by 3-(4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The sequence of VP2-70 and LTB genes was identified. The recombinant VP2-70 and LTB proteins could be expressed in HEK293T cells in a secretory manner. The mice immunized with VP2-70 vector, VP2-70-LTB vector or VP2-70 vector plus LTB vector could generate the specific antibody against VP2 protein. The antibody titer immunized with VP2-70-LTB vector reached 1:5120 at 35 d post immunization, significantly higher than that of other two groups (P vaccine in mice.

  13. Interplay between enterobactin, myeloperoxidase and lipocalin 2 regulates E. coli survival in the inflamed gut

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Vishal; Yeoh, Beng San; Xiao, Xia

    2015-01-01

    During an inflammatory response in the gut, some commensal bacteria such as E. coli can thrive and contribute to disease. Here we demonstrate that enterobactin (Ent), a catecholate siderophore released by E. coli, is a potent inhibitor of myeloperoxidase (MPO), a bactericidal enzyme of the host. ...

  14. Suppressors of Hyperinitiation in Escherichia coli Couple DNA Replication to Precursor Biosynthesis and Energy Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Louise

    The Hda protein plays an essential role in inactivation of the initiator protein DnaA from its active, ATP bound form to the inactive DnaA-ADP in E. coli. Cells deficient in Hda suffer from overinitiation, asynchronous initiation and cell death as a consequence of an increased DnaAATP/ Dna......A-ADP ratio . E. coli can suppress the growth defects caused by Hda deficiency by several different mechanisms. The focus of this Ph.d. thesis is to understand the mechanisms that underlie suppression of Hda deficiency in E. coli. These approaches are described in two manuscripts and one published paper. Over...... expression of Ribonucleotide reductase encoded by either nrdAB or nrdEF has been shown to suppress Hda deficiency. The nrdAB promoter contains four consensus binding sequences for DnaA and a 45bp inverted repeat important for cell cycle regulation of nrdAB transcription. In manuscript 1 we show...

  15. Occurrence of Coliform and Escherichia coli Contamination and Absence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on Romaine Lettuce from Retail Stores in the Upper Midwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greve, Josephine D; Zietlow, Mark S; Miller, Kevin M; Ellingson, Jay L E

    2015-09-01

    A total of 720 whole, romaine lettuce heads were purchased from retail locations in the Upper Midwest and assessed for coliform and Escherichia coli contamination and for the presence of E. coli O157:H7. During a 16-month period (August 2010 through December 2011), coliform and E. coli counts were enumerated on Petrifilm, and the presence of E. coli O157:H7 and the virulence gene eae was evaluated by real-time PCR (qPCR). Over half (400 of 720) of the lettuce samples were processed with an immunomagnetic separation step before the qPCR assay. All retail lettuce samples were negative for E. coli O157:H7 when tested with the R.A.P.I.D. LT qPCR targeting a region of the O-antigen, and only two (0.28%) were positive for the eae gene when tested with LightCycler qPCR. On Petrifilm, coliform counts of most lettuce samples (96.4%) were between lettuce samples (98.2%) were lettuce heads. These results contribute to the limited recorded data and understanding of microbial contamination of whole romaine lettuce heads purchased from retail locations, specifically revealing the absence of E. coli O157:H7 and low levels of contamination with coliforms and other E. coli strains.

  16. Transport of Escherichia coli phage through saturated porous media considering managed aquifer recharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenjing; Li, Shuo; Wang, Shuang; Lei, Liancheng; Yu, Xipeng; Ma, Tianyi

    2018-03-01

    Virus is one of the most potentially harmful microorganisms in groundwater. In this paper, the effects of hydrodynamic and hydrogeochemical conditions on the transportation of the colloidal virus considering managed aquifer recharge were systematically investigated. Escherichia coli phage, vB_EcoM-ep3, has a broad host range and was able to lyse pathogenic Escherichia coli. Bacteriophage with low risk to infect human has been found extensively in the groundwater environment, so it is considered as a representative model of groundwater viruses. Laboratory studies were carried out to analyze the transport of the Escherichia coli phage under varying conditions of pH, ionic strength, cation valence, flow rate, porous media, and phosphate buffer concentration. The results indicated that decreasing the pH will increase the adsorption of Escherichia coli phage. Increasing the ionic strength, either Na + or Ca 2+ , will form negative condition for the migration of Escherichia coli phage. A comparison of different cation valence tests indicated that changes in transport and deposition were more pronounced with divalent Ca 2+ than monovalent Na + . As the flow rate increases, the release of Escherichia coli phage increases and the retention of Escherichia coli phage in the aquifer medium reduces. Changes in porous media had a significant effect on Escherichia coli phage migration. With increase of phosphate buffer concentration, the suspension stability and migration ability of Escherichia coli phage are both increased. Based on laboratory-scale column experiments, a one-dimensional transport model was established to quantitatively describe the virus transport in saturated porous medium.

  17. Characterization of the promoter of human CRTh2, a prostaglandin D{sub 2} receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quapp, Russell; Madsen, Norman [Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Pulmonary Research Group, 574B Heritage Medical Research Centre, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2S2 (Canada); Cameron, Lisa [Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Pulmonary Research Group, 574B Heritage Medical Research Centre, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2S2 (Canada)

    2007-11-30

    Chemoattractant-receptor homologous molecule expressed on Th2 cells (CRTh2) is a receptor for prostaglandin (PG)D{sub 2}, a lipid mediator involved in allergic inflammation. CRTh2 is expressed by Th2 cells, eosinophils and basophils and PDG{sub 2}-CRTh2 signaling induces calcium mobilization, cell migration and expression of the Th2 cytokines IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13. Despite the role of CRTh2 in allergic inflammation, transcriptional regulation of this gene has not been studied. Here, we demonstrated that a reporter construct of the CRTh2 promoter was induced following T cell stimulation. This activity could be further enhanced by over-expression of GATA-3, but not NFAT2 or STAT6. Electromobility shift assay demonstrated GATA-3 binding to a probe from the CRTh2 promoter. This study provides the first detailed analysis of transcriptional regulation of the human CRTh2 promoter. These findings may help identify strategies to attenuate expression of this gene and influence the maintenance and proliferation of Th2 cells in allergic inflammation.

  18. Detection and Molecular Characterization of Escherichia coli Strains Producers of Extended-Spectrum and CMY-2 Type Beta-Lactamases, Isolated from Turtles in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Cortés, Gerardo; Lozano-Zarain, Patricia; Torres, Carmen; Castañeda, Miguel; Sánchez, Gabriela Moreno; Alonso, Carla A; López-Pliego, Liliana; Mayen, María G Gutiérrez; Martínez-Laguna, Ygnacio; Rocha-Gracia, Rosa Del Carmen

    2016-09-01

    Multidrug-resistant bacteria are a growing problem in different environments and hosts, but scarce information exists about their prevalence in reptiles. The aim of this study was to analyze the resistance mechanisms, molecular typing, and plasmid content of cefotaxime-resistant (CTX(R)) Escherichia coli isolates recovered from cloacal samples of 71 turtles sheltered in a herpetarium in Mexico. CTX(R)-E. coli were recovered in 11 of 71 samples (15.5%), and one isolate/sample was characterized. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli isolates were detected in four samples (5.6%): two strains carried the blaCTX-M-2 gene (phylogroup D and ST2732) and two contained the blaCTX-M-15 gene (phylogroup B1 and lineages ST58 and ST156). The blaCMY-2 gene was detected by PCR in E. coli isolates of eight samples (9.8%) (one of them also carried blaCTX-M-2); these isolates were distributed into phylogroups A (n = 1), B1 (n = 6), and D (n = 1) and typed as ST155, ST156, ST2329, and ST2732. Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes were detected in five isolates [aac(6')Ib-cr, qnrA, qnrB19, and oqxB]. From three to five replicon plasmids were detected among the strains, being IncFIB, IncI1, IncFrep, and IncK the most prevalent. ESBL or pAmpC genes were transferred by conjugation in four strains, and the blaCTX-M-15 and blaCMY-2 genes were localized in IncFIB or IncI1 plasmids by Southern blot hybridization assays. Class 1 and/or class 2 integrons were detected in eight strains with six different structures of gene cassette arrays. Nine pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns were found among the 11 studied strains. To our knowledge, this is the first detection of ESBL, CMY-2, PMQR, and mobile determinants of antimicrobial resistance in E. coli of turtle origin, highlighting the potential dissemination of multidrug-resistant bacteria from these animals to other environments and hosts, including humans.

  19. Hydroxyapatite nucleated and grown on nano titania particles enhances recruitment of Escherichia coli for subsequent photocatalytic elimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Jing; Liu, Yi; Liu, Yuxin; Li, Hua

    2015-01-01

    Titania-hydroxyapatite (HA) nanocomposites were fabricated by wet chemical synthesis approach. HA exhibited crystallographic orientation of nucleation on nano titania particle, forming the composite particles with titania being partially enwrapped with HA. Microstructural characterization by high resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed coherent interfacial bond of (110) and (222) planes of HA crystal with (101) plane of anatase. The HA layer promoted significantly recruitment of Escherichia coli bacteria onto the titania-based particles for subsequent photocatalytic killing. Less extent of enwrapping of HA on titania particle, as accomplished by increasing the aging time of HA suspension, gave rise to better capability of photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue and sterilization of the bacteria. The novel HA-enwrapped titania powder shows great potential for environmental applications. - Highlights: • Titania-hydroxyapatite nanocomposite powder was fabricated with cladding structure. • Hydroxyapatite nucleated and grew on titania particle with preferred orientation. • Hydroxyapatite layer promotes recruitment of Escherichia coli onto titania-based particles. • The titania-hydroxyapatite particles show excellent antibacterial performances. • The nanocomposite powder exhibits excellent photocatalytic performances

  20. Hydroxyapatite nucleated and grown on nano titania particles enhances recruitment of Escherichia coli for subsequent photocatalytic elimination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Jing; Liu, Yi; Liu, Yuxin; Li, Hua, E-mail: lihua@nimte.ac.cn

    2015-02-01

    Titania-hydroxyapatite (HA) nanocomposites were fabricated by wet chemical synthesis approach. HA exhibited crystallographic orientation of nucleation on nano titania particle, forming the composite particles with titania being partially enwrapped with HA. Microstructural characterization by high resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed coherent interfacial bond of (110) and (222) planes of HA crystal with (101) plane of anatase. The HA layer promoted significantly recruitment of Escherichia coli bacteria onto the titania-based particles for subsequent photocatalytic killing. Less extent of enwrapping of HA on titania particle, as accomplished by increasing the aging time of HA suspension, gave rise to better capability of photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue and sterilization of the bacteria. The novel HA-enwrapped titania powder shows great potential for environmental applications. - Highlights: • Titania-hydroxyapatite nanocomposite powder was fabricated with cladding structure. • Hydroxyapatite nucleated and grew on titania particle with preferred orientation. • Hydroxyapatite layer promotes recruitment of Escherichia coli onto titania-based particles. • The titania-hydroxyapatite particles show excellent antibacterial performances. • The nanocomposite powder exhibits excellent photocatalytic performances.

  1. Endemic and Epidemic Lineages of Escherichia coli that Cause Urinary Tract Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabor, Helen; Tellis, Patricia; Vincent, Caroline; Tellier, Pierre-Paul

    2008-01-01

    Women with urinary tract infections (UTIs) in California, USA (1999–2001), were infected with closely related or indistinguishable strains of Escherichia coli (clonal groups), which suggests point source dissemination. We compared strains of UTI-causing E. coli in California with strains causing such infections in Montréal, Québec, Canada. Urine specimens from women with community-acquired UTIs in Montréal (2006) were cultured for E. coli. Isolates that caused 256 consecutive episodes of UTI were characterized by antimicrobial drug susceptibility profile, enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus 2 PCR, serotyping, XbaI and NotI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, multilocus sequence typing, and phylogenetic typing. We confirmed the presence of drug-resistant, genetically related, and temporally clustered E. coli clonal groups that caused community-acquired UTIs in unrelated women in 2 locations and 2 different times. Two clonal groups were identified in both locations. Epidemic transmission followed by endemic transmission of UTI-causing clonal groups may explain these clusters of UTI cases. PMID:18826822

  2. Human Bile Reduces Antimicrobial Activity of Selected Antibiotics against Enterococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulkersdorfer, Beatrix; Jaros, David; Eberl, Sabine; Poschner, Stefan; Jäger, Walter; Cosentini, Enrico; Zeitlinger, Markus; Schwameis, Richard

    2017-08-01

    It has been known from previous studies that body fluids, such as cerebrospinal fluid, lung surfactant, and urine, have a strong impact on the bacterial killing of many anti-infective agents. However, the influence of human bile on the antimicrobial activity of antibiotics is widely unknown. Human bile was obtained and pooled from 11 patients undergoing cholecystectomy. After sterilization of the bile fluid by gamma irradiation, its effect on bacterial killing was investigated for linezolid (LZD) and tigecycline (TGC) against Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212. Further, ciprofloxacin (CIP), meropenem (MEM), and TGC were tested against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922. Time-kill curves were performed in pooled human bile and Mueller-Hinton broth (MHB) over 24 h. Bacterial counts (in CFU per milliliter after 24 h) of bile growth controls were approximately equal to MHB growth controls for E. coli and approximately 2-fold greater for E. faecalis , indicating a promotion of bacterial growth by bile for the latter strain. Bile reduced the antimicrobial activity of CIP, MEM, and TGC against E. coli as well as the activity of LZD and TGC against E. faecalis This effect was strongest for TGC against the two strains. Degradation of TGC in bile was identified as the most likely explanation. These findings may have important implications for the treatment of bacterial infections of the gallbladder and biliary tract and should be explored in more detail. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  3. Augmentation of protein production by a combination of the T7 RNA polymerase system and ubiquitin fusion: Overproduction of the human DNA repair protein, ERCC1, as a ubiquitin fusion protein in Escherichia coli.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.H.M. Koken (Marcel); J.H. Odijk; M. van Duin (Mark); M.W.J. Fornerod (Maarten); D. Bootsma (Dirk); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractThis article presents the development of a set of new expression vectors for overproduction of proteins in Escherichia coli. The vectors, pETUBI-ES1, 2 and 3, allow in-frame cloning of any sequence with the ubiquitin gene driven by the strong T7f10 promoter. Combination of the T7

  4. H2A/K pseudogene mutation may promote cell proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Jisheng; Jing, Ruirui; Lv, Xin; Wang, Xiaoyue; Li, Junqiang; Li, Lin; Li, Cuiling; Wang, Daoguang; Bi, Baibing; Chen, Xinjun [Cancer Research Center, Shandong University School of Medicine, Jinan 250012 (China); Yang, Jing-Hua, E-mail: sdu_crc_group1@126.com [Cancer Research Center, Shandong University School of Medicine, Jinan 250012 (China); Department of Surgery, VA Boston Healthcare System, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston 510660, MA (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • The mutant H2A/K pseudogene is active. • The mutant H2A/K pseudogene can promote cell proliferation. - Abstract: Little attention has been paid to the histone H2A/K pseudogene. Results from our laboratory showed that 7 of 10 kidney cancer patients carried a mutant H2A/K pseudogene; therefore, we were interested in determining the relationship between mutant H2A/K and cell proliferation. We used shotgun and label-free proteomics methods to study whether mutant H2A/K lncRNAs affected cell proliferation. Quantitative proteomic analysis indicated that the expression of mutant H2A/K lncRNAs resulted in the upregulation of many oncogenes, which promoted cell proliferation. Further interaction analyses revealed that a proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-protein interaction network, with PCNA in the center, contributes to cell proliferation in cells expressing the mutant H2A/K lncRNAs. Western blotting confirmed the critical upregulation of PCNA by mutant H2A/K lncRNA expression. Finally, the promotion of cell proliferation by mutant H2A/K lncRNAs (C290T, C228A and A45G) was confirmed using cell proliferation assays. Although we did not determine the exact mechanism by which the oncogenes were upregulated by the mutant H2A/K lncRNAs, we confirmed that the mutant H2A/K lncRNAs promoted cell proliferation by upregulating PCNA and other oncogenes. The hypothesis that cell proliferation is promoted by the mutant H2A/K lncRNAs was supported by the protein expression and cell proliferation assay results. Therefore, mutant H2A/K lncRNAs may be a new factor in renal carcinogenesis.

  5. Phage annealing proteins promote oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis in Escherichia coli and mouse ES cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muyrers Joep PP

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The phage protein pairs, RecE/RecT from Rac or Redα/Redβ from λ, initiate efficient double strand break repair (DSBR in Escherichia coli that has proven very useful for DNA engineering. These phage pairs initiate DSBR either by annealing or by another mechanism that is not defined. Results Here we report that these proteins also mediate single strand oligonucleotide repair (ssOR at high efficiencies. The ssOR activity, unlike DSBR, does not require a phage exonuclease (RecE or Redα but only requires a phage annealing protein (RecT or Redβ. Notably, the P22 phage annealing protein Erf, which does not mediate the same DSBR reactions, also delivers ssOR activity. By altering aspects of the oligonucleotides, we document length and design parameters that affect ssOR efficiency to show a simple relationship to homologies either side of the repair site. Notably, ssOR shows strand bias. Oligonucleotides that can prime lagging strand replication deliver more ssOR than their leading complements. This suggests a model in which the annealing proteins hybridize the oligonucleotides to single stranded regions near the replication fork. We also show that ssOR is a highly efficient way to engineer BACs and can be detected in a eukaryotic cell upon expression of a phage annealing protein. Conclusion Phage annealing proteins can initiate the recombination of single stranded oligonucleotides into endogenous targets in Escherichia coli at very high efficiencies. This expands the repertoire of useful DNA engineering strategies, shows promise for applications in eukaryotic cells, and has implications for the unanswered questions regarding DSBR mediated by RecE/RecT and Redα/Redβ.

  6. Hemolytic Porcine Intestinal Escherichia coli without Virulence-Associated Genes Typical of Intestinal Pathogenic E. coli ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schierack, Peter; Weinreich, Joerg; Ewers, Christa; Tachu, Babila; Nicholson, Bryon; Barth, Stefanie

    2011-01-01

    Testing 1,666 fecal or intestinal samples from healthy and diarrheic pigs, we obtained hemolytic Escherichia coli isolates from 593 samples. Focusing on hemolytic E. coli isolates without virulence-associated genes (VAGs) typical for enteropathogens, we found that such isolates carried a broad variety of VAGs typical for extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli. PMID:21965399

  7. Comparison of efficacies of bovine immune colostral antibody and each immunoglobulin class against verotoxin 2, flagellum and somatic cells of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seita, Tetsurou; Kuribayashi, Takashi; Honjo, Toshio; Yamamoto, Shizuo

    2013-04-01

    The efficacy of bovine immune colostral (colostral) antibodies against verotoxin (VT) 2, flagellum and somatic cells of Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157:H7 in mice was determined. Three major immunoglobulin (Ig) classes were isolated from the colostral antibody against VT2 by affinity chromatography and were used for estimation. Mice inoculated with VT2 were administered each Ig class from the colostral antibody, colostral antibody (colostral whey containing antibody) or serum antibody against VT2 at 1 hour after VT2 inoculation. All control mice (20/20) died after administration of sterilized saline instead of the colostral antibody. The survival rate was 93.3% (14/15) after administration of S-IgA or IgM antibody, or colostral antibody. Survival rates for IgG antibody and serum antibody administration were 80% (12/15) and 60% (9/15), respectively. Serum concentrations of VT2, which was absorbed from the small intestine in mice after administration of VT2 and colostral antibody, were measured by fluorescence enzyme immunoassay (FEIA). Serum concentrations of VT2 after administration of colostral antibody were lower than those after administration of sterilized saline. Mice inoculated with VT2-producing E. coli 157:H7 were administered anti-flagellum or anti-somatic colostral antibodies. Survival rates for E. coli O157:H7-infected mice administered the anti-flagellum and anti-somatic colostral antibodies were 52.4% (11/21) and 22.2% (4/18), respectively. Furthermore, survival rates increased to 89.5% (17/19) with combined administration of anti-flagellum and anti-VT2 colostral antibodies. These results suggest that colostral antibodies against VT2, flagellum and somatic cells are effective against E. coli O157:H7 infection. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. The aldehyde dehydrogenase, AldA, is essential for L-1,2-propanediol utilization in laboratory-evolved Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aziz, Ramy K.; Monk, Jonathan M.; Andrews, Kathleen A.

    2017-01-01

    is highly conserved among members of the family Enterobacteriacea. To test this hypothesis, we first performed computational model simulation, which confirmed the essentiality of the aldA gene for 1,2-PDO utilization by the evolved PDO-degrading E. coli. Next, we deleted the aldA gene from the evolved...

  9. ESBL-Producing Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Frederik Boetius

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one the most common bacterial infections and is regularly treated in primary health care. The most common cause of UTI is extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) already present in the intestinal microflora, often as the dominating strain. Resistance...... in E.coli is increasing and especially isolates producing Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamases (ESBL) have been reported worldwide. Treatment of UTI is usually initiated by the general practitioners and a significant proportion of clinical isolates are now resistant to first line antibiotics. The global...... to investigate (i) antibiotics involved in selection of ESBL-producing E.coli, in an experimental mouse model in vivo, (ii) risk factors for UTI with ESBL-producing E.coli and (iii) to describe the phylogenetic composition of E.coli populations with different resistance patterns. We found that different...

  10. G-quadruplex recognition activities of E. Coli MutS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehrat Edward A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Guanine quadruplex (G4 DNA is a four-stranded structure that contributes to genome instability and site-specific recombination. G4 DNA folds from sequences containing tandemly repetitive guanines, sequence motifs that are found throughout prokaryote and eukaryote genomes. While some cellular activities have been identified with binding or processing G4 DNA, the factors and pathways governing G4 DNA metabolism are largely undefined. Highly conserved mismatch repair factors have emerged as potential G4-responding complexes because, in addition to initiating heteroduplex correction, the human homologs bind non-B form DNA with high affinity. Moreover, the MutS homologs across species have the capacity to recognize a diverse range of DNA pairing variations and damage, suggesting a conserved ability to bind non-B form DNA. Results Here, we asked if E. coli MutS and a heteroduplex recognition mutant, MutS F36A, were capable of recognizing and responding to G4 DNA structures. We find by mobility shift assay that E. coli MutS binds to G4 DNA with high affinity better than binding to G-T heteroduplexes. In the same assay, MutS F36A failed to recognize G-T mismatched oligonucleotides, as expected, but retained an ability to bind to G4 DNA. Association with G4 DNA by MutS is not likely to activate the mismatch repair pathway because nucleotide binding did not promote release of MutS or MutS F36A from G4 DNA as it does for heteroduplexes. G4 recognition activities occur under physiological conditions, and we find that M13 phage harboring G4-capable DNA poorly infected a MutS deficient strain of E. coli compared to M13mp18, suggesting functional roles for mismatch repair factors in the cellular response to unstable genomic elements. Conclusions Taken together, our findings demonstrate that E. coli MutS has a binding activity specific for non-B form G4 DNA, but such binding appears independent of canonical heteroduplex repair activation.

  11. The significance of E. coli treatment in perinatal period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubić Aleksandar D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bacteriuria of pregnancy is a common condition. Case report: Patient, 30-years, pregnant woman. During pregnancy, E. coli infection recurred in 4 times, applied Cephalexin and Ceftriaxone. The delivery was terminated by CS, GW 38; girl infant, AS 9. After the period of lactation: secretory status - the patient was a secretor of A and H blood type substance; ultrasonography and contrast radiography - presence of the third kidney. The therapy was added by vaccine UroVaxom, and there was no E. coli infection during 2 years follow up period. The Child is now 7 years old girl, having brilliant psychomotorical development. Possible child brain damage, lung damage, mental diseases are the reason for necessity E. coli infection treatment during pregnancy. Conclusion: All pregnant women should be screened for bacteriuria. E. coli is most commonly sensitive to group B antibiotics (cephalexin and amoxicillin, safe to be included in pregnancy. Long-term follow up of infants born from mothers having bacterial infection during pregnancy is necessary.

  12. Statistical Methods in Assembly Quality Management of Multi-Element Products on Automatic Rotor Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pries, V. V.; Proskuriakov, N. E.

    2018-04-01

    To control the assembly quality of multi-element mass-produced products on automatic rotor lines, control methods with operational feedback are required. However, due to possible failures in the operation of the devices and systems of automatic rotor line, there is always a real probability of getting defective (incomplete) products into the output process stream. Therefore, a continuous sampling control of the products completeness, based on the use of statistical methods, remains an important element in managing the quality of assembly of multi-element mass products on automatic rotor lines. The feature of continuous sampling control of the multi-element products completeness in the assembly process is its breaking sort, which excludes the possibility of returning component parts after sampling control to the process stream and leads to a decrease in the actual productivity of the assembly equipment. Therefore, the use of statistical procedures for continuous sampling control of the multi-element products completeness when assembled on automatic rotor lines requires the use of such sampling plans that ensure a minimum size of control samples. Comparison of the values of the limit of the average output defect level for the continuous sampling plan (CSP) and for the automated continuous sampling plan (ACSP) shows the possibility of providing lower limit values for the average output defects level using the ACSP-1. Also, the average sample size when using the ACSP-1 plan is less than when using the CSP-1 plan. Thus, the application of statistical methods in the assembly quality management of multi-element products on automatic rotor lines, involving the use of proposed plans and methods for continuous selective control, will allow to automating sampling control procedures and the required level of quality of assembled products while minimizing sample size.

  13. Purification and characterization of recombinant protein kinase CK2 from Zea mays expressed in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riera, Marta; Pages, Montserrat; Issinger, Olaf Georg

    2003-01-01

    Recombinant protein kinase subunits rmCK2alpha-1 and rmCK2beta-1 from Zea mays were expressed separately in Escherichia coli and assembled to a fully active tetrameric holoenzyme complex in vitro. The obtained maize holoenzyme was purified to homogeneity, biochemically characterized, and compared...... to CK2 from human. Kinetic measurements of the recombinant maize holoenzyme (rmCK2) revealed k(cat) values for ATP and GTP of 4 and 2s(-1), respectively; whereas the recombinant maize catalytic subunit showed almost equal values for ATP and GTP, i.e., ca. 0.8s(-1). A comparison of the k(cat)/K(m) ratio...

  14. PENGARUH PERASAN DAUN BELIMBING WULUH (Averrhoa bilimbi TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN BAKTERI Escherichia coli PATOGEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitrotin Azizah

    2017-12-01

    abstract  (Averrhoa bilimbi is one of the plants that can be used as an antibacterial, good flowers, stems, leaves and stems have benefits and efficacy. Chemical constituents of the leaves starfruit are tannins, flavonoids, saponins. The active ingredient in the leaves starfruit is tannin. Escherichia coli is a bacterium that causes diarrhea. From the above discussion, the authors raised the theme of Influence starfruit juice of the leaves on the growth of pathogenic E. coli bacteria. Formulation of the problem researchers is whether there is influence starfruit juice of the leaves on the growth of Escherichia coli pathogens. This study aims to determine the concentration that could inhibit and kill Esherichia coli Escherichia coli. This research is experimental. The sample used is leaf green starfruit not so young in a fresh state taken in the area around the boarding author Sutorejo 11B stay. In this study, the sample size for each treatment as much as 3 100%, 90%, 80%, 70%, 60%, 50%, 40%, 30%, 20%, 10% and C (control. Independent variables are starfruit juice of the leaves, while the dependent variable growth of Escherichia coli. When the study carried out in January and July 2012. Data on the effect of starfruit juice of the leaves on the growth of Escherichia coli tested by laboratory examination and data collection techniques using Chi-Square 0:05. Based on the results it appears that at a concentration of 100% and 90% were able to kill the bacteria Escherichia coli, whereas the inhibitory power ranging from a concentration of 80%, 70%, 60%, 50%, 40%, 30%, 20%, 10%. From Chi-Square test was obtained λ2 count 2 table. From this it turns out there leaves starfruit juice effect on the growth of Escherichia coli pathogenic bacteria. Keyword : Leaves starfruit, E. Coli

  15. 21 CFR 866.3255 - Escherichia coli serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Escherichia coli serological reagents. 866.3255... coli serological reagents. (a) Identification. Escherichia coli serological reagents are devices that consist of antigens and antisera used in serological tests to identify Escherichia coli from cultured...

  16. Inactivation of Nonpathogenic Escherichia coli, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica Typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes in Ice Using a UVC Light-Emitting Diode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murashita, Suguru; Kawamura, Shuso; Koseki, Shigenobu

    2017-07-01

    Ice, widely used in the food industry, is a potential cause of food poisoning resulting from microbial contamination. Direct microbial inactivation of ice is necessary because microorganisms may have been present in the source water used to make it and/or may have been introduced due to poor hygiene during production or handling of the ice. Nonthermal and nondestructive microbial inactivation technologies are needed to control microorganisms in ice. We evaluated the applicability of a UVC light-emitting diode (UVC-LED) for microbial inactivation in ice. The effects of UV intensity and UV dose of the UVC-LED on Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and a comparison of UVC-LED with a conventional UV lamp for effective bacterial inactivation in distilled water and ice cubes were investigated to evaluate the performance of the UVC-LED. Finally, we assessed the effects of the UVC-LED on pathogens such as E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes in ice cubes. The results indicated that UVC-LED effectiveness depended on the UV dose at all UV intensity conditions (0.084, 0.025, 0.013, 0.007, and 0.005 mW/cm 2 ) in ice and that UVC-LED could more efficiently inactivate E. coli ATCC 25922 in distilled water and ice than the UV lamp. At a UV dose of 2.64 mJ/cm 2 , E. coli in distilled water was decreased by 0.90 log CFU/mL (UV lamp) and by more than 7.0 log CFU/mL (UVC-LED). At 15.2 mJ/cm 2 , E. coli in ice was decreased by 3.18 log CFU/mL (UV lamp) and by 4.45 CFU/mL (UVC-LED). Furthermore, UVC-LED irradiation reduced the viable number of pathogens by 6 to 7 log cycles at 160 mJ/cm 2 , although the bactericidal effect was somewhat dependent on the type of bacteria. L. monocytogenes in ice was relatively more sensitive to UVC irradiation than were E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium. These results demonstrate that UVC-LED irradiation could contribute to the safety of ice in the food industry.

  17. Radiation-induced mutagenicity and lethality in tryptophan-requiring auxotrophs of escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Rong; Qian Hongwei; Yao Fenying; Gu Shuzhu; Xu Jiaxin; Bi Hekan; Liu Yuying

    1989-01-01

    Mutation and killing caused by X-ray radiation and 60 Co γ-ray radiation were studied in three different tryptophan-requiring auxotrophs (WP2, Wp2A, Cm 891) of Escherichia coli. These testers are sensitive to base pair substitution mutagens. Cm891 carries a R-factor and is more sensitive than WP2 and WP2A to radiation-induced mutation and lethality. The results of the study show that (1) ionizing radiation was mutagenic to E. coli, (2) the order of mutagenic sensitivity among three strains to ionizing radiation was Cm891 > WP2A > WP2, (3) the dose rate of γ-ray influences mutagenicity and lethalty of E. coli strain, (4) the toxicity and mutagenicity of γ-ray were similar to X-ray when Cm891 was tested, however, γ-ray was more toxic and mutagenic than X-ray to WP2A ang WP2

  18. Molecular photonic imaging of cancer using light-emitting e. coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jae Hyo; Min, Jung Joon; Moon, Sung Min; Kim, Hyun Ju; Hong, Yeong Jin; Choy, Hyon E.; Bom, Hee Seung; Jeong, Jae Ho; Cho, Kyoung Oh

    2005-01-01

    Cancer research has long sought a magic bullet that would selectively target and destroy malignant cells. In this study, we exploited that E. coli injected into tumor-bearing mice selectively target and proliferate in solid tumors by employing optical imaging technique. Lux operon or GFP has been cloned into pUC19 plasmid to engineer pUC19Lux or pUC19gfp which was transformed into varying kinds of wild type (MG1655) or mutant E.coli strains. For stable expression, lux operon was cloned with asd (aspartate β-semialdehyde dehydrogenase) gene and transformed into asd defective E. coli (MG1655asd-/asd+lux). These bacteria were i.v. injected into tumor mice or directly into central necrosis of tumor. The imaging signal from wild type E.coli was detected initially at liver (20min), then migrated to and shine in the tumor mass until 2 weeks of injection which was consistently observed in immuno-defective (nude) and -competent (Balb/c) mice. Imaging signal of stbaly transformed strain (MG1655asd-/asd+lux) was stronger and longer-lasting than that of transiently transformed strain (MG1655lux). Flagella defective E. coli strain failed to reach tumor loci. Only a few amounts of stress regulatory defective E. coli strain arrived at but couldn't survive at the tumor loci. E. coli colonies expressing GFP was mostly observed at the border of central necrosis and peripheral proliferative areas in immunofluorescence studies. Directly injected MG1655ad-/asd+lux was transiently observed at central necrosis followed by spreading to the peripheral tumor mass which was consistent with the finding by tail vein injection. We successfully engineered E. coli strain stably expressing lux reporter gene. E. coli strongly targeted solid tumor regardless of host immune status. Our results support that the targeting of tumor by E.coli is an active process and would be applied as a delivery vehicle of varying imaging markers or therapeutic molecules

  19. Interaction of sigma factor sigmaN with Escherichia coli RNA polymerase core enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, D J; Ferguson, A L; Gallegos, M T; Pitt, M; Buck, M; Hoggett, J G

    2000-12-01

    The equilibrium binding and kinetics of assembly of the DNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RNAP) sigma(N)-holoenzyme has been investigated using biosynthetically labelled 7-azatryptophyl- (7AW)sigma(N). The spectroscopic properties of such 7AW proteins allows their absorbance and fluorescence to be monitored selectively, even in the presence of high concentrations of other tryptophan-containing proteins. The 7AWsigma(N) retained its biological activity in stimulating transcription from sigma(N)-specific promoters, and in in vitro gel electrophoresis assays of binding to core RNAP from Escherichia coli. Furthermore, five Trp-->Ala single mutants of sigma(N) were shown to support growth under conditions of nitrogen limitation, and showed comparable efficiency in activating the sigma(N)-dependent nifH promoter in vivo, indicating that none of the tryptophan residues were essential for activity. The equilibrium binding of 7AWsigma(N) to core RNAP was examined by analytical ultracentrifugation. In sedimentation equilibrium experiments, absorbance data at 315 nm (which reports selectively on the distribution of free and bound 7AWsigma(N)) established that a 1:1 complex was formed, with a dissociation constant lower than 2 microM. The kinetics of the interaction between 7AWsigma(N) and core RNAP was investigated using stopped-flow spectrofluorimetry. A biphasic decrease in fluorescence intensity was observed when samples were excited at 280 nm, whereas only the slower of the two phases was observed at 315 nm. The kinetic data were analysed in terms of a mechanism in which a fast bimolecular association of sigma(N) with core RNAP is followed by a relatively slow isomerization step. The consequences of these findings on the competition between sigma(N) and the major sigma factor, sigma(70), in Escherichia coli are discussed.

  20. Engineering Escherichia coli for methanol conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Jonas E N; Meyer, Fabian; Litsanov, Boris; Kiefer, Patrick; Potthoff, Eva; Heux, Stéphanie; Quax, Wim J; Wendisch, Volker F; Brautaset, Trygve; Portais, Jean-Charles; Vorholt, Julia A

    2015-03-01

    Methylotrophic bacteria utilize methanol and other reduced one-carbon compounds as their sole source of carbon and energy. For this purpose, these bacteria evolved a number of specialized enzymes and pathways. Here, we used a synthetic biology approach to select and introduce a set of "methylotrophy genes" into Escherichia coli based on in silico considerations and flux balance analysis to enable methanol dissimilation and assimilation. We determined that the most promising approach allowing the utilization of methanol was the implementation of NAD-dependent methanol dehydrogenase and the establishment of the ribulose monophosphate cycle by expressing the genes for hexulose-6-phosphate synthase (Hps) and 6-phospho-3-hexuloisomerase (Phi). To test for the best-performing enzymes in the heterologous host, a number of enzyme candidates from different donor organisms were selected and systematically analyzed for their in vitro and in vivo activities in E. coli. Among these, Mdh2, Hps and Phi originating from Bacillus methanolicus were found to be the most effective. Labeling experiments using (13)C methanol with E. coli producing these enzymes showed up to 40% incorporation of methanol into central metabolites. The presence of the endogenous glutathione-dependent formaldehyde oxidation pathway of E. coli did not adversely affect the methanol conversion rate. Taken together, the results of this study represent a major advancement towards establishing synthetic methylotrophs by gene transfer. Copyright © 2015 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Presence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Escherichia coli in Ready-to-Eat Foods in Shaanxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baloch, Allah Bux; Yang, Hua; Feng, Yuqing; Xi, Meili; Wu, Qian; Yang, Qinhao; Tang, Jingsi; He, Xiangxiang; Xiao, Yingping; Xia, Xiaodong

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the presence and characteristics of Escherichia coli in ready-to-eat (RTE) foods. A total of 300 RTE foods samples were collected in Shaanxi Province, People's Republic of China: 50 samples of cooked meat, 165 samples of vegetable salad, 50 samples of cold noodles, and 35 samples of salted boiled peanuts. All samples were collected during summer (in July to October) 2011 and 2012 and surveyed for the presence of E. coli . E. coli isolates recovered were classified by phylogenetic typing using a PCR assay. The presence of Shiga toxin genes 1 (stx 1 ) and 2 (stx 2 ) was determined for these E. coli isolates by PCR, and all isolates were analyzed for antimicrobial susceptibility and the presence of class 1 integrons. Overall, 267 (89.0%) RTE food samples were positive for E. coli : 49 cold noodle, 46 cooked meat, 150 salad vegetable, and 22 salted boiled peanut samples. Of the 267 E. coli isolates, 73.0% belong to phylogenetic group A, 12.4% to group B1, 6.4% to group B2, and 8.2% to group D. All isolates were negative for both Shiga toxin genes. Among the isolates, 74.2% were resistant to at least one antimicrobial agent, and 17.6% were resistant to three or more antimicrobial agents. Resistance to ampicillin (75.6% of isolates) and tetracycline (73.1% of isolates) was most frequently detected; 26.2% of E. coli isolates and 68.8% of multidrug-resistant E. coli isolates were positive for class 1 integrons. All isolates were sensitive to amikacin. Our findings indicate that RTE foods in Shaanxi were commonly contaminated with antibiotic-resistant E. coli , which may pose a risk for consumer health and for transmission of antibiotic resistance. Future research is warranted to track the contamination sources and develop appropriate steps that should be taken by government, industry, and retailers to reduce microbial contamination in RTE foods.

  2. Shiga toxin-converting phages and the emergence of new pathogenic Escherichia coli: a world in motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozzoli, Rosangela; Grande, Laura; Michelacci, Valeria; Ranieri, Paola; Maugliani, Antonella; Caprioli, Alfredo; Morabito, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are pathogenic E. coli causing diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis (HC) and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). STEC are characterized by a constellation of virulence factors additional to Stx and have long been regarded as capable to cause HC and HUS when possessing the ability of inducing the attaching and effacing (A/E) lesion to the enterocyte, although strains isolated from such severe infections sometimes lack this virulence feature. Interestingly, the capability to cause the A/E lesion is shared with another E. coli pathogroup, the Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC). In the very recent times, a different type of STEC broke the scene causing a shift in the paradigm for HUS-associated STEC. In 2011, a STEC O104:H4 caused a large outbreak with more than 800 HUS and 50 deaths. Such a strain presented the adhesion determinants of Enteroaggregative E. coli (EAggEC). We investigated the possibility that, besides STEC and EAggEC, other pathogenic E. coli could be susceptible to infection with stx-phages. A panel of stx2-phages obtained from STEC isolated from human disease was used to infect experimentally E. coli strains representing all the known pathogenic types, including both diarrheagenic E. coli (DEC) and extra-intestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC). We observed that all the E. coli pathogroups used in the infection experiments were susceptible to the infection. Our results suggest that the stx2-phages used may not have specificity for E. coli adapted to the intestinal environment, at least in the conditions used. Additionally, we could only observe transient lysogens suggesting that the event of stable stx2-phage acquisition occurs rarely. PMID:24999453

  3. Asymptomatic bacteriuria Escherichia coli strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hancock, Viktoria; Nielsen, E.M.; Klemm, Per

    2006-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) affect millions of people each year. Escherichia coli is the most common organism associated with asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) in humans. Persons affected by ABU may carry a particular E. coli strain for extended periods of time without any symptoms. In contrast...... to uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) that cause symptomatic UTI, very little is known about the mechanisms by which these strains colonize the urinary tract. Here, we have investigated the growth characteristics in human urine as well as adhesin repertoire of nine ABU strains; the ability of ABU strains to compete...

  4. Selection for Unequal Densities of Sigma70 Promoter-like Signalsin Different Regions of Large Bacterial Genomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huerta, Araceli M.; Francino, M. Pilar; Morett, Enrique; Collado-Vides, Julio

    2006-03-01

    The evolutionary processes operating in the DNA regions that participate in the regulation of gene expression are poorly understood. In Escherichia coli, we have established a sequence pattern that distinguishes regulatory from nonregulatory regions. The density of promoter-like sequences, that are recognizable by RNA polymerase and may function as potential promoters, is high within regulatory regions, in contrast to coding regions and regions located between convergently-transcribed genes. Moreover, functional promoter sites identified experimentally are often found in the subregions of highest density of promoter-like signals, even when individual sites with higher binding affinity for RNA polymerase exist elsewhere within the regulatory region. In order to investigate the generality of this pattern, we have used position weight matrices describing the -35 and -10 promoter boxes of E. coli to search for these motifs in 43 additional genomes belonging to most established bacterial phyla, after specific calibration of the matrices according to the base composition of the noncoding regions of each genome. We have found that all bacterial species analyzed contain similar promoter-like motifs, and that, in most cases, these motifs follow the same genomic distribution observed in E. coli. Differential densities between regulatory and nonregulatory regions are detectable in most bacterial genomes, with the exception of those that have experienced evolutionary extreme genome reduction. Thus, the phylogenetic distribution of this pattern mirrors that of genes and other genomic features that require weak selection to be effective in order to persist. On this basis, we suggest that the loss of differential densities in the reduced genomes of host-restricted pathogens and symbionts is the outcome of a process of genome degradation resulting from the decreased efficiency of purifying selection in highly structured small populations. This implies that the differential

  5. Escherichia coli EDL933 Requires Gluconeogenic Nutrients To Successfully Colonize the Intestines of Streptomycin-Treated Mice Precolonized with E. coli Nissle 1917

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinner, Silvia A. C.; Mokszycki, Matthew E.; Adediran, Jimmy; Leatham-Jensen, Mary; Conway, Tyrrell

    2015-01-01

    Escherichia coli MG1655, a K-12 strain, uses glycolytic nutrients exclusively to colonize the intestines of streptomycin-treated mice when it is the only E. coli strain present or when it is confronted with E. coli EDL933, an O157:H7 strain. In contrast, E. coli EDL933 uses glycolytic nutrients exclusively when it is the only E. coli strain in the intestine but switches in part to gluconeogenic nutrients when it colonizes mice precolonized with E. coli MG1655 (R. L. Miranda et al., Infect Immun 72:1666–1676, 2004, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/IAI.72.3.1666-1676.2004). Recently, J. W. Njoroge et al. (mBio 3:e00280-12, 2012, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.00280-12) reported that E. coli 86-24, an O157:H7 strain, activates the expression of virulence genes under gluconeogenic conditions, suggesting that colonization of the intestine with a probiotic E. coli strain that outcompetes O157:H7 strains for gluconeogenic nutrients could render them nonpathogenic. Here we report that E. coli Nissle 1917, a probiotic strain, uses both glycolytic and gluconeogenic nutrients to colonize the mouse intestine between 1 and 5 days postfeeding, appears to stop using gluconeogenic nutrients thereafter in a large, long-term colonization niche, but continues to use them in a smaller niche to compete with invading E. coli EDL933. Evidence is also presented suggesting that invading E. coli EDL933 uses both glycolytic and gluconeogenic nutrients and needs the ability to perform gluconeogenesis in order to colonize mice precolonized with E. coli Nissle 1917. The data presented here therefore rule out the possibility that E. coli Nissle 1917 can starve the O157:H7 E. coli strain EDL933 of gluconeogenic nutrients, even though E. coli Nissle 1917 uses such nutrients to compete with E. coli EDL933 in the mouse intestine. PMID:25733524

  6. Drug Resistance Patterns of Escherichia coli in Ethiopia: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuem, Kald Beshir; Gebre, Abadi Kahsu; Atey, Tesfay Mehari; Bitew, Helen; Yimer, Ebrahim M; Berhe, Derbew Fikadu

    2018-01-01

    Antimicrobial drug resistance is a global threat for treatment of infectious diseases and costs life and money and threatens health delivery system's effectiveness. The resistance of E. coli to frequently utilized antimicrobial drugs is becoming a major challenge in Ethiopia. However, there is no inclusive countrywide study. Therefore, this study intended to assess the prevalence of E. coli resistance and antimicrobial-specific resistance pattern among E. coli clinical isolates in Ethiopia. Articles were retrieved from PubMed, Embase, and grey literature from 2007 to 2017. The main outcome measures were overall E. coli and drug-specific resistance patterns. A random-effects model was used to determine pooled prevalence with 95% confidence interval (CI), using DerSimonian and Laird method. In addition, subgroup analysis was conducted to improve the outcome. The study bias was assessed by Begg's funnel plot. This study was registered in PROSPERO as follows: PROSPERO 2017: CRD42017070106. Of 164 articles retrieved, 35 articles were included. A total of 19,235 study samples participated in the studies and 2,635 E. coli strains were isolated. Overall, E. coli antibacterial resistance was 45.38% (95% confidence interval (CI): 33.50 to 57.27). The resistance pattern ranges from 62.55% in Addis Ababa to 27.51% in Tigray region. The highest resistance of E. coli reported was to ampicillin (83.81%) and amoxicillin (75.79%), whereas only 13.55% of E. coli isolates showed resistance to nitrofurantoin. E. coli antimicrobial resistance remains high with disparities observed among regions. The bacterium was found to be highly resistant to aminopenicillins. The finding implies the need for effective prevention strategies for the E. coli drug resistance and calls for multifaceted approaches with full involvement of all stakeholders.

  7. Intestinal colonization of IL-2 deficient mice with non-colitogenic B. vulgatus prevents DC maturation and T-cell polarization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Müller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: IL-2 deficient (IL-2(-/- mice mono-colonized with E. coli mpk develop colitis whereas IL-2(-/--mice mono-colonized with B. vulgatus mpk do not and are even protected from E. coli mpk induced colitis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated if mono-colonization with E. coli mpk or B. vulgatus mpk differentially modulates distribution, activation and maturation of intestinal lamina propria (LP dendritic cells (DC. LP DC in mice mono-colonized with protective B. vulgatus mpk or co-colonized with E. coli mpk/B. vulgatus mpk featured a semi-mature LP DC phenotype (CD40(loCD80(loMHC-II(hi whereas mono-colonization with colitogenic E. coli mpk induced LP DC activation and maturation prior to onset of colitis. Accordingly, chemokine receptor (CCR 7 surface expression was more strikingly enhanced in mesenteric lymph node DC from E. coli mpk than B. vulgatus mpk mono- or co-colonized mice. Mature but not semi-mature LP DC promoted Th1 polarization. As B. vulgatus mpk promotes differentiation of semi-mature DC presumably by IL-6, mRNA and protein expression of IL-6 was investigated in LP DC. The data demonstrated that IL-6 mRNA and protein was increased in LP DC of B. vulgatus mpk as compared to E. coli mpk mono-colonized IL-2(-/--mice. The B. vulgatus mpk mediated suppression of CCR7 expression and DC migration was abolished in IL-6(-/--DC in vitro. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: From this data we conclude that the B. vulgatus triggered IL-6 secretion by LP DC in absence of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-12 or TNF-alpha induces a semi-mature LP DC phenotype, which might prevent T-cell activation and thereby the induction of colitis in IL-2(-/--mice. The data provide new evidence that IL-6 might act as an immune regulatory cytokine in the mucosa by targeting intestinal DC.

  8. Studying the Polypropylenimine-G2 (PPI-G2 Dendrimer Performance in Removal of Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus from Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Izanloo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Dendrimers are a subset of branched structures that have certain structural order. The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of Polypropylenimine-G2 (PPI-G2 dendrimers in removal of Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus from aqueous solution. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, initially dilution of 103 CFU/ml was prepared from each strain of bacteria. Then, different concentrations of dendrimers (0.5, 5, 50 and 500 µg/ml was added to water. In order to determine the efficiency of dendrimers in removal of bacteria, samples were taken at different times (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 min and were cultured on nutrient agar medium. Samples were incubated for 24 hours at 37 ° C and then the number of colonies was counted. Results: By the increasment of dendrimer concentration and contact time, the number of bacteria in aqueous solution decreased. In times of 40, 50 and 60 minutes, and the concentrations of 50 and 500 µg/ml, all kinds of bacteria in aqueous solution were removed. 0.5 µg/ml of dendrimer concentration had not effect in reducing the number of Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis. The effect of dendrimer on gram-negative bacteria was weaker than gram-positive bacteria. Conclusion: Results of this study indicated that PPI-G2 dendrimer is able to remove Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis in aqueous solution. However, using dendrimers can be considered as a new approach for drinking water disinfection but it requires further wide range studies.

  9. Assessment of bacterial translocation in obstructive jaundice using Tc-99m Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diniz, Simone Odilia Fernandes; Nelson, David Lee; Barbosa, Alfredo Jose Afonso; Araujo, Ivana Durval; Machado, Leonardo Augusto da Silva; Bernardo Filho, Mario

    2005-01-01

    In obstructive jaundice, the passage of bacteria and endotoxins through the intestine wall to reach the systemic circulation is associated with septicemia, renal failure and pulmonary dysfunction. The aim of this work was to investigate bacterial translocation utilizing 99m Tc-E.coli in an experimental model of obstructive jaundice. The levels of bilirubin in rats that were subjected to ligature of the bile duct were significantly increased when compared to control animals (p 99m Tc-E.coli to the mesenteric lymphatic nodules, liver, spleen or lungs of the rats that suffered ligature of the bile duct (p > 0.05). The evaluation of the intestinal permeability using 'per os' administration of 99m Tc-DTPA showed 1.61 ± 0.57% and 1.39 ± 0.72% of radioactivity in the urine of the control and jaundice animals, respectively. The histological analysis of the distal wall of the ileum showed that the covering epithelium and the crypt were morphologically preserved in both groups. The seven-day period after the ligature of the bile duct may not have been long enough to promote modifications in intestinal wall to occur so as to permit the passage of Tc-99m E.coli. (author)

  10. EcoFlex: A Multifunctional MoClo Kit for E. coli Synthetic Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Simon J; Lai, Hung-En; Kelwick, Richard J R; Chee, Soo Mei; Bell, David J; Polizzi, Karen Marie; Freemont, Paul S

    2016-10-21

    Golden Gate cloning is a prominent DNA assembly tool in synthetic biology for the assembly of plasmid constructs often used in combinatorial pathway optimization, with a number of assembly kits developed specifically for yeast and plant-based expression. However, its use for synthetic biology in commonly used bacterial systems such as Escherichia coli has surprisingly been overlooked. Here, we introduce EcoFlex a simplified modular package of DNA parts for a variety of applications in E. coli, cell-free protein synthesis, protein purification and hierarchical assembly of transcription units based on the MoClo assembly standard. The kit features a library of constitutive promoters, T7 expression, RBS strength variants, synthetic terminators, protein purification tags and fluorescence proteins. We validate EcoFlex by assembling a 68-part containing (20 genes) plasmid (31 kb), characterize in vivo and in vitro library parts, and perform combinatorial pathway assembly, using pooled libraries of either fluorescent proteins or the biosynthetic genes for the antimicrobial pigment violacein as a proof-of-concept. To minimize pathway screening, we also introduce a secondary module design site to simplify MoClo pathway optimization. In summary, EcoFlex provides a standardized and multifunctional kit for a variety of applications in E. coli synthetic biology.

  11. Iron-hydroxamate transport in Escherichia coli K12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prody, C.A.

    1984-01-01

    FhuB mutants, which are deficient in ferrichrome transport, were isolated and characterized. They were found to be deficient in the utilization of all hydroxamate-type siderophores. They were, however, able to transport enterobactin. A number of analogs of hydroxamate-type siderophores were tested for biological activity in E. coli, and about half of these were active. In addition, two rhodotorulic acid analogs were able to supply iron to fhuB mutants. A search for the fhuB gene product, using one and two-dimensional polyacrylamide gels of proteins from fhuB and wild type strains proved fruitless, and it appeared that the fhuB gene product is expressed at a very low level. Therefore, the fhuB gene was subcloned from a plasmid in the Carbon bank onto plasmid vectors containing the E. coli lac UV-5 and tacI promoters as a device to amplify the fhuB gene. One of these recombinant plasmids carried an 8Kb insert which contained both the tonA and fhuB genes. This plasmid synthesized five proteins of molecular weights 78,000, 40,000, 30,000, 24,000, and 13,700 in maxicell strain CSR603. By use of deletions, the approximate order of the genes for these proteins was determined. Although 3 He-ferrichrome is transported into E. coli cells and vesicles, 3 He-ferric rhodotorulate is not, and so the mechanism of transport for these two siderophores must be different. To examine this further, mutants were obtained that could transport ferrichrome but not rhodotorulic acid. These map in the region between tonA and fhuB, and most are able to transport aerobactin, when carrying the ColV plasmid, but not schizokinen

  12. Bacteraemia Caused by Escherichia Coli in Cancer Patients at a Specialist Center in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parveen, A.; Sultan, F.; Saleem, S.; Nazeer, S. H.; Raza, A.; Zafar, W.; Nizamuddin, S.; Mahboob, A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To analyse the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Escherichia coli bacteraemia among cancer patients, and to assess the risk factors and outcomes of multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli bacteraemia. Methods: The retrospective study was conducted at Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre, Lahore, and comprised medical records of patients with Escherichia coli bacteraemia presenting between December 2012 and November 2013. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to determine the factors associated with the development and 30-day mortality of multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli bacteraemia. Results: Out of 1603 episodes of bacteraemia, 227(35.6 percent) were caused by E.coli, of which 98(43.2 percent) were multidrug-resistant. In multivariable analysis, age less than 18 years (adjusted odds ratio 3.92; 95 percent confidence interval 1.43-10.68), presence of central venous catheter (adjusted odds ratio 2.12; 95 percent confidence interval 1.04-4.33) and exposure to piperacillin/tazobactam within 90 days prior to infection (adjusted odds ratio 2.37; 95 percent confidence interval 1.15-4.86) were identified as independent risk factors for acquisition of multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli bacteraemia. The overall 30 day mortality rate was 35.2 percent (80/227). Risk factors for mortality were intensive care unit admission (adjusted odds ratio 3.95; 95 percent confidence interval 1.79-8.71) and profound neutropenia (adjusted odds ratio 4.03; 95 percent confidence interval 1.55-10.49). Conclusion: Bloodstream infections with multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli were common in cancer patients. However it was not a predictor of mortality. (author)

  13. Qualitative analysis of Adenomatous Polyposis Coli promoter: Hypermethylation, engagement and effects on survival of patients with esophageal cancer in a high risk region of the world, a potential molecular marker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasseri Negin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Squamous cell carcinoma of esophagus (SCCE occurs at a high incidence rate in certain parts of the world. This feature necessitates that different aspects of the disease and in particular genetic characteristics be investigated in such regions. In addition, such investigations might lead to achievement of molecular markers helpful for early detection, successful treatment and follow up of the disease. Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC promoter hypermethylation has been shown to be a suitable marker for both serum and solid tumors of adenocarcinoma of esophagus. We investigated the status of APC promoter hypermethylation in Iranian patients, compared the results with the former studies, and evaluated its applicability as a candidate molecular marker by examining association between survival of SCCE patients and APC promoter methylation. Methods For evaluating the status of APC promoter hypermethylation and its association with SCCE, a qualitative methylation specific PCR (MSP was used. DNA was extracted and digested with an appropriate restriction enzyme, treated with sodium bisulfite in agarose beads and amplified in two-step PCR reaction by applying either methylated or unmethylated promoter specific primers. Universally methylated DNA and methylase treated blood DNA of healthy donors were used as positive controls as well. Survival of patients was followed up for two years after treatment and survival rate of patients with methylated APC promoter was compared with that of unmethylated patients. Results Assessment of APC promoter methylation revealed that normal tissues were unmethylated, while twenty out of forty five (44.4% tumor tissues were hypermethylated either in one or both alleles of APC. Among the tissues in which methylation was detected, seven were hypermethylated in both alleles while the other thirteen were hypermethylated in one of the two alleles of APC. Analyzing two-year survival rate of patients with respect

  14. Qualitative analysis of Adenomatous Polyposis Coli promoter: Hypermethylation, engagement and effects on survival of patients with esophageal cancer in a high risk region of the world, a potential molecular marker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zare, Maryam; Jazii, Ferdous Rastgar; Alivand, Mohammad Reza; Nasseri, Negin Karimi; Malekzadeh, Reza; Yazdanbod, Mansour

    2009-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of esophagus (SCCE) occurs at a high incidence rate in certain parts of the world. This feature necessitates that different aspects of the disease and in particular genetic characteristics be investigated in such regions. In addition, such investigations might lead to achievement of molecular markers helpful for early detection, successful treatment and follow up of the disease. Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) promoter hypermethylation has been shown to be a suitable marker for both serum and solid tumors of adenocarcinoma of esophagus. We investigated the status of APC promoter hypermethylation in Iranian patients, compared the results with the former studies, and evaluated its applicability as a candidate molecular marker by examining association between survival of SCCE patients and APC promoter methylation. For evaluating the status of APC promoter hypermethylation and its association with SCCE, a qualitative methylation specific PCR (MSP) was used. DNA was extracted and digested with an appropriate restriction enzyme, treated with sodium bisulfite in agarose beads and amplified in two-step PCR reaction by applying either methylated or unmethylated promoter specific primers. Universally methylated DNA and methylase treated blood DNA of healthy donors were used as positive controls as well. Survival of patients was followed up for two years after treatment and survival rate of patients with methylated APC promoter was compared with that of unmethylated patients. Assessment of APC promoter methylation revealed that normal tissues were unmethylated, while twenty out of forty five (44.4%) tumor tissues were hypermethylated either in one or both alleles of APC. Among the tissues in which methylation was detected, seven were hypermethylated in both alleles while the other thirteen were hypermethylated in one of the two alleles of APC. Analyzing two-year survival rate of patients with respect to promoter hypermethylation showed a lower rate of

  15. Biofilm formation in Escherichia coli cra mutants is impaired due to down-regulation of curli biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshamwala, Shamlan M S; Noronha, Santosh B

    2011-10-01

    Cra is a pleiotropic regulatory protein that controls carbon and energy flux in enteric bacteria. Recent studies have shown that Cra also regulates other cell processes and influences biofilm formation. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of Cra in biofilm formation in Escherichia coli. Congo red-binding studies suggested that curli biosynthesis is impaired in cra mutants. Microarray analysis of wild-type and mutant E. coli cultivated in conditions promoting biofilm formation revealed that the curli biosynthesis genes, csgBAC and csgDEFG, are poorly expressed in the mutant, suggesting that transcription of genes required for curli production is regulated by Cra. Four putative Cra-binding sites were identified in the curli intergenic region, which were experimentally validated by performing electromobility shift assays. Site-directed mutagenesis of three Cra-binding sites in the promoter region of the csgDEFG operon suggests that Cra activates transcription of this operon upon binding to operator regions both downstream and upstream of the transcription start site. Based on the Cra-binding sites identified in this and other studies, the Cra consensus sequence is refined.

  16. Is Escherichia coli urinary tract infection a zoonosis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, L.; Garneau, P.; Bruant, G.

    2012-01-01

    Recently, it has been suggested that the Escherichia coli causing urinary tract infection (UTI) may come from meat and animals. The purpose was to investigate if a clonal link existed between E. coli from animals, meat and UTI patients. Twenty-two geographically and temporally matched B2 E. coli...... from UTI patients, community-dwelling humans, broiler chicken meat, pork, and broiler chicken, previously identified to exhibit eight virulence genotypes by microarraydetection of approximately 300 genes, were investigated for clonal relatedness by PFGE. Nine isolates were selected and tested...... for in vivo virulence in the mouse model of ascending UTI. UTI and community-dwelling human strains were closely clonally related to meat strains. Several human derived strains were also clonally interrelated. All nine isolates regardless of origin were virulent in the UTI model with positive urine, bladder...

  17. Molecular characterization and phylogeny of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) from imported beef meat in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuelhassan, Nawal Nouridaim; Mutalib, Sahilah Abdul; Gimba, Fufa Ido; Yusoff, Wan Mohtar

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed at determining the presence and characterization of Escherichia coli and Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) from imported frozen beef meats. Seventy-four (74) frozen imported beef meat samples from two countries, India (42 samples) and Australia (32 samples), were collected and tested for E. coli. These samples were purchased from the frozen meat sections of five different supermarkets in different locations in Selangor, Malaysia, from April 2012 to October 2014. A total of 222 E. coli strains were isolated from the meat samples; 126 strains were isolated from country A (India), and 96 E. coli strains were from country of origin B (Australia), respectively. A total of 70 E. coli strains were identified and characterized. All E. coli strains were isolated into Fluorocult medium and identified using API 20E kit. All selected E. coli strains were characterized for Shiga toxin genes (stx1 and stx2). All biochemically identified E. coli in this study were further subjected to molecular detection through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and characterization using 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli. Of the 70 E. coli strains, 11 strains were positive for both Shiga toxin genes (stx1 and stx2) and 11 (11/70) strains were positive for stx1 gene, while 25 (25/70) strains were positive for stx2 gene. The analysis of 16S rRNA gene of all the E. coli isolates in this study was successfully sequenced and analyzed, and based on sequence data obtained, a phylogenetic tree of the 16S rRNA gene was performed using Clustal W programme in MEGA 6.06 software. Phylogenetic tree showed that the E. coli isolates in our study cluster with the strain of E. coli isolated in other countries, which further confirm that the isolates of E. coli in this study are similar to those obtained in other studies. As a result, all the strains obtained in this study proved to be a strain of pathogenic E. coli, which may cause a serious outbreak

  18. Photoinactivation of Escherichia coli by sulfur-doped and nitrogen-fluorine-codoped TiO2 nanoparticles under solar simulated light and visible light irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathakoti, Kavitha; Morrow, Shavonda; Han, Changseok; Pelaez, Miguel; He, Xiaojia; Dionysiou, Dionysios D; Hwang, Huey-Min

    2013-09-03

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is one of the most widely used photocatalysts for the degradation of organic contaminants in water and air. Visible light (VL) activated sulfur-doped TiO2 (S-TiO2) and nitrogen-fluorine-codoped TiO2 (N-F-TiO2) were synthesized by sol-gel methods and characterized. Their photoinactivation performance was tested against Escherichia coli under solar simulated light (SSL) and VL irradiation with comparison to commercially available TiO2. Undoped Degussa-Evonik P-25 (P-25) and Sigma-TiO2 showed the highest photocatalytic activity toward E. coli inactivation under SSL irradiation, while S-TiO2 showed a moderate toxicity. After VL irradiation, Sigma-TiO2 showed higher photoinactivation, whereas S-TiO2 and P-25 showed moderate toxicity. Oxidative stress to E. coli occurred via formation of hydroxyl radicals leading to lipid peroxidation as the primary mechanism of bacterial inactivation. Various other biological models, including human keratinocytes (HaCaT), zebrafish liver cells (ZFL), and zebrafish embryos were also used to study the toxicity of TiO2 NPs. In conclusion, N-F-TiO2 did not show any toxicity based on the assay results from all the biological models used in this study, whereas S-TiO2 was toxic to zebrafish embryos under all the test conditions. These findings also demonstrate that the tested TiO2 nanoparticles do not show any adverse effects in HaCaT and ZFL cells.

  19. Mechanisms of the radioprotective effect of cysteamine in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korystov, Yu.N.; Vexler, F.B.

    1988-01-01

    The values of the oxygen effect (m) and the maximal protective effect of cysteamine (DMF*) were estimated for four Escherichia coli strains: AB1157 (wild type), AB1886 (uvrA), AB2463 (recA), and p3478 (polA). A correlation made between DMF* and m as well as the kinetics of the increase of DMF with oxygen depletion showed that the protective effect of cysteamine is realized by three mechanisms: (i) anoxia achieved by oxygen reduction, with the DMF varying from 2.2 to 4.2 for different E. coli strains (this protection is the major contribution to the entire mechanism); (ii) lowering of the indirect radiation effect; i.e., for 50 mM cysteamine DMF does not exceed 1.1; and (iii) increase of the efficiency of enzymatic repair. The latter effect of cysteamine is registered only with the wild-type E. coli, the DMF being not less than 1.4

  20. Human exposure assessment to antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli through drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Flaherty, E; Borrego, C M; Balcázar, J L; Cummins, E

    2018-03-01

    Antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) are a potential threat to human health through drinking water with strong evidence of ARB presence in post treated tap water around the world. This study examines potential human exposure to antibiotic-resistant (AR) Escherichia coli (E. coli) through drinking water, the effect of different drinking water treatments on AR E. coli and the concentration of AR E. coli required in the source water for the EU Drinking Water Directive (DWD) (Council Directive 98/83/EC, 0CFU/100ml of E. coli in drinking water) to be exceeded. A number of scenarios were evaluated to examine different water treatment combinations and to reflect site specific conditions at a study site in Europe. A literature search was carried out to collate data on the effect of environmental conditions on AR E. coli, the effect of different water treatments on AR E. coli and typical human consumption levels of tap water. A human exposure assessment model was developed with probability distributions used to characterise uncertainty and variability in the input data. Overall results show the mean adult human exposure to AR E. coli from tap water consumption ranged between 3.44×10 -7 and 2.95×10 -1 cfu/day for the scenarios tested and varied depending on the water treatments used. The level of AR E. coli required in the source water pre-treatment to exceed the DWD varied between 1 and 5logcfu/ml, depending on the water treatments used. This can be used to set possible monitoring criteria in pre-treated water for potential ARB exposure in drinking water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Synergy between type 1 fimbriae expression and C3 opsonisation increases internalisation of E. coli by human tubular epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ke; Zhou, Wuding; Hong, Yuzhi; Sacks, Steven H; Sheerin, Neil S

    2009-03-31

    Bacterial infection of the urinary tract is a common clinical problem with E. coli being the most common urinary pathogen. Bacterial uptake into epithelial cells is increasingly recognised as an important feature of infection. Bacterial virulence factors, especially fimbrial adhesins, have been conclusively shown to promote host cell invasion. Our recent study reported that C3 opsonisation markedly increases the ability of E. coli strain J96 to internalise into human proximal tubular epithelial cells via CD46, a complement regulatory protein expressed on host cell membrane. In this study, we further assessed whether C3-dependent internalisation by human tubular epithelial cells is a general feature of uropathogenic E. coli and investigated features of the bacterial phenotype that may account for any heterogeneity. In 31 clinical isolates of E. coli tested, C3-dependent internalisation was evident in 10 isolates. Type 1 fimbriae mediated-binding is essential for C3-dependent internalisation as shown by phenotypic association, type 1 fimbrial blockade with soluble ligand (mannose) and by assessment of a type 1 fimbrial mutant. we propose that efficient internalisation of uropathogenic E. coli by the human urinary tract depends on co-operation between type 1 fimbriae-mediated adhesion and C3 receptor -ligand interaction.

  2. Resistência a antimicrobianos dependente do sistema de efluxo multidrogas em Escherichia coli isoladas de leite mastítico Antimicrobial resistance dependent on multidrugs efflux in Escherichia coli isolated from the mastitic milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.S. Moreira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Identificaram-se e caracterizaram-se a resistência e a multirresistência aos principais antimicrobianos usados no tratamento de mastite bovina causada por Escherichia coli. A concentração inibitória mínima (MIC e o sistema de efluxo foram detectados pelas curvas de crescimento, com base na densidade óptica, em diferentes concentrações da droga e na presença e na ausência do desacoplador da força próton-motora (PMF. E. coli 1 foi resistente à neomicina e à gentamicina; E. coli 3 e 4, à tetraciclina e à estreptomicina; e E. coli 2 e 6 à gentamicina. E. coli 5 apresentou modelo de sensibilidade. Observou-se que MICs de todos os antimicrobianos dos multirresistentes (E. coli 1, 3 e 4 diminuíram na presença do desacoplador, o que sugere sistema de efluxo multidrogas. Após cura, apenas E. coli 1 apresentou modelo de sensibilidade, porém não houve alterações das MICs, antes e após adição do desacoplador. Os resultados indicam possível presença de mecanismo de resistência dependente da PMF codificado, ou parte dele, em plasmídeo.Resistance and multiresistance to main antimicrobials used for treating bovine mastitis caused by Escherichia coli were identified and characterized. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and efflux systems were detected by the use of growth curves based on optical density at different drug concentrations and both presence and absence of uncoupler of the proton-motive force (PMF. E. coli 1 was resistant to neomycin and gentamycin, E. coli 3 and 4 were resistant to tetracycline and streptomycin, whereas E. coli 2 and 6 were resistant to gentamycin. E. coli 5 showed sensibility model. MICs of all antimicrobials of the multiresistant samples (E. coli 1, 3, and 4 were decreased in presence of the uncoupler, therefore suggesting the presence of the multidrug efflux system. After healing, only E. coli 1 showed sensibility model, however no alteration occurred in MIC(s before and after adding the

  3. CO2 methanation on the catalyst of Ni/MCM-41 promoted with CeO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoliu; Zhu, Lingjun; Liu, Yincong; Wang, Shurong

    2018-06-01

    CO 2 as a raw feed combined with renewable hydrogen for the production of useful chemicals and alternative energy products is one of the solutions to environmental and energy problems. In this study, a series of Ni-xCeO 2 /MCM-41 catalysts with a nickel content of 20wt% were prepared through deposition precipitation method for CO 2 methanation. Different characterization methods, including BET, XRD, TEM, SEM, H 2 -TPR and H 2 -TPD were applied to help explore the influence mechanism of CeO 2 on Ni/MCM-41 in CO 2 methanation. It was found that all CeO 2 -promoted catalysts exhibited enhanced catalytic activity when compared to Ni/MCM-41. The catalyst modified with 20wt% CeO 2 showed the best catalytic performance, with CO 2 conversion and CH 4 selectivity of 85.6% and 99.8%, respectively, at the temperature of 380°C under atmospheric pressure. The synergetic effects among Ni 0 active sites, the promoter and the support, including nickel dispersion improvement and increased CO 2 adsorption sites due to the addition of CeO 2 , were considered as important factors for high reactivity of the promoted catalysts. The stability test showed that the promoted catalyst maintained its high reactivity after 30h. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Promoter2.0: for the recognition of PolII promoter sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Steen; Knudsen, Steen

    1999-01-01

    Motivation : A new approach to the prediction of eukaryotic PolII promoters from DNA sequence takesadvantage of a combination of elements similar to neural networks and genetic algorithms to recognize a set ofdiscrete subpatterns with variable separation as one pattern: a promoter. The neural...... of optimization, the algorithm was able todiscriminate between vertebrate promoter and non-promoter sequences in a test set with a correlationcoefficient of 0.63. In addition, all five known transcription start sites on the plus strand of the completeadenovirus genome were within 161 bp of 35 predicted...

  5. Mutational Analysis of the Escherichia coli melR Gene Suggests a Two-State Concerted Model To Explain Transcriptional Activation and Repression in the Melibiose Operon

    OpenAIRE

    Kahramanoglou, Christina; Webster, Christine L.; el-Robh, Mohamed Samir; Belyaeva, Tamara A.; Busby, Stephen J. W.

    2006-01-01

    Transcription of the Escherichia coli melAB operon is regulated by the MelR protein, an AraC family member whose activity is modulated by the binding of melibiose. In the absence of melibiose, MelR is unable to activate the melAB promoter but autoregulates its own expression by repressing the melR promoter. Melibiose triggers MelR-dependent activation of the melAB promoter and relieves MelR-dependent repression of the melR promoter. Twenty-nine single amino acid substitutions in MelR that res...

  6. Antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli in women with acute cystitis in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIsaac, Warren J; Moineddin, Rahim; Meaney, Christopher; Mazzulli, Tony

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) has been a traditional first-line antibiotic treatment for acute cystitis; however, guidelines do not recommend TMP-SMX in regions where Escherichia coli resistance exceeds 20%. While resistance is increasing, there are no recent Canadian estimates from a primary care setting to guide prescribing decisions. METHODS: A total of 330 family physicians assessed 752 women with suspected acute cystitis between 2009 and 2011. Physicians documented clinical features and collected urine for cultures for 430 (57.2%) women. The proportion of resistant isolates of E coli and exact binomial 95% CIs were estimated nationally, and compared regionally and demographically. These estimates were compared with those from a 2002 national study. RESULTS: The proportion of TMP-SMX-resistant E coli was 16.0% nationally (95% CI 11.3% to 21.8%). This was not statistically higher than 2002 (10.9% [P=0.14]). TMP-SMX resistance was increased in women ≤50 years of age (21.4%) compared with older women (10.7% [P=0.037]). In women with no antibiotic exposure in the previous three months, TMP-SMX-resistant E coli remained more prevalent in younger women (21.8%) compared with older women (4.4% [P=0.003]). The proportion of ciprofloxacin-resistant E coli was 5.5% nationally (95% CI 2.7% to 9.9%), and was increased compared with 2002 (1.1% [P=0.036]). Ciprofloxacin resistance was highest in British Columbia (17.7%) compared with other regions (2.7% [P=0.003]), and was increased compared with 2002 levels in this province (0.0% [P=0.025]). Nitrofurantoin-resistant E coli levels were low (0.5% [95% CI 0.01% to 2.7%). DISCUSSION: The proportion of TMP-SMX-resistant E coli causing acute cystitis in women in Canada remains below 20% nationally, but may exceed this level in premenopausal women. Ciprofloxacin resistance has increased, notably in British Columbia. Nitrofurantoin resistance levels are low across the country. These observations indicate that

  7. Molecular cloning and expression of bovine kappa-casein in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Y.C.; Richardson, T.

    1988-01-01

    A cDNA library was constructed using poly(A) + RNA from bovine mammary gland. This cDNA library of 6000 clones was screened employing colony hybridization using 32 P-labelled oligonucleotide probes and restriction endonuclease mapping. The cDNA from the selected plasmid, pKR76, was sequenced using the dideoxy-chain termination method. The cDNA insert of pKR76 carries the full-length sequence, which codes for mature kappa-casein protein. The amino acid sequence deduced from the cDNA sequence fits the published amino acid sequence with three exceptions; the reported pyroglutamic acid at position 1, tyrosine at position 35, and aspartic acid at position 81 are, respectively, a glutamine, a histidine, and an asparagine in the clone containing pKR76. The MspI-, NlaIV-cleaved fragment (630 base pair) from the kappa-casein cDNA insert has been subcloned into expression vectors pUC18 and pKK233-2, which contain a lac promoter and a trc promoter, respectively. Escherichia coli cells carrying the recombinant expression plasmids were shown to produce kappa-casein protein having the expected mobility on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and being recognized by specific antibodies raised against natural bovine kappa-casein

  8. TiO2 promoted by two different non-noble metal cocatalysts for enhanced photocatalytic H2 evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Jing-Dong; Yan, Shi; Huang, Qin-Dong; Fan, Mei-Ting; Yuan, You-Zhu; Tan, Timothy Thatt-Yang; Liao, Dai-Wei

    2014-01-01

    TiO 2 photocatalysts modified by cobalt and nickel cocatalysts were prepared via polymerized complex method (PCM) and evaluated by photocatalytic hydrogen evolution. Hydrogen generation in 6 h for the TiO 2 promoted by cobalt and nickel (0.1%Co + 0.2%Ni/TiO 2 ) is about two times (2456 μmol H 2 ) compared to that of TiO 2 promoted only by cobalt (1180 μmol H 2 for 0.1%Co/TiO 2 ) or nickel (1127 μmol H 2 for 0.2%Ni/TiO 2 ), and mechanically mixed TiO 2 promoted by cobalt and TiO 2 promoted by nickel (0.1%Co/TiO 2 :0.2%Ni/TiO 2 = 1:1 (m/m), 1282 μmol H 2 ). The high photocatalytic H 2 evolution activity over TiO 2 promoted by cobalt and nickel is ascribed to enhanced photo response due to the presence of cobalt and nickel impurity level, and effective separation of photogenerated electrons and holes due to the synergistic effect of cobalt and nickel, which serve as active sites for H 2 evolution reaction (HER) and oxidation reaction (OR) respectively. This study demonstrates a viable strategy to design more active photocatalysts for photocatalytic H 2 evolution by substituting noble metals with more abundant elements using as HER and OR cocatalysts, respectively.

  9. [A surveillance study on CRISPR/Cas molecular biomarker in Escherichia coli].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, W J; Zhang, R G; Duan, G C; Hong, L J; Zhang, B; Xi, Y L; Yang, H Y; Chen, S Y; Lou, T Y; Zhao, Y X

    2016-08-10

    A new method related to molecular biomarker with CRISPR/Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-cas) in Escherichia (E.) coli was developed and used for surveillance programs. CRISPR/Cas sequence that containing 135 strains with complete sequence and 203 strains with whole genome shotgun sequence of E. coli in GenBank by BLAST and 361 strains of E. coli (including 38 strains of E. coli O157∶H7) in laboratory were identified by PCR and analyzed with the CRISPR Finder. Spacers were compared with DANMAN and the phylogenetic trees of cas gene were constructed under Clustal Ⅹ and Mega 5.1. With new perspective, a descriptive method was developed targeting on the position of CRISPR/cas in E. coli. The CRISPR1 was detected in 77.04%, 100.00% and 75.62% and the CRISPR2 was detected in 74.81%, 100.00% and 92.24% and the CRISPR3 and CRISPR4 were detected in 11.85%, 0 and 1.39% for 135 strains with complete sequence, 203 strains with whole genome shotgun sequence and 361 strains in the laboratory, respectively. One strain downloaded in GenBank with whole genome sequencing and 2 strains in the our laboratory were identified that containing four CRISPR locus. The other E. coli strain was with insertion sequence in downstream of the non-cas CRISPR1. The unique CRISPR was found in 8 strains of O55∶H7, in 180 strains of O157∶H7, in 8 strains of O157∶HNM, in 40 strains of O104∶H4, in 4 strains of O145∶H28, in all the 699 E. coli strains. The phylogenetic tree could be divided into two groups-cas with type I-E or type I-F. CRISPR/Cas might be used as a valuable molecular biomarker in epidemiological surveillance studies to identify the high virulent strains or new strains of E. coli. Phage night be related to the missing or obtaining of spacers.

  10. Production of soluble mammalian proteins in Escherichia coli: identification of protein features that correlate with successful expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perera Rajika L

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the search for generic expression strategies for mammalian protein families several bacterial expression vectors were examined for their ability to promote high yields of soluble protein. Proteins studied included cell surface receptors (Ephrins and Eph receptors, CD44, kinases (EGFR-cytoplasmic domain, CDK2 and 4, proteases (MMP1, CASP2, signal transduction proteins (GRB2, RAF1, HRAS and transcription factors (GATA2, Fli1, Trp53, Mdm2, JUN, FOS, MAD, MAX. Over 400 experiments were performed where expression of 30 full-length proteins and protein domains were evaluated with 6 different N-terminal and 8 C-terminal fusion partners. Expression of an additional set of 95 mammalian proteins was also performed to test the conclusions of this study. Results Several protein features correlated with soluble protein expression yield including molecular weight and the number of contiguous hydrophobic residues and low complexity regions. There was no relationship between successful expression and protein pI, grand average of hydropathicity (GRAVY, or sub-cellular location. Only small globular cytoplasmic proteins with an average molecular weight of 23 kDa did not require a solubility enhancing tag for high level soluble expression. Thioredoxin (Trx and maltose binding protein (MBP were the best N-terminal protein fusions to promote soluble expression, but MBP was most effective as a C-terminal fusion. 63 of 95 mammalian proteins expressed at soluble levels of greater than 1 mg/l as N-terminal H10-MBP fusions and those that failed possessed, on average, a higher molecular weight and greater number of contiguous hydrophobic amino acids and low complexity regions. Conclusions By analysis of the protein features identified here, this study will help predict which mammalian proteins and domains can be successfully expressed in E. coli as soluble product and also which are best targeted for a eukaryotic expression system. In some cases

  11. Induction of NFATc2 expression by interleukin 6 promotes T helper type 2 differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Sean; Chow, Chi-Wing; Weiss, Linda; Palmetshofer, Alois; Twardzik, Thomas; Rounds, Laura; Serfling, Edgar; Davis, Roger J; Anguita, Juan; Rincón, Mercedes

    2002-07-01

    Interleukin (IL)-6 is produced by professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) such as B cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells. It has been previously shown that APC-derived IL-6 promotes the differentiation of naive CD4+ T cells into effector T helper type 2 (Th2) cells. Here, we have studied the molecular mechanism for IL-6-mediated Th2 differentiation. During the activation of CD4+ T cells, IL-6 induces the production of IL-4, which promotes the differentiation of these cells into effector Th2 cells. Regulation of IL-4 gene expression by IL-6 is mediated by nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT), as inhibition of NFAT prevents IL-6-driven IL-4 production and Th2 differentiation. IL-6 upregulates NFAT transcriptional activity by increasing the levels of NFATc2. The ability of IL-6 to promote Th2 differentiation is impaired in CD4+ T cells that lack NFATc2, demonstrating that NFATc2 is required for regulation of IL-4 gene expression by IL-6. Regulation of NFATc2 expression and NFAT transcriptional activity represents a novel pathway by which IL-6 can modulate gene expression.

  12. Rapid and reliable discrimination between Shigella species and Escherichia coli using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paauw, Armand; Jonker, Debby; Roeselers, Guus; Heng, Jonathan M E; Mars-Groenendijk, Roos H; Trip, Hein; Molhoek, E Margo; Jansen, Hugo-Jan; van der Plas, Jan; de Jong, Ad L; Majchrzykiewicz-Koehorst, Joanna A; Speksnijder, Arjen G C L

    2015-01-01

    E. coli-Shigella species are a cryptic group of bacteria in which the Shigella species are distributed within the phylogenetic tree of E. coli. The nomenclature is historically based and the discrimination of these genera developed as a result of the epidemiological need to identify the cause of shigellosis, a severe disease caused by Shigella species. For these reasons, this incorrect classification of shigellae persists to date, and the ability to rapidly characterize E. coli and Shigella species remains highly desirable. Until recently, existing matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) assays used to identify bacteria could not discriminate between E. coli and Shigella species. Here we present a rapid classification method for the E. coli-Shigella phylogroup based on MALDI-TOF MS which is supported by genetic analysis. E. coli and Shigella isolates were collected and genetically characterized by MLVA. A custom reference library for MALDI-TOF MS that represents the genetic diversity of E. coli and Shigella strains was developed. Characterization of E. coli and Shigella species is based on an approach with Biotyper software. Using this reference library it was possible to distinguish between Shigella species and E. coli. Of the 180 isolates tested, 94.4% were correctly classified as E. coli or shigellae. The results of four (2.2%) isolates could not be interpreted and six (3.3%) isolates were classified incorrectly. The custom library extends the existing MALDI-TOF MS method for species determination by enabling rapid and accurate discrimination between Shigella species and E. coli. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. [Application of DNA-based electrochemical biosensor in rapid detection of Escherichia coli exist in licorice decoction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu-Wen; Wang, Hai-Xia; Bie, Song-Tao; Shao, Qian; Wang, Chun-Hua; Wang, Dong-Heng; Li, Zheng

    2018-03-01

    A new method for detection of Escherichia coli exist in licorice decoction was developed by using DNA-based electrochemical biosensor. The thiolated capture probe was immobilized on a gold electrode at first. Then the aptamer for Escherichia coli was combined with the capture probe by hybridization. Due to the stronger interaction between the aptamer and the E. coli, the aptamer can dissociate from the capture probe in the presence of E. coli in licorice decoction. The biotinylated detection probe was hybridized with the single-strand capture probe. As a result, the electrochemical response to Escherichia coli can be measured by using differential pulse voltammetric in the presence of α-naphthyl phosphate. The plot of peak current vs. the logarithm of concentration in the range from 2.7×10² to 2.7×10⁸ CFU·mL⁻¹ displayed a linear relationship with a detection limit of 50 CFU·mL⁻¹. The relative standard deviation of 3 successive scans was 2.5%,2.1%,4.6% for 2×10²,2×10⁴,2×106:⁶ CFU·mL⁻¹ E. coli, respectively. The proposed procedure showed better specificity to E. coli in comparison to Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. In the detection of the real extractum glycyrrhizae, the results between the proposed strategy and the GB assay showed high degree of agreement, demonstrating the designed biosensor could be utilized as a powerful tool for microbial examination for traditional Chinese medicine. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  14. Survival and interaction of Escherichia coli O104:H4 on Arabidopsis thaliana and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) in comparison to E. coli O157:H7: Influence of plant defense response and bacterial capsular polysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hyein; Matthews, Karl R

    2018-06-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) has been associated with illnesses and outbreaks linked to fresh vegetables, prompting a growing public health concern. Most studies regarding interactions of STEC on fresh produce focused on E. coli O157:H7. Limited information is available about survival or fitness of E. coli O104:H4, non-O157 pathogen that was linked to one of the largest outbreaks of hemolytic uremic syndrome in 2011. In this study, survival of E. coli O104:H4 was evaluated on Arabidopsis thaliana plant and lettuce for 5 days compared with E. coli O157:H7, and expression of pathogenesis-realted gene (PR1; induction of plant defense response) was examined by reverse transcription quantitative PCR, and potential influence of capsular polysaccharide (CPS) on the bacterial fitness on plant was investigated. Populations of E. coli O104:H4 strains (RG1, C3493, and LpfA) on Arabidopsis and lettuce were significantly (P E. coli O157:H7 strains (7386 and sakai) at day 5 post-inoculation, indicating E. coli O104:H4 may have better survival ability on the plants. In addition, the E. coli O104:H4 strains produced significantly (P E. coli O157:H7 strains. RG1 strain (1.5-fold) initiated significantly (P E. coli O157:H7 strains 7386 (2.9-fold) and sakai (2.7-fold). Collectively, the results in this study suggests that different level of CPS production and plant defense response initiated by each STEC strain might influence the bacterial survival or persistence on plants. The present study provides better understanding of survival behavior of STEC, particularly E. coli O104:H4, using a model plant and vegetable under pre-harvest conditions with plant defense response. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Evidence for existence of different Escherichia coli populations in karst aquifer depending on hydrological conditions and the use of watershed. Fabienne Petit1*, Mehdy Ratajczak1, Nicolas Massei 1, Olivier Clermont 2, Erick Denamur 2, Thierry Berthe1,. 1CNRS UMR 6143 M2C, Université de Rouen, FED SCALE 4116, 76821 Mont Saint Aignan 2 INSERM U722, Université Paris 7 Denis Diderot ,75018 Paris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabienne, P.; Mehdy, R.; Massei, N.; Clermont, O.; Denamur, E.; Berthe, T.

    2011-12-01

    Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a commensal bacterium of the gastro-intestinal tract of human and vertebrate animals, even if the aquatic environment could be considered as a secondary habitat. During turbids events consecutive to the rainfall, E.coli are released from manure and feces in karstic hydrosystem with different settling velocities, related to their association to particles. In water, survival of E. coli, was dependant to the grazing by protozoans and their ability to overcome environmental stress. In these conditions, viable but non culturable (VNC) population of E. coli, could be observed. The aim of this study was to investigate, in a small well characterized rural karstic watershed (i) the structure of E. coli population based on the survival ability, the distribution in four main phylo-groups (A, B1, B2, D), and the phenotypic characteristics, (ii) the fate and the distribution of viable non culturable E. coli according their settling velocities, from surface water to groundwater. For this purpose we combined microbiology and hydrology approaches, and solid phase cytometry (ChemScan°RDI) methodology was performed to numbered VNC E. coli. The distribution in the four main E. coli phylo-groups (A, B1, B2, D) shown that the E. coli population structure was modified not only by the hydrological conditions but also the use of the watershed (presence of cattle). Survival abilities of E. coli strains based on microcosm experiments, vary from 2 days to at least 14 days. Characterization of E. coli was performed by studying specific traits present in host-associated strains (virulence factors, antibiotic resistance) and those that could be involved in water persistence (growth temperature substrate range, biofilm formation and grazing by protozoa). Three major clusters of strains were defined by using a correspondence factor analysis. In water characterized by high level of fecal contamination a first cluster of E. coli strains was related to A and B2 phylo

  16. Lytic bacteriophages reduce Escherichia coli O157: H7 on fresh cut lettuce introduced through cross-contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Sean; Roberts, Cheryl; Handy, Eric; Sharma, Manan

    2013-01-01

    The role of lytic bacteriophages in preventing cross contamination of produce has not been evaluated. A cocktail of three lytic phages specific for E. coli O157:H7 (EcoShield™) or a control (phosphate buffered saline, PBS) was applied to lettuce by either; (1) immersion of lettuce in 500 ml of EcoShield™ 8.3 log PFU/ml or 9.8 log PFU/ml for up to 2 min before inoculation with E. coli O157:H7; (2) spray-application of EcoShield™ (9.3 log PFU/ml) to lettuce after inoculation with E. coli O157:H7 (4.10 CFU/cm 2 ) following exposure to 50 μg/ml chlorine for 30 sec. After immersion studies, lettuce was spot-inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 (2.38 CFU/cm 2 ). Phage-treated, inoculated lettuce pieces were stored at 4°C for and analyzed for E. coli O157:H7 populations for up to 7 d. Immersion of lettuce in 9.8 log PFU/ml EcoShield™ for 2 min significantly (p PFU/ml) resulted in the deposition of high concentrations (7.8 log log PFU/cm 2 ) of bacteriophages on the surface of fresh cut lettuce, potentially contributing to the efficacy of the lytic phages on lettuce. Spraying phages on to inoculated fresh cut lettuce after being washed in hypochlorite solution was significantly more effective in reducing E. coli O157:H7 populations (2.22 log CFU/cm 2 ) on day 0 compared with control treatments (4.10 log CFU/cm 2 ). Both immersion and spray treatments provided protection from E. coli O157:H7 contamination on lettuce, but spray application of lytic bacteriophages to lettuce was more effective in immediately reducing E. coli O157:H7 populations fresh cut lettuce.

  17. Feeding of Lactobacillus sobrius reduces Escherichia coli F4 levels in the gut and promotes growth of infected piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konstantinov, S.R.; Smidt, H.; Akkermans, A.D.L.; Casini, L.; Trevisi, P.; Mazzoni, M.; Filippi, de S.; Bosi, P.; Vos, de W.M.

    2008-01-01

    The microbial community in the guts of mammals is often seen as an important potential target in therapeutic and preventive interventions. The aim of the present study was to determine whether enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) F4 infection in young animals might be counteracted by a probiotic

  18. Aquaporin 2 promotes cell migration and epithelial morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Rice, William; Gu, Zhizhan; Li, Jian; Huang, Jianmin; Brenner, Michael B; Van Hoek, Alfred; Xiong, Jianping; Gundersen, Gregg G; Norman, Jim C; Hsu, Victor W; Fenton, Robert A; Brown, Dennis; Lu, Hua A Jenny

    2012-09-01

    The aquaporin 2 (AQP2) water channel, expressed in kidney collecting ducts, contributes critically to water homeostasis in mammals. Animals lacking or having significantly reduced levels of AQP2, however, have not only urinary concentrating abnormalities but also renal tubular defects that lead to neonatal mortality from renal failure. Here, we show that AQP2 is not only a water channel but also an integrin-binding membrane protein that promotes cell migration and epithelial morphogenesis. AQP2 expression modulates the trafficking and internalization of integrin β1, facilitating its turnover at focal adhesions. In vit